Submerged geologic features located in the western Gulf of Maine between Cape Ann, Massachusetts and New Hampshire (fig. 1), were identified from high-resolution seismic-reflection data collected between 1979 and 1980. The features include the following. (1) A pair of end morained formed during the retreat of the Laurentide Ice Sheet from the Gulf of Maine (Oldale, 1985a). (2) A barrier spit and lagoon complex and (3) a paleodelta, both of which formed during a late Wisconsinan to early Holocene low relative sea-level stand (Oldale and others, 1983; Oldale, 1985b). (4) A wave-cut unconformity that was eroded as the sea transgressed to its present position. (5) A surficial sand depost that formed atop the unconformity in middle Holocene time. Vibracores (fig. 2) were taken in 1984 to corroborate the interpretations from the seismic data, to determine the sedimentary texture and structure of the features, to identify the nature of the unconformity, and to obtain material for 14C dating,
Oldale, Robert N.; Edwards, Gerald B.
Long-wavelength gravity field variations provide an important geophysical tool for delineating structural features of the deeper parts of the Earth's interior. Continuous developments in data-processing and inversion techniques have led to refinements in regional- as well as planetary-scale structural models. The present work uses the free-air gravity data of the Indian subcontinent to derive causative density contrast structures. The model obtained by assuming the point mass sources at a constant depth of 40 km (based on Deep Seismic Sounding Studies) reflects the known tectonic and geological provinces of the Indian subcontinent well. Interestingly, more than two-thirds of India exhibits "low"-density contrast values, with the lowest point occurring in the vicinity of the Sarda depression (which possibly hides a broken part of the Tethys trench). In general, the plateaus and uplifts are depicted as density contrast "highs", while basins and depressions are associated with "lows". An S-N traverse close to 78° E longitude confirms these findings. Further, the study confirms the postulated Burrard's hidden trough (Belgaum-Nellore) and additionally identifies (1) a new hidden structural ridge running along the Ahmednagar-Hyderabad line, and (2) a trough with an axis along the Mandya-Salem-Tanjavur line. All of these deformations exhibit connections with the seafloor spreading process, as they parallel the Carlsberg ridge in the Indian ocean in the south, and the Himalayan fold axis in the collision zone of the Indian and Eurasian plates.
Negi, J. G.; Agrawal, P. K.; Thakur, N. K.
Interpretation of magnetic and gravimetric data and correlations with geological observations on outcrops and in boreholes have enabled the construction of a geological sketch map of the pre-Westphalian basement in the area of the upper Rhenish shield. The map demonstrates the contrast between the "heavy" and "magnetic" Saxothuringian, characterized by Palaeozoic units metamorphosed to varying degrees and intruded by Early Carboniferous basites, and the "lighter" Moldanubian, consisting mainly of gneisses and granites. Geological structures and tectonic features are recorded beneath the Mesozoic and Cenozoic cover. The present picture of the basement is mainly the result of late Visean-early Namurian structural features represented by a linear arrangement of magmatic bodies and the distribution of strike-slip and thrust faults. The major structural features are the E-W Vittel-Lalaye-Lubine- Baden-Baden fault that marks the border between Saxothuringian and Moldanubian, the N35° left-lateral wrench-fault system running along the present Rhinegraben, the N60° grain of the northern Vosges and the Saar basin, and the S-verging crustal thrusts of Moldanubian.
Edel, J. B.; Fluck, P.
This selection of slide shows provides a photographic tour of Maine geology. Users can choose slide shows on surficial, bedrock, and coastal geology; fossils, geologic hazards, groundwater and wells; or mineral collecting, mining, and quarrying.
In this activity students study a map of bedrock geology which describes the types of rocks that exist in a given area. It shows these rock units as well as their known and inferred contacts. Consideration is also given to folding, faulting, unconformities, and similar rock relationships. These features are often included in bedrock geology maps. Students study the legend and scale and become aware of the other information that is included on the map such as the stratigraphic column, list of formations, and inset map of metamorphic grade. Students then locate their city or town and draw a 40-mile diameter circle around it and identify all the symbols inside the circle and the age of the various rocks. Student question sheets are available at this site. Although this activity was written for a map of Maine, it will work in any state where geological maps are available.
The Urals had undergone two main complete cycles of geodynamic development in the Riphean-Mesozoic time. The first one took place in the Riphean and Vendian and was completed by formation of the Timanides; the second is dated as Paleozoic-Early Mesozoic, belongs to the Uralides and can be divided into eight stages: (1) Continental riftogenesis (Cambrian - Early Ordovician). (2) Oceanic spreading (Middle-Late Ordovician). (3) Main subduction (Late Ordovician - Early Carboniferous). (4) Early collision (Late Devonian - Early Carboniferous) between the Magnitogorsk island arc and the passive margin of the Laurussia continent. (5) Late subduction of a relict oceanic crust of the Paleouralian ocean (Early-Carboniferous-Bashkirian). (6) Collision of Laurussian and Kazakhstanian continents. (7) A limited post-collisional extension and superplume magmatism (Triassic). (8) Thrust-and-fold deformation in the Early Jurassic time. Structure of the West Siberian plate is divided into three structural stages: (1) Folding of basement composed of rock complexes of almost exclusively Paleozoic age; (2) Riftogenesis with eruption of Early Triassic basalts (occasionally with some rhyolites), covered by terrigenous series of the Middle and Upper Triassic; (3) Deposition of a platform cover comprising Jurassic and younger sedimentary complexes, practically undeformed, which contain almost all deposits of oil and gas in the Western Siberia. The basement of the western part of the West Siberian plate is a prolongation of the structural zones of the eastern sector of Uralides, while the basement of the eastern part of the plate belongs to the Siberian craton and its folded margin. A huge block of the Kazakhstanides is situated to the east of the Uralides, beneath the platform cover and pinches out to the north. These main domains of the basement are divided by two major ophiolite sutures - Valerianovsk and Chara. Wide distribution of Triassic volcanogenic complexes under the platform cover of the West Siberian plate makes a principal difference from the Urals. Ophiolites are widely distributed under the platform cover of the West Siberian plate (especially in its central and western parts). Completion of Paleozoic geodynamic evolution of this region resulted from the collision of three continents (Laurussia, Siberia and Kazakhstania) accompanied by folding, highamplitude thrusting, intrusion of granite plutons, metamorphism and formation of a new crust of continental type. The time of these events which consolidated Paleozoic complexes of basement of future West Siberian megabasin is determined as Early Permian for the Cis-Uralian part of the platform. In the beginning of Triassic rifting, formation of a graben system, took place. A final stage of compressional deformation, mostly in the exposed part of the Urals, Pay-Khoy and Novaya Zemlya, occurred in the Lower Jurassic.
Ivanov, K. S.; Puchkov, V. N.; Fyodorov, Yu N.; Erokhin, Yu V.; Pogromskaya, O. E.
The Bedrock Geologic Map of Maine was digitized and combined with digital geologic data for Quebec and the Gulf of Maine for the Quebec-Maine-Gulf of Maine Geologic Transect Project. This map is being combined with digital geophysical data to produce three-dimensional depictions of the subsurface geology and to produce cross sections of the Earth's crust. It is an essential component of a transect that stretches from the craton near Quebec City, Quebec, to the Atlantic Ocean Basin south of Georges Bank. The transect is part of the Global Geosciences Transect Project of the International Lithosphere Program. The Digital Line Graph format is used for storage of the digitized data. A coding scheme similar to that used for base category planimetric data was developed to assign numeric codes to the digitized geologic data. These codes were used to assign attributes to polygon and line features to describe rock type, age, name, tectonic setting of original deposition, mineralogy, and composition of igneous plutonic rocks, as well as faults and other linear features. The digital geologic data can be readily edited, rescaled, and reprojected. The attribute codes allow generalization and selective retrieval of the geologic features. The codes allow assignment of map colors based on age, lithology, or other attribute. The Digital Line Graph format is a general transfer format that is supported by many software vendors and is easily transferred between systems.
Wright, Bruce E.; Stewart, David B.
The Cupsuptic quadrangle, in west-central Maine, lies in a relatively narrow belt of pre-Silurian rocks extending from the Connecticut River valley across northern New Hampshire to north-central Maine. The Albee Formation, composed of green, purple, and black phyllite with interbedded-quartzite, is exposed in the core of a regional anticlinorium overlain to the southeast by greenstone of the Oquossoc Formation which in turn is overlain by black slate of the Kamankeag Formation. In the northern part of the quadrangle the Albee Formation is overlain by black slate, feldspathic graywacke, and minor greenstone of the Dixville Formation. The Kamankeag Formation is dated as 1-ate Middle Ordovician by graptolites (zone 12) found near the base of the unit. The Dixville Formation is correlated with the Kamankeag Formation and Oquossoc Formation and is considered to be Middle Ordovician. The Albee Formation is considered to be Middle to Lower Ordovician from correlations with similar rocks in northeastern and southwestern Vermont. The Oquossoc and Kamankeag Formations are correlated with the Amonoosuc and Partridge Formations of northern New Hampshire. The pre-Silurian rocks are unconformably overlain by unnamed rocks of Silurian age in the southeast, west-central, and northwest ninths of the quadrangle. The basal Silurian units are boulder to cobble polymict conglomerate and quartz-pebble conglomerate of late Lower Silurian (Upper Llandovery) age. The overlying rocks are either well-bedded slate and quartzite, silty limestone, or arenaceous limestone. Thearenaceous limestone contains Upper Silurian (Lower Ludlow) brachiopods. The stratified rocks have been intruded by three stocks of biotite-muscovite quartz monzonite, a large body of metadiorite and associated serpentinite, smaller bodies of gabbro, granodiorite, and intrusive felsite, as well as numerous diabase and quartz monzonite dikes. The metadiorite and serpentinite, and possibly the gabbro and granodiorite are Late Ordovician in age. The quartz monzonite is considered to be Late Devonian. Five tectonic events are inferred from the structural features in the area. The earliest was a period of folding producing tightly-appressed, northeast-trending folds in the rocks of pre-Silurian age. In the second stage the folded pre-Silurian rocks were uplifted, eroded, and truncated to produce a major unconformity between the Middle Ordovician and Lower Silurian rocks. These events constitute the Taconic orogeny. The third tectonic event was a period of folding, probably of Middle Devonian age, that warped the unconformity and overlying rocks into open, gently-plunging, east-trending folds. This period of folding undoubtedly changed the attitude of the early folds in the pre-Silurian units but it did not produce any recognizable, cross-cutting planar features in the older rocks. The fourth tectonic event was a period of igneous intrusion that locally deformed the northeast-trending folds in the pre-Silurian rocks into a macroscopic drag fold plunging at 80 degrees in a direction S.10?w. A north-trending, subvertical slip cleavage was produced locally during this period of Late Devonian (?) deformation. A period of faulting, possibly of Triassic age, dislocated some of the earlier features. The rocks are in the chlorite zone of regional metamorphism, but have been contact metamorphosed to sillimanite-bearing hornfels adjacent to the quartz monzonite stocks. The chemical changes in chlorite, biotite, garnet, cordierite, and muscovite in the chlorite, biotite, andalusite, and sillimanite zones have been-studied by optical and x-ray methods and by partial chemical analyses. The progressive changes in mineral assemblages have been graphically portrayed on quaternary diagrams and ternary projections.
Harwood, David S.
The objectives of this study were to: 1) develop a global data base of aeolian features by searching Magellan coverage for possible time-variable wind streaks, 2) analyze the data base to characterize aeolian features and processes on Venus, 3) apply the analysis to assessments of wind patterns near the surface and for comparisons with atmospheric circulation models, 4) analyze shuttle radar data acquired for aeolian features on Earth to determine their radar characteristics, and 5) conduct geological mapping of two quadrangles. Wind, or aeolian, features are observed on Venus and aeolian processes play a role in modifying its surface. Analysis of features resulting from aeolian processes provides insight into characteristics of both the atmosphere and the surface. Wind related features identified on Venus include erosional landforms (yardangs), depositional dune fields, and features resulting from the interaction of the atmosphere and crater ejecta at the time of impact. The most abundant aeolian features are various wind streaks. Their discovery on Venus afforded the opportunity to learn about the interaction of the atmosphere and surface, both for the identification of sediments and in mapping near-surface winds.
This guide introduces visitors to the glacial and postglacial geology of the White Mountain National Forest in western Maine. The discussion covers the timing of the glaciation (the Laurentide Ice Sheet, 25,000-13,000 years ago) and the numerous features left behind: erosional features such as high cliffs, grooves and striations; depositional features such as till, erratics, and glacial lake deposits; and deposits reworked by meltwater streams such as outwash, alluvial fans, and stream terraces. Permission and access information, directions, and references are included.
We are using topography data of Earth and Mars to produce accurate 3-dimensional plastic models of comparable large scale geologic surface features from both planets. These models will be used in instructional settings to help students gain a better understanding of topics related to comparative geology, geomorphology and topography. Along with the models, associated lesson plans are being designed to help students and teachers understand topics related to topography such as maps, scale, shape, landform evolution, contour, slope, and exaggeration.
This virtual tour features three-dimensional images from the United States Geological Survey's (USGS) collection. It introduces visitors to the geology and landforms of Mojave National Preserve. Views include cinder cones, layered deposits of rhyolite and basalt tuff, and the Providence Mountain Range. Visitors can also see high desert flora (Joshua trees), limestone caverns, and the evaporite deposits of Soda Lake. The 3-D images are anaglyphs and require red and cyan 3-D viewing glasses.
Links are provided to topographic maps that illustrate common geologic features and processes, such as igneous activity, mass movement, streams, underground water, glaciers, wind, ocean basins, geologic structures, and waves or currents. Cultural features and map symbols are also covered.
A presentation is made of the known geological, geophysical, and geochemical data on the Azores. The regional setting of the islands is described; under the geological heading, surface geology and petrochemistry are discussed; and paleomagnetism, marine magnetic surveys, gravity, seismology, and heat flow are treated in the geophysics category. A model for the origin of the Azores is constructed on the basis of these observations.
Ridley, W. I.; Watkins, N. D.; Macfarlane, D. J.
This geologic investigation will have students observing and investigating coastal features of Western Lake Superior using inquiry-based investigable questions, and inferring possibilities of the coastal features' origins.
Discussed in this paper are the factors that control the typical manifestations of liquefaction that are found in continental field settings. The factors are given mainly in terms of the local geologic field situation and the geotechnical properties there. A meaningful interpretation of liquefaction-based data for quantitative analysis of paleoseismic shaking requires understanding of both geologic and geotechnical roles in the mode of ground failure at a specific site. Recommendations are made for the size of the field area that must be searched for liquefaction effects, in order to develop adequate data for engineering geologic/geotechnical analyses of paleoseismicity. The areal extent must be based on an appreciation that the tectonic situation can cause seismically induced liquefaction effects to form in some locales, but not in others nearby, even for a strong earthquake in the region. Our guidelines for the conduct of the field search and preliminary analysis of the data relate to three issues for which liquefaction features are especially useful in answering: Has there been strong Holocene/latest Pleistocene shaking in the region? Where was the tectonic source? And what was the strength of shaking? Understanding of the various factors that control the manifestations of liquefaction effects, which we present in this paper, is essential for developing credible answers to these questions. ?? 2004 Elsvier B.V. All rights reserved.
Obermeier, S. F.; Olson, S. M.; Green, R. A.
This source provides a series of 34 historic photographs of well-known geologic landmarks in Yellowstone National Park. The photographs can be viewed individually or as part of a tour that begins at Old Faithful and proceeds in a clockwise route around the park. The images were created by digital manipulation of antique stereographs and they may be viewed as black and white photos or in 3-D using special stereographic glasses.
Phil, Stoffer; Team, Usgs W.
Estimating seismic hazard in intraplate environments can be challenging partly because events are relatively rare and associated data thus limited. Additionally, in areas such as the central Virginia seismic zone, numerous pre-existing faults may or may not be candidates for modern tectonic activity, and other faults may not have been mapped. It is thus important to determine whether or not specific geologic features are associated with seismic events. Geophysical and geologic data collected in response to the Mw5.8 August 23, 2011 central Virginia earthquake provide excellent tools for this purpose. Portable seismographs deployed within days of the main shock showed a series of aftershocks mostly occurring at depths of 3-8 km along a southeast-dipping tabular zone ~10 km long, interpreted as the causative fault or fault zone. These instruments also recorded shallow (< 4 km) aftershocks clustered in several areas at distances of ~2-15 km from the main fault zone. We use new airborne geophysical surveys (gravity, magnetics, radiometrics, and LiDAR) to delineate the distribution of various surface and subsurface geologic features of interest in areas where the earthquake and aftershocks took place. The main (causative fault) aftershock cluster coincides with a linear, NE-trending gravity gradient (~ 2 mgal/km) that extends over 20 km in either direction from the Mw5.8 epicenter. Gravity modeling incorporating seismic estimates of Moho variations suggests the presence of a shallow low-density body overlying the main aftershock cluster, placing it within the upper 2-4 km of the main-fault hanging wall. The gravity, magnetic, and radiometric data also show a bend in generally NE-SW orientation of anomalies close to the Mw5.8 epicenter. Most shallow aftershock clusters occur near weaker short-wavelength gravity gradients of one to several km length. In several cases these gradients correspond to geologic contacts mapped at the surface. Along the gravity gradients, the aftershocks appear to cluster near areas with cross-cutting geologic features such as Jurassic diabase dikes. These associations suggest that local variations in rock density and/or rheology may have contributed to modifications of local stress regimes in a manner encouraging localized seismicity associated with the Mw5.8 event and its aftershocks. Such associations are comparable to results of previous studies recognizing correspondences between seismicity and features such as intrusive bodies and failed rifts in the New Madrid seismic zone and elsewhere. To explore whether similar correspondences may have occurred in the past, we use regional gravity and magnetic data to consider possible relations between historical earthquakes and comparable geologic features elsewhere in the central Virginia seismic zone.
Shah, A. K.; Horton, J.; McNamara, D. E.; Spears, D.; Burton, W. C.
The "Mitten" (provisionally named Murias Chaos by the International Astronomical Union) is a region of elevated chaos-like terrain in the leading hemisphere of Europa. Its origin had been explained under the currently debated theories of melting through a thin lithosphere or convection within a thick one. Galileo observations reveal several characteristics that suggest that the Mitten is distinct from typical chaos terrain and point to a different formational process. Photoclinometric elevation estimates suggest that the Mitten is slightly elevated with respect to the surrounding terrain; geologic relations indicate that it must have raised significantly from the plains in its past, resembling disrupted domes on Europa's trailing hemisphere. Moreover, the Mitten material appears to have extruded onto the plains and flowed for tens of kilometers. The area subsequently subsided as a result of isostatic adjustment, viscous relaxation, and/or plains loading. Using plate flexure models, we estimated the elastic lithosphere in the area to be several kilometers thick. We propose that the Mitten originated by the ascent and extrusion of a large thermal diapir. Thermal-mechanical modeling shows that a Mitten-sized plume would remain sufficiently warm and buoyant to pierce through the crust and flow unconfined on the surface. Such a diapir probably had an initial radius between 5 and 8 km and an initial depth of 20-40 km, consistent with a thick-lithosphere model. In this scenario the Mitten appears to represent the surface expression of the rare ascent of a large diapir, in contrast to lenticulae and chaos terrain, which may form by isolated and clustered small diapirs, respectively.
Figueredo, P. H.; Chuang, F. C.; Rathbun, J.; Kirk, R. L.; Greeley, R.
Large and extra-large oil\\/gas fields are mainly distributed in Tethys areas, passive margins, foreland thrust belts, and craton basins in the world. Unconventional oil\\/gas fields are mainly distributed in foreland slopes, basin (depression) centers, craton synclines, and tundra. Since the 21st century, the major exploration discoveries across the globe have been mainly concentrated in the deep water area of passive
Zou Caineng; Zhang Guangya; Tao Shizhen; Hu Suyun; Li Xiaodi; Li Jianzhong; Dong Dazhong; Zhu Rukai; Yuan Xuanjun; Hou Lianhua; Qu Hui; Zhao Xia; Jia Jinhua; Gao Xiaohui; Guo Qiulin; Wang Lan; Li Xinjing
This virtual tour features three-dimensional images from the United States Geological Survey's (USGS) collection. It introduces visitors to the geology, landforms, and history of Crater Lake in Oregon, a lake filling the caldera of what was Mount Mazama, an ancient volcano in the Cascades Range that erupted and collapsed about 7,700 years ago. The 3-D images are anaglyphs and require red and cyan 3-D viewing glasses.
With three levels to choose from on each page - beginner, intermediate or advanced - this site provides information on the many different kinds of geological exploration. The elements that make up minerals and the different ways minerals are developed, The special characteristics of minerals, like physical properties, is explained. Earths tectonic plates, the reasons they move, and the effects of the shifting are also given. Also featured is fossils and how they are developed and are found, as well as why fossils are useful tools for scientists.
In New England, groundwater arsenic occurrence has been linked to bedrock geology on regional scales. To ascertain and quantify this linkage at intermediate (100-101 km) scales, 790 groundwater samples from fractured bedrock aquifers in the greater Augusta, Maine area are analyzed. 31% of the sampled wells have arsenic >10 ?g/L. The probability of [As] exceeding 10 ?g/L mapped by indicator kriging is highest in Silurian pelite-sandstone and pelite-limestone units (~40%). This probability differs significantly (p<0.001) from those in the Silurian-Ordovician sandstone (24%), the Devonian granite (15%) and the Ordovician-Cambrian volcanic rocks (9%). The spatial pattern of groundwater arsenic distribution resembles the bedrock map. Thus, bedrock geology is associated with arsenic occurrence in fractured bedrock aquifers of the study area at intermediate scales relevant to water resources planning. The arsenic exceedance rate for each rock unit is considered robust because low, medium and high arsenic occurrences in 4 cluster areas (3-20 km2) with a low sampling density of 1-6 wells per km2 are comparable to those with a greater density of 5-42 wells per km2. About 12,000 people (21% of the population) in the greater Augusta area (~1135 km2) are at risk of exposure to >10 ?g/L arsenic in groundwater.
Yang, Qiang; Jung, Hun Bok; Culbertson, Charles W.; Marvinney, Robert G.; Loiselle, Marc C.; Locke, Daniel B.; Cheek, Heidi; Thibodeau, Hilary; Zheng, Yan
This hydrologic atlas describes the surficial geology and groundwater resources of about 240 square miles in Cumberland County, Maine. The most productive aquifers are outwash and ice-contact deposits. Their locations and the most favorable areas for obtaining large yields from them are indicated on the map. The largest reported yield from a well in unconsolidated deposits is 100 gpm, but it is likely that in places as much as 500 gpm can be obtained from properly located and developed wells. Ground water is available to drilled wells in bedrock in sufficient quantity for domestic use. The average yield from bedrock wells is 11 gpm, the median yield is 5 gpm, and the maximum reported yield is 150 gpm. The quality of the water is generally good, although brackish or salty water is obtained by some wells on the coast. (Woodard-USGS)
Prescott, Glenn C.
It is important to monitor hydrologic systems in the United States that could change dramatically over the short term as a result of climate change. Many ecological effects of climate change can be understood only if hydrologic data networks are in place. Because of its humid, temperate climate and its substantial annual snowpack, Maine's seasonal water cycle is sensitive to air temperature changes (Hodgkins and others, 2003). Monitoring of relevant hydrologic data would provide important baseline information against which future climate change can be measured. A series of recent investigations by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has documented changes in several components of the water cycle, including earlier snowmelt runoff in Maine during the last 30 to 40 years (Hodgkins and others, 2003), earlier lake- and river-ice breakups (Hodgkins and others, 2002; Hodgkins and others, 2005), and a denser and thinner late-winter snowpack (Hodgkins and Dudley, 2006). Snowmelt runoff timing was measured as the date, each year, by which half of the total winter-spring streamflow passed a streamflow-gaging station. Historical snowmelt runoff timing for the Piscataquis River in central Maine is shown in figure 1 as an example. Results of climate projections input to hydrologic models indicate that hydrologic trends, such as earlier spring snowmelt runoff, are expected to continue into the future (Hayhoe and others, 2007). These trends could affect species at the southern edge of their range in Maine, such as Atlantic salmon and Canada lynx, and may also affect availability of water for human use. This fact sheet describes the framework of a hydrologic climate-response program that would improve understanding of the effects of future climate change in Maine.
Hodgkins, Glenn A.; Lent, Robert M.; Dudley, Robert W.; Schalk, Charles W.
This virtual tour features three-dimensional images from the United States Geological Survey's (USGS) collection. It introduces visitors to the volcanic landforms of Lava Beds National Monument in California, the site of extensive recent and Quaternary volcanism. Features include cinder and spatter cones, lava flows, and the monument's extensive network of lava tubes, many of which are open to the public. The 3-D images are anaglyphs and require red and cyan 3-D viewing glasses.
A portion of the California coast, including the Loma Prieta earthquake damage at Moss Landing, is shown with the topography displayed from side and overhead viewing angles. This technique offers a different approach to mapping shorelines and studying the oceanographic forces creating and shaping these geologic features. Two pieces of equipment were developed to create these views. The first is
T. E. Chase; J. D. Young
This report presents a framework for a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) hydrologic climate-response program designed to provide early warning of changes in the seasonal water cycle of Maine. Climate-related hydrologic changes on Maine's rivers and lakes in the winter and spring during the last century are well documented, and several river and lake variables have been shown to be sensitive to air-temperature changes. Monitoring of relevant hydrologic data would provide important baseline information against which future climate change can be measured. The framework of the hydrologic climate-response program presented here consists of four major parts: (1) identifying homogeneous climate-response regions; (2) identifying hydrologic components and key variables of those components that would be included in a hydrologic climate-response data network - as an example, streamflow has been identified as a primary component, with a key variable of streamflow being winter-spring streamflow timing; the data network would be created by maintaining existing USGS data-collection stations and establishing new ones to fill data gaps; (3) regularly updating historical trends of hydrologic data network variables; and (4) establishing basins for process-based studies. Components proposed for inclusion in the hydrologic climate-response data network have at least one key variable for which substantial historical data are available. The proposed components are streamflow, lake ice, river ice, snowpack, and groundwater. The proposed key variables of each component have extensive historical data at multiple sites and are expected to be responsive to climate change in the next few decades. These variables are also important for human water use and (or) ecosystem function. Maine would be divided into seven climate-response regions that follow major river-basin boundaries (basins subdivided to hydrologic units with 8-digit codes or larger) and have relatively homogeneous climates. Key hydrologic variables within each climate-response region would be analyzed regularly to maintain up-to-date analyses of year-to-year variability, decadal variability, and longer term trends. Finally, one basin in each climate-response region would be identified for process-based hydrologic and ecological studies.
Hodgkins, Glenn A.; Lent, Robert M.; Dudley, Robert W.; Schalk, Charles W.
This book is an attempt to determine geomorphic criteria to be used to distinguish between channels formed predominantly by sapping and seepage erosion and those formed principally by surface runoff processes. The geologic nature of the Colorado Plateau has resulted in geomorphic features that show similarities to some areas on Mars, especially certain valley networks within thick sandstone formations. Where spring sapping is an effective process, the valleys that develop are unique in terms of their morphology and network pattern.
Howard, Alan D. (editor); Kochel, R. Craig (editor); Holt, Henry E. (editor)
This virtual tour features three-dimensional images from the United States Geological Survey's (USGS) collection. It introduces visitors to the landscapes of Mount Rainier National Park in Washington, including 14,410-foot Mount Rainier, an active volcano of the Cascades Range. Views include the volcano, nearby Tatoosh Range, and glacial landforms and streams associated with Carbon, Paradise, and Emmons Glaciers. The 3-D images are anaglyphs and require red and cyan 3-D viewing glasses.
Absorption features having depths up to 5 percent are identified in high-quality, high-resolution reflectance spectra of 16 dark asteroids in the main belt and in the Cybele and Hilda groups. Analogs among the CM2 carbonaceous chondrite meteorites exist for some of these asteroids, suggesting that these absorptions are due to iron oxides in phyllosilicates formed on the asteroidal surfaces by aqueous alteration processes. Spectra of ten additional asteroids, located beyond the outer edge of the main belt, show no discernible absorption features, suggesting that aqueous alteration did not always operate at these heliocentric distances.
Vilas, Faith; Gaffey, Michael J.
Purpose – The main objective of this paper is to highlight the main features of interest-free banking theory and practice in Pakistan over the last three decades. It explores the country-wide interest-free banking movement since its inception in 1980 to its demise in 2002, and the reasons for such outcome. Moreover, it addresses the question why interest-free banking has been
M. Mansoor Khan
Patterns in reflected sonic intensity recognized during examination of televiewer logs of basement gneiss at the Hot Dry Rock Site, Fenton Hill, New Mexico, are due to geological fractures and foliations and to incipient breakouts. These features are obscured by artifacts caused by wellbore ellipticity, tool off-centering, and tool oscillations. An interactive method, developed for extraction of the structural features (fractures and foliations), uses human perception as a pattern detector and a chi-square test of harmonic form as a pattern discriminator. From imagery of GT-2, 733 structures were recovered. The acceptance rate of the discriminator was 54%. Despite these positive results, the general conclusion of this study is that intensity-mode imagery from Fenton Hill is not directly invertible for geological information because of the complexity of the televiewer imaging process. Developing a forward model of the intensity-imaging process, or converting to caliper-mode imagery, or doing both, will be necessary for high-fidelity feature extraction from televiewer data.
A presentation is given of 8.0-13.0 micron spectra (Delta lambda/lambda = 0.02-0.03) for six main belt asteroids, which range from 58 to 220 km in diameter and sample the five principal taxonomic classes (C, S, M, R and E). Narrow, well-defined silicate emission features are present on two of the asteroids, the C-type 19 Fortuna and the M-type 21 Lutetia. No comparable emission features are observed on the S-types 11 Parthenope and 14 Irene, the R-type 349 Dembowska or the E-type 64 Angelina.
Feierberg, M. A.; Witteborn, F. C.; Lebofsky, L. A.
The authors present 8.0 - 13.0 micron spectra (??/? = 0.02 - 0.03) for six main belt asteroids, which range from 58 to 220 km in diameter and sample the five principal taxonomic classes (C, S, M, R and E). Narrow, well-defined silicate emission features are present on two of the asteroids, the C-type 19 Fortuna and the M-type 21 Lutetia. No comparable emission features are observed on the S-types 11 Parthenope and 14 Irene, the R-type 349 Dembowska or the E-type 64 Angelina.
Feierberg, M. A.; Witteborn, F. C.; Lebofsky, L. A.
Since its foundation in 1997, the Main Committee on Power Generation Facility Codes, MC-PGFC, of the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers, JSME, has issued a number of nuclear codes including the rules on design and construction and the rules on fitness-for-service for nuclear power plants. Some of these JSME nuclear codes have been endorsed by the regulatory body, and are now utilized in the regulatory processes of the actual plants. Among these nuclear codes recently published is the 'rules on design and construction for fast reactors'. It includes as its main body design rules on class 1 components for elevated temperature services. This paper overview the main features of the code. (authors)
Masaki Morishita [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (Japan); Masayuki Sukekawa [Hitachi, Ltd. (Japan); Tomomi Otani [Mitubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. (Japan)
This web site provides an introduction to geologic maps. Topics covered include what is a geologic map, unique features of geologic maps, letter symbols, faults, and strike and dip. Users may click to view colored geologic maps, the geologic map of the United States and the geologic relief map of the United States.
The topographic midlands on Venus comprise about 80% of the surface and an understanding of their mode of formation is essential to unraveling the geologic and geodynamic history of the planet. We explore this question by undertaking a comprehensive geological mapping of the Fredegonde Quadrangle (V-57, 50-75°S, 60-120°E, 1:5M scale) that represents the transition zone from the midlands to the lowlands at the edge of Lada Terra. We report on the geologic units and structures and the sequence of events and, thus, the major stages in the evolution of this region of the midlands. At earlier stages of evolution of the long-wavelength topography, broad (hundreds of kilometers wide) and relatively low (1-1.5 km high) topographic ridges formed due to sequential development of deformation zones, first of contractional ridge belts (NW orientation) and then crosscut by extensional groove belts (NE orientation). Arcuate swarms of graben within groove belts often form the rims of coronae and represent their tectonic component. This suggests that groove belts and coronae within the quadrangle formed simultaneously. Intersections of these deformation zones caused separation of the topography of the region into a series of broad, shallow equidimensional basins many hundreds of kilometers across and currently hundreds of meters up to a kilometer deep. Thus, the principal topographic features within the quadrangle were established near the beginning of its observable geological record. The basins then remained sites of accumulation of successive volcanic plains units such as shield plains (psh) and the lower unit of regional plains (rp1). The flows of the younger plains, such as upper unit of regional plains (rp2) and lobate plains (pl), are less voluminous, and flow down the current topographic gradients. This implies that the major topographic pattern of the Fredegonde quadrangle has been stable since its establishment. Further evidence for this is that the vast volcanic plains units (psh and rp1) that postdate the heavily tectonized units of the deformation zones are only mildly deformed. This suggests that since the emplacement of shield plains, volcanism has been the primary geologic process and that the time of formation of unit psh corresponds to a major change from the earlier regime dominated by tectonics to the later volcanically dominated regime. Consistent age relationships among the main volcanic units within the quadrangle from older shield plains, through regional plains, to lobate plains, documents an evolution in volcanic style. Shield plains were formed from small eruptions from ubiquitous small shield volcanoes and are interpreted to be derived from broadly distributed and shallow magmatic sources. The lower unit of regional plains is widely distributed but vents and flow fronts are rare; this unit is interpreted to represent massive and probably short-lived flood basalts-like eruptions that filled in the lowlands basins. The upper unit of regional plains (rp2) and lobate plains (pl) are associated with localized and distinctive sources, such as late-stage volcanic activity at coronae. Thus, the tectonic stage of evolution of coronae (formation of the rims) and the volcanic stage when coronae served as magmatic centers and sourced lava flows, were separated in time by the emplacement of the shield and lower regional plains. How and when did the major components of Venus midland topography form? Clearly, in the Fredegonde quadrangle, regional deformation produced the deformation belts and groove belts/coronae in the earliest phases, and this topography formed the basis for the next, volcanic stage of emplacement (filling of the basins), with coronae-associated volcanism following this phase. The broad topography resulting from this early phase has persisted until the present. We compare this tectonic-volcanic sequence and history of topography in the Fredegonde quadrangle with other areas on Venus and find that the sequence has widespread application globally, and that the history of topography may be similar planet-w
Ivanov, Mikhail A.; Head, James W.
This activity is a field investigation where students observe and interpret the rocks types, geologic features, and processes typical to the north shore of Lake Superior. Students use their data to develop questions that could be further investigated and to predict the sequence of events leading to the formation of these rocks and features.
Introduction. Pancreatic surgery is challenging and associated with high morbidity, mainly represented by postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) and its further consequences. Identification of risk factors for POPF is essential for proper postoperative management. Aim of the Study. Evaluation of the role of morphological and histological features of pancreatic stump, other than main pancreatic duct diameter and glandular texture, in POPF occurrence after pancreaticoduodenectomy. Patients and Methods. Between March 2011 and April 2013, we performed 145 consecutive pancreaticoduodenectomies. We intraoperatively recorded morphological features of pancreatic stump and collected data about postoperative morbidity. Our dedicated pathologist designed a score to quantify fibrosis and inflammation of pancreatic tissue. Results. Overall morbidity was 59,3%. Mortality was 4,1%. POPF rate was 28,3%, while clinically significant POPF were 15,8%. Male sex (P = 0.009), BMI ? 25 (P = 0.002), prolonged surgery (P = 0.001), soft pancreatic texture (P < 0.001), small pancreatic duct (P < 0.001), pancreatic duct decentralization on stump anteroposterior axis, especially if close to the posterior margin (P = 0.031), large stump area (P = 0.001), and extended stump mobilization (P = 0.001) were related to higher POPF rate. Our fibrosis-and-inflammation score is strongly associated with POPF (P = 0.001). Discussion and Conclusions. Pancreatic stump features evaluation, including histology, can help the surgeon in fitting postoperative management to patient individual risk after pancreaticoduodenectomy.
Ridolfi, Cristina; Angiolini, Maria Rachele; Gavazzi, Francesca; Spaggiari, Paola; Tinti, Maria Carla; Uccelli, Fara; Madonini, Marco; Montorsi, Marco; Zerbi, Alessandro
This site from Marli Bryant Miller, a professor at the University of Oregon, presents images of geological features from around the world. Photographs of glacial features, igneous and metamorphic rocks and processes, and structural geology are featured.
Miller, Marli B.; Oregon, University O.
The geological and structural features and gold potential of the Yasny lode-placer cluster in Amur province have been investigated. The lode-placer cluster is an intrusive domal uplift elongated in the nearmeridional direction and surrounded by Neogene loose sediments. The cluster comprises placers that yielded 15 t gold mined from there and small occurrences of gold-quartz and gold-base-metal lodes. Association of native gold with cinnabar in the Yasny Creek placer allows us to forecast a new source of gold-mercury mineralization in the basin of this creek, which could be compared with the Kyuchyus deposit in Yakutia. Gold nuggets 79 kg in total weight were mined from Gar-2 River placer. They are comparable in weight and association with quartz to the world's largest Holtermann Plate nugget from Australia. Gold-quartz lodes have been forecasted in the basin of the Gar-2 Creek.
Mel'nikov, A. V.; Stepanov, V. A.
The main characteristic of the circulation in the Eastern Mediterranean Levantine Basin is a general cyclonic flow following more or less the coastline, with several persistent eddies in the open sea. The interaction between all of these dynamical features produces a complicated flow pattern with strong spatial variability on a synoptic, seasonal and inter-annual scales. The continuous seasonal/annual hydrographic survey of the SE Levantine since 1995 within the frame of the Cyprus Basin Oceanography program (CYBO) and the Haifa-section cruises, along with data from project surveys (CYCLOPS, MSM/14) and recent data from autonomous platforms, such as those from Argos floats, drifters and gliders (NEMED, YPOKINOUMODA, GROOM projects) have all provided insight on the three dominating flow features in the SE Levantine Basin. Namely, the two warm core eddies, i.e. the Cyprus and Shikmona, and the open sea flow jet, that of the Mid Mediterranean. After some years of disputes, it is well-documented with all these in-situ data that the Cyprus warm core eddy is the most influential flow feature in the area, with significant fluctuations in time and space, while the generation of the Shikmona eddy was observed for the first time. Moreover, the cross basin flow of the MMJ is also well-document, confirming the relevant POEM results, to transfer also significant amount of AW further to the most-eastern part of the Levantine, after passing between Cyprus and along the northern periphery of the Cyprus warm core eddy.
Zodiatis, George; Hayes, Dan; Gertman, Isaac; Poulain, Pierre-Marie; Menna, Milena; Nicolaidis, Andreas
Structural investigations were carried out along the Main Shear Zone (MSZ) of western Sør Rondane (22°-25°E, 71.5°-72.5°S) to gain new information about the position of the East-/West-Gondwana suture and the ancient plate tectonic configuration during Gondwana amalgamation. The WSW-ENE striking MSZ divides south-western Sør Rondane in a northern amphibolite-facies terrane and a southern tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG) terrane. The structure can be traced over a distance of ca. 100 km and reaches several hundred meters in width. It is characterized by a right-lateral sense of movement and marked by a transpressional and also transtensional regime. Ductilely deformed granitoids (ca. 560 Ma: SHRIMP U-Pb of zircon) and ductile - brittle structures, which evolved in a transitional ductile to brittle regime in an undeformed syenite (ca. 499-459 Ma, Ar-Ar mica), provide a late Proterozoic/ early Paleozoic time limit for the activity of the shear zone (Shiraishi et al., 2008; Shiraishi et al., 1997). Documentation of ductile and brittle deformation allows reconstructing up to eight deformation stages. Cross-cutting relationships of structural features mapped in the field complemented by published kinematic data reveal the following relative age succession: [i] Dn+1 - formation of the main foliation during peak metamorphism, [ii] Dn+2 - isoclinal, intrafolial folding of the main foliation, mostly foliation-parallel mylonitic shear zones (1-2 meter thick), [iii] Dn+3 - formation of tight to closed folds, [iv] Dn+4 - formation of relatively upright, large-scale open folds, [v] Dn+5 - granitoid intrusion (e.g. Vengen granite), [vi] Dn+6 - dextral shearing between amphibolite and TTG terranes, formation of the MSZ, [vii] Dn+7 - intrusion of late- to post-tectonic granitoids, first stage of brittle deformation (late shearing along MSZ), intrusion of post-kinematic mafic dykes, [viii] Dn+8 - second stage of brittle deformation including formation of conjugate fault systems. The latter point to a WNW-ESE respectively NW-SE oriented maximum paleostress direction and indicate the latest deformation event; they are possibly related to the break-up and fragmentation of Gondwana. Two contrasting models describe the configuration of East Gondwana during the Neoproterozoic and the final amalgamation of Gondwana. The first model proposes the existence of a Pan-African Orogen (East African/ Antarctic Orogen). The Main Shear Zone could represent the eastern extension of this orogen and may be related to a NE-directed lateral-escape tectonic model. Both published structural data from Sør Rondane and adjacent regions and the outcome of this study agree with this model and propose a suture of East- and West Gondwana located between Mühlig-Hofmann-Gebirge and Sør Rondane. The second model of an overlap of two orogens with different formation ages cannot be proved by structural data from the MSZ. Instead, tight test constraints of the second model may be provided by new magnetic anomaly maps based on a 2012/13 aerogeophysical survey. Shiraishi, K.; Dunkley, D.J.; Hokada, T.; Fanning, C.M.; Kagami, H.; and Hamamoto, T. (2008): Geochronological constraints on the Late Proterozoic to Cambrian crustal evolution of eastern Dronning Maud Land, East Antarctica: a synthesis of SHRIMP U-Pb age and Nd model age data. Geological Society, 308(1):21-67. Shiraishi, K.; Osanai, Y.; Ishizuka, H.; and Asami, M. (1997): Geological map of the Sør Rondane Mountains, Antarctica. Antarctica Geological Map Series, sheet 35, scale 1 : 25 0000. National Institute of PolarResearch, Tokyo.
Ruppel, Antonia; Läufer, Andreas; Lisker, Frank; Jacobs, Joachim; Elburg, Marlina; Damaske, Detlef; Lucka, Nicole
We have conducted seismic tomographic inversions to obtain a P-wave seismic velocity structure beneath the Sunda Strait and West Java regions, Indonesia. The Sunda Strait is located in a complex geological system i.e. in the transition from the oblique subduction beneath Sumatra to the nearly perpendicular subduction below Java. The Krakatau active volcano is located in the Sunda Strait. In this study, we have used selected P-wave arrival times from the data catalogs of the SeisComP-BMKG network (from 2009 to 2011) and the BMKG BALAI II network (from 1992 to 2011) compiled by Badan Meteorologi,Klimatologi dan Geofisika (BMKG), Indonesia. In total, there are 1,598 local earthquakes and 10,366 P-wave phases from 25 seismographic stations that have been used for the tomographic inversions. We have also relocated the hypocenter locations along with velocity inversions simultaneously. Our preliminary results depict some prominent geological features that include: (1) a low velocity anomaly beneath north of the Ujung Kulon region, which coincides with a low gravity anomaly resulting from a previous study, (2) a low velocity anomaly alignment beneath the Krakatau volcano in the Sunda Strait, (3) a sharp contrast in velocity anomalies extending from Pelabuhan Ratu towards Jakarta with a strike of SW-NE, and (4) a low velocity anomaly in the offshore of Pelabuhan Ratu that may be correlated with the continuation of the Cimandiri fault zone. More detailed information will be presented during the meeting. Keywords: tomography, Sunda Strait, West Java, velocity anomaly
Nugraha, A. D.; Sakti, A. P.; Rohadi, S.; Widiyantoro, S.
Europa's extremely young surface age, evidence for extensive resurfacing, and indications of a sub-surface ocean elevate its astrobiological potential for habitable environments and make it a compelling focus for study. Knowledge of the global distribution and timing of Europan geologic units is a key step in understanding the history of the satellite and for identifying areas relevant for exploration. I have produced a 1:15M scale global geologic map of Europa which represents a proportionate distribution of four unit types and associated features: plains, linea, chaos, and crater materials. Mapping techniques differ somewhat from other planetary maps but do provide a method to establish stratigraphic markers and to illustrate the surface history through four periods of formation as a function of framework lineament cross-cutting relationships. Correlations of observed features on Europa with Earth analogs enforce a multi-process theory for formation rather than the typical reliance on the principle of parsimony. Lenticulae and microchaos are genetically similar and most likely form by diapirism. Platy and blocky chaos units, endmembers of archetypical chaos, are best explained by brine mobilization. Ridges account for the majority of lineaments and may form by a number of methods indicative of local conditions; most form by either tidal pumping or shear heating. The variety of morphologies exhibited by bands indicates that multiple formation mechanisms apply once fracturing of the brittle surface over a ductile subsurface is initiated. Mapping results support the interpretation that Europa's shell has thickened over time resulting in changes in the style and intensity of deformation. Mapping serves as an index for change detection and classification, aids in pre-encounter targeting, and supports the selection of potential landing sites. Highest priority target areas are those which indicate geophysical activity by the presence of volcanic plumes, outgassing, or disrupted surface morphologies. Areas of high interest include lineaments and chaos margins. The limitations on detecting activity at these locations are approximated by studying similar observed conditions on other bodies. By adapting machine learning and data mining techniques to signatures of plumes and morphology, I have demonstrated autonomous rule-based detection of known features using edge-detection and supervised classification methods. These methods successfully detect ?94% of known volcanic plumes or jets at Io, Enceladus, and comets. They also allow recognition of multiple feature types. Applying these results to conditions expected for Europa enables a prediction of the potential for detection of similar features and enables recommendations for mission concepts to increase the science return and efficiency of future missions to observe Europa. This post-Galileo view of Europa provides a synthesis of the overall history of this unique icy satellite and will be a useful frame of reference for future exploration of the jovian system and other potentially active outer solar system bodies.
Bunte, M. K.; Tanaka, K. L.; Doggett, T.; Figueredo, P. H.; Lin, Y.; Greeley, R.; Saripalli, S.; Bell, J. F.
During the last years the new software instrumental complex Sonix+ has been developed at FLNP JINR to replace the former Sonix control system . This complex has been tested at a number of IBR-2 instruments (REMUR, NERA-PR) and on instruments at other centers - KIA, Moscow (MOND), etc. We plan to install the new complex at the YuMO instrument as well. The Sonix+ is implemented on the PC/Windows XP platform, whereas the Sonix is based on the VME/Os-9 obsolete platform. The Sonix+  has been designed considering the experience of long-term operation of the predecessor and recent trends. The paper is devoted to the main features of the new software and the comparison with the former one.
Kirilov, A. S.
One of the latest offerings from the North Carolina State University's Web site Science Junction (last mentioned in the November 25, 1998 Scout Report) is the Geologic Explorations page. By clicking on the respective coordinates of each location, users can explore twelve areas in the western United States with 360-degree panoramic QuickTime movies and digital photography. Set up as a type of lesson for students, the main page suggests paying close attention to the unique geologic features and gives a few questions to answer about each area. The site is very easy to use and provides some breathtaking vistas of some of the most beautiful areas of the US.
Bodzin, Alec M.
Enigmatic small scale (<1m) depositional and erosional features have been imaged at several locations in the equatorial Meridiani Planum region by the rover Opportunity. They occur in loose, dark basaltic sands partly covering exposures of light-toned bedrock. Leveed fissures are narrow, elongate, steep-sided depressions flanked by raised levees or half-cones of soil, typically 2-10 cm wide and up to 50 cm long in most cases. Some cross-cut and are therefore younger than eolian ripples thought to have last been active c. 50,000 years ago. Gutters are elongate, straight or sinuous surface depressions, typically 2-10cm wide and 1-5 cm deep, sometimes internally terraced or with a hollow near one end, and in one case seem to give way to small depositional fans downslope; they have the appearance of having been formed by liquid flow rather than by wind erosion. Leveed fissures were imaged at more than 25 locations by Opportunity between 2004 and 2013, particularly near the rims of Endurance, Erebus and Endeavour craters, but also on the plains between Santa Maria and Endeavour craters; sharply-defined gutters are less common but examples were imaged close to the rim of Endurance and on the approach to Endeavour, whereas subdued, possibly wind-softened examples are more widespread. Scrutiny of images obtained by the rover Spirit in Gusev Crater between 2004 and 2010 has so far failed to find any leveed fissures or gutters, but examples of both types of features, as well as numerous small holes suggestive of surface sediment falling into underlying voids, were imaged by the rover Curiosity in the Yellowknife Bay region of Gale Crater during 2013. Leveed fissures appear to have been formed by venting from beneath. Ground disturbance by the rover can be ruled out in many cases by the appearance of features in images taken before close approach. Blowholes seem plausible close to crater rims (where wind might enter a connected void system through a crater wall) but less so in plains areas between craters. Fumaroles seem unlikely since there is no other evidence of geologically young volcanic activity in the region. There is evidence elsewhere that contemporary ground-ice thaw and consequent transient surface run-off may occur occasionally under present conditions in low, near-equatorial latitudes on Mars; short-lived (even for just a few minutes) meltwater emission and flow at the surface could erode gutters before evaporating. The decomposition of buried pockets of methane clathrates, which theoretical considerations suggest might be present and stable even in equatorial regions, could give rise to both methane venting (leveed fissures) and transient surface water (gutters). Another possibility is the decomposition, due to local changes in thermal conditions, of hydrated magnesium sulphates in the bedrock, releasing liquid water. Whatever their explanation, these features hint at previously unrecognized, young martian surface processes which may even be active at the present day; in this context, the apparent downslope extension of a discrete dark dust streak on Burns Cliff (inside Endurance Crater), during Opportunity's approach to that locality, is particularly thought-provoking.
Geologic and geomorphic information extraction from remotely sensed data using visual and computer aided techniques were attempted for a test area in North Bombay. Visual interpretations of LANDSAT images offer a limited possibility to demarcate terrain u...
V. Raghavan S. M. Tarique A. T. Pedrofernandes
Geologic Maps are unique in that they show the distribution of geologic features on a landscape through specific symbols and colors. The United States Geological Survey's (USGS) site Geologic Maps provides visitors with a good introduction to these concepts, which include the unique features of a geologic map; the meaning of their lines, colors, and symbols; the location of faults; and more. Anyone working with geologic maps or just interested in learning a little about cartography or geology will find this site easy to explore and full of good information.
Topographic contour maps of the East Antarctic Plateau show a prominent but apparently unrecognized basin of ~700,000 km2 that lies ~200 m below surrounding surfaces. The basin's defining hallmark is a remarkably straight, 900 km-long headwall or headslope, passing almost under the pole and linking upper reaches of the Recovery and Foundation ice streams, the two separated by a central platform (CP). Throughout the basin a distinctive regional snow and firn unit, identifiable on satellite images by ~2km wavelength, zebra-striped megadunes, forms the basal horizon for a new type of geologic map for the Plateau. This unit underlies all other features, probably as an inactive paleo-climatic relic of diachronous Holocene age. Most deposits covering it consist of several generations of successively overprinted longitudinal dunes commonly intermingling with wind eroded channels, ice deformational features, and regionally curving snow streamers. Above this complex, a widespread but discontinuous, smooth surfaced deposit covers megadunes, local basins, major divides and floors of linear sags or extension zones. The young unit is irregularly disrupted and sheared over active ice streams. Over all these features are widespread, near-modern to modern fields or patches of active, longitudinal dunes with 100-300 m wavelengths. A prominent, graben-like, linear sag zone occurs along the headwall's brow line but unlike those of traditional grabens, its edges show no visible fault offset at present resolutions. At the foot of the headslope, a large bergshrund-like area is localized above the sub-glacial Recovery Lakes. Thick fill in this area covers the megadune unit only to be disrupted by still younger sag zones. On the CP floor, a number of sharp-edged, shear-bounded 100-300 km wide sub-provinces are defined by differences in thickness and types of megadune cover and by amounts of extension or crevassing. At the heads of some zones, shear lines encroach upslope into young cover while other zones show complex histories of deformational abandonment and/or reactivation. Apparently, the overall ice sheet has a complex history of zonal behavior involving unsteady or evolving local flow patterns. Bedrock topography exerts significant control on these flow patterns as indicated by major ice streams or basins localized above sub-glacial drainage channels and bedrock basins of the Recovery Lake and other systems. Several other shear-bounded sub-provinces overlie bedrock basins or lie immediately upstream of gaps in the Transantarctic Mountains. Just beyond the basin's edge, 'islands,' bounded by several generations of shear zones and differing in depositional and deformational history, are localized above bedrock highs. The most significant bedrock control is a probable fault line scarp, 900 km long and ~200 m high underlying the headslope. At one end this fault passes nearly under the pole while the other end splays to form a terrace in the headslope. Near the pole a second, opposite-facing scarp combines with the main scarp to form an uplifted horst block, isolating an arm of the greater basin, hindering ice drainage and forming an accumulation base for a ~50,000 km2 semi-triangular tableland. Geologic maps of this type may be helpful in correlations among drill cores and sampling sites, in estimating the amounts and patterns of younger accumulation, in refining details of complex ice flowage, and in piecing together a more unified overview of younger events on the Plateau. class="ab'>
Wise, D. U.; Cianfarra, P.; Salvini, F.
We present maps of the topographic roughness of the Moon at hectometer and kilometer scales. The maps are derived from range profiles obtained by the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) instrument onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) spacecraft. As roughness measures, we used the interquartile range of profile curvature at several baselines, from 115 m to 1.8 km, and plotted these in a global map format. The maps provide a synoptic overview of variations of typical topographic textures and utilize the exceptional ranging precision of the LOLA instrument. We found that hectometer-scale roughness poorly correlates with kilometer-scale roughness, because they reflect different sets of processes and time scales. Hectometer-scale roughness is controlled by regolith accumulation and modification processes and affected by the most recent events, primarily, geologically recent (1-2 Ga) meteoritic impacts. Kilometer-scale roughness reflects major geological (impact, volcanic and tectonic) events in earlier geological history. Young large impact craters are rough, and their roughness decreases with age. The global roughness maps revealed a few unusually dense clusters of hectometer- and decameter-size impact craters that differ in their morphology and settings from typical secondary crater clusters and chains; the origin of these features is enigmatic. The maps can assist in the geological mapping of the lunar maria by revealing contacts between volcanic plain units. The global roughness maps also clearly reveal cryptomaria, old volcanic plains superposed by younger materials, primarily crater and basin ejecta.
Kreslavsky, Mikhail A.; Head, James W.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Rosenburg, Margaret A.; Aharonson, Oded; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.
The `Cyborg Astrobiologist' has undergone a second geological field trial, at a site in northern Guadalajara, Spain, near Riba de Santiuste. The site at Riba de Santiuste is dominated by layered deposits of red sandstones. The Cyborg Astrobiologist is a wearable computer and video camera system that has demonstrated a capability to find uncommon interest points in geological imagery in real time in the field. In this second field trial, the computer vision system of the Cyborg Astrobiologist was tested at seven different tripod positions, on three different geological structures. The first geological structure was an outcrop of nearly homogeneous sandstone, which exhibits oxidized-iron impurities in red areas and an absence of these iron impurities in white areas. The white areas in these `red beds' have turned white because the iron has been removed. The iron removal from the sandstone can proceed once the iron has been chemically reduced, perhaps by a biological agent. In one instance the computer vision system found several (iron-free) white spots to be uncommon and therefore interesting, as well as several small and dark nodules. The second geological structure was another outcrop some 600 m to the east, with white, textured mineral deposits on the surface of the sandstone, at the bottom of the outcrop. The computer vision system found these white, textured mineral deposits to be interesting. We acquired samples of the mineral deposits for geochemical analysis in the laboratory. This laboratory analysis of the crust identifies a double layer, consisting of an internal millimetre-size layering of calcite and an external centimetre-size efflorescence of gypsum. The third geological structure was a 50 cm thick palaeosol layer, with fossilized root structures of some plants. The computer vision system also found certain areas of these root structures to be interesting. A quasi-blind comparison of the Cyborg Astrobiologist's interest points for these images with the interest points determined afterwards by a human geologist shows that the Cyborg Astrobiologist concurred with the human geologist 68% of the time (true-positive rate), with a 32% false-positive rate and a 32% false-negative rate. The performance of the Cyborg Astrobiologist's computer vision system was by no means perfect, so there is plenty of room for improvement. However, these tests validate the image-segmentation and uncommon-mapping technique that we first employed at a different geological site (Rivas Vaciamadrid) with somewhat different properties for the imagery.
McGuire, Patrick Charles; Díaz-Martínez, Enrique; Ormö, Jens; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Rodríguez-Manfredi, José Antonio; Sebastián-Martínez, Eduardo; Ritter, Helge; Haschke, Robert; Oesker, Markus; Ontrup, Jörg
The present paper focuses on the description of the main evaporite karst areas of Albania, and on their environmental problems.\\u000a Even though the majority of the karst areas in Albania is represented by carbonates, evaporites crop out significantly at\\u000a several sites, and deserve a specific attention for their morphological, karstic and speleological peculiarities. Vulnerability\\u000a of karst is well marked by
Mario Parise; Perikli Qiriazi; Skender Sala
Geological medium is an open dynamical system, which is artificially and naturally influenced on different scale levels, which change it's state and which lead to a complicated many ranked hierarchic evolution. That is a topic of the synergetic theory (or science of self organization). The idea of physical meso mechanics which was elaborated by Russian academician Panin V.E., which includes the synergetic approach, is a constructive method for research of the state of heterogenic materials. That result had been obtained for specimens of different materials. In our investigations of time-dependent geological medium in the frame of natural experiments in real rock massive, which are hard man-caused influenced it had been showed, that the dynamics of the state can be revealed by using synergetic approach for hierarchic media. The important role for research of dynamic geological systems play the use of active and passive geophysical monitoring, which can be achieved with use of electromagnetic and seismic fields. As it had been showed by our experience the change of the system on the researched space bases and times can be revealed by parameters, linked with peculiarities of the medium of the second and higher rank. Thus the research of the state dynamics and the events of self organization we can provide with geophysical methods, oriented on the many ranked hierarchic time-dependent model of the medium. For fields of plastic deformation and stresses it had been considered a system of differential equations. The developing theory of modelling and interpretation of geophysical monitoring data must be active guided by the mathematical methods of nonlinear dynamics and control. The developing of that direction can allow us to forecast and prevent catastrophic man-made events (rock bursts). We had elaborated a new approach of forecasting such events using the method of constructing phase portraits using the data of electromagnetic monitoring and detailed seismological catalogue.
Hachay, O. A.
The Pliocene and Pleistocene sediments exposed in eight sections of Transbaikalia have been correlated using geological and palynological data, together with information on fossil mammals and some paleomagnetic characteristics. The most complete sequence of fossiliferous deposits (spanning the time interval from the Middle Pliocene to the Late Pleistocene) is exposed in the Tologoi key section. The sequence was correlated with
Nadezhda V. Alexeeva; Margarita A. Erbajeva; Sevket Sen
Long-lasting investigations, measurements and analysis by the Cassini-Huygens mission since 2004, showed that Saturn's fascinating satellites, Titan and Enceladus, present complex, dynamic and Earth-like geology [e.g.1]. Endogenous as well as exogenous dynamic processes, have created diverse terrains with extensive ridges and grooves, impact units, icy flows and caldera-like structures, layered plains and stable liquid lakes [e.g.2]. In addition, Cassini's RADAR has part ially revealed the topography of the surfaces, indicating severe types of surface expressions . Due to this complex topography, combined with spectroscopic studies that showed a variety of surface composition, Titan and Enceladus are capable of having active volcanic (referred to as cryovolcanic) and tectonic activity. In order to investigate Titan's and Enceladus' internal and surface processes and structures it is necessary to study their geology. The Cassini-Huygens mission lacks the opportunity to acquire a rock sample, to take in situ chemical composition measurements as well as images that reveal in detail the morphology and topography. Thus, a comparative study to terrestrial volcanic and tectonic systems is essential. This study presents the processes that trigger the volcanic and tectonic systems on Earth, the volcanic systems that are internally created and also the surface expressions such as calderas, domes, lava flows and types of pyroclastic depositions which can find correspondence on Titan and Enceladus.
Solomonidou, A.; Coustenis, A.; Hirtzig, M.; Bratsolis, E.; Bampasidis, G.; Kyriakopoulos, K.; Sohl, F.; Wagner, F. W.; Hussmann, H.; Jaumann, R.; Lopes, R. M. C.; St. Seymour, K.; Moussas, X.
This paper presents the results of a laboratory study of formaldehyde (H2CO) suspended in low temperature molecular matrices with compositions similar to what may be found in the 'dirty ice' mantles of grains. It is shown that the emission features near 3.5 microns in the pre-main-sequence star HD 97048 can be matched by a mixture of chemical complexes of H2CO with surrounding molecules in the grain. Furthermore, a discussion is presented of various possible excitation mechanisms for this emission. The conclusion is, that for the features near 3.5 microns in HD 97048, UV pumped IR fluorescence is the most likely mechanism.
Van Der Zwet, G. P.; Baas, F.; Greenberg, J. M.; Allamandola, L. J.
The most important features of the strong quasi-electrostatic fields, generated in the region ionosphereground after a single lightning discharge, due to succeeding redistribution of capacitive spatial charges, are studied in this work. The investigation of these fields is of great importance, particularly since they are considered to be responsible for generation of red sprites in the mesosphere and lower ionosphere over thunderstorms. As experimental measurements show, these quasi-electrostatic fields can cause, more often than sprites, electron heating and conductivity modifications in the mesosphere and ionosphere as well. The temporal behavior and relaxation time of the quasi-electrostatic fields, as well as their spatial extent and orientation are studied. For this purpose an analytical model based on the Maxwell equations under conditions of curl-free electric field is proposed. Such conditions are fulfilled short (less than a millisecond) after beginning of a lightning discharge and last until another discharge. Isotropic conductivity in the region of interest is assumed. Computations are made for the time-course of the quasi-electrostatic fields up to the lower ionosphere. The dynamics of spatial charges in this region, responsible for the quasi-electrostatic fields, is analyzed also. The quasi-electrostatic fields at an altitude observed reach their maximum at a time close to the local relaxation time. Up to the ionosphere this maximum is of an order of V/m per 1 Coulomb of a charge transported by lightning. The field decreases immediately after reaching its maximum in the mesosphere; however, at stratospheric and tropospheric altitudes its maximum forms a plateau, which becomes wider at lower heights. The relaxation of the quasi-electrostatic field at altitudes above 40 km is essentially slower than the local relaxation time of an electrical charge.
Tonev, P. T.
The occurrence of an unusual seepage event in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) tunnel at Yucca Mountain (YM) in 2005 provides an opportunity to further understand the hydrological system associated with flow in fractured rocks and seepage into tunnels. Understanding the contributing factors for this seepage occurrence in the ventilated tunnel will assist U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission in its assessment of Department of Energy flow models. The seepage event begin in the later portion of an El Nino winter (February 2005) predominantly along a 40-m [130-ft] section of the south ramp of the ESF tunnel. The stratigraphic section at this location is comprised of a portion of the Tiva Canyon Tuff, which is a rhyolitic ignimbrite. The effect of El Nino conditions in the semi-arid climate of southern Nevada near YM is greatly increased winter precipitation. Based on the ~50 years of record at a nearby meteorological station, the winter of 2004-2005 was the wettest winter on record. The previous largest winter precipitation amounts were recorded in the El Nino years of 1992-1993 and 1997-1998. During the 1997 El Nino year, a monitored set of boreholes in nearby Pagany Wash indicated that a saturated front traversed the entire Tiva Canyon Tuff section during a single event (Le Cain and Kurmack, 2002, USGS Water Resources Investigations Report 02-4035). It is unclear if the fracture system in the south ramp location was saturated in the February 2005 event; no data were available to estimate the saturated state of the fracture system. With heavy precipitation occurring throughout the winter, however, the matrix and fracture systems were likely primed (i.e., saturation levels were likely significantly higher than normal) for a significant percolation event. Ponding caused by focusing of runoff at the ground surface above seepage location in the south ramp of the ESF tunnel likely did not occur based on topographical and catchment considerations (no significant depressions or gullies). Analyses of the geological characteristics associated with the seepage location suggest the contributing factors that constrained seepage to this particular portion of the tunnel include (i) distance to the surface (i.e., ~60 m [200 ft]), (ii) gently dipping strata with distinct lithological contacts that may have laterally diverted water, (iii) faults and fractures, and (iv) downslope capping by rock units with different hydrological characteristics. This is an independent product of the CNWRA and does not necessarily reflect the views of regulatory positions of the NRC. The NRC staff views expressed herein are preliminary and do not constitute a final judgment or determination of the matters addressed or of the acceptability of a license application for a geologic repository at Yucca Mountain.
Fedors, R. W.; Smart, K. J.; Parrott, J. D.
The current dissertation includes three separate chapters, each utilizing the power of the integration of different geophysical datasets with geology to investigate tectonic and structural processes responsible for the geological evolution of selected major tectonic features in south-central U. S. These tectonic features are; the Arkoma basin of Oklahoma and Arkansas, the Llano uplift of central Texas, and the Meers fault of the southwestern Oklahoma. The Arkoma basin is an arcuate structural feature that extends from the Gulf coastal plain in central Arkansas westward 400 km to the Arbuckle Mountains in south-central Oklahoma. The interpretation of the 3-D seismic data reveals an E-W zone of crustal weakness in the northern part of the study area, which could be a Late Paleozoic tectonic inversion of the extension faulting that developed during Cambrian rifting and later foreland basin development. The seismic interpretation reveals a compressive deformation of the Late Paleozoic strata related to the Ouachita orogeny. Magnetic boundaries such as faults andor body edges extending E-W, NE-SW and NW-SE have been delineated using magnetic edge detector techniques in the northern, southeastern, and western parts of the study area, respectively. The Euler magnetic depth estimation method delineated the same faults determined using magnetic edge detector techniques. The maximum depth to faults dominating the basement and/or the intrabasement features determined by the Euler's method is about 3850 m. The fault trends delineated by the seismic interpretation and those determined by the Euler's method and the edge detector techniques show a very clear correlation. The Llano Uplift is a broad structural dome in central Texas with 2 to 3 km of structural relief relative to the subsurface Fort Worth and Kerr basins to the northeast and southwest. The initial uplift due to an arc-continent collision was followed by a continent-continent collision between the Laurentia and a southern continent during the Grenville orogeny. The extensional tectonism associated with the Cambrian rifting and the opening of the Gulf of Mexico played a pronounced role in the evolution of the Llano uplift. The compressional tectonism of the Late Paleozoic Ouachita orogeny as well as the Ouachita related foreland basins contributed to the rise of the Llano uplift area. The complete Bouguer gravity and reduced to pole total magnetic intensity (RTP) maps of the Llano uplift show anomalously high values. A number of short wavelengths maxima superimposed on a relatively broad, high gravity anomaly coincide with Llano uplift area. The sources of the short wavelength anomalies can be related to shallow mafic bodies that were intruded into the uppermost crust during subduction of the Laurentia (North America continent) beneath a southern continent during the Grenville orogeny. The source of the broad, circular gravity anomaly appears to be related to a deeper geologic body situated in the middle crust. The RTP map reveals NW-SE trending magnetic highs that coincide with metamorphic rock exposures. Based on the gravity signature, the Llano uplift is interpreted to be independent terrane with physical and geological properties that differ distinctly from its surroundings. The Meers fault is the southernmost element of the complex and frontal fault zone which separates the uplifted igneous rocks of the Wichita Mountains, and the Anadarko basin in southwest Oklahoma. Motion on the Meers fault represents continued activity on one of the largest structural features in North America. The Wichita uplift and the Anadarko basin, which are separated by the Meers fault and related subparallel fault strands, indicate significant intra-plate deformation along the trend of the Southern Oklahoma aulacogen. The interpretation of the gravity and magnetic data reveals clearer variations in the magnetic properties than densities of the rocks on both sides of the Meers fault. The high magnetic contrast on both sides of the Meers fault is mostly due to the Late Paleozoic movement, whic
Existing knowledge on the distribution of mud volcanoes (MVs) and other significant fluid/free gas-venting features (mud cones, mud pies, mud-brine pools, mud carbonate cones, gas chimneys and, in some cases, pockmark fields) discovered on the seafloor of the Mediterranean Sea and in the nearby Gulf of Cadiz has been compiled using regional geophysical information (including multibeam coverage of most deepwater areas). The resulting dataset comprises both features proven from geological sampling, or in situ observations, and many previously unrecognized MVs inferred from geophysical evidence. The synthesis reveals that MVs clearly have non-random distributions that correspond to two main geodynamic settings: (1) the vast majority occur along the various tectono-sedimentary accretionary wedges of the Africa-Eurasia subduction zone, particularly in the central and eastern Mediterranean basins (external Calabrian Arc, Mediterranean Ridge, Florence Rise) but also along its westernmost boundary in the Gulf of Cadiz; (2) other MVs characterize thick depocentres along parts of the Mesozoic passive continental margins that border Africa from eastern Tunisia to the Levantine coasts, particularly off Egypt and, locally, within some areas of the western Mediterranean back-arc basins. Meaningfully accounting for MV distribution necessitates evidence of overpressured fluids and mud-rich layers. In addition, cross-correlations between MVs and other GIS-based data, such as maps of the Messinian evaporite basins and/or active (or recently active) tectonic trends, stress the importance of assessing geological control in terms of the presence, or not, of thick seals and potential conduits. It is contended that new MV discoveries may be expected in the study region, particularly along the southern Ionian Sea continental margins.
Mascle, Jean; Mary, Flore; Praeg, Daniel; Brosolo, Laetitia; Camera, Laurent; Ceramicola, Silvia; Dupré, Stéphanie
Objective. To study the clinical and pathologic features of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) that has atypical lupus nephritis (LN) with mainly IgA deposits. Methods. We searched the SLE patients who had nephritis with mainly IgA deposits in our hospital and selected the information including clinical manifestations, laboratory tests, treatments, and prognosis. Results. From January 2009 to June 2012, 5 patients were definitely diagnosed as SLE according to both 1982 and 2009 ACR classification criteria. But renal biopsy showed that all cases had mainly IgA deposits and were free of IgG, C1q, and fibrinogen-related antigen deposits under immunofluorescent microscopy, which did not match with typical LN. There were 2 males and 3 females, aging from 31 to 64 years and with an average of (42.20 ± 13.59) years. The 5 cases had multiple-system involvements, mainly the renal system. Compared to primary IgAN, the atypical LN showed some differences: older than primary IgAN, more women than men, no previous infection history, lower incidence of serum IgA elevation, and ACL positive rate as high as 100%. Conclusion. Nephritis with mainly IgAN deposits, as an atypical LN, may be a special subtype of SLE.
Hongyan, Liu; Yi, Zheng; Bao, Dong; Yuewu, Lu; Juan, Meng
Areas of abnormal radioactivity south of Ocala, Marion County, Fla., discovered in 1953 by aerial survey, were investigated by surface examination and by 10 power auger drill holes. Inter-bedded clay, clayey sand, and uraniferous phosphorite occur in the areas of anomalous radioactivityo Miocene fossils occur at three localities in these beds which are evidently outliers- of Miocene sediments on the Ocala limestone of Eocene age. The preserved outliers are southwest of the main belt of Miocene sediments. The principal uraniferous rocks are clayey, sandy, pellet phosphori1te that occurs in beds a few feet thick, and very porous, phosphatic sand rock which makes abundant float at many places. Apatite forms the phosphate pellets in the unweathered phosphorite. The very porous, phosphatic sand rock is the highly leached residuum of the pellet phosphorite and is composed mainly of quartz, kaolinite, wavellite, and crandallite (pseudowavellite). It closely resembles the aluminum phosphate rock of the 'leached zone' of the Bone Valley formation in the land-pebble phosphate district.
Espenshade, Gilbert H.
Coal mine bumps, which are violent, spontaneous, and often catastrophic disruptions of coal and rock, were common in the Sunnyside coal mining district, Utah, before the introduction of protective-engineering methods, modern room-and-pillar retreat mining with continuous mining machines, and particularly modern longwall mining. The coal at Sunnyside, when stressed during mining, fails continuously with many popping, snapping, and banging noises. Although most of the bumps are beneficial because they make mining easier, many of the large ones are dangerous and in the past caused injuries and fatalities, particularly with room- and-pillar mining methods used in the early mining operations. Geologic mapping of underground mine openings revealed many types of deformational features, some pre-mine and some post-mine in age. Stresses resulting from mining are concentrated near the mine openings; if openings are driven at large angles to small pre-mine deformational features, particularly shatter zones in coal, abnormal stress buildups may occur and violent bumps may result. Other geologic features, such as ripple marks, oriented sand grains, intertongued rock contacts, trace fossils, and load casts, also influence the occurrence of bumps by impeding slip of coal and rocks along bedding planes. The stress field in the coal also varies markedly because of the rough ridge and canyon topography. These features may allow excessively large stress components to accumulate. At many places, the stresses that contribute to deformation and failures of mine openings are oriented horizontally. The stratigraphy of the rocks immediately above and below the mined coal bed strongly influences the deformation of the mine openings in response to stress accumulations. Triaxial compressive testing of coal from the Sunnyside No.1 and No.3 Mines indicates that the strength of the coal increases several times as the confining (lateral) stress is increased. Strengths of cores cut from single large blocks of coal vary widely. Although the strengths of coal cores increase slowly at high levels of confining stress, the coal in Sunnyside No. 1 Mine is slightly stronger in laboratory tests than coal in Sunnyside No.3 Mine. The coal in No.1 Mine probably can store larger amounts of stress than coal in the No.3 Mine, which may account for the apparently greater number of violent bumps in No.1 Mine. The strength of coal, and its ability to store stress before failure, may correlate in part with chemical composition, particularly with the amounts of benzene ring compounds in vitrain; coal with relatively large amounts of benzene ring compounds is stronger than coal with lesser amounts of these compounds. Alternatively, the chemical composition of coal may affect its response to stress. Increasing contents of kaolinite in coal appear to reduce its compressive strength at low confining stresses, resulting in easy failures of pillars and ribs in mine openings. Applications of the geologic factors outlined in this report, carefully coupled with advanced modern engineering methods, have markedly reduced the hazards from coal mine bumps and related failures of mine openings at Sunnyside. Similar studies probably could aid in reducing bump-related hazards in other coal mining areas.
Osterwald, Frank W.; Dunrud, C. Richard; Collins, Donley S.
A geologic analysis of Martian surface features from Mariner 9 photography as a basis for systematic geologic mapping of Mars: Geology of the Noachis Quadrangle, Mars. Ph.D. Thesis. Final Technical Report, Mar. 1972 - Oct. 1974
A preliminary geologic mapping of that portion of the Noaches Quadrangle photographed by Mariner 7 is presented along with geologic mapping of the entire quadrangle based on Mariner 9 imagery. The data and conclusions of these two mappings are compared. A brief summary of the geologic history of the quadrangle is presented inconclusion.
Peterson, J. E.
The study area is the Aqaba region (Southern wadi Araba basin). Aqaba region area located at 87900 and 89000 North and 147000 and 158000 East (Palestine grid). Tectonically Aqaba area lies within the tectonic plate boundary along the Arabian and African plate slide. This plate boundary comprises numerous and shot fault segments. The main aims of this study are to assessing the groundwater potential and its quality, to explain the subsurface geological conditions and support the ongoing geological, environmental and hydrogeological studies. Therefore, it was anticipated that the results of the geophysical surveying will give many different important parameters as The subsurface geological features, thicknesses of the different lithological units, depth to the bed rocks and depth to the water table. The groundwater can apply an important role in ensuring sustainable water supply in the area. This study was carried out in order to assess groundwater condition, geological layers thicknesses and structural features in Aqaba area by using vertical electrical sounding (VES) surveys and refraction seismic techniques. There are three geoelectrical cross section were carried out at different sites by using the Schlumberger array. The first cross section indicated three layers of different resistivity. The second cross section indicated four layers of different resistivity. The third geoelectrical cross sections indicated three layers. The refraction seismic method also has been conducted in the same area as VES. About 12 refraction seismic profiles have been carried out in the study area. The length of the first profile was 745 m at the direction N-S. This profile indicated two different layers with a different velocities. The length of the second profile was 1320 m with E-W direction. This profile indicated two different layers. The length of the third profile was about 515 m with a direction SE-NW. It recognized two different layers with a different velocities. The fourth profile was N-S direction and the length of this profile was 950 m. Two different layers were recognized along this profile. The fifth profile was located N-S with length about 340 m. Two layers were recognized from this profile. The sixth profile was located N-S direction and the length about 575 m. Three layers were recognized from this profile. The direction of the seventh profile was N-S with a length of about 235 m. two different layers were recognized the top layer was unconsolidated alluvium. The profile number 8 was located N-S with length about 232 m. two layers were conducted from this profile. The direction of ninth profile was NW-SE with length about 565 m. two layers were conducted along this profile. The length of the tenth profile was 235 m and the direction was N-S. Two layers with a different velocities were detected along this profile. Profile number eleven was located SW-NE with length about 475 m. two layers were recognized from this profile. The length of the last profile was 375 m with direction SE-NW. Two layers were conducted from this profile. It was found that the shallow aquifers exist at a depths ranging from 4 to 19 m and the relatively deep aquifers from 24 to 60 m below the ground surface. Keywords: Vertical electrical sounding, Aqaba, Resistivity, Groundwater, Layer depth, Geoelectrical.
Akawwi, Emad; Alzoubi, Abdallah; Ben Abraham, Zvi; Rahamn Abo Alades, Abdel; Alrzouq, Rami; Tiber, Gidon; Neimi, Tina
This book reviews some of the basic principles of geology and includes a chapter on the Klamath Mountains. Chapters cover the geologic history of California and the geologic features of the various deserts, mountain ranges, plateaus, basins, and valleys of the state, including offshore geology and the San Andreas fault. The authors discuss exotic and suspect terranes, and current theories concerning California geology.
Norris, R.M.; Webb, R.W.
A new reconstruction of the Late Noachian Mars atmosphere and climate shows atmosphere-surface thermal coupling and an adiabatic cooling effect producing preferential distribution of snow and ice in the highlands. In this Late Noachian Icy Highlands (LNIH) scenario, snow and ice accumulate in the south circumpolar region and in the higher altitudes of the southern uplands, but the mean annual temperature is everywhere below freezing. How can the abundant evidence for water-related fluvial and lacustrine activity (valley networks, VN; open-basin lakes, OBL; closed-basin lakes; CBL) be reconciled with the icy highlands model? We investigate the nature of geologic processes operating in the icy highlands and use the Antarctic McMurdo Dry Valleys (MDV) as guidance in understanding and assessing how melting might be taking place. In the MDV, mean annual temperatures (MAT) are well below freezing. This results in a thick regional permafrost layer, the presence of an ice-table at shallow depths, and an overlying dry active layer. This configuration produces a perched aquifer and a horizontally stratified hydrologic system, where any melting results in local saturation of the dry active layer and channelized flow on top of the ice table. Top-down melting results in the dominance of lateral water transport, in contrast to temperate climates with vertical infiltration and transport to the groundwater table. Despite subzero MAT, MDV peak seasonal and peak daytime temperatures can exceed 273K and have a strong influence on the melting of available water ice. We present maps of the predicted distribution of LNIH snow and ice, compare these to the distribution of VN, OBL and CBL, and assess how top-down and bottom-up melting processes might explain the formation of these features in an otherwise cold and icy LN Mars. We assess the global near-surface water budget, analyze thickness estimates to distinguish areas of cold-based and wet-based glaciation, analyze the state of the ice cover and its susceptibility to melting and runoff, and describe top-down melting and fluvial channel formation processes in a LNIH environment. We find that: 1) episodic top-down melting of the LNIH is a robust mechanism to produce the observed fluvial and lacustrine features; 2) the characteristics and distribution of features in the Dorsa Argentea Formation are consistent with an extensive circum-polar ice cap during LNIH time; and 3) the nature of preserved LN impact craters is consistent with impact cratering processes in the LNIH environment. 393 words.
Head, James; Wordsworth, Robin; Forget, Francis; Madeleine, Jean-Baptiste; Halvey, Italy
Background Few data are available on subjects presenting to acute wards for the first time with psychotic symptoms. The aims of this paper are (i) to describe the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients at their first psychiatric admission (FPA), including socio-demographic features, risk factors, life habits, modalities of onset, psychiatric diagnoses and treatments before admission; (ii) to assess the aggressive behavior and the clinical management of FPA patients in Italian acute hospital psychiatric wards, called SPDCs (Servizio Psichiatrico Diagnosi e Cura = psychiatric service for diagnosis and management). Method Cross-sectional observational multi-center study involving 62 Italian SPDCs (PERSEO – Psychiatric EmeRgency Study and EpidemiOlogy). Results 253 FPA aged <= 40 were identified among 2521 patients admitted to Italian SPDCs over the 5-month study period. About half of FPA patients showed an aggressive behavior as defined by a Modified Overt Aggression Scale (MOAS) score greater than 0 Vs 46% of non-FPA patients (p = 0.3651). The most common was verbal aggression, while about 20% of FPA patients actually engaged in physical aggression against other people. 74% of FPA patients had no diagnosis at admission, while 40% had received a previous psychopharmacological treatment, mainly benzodiazepines and antidepressants. During SPDC stay, diagnosis was established in 96% of FPA patients and a pharmacological therapy was prescribed to 95% of them, mainly benzodiazepines, antipsychotics and mood stabilizers. Conclusion Subjects presenting at their first psychiatric ward admission have often not undergone previous adequate psychiatric assessment and diagnostic procedures. The first hospital admission allows diagnosis and psychopharmacological treatment to be established. In our population, aggressive behaviors were rather frequent, although most commonly verbal. Psychiatric symptoms, as evaluated by psychiatrists and patients, improved significantly from admission to discharge both for FPA and non-FPA patients.
Ballerini, Andrea; Boccalon, Roberto M; Boncompagni, Giancarlo; Casacchia, Massimo; Margari, Francesco; Minervini, Lina; Righi, Roberto; Russo, Federico; Salteri, Andrea; Frediani, Sonia; Rossi, Andrea; Scatigna, Marco
Recently completed projects incorporating TopoMorpher* digital images as adjuncts to commonly employed tools has emphasized the distinct advantage gained with STEREO 3-D DIGITAL IMAGERY. By manipulating scale, relief (four types of digital shading), sun angle, direction of viewing and tilt of scene, etc. -- to produce differing views of the same terrain -- aids in identifying, tracing, and interpreting ground surface anomalies. *TopoMorpher is a digital software product of Eighteen Software (18 software.com). The advantage of Stereo 3-D views combined with digital removal of vegetation which blocked interpretation (commonly called 'bare earth/naked' views) cannot be over-emphasized. The TopoMorpher program creates scenes transferable to disk for printing at any size. Included is with computer projector which allows large display and discussion ease for groups. The examples include (1) fault systems for targeting water well locations in bedrock and (2) delineation of debris slide and avalanche terrain. Combining geologic mapping and spring locations with Stereo 3-D TopoMorpher tracing of fault lineaments has allowed targeting of water well drilling sites. Selection of geophysical study areas for well siting has been simplified. Stereo 3-D TopoMorpher has a specific "relief/terrain setting" to define potential failure sites by producing detailed colored slope maps keyed to field-data derived parameters. Posters display individual project images and large scale overviews for identifying unusual major terrain features. Images at scales using 10 and 30 meter digital data as well as Lidar (< 1 meter) will be shown.
Hicks, B. G.; Fuente, J. D.
AQFRS24 contains polygons of significant aquifers in Maine (glacial deposits that are a significant ground water resource) mapped at a scale 1:24,000. This statewide coverage was derived from aquifer boundaries delineated and digitized by the Maine Geological Survey from data com...
Seismic microzonation and hazard mapping was undertaken in the Sikkim Himalaya with local site conditions and strong ground motion attributes incorporated into a geographic information system. A strong motion network in Sikkim consisting of 9 digital accelerographs recorded more than 100 events during 1998-2002, of which 72 events are selected with signal-to-noise ratios ?3 for the estimation of site response (SR), peak ground acceleration (PGA) and resonance frequency (RF) at all stations. With these data and inputs from IRS-1C LISS III digital data, topo-sheets, geographical boundary of the State of Sikkim, surface geological maps, soil taxonomy map at 1:50,000 scale and seismic refraction profiles, the seismological and geological thematic maps, namely, SR, PGA, RF, lithology, soil class, slope, drainage, and landslide layers were generated. The geological and seismological layers are assigned normalized weights and feature ranks following a pair-wise comparison hierarchical approach and later integrated through GIS to create the microzonation map of the region. The overall SR, PGA and resonance frequency show an increasing trend in a NW-SE direction, peaking at Singtam in the lesser Himalaya. Six major hazard zones are demarcated with different percentages of probability index values in the geological, seismological hazard and microzonation maps. The maximum risk is attached to a probability greater than 78% in the Singtam and adjoining area. These maps offer generally better spatial representation of seismic hazards including site-specific analysis as a first level microzonation attempt.
Nath, Sankar Kumar
This unit introduces younger students to the concept of relative versus absolute time and how geologists determine the age of geologic events and features. Topics include the laws that determine relative age (superposition, cross-cutting relationships, included fragments, and others), and how to re-construct the geologic history of an area using these relationships. There is also information on geologic correlation and the use of index fossils to determine relative age. The section on absolute time discusses some ways of measurement (tree rings, radioactive dating) and introduces the concepts of natural selection and mass extinctions. A vocabulary and downloadable, printable student worksheets are provided.
The spectrum of HD97048 was measured with a resolving power of 450 between 3.37 and 3.64 microns. The prominent feature near 3.5 microns is well resolved, with a peak at 3.53 microns and a wing extending to a shorter wavelength. The weaker feature near 3.4 microns is found to peak at 3.43 microns, in contrast to the 3.40 micron feature seen in other astronomical objects. The observed spectrum strongly resembles laboratory spectra of mixtures of monomeric and dimeric formaldehyde embedded in low temperature solids. Of various possible excitation mechanisms, ultraviolet pumped infrared fluorescence of formaldehyde in interstellar grains provides the best explanation for the observed spectrum of HD 97048.
Baas, F.; Allamandola, L. J.; Geballe, T. R.; Persson, S. E.; Lacy, J. H.
Lake Redó, a dimictic oligotrophic mountain lake, was monitored for two complete years from July 1996 to July 1998. The main seasonal variations in the physical, chemical and biological parameters are described, with special emphasis on the comparison of external forcing (weather and atmospheric deposition) with internal lake dynamics. Annual mean air temperature was estimated to be 3.6 °C. The
Marc VENTURA; Lluis CAMARERO; Teresa BUCHACA; Frederic BARTUMEUS; David M. LIVINGSTONE; Jordi CATALAN
This online course systematically divides Idaho geology into 15 individual teaching modules which correspond with a two-credit, 15-week classroom course. Each module covers a specific area or type of geology in the state of Idaho. Topics include geology of basement rocks, rocks and geology of the Belt Supergroup, tectonic regimes, and geologic history. There are also modules on rocks and geology of the Idaho Batholith, volcanic history and deposits of the Snake River Plain and Columbia Plateau, and Pleistocene glaciation and floods from Lakes Missoula and Bonneville. Each of the modules provides geologic maps from a recently developed Geologic Map of Idaho, produced by the Idaho Geological Survey, and most also feature fly-throughs in which geologic information is draped over topography to provide visualizations of the geology along Idaho rivers.
The paper presents the main features of the Sn calculation sequence SCALENEA-1 that has been extensively used for radioactive inventories, source terms, wastes and dose rates calculation for ITER, SEAFP and IFMIF fusion machines. As part of the validation process for the code package and for the calculation sequence, experimental-calculation comparison has been performed using the information and the measured
D. G. Cepraga; G. Cambi; M. Frisoni
The main features of photostimulated ion transport in heterostructures based on mixed ion-electron (hole) conductors are considered. It is shown that, using correctly chosen physical factors and a heterostructure of special design, one can implement efficient ion acceleration and thus develop a thin-film ion accelerator.
Stetsun, A. I., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Dvorina, L. A. [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Frantsevich Institute for Problems of Materials Science (Ukraine)
Investigations within the Silverton caldera, in southwestern Colorado, used a combination of traditional geological mapping, alteration-assemblage mapping, and aqueous geochemical sampling that showed a relationship between geological and hydrologic features that may be used to better understand the provenance and evolution of the water. Veins containing fluorite, huebnerite, and elevated molybdenum concentrations are temporally and perhaps genetically associated with the emplacement of high-silica rhyolite intrusions. Both the rhyolites and the fluorite-bearing veins produce waters containing elevated concentrations of F-, K and Be. The identification of water samples with elevated F/Cl molar ratios (> 10) has also aided in the location of water draining F-rich sources, even after these waters have been diluted substantially. These unique aqueous geochemical signatures can be used to relate water chemistry to key geological features and mineralized source areas. Two examples that illustrate this relationship are: (1) surface-water samples containing elevated F-concentrations (> 1.8 mg/l) that closely bracket the extent of several small high-silica rhyolite intrusions; and (2) water samples containing elevated concentrations of F-(> 1.8 mg/ l) that spatially relate to mines or areas that contain late-stage fluorite/huebnerite veins. In two additional cases, the existence of high F-concentrations in water can be used to: (1) infer interaction of the water with mine waste derived from systems known to contain the fluorite/huebnerite association; and (2) relate changes in water quality over time at a high elevation mine tunnel to plugging of a lower elevation mine tunnel and the subsequent rise of the water table into mineralized areas containing fluorite/huebnerite veining. Thus, the unique geochemical signature of the water produced from fluorite veins indicates the location of high-silica rhyolites, mines, and mine waste containing the veins. Existence of high F-concentrations along with K and Be in water in combination with other geological evidence may be used to better understand the provenance of the water. ?? 2009 AAG/Geological Society of London.
Bove, D. J.; Walton-Day, K.; Kimball, B. A.
The study area, the Doren Landslide, is located northeast of Dornbirn (Vorarlberg, Austria) within the Molasse zone in the foreland of the Northern Calcareous Alps. It developed in a prominent morphologic position at the margin of a plateau that is formed by alternating ridges and valleys of Molasse sediments of various composition and glacial moraine sediments. The stream valleys of the area are showing rapid incision into the relatively erodible material; this sediment transport balance/imbalance influences the valley sides that at places develop landslides of various scale. Of them the Doren Landslide is the most prominent one that is already endangering real estate entities. On-going research has focused on the repeated airborne and terrestrial laser scanning of the landslide in order to determine short-term volumetric and surface changes and the overall development of the phenomenon. Additionally, tectonic geomorphologic analysis using the digital terrain analysis approach was carried out by the authors aiming to document the geologic setting of the landslide and the adjacent areas in order to reveal possible relationship between the (micro)tectonic setting and the mass movement phenomena. In this study, linear and planar features derived from the LiDAR digital terrain model (DTM) by (i) visual lineament analysis and (ii) automated plane fitting are validated by the results of extensive field geological measurements. For the automated plane fitting, we apply a segmentation approach, originally developed for building detection and roof landscape modeling from ALS data (Dorninger & Pfeifer 2008). It is based on global seed-cluster determination using a four-dimensional feature space defined by locally determined three-dimensional regression planes for each point. Starting from these seeds, all points defining a connected, planar segment are assigned. Due to the design of the algorithm, millions of input points can be processed at once with acceptable processing time on standard computer systems. This allows for processing geomorphologically representative areas at once. For each segment, numerous parameter are derived which can be used for further exploitation. These are, for example, location, area, aspect, slope, and roughness. In the areas surrounding the recent landslide, the strike of geologically significant planes show a good correlation with the strike of lineaments mapped on the ALS-DTM. The mean strike direction that is prominent has an ENE - WSW orientation. However, within the area directly influenced by the recent landslide, observable differences between field geologic measurements and mapped lineaments occur. ESE - WNW striking linear features well mappable from the ALS-DTM are not recorded by field measurements of planar features (faults or bedding planes). This fact can be explained by several hypotheses. The orientation of patches derived by automated plane fitting also show distinct correlation with the field geologic measurements. Again, a good correlation between dip directions as well as dip values can be observed in areas surrounding the landslide. Detection of steep dipping fault surfaces within the landslide area shows promising results that can be further improved by adjusting the input parameters. The good correlation of three different types of lineament analysis (field geologic measurements, ALS-DTM analysis, automated plane fitting) prove the accuracy of laser scanned data and the reliability of observations derived from ALS-data. Dorninger, P., Pfeifer, N. (2008): A Comprehensive Automated 3D Approach for Building Extraction, Reconstruction, and Regularization from Airborne Laser Scanning Point Clouds. Sensors, 8, 11, 7323 - 7343.
Zámolyi, András.; Székely, Balázs; Molnár, Gábor; Roncat, Andreas; Dorninger, Peter; Pocsai, Angelika; Wyszy?ski, Marek; Drexel, Peter
The M5.8 August 23, 2011 Louisa County, VA intraplate earthquake was felt by more people than any other in U.S. history not only because of population density, but also because of the associated geology. However, because limited bedrock exposures pose a challenge to geologic mapping efforts and the earthquake hypocenter is located at a depth of ~6 km, many questions remain. Potential field and gamma-ray spectrometry data thus provide key tools for imaging and understanding both shallow and deep subsurface geologic features. In July 2012, the USGS commissioned a high-resolution magnetic, gravity, and radiometric (gamma-ray spectrometry) survey over a 20 km x 25 km area covering the epicenters of the Louisa County earthquake and its aftershocks. The surveys were flown with 200-m line spacing from an altitude of ~120 m above ground, providing up to a 20-fold improvement over regional magnetic and radiometric coverage. Gravity was measured using Sander Geophysics' AIRGrav system, capable of resolving anomalies as narrow as 800 m for the given survey configuration; in most parts of the survey area the spacing of ground stations is ~10-20 stations per 100 km2. Preliminary magnetic and radiometric data show numerous NE-trending linear anomalies within this part of the Appalachian Piedmont Province. These metamorphic and igneous rocks exhibit 200-500 nT magnetic anomalies of width 300-1000 km that are likely to be generated by contrasts between various metavolcanic and metasedimentary rocks such as magnetite-bearing quartzites and felsic to mafic gneisses. Magnetic lows and radiometric highs are observed over several granitoid intrusive bodies such as the Ellisville pluton, the Falmouth Intrusive Suite, and a Paleozoic pegmatite belt. Derivative magnetic maps delineate numerous thin (< 250 m wide) N- NNW-trending linear anomalies, suggesting that Jurassic diabase dikes are much more common in this area than previously mapped. Radiometric data mostly correlate with mapped bedrock units, but also exhibit anomalies consistent with SE fluvial transport and deposition of sediments several kilometers downstream from their sources. The probable causative fault of the Louisa County earthquake has been delineated near its hypocenter by aftershocks recorded by a network of portable seismometers, with most aftershocks occurring along a plane or planes from ~2.5 to 8 km depth (e.g. public data provided by R. Herrmann, SLU). The earthquake and aftershocks occurred near a change in orientation of primary magnetic lineations from ~N34E northeast of the earthquake to N44E southwest of the earthquake that is also visible in topographic and regional gravity trends. Magnetic anomalies are complex near the orientation change and feature arcuate lineations that bound prominent magnetic lows and abut primary lineations at angles of 20-35°. Northeast of the aftershock area, magnetic lineations are much straighter, with previous regional data suggesting that they extend essentially uninterrupted for a distance of 40 km or more. This in turn suggests broad continuity of major structures, including faults, for a significant distance to the northeast. We combine magnetic, gravity, radiometric, and geologic data to consider the relations between the M5.8 event and possible subsurface geologic features such as stratified geologic units and contacts, igneous intrusive bodies, and associated faults.
Shah, A. K.; Horton, J. W.; Gilmer, A. K.
The region offshore the SW Iberian margin hosts the present-day NW-SE plate convergence between the European and African Plates at a rate of 4.5 mm/yr, fact that causes continuous seismic activity of moderate magnitude. In autumn 2008 a Spanish-French team carried out a refraction and wide-angle reflection seismic survey in the area (NEAREST-SEIS cruise), in the framework of the EU, FP6-funded NEAREST project. During the survey two long seismic profiles were acquired using a pool of 36 Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBS), with the objectives of providing information about the geometry of the crust-mantle boundary and the physical properties of the crust, revealing the deep geometry of the main fault interfaces, and identifying the nature of the basement and the limits of the different geological provinces in the region. A total of 30 OBS were deployed along profile P1, which is 356 km long and trends NW-SE from the Tagus abyssal plain (TAP), crossing the Gorringe bank (GB), the Horseshoe abyssal plain (HAP) and the Coral Patch Ridge (CPR), up to the thrust-and-fold belt of the Seine abyssal plain (SAP). The acquired data were modeled by joint refraction and reflection travel time inversion, following a layer-stripping strategy. The inverted model show four well-differentiated domains in terms of its seismic structure: In the TAP a 3-4 km-thick, low velocity sedimentary layer covers the basement, which shows a remarkably high velocity (>7 km/s), similar to that of the basement outcropping in the Gorringe bank. In the HAP the sedimentary cover is thicker, showing an upper unit with low velocity corresponding to the Horseshoe gravitational unit, on top of a higher velocity lower unit, which may represent the highly consolidated Mesozoic sedimentary sequence. The thickness of the two units together exceeds 5 km. The basement shows the same velocity distribution as in TAP and GB, suggesting a common nature and origin. According to its seismic structure, and considering that there is no evidence for the presence of a basal reflector (e.g. Moho) in the record sections, we interpret this basement as highly serpentinized, exhumed mantle. In contrast, the CPR and SAP show evidences for the presence of a well-developed, 6-7 km-thick oceanic crust, underlying the 2-3 km-thick, moderate velocity, Mesozoic sedimentary sequence. Profile P2 is 256 km long, and trends S-N from the easternmost SAP beyond the NW Moroccan margin, crossing the Gulf of Cadiz imbricated wedge and the Portimao bank ending at the Iberian margin shelf. 15 OBS and 7 land-stations were deployed along this profile, and the recorded data were modeled following the same approach and strategy as for P1. The inverted model shows two main domains: In the southern half, there is a 3-4 km-thick cover of low velocity sediments, which represents the western edge of the sedimentary wedge that covers the internal Gulf of Cadiz, overlying a 7-8 km-thick oceanic crust. According to recent tectonic reconstructions, this crustal segment should have been emplaced there during the early phase of continental spreading between Iberia and Africa, in the context of Mesozoic Atlantic spreading. The northern part of P2 displays a relatively sharp ocean-continent transition zone concentrated in a ~50 km-wide band, that ends with the ~30 km-thick continental crust of the SW Iberian shelf.
Sallarès, Valentí; Martínez-Loriente, Sara; Gailler, Audrey; Bartolomé, Rafael; Gutscher, Marc-André; Graindorge, David; Lia Grácia, Eulà; Díaz, Jordi
The probability features of non-normality and non-lognormality are widely observed in geochemistry due to the influences of multiple factors that are difficult to quantify and model. In Northern Ireland, the pseudo-total concentrations of 14 elements (Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Pb and Zn) from 6138 topsoils were measured, and GIS mapping showed that
Crawford Jordan; Chaosheng Zhang; Alex Higgins
This is the second in a series of interpretive reports on subsurface outflow from the ground-water basins of San Bernardino County, Calif., prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the San Bernardino County Flood Control District. One principal purpose of the study was to estimate the ground-water outflow from the Bunker Hill basin to the Rialto-Colton basin across the San Jacinto fault, which, except locally, forms a nearly impermeable boundary between the two basins. In addition, the report deals qualitatively with the geology, the fault barriers that divide the area into several ground-water basins, the physical nature and degree of imperviousness of the barriers, the occurrence and movement of ground water and fluctuations of water level in the basins, and the chemical quality of surface and ground waters in the San Bernardino area. The report includes a geologic map and sections, water-level-contour maps and profiles, and hydrographs of selected well. The Santa Ana River, the principal stream, flows generally westward across the area. Channels of the river and its tributaries overlie a large irregular structural depression filled with alluvial deposits ranging in age from late Tertiary to Recent and forming a valley bounded on the north by the San Gabriel Mountains, on the east by the San Bernardino Mountains, and on the south by an irregular group of hills. Large alluvial fans underlie most of the area, but its landforms also include alluvial benches and terraces near the mountains, stream channels, and elongate hills, ridges, and scarps along the trace of the San Jacinto fault, which strikes northwestward across the valley about in the center of the area. This fault and others divide the area into ground-water basins, which include the Bunker Hill, Rialto-Colton, upper and lower Lytle and Chino basins. The water-bearing deposits include the following units: the younger alluvium. of Recent age, which occupies principally the backfilled channels beneath the Santa Ana River and its tributaries and through which ground water moves from Bunker Hill basin to Rialto-Colton basin; the older alluvium, of Pleistocene age, which is the principal water-bearing unit of the area and yields water to more than a thousand wells; and continental deposits of Tertiary to Quaternary age, which crop out along the southern margin of the area and locally along the San Gabriel Mountains on the north. The younger alluvium attains a maximum thickness of about 125 feet beneath the Santa Ana River south of San Bernardino. Locally in the Bunker Hill basin it is composed of two members, an upper member of relatively impermeable clay and a lower member of highly permeable material in which water is confined by the upper member. The older alluvium locally has a known thickness greater than 700 feet; elsewhere in the San Bernardino Valley it may exceed 1,400 feet. Locally, where ground water is confined in Bunker Hill basin, the older alluvium is divided into three permeable water-bearing zones separated from each other and from the younger alluvium above by less permeable zones. In parts of Chino and Rialto-Colton basins the alluvium consists of a coarse-grained facies along a former course of a major stream that is interfingered with and overlain by relatively fine-grained deposits. The permeability of the younger alluvium in the area beneath the Santa Ana River downstream from the San Jacinto fault was determined from tests to be about 2,700 gallons per day per square foot. The permeability of the coarse water-yielding materials of the older alluvium several miles downstream was estimated from tests to be about the same magnitude. Rocks that yield practically no water include continental rocks of Tertiary age, which are not exposed in the area but are tapped by wells in Rialto-Colton basin, and crystalline and metamorphic rocks of pre-Tertiary age that form the bedrock of the area. Faults across the valley area fo
Dutcher, L. C.; Garrett, Arthur A.
The Venezuelan and Colombian basins are located on the Caribbean Plate whilst the Yucatan basin is on the North American Plate. The processes occurring at the boundaries between the Caribbean Plate and the adjacent North American, South American and Cocos Plates, and the resulting surface features and patterns of volcanic and earthquake activity are described. Most of the Caribbean area is floored by atypical oceanic crust and its most valuable main geologic resources identified so far are petroleum, together with sand and gravel. Geological research is being carried out with techniques for broad-range swath imaging of the seafloor, such as GLORIA, and for directly measuring the movement between plates. -J.G.Harvey
Dillon, W. P.; Edgar, N. T.; Scanlon, K. M.; Klitgord, K. D.
This Tulane University course covers the nature of the Earth, the development of its surficial features, and the results of the interaction of chemical, physical, and biological factors on the planet. Lecture notes are about energy and minerals; igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks; weathering and soils; geologic time; mass wasting; streams; groundwater; wind action and deserts; oceans; deformation of rock; earthquakes and the interior of the Earth; global tectonics; planetary changes; and glaciers.
This site by a Norwegian researcher features descriptions of marine geological formations: pockmarks, mud volcanoes, deep-water coral reefs, and gas hydrates. Using ROV technology, he has taken photos of these deep seafloor features, and compares them to geological structures seen on land, and even on the moon.
Galileo data enable the major geological units, structures, and surface features to be identified on Europa. These include five primary units (plains, chaos, band, ridge, and crater materials) and their subunits, along with various tectonic structures such as faults. Plains units are the most widespread. Ridged plains material spans a wide range of geological ages, including the oldest recognizable features
Ronald Greeley; Patricio H. Figueredo; David A. Williams; Frank C. Chuang; James E. Klemaszewski; Steven D. Kadel; Louise M. Prockter; Robert T. Pappalardo; James W. Head; Geoffrey C. Collins; Nicole A. Spaun; Robert J. Sullivan; Jeffrey M. Moore; David A. Senske; B. Randall Tufts; Torrence V. Johnson; Michael J. S. Belton; Kenneth L. Tanaka
After long years of war, great efforts have been made for the socio-economic development of Angola, mainly in the construction industry. Among the construction techniques, the Adobe is the most used in the province of Huambo, especially by low-income families, which constitute the majority. This technique was established as a historical heritage in the culture of that population. The Huambo province is located in the central region of Angola (Central Plateau) and is bounded on the northeast and east by the province of Bié, on the south and southern by province of Huila, and on the west by the province of Benguela and on the northwest by the province of Kwanza Sul. Has an area of 35,771 km2 and approximately 2,301,524 inhabitants, which corresponds to 58 inhabitants per km2 (Government of the Province of Huambo, 2006). The buildings in this province, particularly in rural areas, were deeply marked by war. Given the current scenario of development of the country and considering the possibility of integrate systems and traditional building materials, that respect the environment and fit harmoniously into its natural habitat, one of the alternative options in the actual construction, undergoes resume old solutions and traditional materials such as adobe construction.It is in this context that this project is part of a scientific research in order to permit the improvement and optimization of these traditional solutions, responding to current demands for social, economic and environmental sustainability. The adobe is a building element with potential degradation by water. Due to the climate, subtropical, hot and humid, and geomorphology of the province, about 1000 to 2000 meters of altitude and an extensive river system, these buildings can be vulnerable and present early degradation, exacerbated by lack of knowledge of the properties of geomaterials used and techniques that allow their stabilization and conservation. This paper aims to study the influence of mineralogy and geochemistry of soils used in the production of adobes applied in the construction of habitations, mainly, because from this knowledge, we can develop alternatives to the resolution of recorded pathologies and to improve the strength and durability of those adobes. For this purpose, soil samples were collected, in which mineralogical and geochemical tests were performed. Simultaneously, durability and erodibility tests were done by the method of Geelong in the selected adobes. The results obtained from this research will identify, select and characterize the materials and methods used in construction in raw earth, contributing to the development of knowledge of these sustainable buildings solutions with a strong presence in the Huambo region. From the analysis of the data obtained will be defined a strategy for the next steps of the scientific research project in course designated "Earth Construction in Angola. Characterization, applications and potentialities.". This project aims to encourage the use of the geomaterials in ecological construction and contribute, however modestly, in building solutions with better performance characteristics, comfort, safety, durability and sustainability.
Duarte, Isabel; Pedro, Elsa; Varum, Humberto; Mirão, José; Pinho, António
This article features Maine Learning Technology Initiative (MLTI), the nation's first-ever statewide 1-to-1 laptop program which marks its seventh birthday by expanding into high schools, providing an occasion to celebrate--and to examine the components of its success. The plan to put laptops into the hands of every teacher and student in grades 7…
Waters, John K.
A potential site for construction of a series of earth dams and dikes with a maximum height of 335 ft, the Dickey-Lincoln School Lakes Project, is being evaluated by the New England Division, Corp of Engineers. The site is located on the St. John River in Aroostook County, Maine, approximately 30 miles west of the town of Ft. Kent. The
H. L. McKim; C. J. Merry
Vapor-diffusion samplers were used in the autumn of 1997 to determine the lateral extent and distribution of concentrations of a trichloroethylene (TCE) plume in the ground-water discharge area near the McKin Superfund Site, Gray, Maine. Analyses of vapor...
F. P. Lyford L. E. Flight J. R. Stone S. Clifford
New radiocarbon dates provide ages for two submerged strandline features on the Massachusetts inner shelf. These ages provide limited control on a relative sea-level (RSL) curve for the late Wisconsinan and Holocene. The curve indicates a late Wisconsinan high stand of RSL of +33 m about 14,000 yr ago and a very short-lived relative low stand of about -43 m at about 12,000 yr ago followed by a rise to present sea level. Rapid changes of RSL around 12,000 yr ago may be related to changes in global glacial meltwater discharge and eustatic sea-level change shown by dated corals off Barbados. Variations in the magnitude and timing of RSL change from south to north along the coast of the western Gulf of Maine are due to greater crustal depression and later deglaciation to the north.
Oldale, R. N.; Colman, S. M.; Jones, G. A.
The refined core thermal-hydraulics (T-H) nodalization feature of the MARS/MASTER code is used to generate a high-fidelity solution to the OECD main steam line break benchmark problem and to investigate the effects of core T-H nodalization. The MARS/MASTER coupling scheme is introduced first that enables efficient refined node core T-H calculations via the COBRA-III module. The base solution is generated using a fine T-H nodalization consisting of fuel assembly-sized radial nodes. Sensitivity studies are performed on core T-H nodalization to examine the impacts on core reactivity, power distribution, and transient behavior. The results indicate that the error in the peak local power can be very large (up to 25%) with a coarse T-H nodalization because of the inability to incorporate detailed thermal feedback. A demonstrative departure from nucleate boiling (DNB) calculation shows no occurrence of DNB in this problem.
Joo, Han Gyu; Jeong, Jae-Jun; Cho, Byung-Oh; Lee, Won Jae; Zee, Sung Quun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (Korea, Republic of)
This is the homepage of the Ohio Geological Survey. Materials available through the site include a variety of publications, particularly the Survey's reports, bulletins, information circulars, guidebooks, and many others. There is an extensive selection of maps, including topographic maps in several scales, and downloadable geologic maps of several themes (drift thickness, bedrock geology, karst areas, glacial geology, and many others), as well as digital maps and data. The interactive maps section features online map viewers of abandoned mines, earthquake epicenters, surficial geology, geology of Lake Erie, and others. The educational resources page has links to the 'Hands On Earth' series of activities, GeoFacts (short bulletins on Ohio geological topics), nontechnical educational leaflets, field guides, and links to other publications, rock and mineral clubs, educational associations, and related websites. There is also a link to the Ohio Seismic Network, a network of seismograph stations located at colleges, universities, and other institutions that collects and disseminates information about earthquakes in Ohio.
Small Islands south off Hahajima, the southernmost of the Ogasawara Archipelago, consist of primitive basalts (<12 wt.% MgO) to dacite erupted during the transitional stage immediately following boninite volcanism on the incipient arc to sustained typical oceanic arc. Strombolian to Hawaiian fissure eruptions occurring on independent volcanic centers for the individual islands under a shallow sea produced magnesian basalt to dacite fall-out tephras, hyaloclastite and a small volume of pillow lava, which were intruded by NE-trending dikes. These volcanic strata are correlated to the upper part (<40 Ma) of the Hahajima main island. Volcanic rock samples have slightly lower FeO*/MgO ratios than the present volcanic front lavas, and are divided into three types with high, medium and low La/Yb ratios. Basalt to dacite of high- and medium-La/Yb types show both tholeiitic (TH) and calc-alkaline (CA) differentiation trends. Low-La/Yb type belongs only to TH basalt. The multiple magma types are coexistence on the each island. TH basalts have phenocrysts of olivine, clinopyroxene and plagioclase, while CA basalts are free from plagioclase phenocrysts.
Kanayama, Kyoko; Umino, Susumu; Ishizuka, Osamu
Vapor-diffusion samplers were used in the autumn of 1997 to determine the lateral extent and distribution of concentrations of a trichloroethylene (TCE) plume in the ground-water discharge area near the McKin Superfund Site, Gray, Maine. Analyses of vapor in the samplers identified a plume about 800 feet wide entering the river near Boiling Springs, an area of ground-water discharge on the flood plain of the Royal River. The highest observed concentration of TCE in vapor was in an area of sand boils on the western bank of the river and about 200 feet downstream from Boiling Springs. Previous studies showed that most of the TCE load in the river originated in the area of the sand boils. In general, highest concentrations were observed on the western side of the river on the upgradient side of the plume, but TCE also was detected at numerous locations in the center and eastern bank of the river. The TCE plume discharges to the river where fine-grained glaciomarine sediments of the Presumpscot Formation are absent and where coarse-grained facies of buried glaciomarine fan deposits provide a pathway for ground-water flow. Based on results of analyses of vapor-diffusion samples and other previous studies, the plume appears to pass under and beyond the river near Boiling Springs and along the river for about 300 feet downstream from the sand boils. A coarse-grained, organic-rich layer at the base of the alluvial flood plain sediments is confined by overlying fine-grained alluvial sediments and may provide a conduit for ground-water leaking upward from buried glaciomarine fan deposits.
Lyford, Forest P.; Flight, L. E.; Stone, Janet Radway; Clifford, Scott
In France, in order to commission the planned geological repository by 2025, a license application for the industrial project of this geological repository called Cigeo (Centre Industriel de Stockage Geologique) must be submitted and reviewed by the competent authorities by 2015. On the basis of its preliminary design set up in 2009 and on the associated requirements for long-term safety, an overall conceptual model has been developed in order to prepare the performance and safety analysis. The Cigeo repository makes use of the passive safety response characteristics of both the engineered and geological barriers that allow: - resisting water ingress, with repository designs favoring the limitation of the water flows; - limiting the release of radionuclides and chemical toxics; - delaying and mitigating the spread of radionuclides and chemical toxics. In order to evaluate the performance of the various elements, a conceptual model of the thermo-hydro-chemico-mechanical (THMC) evolution of the different components of the repository has been designed. It takes stock of a 20 years research effort which allowed data to be obtained from various surface geological campaigns, in-situ experiments in URLs and wastes characterization, and advances in numerical simulation to be utilised. Based on the best available knowledge to date, this conceptual model constitutes a robust basis for the definition and development of the long-term safety scenarios. It also helps identifying the residual uncertainties, and provides guidelines for additional research and system optimizations. (authors)
Landais, Patrick; Giffaut, Eric; Pepin, Guillaume; Plas, Frederic; Schumacher, S. [Andra, 1-7 rue Jean Monnet, 92298 Chatenay Malabry (France)] [Andra, 1-7 rue Jean Monnet, 92298 Chatenay Malabry (France)
The surface of Mars displays a broad range of channel and valley features. There is as great a range in morphology as in scale. Some of the features of Martian geography are examined. Geomorphic mapping, crater counts on selected surfaces, and a detailed study of drainage basins are used to trace the geologic evolution of the Margaritifer Sinus Quandrangle. The layered deposits in the Valles Marineris are described in detail and the geologic processes that could have led to their formation are analyzed.
Grant, John A., III; Nedell, Susan S.
Autosomal recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophies (AR LGMD) represent a group of muscle diseases with a wide spectrum of clinical signs, varying from very severe to mild. Four different loci that when mutated cause the AR LGMD phenotype have been mapped or cloned or both: in two of them the linked families seem to have a relatively mild phenotype (LGMD2a and LGMD2b), in the third one the reported linked families show a more severe clinical course (LGMD2c), while mutations in the fourth locus may cause severe or mild phenotypes (LGMD2d). The relative proportion of each of these genetic forms among the LGMD families and whether there are other genes that when mutated cause this phenotype is unknown. The closest available informative markers for each of the mapped AR LGMD genes have been tested in 13 Brazilian families with at least three affected patients. The findings from the present report confirm non-allelic heterogeneity for LGMD and suggest that in our population about 33% of the LGMD families are caused by mutations in the 15q gene, 33% in the 2p gene, 17% by mutations in the adhalin gene, and less than 10% may be by mutations at the 13q locus. They also suggest that there is at least one other gene responsible for this phenotype. In addition, the main clinical features of the different forms are discussed.
Passos-Bueno, M R; Moreira, E S; Marie, S K; Bashir, R; Vasquez, L; Love, D R; Vainzof, M; Iughetti, P; Oliveira, J R; Bakker, E; Strachan, T; Bushby, K; Zatz, M
Previous studies have indicated that the main fractions of humic substances (HS), gray humic acid (GHA), brown humic acid (BHA), and fulvic acid (FA), present different molecular patterns in water solution that are probably associated with specific structural features. However, the techniques used in these previous studies did not permit clarification of the principal qualitative characteristics of these structures. To study more in depth this subject several GHA, BHA, and FA have been analyzed through the complementary use of UV-visible and FTIR spectroscopy, (13)C NMR, thermogravimetry, and pyrolysis GC-MS. The results indicate that the studied humic fractions have different and distinctive structural features. Thus, large and nonpolar structural units (paraffins, olefins, terpenes) and aliphatic structures seem to accumulate in the gray fraction, whereas the smallest and more polar (furfural, phenols) and simpler structural units (sugar- and amino acid-related structures) are present in the fulvic one. BHA has a higher content in polycyclic aromatic moieties, S-containing compounds and aromatic structures, thus suggesting the presence of more condensed aromatic rings. Likewise, differences in both the presence of polar groups and the apparent molecular size explain the pattern of solubility as a function of pH and ionic strength (I) that defines each HS fraction. These results also indicate that the structural differences among the HS fractions are not only quantitative (the presence of the same type of structures differing in size and the concentration of functional groups) but also qualitative, because each fraction presented different and distinctive structural domains. These structural domains explain the molecular patterns associated with each HS fraction. Thus, the presence of smaller and more O-functionalized structural units including aromatic domains in FA explain their tendency to form molecular aggregates (hydrogen bridges, metal bridges, and hydrophobic interactions) in solution. This fact could also explain the presence of molecular aggregates in BHA, although to a lesser extent than in FA. Finally, the dominant aliphatic and less functionalized character of GHA may justify its lower tendency to form aggregates in solution at neutral and alkaline pH. Likewise, the results also indicate that the different structural domains associated with these fractions may be the consequence of diverse biosynthetic pathways involving different precursors. PMID:19281175
Baigorri, Roberto; Fuentes, Marta; González-Gaitano, Gustavo; García-Mina, José M; Almendros, Gonzalo; González-Vila, Francisco J
Geologic Explorations allows learners to explore a variety of unique geological formations of Utah using Quicktime Virtual Reality (QTVR) panoramas and digital still imagery. Spectacular panoramas and striking images capture Utah's unique geology and invite students to explore and learn interesting facts and concepts central to the study of geology.
The British Geological Survey (BGS) has a wealth of information about the earth sciences, and they are quite willing to share it with others. This page contains information and resources for anyone interested in geology for educational or leisure purposes, and it is contained with four sections. First up is "Popular geology", which includes "Britain beneath our feet", an interactive atlas of geology, resources, and land quality. This section also contains graphics about climate change and earthquakes. The second section is titled "Educational resources". Here visitors can ask scientists at the BGS specific questions and they can also download several free posters. The third section is called "Educational news and events" and it features upcoming events at the BGS and links to their free magazine, "Earthwise". The site is rounded out by the fourth section titled "From the BGS Archives". Here visitors can view historic geological photographs and also view field sketches and watercolors by Alexander Henry Green, the celebrated Victorian geologist.
Three field guides are available to sites of geologic interest on Oahu. One is a visit to a landslide occurring in a neighborhood; another focuses on developing observational skills and determining the sequence of geologic events evident in a stratigraphic section; a third examines features associated with formation of a volcanic tuff ring. The worksheets are designed for teachers to implement as-is or modify for their classes.
Created by the University of Nebraska-Lincoln, this site describes the basics of structural geology with text and images. The page includes the discussion of stress, strain, strike and dip, faults, folds, mountain building, erosion, economic geology, and environmental geology. This is a nice introduction to the basic topics in geology. Images from the field help to enhance the topics on the site. Instructors can use this resource to help create or simply enhance their curriculum.
"Why do engineers need to know about geologic time?" That question is answered in this resource from the University of Saskatchewan's Department of Civil and Geological Engineering. Provided here is a discussion of the concepts of geological time; relative dating methods, such as correlation; and absolute dating methods, such as radiometric methods. Diagrams and charts are included to demonstrate these complex concepts.
This Great Basin National Park site contains park geology information, park maps, visitor information, and teacher features (educational resources and links for teaching geology using National Park examples). The park geology section discusses the region's biogeography, glacial history, and the Lehman Caves. A park map and a features/relief map of the Great Basin National Park are included.
This Guadalupe Mountains National Park site contains park geology information, park maps, photographs, related links, visitor information, multimedia resources, and teacher features (resources for teaching geology with National Park examples). The park geology section discusses the geologic history of Guadalupe Mountains' ancient marine fossil reef and the structural geology of the Mountains' Western Escarpment (including the Frijole Ranch area, the Pine Springs area, and the Capitan Limestone structures). The park maps section includes a map of the Capitan Reef today.
Timpanogos Cave National Monument, in the Wasatch Mountains, features spectacularly decorated caverns, each of which has unique colors and formations. Features of the site include park geology information, maps, photographs of cave formations, related links, and visitor information. The park geology section discusses the caves' geologic history, structural geology, and details the discovery of the Hansen and Middle Caves (by Martin, George, and Wayne Hansen) and the Timpanogos Cave (by Veral Manwill).
Sharing of geological information on the Web is rapidly increasing and steadily supported by ongoing IT innovation. Since GIS databases, metadata (MD) and spatial data infrastructures are tools gradually used in Earth science, concepts such as clearness, usefulness, quality and use constraints of web disseminated data, become matters of interest for the communities of geologists In field geosciences, the possibility to share actually understandable information is constrained by the peculiar approach adopted in knowledge acquisition (field survey) and knowledge representation (geological maps). Datasets comprehend both measurements/observations and applications of conceptual models, achieved with a large use of implicit knowledge that characterizes the analysis, processing and interpretation of original data. Field geological knowledge is biased by geologists' subjectivity and constrained by different type of uncertainties coming from capture methods, interpretative models and map generalizations. Shared information need thus specifications about i) the intended meanings of adopted concepts, ii) the physical paths (i.e. the operational steps concerning data acquisition on the field), iii) the knowledge paths (interpretation steps performed on data). Field geological data have to be organized in conceptually-driven systems, where explained information get retraceable. An attempt to reach this goal has been recently carried out by CNR IGG TO working group in the IDE-Univers project, by setting up a geoportal (http://www.geoportal-idec.net/ideunivers/), where geological information are described through ISO19915 MD standard and shared through WMS technology. The CNR IGGTO Server contains field data and related geological maps mainly stored in the frame of the CARG project (1:50000 Geological Map of Italy). Our strategy is to get this information conceptually described, using the Geographic MD international standard for the geological context, in order to give geological interpretations in an explicit format. These "geological metadata" have been compiled mainly as regard the "Identification" and the "Data Quality" classes. The Abstract element (Identification class) explains the criteria on which data are interpreted and the meaning of them, giving the peculiarities of interpreted features. The Resource Locator element (Identification class) allows to link datasets with conceptual supplemental information (conceptual schemas), where concepts and methods adopted in the acquisition of knowledge are given. The Lineage element (Data Quality class) gives the different process steps performed on data, specifying the provenance of interpreted features and making them retraceable. A further improvement of the readability of the information stored in the CNR IGGTO geoportal, is presently carried out in the frame of GIIDA project (an initiative to implement the Spatial Information Infrastructure of CNR for Environmental and Earth Observation data) by development of Wiki sites linkable to the MD sheets.
Balestro, G.; Bini, S.; Piana, F.; Tallone, S.
A summary of Mariner 9 mission operations insofar as they affected acquisition of geologic data is reported. Selected results with a minimum of supporting evidence are presented to give the geologic highlights of the mission. Volcanic features, tectonic features, channels, polar features, eolian features, impact craters, and the geological history of Mars are outlined.
In 1966, Professor Louis J. Maher of the University of Wisconsin-Madison's Department of Geology and Geophysics piloted a department-owned Cessna over the continental US taking photos for use in his geology courses. As Maher flew, his trusty co-pilot and graduate assistant, Charles Mansfield, snapped the photos. The resulting collection is an assortment of breathtaking images of classic geological features, now available online for noncommercial use by educators (download via FTP). Maher gives us birds-eye views of structural features in Wyoming's Wind River Range, sedimentary strata in Arches National Park and the Grand Canyon, glacial landscapes in Northern Minnesota, and ancient lava flows in Arizona, to name just a few.
Maher, Louis J.
This data set contains the main stem of the Humboldt River as defined by Humboldt Project personnel of the U.S. Geological Survey Nevada District, 2001. The data set was digitized on screen using digital orthophoto quadrangles from 1994.
Warmath, Eric; Medina, Rose L.
This article describes the period of geologic time spanned by the rocks of the North Cascades area of Washington. Users can access a simplified geologic time scale that provides links to geologic events in the North Cascades region. These include the deposition of various terranes, periods of intrusion and metamorphism, the beginning of the Cascade volcanic arc, and periods of major glaciation. Links to related materials are also provided.
Through a content analysis of 200 "tweets," this study was an exploration into the distinct features of text posted to NASA's "Twitter" site and the potential for these posts to serve as more engaging scientific text than traditional textbooks for adolescents. Results of the content analysis indicated the tweets and linked…
The National Park Service maintains the Yosemite National Park Web site and the corresponding Geology page. This Web site gives an overview of the geologic history of the site, tells how the Sierra Nevada range formed, explains the basics of granitic rock, shows how glaciers carved out the canyons, and much more.[JAB
Engineering geology remains a potpourri of applied classical geology, and 1977 witnessed an upswing in demand for these services. Traditional foundation-related work was slight, but construction related to national needs increased briskly. Major cities turned to concerns of transit waste-water treatment and solid-waste disposal. (Author/MA)
Hatheway, Allen W.
One of a series of general interest publications on science topics, the booklet provides those interested in geologic time with an introduction to the subject. Separate sections discuss the relative time scale, major divisions in geologic time, index fossils used as guides for telling the age of rocks, the atomic scale, and the age of the earth.…
Newman, William L.
The book integrates current thinking on processes (plate techtonics, chemical cycles, changes throughout geologic time). It is an introduction to investigations into the way the earth works, how mountains are formed, how the atmosphere, hydrosphere, crust and mantle interact with each other. Treatments on climate, paleoclimatology and landscape evolution are included, as is a discussion on how human activity affects geological interactions.
Skinner, B.; Porter, S.
This presents a virtual geology field trip of the Black Hills. The topics that are covered include the general geology of the area, engineering and environmental issues, economic uses such as gold mining and bentonite recovery, and fossils. This site also features a clickable map that displays the location, information, and photographs of interesting stops in the Black Hills.
University, South D.
Sand covers only about 20 percent of the Earth's deserts. Nearly 50 percent of desert surfaces are gravel plains where removal of fine-grained material by the wind has exposed loose gravel and occasional cobbles. This web page, produced by the U.S. Geological Survey, features text and photographs that describe desert landforms, soils, plants, and the role of water in the formation of desert landscapes.
The study area is the Aqaba region (Southern wadi Araba basin). Aqaba region area located at 87900 and 89000 North and 147000 and 158000 East (Palestine grid). Tectonically Aqaba area lies within the tectonic plate boundary along the Arabian and African plate slide. This plate boundary comprises numerous and shot fault segments. The main aims of this study are to
Emad Akawwi; Abdallah Alzoubi; Zvi Ben Abraham; Abdel Rahamn Abo Alades; Rami Alrzouq; Gidon Tiber; Tina Neimi
The Earth is very old -- 4.5 billion years or more -- according to recent estimates. This vast span of time, called geologic time by earth scientists, is difficult to comprehend in the familiar time units of months and years, or even centuries. How then do scientists reckon geologic time, and why do they believe the Earth is so old? A great part of the secret of the Earth's age is locked up in its rocks, and our centuries-old search for the key led to the beginning and nourished the growth of geologic science.
Newman, William L.
Supraglacial debris plays a not negligible role in controlling magnitude and rates of buried ice melt (Østrem, 1959; Mattson et al., 1993). Knowledge on rock debris is essential to model ice melt (and consequently meltwater discharge) upon wide glacierized areas, as melt rates are mainly driven by debris thickness variability. This is particularly important for the Pamir-Himalaya-Karakoram area (PHK), where debris-covered glaciers are frequent (Smiraglia et al., 2007; Scherler et al., 2011) and where melt water from glaciers supports agriculture and hydropower production. By means of remote sensing techniques and field data, supraglacial debris can be detected, and then quantified in area and thickness. Supervised classifications of satellite imagery can be used to map debris on glaciers. They use different algorithms to cluster an image based on its pixel values, and Region Of Interests (ROIs) previously selected by the human operator. This can be used to obtain a supraglacial debris mask by which surface extension can be calculated. Moreover, kinetic surface temperature data derived from satellites (such as ASTER and Landsat), can be used to quantify debris thicknesses (Mihalcea et al., 2008). Ground Control Points (GCPs) are essential to validate the obtained debris thicknesses. We took the Central Karakoram National Park (CKNP) as a representative sample for PHK area. The CKNP is 12,000 km2 wide, with more than 700 glaciers, mostly debris covered (Minora et al., 2013). Among those we find some of the widest glaciers of the World (e.g: Baltoro). To improve the knowledge on these glaciers and to better model their melt and water discharge we proceeded as follows. Firstly we ran a Supervised Maximum Likelihood (SML) classification on 2001 and 2010 Landsat images to detect debris presence and distribution. Secondly we analyzed kinetic surface temperature (from Landsat) to map debris depth. This latter attempt took also advantage from field data of debris thickness and surface rock temperatures acquired in the study area since the ablation season 2004 (see Mihalcea et al., 2006; 2008b). A mean debris thickness of ca. 5.6 cm was found, probably greater than the local "critical value" (sensu Mattson et al., 1993). Moreover, our field data indicate a local critical value of about 5 cm, above which supraglacial debris thickness would lower ice melt rates compared to that of bare ice (Mihalcea et al., 2006). These findings suggest that in the CKNP area the abundant and extensive debris coverage may result in an actual reduction of buried ice melt. Moreover, Minora et al. (2013) reported quite stable conditions of glaciers in the CKNP area in the time window 2001-2011. This glacier behavior is consistent with the largely known "Karakoram Anomaly" (Hewitt, 2005) and requires further investigations. Among other possible important factors driving such a unique glacier trend, debris depth and distribution have to be considered. This work was carried out under the umbrella of the PAPRIKA project funded and managed by EvK2CNR Committee. The authors are also grateful to the SEED project (funded by the Pakistani and Italian Governments and managed by EvK2CNR).
Minora, Umberto; Mayer, Christoph; Bocchiola, Daniele; D'Agata, Carlo; Maragno, Davide; Lambrecht, Astrid; Vuillermoz, Elisa; smiraglia, claudio; diolaiuti, guglielmina
MEPOP250 depicts Maine's 1950-1990 population data by town or Census in unorganized territories. Populations were compiled from US Census Bureau data where available or from Maine Municipal Information (mainly for older records). Unorganized towns with very low or zero pop...
The Department of Geosciences at North Dakota State University educates visitors about the geologic features and landforms of North Dakota through clear text and astonishing images at this website. In the Glacial Features of North Dakota link, visitors can learn about end moraines, eskers, kettle lakes, and kames. Educators can find amazing photographs of mass wasting including creep, slope failure, and slumps. Users can also find materials on stream features and satellite imagery of North Dakota. While the website concentrates on North Dakota, the materials can be a great addition to any earth science or geomorphology class.
The sea-floor of a dumpsite area offshore New York and New Jersey (Deep-water dumpsite 106) was studied using detailed bathymetry, sidescan-sonar images, subbottom profiles, bottom photographs, and bottom-sediment samples. These data show that this continental rise area contains deposits of submarine landslides and pathways of sediment gravity flows. Images of the sea floor obtained with a deep-towed high-resolution sidescan sonar system show offshore-trending furrowed surfaces over parts of the area. If such furrows are old, one might expect them to have been obliterated by sediment resuspension and redeposition due to the mostly gentle contour-parallel bottom currents that are measured in the present day. While most of the sea-floor features were probably formed during Pleistocene or early Holocene (glacial or early post-glacial) times, our information suggests that vigorous present-day episodes of offshore-directed transport may continue to occur, at unknown intervals.
Robb, James M.
This optional field trip is designed to augment the in-class learning experience in introductory physical geology by providing students the opportunity to see firsthand local geological features and understand their context in the long-term tectonic evolution of the western United States. The university is conveniently located in a portion of the American west where a plethora of geological features are readily accessible over a total field trip duration of 6 hours. Over a total of 6 field stops, students are presented with an opportunity to observe features relevant to topics learned in class involving rock types, volcanic features (lava flows and ash fall deposits), faults and folds, mass wasting features, catastrophic flood deposits (Bonneville and Missoula floods), and loess deposits.
\\u000a The Caspian Sea constantly attracts considerable attention thanks to its natural uniqueness, resource abundance, great historical\\u000a value and vital importance to human societies of the vast Caspian region. In these circumstances, improving theoretical and\\u000a applied knowledge of the sea is indispensable for addressing many complex issues. Specifically, there has been increasing\\u000a environmental concern over expanding extraction of hydrocarbons off and
Aleksey N. Kosarev; Valentin S. Tuzhilkin; Andrey G. Kostianoy
Geochemical profiles of surface units, impact, and volcanic features are studied in detail to determine the underlying structure in an area of extensive mare/highland interface, Sinus Amoris. This study region includes and surrounds the northeastern embayment of Mare Tranquillitatis. The concentrations of two major rock-forming elements (Mg and Al), which were derived from the Apollo 15 orbital geochemical measurements, were used in this study. Mapped units and deposits associated with craters in the northwestern part of the region tend to have correlated low Mg and Al concentrations, indicating the presence of Potassium (K)-Rare Earth Elements (REE)-Phosphorus (P) (KREEP)-enriched basalt. Found along the northeastern rim of Tranquillitatis were areas with correlated high Mg and Al concentration, indicating the presence of troctolite. Distinctive west/east and north/south trends were observed in the concentrations of Mg and Al, and, by implication, in the distribution of major rock components on the surface. Evidence for a systematic geochemical transition in highland or basin-forming units may be observed here in the form of distinctive differences in chemistry in otherwise similar units in the western and eastern portions of the study region.
Clark, P.; Joerg, S.; Dehon, R.
In the mid-1990s, an interdisciplinary, multi-institutional team of scientists was assembled to address basic issues concerning biological productivity and the unique co-occurrence of many unusual ecological features in Cobscook Bay, Maine. Cobscook Bay is a geologically complex,...
Oregon Caves National Monument is an active marble cave created by natural forces over hundreds of thousands of years in one of the world's most diverse geologic realms. Features of the site include park geology information, maps, photographs, related links, and visitor information. The park geology section discusses the cave's development and geologic history, its formations, and its development as a National Monument. The maps section includes an area map of the National Monument.
Structural geology and continental tectonics were ushered in to the modern quantitative age of geosciences with the arrival of the global plate tectonics paradigm (circa 1968), derived using new data from the oceans' depths, and John Ramsay's 1967 seminal work, Folding and Fracturing of Rocks. Fossen is to be applauded for crafting a unique, high-caliber, and accessible undergraduate textbook on structural geology that faithfully reflects this advance and the subsequent evolution of the discipline. This well-written text draws on Fossen's wealth of professional experience, including his broad and diverse academic research and experience in the petroleum industry. This book is beautifully illustrated, with excellent original color diagrams and with impressive color field photographs that are all keyed to locations and placed into geologic context.
Weber, John; Frankel, Kurt L.
This rather remarkable website contains a great collection of resources for web-based instruction and demonstrations of geology concepts. The collection includes, under Classroom demonstration, the very useful SeisMac 3.0, which is an application for Mac OS X that turns a laptop computer into a " low-resolution strong-motion accelerometer," or a basic seismograph. It works by accessing the computer's Sudden Motion Sensor in order to display real-time, three axis accelerations graphs. Visitors can use the application to watch the seismic waves go up and down just by tapping their feet on the floor nearby. Other resources include Virtual Earth (an "interactive minicourse on thermal convection") and a link to Geology in the news, which collates important news stories with a geological theme.
Coastlines are places of continuous, often dramatic geological activity. They change daily and seasonally, but especially over long time periods. This interactive feature discusses the forces that help shape coastal landforms like cliffs and beaches. Topics include waves, tides, and currents; weathering, erosion, and deposition; and other factors, such as the activity of organisms and human modifications. A background essay and discussion questions are included.
This site features a collection of papers and maps about the Yellowstone hotspot by Dr. Ken Pierce of the Northern Rocky Mountain Science Center, an expert in the field. Papers on this site address topics such as Yellowstone glaciation, tracking the hotspot, the Yellowstone plume head, and a seven-day field trip guide to the quaternary geology and ecology of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Each downloadable paper map is listed with a brief description and a full citation.
Institute, Mountain P.; Infrastructure, National B.
Coastlines are places of continuous, often dramatic geological activity. They change daily and seasonally, but especially over long time periods. This interactive feature discusses the forces that help shape coastal landforms like cliffs and beaches. Topics include waves, tides, and currents; weathering, erosion, and deposition; and other factors, such as the activity of organisms and human modifications. A background essay and discussion questions are included.
This National Park Service (NPS) site delivers a brief description of the geology of the Black Hills National Park. Links to park maps, a photo album, books, videos, CDs, and a searchable data base of research needs that have been identified by the National Park Service are included. General information about the park's education and interpretive programs are also abailable.
National Park Services (NPS)
This site contains information about the continent of Antarctica. There is a classroom practice and instructional module. The students will be able to describe the general geology of the land under the Antarctic ice and to explain from where the rocks may have come.
Discusses the historical development of the concept of geologic time. Develops the topic by using the major discoveries of geologists, beginning with Steno and following through to the discovery and use of radiometric dating. An extensive reference list is provided. (JM)
Albritton, Claude C., Jr.
The application of photogeologic mapping of the moon to the study of geologic structure, tectonic processes, and volcanism is described with attention to the gravimetric and seismic expression of these structures. The ten different types of structural features which have been mapped are grouped into four main categories for illustration on the small scale maps. A change in structural style
D. H. Scott; J. M. Diaz; J. A. Watkins
Hydronet_me24 and Hydropoly_me24 depict Maine's hydrography data, based on 8-digit hydrological unit codes (HUC's) at the 1:24,000 scale. Some New Hampshire and New Brunswick hydrography data are also included. The NHD hydrography data was compiled from previous ArcIn...
MEOWN250 describes industrial, non-industrial, and public woodlot ownership in Maine at 1:250,000 scale. Industrial owners are those having at least one primary wood processing facility. Non-industrial owners are those with no primary wood processing facility. Public ownership...
This Lake Mead National Recreation Area site contains park geology information, maps, photographs, visitor information, and teacher features (resources for teaching geology using national park examples). Park Geology is a guided tutorial, covering two billion years of geologic time from the Precambrian through the Cenozoic.
This Death Valley National Park site contains park geology information, park maps, photographs, visitor information, and teacher features (resources for teaching geology using National Park examples). The Park Geology section contains an exaggerated cross-section showing the vertical rise within Death Valley. A link is provided to Death Valley's expanded geology page.
Fulbright grants in geology for 1988-89 remain open. Specific opportunities are available in Egypt, German Democratic Republic, Hungary, Iceland, Iraq, Kuwait, Morocco, Mozambique, Oman, Poland, Sudan, Syria, Tanzania, Turkey, U.S.S.R., West Bank, Yemen, and Zimbabwe. Other countries are also open to applications in any discipline, and geology is among their preferred fields.The grants are available until awarded and are open only to U.S. citizens. In Central and South America and French-speaking Africa, knowledge of host-country language is required. For more information, contact the Council for International Exchange of Scholars (CIES), 11 Dupont Circle N.W., Suite 300, Washington, DC 20036; tel. 202-939-5401.
Geological mapping and establishment of stratigraphic relationships provides an overview of geological processes operating on Mars and how they have varied in time and space. Impact craters and basins shaped the crust in earliest history and as their importance declined, evidence of extensive regional volcanism emerged during the Late Noachian. Regional volcanism characterized the Early Hesperian and subsequent to that time, volcanism was largely centered at Tharsis and Elysium, continuing until the recent geological past. The Tharsis region appears to have been largely constructed by the Late Noachian, and represents a series of tectonic and volcanic centers. Globally distributed structural features representing contraction characterize the middle Hesperian. Water-related processes involve the formation of valley networks in the Late Noachian and into the Hesperian, an ice sheet at the south pole in the middle Hesperian, and outflow channels and possible standing bodies of water in the northern lowlands in the Late Hesperian and into the Amazonian. A significant part of the present water budget occurs in the present geologically young polar layered terrains. In order to establish more firmly rates of processes, we stress the need to improve the calibration of the absolute timescale, which today is based on crater count systems with substantial uncertainties, along with a sampling of rocks of unknown provenance. Sample return from carefully chosen stratigraphic units could calibrate the existing timescale and vastly improve our knowledge of Martian evolution.
Head, J. W.; Greeley, R.; Golombek, M. P.; Hartmann, W. K.; Hauber, E.; Jaumann, R.; Masson, P.; Neukum, G.; Nyquist, L. E.; Carr, M. H.
The ground features of urban areas and the geologic processes that operate on them are, in general, strongly altered from their natural original condition as a result of anthropogenic activities. Assessing the stability of the ground, the flooding areas, and, the health risk as a consequence of soil pollution, are, among others, fundamental topics of urban areas that require a better understanding. The development of systematic urban geological mapping projects provides valuable resources to address these issues. Since 2007, the Institut Geologic de Catalunya (IGC) runs an urban geological mapping project, to provide accurate geologic information of county capitals and towns of more than 10000 inhabitants of Catalonia. The urban zones of 131 towns will be surveyed for this project, totalizing an area of about 2200 km2 to be mapped in 15 years. According to the 2008 census, the 82 % of the population of Catalonia (7.242.458 inhabitants) lives in the areas to be mapped in this project. The mapping project integrates in a GIS environment the following subjects: - Data from pre-existing geotechnical reports, historical geological and topographical maps and, from historical aerial photographs. - Data from available borehole databases. - Geological characterization of outcrops inside the urban network and neighbouring areas. - Geological, chemical and physical characterisation of representative rocks, sediments and soils. - Ortophotographs (0.5 m pixel size) and digital elevation models (5 meter grid size) made from historical aerial photographs, to depict land use changes, artificial deposits and geomorphological elements that are either hidden or destroyed by urban sprawl. - Detailed geological mapping of quaternary sediments, subsurface bedrock and artificial deposits. - Data from subsurface prospection in areas with insufficient or confuse data. - 3D modelling of the main geological surfaces such as the top of the pre-quaternary basement. All the gathered data is harmonised and stored it in a database. The analysis of the database allows to compile and print the 1:5000 scale urban geological map according to the 1:5000 topographic grid of Catalonia. The map is composed by a principal map, geologic cross sections and several complementary maps, charts and tables. Regardless of the geological map units, the principal map also includes the main artificial deposits (such as infilled river valleys and road embankments), very recent or current superficial deposits, contours of outcropping areas, structural data and other relevant information gathered in stations, sampling points, boreholes indicating the thickness of artificial deposits and the depth of the pre-quaternary basement, contour lines of the top of the pre-quaternary basement surface and, water level data. The complementary maps and charts may change depending on the gathered data, the geological features of the area and the urban typology. However, the most representative complementary maps that includes the printed urban map are the quaternary subsurface bedrock map and the isopach map of thickness of quaternary and anthropogenic deposits. The map also includes charts and tables of relevant physical and chemical parameters of the geological materials, harmonised downhole lithological columns from selected boreholes, and, photographs and figures illustrating the geology of the mapped area and how urbanisation has changed the natural environment. The object of this systematic urban mapping survey is to provide a robust database to be used in targeted studies related to urban planning, geoengineering works, soil pollution and other important environmental issues that society should deal in the future.
Vilà, Miquel; Pi, Roser; Cirés, Jordi; de Paz, Ana; Berástegui, Xavier
Earth science teaches know how frustrating it can be to spend hundreds of dollars on three-dimensional (3-D) models of Earth's geologic features, only to use the models for a few class periods. To avoid emptying an already limited science budget, teachers can use a simple alternative to the expensive 3-D models--sand. Modeling geologic processes and features with sand is an effective way for teachers to promote student understanding of Earth science topics, quickly assess students' prior knowledge, and identify common misconceptions.
This Classroom Connectors lesson plan discusses the characteristics of geologic time, including the law of superposition, fossil preservation, casts and molds, and various events through the history of the Earth. The site provides goals, objectives, an outline, time required, materials, activities, and closure ideas for the lesson. The Classroom Connectors address content with an activity approach while incorporating themes necessary to raise the activity to a higher cognition level. The major motivation is to employ instructional strategies that bring the students physically and mentally into touch with the science they are studying.
This geologic map shows Tertiary and Quaternary rock formations, volcanic and surficial deposits, faults, contacts, and other geologic features in Yellowstone National Park. The map is freely downloadable as a PDF file.
Robert, Christiansen; Survey, U. S.
After Wenchuan Earthquake on May 12, 2008, various geological hazards happened frequently in Chongzhou city, Sichuan.This paper analyzes factors inducing hazards by weighted comprehensive evaluation (WCE) and analytic hierarchy process (AHP), and builds the geological hazards assessment model.On the basis, the map of geological hazards lability zoning is drew. The study shows that geological hazards in Chongzhou city are mainly
Chengqiang Shu; Liangqun Jiang
Tethys, a medium sized icy satellite of Saturn, was imaged by both Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft at sufficiently high resolution to allow some geologic analysis. One fairly complete and several brief descriptions of Tethys' geology have been given. Partial results are given herein of a new analysis of Tethys' geology done as part of a comparative tectonic and cryovolcanic study of the saturnian satellites. A new geologic sketch map of Tethys' north polar area is given. This map is based on a sequence of images transformed to a polar stereographic projection at the same scale. The images present the same area under different illuminations, each of which brings out different features. A new global map is in progress.
Croft, Steven K.
This Park Geology site provides links to tours of individual National Parks, Monuments, and Recreation Areas with caves and other karst features. Where appropriate, park sites contain park geology information, maps, photographs, geologic research, related links, visitor information, multimedia resources, and teacher features (resources for teaching geology with National Park examples). The list includes places such as Carlsbad Caverns National Park, Mammoth Cave National Park, Sequoia National Park, and the Ozark National Scenic Riverways.
Geologic resource inventories of lands managed by the National Park Service (NPS) are important products for the parks and are designed to provide scientific information to better manage park resources. Park-specific geologic reports are used to identify geologic features and processes that are relevant to park ecosystems, evaluate the impact of human activities on geologic features and processes, identify geologic research and monitoring needs, and enhance opportunities for education and interpretation. These geologic reports are planned to provide a brief geologic history of the park and address specific geologic issues forming a link between the park geology and the resource manager. The Kona coast National Parks of the Island of Hawai'i are intended to preserve the natural beauty of the Kona coast and protect significant ancient structures and artifacts of the native Hawaiians. Pu'ukohola Heiau National Historic Site (PUHE), Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park (KAHO), and Pu'uhonua O Honaunau National Historical Park (PUHO) are three Kona parks studied by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology Team in cooperation with the National Park Service. This report is one of six related reports designed to provide geologic and benthic-habitat information for the three Kona parks. Each geology and coastal-landform report describes the regional geologic setting of the Hawaiian Islands, gives a general description of the geology of the Kona coast, and presents the geologic setting and issues for one of the parks. The related benthic-habitat mapping reports discuss the marine data and habitat classification scheme, and present results of the mapping program. Pu'ukohola Heiau National Historic Site (PUHE) is the smallest (~86 acres) of three National Parks located on the leeward Kona coast of the Island of Hawai'i. The main structure at PUHE, Pu'ukohola Heiau, is an important historical temple that was built during 1790-91 by King Kamehameha I (also known as Kamehameha the Great) and is often associated with the founding of the Hawaiian Kingdom (Greene, 1993). The temple was constructed to incur the favor of the king's personal war god Kuka'ilimoku during the time that Kamehameha I waged several battles in an attempt to extend his control over all the Hawaiian Islands. The park is also the site of the older Mailekini Heiau, which was used by the ancestors of Kamehameha I, and an offshore, submerged temple, Hale O Kapuni Heiau, that was dedicated to the shark god. The park occupies the scenic Hill of the Whale overlooking Kawaihae Bay and Pelekane Beach. The seaward-sloping lands of PUHE lie at the convergence of lava flows formed by both Mauna Kea and Kohala Volcanoes. The park coastline is mostly rocky, with the exception of a small beach developed at the north boundary where an intermittent stream enters the sea. The park is bounded to the north by Kawaihae Harbor, to the south by Samuel M. Spencer Beach Park, and to the west by a broad submerged reef. The adjacent reef area is discussed in detail in the accompanying report by Cochran and others (2006). They mapped from the shoreline to depths of approximately 40 m, where the shelf drops off to a sand-covered bottom. PUHE park boundaries extend only to the mean high-tide line, however, landscape impacts created by development around the park are of concern to Park management.
Richmond, Bruce M.; Cochran, Susan A.; Gibbs, Ann E.
This report presents available geologic information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont. For each of the states within the Northeastern Region, information is provided on the geologic disqualifying factor and the geologic regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening. The geologic factor and variables include deep mines and quarries, rock mass extent, postemplacement faulting, suspected Quaternary faulting, seismicity, rock and mineral resources, major ground-water discharge zones, ground-water resources, state of stress, thickness of rock mass, and thickness of overburden. Information is presented on age, areal extent, shape, composition, texture, degree and type of alteration, thickness, and structural features associated with each rock body or complex. Regional seismic and tectonic information is presented, including patterns of earthquake occurrence, earthquake magnitudes, horizontal ground accelerations, and vertical crusal movements. Also included are discussions of the rock and mineral deposits or mines located within or near crystalline bodies; ground-water resources and regional hydrology; postulated changes in climate and the associated effects; and landforms, surface processes, and surficial materials on or near the rock bodies. A discussion is also presented on the relationship between the US Department of Energy (DOE) Siting Guidelines (10 CFR 960) and the geologic disqualifying factor and regional screening variables to be used in the region-to-area screening process.
This clearinghouse features an extensive selection of maps, imagery, news articles, and other Earth science resources. Highlights include an interactive map of meteor impact structures, an interactive map showing the highest points in the 50 states, and a state-by-state directory of imagery, maps, and links to geological information. There are also listings for imagery for U.S. cities and the continents, a map of the most dangerous volcanoes in the U.S., a mineral identification chart, and information on stream discharge monitoring.
This Capitol Reef National Park site contains park geology information, park maps, photographs, visitor information, and a teacher feature (resources for teaching geology with National Park examples). Geologic data includes descriptions of the Waterpocket Fold, a monocline formed in the Laramide Orogeny and made of sedimentary rock. Also covered is erosion, and details about the Cathedral Valley outcrop of gypsum. This formation is Permian to Cretaceous in age (270-80 million years old).
Background: States vary widely in their use of newborn screening tests, with some mandating screening for as few as three conditions and others mandating as many as 43 conditions, including varying numbers of the 40+ conditions that can be detected by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). There has been no national guidance on the best candidate conditions for newborn screening since the National Academy of Sciences report of 19751 and the United States Congress Office of Technology Assessment report of 1988,2 despite rapid developments since then in genetics, in screening technologies, and in some treatments. Objectives: In 2002, the Maternal and Child Health Bureau (MCHB) of the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) of the United States Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) commissioned the American College of Medical Genetics (ACMG) to: Conduct an analysis of the scientific literature on the effectiveness of newborn screening.Gather expert opinion to delineate the best evidence for screening for specified conditions and develop recommendations focused on newborn screening, including but not limited to the development of a uniform condition panel.Consider other components of the newborn screening system that are critical to achieving the expected outcomes in those screened. Methods: A group of experts in various areas of subspecialty medicine and primary care, health policy, law, public health, and consumers worked with a steering committee and several expert work groups, using a two-tiered approach to assess and rank conditions. A first step was developing a set of principles to guide the analysis. This was followed by developing criteria by which conditions could be evaluated, and then identifying the conditions to be evaluated. A large and broadly representative group of experts was asked to provide their opinions on the extent to which particular conditions met the selected criteria, relying on supporting evidence and references from the scientific literature. The criteria were distributed among three main categories for each condition: The availability and characteristics of the screening test;The availability and complexity of diagnostic services; andThe availability and efficacy of treatments related to the conditions. A survey process utilizing a data collection instrument was used to gather expert opinion on the conditions in the first tier of the assessment. The data collection format and survey provided the opportunity to quantify expert opinion and to obtain the views of a diverse set of interest groups (necessary due to the subjective nature of some of the criteria). Statistical analysis of data produced a score for each condition, which determined its ranking and initial placement in one of three categories (high scoring, moderately scoring, or low scoring/absence of a newborn screening test). In the second tier of these analyses, the evidence base related to each condition was assessed in depth (e.g., via systematic reviews of reference lists including MedLine, PubMed and others; books; Internet searches; professional guidelines; clinical evidence; and cost/economic evidence and modeling). The fact sheets reflecting these analyses were evaluated by at least two acknowledged experts for each condition. These experts assessed the data and the associated references related to each criterion and provided corrections where appropriate, assigned a value to the level of evidence and the quality of the studies that established the evidence base, and determined whether there were significant variances from the survey data. Survey results were subsequently realigned with the evidence obtained from the scientific literature during the second-tier analysis for all objective criteria, based on input from at least three acknowledged experts in each condition. The information from these two tiers of assessment was then considered with regard to the overriding principles and other technology or condition-specific recommendations. On the basis of this information, conditions were assigned to one of thr
Earth science teachers know how frustrating it can be to spend hundreds of dollars on three-dimensional (3-D) models of Earth's geologic features, to use the models for only a few class periods. To avoid emptying an already limited science budget, the author states that teachers can use a simple alternative to the expensive 3-D models--sand. She…
This page features a brief introduction to the several theories about the geological processes that formed Devil's Tower, which rises 1,267 feet above the nearby Belle Fourche River and is still considered a sacred place by some Native American Tribes. Information on climbing the tower as well as images and a cross section are provided.
Krystek, Lee; Mystery, The M.
This collection of images shows geologic features in many of the country's national parks. The collection is searchable by park name, state, year, or by the name of the photograph. Each photo is accompanied by a brief caption that provides the photographer's name, the date, and a description of the photo.
With the advent of the space exploration of the middle part of this century, Mars has become a tangible target for manned space flight missions in the upcoming decades. The goals of Mars exploration focus mainly on the presence of water and the geologic features associated with it. To explore the feasibility of a manned mission, a field analog project was conducted. The project began by examining a series of aerial photographs representing "descent" space craft images. From the photographs, local and regional geology of the two "landing" sites was determined and several "targets of interest" were chosen. The targets were prioritized based on relevance to achieving the goals of the project and Mars exploration. Traverses to each target, as well as measurements and sample collections were planned, and a timeline for the exercise was created. From this it was found that for any mission to be successful, a balance must be discovered between keeping to the planned timeline schedule, and impromptu revision of the mission to allow for conflicts, problems and other adjustments necessary due to greater information gathered upon arrival at the landing site. At the conclusion of the field exercise, it was determined that a valuable resource for mission planning is high resolution remote sensing of the landing area. This led us to conduct a study to determine what ranges of resolution are necessary to observe geology features important to achieving the goals of Mars exploration. The procedure used involved degrading a set of images to differing resolutions, which were then examined to determine what features could be seen and interpreted. The features were rated for recognizability, the results were tabulated, and a minimum necessary resolution was determined. Our study found that for the streams, boulders, bedrock, and volcanic features that we observed, a resolution of at least 1 meter/pixel is necessary. We note though that this resolution depends on the size of the feature being observed, and thus for Mars the resolution may be lower due to the larger size of some features. With this new information, we then examined the highest resolution images taken to date by the Mars Orbital Camera on board the Mars Global Surveyor, and planned a manned mission. We chose our site keeping in mind the goals for Mars exploration, then determined the local and regional geolog of the "landing area. Prioritization was then done on the geologic features seen and traverses were planned to various "targets of interest". A schedule for each traverse stop, including what measurements and samples were to br taken, and a timeline for the mission was then created with ample time allowed for revisions of plans, new discoveries, and possible complications.
Frix, Perry; McCloskey, Katherine; Neakrase, Lynn D. V.; Greeley, Ronald
The Illinois State Geological Survey (ISGS) homepage provides information on geologic mapping, earthquakes, fossils, groundwater, wetlands, glacial geology, bedrock geology, and Lake Michigan geology. Educational materials include field trip guides, short publications on Illinois geology for students and teachers, online tours, single-page maps, and a geologic column. Other materials include databases and collections of GIS data, well records, drill cores, and mining information; a bibliography of Illinois geology; online maps and data; and information on water and land use, resource development, and geologic hazards.
The occurence of earthquakes in Brazil, mainly in the South-eastern region, and its relationship with the geologic features has been discussed by many authors since the beginning of this century. It is difficult to define intraplate seismicity and to unde...
J. A. Mioto Y. Hasui
A National Park Service (NPS) site primarily composed of three main sections corresponding to the following program areas within the Geologic Resources Division (GRD): Disturbed Lands Restoration and Abandoned Mineral Lands (AML), Mineral Management Programs, and Geology and Soils Programs. Of these, the first two consist principally of textual resources pertaining to Park System procedures, policies, and regulations - as well as reports on example restoration projects with a focus on stream corridor restoration, bioengineering, riparian management, and revegetation. Perhaps of most interest to educators will be the third main program area, the Geology and Soils Programs section. Here are included textual resources pertaining to NPS-GRD programs on cave and karst formations, coastal and shoreline geology, paleontology, soils (e.g., soil biology and soil surveying), geological indicators (geoindicators), and stratigraphy. Lastly, a searchable photographic collection and geologic glossary are available.
Describes a developing two-year geologic technician program at Bakersfield College in which a student may major in five areas - geologic drafting, land and legal, geologic assistant, engineering or paleontology. (RR)
Karp, Stanley E.
Combining geological expert knowledge with geophysical observations into a final 3D geological model is, in most cases, not a straight forward process. It typically involves many types of data and requires both an understanding of the data and the geological target. When dealing with very large areas, such as modelling of large AEM surveys, the manual task for the geologist to correctly evaluate and properly utilise all the data available in the survey area, becomes overwhelming. In the ERGO project (Efficient High-Resolution Geological Modelling) we address these issues and propose a new modelling methodology enabling fast and consistent modelling of very large areas. The vision of the project is to build a user friendly expert system that enables the combination of very large amounts of geological and geophysical data with geological expert knowledge. This is done in an "auto-pilot" type functionality, named Smart Interpretation, designed to aid the geologist in the interpretation process. The core of the expert system is a statistical model that describes the relation between data and geological interpretation made by a geological expert. This facilitates fast and consistent modelling of very large areas. It will enable the construction of models with high resolution as the system will "learn" the geology of an area directly from interpretations made by a geological expert, and instantly apply it to all hard data in the survey area, ensuring the utilisation of all the data available in the geological model. Another feature is that the statistical model the system creates for one area can be used in another area with similar data and geology. This feature can be useful as an aid to an untrained geologist to build a geological model, guided by the experienced geologist way of interpretation, as quantified by the expert system in the core statistical model. In this project presentation we provide some examples of the problems we are aiming to address in the project, and show some preliminary results.
Bach, Torben; Martlev Pallesen, Tom; Jørgensen, Flemming; Lundh Gulbrandsen, Mats; Mejer Hansen, Thomas
Badlands National Park, located in southwestern South Dakota, consists of 244,000 acres of sharply eroded buttes, pinnacles and spires blended with the largest, protected mixed grass prairie in the United States. Features include information on park geology, maps, photographs, visitor information, links to related publications, and lesson plans for teaching geology with National Park examples. The park geology section discusses the Park's geologic history during the Eocene and Oligocene epochs and the rich fossil deposits found there. Maps of the park and the surrounding area are included.
The Metis Mons quadrangle (V–6) in the northern hemisphere of Venus (lat 50° to 75° N., long 240° to 300° E.) includes a variety of coronae, large volcanoes, ridge and fracture (structure) belts, tesserae, impact craters, and other volcanic and structural features distributed within a plains setting, affording study of their detailed age relations and evolutionary development. Coronae in particular have magmatic, tectonic, and topographic signatures that indicate complex evolutionary histories. Previously, the geology of the map region has been described either in general or narrowly focused investigations. Based on Venera radar mapping, a 1:15,000,000-scale geologic map of part of the northern hemisphere of Venus included the V–6 map region and identified larger features such as tesserae, smooth and hummocky plains materials, ridge belts, coronae, volcanoes, and impact craters but proposed little relative-age information. Global-scale mapping from Magellan data identified similar features and also determined their mean global ages with crater counts. However, the density of craters on Venus is too low for meaningful relative-age determinations at local to regional scales. Several of the coronae in the map area have been described using Venera data (Stofan and Head, 1990), while Crumpler and others (1992) compiled detailed identification and description of volcanic and tectonic features from Magellan data. The main purpose of this map is to reconstruct the geologic history of the Metis Mons quadrangle at a level of detail commensurate with a scale of 1:5,000,000 using Magellan data. We interpret four partly overlapping stages of geologic activity, which collectively resulted in the formation of tesserae, coronae (oriented along structure belts), plains materials of varying ages, and four large volcanic constructs. Scattered impact craters, small shields and pancake-shaped domes, and isolated flows superpose the tectonically deformed materials and appear to be the most youthful materials in the map region.
Dohm, James M.; Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Skinner, James A.
This lab is part of a Lunar and Planetary Geology course offered to both geology and non-geology majors, and it involves basic geological mapping of an area within the Tyrrhena Patera region on Mars. Students are encouraged to work in groups to prepare a geological map from a photomosaic map and to interpret the geologic stratigraphy from a geological map of the greater area. This activity reinforces mapping skills as well as group work skills, and aims to teach students more about Martian stratigraphy and geology through a hands-on activity.
De Villiers, Germari
The Bedrock Geologic Map of Vermont is the result of a cooperative agreement between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the State of Vermont. The State's complex geology spans 1.4 billion years of Earth's history. The new map comes 50 years after the most recent map of the State by Charles G. Doll and others in 1961 and a full 150 years since the publication of the first geologic map of Vermont by Edward Hitchcock and others in 1861. At a scale of 1:100,000, the map shows an uncommon level of detail for State geologic maps. Mapped rock units are primarily based on lithology, or rock type, to facilitate derivative studies in multiple disciplines. The 1961 map was compiled from 1:62,500-scale or smaller maps. The current map was created to integrate more detailed (1:12,000- to 1:24,000-scale) modern and older (1:62,500-scale) mapping with the theory of plate tectonics to provide a framework for geologic, tectonic, economic, hydrogeologic, and environmental characterization of the bedrock of Vermont. The printed map consists of three oversize sheets (52 x 76 inches). Sheets 1 and 2 show the southern and northern halves of Vermont, respectively, and can be trimmed and joined so that the entire State can be displayed as a single entity. These sheets also include 10 cross sections and a geologic structure map. Sheet 3 on the front consists of descriptions of 486 map units, a correlation of map units, and references cited. Sheet 3 on the back features a list of the 195 sources of geologic map data keyed to an index map of 7.5-minute quadrangles in Vermont, as well as a table identifying ages of rocks dated by uranium-lead zircon geochronology.
Ratcliffe, Nicholas M.; Stanley, Rolfe S.; Gale, Marjorie H.; Thompson, Peter J.; Walsh, Gregory J.; With contributions by Hatch, Norman L., Jr.; Rankin, Douglas W.; Doolan, Barry L.; Kim, Jonathan; Mehrtens, Charlotte J.; Aleinikoff, John N.; McHone, J. Gregory; Cartography by Masonic, Linda M.
What is geologic heritage, you ask? In short, it "encompasses the significant geologic features, landforms, and landscapes characteristic of our Nation." The National Park Service has a special program to document these sites and to provide the public with resources about these unique destinations. The materials here are divided into four featured programs: Fossil Resources, Geologic Heritage Conservation, Park Geology Tour, and Cave and Karst Resources. Using the Park Geology Tour, visitors can search through thematic areas such as glaciers, fossils, and plate tectonics to find highlights from a vast array of National Park units. The Cave and Karst Resources program brings together resources on some of the over 4,900 caves in the National Park system, along with detailed photo galleries, newsletters, and brochures. Finally, under Fossil Resources visitors can find information about National Fossil Day and even helpful lesson plans for teachers.
Located on the Colorado Plateau in Utah, this canyon is comprised mostly of sedimentary rocks, and continues to be eroded and shaped by the Paria River. Its geologic and human history are outlined on this site, including the formation of the canyon, from the Cretaceous period (144 million years ago) to the present, and geologic features, such as fins, columns, pinnacles, and hoodoos. Visitor information, links to other resources, maps, and a teacher feature (resources for teaching geology with National Park examples) are also available.
The Colorado Geological Survey (CGS) is an agency of state government within the Department of Natural Resources whose mission is to help reduce the impact of geologic hazards on the citizens of Colorado, to promote the responsible economic development of mineral and mineral fuel resources, to provide geologic insight into water resources, and to provide geologic advice and information to a variety of constituencies. This site contains extensive information about Colorado geology such as maps, a geologic time scale for the state, program information, and state field trip information. This site hosts the Avalanche Information Center which contains avalanche forecasting and education center details. Publications report on geologic hazards, land use, environmental geology, mineral resources, oil, gas, coal, geologic mapping and earthquake information for the state. There are online editions of RockTalk, which is a quarterly newsletter published by the Colorado Geological Survey dealing with all aspects of geology throughout the state of Colorado. Links are provided for more resources.
The Big John caldera is an obscure subsidence structure on the western flank of the Tushar Mountains, within the Marysvale volcanic field of west-central Utah. The caldera subsided about 23 m. y. ago in response to ash-flow eruptions that deposited the Delano Peak Tuff Member of the Bullion Canyon Volcanics. During caldera development and subsequent filling and erosion, several geologic environments were formed that were favorable for the concentration of uranium; these environments form the focus of this report describing the major geologic features and main mining areas of the Marysvale volcanic field.
Steven, Thomas, A.; Cunningham, Charles, G.; Anderson, John, J.
Nuclear reactors become obsolete by wearing out or by becoming outclassed or out of date. The lifetime of a conventional power reactor is probably less that 30 years, but the life of its potentially dangerous radioactivity is now known to be of a geological time scale. When a reactor is shutdown permanently, the fuel rods, cooling water, and radioactively ‘hot’ pieces are removed for long-term storage. High-level and low-level radioactive isotopes contained in the liquids and solids removed present a special problem (see Eos, Feb. 9, 1982, p. 147). It is the main frame and construction of worn out reactors that are the major problem, however. Mainly because of neutron activation processes that occur during reactor operation, components have been found to contain nickel-59 and niobium-94, both of which have very long half-lives: 80,000 and 20,300 years, respectively. The two isotopes are only present in trace amounts in metals incorporated in reactor components, but they emit levels of radiation above acceptable levels. The result is that the entire reactors must be dismantled, reduced to shippable size pieces, and the pieces stored for geologic time periods (several half-lives).
Bell, Peter M.
The Magellan mission to Venus is reviewed. The scientific investigations conducted by 243-day cycles encompass mapping with a constant incidence angle for the radar, observing surface changes from one cycle to the next, and targeting young-looking volcanos. The topography of Venus is defined by the upper boundary of the crust and upwelling from lower domains. Tectonic features such as rift zones, linear mountain belts, ridge belts, and tesserae are described. The zones of tesserae are unique to the planet. Volcanism accounts for about 80 percent of the observed surface, the remainder being volcanic deposits which have been reworked by tectonism or impacts. Magellan data reveal about 900 impact craters with flow-like ejecta resulting from the fall of meteoroids. It is concluded that the age of the Venusian surface varies between 0 and 800 million years. Tectonic and volcanic activities dominate the formation of the Venus topography; such processes as weathering and erosion are relatively unimportant on Venus.
McLaughlin, W. I.
The Italian abbot Alberto Fortis (1741-1803), educated in geology, petrology, mineralogy, and palaeontology by eminent 18th-century naturalists, performed several extensive explorations in Istria and Dalmatia - provinces of the former Venetian Republic, now the littoral part of Croatia. Notes from some of these journeys, collected in 1774 in the book Viaggio in Dalmazia, encompass observations of almost all aspects of social and physical features of Dalmatian people and land. From a geological point of view, Fortis' remarks generally correspond to recent studies, with some exceptions in palaeontological and petrological issues. His understanding of natural processes, mainly in karstology and hydrology, is mostly surprisingly good. Besides, he addressed critics to previous writers, whose theories, influenced by older authorities, had been taken for granted instead of being re-examined by field explorations. His unjustly neglected work was the first extensive and comprehensive study of this part of Europe, little known in the then scientific community.
Suri?, Maša; Lon?ari?, Robert; ?uka, Anica; Fari?i?, Josip
The Maryland Geological Survey (MGS) homepage contains information from MGS programs on hydrogeology, hydrology, coastal and estuarine geology, environmental geology and mineral resources; an online guide to Maryland geology; and information on oyster habitat restoration projects. There are also maps, data, information on MGS publications, MGS news, and online educational resources.
This portal provides access to resources on geologic mapping, and to sources of geologic maps. There is an introduction to geologic mapping, which summarizes its principles and practices, and a history of United States Geological Survey (USGS) mapping activities from 1879 to the present, as well as links to papers on the values and hazards associated with geologic maps and mapping. Online sources of maps include the USGS Geologic Map Database, other federal map products (FEDMAP), state geological survey products (STATEMAP), and university map products (EDMAP).
A large region in northeastern Montana has never been thoroughly explored by geologists, owing to the fact that it is a part of the Great Plains and the belief that it is too monotonous and uninteresting to tempt anyone to turn aside from the pronounced geologic features a little farther west, for which Montana is noted. This region includes parts of Sheridan, Valley, Phillips, and Blaine counties. Its investigation was begun by Smith in 1908, when he made a geologic survey of the Fort Peck Indian Reservation. Beekly explored a strip of land along the Montana-North Dakota line from Missouri River to the international boundary, and Bauer examined the townships in which Plentywood and Scobey are situated. Their results are here included with those of the writer, who during the field seasons of 1915 and 1916 was engaged in an investigation of the lignite resources of the remainder of this region, which extends from a line within 12 miles of the Montana-North Dakota boundary westward about 200 miles.
Collier, Arthur J.
The late Pleistocene and Holocene rear-arc Newberry Volcano is located in central Oregon east of the Cascades arc axis. Total area covered by the broad, shield-shaped edifice and its accompanying lava field is about 3,200 square kilometers, encompassing all or part of 38 U.S.G.S. 1:24,000-scale quadrangles. Distance from the northernmost extent of lava flows to the southernmost is about 115 km; east-west maximum width is less than 50 km. A printed version of the preliminary map at its intended publication scale of 1:50,000 is 8 ft high by 4 ft wide. More than 200 units have been identified so far, each typically consisting of the lava flow(s) and accompanying vent(s) that represent single eruptive episodes, some of which extend 10’s of kilometers across the edifice. Vents are commonly aligned north-northwest to north-northeast, reflecting a strong regional tectonic influence. The largest individual units on the map are basaltic, some extending nearly 50 km to the north through the cities of Bend and Redmond from vents low on the northern flank of the volcano. The oldest and most distal of the basalts is dated at about 350 ka. Silicic lava flows and domes are confined to the main edifice of the volcano; the youngest rhyolite flows are found within Newberry Caldera, including the rhyolitic Big Obsidian Flow, the youngest flow at Newberry Volcano (~1,300 yr B.P.). The oldest known rhyolite dome is dated at about 400 ka. Andesite units (those with silica contents between 57% and 63%) are the least common, with only 13 recognized to date. The present 6.5 by 8 km caldera formed about 75 ka with the eruption of compositionally-zoned rhyolite to basaltic andesite ash-flow tuff. Older widespread silicic ash-flow tuffs imply previous caldera collapses. Approximately 20 eruptions have occurred at Newberry since ice melted off the volcano in latest Pleistocene time. The mapping is being digitally compiled as a spatial geodatabase in ArcGIS. Within the geodatabase, feature classes have been created representing geologic lines (contacts, faults, lava tubes, etc.), geologic unit polygons, and volcanic vent location points. The geodatabase can be queried to determine the spatial distributions of different rock types, geologic units, and other geologic and geomorphic features. Map colors are being used to indicate compositions. Some map patterns have been added to distinguish the youngest lavas and the ash-flow tuffs. Geodatabase information can be used to better understand the evolution, growth, and potential hazards of the volcano.
Donnelly-Nolan, J. M.; Ramsey, D. W.; Jensen, R. A.; Champion, D. E.; Calvert, A. T.
The technology of 3D geological modeling will bring about great changes in the methods of geological data acquiring, storing,\\u000a processing and displaying. However, no perfect or convenient software systems have been developed up to now since the geologic\\u000a data which reflect geological entities bear the feature of diversity, uncertainty and complexity. Some super voxel models,\\u000a mathematical models of fault and
Qiang Wu; Hua Xu
Galileo data enable the major geological units, structures, and surface features to be identified on Europa. These include five primary units (plains, chaos, band, ridge, and crater materials) and their subunits, along with various tectonic structures such as faults. Plains units are the most widespread. Ridged plains material spans a wide range of geological ages, including the oldest recognizable features on Europa, and appears to represent a style of tectonic resurfacing, rather than cryovolcanism. Smooth plains material typically embays other terrains and units, possibly as a type of fluid emplacement, and is among the youngest material units observed. At global scales, plains are typically mapped as undifferentiated plains material, although in some areas differences can be discerned in the near infrared which might be related to differences in ice grain size. Chaos material is composed of plains and other preexisting materials that have been severely disrupted by inferred internal activity; chaos is characterized by blocks of icy material set in a hummocky matrix. Band material is arrayed in linear, curvilinear, wedge-shaped, or cuspate zones with contrasting albedo and surface textures with respect to the surrounding terrain. Bilateral symmetry observed in some bands and the relationships with the surrounding units suggest that band material forms by the lithosphere fracturing, spreading apart, and infilling with material derived from the subsurface. Ridge material is mapped as a unit on local and some regional maps but shown with symbols at global scales. Ridge material includes single ridges, doublet ridges, and ridge complexes. Ridge materials are considered to represent tectonic processes, possibly accompanied by the extrusion or intrusion of subsurface materials, such as diapirs. The tectonic processes might be related to tidal flexing of the icy lithosphere on diurnal or longer timescales. Crater materials include various interior (smooth central, rough inner, and annular massif) and exterior (continuous ejecta) subunits. Structural features and landforms are shown with conventional symbols. Type localities for the units are identified, along with suggestions for portraying the features on geological maps, including colors and letter abbreviations for material units. Implementing these suggestions by the planetary mapping community would facilitate comparisons of maps for different parts of Europa and contribute to an eventual global synthesis of its complex geology. On the basis of initial mapping results, a stratigraphic sequence is suggested in which ridged plains form the oldest unit on Europa, followed by development of band material and individual ridges. Band materials tend to be somewhat older than ridges, but in many areas the two units formed simultaneously. Similarly, the formation of most chaos follows the development of ridged plains; although chaos is among the youngest materials on Europa, some chaos units might have formed contemporaneously with ridged plains. Smooth plains generally embay all other units and are late-stage in the evolution of the surface. C1 craters are superposed on ridged plains but are crosscut by other materials, including bands and ridges. Most c2 craters postdate all other units, but a few c2 craters are cut by ridge material. C3 craters constitute the youngest recognizable material on Europa. Copyright 2000 by the American Geophysical Union.
Greeley, R.; Figueredo, P. H.; Williams, D. A.; Chuang, F. C.; Klemaszewski, J. E.; Kadel, S. D.; Prockter, L. M.; Pappalardo, R. T.; Head, III, J. W.; Collins, G. C.; Spaun, N. A.; Sullivan, R. J.; Moore, J. M.; Senske, D. A.; Tufts, B. R.; Johnson, T. V.; Belton, M. J. S.; Tanaka, K. L.
...copy of your EP. (d) Geological cross-sections. Interpreted geological cross-sections showing...any seafloor and subsurface geological and manmade features and...of the prospect. (i) Time-versus-depth...
...copy of your EP. (d) Geological cross-sections. Interpreted geological cross-sections showing...any seafloor and subsurface geological and manmade features and...of the prospect. (i) Time-versus-depth...
...copy of your EP. (d) Geological cross-sections. Interpreted geological cross-sections showing...any seafloor and subsurface geological and manmade features and...of the prospect. (i) Time-versus-depth...
The author has identified the following significant results. The greatly increased resolution of ground features by Skylab as compared with LANDSAT is considered to be best in the S190B high resolution film, followed by S190A camera stations 4, 5, and 6 respectfully. Results of the study of vegetation damage sites using data derived from S190A film were disappointing. The major cause of detection problems is the graininess of the CIR film. Good results were achieved for the hydrology-land use study. Both camera systems gave better agreement with the ground truth than did LANDSAT imagery. Surficial geology and glacial landform areas were clearly visible in single scenes. Several previously unmapped or unknown features were detected, especially in eastern coastal Maine.
Stoeckeler, E. G.; Woodman, R. G. (principal investigators); Farrell, R. S.
The global high-resolution imaging of asteroid 433 Eros by the Near-Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) Shoemaker spacecraft has made it possible to develop the first comprehensive picture of the geology of a small S-type asteroid. Eros displays a variety of surface features, and evidence of a substantial regolith. Large scale facets, grooves, and ridges indicate the presence of at least one
M. S. Robinson; P. C. Thomas; J. Veverka; S. L. Murchie; B. B. Wilcox
The paper describes a new power distribution system for Fermilab's Main Injector. The system provides 13.8 kV power to Main Injector accelerator (accelerator and conventional loads) and is capable of providing power to the rest of the laboratory (backfeed system). Design criteria, and features including simulation results are given.
Cezary Jach and Daniel Wolff
Created with funds provided by the Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS), Windows on Maine contains interesting and informative programs and video clips from Maine Public Broadcasting and other partners. On their homepage, visitors can use their interactive map and timeline to locate video clips of interest, and they can also search the entire collection for specific items. Visitors can also use the subject category menu to look over 25 different headings, including "earth sciences", "land disputes", and "Penobscot tribe". The map feature is a real pip, and visitors can customize their search by location and date, and it's a great way to learn about different regions, including Aroostook County (also known as "the County") and Downeast. Also, many of the videos also have additional resources attached to them, such as railroad timetables, historic photographs, and so on.
The University of Kentucky maintains the Kentucky Geological Survey Web site. Visitors will find a number of educational general information pages on rocks and minerals, fossils, coal, geologic hazards, industrial minerals, maps and GIS, oil and natural gas, and water, as well as the general geology of Kentucky. Each page contains specific information, data, and research summaries from the university. The geology of Kentucky page, for example, shows a map of geologic periods and gives descriptions of the rock strata in the state, a description of its landforms, and a geological photo album of physiographic regions and points of interest.
This page from Iowa State University presents a general glossary of geologic terms. The site would be a good reference for geology coursework. This glossary of geologic terms is based on the glossary in Earth: An Introduction to Geologic Change, by S. Judson and S.M. Richardson (Englewood Cliffs, NJ, Prentice Hall, 1995). Where possible, definitions conform generally, and in some cases specifically, to definitions given in Robert L Bates and Julia A Jackson (editors), Glossary of Geology, 3rd ed., American Geological Institute, Alexandria, Virginia, 1987.
For more than a year, the NASA Dawn mission acquired Framing Camera (FC) images from orbit around Vesta. The surface of the asteroid was completely imaged  before Dawn left for its next target, the asteroid Ceres. In an early phase of the mission, the southern and equatorial regions were imaged, allowing the production of several geologic quadrangle maps . During the second High Altitude Mapping Orbit (HAMO-2), the northern hemisphere became illuminated and visible. Here we present the first geologic map of the northern vestan hemisphere, from 21°N to 85°N, derived mainly from HAMO-2 observations. Detailed studies of specific geologic features within this hemisphere are presented elsewhere [e.g., 3,4]. For our geologic map we used high-resolution FC images  with ~20 m/pixel from the Low Altitude Mapping Orbit (LAMO), which unfortunately only cover the southern part of the study area (21°N to 45°N). For areas farther north, LAMO images are supplemented with HAMO-2 images, which have a pixel scale of about 70 m/pixel. During the departure phase, images of the north pole area with even lower spatial resolutions were acquired. Due to observational constraints, considerable shadowing is present north of 75°. From these data, an albedo mosaic and a stereo-photogrammetric digital terrain model  was produced, which serve as basis for our geologic map. For the geologic mapping at a scale of 1:500,000, all data were incorporated into a Geographic Information System (ArcGIS). We have identified several geologic units within the study area, including cratered highland material (ch) and the Saturnalia Formation (Sf), which is characterized by large-scale ridges and troughs, presumably associated with the south polar Veneneia impact . In addition, we mapped undifferentiated crater material (uc), discontinuous ejecta material (dem), and dark/bright crater material and dark/bright crater ray material (dc/bc and dcr/bcr). We will present a detailed description of the geologic units and their relative stratigraphy . References:  Russell C. T. et al. (2012) GSA Ann. Meet., 152-1.  Yingst R. A. et al. (2012) EGU, Gen. Ass., 6225.  Blewett D. T. et al. (2012) GSA Ann. Meet., 152-9.  Scully J. (2012) DPS Meet. 44, #207.08.  Sierks H. et al. (2011) Space Sci Rev.  Preusker et al. (2012) LPSC 43, #2012.  Jaumann et al. (2012) Science Vol. 336, pp. 687-690.  Hiesinger H. et al. (2013) LPSC 44, #2582.
Hiesinger, Harald; Ruesch, Ottaviano; Blewett, Dave T.; Buczkowski, Debra L.; Scully, Jennifer; Williams, Dave A.; Aileen Yingst, R.; Russell, Chris T.; Raymond, Carol A.
This report describes the development of geologic spatial analysis research which focuses on conducting comprehensive three-dimensional analysis of regions using geologic data sets that can be referenced by latitude, longitude, and elevation/depth. (CBS)
Thiessen, R.L.; Eliason, J.R.
This Geological Society of America (GSA) site contains a detailed geologic time scale as an educational resource. It may be downloaded to a larger size, and includes all Eras, Eons, Periods, Epochs and ages as well as magnetic polarity information.
Summarizes findings of a recently published report of the Canadian Geoscience Council, which includes the following topics regarding college geology: facilities; teaching; undergraduate enrollments; postgraduate enrollments; geologic research; and integration of Canadian geoscience with other countries. (CS)
Neale, E. R. W.
This USGS site employs graphics and text to explain geological time. The different geological eons, eras, epochs and periods are defined and put into perspective. The site also provides links to many terms and concepts for further exploration.
This site contains park maps, visitor information, details about park geology, and a teacher feature (lessons for teaching science using National Park examples) for Canyonlands National Park in Utah. It discusses the creation of the canyons by the Green and Colorado rivers, as well as the geologic and human histories of the park. Also covered is information about the surrounding mountains (La Sals, Abajos, and Henry Mountains), the famous Upheaval Dome, The Maze, The Needles, and arches found within the park.
This site provides links to geology fieldnotes about National Parks, Monuments, and Recreation Areas that are part of the Colorado Plateau. Each park site provides links to visitor information, photographs, park maps, multimedia resources, and teacher features (tools for teaching geology with National Park examples). Some of the areas linked to this site include: Dinosaur National Monument, Mesa Verde National Park, and Glen Canyon National Recreation Area.
The South Carolina Geological Survey (SCGS) homepage contains information about state mapping, education and outreach programs, and recent news. For educators, there is the Earth Science education series of publications which includes presentations and page-size graphics on such topics as earthquakes, plate tectonics, geologic time, fossils, and others. Other materials include information on mineral resources, links to organizations in and about South Carolina geology, the South Carolina core repository, the Geologic Map of South Carolina, and others.
The Iowa Geological Survey Bureau (GSB) homepage contains: general information about the geology of Iowa; the Natural Resources Geographic Information System, which is a collection of databases on geology and water wells; and information about GSB staff, geologic studies, water monitoring programs, and services. There are maps, photographs, general interest articles, technical abstracts, lists of available publications, and an on-line book about the natural resource history of Iowa.
This Park Geology site provides links to tours of individual National Parks, Monuments, and Recreation Areas with sand dunes. Where appropriate for each park, links are provided to maps, photographs, geologic research, related links, visitor information, and teacher features (resources for teaching geology with National Park examples). The list includes places such as Death Valley and Mojave National Preserve, along with less well-known areas such as the Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore in Michigan and the Wright Brothers National Memorial in North Carolina.
If your research or interests lie in the geology of South Dakota, then the state's Geological Survey Program Web site is for you. Offered are online publications and maps, a geologic reference database, a lithologic logs database, digital base maps, a water quality database, and several other quality information sources worth checking out.
The Arkansas Geological Survey (AGS) homepage aims to develop and provide knowledge of the geology and hydrogeology of the State, and to stimulate development and effective management and utilization of the mineral, fossil-fuel, and water resources of Arkansas while protecting the environment. The AGC collects and disperses geologic data consisting of geologic maps, historical data concerning resources, and various datasets concerning water, fossil-fuel, and mineral resources of Arkansas. The site contains publications that can be ordered, sections about Arkansas geology, a list of mineral producers of Arkansas, and reports on mineral resources.
At virtual-geology.info, Roger Suthren, a professor at Oxford Brookes University, offers educational materials on geologic phenomena throughout the world. Users can take virtual field trips to study the geology of Scotland, Alaska, and France. In the Regional Geology link, visitors can view wonderful pictures of the volcanoes of Germany, Italy, France, and Greece. Educators can find images of sediments and sedimentary rocks which can be used in a variety of classroom exercises. The website supplies descriptions and additional educational links about sedimentology and environmental geology.
This website contains geologic maps of Kentucky, with a discussion of geologic time in regards to the rocks, minerals, fossils, and economic deposits found there. There are also sections that describe strata and geologic structures beneath the surface (faults, basins, and arches), the structural processes (folding and faulting) that create stratigraphic units, the geomorphology of the state, geologic information by county, a general description of geologic time, fossil, rocks, and minerals of Kentucky, and a virtual field trip through Natural Bridges State Park. Links are provided for further information.
This is the homepage of the Utah Geological Survey. Materials available here include news articles and information on geologic hazards; information on places of geological interest; and popular geology topics such as earthquakes, rocks and minerals, fossils, economic resources, groundwater resources, and others. Educational resources include teaching kits, the 'Teacher's Corner' column in the survey's newsletter, and a series of 'Glad You Asked' articles on state geological topics. There is also an extensive list of free K-12 educational materials, as well as a set of curriculum materials such as activity packets, slide shows, and teachers' handbooks, which are available to order.
This guide discusses the geology, mineralogy, and mineral collecting opportunities of the Mount Apatite quarries at Auburn, Maine. Topics include the history and occurrence of the granite pegmatites, which contain collectible specimens of apatite, tourmaline, lepidolite, and other minerals; the history of glaciation in the area; and the history of the mining industry in Auburn, an important producer of commercial feldspar in the early 1900s. There is also information for mineral collectors, including permission and access, directions, and information on the exposures and how to extract specimens from them. References and links to additonal information are included.
This Theodore Roosevelt National Park site contains park geology information, park maps, photographs, related links, visitor information, and teacher features (resources for teaching geology with National Park examples). The park geology section discusses the Park's geologic history and the region's role in shaping Theodore Roosevelt's conservation efforts while he was President. The section also contains a link to information on the geology of Theodore Roosevelt National Park. The park maps section contains an area map as well as two maps detailing the North and South Units of the Park.
This site includes materials on geology, coal and petroleum resources, industrial minerals, geologic hazards, ground water, topographic and geologic maps, education, and earth science. Teacher education materials include rock camps and telecourses. Special features include popular geology pages and frequently-asked-questions about geology and resources; updates about new museum specimens, flood and landslide information for homeowners, documents on mountaintop removal mining materials, and coal resource and mapping project information. Consultations, maps, publications, selected database items, and copies of documents are available at modest cost.
The mission of the Kansas Geological Survey, operated by the University of Kansas in connection with its research and service program, is to conduct geological studies and research and to collect, correlate, preserve, and disseminate information leading to a better understanding of the geology of Kansas, with special emphasis on natural resources of economic value, water quality and quantity, and geologic hazards. The website includes information about the High Plains and Ogallala aquifers, the Upper Arkansas corridor, the Dakota aquifer, county and state geologic maps, an online bibliography of Kansas geology, publications, a photo archive, a digital petroleum atlas, a petroleum primer for the state, gravity and magnetic maps, Hugoton project information, and details about the Hutchinson Kansas natural gas fires. The educational resources section contains a mineral information page for the state, and GeoKansas, which provides information on state geology for schools.
A preliminary geologic map of 34.8 percent of the surface of Io has been compiled using best-resolution Voyager 1 images. Nine volcanic units are identified, including materials of mountains, plains, flows, cones, and crater vents, in addition to six types of structural features. Photogeologic evidence indicates a dominantly silicate composition for the mountain material. Sulfur flows of diverse viscosity and sulfur-silicate mixtures may compose the extensive plans. Pit-crater and shield-crater vent-wall scarps reach heights of over two km, and layered-plains boundary scarps have estimated heights of 150 to 1700 m, indicating a material with considerable strength. A cumulative size-frequency distribution plot for 170 volcanic craters with diameters over 14 km is similar to the curves for impact craters on other bodies in the solar system, attesting to a similar nonrandom distribution of crater diameters and a surplus of small craters. A total of 151 lineaments and grabens forming two nearly orthogonal sets is recognized.
Schaber, G. G.
Offered by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) as a general interest publication, this site is an online edition of a text by the same name, offering a concise overview of the concepts associated with the age of the Earth. The online edition was revised in October of 1997 to reflect current thinking on this topic. Section headers are Geologic Time, Relative Time Scale, Major Divisions of Geologic Time, Index Fossils, Radiometric Time Scale, and Age of the Earth.
This book presents an introduction to sedimentology as well as petroleum geology. It integrates both subjects, which are closely related but mostly treated separately. The author covers the basic aspects of sedimentology, sedimentary geochemistry and diagenesis. Principles of stratigraphy, seismic stratigraphy and basin modelling forms the base for the part on petroleum geology. Subjects discussed include the composition of kerogen and hydrocarbons, theories of migration and trapping of hydrocarbons and properties of reservoir rocks. Introductions to well logging and production geology are given.
Bjorlykke, K.O. (Oslo Univ. (Norway))
These images of geologic phenomena are used to supplement introductory geology classes at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. The images are categorized under plutonic, volcanic and sedimentary rocks; structural geology; weathering; and coastlines. There are photographs of different kinds of volcanoes; lavas and pyroclastic rocks; volcanic hazards; different types of sedimentary rocks and sedimentary structures; folds and faults; beach processes; and barrier islands.
The North Carolina Geological Survey (NCGS) examines, describes, and maps the state's geology and mineral resources and publishes reports and maps. The site contains lists of publications, maps, aerial photographs, frequently asked questions about North Carolina geology, and mineral and professional information. Project Earth Science is designed to provide relevant and accurate earth science education information for the state's high school students and earth/environmental science teachers.
This exercise is designed to simulate how a basic geological investigation of a site takes place. A basic geological investigation includes familiarizing yourself with the unconsolidated sediments, rocks, structural geology, and groundwater present at your site. As part of this exercise you will have to properly identify a variety of rock types and sediments, create maps that represent data you collected at each location, and complete a basic report of your findings (optional). Once completed, this exercise should give students a basic understanding of how the various concepts used throughout the semester are applied in the real world in the form of a geological investigation.
We are developing internet-based freeware for virtual mapping and geologic interpretation. This takes the form of a synthetic, virtual world, Planet Oit, where students are given the means and the equipment to carry out geologic investigation and interpretation as a geologist would in the field. The environment is designed to give students an authentic experience that includes elements of: (1) exploration of a spatially oriented, virtual, world; (2) practical, field oriented, expedition planning and decision-making; and (3) scientific problem solving (i.e. a "hands on" approach to mapping, geologic investigation, data acquisition, and interpretation). The game-like environment is networked, multi-player, and simulation-based. Planet Oit can be visited on the Internet at http://oit.cs.ndsu.nodak.edu/
Saini-Eidukat, Bernhardt; Schwert, Donald P.; Slator, Brian M.
The goal of this activity is to provide students an opportunity to connect soil science to surficial geology by using a Soil Surveys. By the end of the activity, students should be able to use a Soil Survey to identify and interpret landforms and surficial features. This activity can be adapted to variety of process (ex. eolian deposits, glacial deposits, bedrock weathering, etc.). County-level soil surveys are available in both paper and online formats for the majority of the United States. Designed for a geomorphology course Has minimal/no quantitative component
Titan, the largest and most complex satellite in the solar system exhibits an organic dominated surface chemistry and shares surface features with other large icy satellites as well as the terrestrial planets. It is subject to tidal stresses, and its surface appears to have been modified tectonically. Cassini's global observations at infrared and radar wavelengths as well as local investigations by the instruments on the Huygens probe has revealed that Titan has the largest known abundance of organic material in the solar system apart from Earth, and that its active hydrological cycle is analogous to that of Earth, but with methane replacing water. The surface of Titan exhibits morphological features of different sizes and origins created by geological processes that span the entire dynamic range of aeolian, fluvial and tectonic activities, with likely evidence that cryovolcanism might exists where liquid water, perhaps in concert with ammonia, methane and carbon dioxide, makes its way to the surface from the interior [e.g. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18]. Extended dune fields, lakes, mountainous terrain, dendritic erosion patterns and erosional remnants indicate dynamic surface processes. Valleys, small-scale gullies and rounded cobbles require erosion by extended energetic flow of liquids. There is strong evidence that liquid hydrocarbons are ponded on the surface in lakes, predominantly, but not exclusively, at high northern latitudes. A variety of features including extensive flows and caldera-like constructs are interpreted to be cryovolcanic in origin. Chains and isolated blocks of rugged terrain rising from smoother areas are best described as mountains and might be related to tectonic processes. Impact craters form on all solid bodies in the solar system, and have been detected on Titan. But very few have been observed so they must be rapidly destroyed or buried by other geologic processes The morphologies of the impact craters are more similar to those seen on silicate planets than on icy satellites . Removal of impact craters by burial and erosion is likely, given the evidence for fluvial and cryovolcanic processes, and the relatively degraded appearance of hills and ridges. The obvious lack of craters compared with other icy satellites indicates the surface of Titan is young and modified by volcanism and erosion. However, the existence of the large Menrva impact structure (¿400 km in diameter) suggests that in some places larger (and thus potentially older) craters can be preserved [e.g 2, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23]. In general, Titan exhibits a geologically active surface indicating significant endogenic and exogenic processes, with diverse geological, geophysical and atmospheric processes reminiscent of those on Earth [e.g. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18].  Tomasko et al. 2005, Nature, 438, 765-778;  Porco et al. 2005, Nature, 434, 159-168;  Sotin et al. 2005, Nature 435, 786-789;  Elachi et al. 2005, Science 308, 970-974;  Lorenz et al. 2006, Science 312, 724-727;  Stofan et al. 2007, Nature,445, doi:10.10338/nature05438;  Lopes et al. 2007, Icarus, 186 395-412;  Radebaugh et al. 2007, Icarus 192, 77-92;  Barnes et al. 2007, JGR 112 E11006;  Lorenz et al. 2007, GRL 34, L07204;  Soderblom et al., 2007, PSS 55, 2025-2036;  Lorenz et al. 2008, PSS56, 1132-1144;  Jaumann et al. 2008, Icarus 197, 526-538;  Lunine et al. 2008; Icarus 195, 415-433;  Jaumann et al., 2009, in Titan from Cassini-Huygens, Brown et al., eds, Springer;  Turtle et al. 2009, GRL 36, L02204;  Le Corre et al., PSS 54870-879;  Stephan et al., 2009, in Titan from Cassini-Huygens, Brown et al., eds, Springer  Wood et al., 2007, LPSC, 2118;  Lorenz et al., 2007, GRL 34, L07204;  LeMouelic, et al., 2008; JGR 113, E04003;  Jaumann and Neukum , 2009, LPSC 1641;  Wood et al., 2010, Icarus 206, 334-344
The Geological Society of London promotes "the geosciences and the professional interests of UK geoscientists." The website offers media, geological, and society news. Researchers can find out about upcoming conferences covering a variety of geological topics as well as information on a series of journals. Everyone interested in geology can find materials on geological careers, including required education, qualifications, and funding. The website provides teaching resources on volcanoes, geologic hazards, and other geological phenomena.
The Craters of the Moon lava field covers 618 square miles and is the largest young basaltic lava field in the conterminous United States. Features include maps, photographs, related links, visitor information, and resources for teaching geology with National Park examples. The park geology section discusses the park's volcanic history and structural geology, as well as the various sites at the park, such as Devils Orchard, Big Cinder Butte, and the Tree Molds Area.
The C-band imaging radar of ERS-1, due to its high sensitivity to terrain surface features, holds tremendous potential in\\u000a topographic terrain mapping for various applications. This is being examined for geological applications, mainly structural\\u000a and lithological mapping in a mineral belt of Bihar and Orissa, India. The high image contrast that facilitates structural\\u000a interpretation and highlights topography on the SAR
P K Champatiray; A K Roy; B Prabhakaran
Located in Orono, Maine, the SMS is the largest concentration of marine expertise in Maine, and offers one of the largest research and educational programs in the Northeast. Research activities of faculty and students range from aquaculture, marine biology, marine biotechnology, oceanography, and marine geology, to public policy and marine archeology. Site offers information on graduate and undergraduate programs, current research, school news, upcoming events, and outreach initiatives.
Recent outcrop sampling at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, has produced significant new information regarding the distribution of physical properties at the site of a potential high-level nuclear waste repository. Consideration of the spatial distribution of measured values and geostatistical measures of spatial variability indicates that there are a number of widespread deterministic geologic features at the site that have important implications
C. A. Rautman; A. L. Flint
Sarah Andrews is a geologist who has also written a series of successful mystery novels featuring (naturally) a geologist who solves crimes in her spare time. Students read her article, "Why Study Geology?", then write and essay addressing points listed in the Writing Prompt. After this, students are introduced to the process of Calibrated Peer Review and evaluate their papers.
This page from the CA Geological Survey (CGS) presents information on landslides as well as maps and products of various past and present CGS programs to map and respond to landslides in the state of California, including the Forest and Watershed Geology Program, the Seismic Hazards Zonation Program, the Caltrans Highway Corridor Mapping project, and the Landslide Map Index.
Survey, California G.
This NASA sponsored webpage, Center for Educational Technologies, teaches students about Geologic Time. The age of Earth is so long compared to all periods of time that we humans are familiar with, it has been given a special name: Geologic time. The age
Describes field trips to urban locations for geological instruction. The program was developed by the Cleveland Museum of Natural History. Authors claim these field trips have been an effective and enjoyable way of conveying a wide variety of geological information to participants at all levels and backgrounds and have created favorable publicity.…
Hannibal, Joseph Timothy; Schmidt, Mark Thomas
The National Geologic Map Database (NGMDB) is an Internet-based system for query and retrieval of earth-science map information, created as a collaborative effort between the USGS and the Association of American State Geologists. Its functions include providing a catalog of available map information; a data repository; and a source for general information on the nature and intended uses of the various types of earth-science information. The map catalog is a comprehensive, searchable catalog of all geoscience maps of the United States, in paper or digital format. It includes maps published in geological survey formal series and open-file series, maps in books, theses and dissertations, maps published by park associations, scientific societies, and other agencies, as well as publications that do not contain a map but instead provide a geological description of an area (for example, a state park). The geologic-names lexicon (GEOLEX) is a search tool for lithologic and geochronologic unit names. It now contains roughly 90% of the geologic names found in the most recent listing of USGS-approved geologic names. Current mapping activities at 1:24,000- and 1:100,000-scale are listed in the Geologic Mapping in Progress Database. Information on how to find topographic maps and list of geology-related links is also available.
Described are several aspects and methods of quantitatively measuring geologic time using a constant-rate natural process of radioactive decay. Topics include half lives and decay constants, radiogenic growth, potassium-argon dating, rubidium-strontium dating, and the role of geochronology in support of geological exploration. (DS)
Pankhurst, R. J.
Ride the Web Geological Time Machine at the University of California Museum of Paleontology. Click on an item in the list of 25 geological periods [15 of the 25 periods are available now, the remainder to be completed] and view a page describing each period, its subdivisions, and the life and fossils of that period.
This bookmark, designed for use with U.S. Geological Survey activities at the 2nd USA Science and Engineering Festival (April 26–29, 2012), is adapted from the more detailed Fact Sheet 2010–3059 "Divisions of Geologic Time." The information that it presents is widely sought by educators and students.
U.S. Geological Survey
This classroom activity uses a cake to demonstrate geologic processes and introduce geologic terms. Students will learn how folds and faults occur, recognize the difference in behavior between brittle and ductile rocks, and attempt to predict structures likely to result from application of various forces to layered rocks. They will also attempt to interpret 'core samples' to determine subsurface rock structure.
The method of dating rocks and minerals is known as geochronology. Although in principle this term could be applied to estimation of relative ages according to traditional geological observation, it is nowadays usually restricted to the quantitative measurement of geological time using the constant-rate natural process of radioactive decay. 14C dating is a technique based on measuring the residual radioactivity
R J Pankhurst
Provides background information on the many natural resources we extract from the earth's crust, including metals, graphite, and other minerals, as well as fossil fuels. Contains teaching activities such as a geologic scavenger hunt, a geology chronology, and the recycling of aluminum. Includes a reproducible handout for the activity on aluminum.…
This third edition of the Glossary of Geology contains approximately 37,000 terms, or 1,000 more than the second edition. New entries are especially numerous in the fields of carbonate sedimentology, hydrogeology, marine geology, mineralogy, ore deposits, plate tectonics, snow and ice, and stratigraphic nomenclature. Many of the definitions provide background information.
Bates, R.L.; Jackson, J.A.
This tutorial will help students learn and understand the concepts of geologic time and the age of the Earth. They will investigate the geologic time scale and learn about the use of index fossils and radiometric dating to determine the age of rock formations and fossils.
The University of Wisconsin - Green Bay has created this collection of material and instructions on how to analyze and plot structural geology data. Topics covered includes planes, lines, relations between lines and planes, geologic structures, intersection of structures with topography, stereonet techniques, stress and strain, and analysis of complex structures.
This second issue in a new series intended to serve the planetary geology community with a form for quick and thorough communications includes (1) a catalog of terrestrial craterform structures for northern Europe; (2) abstracts of results of the Planetary Geology Program, and (3) a list of the photographic holdings of regional planetary image facilities.
Woronow, A. (editor)
Remote-sensing techniques are now being used routinely in geologic interpretation for mineral and energy exploration, plant siting, waste disposal, and the development of models for regional and continental tectonics. New spaceborne methods and associated technologies are being developed to produce data from which geologic information about large areas can be derived much more rapidly than by conventional techniques. Copyright ?? 1981 AAAS.
Goetz, A. F. H.; Rowan, L. C.
Biographical sketches are given for several women who made early contributions to the science of geology. A short biography of Inge Lehmann is also included as a more recent example of a woman who has made a notable contribution to the geological field. (Author)
Elder, Eleanor S.
In this activity, students investigate the relationship between intensity of ground motion and type of rock or alluvium, as seen in the 1994 Northridge, California earthquake. They will examine a map of Mercalli intensity, a cross-section showing geologic structures and rock types, and a map of surficial geology, and answer questions pertaining to amplification of ground motion and S-wave velocities.
A Geologic Time Scale (GTS2004) is presented that integrates currently available stratigraphic and geochronologic information. Key features of the new scale are outlined, how it was constructed, and how it can be improved Since Geologic Time Scale 1989 by Harland and his team, many developments have taken place: (1) Stratigraphic standardization through the work of the International Commission on Stratigraphy
Felix Gradstein; James Ogg
First, researchers at the University of California, San Diego discuss the importance of studying earthquakes on the moon, also known as moonquakes, and the Apollo Lunar Seismic Experiment (1). Users can discover the problems scientists must deal with when collecting the moon's seismic data. The students at Case Western Reserve University created the second website to address three missions the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) has planned between now and 2010, including a mission to the moon (2). Visitors can learn about the Lunar-A probe that will be used to photograph the surface of the moon, "monitor moonquakes, measure temperature, and study the internal structure." Next, the Planetary Data Service (PDS) at the USGS offers users four datasets that they can use to create an image of a chosen area of the moon (3). Each dataset can be viewed as a basic clickable map; a clickable map where users can specify size, resolution, and projection; or an advanced version where visitors can select areas by center latitude and longitude. The fourth site, produced by Robert Wickman at the University of North Dakota, presents a map of the volcanoes on the moon and compares their characteristics with those on earth (4). Students can learn how the gravitational forces on the Moon affect the lava flows. Next, Professor Jeff Ryan at the University of South Florida at Tampa supplies fantastic images and descriptive text of the lunar rocks obtained by the Apollo missions (5). Visitors can find links to images of meteorites, terrestrial rocks, and Apollo landings as well. At the Science Channel website, students and educators can find a video clip discussing the geologic studies on the moon along with videos about planets (6). Users can learn about how studying moon rocks help scientists better understand the formation of the earth. Next, the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum presents its research of "lunar topography, cratering and impacts basins, tectonics, lava flows, and regolith properties" (7). Visitors can find summaries of the characteristics of the moon and the main findings since the 1950s. Lastly, the USGS Astrogeology Research Program provides archived lunar images and data collected between 1965 and 1992 by Apollo, Lunar Orbiter, Galileo, and Zond 8 missions (8). While the data is a little old, students and educators can still find valuable materials about the moon's topography, chemical composition, and geology.
On April 20, 2010, the Deepwater Horizon Drilling Platform exploded and sank, causing an enormous oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. U.S. Geological Survey field offices responded immediately by organizing teams to take pre-spill sediment and water samples in order to establish a baseline survey. This...
OneGeology-Europe is making geological spatial data held by the geological surveys of Europe more easily discoverable and accessible via the internet. This will provide a fundamental scientific layer to the European Plate Observation System Rich geological data assets exist in the geological survey of each individual EC Member State, but they are difficult to discover and are not interoperable. For those outside the geological surveys they are not easy to obtain, to understand or to use. Geological spatial data is essential to the prediction and mitigation of landslides, subsidence, earthquakes, flooding and pollution. These issues are global in nature and their profile has also been raised by the OneGeology global initiative for the International Year of Planet Earth 2008. Geology is also a key dataset in the EC INSPIRE Directive, where it is also fundamental to the themes of natural risk zones, energy and mineral resources. The OneGeology-Europe project is delivering a web-accessible, interoperable geological spatial dataset for the whole of Europe at the 1:1 million scale based on existing data held by the European geological surveys. Proof of concept will be applied to key areas at a higher resolution and some geological surveys will deliver their data at high resolution. An important role is developing a European specification for basic geological map data and making significant progress towards harmonising the dataset (an essential first step to addressing harmonisation at higher data resolutions). It is accelerating the development and deployment of a nascent international interchange standard for geological data - GeoSciML, which will enable the sharing and exchange of the data within and beyond the geological community within Europe and globally. The geological dataset for the whole of Europe is not a centralized database but a distributed system. Each geological survey implements and hosts an interoperable web service, delivering their national harmonized geological data. These datasets are registered in a multilingual catalogue, who is one the main part of this system. This catalogue and a common metadata profile allows the discovery of national geological and applied geological maps at all scapes, Such an architecture is facilitating re-use and addition of value by a wide spectrum of users in the public and private sector and identifying, documenting and disseminating strategies for the reduction of technical and business barriers to re-use. In identifying and raising awareness in the user and provider communities, it is moving geological knowledge closer to the end-user where it will have greater societal impact and ensure fuller exploitation of a key data resource gathered at huge public expense. The project is providing examples of best practice in the delivery of digital geological spatial data to users, e.g. in the insurance, property, engineering, planning, mineral resource and environmental sectors. The scientifically attributed map data of the project will provide a pan-European base for science research and, importantly, a prime geoscience dataset capable of integration with other data sets within and beyond the geoscience domain. This presentation will demonstrate the first results of this project and will indicate how OneGeology-Europe is ensuring that Europe may play a leading role in the development of a geoscience spatial data infrastructure (SDI) globally.
Asch, Kristine; Tellez-Arenas, Agnes
A program of cooperative geologic mapping was established between the U.S. Geological Survey and the State geological surveys in fiscal year 1985. The main purpose of the program is to increase general-purpose geologic mapping throughout the Nation. By combining State and Federal resources for geologic mapping through this cooperative program, new mapping has been started, and both geologic and geophysical maps that resulted from the program have already been published. The program grew from mapping projects in 18 States in fiscal year 1985 to a program involving 29 States in 1986, as the combined State and Federal resources in the program grew from about $2 million to nearly $3 million. As the program enlarges its scope, it faces the challenge of producing high-quality maps with uniform standards while promoting the use of new technologies to increase the speed of geologic and geophysical mapping and map production.
Reinhardt, Juergen; Miller, David M.
Polar processes can be sensitive indicators of global climate, and the geological features associated with polar ice caps can therefore indicate evolution of climate with time. The polar regions on Mars have distinctive morphologic and climatologic features: thick layered deposits, seasonal CO2 frost caps extending to mid latitudes, and near-polar residual frost deposits that survive the summer. The relationship of the seasonal and residual frost caps to the layered deposits has been poorly constrained, mainly by the limited spatial resolution of the available data. In particular, it has not been known if the residual caps represent simple thin frost cover or substantial geologic features. Here we show that the residual cap on the south pole is a distinct geologic unit with striking collapse and erosional topography; this is very different from the residual cap on the north pole, which grades into the underlying layered materials. These findings indicate that the differences between the caps are substantial (rather than reflecting short-lived differences in frost cover), and so support the idea of long-term asymmetry in the polar climates of Mars.
Thomas, P. C.; Malin, M. C.; Edgett, K. S.; Carr, M. H.; Hartmann, W. K.; Ingersoll, A. P.; James, P. B.; Soderblom, L. A.; Veverka, J.; Sullivan, R.
Described is a report outline for geologic reports. Essential elements include title; abstract; introduction; stratigraphy; petrography; geochemistry; petrology; geophysics; structural geology; geologic history; modeling; economics; conclusions; and recommendations. (Author/CW)
Webb, Elmer James
Fundamentals of Structural Geology provides a new framework for the investigation of geological structures by integrating field mapping and mechanical analysis. Assuming a basic knowledge of physical geology, introductory calculus and physics, it emphasizes the observational data, modern mapping technology, principles of continuum mechanics, and the mathematical and computational skills, necessary to quantitatively map, describe, model, and explain deformation in Earth's lithosphere. By starting from the fundamental conservation laws of mass and momentum, the constitutive laws of material behavior, and the kinematic relationships for strain and rate of deformation, the authors demonstrate the relevance of solid and fluid mechanics to structural geology. This book offers a modern quantitative approach to structural geology for advanced students and researchers in structural geology and tectonics. It is supported by a website hosting images from the book, additional colour images, student exercises and MATLAB scripts. Solutions to the exercises are available to instructors. The book integrates field mapping using modern technology with the analysis of structures based on a complete mechanics MATLAB is used to visualize physical fields and analytical results and MATLAB scripts can be downloaded from the website to recreate textbook graphics and enable students to explore their choice of parameters and boundary conditions The supplementary website hosts color images of outcrop photographs used in the text, supplementary color images, and images of textbook figures for classroom presentations The textbook website also includes student exercises designed to instill the fundamental relationships, and to encourage the visualization of the evolution of geological structures; solutions are available to instructors
Pollard, David D.; Fletcher, Raymond C.
The global coverage of OneGeology Web Services (www.onegeology.org and portal.onegeology.org) achieved since 2007 from the 120 participating geological surveys will be reviewed and issues arising discussed. Recent enhancements to the OneGeology Web Services capabilities will be covered including new up to 5 star service accreditation scheme utilising the ISO/OGC Web Mapping Service standard version 1.3, core ISO 19115 metadata additions and Version 2.0 Web Feature Services (WFS) serving the new IUGS-CGI GeoSciML V3.2 geological web data exchange language standard (http://www.geosciml.org/) with its associated 30+ IUGS-CGI available vocabularies (http://resource.geosciml.org/ and http://srvgeosciml.brgm.fr/eXist2010/brgm/client.html). Use of the CGI simpelithology and timescale dictionaries now allow those who wish to do so to offer data harmonisation to query their GeoSciML 3.2 based Web Feature Services and their GeoSciML_Portrayal V2.0.1 (http://www.geosciml.org/) Web Map Services in the OneGeology portal (http://portal.onegeology.org). Contributing to OneGeology involves offering to serve ideally 1:1000,000 scale geological data (in practice any scale now is warmly welcomed) as an OGC (Open Geospatial Consortium) standard based WMS (Web Mapping Service) service from an available WWW server. This may either be hosted within the Geological Survey or a neighbouring, regional or elsewhere institution that offers to serve that data for them i.e. offers to help technically by providing the web serving IT infrastructure as a 'buddy'. OneGeology is a standards focussed Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI) and works to ensure that these standards work together and it is now possible for European Geological Surveys to register their INSPIRE web services within the OneGeology SDI (e.g. see http://www.geosciml.org/geosciml/3.2/documentation/cookbook/INSPIRE_GeoSciML_Cookbook%20_1.0.pdf). The Onegeology portal (http://portal.onegeology.org) is the first port of call for anyone wishing to discover the availability of global geological web services and has new functionality to view and use such services including multiple projection support. KEYWORDS : OneGeology; GeoSciML V 3.2; Data exchange; Portal; INSPIRE; Standards; OGC; Interoperability; GeoScience information; WMS; WFS; Cookbook.
Duffy, Tim; Tellez-Arenas, Agnes
Students have learned the rudiments of outcrop evaluation, surveying and mapping of geomorphic features, and the hazards of urbanization in Juneau's glacierized and high relief terrain. Their task in this lab is to assess geologic hazards inherent in the landscape by collecting structural data and making observations at 6 sites with interesting features. They use their field notes as a basis for writing an engineering geology report to the city with their recommendations for site selection for home building.
Connor, Cathy L.
This virtual tour features three-dimensional images from the United States Geological Survey's (USGS) collection. It introduces visitors to the geology, landforms, and volcanism of Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. Features of interest include Kilauea Caldera and Halema'uma'u Crater, which have been the sites of very recent volcanic activity. There are also views of active lava flows, steam vents, and lava tubes. The 3-D images are anaglyphs and require red and cyan 3-D viewing glasses.
The area of New Siberian Archipelago (NSA) encompasses different tectonic blocks is a clue for reconstruction of geological structure and geodynamic evolution of East Arctic. According to palaeomagnetic study two parts of the archipelago - Bennett and Anjou Islands formed a single continental block at least from the Early Palaeozoic. Isotope dating of De Long Islands igneous and sedimentary rocks suggests Neoproterozoic (Baikalian) age of its basement. The De Long platform sedimentary cover may be subdivided into two complexes: (1) intermediate of PZ-J variously deformed and metamorphosed rocks and (2) K-KZ of weakly lithified sediments. The former complex comprises the Cambrian riftogenic volcanic-clastic member which overlain by Cambrian-Ordovician turbiditic sequence, deposited on a continental margin. This Lower Palaeozoic complex is unconformably overlain by Early Cretaceous (K-Ar age of c.120 Ma) basalts with HALIP petrochemical affinities. In Anjou Islands the intermediate sedimentary complex encompasses the lower Ordovician -Lower Carboniferous sequence of shallow-marine limestone and subordinate dolomite, mudstone and sandstone that bear fossils characteristic of the Siberian biogeographic province. The upper Mid Carboniferous - Jurassic part is dominated by shallow-marine clastic sediments, mainly clays. The K-KZ complex rests upon the lower one with angular unconformity and consists mainly of coal-bearing clastic sediments with rhyolite lavas and tuffs in the bottom (117-110 Ma by K-Ar) while the complexe's upper part contains intraplate alkalic basalt and Neogene-Quaternary limburgite. The De-Long-Anjou block's features of geology and evolution resemble those of Wrangel Island located some 1000 km eastward. The Laptev Sea shelf outcrops in intrashelf rises (Belkovsky and Stolbovoy Islands) where its geology and structure may be observed directly. On Belkovsky Island non-dislocated Oligocene-Miocene sedimentary cover of littoral-marine coal-bearing unconformably overlies folded basement. The latter encompasses two sedimentary units: the Middle Devonian shallow-marine carbonate and Late-Devonian-Permian olistostrome - flysch deposited in transitional environment from carbonate platform to passive margin. Dating of detrital zircons suggests the Siberian Platform and Taimyr-Severnaya Zemlya areas as the most possible provenance. The magmatic activity on Belkovsky Island resulted in formation of Early Triassic gabbro-dolerite similar to the Siberian Platform traps. Proximity of Belkovsky Island to the north of Verkhoyansk foldbelt allows continuation of the latter into the Laptev Sea shelf. The geology of Bolshoy Lyakhovsky Island is discrepant from the rest of the NSA. In the south of Bolshoy Lyakhovsky Island the ophiolite crops complex out: it is composed of tectonic melange of serpentinized peridotite, bandedf gabbro, pillow-basalt, and pelagic sediments (black shales and cherts). All the rocks underwent epidot - amphibolite, glaucophane and greenschist facies metamorphism. The ophiolite is intruded by various in composition igneous massifs - from gabbro-diorite to leuco-granite, which occurred at 110-120 Ma. The Bolshoy Lyakhovsky Island structure is thought to be a westerly continuation of the South Anui suture of Chukchi.
Sobolev, Nikolay; Petrov, Evgeniy
The Quaternary geologic map (sheet 1) and explanatory figures and cross sections (sheet 2) portray the geologic features formed in Connecticut during the Quaternary Period, which includes the Pleistocene (glacial) and Holocene (postglacial) Epochs. The Quaternary Period has been a time of development of many details of the landscape and of all the surficial deposits. At least twice in the late Pleistocene, continental ice sheets swept across Connecticut. Their effects are of pervasive importance to the present occupants of the land. The Quaternary geologic map illustrates the geologic history and the distribution of depositional environments during the emplacement of glacial and postglacial surficial deposits and the landforms resulting from those events.
Stone, Janet Radway; Schafer, John P.; London, Elizabeth Haley; DiGiacomo-Cohen, Mary L.; Lewis, Ralph S.; Thompson, Woodrow B.
Sure, you might know that Longfellow was a member of the literati who called Maine home, but did you know that Robert McCloskey was one as well? In case you might have forgotten, McCloskey was the author and illustrator of those children's classics "Make Way for Ducklings" and "Blueberries for Sal". It's easy to learn about dozens of Maine authors via this delightful website created as part of a partnership between the Maine Sunday Telegram and a number of library and humanities groups in Maine. Currently, the map features over 50 sites, and visitors can browse around at their leisure to learn about authors like Longfellow, Stephen King, and Richard Russo. Clicking on each site will pull up a brief excerpt of each author's work, along with a brief bio.
This volume goes beyond a discussion of petroleum geology and the techniques of hydrocarbon (oil and gas) logging as a reservoir evaluation tool. It provides the logging geologist with a review of geological techniques and classification systems that will ensure the maximum development of communicable geological information. Contents include: 1. Introduction--cuttings recovery, cutting sampling, core sampling, rock classification; 2. Detrital rocks--classification, description; 3. Carbonate rocks--classification, description; 4. Chemical rocks-introduction, siliceous rocks, ferruginous rocks, aluminous rocks, phosphatic rocks, aluminous rocks, carbonaceous rocks; 5. Igneous and metamorpbic rocks; Appendix; References and Index.
A cave is a natural opening in the ground extending beyond the zone of light and large enough to permit the entry of man. Occurring in a wide variety of rock types and caused by widely differing geological processes, caves range in size from single small rooms to intercorinecting passages many miles long. The scientific study of caves is called speleology (from the Greek words spelaion for cave and logos for study). It is a composite science based on geology, hydrology, biology, and archaeology, and thus holds special interest for earth scientists of the U.S. Geological Survey.
Morgan, I. M., Davies, W. E.
This site describes the geology of The Great Sand Dunes National Monument and Preserve. Active links allow students to explore the geologic timeline, geologic cross section in animation, and the wind regime. A reversing dune is shown in animation and other dunes such as star, parabolic, barchan, and transverse are discussed. Another section illustrates sand recycling by seasonal streams. A sand deposits map shows topography, dunes watershed, old national monument boundary, roads, and surface water and a section called 'How Much Sand' quantifies the description. Artwork on this site includes both adult and 'Hands on the Land' student artwork while photography depicts dunes, landscape, animals, plants, and human history.
This is the homepage of the Indiana Geological Survey (IGS). Site materials include information on Earth science issues such as groundwater, mapping, coal and mineral resources, oil and gas, and seismic hazards. There is also information on the geologic time scale and stratigraphic record, rocks and minerals, fossils (including nautiloids of the Ordovician period in Indiana), caves and karst topography in Indiana, and glacial geology. The Geographic Information Ssytems (GIS) and mapping section includes a GIS atlas for the state, an online map viewer, links to the Indiana coal mine information system, petroleum database management system, and a download page where users can access GIS datasets for the state.
This webpage of the National Park Service (NPS) and United States Geological Survey (USGS) discusses geologic time and what it represents. Beginning about 4.6 billion years ago and ending in the present day, this site exhibits (to scale) the various eras, periods, eons, and epochs of Earth's history with a downloadable geologic time scale available. Links provide maps of what the Earth looked like at various times in its history, as well as a description of how scientists developed the time scale and how they know the age of the Earth.
The Florida Geological Survey (FGS) homepage provides data, research materials and interpretations on aquifer systems, geologic frameworks, landforms, energy and non-energy mineral resources, and geologic hazards which which can be used to address issues of conservation and protection, sustainable development, human health protection, and implementation of successful environmental regulatory programs. Educational materials for earth science and the pre-historic development of the state are also provided. These include topics such as sinkholes, data and maps, rock and mineral identification, minerals, hydrogeology, and fossils.
From the University of Chicago Press's Journals Division, the Journal of Geology is currently available online free of charge (note: subscription fees may soon apply, but no initiation date is provided). This first-rate technical journal, which publishes "research and theory in geophysics, geochemistry, sedimentology, geomorphology, petrology, plate tectonics, volcanology, structural geology, mineralogy, and planetary sciences" has been in print form since 1893. All of the 1999 issues of the Journal of Geology electronic edition are available here. Internet users can access full-text articles with internal links to references and figures (html, .pdf. .ps).
Many problems in geology, especially structural geology, can only be solved by detailed mapping. Presently, mapping is still\\u000a mainly carried out on paper using techniques from the 19th Century. However, tools are now available to carry out most mapping tasks on microcomputers in the field without any need\\u000a of paper. This speeds up geological mapping and reduces the errors involved
Cees W. Passchier; Ulrike Exner
The paper presents an overview of the main types of uncertainty in geology. The best guess and uncertainty oriented approaches are outlined. Traditional methods of uncertainty analysis—deterministic and probabilistic—are discussed with special references to their limitations in geology. New mathematical methods, developed during the last decades are suitable to handle uncertainty in geology in scalar, spatial, and spatial-temporal conditions, such
George Bárdossy; János Fodor
This National Park Service (NPS) site gives information on the Ice Age National Scientific Preserve in Wisconsin, including geology, park maps, a photo album, and other media (books, videos, CDs). There is also a selection of links to other geologic and conservation organizations, and to information for visitors. This preserve contains a wealth of glacial features associated with the most recent Pleistocene continental glaciation including drumlins, kames, kettles, moraines, erratics, and eskers. It also contains a segment of the Ice Age National Scenic Trail, a 1000-plus mile hiking and backpacking trail that passes through this unique glacial landscape.
The geologic value of small scale airphotos is emphasized by describing the application of high altitude oblique and 1:120,000 to 1:145,000 scale vertical airphotos to several geologic problems in California. These examples show that small-scale airphotos can be of use to geologists in the following ways: (1) high altitude, high oblique airphotos show vast areas in one view; and (2) vertical airphotos offer the most efficient method of discovering the major topographic features and structural and lithologic characteristics of terrain.
Clark, M. M.
The Keck Geology Consortium Structural Geology Slide Set was compiled by H. Robert Burger, Smith College with the support of the W. M. Keck Foundation, Los Angeles. The database was developed by the Department of Earth and Ocean Sciences, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada. The CD-ROM comprises 100 high resolution photographs of structural features ranging from microscopic to aerial photograph scale. This web site provides a preview of the set (at a significantly lower resolution). It is intended for teaching use.
Describes an undergraduate structural geology course that incorporates field lab time and research. Lectures, outside readings, and in-class experimentation are coordinated with the field work to prepare a scientific report. (MA)
Davis, George H.
Briefly reviews the worldwide developments in petroleum geology in 1971, including exploration, new fields, and oil production. This report is condensed from the October Bulletin of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists. (PR)
This site from the National Park Service briefly addresses the geology of Devil's Tower. The evolution of various theories on the formation of the tower are discussed. A slide show of the emplacement of the tower is also available.
National Park Service (NPS)
This paper discusses the advantages of both geometry of data required for the reconstruction algorithm, orthogonal polynomial expansion on disc (OPED), and polynomial structure of this algorithm. We show that this type of geometry is a result of special parameterisation used within the OPED formalism. The practicability of the OPED data geometry is discussed and it is shown that the data of such geometry can be acquired directly. A method of reducing typical artefacts by using the polynomial structure of the algorithm is summarised as well. PMID:20154021
Tischenko, O; Xu, Y; Hoeschen, C
Insomnia is a sleep trouble in which the patient has difficulties in falling or in staying asleep. There are patients who fall asleep easily, but wake up too early; others have troubles in falling asleep and a third category has troubles with both falling and staying asleep. Independent of the type of insomnia, the final result is a poor-quality sleep, responsible for depressive or irritable mood, loss in concentration, learning and memory capacities. Sleep is essential to emotional and physical health. Inadequate sleep over a period of time is increasing the risks for obesity, diabetes, heart disease and depression. People suffering of chronic insomnia show an increased predisposition for psychiatric problems. People who had sleep troubles reported impaired ability to fulfill tasks involving memory, learning, logical reasoning and mathematical operations. New studies show that insomnia might be a result of the decrease of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), a neurochemical responsible for the decrease of activity in many brain areas. Lower brain GABA levels were also found in people with major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders. Hypnotics, such as benzodiazepines are acting increasing the activity of the GABA neurons. Exposure to stress is associated with a greater risk for insomnia, with individual differences. Stress activates the sympathetic nervous system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Increased activity of HPA axis is stimulating the secretion of corticotropin-releasing hormone, further inducing sleep disruption. Insomnia is also associated with depression and anxiety disorders, in which the HPA axis is characteristically overactive. People who show predisposition to sleep troubles have a hyperactive sympathetic nervous system, they are usually suffering from hyperarousal and they have a more intense response to stressful events. Primary sleep troubles (insomnia) has no apparent causes, is lasting more than one month, and is affecting approximately a quarter of the adult population. Secondary insomnia is associated with chronic heart and/or lung diseases, medication which interfere with onset or duration of sleep, constant change of the sleep habits, restless leg syndrome, etc. Besides lifestyle changes and cogn itive-behavioral therapy, in the treatment of insomnia are used hypnotic medicines, advised to be prescribed on short-term cures of one or two weeks. Benzodiazepines are inducing and maintaining sleep. Longer use is responsible for severe side effects--dependency and withdrawal syndrome, daytime drowsiness and dizziness, low blood pressure, memory troubles and change in the melatonin secretion during night-time period. For these reasons were created non-benzodiazepines hypnotics--zolpidem, zaleplon, which are as effective as benzodiazepines, but have fewer side effects. Nevertheless the use of these hypnotics is also restricted to 7-10 days. Zopiclone (Imovane) another short-acting non-benzodiazepine hypnotic has a different chemical structure, but a pharmacologic profile similar to that of the benzod iazepines; the treatment should be of maximum four weeks. Besides generally known concerns related to the use of hypnotics (residual sedative effects, memory impairment, rebound insomnia, abuse, dose escalation, dependency and withdrawal problems) it was signaled a risk of death associated with the use of current hypnotic medications. PMID:23272543
Amih?esei, Ioana Cristina; Mungiu, O C
This site contains a variety of educational and supporting materials for faculty teaching in the emerging field of geology and human health. You will find links to internet resources, books, teaching activities, and a group email list, as well as posters, presentations and discussions from the spring 2004 workshop on Geology and Human Health. These resources reflect the contributions of faculty members from across the country and the collections will continue to grow as materials are developed.
This site offers materials on Manitoba geology and minerals, mining and mineral exploration, a Digital Elevation Model of Southern Manitoba (DEMSM) landforms including oblique views, an interactive GIS map gallery of minerals and geology, a study of paleofloods in the Red River Basin including photographs illustrating how scientists delineated the paleofloods, and information on the Manitoba Protected Areas Initiative. Some maps and reports are available to download.
The Johnston Geology Museum is part of the Emporia State University Earth Science Department. There is an online virtual tour of the collection which includes a Cretaceous mosasaur, a giant ground sloth, mastodon bones and tusk, brachiopods, Paleozoic corals, sedimentary structures, minerals and crystals. The Museum contains geological specimens predominantly from Kansas, and include the world famous Hamilton Quarry Fossil Assemblage, the Tri-State Mining Display, petrified tree stumps, and the Hawkins and the Calkins Indian Artifact Collections.
The slides provide a fun way of discussing the immensity of geologic time and help to grasp the age of the earth, the time gaps between major geologic events, and the relative minuteness of humans time on earth. After the discussion with the class, students are given opportunity to develop their own analogies using "everyday" things (other than the calendar and money examples used in this activity).
With geological data available for all inner planets except Venus, we are entering an era of true comparative planetary geology, when knowledge of the differences and similarities for classes of structures (e.g., shield volcanoes) will lead to a better understanding of general geological processes, regardless of planet. Thus, it is imperative that planetologists, particularly those involved in geological mapping and surface feature analysis for terrestrial planets, be familiar with volcanic terrain in terms of its origin, structure, and morphology. One means of gaining this experience is through field trips in volcanic terrains - hence, the Planetology Conference in Hawaii. In addition, discussions with volcanologists at the conference provide an important basis for establishing communications between the two fields that will facilitate comparative studies as more data become available.
Greeley, R. (editor)
In planetary geology, lava flows on the Moon and Mars are commonly treated as relatively simple systems. Some of the complexities of actual lava flows are illustrated using the main flow system of the 1984 Mauna Loa eruption. The outline, brief narrative,...
H. J. Moore
Presents a theory of feature representation that accounts for feature indeterminacy and feature resolution within the lexical functional grammar (LFG) framework. The representations discussed, together with minimal extensions of LFG's description language, enable a simple and intuitive characterization of both these phenomena. (Author/VWL)
Dalrymple, Mary; Kaplan, Ronald M.
This map shows the geology of 675 km2 (260 mi2) on the west slope of the Sierra Nevada, California, mainly in Sequoia National Park and Sequoia National Forest. It was produced by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) at the request of the National Park Servi...
J. G. Moore T. W. Sisson
This textbook deals with the fundamental physical processes necessary for an understanding of plate tectonics and a variety of geologic phenomena. The first chapter reviews plate tectonics; its main purpose is to provide physics, chemistry, and engineering students with the geologic background necessary to understand the applications throughout the rest of the book. It goes on to discuss in following
D. L. Turcotte; G. Schubert
Geological storage of carbon dioxide requires careful risk analysis to avoid unintended consequences associated with the subsurface injection. Most negative consequences of subsurface injection are associated with leakage of the injected CO2 out of the geological formation into which it is injected. Such leakage may occur through natural geological features, including fractures and faults, or it may occur through human-created
M. A. Celia; S. Bachu; S. Gasda
We conducted two geological/geophysical cruises in the Marmara Sea with the main objectives of identifying active ruptures related to the North Anatolian fault system, date fault ruptures on the seafloor, define the spatial-temporal distribution and the style of deformation in this portion of the strike-slip boundary, and acquire elements useful for assessing seismic hazards at the same scale of paleoseismology on land. We obtained integrated geophysical data, such as seismic reflection profiles at different resolutions (from few cm to few m), high-resolution multibeam and side-scan sonar imagery, together with facies analysis of sedimentary samples along several core transects. Although we acquired data from several locations on the Marmara shelves, we focused mainly on the Izmit Gulf, where we obtained high-resolution acoustic images of the North Anatolian fault and measured fault-related offsets of C-14-dated sedimentary features, including a submerged canyon, a 85 m paleo-shoreline, a buried fluvial channel and a paleo-island that preserves at its top shoreface deposits at a depth of 40 m below the present-day sea level. A detailed 3-D reconstruction of these features has been carried out with an integrated approach involving seismo-strartigraphic analyses and morphological studies of the sea floor and of the base of the Holocene mud, including estimate of acoustic reflectivity and signal amplitude at different time slices. We also collected cores to detect signature of earthquake ruptures in the sediment column along the fault plane and/or to identify secondary structures, such as landslides, in the vicinity of the fault or in the adjacent basins (mass wasting, turbidites). These data were used to define the kinematics along the active fault strands and to verify the feasibility of the paleo-seismological approach under water.
Gasperini, L.; Marmara2000; Marmara2001 Teams
This 1:24,000-scale geologic map is a compilation of previous geologic maps and new geologic mapping of areas in and around Chickasaw National Recreation Area. The geologic map includes revisions of numerous unit contacts and faults and a number of previously “undifferentiated” rock units were subdivided in some areas. Numerous circular-shaped hills in and around Chickasaw National Recreation Area are probably the result of karst-related collapse and may represent the erosional remnants of large, exhumed sinkholes. Geospatial registration of existing, smaller scale (1:72,000- and 1:100,000-scale) geologic maps of the area and construction of an accurate Geographic Information System (GIS) database preceded 2 years of fieldwork wherein previously mapped geology (unit contacts and faults) was verified and new geologic mapping was carried out. The geologic map of Chickasaw National Recreation Area and this pamphlet include information pertaining to how the geologic units and structural features in the map area relate to the formation of the northern Arbuckle Mountains and its Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer. The development of an accurate geospatial GIS database and the use of a handheld computer in the field greatly increased both the accuracy and efficiency in producing the 1:24,000-scale geologic map.
Blome, Charles D.; Lidke, David J.; Wahl, Ronald R.; Golab, James A.
Texture is seen as an important spatial feature useful for identifying objects or regions of interest in an image. While textural features have been widely used in analyzing a variety of photographic images, they have not been used in processing radar images. A procedure for extracting a set of textural features for characterizing small areas in radar images is presented, and it is shown that these features can be used in classifying segments of radar images corresponding to different geological formations.
Shanmugan, K. S.; Narayanan, V.; Frost, V. S.; Stiles, J. A.; Holtzman, J. C.
The GSJ is the main supporting organization of IYPE Japan, which is an implementation body of IYPE in Japan, serving as its secretariat. During the IYPE triennial activity, the GSJ has been supporting development of Geparks, establishment of "the Geology Day" and the Earth Science Olympiad activities with some academic societies, and has distributed geological maps with IYPE logo. The GSJ also established an outreach network "Geo-networks Tsukuba" as a local legacy of the IYPE, and has managed it with a local government, research organizations, nonprofit corporations and local media to increase geological and environmental literacy of public, especially among young people. The GSJ-AIST has also contributed internationally to IYPE by joining two international projects, OneGeology and the CCOP Book project. Geoparks in Japan are characterized by following features. The Japanese Islands and the surrounding seas are situated in the area of unique geologic features; the place where several tectonic plates meet and collide. This causes earthquakes and volcanic activities, and makes Japan one of most dynamic areas on the earth. The dynamics of the earth bring about not only geological hazards but also a lot of blessings. In August of 2009, three Geoparks, the Toya Caldera and Usu Volcano Geopark, the Itoigawa Geopark and the Unzen Volcanic Area Geopark, were accepted to join the Global Geopark Network from Japan for the first time. Since its launch in 2006, the GSJ has been playing a major role in promoting Geoparks in Japan together with Geological Society of Japan. The GSJ hosts the Japan Geopark Committee (JGC) for quality evaluation, serving as the information center of Geoparks in Japan. The Geology Day of Japan (10th of May) has been set up by the academic societies for geology in Japan and GSJ in 2007. The Geology Day is expected to provide the chances for the public to enjoy field trips and excursions and to understand the importance of geo-diversity. The Day commemorates the first publication of the geological map of Japan on 10th of May in 1878. A total of fifty-nine geology-related organizations including natural museums and academic societies have joined the eighty nine events for Geology Day all over Japan in 2009. After the great success of 1st Iinternational Earth Science Olympiad(IESO) in Korea (2007), 2nd Philippines (2008) and 3rd Taiwan (2009), 6th IESO was decided to be held in Japan (2012). We also expect great success of 4th IESO in Indonesia and 5th IESO in Italy. Earth science communities in Japan including Societies, Universities, and Research Institutes take present-day environmental crisis seriously and throw strong messages to young people for saving the earth. Under such circumstances, IESO provides wonderful chances to think of the earth, to make friendships among worldwide participants and to understand each other. We, earth science communities in Japan, promise strongly to support 6th IESO in Tsukuba, Japan (2012) and then to organize this event efficiently. Through the triennial activity of IYPE we all learned the importance of international cooperation and public outreach.
Tsukuda, Eikichi; Kodama, Kisaburo; Miyazaki, Teruki
In many places, earthquakes with similar characteristics have been shown to recur. If this is common, then relatively small deformations associated with individual earthquake cycles should accumulate over time to create geological structures. It is shown that existing models developed to describe leveling line changes associated with the seismic cycle can be adapted to explain geological features associated with a fault. In these models an elastic layer containing the fault overlies a viscous half-space with a different density. Fault motion associated with an earthquake results in immediate deformation followed by a long period of readjustment as stresses relax in the viscous layer and isostatic equilibrium is restored. The flexural rigidity of the crust (or the apparent elastic thickness) provides the main control of the width of a structure. The loading due to erosion and deposition of sediment determines the ratio of uplift to subsidence between the two sides of the fault. -Authors
King, G. C. P.; Stein, R. S.; Rundle, J. B.
Alterations of main pulmonary artery have been described in literature. Main pulmonary artery aneurysm is very rare with few available published data. We present a case of echocardiographic finding of a main pulmonary artery aneurysm in a 78-year-old Italian woman. PMID:19631397
Patanè, Salvatore; Marte, Filippo; Dattilo, Giuseppe; Sturiale, Mauro
The MEMIN research unit (Multidisciplinary Experimental and Modeling Impact research Network) is focused on performing hypervelocity impact experiments, analyzing experimental impact craters and modeling cratering rocesses in geological materials. The main goal of the MEMIN project is to comprehensively quantify impact processes by conducting stringently controlled experimental impact cratering campaigns on the mesoscale with a multidisciplinary analytical approach. As a unique feature we use two-stage light gas guns capable of producing impact craters in thedecimeter size-range in solid rocks that, in turn, allow detailed spatial analysis of petrophysical, structural, and geochemical changes in target rocks and ejecta.
Poelchau, M. H.; Deutsch, A.; Thoma, K.; Kenkmann, T.
No study of Maine weather would be complete without analysis of the year of 1816 - the year with no summer in an area from western Pennsylvania and New York, up through Quebec and across to Maine and the Canadian maritimes. In this five-unit lesson, students will investigate the causes and effects of the Fabled Maine Winter by exploring a variety of data sources. They will locate, graph, and analyze meteorological and climatological data for Portland, Maine, for more recent years to try to find one that most closely resembles the fabled Maine winter of 1816.
The Minnesota Geological Survey (MGS) was established in 1872 as part of the University of Minnesota. The function of the MGS is to serve "the people of Minnesota by providing systematic geoscience information to support stewardship of water, land, and mineral resources." This website from the Digital Conservancy at the University of Minnesota provides access to all of items published by the MGS. The items are contained within the Collections area, and visitors will find headings here such as "Geology of Minnesota Parks," "County Atlas Series," and the "Bulletin of the Minnesota Geological and Natural History Survey." First-time visitors can check out the Recent Submissions area on the right-hand side of the page to look over some new findings, including hydrogeological maps of different counties around the state. One item that should not be missed is the "Geology of Minnesota: A Centennial Volume" from 1972. It's a tremendous volume and one that cannot be ignored by students of the physical landscape and geological history of the state.
Medicine Lake volcano, located in the southern Cascades ~55 km east-northeast of Mount Shasta, is a large rear-arc, shield-shaped volcano with an eruptive history spanning nearly 500 k.y. Geologic mapping of Medicine Lake volcano has been digitally compiled as a spatial database in ArcGIS. Within the database, coverage feature classes have been created representing geologic lines (contacts, faults, lava tubes, etc.), geologic unit polygons, and volcanic vent location points. The database can be queried to determine the spatial distributions of different rock types, geologic units, and other geologic and geomorphic features. These data, in turn, can be used to better understand the evolution, growth, and potential hazards of this large, rear-arc Cascades volcano. Queries of the database reveal that the total area covered by lavas of Medicine Lake volcano, which range in composition from basalt through rhyolite, is about 2,200 km2, encompassing all or parts of 27 U.S. Geological Survey 1:24,000-scale topographic quadrangles. The maximum extent of these lavas is about 80 km north-south by 45 km east-west. Occupying the center of Medicine Lake volcano is a 7 km by 12 km summit caldera in which nestles its namesake, Medicine Lake. The flanks of the volcano, which are dotted with cinder cones, slope gently upward to the caldera rim, which reaches an elevation of nearly 2,440 m. Approximately 250 geologic units have been mapped, only half a dozen of which are thin surficial units such as alluvium. These volcanic units mostly represent eruptive events, each commonly including a vent (dome, cinder cone, spatter cone, etc.) and its associated lava flow. Some cinder cones have not been matched to lava flows, as the corresponding flows are probably buried, and some flows cannot be correlated with vents. The largest individual units on the map are all basaltic in composition, including the late Pleistocene basalt of Yellowjacket Butte (296 km2 exposed), the largest unit on the map, whose area is partly covered by a late Holocene andesite flow. Silicic lava flows are mostly confined to the main edifice of the volcano, with the youngest rhyolite flows found in and near the summit caldera, including the rhyolitic Little Glass Mountain (~1,000 yr B.P.) and Glass Mountain (~950 yr B.P.) flows, which are the youngest eruptions at Medicine Lake volcano. In postglacial time, 17 eruptions have added approximately 7.5 km3 to the volcano’s total estimated volume of 600 km3, which may be the largest by volume among Cascade Range volcanoes. The volcano has erupted nine times in the past 5,200 years, a rate more frequent than has been documented at all other Cascade volcanoes except Mount St. Helens.
Ramsey, D. W.; Donnelly-Nolan, J. M.; Felger, T. J.
The Remote Geologic Analysis (RGA) system was developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to identify crustal structures that may affect seismic wave propagation from nuclear tests. Using automated methods, the RGA system identifies all valleys in a digital elevation model (DEM), fits three-dimensional vectors to valley bottoms, and catalogs all potential fracture or fault planes defined by coplanar pairs of valley vectors. The system generates a cluster hierarchy of planar features having greater-than-random density that may represent areas of anomalous topography manifesting structural control of erosional drainage development. Because RGA uses computer methods to identify zones of hypothesized control of topography, ground truth using a well-characterized test site was critical in our evaluation of RGA's characterization of inaccessible test sites for seismic verification studies. Therefore, we applied RGA to a study area centered on Yucca Flat at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and compared our results with both mapped geology and geologic structures and with seismic yield-magnitude models. This is the final report of PNL's RGA development project for peer review within the US Department of Energy Office of Arms Control (OAC) seismic-verification community. In this report, we discuss the Yucca Flat study area, the analytical basis of the RGA system and its application to Yucca Flat, the results of the analysis, and the relation of the analytical results to known topography, geology, and geologic structures. 41 refs., 39 figs., 2 tabs.
Foley, M.G.; Heasler, P.G.; Hoover, K.A. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Rynes, N.J. (Northern Illinois Univ., De Kalb, IL (United States)); Thiessen, R.L.; Alfaro, J.L. (Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States))
The Remote Geologic Analysis (RGA) system was developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to identify crustal structures that may affect seismic wave propagation from nuclear tests. Using automated methods, the RGA system identifies all valleys in a digital elevation model (DEM), fits three-dimensional vectors to valley bottoms, and catalogs all potential fracture or fault planes defined by coplanar pairs of valley vectors. The system generates a cluster hierarchy of planar features having greater-than-random density that may represent areas of anomalous topography manifesting structural control of erosional drainage development. Because RGA uses computer methods to identify zones of hypothesized control of topography, ground truth using a well-characterized test site was critical in our evaluation of RGA`s characterization of inaccessible test sites for seismic verification studies. Therefore, we applied RGA to a study area centered on Yucca Flat at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and compared our results with both mapped geology and geologic structures and with seismic yield-magnitude models. This is the final report of PNL`s RGA development project for peer review within the US Department of Energy Office of Arms Control (OAC) seismic-verification community. In this report, we discuss the Yucca Flat study area, the analytical basis of the RGA system and its application to Yucca Flat, the results of the analysis, and the relation of the analytical results to known topography, geology, and geologic structures. 41 refs., 39 figs., 2 tabs.
Foley, M.G.; Heasler, P.G.; Hoover, K.A. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Rynes, N.J. [Northern Illinois Univ., De Kalb, IL (United States); Thiessen, R.L.; Alfaro, J.L. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States)
Geologic studies provide a valuable perspective on the importance of greenhouse forcing for climate change. On both Pleistocene and tectonic time scales, changes in climate are positively correlated with greenhouse gas variations. However, the sensitivity of the system to greenhouse gas changes cannot yet be constrained by paleoclimate data below its present large range. Geologic records do not support one of the major predictions of greenhouse models-namely, that tropical sea surface temperatures will increase. Geologic data also suggest that winter cooling in high-latitude land areas is less than predicted by models. As the above-mentioned predictions appear to be systemic features of the present generation of climate models, some significant changes in model design may be required to reconcile models and geologic data. However, full acceptance of this conclusion requires more measurements and more systematic compilations of existing geologic data. Since progress in data collection in this area has been quite slow, uncertainties associated with these conclusions may persist for some time. 106 refs., 6 figs.
Crowley, T.J. (Texas A M Univ., College Station, TX (United States))
The Remote Geologic Analysis (RGA) system was developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to identify crustal structures that may affect seismic wave propagation from nuclear tests. Using automated methods, the RGA system identifies all valleys in a digital elevation model (DEM), fits three-dimensional vectors to valley bottoms, and catalogs all potential fracture or fault planes defined by coplanar pairs of valley vectors. The system generates a cluster hierarchy of planar features having greater-than-random density that may represent areas of anomalous topography manifesting structural control of erosional drainage development. Because RGA uses computer methods to identify zones of hypothesized control of topography, ground truth using a well-characterized test site was critical in our evaluation of RGA's characterization of inaccessible test sites for seismic verification studies. Therefore, we applied RGA to a study area centered on Yucca Flat at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and compared our results with both mapped geology and geologic structures and with seismic yield-magnitude models. This is the final report of PNL's RGA development project for peer review within the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Arms Control (OAC) seismic-verification community. In this report, we discuss the Yucca Flat study area, the analytical basis of the RGA system and its application to Yucca Flat, the results of the analysis, and the relation of the analytical results to known topography, geology, and geologic structures.
Foley, M. G.; Heasler, P. G.; Hoover, K. A.; Rynes, N. J.; Thiessen, R. L.; Alfaro, J. L.
In this resource, students will identify and describe what a book is mainly about using the title, text and pictures. The two featured texts that students will use are informational texts about tigers and ladybugs.
Recent outcrop sampling at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, has produced significant new information regarding the distribution of physical properties at the site of a potential high-level nuclear waste repository. Consideration of the spatial distribution of measured values and geostatistical measures of spatial variability indicates that there are a number of widespread deterministic geologic features at the site that have important implications for numerical modeling of such performance aspects as ground water flow and radionuclide transport. These deterministic features have their origin in the complex, yet logical, interplay of a number of deterministic geologic processes, including magmatic evolution; volcanic eruption, transport, and emplacement; post-emplacement cooling and alteration; and late-stage (diagenetic) alteration. Because of geologic processes responsible for formation of Yucca Mountain are relatively well understood and operate on a more-or-less regional scale, understanding of these processes can be used in modeling the physical properties and performance of the site. Information reflecting these deterministic geologic processes may be incorporated into the modeling program explicitly, using geostatistical concepts such as soft information, or implicitly, through the adoption of a particular approach to modeling. It is unlikely that any single representation of physical properties at the site will be suitable for all modeling purposes. Instead, the same underlying physical reality will need to be described many times, each in a manner conducive to assessing specific performance issues.
Rautman, C.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Flint, A.L. [Geological Survey, Mercury, NV (United States)
Symmetries have played an important role in a variety of problems in geology and geophysics. A large fraction of studies in mineralogy are devoted to the symmetry properties of crystals. In this paper, however, the emphasis will be on scale-invariant (fractal) symmetries. The earth's topography is an example of both statistically self-similar and self-affine fractals. Landforms are also associated with drainage networks, which are statistical fractal trees. A universal feature of drainage networks and other growth networks is side branching. Deterministic space-filling networks with side-branching symmetries are illustrated. It is shown that naturally occurring drainage networks have symmetries similar to diffusion-limited aggregation clusters. PMID:11607719
Turcotte, D L; Newman, W I
...Geological Survey National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program (NCGMP) and National Geological...the purposes of the National Geological Mapping Act of 1992; the Federal, State, and...of the National Cooperative Geological Mapping Program and National Geological and...
Project Primary is a collaboration of professors from the departments of Botany-Microbiology, Chemistry, Education, Geology, Physics, and Zoology at Ohio Wesleyan University and K-3 teachers from Ohio's Delaware, Marion, and Union Counties to produce hands-on activities for the teaching of science. The geology activities are appropriate for children in grades K-12. Collectively, the goals for these activities are to demonstrate the inter-relatedness of life and the physical planet, the importance of understanding scientific phenomena for all people, not just future scientists, to impart knowledge which leads through student curiosity to continued inquiry, and to spur creativity. Topics covered include earthquakes, behavior of Earth materials, plate tectonics, the surface of the Earth, volcanoes, and geologic time and the evolution of the Earth.
A special issue of the Journal of Geophysical Research—Solid Earth and Planets will be devoted to the topic "Helium Studies in Geology." Both helium isotopic research and helium 4 investigations on any phase of geologic application will be included. Individuals are welcome to submit manuscripts for this special issue. The deadline for receipt of papers through the normal JGR submission process is May 30, 1986. Please indicate that the manuscript is for the special issue. For additional information, contact G. M. Reimer, U.S. Geological Survey, MS 963, Denver Federal Center, Denver, CO 80225; telephone: 303236-7886 or JGR editor Gerald Schubert, Department of Earth and Space Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90024; telephone: 213-82 5-4577.
The US Geological Survey conducted a series of marine geologic and geophysical cruises in the southwest Pacific Ocean in 1982 and 1984 as part of a program with participation by Australia and New Zealand. These two SOPAC expeditions obtained various data, which have been compiled into a series of charts and thematic products for the offshore areas of Tonga, Fiji, Vanuatu, the Solomon Islands, and Papua New Guinea. The maps and charts presently being compiled or revised combine previously collected data with information from the SOPAC expeditions. Regional charts at a scale of approximately 1:3 million are included, and more detailed coverage is available at 1:1 million. Additional geologic information-such as gravity, magnetics, and possibly sediment isopachs-is provided on overlays to the topographic base charts. Reproductions of the seismic reflection data are also included, and tracklines with both time marks and shotpoints will permit correlation with the analog and digital seismic records.
Chase, T.E.; Seekins, B.A.; Young, J.D.; Wahler, J.A.
Some geological fakes and frauds are carried out solely for financial gain (mining fraud), whereas others maybe have increasing aesthetic appeal (faked fossils) or academic advancement (fabricated data) as their motive. All types of geological fake or fraud can be ingenious and sophisticated, as demonstrated in this article. Fake gems, faked fossils and mining fraud are common examples where monetary profit is to blame: nonetheless these may impact both scientific theory and the reputation of geologists and Earth scientists. The substitution or fabrication of both physical and intellectual data also occurs for no direct financial gain, such as career advancement or establishment of belief (e.g. evolution vs. creationism). Knowledge of such fakes and frauds may assist in spotting undetected geological crimes: application of geoforensic techniques helps the scientific community to detect such activity, which ultimately undermines scientific integrity.
Ruffell, Alastair; Majury, Niall; Brooks, William E.
This global geologic map of Mars, which records the distribution of geologic units and landforms on the planet's surface through time, is based on unprecedented variety, quality, and quantity of remotely sensed data acquired since the Viking Orbiters. These data have provided morphologic, topographic, spectral, thermophysical, radar sounding, and other observations for integration, analysis, and interpretation in support of geologic mapping. In particular, the precise topographic mapping now available has enabled consistent morphologic portrayal of the surface for global mapping (whereas previously used visual-range image bases were less effective, because they combined morphologic and albedo information and, locally, atmospheric haze). Also, thermal infrared image bases used for this map tended to be less affected by atmospheric haze and thus are reliable for analysis of surface morphology and texture at even higher resolution than the topographic products.
Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Skinner, James A., Jr.; Dohm, James M.; Irwin, Rossman P., III; Kolb, Eric J.; Fortezzo, Corey M.; Platz, Thomas; Michael, Gregory G.; Hare, Trent M.
The Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists, in collaboration with the International Association of Sedimentologists and the International Union of Geological Sciences Committee on Sedimentology, is developing a new international study under the provisional title of Global Sedimentary Geology Program (GSGP). Initially, three research themes are being considered: (1) event stratigraphy-the documentation of examples of mass extinctions, eustatic fluctuations in sea level, major episodes of volcanisms, and changes in ocean composition; (2) facies models in time and space-an expansion of the existing data base of examples of facies models (e.G., deltas, fluvial deposits, and submarine fans) and global-scale study of the persistence of facies at various times in geologic history; and (3) sedimentary indices of paleogeography and tectonics-the use of depositional facies and faunas in paleogeography and in assessing the timing, locus, and characteristics of tectonism. Plans are being developed to organize pilot projects in each of these themes.
Ginsburg, R.N.; Clifton, H.E.; Weimer, R.J.
In this introduction to sedimentology and petroleum geology the subjects, which are closely related but mostly treated separately, are integrated. The first part covers the basic aspects of sedimentology, sedimentary geochemistry and diagenesis, including brief discussions of flow in rivers and channels, types of sediment transport, lake and river deposits, deltas (river-dominated, tide-dominated, and wave-dominated) and the water budget. Principles of stratigraphy, seismic stratigraphy and basin modeling form the basis for the last part on petroleum geology. Here subjects include the composition of kerogen and hydrocarbons, theories of migration and trapping of hydrocarbons and properties of reservoir rocks. Finally, short introductions to well logging and production geology are given.
Mariner 9 and Viking spacecraft images revealed that the polar regions of Mars, like those of Earth, record the planet's climate history. However, fundamental uncertainties regarding the materials, features, ages and processes constituting the geologic record remained. Recently acquired Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter data and Mars Orbiter Camera high-resolution images from the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft and moderately high-resolution Thermal Emission Imaging System visible images from the Mars Odyssey spacecraft permit more comprehensive geologic and climatic analyses. Here I map and show the history of geologic materials and features in the north polar region that span the Amazonian period (approximately 3.0 Gyr ago to present). Erosion and redeposition of putative circumpolar mud volcano deposits (formed by eruption of liquefied, fine-grained material) led to the formation of an Early Amazonian polar plateau consisting of dark layered materials. Crater ejecta superposed on pedestals indicate that a thin mantle was present during most of the Amazonian, suggesting generally higher obliquity and insolation conditions at the poles than at present. Brighter polar layered deposits rest unconformably on the dark layers and formed mainly during lower obliquity over the past 4-5 Myr (ref. 20). Finally, the uppermost layers post-date the latest downtrend in obliquity <20,000 years ago. PMID:16222294
Tanaka, Kenneth L
Mariner 9 and Viking spacecraft images revealed that the polar regions of Mars, like those of Earth, record the planet's climate history. However, fundamental uncertainties regarding the materials, features, ages and processes constituting the geologic record remained. Recently acquired Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter data and Mars Orbiter Camera high-resolution images from the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft and moderately high-resolution Thermal Emission Imaging System visible images from the Mars Odyssey spacecraft permit more comprehensive geologic and climatic analyses. Here I map and show the history of geologic materials and features in the north polar region that span the Amazonian period (???3.0 Gyr ago to present). Erosion and redeposition of putative circumpolar mud volcano deposits (formed by eruption of liquefied, fine-grained material) led to the formation of an Early Amazonian polar plateau consisting of dark layered materials. Crater ejecta superposed on pedestals indicate that a thin mantle was present during most of the Amazonian, suggesting generally higher obliquity and insolation conditions at the poles than at present. Brighter polar layered deposits rest unconformably on the dark layers and formed mainly during lower obliquity over the past 4-5 Myr (ref. 20). Finally, the uppermost layers post-date the latest downtrend in obliquity <20,000 years ago. ?? 2005 Nature Publishing Group.
Tanaka, K. L.
After having talked about the geologic time scale (Precambrian: prior to 570 Ma; Paleozoic: 570-245 Ma; Mesozoic: 245-65 Ma; Cenozoic: 65 Ma - Present), I ask for two volunteers from the class to hold a rope that is 50 feet long. I say that one end is the beginning of the Earth (4.6 billion years ago), and the other is today. I then give out 16 clothes pins and ask various students to put a cloths pin on the 'time line' at various 'geologic events'. For example, I ask them to put one where the dinosaurs died out (end of the Mesozoic). They almost invariably put it much too old (65 Ma is less than 2% of Earth history!). Then I ask them to put one on their birthday (they now laugh). Then I ask them to put one where we think hominoids (humans) evolved (~3-4 Ma), and they realize that we have not been here very long geologically. Then I ask them to put one at the end of the Precambrian, where life took off in terms of the numbers of species, etc. They are amazed that this only represents less than 15% of Earth history. Throughout the activity I have a quiz going on where the students calculate percentages of Earth History for major geologic events, and compare it to their own ages. On their time scale, the dinosaurs died only about two 'months' ago! The exercise is very effective at letting them get a sense of how long geologic time is, and how 'recently' some major geologic events happened when you consider a time scale that is the age of the earth.
About 44 percent of the surface of Venus has been searched in a reconnaissance mode for wind-related features using primarily cycle 1 Magellan radar data. The aeolian features, including possible dune fields, yardangs, and various types of wind streaks, are described, and the geological settings and properties of the surfaces in which they occur are assessed. Attention is also given
Ronald Greeley; Raymond E. Arvidson; Charles Elachi; Maureen A. Geringer; Jeffrey J. Plaut; R. S. Saunders; Gerald Schubert; Ellen R. Stofan; Eric J. P. Thouvenot; Stephen D. Wall; Catherine M. Weitz
INTRODUCTION This geologic map of the Hellas region focuses on the stratigraphic, structural, and erosional histories associated with the largest well-preserved impact basin on Mars. Along with the uplifted rim and huge, partly infilled inner basin (Hellas Planitia) of the Hellas basin impact structure, the map region includes areas of ancient highland terrain, broad volcanic edifices and deposits, and extensive channels. Geologic activity recorded in the region spans all major epochs of martian chronology, from the early formation of the impact basin to ongoing resurfacing caused by eolian activity. The Hellas region, whose name refers to the classical term for Greece, has been known from telescopic observations as a prominent bright feature on the surface of Mars for more than a century (see Blunck, 1982). More recently, spacecraft imaging has greatly improved our visual perception of Mars and made possible its geologic interpretation. Here, our mapping at 1:5,000,000 scale is based on images obtained by the Viking Orbiters, which produced higher quality images than their predecessor, Mariner 9. Previous geologic maps of the region include those of the 1:5,000,000-scale global series based on Mariner 9 images (Potter, 1976; Peterson, 1977; King, 1978); the 1:15,000,000-scale global series based on Viking images (Greeley and Guest, 1987; Tanaka and Scott, 1987); and detailed 1:500,000-scale maps of Tyrrhena Patera (Gregg and others, 1998), Dao, Harmakhis, and Reull Valles (Price, 1998; Mest and Crown, in press), Hadriaca Patera (D.A. Crown and R. Greeley, map in preparation), and western Hellas Planitia (J.M. Moore and D.E. Wilhelms, map in preparation). We incorporated some of the previous work, but our map differs markedly in the identification and organization of map units. For example, we divide the Hellas assemblage of Greeley and Guest (1987) into the Hellas Planitia and Hellas rim assemblages and change the way units within these groupings are identified and mapped (table 1). The new classification scheme includes broad, geographically related categories and local, geologically and geomorphically related subgroups. Because of our mapping at larger scale, many of our map units were incorporated within larger units of the global-scale mapping (see table 1). Available Viking images of the Hellas region vary greatly in several aspects, which has complicated the task of producing a consistent photogeologic map. Best available image resolution ranges from about 30 to 300 m/pixel from place to place. Many images contain haze caused by dust clouds, and contrast and shading vary among images because of dramatic seasonal changes in surface albedo, opposing sun azimuths, and solar inclination. Enhancement of selected images on a computer-display system has greatly improved our ability to observe key geologic relations in several areas. Determination of the geologic history of the region includes reconstruction of the origin and sequence of formation, deformation, and modification of geologic units constituting (1) the impact-basin rim and surrounding highlands, (2) volcanic and channel assemblages on the northeast and south sides of the basin, (3) interior basin deposits, and (4) slope and surficial materials throughout the map area. Various surface modifications are attributed to volcanic, fluvial, eolian, mass-wasting, and possibly glacial and periglacial processes. Structures include basin faults (mostly inferred), wrinkle ridges occurring mainly in volcanic terrains and interior plains, volcanic collapse craters, and impact craters. Our interpretations in some cases rely on previous work, but in many significant cases we have offered new interpretations that we believe are more consistent with the observations documented by our mapping. Our primary intent for this mapping has been to elucidate the history of emplacement and modification of Hellas Planitia materials, which form the basis for analysis of their r
Leonard, Gregory J.; Tanaka, Kenneth L.
The purpose of this map is to provide the National Park Service and the public with an updated digital geologic map of Big Bend National Park (BBNP). The geologic map report of Maxwell and others (1967) provides a fully comprehensive account of the important volcanic, structural, geomorphological, and paleontological features that define BBNP. However, the map is on a geographically distorted planimetric base and lacks topography, which has caused difficulty in conducting GIS-based data analyses and georeferencing the many geologic features investigated and depicted on the map. In addition, the map is outdated, excluding significant data from numerous studies that have been carried out since its publication more than 40 years ago. This report includes a modern digital geologic map that can be utilized with standard GIS applications to aid BBNP researchers in geologic data analysis, natural resource and ecosystem management, monitoring, assessment, inventory activities, and educational and recreational uses. The digital map incorporates new data, many revisions, and greater detail than the original map. Although some geologic issues remain unresolved for BBNP, the updated map serves as a foundation for addressing those issues. Funding for the Big Bend National Park geologic map was provided by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program and the National Park Service. The Big Bend mapping project was administered by staff in the USGS Geology and Environmental Change Science Center, Denver, Colo. Members of the USGS Mineral and Environmental Resources Science Center completed investigations in parallel with the geologic mapping project. Results of these investigations addressed some significant current issues in BBNP and the U.S.-Mexico border region, including contaminants and human health, ecosystems, and water resources. Funding for the high-resolution aeromagnetic survey in BBNP, and associated data analyses and interpretation, was from the USGS Crustal Geophysics and Geochemistry Science Center. Mapping contributed from university professors and students was mostly funded by independent sources, including academic institutions, private industry, and other agencies.
Turner, Kenzie J.; Berry, Margaret E.; Page, William R.; Lehman, Thomas M.; Bohannon, Robert G.; Scott, Robert B.; Miggins, Daniel P.; Budahn, James R.; Cooper, Roger W.; Drenth, Benjamin J.; Anderson, Eric D.; Williams, Van S.
This is the geological time scale developed by the British Geological Survey. The principal chart is the Phanerozoic (Cambrian to Quaternary) timescale. The names of the individual periods are live links, each one leading to a chart showing the subdivisions of each period into epochs and ages. The Proterozoic and Neoproterozoic sections are also linked to further subdivisions into eras and periods. Dates are in millions of years before present. A guide on the front page describes the bases for the divisions used on this time scale and how to use it, and a downloadable version is also provided.
In this classroom activity, middle school students gain an understanding of geologic time. The activity opens with background information for teachers about carbon and radiometric dating. In a classroom discussion, students share what they know about geologic time. Then, working in small groups responsible for different eras, students create a timeline for their assigned era by conducting library and Internet research. The activity concludes by having students review all the timelines to compare how long humans have been on the Earth to the length of time dinosaurs inhabited the planet.
An overview of geological concepts and reservoir engineering practices as they apply to the field of development (production) geology is presented. The author touches on nearly every aspect of the field in the 21 chapters of the book. He summarizes the basic depositional origin, sedimentary characteristics, and petrology of hydrocarbon-bearing rocks. He discusses physical properties, origin, and migration of subsurface oil and gas, oil field water, and their behavior, including subsurface pressures and fluid mechanics. Also covered are various methods of estimating reserves, the major tools of the trade and their limitations, and case histories.
Now you can literally explain what it's like "between a rock and a hard place!" Use Project Earth Science: Geology to introduce your students to plate tectonics and teach them what causes volcanoes and earthquakes. Lead explorations of these and other larger-than-the-classroom geological phenomena with the teacher-tested, Standards -based activities. Earth's physical evolution and dynamic processes are carefully explained in language accessible to students and teachers. Supplemental readings provide educators with the background information to answer student questions and concerns.
Ford, Brent A.
The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: Space Transportation Main Engine (STME) definition, design philosophy, robust design, maximum design condition, casting vs. machined and welded forgings, operability considerations, high reliability design philosophy, engine reliability enhancement, low cost design philosophy, engine systems requirements, STME schematic, fuel turbopump, liquid oxygen turbopump, main injector, and gas generator. The major engine components of the STME and the Space Shuttle Main Engine are compared.
Monk, Jan C.
This park is located on the Colorado Plateau near Moab, Utah, and contains many arches and sculpted sedimentary rocks. The visible rock formations in the park are the Entrada and Navajo sandstones. Covered topics include the formation of arches in stages, different types of arches, as well as sizes and names (Delicate Arch being the most famous). The site also provides visitor information, photos, maps, additional links, and a teacher feature (tools for teaching geology with National Park examples).
This paper shows a contribution to the knowledge of the geological management of ceramic raw material. We have mainly focussed on the clays with a ceramic interest. The article begins with an introduction to the mineralogical determining factor of the ceramic sector. Then, it shows a development of the main steps that take place in the geological prospecting and it concludes with the criteria that must be followed when selecting the outcrops: geographical and environmental conditions, (1) legislation, (2) market and technology, (3) mineralogical and technological characterisation and (4) geological and mining characterisation.
Sanfeliu, T.; Jordán, M. M.
For a mining operation to be successful, it is important to bring fundamental and applied science together. The mining engineer needs to understand the importance of geology, mineralogy and petrography, and how projects can benefit from the data collected during the exploration and pre-exploration stage. Geological scientists also need to understand the process of project development from the exploration stage through mine design and operation to mine closure. Kimberlite pipe or dyke emplacement, geology and petrology/mineralogy are three areas that illustrate how information obtained from the geological studies could directly influence the mining method selection and the project strategy and design. Kimberlite emplacement is one of the fundamental processes that rely on knowledge of the kimberlite body geology. Although the importance of the emplacement model is commonly recognized in the resource geology, mining engineers do not always appreciate its importance to the mine design. The knowledge of the orebody geometry, character of the contact zones, internal structures and distribution of inclusions could directly influence pit wall stability (thus strip ratio), underground mining method selection, dilution, treatability, and the dewatering strategy. Understanding the internal kimberlite geology mainly includes the geometry and character of individual phases, and the orientation and character of internal structures that transect the rock mass. For any mining method it is important to know "where the less and where the more competent rocks are located" to achieve stability. On the other hand, the detailed facies studies may not be important for the resource and mine design if the rock types have similar physical properties and diamond content. A good understanding of the kimberlite petrology and mineralogy could be crucial not only to the treatability (namely diamond damage and liberation), but also to the pit wall and underground excavation stability, support design, mine safety (mudrush risk assessment) and mine dewatering. There is no doubt that a better understanding of the kimberlite and country rock geology has a direct impact on the safety and economics of the mining operations. The process of mine design can start at the beginning of kimberlite discovery by incorporating the critical geological information without necessarily increasing the exploration budget. It is important to appreciate the usefulness of fundamental geological research and its impact on increased confidence in the mine design. Such studies should be viewed as worthwhile investments, not as cost items.
Geologic resource inventories of lands managed by the National Park Service (NPS) are important products for the parks and are designed to provide scientific information to better manage park resources. Park-specific geologic reports are used to identify geologic features and processes that are relevant to park ecosystems, evaluate the impact of human activities on geologic features and processes, identify geologic research and monitoring needs, and enhance opportunities for education and interpretation. These geologic reports are planned to provide a brief geologic history of the park and address specific geologic issues that link the park geology and the resource manager. The Kona coast National Parks of the Island of Hawai'i are intended to preserve the natural beauty of the Kona coast and protect significant ancient structures and artifacts of the native Hawaiians. Pu'ukohola Heiau National Historic Site (PUHE), Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park (KAHO), and Pu'uhonua O Honaunau National Historical Park (PUHO) are three Kona parks studied by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology Team in cooperation with the National Park Service. This report is one of six related reports designed to provide geologic and benthic-habitat information for the three Kona parks. Each geology and coastal-landform report describes the regional geologic setting of the Hawaiian Islands, gives a general description of the geology of the Kona coast, and presents the geologic setting and issues for one of the parks. The related benthic-habitat mapping reports discuss the marine data and habitat classification scheme, and present results of the mapping program. Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park (KAHO) was established in 1978 in order to preserve and protect traditional native Hawaiian culture and cultural sites. The park is the site of an ancient Hawaiian settlement, occupies 469 ha and is considered a locale of considerable cultural and historical significance. Cultural resources include fishponds, petroglyphs and a heiau (religious site). The fishponds are also recognized as exceptional birding areas and are important wetlands for migratory birds. The ocean and reef have been designated as a Marine Area Reserve, where green sea turtles commonly come ashore to rest. The park is also a valuable recreational resource, with approximately 4 km of coastline and a protective cove ideal for snorkeling and swimming. KAHO park boundaries extend beyond the mean high tide line and include the adjacent marine environment. An accompanying report for KAHO presents the results of benthic habitat mapping of the offshore waters, from the shoreline to approximately 40 m water depth. Ground-water quality and potential downslope impacts created by development around the park are of concern to Park management.
Richmond, Bruce M.; Gibbs, Ann E.; Cochran, Susan A.
WORM provides a generalized representation at 1:24,000 scale of commercially harvested marine worm habitat in Maine, based on Maine Department of Marine Resources data from 1970's. Original maps were created by MDMR and published by USF&WS as part of the ""&quo...
In this article, the author describes the successful laptop program employed at Mt. Abram High School in Strong, Maine. Through the Maine Learning Technology Initiative, the school has issued laptops to all 36,000 teachers and students in grades 7-8. This program has helped level the playing field for a student population that is 50 percent to 55…
Intended to help classroom teachers, curriculum developers, and researchers, this book provides current information on theoretical and instructional aspects of main idea comprehension. Titles and authors are as follows: "The Confused World of Main Idea" (James W. Cunningham and David W. Moore); "The Comprehension of Important Information in…
Baumann, James F., Ed.
The gamma-ray dose rates were measured in Gifu and Tokushima Prefectures in Japan. Measurements were carried out by the car-borne survey method. The dose rate in basaltic terrain in Tokushima prefecture was almost same as average of basaltic terrain in Japan. On the other hand, the dose rate in basaltic terrain in Gifu Prefecture was not same. In situ measurement of terrestrial gamma-ray dose rate was carried out in this terrain to examine its cause. As a result, it was estimated that soil of rhyolite which attributed to neighbor terrain have deposited on this terrain.
Yamada, J.; Oka, M. [Graduate school of Fujita Health University (Japan); Shimo, M.; Minami, K. [Fujita Health University, 1-98, Dengakugakubo, Kutsukake-cho, Toyoake-shi, Aichi, 470-1192 (Japan); Minato, S. [Radiation Earth Science Laboratory, 9-6, Yamaguchi-cho, Higashi-ku, Nagoya-shi Aichi, 461-0024 (Japan); Sugino, M. [Gunma Prefectural College of Health Sciences, 323-1, Kamioki-cho, maebashi-shi, 371-0052 (Japan); Hosoda, M. [Chuoh College of Medical Technology, 3-5-12, Tateishi, katushika-ku, Tokyo, 124-0012 (Japan); Fukushi, M. [Tokyo Metropolitan University, 7-2-10, Higashiogu, Arakawa-ku, Tokyo, 116-8551 (Japan)
The publication of seminal texts on geology and on meteoritics in the 1790s, laid the groundwork for the emergence of each discipline as a modern branch of science. Within the past three decades, impact cratering has become universally accepted as a process that sculptures the surfaces of planets and satellites throughout the solar system. Nevertheless, one finds in-depth discussions of impact processes mainly in books on the Moon or in surveys of the Solar System. The historical source of the separation between meteoritics and geology is easy to identify. It began with Hutton. Meteorite impact is an extraordinary event acting instantaneously from outside the Earth. It violates Hutton's principles, which were enlarged upon and firmly established as fundamental to the geological sciences by Lyell. The split between meteoritics and geology surely would have healed as early as 1892 if the investigations conducted by Gilbert (1843-1918) at the crater in northern Arizona had yielded convincing evidence of meteorite impact. The 1950s and 1960s saw a burgeoning of interest in impact processes. The same period witnessed the so-called revolution in the Earth Sciences, when geologists yielded up the idea of fixed continents and began to view the Earth's lithosphere as a dynamic array of horizontally moving plates. Plate tectonics, however, is fully consistent with the geological concepts inherited from Hutton: the plates slowly split, slide, and suture, driven by forces intrinsic to the globe.
Marvin, Ursula B.
Located at the University of Maine, the Maine Folklife Center is committed to documenting and understanding the folklore, folklife, and history of Maine and Atlantic Canada. Along with its various scholarly activities, the Center sponsors a number of festivals, lectures, and like-minded programs that encourage appreciation of the diverse cultural traditions within the region. The site will be useful to researchers with a penchant in these fields, as it contains information about the collections, including a rather extensive oral history collection (with work that documenting the cranberry culture of Massachusetts and the traditional music of Maine). There is also material on the public programs and exhibits sponsored by the center, and a set of external links that lead to other sites dealing with oral history, folklore, and Maine. While the Center's site does not have a great deal of online material for consideration, the center has transcribed the sixth volume of Northeast Folklore (originally published in 1964) and placed them online.
We present our comprehensive process-based ontology for Structural Geology. This ontology covers major domain concepts, especially those related to geological structure type, properties of these structures, their deformation mechanisms, and the factors that control which deformation mechanisms may operate under certain conditions. The structure class in our ontology extends the planetary structure class of the SWEET ontology by providing additional information required for use in the structural geology domain. The classification followed the architectures of structures, such as structure element, set, zone, and pattern. Our deformation mechanism class does not have a corresponding class in SWEET. In our ontology, it has two subclasses, Macro- and Micro- mechanisms. The property class and the factor class are both subclasses of the physical property class of SWEET. Relationships among those concepts are also included in our ontology. For example, the class structure element has properties associated with the deformation mechanisms, descriptive properties such as geometry and morphology, and physical properties of rocks such as strength, compressibility, seismic velocity, porosity, and permeability. The subject matter expertise was provided by domain experts. Additionally, we surveyed text books and journal articles with the goal of evaluating the completeness and correctness of the domain terms and we used logical reasoners and validators to eliminate logical problems. We propose that our ontology provides a reusable extension to the SWEET ontology that may be of value to scientists and lay people interested in structural geology issues. We have also implemented prototype services that utilize this ontology for search.
Zhong, J.; McGuinness, D. L.; Antonellini, M.; Aydin, A.
Restricted availability. Major Attributes: Polygons described by geologic type codes & descriptions. May be incorporated into maps at the state/county/basin scale. Probably too coarse for use at the site scale. Scale: 1:500:000. Extent: Idaho. Projection: Albers. Source: ...
Geological sequestration (GS) is generally recognized as the injection and long-term (e.g., hundreds to thousands of years) trapping of gaseous, liquid or supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) in subsurface media ? primarily saline formations, depleted or nearly depleted oil and gas...
This course is an introduction to the aspects of marine geology and oceanography that affect the environment and marine resources. Service-learning is an essential component of how students learn about the earth. We deliver part of the content of this course by arranging for students to solve a problem with a local community partner.
Course taught by Prof. Ed Laine, Bowdoin College (email@example.com) and Cathryn Field, Lab Instructor (firstname.lastname@example.org). Example compiled by Suzanne Savanick, Science Education Resource Center (email@example.com).
Geological issues are increasingly intruding on the everyday lives of ordinary people. Whether it be onshore exploration and extraction of oil and gas, deep injection of water for geothermal power or underground storage of carbon dioxide and radioactive waste, many communities across Europe are being faced with potentially contested geological activity under their backyard. As well as being able to communicate the technical aspects of such work, geoscience professionals also need to appreciate that for most people the subsurface is an unfamiliar realm. In order to engage communities and individuals in effective dialogue about geological activities, an appreciation of what 'the public' already know and what they want to know is needed, but this is a subject that is in its infancy. In an attempt to provide insight into these key issues, this study examines the concerns the public have, relating to geology, by constructing 'Mental Models' of people's perceptions of the subsurface. General recommendations for public engagement strategies will be presented based on the results of selected case studies; specifically expert and non-expert mental models for communities in the south-west of England.
Gibson, Hazel; Stewart, Iain; Anderson, Mark; Pahl, Sabine; Stokes, Alison
Maintained by Dr. Pamela J. W. Gore of Georgia Perimeter College, the Physical Geology Lecture Online is a complete online interactive course. Through descriptions, photographs, and illustrations, students can learn the basics of minerals, rocks, volcanoes, soils, earthquakes, erosion, mass wasting, and more. Although the site was created for a specific college course, any student can browse and learn about the many topics covered.
Gore, Pamela J.
This activity provides young students with a relevant model (a layer cake) to help them understand concepts about sedimentary rock layers (such as the Law of Superposition), correlation of the rock record with geologic time and relative ages of rocks and fossils.
Ranger Rick's NatureScope is a creative education series dedicated to inspiring in children an understanding and appreciation of the natural world while developing the skills they will need to make responsible decisions about the environment. The topic of this issue is "Geology: The Active Earth." Contents are organized into the following…
Braus, Judy, Ed.
This paper summarizes the emerging picture of the surface of Venus provided by high-resolution earth-based radar telescopes and orbital radar altimetry and imaging systems. The nature and significance of the geological processes operating there are considered. The types of information needed to complete the picture are addressed.
Basilevsky, A. T.; Head, J. W.
In our initiative to return to the Moon, knowledge of regional crustal geology is necessary both for locating resources of scientific interest and for establishing a sustained human presence. Characterizing crustal geology with global remote sensing data is difficult due to the types of weathering processes experienced by an airless, geologically torpid planetary body, which tend to reduce lithologic contrast and obscure the lithology of true bedrock. Fortunately, these processes are relatively straightforward, involving parameters with largely understood, fixed rates of flux. We describe a methodology for characterizing the chemical and mineralogical compositions of discrete geologic units, interpreted from remotely sensed surface spectra. The method utilizes two established techniques: small impact ejecta viewing and extrapolation (SIEVE) (McCord et al., JGR 1981; Staid & Pieters, LPSC 29; Kramer et al., LPSC 36; Kramer et al., JGR (in review)) and spectral mixing analysis (SMA) (Adams & Gillespie, Cambridge Univ. Press 2006, and references therein). The results of this work will be invaluable for identifying regions of interest for current and future lunar missions, such as Chandrayaan-1, carrying NASA's Moon Mineralogy Mapper, and Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter. Furthermore, the methodology can be used to explore other planetary bodies that experience similar weathering processes (e.g., Mercury, Ceres, Vesta, and Mars).
Kramer, G.; Combe, J.; McCord, T.
All available synoptic maps of the solid-surface bodies of the Solar System were digitized for presentation in the planned Atlas of the Solar System by Greeley and Batson. Since the last report (Batson et al., 1990), preliminary Uranian satellite maps were replaced with improved versions, Galilean satellite geology was simplified and digitized, structure was added to many maps, and the maps were converted to a standard format, with corresponding standing colors for the mapped units. Following these changes, the maps were re-reviewed by their authors and are now undergoing final editing before preparation for publication. In some cases (for Mercury, Venus, and Mars), more detailed maps were digitized and then simplified for the Atlas. Other detailed maps are planned to be digitized in the coming year for the Moon and the Galilean satellites. For most of the remaining bodies such as the Uranian satellites, the current digitized versions contain virtually all the detail that can be mapped given the available data; those versions will be unchanged for the Atlas. These digital geologic maps are archived at the digital scale of 1/16 degree/ pixel, in sinusoidal format. The availability of geology of the Solar System in a digital database will facilitate comparisons and integration with other data: digitized lunar geologic maps have already been used in a comparison with Galileo SSI observations of the Moon.
Batson, R. M.; Kozak, R. C.; Isbell, Nancy K.
This website provides information about the six geological processes that are either currently operating on Mars or have operated during Martian history. These include the aeolian, cratering, hydro, landslides, tectonic, and volcanic processes. Example images of the results of these processes are provided.
Hsui, Albert T.
This book describes most of the principles and methods of petroleum geology. The tools of the petroleum geologist are discussed, including study of samples, mud logs, cores, and wire-line logs. The different types of sand bodies are described, with directions for distinguishing those deposited as beaches, river channels, and in other depositional environments, using wire-line logs and cores. Carbonate reservoirs
An overview of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) is presented. The Space Shuttle propulsion system consists of two large solid booster motors, three SSME's, two orbital maneuvering system engines, and 44 reaction control system thrusters. The three SSME's burn liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen from the external tank and are sequentially started at launch. Engine thrust is throttleable. The major components and some of their key features and operational parameters are outlined. The life and reliability being achieved by the SSME are presented.
Jackson, Eugene D.
The method of dating rocks and minerals is known as geochronology. Although in principle this term could be applied to estimation of relative ages according to traditional geological observation, it is nowadays usually restricted to the quantitative measurement of geological time using the constant-rate natural process of radioactive decay. 14C dating is a technique based on measuring the residual radioactivity of this isotope which decays exponentially from the time of death of organisms which extract it from the atmosphere (e.g. when a living tree becomes simply 'wood'). The halflife of this decay is only 5600 years. Even using pre-concentration techniques and highly sensitive detectors, the practical range of the dating method does not extend back beyond about 100000 years-a period utterly insignificant in terms of the geological evolution of the Earth, which extends over the past 4500 million years. For geological dating one requires naturally occurring elements with much longer halflives. Most of the handful of appropriate decay schemes are listed. Most of the parent elements are rare metal constituents in the bulk chemical composition of the Earth. For such 'trace' elements it is generally convenient to express their concentration in natural materials in parts per million by weight (ppm) and even in the one case of a fairly common element (potassium) only a very small proportion occurs as the radioactive 40K. Also, some of the halflives are very long, even by geological reckoning, so that the actual level of natural radioactivity is rarely more than a few disintegrations per minute per gram.
Pankhurst, R. J.
There are many great ways to learn about the geological history of California, including reading some of the works by noted writer John McPhee. Additionally, the state of California's Department of Conservation has created these very fine online geologic field trip guides. It might be more accurate to say that the site is an interactive index of web pages that contain geologic field guides containing photographs, maps, texts, and directions for local natural features from Humboldt County down to the Inland Empire. The index is organized into geographic regions collectively referred to as the "Geomorphic Provinces of California". Additionally, these geological areas are subdivided into groups like Owens Valley, Lassen Park, and Point Reyes. Overall, it's a great resource, and one that will be appreciated by just about anyone with a penchant for geology or the Golden State.
Several years ago the National Trust for Historic Preservation developed the Main Street Program to assist small, primarily rural, communities to revitalize their downtown economic bases. The program has four major components: organization, promotion, des...
Maine's oceanic shoreline has long been one of the richest in North America, both in terms of natural resources and its importance to the local economy. One important organization that is committed to this valued ecosystem is the Gulf of Maine Research Institute. Based in Portland, the Institute is designed to educate Maine residents and visitors about Maine's fresh and saltwater resources and to "facilitate and conduct collaborative research.ÃÂ¯ÃÂ¿ÃÂ½ Their website contains some of these resources, and first-time visitors should start their journey here at the "Science" section. As might be expected, visitors will be able to learn about some of the Institute's ongoing survey work, including their comprehensive survey of the region's shrimp stocks, the impacts of mobile fishing gear, and cod-tagging. Every good institute worth its salt has a strong education component, and this institute has got the web-browsing public's best interests in mind. In their "Education" section, they have placed a number of interactive and multimedia features, including such areas as "All About Lobsters" and "Undersea Landscapes".
The Geologic Simulation Model (GSM) developed under the Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems (AEGIS) project at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the Department of Energy is a quasi-deterministic process-response model which simula...
M. G. Foley
Two introductory chapters familiarize readers with basic geologic concepts. The following chapters describe the geology of each of California's 11 geomorphic provinces; the San Andreas fault and offshore geology are discussed in two separate chapters. Four appendices acquaint readers with technical words and terms, common minerals and rocks in California, geologic time, and geologic theories that pertain to California. During the 1960s evidence collected from the east Pacific sea floor off the western coast of North America gave scientists supporting data for Alfred Wegener's 1910 theory of continental drift. In addition to the confirmation of continental drift, since the 1960s scientists have discovered paleomagnetism, sea-floor spreading, exotic and suspect terranes, and polar wandering. These important concepts have had far reaching effects about how we understand the geology of California and how this region has evolved through geologic time. Improved investigative procedures enable earth scientists to comprehend previously puzzling aspects of California's geology.
Norris, R.M.; Webb, R.W.
A brief geological description of Chalkidiki (Greece) is given followed by car-borne-scintillometer (CBS) survey results showing that granitic rocks in Central and Eastern Chalkidiki constitute the most promising geological formations for uranium minerali...
D. G. Minatidis
A geologic investigation of the Ogcheon uraniferous black shale has been carried out at the northeast of Miweon. Geology of the study area consists of following stratigraphic sequences in ascending order pebbly phyllitic rock formation, lower black slate ...
A lesson plan, directed at middle school students and older, describes using snow to study the geological processes of solidification of molten material, sedimentation, and metamorphosis. Provides background information on these geological processes. (MCO)
Created through a collaboration between the University of Maine's Fogler Library and other Maine libraries, The Maine Music Box contains hundreds of digitized sheet music scores from five major collections. First-time visitors to the site will want to click on the "About Maine Music Box" project as a way of getting started. Here they can check out the "User Information" area, which contains helpful tips on viewing the music and how to best browse the entire database. Additionally, those with a penchant for technical details and information science in general can also learn in copious detail how the database was created for this project. From there, visitors can move straight away into the main collection. Visitors can browse the collection by music subject, sheet music cover art, or just type in their own keywords. One of the best ways to look over the collection is to browse around in such areas as "Instructional Violin", "Maine Collection" and "Parlor Salon Collection". It's also worth remarking that this site may inspire a sing-a-long, a campfire get-together, or a miniature Chautauqua.
Film positives of ERTS-1 imagery, both as received from NASA and photographically reprocessed, are analyzed by conventional and color additive viewing methods. The imagery reveals bedrock and surficial geological information at various scales. Features which can be identified to varying degrees include boundaries between major tectonic provinces, lithological contacts, foliation trends within massive gneisses, faults, and topographic lineaments. In the present imagery the greatest amount of spectral geology is displayed in the Adirondack region where bedrock geology is strongly linked to topography. Within this basement complex, the most prominantly displayed features are numerous north-northeast trending faults and topographic lineaments, and arcuate east-west valleys developed in some of the weaker metasedimentary rocks. The majority of the faults and lineaments shown on the geologic Map of New York at 1:250,000 appear in the ERTS imagery.
Isachsen, Y. W.; Fakundiny, R. H.; Forster, S. W.
This search tool provides descriptions and availability information for geologic maps of the 50 States, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. These geologic maps are published by a variety of organizations, including State geologic agencies, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), universities, and private companies. Title, date, scale, publisher, series (where applicable), and basic ordering information is provided for each map. A place name search and an advanced search using geologic themes, areas, publishers and other criteria allow for more specific queries to the database.
This activity is designed to help students recognize the connections among things like rock identification and map reading with the "story" that these things can tell us in terms of geologic history. Students have already learned about using observation to identify rocks and the principles of interpreting geologic cross-sections. The activity gives students practice in rock ID, topo map reading, geologic map reading and the aspects of geologic time. Students work with rock samples and a geologic map of the Grand Canyon to interpret a history for the area.
This map displays the sedimentary rocks of the Cenozoic, Mesozoic, and Paleozoic eras as well as the igneous and metamorphic rocks of the Mesozoic and Precambrian eras. There is a pagesize copy of the geologic map, a brief description of the geology and physiographic provinces of New Jersey, and information on bedrock geologic maps of New Jersey (in CD-ROM format).
Discusses two "golden" ages in geological investigations/inquiry. The first, extending from the late eighteenth century through the early nineteenth century, established geology as a science based on naturalistic principles. The second, beginning after World War II, is characterized by advances in geological specialities and explanations based on…
This is a lesson where learners review the basic requirements for human survival. Learners will use an online, multimedia module, to which they make changes to Earth's layers and draw conclusions about the geologic conditions that are necessary for human survival. The lesson models scientific inquiry using the 5E instructional model and includes teacher notes, prerequisite concepts, common misconceptions, student journal and reading. This is lesson one in the Astro-Venture Geology Training Unit that were developed to increase students' awareness of and interest in astrobiology and the many career opportunities that utilize science, math and technology skills. The lessons are designed for educators to use with the Astro-Venture multimedia modules.
If you've ever wanted to wander from John O'Groats to the Cotswolds without leaving your desk, this most wonderful website is for you. Created by the British Geological Survey, the Geology of Britain viewer helps interested parties learn more about the landforms in their backyards. After opening the viewer, visitors can click on an area of interest to look at everything from possible earthquake threats to rock layers to soil composition and more. Visitors should note that they can zoom in on the map and also use place names to refine their searches via the Go to Location button. Additionally, the basemap can be modified to show satellite photographs or various street maps as overlays. Finally, the site contains walking guides for several regions of Britain that might be helpful for those with a penchant for perambulation.
This work surveys the modern science of petroleum geology. Its aim is twofold: to describe generation, migration, and entrapment of oil and gas, and to outline the various procedures used in their location, evaluation, and production. Selley begins the book with an account of the physical and chemical properties of petroleum, followed by a review of the methods of petroleum exploration and production, including drilling, geophysical exploration techniques, wireline logging, and subsurface geological mapping. Selley next describes the temperatures and pressures of the subsurface environment and the composition and hydrodynamics of connate fluids. He goes on to examine the generation and migration of petroleum, reservoir rocks, and trapping mechanisms, the habitat of petroleum in sedimentary basins, and the composition and formation of tar sands and oil shales. Selley ends the book with a brief review of prospect risk analysis, reserve estimation, and other economic topics.
Fundamentals of Structural Geology is a textbook that emphasizes modern techniques of field data acquisition and analysis, the principles of continuum mechanics, and the mathematical and computational skills necessary to quantitatively describe, model, and explain the deformation of rock in Earth's lithosphere. This site provides an online interface for the book with supplementary materials for readers, instructors, and students. Resources include color photographs of outcrops, textbook figures, and supplementary illustrations for classroom presentations; student exercises to develop Matlab skills; Matlab scripts to make textbook figures dynamic, introduction to the concepts of differential geometry, mechanical models, and the evolution of geologic structures; and research quality data sets and solutions for instructors. The site also includes book information and links to additional resources.
Pollard, David; Fletcher, Raymond; University, Stanford
The American Mathematical Association of Two-Year Colleges (AMATYC) has compiled a collection of mathematics resources related to various subjects and disciplines. Ã¢ÂÂMath Across the Community College CurriculumÃ¢ÂÂ is the title of the collection, which includes great math resources and applications for educators and students alike. In this particular resource, concepts from algebra, geology and economics are intertwined to create two dynamic activities for students. The projects, created by Mary Dowse, Tom Gruszka, and George Muncrief of Western New Mexico University, include both general learning objectives and subject specific objectives for what students will learn through the completion of the activities. The first activity focuses on the mathematics of economics, and the second activity focuses on geology and graphing. These activities can be easily adapted for use in the classroom, and are also useful for students who are looking for extra practice with these concepts.
Dowse, Mary; Gruszka, Tom; Muncrief, George
GEO 305: Field Geology offers students practical experience in the field and in the computer laboratory conducting geological field studies on the Stony Brook University campus. Computer laboratory exercises feature mapping techniques and field studies of glacial and environmental geology, and include geophysical and hydrological analysis, interpretation, and mapping. Participants learn to use direct measurement and mathematical techniques to compute the location and geometry of features and gain practical experience in representing raster imagery and vector geographic data as features on maps. Data collecting techniques in the field include the use of hand-held GPS devices, compasses, ground-penetrating radar, tape measures, pacing, and leveling devices. Assignments that utilize these skills and techniques include mapping campus geology with GPS, using Google Earth to explore our geologic context, data file management and ArcGIS, tape and compass mapping of woodland trails, pace and compass mapping of woodland trails, measuring elevation differences on a hillside, measuring geologic sections and cores, drilling through glacial deposits, using ground penetrating radar on glaciotectonic topography, mapping the local water table, and the identification and mapping of boulders. Two three-hour sessions are offered per week, apportioned as needed between lecture; discussion; guided hands-on instruction in geospatial and other software such as ArcGIS, Google Earth, spreadsheets, and custom modules such as an arc intersection calculator; outdoor data collection and mapping; and writing of illustrated reports.
Richard, G. A.; Hanson, G. N.
This book treats the basic principles of nuclear physics and the mineralogy, geochemistry, distribution and ore deposits of uranium and thorium. The application of nuclear methodology in radiogenic heat and thermal regime of the earth, radiometric prospecting, isotopic age dating, stable isotopes and cosmic-ray produced isotopes is covered. Geological processes, such as metamorphic chronology, petrogenesis, groundwater movement, and sedimentation rate are focussed on.
\\u000a A large body of evidence points to significant health effects resulting from our interactions with the physical environment\\u000a and we continue to recognise connections between geological materials and processes and human and animal disease. In Africa,\\u000a these relationships have been observed for many years, but only recently have any real attempts been made to formalise their\\u000a study. Africa is a
T. C. Davies
This site is the Plate Tectonics portion of the Geology site from the University of California, Berkeley, Museum of Paleontology. This exhibit has a section devoted to the explanation of the history of plate tectonics and a section that focuses on the mechanisms driving plate tectonics. The mechanisms section discusses convection, mid-oceanic ridges, geomagnetic anomalies, deep sea trenches, and island arcs. The site also contains links to numerous animations illustrating historical plate positions and movements.
This Historical Geology lab exercise is an accompaniment to lab class instruction about geologic structures (folding and faulting) and geologic maps. It also serves as an excellent introduction to the Geology of the state of Texas. "Coloring" geologic maps, an important part of the exercise, may seem like a very elementary learning technique. But this lab engages students actively, and since the subject is often already somewhat familiar to them, emphasizing both the geology and geography of Texas, students receive it enthusiastically. This activity could be adapted to other regions, since most states have color 8 1/2 by 11 geologic maps available. A color map could be scanned and modified in Photoshop to create a simplified black and white version as was done in the assignment handout.
It has been hypothesized that variable stars may experience mass loss, driven, at least in part, by oscillations. The class of stars we are discussing here are the delta Scuti variables. These are variable stars with masses between about 1.2 and 2.25 M/sub theta/, lying on or very near the main sequence. According to this theory, high rotation rates enhance the rate of mass loss, so main sequence stars born in this mass range would have a range of mass loss rates, depending on their initial rotation velocity and the amplitude of the oscillations. The stars would evolve rapidly down the main sequence until (at about 1.25 M/sub theta/) a surface convection zone began to form. The presence of this convective region would slow the rotation, perhaps allowing magnetic braking to occur, and thus sharply reduce the mass loss rate. 7 refs.
Brunish, W.M.; Guzik, J.A.; Willson, L.A.; Bowen, G.
Field photographs are used to enhance the instruction in teaching rocks, geologic structures, and landforms in Introductory Physical Geology lecture at East Carolina University. The field photographs are used to enhance the visual component of Physical Geology and are focused on rock outcrops (igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic), geologic structures (faults and folds), and landforms (volcanic, weathering-erosion, mass wasting, fluvial, wind-desert, coastal, and karst).
Harper, Stephen B.
...Geological Survey National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program (NCGMP) and National Geological...planning and implementation of the geologic mapping and data preservation programs. The Committee...the purposes of the National Geological Mapping Act of 1992; the Federal, State,...
...Geological Survey National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program (NCGMP) and National Geological...planning and implementation of the geologic mapping and data preservation programs. The Committee...the purposes of the National Geological Mapping Act of 1992; the Federal, State,...
The author gave a brief introduction to the purpose and goals of the EMMA experiment and describe how they will impact the design of the main EMMA ring. He then describes the mathematical model that is used to describe the EMMA lattice. Finally, The autho...
J. S. Berg
Artists and writers from Maine were asked to develop creative activities for a sixth-grade class. Students were encouraged to observe nature, investigate their ancestors, design logos, and think about the impossible. Several of the activities that could be adopted to relate to other states are presented. (DF)
The COBRA (CO-Optimized Booster for Reusable Applications) project include the following: 1. COBRA main engine project team. 2. COBRA and RLX cycles selected. 3. COBRA proto-type engine approach enables mission success. 4. COBRA provides quick, low cost d...
J. Snoddy S. Sides
SCHLIB shows point locations of libraries and educational institutions in Maine at 1:24,000 scale. Colleges, universities, technical colleges, high schools, middle schools, elementary schools, kindergarten/sub-primary and other special schools are included. The data was developed...
The articles in this booklet address the questions raised by the Maine Learning Consortium in its efforts to look closely at, describe, and assess the use of programs such as the Exemplary Center for Reading Instruction (ECRI). Based on interviews with six teachers, the first article examines student achievement gains through the use of ECRI.…
Maine Mastery Learning Consortium, Gardiner.
An extensive frontier terrain that is prospective for petroleum but is as yet incompletely explored and entirely untested underlies the United States Chukchi shelf north of Point Hope. The area is in most places underlain by a thick section of sedimentary rocks prospective for oil and gas, and it contains diverse geologic structures and stratigraphic features that may have trapped hydrocarbon fluids. The prospective sedimentary section includes every geologic system from the Carboniferous to the Tertiary and includes several formations that contain petroleum deposits or strong shows of oil or gas on parts of the North Slope of Alaska. These formations have proved disappointing, however, where tested in a few exploratory wells in the western part of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA), an area that lies adjacent to the Chukchi shelf. The data base consists mainly of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) multichannel seismic-reflection profiles and accompanying high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles shown in figure 10.1 and some additional USGS single-channel seismic-reflection profiles, sonobuoy refraction measurements, and seabed samples. The multichannel seismic profiles, on which the interpretations presented here are mainly based, are mostly 30 to 90 km apart, with typical line spacings of 40 to 50 km. Ice conditions during data acquisition were such, however, that profile coverage in the northern and northwestern parts of the Chukchi Sea is sparse. Because of the wide spacing and irregular distribution of the profiles, the interpretations are reconnaissance in character. Some of the profiles, particularly in the southwestern part of the study area, are affected by strong artifacts that further limit their usefulness for geologic interpretation and resource assessment.
Grantz, A.; May, S.D.
Most people will never see the eruption of an active volcano. Even so, evidence of these dramatic displays can be found all over the world. In fact, more can be learned about some aspects of volcanic activity by exploring evidence left by past eruptions than by watching an eruption in progress. This interactive resource adapted from the National Park Service explores a variety of volcanic landforms and features, and describes how they form.
Observations from the Dawn (Russell et al., 2007) spacecraft enabled deriva-tion of 4Vesta's shape, facilitated mapping of the surface geology and pro-vided the first evidence for Vesta's geological evolution. The Dawn mission is equipped with a framing camera (FC), a visible and infrared mapping spectrometer (VIR) and a gamma-ray and neutron detector (GRaND). So far science data are collected during the approach to the asteroid and protoplanet Vesta, a circular polar orbit at an altitude of 2700 km providing ~ 230 m/pix camera resolution and a lower orbit, at 700 km altitude with a camera resolu-tion of ~ 65 m/pixel. Geomorphology and distribution of surface features provide evidence for impact cratering, tectonic activity, regolith and prob-able volcanic processes. Craters with dark rays, bright rays, and dark rim streaks have been observed, suggesting possible buried stratigraphy. The largest fresh craters retain a simple bowl-shaped morphology, with depth/diameter ratios roughly comparable to lunar values. The largest candi-date crater, a ~460 km depression at the south pole, has been shown to con-tain an incomplete inward facing cuspate scarp, and a large central mound surrounded by unusual complex arcuate ridge and groove patterns. Although asymmetric in general form, these characteristics do not contradict an impact origin but may also allow endogenic processes like convective downwelling or hybrid modification of an impact. Rapid rotation of Vesta during impact may explain some anomalous features (Jutzi and Asphaug, 2010). A set of large equatorial troughs may be related to the formation process of the south polar structure or due to stress caused by changes of the rotational axis. The crater size frequency and the chronology function is derived from the lunar chronology, scaled to impact frequencies modeled for Vesta according to (Bottke et al., 1994) and (O'Brien and Sykes, 2011). The northern hemi-sphere is heavily cratered by a large variety of ancient degraded and fresh sharp craters. Preliminary crater counts indicate only small differences in absolute surface model ages between the northern region and the south polar structure.
Jaumann, R.; Pieters, C. M.; Russell, C. T.; Raymond, C. A.; Yingst, R.; Williams, D. A.; Schenk, P.; Neukum, G.; Mottola, S.; Buczkowski, D.; O'Brien, D. P.; Garry, W. B.; Blewett, D. T.; Denevi, B. W.; Roatsch, T.; Preusker, F.; Nathues, A.; Sierks, H.; Sykes, M. V.; De sanctis, M.; McSween, H. Y.; Keller, H. U.; Marchi, S.
As we are all aware, increases in computing power and efficiency have allowed for the development of many modeling codes capable of processing large and sometimes disparate datasets (e.g., geological, hydrological, geochemical, etc). Because people sometimes have difficulty visualizing in three dimensions (3D) or understanding how multiple figures of various geologic features relate as a whole, 3D geologic models can
M. B. Hillesheim; C. A. Rautman; P. B. Johnson; D. W. Powers
Sensitivity studies using thermal models indicated sources of errors in the determination of thermal inertia from HCMM data. Apparent thermal inertia, with only simple atmospheric radiance corrections to the measured surface temperature, would be sufficient for most operational requirements for surface thermal inertia. Thermal data does have additional information about the nature of surface material that is not available in visible and near infrared reflectance data. Color composites of daytime temperature, nighttime temperature, and albedo were often more useful than thermal inertia images alone for discrimination of lithologic boundaries. A modeling study, using the annual heating cycle, indicated the feasibility of looking for geologic features buried under as much as a meter of alluvial material. The spatial resolution of HCMM data is a major limiting factor in the usefulness of the data for geologic applications. Future thermal infrared satellite sensors should provide spatial resolution comparable to that of the LANDSAT data.
Kahle, A. B.; Palluconi, F. D.; Levine, C. J.; Abrams, M. J.; Nash, D. B.; Alley, R. E.; Schieldge, J. P.
Study of the Gemini V photograph of the Salt Range and Potwar Plateau, West Pakistan, indicates that small-scale orbital photographs permit recognition of the regional continuity of some geologic features, particularly faults and folds that could he easily overlooked on conventional air photographs of larger scale. Some stratigraphic relationships can also be recognized on the orbital photograph, but with only minimal previous geologic knowledge of the area, these interpretations are less conclusive or reliable than the interpretation of structure. It is suggested that improved atmospheric penetration could be achieved through the use of color infrared film. Photographic expression of topography could also be improved by deliberately photographing some areas during periods of low sun angle.
Hemphill, William R.; Danilchik, Walter
Formed as a private nonprofit organization, the Maine Humanities Council (MHC) "promotes strong communities and informed citizens by providing Mainers with opportunities to explore the power and pleasure of ideas." Their work is supported by volunteer board members, and their projects include programs to promote reading and writing, guest lectures around the state, and online newsletters and discussion groups. In the "Programs" area, visitors can learn about these programs, and educators can check out the resources created especially for them. The "Connections" area contains links to their thoughtful blog, their "Humanities on Demand" podcasts, and their periodic newsletter "Synapse", which deals with medicine and literature. The podcasts are quite fun, and they include "Franco-American Women's Words in Maine" and a talk by Professor Dianne Sadoff of Rutgers University on Middlemarch, by George Eliot.
A mosaic of four images taken through the clear filter (610 nanometers) of the solid state imaging (CCD) system aboard NASA's Galileo spacecraft on November 8, 1996, at a resolution of approximately 46 kilometers (km) per picture element (pixel) along the rings; however, because the spacecraft was only about 0.5 degrees above the ring plane, the image is highly foreshortened in the vertical direction. The images were obtained when Galileo was in Jupiter's shadow peering back toward the Sun; the ring was approximately 2,300,000 kilometers (km) away. The arc on the far right of the image is produced by sunlight scattered by small particles comprising Jupiter's upper atmospheric haze. The ring also efficiently scatters light, indicating that much of its brightness is due to particles that are microns or less in diameter. Such small particles are believed to have human-scale lifetimes, i.e., very brief compared to the solar system's age.Jupiter's ring system is composed of three parts -- a flat main ring, a lenticular halo interior to the main ring, and the gossamer ring, which lies exterior to the main ring. The near and far arms of Jupiter's main ring extend horizontally across the mosaic, joining together at the ring's ansa, on the far left side of the figure. The near arm of the ring appears to be abruptly truncated close to the planet, at the point where it passes into Jupiter's shadow. Some radial structure is barely visible across the ring's ansa. A faint mist of particles can be seen above and below the main rings; this vertically extended 'halo' is unusual in planetary rings, and is probably caused by electromagnetic forces pushing the smallest grains out of the ring plane. Because of shadowing, the halo is not visible close to Jupiter in the lower right part of the mosaic.Jupiter's main ring is a thin strand of material encircling the planet. The diffuse innermost boundary begins at approximately 123,000 km. The main ring's outer radius is found to be at 128,940 +/-50 km, slightly less than the Voyager value of 129,130 +/-100 km, but very close to the orbit of the satellite Adrastea (128,980 km). The main ring exhibits a marked drop in brightness at 127,849 +/-50 km, lying almost atop the orbit of the Jovian moon Metis at 127,978 km. Satellites seem to affect the structure of even tenuous rings like that found at Jupiter.The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at: http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at: http:/ /www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo.
In this lesson, students will learn about different forms of energy and how to find the main idea and key details in informational text. Included with the lesson is an anticipation guide to assess prior knowledge, plus a rubric to score the students' summative assessment. Also present is a list of books to choose from so that teachers can use the books that fit their students best.
Plate tectonics offers an explanation for the present motions and heterogeneity of the rocks that form the external part of the Earth. It explains the origin of the first-order heterogeneity of oceanic and continental lithospheres. Furthermore, it explains the youth and simplicity of the oceanic lithosphere and offers the potential to explain the antiquity, complexity, and evolution of the continental lithosphere. The framework of plate tectonics must be used carefully, because there are geological features within continents, particularly in the more ancient rocks, that may require alternative explanations. The task of understanding lithospheric motions through geologic time must be focused on the continents, where the major evidence for 95% of Earth history resides. In interpreting earth motions from the geologic record, three needs seem paramount: (i) to develop a three-dimensional understanding of the kinematics, dynamics, and thermal structure of modern plate boundary systems and at the same time to recognize those geological and geophysical features that are unrelated to plate interaction; (ii) to use this understanding to reconstruct the extent and evolution of ancient systems that form the major elements of continental crust; and (iii) to determine the dynamics and evolution of systems that have no modern analogs. Decoupling along subhorizontal zones within the lithosphere may be widespread in all types of plate boundary systems. Thus, in order to interpret the motion and dynamics of the mantle correctly, it is important to know if upper lithospheric motion within boundary systems is controlled directly or indirectly by or is independent of deeper mantle motions.
Burchfiel, B. C.
The United Republic of Tanzania was formed in 1964 by the merger of Tanganyika and Zanzibar and is located on the eastern coast of Africa between the Great Lakes of the Rift Valley. Tanzania has a diverse mineral resource base that includes gold and base metals, diamond-bearing kimberlites, nickel, cobalt, copper, coal resources, and a variety of industrial minerals and rocks such as kaolin, graphite, and dimension stone. This web site was created by the Mineral Resources Department (MRD), a subsidiary of the Ministry of Energy and Minerals, and contains basic information about the country's logistical environment, mineral sector policy, geological database, and more.
The 16 labs in this manual cover specific subjects from a range of topics including mineralogy, sedimentology, litho- and biostratigraphy, vertebrate and invertebrate paleontology, relative dating, and geologic map interpretation. Labs contain reference text, photos, illustrations, diagrams, and classification charts which prepare students for the accompanying exercises. Answers are not provided and labs are not designed for online interaction, but hard copies of the lab manual are available for purchase from the Georgia Perimeter College Online Bookstore. A link from the site provides ordering information and instructions.
Gore, P.; College, Georgia P.
The San Andreas fault system, a complex of faults that display predominantly large-scale strike slip, is part of an even more complex system of faults, isolated segments of the East Pacific Rise, and scraps of plates lying east of the East Pacific Rise that collectively separate the North American plate from the Pacific plate. This chapter briefly describes the San Andreas fault system, its setting along the Pacific Ocean margin of North America, its extent, and the patterns of faulting. Only selected characteristics are described, and many features are left for depictions on maps and figures.
Tobago consists chiefly of Mesozoic igneous and metamorphic rocks of oceanic island arc affinity. During a four year programme of geological mapping of the island we had access to aeromagnetic data which showed large amplitude, E-W trending linear anomalies mainly associated with highly magnetic plutonic rocks. Using the pseudogravity transform and a subsequent mapping of local maxima of the horizontal gradients we created raster images of the edges or boundaries of the causative magnetic bodies. Thresholding of the boundary pixels allowed noise to be filtered and the most significant boundaries to be chosen. When combined with digitised field-mapped geological boundaries a useful format was created that allowed us to validate some of the field boundaries, investigate unexplained features and interpret structures.
Wadge, G.; Snoke, A. W.
In 1991 it was 55 years since the application of airborne magnetic surveys on USSR territory, and 52 years since its practical usage at geological institutes. It is possible to outline three periods of such a survey. (1) 1936-55. In this period the magnetic field vertical component was measured with the use of an induction magnetometer developed by A.A. Logachev. The main features of this simple instrument is a half-ring collector, a type of suspension, a compensation mode of measuring with a semi-automatic analog recording, and so forth, and a special system of tuning enabling one to receive a root mean square error of the survey in the range of 50-200 nT. With the use of this magnetometer, the territory of 2,000,000 km2 was surveyed, a number of deposits were discovered ( Krasnokamensk iron-ore deposit in South Siberia in 1943 included), geological maps were refined, and in the period of 1948-49 the first survey in the Arctic (for geological zonation) was conducted.
Glebovsky, Yu. S.; Mishin, Alexey A.
As the need to share spatial data increases, more than agreement on a common format is needed to ensure that the data is meaningful to both the importer and the exporter. Effective data transfer also requires common definitions of spatial features. To achieve this, part 2 of the Spatial Data Transfer Standard (SDTS) provides a model for a spatial features data content specification and a glossary of features and attributes that fit this model. The model provides a foundation for standardizing spatial features. The glossary now contains only a limited subset of hydrographic and topographic features. For it to be useful, terms and definitions must be included for other categories, such as base cartographic, bathymetric, cadastral, cultural and demographic, geodetic, geologic, ground transportation, international boundaries, soils, vegetation, water, and wetlands, and the set of hydrographic and topographic features must be expanded. This paper will review the philosophy of the SDTS part 2 and the current plans for creating a national spatial features register as one mechanism for maintaining part 2.
Analogical reasoning is critical to planetary geology, but its role can be misconstrued by those unfamiliar with the practice of that science. The methodological importance of analogy to geology lies in the formulation of genetic hypotheses, an absolutely essential component of geological reasoning that was either ignored or denigrated by most 20th century philosophers of science, who took the theoretical/ experimental methodology of physics to be the sole model for all of scientific inquiry. Following the seminal 19th century work of Grove Karl Gilbert, an early pioneer of planetary geology, it has long been recognized that broad experience with and understanding of terrestrial geological phenomena provide geologists with their most effective resource for the invention of potentially fruitful, working hypotheses. The actions of (1) forming such hypotheses, (2) following their consequences, and (3) testing those consequences comprise integral parts of effective geological practice in regard to the understanding of planetary surfaces. Nevertheless, the logical terminology and philosophical bases for such practice will be unfamiliar to most planetary scientists, both geologists and nongeologists. The invention of geological hypotheses involves both inductive inferences of the type Gilbert termed “empiric classification” and abductive inferences of a logical form made famous by the 19th century American logician Charles Sanders Peirce. The testing and corroboration of geological hypotheses relies less on the correspondence logic of theoretical/ experimental sciences, like physics, and more on the logic of consistency, coherence, and consilience that characterizes the investigative and historical sciences of interpretation exemplified by geology.
Baker, Victor R.
Half way through the second semester of our year-long integrated Sed/Strat and Structure course we travel to Sheep Mountain, Wyoming where the students spend 5 days describing and measuring section and the constructing geologic and structural maps. The field data gathered then form the basis for a paper titled: "Geologic History of the Sheep Mountain Region". In addition to simply making geologic maps, stratigraphic sections and structural cross-sections, the students have to put the local geology into the broader contexts of the Big Horn Basin and sequences of western orogenies.
Malinconico, Lawrence L.
The Gulf of Maine Aquarium Web site is an abundant resource on marine ecosystems. From communication strategies of marine mammals to coral reefs in Belize, the site uses descriptive text and vivid photos to explore a variety of topics related to ocean life. With each menu expanding into a number of further selections, the site is a maze of topics that allows users to navigate through a vast amount of information based on their own interests. Several of the sections include some classroom activities to make the site more useful for teachers.
The formation of impact craters is a highly dynamic and complex process that subjects the impacted target rocks to numerous types of deformation mechanisms. Understanding and interpreting these styles of micro-, meso- and macroscale deformation has proved itself challenging for the field of structural geology. In this paper, we give an overview of the structural inventory found in craters of all size ranges on Earth, and look into the structures of craters on other planetary bodies. Structural features are discussed here that are caused by i) extremely high pressures and temperatures that occur during the initial passage of the shock wave through the target rock and projectile, ii) the resulting flow field in the target that excavates and ejects rock materials, and iii) the gravitationally induced modification of the crater cavity into the final crater form. A special focus is put on the effects that low-angle impacting bodies have on crater formation. We hope that this review will help both planetary scientists and structural geologists understand the deformation processes and resulting structures generated by meteorite impact.
Kenkmann, Thomas; Poelchau, Michael H.; Wulf, Gerwin
Kuwait is located in the Arabian platform geologic province and the stable shelf tectonic environment of the Mesopotamian geosyncline, a sedimentary basin extending from the Arabian shield on the west to the Zagros Mountains of complex folding and faulting history, on the east. The sedimentary cover in Kuwait consists of a complete succession 25,000 ft (7,600 m) thick on top of the basement and ranges in age from Paleozoic to Holocene. The relative geologic stability and homogeneity over virtually all its depositional history resulted in an extraordinary areal continuity of reservoirs, seals, and source rocks, giving rise to the accumulation of the largest concentration of the hydrocarbon reserves in the world in giant and super-giant oil and gas fields. The structures are very large, gentle with modest closure. The seals are very efficient. Because of the wide extent of the lithologic units and only gentle tectonic deformation, large-scale horizontal migration is very efficient and the large structures have great storage capacity.
The infrastructure to gather, store and access information about our environment is improving and growing rapidly. The increasing amount of information allows us to get a better understanding of the current state of our environment, historical processes and to simulate and predict the future state of the environment. Finer grained spatial and temporal data and more reliable communications make it easier to model dynamic states and ephemeral features. The exchange of information within and across geospatial domains is facilitated through the use of harmonized information models. The Observations & Measurements (O&M) developed through OGC and standardised by ISO is an example of such a cross-domain information model. It is used in many domains, including meteorology, hydrology as well as the emergency management. O&M enables harmonized representation of common metadata that belong to the act of determining the state of a feature property, whether by sensors, simulations or humans. In addition to the resulting feature property value, information such as the result quality but especially the time that the result applies to the feature property can be represented. Temporal metadata is critical to modelling past and future states of a feature. The features, and the semantics of each property, are defined in domain specific Application Schema using the General Feature Model (GFM) from ISO 19109 and usually encoded following ISO 19136. However, at the moment these standards provide only limited support for the representation and handling of time varying feature data. Features like rivers, wildfires or gas plumes have a defined state - for example geographic extent - at any given point in time. To keep track of changes, a more complex model for example using time-series coverages is required. Furthermore, the representation and management of feature property value changes via the service interfaces defined by OGC and ISO - namely: WFS and WCS - would be rather complex. Keeping track of feature property value corrections or even feature (state change) cancellations for auditing purposes is also not easy to achieve. The aviation domain has strong requirements to represent and manage the state of aeronautical features through time. Being able to efficiently encode and manage feature state changes, keeping track of all changes for auditing purposes and being able to determine the future state of an aeronautical feature as currently known to the system are vital for aeronautical applications. In order to support these requirements, the Aeronautical Information Exchange Model (AIXM) which has been developed by the aviation domain is based on the so called AIXM Temporality Model (AIXM-TM). The AIXM-TM defines various rules for modeling, representing and handling the state of aeronautical features through time. This is a promising approach that can be incorporated into the GFM so that ultimately the modeling and management of time varying feature data is supported in an interoperable and harmonized way in all geospatial domains. This presentation gives an introduction to the main concepts of the AIXM-TM. It also shows how the GFM can be extended to support time varying feature data. Finally, the relationship of O&M and time varying features is discussed.
Echterhoff, J.; Simonis, I.; Atkinson, R.
The OneGeology concept originated in early 2006. With the potential stimulus of the International Year of Planet Earth (IYPE) very much in mind, the challenge was: could we use IYPE to begin the creation of an interoperable digital geological dataset of the planet? Fourteen months later on the concept was unanimously endorsed by 83 representatives of the international geoscience community at a meeting in Brighton, UK, and goals were set to for a global launch at the 33rd IGC in Oslo in August 2008. The goals that the Brighton meeting agreed for OneGeology were deceptively simple. They were to: • improve the accessibility of geological map data • exchange know-how and skills so that all nations could participate • accelerate interoperability in the geosciences and the take up of a new "standard" (GeoSciML) At the time of writing (January 2010) there are 113 countries participating in OneGeology, more than 40 of which are serving data using a web map portal and protocols, registries and technology to "harvest" and serve data from around the world. An essential part of the development of OneGeology has been the exchange of know-how and provision of guidance and support so that any geological survey can participate and serve their data. The team have also moved forward and raised the profile of a crucial data model and interoperability standard - GeoSciML, which will allow geoscience data to be shared across the globe. OneGeology is coordinated through a two-part "hub" - a Secretariat based at the British Geological Survey (BGS), and the portal technology and servers provided by the French geological survey (BRGM). The "hub" is guided and supported by two international groups - the Operational Management Group (OMG) and the Technical Working Group (TWG). A Steering Group to provide strategic guidance for OneGeology and comprising geological survey directors representing the six continents was formed at the end of 2008. The Steering Group are now looking at options to incorporate Onegeology and consolidate its governance and sustainability. Two regional initiatives have been spawned which are strongly linked to OneGeology. OneGeology-Europe and the US project Geoscience Information Network (GIN) are progressing OneGeology goals in Europe and the USA. Additionally, in south-east Asia, CCOP members are making sure that OneGeology goals are progressed in their region. Each of these initiatives reinforces the other. A set of Success Criteria for the next 3 years, up to the 34 IGC in Brisbane, are providing new goals for the OneGeology work programme. Within these major aims are increasing the number of participants, increasing the number of those participants serving data, and increasing the number of participants moving from a web map service to a web feature service, which will offer significantly improved functionality. Communication and outreach have always been a priority for OneGeology; nonetheless the volume of global media coverage the project has received has been astounding. A dynamic website with rich and regularly updated content is a strong factor in that outreach. The audiences for these presentations range from geoscientists, to informatics and spatial data specialists, to environmental scientists, politicians and not least the general public. OneGeology has proved to be a project that has much broader appeal (and thus more opportunity to communicate the relevance of geology to society) than was ever envisaged. This external appeal has served to strengthen geoscience interest in the project, which has in turn given a higher profile and impetus to the interoperability standards OneGeology uses.
Jackson, Ian; Asch, Kristine; Tellez-Arenas, Agnès.; Komac, Marko; Demicheli, Luca
THE STATE STANDARDS for this project are as follows; STANDARD 1 Making: Students will assemble and create works of art by experiencing a variety of art media and by learning the art elements and principles. STANDARD 2 Perceiving: Students will find meaning by analyzing, criticizing, and evaluating works of art. STANDARD 3 Expressing: Students will create meaning in art. STANDARD 4 Contextualizing: Students will find meaning in works of art through settings and other modes of learning. Below is a list of useful site to help in drawing facial features, along with useful tutorial and resources. QUICK TEST (test your ability and knowledge) * Draw a circle. * Draw a light vertical line at the center of the circle. * Make light horizontal dashes a little above the center of the circle. ...
This book provides an introduction to processes and features of the desert environment. Topics include how a desert is defined, how atmospheric conditions influence aridity, and the location and distribution of the world's deserts. There is also discussion of types of deserts, desert features, dunes, and eolian processes (the action of wind). Other topics include the use of remote sensing in studying deserts, mineral deposits, and the process of desertification.
The problem of features subset selection can be defined as the selection of a relevant subset of features which allows a learning algorithm to induce small high-accuracy concepts. To achieve this goal, two main approaches have been developed, the first one is algorithm-independent (filter approach) which considers only the data, when the second approach takes into account both the data
Mohamed Quafafou; Moussa Boussouf
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) space shuttle mission in November 1981 acquired images of parts of the earth with a synthetic aperture radar system at a wavelength of 23.5 cm (9.3 in.) and spatial resolution of 38 m (125 ft). This report describes the geologic interpretation of 1:250,000-scale images of Irian Jaya and eastern Kalimantan, Indonesia, where the all-weather capability of radar penetrates the persistent cloud cover. The inclined look direction of radar enhances subtle topographic features that may be the expression of geologic structures. On the Indonesian images, the following terrain categories are recognizable for geologic mapping: carbonate, clastic, volcanic, alluvial and coastal, melange, and metamorphic, as well as undifferentiated bedrock. Regional and local geologic structures are well expressed on the images.
Hagerman Fossil Beds National Monument preserves the world's richest known fossil deposits from the late Pliocene epoch, approximately 3.5 million years ago. Site features include park geology information, maps, photographs, related links, visitor information, multimedia resources, and resources for teaching geology with National Park examples. The park geology section discusses the Monument's geologic history and includes information on some of the plants and animals found in the fossil beds. These plants and animals represent the last glimpse of time that existed before the Ice Age, and the earliest appearances of modern flora and fauna. A timeline of events during the Cenozoic era accompanies this information. The maps section includes a map of the National Monument and surrounding area.
Passive microwave techniques were applied to geologic problems, in order to establish the microwave properties of representative rocks and minerals, and to examine the feasibility of using microwave radiometry for geologic mapping problems. A review of microwave pertaining to geology was conducted, coupled with laboratory and field investigations of the microwave emission characteristics of various geologic features. The laboratory studies consisted of dielectric constant measurements of rocks and minerals. A majority of field investigations conducted in the western United States, involved the microwave emission charateristics of rock types, and a portion of the study was concerned with microwave properties of mineralized areas. Experiments were also conducted in the vicinity of a coal seam fire in Colorado and across the San Andreas Fault Zone near the Salton Sea, in Southern California.
Edgerton, A. T.
About 44 percent of the surface of Venus has been searched in a reconnaissance mode for wind-related features using primarily cycle 1 Magellan radar data. The aeolian features, including possible dune fields, yardangs, and various types of wind streaks, are described, and the geological settings and properties of the surfaces in which they occur are assessed. Attention is also given to possible modes of formation of the most common aeolian features (wind streaks), with reference made to terrestrial examples. The relationships between aeolian features and atmospheric circulation patterns on Venus are considered.
Greeley, Ronald; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Elachi, Charles; Geringer, Maureen A.; Plaut, Jeffrey J.; Saunders, R. S.; Schubert, Gerald; Stofan, Ellen R.; Thouvenot, Eric J. P.; Wall, Stephen D.
This website of the United States Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Park Service (NPS) highlights the geology of the Mojave National Preserve in California. It includes a field trip describing areas of interest at the preserve, as well as a geologic time scale describing the history and development of this area. Processes that shaped this region include volcanism, tectonics, faulting, erosion, deposition, spreading, intrusions, and glaciation. There is a geologic map of the area with units and a legend, and links to maps and technical papers.
The author has identified the following significant results. Late autumn imagery provides the advantages of topographic shadow enhancement and low cloud cover. Mapping of rock units was done locally with good results for alluvium, basin fill, volcanics, inclined Paleozoic and Mesozoic beds, and host strata of bentonite beds. Folds, intrusive domes, and even dip directions were mapped where differential erosion was significant. However, mapping was not possible for belt strata, was difficult for granite, and was hindered by conifers compared to grass cover. Expansion of local mapping required geologic control and encountered significant areas unmappable from ERTS imagery. Annotation of lineaments provided much new geologic data. By extrapolating test site comparisons, it is inferred that 27 percent of some 1200 lineaments mapped from western Montana represent unknown faults. The remainder appear to be localized mainly by undiscovered faults and sets of minor faults or joints.
Weidman, R. M. (principal investigator); Alt, D. D.; Berg, R.; Johns, W.; Flood, R.; Hawley, K.; Wackwitz, L.
Io, discovered by Galileo Galilei on January 7–13, 1610, is the innermost of the four Galilean satellites of the planet Jupiter (Galilei, 1610). It is the most volcanically active object in the Solar System, as recognized by observations from six National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) spacecraft: Voyager 1 (March 1979), Voyager 2 (July 1979), Hubble Space Telescope (1990–present), Galileo (1996–2001), Cassini (December 2000), and New Horizons (February 2007). The lack of impact craters on Io in any spacecraft images at any resolution attests to the high resurfacing rate (1 cm/yr) and the dominant role of active volcanism in shaping its surface. High-temperature hot spots detected by the Galileo Solid-State Imager (SSI), Near-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS), and Photopolarimeter-Radiometer (PPR) usually correlate with darkest materials on the surface, suggesting active volcanism. The Voyager flybys obtained complete coverage of Io's subjovian hemisphere at 500 m/pixel to 2 km/pixel, and most of the rest of the satellite at 5–20 km/pixel. Repeated Galileo flybys obtained complementary coverage of Io's antijovian hemisphere at 5 m/pixel to 1.4 km/pixel. Thus, the Voyager and Galileo data sets were merged to enable the characterization of the whole surface of the satellite at a consistent resolution. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) produced a set of four global mosaics of Io in visible wavelengths at a spatial resolution of 1 km/pixel, released in February 2006, which we have used as base maps for this new global geologic map. Much has been learned about Io's volcanism, tectonics, degradation, and interior since the Voyager flybys, primarily during and following the Galileo Mission at Jupiter (December 1995–September 2003), and the results have been summarized in books published after the end of the Galileo Mission. Our mapping incorporates this new understanding to assist in map unit definition and to provide a global synthesis of Io's geology.
Williams, David A.; Keszthelyi, Laszlo P.; Crown, David A.; Yff, Jessica A.; Jaeger, Windy L.; Schenk, Paul M.; Geissler, Paul E.; Becker, Tammy L.
The first four orbits of the Galileo spacecraft around Jupiter have returned pictures of Europa ranging in resolution from 6.9-km/pixel global views to 26-m/pixel images of small areas, as well as new color data for representative terrains and surface features. The best Voyager (VGR) coverage was only 1.8 km/pixel in a very limited area. Average VGR resolutions are 12 to 20 km for most of the surface, making Europa the least understood of the Galilean satellites. The new Galileo data (Belton, 1996) show details and characteristics of the surface, including evidence for geologically recent endogenic resurfacing.
Greeley, R.; Sullivan, R.; Bender, K. C.; Belton, M. J. S.; Carr, M.; Chapman, C.; Clark, B. E.; Fagents, S. A.; Geissler, P. E.; Head, J. W.; Homan, K. S.; Johnson, T.; Klaasen, K.; Klemaszewski, J.; Mcewen, A. S.; Moore, J. M.; Neukum, G.; Pappalardo, R. T.; Phillips, C. B.; Pilcher, C.; Senske, D.; Thomas, P. C.; Galileo SSI Team
The Idaho Geological Survey (IGS) operates and maintains the Earth Science Education Web site, which contains many interesting original and outside linked resources for students and teachers. The activities offered by IGS include topics on astronomy, earthquakes, general earth science, hydrogeology, landslides, volcanoes, and weather and climate. Other links on the site are geared toward professional development for educators, including a curriculum development project and an online clearinghouse publication of professional development courses, workshops, and conferences. Although the layout and design of it make it a bit difficult to use efficiently, the site contains many quality features and is worth exploring.
The geology of onshore continental Australia is presented as a series of data sheets in which each geological province or entity is described in terms of key geological parameters: age, size, margins, physiography, elements, stratigraphy, igneous activity, metamorphism, deformation, and economic geology. An outline is given of Australian landforms, and a short geological history is presented. The bulletin is designed as a reference to the geology of Australia and as a companion to regional and continent-wide geological maps.
Palfreyman, W. D.; Adkins, J. S.
This article presents an analysis of the influence of the geological factors on the health of the population of the Altai Republic. A study of the geological and geophysical structure of the territory in question has revealed that, for some years before the earthquake, the health of the population was affected by a diverse set of geological characteristics and geophysical fields including mineral deposits, active faults, anomalies in geophysical fields, certain features of atmospheric gas and aerosol characteristics, and geochemical anomalies.
Shitov, A. V.
This article suggests that Sir Wil liam Logan's Geology of Canada can be read as a narrative describing the past dynamic changes that shaped the present structure of the earth. The author also suggests, since the foundation of nineteenth century geology was a bio-stratigraphic con sensus that combined stratigraphy and the fossil record, that the use of a narrative offered
WILLIAM E. EAGAN
Superplumes are suggested to have caused the period of constant normal magnetic polarity in mid-Cretaceous time (124-83 Ma) and, possibly, the period of constant reversed polarity in Pennsylvania-Permian time (323-248 Ma). These times coincide with increases in world temperature, deposition of black shales, oil generation, and eustatic sea level in the mid-Cretaceous, and increased coal generation and gas accumulation in the Pennsylvanian-Permian, accompanied by an intracratonic Pennsylvanian transgression of epicontinental seas. These geologic anomalies are associated with episodes of increased world-wide ocean-crust production and mantle outgassing, especially of carbon and nutrients. These superplumes originated just above the core-mantle boundary, significantly increased convection in the outer core, and stopped the magnetic field reversal process for 41 m.y. in the Cretaceous and 75 m.y. in Pennsylvanian-Permian time.
Larson, R.L. (Univ. of Rhode Island, Narragansett (United States))
Superplumes are suggested to have caused the period of constant normal magnetic polarity in mid-Cretaceous time (124-83 Ma) and, possibly, the period of constant reversed polarity in Pennsylvanian-Permian time (323-248 Ma). These times coincide with increases in world temperature, deposition of black shales, oil generation, and eustatic sea level in the mid-Cretaceous, and increased coal generation and gas accumulation in the Pennsylvanian-Permian, accompanied by an intracratonic Pennsylvanian transgression of epicontinental seas. These geologic anomalies are associated with episodes of increased world-wide ocean-crust production and mantle outgassing, especially of carbon and nutrients. These superplumes originated just above the core-mantle boundary, significantly increased convection in the outer core, and stopped the magnetic field reversal process for 41 m.y. in the Cretaceous and 75 m.y. in Pennsylvanian-Permian time.
Larson, Roger L.
Instrument requirements of planetary geology orbiters were examined with the objective of determining the feasibility of applying standard instrument designs to a host of terrestrial targets. Within the basic discipline area of geochemistry, gamma-ray, X-ray fluorescence, and atomic spectroscopy remote sensing techniques were considered. Within the discipline area of geophysics, the complementary techniques of gravimetry and radar were studied. Experiments using these techniques were analyzed for comparison at the Moon, Mercury, Mars and the Galilean satellites. On the basis of these comparative assessments, the adaptability of each sensing technique was judged as a basic technique for many targets, as a single instrument applied to many targets, as a single instrument used in different mission modes, and as an instrument capability for nongeoscience objectives.
Cutts, J. A. J.; Blasius, K. R.; Davis, D. R.; Pang, K. D.; Shreve, D. C.
This geologic database of the Yucaipa 7.5' quadrangle was prepared by the Southern California Areal Mapping Project (SCAMP), a regional geologic-mapping project sponsored jointly by the U.S. Geological Survey and the California Geological Survey. The database was developed as a contribution to the National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program's National Geologic Map Database, and is intended to provide a general geologic setting of the Yucaipa quadrangle. The database and map provide information about earth materials and geologic structures, including faults and folds that have developed in the quadrangle due to complexities in the San Andreas Fault system. The Yucaipa 7.5' quadrangle contains materials and structures that provide unique insight into the Mesozoic and Cenozoic geologic evolution of southern California. Stratigraphic and structural elements include: (1) strands of the San Andreas Fault that bound far-traveled terranes of crystalline and sedimentary rock; (2) Mesozoic crystalline rocks that form lower and upper plates of the regionwide Vincent-Orocopia Thrust system; and (3) late Tertiary and Quaternary sedimentary materials and geologic structures that formed during the last million years or so and that record complex geologic interactions within the San Andreas Fault system. These materials and the structures that deform them provide the geologic framework for investigations of geologic hazards and ground-water recharge and subsurface flow. Geologic information contained in the Yucaipa database is general-purpose data that is applicable to land-related investigations in the earth and biological sciences. The term "generalpurpose" means that all geologic-feature classes have minimal information content adequate to characterize their general geologic characteristics and to interpret their general geologic history. However, no single feature class has enough information to definitively characterize its properties and origin. For this reason the database cannot be used for site-specific geologic evaluations, although it can be used to plan and guide investigations at the site-specific level.
Matti, Jonathan C.; Morton, D.M.; Cox, B.F.; Carson, S.E.; Yetter, T.J.; Digital preparation by: Cossette, P.M.; Wright, M.C.; Kennedy, S.A.; Dawson, M.L.; Hauser, R.M.
Facial expression recognition is an active research area that finds a potential application in human emotion analysis. This work presents an efficient approach of facial expression features clustering based on Support Vector Clustering (SVC). Common approaches to facial expression features clustering are designed considering two main parts: (1) features extraction, and (2) features clustering. In the process of facial expression
Shu-ren Zhou; Xi-ming Liang; Can Zhu
Images of the asteroid and protoplanet 4Vesta by the Hubble Space Telescope in 1994 and 1996 revealed a ~460 km diameter feature at its south pole that was interpreted to be a large impact structure. NASA's Dawn spacecraft arrived at the asteroid Vesta on July 15, 2011 and collected science data during the approach to Vesta, a circular polar orbit at an altitude of 2700 km providing ~ 230 m/pix camera resolution and a lower main mapping orbit, at 700 km altitude with a camera resolution of ~ 65 m/pixel. As part of the geological analysis of Vesta's surface, a series of 15 quadrangle maps are being produced. We present the results of the geological mapping achieved for quadrangle V-15SP. Unit boundaries and feature characteristics were determined primarily using morphologic data. Color and spectral data was utilized to refine unit contacts and to separate compositional or mineralogical distinctions. Those units that could be discerned both in morphology and in the color data were interpreted as geologically derived units. The south polar feature is a semi-circular structure with a central hill that is characterized by a white-grey color and smoother texture distinctive from the surrounding terrain. Some images show patches of bright, smooth terrain on the central hill, perhaps indicative of impact melt or ponded volcanic flows. A complex network of deep grooves and ridges is the primary characteristic on the feature floor; these grooves appear radial to the central mound or trend along a north-south line. The structure also has a distinctive color from both the central hill and surrounding terrain, consistent with a different composition or texture. A steep semi-arcuate scarp bounds part of the outer perimeter of the south polar feature. Although asymmetric in general form, these characteristics do not contradict an impact origin but may also allow endogenic processes like convective downwelling or hybrid modification of an impact. Rapid rotation of Vesta during impact may explain some anomalous features (Jutzi and Asphaug, 2010). The crater size frequency and the chronology function is derived from the lunar chronology, scaled to impact frequencies modeled for Vesta according to (Bottke et al., 1994) and (O'Brien and Sykes, 2011) on Vesta. Preliminary crater counts indicate only small differences in absolute surface model ages between the northern region and the south polar structure.
Jaumann, R.; Yingst, R.; Schenk, P.; Schmedemann, N.; Williams, D. A.; Pieters, C. M.; Buczkowski, D.; Stephan, K.; Roatsch, T.; Preusker, F.; Scholten, F.; Neukum, G.; O'Brien, D. P.; Mest, S. C.; Krohn, K.; Marchi, S.; Filacchione, G.; Russell, C. T.; Raymond, C. A.; De Sanctis, M. C.
Specialized GIS-technologies allow creating multi-parameter models, completing multi-criteria optimisation tasks, and issues of geological profile forecasts using miscellaneous data. Pictorial and attributive geological and geophysical information collected to create GIS database is supplemented by the ERS (Earth's Remote Sensing) data, air spectrometry, space images, and topographic data. Among the important tasks are as follows: a unification of initial geological, geophysical and other types of information on a tectonic position, rock classification and stratigraphic scale; topographic bases (various projectures, scales); the levels of detail and exhaustibility; colors and symbols of legends; data structures and their correlation; units of measurement of physical quantities, and attribute systems of descriptions. Methods of the geological environment investigation using GIS-technology are based on a principle of the research target analogy with a standard. A similarity ratio is quantitative estimate. A geological forecast model is formed by structuring of geological information based on detailed analysis and aggregation of geological and formal knowledge bases on standard targets. Development of a bank of models of the analyzed geological structures of various ran