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1

Virtual Tour of Maine Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This selection of slide shows provides a photographic tour of Maine geology. Users can choose slide shows on surficial, bedrock, and coastal geology; fossils, geologic hazards, groundwater and wells; or mineral collecting, mining, and quarrying.

2

Bedrock Geologic Map of Maine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students study a map of bedrock geology which describes the types of rocks that exist in a given area. It shows these rock units as well as their known and inferred contacts. Consideration is also given to folding, faulting, unconformities, and similar rock relationships. These features are often included in bedrock geology maps. Students study the legend and scale and become aware of the other information that is included on the map such as the stratigraphic column, list of formations, and inset map of metamorphic grade. Students then locate their city or town and draw a 40-mile diameter circle around it and identify all the symbols inside the circle and the age of the various rocks. Student question sheets are available at this site. Although this activity was written for a map of Maine, it will work in any state where geological maps are available.

3

Surficial Geologic Map of Maine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students become familiar with the nature and use of the Surficial Geologic Map of Maine and gain practice in using maps other than topographic maps. They will discover that surficial geology deals primarily with the geologically youthful, unconsolidated sedimentary materials that exist at, or close to the surface of a specific area and are important because the surface deposits filter and control the access of water to the water table. Students also learn that the study of surficial geology is important for siting of waste disposal facilities and for resources such as sand, gravel, and clay. Although this activity was written for a map of Maine, it will work in any state where surficial geological maps are available.

4

Main features of meiosis  

SciTech Connect

Chapter 17, outlines the main features of meiosis, beginning with its significance and proceeding through the meiotic stages. Meiosis is the most important modification of mitosis because it is the reduction division that gives rise to the haploid generation in the life cycle. 17 refs., 6 figs.

NONE

1993-12-31

5

Vesta's Geological Features  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vesta’s diverse geology exhibits impact basins and craters of all sizes and unusual shapes, ejecta blankets, large troughs, impact basins, enigmatic dark material, and considerable evidence for mass wasting and surface alteration processes.

Jaumann, R.; Russell, C. T.; Raymond, C. A.; Pieters, C. M.; Yingst, R. A.; Williams, D. A.; Buczkowski, D. L.; Schenk, P.; De Sanctis, M. C.

2014-02-01

6

Tectonics of the Urals and adjacent part of the West-Siberian platform basement: Main features of geology and development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Urals had undergone two main complete cycles of geodynamic development in the Riphean-Mesozoic time. The first one took place in the Riphean and Vendian and was completed by formation of the Timanides; the second is dated as Paleozoic-Early Mesozoic, belongs to the Uralides and can be divided into eight stages: (1) Continental riftogenesis (Cambrian - Early Ordovician). (2) Oceanic spreading (Middle-Late Ordovician). (3) Main subduction (Late Ordovician - Early Carboniferous). (4) Early collision (Late Devonian - Early Carboniferous) between the Magnitogorsk island arc and the passive margin of the Laurussia continent. (5) Late subduction of a relict oceanic crust of the Paleouralian ocean (Early-Carboniferous-Bashkirian). (6) Collision of Laurussian and Kazakhstanian continents. (7) A limited post-collisional extension and superplume magmatism (Triassic). (8) Thrust-and-fold deformation in the Early Jurassic time. Structure of the West Siberian plate is divided into three structural stages: (1) Folding of basement composed of rock complexes of almost exclusively Paleozoic age; (2) Riftogenesis with eruption of Early Triassic basalts (occasionally with some rhyolites), covered by terrigenous series of the Middle and Upper Triassic; (3) Deposition of a platform cover comprising Jurassic and younger sedimentary complexes, practically undeformed, which contain almost all deposits of oil and gas in the Western Siberia. The basement of the western part of the West Siberian plate is a prolongation of the structural zones of the eastern sector of Uralides, while the basement of the eastern part of the plate belongs to the Siberian craton and its folded margin. A huge block of the Kazakhstanides is situated to the east of the Uralides, beneath the platform cover and pinches out to the north. These main domains of the basement are divided by two major ophiolite sutures - Valerianovsk and Chara. Wide distribution of Triassic volcanogenic complexes under the platform cover of the West Siberian plate makes a principal difference from the Urals. Ophiolites are widely distributed under the platform cover of the West Siberian plate (especially in its central and western parts). Completion of Paleozoic geodynamic evolution of this region resulted from the collision of three continents (Laurussia, Siberia and Kazakhstania) accompanied by folding, highamplitude thrusting, intrusion of granite plutons, metamorphism and formation of a new crust of continental type. The time of these events which consolidated Paleozoic complexes of basement of future West Siberian megabasin is determined as Early Permian for the Cis-Uralian part of the platform. In the beginning of Triassic rifting, formation of a graben system, took place. A final stage of compressional deformation, mostly in the exposed part of the Urals, Pay-Khoy and Novaya Zemlya, occurred in the Lower Jurassic.

Ivanov, K. S.; Puchkov, V. N.; Fyodorov, Yu N.; Erokhin, Yu V.; Pogromskaya, O. E.

2013-08-01

7

Maine Geological Survey: Online Educational Materials  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Maine Geological Survey (MGS) has crafted a fine set of materials for those interested in learning more about the state's natural history via virtual tours, lesson plans, and maps. First up is the Virtual Tour of Maine Geology, which includes photographs of bedrock geology, geologic hazards, mineral collecting, and surficial geology. The Lesson Plans area contains 51 lessons, including "Igneous Rock Identification" and "Composition of Topsoil." A number of MGS maps are available online in the Maps and Publications area. The site includes a Bibliography of Maine Geology, which contains over 12,000 references. Additionally, the site contains a link to the MGS publications page, which has official state of Maine wall maps available for purchase.

8

Maine Geological Survey: Online Educational Materials  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Maine Geological Survey (MGS) has crafted a fine set of materials for those interested in learning more about the state's natural history via virtual tours, lesson plans, and maps. First up is the Virtual Tour of Maine Geology, which includes photographs of bedrock geology, geologic hazards, mineral collecting, and surficial geology. The Lesson Plans area contains 51 lessons, including "Igneous Rock Identification" and "Composition of Topsoil." A number of MGS maps are available online in the Maps and Publications area. The site includes a Bibliography of Maine Geology, which contains over 12,000 references. Additionally, the site contains a link to the MGS publications page, which has official state of Maine wall maps available for purchase.

2009-12-08

9

Geology Fieldnotes: Acadia National Park, Maine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Park Service website highlights the geology of Acadia National Park. The story begins 500 million years ago, and goes through rock cycles, formations (Ellsworth, Bar Harbor, and Cranberry formations), intrusions, the Ice Age, glacial features, and development of shore patterns. There are area and park maps, photos, and links to additional information.

10

Main geothermal features of northwest African countries  

SciTech Connect

The Maghrebian zone of North-West Africa is one of the poorest regions in water resources in all of Africa. Given the limited rainfall, underground water constitutes an important resource in this region and its study may help to assess the geothermal potential in this area. Research is based on geothermal signatures in available inventory data (thermal springs, hydro-geologic and petroleum wells). Underground temperature has been measured in petroleum exploration wells and can be estimated by chemical geothermometers. Heat flow density ranges from 60 to 120 mWm{sup -2} and geothermal gradient varies from 25 to 52{degrees}C/km. These variations as well as the thermal springs location seem to be related to the main tectonic features.

Mimi, A.L.; Dhia, H.B.; Bouri, S.

1997-12-31

11

Main subject detection via adaptive feature refinement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Main subject detection (MSD) refers to the task of determining which spatial regions in an image correspond to the most visually relevant or scene-defining object(s) for general viewing purposes. This task, while trivial for a human, remains extremely challenging for a computer. Here, we present an algorithm for MSD which operates by adaptively refining low-level features. The algorithm computes, in a block-based fashion, five feature maps corresponding to lightness distance, color distance, contrast, local sharpness, and edge strength. These feature maps are adaptively combined and gradually refined via three stages. The final combination of the refined feature maps produces an estimate of the main subject's location. We tested the proposed algorithm on two extensive image databases. Our results show that relatively simple, low-level features, when used in an adaptive and iterative fashion, can be very effective at MSD.

Vu, Cuong; Chandler, Damon

2011-01-01

12

Windblown Features on Venus and Geological Mapping  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objectives of this study were to: 1) develop a global data base of aeolian features by searching Magellan coverage for possible time-variable wind streaks, 2) analyze the data base to characterize aeolian features and processes on Venus, 3) apply the analysis to assessments of wind patterns near the surface and for comparisons with atmospheric circulation models, 4) analyze shuttle radar data acquired for aeolian features on Earth to determine their radar characteristics, and 5) conduct geological mapping of two quadrangles. Wind, or aeolian, features are observed on Venus and aeolian processes play a role in modifying its surface. Analysis of features resulting from aeolian processes provides insight into characteristics of both the atmosphere and the surface. Wind related features identified on Venus include erosional landforms (yardangs), depositional dune fields, and features resulting from the interaction of the atmosphere and crater ejecta at the time of impact. The most abundant aeolian features are various wind streaks. Their discovery on Venus afforded the opportunity to learn about the interaction of the atmosphere and surface, both for the identification of sediments and in mapping near-surface winds.

Greeley, Ronald

1999-01-01

13

Maine Geological Survey Borehole Temperature Profiles  

DOE Data Explorer

This dataset includes temperature profiles from 30 boreholes throughout Maine that were selected for their depth, location, and lithologies encountered. Depths range from about 300 feet to 2,200 feet. Most of the boreholes selected for measurement were completed in granite because this lithology can be assumed to be nearly homogeneous over the depth of the borehole. Boreholes were also selected to address gaps in existing geothermal datasets. Temperature profiles were collected in October and November, 2012.

Marvinney, Robert

14

Maine Geological Survey Borehole Temperature Profiles  

SciTech Connect

This dataset includes temperature profiles from 30 boreholes throughout Maine that were selected for their depth, location, and lithologies encountered. Depths range from about 300 feet to 2,200 feet. Most of the boreholes selected for measurement were completed in granite because this lithology can be assumed to be nearly homogeneous over the depth of the borehole. Boreholes were also selected to address gaps in existing geothermal datasets. Temperature profiles were collected in October and November, 2012.

Marvinney, Robert

2013-11-06

15

The Geology of the Marginal Way, Ogunquit, Maine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This guide introduces visitors to the geology of the Marginal Way, a mile-long public footpath in the southern coastal town of Ogunquit, Maine. Topics include bedrock geology (Silurian quartzites and phyllites), later intrusives (sills and dikes, mainly of basalt), and evidence of glaciation (striations). Suggested activities include observing graded bedding in the bedrock, estimating the ages of cross-cutting dikes, and looking for glacial striations. Permission and access information, directions, and suggestions for further reading are included.

16

Geology and impact features of Riachão structure, northern Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Riachão, located at S7°42'/W46°38' in Maranhão State, northeastern Brazil, is a complex impact structure of about 4.1 km diameter, formed in Pennsylvanian to Permian sedimentary rocks of the Parnaíba Basin sequence. Although its impact origin was already proposed in the 1970s, information on its geology and shock features is still scarce in the literature. We present here the main geomorphological and geological characteristics of the Riachão impact structure obtained by integrated geophysical and remote sensing analysis, as well as geological field work and petrographic analysis. The identified lithostratigraphic units consist of different levels of the Pedra de Fogo Formation and, possibly, the Piauí Formation. Our petrographic analysis confirms the presence of shock-diagnostic planar microdeformation structures in quartz grains of sandstone from the central uplift as evidence for an impact origin of the Riachão structure. The absence of crater-filling impact breccias and melt rocks, shatter cones, as well as the restricted occurrence of microscopic shock effects, suggests that intense and relatively deep erosion has occurred since crater formation.

Maziviero, Mariana V.; Vasconcelos, Marcos A. R.; Crósta, Alvaro P.; Góes, Ana M.; Reimold, Wolf U.; de C. Carneiro, Cleyton

2013-10-01

17

Estimation of Channelized Features in Geological Media Using Sparsity Constraints  

E-print Network

Jafarpour B.Sc. Civil Engineering The University of Tehran, 1999 M.Sc. Civil and Environmental Engineering of Channelized Features in Geological Media Using Sparsity Constraint by Behnam Jafarpour Submitted

Goyal, Vivek K

18

Pinnacles National Monument: A 3-D Tour Featuring Park Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This virtual tour features three-dimensional images from the United States Geological Survey's (USGS) collection. It introduces visitors to the geology and landforms of Pinnacles National Monument in California, the location of a belt of Tertiary volcanic rocks (tuff, breccia, and ash of rhyolite, dacite, and andesite composition). The location of the Pinnacles volcanic area near the San Andreas Fault has important implications for deciphering the geologic history of the fault system. Views include the trace of the San Andreas fault and erosional features (pinnacles, caves, cliffs, etc.) carved into the volcanic deposits. The 3-D images are anaglyphs and require red and cyan 3-D viewing glasses.

19

3-Dimensional Topographic Models of Geologic Features for the Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We are using topography data of Earth and Mars to produce accurate 3-dimensional plastic models of comparable large scale geologic surface features from both planets. These models will be used in instructional settings to help students gain a better understanding of topics related to comparative geology, geomorphology and topography. Along with the models, associated lesson plans are being designed to help students and teachers understand topics related to topography such as maps, scale, shape, landform evolution, contour, slope, and exaggeration.

20

Mojave National Preserve: A 3-D Tour Featuring Park Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This virtual tour features three-dimensional images from the United States Geological Survey's (USGS) collection. It introduces visitors to the geology and landforms of Mojave National Preserve. Views include cinder cones, layered deposits of rhyolite and basalt tuff, and the Providence Mountain Range. Visitors can also see high desert flora (Joshua trees), limestone caverns, and the evaporite deposits of Soda Lake. The 3-D images are anaglyphs and require red and cyan 3-D viewing glasses.

21

Ambient tectonic stress as fragile geological feature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

seismic waves produce frictional failure within shallow pervasively cracked rocks. Distributed failure preferentially relaxes ambient tectonic stresses, providing a fragility measure of past strong shaking. Relaxation of the regional fault-normal compression appears to have occurred within granite from 768 m down to ˜1000-1600 m depth at the Pilot Hole near Parkfield, California. Subsequent movements on the main fault have imposed strike-slip stress within the relaxed region. Peak ground velocities of ˜2 m s-1 are inferred for infrequent (few 1000 yr recurrence) past earthquakes from stress relaxation within the granite and from the variation of S wave velocity with depth in the overlying sandstone. Conversely, frequent strong shaking in slowly deforming regions relaxes shallow ambient tectonic stress. This situation is expected beneath Whittier Narrows, where strong Love waves from numerous San Andreas events repeatedly produced nonlinear behavior.

Sleep, Norman H.

2014-09-01

22

Surficial geology map of the Great Heath, Washington County, Maine  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The major portion of the Great Heath, comprising 2,645 acres in the Cherryfield quadrangle, Washington County, Maine, generally averaging 13 feet in thickness, but with as great an average as 15 feet, contain an estimated 6,953 ,000 short tons air-dried peat. The peat #s chiefly sphagnum moss with some reed-sedge of high quality according to ASTM standards for agricultural and horticultural use. This same volume of peat may be considered for use as fuel because BTO per pound ranges from 8,600 to 10,500 with low sulfur and high hydrogen contents.

Cameron, Cornelia Clermont; Mullen, Michael K.

1983-01-01

23

Geological significance of features observed in Colorado from orbital altitudes. [using EREP and LANDSAT imagery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three major investigations using LANDSAT and Skylab imagery concerned with analyses of color anomalies and linear features of central Colorado are discussed. The studies conducted are concerned with the geological significance of spectral and spatial features on the images. Color anomalies in Skylab photographs were analyzed and evaluated for locating indicators of mineralization. The relationships were determined of all linear features in a LANDSAT image to the rock joint systems and the detectable larger geologic structures; techniques for extracting that geologic information are indicated. Some anomalous megalinear features in LANDSAT and Skylab images are analyzed which transect major structures and, their associated geologic features are described.

Sawatzky, D. L.; Prost, G. L.; Lee, K.; Knepper, D. H.

1975-01-01

24

LROC Observations of Geologic Features in the Marius Hills  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lunar volcanic cones, domes, and their associated geologic features are important objects of study for the LROC science team because they represent possible volcanic endmembers that may yield important insights into the history of lunar volcanism and are potential sources of lunar resources. Several hundred domes, cones, and associated volcanic features are currently targeted for high-resolution LROC Narrow Angle Camera [NAC] imagery[1]. The Marius Hills, located in Oceanus Procellarum (centered at ~13.4°N, -55.4°W), represent the largest concentration of these volcanic features on the Moon including sinuous rilles, volcanic cones, domes, and depressions [e.g., 2-7]. The Marius region is thus a high priority for future human lunar exploration, as signified by its inclusion in the Project Constellation list of notional future human lunar exploration sites [8], and will be an intense focus of interest for LROC science investigations. Previous studies of the Marius Hills have utilized telescopic, Lunar Orbiter, Apollo, and Clementine imagery to study the morphology and composition of the volcanic features in the region. Complementary LROC studies of the Marius region will focus on high-resolution NAC images of specific features for studies of morphology (including flow fronts, dome/cone structure, and possible layering) and topography (using stereo imagery). Preliminary studies of the new high-resolution images of the Marius Hills region reveal small-scale features in the sinuous rilles including possible outcrops of bedrock and lobate lava flows from the domes. The observed Marius Hills are characterized by rough surface textures, including the presence of large boulders at the summits (~3-5m diameter), which is consistent with the radar-derived conclusions of [9]. Future investigations will involve analysis of LROC stereo photoclinometric products and coordinating NAC images with the multispectral images collected by the LROC WAC, especially the ultraviolet data, to enable measurements of color variations within and amongst deposits and provide possible compositional insights, including the location of possibly related pyroclastic deposits. References: [1] J. D. Stopar et al. (2009), LRO Science Targeting Meeting, Abs. 6039 [2] Greeley R (1971) Moon, 3, 289-314 [3] Guest J. E. (1971) Geol. and Phys. of the Moon, p. 41-53. [4] McCauley J. F. (1967) USGS Geologic Atlas of the Moon, Sheet I-491 [5] Weitz C. M. and Head J. W. (1999) JGR, 104, 18933-18956 [6] Heather D. J. et al. (2003) JGR, doi:10.1029/2002JE001938 [7] Whitford-Stark, J. L., and J. W. Head (1977) Proc. LSC 8th, 2705-2724 [8] Gruener J. and Joosten B. K. (2009) LRO Science Targeting Meeting, Abs. 6036 [9] Campbell B. A. et al. (2009) JGR, doi:10.1029/2008JE003253.

Lawrence, S.; Stopar, J. D.; Hawke, R. B.; Denevi, B. W.; Robinson, M. S.; Giguere, T.; Jolliff, B. L.

2009-12-01

25

Geologic Field Investigation: Investigating Coastal Features of Western Lake Superior, Inferring Possibilities of their Origins  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This geologic investigation will have students observing and investigating coastal features of Western Lake Superior using inquiry-based investigable questions, and inferring possibilities of the coastal features' origins.

Paul Davis

26

Geological features and evolution history of Sinus Iridum, the Moon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sinus Iridum region is one of the important candidate landing areas for the future Chinese lunar robotic and human missions. Considering its flat topography, abundant geomorphic features and complex evolutionary history, this region shows great significance to both lunar science and landing exploration, including powered descent, surface trafficability and in-situ exploration. First, we use Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Altimeter (LOLA) and Camera (LROC) data to characterize regional topographic and geomorphological features within Sinus Iridum, e.g., wrinkle ridges and sinuous rilles. Then, we deduce the iron and titanium content for the mare surface using the Clementine ultraviolet-visible (UVVIS) data and generate mineral absorption features using the Chandrayaan-1 Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) spectrometer data. Later, we date the mare surface using crater size-frequency distribution (CSFD) method. CSFD measurements show that this region has experienced four major lava infilling events with model ages ranging from 3.32 Ga to 2.50 Ga. The regional magmatic activities evolved from Imbrian-aged low-titanium to Eratosthenian-aged medium-titanium. The inner Sinus Iridum is mainly composed of pyroxene-rich basalts with olivine abundance increasing with time, while the surrounding highlands have a feldspar-dominated composition. In the northern wall of Sinus Iridum, some potential olivine-rich materials directly excavated from the lunar mantle are visible. The Sinus Iridum region is an ideal target for future landing exploration, we propose two candidate landing sites for the future Chinese robotic and human missions.

Qiao, Le; Xiao, Long; Zhao, Jiannan; Huang, Qian; Haruyama, Junichi

2014-10-01

27

RACHEL J. BEANE Department of Geology 6800 College Station Bowdoin College Brunswick, Maine 04011-8468  

E-print Network

RACHEL J. BEANE Department of Geology · 6800 College Station · Bowdoin College · Brunswick, Maine PUBLICATIONS (* denotes undergraduate student author) Grew, E.S., Yates, M.G., Beane, R.J., Floss, C. and Gerbi, H.J., Price, N.A., Marsh, J.H., Koons, P.O., West, D.P., and Beane, R.J., accepted. Clast

Beane, Rachel J.

28

Maps of Lunar Topographic Roughness: Correlation with Geological Features  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter LOLA [Smith et al. 2010 Space Sci. Rev. 150, 209] on board the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter is accumulating high-precision lunar surface elevation measurements. This data set is an excellent source for mapping lunar topographic roughness [Rosenburg et al. 2011 JGR 116, E02001]. Such maps are useful in planetary geology for the following reasons. (1) Roughness maps provide a convenient one-glance synoptic overview of small-scale textures. (2) They help focus on typical background topography, while researcher's eyes usually pick prominent features. (3) Roughness maps utilize the exceptional along-orbit precision of laser altimeter data. In a series of roughness maps that we present here, we use the interquartile range of along-profile curvature at a given baseline as a measure of roughness. We use a progression of baselines starting from the double LOLA probing step: 0.12, 0.46, 0.92, 1.8 km. We also show some useful color composites combining these maps and showing the scale dependence of roughness. Available data allow roughness mapping at 8 pixels per degree resolution. The nature of the lunar roughness changes abruptly at sub-km scale. At 0.46 km baseline and longer, the most prominent feature on the roughness maps is the dichotomy between smooth maria and rough highlands. At 0.12 km baseline, the mare/highland boundary disappears; some mare surfaces are rougher and some are smoother than typical highlands. At this baseline the surface topography is controlled by regolith gardening and reflects small-scale resurfacing during the Copernican and Eratosthenian periods, while for longer baselines the topography is defined by bedrock geology and "remembers" Imbrian and earlier events. At short scales (0.12 km baseline) both the roughest and the smoothest terrains are related to Copernican-aged large impact craters. Craters themselves and their proximal ejecta are extremely rough; the roughest ejecta is separated from craters by prominent smoother annuli. The roughness of the young craters progressively decreases with age due to smoothing by accumulation of the regolith layer. The smoothest terrains are local relatively small impact melt sheets outside Copernican craters Rutherford and Glushko. Large Copernican craters Tycho, Jackson and Ohm have systems of long roughness rays composed of elongated clusters of secondary craters. There are at least a few prominent roughness "rays" on the north-eastern limb made of dense elongated crater clusters that are not associated with any impact crater; their origin is enigmatic. Mare surfaces have relatively wide variations of roughness; boundaries between rougher and smoother areas often do not correlate with boundaries of mare units. These roughness variations seem to be caused, at least, partly, by the varying density of small craters. At longer baselines (0.46, 0.92, 1.8 km), in addition to Copernican and Eratosthenian craters, large Late Imbrian craters have prominent roughness signatures; they also have smoother annuli between craters and rough ejecta. Orientale basin, unlike other basins, also has distinctive roughness signature, as discussed in [Kreslavsky & Head 2012 JGR 117, E00H24]. The youngest maria are smooth at all scales, while older maria and cryptomaria are progressively rougher at shorter baselines; sharp roughness contrasts coincide with known unit boundaries.

Kreslavsky, M. A.; Head, J. W.; Neumann, G. A.; Zuber, M. T.; Smith, D. E.

2012-12-01

29

View of Feature 2, the remains of the Geology/Change Room, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of Feature 2, the remains of the Geology/Change Room, view to the southeast - Orphan Lode Mine, North of West Rim Road between Powell Point and Maricopa Point, South Rim, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

30

Gravity and magnetic anomalies used to delineate geologic features associated with earthquakes and aftershocks in the central Virginia seismic zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estimating seismic hazard in intraplate environments can be challenging partly because events are relatively rare and associated data thus limited. Additionally, in areas such as the central Virginia seismic zone, numerous pre-existing faults may or may not be candidates for modern tectonic activity, and other faults may not have been mapped. It is thus important to determine whether or not specific geologic features are associated with seismic events. Geophysical and geologic data collected in response to the Mw5.8 August 23, 2011 central Virginia earthquake provide excellent tools for this purpose. Portable seismographs deployed within days of the main shock showed a series of aftershocks mostly occurring at depths of 3-8 km along a southeast-dipping tabular zone ~10 km long, interpreted as the causative fault or fault zone. These instruments also recorded shallow (< 4 km) aftershocks clustered in several areas at distances of ~2-15 km from the main fault zone. We use new airborne geophysical surveys (gravity, magnetics, radiometrics, and LiDAR) to delineate the distribution of various surface and subsurface geologic features of interest in areas where the earthquake and aftershocks took place. The main (causative fault) aftershock cluster coincides with a linear, NE-trending gravity gradient (~ 2 mgal/km) that extends over 20 km in either direction from the Mw5.8 epicenter. Gravity modeling incorporating seismic estimates of Moho variations suggests the presence of a shallow low-density body overlying the main aftershock cluster, placing it within the upper 2-4 km of the main-fault hanging wall. The gravity, magnetic, and radiometric data also show a bend in generally NE-SW orientation of anomalies close to the Mw5.8 epicenter. Most shallow aftershock clusters occur near weaker short-wavelength gravity gradients of one to several km length. In several cases these gradients correspond to geologic contacts mapped at the surface. Along the gravity gradients, the aftershocks appear to cluster near areas with cross-cutting geologic features such as Jurassic diabase dikes. These associations suggest that local variations in rock density and/or rheology may have contributed to modifications of local stress regimes in a manner encouraging localized seismicity associated with the Mw5.8 event and its aftershocks. Such associations are comparable to results of previous studies recognizing correspondences between seismicity and features such as intrusive bodies and failed rifts in the New Madrid seismic zone and elsewhere. To explore whether similar correspondences may have occurred in the past, we use regional gravity and magnetic data to consider possible relations between historical earthquakes and comparable geologic features elsewhere in the central Virginia seismic zone.

Shah, A. K.; Horton, J.; McNamara, D. E.; Spears, D.; Burton, W. C.

2013-12-01

31

Yellowstone National Park: Historic 3-D Photographs Featuring Park Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This source provides a series of 34 historic photographs of well-known geologic landmarks in Yellowstone National Park. The photographs can be viewed individually or as part of a tour that begins at Old Faithful and proceeds in a clockwise route around the park. The images were created by digital manipulation of antique stereographs and they may be viewed as black and white photos or in 3-D using special stereographic glasses.

Stoffer Phil

32

Going Batty! (Using Informational Text about Bats to teach Main Idea/Details and Text Features)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is a good review of main idea and details. It uses informational books about bats in the lesson. Students will use informational text features to help find the main idea and details. They will also use the knowledge of main idea/details and informational text features to complete a simple reseach sheet and/or book.

Joe Atchison

2012-06-13

33

Gestures for Structural Geology: Linear and Planar Features  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

à Gesturing a possible orientation for a planar feature cutting into a 3D solid. Provenance: Kinnari Atit, Temple University Reuse: This item is offered under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ You may reuse this item for non-commercial purposes as long as you provide attribution and offer any derivative works under a similar license. In this exercise, students use a pointer finger to gesture the orientations of linear features and use their hands (open and flat) to gesture the orientations of planar features. In the first part of the exercise, students can only see one surface of a wooden block, and are asked to speculate about how planar features penetrate through the interior. Later, they uncover the other faces of the block and gesture the actual orientations. This uses embodied learning to help students relate surficial (2D) observations to 3D interpretations.

Carol Ormand

34

Use and Features of Basalt Formations for Geologic Sequestration  

SciTech Connect

Extrusive lava flows of basalt are a potential host medium for geologic sequestration of anthropogenic CO2. Flood basalts and other large igneous provinces occur worldwide near population and power-producing centers and could securely sequester a significant fraction of global CO2 emissions. We describe the location, extent, and general physical and chemical characteristics of large igneous provinces that satisfy requirements as a good host medium for CO2 sequestration. Most lava flows have vesicular flow tops and bottoms as well as interflow zones that are porous and permeable and serve as regional aquifers. Additionally, basalt is iron-rich, and, under the proper conditions of groundwater pH, temperature, and pressure, injected CO2 will react with iron released from dissolution of primary minerals in the basalt to form stable ferrous carbonate minerals. Conversion of CO2 gas into a solid form was confirmed in laboratory experiments with supercritical CO2 in contact with basalt samples from Washington state.

McGrail, B. Peter; Ho, Anita M.; Reidel, Steve P.; Schaef, Herbert T.

2003-01-01

35

Crater Lake National Park: A 3-D Photographic Tour Featuring Park Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This virtual tour features three-dimensional images from the United States Geological Survey's (USGS) collection. It introduces visitors to the geology, landforms, and history of Crater Lake in Oregon, a lake filling the caldera of what was Mount Mazama, an ancient volcano in the Cascades Range that erupted and collapsed about 7,700 years ago. The 3-D images are anaglyphs and require red and cyan 3-D viewing glasses.

36

Geology and Origin of Europa's Mitten Feature (Murias Chaos)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The "Mitten" (provisionally named Murias Chaos by the International Astronomical Union) is a region of elevated chaos-like terrain in the leading hemisphere of Europa. Its origin had been explained under the currently debated theories of melting through a thin lithosphere or convection within a thick one. Galileo observations reveal several characteristics that suggest that the Mitten is distinct from typical chaos terrain and point to a different formational process. Photoclinometric elevation estimates suggest that the Mitten is slightly elevated with respect to the surrounding terrain; geologic relations indicate that it must have raised significantly from the plains in its past, resembling disrupted domes on Europa's trailing hemisphere. Moreover, the Mitten material appears to have extruded onto the plains and flowed for tens of kilometers. The area subsequently subsided as a result of isostatic adjustment, viscous relaxation, and/or plains loading. Using plate flexure models, we estimated the elastic lithosphere in the area to be several kilometers thick. We propose that the Mitten originated by the ascent and extrusion of a large thermal diapir. Thermal-mechanical modeling shows that a Mitten-sized plume would remain sufficiently warm and buoyant to pierce through the crust and flow unconfined on the surface. Such a diapir probably had an initial radius between 5 and 8 km and an initial depth of 20-40 km, consistent with a thick-lithosphere model. In this scenario the Mitten appears to represent the surface expression of the rare ascent of a large diapir, in contrast to lenticulae and chaos terrain, which may form by isolated and clustered small diapirs, respectively.

Figueredo, P. H.; Chuang, F. C.; Rathbun, J.; Kirk, R. L.; Greeley, R.

2002-01-01

37

Spatial pattern of groundwater arsenic occurrence and association with bedrock geology in greater augusta, maine  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In New England, groundwater arsenic occurrence has been linked to bedrock geology on regional scales. To ascertain and quantify this linkage at intermediate (100-101 km) scales, 790 groundwater samples from fractured bedrock aquifers in the greater Augusta, Maine area are analyzed, and 31% of the sampled wells have arsenic concentrations >10 ??g/L. The probability of [As] exceeding 10 ??g/L mapped by indicator kriging is highest in Silurian pelite-sandstone and pelite-limestone units (???40%). This probability differs significantly (p < 0.001) from those in the Silurian - Ordovician sandstone (24%), the Devonian granite (15%), and the Ordovician - Cambrian volcanic rocks (9%). The spatial pattern of groundwater arsenic distribution resembles the bedrock map. Thus, bedrock geology is associated with arsenic occurrence in fractured bedrock aquifers of the study area at intermediate scales relevant to water resources planning. The arsenic exceedance rate for each rock unit is considered robust because low, medium, and high arsenic occurrences in four cluster areas (3-20 km2) with a low sampling density of 1-6 wells per km2 are comparable to those with a greater density of 5-42 wells per km2. About 12,000 people (21% of the population) in the greater Augusta area (???1135 km2) are at risk of exposure to >10 ??g/L arsenic in groundwater. ?? 2009 American Chemical Society.

Yang, Q.; Jung, H.B.; Culbertson, C.W.; Marvinney, R.G.; Loiselle, M.C.; Locke, D.B.; Cheek, H.; Thibodeau, H.; Zheng, Y.

2009-01-01

38

Spatial Pattern of Groundwater Arsenic Occurrence and Association with Bedrock Geology in Greater Augusta, Maine, USA  

PubMed Central

In New England, groundwater arsenic occurrence has been linked to bedrock geology on regional scales. To ascertain and quantify this linkage at intermediate (100-101 km) scales, 790 groundwater samples from fractured bedrock aquifers in the greater Augusta, Maine area are analyzed. 31% of the sampled wells have arsenic >10 ?g/L. The probability of [As] exceeding 10 ?g/L mapped by indicator kriging is highest in Silurian pelite-sandstone and pelite-limestone units (~40%). This probability differs significantly (p<0.001) from those in the Silurian-Ordovician sandstone (24%), the Devonian granite (15%) and the Ordovician-Cambrian volcanic rocks (9%). The spatial pattern of groundwater arsenic distribution resembles the bedrock map. Thus, bedrock geology is associated with arsenic occurrence in fractured bedrock aquifers of the study area at intermediate scales relevant to water resources planning. The arsenic exceedance rate for each rock unit is considered robust because low, medium and high arsenic occurrences in 4 cluster areas (3-20 km2) with a low sampling density of 1-6 wells per km2 are comparable to those with a greater density of 5-42 wells per km2. About 12,000 people (21% of the population) in the greater Augusta area (~1135 km2) are at risk of exposure to >10 ?g/L arsenic in groundwater. PMID:19475939

Yang, Qiang; Jung, Hun Bok; Culbertson, Charles W.; Marvinney, Robert G.; Loiselle, Marc C.; Locke, Daniel B.; Cheek, Heidi; Thibodeau, Hilary; Zheng, Yan

2009-01-01

39

Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With three levels to choose from on each page - beginner, intermediate or advanced - this site provides information on the many different kinds of geological exploration. The elements that make up minerals and the different ways minerals are developed, The special characteristics of minerals, like physical properties, is explained. Earths tectonic plates, the reasons they move, and the effects of the shifting are also given. Also featured is fossils and how they are developed and are found, as well as why fossils are useful tools for scientists.

Jennifer Bergman

2009-08-03

40

Framework for a U.S. Geological Survey Hydrologic Climate-Response Program in Maine  

USGS Publications Warehouse

It is important to monitor hydrologic systems in the United States that could change dramatically over the short term as a result of climate change. Many ecological effects of climate change can be understood only if hydrologic data networks are in place. Because of its humid, temperate climate and its substantial annual snowpack, Maine's seasonal water cycle is sensitive to air temperature changes (Hodgkins and others, 2003). Monitoring of relevant hydrologic data would provide important baseline information against which future climate change can be measured. A series of recent investigations by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has documented changes in several components of the water cycle, including earlier snowmelt runoff in Maine during the last 30 to 40 years (Hodgkins and others, 2003), earlier lake- and river-ice breakups (Hodgkins and others, 2002; Hodgkins and others, 2005), and a denser and thinner late-winter snowpack (Hodgkins and Dudley, 2006). Snowmelt runoff timing was measured as the date, each year, by which half of the total winter-spring streamflow passed a streamflow-gaging station. Historical snowmelt runoff timing for the Piscataquis River in central Maine is shown in figure 1 as an example. Results of climate projections input to hydrologic models indicate that hydrologic trends, such as earlier spring snowmelt runoff, are expected to continue into the future (Hayhoe and others, 2007). These trends could affect species at the southern edge of their range in Maine, such as Atlantic salmon and Canada lynx, and may also affect availability of water for human use. This fact sheet describes the framework of a hydrologic climate-response program that would improve understanding of the effects of future climate change in Maine.

Hodgkins, Glenn A.; Lent, Robert M.; Dudley, Robert W.; Schalk, Charles W.

2009-01-01

41

Scaling filtering and multiplicative cascade information integration techniques for geological, geophysical and geochemical data processing and geological feature recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper introduces several techniques recently developed based on the concepts of multiplicative cascade processes and multifractals for processing exploration geochemical and geophysical data for recognition of geological features and delineation of target areas for undiscovered mineral deposits. From a nonlinear point of view extreme geo-processes such as cloud formation, rainfall, hurricanes, flooding, landslides, earthquakes, igneous activities, tectonics and mineralization often show singular property that they may result in anomalous amounts of energy release or mass accumulation that generally are confined to narrow intervals in space or time. The end products of these non-linear processes have in common that they can be modeled as fractals or multifractals. Here we show that the three fundamental concepts of scaling in the context of multifractals: singularity, self-similarity and fractal dimension spectrum, make multifractal theory and methods useful for geochemical and geophysical data processing for general purposes of geological features recognition. These methods include: a local singularity analysis based on a area-density (C-A) multifractal model used as a scaling high-pass filtering technique capable of extracting weak signals caused by buried geological features; a suite of multifractal filtering techniques based on spectrum density - area (S-A) multifractal models implemented in various domain including frequency domain can be used for unmixing geochemical or geophysical fields according to distinct generalized self-similarities characterized in certain domain; and multiplicative cascade processes for integration of diverse evidential layers of information for prediction of point events such as location of mineral deposits. It is demonstrated by several case studies involving Fe, Sn, Mo-Ag and Mo-W mineral deposits that singularity method can be utilized to process stream sediment/soil geochemical data and gravity/aeromagnetic data as high-pass filtering technique for delineating anomalies caused by mineralization or boundaries of mineralization-associated geological bodies; S-A method can be applied as high-pass, low-pass or band -pass filtering techniques for extracting patterns of interest from mixing data; and cascade processes can be implemented to integrate diverse layers of information for mineral resources predictive mapping.

Cheng, Q.

2013-12-01

42

Skylab-4 visual observations project: Geological features of southwestern North America  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Visual observations conducted by Skylab-4 crewmen on seven designated geological target areas and other targets of opportunity in parts of southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico were described. The experiments were designed to learn how effectively geologic features could be observed from orbit and what research information could be obtained from the observations when supported by ground studies. For the limited preparation they received, the crewmen demonstrated exceptional observational ability and produced outstanding photographic studies. They also formulated cogent opinions on how to improve future observational and photo-documentation techniques. From the photographs and other observations, it was possible to obtain significant research contributions to on-going field investigations. These contributions were integrated into other aspects of the ground investigations to the following topics: major faults, regional stratigraphy, occurrence of Precambrian crystalline rocks, mapping of Mesozoic volcanic rocks, regional geology.

Silver, L. T.

1975-01-01

43

Geology  

SciTech Connect

This chapter summarizes the geology of the single-shell tank (SST) farms in the context of the region’s geologic history. This chapter is based on the information in the geology data package for the SST waste management areas and SST RFI Appendix E, which builds upon previous reports on the tank farm geology and Integrated Disposal Facility geology with information available after those reports were published.

Reidel, Stephen P.

2008-01-17

44

Sapping Features of the Colorado Plateau: a Comparative Planetary Geology Field Guide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This book is an attempt to determine geomorphic criteria to be used to distinguish between channels formed predominantly by sapping and seepage erosion and those formed principally by surface runoff processes. The geologic nature of the Colorado Plateau has resulted in geomorphic features that show similarities to some areas on Mars, especially certain valley networks within thick sandstone formations. Where spring sapping is an effective process, the valleys that develop are unique in terms of their morphology and network pattern.

Howard, Alan D. (editor); Kochel, R. Craig (editor); Holt, Henry E. (editor)

1987-01-01

45

Framework for a U.S. Geological Survey Hydrologic Climate-Response Program in Maine  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report presents a framework for a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) hydrologic climate-response program designed to provide early warning of changes in the seasonal water cycle of Maine. Climate-related hydrologic changes on Maine's rivers and lakes in the winter and spring during the last century are well documented, and several river and lake variables have been shown to be sensitive to air-temperature changes. Monitoring of relevant hydrologic data would provide important baseline information against which future climate change can be measured. The framework of the hydrologic climate-response program presented here consists of four major parts: (1) identifying homogeneous climate-response regions; (2) identifying hydrologic components and key variables of those components that would be included in a hydrologic climate-response data network - as an example, streamflow has been identified as a primary component, with a key variable of streamflow being winter-spring streamflow timing; the data network would be created by maintaining existing USGS data-collection stations and establishing new ones to fill data gaps; (3) regularly updating historical trends of hydrologic data network variables; and (4) establishing basins for process-based studies. Components proposed for inclusion in the hydrologic climate-response data network have at least one key variable for which substantial historical data are available. The proposed components are streamflow, lake ice, river ice, snowpack, and groundwater. The proposed key variables of each component have extensive historical data at multiple sites and are expected to be responsive to climate change in the next few decades. These variables are also important for human water use and (or) ecosystem function. Maine would be divided into seven climate-response regions that follow major river-basin boundaries (basins subdivided to hydrologic units with 8-digit codes or larger) and have relatively homogeneous climates. Key hydrologic variables within each climate-response region would be analyzed regularly to maintain up-to-date analyses of year-to-year variability, decadal variability, and longer term trends. Finally, one basin in each climate-response region would be identified for process-based hydrologic and ecological studies.

Hodgkins, Glenn A.; Lent, Robert M.; Dudley, Robert W.; Schalk, Charles W.

2009-01-01

46

Hydrologic characterization of faults and other potentially conductive geologic features in the unsaturated zone  

SciTech Connect

The capability of characterizing near-vertical faults and other potentially highly conductive geologic features in the vicinity of a high-level-waste repository is of great importance in site characterization of underground waste-isolation projects. The possibility of using transient air pressure data at depth for characterizing these features in the unsaturated zone are investigated. Analytical solutions for calculating the pressure response of such systems are presented. Solutions are given for two types of barometric pressure fluctuations, step function and sinusoidal. 3 refs., 9 figs.

Javandel, I.; Shan, C.

1990-01-01

47

EG-1998-03-109-HQ Activities in Planetary Geology for the Physical and Earth Sciences Exercise Eleven: Geologic Features of Mars  

E-print Network

Eleven: Geologic Features of Mars Purpose By examining images of martian surface features, studentsÑgradation, impact cratering, tectonism, and volcanism. In many ways Mars is similar to Earth. Martian volcanoes, although apparently extinct, are similar to those on Earth. Mars does not experience plate tec- tonics like

Waliser, Duane E.

48

Observation of Cyclotron Resonance Features during the Main-On Phase of HER X-1  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a 50000 sec observation of Her X-1 during the main on state of the 35 day cycle. The main goals of this study are a) significant detection of the 2nd harmonic of the cyclotron resonance feature (CRF) in the spectrum of Her X-1 at 68 keV, which is strongly suggested by theoretical models and by some evidence from

Mathias Kunz

1996-01-01

49

Geological structures from televiewer logs of GT-2, Fenton Hill, New Mexico: Part 1, Feature extraction  

SciTech Connect

Patterns in reflected sonic intensity recognized during examination of televiewer logs of basement gneiss at the Hot Dry Rock Site, Fenton Hill, New Mexico, are due to geological fractures and foliations and to incipient breakouts. These features are obscured by artifacts caused by wellbore ellipticity, tool off-centering, and tool oscillations. An interactive method, developed for extraction of the structural features (fractures and foliations), uses human perception as a pattern detector and a chi-square test of harmonic form as a pattern discriminator. From imagery of GT-2, 733 structures were recovered. The acceptance rate of the discriminator was 54%. Despite these positive results, the general conclusion of this study is that intensity-mode imagery from Fenton Hill is not directly invertible for geological information because of the complexity of the televiewer imaging process. Developing a forward model of the intensity-imaging process, or converting to caliper-mode imagery, or doing both, will be necessary for high-fidelity feature extraction from televiewer data.

Burns, K.L.

1987-07-01

50

Main Features of JSME Design and Construction Code for Fast Reactors  

SciTech Connect

Since its foundation in 1997, the Main Committee on Power Generation Facility Codes, MC-PGFC, of the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers, JSME, has issued a number of nuclear codes including the rules on design and construction and the rules on fitness-for-service for nuclear power plants. Some of these JSME nuclear codes have been endorsed by the regulatory body, and are now utilized in the regulatory processes of the actual plants. Among these nuclear codes recently published is the 'rules on design and construction for fast reactors'. It includes as its main body design rules on class 1 components for elevated temperature services. This paper overview the main features of the code. (authors)

Masaki Morishita [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (Japan); Masayuki Sukekawa [Hitachi, Ltd. (Japan); Tomomi Otani [Mitubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. (Japan)

2006-07-01

51

Classification of geological mapping features using satellite remote sensing and in-situ spectroradiometric measurements over Cyprus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper aims at establishing the spectral reflectance signature for a number of geological mapping features and specific rocks over the area of Cyprus. This will enable the investigation for specific geological features through classification using satellite images. The purpose is to provide a useful tool for geologists in observation of surface strata. Methodology followed includes extraction of the spectral reflectance signature of the geological features by using satellite imagery, such as those of Landsat TM/ETM+, ASTER etc. In addition in-situ spectro-radiometric measurements were collected for the same feature locations. The selected sites included mines and quarries, with no vegetation cover and therefore no influence on results. Spectral reflectance for each feature refers to average value of retreated satellite image value and measurement result. An algorithm is finally established, aiming to be used for classification purposes of geological mapping and other applications. This innovated approach will, also, prove by validation the accuracy of each method for the spectral reflectance signature estimation. This additional benefit would conclude recommendation for future satellite sensors navigation and work processes. NIR band was found to be suitable for discriminating betonite, limestone and diabase geological features (as found at quarries and mines).

Hadjimitsis, Diofantos G.; Achilleos, Constantia; Themistocleous, Kyriacos; Agapiou, Athos; Perdikou, Skevi

2010-10-01

52

Geological images  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from Marli Bryant Miller, a professor at the University of Oregon, presents images of geological features from around the world. Photographs of glacial features, igneous and metamorphic rocks and processes, and structural geology are featured.

Marli Bryant Miller

53

Investigating geologic features and processes: A field investigation for earth science students at Leif Erickson Park, Duluth, Minnesota.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is a field investigation where students observe and interpret the rocks types, geologic features, and processes typical to the north shore of Lake Superior. Students use their data to develop questions that could be further investigated and to predict the sequence of events leading to the formation of these rocks and features.

Laurie Severson

54

Formation and evolution of the midlands of Venus: Geological features and structures, stratigraphic relationships and geologic history of the Fredegonde area (V-57)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The topographic midlands on Venus comprise about 80% of the surface and an understanding of their mode of formation is essential to unraveling the geologic and geodynamic history of the planet. We explore this question by undertaking a comprehensive geological mapping of the Fredegonde Quadrangle (V-57, 50-75°S, 60-120°E, 1:5M scale) that represents the transition zone from the midlands to the lowlands at the edge of Lada Terra. We report on the geologic units and structures and the sequence of events and, thus, the major stages in the evolution of this region of the midlands. At earlier stages of evolution of the long-wavelength topography, broad (hundreds of kilometers wide) and relatively low (1-1.5 km high) topographic ridges formed due to sequential development of deformation zones, first of contractional ridge belts (NW orientation) and then crosscut by extensional groove belts (NE orientation). Arcuate swarms of graben within groove belts often form the rims of coronae and represent their tectonic component. This suggests that groove belts and coronae within the quadrangle formed simultaneously. Intersections of these deformation zones caused separation of the topography of the region into a series of broad, shallow equidimensional basins many hundreds of kilometers across and currently hundreds of meters up to a kilometer deep. Thus, the principal topographic features within the quadrangle were established near the beginning of its observable geological record. The basins then remained sites of accumulation of successive volcanic plains units such as shield plains (psh) and the lower unit of regional plains (rp1). The flows of the younger plains, such as upper unit of regional plains (rp2) and lobate plains (pl), are less voluminous, and flow down the current topographic gradients. This implies that the major topographic pattern of the Fredegonde quadrangle has been stable since its establishment. Further evidence for this is that the vast volcanic plains units (psh and rp1) that postdate the heavily tectonized units of the deformation zones are only mildly deformed. This suggests that since the emplacement of shield plains, volcanism has been the primary geologic process and that the time of formation of unit psh corresponds to a major change from the earlier regime dominated by tectonics to the later volcanically dominated regime. Consistent age relationships among the main volcanic units within the quadrangle from older shield plains, through regional plains, to lobate plains, documents an evolution in volcanic style. Shield plains were formed from small eruptions from ubiquitous small shield volcanoes and are interpreted to be derived from broadly distributed and shallow magmatic sources. The lower unit of regional plains is widely distributed but vents and flow fronts are rare; this unit is interpreted to represent massive and probably short-lived flood basalts-like eruptions that filled in the lowlands basins. The upper unit of regional plains (rp2) and lobate plains (pl) are associated with localized and distinctive sources, such as late-stage volcanic activity at coronae. Thus, the tectonic stage of evolution of coronae (formation of the rims) and the volcanic stage when coronae served as magmatic centers and sourced lava flows, were separated in time by the emplacement of the shield and lower regional plains. How and when did the major components of Venus midland topography form? Clearly, in the Fredegonde quadrangle, regional deformation produced the deformation belts and groove belts/coronae in the earliest phases, and this topography formed the basis for the next, volcanic stage of emplacement (filling of the basins), with coronae-associated volcanism following this phase. The broad topography resulting from this early phase has persisted until the present. We compare this tectonic-volcanic sequence and history of topography in the Fredegonde quadrangle with other areas on Venus and find that the sequence has widespread application globally, and that the history of topography may be similar planet-w

Ivanov, Mikhail A.; Head, James W.

2012-12-01

55

The Main Shear Zone in Sør Rondane: A key feature for reconstructing the geodynamic evolution of East Antarctica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Structural investigations were carried out along the Main Shear Zone (MSZ) of western Sør Rondane (22°-25°E, 71.5°-72.5°S) to gain new information about the position of the East-/West-Gondwana suture and the ancient plate tectonic configuration during Gondwana amalgamation. The WSW-ENE striking MSZ divides south-western Sør Rondane in a northern amphibolite-facies terrane and a southern tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG) terrane. The structure can be traced over a distance of ca. 100 km and reaches several hundred meters in width. It is characterized by a right-lateral sense of movement and marked by a transpressional and also transtensional regime. Ductilely deformed granitoids (ca. 560 Ma: SHRIMP U-Pb of zircon) and ductile - brittle structures, which evolved in a transitional ductile to brittle regime in an undeformed syenite (ca. 499-459 Ma, Ar-Ar mica), provide a late Proterozoic/ early Paleozoic time limit for the activity of the shear zone (Shiraishi et al., 2008; Shiraishi et al., 1997). Documentation of ductile and brittle deformation allows reconstructing up to eight deformation stages. Cross-cutting relationships of structural features mapped in the field complemented by published kinematic data reveal the following relative age succession: [i] Dn+1 - formation of the main foliation during peak metamorphism, [ii] Dn+2 - isoclinal, intrafolial folding of the main foliation, mostly foliation-parallel mylonitic shear zones (1-2 meter thick), [iii] Dn+3 - formation of tight to closed folds, [iv] Dn+4 - formation of relatively upright, large-scale open folds, [v] Dn+5 - granitoid intrusion (e.g. Vengen granite), [vi] Dn+6 - dextral shearing between amphibolite and TTG terranes, formation of the MSZ, [vii] Dn+7 - intrusion of late- to post-tectonic granitoids, first stage of brittle deformation (late shearing along MSZ), intrusion of post-kinematic mafic dykes, [viii] Dn+8 - second stage of brittle deformation including formation of conjugate fault systems. The latter point to a WNW-ESE respectively NW-SE oriented maximum paleostress direction and indicate the latest deformation event; they are possibly related to the break-up and fragmentation of Gondwana. Two contrasting models describe the configuration of East Gondwana during the Neoproterozoic and the final amalgamation of Gondwana. The first model proposes the existence of a Pan-African Orogen (East African/ Antarctic Orogen). The Main Shear Zone could represent the eastern extension of this orogen and may be related to a NE-directed lateral-escape tectonic model. Both published structural data from Sør Rondane and adjacent regions and the outcome of this study agree with this model and propose a suture of East- and West Gondwana located between Mühlig-Hofmann-Gebirge and Sør Rondane. The second model of an overlap of two orogens with different formation ages cannot be proved by structural data from the MSZ. Instead, tight test constraints of the second model may be provided by new magnetic anomaly maps based on a 2012/13 aerogeophysical survey. Shiraishi, K.; Dunkley, D.J.; Hokada, T.; Fanning, C.M.; Kagami, H.; and Hamamoto, T. (2008): Geochronological constraints on the Late Proterozoic to Cambrian crustal evolution of eastern Dronning Maud Land, East Antarctica: a synthesis of SHRIMP U-Pb age and Nd model age data. Geological Society, 308(1):21-67. Shiraishi, K.; Osanai, Y.; Ishizuka, H.; and Asami, M. (1997): Geological map of the Sør Rondane Mountains, Antarctica. Antarctica Geological Map Series, sheet 35, scale 1 : 25 0000. National Institute of PolarResearch, Tokyo.

Ruppel, Antonia; Läufer, Andreas; Lisker, Frank; Jacobs, Joachim; Elburg, Marlina; Damaske, Detlef; Lucka, Nicole

2013-04-01

56

Yasny lode-placer cluster: Geological and structural features and gold potential  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The geological and structural features and gold potential of the Yasny lode-placer cluster in Amur province have been investigated. The lode-placer cluster is an intrusive domal uplift elongated in the nearmeridional direction and surrounded by Neogene loose sediments. The cluster comprises placers that yielded 15 t gold mined from there and small occurrences of gold-quartz and gold-base-metal lodes. Association of native gold with cinnabar in the Yasny Creek placer allows us to forecast a new source of gold-mercury mineralization in the basin of this creek, which could be compared with the Kyuchyus deposit in Yakutia. Gold nuggets 79 kg in total weight were mined from Gar-2 River placer. They are comparable in weight and association with quartz to the world's largest Holtermann Plate nugget from Australia. Gold-quartz lodes have been forecasted in the basin of the Gar-2 Creek.

Mel'nikov, A. V.; Stepanov, V. A.

2014-03-01

57

NASA Now: Geology: Curiosity -- Main Science Goals - Duration: 7 minutes, 7 seconds.  

NASA Video Gallery

Dr. Ashwin Vasavada, deputy project scientist for the Mars Science Laboratory, discusses the main science goals for Curiosity, including the investigation of the presence of water and evidence of l...

58

Florida's Geological History1 Ginger M. Allen and Martin B. Main2  

E-print Network

Florida is perched, was formed about 530 million years ago by a combination of volcanic activity and marine sedimentation during the early Ordovician Period. When the Florida plateau was part influenced Florida's soils. Many of Florida's modern topographic features and surficial sediments were

Watson, Craig A.

59

On the main flow features of the SE Levantine (CYBO cruises 1995-2012)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main characteristic of the circulation in the Eastern Mediterranean Levantine Basin is a general cyclonic flow following more or less the coastline, with several persistent eddies in the open sea. The interaction between all of these dynamical features produces a complicated flow pattern with strong spatial variability on a synoptic, seasonal and inter-annual scales. The continuous seasonal/annual hydrographic survey of the SE Levantine since 1995 within the frame of the Cyprus Basin Oceanography program (CYBO) and the Haifa-section cruises, along with data from project surveys (CYCLOPS, MSM/14) and recent data from autonomous platforms, such as those from Argos floats, drifters and gliders (NEMED, YPOKINOUMODA, GROOM projects) have all provided insight on the three dominating flow features in the SE Levantine Basin. Namely, the two warm core eddies, i.e. the Cyprus and Shikmona, and the open sea flow jet, that of the Mid Mediterranean. After some years of disputes, it is well-documented with all these in-situ data that the Cyprus warm core eddy is the most influential flow feature in the area, with significant fluctuations in time and space, while the generation of the Shikmona eddy was observed for the first time. Moreover, the cross basin flow of the MMJ is also well-document, confirming the relevant POEM results, to transfer also significant amount of AW further to the most-eastern part of the Levantine, after passing between Cyprus and along the northern periphery of the Cyprus warm core eddy.

Zodiatis, George; Hayes, Dan; Gertman, Isaac; Poulain, Pierre-Marie; Menna, Milena; Nicolaidis, Andreas

2013-04-01

60

Systematic comparison of automated geological feature detection methods for impact craters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate, automated crater counts will be essential in extrapolating from existing Mars crater catalogs to much larger catalogs of impact craters in high-resolution orbital imagery for use in relative dating of surfaces in such imagery. Once validated, automatic methods for performing crater counts could be integrated into tools such as the Planetary Image Atlas, which is designed to be a convenient interface through which a user can search for, display, and download images and other ancillary data for planetary Missions, and the Diamond Eye image mining system. Here we report on preliminary computational experiments in using a trainable feature detection algorithm [Burl et al. 2001] to detect craters in real and simulated Mars orbital imagery, and to derive approximate impact crater counts for geological use. In these experiments, we consider two uses of the trainable feature detector: first, directly as a crater detector, and second, as two detectors for sunlit and shadowed inner walls of craters which can then be assembled into a single crater detection based on multiple pieces of evidence. For both of these methods, we consider two data sources: one consisting of real Viking Orbiter imagery of Mars with human expert-supplied ground truth labels, and the other consisting of computer generated renderings of simplified, synthetic cratered terrain with 100% accurate ground truth labels and known, controllable crater density. Each detector reports out a numeric detection ``likelihood'' for every candidate crater. This likelihood must then be thresholded to produce a detection decision. For each combination of two data sources (one natural and one synthetic) and two crater detection methods (whole-crater and parts-model), we vary image complexity and finally measure detection accuracy. Detection accuracy is measured by a Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) curve in which detection efficiency (the fraction of true craters detected) and purity (the fraction of detected craters which are also true craters) are plotted against one another as a control parameter is varied, namely the likelihood threshold for deciding that a feature has been detected. The results allow a comparison of alternative geological feature-detection algorithms and show their relative strengths and weaknesses, and directions for future improvement. We also plot purity as a function of likelihood threshold in order to recalibrate the detection algorithm's own estimate of its accuracy. Finally we measure the accuracy with which an imperfect detector can be used to estimate true crater counts in an image, as a function of image complexity.

Vinogradova, T.; Mjolsness, E.

2001-12-01

61

Icelandic Geology Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The main feature of this site from Hamrahlio College of Reykjavik, Iceland is an interactive geological map of Iceland showing lava flows and glaciers. Other highlights include links to related Icelandic geology pages (e.g., The Effect of Diatom Mining, Iceland's Ministry of the Environment), news sources and journals, and Icelandic geological societies (not all are in English). A recommended resource for glaciologists, volcanologists, and educators in earth science.

Douglas, Georg R.

62

Influence of ecological and geological features on rangewide patterns of genetic structure in a widespread passerine.  

PubMed

Geological and ecological features restrict dispersal and gene flow, leading to isolated populations. Dispersal barriers can be obvious physical structures in the landscape; however microgeographic differences can also lead to genetic isolation. Our study examined dispersal barriers at both macro- and micro-geographical scales in the black-capped chickadee, a resident North American songbird. Although birds have high dispersal potential, evidence suggests dispersal is restricted by barriers. The chickadee's range encompasses a number of physiological features which may impede movement and lead to divergence. Analyses of 913 individuals from 34 sampling sites across the entire range using 11 microsatellite loci revealed as many as 13 genetic clusters. Populations in the east were largely panmictic whereas populations in the western portion of the range showed significant genetic structure, which often coincided with large mountain ranges, such as the Cascade and Rocky Mountains, as well as areas of unsuitable habitat. Unlike populations in the central and southern Rockies, populations on either side of the northern Rockies were not genetically distinct. Furthermore, Northeast Oregon represents a forested island within the Great Basin; genetically isolated from all other populations. Substructuring at the microgeographical scale was also evident within the Fraser Plateau of central British Columbia, and in the southeast Rockies where no obvious physical barriers are present, suggesting additional factors may be impeding dispersal and gene flow. Dispersal barriers are therefore not restricted to large physical structures, although mountain ranges and large water bodies do play a large role in structuring populations in this study. PMID:25074576

Adams, R V; Burg, T M

2015-02-01

63

Features of morphology and geology of surface of Jupiter satellite Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Comparison of large-scale images of "Vojager-2" and "Galileo" did not find out no noticeable changes on the surface of Europe. But "Galileo" images of Europe with a high spatial resolution was changed our picture of character and nature of its surface. A surface is an icy shell, covered by cracks and by ice-drifts. Under a comparatively thin shell, possibly, there is an ocean of liquid water in to a few ten of kilometres depth. Very small amount of shock craters specifies on relative youth of surface of Europe and, possibly, on its geological activity and now. The basic geological features of satellite are selected taking into account likeness of form, structure, color, illuminations etc. of Europe surfaces and other known types of surface: large plains regiones, areas of cracks (lines, bands) and mountain backbones (linea, lineaes), areas with chaotic relief (chaos, chaoses), craters and cycloid cracks (flexus). Presumably, global network of lines - it caused by tectonic processes in icy shell cracks, after filled the frozen dark matter of orange - red color. Correlation of stratum features with albedo allows to suppose that its young areas, which were less changed by subsequent endogenous and exogenous processes which would clean them, have less albedo. Classification of craters is based on the clearness of scopes of the thrown out breeds. Tracks of shots can be seen on the presence of concentric features; some - have well visible edges and shock texture; some have rays. On the Europe surface 41 craters with diameters a 2-50 km is found. In 2000 was found out a large crater which can be the result of collision in the past of asteroid with Europe. Size of external structure of Tayr object (diameter - 149 km) far more than size of its crater. This morphological detail appeared so original, that for it (and yet for 2-3 to it similar) it was necessary to offer the special name: large circular structures. If to examine satellite on the whole, to our opinion, it is necessary to talk about another shock very large circular structure occupying practically all of Europe hemisphere with a center with the co-ordinates of 20S, 203W.

Vidmachenko, Anatoliy; Morozhenko, A.; Klyanchin, A.

2011-12-01

64

Geological Features Inferred from Local Seismic Tomography in the Sunda Strait and West Java regions, Indonesia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have conducted seismic tomographic inversions to obtain a P-wave seismic velocity structure beneath the Sunda Strait and West Java regions, Indonesia. The Sunda Strait is located in a complex geological system i.e. in the transition from the oblique subduction beneath Sumatra to the nearly perpendicular subduction below Java. The Krakatau active volcano is located in the Sunda Strait. In this study, we have used selected P-wave arrival times from the data catalogs of the SeisComP-BMKG network (from 2009 to 2011) and the BMKG BALAI II network (from 1992 to 2011) compiled by Badan Meteorologi,Klimatologi dan Geofisika (BMKG), Indonesia. In total, there are 1,598 local earthquakes and 10,366 P-wave phases from 25 seismographic stations that have been used for the tomographic inversions. We have also relocated the hypocenter locations along with velocity inversions simultaneously. Our preliminary results depict some prominent geological features that include: (1) a low velocity anomaly beneath north of the Ujung Kulon region, which coincides with a low gravity anomaly resulting from a previous study, (2) a low velocity anomaly alignment beneath the Krakatau volcano in the Sunda Strait, (3) a sharp contrast in velocity anomalies extending from Pelabuhan Ratu towards Jakarta with a strike of SW-NE, and (4) a low velocity anomaly in the offshore of Pelabuhan Ratu that may be correlated with the continuation of the Cimandiri fault zone. More detailed information will be presented during the meeting. Keywords: tomography, Sunda Strait, West Java, velocity anomaly

Nugraha, A. D.; Sakti, A. P.; Rohadi, S.; Widiyantoro, S.

2012-12-01

65

Application of Geologic Mapping Techniques and Autonomous Feature Detection to Future Exploration of Europa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Europa's extremely young surface age, evidence for extensive resurfacing, and indications of a sub-surface ocean elevate its astrobiological potential for habitable environments and make it a compelling focus for study. Knowledge of the global distribution and timing of Europan geologic units is a key step in understanding the history of the satellite and for identifying areas relevant for exploration. I have produced a 1:15M scale global geologic map of Europa which represents a proportionate distribution of four unit types and associated features: plains, linea, chaos, and crater materials. Mapping techniques differ somewhat from other planetary maps but do provide a method to establish stratigraphic markers and to illustrate the surface history through four periods of formation as a function of framework lineament cross-cutting relationships. Correlations of observed features on Europa with Earth analogs enforce a multi-process theory for formation rather than the typical reliance on the principle of parsimony. Lenticulae and microchaos are genetically similar and most likely form by diapirism. Platy and blocky chaos units, endmembers of archetypical chaos, are best explained by brine mobilization. Ridges account for the majority of lineaments and may form by a number of methods indicative of local conditions; most form by either tidal pumping or shear heating. The variety of morphologies exhibited by bands indicates that multiple formation mechanisms apply once fracturing of the brittle surface over a ductile subsurface is initiated. Mapping results support the interpretation that Europa's shell has thickened over time resulting in changes in the style and intensity of deformation. Mapping serves as an index for change detection and classification, aids in pre-encounter targeting, and supports the selection of potential landing sites. Highest priority target areas are those which indicate geophysical activity by the presence of volcanic plumes, outgassing, or disrupted surface morphologies. Areas of high interest include lineaments and chaos margins. The limitations on detecting activity at these locations are approximated by studying similar observed conditions on other bodies. By adapting machine learning and data mining techniques to signatures of plumes and morphology, I have demonstrated autonomous rule-based detection of known features using edge-detection and supervised classification methods. These methods successfully detect ?94% of known volcanic plumes or jets at Io, Enceladus, and comets. They also allow recognition of multiple feature types. Applying these results to conditions expected for Europa enables a prediction of the potential for detection of similar features and enables recommendations for mission concepts to increase the science return and efficiency of future missions to observe Europa. This post-Galileo view of Europa provides a synthesis of the overall history of this unique icy satellite and will be a useful frame of reference for future exploration of the jovian system and other potentially active outer solar system bodies.

Bunte, M. K.; Tanaka, K. L.; Doggett, T.; Figueredo, P. H.; Lin, Y.; Greeley, R.; Saripalli, S.; Bell, J. F.

2013-12-01

66

Multiscale analysis of geomorphological and geological features in high resolution digital elevation models using the wavelet transform  

E-print Network

Multiscale analysis of geomorphological and geological features in high resolution digital the context of high precision geomorphological analysis. These new elevation models permitted to reveal struc of the wavelet decomposition as an ap- proach for the analysis of geomorphological multiscale structures

67

Detection of sand-covered geologic features in the Arabian Peninsula using SIR-C\\/X-SAR data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eolian sand covers a large part of the Arabian Peninsula. The flow of eolian sand is ongoing, and sand covers bedrock as well as fluvial features of the Peninsula; consequently, there is a gap in the understanding of the geological processes shaping the region. The extensive coverage of Shuttle Imaging Radar (SIR-C\\/X-SAR) data over the Arabian Peninsula has provided a

Abdallah E. Dabbagh; Khattab G. Al-Hinai; M. Asif Khan

1997-01-01

68

Characterizing the natural radiation levels throughout the main geological units of Sabkhat al Jabboul area, northern Syria.  

PubMed

The concentrations of equivalent eU, eTh, and K% were determined together with soil gas radon values and carborne gamma-ray survey in order to define the natural radioactivity levels throughout main geological units of Sabkhat al Jabboul region. Forty five soil and rock samples were collected from various lithofacies in each geological unit, and analyzed by ?-ray spectrometric technique for determining the concentration values of major radioelements. Such radiometric data could be used to differentiate between various lithologies of the investigated rocks. Although no distinct radioactive anomalies were found in the area, the radiometric profiles showed some minor variations with slightly higher values than the normal level. Despite the low radioactivity and the lack of rocks diversity in the surveyed area, it was possible to classify some certain rock types based on their radiometric response. The relationships between eU, eTh and their ratios were discussed for the Quaternary, Neogene and Paleogene formations, in order to evaluate the degree of uranium distribution and remobilization. The overall results of this radiometric survey were generally low, and lying within the range of the normal background levels in Syrian. PMID:25461509

Al-Hilal, Mohamed; Aissa, Mosa

2015-02-01

69

Engineering—Geological features of a massif of carbonate rocks for construction of water reservoirs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Based on accumulated experience obtained during the construction of several water reservoirs located in carbonate rock areas\\u000a in Poland, the paper presents the principal engineering-geological problems of investigating these rocks.\\u000a \\u000a The principles involved in finding a model of the geological structure of a carbonate rock massif and an engineering-geological\\u000a description of elements of this model, for example: tectonics, fissuring, karst

H. Lozinska Stepien; Regina Pozniak

1982-01-01

70

Automated feature extraction and spatial organization of seafloor pockmarks, Belfast Bay, Maine, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Seafloor pockmarks occur worldwide and may represent millions of m3 of continental shelf erosion, but few numerical analyses of their morphology and spatial distribution of pockmarks exist. We introduce a quantitative definition of pockmark morphology and, based on this definition, propose a three-step geomorphometric method to identify and extract pockmarks from high-resolution swath bathymetry. We apply this GIS-implemented approach to 25km2 of bathymetry collected in the Belfast Bay, Maine USA pockmark field. Our model extracted 1767 pockmarks and found a linear pockmark depth-to-diameter ratio for pockmarks field-wide. Mean pockmark depth is 7.6m and mean diameter is 84.8m. Pockmark distribution is non-random, and nearly half of the field's pockmarks occur in chains. The most prominent chains are oriented semi-normal to the steepest gradient in Holocene sediment thickness. A descriptive model yields field-wide spatial statistics indicating that pockmarks are distributed in non-random clusters. Results enable quantitative comparison of pockmarks in fields worldwide as well as similar concave features, such as impact craters, dolines, or salt pools. ?? 2010.

Andrews, B.D.; Brothers, L.L.; Barnhardt, W.A.

2010-01-01

71

Eclipses by a Circumstellar Dust Feature in the Pre-Main Sequence Star KH15D  

E-print Network

Photometry and spectroscopy of the unique pre-main sequence eclipsing object KH15D in the young cluster NGC 2264 are presented. The orbital period is 48.34 days and both the length (~16 d) and depth (~3 mag) of the eclipse have increased with time. A brightening near the time of central eclipse is confirmed in the recent data but at a much smaller amplitude than was originally seen. Spectra taken when the star is bright show that the primary is a weak T Tauri star of spectral type K7. During eclipse there is no detectable change in spectral type or reddening, indicating that the obscuration is caused by rather large dust grains and/or macroscopic objects. Evidently the star is eclipsed by an extended feature in its circumstellar disk orbiting with a semi-major axis of ~0.2 AU. Continued photometric monitoring should allow us to probe the disk structure with a spatial resolution of ~3 x 10^6 km or better.

Catrina M. Hamilton; William Herbst; Candice Shih; Anthony J. Ferro

2001-06-08

72

Geologically recent small-scale surface features in Meridiani Planum and Gale Crater, Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Enigmatic small scale (<1m) depositional and erosional features have been imaged at several locations in the equatorial Meridiani Planum region by the rover Opportunity. They occur in loose, dark basaltic sands partly covering exposures of light-toned bedrock. Leveed fissures are narrow, elongate, steep-sided depressions flanked by raised levees or half-cones of soil, typically 2-10 cm wide and up to 50 cm long in most cases. Some cross-cut and are therefore younger than eolian ripples thought to have last been active c. 50,000 years ago. Gutters are elongate, straight or sinuous surface depressions, typically 2-10cm wide and 1-5 cm deep, sometimes internally terraced or with a hollow near one end, and in one case seem to give way to small depositional fans downslope; they have the appearance of having been formed by liquid flow rather than by wind erosion. Leveed fissures were imaged at more than 25 locations by Opportunity between 2004 and 2013, particularly near the rims of Endurance, Erebus and Endeavour craters, but also on the plains between Santa Maria and Endeavour craters; sharply-defined gutters are less common but examples were imaged close to the rim of Endurance and on the approach to Endeavour, whereas subdued, possibly wind-softened examples are more widespread. Scrutiny of images obtained by the rover Spirit in Gusev Crater between 2004 and 2010 has so far failed to find any leveed fissures or gutters, but examples of both types of features, as well as numerous small holes suggestive of surface sediment falling into underlying voids, were imaged by the rover Curiosity in the Yellowknife Bay region of Gale Crater during 2013. Leveed fissures appear to have been formed by venting from beneath. Ground disturbance by the rover can be ruled out in many cases by the appearance of features in images taken before close approach. Blowholes seem plausible close to crater rims (where wind might enter a connected void system through a crater wall) but less so in plains areas between craters. Fumaroles seem unlikely since there is no other evidence of geologically young volcanic activity in the region. There is evidence elsewhere that contemporary ground-ice thaw and consequent transient surface run-off may occur occasionally under present conditions in low, near-equatorial latitudes on Mars; short-lived (even for just a few minutes) meltwater emission and flow at the surface could erode gutters before evaporating. The decomposition of buried pockets of methane clathrates, which theoretical considerations suggest might be present and stable even in equatorial regions, could give rise to both methane venting (leveed fissures) and transient surface water (gutters). Another possibility is the decomposition, due to local changes in thermal conditions, of hydrated magnesium sulphates in the bedrock, releasing liquid water. Whatever their explanation, these features hint at previously unrecognized, young martian surface processes which may even be active at the present day; in this context, the apparent downslope extension of a discrete dark dust streak on Burns Cliff (inside Endurance Crater), during Opportunity's approach to that locality, is particularly thought-provoking.

Horne, David

2014-05-01

73

Correlations between topography and deep-seated structures in low-relief areas: Examples of subtle terrain features with high impact on geological interpretations of geophysical data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Denmark has a low-relief topography with a maximum elevation at 170 m above sea level and a near-surface geology dominated by the effects of numerous glacier advances during the Pleistocene. In 3D geological modelling of the Danish subsurface we combine near-surface geophysics, primarily AEM (Airborne ElectroMagnetic methods) with borehole data, seismic data etc. in order to model the groundwater-bearing sediments in the uppermost 300-400 m. The highly varied glacial succession and the underlying tertiary sediments require very dense data coverage in order to be able to perform modelling in sufficient detail. Geomorphological data and observations are used for the interpretations alongside the other data. The overall geomorphology of Denmark is generally the product of the youngest glacial episodes and the subsequent periglacial and postglacial modifications where the effects of earlier ice advances are either obscured or removed. As such, the geomorphology will mainly contribute with geological information about the youngest events and the uppermost parts of the subsurface. However, in many parts of the Danish area we have found a correlation between surface features and deep seated structures. These structures can be old faults that have created weak and easily erodible zones in the sediments above and these erosional patterns have created trends that have survived over a long period of time. Some of these fault zones have been tectonically active as late as the Holocene thus deforming near-surface sediments and the topography. Using geomorphological information such as lineament patterns, erosional patterns and variations in surface trends we are able to gain significant information about the deeper parts of the subsurface. This information is highly valuable when interpreting the geological setting from AEM data and seismic data. In the presentation we will show examples from Denmark that link geomorphological features in the present day terrain with deep seated tectonic structures and buried erosional features mapped by geophysical data. The examples will include detailed observations of subtle geomorphological features in LiDAR-data that represent fingerprints of events that are not related to the formation of the surface sediments themselves.

Sandersen, Peter B. E.; Jørgensen, Flemming

2014-05-01

74

Lunar topographic roughness maps from Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) data: Scale dependence and correlation with geologic features and units  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present maps of the topographic roughness of the Moon at hectometer and kilometer scales. The maps are derived from range profiles obtained by the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) instrument onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) spacecraft. As roughness measures, we used the interquartile range of profile curvature at several baselines, from 115 m to 1.8 km, and plotted these in a global map format. The maps provide a synoptic overview of variations of typical topographic textures and utilize the exceptional ranging precision of the LOLA instrument. We found that hectometer-scale roughness poorly correlates with kilometer-scale roughness, because they reflect different sets of processes and time scales. Hectometer-scale roughness is controlled by regolith accumulation and modification processes and affected by the most recent events, primarily, geologically recent (1-2 Ga) meteoritic impacts. Kilometer-scale roughness reflects major geological (impact, volcanic and tectonic) events in earlier geological history. Young large impact craters are rough, and their roughness decreases with age. The global roughness maps revealed a few unusually dense clusters of hectometer- and decameter-size impact craters that differ in their morphology and settings from typical secondary crater clusters and chains; the origin of these features is enigmatic. The maps can assist in the geological mapping of the lunar maria by revealing contacts between volcanic plain units. The global roughness maps also clearly reveal cryptomaria, old volcanic plains superposed by younger materials, primarily crater and basin ejecta.

Kreslavsky, Mikhail A.; Head, James W.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Rosenburg, Margaret A.; Aharonson, Oded; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.

2013-09-01

75

Shallow geologic features of the upper continental slope, northwestern Gulf of Mexico  

E-print Network

KM CONTOURS IN METERS ORLEANS STUDY AREA 28' GQ' 26' 00' CORPUS CHRIS I ( op ~+o + 00 +wN r&~( I ip, l -- Location of the etudy a&ca. PREVIOUS TIP/ESTIGATZONS The Gulf of Mexico is a small ocean basin with geologically complex...

Tatum, Tommy Edwin

1977-01-01

76

The Cyborg Astrobiologist: scouting red beds for uncommon features with geological significance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The `Cyborg Astrobiologist' has undergone a second geological field trial, at a site in northern Guadalajara, Spain, near Riba de Santiuste. The site at Riba de Santiuste is dominated by layered deposits of red sandstones. The Cyborg Astrobiologist is a wearable computer and video camera system that has demonstrated a capability to find uncommon interest points in geological imagery in real time in the field. In this second field trial, the computer vision system of the Cyborg Astrobiologist was tested at seven different tripod positions, on three different geological structures. The first geological structure was an outcrop of nearly homogeneous sandstone, which exhibits oxidized-iron impurities in red areas and an absence of these iron impurities in white areas. The white areas in these `red beds' have turned white because the iron has been removed. The iron removal from the sandstone can proceed once the iron has been chemically reduced, perhaps by a biological agent. In one instance the computer vision system found several (iron-free) white spots to be uncommon and therefore interesting, as well as several small and dark nodules. The second geological structure was another outcrop some 600 m to the east, with white, textured mineral deposits on the surface of the sandstone, at the bottom of the outcrop. The computer vision system found these white, textured mineral deposits to be interesting. We acquired samples of the mineral deposits for geochemical analysis in the laboratory. This laboratory analysis of the crust identifies a double layer, consisting of an internal millimetre-size layering of calcite and an external centimetre-size efflorescence of gypsum. The third geological structure was a 50 cm thick palaeosol layer, with fossilized root structures of some plants. The computer vision system also found certain areas of these root structures to be interesting. A quasi-blind comparison of the Cyborg Astrobiologist's interest points for these images with the interest points determined afterwards by a human geologist shows that the Cyborg Astrobiologist concurred with the human geologist 68% of the time (true-positive rate), with a 32% false-positive rate and a 32% false-negative rate. The performance of the Cyborg Astrobiologist's computer vision system was by no means perfect, so there is plenty of room for improvement. However, these tests validate the image-segmentation and uncommon-mapping technique that we first employed at a different geological site (Rivas Vaciamadrid) with somewhat different properties for the imagery.

McGuire, Patrick Charles; Díaz-Martínez, Enrique; Ormö, Jens; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Rodríguez-Manfredi, José Antonio; Sebastián-Martínez, Eduardo; Ritter, Helge; Haschke, Robert; Oesker, Markus; Ontrup, Jörg

2005-04-01

77

The main features of the Uralian Paleozoic magmatism and the epioceanic nature of the orogen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 2000 km Uralian Paleozoic orogen is situated on the western flank of the Uralo-Mongolian folded belt. It is characterized by an abundant variety of magmatic rocks and related ore deposits. Uralian Paleozoic magmatism is entirely subduction-related. It is proposed that the Uralian orogen represents a cold mobile belt in which the mantle temperature was 200 to 500 °C cooler than in the adjacent areas; a situation which is similar to the modern West Pacific Triangle Zone including Indonesia, the Philippine Islands, and southern Asia. During the course of the geological evolution of the Uralian orogen, the nature of the magmatism has changed from basic rocks of indisputable mantle origin (460-390 Ma) to mantle-crust gabbro-granitic complexes (370-315 Ma) followed by pure crustal granite magmatism (290-250 Ma). This order in rock type and age reflects the evolution of Paleozoic magmatic complexes from the beginning of subduction to the final stages of the orogen development.

Fershtater, G. B.

2013-02-01

78

Plasma sources using long linear microwave field applicators: main features, classification and modelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microwave plasma sources using elongated field applicators that extend over distances large in comparison with the free-space wavelength are in demand for many applications, mainly for the processing of large surfaces of materials that can be moved transversely with respect to the applicator. Various long applicators have been presented in the literature but no unified description is available to assist

Z. Zakrzewski; M. Moisan

1995-01-01

79

Main large data set features detection by a linear predictor model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of the present paper is to explore and obtain a simple method capable to detect the most important variables (features) from a large set of variables. To verify the performance of the approach described in the following sections, we used a set of news. Text sources are considered high-dimensional data, where each word is treated as a single variable. In our work, a linear predictor model has been used to uncover the most influential variables, reducing strongly the dimension of the data set. Input data is classified in two categories; arranged as a collection of plain text data, pre-processed and transformed into a numerical matrix containing around 10,000 different variables. We adjust the linear model's parameters based on its prediction results, the variables with strongest effect on output survive, while those with negligible effect are removed. In order to collect, automatically, a summarized set of features, we sacrifice some details and accuracy of the prediction model, although we try to balance the squared error with the subset obtained.

Gutierrez, Carlos Enrique; Alsharif, Mohamad Reza, Prof.; Khosravy, Mahdi; Yamashita, Katsumi, Prof.; Miyagi, Hayao, Prof.; Villa, Rafael

2014-10-01

80

Information needs for characterization of high-level waste repository sites in six geologic media. Volume 1. Main report  

SciTech Connect

Evaluation of the geologic isolation of radioactive materials from the biosphere requires an intimate knowledge of site geologic conditions, which is gained through precharacterization and site characterization studies. This report presents the results of an intensive literature review, analysis and compilation to delineate the information needs, applicable techniques and evaluation criteria for programs to adequately characterize a site in six geologic media. These media, in order of presentation, are: granite, shale, basalt, tuff, bedded salt and dome salt. Guidelines are presented to assess the efficacy (application, effectiveness, and resolution) of currently used exploratory and testing techniques for precharacterization or characterization of a site. These guidelines include the reliability, accuracy and resolution of techniques deemed acceptable, as well as cost estimates of various field and laboratory techniques used to obtain the necessary information. Guidelines presented do not assess the relative suitability of media. 351 refs., 10 figs., 31 tabs.

NONE

1985-05-01

81

Distribution and geological control of mud volcanoes and other fluid/free gas seepage features in the Mediterranean Sea and nearby Gulf of Cadiz  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Existing knowledge on the distribution of mud volcanoes (MVs) and other significant fluid/free gas-venting features (mud cones, mud pies, mud-brine pools, mud carbonate cones, gas chimneys and, in some cases, pockmark fields) discovered on the seafloor of the Mediterranean Sea and in the nearby Gulf of Cadiz has been compiled using regional geophysical information (including multibeam coverage of most deepwater areas). The resulting dataset comprises both features proven from geological sampling, or in situ observations, and many previously unrecognized MVs inferred from geophysical evidence. The synthesis reveals that MVs clearly have non-random distributions that correspond to two main geodynamic settings: (1) the vast majority occur along the various tectono-sedimentary accretionary wedges of the Africa-Eurasia subduction zone, particularly in the central and eastern Mediterranean basins (external Calabrian Arc, Mediterranean Ridge, Florence Rise) but also along its westernmost boundary in the Gulf of Cadiz; (2) other MVs characterize thick depocentres along parts of the Mesozoic passive continental margins that border Africa from eastern Tunisia to the Levantine coasts, particularly off Egypt and, locally, within some areas of the western Mediterranean back-arc basins. Meaningfully accounting for MV distribution necessitates evidence of overpressured fluids and mud-rich layers. In addition, cross-correlations between MVs and other GIS-based data, such as maps of the Messinian evaporite basins and/or active (or recently active) tectonic trends, stress the importance of assessing geological control in terms of the presence, or not, of thick seals and potential conduits. It is contended that new MV discoveries may be expected in the study region, particularly along the southern Ionian Sea continental margins.

Mascle, Jean; Mary, Flore; Praeg, Daniel; Brosolo, Laetitia; Camera, Laurent; Ceramicola, Silvia; Dupré, Stéphanie

2014-06-01

82

Integrated geophysical and geological studies of selected major tectonic features in south-central U.S  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current dissertation includes three separate chapters, each utilizing the power of the integration of different geophysical datasets with geology to investigate tectonic and structural processes responsible for the geological evolution of selected major tectonic features in south-central U. S. These tectonic features are; the Arkoma basin of Oklahoma and Arkansas, the Llano uplift of central Texas, and the Meers fault of the southwestern Oklahoma. The Arkoma basin is an arcuate structural feature that extends from the Gulf coastal plain in central Arkansas westward 400 km to the Arbuckle Mountains in south-central Oklahoma. The interpretation of the 3-D seismic data reveals an E-W zone of crustal weakness in the northern part of the study area, which could be a Late Paleozoic tectonic inversion of the extension faulting that developed during Cambrian rifting and later foreland basin development. The seismic interpretation reveals a compressive deformation of the Late Paleozoic strata related to the Ouachita orogeny. Magnetic boundaries such as faults andor body edges extending E-W, NE-SW and NW-SE have been delineated using magnetic edge detector techniques in the northern, southeastern, and western parts of the study area, respectively. The Euler magnetic depth estimation method delineated the same faults determined using magnetic edge detector techniques. The maximum depth to faults dominating the basement and/or the intrabasement features determined by the Euler's method is about 3850 m. The fault trends delineated by the seismic interpretation and those determined by the Euler's method and the edge detector techniques show a very clear correlation. The Llano Uplift is a broad structural dome in central Texas with 2 to 3 km of structural relief relative to the subsurface Fort Worth and Kerr basins to the northeast and southwest. The initial uplift due to an arc-continent collision was followed by a continent-continent collision between the Laurentia and a southern continent during the Grenville orogeny. The extensional tectonism associated with the Cambrian rifting and the opening of the Gulf of Mexico played a pronounced role in the evolution of the Llano uplift. The compressional tectonism of the Late Paleozoic Ouachita orogeny as well as the Ouachita related foreland basins contributed to the rise of the Llano uplift area. The complete Bouguer gravity and reduced to pole total magnetic intensity (RTP) maps of the Llano uplift show anomalously high values. A number of short wavelengths maxima superimposed on a relatively broad, high gravity anomaly coincide with Llano uplift area. The sources of the short wavelength anomalies can be related to shallow mafic bodies that were intruded into the uppermost crust during subduction of the Laurentia (North America continent) beneath a southern continent during the Grenville orogeny. The source of the broad, circular gravity anomaly appears to be related to a deeper geologic body situated in the middle crust. The RTP map reveals NW-SE trending magnetic highs that coincide with metamorphic rock exposures. Based on the gravity signature, the Llano uplift is interpreted to be independent terrane with physical and geological properties that differ distinctly from its surroundings. The Meers fault is the southernmost element of the complex and frontal fault zone which separates the uplifted igneous rocks of the Wichita Mountains, and the Anadarko basin in southwest Oklahoma. Motion on the Meers fault represents continued activity on one of the largest structural features in North America. The Wichita uplift and the Anadarko basin, which are separated by the Meers fault and related subparallel fault strands, indicate significant intra-plate deformation along the trend of the Southern Oklahoma aulacogen. The interpretation of the gravity and magnetic data reveals clearer variations in the magnetic properties than densities of the rocks on both sides of the Meers fault. The high magnetic contrast on both sides of the Meers fault is mostly due to the Late Paleozoic movement, whic

Alrefaee, Hamed

83

Hydrological and Geological Features Contributing to a Seepage Event at Yucca Mountain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The occurrence of an unusual seepage event in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) tunnel at Yucca Mountain (YM) in 2005 provides an opportunity to further understand the hydrological system associated with flow in fractured rocks and seepage into tunnels. Understanding the contributing factors for this seepage occurrence in the ventilated tunnel will assist U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission in its assessment of Department of Energy flow models. The seepage event begin in the later portion of an El Nino winter (February 2005) predominantly along a 40-m [130-ft] section of the south ramp of the ESF tunnel. The stratigraphic section at this location is comprised of a portion of the Tiva Canyon Tuff, which is a rhyolitic ignimbrite. The effect of El Nino conditions in the semi-arid climate of southern Nevada near YM is greatly increased winter precipitation. Based on the ~50 years of record at a nearby meteorological station, the winter of 2004-2005 was the wettest winter on record. The previous largest winter precipitation amounts were recorded in the El Nino years of 1992-1993 and 1997-1998. During the 1997 El Nino year, a monitored set of boreholes in nearby Pagany Wash indicated that a saturated front traversed the entire Tiva Canyon Tuff section during a single event (Le Cain and Kurmack, 2002, USGS Water Resources Investigations Report 02-4035). It is unclear if the fracture system in the south ramp location was saturated in the February 2005 event; no data were available to estimate the saturated state of the fracture system. With heavy precipitation occurring throughout the winter, however, the matrix and fracture systems were likely primed (i.e., saturation levels were likely significantly higher than normal) for a significant percolation event. Ponding caused by focusing of runoff at the ground surface above seepage location in the south ramp of the ESF tunnel likely did not occur based on topographical and catchment considerations (no significant depressions or gullies). Analyses of the geological characteristics associated with the seepage location suggest the contributing factors that constrained seepage to this particular portion of the tunnel include (i) distance to the surface (i.e., ~60 m [200 ft]), (ii) gently dipping strata with distinct lithological contacts that may have laterally diverted water, (iii) faults and fractures, and (iv) downslope capping by rock units with different hydrological characteristics. This is an independent product of the CNWRA and does not necessarily reflect the views of regulatory positions of the NRC. The NRC staff views expressed herein are preliminary and do not constitute a final judgment or determination of the matters addressed or of the acceptability of a license application for a geologic repository at Yucca Mountain.

Fedors, R. W.; Smart, K. J.; Parrott, J. D.

2006-05-01

84

Geological survey of Maryland using EREP flight data. [mining, mapping, Chesapeake Bay islands, coastal water features  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Underflight photography has been used in the Baltimore County mined land inventory to determine areas of disturbed land where surface mining of sand and ground clay, or stone has taken place. Both active and abandoned pits and quarries were located. Aircraft data has been used to update cultural features of Calvert, Caroline, St. Mary's, Somerset, Talbot, and Wicomico Counties. Islands have been located and catalogued for comparison with older film and map data for erosion data. Strip mined areas are being mapped to obtain total area disturbed to aid in future mining and reclamation problems. Coastal estuarine and Atlantic Coast features are being studied to determine nearshore bedforms, sedimentary, and erosional patterns, and manmade influence on natural systems.

Weaver, K. N. (principal investigator)

1973-01-01

85

Geology and slope stability in selected parts of The Geysers geothermal resources area: a guide to geologic features indicative of stable and unstable terrain in areas underlain by Franciscan and related rocks  

SciTech Connect

The results of a 4-month study of various geologic and topographic features related to the stability of Franciscan terrain in The Geysers GRA are presented. The study consisted of investigations of geologic and topographic features, throughout The Geysers GRA, and geologic mapping at a scale of 1:12,000 of approximately 1500 acres (600 hectares) of landslide terrain within the canyon of Big Sulphur Creek in the vicinity of the Buckeye mine (see plate 1). The area mapped during this study was selected because: (1) it is an area of potential future geothermal development, and (2) it illustrates that large areas mapped as landslides on regional scales (McLaughlin, 1974, 1975b; McNitt, 1968a) may contain zones of varying slope stability and, therefore, should be mapped in more detail prior to development of the land.

Bedrossian, T.L.

1980-01-01

86

Geologic features of areas of abnormal radioactivity south of Ocala, Marion County, Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Areas of abnormal radioactivity south of Ocala, Marion County, Fla., discovered in 1953 by aerial survey, were investigated by surface examination and by 10 power auger drill holes. Inter-bedded clay, clayey sand, and uraniferous phosphorite occur in the areas of anomalous radioactivityo Miocene fossils occur at three localities in these beds which are evidently outliers- of Miocene sediments on the Ocala limestone of Eocene age. The preserved outliers are southwest of the main belt of Miocene sediments. The principal uraniferous rocks are clayey, sandy, pellet phosphori1te that occurs in beds a few feet thick, and very porous, phosphatic sand rock which makes abundant float at many places. Apatite forms the phosphate pellets in the unweathered phosphorite. The very porous, phosphatic sand rock is the highly leached residuum of the pellet phosphorite and is composed mainly of quartz, kaolinite, wavellite, and crandallite (pseudowavellite). It closely resembles the aluminum phosphate rock of the 'leached zone' of the Bone Valley formation in the land-pebble phosphate district.

Espenshade, Gilbert H.

1956-01-01

87

Coal mine bumps as related to geologic features in the northern part of the Sunnyside District, Carbon County, Utah  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Coal mine bumps, which are violent, spontaneous, and often catastrophic disruptions of coal and rock, were common in the Sunnyside coal mining district, Utah, before the introduction of protective-engineering methods, modern room-and-pillar retreat mining with continuous mining machines, and particularly modern longwall mining. The coal at Sunnyside, when stressed during mining, fails continuously with many popping, snapping, and banging noises. Although most of the bumps are beneficial because they make mining easier, many of the large ones are dangerous and in the past caused injuries and fatalities, particularly with room- and-pillar mining methods used in the early mining operations. Geologic mapping of underground mine openings revealed many types of deformational features, some pre-mine and some post-mine in age. Stresses resulting from mining are concentrated near the mine openings; if openings are driven at large angles to small pre-mine deformational features, particularly shatter zones in coal, abnormal stress buildups may occur and violent bumps may result. Other geologic features, such as ripple marks, oriented sand grains, intertongued rock contacts, trace fossils, and load casts, also influence the occurrence of bumps by impeding slip of coal and rocks along bedding planes. The stress field in the coal also varies markedly because of the rough ridge and canyon topography. These features may allow excessively large stress components to accumulate. At many places, the stresses that contribute to deformation and failures of mine openings are oriented horizontally. The stratigraphy of the rocks immediately above and below the mined coal bed strongly influences the deformation of the mine openings in response to stress accumulations. Triaxial compressive testing of coal from the Sunnyside No.1 and No.3 Mines indicates that the strength of the coal increases several times as the confining (lateral) stress is increased. Strengths of cores cut from single large blocks of coal vary widely. Although the strengths of coal cores increase slowly at high levels of confining stress, the coal in Sunnyside No. 1 Mine is slightly stronger in laboratory tests than coal in Sunnyside No.3 Mine. The coal in No.1 Mine probably can store larger amounts of stress than coal in the No.3 Mine, which may account for the apparently greater number of violent bumps in No.1 Mine. The strength of coal, and its ability to store stress before failure, may correlate in part with chemical composition, particularly with the amounts of benzene ring compounds in vitrain; coal with relatively large amounts of benzene ring compounds is stronger than coal with lesser amounts of these compounds. Alternatively, the chemical composition of coal may affect its response to stress. Increasing contents of kaolinite in coal appear to reduce its compressive strength at low confining stresses, resulting in easy failures of pillars and ribs in mine openings. Applications of the geologic factors outlined in this report, carefully coupled with advanced modern engineering methods, have markedly reduced the hazards from coal mine bumps and related failures of mine openings at Sunnyside. Similar studies probably could aid in reducing bump-related hazards in other coal mining areas.

Osterwald, Frank W.; Dunrud, C. Richard; Collins, Donley S.

1993-01-01

88

Web Geologic Time Scale  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of California-Berkeley Museum of Paleontology (last mentioned in the June 16, 1995 Scout Report) has recently updated its Web Geologic Time Scale, an online feature that helps users learn about the geologic timeline and explore related museum exhibits. The familiar geologic timeline appears on the main page of the Web site, with hypertext links for each division of time. Every page of the Web Geologic Time Machine site is liberally sprinkled with links to related UCMP Web pages; think of it as a portal to all online information available from the museum. Altogether, this Web site provides a well-organized and comprehensive resource for learning how the planet has changed over time, and would be a great addition to earth or life sciences classroom material for a broad range of grades.

89

Experience of the application of a database of generic Features, Events and Processes (FEPs) targeted at geological storage of CO 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the application of a freely accessible on-line database of generic Features, Events and Processes (FEPs), designed to support the analysis of geological CO2 storage systems during performance assessments. The Generic CO2 FEP Database was established by Quintessa in 2004 through international collaboration under the auspices of the Weyburn project. Subsequently, development of the database has continued and

Russell Walke; Richard Metcalfe; Laura Limer; Philip Maul; Alan Paulley; David Savage

2011-01-01

90

The features of the use of GIS technologies for monitoring of the situation of main water lines in Azerbaijan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The characteristic feature of the unified system of water supply of Azerbaijan is the large spatial remoteness between the main water sources (Greater and Small Caucasian mountains) and water-using economic areas (Baku, Ganja, Sumgait etc). When operating the pipelines arise accident and emergency situations, which are connected with interaction of the technological elements of the water supply and the natural environment. Often this process is a violation of dynamic equilibrium, and is accompanied by activation of dangerous natural and natural-anthropogenic processes that have a negative impact on the condition of pipelines. Given that in Azerbaijan the basis of the water supply network was put in the XIX century, it is necessary to pay close attention to the assessment of the ecological situation of main lines of water pipelines, i.e. to conduct their monitoring. Ensuring the reliability of existing and planned pipelines, a comprehensive study of the impacts on the natural environment during the construction and operation of the technical facilities, the organization of system of information and analytical monitoring requires a comprehensive attract the materials of the aerospace sensing and GIS technologies. In this paper describe the work experience and are the results of monitoring of pipelines of water supply in Azerbaijan.

Gojamanov, M. H.; Z, Qurbanov, Ch.

2014-11-01

91

Using Vertical electrical sounding survey and refraction seismic survey for determining the geological layers depths, the structural features and assessment groundwater in Aqaba area in South Jordan.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study area is the Aqaba region (Southern wadi Araba basin). Aqaba region area located at 87900 and 89000 North and 147000 and 158000 East (Palestine grid). Tectonically Aqaba area lies within the tectonic plate boundary along the Arabian and African plate slide. This plate boundary comprises numerous and shot fault segments. The main aims of this study are to assessing the groundwater potential and its quality, to explain the subsurface geological conditions and support the ongoing geological, environmental and hydrogeological studies. Therefore, it was anticipated that the results of the geophysical surveying will give many different important parameters as The subsurface geological features, thicknesses of the different lithological units, depth to the bed rocks and depth to the water table. The groundwater can apply an important role in ensuring sustainable water supply in the area. This study was carried out in order to assess groundwater condition, geological layers thicknesses and structural features in Aqaba area by using vertical electrical sounding (VES) surveys and refraction seismic techniques. There are three geoelectrical cross section were carried out at different sites by using the Schlumberger array. The first cross section indicated three layers of different resistivity. The second cross section indicated four layers of different resistivity. The third geoelectrical cross sections indicated three layers. The refraction seismic method also has been conducted in the same area as VES. About 12 refraction seismic profiles have been carried out in the study area. The length of the first profile was 745 m at the direction N-S. This profile indicated two different layers with a different velocities. The length of the second profile was 1320 m with E-W direction. This profile indicated two different layers. The length of the third profile was about 515 m with a direction SE-NW. It recognized two different layers with a different velocities. The fourth profile was N-S direction and the length of this profile was 950 m. Two different layers were recognized along this profile. The fifth profile was located N-S with length about 340 m. Two layers were recognized from this profile. The sixth profile was located N-S direction and the length about 575 m. Three layers were recognized from this profile. The direction of the seventh profile was N-S with a length of about 235 m. two different layers were recognized the top layer was unconsolidated alluvium. The profile number 8 was located N-S with length about 232 m. two layers were conducted from this profile. The direction of ninth profile was NW-SE with length about 565 m. two layers were conducted along this profile. The length of the tenth profile was 235 m and the direction was N-S. Two layers with a different velocities were detected along this profile. Profile number eleven was located SW-NE with length about 475 m. two layers were recognized from this profile. The length of the last profile was 375 m with direction SE-NW. Two layers were conducted from this profile. It was found that the shallow aquifers exist at a depths ranging from 4 to 19 m and the relatively deep aquifers from 24 to 60 m below the ground surface. Keywords: Vertical electrical sounding, Aqaba, Resistivity, Groundwater, Layer depth, Geoelectrical.

Akawwi, Emad; Alzoubi, Abdallah; Ben Abraham, Zvi; Rahamn Abo Alades, Abdel; Alrzouq, Rami; Tiber, Gidon; Neimi, Tina

2010-05-01

92

Yellowstone Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Yellowstone National Park website provides geological information about the Park. Links include geologic highlights, hydrothermal features, reports by park geologists, and scientists' talks (videos). A wide array of information can be found on these links and the webpage is expanding as more topics are added.

Yellowstone National Park

93

Tour of Park Geology: Shoreline Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Park Service (NPS) site provides links to shoreline geology fieldnotes for National Parks, Monuments, and Recreation Areas. When appropriate, fieldnotes include visitor information, geology, maps, photographs, multimedia resources, geologic research, and teacher features (lessons for teaching geology with National Park examples). Some of the parks included on this site: Acadia National Park, Everglades National Park, and Padre Island National Seashore.

94

Geological History of the Tyre Region of Europa: A Regional Perspective on Europan Surface Features and Ice Thickness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Galileo images of the Tyre Macula region of Europa at regional (170 m/pixel) and local (approx. 40 m/pixel) scales allow mapping and understanding of surface processes and landforms. Ridged plains, doublet and complex ridges, shallow pits, domes, "chaos" areas. impact structures, tilted blocks and massifs, and young fracture systems indicate a complex history of surface deformation on Europa. Regional and local morphologies of the Tyre region of Europa suggest that an impactor penetrated through several kilometers of water ice tc a mobile layer below. The surface morphology was initially dominated by formation of ridged plains, followed by development of ridge bands and doublet ridges, with chaos and fracture formation dominating the latter part of the geologic history of the Tyre region. Two distinct types of chaos have been identified which, along with upwarped dome materials, appear to represent a continuum of features (domes-play chaos-knobby chaos) resulting from increasing degree of surface disruption associated with local lithospheric heating and thinning. Local and regional stratigraphic relationships, block heights, and the morphology of the Tyre impact structure suggest the presence of low-viscosity ice or liquid water beneath a thin (severa1 kilometers) surface ice shell at the time of the impact. The very low impact crater density on the surface of Europa suggests that this thin shell has either formed or been thoroughly resurfaced in the very recent past.

Kadel, Steven D.; Chuang, Frank C.; Greeley, Ronald; Moore, Jeffrey M.

2000-01-01

95

MAINE AQUIFERS  

EPA Science Inventory

AQFRS24 contains polygons of significant aquifers in Maine (glacial deposits that are a significant ground water resource) mapped at a scale 1:24,000. This statewide coverage was derived from aquifer boundaries delineated and digitized by the Maine Geological Survey from data com...

96

Effect of anthropogenic landscape features on population genetic differentiation of Przewalski's gazelle: main role of human settlement.  

PubMed

Anthropogenic landscapes influence evolutionary processes such as population genetic differentiation, however, not every type of landscape features exert the same effect on a species, hence it is necessary to estimate their relative effect for species management and conservation. Przewalski's gazelle (Procapra przewalskii), which inhabits a human-altered area on Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, is one of the most endangered antelope species in the world. Here, we report a landscape genetic study on Przewalski's gazelle. We used skin and fecal samples of 169 wild gazelles collected from nine populations and thirteen microsatellite markers to assess the genetic effect of anthropogenic landscape features on this species. For comparison, the genetic effect of geographical distance and topography were also evaluated. We found significant genetic differentiation, six genetic groups and restricted dispersal pattern in Przewalski's gazelle. Topography, human settlement and road appear to be responsible for observed genetic differentiation as they were significantly correlated with both genetic distance measures [F(ST)/(1-F(ST)) and F'(ST)/(1-F'(ST))] in Mantel tests. IBD (isolation by distance) was also inferred as a significant factor in Mantel tests when genetic distance was measured as F(ST)/(1-F(ST)). However, using partial Mantel tests, AIC(c) calculations, causal modeling and AMOVA analysis, we found that human settlement was the main factor shaping current genetic differentiation among those tested. Altogether, our results reveal the relative influence of geographical distance, topography and three anthropogenic landscape-type on population genetic differentiation of Przewalski's gazelle and provide useful information for conservation measures on this endangered species. PMID:21625459

Yang, Ji; Jiang, Zhigang; Zeng, Yan; Turghan, Mardan; Fang, Hongxia; Li, Chunwang

2011-01-01

97

Effect of Anthropogenic Landscape Features on Population Genetic Differentiation of Przewalski's Gazelle: Main Role of Human Settlement  

PubMed Central

Anthropogenic landscapes influence evolutionary processes such as population genetic differentiation, however, not every type of landscape features exert the same effect on a species, hence it is necessary to estimate their relative effect for species management and conservation. Przewalski's gazelle (Procapra przewalskii), which inhabits a human-altered area on Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, is one of the most endangered antelope species in the world. Here, we report a landscape genetic study on Przewalski's gazelle. We used skin and fecal samples of 169 wild gazelles collected from nine populations and thirteen microsatellite markers to assess the genetic effect of anthropogenic landscape features on this species. For comparison, the genetic effect of geographical distance and topography were also evaluated. We found significant genetic differentiation, six genetic groups and restricted dispersal pattern in Przewalski's gazelle. Topography, human settlement and road appear to be responsible for observed genetic differentiation as they were significantly correlated with both genetic distance measures [FST/(1?FST) and F?ST/(1?F?ST)] in Mantel tests. IBD (isolation by distance) was also inferred as a significant factor in Mantel tests when genetic distance was measured as FST/(1?FST). However, using partial Mantel tests, AICc calculations, causal modeling and AMOVA analysis, we found that human settlement was the main factor shaping current genetic differentiation among those tested. Altogether, our results reveal the relative influence of geographical distance, topography and three anthropogenic landscape-type on population genetic differentiation of Przewalski's gazelle and provide useful information for conservation measures on this endangered species. PMID:21625459

Yang, Ji; Jiang, Zhigang; Zeng, Yan; Turghan, Mardan; Fang, Hongxia; Li, Chunwang

2011-01-01

98

Improving management of small natural features on private lands by negotiating the science–policy boundary for Maine vernal pools  

PubMed Central

Vernal pools are far more important for providing ecosystem services than one would predict based on their small size. However, prevailing resource-management strategies are not effectively conserving pools and other small natural features on private lands. Solutions are complicated by tensions between private property and societal rights, uncertainties over resource location and function, diverse stakeholders, and fragmented regulatory authority. The development and testing of new conservation approaches that link scientific knowledge, stakeholder decision-making, and conservation outcomes are important responses to this conservation dilemma. Drawing from a 15-y history of vernal pool conservation efforts in Maine, we describe the coevolution of pool conservation and research approaches, focusing on how research-based knowledge was produced and used in support of management decisions. As management shifted from reactive, top-down approaches to proactive and flexible approaches, research shifted from an ecology-focused program to an interdisciplinary program based on social–ecological systems. The most effective strategies for linking scientific knowledge with action changed as the decision-makers, knowledge needs, and context for vernal pool management advanced. Interactions among stakeholders increased the extent to which knowledge was coproduced and shifted the objective of stakeholder engagement from outreach to research collaboration and development of innovative conservation approaches. New conservation strategies were possible because of the flexible, solutions-oriented collaborations and trust between scientists and decision-makers (fostered over 15 y) and interdisciplinary, engaged research. Solutions to the dilemma of conserving small natural features on private lands, and analogous sustainability science challenges, will benefit from repeated negotiations of the science–policy boundary. PMID:25002496

Calhoun, Aram J. K.; Jansujwicz, Jessica S.; Bell, Kathleen P.; Hunter, Malcolm L.

2014-01-01

99

Improving management of small natural features on private lands by negotiating the science-policy boundary for Maine vernal pools.  

PubMed

Vernal pools are far more important for providing ecosystem services than one would predict based on their small size. However, prevailing resource-management strategies are not effectively conserving pools and other small natural features on private lands. Solutions are complicated by tensions between private property and societal rights, uncertainties over resource location and function, diverse stakeholders, and fragmented regulatory authority. The development and testing of new conservation approaches that link scientific knowledge, stakeholder decision-making, and conservation outcomes are important responses to this conservation dilemma. Drawing from a 15-y history of vernal pool conservation efforts in Maine, we describe the coevolution of pool conservation and research approaches, focusing on how research-based knowledge was produced and used in support of management decisions. As management shifted from reactive, top-down approaches to proactive and flexible approaches, research shifted from an ecology-focused program to an interdisciplinary program based on social-ecological systems. The most effective strategies for linking scientific knowledge with action changed as the decision-makers, knowledge needs, and context for vernal pool management advanced. Interactions among stakeholders increased the extent to which knowledge was coproduced and shifted the objective of stakeholder engagement from outreach to research collaboration and development of innovative conservation approaches. New conservation strategies were possible because of the flexible, solutions-oriented collaborations and trust between scientists and decision-makers (fostered over 15 y) and interdisciplinary, engaged research. Solutions to the dilemma of conserving small natural features on private lands, and analogous sustainability science challenges, will benefit from repeated negotiations of the science-policy boundary. PMID:25002496

Calhoun, Aram J K; Jansujwicz, Jessica S; Bell, Kathleen P; Hunter, Malcolm L

2014-07-29

100

Testing the Late Noachian Icy Highlands Model: Geological Observations, Processes and Origin of Fluvial and Lacustrine Features.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new reconstruction of the Late Noachian Mars atmosphere and climate shows atmosphere-surface thermal coupling and an adiabatic cooling effect producing preferential distribution of snow and ice in the highlands. In this Late Noachian Icy Highlands (LNIH) scenario, snow and ice accumulate in the south circumpolar region and in the higher altitudes of the southern uplands, but the mean annual temperature is everywhere below freezing. How can the abundant evidence for water-related fluvial and lacustrine activity (valley networks, VN; open-basin lakes, OBL; closed-basin lakes; CBL) be reconciled with the icy highlands model? We investigate the nature of geologic processes operating in the icy highlands and use the Antarctic McMurdo Dry Valleys (MDV) as guidance in understanding and assessing how melting might be taking place. In the MDV, mean annual temperatures (MAT) are well below freezing. This results in a thick regional permafrost layer, the presence of an ice-table at shallow depths, and an overlying dry active layer. This configuration produces a perched aquifer and a horizontally stratified hydrologic system, where any melting results in local saturation of the dry active layer and channelized flow on top of the ice table. Top-down melting results in the dominance of lateral water transport, in contrast to temperate climates with vertical infiltration and transport to the groundwater table. Despite subzero MAT, MDV peak seasonal and peak daytime temperatures can exceed 273K and have a strong influence on the melting of available water ice. We present maps of the predicted distribution of LNIH snow and ice, compare these to the distribution of VN, OBL and CBL, and assess how top-down and bottom-up melting processes might explain the formation of these features in an otherwise cold and icy LN Mars. We assess the global near-surface water budget, analyze thickness estimates to distinguish areas of cold-based and wet-based glaciation, analyze the state of the ice cover and its susceptibility to melting and runoff, and describe top-down melting and fluvial channel formation processes in a LNIH environment. We find that: 1) episodic top-down melting of the LNIH is a robust mechanism to produce the observed fluvial and lacustrine features; 2) the characteristics and distribution of features in the Dorsa Argentea Formation are consistent with an extensive circum-polar ice cap during LNIH time; and 3) the nature of preserved LN impact craters is consistent with impact cratering processes in the LNIH environment. 393 words.

Head, James; Wordsworth, Robin; Forget, Francis; Madeleine, Jean-Baptiste; Halvey, Italy

2014-05-01

101

Main clinical features in patients at their first psychiatric admission to Italian acute hospital psychiatric wards. The PERSEO study  

PubMed Central

Background Few data are available on subjects presenting to acute wards for the first time with psychotic symptoms. The aims of this paper are (i) to describe the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients at their first psychiatric admission (FPA), including socio-demographic features, risk factors, life habits, modalities of onset, psychiatric diagnoses and treatments before admission; (ii) to assess the aggressive behavior and the clinical management of FPA patients in Italian acute hospital psychiatric wards, called SPDCs (Servizio Psichiatrico Diagnosi e Cura = psychiatric service for diagnosis and management). Method Cross-sectional observational multi-center study involving 62 Italian SPDCs (PERSEO – Psychiatric EmeRgency Study and EpidemiOlogy). Results 253 FPA aged <= 40 were identified among 2521 patients admitted to Italian SPDCs over the 5-month study period. About half of FPA patients showed an aggressive behavior as defined by a Modified Overt Aggression Scale (MOAS) score greater than 0 Vs 46% of non-FPA patients (p = 0.3651). The most common was verbal aggression, while about 20% of FPA patients actually engaged in physical aggression against other people. 74% of FPA patients had no diagnosis at admission, while 40% had received a previous psychopharmacological treatment, mainly benzodiazepines and antidepressants. During SPDC stay, diagnosis was established in 96% of FPA patients and a pharmacological therapy was prescribed to 95% of them, mainly benzodiazepines, antipsychotics and mood stabilizers. Conclusion Subjects presenting at their first psychiatric ward admission have often not undergone previous adequate psychiatric assessment and diagnostic procedures. The first hospital admission allows diagnosis and psychopharmacological treatment to be established. In our population, aggressive behaviors were rather frequent, although most commonly verbal. Psychiatric symptoms, as evaluated by psychiatrists and patients, improved significantly from admission to discharge both for FPA and non-FPA patients. PMID:17239235

Ballerini, Andrea; Boccalon, Roberto M; Boncompagni, Giancarlo; Casacchia, Massimo; Margari, Francesco; Minervini, Lina; Righi, Roberto; Russo, Federico; Salteri, Andrea; Frediani, Sonia; Rossi, Andrea; Scatigna, Marco

2007-01-01

102

West's Geology Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is one of the world's largest geological web sites, with more than 200 web pages comprised of geological field guides, with hundreds of full screen color photographs of varied geological features, and with associated bibliographies. All of the field guides are for geologic locations in England. Also included is a large directory of internet sites sorted by topic. Topics range from mineral and rock types, to geologic time periods, fossils, plate tectonics, geochronology, mapping, and geologic surveys.

Ian West

103

Geologic Maps Geology 200  

E-print Network

Geologic Maps Geology 200 Geology for Environmental Scientists #12;Geologic Map of the US #12;Symbols found on geologic maps #12;Horizontal Strata #12;Geologic map of part of the Grand Canyon. Each color represents a different formation. #12;Inclined Strata #12;Dome #12;Geologic map of the Black Hills

Kammer, Thomas

104

[Main features of helminth parasitism in cattle in Ituri (Haut-Zaire). III. Geographic distribution and prevalence of the main helminths].  

PubMed

A necropsic survey, carried out in eleven slaughterhouses in Ituri (Haut-Zaïre), has permitted to define the geographic distribution and prevalences of the main cattle helminths. Trematodes, except the paramphistomes, had a very heterogeneous distribution. Prevalence of Fasciola gigantica ranged from 9 to 72% according to the sites, but these variations were not linked to topographic or climatologic parameters. The infection with Schistosoma bovis was much variable as well (12.5 to 72%) and seemed absent from the central high altitude area. The occurrence of Dicrocoelium hospes was restricted to the northern part of Ituri with a moderate prevalence of about 35%. By contrast, nematodes had a fairly homogeneous distribution in Ituri. Prevalences were high for gastro-intestinal strongyles of the following genera, Haemonchus, Cooperia and Oesophagostomum (over 60%). Cysticercosis (Cysticercus bovis) occurred in 10 to 14% of cattle in the middle and south areas of Ituri whereas the north areas were nearly free. PMID:1775693

Chartier, C; Bushu, M; Kamwenga, D

1991-01-01

105

Linear spectral filtering for feature enhancement in AVIRIS data from the forest ecosystem dynamics flightline in northern Maine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we investigate the use of linear filtering techniques in the exploitation of hyperspectral imagery. In particular, we focus on applications of the simultaneous diagonalization (SD) filter to hyperspectral image analysis. The SD filter can be designed to enhance a particular feature with a known spectral response pattern and suppress undesired features. The filter is used to enhance surface features in two AVIRIS scenes acquired from the Forest Ecosystem Dynamics (FED) flightline on September 8, 1990. A spectral distance algorithm is also applied to this hyperspectral data to enhance surface targets with similar spectral response patterns. Although no detailed ground information was utilized, targets were selected by image interpretation methods and included an urban/disturbed site, and a wetland bog area, and a northern vegetation type (mixed hardwood). Both the SD filter and the spectral distance algorithm are able to effectively separate these classes of ground features from others.

Hardie, Russell C.; Moss, David M.; Peterson, Christopher J.

1993-08-01

106

Geologic History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This unit introduces younger students to the concept of relative versus absolute time and how geologists determine the age of geologic events and features. Topics include the laws that determine relative age (superposition, cross-cutting relationships, included fragments, and others), and how to re-construct the geologic history of an area using these relationships. There is also information on geologic correlation and the use of index fossils to determine relative age. The section on absolute time discusses some ways of measurement (tree rings, radioactive dating) and introduces the concepts of natural selection and mass extinctions. A vocabulary and downloadable, printable student worksheets are provided.

Medina, Philip

107

REMOTE SENSING GEOLOGICAL SURVEY  

E-print Network

REMOTE SENSING IN GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF BRAZIL August/2010 Mônica Mazzini Perrotta Remote Sensing Division Head #12;SUMMARY The Geological Survey of Brazil mission The Remote Sensing Division Main remote sensing data used in CPRM geologic projects Future perspective: the Spectral Library of Geological Survey

108

Identification of the emission features near 3.5 microns in the pre main sequence star HD 97048  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The spectrum of HD97048 was measured with a resolving power of 450 between 3.37 and 3.64 microns. The prominent feature near 3.5 microns is well resolved, with a peak at 3.53 microns and a wing extending to a shorter wavelength. The weaker feature near 3.4 microns is found to peak at 3.43 microns, in contrast to the 3.40 micron feature seen in other astronomical objects. The observed spectrum strongly resembles laboratory spectra of mixtures of monomeric and dimeric formaldehyde embedded in low temperature solids. Of various possible excitation mechanisms, ultraviolet pumped infrared fluorescence of formaldehyde in interstellar grains provides the best explanation for the observed spectrum of HD 97048.

Baas, F.; Allamandola, L. J.; Geballe, T. R.; Persson, S. E.; Lacy, J. H.

1982-01-01

109

Main clinical features in patients at their first psychiatric admission to Italian acute hospital psychiatric wards. The PERSEO study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Few data are available on subjects presenting to acute wards for the first time with psychotic symptoms. The aims of this paper are (i) to describe the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients at their first psychiatric admission (FPA), including socio-demographic features, risk factors, life habits, modalities of onset, psychiatric diagnoses and treatments before admission; (ii) to assess the

Andrea Ballerini; Roberto M Boccalon; Giancarlo Boncompagni; Massimo Casacchia; Francesco Margari; Lina Minervini; Roberto Righi; Federico Russo; Andrea Salteri; Sonia Frediani; Andrea Rossi; Marco Scatigna

2007-01-01

110

SUMMARY: PEST RISK ANALYSIS FOR PHYTOPHTHORA RAMORUM This summary presents the main features of a Pest Risk Analysis (PRA) which has been  

E-print Network

SUMMARY: PEST RISK ANALYSIS FOR PHYTOPHTHORA RAMORUM This summary presents the main features of a Pest Risk Analysis (PRA) which has been conducted on Phytophthora ramorum as the key deliverable from upon the template for the EPPO `Report of a Rest Risk Analysis', version 06-12731, now superceded by 08

111

A Geostatistical Approach to Assess the Spatial Association between Indoor Radon Concentration, Geological Features and Building Characteristics: The Case of Lombardy, Northern Italy  

PubMed Central

Radon is a natural gas known to be the main contributor to natural background radiation exposure and second to smoking, a major leading cause of lung cancer. The main source of radon is the soil, but the gas can enter buildings in many different ways and reach high indoor concentrations. Monitoring surveys have been promoted in many countries in order to assess the exposure of people to radon. In this paper, two complementary aspects are investigated. Firstly, we mapped indoor radon concentration in a large and inhomogeneous region using a geostatistical approach which borrows strength from the geologic nature of the soil. Secondly, knowing that geologic and anthropogenic factors, such as building characteristics, can foster the gas to flow into a building or protect against this, we evaluated these effects through a multiple regression model which takes into account the spatial correlation of the data. This allows us to rank different building typologies, identified by architectonic and geological characteristics, according to their proneness to radon. Our results suggest the opportunity to differentiate construction requirements in a large and inhomogeneous area, as the one considered in this paper, according to different places and provide a method to identify those dwellings which should be monitored more carefully. PMID:21655128

Borgoni, Riccardo; Tritto, Valeria; Bigliotto, Carlo; de Bartolo, Daniela

2011-01-01

112

Provenance composition and features of geological evolution of the Late Vendian foreland basin of the Timan orogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

The provenance composition and geological evolution of different segments in the distal zone of the Late Vendian foreland\\u000a basin of the Timan orogen were deciphered on the basis of sequence stratigraphic reconstructions and precision geochemical\\u000a data on the Upper Vendian fine-grained terrigenous rocks from the Southeast White Sea region, Vychegda, Verkhnekama, and Shkapovo-Shikhan\\u000a basins, and the Kvarkush-Kamennogorsk and Bashkirian meganticlinoriums.

A. V. Maslov; D. V. Grazhdankin; V. N. Podkovyrov; M. V. Isherskaya; M. T. Krupenin; G. A. Petrov; Yu. L. Ronkin; E. Z. Gareev; O. P. Lepikhina

2009-01-01

113

The use of fluoride as a natural tracer in water and the relationship to geological features: Examples from the Animas River Watershed, San Juan Mountains, Silverton, Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Investigations within the Silverton caldera, in southwestern Colorado, used a combination of traditional geological mapping, alteration-assemblage mapping, and aqueous geochemical sampling that showed a relationship between geological and hydrologic features that may be used to better understand the provenance and evolution of the water. Veins containing fluorite, huebnerite, and elevated molybdenum concentrations are temporally and perhaps genetically associated with the emplacement of high-silica rhyolite intrusions. Both the rhyolites and the fluorite-bearing veins produce waters containing elevated concentrations of F-, K and Be. The identification of water samples with elevated F/Cl molar ratios (> 10) has also aided in the location of water draining F-rich sources, even after these waters have been diluted substantially. These unique aqueous geochemical signatures can be used to relate water chemistry to key geological features and mineralized source areas. Two examples that illustrate this relationship are: (1) surface-water samples containing elevated F-concentrations (> 1.8 mg/l) that closely bracket the extent of several small high-silica rhyolite intrusions; and (2) water samples containing elevated concentrations of F-(> 1.8 mg/ l) that spatially relate to mines or areas that contain late-stage fluorite/huebnerite veins. In two additional cases, the existence of high F-concentrations in water can be used to: (1) infer interaction of the water with mine waste derived from systems known to contain the fluorite/huebnerite association; and (2) relate changes in water quality over time at a high elevation mine tunnel to plugging of a lower elevation mine tunnel and the subsequent rise of the water table into mineralized areas containing fluorite/huebnerite veining. Thus, the unique geochemical signature of the water produced from fluorite veins indicates the location of high-silica rhyolites, mines, and mine waste containing the veins. Existence of high F-concentrations along with K and Be in water in combination with other geological evidence may be used to better understand the provenance of the water. ?? 2009 AAG/Geological Society of London.

Bove, D.J.; Walton-Day, K.; Kimball, B.A.

2009-01-01

114

Comparison of LiDAR-derived directional topographic features with geologic field evidence: a case study of Doren landslide (Vorarlberg, Austria)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study area, the Doren Landslide, is located northeast of Dornbirn (Vorarlberg, Austria) within the Molasse zone in the foreland of the Northern Calcareous Alps. It developed in a prominent morphologic position at the margin of a plateau that is formed by alternating ridges and valleys of Molasse sediments of various composition and glacial moraine sediments. The stream valleys of the area are showing rapid incision into the relatively erodible material; this sediment transport balance/imbalance influences the valley sides that at places develop landslides of various scale. Of them the Doren Landslide is the most prominent one that is already endangering real estate entities. On-going research has focused on the repeated airborne and terrestrial laser scanning of the landslide in order to determine short-term volumetric and surface changes and the overall development of the phenomenon. Additionally, tectonic geomorphologic analysis using the digital terrain analysis approach was carried out by the authors aiming to document the geologic setting of the landslide and the adjacent areas in order to reveal possible relationship between the (micro)tectonic setting and the mass movement phenomena. In this study, linear and planar features derived from the LiDAR digital terrain model (DTM) by (i) visual lineament analysis and (ii) automated plane fitting are validated by the results of extensive field geological measurements. For the automated plane fitting, we apply a segmentation approach, originally developed for building detection and roof landscape modeling from ALS data (Dorninger & Pfeifer 2008). It is based on global seed-cluster determination using a four-dimensional feature space defined by locally determined three-dimensional regression planes for each point. Starting from these seeds, all points defining a connected, planar segment are assigned. Due to the design of the algorithm, millions of input points can be processed at once with acceptable processing time on standard computer systems. This allows for processing geomorphologically representative areas at once. For each segment, numerous parameter are derived which can be used for further exploitation. These are, for example, location, area, aspect, slope, and roughness. In the areas surrounding the recent landslide, the strike of geologically significant planes show a good correlation with the strike of lineaments mapped on the ALS-DTM. The mean strike direction that is prominent has an ENE - WSW orientation. However, within the area directly influenced by the recent landslide, observable differences between field geologic measurements and mapped lineaments occur. ESE - WNW striking linear features well mappable from the ALS-DTM are not recorded by field measurements of planar features (faults or bedding planes). This fact can be explained by several hypotheses. The orientation of patches derived by automated plane fitting also show distinct correlation with the field geologic measurements. Again, a good correlation between dip directions as well as dip values can be observed in areas surrounding the landslide. Detection of steep dipping fault surfaces within the landslide area shows promising results that can be further improved by adjusting the input parameters. The good correlation of three different types of lineament analysis (field geologic measurements, ALS-DTM analysis, automated plane fitting) prove the accuracy of laser scanned data and the reliability of observations derived from ALS-data. Dorninger, P., Pfeifer, N. (2008): A Comprehensive Automated 3D Approach for Building Extraction, Reconstruction, and Regularization from Airborne Laser Scanning Point Clouds. Sensors, 8, 11, 7323 - 7343.

Zámolyi, András.; Székely, Balázs; Molnár, Gábor; Roncat, Andreas; Dorninger, Peter; Pocsai, Angelika; Wyszy?ski, Marek; Drexel, Peter

2010-05-01

115

Capability of ERTS-1 imagery to investigate geological and structural features in a sedimentary basin (Bassin Parisien, France)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. The region covered by the MSS images has the benefit of complete geological mapping at scales of 1:80,000, 1:320,000, and 1:1,000,000. Comparison of imagery and exisiting geological maps, particularly the 1:1,000,000 scale, produces important information: (1) Good correspondence is seen between large units distinguished on the images and the concentric strata of the Jurassic, Cretaceous, and Paleocene on the map. (2) Comparison of MSS images with the hydrogeological map of the Parisian basin at 1:500,000 removes all ambiguity with regard to lithological variations. Among the many faults revealed, only three were considered: (1) the Metz; (2)Juranze; and (3) the double fault of the Marne. Imagery shows a conspicuous alignment of the Metz fault unknown until now and ending near Montereau against the group of north-south faults between Montargis and Bourbon l'Archambault. MSS images show that the Juranze fault divides beyond Brienne into two branches of equal importance. The northern one represents the known fault, the southern one was not known until now, but the convergence of the faults constitutes a tectonic trap. The double fault of the Marne is known for a total length of 50 km. ERTS-1 imagery suggest a prolongation toward the southeast which could bring its length to 110 km.

Weecksteen, G. (principal investigator); Cavelier, C.; Scanvic, J. Y.; Zizerman, A.

1973-01-01

116

Changing environments of pre-main-sequence stars and their effect on the 3 microns ice feature  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three micron spectra of three premain-sequence stellar objects are presented. The heavily embedded infrared source HH100-IR, and two optically visible stars that apparently power the Herbig-Haro objects HH52, 53, 54, and HH57, are likely to represent different stages during early stellar evolution. The medium-resolution spectra of HH100-IR confirm the existence of a very strong ice band absorption (optical depth 0.8-1.2 at 3.07 microns) discovered by Whittet & Blades MNRAS, 191, 309 (1980) with lower resolution. Each of the visible stars shows a weaker (optical depth 0.2-0.4) water-ice feature but with a relatively prominent absorption dip at 2.97 microns which it is believed is due to ammonia ice. A detailed inspection of the line profiles suggests that the environment around the optically visible stars is significantly warmer (about 100 K) than that around HH100-IR (about 10-20 K) and that processing of remnant circumstellar dust is already underway.

Graham, J. A.; Chen, W. P.

1991-01-01

117

Airborne geophysical surveys used to delineate geological features associated with the M5.8 August 23, 2011 earthquake in Louisa County, Virginia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The M5.8 August 23, 2011 Louisa County, VA intraplate earthquake was felt by more people than any other in U.S. history not only because of population density, but also because of the associated geology. However, because limited bedrock exposures pose a challenge to geologic mapping efforts and the earthquake hypocenter is located at a depth of ~6 km, many questions remain. Potential field and gamma-ray spectrometry data thus provide key tools for imaging and understanding both shallow and deep subsurface geologic features. In July 2012, the USGS commissioned a high-resolution magnetic, gravity, and radiometric (gamma-ray spectrometry) survey over a 20 km x 25 km area covering the epicenters of the Louisa County earthquake and its aftershocks. The surveys were flown with 200-m line spacing from an altitude of ~120 m above ground, providing up to a 20-fold improvement over regional magnetic and radiometric coverage. Gravity was measured using Sander Geophysics' AIRGrav system, capable of resolving anomalies as narrow as 800 m for the given survey configuration; in most parts of the survey area the spacing of ground stations is ~10-20 stations per 100 km2. Preliminary magnetic and radiometric data show numerous NE-trending linear anomalies within this part of the Appalachian Piedmont Province. These metamorphic and igneous rocks exhibit 200-500 nT magnetic anomalies of width 300-1000 km that are likely to be generated by contrasts between various metavolcanic and metasedimentary rocks such as magnetite-bearing quartzites and felsic to mafic gneisses. Magnetic lows and radiometric highs are observed over several granitoid intrusive bodies such as the Ellisville pluton, the Falmouth Intrusive Suite, and a Paleozoic pegmatite belt. Derivative magnetic maps delineate numerous thin (< 250 m wide) N- NNW-trending linear anomalies, suggesting that Jurassic diabase dikes are much more common in this area than previously mapped. Radiometric data mostly correlate with mapped bedrock units, but also exhibit anomalies consistent with SE fluvial transport and deposition of sediments several kilometers downstream from their sources. The probable causative fault of the Louisa County earthquake has been delineated near its hypocenter by aftershocks recorded by a network of portable seismometers, with most aftershocks occurring along a plane or planes from ~2.5 to 8 km depth (e.g. public data provided by R. Herrmann, SLU). The earthquake and aftershocks occurred near a change in orientation of primary magnetic lineations from ~N34E northeast of the earthquake to N44E southwest of the earthquake that is also visible in topographic and regional gravity trends. Magnetic anomalies are complex near the orientation change and feature arcuate lineations that bound prominent magnetic lows and abut primary lineations at angles of 20-35°. Northeast of the aftershock area, magnetic lineations are much straighter, with previous regional data suggesting that they extend essentially uninterrupted for a distance of 40 km or more. This in turn suggests broad continuity of major structures, including faults, for a significant distance to the northeast. We combine magnetic, gravity, radiometric, and geologic data to consider the relations between the M5.8 event and possible subsurface geologic features such as stratified geologic units and contacts, igneous intrusive bodies, and associated faults.

Shah, A. K.; Horton, J. W.; Gilmer, A. K.

2012-12-01

118

Derivation of parameters necessary for the evaluation of performance of sites for deep geological repositories with particular reference to bedded salt, Livermore, California. Volume I. Main text  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of parameters to be considered in the evaluation of sites for deep geologic nuclear waste repositories is presented. As yet, no comprehensive site selection procedure or performance evaluation approach has been adopted. A basis is provided for the development of parameters by discussing both site selection and performance evaluation. Three major groups of parameters are considered in this

J. P. Ashby; G. E. Rawlings; C. A. Soto; D. F. Wood; D. W. Chorley

1979-01-01

119

Louisiana Geological Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Louisiana Geological Survey, located at Louisiana State University, developed this website to promote its goal to provide geological and environmental data that will allow for environmentally sound natural resource development and economic decisions. Users can find general information about the Survey's mission, staff, plan, and history. The website features the research and publications of the Basin Research, Cartographic, Coastal, Geologic Mapping, and Water and Environmental sections. Researchers can discover stratigraphic charts of Louisiana, information on lignite resources, and other geologic data.

120

Superposed deposits of thick coal on the eastern edge of the Illinois Basin and their association with underlying geologic features  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Comparison of maps produced from publicly available data (drillers' logs, electrical logs and mine maps) provides a basis for inferring a deep-seated influence on the distribution of superposed deposits of thick coal (>1.4 m) in four Middle Pennsylvania (Desmoinesian Series) coal beds in three mining districts of west-central Indiana. Thick sandstone (>18 m) is common in areas between and around the mining districts, but less than 3 percent of the study area (consisting of 3200 km2) is underlain by both thick coal and thick sandstone. Only thick sandstone associated with the Survant Coal Member (Linton Formation), and informally referred to by us "Survant sandstone", exists in all of the thin-coal areas. After comparison with published maps by other authors, it is inferred that distribution of the Survant sandstone, which was deposited immediately after a long period of slow deposition associated with the Colchester Coal Member (Linton Formation), may reflect topographic expression of long-term subsidence associated with differential thinning of much deeper Silurian strata (580 m below). Although the findings of this study provide the basis for a conceptual geologic model with a hypothetical structure that is amenable to statistical testing, such analysis should be undertaken only after the data are analyzed for randomness, spatial autocorrelation, linearity and normality. ?? 1991.

Harper, D.; Olyphant, G.A.

1991-01-01

121

Marine Geological Discoveries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site by a Norwegian researcher features descriptions of marine geological formations: pockmarks, mud volcanoes, deep-water coral reefs, and gas hydrates. Using ROV technology, he has taken photos of these deep seafloor features, and compares them to geological structures seen on land, and even on the moon.

122

Environmental geology in Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Australia the concept of environmental geology is developing slowly from mainly engineering based activities to resource planning and utilization. This is particularly so with increasing activity in urban geology and in some States environmental geology influences land use and zoning. Since 1972 there have been clearly stated national policies in regard to the planned development of Australia's mineral and

G. M. Philip

1976-01-01

123

Geologic and hydrologic features of the San Bernardino area, California - with special reference to underflow across the San Jacinto fault  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This is the second in a series of interpretive reports on subsurface outflow from the ground-water basins of San Bernardino County, Calif., prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the San Bernardino County Flood Control District. One principal purpose of the study was to estimate the ground-water outflow from the Bunker Hill basin to the Rialto-Colton basin across the San Jacinto fault, which, except locally, forms a nearly impermeable boundary between the two basins. In addition, the report deals qualitatively with the geology, the fault barriers that divide the area into several ground-water basins, the physical nature and degree of imperviousness of the barriers, the occurrence and movement of ground water and fluctuations of water level in the basins, and the chemical quality of surface and ground waters in the San Bernardino area. The report includes a geologic map and sections, water-level-contour maps and profiles, and hydrographs of selected well. The Santa Ana River, the principal stream, flows generally westward across the area. Channels of the river and its tributaries overlie a large irregular structural depression filled with alluvial deposits ranging in age from late Tertiary to Recent and forming a valley bounded on the north by the San Gabriel Mountains, on the east by the San Bernardino Mountains, and on the south by an irregular group of hills. Large alluvial fans underlie most of the area, but its landforms also include alluvial benches and terraces near the mountains, stream channels, and elongate hills, ridges, and scarps along the trace of the San Jacinto fault, which strikes northwestward across the valley about in the center of the area. This fault and others divide the area into ground-water basins, which include the Bunker Hill, Rialto-Colton, upper and lower Lytle and Chino basins. The water-bearing deposits include the following units: the younger alluvium. of Recent age, which occupies principally the backfilled channels beneath the Santa Ana River and its tributaries and through which ground water moves from Bunker Hill basin to Rialto-Colton basin; the older alluvium, of Pleistocene age, which is the principal water-bearing unit of the area and yields water to more than a thousand wells; and continental deposits of Tertiary to Quaternary age, which crop out along the southern margin of the area and locally along the San Gabriel Mountains on the north. The younger alluvium attains a maximum thickness of about 125 feet beneath the Santa Ana River south of San Bernardino. Locally in the Bunker Hill basin it is composed of two members, an upper member of relatively impermeable clay and a lower member of highly permeable material in which water is confined by the upper member. The older alluvium locally has a known thickness greater than 700 feet; elsewhere in the San Bernardino Valley it may exceed 1,400 feet. Locally, where ground water is confined in Bunker Hill basin, the older alluvium is divided into three permeable water-bearing zones separated from each other and from the younger alluvium above by less permeable zones. In parts of Chino and Rialto-Colton basins the alluvium consists of a coarse-grained facies along a former course of a major stream that is interfingered with and overlain by relatively fine-grained deposits. The permeability of the younger alluvium in the area beneath the Santa Ana River downstream from the San Jacinto fault was determined from tests to be about 2,700 gallons per day per square foot. The permeability of the coarse water-yielding materials of the older alluvium several miles downstream was estimated from tests to be about the same magnitude. Rocks that yield practically no water include continental rocks of Tertiary age, which are not exposed in the area but are tapped by wells in Rialto-Colton basin, and crystalline and metamorphic rocks of pre-Tertiary age that form the bedrock of the area. Faults across the valley area fo

Dutcher, L.C.; Garrett, Arthur A.

1963-01-01

124

Main Features of Plasma Control  

SciTech Connect

In the recent years Plasma Control has always increased his importance in any advanced experiment. It is now clear that ITER will not be able to operate without a quite advanced and sophisticated control apparatus. Necessarily this system will have to integrate several different aspects of the Plasma behavior. One of the most important parts of a closed loop control system is the quality of the measurement of the plasma parameters that should be controlled. Eventually, this aspect involves sophisticated and complex diagnostic apparatus. This paper presents an overview of the present status, and further studies and developments needed, in the next future, for the design and realization of an integrated plasma control system aimed at both stabilizing the plasma non-axisymmetric instabilities and controlling the most important internal plasma parameters. In particular the Edge Localized Modes (ELMs), the Neo-Classical Tearing Modes (NTM), the Resistive Wall Mode (RWM) and the Plasma Profiles control system necessities will be shortly illustrated.

Crisanti, F. [Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, Frascati, C.P. 65, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Albanese, R.; Ambrosino, G. [Associazione EURATOM/ENEA/CREATE, Univ. Napoli Federico II, Via Claudio21, 80125 Napoli (Italy)

2008-03-12

125

Geological SciencesGeological Sciences Geological EngineeringGeological Engineering  

E-print Network

Geological SciencesGeological Sciences Geological EngineeringGeological Engineering Geosciences Careers in the ik ou ve n ver see t b f rel e y ' e n i e o ! Department of Geological Sciences and Geological Engineering Queen's University See the World Geological Sciences Arts and Science Faculty

Ellis, Randy

126

Maine Ingredients  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article features Maine Learning Technology Initiative (MLTI), the nation's first-ever statewide 1-to-1 laptop program which marks its seventh birthday by expanding into high schools, providing an occasion to celebrate--and to examine the components of its success. The plan to put laptops into the hands of every teacher and student in grades 7…

Waters, John K.

2009-01-01

127

Influence of geological features (geochemistry and mineralogy) of soil wich constitutes adobes in their durability - Huambo, Angola.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After long years of war, great efforts have been made for the socio-economic development of Angola, mainly in the construction industry. Among the construction techniques, the Adobe is the most used in the province of Huambo, especially by low-income families, which constitute the majority. This technique was established as a historical heritage in the culture of that population. The Huambo province is located in the central region of Angola (Central Plateau) and is bounded on the northeast and east by the province of Bié, on the south and southern by province of Huila, and on the west by the province of Benguela and on the northwest by the province of Kwanza Sul. Has an area of 35,771 km2 and approximately 2,301,524 inhabitants, which corresponds to 58 inhabitants per km2 (Government of the Province of Huambo, 2006). The buildings in this province, particularly in rural areas, were deeply marked by war. Given the current scenario of development of the country and considering the possibility of integrate systems and traditional building materials, that respect the environment and fit harmoniously into its natural habitat, one of the alternative options in the actual construction, undergoes resume old solutions and traditional materials such as adobe construction.It is in this context that this project is part of a scientific research in order to permit the improvement and optimization of these traditional solutions, responding to current demands for social, economic and environmental sustainability. The adobe is a building element with potential degradation by water. Due to the climate, subtropical, hot and humid, and geomorphology of the province, about 1000 to 2000 meters of altitude and an extensive river system, these buildings can be vulnerable and present early degradation, exacerbated by lack of knowledge of the properties of geomaterials used and techniques that allow their stabilization and conservation. This paper aims to study the influence of mineralogy and geochemistry of soils used in the production of adobes applied in the construction of habitations, mainly, because from this knowledge, we can develop alternatives to the resolution of recorded pathologies and to improve the strength and durability of those adobes. For this purpose, soil samples were collected, in which mineralogical and geochemical tests were performed. Simultaneously, durability and erodibility tests were done by the method of Geelong in the selected adobes. The results obtained from this research will identify, select and characterize the materials and methods used in construction in raw earth, contributing to the development of knowledge of these sustainable buildings solutions with a strong presence in the Huambo region. From the analysis of the data obtained will be defined a strategy for the next steps of the scientific research project in course designated "Earth Construction in Angola. Characterization, applications and potentialities.". This project aims to encourage the use of the geomaterials in ecological construction and contribute, however modestly, in building solutions with better performance characteristics, comfort, safety, durability and sustainability.

Duarte, Isabel; Pedro, Elsa; Varum, Humberto; Mirão, José; Pinho, António

2014-05-01

128

Louisiana Geological Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the homepage of the Louisiana Geological Survey (LGS). The site includes general information about LGS and its various offices, as well as an overview of the Basin Research Energy Section, the oil, gas, and coal research section of LGS. The publications and data page features a catalog and ordering information for documents on mineral resources, fossils, water resources, geological bulletins and maps, and many others, as well as a selection of downloadable maps, including 30 x 60 minute geologic quadrangles, a generalized geologic map of the state with accompanying text, and an online map viewer of the state with selectable layers (geology, water bodies, cultural features, and Landsat imagery). There is also an online listing of well logs, grouped by parish, online listings of core samples, grouped by state, and downloadable public information documents on a variety of geologic topics.

129

Wyoming State Geological Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This agency's mission is to study, examine, and seek an understanding of the geology, mineral resources, and physical features of the State; to prepare, publish, and distribute reports and maps of Wyoming's geology, mineral resources, and physical features; and to provide information, advice, and services related to the geology, mineral resources, and physical features of the State. This site contains details and reports about metals in Wyoming, earthquakes and other hazards, coal, industrial minerals, uranium, oil and gas. The field trip section contains details about various areas to visit with students and gives a general geologic description. There is also a searchable bibliography with publications about Wyoming geology. Links are provided for additional resources.

130

Systems study of the feasibility of high-level nuclear-waste fractionation for thermal stress control in a geologic repository: main report  

SciTech Connect

This study assesses the benefits and costs of fractionating the cesium and strontium (Cs/Sr) components in commercial high-level waste (HLW) to a separate waste stream for the purpose of reducing geologic-repository thermal stresses in the region of the HLW. System costs are developed for a broad range of conditions comparing the Cs/Sr fractionation concept with disposal of 10-year-old vitrified HLW and vitrified HLW aged to achieve (through decay) the same heat output as the fractionated high-level waste (FHLW). All comparisons are based on a 50,000 metric ton equivalent (MTE) system. The FHLW and the Cs/Sr waste are both disposed of as vitrified waste but emplaced in separate areas of a basalt repository. The FHLW is emplaced in high-integrity packages at relatively high waste loading but low heat loading, while the Cs/Sr waste is emplaced in minimum-integrity packages at relatively high heat loading in a separate region of the repository. System cost comparisons are based on minimum cost combinations of canister diameter, waste concentration, and canister spacing in a basalt repository. The effects on both long- and near-term safety considerations are also addressed. The major conclusion is that the Cs/Sr fractionation concept offers the prospect of a substantial total system cost advantage for HLW disposal if reduced HLW package temperatures in a basalt repository are desired. However, there is no cost advantage if currently designated maximum design temperatures are acceptable. Aging the HLW for 50 to 100 years can accomplish similar results at equivalent or lower costs. 37 figures, 58 tables.

McKee, R.W.; Elder, H.K.; McCallum, R.F.; Silviera, D.J.; Swanson, J.L.; Wiles, L.E.

1983-06-01

131

Advances in Planetary Geology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The surface of Mars displays a broad range of channel and valley features. There is as great a range in morphology as in scale. Some of the features of Martian geography are examined. Geomorphic mapping, crater counts on selected surfaces, and a detailed study of drainage basins are used to trace the geologic evolution of the Margaritifer Sinus Quandrangle. The layered deposits in the Valles Marineris are described in detail and the geologic processes that could have led to their formation are analyzed.

Grant, John A., III; Nedell, Susan S.

1987-01-01

132

Tour of Park Geology: Glaciers and Glacial Landforms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Park Service (NPS) site provides links to geology fieldnotes about National Parks, National Monuments, and National Recreation Areas having to do with glaciers. Where appropriate links are provided to geology, visitor information, photographs, maps, multimedia resources, related links, and teacher features (resources for teaching geology with National Park examples). This site divides the parks into the following glacier categories: Active alpine glaciation, continental glaciation landforms, alpine glaciation landforms, and Ice age flood landforms (scablands). Some of the parks mentioned include Glacier Bay National Park in Alaska, Acadia National Park in Maine, Lake Roosevelt National Recreation Area in Washington, and many more.

133

Main Features for the Conceptualization of the Post-Closure Evolution Scenario of the Cigeo LIL-HL Waste Repository - 13105  

SciTech Connect

In France, in order to commission the planned geological repository by 2025, a license application for the industrial project of this geological repository called Cigeo (Centre Industriel de Stockage Geologique) must be submitted and reviewed by the competent authorities by 2015. On the basis of its preliminary design set up in 2009 and on the associated requirements for long-term safety, an overall conceptual model has been developed in order to prepare the performance and safety analysis. The Cigeo repository makes use of the passive safety response characteristics of both the engineered and geological barriers that allow: - resisting water ingress, with repository designs favoring the limitation of the water flows; - limiting the release of radionuclides and chemical toxics; - delaying and mitigating the spread of radionuclides and chemical toxics. In order to evaluate the performance of the various elements, a conceptual model of the thermo-hydro-chemico-mechanical (THMC) evolution of the different components of the repository has been designed. It takes stock of a 20 years research effort which allowed data to be obtained from various surface geological campaigns, in-situ experiments in URLs and wastes characterization, and advances in numerical simulation to be utilised. Based on the best available knowledge to date, this conceptual model constitutes a robust basis for the definition and development of the long-term safety scenarios. It also helps identifying the residual uncertainties, and provides guidelines for additional research and system optimizations. (authors)

Landais, Patrick; Giffaut, Eric; Pepin, Guillaume; Plas, Frederic; Schumacher, S. [Andra, 1-7 rue Jean Monnet, 92298 Chatenay Malabry (France)] [Andra, 1-7 rue Jean Monnet, 92298 Chatenay Malabry (France)

2013-07-01

134

The Geology and Gravity Anomalies of the Troodos Massif, Cyprus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over Cyprus there is one of the largest recorded gravity anomalies which reaches a maximum of over +250 mgal. This paper records the main geological features of the island, investigates the source of the gravity anomaly and correlates both lines of evidence in support of an hypothesis on the evolution and structure of the area. The topography of Cyprus, which

I. G. Gass; D. Masson-Smith

1963-01-01

135

Multi-instrument observations of plasma features in the Arctic ionosphere during the main phase of a geomagnetic storm in December 2006  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arctic ionospheric variations during the main phase of a magnetic storm on 14-15 December, 2006 were investigated to characterize the high energy particle precipitation caused effects, based on multi-instrument observations. These include electron density observations provided by the Global Positioning System (GPS) total electron content (TEC) measurements, European Incoherent Scatter (EISCAT) radar, the radio occultation (RO) from both the CHAMP satellite and the Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (COSMIC) satellite, as well as the ionospheric absorption of cosmic radio noise measured by the Imaging Riometer for Ionospheric Studies (IRIS) at Kilpisjärvi in the northern Finland (69.05°N, 20.79°E). Significant increases in the electron density for these different observations were found in the Arctic ionosphere during the main phase of the magnetic storm. These increase occurred in Scandinavian, Northwest part of Russia and Svalbard (SNRS) region, primarily at an altitude of about 110 km. These results are first reported for the SNRS region, and our study contributes to a more complete description of this space weather event during 14-15 December, 2006. Our observations also provide direct evidence that the stormtime E-layer electron density enhancement (e.g., the sporadic E) can form a nearly dominant portion in the observed TEC increase. These increases were accompanied by the ionospheric absorption enhancement at the altitude of about 90 km. The Y-component of magnetic field to the south of SNRS decreased, indicating strong upward field aligned electric current in the Arctic ionosphere. These features are interpreted as the effect of the high energy electron precipitation during the magnetic storm, which is caused by the sub-storm reflected on AL index and the measurements of IMAGE (International Monitor for Auroral Geomagnetic Effects) chain. The average energy of the precipitation electrons reached to about 10 keV and the boundary of the high energy electron precipitation was also found to move poleward with a speed of about 800 m/s.

Wu, Ye-wen; Liu, Rui-yuan; Zhang, Bei-chen; Wu, Zhen-sen; Hu, Hong-qiao; Zhang, Shun-rong; Zhang, Qing-he; Liu, Jun-ming; Honary, F.

2013-12-01

136

Shallow submarine volcano group in the early stage of island arc development: Geology and petrology of small islands south off Hahajima main island, the Ogasawara Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Small Islands south off Hahajima, the southernmost of the Ogasawara Archipelago, consist of primitive basalts (<12 wt.% MgO) to dacite erupted during the transitional stage immediately following boninite volcanism on the incipient arc to sustained typical oceanic arc. Strombolian to Hawaiian fissure eruptions occurring on independent volcanic centers for the individual islands under a shallow sea produced magnesian basalt to dacite fall-out tephras, hyaloclastite and a small volume of pillow lava, which were intruded by NE-trending dikes. These volcanic strata are correlated to the upper part (<40 Ma) of the Hahajima main island. Volcanic rock samples have slightly lower FeO*/MgO ratios than the present volcanic front lavas, and are divided into three types with high, medium and low La/Yb ratios. Basalt to dacite of high- and medium-La/Yb types show both tholeiitic (TH) and calc-alkaline (CA) differentiation trends. Low-La/Yb type belongs only to TH basalt. The multiple magma types are coexistence on the each island. TH basalts have phenocrysts of olivine, clinopyroxene and plagioclase, while CA basalts are free from plagioclase phenocrysts.

Kanayama, Kyoko; Umino, Susumu; Ishizuka, Osamu

2014-05-01

137

Geology Fieldnotes: Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Visitors can access park geology information, photographs, related links, visitor information, multimedia resources, and resources for teaching geology with National Park examples. The park geology section discusses the Grand Canyon's geologic history, structural geology, and features a question-and-answer section about the canyon. The history of the canyon as a park and environmental issues surrounding it are also discussed. A geologic cross section of the canyon showing the various rock layers is included.

138

Distribution of Trichloroethylene and Geologic Controls on Contaminant Pathways near the Royal River, McKin Superfund Site Area, Gray, Maine  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Vapor-diffusion samplers were used in the autumn of 1997 to determine the lateral extent and distribution of concentrations of a trichloroethylene (TCE) plume in the ground-water discharge area near the McKin Superfund Site, Gray, Maine. Analyses of vapor in the samplers identified a plume about 800 feet wide entering the river near Boiling Springs, an area of ground-water discharge on the flood plain of the Royal River. The highest observed concentration of TCE in vapor was in an area of sand boils on the western bank of the river and about 200 feet downstream from Boiling Springs. Previous studies showed that most of the TCE load in the river originated in the area of the sand boils. In general, highest concentrations were observed on the western side of the river on the upgradient side of the plume, but TCE also was detected at numerous locations in the center and eastern bank of the river. The TCE plume discharges to the river where fine-grained glaciomarine sediments of the Presumpscot Formation are absent and where coarse-grained facies of buried glaciomarine fan deposits provide a pathway for ground-water flow. Based on results of analyses of vapor-diffusion samples and other previous studies, the plume appears to pass under and beyond the river near Boiling Springs and along the river for about 300 feet downstream from the sand boils. A coarse-grained, organic-rich layer at the base of the alluvial flood plain sediments is confined by overlying fine-grained alluvial sediments and may provide a conduit for ground-water leaking upward from buried glaciomarine fan deposits.

Lyford, Forest P.; Flight, L.E.; Stone, Janet Radway; Clifford, Scott

1999-01-01

139

Geologic Explorations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Geologic Explorations allows learners to explore a variety of unique geological formations of Utah using Quicktime Virtual Reality (QTVR) panoramas and digital still imagery. Spectacular panoramas and striking images capture Utah's unique geology and invite students to explore and learn interesting facts and concepts central to the study of geology.

Alec Bodzin

2002-04-01

140

Features | Poster  

Cancer.gov

Skip to main content About Us Services Science For Our Staff Phonebook Poster Search form Search Main menu Home Science Publications Platinum Highlight Platinum Publications Technology Transfer Awards Health and Safety Outreach Students Features Poster

141

YOUNG GEOLOGY GEOLOGY OF THE  

E-print Network

YOUNG GEOLOGY UNIVERSITY May, 1962 GEOLOGY OF THE SOUTHERN WASATCH MOUNTAINS AND VICIN~IM,UTAH C O ....................J. Keith Rigby 80 Economic Geology of North-Central Utah ...,............... Kcnneth C.Bdodc 85 Rod Log ........................Lehi F. Hintze, J. Ka# Ri&, & ClydeT. Hardy 95 Geologic Map of Southern

Seamons, Kent E.

142

Geology Fieldnotes: Great Basin National Park, Nevada  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Great Basin National Park site contains park geology information, park maps, visitor information, and teacher features (educational resources and links for teaching geology using National Park examples). The park geology section discusses the region's biogeography, glacial history, and the Lehman Caves. A park map and a features/relief map of the Great Basin National Park are included.

143

Geology by Lightplane  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains 360 color aerial photographs of geologically significant landscapes in the western United States, as well as in Minnesota, Wisconsin, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Michigan and Kentucky. The photos are meant to be useful teaching aides for introductory geology classes to establish the relationship between the overall landscape and ground-based geological features. The photos are reduced to a width of 640 pixels and are arranged geographically. Each picture is accompanied by a caption that provides geographic orientation, location, and the date it was taken. 2000-pixel-wide versions can be downloaded from a linked FTP site.

Louis Maher, Jr.

144

Interpreting the main HI and CO l-V features in the Galactic bar from self-consistent stellar and gas dynamical models  

E-print Network

A new picture accounting for the dominant features in the observed l-V distribution of the Milky Way gas within the central few kpcs is proposed, based on symmetry-free and high resolution 3D N-body and SPH simulations.

R. Fux

1997-11-03

145

Interpreting the main HI and CO lV features in the Galactic bar from self-consistent stellar and gas dynamical models  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new picture accounting for the dominant features in the observed l-V\\u000adistribution of the Milky Way gas within the central few kpcs is proposed,\\u000abased on symmetry-free and high resolution 3D N-body and SPH simulations.

R. Fux; Y. Sofue

1997-01-01

146

Geology Fieldnotes: Kobuk Valley National Park  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This feature discusses the geology, landforms, glacial history, soils, and mineral resources of Kobuk Valley National Park. Links are provided to maps, visitor information, a history of gold prospecting in the area, and to related geology and conservation organizations.

147

The Montana-Yellowstone Geologic Field Guide Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For any college student majoring in the geophysical sciences, getting out into the field can be a key academic experience. This novel initiative, created by Carleton College's Science Education Resource Center (SERC), is a pilot project designed to make the field guide literature more accessible and useful to geoscience educators, students, and researchers. This site features published field guides and road logs for Montana and Yellowstone National Park, both of which are popular locations for summer field courses conducted by geology departments from San Diego, California to Orono, Maine. Visitors can search the database by topic, geographic location, and geologic province. Additionally, they can use the Top 10 area to find a list of the top ten geology field trips in the area based on geological interest, scenery, and general access. The site is rounded out by a collection of student exercises based on specific field localities in Montana.

2012-03-16

148

Park Geology: Tour of National Parks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A great site from the National Park Service, Geologic Resources Division provides information on geologic features of our national parks. The site is aimed at a young audience (K-8), but is a pleasure to browse for anyone. Organizing the site by geologic features (e.g., Hot Springs, Oldest Rocks, and Volcanoes) allows readers to compare the geology of various national parks and explore maps, photos and other related links.

149

Structural Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by the University of Nebraska-Lincoln, this site describes the basics of structural geology with text and images. The page includes the discussion of stress, strain, strike and dip, faults, folds, mountain building, erosion, economic geology, and environmental geology. This is a nice introduction to the basic topics in geology. Images from the field help to enhance the topics on the site. Instructors can use this resource to help create or simply enhance their curriculum.

150

Geological Time  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Why do engineers need to know about geologic time?" That question is answered in this resource from the University of Saskatchewan's Department of Civil and Geological Engineering. Provided here is a discussion of the concepts of geological time; relative dating methods, such as correlation; and absolute dating methods, such as radiometric methods. Diagrams and charts are included to demonstrate these complex concepts.

151

Geological cycles  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last hundred years, intensive studies have been made on the geological indications of the so called “Ice Ages”;. Already Penck and Bruckner discovered, around the end of the nineteenth century, the cyclic character of these phenomena and distinguished at least four cycles in the Alps area. In fact these geological cycles are controlled by climatic conditions. The geological

B. P. Hageman

1972-01-01

152

Structural Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains a variety of resources for faculty members who teach undergraduate structural geology. You will find links to activities and assignments, internet and computer resources, useful articles and maps, presentations from the summer 2004 workshop on teaching structural geology, working groups and a discussion forum, and lots of creative ideas for teaching structural geology.

153

Humboldt River main stem, Nevada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This data set contains the main stem of the Humboldt River as defined by Humboldt Project personnel of the U.S. Geological Survey Nevada District, 2001. The data set was digitized on screen using digital orthophoto quadrangles from 1994.

Warmath, Eric; Medina, Rose L.

2001-01-01

154

Hometown Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are introduced to concepts in the course that give them the skills to understand geologic maps. These include structural geology, weathering processes, the geologic time scale, types of rocks and minerals, glacial geology, etc. They also look at several quadrangle maps as lab activities, including the Williamsville Quadrangle from Virginia and the Bright Angel Quadrangle from the Grand Canyon. This independent exercise allows students to further investigate their hometown or other areas of interest, and report on the geologic history. This further prepares them for more advanced courses and also gives them an appreciation of their surroundings, a key part of a geologist's training.

Stacey Cochiara

155

Geological considerations for lunar telescopes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The geological features of the Moon that may be advantageous for astronomical observations are listed and described. The Moon's geologic environment offers wondrous opportunities for astronomy and presents fascinating challenges for engineers designing telescope facilities on the lunar surface. The geologic nature of the stark lunar surface and the Moon's tenuous atmosphere are summarized. The Moon as a stable platform is described as is its atmosphere, surface temperatures, its magnetic field, its regolith, and its crater morphologies.

Taylor, G. Jeffrey

1988-01-01

156

Old Geology and New Geology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site]

Released 28 May 2003

Mangala Vallis one of the large outflow channels that channeled large quantities of water into the northern lowlands, long ago on geological timescales. This valley is one of the few in the southern hemisphere, as well as one of the few west of the Tharsis bulge. A closer look at the channel shows more recent weathering of the old water channel: the walls of the channel show small, dark slope streaks that form in dusty areas; and much of the surrounding terrain has subtle linear markings trending from the upper left to the lower right, which are probably features sculpted and streamlined by the wind. Geology still shapes the surface of Mars today, but its methods over the eons have changed.

Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -6, Longitude 209.6 East (150.4 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2003-01-01

157

North Dakota Geological Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the homepage of the North Dakota Geological Survey. Site materials include information on the state's oil, gas and coal resources, maps, publications, and regulations. The paleontology page features educational articles, information on fossil collecting, articles about fossil exhibits, and information on the state fossil collection. The state GIS hub creates and distributes digital spatial data that conforms to national mapping standards. The teaching tools page includes illustrations and descriptions of rocks and minerals found in the state, as well as information on meteorites and newsletter articles about teaching North Dakota geology. There are also links to landslide maps, surficial geology maps, and links to other survey publications such as reports, bulletins, field studies, other geological and topographic maps, and information on groundwater resources.

158

Desert Features  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sand covers only about 20 percent of the Earth's deserts. Nearly 50 percent of desert surfaces are gravel plains where removal of fine-grained material by the wind has exposed loose gravel and occasional cobbles. This web page, produced by the U.S. Geological Survey, features text and photographs that describe desert landforms, soils, plants, and the role of water in the formation of desert landscapes.

159

ECOSYSTEM MODELING IN COBSCOOK BAY, MAINE:A SUMMARY, PERSPECTIVE, AND LOOK FORWARD  

EPA Science Inventory

In the mid-1990s, an interdisciplinary, multi-institutional team of scientists was assembled to address basic issues concerning biological productivity and the unique co-occurrence of many unusual ecological features in Cobscook Bay, Maine. Cobscook Bay is a geologically complex,...

160

Geology of the Black Hills  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This presents a virtual geology field trip of the Black Hills. The topics that are covered include the general geology of the area, engineering and environmental issues, economic uses such as gold mining and bentonite recovery, and fossils. This site also features a clickable map that displays the location, information, and photographs of interesting stops in the Black Hills.

South Dakota State University

161

Geologic History of Western US  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web-site is a presentation showing graphically the Proterozoic and Phanerozoic geologic history of the Southwestern United States. There is a text file providing a brief narrative of the geologic history, which links to map graphics for each period. The graphics contain a scale and have labeled features to better understand what is happening as time progresses.

Ronald Blakey

162

The geology of Ganymede  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A broad outline of the geologic history of Ganymede is presented, obtained from a first attempt to map the geology on a global scale and to interpret the characteristics of the observed geologic units. Features of the ancient cratered terrain such as craters and palimpsests, furrows and troughs, are discussed. The grooved terrain is described, including its sulci and cells, and the age relation of these units is considered along with the structure and origin of this terrain. The Gilgamesh Basin and Western Equatorial Basin in the post grooved terrain are treated, as are the bright and dark ray craters and the regolith. The development of all these regions and features is discussed in context. For the regolith, this includes the effect of water migration, sputtering, and thermal annealing. The histories of the ancient cratered terrain, the grooved terrain, and the post grooved terrain are presented.

Shoemaker, E. M.; Lucchitta, B. K.; Wilhelms, D. E.; Plescia, J. B.; Squyres, S. W.

163

The geology of Ganymede  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A broad outline of the geologic history of Ganymede is presented, obtained from a first attempt to map the geology on a global scale and to interpret the characteristics of the observed geologic units. Features of the ancient cratered terrain such as craters and palimpsests, furrows and troughs, are discussed. The grooved terrain is described, including its sulci and cells, and the age relation of these units is considered along with the structure and origin of this terrain. The Gilgamesh Basin and Western Equatorial Basin in the post grooved terrain are treated, as are the bright and dark ray craters and the regolith. The development of all these regions and features is discussed in context. For the regolith, this includes the effect of water migration, sputtering, and thermal annealing. The histories of the ancient cratered terrain, the grooved terrain, and the post grooved terrain are presented.

Shoemaker, E. M.; Lucchitta, B. K.; Wilhelms, D. E.; Plescia, J. B.; Squyres, S. W.

1982-01-01

164

Geology By Lightplane  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In 1966, Professor Louis J. Maher of the University of Wisconsin-Madison's Department of Geology and Geophysics piloted a department-owned Cessna over the continental US taking photos for use in his geology courses. As Maher flew, his trusty co-pilot and graduate assistant, Charles Mansfield, snapped the photos. The resulting collection is an assortment of breathtaking images of classic geological features, now available online for noncommercial use by educators (download via FTP). Maher gives us birds-eye views of structural features in Wyoming's Wind River Range, sedimentary strata in Arches National Park and the Grand Canyon, glacial landscapes in Northern Minnesota, and ancient lava flows in Arizona, to name just a few.

Maher, Louis J.

165

Java Structural Geology Software  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website features Java programs that illustrate basic structural geology concepts. This suite of animations includes topics such as shear, stress versus strain, three dimensional strain, flow lines, rotating clasts and others. The animations are downloadable for Mac, PC and Linux.

Skylar L. Primm

166

Soviet geology, 1976  

Microsoft Academic Search

The geological history of the Jurassic period shows that the most abrupt change in physiogeographical, and particularly in climatic, conditions occured not at its lower or upper limit but at the boundary between the middle and late epochs. This is shown especially clearly by a study of the lacustral and continental sediments which form such a significant feature of the

V. A. Vakhrameyev

1976-01-01

167

Adventitial Alterations Are the Main Features in Pulmonary Artery Remodeling due to Long-Term Chronic Intermittent Hypobaric Hypoxia in Rats  

PubMed Central

Long-term chronic intermittent exposure to altitude hypoxia is a labor phenomenon requiring further research. Using a rat model, we examined whether this type of exposure differed from chronic exposure in terms of pulmonary artery remodeling and other features. Rats were subjected to chronic hypoxia (CH, n = 9) and long-term intermittent hypoxia (CIH2x2; 2 days of hypoxia/2 days of normoxia, n = 10) in a chamber (428 Torr, 4,600?m of altitude) for 46 days and compared to rats under normoxia (NX, n = 10). Body weight, hematocrit, and right ventricle ratio were measured. Pulmonary artery remodeling was assessed using confocal microscopy of tissues stained with a nuclear dye (DAPI) and CD11b antibody. Both hypoxic conditions exhibited increased hematocrit and hypertrophy of the right ventricle, tunica adventitia, and tunica media, with no changes in lumen size. The medial hypertrophy area (larger in CH) depicted a significant increase in smooth muscle cell number. Additionally, CIH2x2 increased the adventitial hypertrophy area, with an increased cellularity and a larger prevalence of clustered inflammatory cells. In conclusion, CIH2x2 elicits milder effects on pulmonary artery medial layer muscularization and subsequent right ventricular hypertrophy than CH. However, CIH2x2 induces greater and characteristic alterations of the adventitial layer. PMID:25738150

Brito, Julio; Siques, Patricia; Arribas, Silvia M.; López de Pablo, Angel L.; González, M. Carmen; Naveas, Nelson; Flores, Karen; León-Velarde, Fabiola; Pulido, Ruth; Ordenes, Stefany; López, M. Rosario

2015-01-01

168

USGS Geologic Hazards  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Geologic Hazards section of the US Geological Survey (USGS) conducts research into the causes of geological phenomena such as landslides and earthquakes. The homepage connects visitors to the Geologic Hazards team's three main areas of endeavor. Geomagnetism provides links to the National Geomagnetic Information Center; Magnetic Observatories, Models, and Charts; and the Geomagnetic Information Node, which receives geomagnetic observatory data from around the world. The Landslide group studies the "causes and mechanisms of ground failure" to prevent "long-term losses and casualties." Their section provides links to the program and information center, publications, events, and current projects. The Earthquakes department hosts a wealth of information, including neotectonics, engineering seismology, and paleoseismology. Interactive maps are also provided.

169

Utah Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Utah Geological Survey's Web site, Utah Geology, offers a variety of interesting geological information about the state. Good descriptions, illustrations, and photographs can be accessed on earthquakes and hazards, dinosaurs and fossils, rocks and minerals, oil and energy, and more. For example, the Rocks and Minerals page contains everything from how to stake a mining claim to downloadable summaries of mineral activity in the state. There is quite a bit of information within the site, and anyone interested in geology will find themselves exploring these pages for quite a while.

170

Tour of Park Geology: Fossils  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Park Service Geology site provides links to tours of individual National Parks, Monuments, and Recreation Areas that contain fossils. Where appropriate, for each park, links are provided to park geology, maps, photographs, geologic research, related links, visitor information, multimedia resources, and teacher features (resources for teaching geology with National Park examples). The list includes places such as the Grand Canyon, Dinosaur National Monument, Yellowstone, and Death Valley, along with less well-known areas such as the John Day Fossil Beds National Monument in Oregon.

171

GEOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS  

E-print Network

CAPSULE DESCRIPTION: Ilmenite, hemo-ilmenite or titaniferous magnetite accumulations as cross-cutting lenses or dike-like bodies, Ia> ers or disseminations within anorthositiclgabbroicinoritic rocks. These deposits can be subdivided into an ilmenite subtype (anorthosite-hosted titanium-iron) and a titaniferous magnetite subtype (gabbro-anorthosite-hosted iron-titanium). TECTONIC SETTING: Commonly associated with anorthosite-gabbro-norite-monzonite (mangerite)charnockite granite (AMCG) suites that are conventionally interpreted to be anorogenic and/or extensional. Some of the iron-titanium deposits occur at continental margins related to island arc magmatism followed by an episode of erogenic compression. DEPOSITIONAL ENVIRONMENT i GEOLOGICAL SETTING: Deposits occur in intrusive complexes which typically are emplaced at deeper levels in the crust. Progressive differentiation of liquids residual from anorthosite-norite magmas leads to late stage intrusions enriched in Fe and Ti oxides and apatite. AGE OF MINERALIZATION: Mainly Mesoproterozoic (1.65 to 0.90 Ga) for the ihnenite deposits, but this may be a consequence of a particular combination of tectonic circumstances, rather than any a priori temporal control. The Fe-Ti deposits with titaniferous magnetite do not appear to be restricted in time. HOST/ASSOCIATED ROCKS: Hosted by massive, layered or zoned intrusive complexes- anorthosite, norite,

G. A. Gross; C. F. Gower; D. V. Lefebure; Commodities (byproducts) Ti

172

"Spacecraft Reveals Recent Geological Activity on the Moon": Exploring the Features of NASA Twitter Posts and Their Potential to Engage Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Through a content analysis of 200 "tweets," this study was an exploration into the distinct features of text posted to NASA's "Twitter" site and the potential for these posts to serve as more engaging scientific text than traditional textbooks for adolescents. Results of the content analysis indicated the tweets and linked…

Lesley, Mellinee

2014-01-01

173

California Geological Survey: Geologic Maps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This index provides access to a selection of geologic maps of California, as well as an overview of geologic and other mapping activities in the state. The index, which can be accessed by clicking on an interactive map of the state, contains lists of selected geologic maps in California prepared by the Regional Geologic Mapping Project (RGMP). The RGMP staff monitors the literature and collects references that contain geologic mapping that may be useful for future compilations. In addition, the site has information about Caltrans Highway Corridor Mapping, The Mineral Resources and Mineral Hazards Mapping Program, North Coast Watersheds Assessment Program, The Timber Harvesting Plan Enforcement Program, and The Seismic Hazards Mapping Program. A set of links is provided to other sources of geologic maps and map information.

174

North Cascades Geology: Geologic Time  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes the period of geologic time spanned by the rocks of the North Cascades area of Washington. Users can access a simplified geologic time scale that provides links to geologic events in the North Cascades region. These include the deposition of various terranes, periods of intrusion and metamorphism, the beginning of the Cascade volcanic arc, and periods of major glaciation. Links to related materials are also provided.

175

Physical geology  

SciTech Connect

The book integrates current thinking on processes (plate techtonics, chemical cycles, changes throughout geologic time). It is an introduction to investigations into the way the earth works, how mountains are formed, how the atmosphere, hydrosphere, crust and mantle interact with each other. Treatments on climate, paleoclimatology and landscape evolution are included, as is a discussion on how human activity affects geological interactions.

Skinner, B.; Porter, S.

1987-01-01

176

Yosemite Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Park Service maintains the Yosemite National Park Web site and the corresponding Geology page. This Web site gives an overview of the geologic history of the site, tells how the Sierra Nevada range formed, explains the basics of granitic rock, shows how glaciers carved out the canyons, and much more.[JAB

177

Engineering Geology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Engineering geology remains a potpourri of applied classical geology, and 1977 witnessed an upswing in demand for these services. Traditional foundation-related work was slight, but construction related to national needs increased briskly. Major cities turned to concerns of transit waste-water treatment and solid-waste disposal. (Author/MA)

Hatheway, Allen W.

1978-01-01

178

Geology Major www.geology.pitt.edu/undergraduate/geology.html  

E-print Network

Geology Major www.geology.pitt.edu/undergraduate/geology.html Revised: 03/2013 Geology is a scientific discipline that aims to understand every aspect of modern and ancient Earth. A degree in geology the field of geology, environmental and geotechnical jobs exist for people with BS degrees. A master

Jiang, Huiqiang

179

Exploring Geology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I am willing to bet a nice bottle of chardonnay that much of the Eos readership has lugged around, fondled, and fumbled through an introductory physical geology textbook of some form or another, once upon a time. Mine, in 1970, was Physical Geology, by Longwell, Flint, and Sanders, which I still have, by the way. Most of us know how ``classical'' physical geology textbooks have been organized: first, a broad overview of Earth processes, then several sections devoted to groups of more specific subjects (e.g., mineralogy, sedimentary rocks, and environments, with one chapter per subject), then several sections devoted to a synthesis of geologic processes in the context of plate tectonics, and finally, typically, a discussion of Earth resources and environment- related issues. Some relatively new textbooks have ventured into new pedagogical formats, for example, emphasizing how we know what we know (e.g., How Does Earth Work: Physical Geology and the Process of Science by Smith and Pun).

Geissman, John W.

2008-09-01

180

Mapping distribution and thickness of supraglacial debris in the Central Karakoram National Park: main features and implications to model glacier meltwater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Supraglacial debris plays a not negligible role in controlling magnitude and rates of buried ice melt (Østrem, 1959; Mattson et al., 1993). Knowledge on rock debris is essential to model ice melt (and consequently meltwater discharge) upon wide glacierized areas, as melt rates are mainly driven by debris thickness variability. This is particularly important for the Pamir-Himalaya-Karakoram area (PHK), where debris-covered glaciers are frequent (Smiraglia et al., 2007; Scherler et al., 2011) and where melt water from glaciers supports agriculture and hydropower production. By means of remote sensing techniques and field data, supraglacial debris can be detected, and then quantified in area and thickness. Supervised classifications of satellite imagery can be used to map debris on glaciers. They use different algorithms to cluster an image based on its pixel values, and Region Of Interests (ROIs) previously selected by the human operator. This can be used to obtain a supraglacial debris mask by which surface extension can be calculated. Moreover, kinetic surface temperature data derived from satellites (such as ASTER and Landsat), can be used to quantify debris thicknesses (Mihalcea et al., 2008). Ground Control Points (GCPs) are essential to validate the obtained debris thicknesses. We took the Central Karakoram National Park (CKNP) as a representative sample for PHK area. The CKNP is 12,000 km2 wide, with more than 700 glaciers, mostly debris covered (Minora et al., 2013). Among those we find some of the widest glaciers of the World (e.g: Baltoro). To improve the knowledge on these glaciers and to better model their melt and water discharge we proceeded as follows. Firstly we ran a Supervised Maximum Likelihood (SML) classification on 2001 and 2010 Landsat images to detect debris presence and distribution. Secondly we analyzed kinetic surface temperature (from Landsat) to map debris depth. This latter attempt took also advantage from field data of debris thickness and surface rock temperatures acquired in the study area since the ablation season 2004 (see Mihalcea et al., 2006; 2008b). A mean debris thickness of ca. 5.6 cm was found, probably greater than the local "critical value" (sensu Mattson et al., 1993). Moreover, our field data indicate a local critical value of about 5 cm, above which supraglacial debris thickness would lower ice melt rates compared to that of bare ice (Mihalcea et al., 2006). These findings suggest that in the CKNP area the abundant and extensive debris coverage may result in an actual reduction of buried ice melt. Moreover, Minora et al. (2013) reported quite stable conditions of glaciers in the CKNP area in the time window 2001-2011. This glacier behavior is consistent with the largely known "Karakoram Anomaly" (Hewitt, 2005) and requires further investigations. Among other possible important factors driving such a unique glacier trend, debris depth and distribution have to be considered. This work was carried out under the umbrella of the PAPRIKA project funded and managed by EvK2CNR Committee. The authors are also grateful to the SEED project (funded by the Pakistani and Italian Governments and managed by EvK2CNR).

Minora, Umberto; Mayer, Christoph; Bocchiola, Daniele; D'Agata, Carlo; Maragno, Davide; Lambrecht, Astrid; Vuillermoz, Elisa; smiraglia, claudio; diolaiuti, guglielmina

2014-05-01

181

Geology in North Dakota  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Department of Geosciences at North Dakota State University educates visitors about the geologic features and landforms of North Dakota through clear text and astonishing images at this website. In the Glacial Features of North Dakota link, visitors can learn about end moraines, eskers, kettle lakes, and kames. Educators can find amazing photographs of mass wasting including creep, slope failure, and slumps. Users can also find materials on stream features and satellite imagery of North Dakota. While the website concentrates on North Dakota, the materials can be a great addition to any earth science or geomorphology class.

182

Geology Fieldnotes: Glen Canyon National Recreation Area, Utah and Arizona  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Glen Canyon National Recreation Area site contains park geology information, photographs, related links, visitor information, multimedia resources, and teacher features (resources for teaching geology with National Park examples). The park geology section briefly discusses the Park's geologic history, structural geology, Navajo sandstone, and fossil beds. The park maps section contains a link to a features/relief map of Glen Canyon and the surrounding area, from the University of Texas at Austin Perry-Castaneda Library Map Collection.

183

Physical Geology: Idaho Field Trip  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This optional field trip is designed to augment the in-class learning experience in introductory physical geology by providing students the opportunity to see firsthand local geological features and understand their context in the long-term tectonic evolution of the western United States. The university is conveniently located in a portion of the American west where a plethora of geological features are readily accessible over a total field trip duration of 6 hours. Over a total of 6 field stops, students are presented with an opportunity to observe features relevant to topics learned in class involving rock types, volcanic features (lava flows and ash fall deposits), faults and folds, mass wasting features, catastrophic flood deposits (Bonneville and Missoula floods), and loess deposits.

Simon Kattenhorn

184

MAINE OTRANS  

EPA Science Inventory

OTRANS represents other transportation features - electric, pipeline, railroad, and telephone lines at 1:24,000 scale. Some New Hampshire and New Brunswick features are also included. Data for this coverage were digitized from USGS 1:24000 scale quadrangle maps by various contra...

185

Geologic provinces of Oklahoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

The geologic provinces of Oklahoma are mainly the product of tectonics and attendant sedimentation of Pennsylvanian age. Most boundaries are structural; thus, the provinces map is a generalized tectonic map. Permian and post-Paleozoic strata tend to mask those structures, but most of those strata have been removed by erosion, except in the Anadarko Basin and the Wichita Uplift provinces. The

R. A. Northcutt; J. A. Campbell

1995-01-01

186

Tour of Park Geology: Oldest Rocks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This park geology site provides links to tours of individual National Parks, Monuments, and Recreation Areas with the oldest known rocks. The parks are divided at this site into East and West. Where appropriate, for each park, links are provided to park geology, maps, photographs, geologic research, visitor information, multimedia resources, and teacher features (resources for teaching geology using National Park examples). Parks listed include: Voyaguers National Park, Keweenaw National Historic Park, Lake Meade National Recreation Area, and many more.

187

No geology without marine geology  

Microsoft Academic Search

A brief review is offered of the many problems where knowledge of the ocean floors and of marine processes in shallow water is indispensable for the further advancement of geology. The subject of turbidity currents is treated in greater detail, to demonstrate the interrelation of several aspects of marine geology with sedimentologic and paleogeographic investigations. It is obvious that the

P. H Kuenen

2002-01-01

188

Geologic Time  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Earth is very old -- 4.5 billion years or more -- according to recent estimates. This vast span of time, called geologic time by earth scientists, is difficult to comprehend in the familiar time units of months and years, or even centuries. How then do scientists reckon geologic time, and why do they believe the Earth is so old? A great part of the secret of the Earth's age is locked up in its rocks, and our centuries-old search for the key led to the beginning and nourished the growth of geologic science.

William L. Newman

1997-01-01

189

Geologic Timeline  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dive into the depths of time with this Geologic Timeline. The farther you scroll down, the farther back in time you'll travel. Also, the longer a period is on this page, the longer it lasted in history!

2000-01-01

190

Geologic features of the sea bottom around a municipal sludge dumpsite near 39 degrees N., 73 degrees W., offshore New Jersey and New York  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The sea-floor of a dumpsite area offshore New York and New Jersey (Deep-water dumpsite 106) was studied using detailed bathymetry, sidescan-sonar images, subbottom profiles, bottom photographs, and bottom-sediment samples. These data show that this continental rise area contains deposits of submarine landslides and pathways of sediment gravity flows. Images of the sea floor obtained with a deep-towed high-resolution sidescan sonar system show offshore-trending furrowed surfaces over parts of the area. If such furrows are old, one might expect them to have been obliterated by sediment resuspension and redeposition due to the mostly gentle contour-parallel bottom currents that are measured in the present day. While most of the sea-floor features were probably formed during Pleistocene or early Holocene (glacial or early post-glacial) times, our information suggests that vigorous present-day episodes of offshore-directed transport may continue to occur, at unknown intervals.

Robb, James M.

1994-01-01

191

Main Features of the Caspian Sea Hydrology  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The Caspian Sea constantly attracts considerable attention thanks to its natural uniqueness, resource abundance, great historical\\u000a value and vital importance to human societies of the vast Caspian region. In these circumstances, improving theoretical and\\u000a applied knowledge of the sea is indispensable for addressing many complex issues. Specifically, there has been increasing\\u000a environmental concern over expanding extraction of hydrocarbons off and

Aleksey N. Kosarev; Valentin S. Tuzhilkin; Andrey G. Kostianoy

192

Geology Fieldnotes: Death Valley National Park, California/Nevada  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Death Valley National Park site contains park geology information, park maps, photographs, visitor information, and teacher features (resources for teaching geology using National Park examples). The Park Geology section contains an exaggerated cross-section showing the vertical rise within Death Valley. A link is provided to Death Valley's expanded geology page.

193

Geology Fieldnotes: Lake Mead National Recreation Area, Nevada/Arizona  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Lake Mead National Recreation Area site contains park geology information, maps, photographs, visitor information, and teacher features (resources for teaching geology using national park examples). Park Geology is a guided tutorial, covering two billion years of geologic time from the Precambrian through the Cenozoic.

194

Coastal Geological Processes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Coastlines are places of continuous, often dramatic geological activity. They change daily and seasonally, but especially over long time periods. This interactive feature discusses the forces that help shape coastal landforms like cliffs and beaches. Topics include waves, tides, and currents; weathering, erosion, and deposition; and other factors, such as the activity of organisms and human modifications. A background essay and discussion questions are included.

195

Greater Yellowstone Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site features a collection of papers and maps about the Yellowstone hotspot by Dr. Ken Pierce of the Northern Rocky Mountain Science Center, an expert in the field. Papers on this site address topics such as Yellowstone glaciation, tracking the hotspot, the Yellowstone plume head, and a seven-day field trip guide to the quaternary geology and ecology of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Each downloadable paper map is listed with a brief description and a full citation.

Mountain Prairie Institute

196

ReliefSeq: A Gene-Wise Adaptive-K Nearest-Neighbor Feature Selection Tool for Finding Gene-Gene Interactions and Main Effects in mRNA-Seq Gene Expression Data  

PubMed Central

Relief-F is a nonparametric, nearest-neighbor machine learning method that has been successfully used to identify relevant variables that may interact in complex multivariate models to explain phenotypic variation. While several tools have been developed for assessing differential expression in sequence-based transcriptomics, the detection of statistical interactions between transcripts has received less attention in the area of RNA-seq analysis. We describe a new extension and assessment of Relief-F for feature selection in RNA-seq data. The ReliefSeq implementation adapts the number of nearest neighbors (k) for each gene to optimize the Relief-F test statistics (importance scores) for finding both main effects and interactions. We compare this gene-wise adaptive-k (gwak) Relief-F method with standard RNA-seq feature selection tools, such as DESeq and edgeR, and with the popular machine learning method Random Forests. We demonstrate performance on a panel of simulated data that have a range of distributional properties reflected in real mRNA-seq data including multiple transcripts with varying sizes of main effects and interaction effects. For simulated main effects, gwak-Relief-F feature selection performs comparably to standard tools DESeq and edgeR for ranking relevant transcripts. For gene-gene interactions, gwak-Relief-F outperforms all comparison methods at ranking relevant genes in all but the highest fold change/highest signal situations where it performs similarly. The gwak-Relief-F algorithm outperforms Random Forests for detecting relevant genes in all simulation experiments. In addition, Relief-F is comparable to the other methods based on computational time. We also apply ReliefSeq to an RNA-Seq study of smallpox vaccine to identify gene expression changes between vaccinia virus-stimulated and unstimulated samples. ReliefSeq is an attractive tool for inclusion in the suite of tools used for analysis of mRNA-Seq data; it has power to detect both main effects and interaction effects. Software Availability: http://insilico.utulsa.edu/ReliefSeq.php. PMID:24339943

McKinney, Brett A.; White, Bill C.; Grill, Diane E.; Li, Peter W.; Kennedy, Richard B.; Poland, Gregory A.; Oberg, Ann L.

2013-01-01

197

ReliefSeq: a gene-wise adaptive-K nearest-neighbor feature selection tool for finding gene-gene interactions and main effects in mRNA-Seq gene expression data.  

PubMed

Relief-F is a nonparametric, nearest-neighbor machine learning method that has been successfully used to identify relevant variables that may interact in complex multivariate models to explain phenotypic variation. While several tools have been developed for assessing differential expression in sequence-based transcriptomics, the detection of statistical interactions between transcripts has received less attention in the area of RNA-seq analysis. We describe a new extension and assessment of Relief-F for feature selection in RNA-seq data. The ReliefSeq implementation adapts the number of nearest neighbors (k) for each gene to optimize the Relief-F test statistics (importance scores) for finding both main effects and interactions. We compare this gene-wise adaptive-k (gwak) Relief-F method with standard RNA-seq feature selection tools, such as DESeq and edgeR, and with the popular machine learning method Random Forests. We demonstrate performance on a panel of simulated data that have a range of distributional properties reflected in real mRNA-seq data including multiple transcripts with varying sizes of main effects and interaction effects. For simulated main effects, gwak-Relief-F feature selection performs comparably to standard tools DESeq and edgeR for ranking relevant transcripts. For gene-gene interactions, gwak-Relief-F outperforms all comparison methods at ranking relevant genes in all but the highest fold change/highest signal situations where it performs similarly. The gwak-Relief-F algorithm outperforms Random Forests for detecting relevant genes in all simulation experiments. In addition, Relief-F is comparable to the other methods based on computational time. We also apply ReliefSeq to an RNA-Seq study of smallpox vaccine to identify gene expression changes between vaccinia virus-stimulated and unstimulated samples. ReliefSeq is an attractive tool for inclusion in the suite of tools used for analysis of mRNA-Seq data; it has power to detect both main effects and interaction effects. Software Availability: http://insilico.utulsa.edu/ReliefSeq.php. PMID:24339943

McKinney, Brett A; White, Bill C; Grill, Diane E; Li, Peter W; Kennedy, Richard B; Poland, Gregory A; Oberg, Ann L

2013-01-01

198

Geological assessing of urban environments with a systematic mapping survey: The 1:5000 urban geological map of Catalonia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ground features of urban areas and the geologic processes that operate on them are, in general, strongly altered from their natural original condition as a result of anthropogenic activities. Assessing the stability of the ground, the flooding areas, and, the health risk as a consequence of soil pollution, are, among others, fundamental topics of urban areas that require a better understanding. The development of systematic urban geological mapping projects provides valuable resources to address these issues. Since 2007, the Institut Geologic de Catalunya (IGC) runs an urban geological mapping project, to provide accurate geologic information of county capitals and towns of more than 10000 inhabitants of Catalonia. The urban zones of 131 towns will be surveyed for this project, totalizing an area of about 2200 km2 to be mapped in 15 years. According to the 2008 census, the 82 % of the population of Catalonia (7.242.458 inhabitants) lives in the areas to be mapped in this project. The mapping project integrates in a GIS environment the following subjects: - Data from pre-existing geotechnical reports, historical geological and topographical maps and, from historical aerial photographs. - Data from available borehole databases. - Geological characterization of outcrops inside the urban network and neighbouring areas. - Geological, chemical and physical characterisation of representative rocks, sediments and soils. - Ortophotographs (0.5 m pixel size) and digital elevation models (5 meter grid size) made from historical aerial photographs, to depict land use changes, artificial deposits and geomorphological elements that are either hidden or destroyed by urban sprawl. - Detailed geological mapping of quaternary sediments, subsurface bedrock and artificial deposits. - Data from subsurface prospection in areas with insufficient or confuse data. - 3D modelling of the main geological surfaces such as the top of the pre-quaternary basement. All the gathered data is harmonised and stored it in a database. The analysis of the database allows to compile and print the 1:5000 scale urban geological map according to the 1:5000 topographic grid of Catalonia. The map is composed by a principal map, geologic cross sections and several complementary maps, charts and tables. Regardless of the geological map units, the principal map also includes the main artificial deposits (such as infilled river valleys and road embankments), very recent or current superficial deposits, contours of outcropping areas, structural data and other relevant information gathered in stations, sampling points, boreholes indicating the thickness of artificial deposits and the depth of the pre-quaternary basement, contour lines of the top of the pre-quaternary basement surface and, water level data. The complementary maps and charts may change depending on the gathered data, the geological features of the area and the urban typology. However, the most representative complementary maps that includes the printed urban map are the quaternary subsurface bedrock map and the isopach map of thickness of quaternary and anthropogenic deposits. The map also includes charts and tables of relevant physical and chemical parameters of the geological materials, harmonised downhole lithological columns from selected boreholes, and, photographs and figures illustrating the geology of the mapped area and how urbanisation has changed the natural environment. The object of this systematic urban mapping survey is to provide a robust database to be used in targeted studies related to urban planning, geoengineering works, soil pollution and other important environmental issues that society should deal in the future.

Vilà, Miquel; Pi, Roser; Cirés, Jordi; de Paz, Ana; Berástegui, Xavier

2010-05-01

199

Pennsylvania Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Three decades after it was published, the Second Geological Survey of Pennsylvania was described as "the most remarkable series of reports ever issued by any survey." Considering the diversity of other geological reports, this was no small compliment. Drawing on support from the Marion and Kenneth Pollock Libraries Program Fund, the Pennsylvania State University Libraries' Digital Preservation Unit was able to digitize not only this fabled Survey, but also the Third and Fourth Surveys as well. Visitors can use the search engine on the homepage to look for items of interest, or they can just browse through the collection at their leisure. The surveys include various maps and illustrations that track mineral deposits and the disposition and location of other natural resources. Additionally, users can look through a miscellaneous set of publications from the early 20th century related to survey work performed by the U.S. Geological Survey.

200

Teaching Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This rather remarkable website contains a great collection of resources for web-based instruction and demonstrations of geology concepts. The collection includes, under Classroom demonstration, the very useful SeisMac 3.0, which is an application for Mac OS X that turns a laptop computer into a " low-resolution strong-motion accelerometer," or a basic seismograph. It works by accessing the computer's Sudden Motion Sensor in order to display real-time, three axis accelerations graphs. Visitors can use the application to watch the seismic waves go up and down just by tapping their feet on the floor nearby. Other resources include Virtual Earth (an "interactive minicourse on thermal convection") and a link to Geology in the news, which collates important news stories with a geological theme.

201

Geological flows  

E-print Network

In this paper geology and planetology are considered using new conceptual basis of high-speed flow dynamics. Recent photo technics allow to see all details of a flow, 'cause the flow is static during very short time interval. On the other hand, maps and images of many planets are accessible. Identity of geological flows and high-speed gas dynamics is demonstrated. There is another time scale, and no more. All results, as far as the concept, are new and belong to the author. No formulae, pictures only.

Yu. N. Bratkov

2008-11-19

202

MAINE HYDROGRAPHY  

EPA Science Inventory

Hydronet_me24 and Hydropoly_me24 depict Maine's hydrography data, based on 8-digit hydrological unit codes (HUC's) at the 1:24,000 scale. Some New Hampshire and New Brunswick hydrography data are also included. The NHD hydrography data was compiled from previous ArcIn...

203

Main Winners.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the main winners of a competition which judged the most outstanding learning environments at educational institutions nationwide. Jurors spent 2 days reviewing projects, focusing on concepts and ideas that made them exceptional. The top K-12 honor went to Century High School, Sykesville, Maryland. The higher education honor went to Wright…

American School & University, 2003

2003-01-01

204

Upper Cenozoic Geologic Map, Yellowstone Plateau Volcanic Field  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This geologic map shows Tertiary and Quaternary rock formations, volcanic and surficial deposits, faults, contacts, and other geologic features in Yellowstone National Park. The map is freely downloadable as a PDF file.

Christiansen Robert

205

Geologic Time  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains 24 questions on the topic of geologic time, which covers dating techniques and unconformities. This is part of the Principles of Earth Science course at the University of South Dakota. Users submit their answers and are provided immediate feedback.

Timothy Heaton

206

Antarctica Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains information about the continent of Antarctica. There is a classroom practice and instructional module. The students will be able to describe the general geology of the land under the Antarctic ice and to explain from where the rocks may have come.

207

Geology of Crater Lake  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Geology of Crater Lake is a resource for an introductory course on the geology of Mount Mazama and the Crater Lake caldera. The actual course consists of two evening presentations and a one-day field trip. The presentations outline the mountain's geologic setting, eruptive history, and potential hazards. The field trip affords an opportunity to examine volcanic and glacial features around the caldera rim and to explore one of the most spectacular lakes in the world. Upon successful completion of this course a student will be capable of the following: to describe the geologic setting of Mount Mazama and the other Cascade volcanoes; to identify andesite, dacite, and basalt and explain how the compositions of the lavas that form these rocks influence their eruptive characters; and to outline the major types of hazards that future eruptions of Mount Mazama may pose to regional communities. Along with a course syllabus, a bibliography and related links are available. Those registered for the course can visit the Gradebook to view their marks.

William Hirt

208

Northeastern Regional geologic characterization report. Volume 1. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents available geologic information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont. For each of the states within the Northeastern Region, information is provided on the geologic disqualifying factor and the geologic regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening. The geologic factor and variables include deep mines and quarries, rock mass extent, postemplacement faulting, suspected Quaternary faulting, seismicity, rock and mineral resources, major ground-water discharge zones, ground-water resources, state of stress, thickness of rock mass, and thickness of overburden. Information is presented on age, areal extent, shape, composition, texture, degree and type of alteration, thickness, and structural features associated with each rock body or complex. Regional seismic and tectonic information is presented, including patterns of earthquake occurrence, earthquake magnitudes, horizontal ground accelerations, and vertical crusal movements. Also included are discussions of the rock and mineral deposits or mines located within or near crystalline bodies; ground-water resources and regional hydrology; postulated changes in climate and the associated effects; and landforms, surface processes, and surficial materials on or near the rock bodies. A discussion is also presented on the relationship between the US Department of Energy (DOE) Siting Guidelines (10 CFR 960) and the geologic disqualifying factor and regional screening variables to be used in the region-to-area screening process.

Not Available

1985-08-01

209

Geologic Framework Model (GFM2000)  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to document the geologic framework model, version GFM2000 with regard to input data, modeling methods, assumptions, uncertainties, limitations, and validation of the model results, and the differences between GFM2000 and previous versions. The version number of this model reflects the year during which the model was constructed. This model supersedes the previous model version, documented in Geologic Framework Model (GFM 3.1) (CRWMS M&O 2000 [DIRS 138860]). The geologic framework model represents a three-dimensional interpretation of the geology surrounding the location of the monitored geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain. The geologic framework model encompasses and is limited to an area of 65 square miles (168 square kilometers) and a volume of 185 cubic miles (771 cubic kilometers). The boundaries of the geologic framework model (shown in Figure 1-1) were chosen to encompass the exploratory boreholes and to provide a geologic framework over the area of interest for hydrologic flow and radionuclide transport modeling through the unsaturated zone (UZ). The upper surface of the model is made up of the surface topography and the depth of the model is constrained by the inferred depth of the Tertiary-Paleozoic unconformity. The geologic framework model was constructed from geologic map and borehole data. Additional information from measured stratigraphic sections, gravity profiles, and seismic profiles was also considered. The intended use of the geologic framework model is to provide a geologic framework over the area of interest consistent with the level of detailed needed for hydrologic flow and radionuclide transport modeling through the UZ and for repository design. The model is limited by the availability of data and relative amount of geologic complexity found in an area. The geologic framework model is inherently limited by scale and content. The grid spacing used in the geologic framework model (200 feet [61 meters]), discussed in Section 6.4.2, limits the size of features that can be resolved by the model but is appropriate for the distribution of data available and its intended use. Uncertainty and limitations are discussed in Section 6.6 and model validation is discussed in Section 7.

T. Vogt

2004-08-26

210

Geologic Resource Evaluation of Pu'ukohola Heiau National Historic Site, Hawai'i: Part I, Geology and Coastal Landforms  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Geologic resource inventories of lands managed by the National Park Service (NPS) are important products for the parks and are designed to provide scientific information to better manage park resources. Park-specific geologic reports are used to identify geologic features and processes that are relevant to park ecosystems, evaluate the impact of human activities on geologic features and processes, identify geologic research and monitoring needs, and enhance opportunities for education and interpretation. These geologic reports are planned to provide a brief geologic history of the park and address specific geologic issues forming a link between the park geology and the resource manager. The Kona coast National Parks of the Island of Hawai'i are intended to preserve the natural beauty of the Kona coast and protect significant ancient structures and artifacts of the native Hawaiians. Pu'ukohola Heiau National Historic Site (PUHE), Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park (KAHO), and Pu'uhonua O Honaunau National Historical Park (PUHO) are three Kona parks studied by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology Team in cooperation with the National Park Service. This report is one of six related reports designed to provide geologic and benthic-habitat information for the three Kona parks. Each geology and coastal-landform report describes the regional geologic setting of the Hawaiian Islands, gives a general description of the geology of the Kona coast, and presents the geologic setting and issues for one of the parks. The related benthic-habitat mapping reports discuss the marine data and habitat classification scheme, and present results of the mapping program. Pu'ukohola Heiau National Historic Site (PUHE) is the smallest (~86 acres) of three National Parks located on the leeward Kona coast of the Island of Hawai'i. The main structure at PUHE, Pu'ukohola Heiau, is an important historical temple that was built during 1790-91 by King Kamehameha I (also known as Kamehameha the Great) and is often associated with the founding of the Hawaiian Kingdom (Greene, 1993). The temple was constructed to incur the favor of the king's personal war god Kuka'ilimoku during the time that Kamehameha I waged several battles in an attempt to extend his control over all the Hawaiian Islands. The park is also the site of the older Mailekini Heiau, which was used by the ancestors of Kamehameha I, and an offshore, submerged temple, Hale O Kapuni Heiau, that was dedicated to the shark god. The park occupies the scenic Hill of the Whale overlooking Kawaihae Bay and Pelekane Beach. The seaward-sloping lands of PUHE lie at the convergence of lava flows formed by both Mauna Kea and Kohala Volcanoes. The park coastline is mostly rocky, with the exception of a small beach developed at the north boundary where an intermittent stream enters the sea. The park is bounded to the north by Kawaihae Harbor, to the south by Samuel M. Spencer Beach Park, and to the west by a broad submerged reef. The adjacent reef area is discussed in detail in the accompanying report by Cochran and others (2006). They mapped from the shoreline to depths of approximately 40 m, where the shelf drops off to a sand-covered bottom. PUHE park boundaries extend only to the mean high-tide line, however, landscape impacts created by development around the park are of concern to Park management.

Richmond, Bruce M.; Cochran, Susan A.; Gibbs, Ann E.

2008-01-01

211

Tour of Park Geology: Cave and Karst Parks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Park Geology site provides links to tours of individual National Parks, Monuments, and Recreation Areas with caves and other karst features. Where appropriate, park sites contain park geology information, maps, photographs, geologic research, related links, visitor information, multimedia resources, and teacher features (resources for teaching geology with National Park examples). The list includes places such as Carlsbad Caverns National Park, Mammoth Cave National Park, Sequoia National Park, and the Ozark National Scenic Riverways.

212

Geology on a Sand Budget  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Earth science teaches know how frustrating it can be to spend hundreds of dollars on three-dimensional (3-D) models of Earth's geologic features, only to use the models for a few class periods. To avoid emptying an already limited science budget, teachers can use a simple alternative to the expensive 3-D models--sand. Modeling geologic processes and features with sand is an effective way for teachers to promote student understanding of Earth science topics, quickly assess students' prior knowledge, and identify common misconceptions.

Jacqueline Kane

2004-09-01

213

National Park Service: Tour of Park Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The tour of Park geologic resources includes pages specific to individual National Parks, Monuments, Recreation Areas, Preserves, Seacoasts, Reserves, and Recreation Areas. These pages are indexed by park name, state, or by one of the following topics: basin and range, caves, Colorado Plateau, fossils, glaciers, hot springs, human use, mountain building, oldest rocks, plate tectonics, river systems, sand dunes, shoreline geology, or volcanoes. Organization of each of the pages typically follows a NPS template with categories for park geology, maps, photographs, geologic research, related links, visitor information, multimedia, and "teacher features" (educational resources and links for teaching geology with National Park examples.) Common subjects that are addressed at various park sites include: minerals, rocks, fossils, cave and karst systems, coastlines, glaciers, volcanoes, faults, landforms, landslides, structures, fluvial systems, sediments, soils, stratigraphic relations, processes that form or act on geologic features and their chemical compositions, and the history of the planet and its life forms.

214

Maryland Geological Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Maryland Geological Survey (MGS) provides excellent information about the geology of the Old Line State, along with public reports and updates on various ongoing projects. The homepage features live earthquake data and maps that deal with oyster habitat restoration projects, fact sheets, and new reports on lead concentrations in well water across the state. The Publications area contains dozens of maps (such as that of the "Maryland Gold District") and links to Popular Publications such as "Caves of Maryland" and "Baltimore Building Stones Tour." The Data section is also quite useful, offering a number of informative data sets on sediment distribution in the Chesapeake Bay and Baltimore Harbor. Finally, the Education area contains an "Ask a Geologist" link that's quite useful for getting answers to Earth-based queries.

215

Park Geology: Tour of Basin and Range Parks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides links to tours of individual National Parks within the Basin and Range region. Where appropriate for each park, links are provided to park geology, maps, photographs, geologic research, related links, visitor information, multimedia resources, and teacher features. Some of the parks have an expanded geology page that features the geologic time, history, plate tectonics, rocks and minerals, and a virtual field trip of the park. Of particular note is the teacher feature section, which provides educational resources and links for teaching geology with National Park examples.

216

Geology Fulbrights  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fulbright grants in geology for 1988-89 remain open. Specific opportunities are available in Egypt, German Democratic Republic, Hungary, Iceland, Iraq, Kuwait, Morocco, Mozambique, Oman, Poland, Sudan, Syria, Tanzania, Turkey, U.S.S.R., West Bank, Yemen, and Zimbabwe. Other countries are also open to applications in any discipline, and geology is among their preferred fields.The grants are available until awarded and are open only to U.S. citizens. In Central and South America and French-speaking Africa, knowledge of host-country language is required. For more information, contact the Council for International Exchange of Scholars (CIES), 11 Dupont Circle N.W., Suite 300, Washington, DC 20036; tel. 202-939-5401.

217

Teaching Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The study of geology at the University of Colorado has a long and distinguished history, and in recent years they have also become increasingly interested in providing online teaching resources in the field. Educators will be glad to learn about this site's existence, as they can scroll through a list of interactive demonstrations that can be utilized in the classroom. Specifically, these demonstrations include a shaded interactive topographical map of the western United States, a magnetic field of the Earth, and several animated maps of various National Park sites. The site comes to a compelling conclusion with the inclusion of the geology department's slide library, which can be used without a password or registration.

218

Geology Fieldnotes: Capitol Reef National Park, Utah  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Capitol Reef National Park site contains park geology information, park maps, photographs, visitor information, and a teacher feature (resources for teaching geology with National Park examples). Geologic data includes descriptions of the Waterpocket Fold, a monocline formed in the Laramide Orogeny and made of sedimentary rock. Also covered is erosion, and details about the Cathedral Valley outcrop of gypsum. This formation is Permian to Cretaceous in age (270-80 million years old).

219

Geologic mapping of Vesta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on a preliminary global geologic map of Vesta, based on data from the Dawn spacecraft's High-Altitude Mapping Orbit (HAMO) and informed by Low-Altitude Mapping Orbit (LAMO) data. This map is part of an iterative mapping effort; the geologic map has been refined with each improvement in resolution. Vesta has a heavily-cratered surface, with large craters evident in numerous locations. The south pole is dominated by an impact structure identified before Dawn's arrival. Two large impact structures have been resolved: the younger, larger Rheasilvia structure, and the older, more degraded Veneneia structure. The surface is also characterized by a system of deep, globe-girdling equatorial troughs and ridges, as well as an older system of troughs and ridges to the north. Troughs and ridges are also evident cutting across, and spiraling arcuately from, the Rheasilvia central mound. However, no volcanic features have been unequivocally identified. Vesta can be divided very broadly into three terrains: heavily-cratered terrain; ridge-and-trough terrain (equatorial and northern); and terrain associated with the Rheasilvia crater. Localized features include bright and dark material and ejecta (some defined specifically by color); lobate deposits; and mass-wasting materials. No obvious volcanic features are evident. Stratigraphy of Vesta's geologic units suggests a history in which formation of a primary crust was followed by the formation of impact craters, including Veneneia and the associated Saturnalia Fossae unit. Formation of Rheasilvia followed, along with associated structural deformation that shaped the Divalia Fossae ridge-and-trough unit at the equator. Subsequent impacts and mass wasting events subdued impact craters, rims and portions of ridge-and-trough sets, and formed slumps and landslides, especially within crater floors and along crater rims and scarps. Subsequent to the formation of Rheasilvia, discontinuous low-albedo deposits formed or were emplaced; these lie stratigraphically above the equatorial ridges that likely were formed by Rheasilvia. The last features to be formed were craters with bright rays and other surface mantling deposits. Executed progressively throughout data acquisition, the iterative mapping process provided the team with geologic proto-units in a timely manner. However, interpretation of the resulting map was hampered by the necessity to provide the team with a standard nomenclature and symbology early in the process. With regard to mapping and interpreting units, the mapping process was hindered by the lack of calibrated mineralogic information. Topography and shadow played an important role in discriminating features and terrains, especially in the early stages of data acquisition.

Yingst, R. A.; Mest, S. C.; Berman, D. C.; Garry, W. B.; Williams, D. A.; Buczkowski, D.; Jaumann, R.; Pieters, C. M.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Frigeri, A.; Le Corre, L.; Preusker, F.; Raymond, C. A.; Reddy, V.; Russell, C. T.; Roatsch, T.; Schenk, P. M.

2014-11-01

220

Main controls on hydrocarbon accumulation in the paleozoic in central Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saudi Arabia is renown for its rich oil and gas resources with the bulk of the reserves reservoired in the Mesozoic. However,\\u000a the discovery of Paleozoic fields in the late 1980s has encouraged further exploration in the Paleozoic. This paper reviews\\u000a the salient features of the Paleozoic petroleum geology in central Saudi Arabia and discusses the main factors controlling\\u000a hydrocarbon

Bai Guoping

2007-01-01

221

Geologic Mapping of the Moon - Copernicus Crater  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lesson about the Moon's Copernicus Crater. Learners will use observation to make their own geologic map of the Crater. They then identify crater features in a photogeologic image and use those observations to color their map with the appropriate geologic units.

2012-12-06

222

Geomorphology and Structural Geology of Saturnalia Fossae and Adjacent Structures in the Northern Hemisphere of Vesta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work examines the link between impact cratering processes and structural and geologic features in Vesta’s northern hemisphere through a mapping study of the Saturnalia Fossae, adjacent structural features and geologic units.

Scully, J. E. C.; Yin, A.; Russell, C. T.; Buczkowski, D. L.; Williams, D. A.; Blewett, D. T.; Ruesch, O.; Hiesinger, H.; Le Corre, L.; Mercer, C.; Yingst, R. A.; Garry, W. B.; Jaumann, R.; Roatsch, T.; Preusker, F.; Gaskell, R. W.; Schröder, S. E.; Ammannito, E.; Pieters, C. M.; Raymond, C. A.

2014-02-01

223

USGS - Coastal and Marine Geology Program Internet Map Server  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from the USGS features marine geology resources, including the Coastal and Marine Map Server, the Gloria Mapping Program and data, and the Coastal and Marine Geology Program. Each of these resources presents data, maps, and publications. For example, the GLORIA system was developed specifically to map the morphology and texture of seafloor features in the deep ocean, while the Coastal and Marine Geology program features an interactive map server to view and create maps using available CMGP data sets.

USGS

224

2014 Maine Earth Science Day  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

On October 15, 2014 Maine Earth Science Day was held at the Maine State Museum in Augusta. The USGS was represented by Charlie Culbertson, left, and Nick Waldron, right. This photo was taken as the two were packing up for the day, and shows a main feature of the table, a touch screen display with th...

225

Geologic map of the Metis Mons quadrangle (V–6), Venus  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Metis Mons quadrangle (V–6) in the northern hemisphere of Venus (lat 50° to 75° N., long 240° to 300° E.) includes a variety of coronae, large volcanoes, ridge and fracture (structure) belts, tesserae, impact craters, and other volcanic and structural features distributed within a plains setting, affording study of their detailed age relations and evolutionary development. Coronae in particular have magmatic, tectonic, and topographic signatures that indicate complex evolutionary histories. Previously, the geology of the map region has been described either in general or narrowly focused investigations. Based on Venera radar mapping, a 1:15,000,000-scale geologic map of part of the northern hemisphere of Venus included the V–6 map region and identified larger features such as tesserae, smooth and hummocky plains materials, ridge belts, coronae, volcanoes, and impact craters but proposed little relative-age information. Global-scale mapping from Magellan data identified similar features and also determined their mean global ages with crater counts. However, the density of craters on Venus is too low for meaningful relative-age determinations at local to regional scales. Several of the coronae in the map area have been described using Venera data (Stofan and Head, 1990), while Crumpler and others (1992) compiled detailed identification and description of volcanic and tectonic features from Magellan data. The main purpose of this map is to reconstruct the geologic history of the Metis Mons quadrangle at a level of detail commensurate with a scale of 1:5,000,000 using Magellan data. We interpret four partly overlapping stages of geologic activity, which collectively resulted in the formation of tesserae, coronae (oriented along structure belts), plains materials of varying ages, and four large volcanic constructs. Scattered impact craters, small shields and pancake-shaped domes, and isolated flows superpose the tectonically deformed materials and appear to be the most youthful materials in the map region.

Dohm, James M.; Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Skinner, James A.

2011-01-01

226

Comprehensive geological history of asteroid Vesta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present a time-stratigraphic scheme and geologic time scale for the asteroid Vesta, based on global geologic mapping and other analyses of NASA Dawn spacecraft data, supplemented with insights gained from laboratory studies of howardite-eucrite-diogenite (HED) meteorites and geophysical modeling. We identify four geologic time periods for Vesta, associated with the formation of major impacts: Pre-Veneneian, Veneneian, Rheasilvian, and Marcian. The Pre-Veneneian period covers the time from the formation of Vesta (a few Myr after the formation of the first solids in the proto-solar disk that took place at ˜4.57 Gyr ago) up to the Veneneia impact event. The Veneneian period covers the time between the Veneneia and Rheasilvia impact events. The Rheasilvian period covers the time between the formation of Rheasilvia and Marcia craters, and the Marcian period covers the time between the formation of Marcia crater until the present. Absolute ages for the boundaries of these periods have been derived by applying two crater chronologies, one based on the current understanding on asteroidal impact rate at Vesta and its evolution over time; the other is based on an extrapolated version of the lunar crater chronology. While the ages and durations of the various periods change considerably depending on which chronology is applied, the relative age of the Veneneia and Rheasilvia impacts is unambiguously determined by superposition relationships, while the formation of the Marcia crater clearly represents the youngest major geologic event on Vesta. Absolute model ages allow us to relate Vesta geologic time periods to key features of the main asteroid belt, such as the formation of the large vestan dynamical family. The formation ages of the Vesta's family can be assessed with independent means, such as by measuring the spreading of the family members in orbital space, and therefore provide a benchmark for both theoretical models of asteroid family evolution and crater chronology. Absolute ages also provide an important framework to interpret impact-generated radiometric ages of HEDs. Our proposed four-period geologic time scale for Vesta is consistent with those developed for other terrestrial bodies, such as the Moon, Mars, Earth, and Mercury, and allow us to place Vesta in the context of major phases of the evolution of the solar system, such as the Late Heavy Bombardment, a period of intense bombardment in the inner solar system triggered by the migration of the giant planets.

Marchi, S.; Williams, D. A.; McSween, H. Y.; Jaumann, R.; Raymond, C. A.; Russell, C. T.

2014-07-01

227

British Geological Survey: Geomagnetism  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The British Geological Survey illustrates its work monitoring the earth's magnetic field in the UK at this website. Users can learn about the six observatories located in the Atlantic and the UK. Using the Grid Magnetic Angle Calculator, visitors can determine the angle between the British National grid north and the magnetic north. The website features Mercator projects created with the World Magnetic Model, geomagnetic data for the academic community, space weather services for industry, and more. Students can find tutorials about the Earth's magnetic field, magnetic reversals, and magnetic storms.

228

The Geologic Time Scale  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains a large, easy to read, detailed geologic time scale for the Phanerozoic Eon (544 million years ago - Present). This is the period of time, also known as an eon, between the end of the Precambrian and today. The Phanerozoic begins with the start of the Cambrian period, 544 million years ago. It encompasses the period of abundant, complex life on Earth. The chart includes the Era, Period or System, and the Epoch or Series and features a brief description of each.

229

geology.com  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This clearinghouse features an extensive selection of maps, imagery, news articles, and other Earth science resources. Highlights include an interactive map of meteor impact structures, an interactive map showing the highest points in the 50 states, and a state-by-state directory of imagery, maps, and links to geological information. There are also listings for imagery for U.S. cities and the continents, a map of the most dangerous volcanoes in the U.S., a mineral identification chart, and information on stream discharge monitoring.

2006-01-01

230

Geology on a Sand Budget  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Earth science teachers know how frustrating it can be to spend hundreds of dollars on three-dimensional (3-D) models of Earth's geologic features, to use the models for only a few class periods. To avoid emptying an already limited science budget, the author states that teachers can use a simple alternative to the expensive 3-D models--sand. She…

Kane, Jacqueline

2004-01-01

231

Structural Geology: Deformation of Rocks  

E-print Network

include the Michigan Basin, Illinois Basin, Cincinnati Arch, Nashville Dome, Black Hills, etc. #12;The #12;Fig. 7.15b. A small dome in Texas #12;Michigan Basin #12;Geologic Map of Michigan Basin #12 and basins - very broad features within continental interiors · complex folds - the result of very ductile

Kammer, Thomas

232

Weird Geology: The Devil's Tower  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page features a brief introduction to the several theories about the geological processes that formed Devil's Tower, which rises 1,267 feet above the nearby Belle Fourche River and is still considered a sacred place by some Native American Tribes. Information on climbing the tower as well as images and a cross section are provided.

Lee Krystek

233

Geologic nozzles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sonic velocities of geologic fluids, such as volcanic magmas and geothermal fluids, can be as low as 1 m/s. Critical velocities in large rivers can be of the order of 1-10 m/s. Because velocities of fluids moving in these settings can exceed these characteristic velocities, sonic and supersonic gas flow and critical and supercritical shallow-water flow can occur. The importance of the low characteristic velocities of geologic fluids has not been widely recognized and, as a result, the importance of supercritical and supersonic flow in geological processes has generally been underestimated. The lateral blast at Mount St. Helens, Washington, propelled a gas heavily laden with dust into the atmosphere. Because of the low sound speed in this gas (about 100 m/s), the flow was internally supersonic. Old Faithful Geyser, Wyoming, is a converging-diverging nozzle in which liquid water refilling the conduit during the recharge cycle changes during eruption into a two-phase liquid-vapor mixture with a very low sound velocity. The high sound speed of liquid water determines the characteristics of harmonic tremor observed at the geyser during the recharge interval, whereas the low sound speed of the liquid-vapor mixture influences the fluid-flow characteristics of the eruption. At the rapids of the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon, Arizona, supercritical flow occurs where debris discharged from tributary canyons constricts the channel into the shape of a converging-diverging nozzle. The geometry of the channel in these regions can be used to interpret the flood history of the Colorado River over the past 103-105 years. The unity of fluid mechanics in these three natural phenomena is provided by the well-known analogy between gas flow and shallow-water flow in converging-diverging nozzles.

Kieffer, Susan Werner

234

Geologic Nozzles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sonic velocities of geologic fluids, such as volcanic magmas and geothermal fluids, can be as low as 1 m/s. Critical velocities in large rivers can be of the order of 1-10 m/s. Because velocities of fluids moving in these settings can exceed these characteristic velocities, sonic and supersonic gas flow and critical and supercritical shallow-water flow can occur. The importance of the low characteristic velocities of geologic fluids has not been widely recognized, and as a result, the importance of supercritical and supersonic flow in geological processes has generally been underestimated. The lateral blast at Mount St. Helens, Washington, propelled a gas heavily laden with dust into the atmosphere. Because of the low sound speed in this gas (about 100 m/s), the flow was internally supersonic. Old Faithful Geyser, Wyoming, is a converging-diverging nozzle in which liquid water refilling the conduit during the recharge cycle changes during eruption into a two-phase liquid-vapor mixture with a very low sound velocity. The high sound speed of liquid water determines the characteristics of harmonic tremor observed at the gyeser during the recharge interval, whereas the low sound speed of the liquid-vapor mixture influences the fluid flow characteristics of the eruption. At the rapids of the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon, Arizona, the channel is constricted into the shape of a converging-diverging nozzle by debris flows that enter from tributary canyons. Both subcritical and supercritical flow occur within the rapids. The transport capacity in the rapids can be so great that the river contours the channel to a characteristic shape. This shape can be used to interpret the flood history of the Colorado River over the past 10³-105 years. The unity of fluid mechanics in these three natural phenomena is provided by the well-known analogy between gas flow and shallow-water flow in converging-diverging nozzles.

Kieffer, Susan Werner

1989-02-01

235

The National Park Service: Park Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A National Park Service (NPS) site primarily composed of three main sections corresponding to the following program areas within the Geologic Resources Division (GRD): Disturbed Lands Restoration and Abandoned Mineral Lands (AML), Mineral Management Programs, and Geology and Soils Programs. Of these, the first two consist principally of textual resources pertaining to Park System procedures, policies, and regulations - as well as reports on example restoration projects with a focus on stream corridor restoration, bioengineering, riparian management, and revegetation. Perhaps of most interest to educators will be the third main program area, the Geology and Soils Programs section. Here are included textual resources pertaining to NPS-GRD programs on cave and karst formations, coastal and shoreline geology, paleontology, soils (e.g., soil biology and soil surveying), geological indicators (geoindicators), and stratigraphy. Lastly, a searchable photographic collection and geologic glossary are available.

236

Main Report  

PubMed Central

Background: States vary widely in their use of newborn screening tests, with some mandating screening for as few as three conditions and others mandating as many as 43 conditions, including varying numbers of the 40+ conditions that can be detected by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). There has been no national guidance on the best candidate conditions for newborn screening since the National Academy of Sciences report of 19751 and the United States Congress Office of Technology Assessment report of 1988,2 despite rapid developments since then in genetics, in screening technologies, and in some treatments. Objectives: In 2002, the Maternal and Child Health Bureau (MCHB) of the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) of the United States Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) commissioned the American College of Medical Genetics (ACMG) to: Conduct an analysis of the scientific literature on the effectiveness of newborn screening.Gather expert opinion to delineate the best evidence for screening for specified conditions and develop recommendations focused on newborn screening, including but not limited to the development of a uniform condition panel.Consider other components of the newborn screening system that are critical to achieving the expected outcomes in those screened. Methods: A group of experts in various areas of subspecialty medicine and primary care, health policy, law, public health, and consumers worked with a steering committee and several expert work groups, using a two-tiered approach to assess and rank conditions. A first step was developing a set of principles to guide the analysis. This was followed by developing criteria by which conditions could be evaluated, and then identifying the conditions to be evaluated. A large and broadly representative group of experts was asked to provide their opinions on the extent to which particular conditions met the selected criteria, relying on supporting evidence and references from the scientific literature. The criteria were distributed among three main categories for each condition: The availability and characteristics of the screening test;The availability and complexity of diagnostic services; andThe availability and efficacy of treatments related to the conditions. A survey process utilizing a data collection instrument was used to gather expert opinion on the conditions in the first tier of the assessment. The data collection format and survey provided the opportunity to quantify expert opinion and to obtain the views of a diverse set of interest groups (necessary due to the subjective nature of some of the criteria). Statistical analysis of data produced a score for each condition, which determined its ranking and initial placement in one of three categories (high scoring, moderately scoring, or low scoring/absence of a newborn screening test). In the second tier of these analyses, the evidence base related to each condition was assessed in depth (e.g., via systematic reviews of reference lists including MedLine, PubMed and others; books; Internet searches; professional guidelines; clinical evidence; and cost/economic evidence and modeling). The fact sheets reflecting these analyses were evaluated by at least two acknowledged experts for each condition. These experts assessed the data and the associated references related to each criterion and provided corrections where appropriate, assigned a value to the level of evidence and the quality of the studies that established the evidence base, and determined whether there were significant variances from the survey data. Survey results were subsequently realigned with the evidence obtained from the scientific literature during the second-tier analysis for all objective criteria, based on input from at least three acknowledged experts in each condition. The information from these two tiers of assessment was then considered with regard to the overriding principles and other technology or condition-specific recommendations. On the basis of this information, conditions were assigned to one of thr

2006-01-01

237

The Geology of Callisto  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The geology of Callisto is not boring. Although cratered terrain dominates Callisto (a key end-member of the Jovian satellite system), a number of more interesting features are apparent. Cratered terrain is broken into irregular map-able bright and dark subunits that vary in albedo by a factor of 2, and several relatively smooth units are depleted of small craters. Some of these areas may have been volcanically resurfaced. Lineaments, including parallel and radial sets, may be evidence for early global tectonism. Frost deposition occurs in cold traps, and impact scars have formed from tidally disrupted comets. Geologic evidence suggests that Callisto does have a chemically differentiated crust. Central pit and central dome craters and palimpsests are common. The preferred interpretation is that a relatively ice-rich material, at depths of 5 km or more, has been mobilized during impact and exposed as domes or palimpsests. The close similarity in crater morphologies and dimensions indicates that the outermost 10 km or so of Callisto may be as differentiated as on Ganymede. The geology of cratered terrain on Callisto is simpler than that of cratered terrain on Ganymede, however. Orbital evolution and tidal heating may provide the answer to the riddle of why Callisto and Ganymede are so different (Malhotra, 1991). We should expect a few surprises and begins to answer some fundamental questions when Callisto is observed by Galileo in late 1996.

Schenk, Paul M.

1995-01-01

238

A Handbook for Geology Students Why study Geology?.............................................................................................3  

E-print Network

1 A Handbook for Geology Students #12;2 Contents Why study Geology ..................................................................................7 Why Appalachian Geology?................................................................................10 Geology Faculty and Staff

Thaxton, Christopher S.

239

Geology Fieldnotes: Badlands National Park, South Dakota  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Badlands National Park, located in southwestern South Dakota, consists of 244,000 acres of sharply eroded buttes, pinnacles and spires blended with the largest, protected mixed grass prairie in the United States. Features include information on park geology, maps, photographs, visitor information, links to related publications, and lesson plans for teaching geology with National Park examples. The park geology section discusses the Park's geologic history during the Eocene and Oligocene epochs and the rich fossil deposits found there. Maps of the park and the surrounding area are included.

240

Geology Fieldnotes: Dinosaur National Monument, Colorado / Utah  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dinosaur National Monument preserves a fossil bone deposit containing the bones of hundreds of dinosaurs, which was once enclosed in the sands of an ancient river. Features of the site include park geology information, maps, photographs, related links, visitor information, multimedia resources, and resources for teaching geology with National Park examples. The geology section discusses the park's geologic history and fossil beds. A park map of the Monument is included, and the photo album section contains drawings of some of the dinosaur species found at the Monument's Dinosaur Quarry.

241

California Geological Survey-Educational Resources Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How do we understand the Earth and its complexity? It's a crucial question in our age. Fortunately, the California Geological Survey is interested in these matters. The Survey's Educational Resources Center site features California geology maps, teachers' aids, and "California Geology 101." This last resource is an interactive index of online geologic field trip guides and related sites. The resources include an exploration of the 1906 San Francisco Earthquake, replies to questions posed by the "Earthquake DOC," and a glossary of rock and mineral terminology. The maps should not be missed either, as they include a fault activity map of California and a detailed map of the Golden State's geomorphic provinces.

2007-01-01

242

Geology Fieldnotes: Fossil Butte National Monument, Wyoming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Fossil Butte National Monument preserves a 50-million year old bed of Eocene limestone that contains one of the richest fossil deposits in the world. Site features include park geology information, photographs of fossils, related links, visitor information, multimedia resources, and resources for teaching geology with National Park examples. The park geology section discusses the Monument's geologic history and fossil beds, focusing on the conditions that created the fossil-rich region and on the history of fossil collection in the area. A map of the Monument is also included.

243

Geologic nozzles  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The importance of the low characteristic velocities of geologic fluids has not been widely recognized, and as a result, the importance of supercritical and supersonic flow in geological processes has generally been underestimated. The lateral blast at Mount St. Helens, Washington, propelled a gas heavily laden with dust into the atmosphere. Because of the low sound speed in this gas (about 100 m/s), the flow was internally supersonic. Old Faithful Geyser, Wyoming, is a converging-diverging nozzle in which liquid water refilling the conduit during the recharge cycle changes during eruption into a two-phase liquid-vapor mixture with a very low sound velocity. The high sound speed of liquid water determines the characteristics of harmonic tremor observed at the geyser during the recharge interval, whereas the low sound speed of the liquid-vapor mixture influences the fluid flow characteristics of the eruption. At the rapids of the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon, Arizona, the channel is constricted into the shape of a converging-diverging nozzle by the debris flows that enter from tributary canyons. Both subcritical and supercritical flow occur within the rapids. -from Author

Werner, Kieffer S.

1989-01-01

244

Illinois State Geological Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Illinois State Geological Survey (ISGS) homepage provides information on geologic mapping, earthquakes, fossils, groundwater, wetlands, glacial geology, bedrock geology, and Lake Michigan geology. Educational materials include field trip guides, short publications on Illinois geology for students and teachers, online tours, single-page maps, and a geologic column. Other materials include databases and collections of GIS data, well records, drill cores, and mining information; a bibliography of Illinois geology; online maps and data; and information on water and land use, resource development, and geologic hazards.

245

Venusian novae (Astra): Classification and associations to different geological environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On the Venusian surface, there can be found a rather large population of structures with prominent radial features. The term “ nova” or “astrum/astra” are used to describe this special group of volcanotectonic structures with a stellate fracture pattern radiating around a central summit or fracture. In this paper, we studied the distribution and characteristics of 74 novae to determine if there are suitable ways to categorize them and to find out how this categorization could explain the differences in nova characteristics. The nova locations establish that these structures are not distributed sporadically, but they display both latitudinal and longitudinal concentrations. In addition, it is evident that the geological environments represent the major differences between individual novae. Most of them, in general, are connected to some larger volcanotectonic unit. The differences in geological surroundings can be used as the basis for characterizing novae by dividing them into different categories: (a) novae located either within or close to a rather large deformation zone, (b) novae located on plains, (c) novae located close to tessera terrain, and (d) novae situated within volcanic areas either close to volcanoes or within an area with a high density of coronae. The analysis of this characterization establishes that geological environments are the main cause for divergent nova characteristics, i.e., differences in morphology, volcanism, and topography, which, on the other hand, are possible ways to classify novae. In particular, the morphological classification ( Type I, novae with features radiating from the same point; Type II, radial structures radiating from a fissure or other linear structure; Type III, lava flows or fields covering radiant point area; Type IV, semiradial structures which do not radiate from a well-defined radiant point, fissure, or area) shows some correlations between geological environments and the type of nova, indicating that the morphological appearance and the location—and, thereby, the geologic environment—of the novae are correlated to some extent.

Aittola, M.; Raitala, J.

2007-10-01

246

Geology Fieldnotes: Bryce Canyon National Park, Utah  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Located on the Colorado Plateau in Utah, this canyon is comprised mostly of sedimentary rocks, and continues to be eroded and shaped by the Paria River. Its geologic and human history are outlined on this site, including the formation of the canyon, from the Cretaceous period (144 million years ago) to the present, and geologic features, such as fins, columns, pinnacles, and hoodoos. Visitor information, links to other resources, maps, and a teacher feature (resources for teaching geology with National Park examples) are also available.

Annabelle Foos

247

Geologic Heritage in the National Parks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What is geologic heritage, you ask? In short, it "encompasses the significant geologic features, landforms, and landscapes characteristic of our Nation." The National Park Service has a special program to document these sites and to provide the public with resources about these unique destinations. The materials here are divided into four featured programs: Fossil Resources, Geologic Heritage Conservation, Park Geology Tour, and Cave and Karst Resources. Using the Park Geology Tour, visitors can search through thematic areas such as glaciers, fossils, and plate tectonics to find highlights from a vast array of National Park units. The Cave and Karst Resources program brings together resources on some of the over 4,900 caves in the National Park system, along with detailed photo galleries, newsletters, and brochures. Finally, under Fossil Resources visitors can find information about National Fossil Day and even helpful lesson plans for teachers.

2013-03-22

248

Bedrock geologic map of Vermont  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Bedrock Geologic Map of Vermont is the result of a cooperative agreement between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the State of Vermont. The State's complex geology spans 1.4 billion years of Earth's history. The new map comes 50 years after the most recent map of the State by Charles G. Doll and others in 1961 and a full 150 years since the publication of the first geologic map of Vermont by Edward Hitchcock and others in 1861. At a scale of 1:100,000, the map shows an uncommon level of detail for State geologic maps. Mapped rock units are primarily based on lithology, or rock type, to facilitate derivative studies in multiple disciplines. The 1961 map was compiled from 1:62,500-scale or smaller maps. The current map was created to integrate more detailed (1:12,000- to 1:24,000-scale) modern and older (1:62,500-scale) mapping with the theory of plate tectonics to provide a framework for geologic, tectonic, economic, hydrogeologic, and environmental characterization of the bedrock of Vermont. The printed map consists of three oversize sheets (52 x 76 inches). Sheets 1 and 2 show the southern and northern halves of Vermont, respectively, and can be trimmed and joined so that the entire State can be displayed as a single entity. These sheets also include 10 cross sections and a geologic structure map. Sheet 3 on the front consists of descriptions of 486 map units, a correlation of map units, and references cited. Sheet 3 on the back features a list of the 195 sources of geologic map data keyed to an index map of 7.5-minute quadrangles in Vermont, as well as a table identifying ages of rocks dated by uranium-lead zircon geochronology.

Ratcliffe, Nicholas M.; Stanley, Rolfe S.; Gale, Marjorie H.; Thompson, Peter J.; Walsh, Gregory J.; With contributions by Hatch, Norman L., Jr.; Rankin, Douglas W.; Doolan, Barry L.; Kim, Jonathan; Mehrtens, Charlotte J.; Aleinikoff, John N.; McHone, J. Gregory; Cartography by Masonic, Linda M.

2011-01-01

249

Multidisciplinary analysis of Skylab photography for highway engineering purposes. [Maine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. The greatly increased resolution of ground features by Skylab as compared with LANDSAT is considered to be best in the S190B high resolution film, followed by S190A camera stations 4, 5, and 6 respectfully. Results of the study of vegetation damage sites using data derived from S190A film were disappointing. The major cause of detection problems is the graininess of the CIR film. Good results were achieved for the hydrology-land use study. Both camera systems gave better agreement with the ground truth than did LANDSAT imagery. Surficial geology and glacial landform areas were clearly visible in single scenes. Several previously unmapped or unknown features were detected, especially in eastern coastal Maine.

Stoeckeler, E. G.; Woodman, R. G. (principal investigators); Farrell, R. S.

1975-01-01

250

Geologic Technician New Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a developing two-year geologic technician program at Bakersfield College in which a student may major in five areas - geologic drafting, land and legal, geologic assistant, engineering or paleontology. (RR)

Karp, Stanley E.

1970-01-01

251

Geological Time Scale  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This document describes how geologic time is approached in discussions of geologic topics. The uses of relative time and absolute time are compared, and a geologic time scale is provided to represent both concepts. References are provided.

252

Geology Fieldnotes: Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming/Idaho/Montana  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Yellowstone National Park site contains park geology information, photographs, related links, visitor information, multimedia resources, and teacher features (resources for teaching geology with National Park examples). The park geology section discusses the Park's geologic history, structural geology, and describes many of the geologic sites and wildlife found in the park. It describes the sites found on the routes from Old Faithful to Mammoth Springs (East Thumb, Old Faithful, Midway, Lower, and Norris geysers, geyser basins, Gibbon Falls), Mammoth Springs to Tower Junction and the Canyon (Undine Falls, Lava Creek, Lamar Valley, Hayden Valley), and at the Yellowstone Lake area (West Thumb and Grant Village).

253

Geology Fieldnotes: Florissant Fossil Beds National Monument, Colorado  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Florissant Fossil Beds National Monument preserves huge petrified redwood trees and incredibly detailed fossils of ancient insects and plants. Features include park geology information, photographs of fossils, related links, visitor information, multimedia resources, and resources for teaching geology with National Park examples. The park geology section discusses the park's geologic history and the plants and insects found in the fossil beds. A map of the Monument is also included.

254

Detecting Molecular Features of Spectra Mainly Associated with Structural and Non-Structural Carbohydrates in Co-Products from BioEthanol Production Using DRIFT with Uni- and Multivariate Molecular Spectral Analyses  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to use DRIFT spectroscopy with uni- and multivariate molecular spectral analyses as a novel approach to detect molecular features of spectra mainly associated with carbohydrate in the co-products (wheat DDGS, corn DDGS, blend DDGS) from bioethanol processing in comparison with original feedstock (wheat (Triticum), corn (Zea mays)). The carbohydrates related molecular spectral bands included: A_Cell (structural carbohydrates, peaks area region and baseline: ca. 1485–1188 cm?1), A_1240 (structural carbohydrates, peak area centered at ca. 1240 cm?1 with region and baseline: ca. 1292–1198 cm?1), A_CHO (total carbohydrates, peaks region and baseline: ca. 1187–950 cm?1), A_928 (non-structural carbohydrates, peak area centered at ca. 928 cm?1 with region and baseline: ca. 952–910 cm?1), A_860 (non-structural carbohydrates, peak area centered at ca. 860 cm?1 with region and baseline: ca. 880–827 cm?1), H_1415 (structural carbohydrate, peak height centered at ca. 1415 cm?1 with baseline: ca. 1485–1188 cm?1), H_1370 (structural carbohydrate, peak height at ca. 1370 cm?1 with a baseline: ca. 1485–1188 cm?1). The study shows that the grains had lower spectral intensity (KM Unit) of the cellulosic compounds of A_1240 (8.5 vs. 36.6, P < 0.05), higher (P < 0.05) intensities of the non-structural carbohydrate of A_928 (17.3 vs. 2.0) and A_860 (20.7 vs. 7.6) than their co-products from bioethanol processing. There were no differences (P > 0.05) in the peak area intensities of A_Cell (structural CHO) at 1292–1198 cm?1 and A_CHO (total CHO) at 1187–950 cm?1 with average molecular infrared intensity KM unit of 226.8 and 508.1, respectively. There were no differences (P > 0.05) in the peak height intensities of H_1415 and H_1370 (structural CHOs) with average intensities 1.35 and 1.15, respectively. The multivariate molecular spectral analyses were able to discriminate and classify between the corn and corn DDGS molecular spectra, but not wheat and wheat DDGS. This study indicated that the bioethanol processing changes carbohydrate molecular structural profiles, compared with the original grains. However, the sensitivities of different types of carbohydrates and different grains (corn and wheat) to the processing differ. In general, the bioethanol processing increases the molecular spectral intensities for the structural carbohydrates and decreases the intensities for the non-structural carbohydrates. Further study is needed to quantify carbohydrate related molecular spectral features of the bioethanol co-products in relation to nutrient supply and availability of carbohydrates. PMID:21673931

Yu, Peiqiang; Damiran, Daalkhaijav; Azarfar, Arash; Niu, Zhiyuan

2011-01-01

255

Colorado Geological Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Colorado Geological Survey (CGS) is an agency of state government within the Department of Natural Resources whose mission is to help reduce the impact of geologic hazards on the citizens of Colorado, to promote the responsible economic development of mineral and mineral fuel resources, to provide geologic insight into water resources, and to provide geologic advice and information to a variety of constituencies. This site contains extensive information about Colorado geology such as maps, a geologic time scale for the state, program information, and state field trip information. This site hosts the Avalanche Information Center which contains avalanche forecasting and education center details. Publications report on geologic hazards, land use, environmental geology, mineral resources, oil, gas, coal, geologic mapping and earthquake information for the state. There are online editions of RockTalk, which is a quarterly newsletter published by the Colorado Geological Survey dealing with all aspects of geology throughout the state of Colorado. Links are provided for more resources.

256

MAINE 1:24,000 HYDROLOGY LINES  

EPA Science Inventory

The Maine 1:24,000 Hydrology Lines SDE feature class depicts double line river features, single line streams, pond, lake and coastal outlines in Maine from USGS 1:24,000 scale quadrangles. Some New Hampshire and New Brunswick features are also included. Codes are included to sel...

257

MAINE 1:24,000 HYDROLOGY POLYGONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The Maine 1:24,000 Hydrology Polygons SDE feature class depicts double line river features, single line streams, pond, lake and coastal outlines in Maine from USGS 1:24,000 scale quadrangles. Some New Hampshire and New Brunswick features are also included. Codes are included to ...

258

Maryland Geological Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Maryland Geological Survey (MGS) homepage contains information from MGS programs on hydrogeology, hydrology, coastal and estuarine geology, environmental geology and mineral resources; an online guide to Maryland geology; and information on oyster habitat restoration projects. There are also maps, data, information on MGS publications, MGS news, and online educational resources.

259

History of Geology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses: (1) geologists and the history of geology; (2) American historians and the history of geology; (3) history of geology in the 1980s; (4) sources for the history of geology (bibliographies, dictionaries, encyclopedias, handbooks, periodicals, public/official histories, compilations, and books); (5) research opportunities; and (6) other…

Greene, Mott T.

1985-01-01

260

GEOLOGY (GEOL) Robinson Foundation  

E-print Network

177Geology GEOLOGY (GEOL) Robinson Foundation PROFESSOR HARBOR ASSOCIATE PROFESSORS KNAPP, CONNORS ASSISTANT PROFESSORS GREER, RAHL MAJORS BACHELOR OF SCIENCE A major in geology leading to a Bachelor of Science degree consists of 50 credits as follows: 1. Geology 160, 185, 211, 311, 330, 350

Dresden, Gregory

261

Geologic Map of the Northern Hemisphere of Vesta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For more than a year, the NASA Dawn mission acquired Framing Camera (FC) images from orbit around Vesta. The surface of the asteroid was completely imaged [1] before Dawn left for its next target, the asteroid Ceres. In an early phase of the mission, the southern and equatorial regions were imaged, allowing the production of several geologic quadrangle maps [2]. During the second High Altitude Mapping Orbit (HAMO-2), the northern hemisphere became illuminated and visible. Here we present the first geologic map of the northern vestan hemisphere, from 21°N to 85°N, derived mainly from HAMO-2 observations. Detailed studies of specific geologic features within this hemisphere are presented elsewhere [e.g., 3,4]. For our geologic map we used high-resolution FC images [5] with ~20 m/pixel from the Low Altitude Mapping Orbit (LAMO), which unfortunately only cover the southern part of the study area (21°N to 45°N). For areas farther north, LAMO images are supplemented with HAMO-2 images, which have a pixel scale of about 70 m/pixel. During the departure phase, images of the north pole area with even lower spatial resolutions were acquired. Due to observational constraints, considerable shadowing is present north of 75°. From these data, an albedo mosaic and a stereo-photogrammetric digital terrain model [6] was produced, which serve as basis for our geologic map. For the geologic mapping at a scale of 1:500,000, all data were incorporated into a Geographic Information System (ArcGIS). We have identified several geologic units within the study area, including cratered highland material (ch) and the Saturnalia Formation (Sf), which is characterized by large-scale ridges and troughs, presumably associated with the south polar Veneneia impact [7]. In addition, we mapped undifferentiated crater material (uc), discontinuous ejecta material (dem), and dark/bright crater material and dark/bright crater ray material (dc/bc and dcr/bcr). We will present a detailed description of the geologic units and their relative stratigraphy [8]. References: [1] Russell C. T. et al. (2012) GSA Ann. Meet., 152-1. [2] Yingst R. A. et al. (2012) EGU, Gen. Ass., 6225. [3] Blewett D. T. et al. (2012) GSA Ann. Meet., 152-9. [4] Scully J. (2012) DPS Meet. 44, #207.08. [5] Sierks H. et al. (2011) Space Sci Rev. [6] Preusker et al. (2012) LPSC 43, #2012. [7] Jaumann et al. (2012) Science Vol. 336, pp. 687-690. [8] Hiesinger H. et al. (2013) LPSC 44, #2582.

Hiesinger, Harald; Ruesch, Ottaviano; Blewett, Dave T.; Buczkowski, Debra L.; Scully, Jennifer; Williams, Dave A.; Aileen Yingst, R.; Russell, Chris T.; Raymond, Carol A.

2013-04-01

262

Windows on Maine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created with funds provided by the Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS), Windows on Maine contains interesting and informative programs and video clips from Maine Public Broadcasting and other partners. On their homepage, visitors can use their interactive map and timeline to locate video clips of interest, and they can also search the entire collection for specific items. Visitors can also use the subject category menu to look over 25 different headings, including "earth sciences", "land disputes", and "Penobscot tribe". The map feature is a real pip, and visitors can customize their search by location and date, and it's a great way to learn about different regions, including Aroostook County (also known as "the County") and Downeast. Also, many of the videos also have additional resources attached to them, such as railroad timetables, historic photographs, and so on.

263

Geologic Maps and Mapping  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This portal provides access to resources on geologic mapping, and to sources of geologic maps. There is an introduction to geologic mapping, which summarizes its principles and practices, and a history of United States Geological Survey (USGS) mapping activities from 1879 to the present, as well as links to papers on the values and hazards associated with geologic maps and mapping. Online sources of maps include the USGS Geologic Map Database, other federal map products (FEDMAP), state geological survey products (STATEMAP), and university map products (EDMAP).

264

Tennessee Division of Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the homepage of the Geology Division of the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation. It provides information on the division's programs, including geologic hazards research, public service, education programs, basic and applied research on geology and mineral resources, publication of geologic information, permitting of oil and gas wells, and regulation of Tennessee's oil and gas industry. Materials include a catalog of publications, maps, geologic bulletins, and the Public Information series of pamphlets; the Geology Division Newsletter; and information on the state's mineral industry. There is also a section on the Gray Fossil Site, an unusual assemblage of fossils and sedimentary geology encountered during road construction near the town of Gray, Tenessee.

265

Geology of Kilauea volcano  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes studies of the structure, stratigraphy, petrology, drill holes, eruption frequency, and volcanic and seismic hazards of Kilauea volcano. All the volcano is discussed, but the focus is on its lower east rift zone (LERZ) because active exploration for geothermal energy is concentrated in that area. Kilauea probably has several separate hydrothermal-convection systems that develop in response to the dynamic behavior of the volcano and the influx of abundant meteoric water. Important features of some of these hydrothermal-convection systems are known through studies of surface geology and drill holes. Observations of eruptions during the past two centuries, detailed geologic mapping, radiocarbon dating, and paleomagnetic secular-variation studies indicate that Kilauea has erupted frequently from its summit and two radial rift zones during Quaternary time. Petrologic studies have established that Kilauea erupts only tholeiitic basalt. Extensive ash deposits at Kilauea's summit and on its LERZ record locally violent, but temporary, disruptions of local hydrothermal-convection systems during the interaction of water or steam with magma. Recent drill holes on the LERZ provide data on the temperatures of the hydrothermal-convection systems, intensity of dike intrusion, porosity and permeability, and an increasing amount of hydrothermal alteration with depth. The prehistoric and historic record of volcanic and seismic activity indicates that magma will continue to be supplied to deep and shallow reservoirs beneath Kilauea's summit and rift zones and that the volcano will be affected by eruptions and earthquakes for many thousands of years. 71 refs., 2 figs.

Moore, R.B. (Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States). Federal Center); Trusdell, F.A. (Geological Survey, Hawaii National Park, HI (United States). Hawaiian Volcano Observatory)

1993-08-01

266

Tour of Park Geology: Colorado Plateau  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides links to geology fieldnotes about National Parks, Monuments, and Recreation Areas that are part of the Colorado Plateau. Each park site provides links to visitor information, photographs, park maps, multimedia resources, and teacher features (tools for teaching geology with National Park examples). Some of the areas linked to this site include: Dinosaur National Monument, Mesa Verde National Park, and Glen Canyon National Recreation Area.

267

Geologic selection methodology for transportation corridor routing  

E-print Network

shrink-swell geologic units are encountered to the east. Other geologic features, such as the Edwards Aquifer and Ouachita Tectonic Belt and the Colorado, Brazos, Trinity, and Nueces Rivers are also crossed. 506 Proposed Investi gation The method.... Hydrology Water affects the suength, sensitivity, and swelling properties of a material. In addition to loadings caused by soil expansion and contraction, another difficult task is to control water seepage into or out of the excavation. The presence...

Shultz, Karin Wilson

2002-01-01

268

Digital geologic map and GIS database of Venezuela  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The digital geologic map and GIS database of Venezuela captures GIS compatible geologic and hydrologic data from the 'Geologic Shaded Relief Map of Venezuela,' which was released online as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2005-1038. Digital datasets and corresponding metadata files are stored in ESRI geodatabase format; accessible via ArcGIS 9.X. Feature classes in the geodatabase include geologic unit polygons, open water polygons, coincident geologic unit linework (contacts, faults, etc.) and non-coincident geologic unit linework (folds, drainage networks, etc.). Geologic unit polygon data were attributed for age, name, and lithologic type following the Lexico Estratigrafico de Venezuela. All digital datasets were captured from source data at 1:750,000. Although users may view and analyze data at varying scales, the authors make no guarantee as to the accuracy of the data at scales larger than 1:750,000.

Garrity, Christopher P.; Hackley, Paul C.; Urbani, Franco

2006-01-01

269

Tour of Park Geology: Mountain Building  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides links to tours of National Parks, National Monuments, and Recreation Areas associated with major mountain building periods. The parks are divided into groups by mountain building events: Appalachian, Laramide, and others. Where appropriate, links are provided to park geology, maps, photographs, geologic research, related links, visitor information, multi-media, and teacher features (resources for teaching geology with National Park examples). The list includes places such as: Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area, Shenandoah National Park, Devils Tower National Monument, Mt. Rushmore National Monument, Yosemite National Park, and more.

270

Tour of Park Geology: Sand Dunes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Park Geology site provides links to tours of individual National Parks, Monuments, and Recreation Areas with sand dunes. Where appropriate for each park, links are provided to maps, photographs, geologic research, related links, visitor information, and teacher features (resources for teaching geology with National Park examples). The list includes places such as Death Valley and Mojave National Preserve, along with less well-known areas such as the Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore in Michigan and the Wright Brothers National Memorial in North Carolina.

271

The West Virginia Geological and Economic Survey (WVGES)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site includes materials on geology, coal and petroleum resources, industrial minerals, geologic hazards, ground water, topographic and geologic maps, education, and earth science. Teacher education materials include rock camps and telecourses. Special features include popular geology pages and frequently-asked-questions about geology and resources; updates about new museum specimens, flood and landslide information for homeowners, documents on mountaintop removal mining materials, and coal resource and mapping project information. Consultations, maps, publications, selected database items, and copies of documents are available at modest cost.

272

Geology Fieldnotes: Theodore Roosevelt National Park, North Dakota  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Theodore Roosevelt National Park site contains park geology information, park maps, photographs, related links, visitor information, and teacher features (resources for teaching geology with National Park examples). The park geology section discusses the Park's geologic history and the region's role in shaping Theodore Roosevelt's conservation efforts while he was President. The section also contains a link to information on the geology of Theodore Roosevelt National Park. The park maps section contains an area map as well as two maps detailing the North and South Units of the Park.

273

Glossary of Geologic Terms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page from Iowa State University presents a general glossary of geologic terms. The site would be a good reference for geology coursework. This glossary of geologic terms is based on the glossary in Earth: An Introduction to Geologic Change, by S. Judson and S.M. Richardson (Englewood Cliffs, NJ, Prentice Hall, 1995). Where possible, definitions conform generally, and in some cases specifically, to definitions given in Robert L Bates and Julia A Jackson (editors), Glossary of Geology, 3rd ed., American Geological Institute, Alexandria, Virginia, 1987.

274

Mount Apatite Park, Auburn, Maine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This guide discusses the geology, mineralogy, and mineral collecting opportunities of the Mount Apatite quarries at Auburn, Maine. Topics include the history and occurrence of the granite pegmatites, which contain collectible specimens of apatite, tourmaline, lepidolite, and other minerals; the history of glaciation in the area; and the history of the mining industry in Auburn, an important producer of commercial feldspar in the early 1900s. There is also information for mineral collectors, including permission and access, directions, and information on the exposures and how to extract specimens from them. References and links to additonal information are included.

275

Bald Mountain, Washington Plantation, Maine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This guide provides information on the geology of Bald Mountain, an outstanding example of an unvegetated mountain summit in western Maine. Topics include the petrology of the metamorphic rocks exposed on the mountain (layered quartzite and schist), which preserve evidence of their sedimentary origin (graded bedding, cross-bedding). There is also information on the glacial history of the area, as indicated by the presence of glacial striations and erratics. For visitors, there is information on permission and access, directions, sampling information, and activities. References are included.

276

Maine Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit and Department of Wildlife Ecology, University of Maine  

E-print Network

Maine Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit and Department of Wildlife Ecology, University Fisheries and Wildlife United States Geological Survey United States Fish and Wildlife Service Wildlife of this report in any way is withheld pending specific authorization from the Leader, Maine Cooperative Fish

Thomas, Andrew

277

Mapping Vesta Northern Quadrangle V-2NE: Exploring troughs, craters and linear features  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's Dawn spacecraft arrived at the asteroid 4Vesta on July 15, 2011, and is now collecting imaging, spectroscopic, and elemental abundance data during its one-year orbital mission. As part of the geological analysis of the surface, a series of 15 quadrangle maps are being produced based on Framing Camera images (FC: spatial resolution: ~65 m/pixel) along with Visible & Infrared Spectrometer data (VIR: spatial resolution: ~180 m/pixel) obtained during the High-Altitude Mapping Orbit (HAMO). This poster presentation concentrates on our geologic analysis and mapping of quadrangle V-2NE. This quadrangle is located from 0°E to 90°E and 21°N to 66°N. The main feature of this quadrangle is a large trough that trends NW-SE across most of the quadrangle. Smaller troughs and other linear features trend in roughly the same direction as this large trough. There are also various topographic features, which may be fault scarps. The area of this quadrangle is reasonably heavily cratered and crater counting ages can be determined for the various geological units. Some of the larger craters contain features associated with slumping. Color variations across the quadrangle, seen in FC and VIR multispectral images, can help to constrain geological units and relative compositions. Acknowledgement: The authors acknowledge the support of the Dawn Science, Instrument and Operations Teams.

Scully, J. E.; Russell, C. T.; Williams, D. A.; Garry, W. B.; Buczkowski, D.; Hiesinger, H.; Yingst, R.; Schenk, P.; Wagner, R. J.; Jaumann, R.; Pieters, C. M.; Raymond, C. A.; Roatsch, T.; Preusker, F.; Ammannito, E.

2011-12-01

278

Geologic investigations  

SciTech Connect

The Climax stock is a composite granitic intrusive of Cretaceous age, composed of quartz monzonite and granodiorite, which intrudes rocks of Paleozoic and Precambrian age. Tertiary volcanic rocks, consisting of ash-flow and ash-fall tuffs, and tuffaceous sedimentary rocks overlie the sedimentary rocks and the stock. Erosion has removed much of the Tertiary volcanic rocks. Hydrothermal alteration of quartz monzonite and granodiorite is found mainly along joints and faults and varies from location to location. The Paleozoic carbonate rocks have been thermally and metasomatically altered to marble and tactite as much as 457 m (1500 ft) from the contact with the stock, although minor discontinuous metasomatic effects are noted in all rocks out to 914 m (3000 ft). Three major faults which define the Climax area structurally are the Tippinip, Boundary and Yucca faults. North of the junction of the Boundary and Yucca faults, the faults are collectively referred to as the Butte fault. The dominant joint sets and their average attitudes are N 32{degrees} W, 22{degrees} NE; N 60{degrees} W, vertical and N 35{degrees} E, vertical. Joints in outcrop are weathered and generally open, but in subsurface, the joints are commonly filled and healed with secondary minerals. 12 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Orkild, P.P. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (USA); Baldwin, M.J.; Townsend, D.R. [Fenix and Scisson, Inc., Mercury, NV (USA)

1983-12-31

279

Geological Sciences 330 Fall 2007 Sedimentary Geology  

E-print Network

: Sediments and Sedimentary Rocks Week 3 17 Sept Sedimentary Textures and Rock Classification 19 Sept Fluid Dynamics (2 & 3) Lab 2: Sedimentary Rock Classification Week 4 24 Sept Sediment Entrainment and DepositionGeological Sciences 330 Fall 2007 Sedimentary Geology This course is intended to provide

280

Geophysics & Geology Inspected.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes findings of a recently published report of the Canadian Geoscience Council, which includes the following topics regarding college geology: facilities; teaching; undergraduate enrollments; postgraduate enrollments; geologic research; and integration of Canadian geoscience with other countries. (CS)

Neale, E. R. W.

1981-01-01

281

South Carolina Geological Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The South Carolina Geological Survey (SCGS) homepage contains information about state mapping, education and outreach programs, and recent news. For educators, there is the Earth Science education series of publications which includes presentations and page-size graphics on such topics as earthquakes, plate tectonics, geologic time, fossils, and others. Other materials include information on mineral resources, links to organizations in and about South Carolina geology, the South Carolina core repository, the Geologic Map of South Carolina, and others.

282

Teaching Sedimentary Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains a variety of resources for faculty members who teach undergraduate sedimentary geology. You will find links to a growing collection of activities and assignments, internet and computer resources, useful articles, presentations from the summer 2006 workshop on teaching sedimentary geology, and lots of creative ideas for teaching sedimentary geology.

283

Geological Survey Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If your research or interests lie in the geology of South Dakota, then the state's Geological Survey Program Web site is for you. Offered are online publications and maps, a geologic reference database, a lithologic logs database, digital base maps, a water quality database, and several other quality information sources worth checking out.

284

Geologic Maps and Structures Name ______________________________ Geology 100 Harbor section  

E-print Network

Geologic Maps and Structures Name ______________________________ Geology 100 ­ Harbor section The objectives of this lab are for you to learn the basic geologic structures in 3-D and to develop some facility in interpreting the nature of geologic structures from geologic maps and geologic cross sections. A big part

Harbor, David

285

The Gulf of Maine in the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes some of the correct, missing, and alternative conceptions which students possess related to the Gulf of Maine. Students (N=226) from grades 4, 8, and 11 were interviewed on 15 major concepts involving geology, physical and chemical oceanography, natural resources, ecology, and decision-making. The mean interview scores of the…

Brody, Michael J.

286

Nature and Science: Natural Features and Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Yellowstone National Park website gives a brief overview of how geologic characteristics form the foundation of the park's ecosystem. Yellowstone has a unique interplay between volcanic, hydrothermal, and glacial processes that exert control on the distribution of flora and fauna. Topics include summaries on geologic formations, glaciation, geothermal features, and volcanism.

Yellowstone National Park

287

4th Interna onal Geologica Belgica Mee ng 2012. Moving Plates and Mel ng Icecaps Processes and Forcing Factors in Geology. Brussels 11-14/09/12 Recognizing pedogenic features in Paleogene sandstones  

E-print Network

Paleogene strata, share many common features with pedo- genic and groundwater silcretes documented & Golding, 1998,). Here we present a review of the criteria that may be used to assess the pedo- genic (or

Boyer, Edmond

288

University of Maine School of Marine Sciences  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Located in Orono, Maine, the SMS is the largest concentration of marine expertise in Maine, and offers one of the largest research and educational programs in the Northeast. Research activities of faculty and students range from aquaculture, marine biology, marine biotechnology, oceanography, and marine geology, to public policy and marine archeology. Site offers information on graduate and undergraduate programs, current research, school news, upcoming events, and outreach initiatives.

289

Fractals in geology and geophysics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The definition of a fractal distribution is that the number of objects N with a characteristic size greater than r scales with the relation N of about r exp -D. The frequency-size distributions for islands, earthquakes, fragments, ore deposits, and oil fields often satisfy this relation. This application illustrates a fundamental aspect of fractal distributions, scale invariance. The requirement of an object to define a scale in photograhs of many geological features is one indication of the wide applicability of scale invariance to geological problems; scale invariance can lead to fractal clustering. Geophysical spectra can also be related to fractals; these are self-affine fractals rather than self-similar fractals. Examples include the earth's topography and geoid.

Turcotte, Donald L.

1989-01-01

290

Geological Survey research 1978  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This U.S. Geological Survey activities report includes a summary of 1978 fiscal year scientific and economic results accompanied by a list of geologic and hydrologic investigations in progress and a report on the status of topographic mapping. The summary of results includes: (1) Mineral and water resources, (2) Engineering geology and hydrology, (3) Regional geology, (4) Principles and processes, (5) Laboratory and field methods, (6) Topographic surveys and mapping, (7) Management of resources on public lands, (8) Land information and analysis, and (9) Investigations in other countries. Also included are lists of cooperating agencies and Geological Survey offices. (Woodard-USGS)

U.S. Geological Survey

1978-01-01

291

Geological Survey research 1976  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This U.S. Geological Survey activities report includes a summary of recent (1976 fiscal year) scientific and economic results accompanied by a list of geologic and hydrologic investigations in progress and a report on the status of topographic mapping. The summary of results includes: (1) Mineral resources, Water resources, (2) Engineering geology and hydrology, (3) Regional geology, (4) Principles and processes, (5) Laboratory and field methods, (6) Topographic surveys and mapping, (7) Management of resources on public lands, (8) Land information and analysis, and (9) Investigations in other countries. Also included are lists of cooperating agencies and Geological Survey offices. (Woodard-USGS)

U.S. Geological Survey

1976-01-01

292

Virtual-Geology.Info  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

At virtual-geology.info, Roger Suthren, a professor at Oxford Brookes University, offers educational materials on geologic phenomena throughout the world. Users can take virtual field trips to study the geology of Scotland, Alaska, and France. In the Regional Geology link, visitors can view wonderful pictures of the volcanoes of Germany, Italy, France, and Greece. Educators can find images of sediments and sedimentary rocks which can be used in a variety of classroom exercises. The website supplies descriptions and additional educational links about sedimentology and environmental geology.

293

Geology of Kentucky  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website contains geologic maps of Kentucky, with a discussion of geologic time in regards to the rocks, minerals, fossils, and economic deposits found there. There are also sections that describe strata and geologic structures beneath the surface (faults, basins, and arches), the structural processes (folding and faulting) that create stratigraphic units, the geomorphology of the state, geologic information by county, a general description of geologic time, fossil, rocks, and minerals of Kentucky, and a virtual field trip through Natural Bridges State Park. Links are provided for further information.

294

Arkansas Geological Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Arkansas Geological Survey (AGS) homepage aims to develop and provide knowledge of the geology and hydrogeology of the State, and to stimulate development and effective management and utilization of the mineral, fossil-fuel, and water resources of Arkansas while protecting the environment. The AGC collects and disperses geologic data consisting of geologic maps, historical data concerning resources, and various datasets concerning water, fossil-fuel, and mineral resources of Arkansas. The site contains publications that can be ordered, sections about Arkansas geology, a list of mineral producers of Arkansas, and reports on mineral resources.

295

Gulf of Maine Research Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Teaching about aquatic environments, serving as neutral conveners, and facilitating marine research is the mission of the Gulf of Maine Research Institute. Features hundreds of web pages with information and classroom activities covering: oceans, human impact, weather, satellite imagery, remote sensing, Antarctica, global climate change, lobsters, turtles, marine, freshwater issues and more. The project of building the new aquarium at Portland is specially considered.

296

Volcanic Features  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive resource adapted from the National Park Service illustrates the variety of landforms and features created by volcanoes. Featured are calderas, craters, fumaroles and other geothermal features, igneous rocks, lava flows, lava tubes, and maars.

2005-12-17

297

Geology Fieldnotes: Craters of the Moon National Monument Idaho  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Craters of the Moon lava field covers 618 square miles and is the largest young basaltic lava field in the conterminous United States. Features include maps, photographs, related links, visitor information, and resources for teaching geology with National Park examples. The park geology section discusses the park's volcanic history and structural geology, as well as the various sites at the park, such as Devils Orchard, Big Cinder Butte, and the Tree Molds Area.

298

Kansas Geological Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The mission of the Kansas Geological Survey, operated by the University of Kansas in connection with its research and service program, is to conduct geological studies and research and to collect, correlate, preserve, and disseminate information leading to a better understanding of the geology of Kansas, with special emphasis on natural resources of economic value, water quality and quantity, and geologic hazards. The website includes information about the High Plains and Ogallala aquifers, the Upper Arkansas corridor, the Dakota aquifer, county and state geologic maps, an online bibliography of Kansas geology, publications, a photo archive, a digital petroleum atlas, a petroleum primer for the state, gravity and magnetic maps, Hugoton project information, and details about the Hutchinson Kansas natural gas fires. The educational resources section contains a mineral information page for the state, and GeoKansas, which provides information on state geology for schools.

299

The geology and geophysics of Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current state of knowledge concerning the regional geology and geophysics of Mars is summarized. Telescopic observations of the planet are reviewed, pre-Mariner models of its interior are discussed, and progress achieved with the Mariner flybys, especially that of Mariner 9, is noted. A map of the Martian geological provinces is presented to provide a summary of the surface geology and morphology. The contrast between the northern and southern hemispheres is pointed out, and the characteristic features of the surface are described in detail. The global topography of the planet is examined along with its gravitational field, gravity anomalies, and moment of inertia. The general sequence of events in Martian geological history is briefly outlined.

Saunders, R. S.

1976-01-01

300

Geotechnical characterization for the Main Drift of the Exploratory Studies Facility  

SciTech Connect

Geotechnical characterization of the Main Drift of the Exploratory Studies Facility was based on borehole data collected in site characterization drilling and on scanline rock mass quality data collected during the excavation of the North Ramp. The Main Drift is the planned 3,131-m near-horizontal tunnel to be excavated at the potential repository horizon for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. Main Drift borehole data consisted of three holes--USW SD-7, SD-9, and SD-12--drilled along the tunnel alignment. In addition, boreholes USW UZ-14, NRG-6, and NRG-7/7A were used to supplement the database on subsurface rock conditions. Specific data summarized and presented included lithologic and rock structure core logs, rock mechanics laboratory testing, and rock mass quality indices. Cross sections with stratigraphic and thermal-mechanical units were also presented. Topics discussed in the report include geologic setting, geologic features of engineering and construction significance, anticipated ground conditions, and the range of required ground support. Rock structural and rock mass quality data have been developed for each 3-m interval of core in the middle nonlithophysal stratigraphic zone of the Topopah Spring Tuff Formation. The distribution of the rock mass quality data in all boreholes used to characterize the Main Drift was assumed to be representative of the variability of the rock mass conditions to be encountered in the Main Drift. Observations in the North Ramp tunnel have been used to project conditions in the lower lithophysal zone and in fault zones.

Kicker, D.C.; Martin, E.R.; Brechtel, C.E.; Stone, C.A. [Agapito Associates, Inc., Las Vegas, NV (United States); Kessel, D.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Yucca Mountain Project Management

1997-07-01

301

Some aspects of geological information contained in LANDSAT images  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The characteristics of MSS images and methods of interpretation are analyzed from a geological point of view. The supportive role of LANDSAT data are illustrated in several examples of surface expressions of geological features, such as synclines and anticlines, spectral characteristics of lithologic units, and circular impact structures.

Dejesusparada, N. (principal investigator); Liu, C. C.; Vitorello, I.; Meneses, P. R.

1980-01-01

302

Activities in planetary geology for the physical and earth sciences  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A users guide for teaching activities in planetary geology, and for physical and earth sciences is presented. The following topics are discussed: cratering; aeolian processes; planetary atmospheres, in particular the Coriolis Effect and storm systems; photogeologic mapping of other planets, Moon provinces and stratigraphy, planets in stereo, land form mapping of Moon, Mercury and Mars, and geologic features of Mars.

Dalli, R.; Greeley, R.

1982-01-01

303

The geology of the Great Lakes ice cover  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geological processes and features of the Great Lakes coastal zone during winter and spring were examined in detail and extensively illustrated by ground and aerial photographs. There were 39 geological, ice-forming regions identified on the Great Lakes and in the connecting lakes, straits and rivers. The patterns of ice land formation on the Great Lakes in mild, normal, and severe

E. W. Marshall

1977-01-01

304

Geology Museum-Based Learning in Soil Science Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Museums provide unique learning opportunities in soil science. The Bob Campbell Geology Museum in Clemson, SC, features an exhibit of minerals and rocks common in the state and in its geologic history. We developed a hands-on laboratory exercise utilizing an exhibit that gives college students an opportunity to visualize regional minerals and…

Mikhailova, E. A.; Tennant, C. H.; Post, C. J.; Cicimurri, C.; Cicimurri, D.

2013-01-01

305

Planetary surfaces are full of geological features unique to their environment and history. In order to visualize these surfaces digitally while providing a sense of depth, this project will incorporate red and cyan anaglyph images of  

E-print Network

of educational content. Identifying a planet from its surface characteristics or discussing the formation-resolution grayscale and color anaglyphs taken from the Moon and Mars. Grayscale anaglyphs with characteristic features have been chosen from the Apollo, Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter

Zanibbi, Richard

306

DUST STORMS AND WATER ICE CLOUDS: FEATURE DETECTION FOR USE ONBOARD THEMIS. Kiri L. Wagstaff (kiri.wagstaff@jpl.nasa.gov), Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA 91109, USA, Joshua L. Bandfield, Department of Geology,  

E-print Network

DUST STORMS AND WATER ICE CLOUDS: FEATURE DETECTION FOR USE ONBOARD THEMIS. Kiri L. Wagstaff (kiri. Introduction: We are developing and testing data analysis algorithms that are destined for use onboard in the atmosphere. Performing data analysis onboard spacecraft will permit better use of instrument time

Wagstaff, Kiri L.

307

Major Ocean Features: Continental Margin  

E-print Network

41 Major Ocean Features: Continental Margin and Deep Sea This introduction summarizes ocean geology's continental shelf is a passive margin so the Ocean Exploration Hudson Canyon, Deep East and Islands as it relates to the Ocean Exploration expeditions. It is not a comprehensive examination of all aspects

308

Geology: The Science of our World  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online course provides interactive laboratory exercises and information on mineralogy, map reading, and topography of New York City. There are also sections on rock formation and origins, geologic time, and Earth history. The course also features 'The Drowning of New York', an interactive study of the effects of climate change, sea level rise, and storm surges on the city.

David Leveson

2002-02-05

309

Tour of Park Geology: River Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides links to National Parks, Monuments, Preserves, Rivers, and Recreation Areas with fluvial landforms. Park links provide maps, photographs, geologic and historical information, and teacher features (links for teaching tools). Parks in this category include Big Bend National Park, Canyonlands National Park, Buffalo National River, and more.

310

Calibrated Peer Review: Introduction - Why Study Geology?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sarah Andrews is a geologist who has also written a series of successful mystery novels featuring (naturally) a geologist who solves crimes in her spare time. Students read her article, "Why Study Geology?", then write and essay addressing points listed in the Writing Prompt. After this, students are introduced to the process of Calibrated Peer Review and evaluate their papers.

Elizabeth Heise

311

U.S. Geological Survey Research Centers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Website of USGS' Coastal and Marine Geology Program. Site features an easy to use interactive resource locator with pull down menus. Resources are broken down by topic, region, and resource type. Information includes tsunamis, earthquakes, erosion, hurricanes, and much more. Information available for many different science disciplines. Access SoundWaves, USGS's monthly newsletter, and read impact studies from past hurricanes.

312

Geology of the Lachesis Tessera V18 Quadrangle, Venus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Summary of the geology of the Lachesis Tessera, focusing on a linear grouping of structural features that includes Breksta Linea. This grouping includes an unnamed corona that is obscured by a large gore.

McGowan, E. M.; McGill, G. E.

2011-03-01

313

The Basics of Rocks and Minerals and Polar Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article gives an overview of the differences between rocks and minerals, the three types of rocks, the rock cycle, and Antarctica's geologic features. It also includes resources for further reading and alignment with the National Science Education Standards.

Julie Codispoti

314

COGEOMAP; a new era in cooperative geologic mapping  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A program of cooperative geologic mapping was established between the U.S. Geological Survey and the State geological surveys in fiscal year 1985. The main purpose of the program is to increase general-purpose geologic mapping throughout the Nation. By combining State and Federal resources for geologic mapping through this cooperative program, new mapping has been started, and both geologic and geophysical maps that resulted from the program have already been published. The program grew from mapping projects in 18 States in fiscal year 1985 to a program involving 29 States in 1986, as the combined State and Federal resources in the program grew from about $2 million to nearly $3 million. As the program enlarges its scope, it faces the challenge of producing high-quality maps with uniform standards while promoting the use of new technologies to increase the speed of geologic and geophysical mapping and map production.

Reinhardt, Juergen; Miller, David M.

1987-01-01

315

The Geological Society of London  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Geological Society of London promotes "the geosciences and the professional interests of UK geoscientists." The website offers media, geological, and society news. Researchers can find out about upcoming conferences covering a variety of geological topics as well as information on a series of journals. Everyone interested in geology can find materials on geological careers, including required education, qualifications, and funding. The website provides teaching resources on volcanoes, geologic hazards, and other geological phenomena.

316

21 January 2005: 13:00 Inhomogeneity as main source... -Robert Hack 1 Inhomogeneity as main source of  

E-print Network

21 January 2005: 13:00 Inhomogeneity as main source... - Robert Hack 1 Inhomogeneity as main source of problems in engineering geology Robert Hack 21 January 2005 #12;21 January 2005: 13:00 Inhomogeneity as main source... - Robert Hack 2 What is inhomogeneity (or non- homogeneity) : Inhomogeneity

Hack, Robert

317

Geologic Time : Online Edition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Offered by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) as a general interest publication, this site is an online edition of a text by the same name, offering a concise overview of the concepts associated with the age of the Earth. The online edition was revised in October of 1997 to reflect current thinking on this topic. Section headers are Geologic Time, Relative Time Scale, Major Divisions of Geologic Time, Index Fossils, Radiometric Time Scale, and Age of the Earth.

1997-01-01

318

The Geology of Virginia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From the College of William of Mary Department of Geology comes the Geology of Virginia Web site. From the Appalachian Plateau to the coastal plain, visitors can explore the geology and physical characteristics of the diverse landscape of the commonwealth of Virginia through simple descriptions and well designed graphics. Even if you don't live in the area, the site does a good job of capturing the interest of anyone looking for quality material on the presented subjects.

319

North Carolina Geological Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The North Carolina Geological Survey (NCGS) examines, describes, and maps the state's geology and mineral resources and publishes reports and maps. The site contains lists of publications, maps, aerial photographs, frequently asked questions about North Carolina geology, and mineral and professional information. Project Earth Science is designed to provide relevant and accurate earth science education information for the state's high school students and earth/environmental science teachers.

320

Pennsylvania Geological Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the homepage of the Pennsylvania Geological Survey. Users can access digital maps, data, and Geographic Information Systems (GIS), information on economic resources, and information on field mapping in the state. Classroom resources include a set of lesson plans on Pennsylvania geology; 'Rock Boxes', a set of rock samples which can be ordered; information on mineral collecting; and a series of educational publications, page-sized maps, and the 'Trail of Geology' park guide.

321

Roadside and Engineering Geology of Auke Bay, Juneau Alaska  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students have learned the rudiments of outcrop evaluation, surveying and mapping of geomorphic features, and the hazards of urbanization in Juneau's glacierized and high relief terrain. Their task in this lab is to assess geologic hazards inherent in the landscape by collecting structural data and making observations at 6 sites with interesting features. They use their field notes as a basis for writing an engineering geology report to the city with their recommendations for site selection for home building.

Cathy Lynn Connor

322

Hawaii Volcanoes National Park: A 3-D Photographic Geology Tour  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This virtual tour features three-dimensional images from the United States Geological Survey's (USGS) collection. It introduces visitors to the geology, landforms, and volcanism of Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. Features of interest include Kilauea Caldera and Halema'uma'u Crater, which have been the sites of very recent volcanic activity. There are also views of active lava flows, steam vents, and lava tubes. The 3-D images are anaglyphs and require red and cyan 3-D viewing glasses.

323

Geologic Maps and Structures Name ______________________________ Geology 100 Harbor section  

E-print Network

Geologic Maps and Structures Name ______________________________ Geology 100 ­ Harbor section Read Ch. 7 before you begin. The objectives of this lab are for you to learn the basic geologic structures in 3-D and to develop some facility in interpreting the nature of geologic structures from geologic

Harbor, David

324

Environmental Geology Major www.geology.pitt.edu/uprogs.html  

E-print Network

Environmental Geology Major www.geology.pitt.edu/uprogs.html Revised: 04/2004 Environmental geology in environmental geology provides the diverse skills required to work in many different employment settings issues. Within the field of geology, environmental and geotechnical jobs exist for people with BS degrees

Jiang, Huiqiang

325

Department of Geology and Geological Engineering University of Mississippi Announces  

E-print Network

Department of Geology and Geological Engineering University of Mississippi Announces Krista Pursuing a degree within the Geology & Geological Engineering department Record of financial need the University of Mississippi with a Bachelor of Science degree in geological engineering in 1982. After earning

Elsherbeni, Atef Z.

326

Geological Survey research 1981  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This U.S. Geological Survey activities report includes a summary of 1981 fiscal year scientific and economic results accompanied by a list of geologic, hydrologic, and cartographic investigations in progress. The summary of results includes: (1) Mineral, (2) Water resources, (3) Engineering geology and hydrology, (4) Regional geology, (5) Principles and processes, (6) Laboratory and field methods, (7) Topographic surveys and mapping, (8) Management of resources on public lands, (9) Land information and analysis, and (10) Investigations in other countries. Also included are lists of investigations in progress. (USGS)

U.S. Geological Survey

1982-01-01

327

Structural Geology 'Research' Conference  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this assignment students read and discuss a peer-reviewed journal article and prepare for and attend our class 'research' conference. In the conference they present on an area of current research as discussed in the journal article they read, and they practice formulating questions about other's research. Outcomes: 1. Read and discuss a structural geology peer-reviewed journal article. 2. Prepare a presentation that demonstrates your understanding of a current research topic in structural geology. 3. View and understand several diverse areas within geology and geophysics that use structural geology in research. 4. Ask questions relevant to a research presentation.

Julie Willis

328

Understanding Geologic Maps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an exercise in which students are reintroduced to geologic maps and encouraged to "deconstruct" the map into constituent elements in order to understand the geologic history of the area. The preceding lectures in the course have recapitulated material that the students have covered in Introduction to Physical Geology. During class, the students work through the maps that were part of lab exercises in the Intro level course, so that basic concepts are recalled (superposition, cross-cutting relationships, basic faults and folds). The final product is a geologic history of this map area.

Cara Burberry

329

Geologic Mapping Exercise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This exercise is designed to simulate how a basic geological investigation of a site takes place. A basic geological investigation includes familiarizing yourself with the unconsolidated sediments, rocks, structural geology, and groundwater present at your site. As part of this exercise you will have to properly identify a variety of rock types and sediments, create maps that represent data you collected at each location, and complete a basic report of your findings (optional). Once completed, this exercise should give students a basic understanding of how the various concepts used throughout the semester are applied in the real world in the form of a geological investigation.

Andrew Smith

330

Geology Fieldnotes: Wind Cave National Park South Dakota  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Wind Cave National Park includes one of the world's longest and most complex caves and 28,295 acres of mixed-grass prairie, ponderosa pine forest, and associated wildlife. The cave is well known for its outstanding display of boxwork, an unusual cave formation composed of thin calcite fins resembling honeycombs. Features include park geology information, maps, photographs of cave formations, related links, and visitor information. The park geology section discusses geologic history, structural geology, cave formations, and history of exploration of the region. The park maps section includes an area map of Wind Cave National Park and a detailed cave map.

331

Quaternary Geologic Map of Connecticut and Long Island Sound Basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Quaternary geologic map (sheet 1) and explanatory figures and cross sections (sheet 2) portray the geologic features formed in Connecticut during the Quaternary Period, which includes the Pleistocene (glacial) and Holocene (postglacial) Epochs. The Quaternary Period has been a time of development of many details of the landscape and of all the surficial deposits. At least twice in the late Pleistocene, continental ice sheets swept across Connecticut. Their effects are of pervasive importance to the present occupants of the land. The Quaternary geologic map illustrates the geologic history and the distribution of depositional environments during the emplacement of glacial and postglacial surficial deposits and the landforms resulting from those events.

Stone, Janet Radway; Schafer, John P.; London, Elizabeth Haley; DiGiacomo-Cohen, Mary L.; Lewis, Ralph S.; Thompson, Woodrow B.

2005-01-01

332

A Literary Map of Maine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sure, you might know that Longfellow was a member of the literati who called Maine home, but did you know that Robert McCloskey was one as well? In case you might have forgotten, McCloskey was the author and illustrator of those children's classics "Make Way for Ducklings" and "Blueberries for Sal". It's easy to learn about dozens of Maine authors via this delightful website created as part of a partnership between the Maine Sunday Telegram and a number of library and humanities groups in Maine. Currently, the map features over 50 sites, and visitors can browse around at their leisure to learn about authors like Longfellow, Stephen King, and Richard Russo. Clicking on each site will pull up a brief excerpt of each author's work, along with a brief bio.

333

Textural features for radar image analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Texture is seen as an important spatial feature useful for identifying objects or regions of interest in an image. While textural features have been widely used in analyzing a variety of photographic images, they have not been used in processing radar images. A procedure for extracting a set of textural features for characterizing small areas in radar images is presented, and it is shown that these features can be used in classifying segments of radar images corresponding to different geological formations.

Shanmugan, K. S.; Narayanan, V.; Frost, V. S.; Stiles, J. A.; Holtzman, J. C.

1981-01-01

334

Main Pass Sampling  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

On April 20, 2010, the Deepwater Horizon Drilling Platform exploded and sank, causing an enormous oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. U.S. Geological Survey field offices responded immediately by organizing teams to take pre-spill sediment and water samples in order to establish a baseline survey. This...

335

OneGeology Web Services and Portal as a global geological SDI - latest standards and technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The global coverage of OneGeology Web Services (www.onegeology.org and portal.onegeology.org) achieved since 2007 from the 120 participating geological surveys will be reviewed and issues arising discussed. Recent enhancements to the OneGeology Web Services capabilities will be covered including new up to 5 star service accreditation scheme utilising the ISO/OGC Web Mapping Service standard version 1.3, core ISO 19115 metadata additions and Version 2.0 Web Feature Services (WFS) serving the new IUGS-CGI GeoSciML V3.2 geological web data exchange language standard (http://www.geosciml.org/) with its associated 30+ IUGS-CGI available vocabularies (http://resource.geosciml.org/ and http://srvgeosciml.brgm.fr/eXist2010/brgm/client.html). Use of the CGI simpelithology and timescale dictionaries now allow those who wish to do so to offer data harmonisation to query their GeoSciML 3.2 based Web Feature Services and their GeoSciML_Portrayal V2.0.1 (http://www.geosciml.org/) Web Map Services in the OneGeology portal (http://portal.onegeology.org). Contributing to OneGeology involves offering to serve ideally 1:1000,000 scale geological data (in practice any scale now is warmly welcomed) as an OGC (Open Geospatial Consortium) standard based WMS (Web Mapping Service) service from an available WWW server. This may either be hosted within the Geological Survey or a neighbouring, regional or elsewhere institution that offers to serve that data for them i.e. offers to help technically by providing the web serving IT infrastructure as a 'buddy'. OneGeology is a standards focussed Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI) and works to ensure that these standards work together and it is now possible for European Geological Surveys to register their INSPIRE web services within the OneGeology SDI (e.g. see http://www.geosciml.org/geosciml/3.2/documentation/cookbook/INSPIRE_GeoSciML_Cookbook%20_1.0.pdf). The Onegeology portal (http://portal.onegeology.org) is the first port of call for anyone wishing to discover the availability of global geological web services and has new functionality to view and use such services including multiple projection support. KEYWORDS : OneGeology; GeoSciML V 3.2; Data exchange; Portal; INSPIRE; Standards; OGC; Interoperability; GeoScience information; WMS; WFS; Cookbook.

Duffy, Tim; Tellez-Arenas, Agnes

2014-05-01

336

Geology explorer: virtual geologic mapping and interpretation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are developing internet-based freeware for virtual mapping and geologic interpretation. This takes the form of a synthetic, virtual world, Planet Oit, where students are given the means and the equipment to carry out geologic investigation and interpretation as a geologist would in the field. The environment is designed to give students an authentic experience that includes elements of: (1) exploration of a spatially oriented, virtual, world; (2) practical, field oriented, expedition planning and decision-making; and (3) scientific problem solving (i.e. a "hands on" approach to mapping, geologic investigation, data acquisition, and interpretation). The game-like environment is networked, multi-player, and simulation-based. Planet Oit can be visited on the Internet at http://oit.cs.ndsu.nodak.edu/

Saini-Eidukat, Bernhardt; Schwert, Donald P.; Slator, Brian M.

2002-12-01

337

The geologic mapping of asteroid Vesta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of NASA's Dawn mission [1,2] we conducted a geologic mapping campaign to provide a systematic, cartography-based initial characterization of the global and regional geology of asteroid Vesta. The goal of geological maps is to place observations of surface features into their stratigraphic context to develop a geologic history of the evolution of planetary surfaces. Geologic mapping reduces the complexity of heterogeneous planetary surfaces into comprehensible portions, defining and characterizing discrete material units based upon physical attributes related to the geologic processes that produced them, and enabling identification of the relative roles of various processes (impact cratering, tectonism, volcanism, erosion and deposition) in shaping planetary surfaces [3,4]. The Dawn Science Team produced cartographic products of Vesta from the Framing Camera images, including global mosaics as well as 15 regional quadrangles [5], which served as bases for the mapping. We oversaw the geologic mapping campaign during the Nominal Mission, including production of a global geologic map at scale 1:500,000 using images from the High Altitude Mapping Orbit [6] and 15 quadrangle geologic maps at scale 1:250,000 using images from the Low Altitude Mapping Orbit [7]. The goal was to support the Dawn Team by providing geologic and stratigraphic context of surface features and supporting the analysis of data from the Visible and Infrared Spectrometer (VIR) and the Gamma Ray and Neutron Detector (GRaND). Mapping was done using ArcGIS™ software, in which quadrangle mapping built on interpretations derived from the global geologic map but were updated and modified to take advantage of the highest spatial resolution data. Despite challenges (e.g., Vesta's highly sloped surface [8] deforms impact craters and produces mass movements that buries contacts), we were successfully able to map the whole surface of Vesta and identify a geologic history as represented in our maps and the resulting time-stratigraphic system and geologic timescale. Key results from the geologic mapping of Vesta include: 1) surface units are dominated by features and materials produced by two major impact events, the older Veneneia and younger Rheasilvia impacts at the south pole 2) both impacts produced a ridge-and-trough terrain as a tectonic response to the impacts, mapped as the Saturnalia Fossae and the Divalia Fossae Formations, respectively 3) stratigraphic analysis of Vesta's heavily cratered terrains show that portions of the original crust are preserved and predate the Veneneia impact 4) the Marcia impact event marks the beginning of Vesta's final stratigraphic period, including exposure of fresh bright and dark material and preservation of young bright-rayed and dark-rayed craters. We conclude that a geologic mapping campaign, including both global and regional mapping, can be conducted during the limited planetary nominal mission timeline, and is an excellent way to engage younger team members (graduate students and postdocs) in mission data analysis activities.

Williams, D.; Yingst, A.; Garry, B.

2014-07-01

338

The growth of geological structures by repeated earthquakes, 1, conceptual framework  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In many places, earthquakes with similar characteristics have been shown to recur. If this is common, then relatively small deformations associated with individual earthquake cycles should accumulate over time to create geological structures. It is shown that existing models developed to describe leveling line changes associated with the seismic cycle can be adapted to explain geological features associated with a fault. In these models an elastic layer containing the fault overlies a viscous half-space with a different density. Fault motion associated with an earthquake results in immediate deformation followed by a long period of readjustment as stresses relax in the viscous layer and isostatic equilibrium is restored. The flexural rigidity of the crust (or the apparent elastic thickness) provides the main control of the width of a structure. The loading due to erosion and deposition of sediment determines the ratio of uplift to subsidence between the two sides of the fault. -Authors

King, G.C.P.; Stein, R.S.; Rundle, J.B.

1988-01-01

339

Commencement of Geoparks, Geology day and International Earth Science Olympiad, IYPE in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The GSJ is the main supporting organization of IYPE Japan, which is an implementation body of IYPE in Japan, serving as its secretariat. During the IYPE triennial activity, the GSJ has been supporting development of Geparks, establishment of "the Geology Day" and the Earth Science Olympiad activities with some academic societies, and has distributed geological maps with IYPE logo. The GSJ also established an outreach network "Geo-networks Tsukuba" as a local legacy of the IYPE, and has managed it with a local government, research organizations, nonprofit corporations and local media to increase geological and environmental literacy of public, especially among young people. The GSJ-AIST has also contributed internationally to IYPE by joining two international projects, OneGeology and the CCOP Book project. Geoparks in Japan are characterized by following features. The Japanese Islands and the surrounding seas are situated in the area of unique geologic features; the place where several tectonic plates meet and collide. This causes earthquakes and volcanic activities, and makes Japan one of most dynamic areas on the earth. The dynamics of the earth bring about not only geological hazards but also a lot of blessings. In August of 2009, three Geoparks, the Toya Caldera and Usu Volcano Geopark, the Itoigawa Geopark and the Unzen Volcanic Area Geopark, were accepted to join the Global Geopark Network from Japan for the first time. Since its launch in 2006, the GSJ has been playing a major role in promoting Geoparks in Japan together with Geological Society of Japan. The GSJ hosts the Japan Geopark Committee (JGC) for quality evaluation, serving as the information center of Geoparks in Japan. The Geology Day of Japan (10th of May) has been set up by the academic societies for geology in Japan and GSJ in 2007. The Geology Day is expected to provide the chances for the public to enjoy field trips and excursions and to understand the importance of geo-diversity. The Day commemorates the first publication of the geological map of Japan on 10th of May in 1878. A total of fifty-nine geology-related organizations including natural museums and academic societies have joined the eighty nine events for Geology Day all over Japan in 2009. After the great success of 1st Iinternational Earth Science Olympiad(IESO) in Korea (2007), 2nd Philippines (2008) and 3rd Taiwan (2009), 6th IESO was decided to be held in Japan (2012). We also expect great success of 4th IESO in Indonesia and 5th IESO in Italy. Earth science communities in Japan including Societies, Universities, and Research Institutes take present-day environmental crisis seriously and throw strong messages to young people for saving the earth. Under such circumstances, IESO provides wonderful chances to think of the earth, to make friendships among worldwide participants and to understand each other. We, earth science communities in Japan, promise strongly to support 6th IESO in Tsukuba, Japan (2012) and then to organize this event efficiently. Through the triennial activity of IYPE we all learned the importance of international cooperation and public outreach.

Tsukuda, Eikichi; Kodama, Kisaburo; Miyazaki, Teruki

2010-05-01

340

The MEMIN Research Unit: New results from impact cratering experiments into geological materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The MEMIN research unit (Multidisciplinary Experimental and Modeling Impact research Network) is focused on performing hypervelocity impact experiments, analyzing experimental impact craters and modeling cratering rocesses in geological materials. The main goal of the MEMIN project is to comprehensively quantify impact processes by conducting stringently controlled experimental impact cratering campaigns on the mesoscale with a multidisciplinary analytical approach. As a unique feature we use two-stage light gas guns capable of producing impact craters in thedecimeter size-range in solid rocks that, in turn, allow detailed spatial analysis of petrophysical, structural, and geochemical changes in target rocks and ejecta.

Poelchau, M. H.; Deutsch, A.; Thoma, K.; Kenkmann, T.

2013-09-01

341

Structural Geology Techniques  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Wisconsin - Green Bay has created this collection of material and instructions on how to analyze and plot structural geology data. Topics covered includes planes, lines, relations between lines and planes, geologic structures, intersection of structures with topography, stereonet techniques, stress and strain, and analysis of complex structures.

Dutch, Steven

342

Advances in planetary geology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This second issue in a new series intended to serve the planetary geology community with a form for quick and thorough communications includes (1) a catalog of terrestrial craterform structures for northern Europe; (2) abstracts of results of the Planetary Geology Program, and (3) a list of the photographic holdings of regional planetary image facilities.

Woronow, A. (editor)

1981-01-01

343

Advances in Planetary Geology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advances in Planetary Geology is a new series intended to serve the planetary geology community with a form for quick and thorough communications. There are no set lists of acceptable topics or formats, and submitted manuscripts will not undergo a formal review. All submissions should be in a camera ready form, preferably spaced, and submitted to the editor.

Woronow, A. (editor)

1982-01-01

344

National Geologic Map Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Geologic Map Database (NGMDB) is an Internet-based system for query and retrieval of earth-science map information, created as a collaborative effort between the USGS and the Association of American State Geologists. Its functions include providing a catalog of available map information; a data repository; and a source for general information on the nature and intended uses of the various types of earth-science information. The map catalog is a comprehensive, searchable catalog of all geoscience maps of the United States, in paper or digital format. It includes maps published in geological survey formal series and open-file series, maps in books, theses and dissertations, maps published by park associations, scientific societies, and other agencies, as well as publications that do not contain a map but instead provide a geological description of an area (for example, a state park). The geologic-names lexicon (GEOLEX) is a search tool for lithologic and geochronologic unit names. It now contains roughly 90% of the geologic names found in the most recent listing of USGS-approved geologic names. Current mapping activities at 1:24,000- and 1:100,000-scale are listed in the Geologic Mapping in Progress Database. Information on how to find topographic maps and list of geology-related links is also available.

1997-01-01

345

External Resource: Geologic Time  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NASA sponsored webpage, Center for Educational Technologies, teaches students about Geologic Time. The age of Earth is so long compared to all periods of time that we humans are familiar with, it has been given a special name: Geologic time. The age

1900-01-01

346

Glossary of geology  

SciTech Connect

This third edition of the Glossary of Geology contains approximately 37,000 terms, or 1,000 more than the second edition. New entries are especially numerous in the fields of carbonate sedimentology, hydrogeology, marine geology, mineralogy, ore deposits, plate tectonics, snow and ice, and stratigraphic nomenclature. Many of the definitions provide background information.

Bates, R.L.; Jackson, J.A.

1987-01-01

347

California Geological Survey - Landslides  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page from the CA Geological Survey (CGS) presents information on landslides as well as maps and products of various past and present CGS programs to map and respond to landslides in the state of California, including the Forest and Watershed Geology Program, the Seismic Hazards Zonation Program, the Caltrans Highway Corridor Mapping project, and the Landslide Map Index.

California Geological Survey

348

People and Geology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides background information on the many natural resources we extract from the earth's crust, including metals, graphite, and other minerals, as well as fossil fuels. Contains teaching activities such as a geologic scavenger hunt, a geology chronology, and the recycling of aluminum. Includes a reproducible handout for the activity on aluminum.…

Naturescope, 1987

1987-01-01

349

Radiometric Dating in Geology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described are several aspects and methods of quantitatively measuring geologic time using a constant-rate natural process of radioactive decay. Topics include half lives and decay constants, radiogenic growth, potassium-argon dating, rubidium-strontium dating, and the role of geochronology in support of geological exploration. (DS)

Pankhurst, R. J.

1980-01-01

350

Geologic Time Online Edition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tutorial will help students learn and understand the concepts of geologic time and the age of the Earth. They will investigate the geologic time scale and learn about the use of index fossils and radiometric dating to determine the age of rock formations and fossils.

351

Earthquakes and Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students investigate the relationship between intensity of ground motion and type of rock or alluvium, as seen in the 1994 Northridge, California earthquake. They will examine a map of Mercalli intensity, a cross-section showing geologic structures and rock types, and a map of surficial geology, and answer questions pertaining to amplification of ground motion and S-wave velocities.

David Ozsvath

352

Layer Cake Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This classroom activity uses a cake to demonstrate geologic processes and introduce geologic terms. Students will learn how folds and faults occur, recognize the difference in behavior between brittle and ductile rocks, and attempt to predict structures likely to result from application of various forces to layered rocks. They will also attempt to interpret 'core samples' to determine subsurface rock structure.

John Wagner

353

Geodynamics applications of continuum physics to geological problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This textbook deals with the fundamental physical processes necessary for an understanding of plate tectonics and a variety of geologic phenomena. The first chapter reviews plate tectonics; its main purpose is to provide physics, chemistry, and engineering students with the geologic background necessary to understand the applications throughout the rest of the book. It goes on to discuss in following

D. L. Turcotte; G. Schubert

1982-01-01

354

The Geological Society of America Special Paper 489  

E-print Network

of eastern Grand Canyon Joel L. Pederson Department of Geology, 4505 Old Main Hill, Utah State University, Logan, Utah 84322-4505, USA Pederson, J.L., 2012, A review of the geomorphology of eastern Grand Canyon, in Timmons, J.M., and Karlstrom, K.E., eds., Grand Canyon Geology: Two Billion Years of Earth's History

Pederson, Joel L.

355

Geology of Earth's Moon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

First, researchers at the University of California, San Diego discuss the importance of studying earthquakes on the moon, also known as moonquakes, and the Apollo Lunar Seismic Experiment (1). Users can discover the problems scientists must deal with when collecting the moon's seismic data. The students at Case Western Reserve University created the second website to address three missions the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) has planned between now and 2010, including a mission to the moon (2). Visitors can learn about the Lunar-A probe that will be used to photograph the surface of the moon, "monitor moonquakes, measure temperature, and study the internal structure." Next, the Planetary Data Service (PDS) at the USGS offers users four datasets that they can use to create an image of a chosen area of the moon (3). Each dataset can be viewed as a basic clickable map; a clickable map where users can specify size, resolution, and projection; or an advanced version where visitors can select areas by center latitude and longitude. The fourth site, produced by Robert Wickman at the University of North Dakota, presents a map of the volcanoes on the moon and compares their characteristics with those on earth (4). Students can learn how the gravitational forces on the Moon affect the lava flows. Next, Professor Jeff Ryan at the University of South Florida at Tampa supplies fantastic images and descriptive text of the lunar rocks obtained by the Apollo missions (5). Visitors can find links to images of meteorites, terrestrial rocks, and Apollo landings as well. At the Science Channel website, students and educators can find a video clip discussing the geologic studies on the moon along with videos about planets (6). Users can learn about how studying moon rocks help scientists better understand the formation of the earth. Next, the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum presents its research of "lunar topography, cratering and impacts basins, tectonics, lava flows, and regolith properties" (7). Visitors can find summaries of the characteristics of the moon and the main findings since the 1950s. Lastly, the USGS Astrogeology Research Program provides archived lunar images and data collected between 1965 and 1992 by Apollo, Lunar Orbiter, Galileo, and Zond 8 missions (8). While the data is a little old, students and educators can still find valuable materials about the moon's topography, chemical composition, and geology.

356

The spectral analysis and information extraction for small geological target detection using hyperion image  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Imaging spectroscopic technique has been used for the mineral and rock geological mapping and alteration information extraction successfully with many reasonable results, but it is mainly used in arid and semi-arid land with low vegetation covering. In the case of the high vegetation covering, the outcrop of the altered rocks is small and distributes sparsely, the altered rocks is difficult to be identified directly. The target detection technique using imaging spectroscopic data should be introduced to the extraction of small geological targets under high vegetation covering area. In the paper, we take Ding-Ma gold deposit as the study area which located in Zhenan country, Shanxi province, the spectral features of the targets and the backgrounds are studied and analyzed using the field reflectance spectra, in addition to the study of the principle of the algorithms, some target detection algorithms which is appropriate to the small geological target detection are introduced. At last, the small altered rock targets under the covering of vegetation in forest are detected and discriminated in imaging spectroscopy data with the methods of spectral angle mapper (SAM), Constrained Energy Minimization (CEM) and Adaptive Cosine Estimator (ACE). The detection results are reasonable and indicate the ability of target detection algorithms in geological target detection in the forest area.

Li, Qingting; Wei, Xinxin; Zhang, Bing; Yan, Shouxun; Liu, Xiang

2008-12-01

357

Field Geology/Processes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The field geology/process group examined the basic operations of a terrestrial field geologist and the manner in which these operations could be transferred to a planetary lander. Four basic requirements for robotic field geology were determined: geologic content; surface vision; mobility; and manipulation. Geologic content requires a combination of orbital and descent imaging. Surface vision requirements include range, resolution, stereo, and multispectral imaging. The minimum mobility for useful field geology depends on the scale of orbital imagery. Manipulation requirements include exposing unweathered surfaces, screening samples, and bringing samples in contact with analytical instruments. To support these requirements, several advanced capabilities for future development are recommended. Capabilities include near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy, hyper-spectral imaging, multispectral microscopy, artificial intelligence in support of imaging, x ray diffraction, x ray fluorescence, and rock chipping.

Allen, Carlton; Jakes, Petr; Jaumann, Ralf; Marshall, John; Moses, Stewart; Ryder, Graham; Saunders, Stephen; Singer, Robert

1996-01-01

358

Geology Fieldnotes: Ice Age National Scientific Preserve  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Park Service (NPS) site gives information on the Ice Age National Scientific Preserve in Wisconsin, including geology, park maps, a photo album, and other media (books, videos, CDs). There is also a selection of links to other geologic and conservation organizations, and to information for visitors. This preserve contains a wealth of glacial features associated with the most recent Pleistocene continental glaciation including drumlins, kames, kettles, moraines, erratics, and eskers. It also contains a segment of the Ice Age National Scenic Trail, a 1000-plus mile hiking and backpacking trail that passes through this unique glacial landscape.

359

Geologic utility of small-scale airphotos  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The geologic value of small scale airphotos is emphasized by describing the application of high altitude oblique and 1:120,000 to 1:145,000 scale vertical airphotos to several geologic problems in California. These examples show that small-scale airphotos can be of use to geologists in the following ways: (1) high altitude, high oblique airphotos show vast areas in one view; and (2) vertical airphotos offer the most efficient method of discovering the major topographic features and structural and lithologic characteristics of terrain.

Clark, M. M.

1969-01-01

360

Essential Elements of Geologic Reports.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described is a report outline for geologic reports. Essential elements include title; abstract; introduction; stratigraphy; petrography; geochemistry; petrology; geophysics; structural geology; geologic history; modeling; economics; conclusions; and recommendations. (Author/CW)

Webb, Elmer James

1988-01-01

361

Geologic guide to the island of Hawaii: A field guide for comparative planetary geology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With geological data available for all inner planets except Venus, we are entering an era of true comparative planetary geology, when knowledge of the differences and similarities for classes of structures (e.g., shield volcanoes) will lead to a better understanding of general geological processes, regardless of planet. Thus, it is imperative that planetologists, particularly those involved in geological mapping and surface feature analysis for terrestrial planets, be familiar with volcanic terrain in terms of its origin, structure, and morphology. One means of gaining this experience is through field trips in volcanic terrains - hence, the Planetology Conference in Hawaii. In addition, discussions with volcanologists at the conference provide an important basis for establishing communications between the two fields that will facilitate comparative studies as more data become available.

Greeley, R. (editor)

1974-01-01

362

Geology and insolation-driven climatic history of Amazonian north polar materials on Mars  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mariner 9 and Viking spacecraft images revealed that the polar regions of Mars, like those of Earth, record the planet's climate history. However, fundamental uncertainties regarding the materials, features, ages and processes constituting the geologic record remained. Recently acquired Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter data and Mars Orbiter Camera high-resolution images from the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft and moderately high-resolution Thermal Emission Imaging System visible images from the Mars Odyssey spacecraft permit more comprehensive geologic and climatic analyses. Here I map and show the history of geologic materials and features in the north polar region that span the Amazonian period (???3.0 Gyr ago to present). Erosion and redeposition of putative circumpolar mud volcano deposits (formed by eruption of liquefied, fine-grained material) led to the formation of an Early Amazonian polar plateau consisting of dark layered materials. Crater ejecta superposed on pedestals indicate that a thin mantle was present during most of the Amazonian, suggesting generally higher obliquity and insolation conditions at the poles than at present. Brighter polar layered deposits rest unconformably on the dark layers and formed mainly during lower obliquity over the past 4-5 Myr (ref. 20). Finally, the uppermost layers post-date the latest downtrend in obliquity <20,000 years ago. ?? 2005 Nature Publishing Group.

Tanaka, K.L.

2005-01-01

363

The Teacher-Friendly Guide to the Geology of Your Region  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The guides give teachers the background to make sense of regional and local geology in terms of a basic sequence of historical events and processes. The guides help teachers to meet national and state science standards by providing concrete examples of geologic processes that are closer to home than many classic textbook examples. The guides explain why geological features occur when and where they do in order to help students to remember and predict the nature of local geology.

2006-08-15

364

Main Idea: What is the Book About?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this resource, students will identify and describe what a book is mainly about using the title, text and pictures. The two featured texts that students will use are informational texts about tigers and ladybugs.

ReadWorks

2012-03-26

365

Database of the Geology and Thermal Activity of Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This dataset contains contacts, geologic units and map boundaries from Plate 1 of USGS Professional Paper 1456, 'The Geology and Remarkable Thermal Activity of Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming.' The features are contained in the Annotation, basins_poly, contours, geology_arc, geology_poly, point_features, and stream_arc feature classes as well as a table of geologic units and their descriptions. This dataset was constructed to produce a digital geologic map as a basis for studying hydrothermal processes in Norris Geyser Basin. The original map does not contain registration tic marks. To create the geodatabase, the original scanned map was georegistered to USGS aerial photographs of the Norris Junction quadrangle collected in 1994. Manmade objects, i.e. roads, parking lots, and the visitor center, along with stream junctions and other hydrographic features, were used for registration.

Flynn, Kathryn; Graham Wall, Brita; White, Donald E.; Hutchinson, Roderick A.; Keith, Terry E.C.; Clor, Laura; Robinson, Joel E.

2008-01-01

366

Geology and ground-water features of salt springs, seeps, and plains in the Arkansas and Red River basins of western Oklahoma and adjacent parts of Kansas and Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The salt springs, seeps, and plains described in this report are in the Arkansas and Red River basins in western Oklahoma and adjacent areas in Kansas and Texas. The springs and seeps contribute significantly to the generally poor water quality of the rivers by bringing salt (HaCI) to the surface at an estimated daily rate of more than 8,000 tons. The region investigated is characterized by low hills and rolling plains. Many of the rivers are eroded 100 feet or more below the .surrounding upland surface and in places the valleys are bordered by steep bluffs. The alluvial plains of the major rivers are wide and the river channels are shallow and unstable. The flow of many surface streams is intermittent, especially in the western part of the area. All the natural salt-contributing areas studied are within the outcrop area of rocks of Permian age. The Permian rocks, commonly termed red beds, are composed principally of red and gray gypsiferous shale, siltstone, sandstone, gypsum, anhydrite, and dolomite. Many of the formations contain halite in the subsurface. The halite occurs mostly as discontinuous lenses in shale, although some of the thicker, more massive beds are extensive. It underlies the entire region studied at depths ranging from about 30 feet to more than 2,000 feet. The salt and associated strata show evidence of extensive removal of salt through solution by ground water. Although the salt generally occurs in relatively impervious shale small joints and fractures ,allow the passage of small quantities of water which dissolves the salt. Salt water occurs in the report area at depths ranging from less than 100 feet to more than 1,000 feet. Salt water occurs both as meteoric and connate, but the water emerging as salt springs is meteoric. Tritium analyses show that the age of the water from several springs is less than 20 years. The salt springs, seeps, and plains are confined to 13 local areas. The flow of the springs and seeps is small, but the chloride concentration in the water ranges from a few hundred parts per million to about 190,000 ppm. The wide range of concentration is believed to be due, in part, to differential dilution by fresh water. Alluvium in the vicinity of the salt springs remains saturated with salt water and evaporation from the alluvial surface causes the formation of a salt crust during dry weather. Those areas appear as salt plains that range in size from less than an acre to as much as 60 square miles. The rocks exposed at the surface in the vicinity of the salt springs are permeable enough to allow the infiltration of some precipitation. Under certain geologic and hydrologic conditions ground water percolates down and through salt-bearing rocks where it dissolves the .salt. Hydrostatic pressure of ground water at higher elevations forces the salt water to emerge as salt springs at lower elevations.

Ward, P.E.

1963-01-01

367

Digital Geologic Map Database of Medicine Lake Volcano, Northern California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Medicine Lake volcano, located in the southern Cascades ~55 km east-northeast of Mount Shasta, is a large rear-arc, shield-shaped volcano with an eruptive history spanning nearly 500 k.y. Geologic mapping of Medicine Lake volcano has been digitally compiled as a spatial database in ArcGIS. Within the database, coverage feature classes have been created representing geologic lines (contacts, faults, lava tubes, etc.), geologic unit polygons, and volcanic vent location points. The database can be queried to determine the spatial distributions of different rock types, geologic units, and other geologic and geomorphic features. These data, in turn, can be used to better understand the evolution, growth, and potential hazards of this large, rear-arc Cascades volcano. Queries of the database reveal that the total area covered by lavas of Medicine Lake volcano, which range in composition from basalt through rhyolite, is about 2,200 km2, encompassing all or parts of 27 U.S. Geological Survey 1:24,000-scale topographic quadrangles. The maximum extent of these lavas is about 80 km north-south by 45 km east-west. Occupying the center of Medicine Lake volcano is a 7 km by 12 km summit caldera in which nestles its namesake, Medicine Lake. The flanks of the volcano, which are dotted with cinder cones, slope gently upward to the caldera rim, which reaches an elevation of nearly 2,440 m. Approximately 250 geologic units have been mapped, only half a dozen of which are thin surficial units such as alluvium. These volcanic units mostly represent eruptive events, each commonly including a vent (dome, cinder cone, spatter cone, etc.) and its associated lava flow. Some cinder cones have not been matched to lava flows, as the corresponding flows are probably buried, and some flows cannot be correlated with vents. The largest individual units on the map are all basaltic in composition, including the late Pleistocene basalt of Yellowjacket Butte (296 km2 exposed), the largest unit on the map, whose area is partly covered by a late Holocene andesite flow. Silicic lava flows are mostly confined to the main edifice of the volcano, with the youngest rhyolite flows found in and near the summit caldera, including the rhyolitic Little Glass Mountain (~1,000 yr B.P.) and Glass Mountain (~950 yr B.P.) flows, which are the youngest eruptions at Medicine Lake volcano. In postglacial time, 17 eruptions have added approximately 7.5 km3 to the volcano’s total estimated volume of 600 km3, which may be the largest by volume among Cascade Range volcanoes. The volcano has erupted nine times in the past 5,200 years, a rate more frequent than has been documented at all other Cascade volcanoes except Mount St. Helens.

Ramsey, D. W.; Donnelly-Nolan, J. M.; Felger, T. J.

2010-12-01

368

Main features of the fixed bed nuclear reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Fixed Bed Nuclear Reactor (FBNR) is one of the Small Reactors without On-site Refuelling, which have a capability to operate without refuelling and reshuffling of fuel for a reasonably long period consistent with the plant economics and energy security, with no fresh and spent fuel being stored at the site outside the reactor during its service life. The paper

Ha Van Thong; Farhang Sefidvash

369

Sand Sea Wonders: Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site describes the geology of The Great Sand Dunes National Monument and Preserve. Active links allow students to explore the geologic timeline, geologic cross section in animation, and the wind regime. A reversing dune is shown in animation and other dunes such as star, parabolic, barchan, and transverse are discussed. Another section illustrates sand recycling by seasonal streams. A sand deposits map shows topography, dunes watershed, old national monument boundary, roads, and surface water and a section called 'How Much Sand' quantifies the description. Artwork on this site includes both adult and 'Hands on the Land' student artwork while photography depicts dunes, landscape, animals, plants, and human history.

370

Indiana Geological Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the homepage of the Indiana Geological Survey (IGS). Site materials include information on Earth science issues such as groundwater, mapping, coal and mineral resources, oil and gas, and seismic hazards. There is also information on the geologic time scale and stratigraphic record, rocks and minerals, fossils (including nautiloids of the Ordovician period in Indiana), caves and karst topography in Indiana, and glacial geology. The Geographic Information Ssytems (GIS) and mapping section includes a GIS atlas for the state, an online map viewer, links to the Indiana coal mine information system, petroleum database management system, and a download page where users can access GIS datasets for the state.

371

Florida Geological Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Florida Geological Survey (FGS) homepage provides data, research materials and interpretations on aquifer systems, geologic frameworks, landforms, energy and non-energy mineral resources, and geologic hazards which which can be used to address issues of conservation and protection, sustainable development, human health protection, and implementation of successful environmental regulatory programs. Educational materials for earth science and the pre-historic development of the state are also provided. These include topics such as sinkholes, data and maps, rock and mineral identification, minerals, hydrogeology, and fossils.

372

Kentucky Geological Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In 1996 the Education Committee of the Kentucky Geological Survey, in conjunction with the Kentucky Society of Professional Geologists, established the Earth Science Education Network (ESEN). The network provided a group of geologists who served as resource persons for teachers, but has now been expanded to provide resources from around the globe. While primarily focusing on the geology of Kentucky, many of the online resources are applicable for educators throughout the U.S. There are links to Earth science topics and important websites, handouts and instructions for classroom demonstrations and activities, and also interesting information about Kentucky geology and publications.

373

Formation evaluation: Geological procedures  

SciTech Connect

This volume goes beyond a discussion of petroleum geology and the techniques of hydrocarbon (oil and gas) logging as a reservoir evaluation tool. It provides the logging geologist with a review of geological techniques and classification systems that will ensure the maximum development of communicable geological information. Contents include: 1. Introduction--cuttings recovery, cutting sampling, core sampling, rock classification; 2. Detrital rocks--classification, description; 3. Carbonate rocks--classification, description; 4. Chemical rocks-introduction, siliceous rocks, ferruginous rocks, aluminous rocks, phosphatic rocks, aluminous rocks, carbonaceous rocks; 5. Igneous and metamorpbic rocks; Appendix; References and Index.

Whittaker, A.

1985-01-01

374

USGS Coastal and Marine Geology Infobank  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This clearinghouse provides organized access to U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) coastal and marine data and metadata. The facilities section features material on Coastal and Marine Geology (CMG) regional centers such as maps and information about staff, facilities, labs, research libraries and archives. The Atlas includes maps for specific geographic areas and information about specific types of data within the area such as bathymetry, gravity, magnetics, sampling, and others. The Field Activities section provides information about specific data collection activities (date, place, crew, equipment used, data collected, publications). The Field Activity Collection System (FACS) provides information about field activities (overviews, crew lists, equipment lists, and events). The "Geology School" provides general, broad-based information about earth science concepts, processes and terminology, indexed to keywords. There is also a set of links to additional databases, software tools and viewers, and to related topics.

375

Geologic coal assessment: The interface with economics  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Geologic resource assessments describe the location, general characteristics, and estimated volumes of resources, whether in situ or technically recoverable. Such compilations are only an initial step in economic resource evaluation. This paper identifies, by examples from the Illinois and Appalachian basins, the salient features of a geologic assessment that assure its usefulness to downstream economic analysis. Assessments should be in sufficient detail to allocate resources to production units (mines or wells). Coal assessments should include the spatial distribution of coal bed characteristics and the ability to allocate parts of the resource to specific mining technologies. For coal bed gas assessment, the production well recoveries and well deliverability characteristics must be preserved and the risk structure should be specified so dryholes and noncommercial well costs are recovered by commercially successful wells. ?? 2001 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

Attanasi, E.D.

2001-01-01

376

Origins of Niagara: A Geological History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site describes the geologic history and current hydrologic and cultural concerns associated with the natural resources of the Niagara region. Many topics are discussed, including the birth of Niagara Falls, the Wisconsin Glacier, rocks and sedimentary deposits, and the future of the falls. Hyperlinks connect one to related histories and facts concerning the Niagara Glen, Devil's Hole, the Niagara River Water Diversion Treaty, and two geologic tables: the Rock of Ages Chart and the Silurian Era Rock Chart. There are thumbnail photos dispersed throughout this document, which display geologic features such as a knick point, a gorge, and strata. A link connects to Thunder Alley, a comprehensive web site about Niagara Falls, of which this site is a part.

Rick Berketa

377

Environmental resources of selected areas of Hawaii: Geological hazards  

SciTech Connect

This report has been prepared to make available and archive the background scientific data and related information collected on geologic hazards during the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. The US Department of Energy (DOE) published a notice withdrawing its Notice of Intent to prepare the HGP-EIS. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated. This report presents a review of current information on geologic hazards in the Hawaiian Islands. Interrelationships among these hazards are discussed. Probabilities of occurrence of given geologic hazards are provided in various regions where sufficient geologic or historical data are available. Most of the information contained herein is compiled from recent US Geological Survey (USGS) publications and USGS open-file reports related to this project. This report describes the natural geologic hazards present in the area and does not represent an assessment of environmental impacts. Geologic hazards originate both onshore and offshore. Onshore geologic hazards such as volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, surface rupture, landslides, uplift and subsidence occur mainly on the southern third of the island of Hawaii (hereinafter referred to as Hawaii). Offshore geologic hazards are more widely distributed throughout the Hawaiian Islands. Examples of offshore geologic hazards are submarine landslides, turbidity currents, and seismic sea waves (tsunamis).

Staub, W.P.; Reed, R.M.

1995-03-01

378

Geologic Map of the Hellas Region of Mars  

USGS Publications Warehouse

INTRODUCTION This geologic map of the Hellas region focuses on the stratigraphic, structural, and erosional histories associated with the largest well-preserved impact basin on Mars. Along with the uplifted rim and huge, partly infilled inner basin (Hellas Planitia) of the Hellas basin impact structure, the map region includes areas of ancient highland terrain, broad volcanic edifices and deposits, and extensive channels. Geologic activity recorded in the region spans all major epochs of martian chronology, from the early formation of the impact basin to ongoing resurfacing caused by eolian activity. The Hellas region, whose name refers to the classical term for Greece, has been known from telescopic observations as a prominent bright feature on the surface of Mars for more than a century (see Blunck, 1982). More recently, spacecraft imaging has greatly improved our visual perception of Mars and made possible its geologic interpretation. Here, our mapping at 1:5,000,000 scale is based on images obtained by the Viking Orbiters, which produced higher quality images than their predecessor, Mariner 9. Previous geologic maps of the region include those of the 1:5,000,000-scale global series based on Mariner 9 images (Potter, 1976; Peterson, 1977; King, 1978); the 1:15,000,000-scale global series based on Viking images (Greeley and Guest, 1987; Tanaka and Scott, 1987); and detailed 1:500,000-scale maps of Tyrrhena Patera (Gregg and others, 1998), Dao, Harmakhis, and Reull Valles (Price, 1998; Mest and Crown, in press), Hadriaca Patera (D.A. Crown and R. Greeley, map in preparation), and western Hellas Planitia (J.M. Moore and D.E. Wilhelms, map in preparation). We incorporated some of the previous work, but our map differs markedly in the identification and organization of map units. For example, we divide the Hellas assemblage of Greeley and Guest (1987) into the Hellas Planitia and Hellas rim assemblages and change the way units within these groupings are identified and mapped (table 1). The new classification scheme includes broad, geographically related categories and local, geologically and geomorphically related subgroups. Because of our mapping at larger scale, many of our map units were incorporated within larger units of the global-scale mapping (see table 1). Available Viking images of the Hellas region vary greatly in several aspects, which has complicated the task of producing a consistent photogeologic map. Best available image resolution ranges from about 30 to 300 m/pixel from place to place. Many images contain haze caused by dust clouds, and contrast and shading vary among images because of dramatic seasonal changes in surface albedo, opposing sun azimuths, and solar inclination. Enhancement of selected images on a computer-display system has greatly improved our ability to observe key geologic relations in several areas. Determination of the geologic history of the region includes reconstruction of the origin and sequence of formation, deformation, and modification of geologic units constituting (1) the impact-basin rim and surrounding highlands, (2) volcanic and channel assemblages on the northeast and south sides of the basin, (3) interior basin deposits, and (4) slope and surficial materials throughout the map area. Various surface modifications are attributed to volcanic, fluvial, eolian, mass-wasting, and possibly glacial and periglacial processes. Structures include basin faults (mostly inferred), wrinkle ridges occurring mainly in volcanic terrains and interior plains, volcanic collapse craters, and impact craters. Our interpretations in some cases rely on previous work, but in many significant cases we have offered new interpretations that we believe are more consistent with the observations documented by our mapping. Our primary intent for this mapping has been to elucidate the history of emplacement and modification of Hellas Planitia materials, which form the basis for analysis of their r

Leonard, Gregory J.; Tanaka, Kenneth L.

2001-01-01

379

Economic Geology (Oil & Gas)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Briefly reviews the worldwide developments in petroleum geology in 1971, including exploration, new fields, and oil production. This report is condensed from the October Bulletin of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists. (PR)

Geotimes, 1972

1972-01-01

380

IU GEOLOGICAL SCIENCES graduatehandbookappendices  

E-print Network

jknjau Geol Sci Assoc. Professor Greg Olyphant Hydrogeology, Quaternary Geology and Geomorphology 5. Professor Chen Zhu Hydrogeology, Mass Transport, Water-Rock-Gas-Microbe Interactions 5-8852 MSBII 424 czhu

Polly, David

381

Bedrock Geology Mapping Exercise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This field mapping and map-making exercise is a capstone project for a course on Geological Maps. Over a weekend (~12 hours of field work), students collect lithologic and structural data from outcrops scattered over a one square mile area. Back in the classroom, students digitally compile their field data (outcrop, structure measurements, traverse locations) into ArcMAP. They infer geologic linework (faults and contacts) and units from this data in ArcMAP and then export these data layers into Illustrator. In Illustrator, they add ancillary map components (a cross section, description of map units, correlation diagram, map symbol legend,...) to create a final map at a 1:10,000 scale. Their maps are printed out on 11"x17" paper and saved as a pdf file. This exercise helps the students to appreciate how field data is collected and how these geologic facts are interpretively organized into a four-dimensional picture that is a geologic map.

Jim Miller

382

Digital Geology of Idaho  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you have ever wanted to learn about the geology of Idaho, this site is a great way to explore everything from Coeur d'Alene to the Sawtooth Mountains. This digital version of a course offered at Idaho State University systematically divides Idaho geology into a set of different teaching modules. The modules cover topics like the Idaho Batholith, the Columbia River Basalts, and the Lake Bonneville Flood. Each module contains maps, charts, diagrams, and photographs that illuminate the various geological processes that have formed, and continue to form, in each region of the state. Many of the modules also have fly-throughs that superimpose color-coded geology on 3-D topographic maps to provide a graphic visualization Idaho's rivers. Additionally, the site contains slide shows and a set of teaching exercises.

2012-02-17

383

Interactive Geologic Timeline Activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this learning activity, students use a web-based geologic timeline to examine temperature, CO2 concentration, and ice cover data to investigate how climate has changed during the last 715 million years.

Environmental Literacy and Inquiry Working Group at Lehigh University

384

Geology and Human Health  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The link between geology and human health may not seem obvious, but it many ways geology can affect public health in a variety of crucial ways. Certainly, the relationship between geological factors and water and air quality is one that continues to interest policy makers and others. This site explores these issues, and it was created by the people at Carleton College's Professional Development for Geoscience Faculty initiative. Here visitors can make use of a wide range of educational and supporting materials, including classroom activities, key visualizations, and collections of external links. First-time users may wish to start at the "Resources for Educators" area, which includes a brief overview titled "Essential components of geology and human health" and several helpful posters. The remaining materials can be viewed in sections that include "Bookshelf", "Visualizations", and "Internet Resources".

385

Devil's Tower Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from the National Park Service briefly addresses the geology of Devil's Tower. The evolution of various theories on the formation of the tower are discussed. A slide show of the emplacement of the tower is also available.

National Park Service (NPS)

386

Photos of structural geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page contains four categories of structural geology photos: brittle structures, ductile structures, active tectonics, and unconformities. All photos are freely downloadable and are at resolutions sufficient for power point.

Marli Miller

387

The Fabled Maine Winter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

No study of Maine weather would be complete without analysis of the year of 1816 - the year with no summer in an area from western Pennsylvania and New York, up through Quebec and across to Maine and the Canadian maritimes. In this five-unit lesson, students will investigate the causes and effects of the Fabled Maine Winter by exploring a variety of data sources. They will locate, graph, and analyze meteorological and climatological data for Portland, Maine, for more recent years to try to find one that most closely resembles the fabled Maine winter of 1816.

388

Johnston Geology Museum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Johnston Geology Museum is part of the Emporia State University Earth Science Department. There is an online virtual tour of the collection which includes a Cretaceous mosasaur, a giant ground sloth, mastodon bones and tusk, brachiopods, Paleozoic corals, sedimentary structures, minerals and crystals. The Museum contains geological specimens predominantly from Kansas, and include the world famous Hamilton Quarry Fossil Assemblage, the Tri-State Mining Display, petrified tree stumps, and the Hawkins and the Calkins Indian Artifact Collections.

389

Interpreting Geologic Sections  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Athro, Limited is a for-profit corporation that publishes high school and college level biology, earth science, and geology course supplements and independent learning materials on the Web. This site provides instruction in interpreting the order of events in three hypothetical and one real geological section. For each section there is a list of events and an animation of the history of the section once the student has decided on the order of events.

Paul Morris

390

Manitoba Geological Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site offers materials on Manitoba geology and minerals, mining and mineral exploration, a Digital Elevation Model of Southern Manitoba (DEMSM) landforms including oblique views, an interactive GIS map gallery of minerals and geology, a study of paleofloods in the Red River Basin including photographs illustrating how scientists delineated the paleofloods, and information on the Manitoba Protected Areas Initiative. Some maps and reports are available to download.

391

Geologic Time Discussion Analogies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The slides provide a fun way of discussing the immensity of geologic time and help to grasp the age of the earth, the time gaps between major geologic events, and the relative minuteness of humans time on earth. After the discussion with the class, students are given opportunity to develop their own analogies using "everyday" things (other than the calendar and money examples used in this activity).

Noah Fay

392

Geological Evolution of Venus: Rises, Plains, Plumes, and Plateaus  

E-print Network

Geological Evolution of Venus: Rises, Plains, Plumes, and Plateaus Roger J. Phillips* and Vicki L. Hansen Crustal plateaus and volcanic rises, major physiographic features on Venus, both formed over, un- derstanding the differences in the formation of two major features on Venus--crustal plateaus

Hansen, Vicki

393

Geology’s “Super Graphics” and the Public: Missed Opportunities for Geoscience Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The geosciences are very visual, as demonstrated by the illustration density of maps, graphs, photographs, and diagrams in introductory textbooks. As geoscience students progress, they are further exposed to advanced graphics, such as phase diagrams and subsurface seismic data visualizations. Photographs provide information from distant sites, while multivariate graphics supply a wealth of data for viewers to access. When used effectively, geology graphics have exceptional educational potential. However, geological graphic data are often presented in specialized formats, and are not easily interpreted by an uninformed viewer. In the Howe-Russell Geoscience Complex at Louisiana State University, there is a very large graphic (~ 30 ft x 6 ft) exhibited in a side hall, immediately off the main entrance hall. The graphic, divided into two obvious parts, displays in its lower section seismic data procured in the Gulf of Mexico, from near offshore Louisiana to the end of the continental shelf. The upper section of the graphic reveals drilling block information along the seismic line. Using Tufte’s model of graphic excellence and Paivio’s dual-coding theory, we analyzed the graphic in terms of data density, complexity, legibility, format, and multivariate presentation. We also observed viewers at the site on 5 occasions, and recorded their interactions with the graphic. This graphic can best be described as a Tufte “super graphic.” Its data are high in density and multivariate in nature. Various data sources are combined in a large format to provide a powerful example of a multitude of information within a convenient and condensed presentation. However, our analysis revealed that the graphic misses an opportunity to educate the non-geologist. The information and seismic “language” of the graphic is specific to the geology community, and the information is not interpreted for the lay viewer. The absence of title, descriptions, and symbol keys are detrimental. Terms are not defined. The absence of color keys and annotations is more likely to lead to an appreciation of graphic beauty, without concomitant scientific understanding. We further concluded that in its current location, constraints of space and reflective lighting prohibit the viewer from simultaneously accessing all subsurface data in a “big picture” view. The viewer is not able to fully comprehend the macro/micro aspects of the graphic design within the limited viewing space. The graphic is an example of geoscience education possibility, a possibility that is currently undermined and unrealized by lack of interpretation. Our analysis subsequently informed the development of a model to maximize the graphic’s educational potential, which can be applied to similar geological super graphics for enhanced public scientific understanding. Our model includes interactive displays that apply the auditory-visual dual coding approach to learning. Notations and aural explanations for geological features should increase viewer understanding, and produce an effective informal educational display.

Clary, R. M.; Wandersee, J. H.

2009-12-01

394

Geologic Resource Evaluation of Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park, Hawai'i: Geology and Coastal Landforms  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Geologic resource inventories of lands managed by the National Park Service (NPS) are important products for the parks and are designed to provide scientific information to better manage park resources. Park-specific geologic reports are used to identify geologic features and processes that are relevant to park ecosystems, evaluate the impact of human activities on geologic features and processes, identify geologic research and monitoring needs, and enhance opportunities for education and interpretation. These geologic reports are planned to provide a brief geologic history of the park and address specific geologic issues that link the park geology and the resource manager. The Kona coast National Parks of the Island of Hawai'i are intended to preserve the natural beauty of the Kona coast and protect significant ancient structures and artifacts of the native Hawaiians. Pu'ukohola Heiau National Historic Site (PUHE), Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park (KAHO), and Pu'uhonua O Honaunau National Historical Park (PUHO) are three Kona parks studied by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology Team in cooperation with the National Park Service. This report is one of six related reports designed to provide geologic and benthic-habitat information for the three Kona parks. Each geology and coastal-landform report describes the regional geologic setting of the Hawaiian Islands, gives a general description of the geology of the Kona coast, and presents the geologic setting and issues for one of the parks. The related benthic-habitat mapping reports discuss the marine data and habitat classification scheme, and present results of the mapping program. Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park (KAHO) was established in 1978 in order to preserve and protect traditional native Hawaiian culture and cultural sites. The park is the site of an ancient Hawaiian settlement, occupies 469 ha and is considered a locale of considerable cultural and historical significance. Cultural resources include fishponds, petroglyphs and a heiau (religious site). The fishponds are also recognized as exceptional birding areas and are important wetlands for migratory birds. The ocean and reef have been designated as a Marine Area Reserve, where green sea turtles commonly come ashore to rest. The park is also a valuable recreational resource, with approximately 4 km of coastline and a protective cove ideal for snorkeling and swimming. KAHO park boundaries extend beyond the mean high tide line and include the adjacent marine environment. An accompanying report for KAHO presents the results of benthic habitat mapping of the offshore waters, from the shoreline to approximately 40 m water depth. Ground-water quality and potential downslope impacts created by development around the park are of concern to Park management.

Richmond, Bruce M.; Gibbs, Ann E.; Cochran, Susan A.

2008-01-01

395

USGS: Geology in the Parks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The US Geological Survey Geology in the Parks Web site is a cooperative project of the USGS Western Earth Surface Processes Team and the National Park Service. This extensive site covers geologic maps, plate tectonics, rocks and minerals, geologic time, US geologic provinces, park geology of the Mojave, Sunset Crater, Lake Mead, North Cascades, Death Valley, Yosemite National Park, and much more. Descriptions, graphics, photographs, and animations all contribute to this informative and interesting Web site making it a one stop, all encompassing, resource for everything geology and US national park related.

396

Illustrated Glossary of Geologic Terms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided by the Geology Department at Iowa State University, this handy illustrated glossary of geological terms is an excellent quick reference resource for students. Continuously upgraded with links to illustrations and text, this geological lexicon is based on the glossary in the textbook Earth: An Introduction to Geological Change by S. Judson and S.M. Richardson. Alphabetical tabs and internal links to related terms let users move quickly around this useful aid for geology students.

397

Space Transportation Main Engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: Space Transportation Main Engine (STME) definition, design philosophy, robust design, maximum design condition, casting vs. machined and welded forgings, operability considerations, high reliability design philosophy, engine reliability enhancement, low cost design philosophy, engine systems requirements, STME schematic, fuel turbopump, liquid oxygen turbopump, main injector, and gas generator. The major engine components of the STME and the Space Shuttle Main Engine are compared.

Monk, Jan C.

1992-01-01

398

Space Transportation Main Engine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: Space Transportation Main Engine (STME) definition, design philosophy, robust design, maximum design condition, casting vs. machined and welded forgings, operability considerations, high reliability design philosophy, engine reliability enhancement, low cost design philosophy, engine systems requirements, STME schematic, fuel turbopump, liquid oxygen turbopump, main injector, and gas generator. The major engine components of the STME and the Space Shuttle Main Engine are compared.

Monk, Jan C.

1992-07-01

399

Geological myths and reality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Myths are the result of man's attempts to explain noteworthy features of his environment stemming from unfounded imagination. It is unbelievable that in 21st century the explanation of evident lithospheric plates movements and origin of forces causing this movement is still bound to myths, They are the myth about mantle convection, myth about Earth's expansion, myth about mantle heterogeneities causing the movement of plates and myth about mantle plumes. From 1971 to 1978 I performed extensive study (Ost?ihanský 1980) about the terrestrial heat flow and radioactive heat production of batholiths in the Bohemian Massive (Czech Republic). The result, gained by extrapolation of the heat flow and heat production relationship, revealed the very low heat flow from the mantle 17.7mW m-2 close to the site of the Quarterly volcano active only 115,000 - 15,000 years ago and its last outbreak happened during Holocene that is less than 10,000 years ago. This volcano Komorní H?rka (Kammerbühls) was known by J. W. Goethe investigation and the digging of 300 m long gallery in the first half of XIX century to reach the basaltic plug and to confirm the Stromboli type volcano. In this way the 19th century myth of neptunists that basalt was a sedimentary deposit was disproved in spite that famous poet and scientist J.W.Goethe inclined to neptunists. For me the result of very low heat flow and the vicinity of almost recent volcanoes in the Bohemian Massive meant that I refused the hypothesis of mantle convection and I focused my investigation to external forces of tides and solar heat, which evoke volcanic effects, earthquakes and the plate movement. To disclose reality it is necessary to present calculation of acting forces using correct mechanism of their action taking into account tectonic characteristics of geologic unites as the wrench tectonics and the tectonic of planets and satellites of the solar system, realizing an exceptional behavior of the Earth as quickly rotating body exposed to strong tidal action of Moon and Sun. Ostrihansky, L.: The structure of the earth's crust and the heat-flow--heat-generation relationship in the Bohemian Massif. Tectonophysics, 68(3-4), 325-337, doi:10.1016/0040-1951(80)90182-1 1980.

Ostrihansky, Lubor

2014-05-01

400

United States Geological Survey: Contaminant Biology Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the homepage of the United States Geological Survey's (USGS) Contaminant Biology Program, whose mission is to investigate the effects and exposure of environmental contaminants (for example, mercury) on the living resources of the United States. The site features links to information on the program's projects, grouped under chemistry and toxicology; contaminated habitats; and monitoring and assessment. There are also links to news items and events, publications, links to biology science centers and cooperative research units, and links to related websites.

401

Geology Fieldnotes: Arches National Park, Utah  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This park is located on the Colorado Plateau near Moab, Utah, and contains many arches and sculpted sedimentary rocks. The visible rock formations in the park are the Entrada and Navajo sandstones. Covered topics include the formation of arches in stages, different types of arches, as well as sizes and names (Delicate Arch being the most famous). The site also provides visitor information, photos, maps, additional links, and a teacher feature (tools for teaching geology with National Park examples).

Annabelle Foos

402

Geology Fieldnotes: Zion National Park, Utah  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Zion is located on the edge of the Colorado Plateau, and is part of a formation known as the Grand Staircase (Bryce Canyon and the Grand Canyon are also part of this formation). The site discusses the formation of the park, from sedimentation 240 million years ago (Triassic), to lithification, uplift, and erosion. Visible formations include the Navajo sandstone and the Kaibab formation. Additional resources include visitor information, maps, photographs, and a teacher feature (lessons for teaching geology with National Parks as examples).

Annabelle Foos

403

Geologic mapping of the Semipalatinsk region, Eastern Kazakstan, using Landsat Thematic Mapper and spot panchromatic data  

SciTech Connect

This geologic reconnaissance study centers on a 90 by 140 km area about 100 km southwest of Semipalatinsk near the east border of the Kazakstan Republic of the USSR. Semipalatinsk, a regional center for grain growing, and several other cities along the Irtysh River were originally established as fortified outposts by the Russians during the 18th and 19th centuries to contain the indigenous, nomadic Kazak herdsmen. The Kazakstan region remained largely undeveloped until after the 1917 Russian Revolution, when exploration geologists began discovering many large mineral deposits. Today, known resources include coal, copper, iron ore, lead, zinc, and barite; most of these are of national significance. These vast mineral resources have prompted development of many metallurgical and chemical industries in the republic. Despite the extensive exploration for mineral resources in this region, published geologic maps (Nalivkin, 1960; Esenov, 1971; Borovikov, 1972) are all at scales of 1:1,100,000 or smaller, and there are no detailed descriptions of the geology around Semipalatinsk in the open literature. Our preliminary examination of commercial remote-sensing, data indicated that the lithology and structure of this area are extremely varied and complex at all scales -- much more so than that portrayed on the published geologic maps. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to use commercially available remotely sensed data for the area and remotely sensed data obtained for analog study sites, as well as the sparse, sketchy information in the published literature, to better define and map the geologic units (Sheet 1), structure (Sheet 2), and drainage features (Sheet 3) of this area.

Davis, P.A. [Geological Survey, Flagstaff, AZ (United States); Berlin, G.L. [Northern Arizona Univ., Flagstaff, AZ (United States)

1992-12-31

404

The California Geotour: Online Geologic Field Trip Guides  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

There are many great ways to learn about the geological history of California, including reading some of the works by noted writer John McPhee. Additionally, the state of California's Department of Conservation has created these very fine online geologic field trip guides. It might be more accurate to say that the site is an interactive index of web pages that contain geologic field guides containing photographs, maps, texts, and directions for local natural features from Humboldt County down to the Inland Empire. The index is organized into geographic regions collectively referred to as the "Geomorphic Provinces of California". Additionally, these geological areas are subdivided into groups like Owens Valley, Lassen Park, and Point Reyes. Overall, it's a great resource, and one that will be appreciated by just about anyone with a penchant for geology or the Golden State.

405

Impact, and its implications for geology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The publication of seminal texts on geology and on meteoritics in the 1790s, laid the groundwork for the emergence of each discipline as a modern branch of science. Within the past three decades, impact cratering has become universally accepted as a process that sculptures the surfaces of planets and satellites throughout the solar system. Nevertheless, one finds in-depth discussions of impact processes mainly in books on the Moon or in surveys of the Solar System. The historical source of the separation between meteoritics and geology is easy to identify. It began with Hutton. Meteorite impact is an extraordinary event acting instantaneously from outside the Earth. It violates Hutton's principles, which were enlarged upon and firmly established as fundamental to the geological sciences by Lyell. The split between meteoritics and geology surely would have healed as early as 1892 if the investigations conducted by Gilbert (1843-1918) at the crater in northern Arizona had yielded convincing evidence of meteorite impact. The 1950s and 1960s saw a burgeoning of interest in impact processes. The same period witnessed the so-called revolution in the Earth Sciences, when geologists yielded up the idea of fixed continents and began to view the Earth's lithosphere as a dynamic array of horizontally moving plates. Plate tectonics, however, is fully consistent with the geological concepts inherited from Hutton: the plates slowly split, slide, and suture, driven by forces intrinsic to the globe.

Marvin, Ursula B.

1988-01-01

406

Gulf of Maine: Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Lessons and activities from the Gulf of Maine Research Institute (formerly Gulf of Maine Aquarium), focused on hurricanes, El Nino, fog, and volcanic eruptions. Emphasis on important hurricanes of the past. Resources include lessons, guides for simple experiments, and a student weather network. Downloadable materials and additional webpages also provided.

407

The Maine Event  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author describes the successful laptop program employed at Mt. Abram High School in Strong, Maine. Through the Maine Learning Technology Initiative, the school has issued laptops to all 36,000 teachers and students in grades 7-8. This program has helped level the playing field for a student population that is 50 percent to 55…

McHale, Tom

2007-01-01

408

on Hurricane Island, Maine  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1981, a study was initiated to measure the effects of low-level trampling (100 to 200 tramples) on selected vegetation on Hurricane Island, Maine. Low levels of trampling are representative of general recreational use patterns on most Maine islands. The study was designed to compare percent survival of common island species when subjected to low-level trampling, to observe treadway formation,

R. E. Leonard; P. W. Conkling; J. L. McMahon

409

MAINE MARINE WORM HABITAT  

EPA Science Inventory

WORM provides a generalized representation at 1:24,000 scale of commercially harvested marine worm habitat in Maine, based on Maine Department of Marine Resources data from 1970's. Original maps were created by MDMR and published by USF&WS as part of the ""&quo...

410

Minnesota Geological Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Minnesota Geological Survey (MGS) was established in 1872 as part of the University of Minnesota. The function of the MGS is to serve "the people of Minnesota by providing systematic geoscience information to support stewardship of water, land, and mineral resources." This website from the Digital Conservancy at the University of Minnesota provides access to all of items published by the MGS. The items are contained within the Collections area, and visitors will find headings here such as "Geology of Minnesota Parks," "County Atlas Series," and the "Bulletin of the Minnesota Geological and Natural History Survey." First-time visitors can check out the Recent Submissions area on the right-hand side of the page to look over some new findings, including hydrogeological maps of different counties around the state. One item that should not be missed is the "Geology of Minnesota: A Centennial Volume" from 1972. It's a tremendous volume and one that cannot be ignored by students of the physical landscape and geological history of the state.

2012-09-21

411

Maine Folklife Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Located at the University of Maine, the Maine Folklife Center is committed to documenting and understanding the folklore, folklife, and history of Maine and Atlantic Canada. Along with its various scholarly activities, the Center sponsors a number of festivals, lectures, and like-minded programs that encourage appreciation of the diverse cultural traditions within the region. The site will be useful to researchers with a penchant in these fields, as it contains information about the collections, including a rather extensive oral history collection (with work that documenting the cranberry culture of Massachusetts and the traditional music of Maine). There is also material on the public programs and exhibits sponsored by the center, and a set of external links that lead to other sites dealing with oral history, folklore, and Maine. While the Center's site does not have a great deal of online material for consideration, the center has transcribed the sixth volume of Northeast Folklore (originally published in 1964) and placed them online.

412

Gulf of Maine Research Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Maine's oceanic shoreline has long been one of the richest in North America, both in terms of natural resources and its importance to the local economy. One important organization that is committed to this valued ecosystem is the Gulf of Maine Research Institute. Based in Portland, the Institute is designed to educate Maine residents and visitors about Maine's fresh and saltwater resources and to "facilitate and conduct collaborative research.� Their website contains some of these resources, and first-time visitors should start their journey here at the "Science" section. As might be expected, visitors will be able to learn about some of the Institute's ongoing survey work, including their comprehensive survey of the region's shrimp stocks, the impacts of mobile fishing gear, and cod-tagging. Every good institute worth its salt has a strong education component, and this institute has got the web-browsing public's best interests in mind. In their "Education" section, they have placed a number of interactive and multimedia features, including such areas as "All About Lobsters" and "Undersea Landscapes".

413

Evaluation of ERTS-1 imagery for geological sensing over the diverse geological terrains of New York State  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Film positives of ERTS-1 imagery, both as received from NASA and photographically reprocessed, are analyzed by conventional and color additive viewing methods. The imagery reveals bedrock and surficial geological information at various scales. Features which can be identified to varying degrees include boundaries between major tectonic provinces, lithological contacts, foliation trends within massive gneisses, faults, and topographic lineaments. In the present imagery the greatest amount of spectral geology is displayed in the Adirondack region where bedrock geology is strongly linked to topography. Within this basement complex, the most prominantly displayed features are numerous north-northeast trending faults and topographic lineaments, and arcuate east-west valleys developed in some of the weaker metasedimentary rocks. The majority of the faults and lineaments shown on the geologic Map of New York at 1:250,000 appear in the ERTS imagery.

Isachsen, Y. W.; Fakundiny, R. H.; Forster, S. W.

1973-01-01

414

Environmental Resources of Selected Areas of Hawaii: Geological Hazards (DRAFT)  

SciTech Connect

This report has been prepared to make available and archive the background scientific data and related information collected on geologic hazards during the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) published a notice in the Federal Register on May 17, 1994 (Fed Regis. 5925638) withdrawing its Notice of Intent (Fed Regis. 575433) of February 14, 1992, to prepare the HGP-EIS. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated This report presents a review of current information on geologic hazards in the Hawaiian Islands. Interrelationships among these hazards are discussed. Probabilities of occurrence of given geologic hazards are provided in various regions where sufficient geologic or historical data are available. Most of the information contained herein is compiled from recent U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) publications and open-file reports. This report describes the natural geologic hazards present in the area and does not represent an assessment of environmental impacts. Geologic hazards originate both onshore and offshore. Onshore geologic hazards such as volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, surface rupture, landslides, uplift, and subsidence occur mainly on the southern third of the island of Hawaii (hereinafter referred to as Hawaii). Offshore geologic hazards are more widely distributed throughout the Hawaiian Islands. Examples of offshore geologic hazards are submarine landslides, turbidity currents, and seismic sea waves (tsunamis). First, overviews of volcanic and earthquake activity, and details of offshore geologic hazards is provided for the Hawaiian Islands. Then, a more detailed discussion of onshore geologic hazards is presented with special emphasis on the southern third of Hawaii and the east rift zone of Kilauea.

Staub, W.P.

1994-06-01

415

Geology Fieldnotes: Agate Fossil Beds National Monument, Nebraska  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Agate Fossil Beds National Monument preserves an important source for 19.2 million year-old Miocene mammal fossils from a chapter of evolution frequently referred to as the "Age of Mammals". Features include information on park geology, maps, photographs, visitor information, and links to related publications. The park geology section discusses the Monument's geologic history and climate, profiles of some of the Miocene mammals found in the deposits, and discusses the history of fossil collecting at the locality. The park map indicates quarry and private property areas within the Monument.

416

Geologic map of Mars  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This global geologic map of Mars, which records the distribution of geologic units and landforms on the planet's surface through time, is based on unprecedented variety, quality, and quantity of remotely sensed data acquired since the Viking Orbiters. These data have provided morphologic, topographic, spectral, thermophysical, radar sounding, and other observations for integration, analysis, and interpretation in support of geologic mapping. In particular, the precise topographic mapping now available has enabled consistent morphologic portrayal of the surface for global mapping (whereas previously used visual-range image bases were less effective, because they combined morphologic and albedo information and, locally, atmospheric haze). Also, thermal infrared image bases used for this map tended to be less affected by atmospheric haze and thus are reliable for analysis of surface morphology and texture at even higher resolution than the topographic products.

Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Skinner, James A.; Dohm, James M.; Irwin, Rossman P., III; Kolb, Eric J.; Fortezzo, Corey M.; Platz, Thomas; Michael, Gregory G.; Hare, Trent M.

2014-01-01

417

Minnesota Geological Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Established in 1872 by the State of Minnesota as part of the University of Minnesota, the Minnesota Geological Survey (MGS) serves the people of Minnesota by providing systematic geoscience information to support the stewardship of water, land, and mineral resources. This rather lovely digital collection brings together a record of all items published by the MGS since its creation. Here, visitors will find documents, reports, maps, and GIS data for online viewing or downloading as well. The thematic collections here include the Aeromagnetic Map Series, the annual reports of the Minnesota Geological and Natural History Survey, and the wonderful county atlas series. Visitors with a penchant for geology, natural history, and geography will find much to enjoy here.

418

Geological fakes and frauds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some geological fakes and frauds are carried out solely for financial gain (mining fraud), whereas others maybe have increasing aesthetic appeal (faked fossils) or academic advancement (fabricated data) as their motive. All types of geological fake or fraud can be ingenious and sophisticated, as demonstrated in this article. Fake gems, faked fossils and mining fraud are common examples where monetary profit is to blame: nonetheless these may impact both scientific theory and the reputation of geologists and Earth scientists. The substitution or fabrication of both physical and intellectual data also occurs for no direct financial gain, such as career advancement or establishment of belief (e.g. evolution vs. creationism). Knowledge of such fakes and frauds may assist in spotting undetected geological crimes: application of geoforensic techniques helps the scientific community to detect such activity, which ultimately undermines scientific integrity.

Ruffell, Alastair; Majury, Niall; Brooks, William E.

2012-02-01

419

Geology for Everyone  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Geological Survey of Ireland website can increase the public's excitement about geology by offering simple, straightforward materials on the basics of geology. The website is divided into numerous themes such as Volcanoes, Rocks, Caves, and the Water Cycle. The links from each of the headings introduce the topic with simple descriptions and remarkable pictures and offer easy experiments when applicable. Students and educators can take virtual tours of the Ox Mountains, Killiney Beach, and other Irish landscapes. Everyone should visit the Landscapes for the Living link, which offers outstanding images of the diverse landscapes of Europe. While some of the themes are currently under construction, including Planet Earth, Plate Tectonics, and Earthquakes, the authors indicate that these materials will be added in the near future.

420

Roping Geologic Time  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

After having talked about the geologic time scale (Precambrian: prior to 570 Ma; Paleozoic: 570-245 Ma; Mesozoic: 245-65 Ma; Cenozoic: 65 Ma - Present), I ask for two volunteers from the class to hold a rope that is 50 feet long. I say that one end is the beginning of the Earth (4.6 billion years ago), and the other is today. I then give out 16 clothes pins and ask various students to put a cloths pin on the 'time line' at various 'geologic events'. For example, I ask them to put one where the dinosaurs died out (end of the Mesozoic). They almost invariably put it much too old (65 Ma is less than 2% of Earth history!). Then I ask them to put one on their birthday (they now laugh). Then I ask them to put one where we think hominoids (humans) evolved (~3-4 Ma), and they realize that we have not been here very long geologically. Then I ask them to put one at the end of the Precambrian, where life took off in terms of the numbers of species, etc. They are amazed that this only represents less than 15% of Earth history. Throughout the activity I have a quiz going on where the students calculate percentages of Earth History for major geologic events, and compare it to their own ages. On their time scale, the dinosaurs died only about two 'months' ago! The exercise is very effective at letting them get a sense of how long geologic time is, and how 'recently' some major geologic events happened when you consider a time scale that is the age of the earth.

Randall Richardson

421

Geology and image processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Digital image processing for geological applications will be integrated with geographic information systems and data base management systems. While multiband data sets from radar and multispectral scanners will make extreme demands on memory, bus and processor architectures, it is expected that array processors and VLSI/VHSIC dedicated function chips will allow the use of fast Fourier transform and classification algorithms. It is anticipted that, as processor power increases, the weakest link of a processing system will become the analyst who uses it. Human engineering of systems is therefore recommended for the most effective utilization of remotely sensed geologic data.

Daily, M.

1982-01-01

422

Planetary geological processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this introduction to planetary geology, we review the major geologic processes affecting the solid bodies of the solar system, namely volcanism, tectonism, impact cratering, and erosion. We illustrate the interplay of these processes in different worlds, briefly reviewing how they affect the surfaces of the Earth's Moon, Mercury, Venus and Mars, then focusing on two very different worlds: Jupiter's moon Io, the most volcanically active object in the solar system, and Saturn's moon Titan, where the interaction between a dense atmosphere and the surface make for remarkably earth-like landscapes despite the great differences in surface temperature and composition.

Lopes, Rosaly M. C.; Solomonidou, Anezina

2014-11-01

423

Project Earth Science: Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Now you can literally explain what it's like "between a rock and a hard place!" Use Project Earth Science: Geology to introduce your students to plate tectonics and teach them what causes volcanoes and earthquakes. Lead explorations of these and other larger-than-the-classroom geological phenomena with the teacher-tested, Standards -based activities. Earth's physical evolution and dynamic processes are carefully explained in language accessible to students and teachers. Supplemental readings provide educators with the background information to answer student questions and concerns.

Brent A. Ford

2001-01-01

424

Introduction to Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you are having difficulty remembering the details of the Earth's geological structure or the nature of major minerals and rock types, you can consult this excellent introductory course offered as part of MIT's OpenCourseWare initiative. The materials are drawn from Professors Perron and Jagoutz's 2011 "Introduction to Geology" course, and they include a number of lecture notes, available for download in PDF file format. The course is designed for undergraduates, though anyone can benefit from examining the materials. Visitors can make their way through lecture notes that cover metamorphic rocks, rock deformation, earthquakes, and the formation of continents.

Jagoutz, Oliver

425

Understanding Geological Time  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this classroom activity, middle school students gain an understanding of geologic time. The activity opens with background information for teachers about carbon and radiometric dating. In a classroom discussion, students share what they know about geologic time. Then, working in small groups responsible for different eras, students create a timeline for their assigned era by conducting library and Internet research. The activity concludes by having students review all the timelines to compare how long humans have been on the Earth to the length of time dinosaurs inhabited the planet.

426

Principles of isotope geology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discussions of methods of isotope dating using Rb-Sr, K-Ar, ⁴°Ar\\/³⁹Ar, Re-Os, Lu-Hf, K-Ca, U, Tb-Pb, ¹⁴C, common lead, S,O,H, fission track, and U-series disequilibrium are included in respective chapters. Introductory chapters discussing the basics of isotope geology, atomic structure, decay mechanisms and mass spectrometry are included along with two appendices; the geological time scale for the Phanerzoic and a fitting

G Faure

1977-01-01

427

The Main Idea Organizer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the Main Idea Organizer (MIO) to help students who may struggle with writing, reading, and thinking--though in different ways and for different reasons. Describes many different ways the author uses the MIO. (SG)

Burke, Jim

2003-01-01

428

Landmark Main Idea  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students will use key details to determine the main idea of informational text about landmarks. For the summative assessment, students will work in small groups to read an informational text about landmarks, fill out a Main Idea Pyramid Graphic Organizer, and then create a poster in the shape of the landmark they read about. Students will utilize the information on their graphic organizer when creating their poster.

Amanda Shipley

2012-07-23

429

The Maine Music Box  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created through a collaboration between the University of Maine's Fogler Library and other Maine libraries, The Maine Music Box contains hundreds of digitized sheet music scores from five major collections. First-time visitors to the site will want to click on the "About Maine Music Box" project as a way of getting started. Here they can check out the "User Information" area, which contains helpful tips on viewing the music and how to best browse the entire database. Additionally, those with a penchant for technical details and information science in general can also learn in copious detail how the database was created for this project. From there, visitors can move straight away into the main collection. Visitors can browse the collection by music subject, sheet music cover art, or just type in their own keywords. One of the best ways to look over the collection is to browse around in such areas as "Instructional Violin", "Maine Collection" and "Parlor Salon Collection". It's also worth remarking that this site may inspire a sing-a-long, a campfire get-together, or a miniature Chautauqua.

430

Geology of Badlands National Park: a preliminary report  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Badlands National Park is host to perhaps the most scenic geology and landscape features in the Western Interior region of the United States. Ongoing erosion that forms the "badlands" exposes ancient sedimentary strata of Late Cretaceous through Oligocene age. Quaternary erosional and depositional processes are responsible for most of the modern landscape features in the park and surrounding region. This report provides a basic overview of the park geology The discussions presented within include both well-established concepts and theories and new, preliminary data and interpretations. Much emphasis is placed on presenting information about the oldest and least studied rocks in the park (particularly the Late Cretaceous and earliest Tertiary deposits that underlie the White River beds throughout the park region). Rock formations and selected fossils they contain are described. Faults, folds, unconformities, and other geologic structures in the North Unit of the park are illustrated, including features associated with the Sage Creek anticline and fault system.

Stoffer, Philip W.

2003-01-01

431

Modernizing Main Street  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article features Entrepreneurship Pioneers Initiative (EPI), a nine-month-long educational program targeted to first-generation, small business owners offered through the Rutgers University Center for Urban Entrepreneurship and Economic Development. In its second year, EPI has worked with more than 40 businesses out of an applicant pool of…

Oguntoyinbo, Lekan

2010-01-01

432

The effect of geological and geographical features on environmental radiation  

SciTech Connect

The gamma-ray dose rates were measured in Gifu and Tokushima Prefectures in Japan. Measurements were carried out by the car-borne survey method. The dose rate in basaltic terrain in Tokushima prefecture was almost same as average of basaltic terrain in Japan. On the other hand, the dose rate in basaltic terrain in Gifu Prefecture was not same. In situ measurement of terrestrial gamma-ray dose rate was carried out in this terrain to examine its cause. As a result, it was estimated that soil of rhyolite which attributed to neighbor terrain have deposited on this terrain.

Yamada, J.; Oka, M. [Graduate school of Fujita Health University (Japan); Shimo, M.; Minami, K. [Fujita Health University, 1-98, Dengakugakubo, Kutsukake-cho, Toyoake-shi, Aichi, 470-1192 (Japan); Minato, S. [Radiation Earth Science Laboratory, 9-6, Yamaguchi-cho, Higashi-ku, Nagoya-shi Aichi, 461-0024 (Japan); Sugino, M. [Gunma Prefectural College of Health Sciences, 323-1, Kamioki-cho, maebashi-shi, 371-0052 (Japan); Hosoda, M. [Chuoh College of Medical Technology, 3-5-12, Tateishi, katushika-ku, Tokyo, 124-0012 (Japan); Fukushi, M. [Tokyo Metropolitan University, 7-2-10, Higashiogu, Arakawa-ku, Tokyo, 116-8551 (Japan)

2008-08-07

433

[Features of cardiologic diseases prevalence among individuals engaged into geology].  

PubMed

The authors studied influence of work and living conditions on geologists' health state. A cohort under study demonstrated paradoxical epidemiologic situation with high mortality risk of arterial hypertension, whereas prevalence of this disease among specialists working on expeditionary shifted mode is nearly equal to that among general population. Unfavorable situation concerning cardiovascular diseases could be caused by high prevalence of cardiovascular risks and some occupational hazards. The situation is deteriorated by insufficient medical observation and psychologic traits of the specialists working on expeditionary shifted mode. PMID:15794503

Zinenko; Petrichenko, S I; Miroshnikov, M P; Dasaeva, L A; Vermel', A E

2005-01-01

434

Cenozoic extensional features in the geology of central mainland Greece  

E-print Network

The Hellenides of Greece have undergone a series of extensional deformation events from early Miocene to present time. Two of the fault systems that accommodate this deformation in central Greece are the Itea-Amfissa ...

Swanson, Erika (Erika M.)

2008-01-01

435

Estimation of channelized features in geological media using sparsity constraint  

E-print Network

In this thesis, a new approach is studied for inverse modeling of ill-posed problems with spatially continuous parameters that exhibit sparseness in an incoherent basis (e.g. a Fourier basis). The solution is constrained ...

Jafarpour, Behnam

2008-01-01

436

Monitoring changing geologic features along the Texas Gulf Coast  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Water truth observations, NASA aerial photography from an altitude of 60,000 feet, and ERTS-1 imagery made off the South Texas coast showed a mutually consistent pattern of water turbidity in the Gulf of Mexico. At the time of the measurements, plumes of turbid water were being formed by ebb-tidal discharges from the bays through tidal passes and were being diverted southward by the coastwise drift. The occurrence of the bands of turbid and relatively clear water suggests the existence of large scale helical circulation cells having axes almost parallel to shore with the outer turbid band probably being a zone of surface divergence and bottom water upwelling. The impingement of a turbid water mass onto the shoreline suggests that some, and perhaps most, of the suspended sediment in nearshore waters may not have been stirred up from the nearshore sea floor but may have traveled long distances in the water mass, perhaps even having remained in suspension from the time of its entry into the Gulf tidal inlets such as Aransas Pass.

Hunter, R. E. (principal investigator)

1972-01-01

437

Geology: The Active Earth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ranger Rick's NatureScope is a creative education series dedicated to inspiring in children an understanding and appreciation of the natural world while developing the skills they will need to make responsible decisions about the environment. The topic of this issue is "Geology: The Active Earth." Contents are organized into the following…

Braus, Judy, Ed.

1987-01-01

438

Geology of Jewel Cave  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Park Service site provides an introduction to the Black Hill's Jewel Cave. The site describes the unique geologic history of the Black Hills, the formation of speleothems as well as unusual crystal growth in the cave. Photographs illustrate the descriptions.

National Park Services (NPS)

439

Urban Geology (GEOL357)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This webpage describes the Urban Geology class at California State University - Los Angeles. The course explores the natural environment in and around urban population centers and looks at how planners can mitigate the effects of natural phenomena such as earthquakes, floods, and landslides.

California State University, L.A. - Geological Sciences

440

Glacial Geology of Wisconsin.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is a teacher's resource and guidebook for the presentation of the three filmstrips in the "Glacial Geology of Wisconsin" series. The first filmstrip is subtitled, "Evidence of the Glaciers," the second "How the Glaciers Reshaped the Landscape," and the third "Fossils of the Ice Age." Included are a list of objectives, an outline…

Madison Public Schools, WI.

441

Geologic Structures Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about the variables governing the brittle and ductile behavior of rocks, the simple geological structures associated with differential stress, and look at and apply real data to evaluate the depth to the brittle-ductile transition in the crust and how that depth can change temporarily due to sudden changes in stress introduced by large earthquakes.

John Leland

442

The Geology of Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Geology of Australia provides a vivid and informative account of the evolution of the Australian continent over the past 4400 million years. Starting with the Precambrian rocks which hold clues to the origins of life and the development of an oxygenated atmosphere, it then covers the warms seas, volcanism and multiple orogenies of the Palaeozoic, which built the eastern

David Johnson

2004-01-01

443

Layer Cake Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity provides young students with a relevant model (a layer cake) to help them understand concepts about sedimentary rock layers (such as the Law of Superposition), correlation of the rock record with geologic time and relative ages of rocks and fossils.

Molly Ward

444

Marine Environmental Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This course is an introduction to the aspects of marine geology and oceanography that affect the environment and marine resources. Service-learning is an essential component of how students learn about the earth. We deliver part of the content of this course by arranging for students to solve a problem with a local community partner.

Course taught by Prof. Ed Laine, Bowdoin College (edlaine@bowdoin.edu) and Cathryn Field, Lab Instructor (cfield@bowdoin.edu). Example compiled by Suzanne Savanick, Science Education Resource Center (ssavanic@carleton.edu).

445

Briefing on geological sequestration  

EPA Science Inventory

Geological sequestration (GS) is generally recognized as the injection and long-term (e.g., hundreds to thousands of years) trapping of gaseous, liquid or supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) in subsurface media ? primarily saline formations, depleted or nearly depleted oil and gas...

446

IDAHO FLUVIAL GEOLOGY  

EPA Science Inventory

Restricted availability. Major Attributes: Polygons described by geologic type codes & descriptions. May be incorporated into maps at the state/county/basin scale. Probably too coarse for use at the site scale. Scale: 1:500:000. Extent: Idaho. Projection: Albers. Source: ...

447

Mass Extinctions Geology 331  

E-print Network

Mass Extinctions Geology 331 Paleontology #12;The Phanerozoic Eons are divided by Mass Extinctions Permian K-T #12;How have physical changes on the earth effected the evolutionary history of life during the Phanerozoic? #12;Types of Extinction · Background Extinction ­ when species go extinct through natural

Kammer, Thomas

448

Geological impacts on nutrition  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This chapter reviews the nutritional roles of mineral elements, as part of a volume on health implications of geology. The chapter addresses the absorption and post-absorptive utilization of the nutritionally essential minerals, including their physiological functions and quantitative requirements....

449

Public perceptions of geology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geological issues are increasingly intruding on the everyday lives of ordinary people. Whether it be onshore exploration and extraction of oil and gas, deep injection of water for geothermal power or underground storage of carbon dioxide and radioactive waste, many communities across Europe are being faced with potentially contested geological activity under their backyard. As well as being able to communicate the technical aspects of such work, geoscience professionals also need to appreciate that for most people the subsurface is an unfamiliar realm. In order to engage communities and individuals in effective dialogue about geological activities, an appreciation of what 'the public' already know and what they want to know is needed, but this is a subject that is in its infancy. In an attempt to provide insight into these key issues, this study examines the concerns the public have, relating to geology, by constructing 'Mental Models' of people's perceptions of the subsurface. General recommendations for public engagement strategies will be presented based on the results of selected case studies; specifically expert and non-expert mental models for communities in the south-west of England.

Gibson, Hazel; Stewart, Iain; Anderson, Mark; Pahl, Sabine; Stokes, Alison

2014-05-01

450

Geologic Data Systems  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Several of the systems used for viewing and storing geologic data as it's captured from the onboard instrumentation. The USGS returned from a seafloor data mapping mission offshore of the Delmarva Peninsula (Ocean City, MD) on July 25th, 2014. The data collected is foundational to our continued und...

451

Geology of California. Second Edition  

SciTech Connect

Two introductory chapters familiarize readers with basic geologic concepts. The following chapters describe the geology of each of California's 11 geomorphic provinces; the San Andreas fault and offshore geology are discussed in two separate chapters. Four appendices acquaint readers with technical words and terms, common minerals and rocks in California, geologic time, and geologic theories that pertain to California. During the 1960s evidence collected from the east Pacific sea floor off the western coast of North America gave scientists supporting data for Alfred Wegener's 1910 theory of continental drift. In addition to the confirmation of continental drift, since the 1960s scientists have discovered paleomagnetism, sea-floor spreading, exotic and suspect terranes, and polar wandering. These important concepts have had far reaching effects about how we understand the geology of California and how this region has evolved through geologic time. Improved investigative procedures enable earth scientists to comprehend previously puzzling aspects of California's geology.

Norris, R.M.; Webb, R.W.

1990-01-01

452

Geology of the Colorado Plateau  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page provides a general description of the geology of the Colorado Plateau. Topics include information about the various geologic environments and processes active during the Precambrian and the Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic Eras.

Colorado Plateau Field Institute

453

Geologic Map Database of Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The purpose of this report is to release a digital geologic map database for the State of Texas. This database was compiled for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Program, National Surveys and Analysis Project, whose goal is a nationwide assemblage of geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and other data. This release makes the geologic data from the Geologic Map of Texas available in digital format. Original clear film positives provided by the Texas Bureau of Economic Geology were photographically enlarged onto Mylar film. These films were scanned, georeferenced, digitized, and attributed by Geologic Data Systems (GDS), Inc., Denver, Colorado. Project oversight and quality control was the responsibility of the U.S. Geological Survey. ESRI ArcInfo coverages, AMLs, and shapefiles are provided.

Stoeser, Douglas B.; Shock, Nancy; Green, Gregory N.; Dumonceaux, Gayle M.; Heran, William D.

2005-01-01

454

GLACIAL GEOLOGY OF CAPE BIRD, ROSS ISLAND, ANTARCTICA  

E-print Network

GLACIAL GEOLOGY OF CAPE BIRD, ROSS ISLAND, ANTARCTICA BY TINA M. DOCHAT1, DAVID R. MARCHANT2, University of Maine, Orono, Maine, USA Dochat,TinaM.,Marchant,D.R.andDenton,G.H.,2000:Gla- cialgeologyof CapeBird,shells,andforaminifersindicatethatacomponent of theicewithinthissheetflowedthroughtheTAM,groundedon theRoss Seafloor,andultimatelyadvancedlandwardontothe lowerslopes of MountBird

Marchant, David R.

455

The Maine Memory Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Once you have visited Maine, it is most certainly not a place that you will soon forget. This website is designed to make sure longtime residents and visitors alike will not forget this tranquil state, as it brings together a very wide range of historical documents and memories from around the state. The site itself was created by the Maine Historical Society, and is supported by monies from the Institute of Museum and Library Services and several other partners. Within the site, visitors can search for historical items and documents, view thematic online exhibits, and learn about how the site may be used effectively in classroom settings. One particularly fine exhibit is the one that offers some visual documentation of rural Aroostook County around the year 1900. In this exhibit, visitors can experience the dense forests and rugged terrain that dominate the landscape of this part of Maine.

456

Geology of the National Parks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource provides information about United States Geological Survey (USGS) resources and activities associated with National Parks. Users can choose from a selection of links that access items on park geology, virtual trips, research projects, and general topics such as plate tectonics, rocks and minerals, shorelines, glaciers, and many more. Links to geologic information for individual parks are arranged by alphabet, by state, or by geologic province.

457

Sunset Crater National Monument: A 3-D Photographic Geology Tour  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This virtual tour features three-dimensional images from the United States Geological Survey's (USGS) collection. It introduces visitors to the geology, landforms, and volcanic history of Sunset Crater National Monument, which was the scene of volcanic activity beginning in 1064 to 1065 AD and continuing for approximately 200 years. Visitors can see Sunset Cater itself, cinder and spatter cones, the features of the Bonito Lava Flow, and other volcanoes of the San Francisco Volcanic Field. The 3-D images are anaglyphs and require red and cyan 3-D viewing glasses.

458

The Second Flowering of Geology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses two "golden" ages in geological investigations/inquiry. The first, extending from the late eighteenth century through the early nineteenth century, established geology as a science based on naturalistic principles. The second, beginning after World War II, is characterized by advances in geological specialities and explanations based on…

Cloud, Preston

1983-01-01

459

Geologic Map of New Jersey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This map displays the sedimentary rocks of the Cenozoic, Mesozoic, and Paleozoic eras as well as the igneous and metamorphic rocks of the Mesozoic and Precambrian eras. There is a pagesize copy of the geologic map, a brief description of the geology and physiographic provinces of New Jersey, and information on bedrock geologic maps of New Jersey (in CD-ROM format).

460

GEOLOGY, January 2011 39 INTRODUCTION  

E-print Network

). This geologically based age estimation from Australia agrees with those from south China, where continental rifting Australia Geology, January 2011; v. 39; no. 1; p. 39­42; doi: 10.1130/G31461.1; 2 figures; Data RepositoryGEOLOGY, January 2011 39 INTRODUCTION The breakup processes of the Neoproterozoic supercontinent