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Virtual Tour of Maine Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This selection of slide shows provides a photographic tour of Maine geology. Users can choose slide shows on surficial, bedrock, and coastal geology; fossils, geologic hazards, groundwater and wells; or mineral collecting, mining, and quarrying.


Vesta's Geological Features  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vesta’s diverse geology exhibits impact basins and craters of all sizes and unusual shapes, ejecta blankets, large troughs, impact basins, enigmatic dark material, and considerable evidence for mass wasting and surface alteration processes.

Jaumann, R.; Russell, C. T.; Raymond, C. A.; Pieters, C. M.; Yingst, R. A.; Williams, D. A.; Buczkowski, D. L.; Schenk, P.; De Sanctis, M. C.



Tectonics of the Urals and adjacent part of the West-Siberian platform basement: Main features of geology and development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Urals had undergone two main complete cycles of geodynamic development in the Riphean-Mesozoic time. The first one took place in the Riphean and Vendian and was completed by formation of the Timanides; the second is dated as Paleozoic-Early Mesozoic, belongs to the Uralides and can be divided into eight stages: (1) Continental riftogenesis (Cambrian - Early Ordovician). (2) Oceanic spreading (Middle-Late Ordovician). (3) Main subduction (Late Ordovician - Early Carboniferous). (4) Early collision (Late Devonian - Early Carboniferous) between the Magnitogorsk island arc and the passive margin of the Laurussia continent. (5) Late subduction of a relict oceanic crust of the Paleouralian ocean (Early-Carboniferous-Bashkirian). (6) Collision of Laurussian and Kazakhstanian continents. (7) A limited post-collisional extension and superplume magmatism (Triassic). (8) Thrust-and-fold deformation in the Early Jurassic time. Structure of the West Siberian plate is divided into three structural stages: (1) Folding of basement composed of rock complexes of almost exclusively Paleozoic age; (2) Riftogenesis with eruption of Early Triassic basalts (occasionally with some rhyolites), covered by terrigenous series of the Middle and Upper Triassic; (3) Deposition of a platform cover comprising Jurassic and younger sedimentary complexes, practically undeformed, which contain almost all deposits of oil and gas in the Western Siberia. The basement of the western part of the West Siberian plate is a prolongation of the structural zones of the eastern sector of Uralides, while the basement of the eastern part of the plate belongs to the Siberian craton and its folded margin. A huge block of the Kazakhstanides is situated to the east of the Uralides, beneath the platform cover and pinches out to the north. These main domains of the basement are divided by two major ophiolite sutures - Valerianovsk and Chara. Wide distribution of Triassic volcanogenic complexes under the platform cover of the West Siberian plate makes a principal difference from the Urals. Ophiolites are widely distributed under the platform cover of the West Siberian plate (especially in its central and western parts). Completion of Paleozoic geodynamic evolution of this region resulted from the collision of three continents (Laurussia, Siberia and Kazakhstania) accompanied by folding, highamplitude thrusting, intrusion of granite plutons, metamorphism and formation of a new crust of continental type. The time of these events which consolidated Paleozoic complexes of basement of future West Siberian megabasin is determined as Early Permian for the Cis-Uralian part of the platform. In the beginning of Triassic rifting, formation of a graben system, took place. A final stage of compressional deformation, mostly in the exposed part of the Urals, Pay-Khoy and Novaya Zemlya, occurred in the Lower Jurassic.

Ivanov, K. S.; Puchkov, V. N.; Fyodorov, Yu N.; Erokhin, Yu V.; Pogromskaya, O. E.



Geology Fieldnotes: Acadia National Park, Maine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Park Service website highlights the geology of Acadia National Park. The story begins 500 million years ago, and goes through rock cycles, formations (Ellsworth, Bar Harbor, and Cranberry formations), intrusions, the Ice Age, glacial features, and development of shore patterns. There are area and park maps, photos, and links to additional information.


The Main Features of the Local Geological Conditions Can Explain the Macroseismic Intensity Caused in Xiji-Langfu (Beijing) by the Ms = 7.7 Tangshan 1976 Earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The special geological conditions in the Xiji-Langfu area are the main reason for the anomalous high macroseismic intensity caused by the Tangshan, 1976 earthquake. The area is formed by deep deposits - mainly alluvium sands and clays poorly consolidated and with high water content - that have been trapped by the Xiadian fault. From simulated ground motion we have computed quantities commonly used for engineering purposes like the acceleration maximum amplitude (AMAX) and the total energy of ground motion (W), which is related to the Arias Intensity. The thick low velocity deposits are responsible for the large increment of the values of AMAX and W inside the basin. On the two sides of the Xiadian fault AMAX and W can vary by 200% and 700% respectively, and these variations are quite stable with varying thickness of the sedimentary deposit used in the models. With the existing relationships between acceleration (AMAX) and macroseismic intensity (I) our results can explain the large values of I observed in the Xiji-Langfu area, in connection with the Tangshan earthquake.

Sun, R.; Vaccari, F.; Marrara, F.; Panza, G. F.


Main geothermal features of northwest African countries  

SciTech Connect

The Maghrebian zone of North-West Africa is one of the poorest regions in water resources in all of Africa. Given the limited rainfall, underground water constitutes an important resource in this region and its study may help to assess the geothermal potential in this area. Research is based on geothermal signatures in available inventory data (thermal springs, hydro-geologic and petroleum wells). Underground temperature has been measured in petroleum exploration wells and can be estimated by chemical geothermometers. Heat flow density ranges from 60 to 120 mWm{sup -2} and geothermal gradient varies from 25 to 52{degrees}C/km. These variations as well as the thermal springs location seem to be related to the main tectonic features.

Mimi, A.L.; Dhia, H.B.; Bouri, S.



Geologic features from curvelet based seismic attributes  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Method for identifying geologic features, such as hydrocarbon indicators, from geophysical data, such as seismic data, by taking a curvelet transform of the data. After the curvelet representation of the data is computed (350), selected geophysical data attributes and their interdependencies are extracted (355), from which geological features may be identified (360), either from attribute data volumes that are created or directly from the curvelet representation.



Maine Geological Survey Borehole Temperature Profiles  

SciTech Connect

This dataset includes temperature profiles from 30 boreholes throughout Maine that were selected for their depth, location, and lithologies encountered. Depths range from about 300 feet to 2,200 feet. Most of the boreholes selected for measurement were completed in granite because this lithology can be assumed to be nearly homogeneous over the depth of the borehole. Boreholes were also selected to address gaps in existing geothermal datasets. Temperature profiles were collected in October and November, 2012.

Robert Marvinney



The Geology of the Marginal Way, Ogunquit, Maine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This guide introduces visitors to the geology of the Marginal Way, a mile-long public footpath in the southern coastal town of Ogunquit, Maine. Topics include bedrock geology (Silurian quartzites and phyllites), later intrusives (sills and dikes, mainly of basalt), and evidence of glaciation (striations). Suggested activities include observing graded bedding in the bedrock, estimating the ages of cross-cutting dikes, and looking for glacial striations. Permission and access information, directions, and suggestions for further reading are included.


Glacial and Postglacial Geology Highlights in the White Mountain National Forest, Western Maine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This guide introduces visitors to the glacial and postglacial geology of the White Mountain National Forest in western Maine. The discussion covers the timing of the glaciation (the Laurentide Ice Sheet, 25,000-13,000 years ago) and the numerous features left behind: erosional features such as high cliffs, grooves and striations; depositional features such as till, erratics, and glacial lake deposits; and deposits reworked by meltwater streams such as outwash, alluvial fans, and stream terraces. Permission and access information, directions, and references are included.


Pinnacles National Monument: A 3-D Tour Featuring Park Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This virtual tour features three-dimensional images from the United States Geological Survey's (USGS) collection. It introduces visitors to the geology and landforms of Pinnacles National Monument in California, the location of a belt of Tertiary volcanic rocks (tuff, breccia, and ash of rhyolite, dacite, and andesite composition). The location of the Pinnacles volcanic area near the San Andreas Fault has important implications for deciphering the geologic history of the fault system. Views include the trace of the San Andreas fault and erosional features (pinnacles, caves, cliffs, etc.) carved into the volcanic deposits. The 3-D images are anaglyphs and require red and cyan 3-D viewing glasses.


3-Dimensional Topographic Models of Geologic Features for the Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We are using topography data of Earth and Mars to produce accurate 3-dimensional plastic models of comparable large scale geologic surface features from both planets. These models will be used in instructional settings to help students gain a better understanding of topics related to comparative geology, geomorphology and topography. Along with the models, associated lesson plans are being designed to help students and teachers understand topics related to topography such as maps, scale, shape, landform evolution, contour, slope, and exaggeration.


Ambient tectonic stress as fragile geological feature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

seismic waves produce frictional failure within shallow pervasively cracked rocks. Distributed failure preferentially relaxes ambient tectonic stresses, providing a fragility measure of past strong shaking. Relaxation of the regional fault-normal compression appears to have occurred within granite from 768 m down to ˜1000-1600 m depth at the Pilot Hole near Parkfield, California. Subsequent movements on the main fault have imposed strike-slip stress within the relaxed region. Peak ground velocities of ˜2 m s-1 are inferred for infrequent (few 1000 yr recurrence) past earthquakes from stress relaxation within the granite and from the variation of S wave velocity with depth in the overlying sandstone. Conversely, frequent strong shaking in slowly deforming regions relaxes shallow ambient tectonic stress. This situation is expected beneath Whittier Narrows, where strong Love waves from numerous San Andreas events repeatedly produced nonlinear behavior.

Sleep, Norman H.



Fear as the main feature of epileptic seizures  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVESThere are circumstances in which partial seizures may be misdiagnosed as acute psychiatric disturbances. In particular, when fear is the prominent feature the patient may be considered for years as having panic attacks. Eight patients in whom fear was the main symptom of the seizures are reported on. Patients who had a proved lack of consciousness during the fits and

A Biraben; D Taussig; P Thomas; C Even; J P Vignal; J M Scarabin; P Chauvel



Geologic Field Investigation: Investigating Coastal Features of Western Lake Superior, Inferring Possibilities of their Origins  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This geologic investigation will have students observing and investigating coastal features of Western Lake Superior using inquiry-based investigable questions, and inferring possibilities of the coastal features' origins.

Davis, Paul


The oceanic islands - Azores. [geological, geophysical and geochemical features  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A presentation is made of the known geological, geophysical, and geochemical data on the Azores. The regional setting of the islands is described; under the geological heading, surface geology and petrochemistry are discussed; and paleomagnetism, marine magnetic surveys, gravity, seismology, and heat flow are treated in the geophysics category. A model for the origin of the Azores is constructed on the basis of these observations.

Ridley, W. I.; Watkins, N. D.; Macfarlane, D. J.



Geological features and evolution history of Sinus Iridum, the Moon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sinus Iridum region is one of the important candidate landing areas for the future Chinese lunar robotic and human missions. Considering its flat topography, abundant geomorphic features and complex evolutionary history, this region shows great significance to both lunar science and landing exploration, including powered descent, surface trafficability and in-situ exploration. First, we use Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Altimeter (LOLA) and Camera (LROC) data to characterize regional topographic and geomorphological features within Sinus Iridum, e.g., wrinkle ridges and sinuous rilles. Then, we deduce the iron and titanium content for the mare surface using the Clementine ultraviolet-visible (UVVIS) data and generate mineral absorption features using the Chandrayaan-1 Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) spectrometer data. Later, we date the mare surface using crater size-frequency distribution (CSFD) method. CSFD measurements show that this region has experienced four major lava infilling events with model ages ranging from 3.32 Ga to 2.50 Ga. The regional magmatic activities evolved from Imbrian-aged low-titanium to Eratosthenian-aged medium-titanium. The inner Sinus Iridum is mainly composed of pyroxene-rich basalts with olivine abundance increasing with time, while the surrounding highlands have a feldspar-dominated composition. In the northern wall of Sinus Iridum, some potential olivine-rich materials directly excavated from the lunar mantle are visible. The Sinus Iridum region is an ideal target for future landing exploration, we propose two candidate landing sites for the future Chinese robotic and human missions.

Qiao, Le; Xiao, Long; Zhao, Jiannan; Huang, Qian; Haruyama, Junichi



Maps of Lunar Topographic Roughness: Correlation with Geological Features  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter LOLA [Smith et al. 2010 Space Sci. Rev. 150, 209] on board the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter is accumulating high-precision lunar surface elevation measurements. This data set is an excellent source for mapping lunar topographic roughness [Rosenburg et al. 2011 JGR 116, E02001]. Such maps are useful in planetary geology for the following reasons. (1) Roughness maps provide a convenient one-glance synoptic overview of small-scale textures. (2) They help focus on typical background topography, while researcher's eyes usually pick prominent features. (3) Roughness maps utilize the exceptional along-orbit precision of laser altimeter data. In a series of roughness maps that we present here, we use the interquartile range of along-profile curvature at a given baseline as a measure of roughness. We use a progression of baselines starting from the double LOLA probing step: 0.12, 0.46, 0.92, 1.8 km. We also show some useful color composites combining these maps and showing the scale dependence of roughness. Available data allow roughness mapping at 8 pixels per degree resolution. The nature of the lunar roughness changes abruptly at sub-km scale. At 0.46 km baseline and longer, the most prominent feature on the roughness maps is the dichotomy between smooth maria and rough highlands. At 0.12 km baseline, the mare/highland boundary disappears; some mare surfaces are rougher and some are smoother than typical highlands. At this baseline the surface topography is controlled by regolith gardening and reflects small-scale resurfacing during the Copernican and Eratosthenian periods, while for longer baselines the topography is defined by bedrock geology and "remembers" Imbrian and earlier events. At short scales (0.12 km baseline) both the roughest and the smoothest terrains are related to Copernican-aged large impact craters. Craters themselves and their proximal ejecta are extremely rough; the roughest ejecta is separated from craters by prominent smoother annuli. The roughness of the young craters progressively decreases with age due to smoothing by accumulation of the regolith layer. The smoothest terrains are local relatively small impact melt sheets outside Copernican craters Rutherford and Glushko. Large Copernican craters Tycho, Jackson and Ohm have systems of long roughness rays composed of elongated clusters of secondary craters. There are at least a few prominent roughness "rays" on the north-eastern limb made of dense elongated crater clusters that are not associated with any impact crater; their origin is enigmatic. Mare surfaces have relatively wide variations of roughness; boundaries between rougher and smoother areas often do not correlate with boundaries of mare units. These roughness variations seem to be caused, at least, partly, by the varying density of small craters. At longer baselines (0.46, 0.92, 1.8 km), in addition to Copernican and Eratosthenian craters, large Late Imbrian craters have prominent roughness signatures; they also have smoother annuli between craters and rough ejecta. Orientale basin, unlike other basins, also has distinctive roughness signature, as discussed in [Kreslavsky & Head 2012 JGR 117, E00H24]. The youngest maria are smooth at all scales, while older maria and cryptomaria are progressively rougher at shorter baselines; sharp roughness contrasts coincide with known unit boundaries.

Kreslavsky, M. A.; Head, J. W.; Neumann, G. A.; Zuber, M. T.; Smith, D. E.



Field occurrences of liquefaction-induced features: A primer for engineering geologic analysis of paleoseismic shaking  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Discussed in this paper are the factors that control the typical manifestations of liquefaction that are found in continental field settings. The factors are given mainly in terms of the local geologic field situation and the geotechnical properties there. A meaningful interpretation of liquefaction-based data for quantitative analysis of paleoseismic shaking requires understanding of both geologic and geotechnical roles in the mode of ground failure at a specific site. Recommendations are made for the size of the field area that must be searched for liquefaction effects, in order to develop adequate data for engineering geologic/geotechnical analyses of paleoseismicity. The areal extent must be based on an appreciation that the tectonic situation can cause seismically induced liquefaction effects to form in some locales, but not in others nearby, even for a strong earthquake in the region. Our guidelines for the conduct of the field search and preliminary analysis of the data relate to three issues for which liquefaction features are especially useful in answering: Has there been strong Holocene/latest Pleistocene shaking in the region? Where was the tectonic source? And what was the strength of shaking? Understanding of the various factors that control the manifestations of liquefaction effects, which we present in this paper, is essential for developing credible answers to these questions. ?? 2004 Elsvier B.V. All rights reserved.

Obermeier, S.F.; Olson, S.M.; Green, R.A.



Yellowstone National Park: Historic 3-D Photographs Featuring Park Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This source provides a series of 34 historic photographs of well-known geologic landmarks in Yellowstone National Park. The photographs can be viewed individually or as part of a tour that begins at Old Faithful and proceeds in a clockwise route around the park. The images were created by digital manipulation of antique stereographs and they may be viewed as black and white photos or in 3-D using special stereographic glasses.

Phil, Stoffer; Team, Usgs W.


Gestures for Structural Geology: Linear and Planar Features  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

à Gesturing a possible orientation for a planar feature cutting into a 3D solid. Provenance: Kinnari Atit, Temple University Reuse: This item is offered under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license You may reuse this item for non-commercial purposes as long as you provide attribution and offer any derivative works under a similar license. In this exercise, students use a pointer finger to gesture the orientations of linear features and use their hands (open and flat) to gesture the orientations of planar features. In the first part of the exercise, students can only see one surface of a wooden block, and are asked to speculate about how planar features penetrate through the interior. Later, they uncover the other faces of the block and gesture the actual orientations. This uses embodied learning to help students relate surficial (2D) observations to 3D interpretations.

Ormand, Carol


Crustal thickness map of Brazil: Data compilation and main features  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a crustal thickness map of Brazil and adjacent areas based on a compilation of data published in the literature as well as new measurements. We used crustal thicknesses mainly derived from seismic datasets such as deep seismic refraction experiments, receiver function analyses, and surface-wave dispersion velocities. Crustal thicknesses derived from modelling gravity anomalies commonly depend on assumptions, such as constant density contrast across the Moho interface, which are not always easily verifiable and were considered only along the continental shelf to fill large gaps in the seismic data. Our compilation shows that the crust in the stable continental area onshore has an average thickness of 39 ± 5 km (1-? deviation) and that no clear difference can be observed between low altitude, intracratonic sedimentary basins, NeoProterozoic foldbelts (except for the Borborema Province), and cratonic areas. The thinnest crust is found in the Borborema Province of NE Brazil (30-35 km) and along a narrow belt within Tocantins Province (˜35 km), roughly parallel to the Eastern border of the Amazon craton, while the thickest crust is found in the Amazon and São Francisco cratons (41 ± 4 km), and the Paraná Basin (42 ± 4 km). Both the Ponta Grossa and the Rio Grande Arches are areas of thinned crust, and the western border of the Brazilian platform, near the sub-Andean region, seems to be characterized by a crustal thickness of less than 40 km. Although sparse in data coverage, we expect the resulting crustal thickness map to be useful for future studies of isostasy, dynamic topography, and crustal evolution of the country.

Assumpção, Marcelo; Bianchi, Marcelo; Julià, Jordi; Dias, Fábio L.; Sand França, George; Nascimento, Rosana; Drouet, Stéphane; Pavão, César Garcia; Albuquerque, Diogo Farrapo; Lopes, Afonso E. V.



Going Batty! (Using Informational Text about Bats to teach Main Idea/Details and Text Features)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is a good review of main idea and details. It uses informational books about bats in the lesson. Students will use informational text features to help find the main idea and details. They will also use the knowledge of main idea/details and informational text features to complete a simple reseach sheet and/or book.

Atchison, Joe




NSDL National Science Digital Library

With three levels to choose from on each page - beginner, intermediate or advanced - this site provides information on the many different kinds of geological exploration. The elements that make up minerals and the different ways minerals are developed, The special characteristics of minerals, like physical properties, is explained. Earths tectonic plates, the reasons they move, and the effects of the shifting are also given. Also featured is fossils and how they are developed and are found, as well as why fossils are useful tools for scientists.

Bergman, Jennifer



Geology and origin of Europa's ``Mitten'' feature (Murias Chaos)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ``Mitten'' (provisionally named Murias Chaos by the International Astronomical Union) is a region of elevated chaos-like terrain in the leading hemisphere of Europa. Its origin had been explained under the currently debated theories of melting through a thin lithosphere or convection within a thick one. Galileo observations reveal several characteristics that suggest that the Mitten is distinct from typical chaos terrain and point to a different formational process. Photoclinometric elevation estimates suggest that the Mitten is slightly elevated with respect to the surrounding terrain; geologic relations indicate that it must have raised significantly from the plains in its past, resembling disrupted domes on Europa's trailing hemisphere. Moreover, the Mitten material appears to have extruded onto the plains and flowed for tens of kilometers. The area subsequently subsided as a result of isostatic adjustment, viscous relaxation, and/or plains loading. Using plate flexure models, we estimated the elastic lithosphere in the area to be several kilometers thick. We propose that the Mitten originated by the ascent and extrusion of a large thermal diapir. Thermal-mechanical modeling shows that a Mitten-sized plume would remain sufficiently warm and buoyant to pierce through the crust and flow unconfined on the surface. Such a diapir probably had an initial radius between 5 and 8 km and an initial depth of 20-40 km, consistent with a thick-lithosphere model. In this scenario the Mitten appears to represent the surface expression of the rare ascent of a large diapir, in contrast to lenticulae and chaos terrain, which may form by isolated and clustered small diapirs, respectively.

Figueredo, P. H.; Chuang, F. C.; Rathbun, J.; Kirk, R. L.; Greeley, R.



Geology and origin of Europa's "Mitten" feature (Murias Chaos)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The "Mitten" (provisionally named Murias Chaos by the International Astronomical Union) is a region of elevated chaos-like terrain in the leading hemisphere of Europa. Its origin had been explained under the currently debated theories of melting through a thin lithosphere or convection within a thick one. Galileo observations reveal several characteristics that suggest that the Mitten is distinct from typical chaos terrain and point to a different formational process. Photoclinometric elevation estimates suggest that the Mitten is slightly elevated with respect to the surrounding terrain; geologic relations indicate that it must have raised significantly from the plains in its past, resembling disrupted domes on Europa's trailing hemisphere. Moreover, the Mitten material appears to have extruded onto the plains and flowed for tens of kilometers. The area subsequently subsided as a result of isostatic adjustment, viscous relaxation, and/or plains loading. Using plate flexure models, we estimated the elastic lithosphere in the area to be several kilometers thick. We propose that the Mitten originated by the ascent and extrusion of a large thermal diapir. Thermal-mechanical modeling shows that a Mitten-sized plume would remain sufficiently warm and buoyant to pierce through the crust and flow unconfined on the surface. Such a diapir probably had an initial radius between 5 and 8 km and an initial depth of 20-40 km, consistent with a thick-lithosphere model. In this scenario the Mitten appears to represent the surface expression of the rare ascent of a large diapir, in contrast to lenticulae and chaos terrain, which may form by isolated and clustered small diapirs, respectively.

Figueredo, P.H.; Chuang, F.C.; Rathbun, J.; Kirk, R.L.; Greeley, R.



Color heterogeneity of the surface of PHOBOS - Relationships to geologic features and comparison to meteorite analogs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Color ratio images created from multispectral observations of Phobos are analyzed in order to characterize the spectral properties of Phobos' surface, to assess their spatial distributions and relationships with geologic features, and to compare Phobos' surface materials with possible meteorite analogs. Data calibration and processing is briefly discussed, and the observed spectral properties of Phobos and their lateral variations are examined. Attention is then given to the color properties of different types of impact craters, the origin of lateral variations in surface color, the relation between the spatial distribution of color properties and independently identifiable geologic features, and the relevance of color variation spatial distribution to the origin of the grooves.

Murchie, S. L.; Britt, D. T.; Head, J. W.; Pratt, S. F.; Fisher, P. C.; Zhukov, B. S.; Kuzmin, A. A.; Ksanfomality, L. V.; Zharkov, A. V.; Nikitin, G. E.; Fanale, F. P.; Blaney, D. L.; Bell, J. F.; Robinson, M. S.



Shallow geologic features of the upper continental slope, northwestern Gulf of Mexico  

E-print Network

. Geological Survey program served as the main source of' data for the present investigation. These profiles are of two types: 3. 5 kMz sub bottom profiles and. 700 or 1, 000 joule sparker profil s. These geophysical records were analyzed and interpreted ir.... Geological Survey program served as the main source of' data for the present investigation. These profiles are of two types: 3. 5 kMz sub bottom profiles and. 700 or 1, 000 joule sparker profil s. These geophysical records were analyzed and interpreted ir...

Tatum, Tommy Edwin



Scaling filtering and multiplicative cascade information integration techniques for geological, geophysical and geochemical data processing and geological feature recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper introduces several techniques recently developed based on the concepts of multiplicative cascade processes and multifractals for processing exploration geochemical and geophysical data for recognition of geological features and delineation of target areas for undiscovered mineral deposits. From a nonlinear point of view extreme geo-processes such as cloud formation, rainfall, hurricanes, flooding, landslides, earthquakes, igneous activities, tectonics and mineralization often show singular property that they may result in anomalous amounts of energy release or mass accumulation that generally are confined to narrow intervals in space or time. The end products of these non-linear processes have in common that they can be modeled as fractals or multifractals. Here we show that the three fundamental concepts of scaling in the context of multifractals: singularity, self-similarity and fractal dimension spectrum, make multifractal theory and methods useful for geochemical and geophysical data processing for general purposes of geological features recognition. These methods include: a local singularity analysis based on a area-density (C-A) multifractal model used as a scaling high-pass filtering technique capable of extracting weak signals caused by buried geological features; a suite of multifractal filtering techniques based on spectrum density - area (S-A) multifractal models implemented in various domain including frequency domain can be used for unmixing geochemical or geophysical fields according to distinct generalized self-similarities characterized in certain domain; and multiplicative cascade processes for integration of diverse evidential layers of information for prediction of point events such as location of mineral deposits. It is demonstrated by several case studies involving Fe, Sn, Mo-Ag and Mo-W mineral deposits that singularity method can be utilized to process stream sediment/soil geochemical data and gravity/aeromagnetic data as high-pass filtering technique for delineating anomalies caused by mineralization or boundaries of mineralization-associated geological bodies; S-A method can be applied as high-pass, low-pass or band -pass filtering techniques for extracting patterns of interest from mixing data; and cascade processes can be implemented to integrate diverse layers of information for mineral resources predictive mapping.

Cheng, Q.



Skylab-4 visual observations project: Geological features of southwestern North America  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Visual observations conducted by Skylab-4 crewmen on seven designated geological target areas and other targets of opportunity in parts of southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico were described. The experiments were designed to learn how effectively geologic features could be observed from orbit and what research information could be obtained from the observations when supported by ground studies. For the limited preparation they received, the crewmen demonstrated exceptional observational ability and produced outstanding photographic studies. They also formulated cogent opinions on how to improve future observational and photo-documentation techniques. From the photographs and other observations, it was possible to obtain significant research contributions to on-going field investigations. These contributions were integrated into other aspects of the ground investigations to the following topics: major faults, regional stratigraphy, occurrence of Precambrian crystalline rocks, mapping of Mesozoic volcanic rocks, regional geology.

Silver, L. T.



RACHEL J. BEANE Department of Geology 6800 College Station Bowdoin College Brunswick, Maine 04011-8468  

E-print Network

PUBLICATIONS (* denotes undergraduate student author) Grew, E.S., Yates, M.G., Beane, R.J., Floss, C. and Gerbi.), Geological Society of America International Book Series, v. 10, p.577-597. Beane, R. and Leech, M., 2007.G., and Sorensen, S.S., eds., Convergent Margin Terranes and Associated Regions. Geological Society of America

Beane, Rachel J.


Geologic Features on Titan's Surface as Revealed by the Cassini Titan Radar Mapper  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cassini Titan Radar Mapper is one of the prime investigations to explore Titan's surface from orbit. Because of its almost opaque atmosphere, microwave remote sensing contributes uniquely to that investigation. The Titan Radar Mapper operates as a passive radiometer, scatterometer, altimeter, and synthetic aperture radar (SAR). We review the diversity of geologic features revealed using SAR during four fly-bys (Ta: October 2004, T3: February 2005, T7: September 2005, and T8: October 2005) and their context. Early SAR images from Ta and T3 reveal that Titan is very geologically complex (see Elachi et al., 2005, Science 13, 970-4). A variety of landforms and surface units were characterized morphologically and mapped, based on brightness variations, general planform shape and texture. Significant differences were seen in the geology between the Ta swath (centered at ~ 50N, 80W) and the T3 swath (centered at ~ 30N, 70W). The units in the Ta swath appear relatively young and no impact craters could be unambiguously identified. A variety of features which we argue to be cryovolcanic in origin were seen, including extensive flows, paterae, and a circular feature (Ganesa Macula) interpreted as a volcanic dome. We interpret radar-bright braided and sinuous channels and associated deposits to be fluvial in origin. Five distinct units were mapped in Ta, including a dark mottled unit that may represent the presence of surface liquids. The T3 swath displayed many of the same units seen in Ta, except for cryovolcanic features which are absent or indistinct. Among the new features in T3 are a large impact (440 km diameter) basin, a smaller (80 km diameter) crater, and dark lineated streaks, nicknamed "cat scratches" that are thought to be aeolian in origin. The dominant unit in T3 is a bright mottled unit that may contain ubiquitous small (less than 10 km across) topographic features. Groups of material that appear to be hills are more common in the T3 data than Ta. Based on the first two swaths (Ta and T3) we expect significant variations in the types and distribution of geologic features in the T7 and T8 data. The T8 swath will cover the landing site of the Huygens probe, providing a larger geologic context for the high-resolution near-infrared images obtained during the descent of the Huygens probe.

Lopes, R. M.; Stofan, E.; Elachi, C.; Kirk, R.; Lorenz, R.; Lunine, J.; Mitchell, K. L.; Ori, G. G.; Paganelli, F.; Soderblom, L.; Wall, S.; Wood, C.



EG-1998-03-109-HQ Activities in Planetary Geology for the Physical and Earth Sciences Exercise Eleven: Geologic Features of Mars  

E-print Network

Eleven: Geologic Features of Mars Purpose By examining images of martian surface features, studentsÃ?gradation, impact cratering, tectonism, and volcanism. In many ways Mars is similar to Earth. Martian volcanoes, although apparently extinct, are similar to those on Earth. Mars does not experience plate tec- tonics like

Waliser, Duane E.


Phyllosilicate absorption features in main-belt and outer-belt asteroid reflectance spectra.  


Absorption features having depths up to 5% are identified in high-quality, high-resolution reflectance spectra of 16 dark asteroids in the main belt and in the Cybele and Hilda groups. Analogs among the CM2 carbonaceous chondrite meteorites exist for some of these asteroids, suggesting that these absorptions are due to iron oxides in phyllosilicates formed on the asteroidal surfaces by aqueous alteration processes. Spectra of ten additional asteroids, located beyond the outer edge of the main belt, show no discernible absorption features, suggesting that aqueous alteration did not always operate at these heliocentric distances. PMID:17748705

Vilas, F; Gaffey, M J



Phyllosilicate absorption features in main-belt and outer-belt asteroid reflectance spectra  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Absorption features having depths up to 5 percent are identified in high-quality, high-resolution reflectance spectra of 16 dark asteroids in the main belt and in the Cybele and Hilda groups. Analogs among the CM2 carbonaceous chondrite meteorites exist for some of these asteroids, suggesting that these absorptions are due to iron oxides in phyllosilicates formed on the asteroidal surfaces by aqueous alteration processes. Spectra of ten additional asteroids, located beyond the outer edge of the main belt, show no discernible absorption features, suggesting that aqueous alteration did not always operate at these heliocentric distances.

Vilas, Faith; Gaffey, Michael J.




Microsoft Academic Search

Bedrock geology of the East Brookfield quadrangle (EBQ), based on new 1:24000 scale mapping, consists of an interfolded sequence of Rangeley Fm. and Paxton Fm. metasediments, intruded by Early Mississippian tonalitic to granitic orthogneisses and underlain in the western half by folded orthogneisses of unknown age. Pervasive flattening strains have created planar, generally NNE-SSW striking and consistent moderately west dipping

Thomas Bradley Walker



The main features of data processing procedure for strong-motion records in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main features of strong-motion data processing procedures used in China are as follows: the effect of the record length on the level of digitizing noise background is considered; a different method is suggested for digitizing and connecting the successive sections of those long duration records requiring repositioning on the digitizer table; the method for instrument correction at both high

Lili Xie



Apollo 15 clastic materials and their relationship to local geologic features  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ninety sub-samples of Apollo 15 materials have been analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis techniques for as many as 21 elements. Soil and soil breccia compositions show considerable variation from station to station although at any given station the soils and soil breccias were compositionally very similar to one another. Mixing model calculations show that the station-to-station variations can be related to important local geologic features. These features include the Apennine Front, Hadley Rille and the ray from the craters Aristillus or Autolycus. Compositional similarities between soils and soil breccias at the Apollo 15 site indicate that the breccias and soils are related in some fundamental way, although the exact nature of this relationship is not yet fully understood.

Fruchter, J. S.; Stoeser, J. W.; Lindstrom, M. M.; Goles, G. G.



Geological images  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from Marli Bryant Miller, a professor at the University of Oregon, presents images of geological features from around the world. Photographs of glacial features, igneous and metamorphic rocks and processes, and structural geology are featured.

Miller, Marli B.; Oregon, University O.


Detection of silicate emission features in the 8- to 13-micron spectra of main belt asteroids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A presentation is given of 8.0-13.0 micron spectra (Delta lambda/lambda = 0.02-0.03) for six main belt asteroids, which range from 58 to 220 km in diameter and sample the five principal taxonomic classes (C, S, M, R and E). Narrow, well-defined silicate emission features are present on two of the asteroids, the C-type 19 Fortuna and the M-type 21 Lutetia. No comparable emission features are observed on the S-types 11 Parthenope and 14 Irene, the R-type 349 Dembowska or the E-type 64 Angelina.

Feierberg, M. A.; Witteborn, F. C.; Lebofsky, L. A.



Investigating geologic features and processes: A field investigation for earth science students at Leif Erickson Park, Duluth, Minnesota.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is a field investigation where students observe and interpret the rocks types, geologic features, and processes typical to the north shore of Lake Superior. Students use their data to develop questions that could be further investigated and to predict the sequence of events leading to the formation of these rocks and features.

Severson, Laurie


Yasny lode-placer cluster: Geological and structural features and gold potential  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The geological and structural features and gold potential of the Yasny lode-placer cluster in Amur province have been investigated. The lode-placer cluster is an intrusive domal uplift elongated in the nearmeridional direction and surrounded by Neogene loose sediments. The cluster comprises placers that yielded 15 t gold mined from there and small occurrences of gold-quartz and gold-base-metal lodes. Association of native gold with cinnabar in the Yasny Creek placer allows us to forecast a new source of gold-mercury mineralization in the basin of this creek, which could be compared with the Kyuchyus deposit in Yakutia. Gold nuggets 79 kg in total weight were mined from Gar-2 River placer. They are comparable in weight and association with quartz to the world's largest Holtermann Plate nugget from Australia. Gold-quartz lodes have been forecasted in the basin of the Gar-2 Creek.

Mel'nikov, A. V.; Stepanov, V. A.



Morphohistological Features of Pancreatic Stump Are the Main Determinant of Pancreatic Fistula after Pancreatoduodenectomy  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Pancreatic surgery is challenging and associated with high morbidity, mainly represented by postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) and its further consequences. Identification of risk factors for POPF is essential for proper postoperative management. Aim of the Study. Evaluation of the role of morphological and histological features of pancreatic stump, other than main pancreatic duct diameter and glandular texture, in POPF occurrence after pancreaticoduodenectomy. Patients and Methods. Between March 2011 and April 2013, we performed 145 consecutive pancreaticoduodenectomies. We intraoperatively recorded morphological features of pancreatic stump and collected data about postoperative morbidity. Our dedicated pathologist designed a score to quantify fibrosis and inflammation of pancreatic tissue. Results. Overall morbidity was 59,3%. Mortality was 4,1%. POPF rate was 28,3%, while clinically significant POPF were 15,8%. Male sex (P = 0.009), BMI ? 25 (P = 0.002), prolonged surgery (P = 0.001), soft pancreatic texture (P < 0.001), small pancreatic duct (P < 0.001), pancreatic duct decentralization on stump anteroposterior axis, especially if close to the posterior margin (P = 0.031), large stump area (P = 0.001), and extended stump mobilization (P = 0.001) were related to higher POPF rate. Our fibrosis-and-inflammation score is strongly associated with POPF (P = 0.001). Discussion and Conclusions. Pancreatic stump features evaluation, including histology, can help the surgeon in fitting postoperative management to patient individual risk after pancreaticoduodenectomy. PMID:24900974

Ridolfi, Cristina; Angiolini, Maria Rachele; Gavazzi, Francesca; Spaggiari, Paola; Tinti, Maria Carla; Uccelli, Fara; Madonini, Marco; Montorsi, Marco; Zerbi, Alessandro



Simulations using terrestrial geological analogues to assess interpretability of potential geological features of the Hermean surface restituted by the STereo imaging Camera of the SIMBIOSYS package (BepiColombo mission)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The BepiColombo space mission is one of the European Space Agency's cornerstone projects; it is planned for launch in 2013 to study the planet Mercury. One of the imaging instruments of BepiColombo is a STereo Camera (STC), whose main scientific objective is the global stereo mapping of the entire surface of Mercury. STC will permit the generation of a Digital Terrain Model (DTM) of Mercury's surface, improving the interpretation of morphological features at different scales and clarifying the stratigraphic relationships between different geological units. To evaluate the effectiveness of the STC-derived DTM for geological purposes, a series of simulations has been performed to find out to what extent the errors expected in the DTM may prevent the correct classification and interpretation of geological features. To meet this objective, Earth analogues (a crater, a lava cone and an endogenous dome) of likely components of the Hermean surface, small enough to be near the detection limit of the STC, were selected and a photorealistic three-dimensional (3D) model of each feature was generated using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) stereo images. Stereoscopic pairs of synthetic images of each feature were then generated from the 3D model at different locations along the BepiColombo orbit. For each stereo pair, the corresponding Hermean DTM was computed using image correlation and compared to the reference data to assess the loss of detail and interpretability. Results show that interpretation and quantitative analysis of simple craters morphologies and small volcanic features should be possible all along the periherm orbit arc. At the apoherm only the larger features can be unequivocally distinguished, but they will be reconstructed to a poor approximation.

Massironi, M.; Forlani, G.; Cremonese, G.; Capria, M. T.; Da Deppo, V.; Giacomini, L.; Naletto, G.; Pasquaré, G.; Roncella, R.; Flamini, E.



Observations of unidentified infrared features in the pre-main sequence star HD 97048  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Infrared spectroscopy of the pre-main sequence Be star HD 97048 shows strong emission features in the 3.3-3.6 micron region. The strongest feature occurs at 3.50 microns, is unresolved and has an FWHM of about 0.08 micron. Visual spectroscopy confirms the spectral classification of B9-A0 Ve and indicates weak interstellar absorption, implying that the star is not deeply embedded in the nearby Chamaeleon dark cloud. An effective reddening of E(B-V) approximately equal to 0.075 is suggested. It is concluded that the emission must arise in the circumstellar shell of the star, and a possible identification with vibrationally excited solid HCHO in grain mantles is discussed.

Blades, J. C.; Whittet, D. C. B.



The Main Shear Zone in Sør Rondane: A key feature for reconstructing the geodynamic evolution of East Antarctica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Structural investigations were carried out along the Main Shear Zone (MSZ) of western Sør Rondane (22°-25°E, 71.5°-72.5°S) to gain new information about the position of the East-/West-Gondwana suture and the ancient plate tectonic configuration during Gondwana amalgamation. The WSW-ENE striking MSZ divides south-western Sør Rondane in a northern amphibolite-facies terrane and a southern tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG) terrane. The structure can be traced over a distance of ca. 100 km and reaches several hundred meters in width. It is characterized by a right-lateral sense of movement and marked by a transpressional and also transtensional regime. Ductilely deformed granitoids (ca. 560 Ma: SHRIMP U-Pb of zircon) and ductile - brittle structures, which evolved in a transitional ductile to brittle regime in an undeformed syenite (ca. 499-459 Ma, Ar-Ar mica), provide a late Proterozoic/ early Paleozoic time limit for the activity of the shear zone (Shiraishi et al., 2008; Shiraishi et al., 1997). Documentation of ductile and brittle deformation allows reconstructing up to eight deformation stages. Cross-cutting relationships of structural features mapped in the field complemented by published kinematic data reveal the following relative age succession: [i] Dn+1 - formation of the main foliation during peak metamorphism, [ii] Dn+2 - isoclinal, intrafolial folding of the main foliation, mostly foliation-parallel mylonitic shear zones (1-2 meter thick), [iii] Dn+3 - formation of tight to closed folds, [iv] Dn+4 - formation of relatively upright, large-scale open folds, [v] Dn+5 - granitoid intrusion (e.g. Vengen granite), [vi] Dn+6 - dextral shearing between amphibolite and TTG terranes, formation of the MSZ, [vii] Dn+7 - intrusion of late- to post-tectonic granitoids, first stage of brittle deformation (late shearing along MSZ), intrusion of post-kinematic mafic dykes, [viii] Dn+8 - second stage of brittle deformation including formation of conjugate fault systems. The latter point to a WNW-ESE respectively NW-SE oriented maximum paleostress direction and indicate the latest deformation event; they are possibly related to the break-up and fragmentation of Gondwana. Two contrasting models describe the configuration of East Gondwana during the Neoproterozoic and the final amalgamation of Gondwana. The first model proposes the existence of a Pan-African Orogen (East African/ Antarctic Orogen). The Main Shear Zone could represent the eastern extension of this orogen and may be related to a NE-directed lateral-escape tectonic model. Both published structural data from Sør Rondane and adjacent regions and the outcome of this study agree with this model and propose a suture of East- and West Gondwana located between Mühlig-Hofmann-Gebirge and Sør Rondane. The second model of an overlap of two orogens with different formation ages cannot be proved by structural data from the MSZ. Instead, tight test constraints of the second model may be provided by new magnetic anomaly maps based on a 2012/13 aerogeophysical survey. Shiraishi, K.; Dunkley, D.J.; Hokada, T.; Fanning, C.M.; Kagami, H.; and Hamamoto, T. (2008): Geochronological constraints on the Late Proterozoic to Cambrian crustal evolution of eastern Dronning Maud Land, East Antarctica: a synthesis of SHRIMP U-Pb age and Nd model age data. Geological Society, 308(1):21-67. Shiraishi, K.; Osanai, Y.; Ishizuka, H.; and Asami, M. (1997): Geological map of the Sør Rondane Mountains, Antarctica. Antarctica Geological Map Series, sheet 35, scale 1 : 25 0000. National Institute of PolarResearch, Tokyo.

Ruppel, Antonia; Läufer, Andreas; Lisker, Frank; Jacobs, Joachim; Elburg, Marlina; Damaske, Detlef; Lucka, Nicole



Geologic features of Wudalianchi volcanic field, northeastern China: Implications for Martian volcanology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wudalianchi volcanic field, located in northeast China, consists of 14 Quaternary volcanoes with each volcano as a steep-sided scoria cone surrounded by gently sloping lava flows. Each cone is topped with a bowl-shaped or funnel-shaped crater. The volcanic cones are constructed by the accumulation of tephra and other ejecta. In this paper, their geologic features have been investigated and compared with some Martian volcanic features at Ascraeus Mons volcanoes observed on images obtained from High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiments (HiRISE), Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC), Context Imager (CTX) and Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS). The results show that both Wudalianchi and Ascraeus Mons volcanoes are basaltic, share similar eruptive and geomorphologic features and eruptive styles, and have experienced multiple eruptive phases, in spite of the significant differences in their dimension and size. Both also show a variety of eruptive styles, such as fissure and central venting, tube-fed and channel-fed lava flows, and probably pyroclastic deposits. Three volcanic events are recognized at Ascraeus Mons, including an early phase of shield construction, a middle eruptive phase forming a low lava shield, and the last stage with aprons mantling both NE and SW flanks. We suggest that magma generation at both Wudalianchi and Ascraeus Mons might have been facilitated by an upwelling mantle plume or upwelling of asthenospheric mantle, and a deep-seated fault zone might have controlled magma emplacement and subsequent eruptions in Ascraeus Mons as observed in the Wudalianchi field, where the volcanoes are constructed along the northeast-striking faults. Fumarolic cones produced by water/magma interaction at the Wudalianchi volcanic field may also serve as an analogue for the pseudocraters identified at Isidis and Cerberus Planitia on Mars, suggesting existence of frozen water in the ground on Mars during Martian volcanic eruptions.

Xiao, Long; Wang, Chunzeng



Application of Geologic Mapping Techniques and Autonomous Feature Detection to Future Exploration of Europa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Europa's extremely young surface age, evidence for extensive resurfacing, and indications of a sub-surface ocean elevate its astrobiological potential for habitable environments and make it a compelling focus for study. Knowledge of the global distribution and timing of Europan geologic units is a key step in understanding the history of the satellite and for identifying areas relevant for exploration. I have produced a 1:15M scale global geologic map of Europa which represents a proportionate distribution of four unit types and associated features: plains, linea, chaos, and crater materials. Mapping techniques differ somewhat from other planetary maps but do provide a method to establish stratigraphic markers and to illustrate the surface history through four periods of formation as a function of framework lineament cross-cutting relationships. Correlations of observed features on Europa with Earth analogs enforce a multi-process theory for formation rather than the typical reliance on the principle of parsimony. Lenticulae and microchaos are genetically similar and most likely form by diapirism. Platy and blocky chaos units, endmembers of archetypical chaos, are best explained by brine mobilization. Ridges account for the majority of lineaments and may form by a number of methods indicative of local conditions; most form by either tidal pumping or shear heating. The variety of morphologies exhibited by bands indicates that multiple formation mechanisms apply once fracturing of the brittle surface over a ductile subsurface is initiated. Mapping results support the interpretation that Europa's shell has thickened over time resulting in changes in the style and intensity of deformation. Mapping serves as an index for change detection and classification, aids in pre-encounter targeting, and supports the selection of potential landing sites. Highest priority target areas are those which indicate geophysical activity by the presence of volcanic plumes, outgassing, or disrupted surface morphologies. Areas of high interest include lineaments and chaos margins. The limitations on detecting activity at these locations are approximated by studying similar observed conditions on other bodies. By adapting machine learning and data mining techniques to signatures of plumes and morphology, I have demonstrated autonomous rule-based detection of known features using edge-detection and supervised classification methods. These methods successfully detect ?94% of known volcanic plumes or jets at Io, Enceladus, and comets. They also allow recognition of multiple feature types. Applying these results to conditions expected for Europa enables a prediction of the potential for detection of similar features and enables recommendations for mission concepts to increase the science return and efficiency of future missions to observe Europa. This post-Galileo view of Europa provides a synthesis of the overall history of this unique icy satellite and will be a useful frame of reference for future exploration of the jovian system and other potentially active outer solar system bodies.

Bunte, M. K.; Tanaka, K. L.; Doggett, T.; Figueredo, P. H.; Lin, Y.; Greeley, R.; Saripalli, S.; Bell, J. F.



The Hole as a Whole: Geological and Microbiological Features of Rock Weathering in Arid and Hyper-Arid Environments  

E-print Network

The Hole as a Whole: Geological and Microbiological Features of Rock Weathering in Arid and Hyper, Kibbutz Qetura, Hevel Eilot 88840, Israel A variety of rock weathering patterns and morphologies were and honeycomb weathering). Many studies attempted to explain the weathering morphology and mechanism. Yet

Simon, Emmanuel


Rare earth elements in coastal sediments of the northern Galician shelf: Influence of geological features  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Northern coast of Galicia, NW Iberian Peninsula, exhibits a variety of geological features: Ortegal allochthonous complex, Ollo-de-Sapo autochthonous domain and massifs of Bares, Barqueiro and San-Ciprian. In order to examine the influence of terrestrial lithologies on coastal sediments, 103 samples were collected in the Rias of Ortigueira, Barqueiro and Viveiro, their neighbouring shelf and the estuaries of Mera, Sor and Landro rivers. Aluminium, Fe, Sc, particulate inorganic and organic carbon and rare earth elements (REE) were determined in the <2 mm fraction. In addition, calcite, muscovite, quartz and riebeckite minerals were identified and quantified in 33 selected samples. The distributions of riebeckite and Fe reflect the influence of Ortegal complex on the coastal areas around the Cape Ortegal. The highest concentrations of ?REE were found in fine sediments from confined inner parts of the Rias (up to 233 mg kg-1), while most of the sands contained 11-70 mg kg-1. ?REE normalised to European Shale (ES) highlights the relative abundance of lanthanides (?REEN>6) near Cape Ortegal and the innermost ria zones. The ratio between light and heavy REE (L/H) showed lower values (4-11) around Cape Ortegal and the shelf while higher ratios (15-23) were detected in west of the Cape Estaca-de-Bares and in the inner Viveiro Ria due to elevated contributions of La and Ce. The L/H values normalised to ES reflects the importance of HREE in the adjacent area to Ortegal Complex (LN/HN<0.8) and the LREE (LN/HN>1.4) in the inner estuaries and west Cape Estaca-de-Bares. The highest REE individual ES normalised were measured in fine-grained sediments of the Mera and Sor estuaries. Sediments from the eastern shelf of Cape Ortegal presented enhanced ratios only for HREE. These results indicate that distribution of REE in the northern Galician region is highly depending on the neighbouring lithological pattern, contrasting with the situation found in the western Galician shelf and the Bay of Biscay. Lanthanides can, thus, provide a useful tool to follow the sediment pathway in the land-sea boundary zones, denoting continental geochemical imprint or fluvial outputs accordingly to the existing hydrological and geological conditions.

Prego, Ricardo; Caetano, Miguel; Bernárdez, Patricia; Brito, Pedro; Ospina-Alvarez, Natalia; Vale, Carlos



The New Madrid earthquakes; an engineering-geologic interpretation of relict liquefaction features  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Earthquake-induced sand blows and sand-filled fissures are present in a belt 40 to 60 km. wide that extends from near Charleston, Mo., southward to about 20 km. south of Marked Tree, Ark. This region of earthquake-induced sand blows and other liquefaction-related features is almost exclusively in the St. Francis Basin, an alluvial lowland that typically has a thin (2 to 8 m thick), clay-bearing topstratum underlain by about 30 to 60 m of unconsolidated sand (the substratum). Liquefaction of the substratum sands has made the sand blows. The sand blows and other liquefaction-related features on the ground surface in the St. Francis Basin are almost certainly results of the New Madrid earthquakes of 1811-12. In this report, geologic and engineering properties of the alluvium are used in combination with a map showing the bounds of the liquefaction-related features to locate approximately the epicentral zones for two of the major shocks: the earthquakes of December 16,1811, and February 7,1812. Properties used for the analysis included the Standard Penetration Resistance of the substratum sands, characteristics of the sand's grain size, thickness of the topstratum, and the thickness of the post-Tertiary alluvium. The method of analysis relies largely on the evaluation of the liquefaction potential of the sands. This is done by using the Standard Penetration Test blow counts and by devising a method that uses all possible combinations of liquefaction potential and a realistic relation between attenuation of earthquake accelerations and distance from the epicenter (or more correctly, energy-release center). Two interpreted 1811-12 energy-release centers generally agree well with zones of seismicity defined by modern, small earthquakes. Bounds on accelerations are placed at the limits of sand blows that were generated by the 1811-12 earthquakes in the St. Francis Basin. Conclusions show how the topstratum thickness, sand size of the substratum, and thickness of alluvium affected the distribution of sand blows in the St. Francis Basin.

Obermeier, Stephen F.



Extracranial stereotactic body radiotherapy. Review of main SBRT features and indications in primary tumors  

PubMed Central

Aim Review of main SBRT features and indications in primary tumors. Background Stereotactic body radiotherapy has been developed in the last few years. SBRT allows the hypofractionated treatment of extra cranial tumors, using either a single or limited number of dose fractions, and resulting in the delivery of a high biological effective dose with low toxicity. Material and methods SBRT requires a high level of accuracy for all phases of the treatment process: effective patient immobilization, precise target localization, highly conformed dosimetry and image guided systems for treatment verification. The implementation of SBRT in routine requires a careful considering of organ motion. Gating and tracking are effective ways to do so, and less invasive technologies “fiducials free” have been developed. Due to the hypofractionated scheme, the physician must pay attention to new dosimetric constraints in organ at risk and new radiobiological models are needed to assess the optimal fractionation and dose schemes. Results Currently, SBRT is safe and effective to treat primary tumors, which are otherwise untreatable with conventional radiotherapy or surgery. SBRT has quickly developed because of its excellent results in terms of tolerance and its high locoregional control rates. SBRT indications in primary tumors, such as lung primary tumors, have become a standard of care for inoperable patients. SBRT seems to be effective in many others indications in curative or palliative intent such as liver primary tumors, and novel indications and strategies are currently emerging in prostate cancer, head and neck tumor recurrences or pelvis reirradiations. Conclusion Currently, SBRT is mainly used when there is no other therapeutic alternative for the patient. This is due to the lack of randomized trials in these settings. However, the results shown in retrospective studies let us hope to impose SBRT as a new standard of care for many patients in the next few years. PMID:24416584

Rubio, Carmen; Morera, Rosa; Hernando, Ovidio; Leroy, Thomas.; Lartigau, S. Eric



Automated feature extraction and spatial organization of seafloor pockmarks, Belfast Bay, Maine, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Seafloor pockmarks occur worldwide and may represent millions of m3 of continental shelf erosion, but few numerical analyses of their morphology and spatial distribution of pockmarks exist. We introduce a quantitative definition of pockmark morphology and, based on this definition, propose a three-step geomorphometric method to identify and extract pockmarks from high-resolution swath bathymetry. We apply this GIS-implemented approach to 25km2 of bathymetry collected in the Belfast Bay, Maine USA pockmark field. Our model extracted 1767 pockmarks and found a linear pockmark depth-to-diameter ratio for pockmarks field-wide. Mean pockmark depth is 7.6m and mean diameter is 84.8m. Pockmark distribution is non-random, and nearly half of the field's pockmarks occur in chains. The most prominent chains are oriented semi-normal to the steepest gradient in Holocene sediment thickness. A descriptive model yields field-wide spatial statistics indicating that pockmarks are distributed in non-random clusters. Results enable quantitative comparison of pockmarks in fields worldwide as well as similar concave features, such as impact craters, dolines, or salt pools. ?? 2010.

Andrews, B. D.; Brothers, L. L.; Barnhardt, W. A.



The Cyborg Astrobiologist: Scouting Red Beds for Uncommon Features with Geological Significance  

E-print Network

The `Cyborg Astrobiologist' (CA) has undergone a second geological field trial, at a red sandstone site in northern Guadalajara, Spain, near Riba de Santiuste. The Cyborg Astrobiologist is a wearable computer and video camera system that has demonstrated a capability to find uncommon interest points in geological imagery in real-time in the field. The first (of three) geological structures that we studied was an outcrop of nearly homogeneous sandstone, which exhibits oxidized-iron impurities in red and and an absence of these iron impurities in white. The white areas in these ``red beds'' have turned white because the iron has been removed by chemical reduction, perhaps by a biological agent. The computer vision system found in one instance several (iron-free) white spots to be uncommon and therefore interesting, as well as several small and dark nodules. The second geological structure contained white, textured mineral deposits on the surface of the sandstone, which were found by the CA to be interesting. The third geological structure was a 50 cm thick paleosol layer, with fossilized root structures of some plants, which were found by the CA to be interesting. A quasi-blind comparison of the Cyborg Astrobiologist's interest points for these images with the interest points determined afterwards by a human geologist shows that the Cyborg Astrobiologist concurred with the human geologist 68% of the time (true positive rate), with a 32% false positive rate and a 32% false negative rate. (abstract has been abridged).

Patrick C. McGuire; Enrique Diaz-Martinez; Jens Ormo; Javier Gomez-Elvira; Jose A. Rodriguez-Manfredi; Eduardo Sebastian-Martinez; Helge Ritter; Robert Haschke; Markus Oesker; Joerg Ontrup



Information needs for characterization of high-level waste repository sites in six geologic media. Volume 1. Main report  

SciTech Connect

Evaluation of the geologic isolation of radioactive materials from the biosphere requires an intimate knowledge of site geologic conditions, which is gained through precharacterization and site characterization studies. This report presents the results of an intensive literature review, analysis and compilation to delineate the information needs, applicable techniques and evaluation criteria for programs to adequately characterize a site in six geologic media. These media, in order of presentation, are: granite, shale, basalt, tuff, bedded salt and dome salt. Guidelines are presented to assess the efficacy (application, effectiveness, and resolution) of currently used exploratory and testing techniques for precharacterization or characterization of a site. These guidelines include the reliability, accuracy and resolution of techniques deemed acceptable, as well as cost estimates of various field and laboratory techniques used to obtain the necessary information. Guidelines presented do not assess the relative suitability of media. 351 refs., 10 figs., 31 tabs.




Main engineering-geological problems of constructing the Hoa-Binh hydro development on the Da river (Vietnam)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors describe the construction of the Hoa-Binh hydro development which is being accomplished under complex engineering-geological conditions. These conditions are characterized by the following circumstances: complexity of the structural and tectonic conditions of the entire region; wide and intensive development of a karst on the divide between the Da and Ma Rivers within the basin of the reservoir being

L. A. Molokov; S. I. Skiba; É. Z. Dobrin



Main large data set features detection by a linear predictor model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of the present paper is to explore and obtain a simple method capable to detect the most important variables (features) from a large set of variables. To verify the performance of the approach described in the following sections, we used a set of news. Text sources are considered high-dimensional data, where each word is treated as a single variable. In our work, a linear predictor model has been used to uncover the most influential variables, reducing strongly the dimension of the data set. Input data is classified in two categories; arranged as a collection of plain text data, pre-processed and transformed into a numerical matrix containing around 10,000 different variables. We adjust the linear model's parameters based on its prediction results, the variables with strongest effect on output survive, while those with negligible effect are removed. In order to collect, automatically, a summarized set of features, we sacrifice some details and accuracy of the prediction model, although we try to balance the squared error with the subset obtained.

Gutierrez, Carlos Enrique; Alsharif, Mohamad Reza, Prof.; Khosravy, Mahdi; Yamashita, Katsumi, Prof.; Miyagi, Hayao, Prof.; Villa, Rafael



Main features of anthropogenic inner-urban soils in Szeged, Hungary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the beginning of the 21st century, due to the intensive urbanization it is necessary to gather more and more information on altered physical, chemical and biological parameters of urban soils in order to ensure their suitable management and protection for appropriate living conditions. Nowadays, these measures are very relevant since negative environmental effects can modify the soil forming factors in cities. Szeged, the 4th largest city of Hungary, proved to be an ideal sampling area for the research of urban soils since its original surface has been altered by intensive anthropogenic activities. The main objectives of my research are the investigation, description and evaluation of the altered soils in Szeged. For the physical and chemical analysis (humus, nitrogen, carbonate content, heavy metals, pH, artefacts etc.) of soils 124 samples were taken from the horizons of 25 profiles in Szeged and its peripherals (as control samples). The profiles were sampled at sites affected by different extent of artificial infill according to infill maps (1. profiles fully made up of infill; 2. so-called mixed profiles consisting of considerable amount of infill material and buried soil horizons; 3. natural profiles located in the peripherals of the city). With the help of the above-mentioned parameters, the studied soils of Szeged were assigned into the classification system of WRB(2006), which classifies the soils of urban and industrial areas as an individual soil group (under the term Technosols) for the first time. In accordance with the WRB(2006) nomenclature three main soil types can be identified in Szeged with respect to the degree of human influence: profiles slightly influenced, strongly modified, completely altered by human activities. During this poster, we present the peculiarities of typical urban profiles strongly and completely altered by human influence. Most profiles were placed into the group of Technosols due to the considerable transformation of their diagnostic properties (e.g. coverage by artificial objects, intensive compaction, horizontal and vertical variability, abrupt colour and textural changes usually high amount of artefacts, irregular fluctuation of diagnostic properties along the profiles, anthropogenic parent material, high pH and carbonate content, poor humus quality, mainly sand, sandy loam texture etc.). Transformations were best reflected by suffixes such as Ekranic, Urbic, Linic. Among the suffix qualifiers Calcaric, Ruptic, Densic and Arenic were used the most frequently. Furthermore, we found that some of the studied profiles were not situated in the city centre. Consequently, the location of these profiles in the city centre is not necessary since local influences can overwhelm the effect of artificial infill. Considering all the profiles, two of them in city centre can be consider to be the most anthropogenic: profile No. 11 [Ekranic Technosol (Ruptic, Toxic, Endoclayic)] and profile No. 22 [Urbic Technosol (Calcaric, Ruptic, Densic, Arenic)]. It can be claimed that profile No. 11 with "technic hard rock" has the least chance to experience pedogenetic processes since the horizons are covered by thick, surface artificial object, and isolated from the outside world. However, in case of profile No. 22 with dense vegetation and without surface artificial object, the high amount of artefact inhibits pedogenesis.

Puskás, Irén.; Farsang, Andrea



Coal mine bumps as related to geologic features in the northern part of the Sunnyside District, Carbon County, Utah  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Coal mine bumps, which are violent, spontaneous, and often catastrophic disruptions of coal and rock, were common in the Sunnyside coal mining district, Utah, before the introduction of protective-engineering methods, modern room-and-pillar retreat mining with continuous mining machines, and particularly modern longwall mining. The coal at Sunnyside, when stressed during mining, fails continuously with many popping, snapping, and banging noises. Although most of the bumps are beneficial because they make mining easier, many of the large ones are dangerous and in the past caused injuries and fatalities, particularly with room- and-pillar mining methods used in the early mining operations. Geologic mapping of underground mine openings revealed many types of deformational features, some pre-mine and some post-mine in age. Stresses resulting from mining are concentrated near the mine openings; if openings are driven at large angles to small pre-mine deformational features, particularly shatter zones in coal, abnormal stress buildups may occur and violent bumps may result. Other geologic features, such as ripple marks, oriented sand grains, intertongued rock contacts, trace fossils, and load casts, also influence the occurrence of bumps by impeding slip of coal and rocks along bedding planes. The stress field in the coal also varies markedly because of the rough ridge and canyon topography. These features may allow excessively large stress components to accumulate. At many places, the stresses that contribute to deformation and failures of mine openings are oriented horizontally. The stratigraphy of the rocks immediately above and below the mined coal bed strongly influences the deformation of the mine openings in response to stress accumulations. Triaxial compressive testing of coal from the Sunnyside No.1 and No.3 Mines indicates that the strength of the coal increases several times as the confining (lateral) stress is increased. Strengths of cores cut from single large blocks of coal vary widely. Although the strengths of coal cores increase slowly at high levels of confining stress, the coal in Sunnyside No. 1 Mine is slightly stronger in laboratory tests than coal in Sunnyside No.3 Mine. The coal in No.1 Mine probably can store larger amounts of stress than coal in the No.3 Mine, which may account for the apparently greater number of violent bumps in No.1 Mine. The strength of coal, and its ability to store stress before failure, may correlate in part with chemical composition, particularly with the amounts of benzene ring compounds in vitrain; coal with relatively large amounts of benzene ring compounds is stronger than coal with lesser amounts of these compounds. Alternatively, the chemical composition of coal may affect its response to stress. Increasing contents of kaolinite in coal appear to reduce its compressive strength at low confining stresses, resulting in easy failures of pillars and ribs in mine openings. Applications of the geologic factors outlined in this report, carefully coupled with advanced modern engineering methods, have markedly reduced the hazards from coal mine bumps and related failures of mine openings at Sunnyside. Similar studies probably could aid in reducing bump-related hazards in other coal mining areas.

Osterwald, Frank W.; Dunrud, C. Richard; Collins, Donley S.



Yellowstone Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Yellowstone National Park website provides geological information about the Park. Links include geologic highlights, hydrothermal features, reports by park geologists, and scientists' talks (videos). A wide array of information can be found on these links and the webpage is expanding as more topics are added.

Park, Yellowstone N.


Mineralogy and morphology of geologic units at Libya Montes, Mars: Ancient aqueously derived outcrops, mafic flows, fluvial features, and impacts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is ample evidence of both ancient and long-lasting fluvial activity and chemical alteration in the Libya Montes region south of Isidis Basin. The region hosts Noachian to Amazonian aged surface rocks with extensive outcrops of olivine- and pyroxene-bearing material. Libya Montes also features surface outcrops and/or deposits hosting Fe/Mg-smectite, Fe/Mg-smectite mixed with carbonate and/or other Fe/Mg-rich phyllosilicates, and Al-smectite. These units likely formed through chemical alteration connected with hydrothermal activity resulting from the formation of the Isidis Basin and/or the pervasive fluvial activity throughout this region. The morphology and stratigraphy of the aqueous and mafic minerals are described using High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment and High Resolution Stereo Camera derived digital terrain models. Analyses of the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars spectra show variations in the chemistry of the Fe/Mg-smectite from nontronite-like exposures with spectral features near 2.29 and 2.4 µm more consistent with Fe3+2OH groups in the mineral structure, and saponite-like outcrops with spectral features near 2.31 and 2.38 µm characteristic of Mg2+3OH groups. These Fe/Mg-smectite bearing materials also have bands near 1.9 µm due to H2O and near 2.5 µm that could be due to the smectite, other phyllosilicates, and carbonates. All regions exhibiting carbonate features near 3.4-3.5 µm also have features consistent with the presence of olivine and Fe/Mg-smectite, indicating that the carbonate signatures occur in rocks likely containing a mixture of these minerals. The Al-smectite-bearing rocks have bands near 1.41, 1.91, and 2.19 µm that are more consistent with beidellite than other Al-phyllosilicates, indicating a higher-temperature or diagenetically processed origin for this material. Our interpretation of the geologic history of this region is that ancient Noachian basaltic crustal materials experienced extensive aqueous alteration at the time of the Isidis impact, during which the montes were also formed, followed by emplacement of a rough olivine-rich lava or melt, and finally the smooth pyroxene-bearing caprock unit.

Bishop, Janice L.; Tirsch, Daniela; Tornabene, Livio L.; Jaumann, Ralf; McEwen, Alfred S.; McGuire, Patrick C.; Ody, Anouck; Poulet, Francois; Clark, Roger N.; Parente, Mario; McKeown, Nancy K.; Mustard, John F.; Murchie, Scott L.; Voigt, Joana; Aydin, Zeynep; Bamberg, Marlene; Petau, Andreas; Michael, Gregory; Seelos, Frank P.; Hash, Christopher D.; Swayze, Gregg A.; Neukum, Gerhard



Geological History of the Tyre Region of Europa: A Regional Perspective on Europan Surface Features and Ice Thickness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Galileo images of the Tyre Macula region of Europa at regional (170 m/pixel) and local (approx. 40 m/pixel) scales allow mapping and understanding of surface processes and landforms. Ridged plains, doublet and complex ridges, shallow pits, domes, "chaos" areas. impact structures, tilted blocks and massifs, and young fracture systems indicate a complex history of surface deformation on Europa. Regional and local morphologies of the Tyre region of Europa suggest that an impactor penetrated through several kilometers of water ice tc a mobile layer below. The surface morphology was initially dominated by formation of ridged plains, followed by development of ridge bands and doublet ridges, with chaos and fracture formation dominating the latter part of the geologic history of the Tyre region. Two distinct types of chaos have been identified which, along with upwarped dome materials, appear to represent a continuum of features (domes-play chaos-knobby chaos) resulting from increasing degree of surface disruption associated with local lithospheric heating and thinning. Local and regional stratigraphic relationships, block heights, and the morphology of the Tyre impact structure suggest the presence of low-viscosity ice or liquid water beneath a thin (severa1 kilometers) surface ice shell at the time of the impact. The very low impact crater density on the surface of Europa suggests that this thin shell has either formed or been thoroughly resurfaced in the very recent past.

Kadel, Steven D.; Chuang, Frank C.; Greeley, Ronald; Moore, Jeffrey M.



Testing the Late Noachian Icy Highlands Model: Geological Observations, Processes and Origin of Fluvial and Lacustrine Features.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new reconstruction of the Late Noachian Mars atmosphere and climate shows atmosphere-surface thermal coupling and an adiabatic cooling effect producing preferential distribution of snow and ice in the highlands. In this Late Noachian Icy Highlands (LNIH) scenario, snow and ice accumulate in the south circumpolar region and in the higher altitudes of the southern uplands, but the mean annual temperature is everywhere below freezing. How can the abundant evidence for water-related fluvial and lacustrine activity (valley networks, VN; open-basin lakes, OBL; closed-basin lakes; CBL) be reconciled with the icy highlands model? We investigate the nature of geologic processes operating in the icy highlands and use the Antarctic McMurdo Dry Valleys (MDV) as guidance in understanding and assessing how melting might be taking place. In the MDV, mean annual temperatures (MAT) are well below freezing. This results in a thick regional permafrost layer, the presence of an ice-table at shallow depths, and an overlying dry active layer. This configuration produces a perched aquifer and a horizontally stratified hydrologic system, where any melting results in local saturation of the dry active layer and channelized flow on top of the ice table. Top-down melting results in the dominance of lateral water transport, in contrast to temperate climates with vertical infiltration and transport to the groundwater table. Despite subzero MAT, MDV peak seasonal and peak daytime temperatures can exceed 273K and have a strong influence on the melting of available water ice. We present maps of the predicted distribution of LNIH snow and ice, compare these to the distribution of VN, OBL and CBL, and assess how top-down and bottom-up melting processes might explain the formation of these features in an otherwise cold and icy LN Mars. We assess the global near-surface water budget, analyze thickness estimates to distinguish areas of cold-based and wet-based glaciation, analyze the state of the ice cover and its susceptibility to melting and runoff, and describe top-down melting and fluvial channel formation processes in a LNIH environment. We find that: 1) episodic top-down melting of the LNIH is a robust mechanism to produce the observed fluvial and lacustrine features; 2) the characteristics and distribution of features in the Dorsa Argentea Formation are consistent with an extensive circum-polar ice cap during LNIH time; and 3) the nature of preserved LN impact craters is consistent with impact cratering processes in the LNIH environment. 393 words.

Head, James; Wordsworth, Robin; Forget, Francis; Madeleine, Jean-Baptiste; Halvey, Italy




EPA Science Inventory

AQFRS24 contains polygons of significant aquifers in Maine (glacial deposits that are a significant ground water resource) mapped at a scale 1:24,000. This statewide coverage was derived from aquifer boundaries delineated and digitized by the Maine Geological Survey from data com...


Effect of Anthropogenic Landscape Features on Population Genetic Differentiation of Przewalski's Gazelle: Main Role of Human Settlement  

PubMed Central

Anthropogenic landscapes influence evolutionary processes such as population genetic differentiation, however, not every type of landscape features exert the same effect on a species, hence it is necessary to estimate their relative effect for species management and conservation. Przewalski's gazelle (Procapra przewalskii), which inhabits a human-altered area on Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, is one of the most endangered antelope species in the world. Here, we report a landscape genetic study on Przewalski's gazelle. We used skin and fecal samples of 169 wild gazelles collected from nine populations and thirteen microsatellite markers to assess the genetic effect of anthropogenic landscape features on this species. For comparison, the genetic effect of geographical distance and topography were also evaluated. We found significant genetic differentiation, six genetic groups and restricted dispersal pattern in Przewalski's gazelle. Topography, human settlement and road appear to be responsible for observed genetic differentiation as they were significantly correlated with both genetic distance measures [FST/(1?FST) and F?ST/(1?F?ST)] in Mantel tests. IBD (isolation by distance) was also inferred as a significant factor in Mantel tests when genetic distance was measured as FST/(1?FST). However, using partial Mantel tests, AICc calculations, causal modeling and AMOVA analysis, we found that human settlement was the main factor shaping current genetic differentiation among those tested. Altogether, our results reveal the relative influence of geographical distance, topography and three anthropogenic landscape-type on population genetic differentiation of Przewalski's gazelle and provide useful information for conservation measures on this endangered species. PMID:21625459

Yang, Ji; Jiang, Zhigang; Zeng, Yan; Turghan, Mardan; Fang, Hongxia; Li, Chunwang



Improving management of small natural features on private lands by negotiating the science-policy boundary for Maine vernal pools.  


Vernal pools are far more important for providing ecosystem services than one would predict based on their small size. However, prevailing resource-management strategies are not effectively conserving pools and other small natural features on private lands. Solutions are complicated by tensions between private property and societal rights, uncertainties over resource location and function, diverse stakeholders, and fragmented regulatory authority. The development and testing of new conservation approaches that link scientific knowledge, stakeholder decision-making, and conservation outcomes are important responses to this conservation dilemma. Drawing from a 15-y history of vernal pool conservation efforts in Maine, we describe the coevolution of pool conservation and research approaches, focusing on how research-based knowledge was produced and used in support of management decisions. As management shifted from reactive, top-down approaches to proactive and flexible approaches, research shifted from an ecology-focused program to an interdisciplinary program based on social-ecological systems. The most effective strategies for linking scientific knowledge with action changed as the decision-makers, knowledge needs, and context for vernal pool management advanced. Interactions among stakeholders increased the extent to which knowledge was coproduced and shifted the objective of stakeholder engagement from outreach to research collaboration and development of innovative conservation approaches. New conservation strategies were possible because of the flexible, solutions-oriented collaborations and trust between scientists and decision-makers (fostered over 15 y) and interdisciplinary, engaged research. Solutions to the dilemma of conserving small natural features on private lands, and analogous sustainability science challenges, will benefit from repeated negotiations of the science-policy boundary. PMID:25002496

Calhoun, Aram J K; Jansujwicz, Jessica S; Bell, Kathleen P; Hunter, Malcolm L



Geologic History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This unit introduces younger students to the concept of relative versus absolute time and how geologists determine the age of geologic events and features. Topics include the laws that determine relative age (superposition, cross-cutting relationships, included fragments, and others), and how to re-construct the geologic history of an area using these relationships. There is also information on geologic correlation and the use of index fossils to determine relative age. The section on absolute time discusses some ways of measurement (tree rings, radioactive dating) and introduces the concepts of natural selection and mass extinctions. A vocabulary and downloadable, printable student worksheets are provided.

Medina, Philip



[Main features of helminth parasitism in cattle in Ituri (Haut-Zaire). III. Geographic distribution and prevalence of the main helminths].  


A necropsic survey, carried out in eleven slaughterhouses in Ituri (Haut-Zaïre), has permitted to define the geographic distribution and prevalences of the main cattle helminths. Trematodes, except the paramphistomes, had a very heterogeneous distribution. Prevalence of Fasciola gigantica ranged from 9 to 72% according to the sites, but these variations were not linked to topographic or climatologic parameters. The infection with Schistosoma bovis was much variable as well (12.5 to 72%) and seemed absent from the central high altitude area. The occurrence of Dicrocoelium hospes was restricted to the northern part of Ituri with a moderate prevalence of about 35%. By contrast, nematodes had a fairly homogeneous distribution in Ituri. Prevalences were high for gastro-intestinal strongyles of the following genera, Haemonchus, Cooperia and Oesophagostomum (over 60%). Cysticercosis (Cysticercus bovis) occurred in 10 to 14% of cattle in the middle and south areas of Ituri whereas the north areas were nearly free. PMID:1775693

Chartier, C; Bushu, M; Kamwenga, D



Magnesium-to-calcium ratio in tap water, and its relationship to geological features and the incidence of calcium-containing urinary stones.  


We examined the relationship among magnesium and calcium content in tap water, the geological features and urinary stone incidence in Japan. The magnesium-to-calcium ratio in tap water correlated negatively with the incidence of urolithiasis. There was no correlation between calcium and magnesium concentration in tap water and urinary stone incidence. Geological features in Japan were classified into 5 groups. The magnesium-to-calcium ratio in the basalt areas was higher than in the other areas, while ratio in the granite areas was low. In the sedimentary rock areas calcium and magnesium concentrations were high; the magnesium-to-calcium ratio in these areas was between those of the basalt and granite areas. The limestone areas had a much higher calcium concentration. The incidence of urinary stones in the sedimentary rock and basalt areas was lower than that of the granite areas, while that in the limestone areas was the highest. Thus, the incidence of urinary stone is related to the magnesium-to-calcium ratio in tap water and the geological area. PMID:2810505

Kohri, K; Kodama, M; Ishikawa, Y; Katayama, Y; Takada, M; Katoh, Y; Kataoka, K; Iguchi, M; Kurita, T



Main clinical features in patients at their first psychiatric admission to Italian acute hospital psychiatric wards. The PERSEO study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Few data are available on subjects presenting to acute wards for the first time with psychotic symptoms. The aims of this paper are (i) to describe the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients at their first psychiatric admission (FPA), including socio-demographic features, risk factors, life habits, modalities of onset, psychiatric diagnoses and treatments before admission; (ii) to assess the

Andrea Ballerini; Roberto M Boccalon; Giancarlo Boncompagni; Massimo Casacchia; Francesco Margari; Lina Minervini; Roberto Righi; Federico Russo; Andrea Salteri; Sonia Frediani; Andrea Rossi; Marco Scatigna



Effect of Anthropogenic Landscape Features on Population Genetic Differentiation of Przewalski's Gazelle: Main Role of Human Settlement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anthropogenic landscapes influence evolutionary processes such as population genetic differentiation, however, not every type of landscape features exert the same effect on a species, hence it is necessary to estimate their relative effect for species management and conservation. Przewalski's gazelle (Procapra przewalskii), which inhabits a human-altered area on Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, is one of the most endangered antelope species in the

Ji Yang; Zhigang Jiang; Yan Zeng; Mardan Turghan; Hongxia Fang; Chunwang Li



The use of fluoride as a natural tracer in water and the relationship to geological features: Examples from the Animas River Watershed, San Juan Mountains, Silverton, Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Investigations within the Silverton caldera, in southwestern Colorado, used a combination of traditional geological mapping, alteration-assemblage mapping, and aqueous geochemical sampling that showed a relationship between geological and hydrologic features that may be used to better understand the provenance and evolution of the water. Veins containing fluorite, huebnerite, and elevated molybdenum concentrations are temporally and perhaps genetically associated with the emplacement of high-silica rhyolite intrusions. Both the rhyolites and the fluorite-bearing veins produce waters containing elevated concentrations of F-, K and Be. The identification of water samples with elevated F/Cl molar ratios (> 10) has also aided in the location of water draining F-rich sources, even after these waters have been diluted substantially. These unique aqueous geochemical signatures can be used to relate water chemistry to key geological features and mineralized source areas. Two examples that illustrate this relationship are: (1) surface-water samples containing elevated F-concentrations (> 1.8 mg/l) that closely bracket the extent of several small high-silica rhyolite intrusions; and (2) water samples containing elevated concentrations of F-(> 1.8 mg/ l) that spatially relate to mines or areas that contain late-stage fluorite/huebnerite veins. In two additional cases, the existence of high F-concentrations in water can be used to: (1) infer interaction of the water with mine waste derived from systems known to contain the fluorite/huebnerite association; and (2) relate changes in water quality over time at a high elevation mine tunnel to plugging of a lower elevation mine tunnel and the subsequent rise of the water table into mineralized areas containing fluorite/huebnerite veining. Thus, the unique geochemical signature of the water produced from fluorite veins indicates the location of high-silica rhyolites, mines, and mine waste containing the veins. Existence of high F-concentrations along with K and Be in water in combination with other geological evidence may be used to better understand the provenance of the water. ?? 2009 AAG/Geological Society of London.

Bove, D.J.; Walton-Day, K.; Kimball, B.A.



The e ects of North Atlantic SST and sea-ice anomalies on the winter circulation in CCM3. Part I: Main features and storm-track  

E-print Network

meridional tilt. In contrast, the storm-track response to the observed sea-ice trend corresponds to a weakerThe e#11;ects of North Atlantic SST and sea-ice anomalies on the winter circulation in CCM3. Part I: Main features and storm-track characteristics of the response Gudrun Magnusdottir 1 Department of Earth

Magnusdottir, Gudrun


Capability of ERTS-1 imagery to investigate geological and structural features in a sedimentary basin (Bassin Parisien, France)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. The region covered by the MSS images has the benefit of complete geological mapping at scales of 1:80,000, 1:320,000, and 1:1,000,000. Comparison of imagery and exisiting geological maps, particularly the 1:1,000,000 scale, produces important information: (1) Good correspondence is seen between large units distinguished on the images and the concentric strata of the Jurassic, Cretaceous, and Paleocene on the map. (2) Comparison of MSS images with the hydrogeological map of the Parisian basin at 1:500,000 removes all ambiguity with regard to lithological variations. Among the many faults revealed, only three were considered: (1) the Metz; (2)Juranze; and (3) the double fault of the Marne. Imagery shows a conspicuous alignment of the Metz fault unknown until now and ending near Montereau against the group of north-south faults between Montargis and Bourbon l'Archambault. MSS images show that the Juranze fault divides beyond Brienne into two branches of equal importance. The northern one represents the known fault, the southern one was not known until now, but the convergence of the faults constitutes a tectonic trap. The double fault of the Marne is known for a total length of 50 km. ERTS-1 imagery suggest a prolongation toward the southeast which could bring its length to 110 km.

Weecksteen, G. (principal investigator); Cavelier, C.; Scanvic, J. Y.; Zizerman, A.



Strike-slip systems as the main tectonic features in the Plio-Quaternary kinematics of the Calabrian Arc  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oblique and diachronous collision of the Apennine-Maghrebian Chain with the Apulian (in the north-east) and Pelagian (in\\u000a the south) continental forelands, has determined the characteristic arcuate structure of this orogen. The effects of Plio-Pleistocene\\u000a deformation of the Calabrian Arc have been analysed on the basis of available reflection seismic profiles and using local\\u000a time-structural maps reconstructed along the main

Anna Del Ben; Carla Barnaba; Alessia Taboga



Geologic mapping of Europa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Galileo data enable the major geological units, structures, and surface features to be identified on Europa. These include five primary units (plains, chaos, band, ridge, and crater materials) and their subunits, along with various tectonic structures such as faults. Plains units are the most widespread. Ridged plains material spans a wide range of geological ages, including the oldest recognizable features

Ronald Greeley; Patricio H. Figueredo; David A. Williams; Frank C. Chuang; James E. Klemaszewski; Steven D. Kadel; Louise M. Prockter; Robert T. Pappalardo; James W. Head; Geoffrey C. Collins; Nicole A. Spaun; Robert J. Sullivan; Jeffrey M. Moore; David A. Senske; B. Randall Tufts; Torrence V. Johnson; Michael J. S. Belton; Kenneth L. Tanaka



Geologic and hydrologic features of the San Bernardino area, California - with special reference to underflow across the San Jacinto fault  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This is the second in a series of interpretive reports on subsurface outflow from the ground-water basins of San Bernardino County, Calif., prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the San Bernardino County Flood Control District. One principal purpose of the study was to estimate the ground-water outflow from the Bunker Hill basin to the Rialto-Colton basin across the San Jacinto fault, which, except locally, forms a nearly impermeable boundary between the two basins. In addition, the report deals qualitatively with the geology, the fault barriers that divide the area into several ground-water basins, the physical nature and degree of imperviousness of the barriers, the occurrence and movement of ground water and fluctuations of water level in the basins, and the chemical quality of surface and ground waters in the San Bernardino area. The report includes a geologic map and sections, water-level-contour maps and profiles, and hydrographs of selected well. The Santa Ana River, the principal stream, flows generally westward across the area. Channels of the river and its tributaries overlie a large irregular structural depression filled with alluvial deposits ranging in age from late Tertiary to Recent and forming a valley bounded on the north by the San Gabriel Mountains, on the east by the San Bernardino Mountains, and on the south by an irregular group of hills. Large alluvial fans underlie most of the area, but its landforms also include alluvial benches and terraces near the mountains, stream channels, and elongate hills, ridges, and scarps along the trace of the San Jacinto fault, which strikes northwestward across the valley about in the center of the area. This fault and others divide the area into ground-water basins, which include the Bunker Hill, Rialto-Colton, upper and lower Lytle and Chino basins. The water-bearing deposits include the following units: the younger alluvium. of Recent age, which occupies principally the backfilled channels beneath the Santa Ana River and its tributaries and through which ground water moves from Bunker Hill basin to Rialto-Colton basin; the older alluvium, of Pleistocene age, which is the principal water-bearing unit of the area and yields water to more than a thousand wells; and continental deposits of Tertiary to Quaternary age, which crop out along the southern margin of the area and locally along the San Gabriel Mountains on the north. The younger alluvium attains a maximum thickness of about 125 feet beneath the Santa Ana River south of San Bernardino. Locally in the Bunker Hill basin it is composed of two members, an upper member of relatively impermeable clay and a lower member of highly permeable material in which water is confined by the upper member. The older alluvium locally has a known thickness greater than 700 feet; elsewhere in the San Bernardino Valley it may exceed 1,400 feet. Locally, where ground water is confined in Bunker Hill basin, the older alluvium is divided into three permeable water-bearing zones separated from each other and from the younger alluvium above by less permeable zones. In parts of Chino and Rialto-Colton basins the alluvium consists of a coarse-grained facies along a former course of a major stream that is interfingered with and overlain by relatively fine-grained deposits. The permeability of the younger alluvium in the area beneath the Santa Ana River downstream from the San Jacinto fault was determined from tests to be about 2,700 gallons per day per square foot. The permeability of the coarse water-yielding materials of the older alluvium several miles downstream was estimated from tests to be about the same magnitude. Rocks that yield practically no water include continental rocks of Tertiary age, which are not exposed in the area but are tapped by wells in Rialto-Colton basin, and crystalline and metamorphic rocks of pre-Tertiary age that form the bedrock of the area. Faults across the valley area fo

Dutcher, L. C.; Garrett, Arthur A.



Main Features of Plasma Control  

SciTech Connect

In the recent years Plasma Control has always increased his importance in any advanced experiment. It is now clear that ITER will not be able to operate without a quite advanced and sophisticated control apparatus. Necessarily this system will have to integrate several different aspects of the Plasma behavior. One of the most important parts of a closed loop control system is the quality of the measurement of the plasma parameters that should be controlled. Eventually, this aspect involves sophisticated and complex diagnostic apparatus. This paper presents an overview of the present status, and further studies and developments needed, in the next future, for the design and realization of an integrated plasma control system aimed at both stabilizing the plasma non-axisymmetric instabilities and controlling the most important internal plasma parameters. In particular the Edge Localized Modes (ELMs), the Neo-Classical Tearing Modes (NTM), the Resistive Wall Mode (RWM) and the Plasma Profiles control system necessities will be shortly illustrated.

Crisanti, F. [Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, Frascati, C.P. 65, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Albanese, R.; Ambrosino, G. [Associazione EURATOM/ENEA/CREATE, Univ. Napoli Federico II, Via Claudio21, 80125 Napoli (Italy)



Louisiana Geological Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the homepage of the Louisiana Geological Survey (LGS). The site includes general information about LGS and its various offices, as well as an overview of the Basin Research Energy Section, the oil, gas, and coal research section of LGS. The publications and data page features a catalog and ordering information for documents on mineral resources, fossils, water resources, geological bulletins and maps, and many others, as well as a selection of downloadable maps, including 30 x 60 minute geologic quadrangles, a generalized geologic map of the state with accompanying text, and an online map viewer of the state with selectable layers (geology, water bodies, cultural features, and Landsat imagery). There is also an online listing of well logs, grouped by parish, online listings of core samples, grouped by state, and downloadable public information documents on a variety of geologic topics.


Influence of geological features (geochemistry and mineralogy) of soil wich constitutes adobes in their durability - Huambo, Angola.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After long years of war, great efforts have been made for the socio-economic development of Angola, mainly in the construction industry. Among the construction techniques, the Adobe is the most used in the province of Huambo, especially by low-income families, which constitute the majority. This technique was established as a historical heritage in the culture of that population. The Huambo province is located in the central region of Angola (Central Plateau) and is bounded on the northeast and east by the province of Bié, on the south and southern by province of Huila, and on the west by the province of Benguela and on the northwest by the province of Kwanza Sul. Has an area of 35,771 km2 and approximately 2,301,524 inhabitants, which corresponds to 58 inhabitants per km2 (Government of the Province of Huambo, 2006). The buildings in this province, particularly in rural areas, were deeply marked by war. Given the current scenario of development of the country and considering the possibility of integrate systems and traditional building materials, that respect the environment and fit harmoniously into its natural habitat, one of the alternative options in the actual construction, undergoes resume old solutions and traditional materials such as adobe construction.It is in this context that this project is part of a scientific research in order to permit the improvement and optimization of these traditional solutions, responding to current demands for social, economic and environmental sustainability. The adobe is a building element with potential degradation by water. Due to the climate, subtropical, hot and humid, and geomorphology of the province, about 1000 to 2000 meters of altitude and an extensive river system, these buildings can be vulnerable and present early degradation, exacerbated by lack of knowledge of the properties of geomaterials used and techniques that allow their stabilization and conservation. This paper aims to study the influence of mineralogy and geochemistry of soils used in the production of adobes applied in the construction of habitations, mainly, because from this knowledge, we can develop alternatives to the resolution of recorded pathologies and to improve the strength and durability of those adobes. For this purpose, soil samples were collected, in which mineralogical and geochemical tests were performed. Simultaneously, durability and erodibility tests were done by the method of Geelong in the selected adobes. The results obtained from this research will identify, select and characterize the materials and methods used in construction in raw earth, contributing to the development of knowledge of these sustainable buildings solutions with a strong presence in the Huambo region. From the analysis of the data obtained will be defined a strategy for the next steps of the scientific research project in course designated "Earth Construction in Angola. Characterization, applications and potentialities.". This project aims to encourage the use of the geomaterials in ecological construction and contribute, however modestly, in building solutions with better performance characteristics, comfort, safety, durability and sustainability.

Duarte, Isabel; Pedro, Elsa; Varum, Humberto; Mirão, José; Pinho, António



Wyoming State Geological Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This agency's mission is to study, examine, and seek an understanding of the geology, mineral resources, and physical features of the State; to prepare, publish, and distribute reports and maps of Wyoming's geology, mineral resources, and physical features; and to provide information, advice, and services related to the geology, mineral resources, and physical features of the State. This site contains details and reports about metals in Wyoming, earthquakes and other hazards, coal, industrial minerals, uranium, oil and gas. The field trip section contains details about various areas to visit with students and gives a general geologic description. There is also a searchable bibliography with publications about Wyoming geology. Links are provided for additional resources.


Analysis of the OECD Main Steam Line Break Benchmark Problem Using the Refined Core Thermal-Hydraulic Nodalization Feature of the MARS/MASTER Code  

SciTech Connect

The refined core thermal-hydraulics (T-H) nodalization feature of the MARS/MASTER code is used to generate a high-fidelity solution to the OECD main steam line break benchmark problem and to investigate the effects of core T-H nodalization. The MARS/MASTER coupling scheme is introduced first that enables efficient refined node core T-H calculations via the COBRA-III module. The base solution is generated using a fine T-H nodalization consisting of fuel assembly-sized radial nodes. Sensitivity studies are performed on core T-H nodalization to examine the impacts on core reactivity, power distribution, and transient behavior. The results indicate that the error in the peak local power can be very large (up to 25%) with a coarse T-H nodalization because of the inability to incorporate detailed thermal feedback. A demonstrative departure from nucleate boiling (DNB) calculation shows no occurrence of DNB in this problem.

Joo, Han Gyu; Jeong, Jae-Jun; Cho, Byung-Oh; Lee, Won Jae; Zee, Sung Quun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (Korea, Republic of)



Geology of Brunei deltas, exploration status updated  

SciTech Connect

This article summarizes the petroleum geology of Negara Brunei Darussalam, the smallest but oil and gas richest country in Northwest Borneo. The paper describes the exploration history, Brunei geology, structural geology, main hydrocarbon reservoirs, seals, formation pressures, and current exploration.

Schreurs, J. [Brunei Shell Petroleum Co.Sdn. Bhd., Seria (Brunei Darussalam)



Systems study of the feasibility of high-level nuclear-waste fractionation for thermal stress control in a geologic repository: main report  

SciTech Connect

This study assesses the benefits and costs of fractionating the cesium and strontium (Cs/Sr) components in commercial high-level waste (HLW) to a separate waste stream for the purpose of reducing geologic-repository thermal stresses in the region of the HLW. System costs are developed for a broad range of conditions comparing the Cs/Sr fractionation concept with disposal of 10-year-old vitrified HLW and vitrified HLW aged to achieve (through decay) the same heat output as the fractionated high-level waste (FHLW). All comparisons are based on a 50,000 metric ton equivalent (MTE) system. The FHLW and the Cs/Sr waste are both disposed of as vitrified waste but emplaced in separate areas of a basalt repository. The FHLW is emplaced in high-integrity packages at relatively high waste loading but low heat loading, while the Cs/Sr waste is emplaced in minimum-integrity packages at relatively high heat loading in a separate region of the repository. System cost comparisons are based on minimum cost combinations of canister diameter, waste concentration, and canister spacing in a basalt repository. The effects on both long- and near-term safety considerations are also addressed. The major conclusion is that the Cs/Sr fractionation concept offers the prospect of a substantial total system cost advantage for HLW disposal if reduced HLW package temperatures in a basalt repository are desired. However, there is no cost advantage if currently designated maximum design temperatures are acceptable. Aging the HLW for 50 to 100 years can accomplish similar results at equivalent or lower costs. 37 figures, 58 tables.

McKee, R.W.; Elder, H.K.; McCallum, R.F.; Silviera, D.J.; Swanson, J.L.; Wiles, L.E.



Distribution of Trichloroethylene and Geologic Controls on Contaminant Pathways near the Royal River, McKin Superfund Site Area, Gray, Maine  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Vapor-diffusion samplers were used in the autumn of 1997 to determine the lateral extent and distribution of concentrations of a trichloroethylene (TCE) plume in the ground-water discharge area near the McKin Superfund Site, Gray, Maine. Analyses of vapor in the samplers identified a plume about 800 feet wide entering the river near Boiling Springs, an area of ground-water discharge on the flood plain of the Royal River. The highest observed concentration of TCE in vapor was in an area of sand boils on the western bank of the river and about 200 feet downstream from Boiling Springs. Previous studies showed that most of the TCE load in the river originated in the area of the sand boils. In general, highest concentrations were observed on the western side of the river on the upgradient side of the plume, but TCE also was detected at numerous locations in the center and eastern bank of the river. The TCE plume discharges to the river where fine-grained glaciomarine sediments of the Presumpscot Formation are absent and where coarse-grained facies of buried glaciomarine fan deposits provide a pathway for ground-water flow. Based on results of analyses of vapor-diffusion samples and other previous studies, the plume appears to pass under and beyond the river near Boiling Springs and along the river for about 300 feet downstream from the sand boils. A coarse-grained, organic-rich layer at the base of the alluvial flood plain sediments is confined by overlying fine-grained alluvial sediments and may provide a conduit for ground-water leaking upward from buried glaciomarine fan deposits.

Lyford, Forest P.; Flight, L.E.; Stone, Janet Radway; Clifford, Scott



Geology Fieldnotes: Great Basin National Park, Nevada  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Great Basin National Park site contains park geology information, park maps, visitor information, and teacher features (educational resources and links for teaching geology using National Park examples). The park geology section discusses the region's biogeography, glacial history, and the Lehman Caves. A park map and a features/relief map of the Great Basin National Park are included.


Oahu Geology Field Exercises  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Three field guides are available to sites of geologic interest on Oahu. One is a visit to a landslide occurring in a neighborhood; another focuses on developing observational skills and determining the sequence of geologic events evident in a stratigraphic section; a third examines features associated with formation of a volcanic tuff ring. The worksheets are designed for teachers to implement as-is or modify for their classes.


Engineering study of structural geologic features of the herrin (No. 6) coal and associated rock in Illinois. Volume 2. Detailed report. Final report, 1974-76  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report summarizes the status of knowledge on the influence of the geologic and structural fabric of roof strata on roof stability in underground mines in the Herrin No. 6 coal. The report is based both on past investigations and on information collected during recent visits to active mines. The objectives of this study were (1) to identify and describe

H. Krausse; H. H. Damberger; W. J. Nelson



Mathematical Geology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mathematical techniques used to solve geological problems are briefly discussed (including comments on use of geostatistics). Highlights of conferences/meetings and conference papers in mathematical geology are also provided. (JN)

Jones, Thomas A.



Structural Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by the University of Nebraska-Lincoln, this site describes the basics of structural geology with text and images. The page includes the discussion of stress, strain, strike and dip, faults, folds, mountain building, erosion, economic geology, and environmental geology. This is a nice introduction to the basic topics in geology. Images from the field help to enhance the topics on the site. Instructors can use this resource to help create or simply enhance their curriculum.



Geological SciencesGeological Sciences Geological EngineeringGeological Engineering  

E-print Network

Geological Engineering Applied Science Faculty Geology is the study of the Earth, its rocks, minerals Faculty and the Applied Science (Engineering) Faculty with various career path options. Geological engineers apply earth science principles to find and extract the world's energy and mineral wealth, to help

Ellis, Randy


Geological Time  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Why do engineers need to know about geologic time?" That question is answered in this resource from the University of Saskatchewan's Department of Civil and Geological Engineering. Provided here is a discussion of the concepts of geological time; relative dating methods, such as correlation; and absolute dating methods, such as radiometric methods. Diagrams and charts are included to demonstrate these complex concepts.



"Geological metadata" to share field geological knowledge and related map generalizations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sharing of geological information on the Web is rapidly increasing and steadily supported by ongoing IT innovation. Since GIS databases, metadata (MD) and spatial data infrastructures are tools gradually used in Earth science, concepts such as clearness, usefulness, quality and use constraints of web disseminated data, become matters of interest for the communities of geologists In field geosciences, the possibility to share actually understandable information is constrained by the peculiar approach adopted in knowledge acquisition (field survey) and knowledge representation (geological maps). Datasets comprehend both measurements/observations and applications of conceptual models, achieved with a large use of implicit knowledge that characterizes the analysis, processing and interpretation of original data. Field geological knowledge is biased by geologists' subjectivity and constrained by different type of uncertainties coming from capture methods, interpretative models and map generalizations. Shared information need thus specifications about i) the intended meanings of adopted concepts, ii) the physical paths (i.e. the operational steps concerning data acquisition on the field), iii) the knowledge paths (interpretation steps performed on data). Field geological data have to be organized in conceptually-driven systems, where explained information get retraceable. An attempt to reach this goal has been recently carried out by CNR IGG TO working group in the IDE-Univers project, by setting up a geoportal (, where geological information are described through ISO19915 MD standard and shared through WMS technology. The CNR IGGTO Server contains field data and related geological maps mainly stored in the frame of the CARG project (1:50000 Geological Map of Italy). Our strategy is to get this information conceptually described, using the Geographic MD international standard for the geological context, in order to give geological interpretations in an explicit format. These "geological metadata" have been compiled mainly as regard the "Identification" and the "Data Quality" classes. The Abstract element (Identification class) explains the criteria on which data are interpreted and the meaning of them, giving the peculiarities of interpreted features. The Resource Locator element (Identification class) allows to link datasets with conceptual supplemental information (conceptual schemas), where concepts and methods adopted in the acquisition of knowledge are given. The Lineage element (Data Quality class) gives the different process steps performed on data, specifying the provenance of interpreted features and making them retraceable. A further improvement of the readability of the information stored in the CNR IGGTO geoportal, is presently carried out in the frame of GIIDA project (an initiative to implement the Spatial Information Infrastructure of CNR for Environmental and Earth Observation data) by development of Wiki sites linkable to the MD sheets.

Balestro, G.; Bini, S.; Piana, F.; Tallone, S.



Geology Fieldnotes: Timpanogos National Monument, Utah  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Timpanogos Cave National Monument, in the Wasatch Mountains, features spectacularly decorated caverns, each of which has unique colors and formations. Features of the site include park geology information, maps, photographs of cave formations, related links, and visitor information. The park geology section discusses the caves' geologic history, structural geology, and details the discovery of the Hansen and Middle Caves (by Martin, George, and Wayne Hansen) and the Timpanogos Cave (by Veral Manwill).


Park Geology: Tour of National Parks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A great site from the National Park Service, Geologic Resources Division provides information on geologic features of our national parks. The site is aimed at a young audience (K-8), but is a pleasure to browse for anyone. Organizing the site by geologic features (e.g., Hot Springs, Oldest Rocks, and Volcanoes) allows readers to compare the geology of various national parks and explore maps, photos and other related links.


The Montana-Yellowstone Geologic Field Guide Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For any college student majoring in the geophysical sciences, getting out into the field can be a key academic experience. This novel initiative, created by Carleton College's Science Education Resource Center (SERC), is a pilot project designed to make the field guide literature more accessible and useful to geoscience educators, students, and researchers. This site features published field guides and road logs for Montana and Yellowstone National Park, both of which are popular locations for summer field courses conducted by geology departments from San Diego, California to Orono, Maine. Visitors can search the database by topic, geographic location, and geologic province. Additionally, they can use the Top 10 area to find a list of the top ten geology field trips in the area based on geological interest, scenery, and general access. The site is rounded out by a collection of student exercises based on specific field localities in Montana.



North Dakota Geological Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the homepage of the North Dakota Geological Survey. Site materials include information on the state's oil, gas and coal resources, maps, publications, and regulations. The paleontology page features educational articles, information on fossil collecting, articles about fossil exhibits, and information on the state fossil collection. The state GIS hub creates and distributes digital spatial data that conforms to national mapping standards. The teaching tools page includes illustrations and descriptions of rocks and minerals found in the state, as well as information on meteorites and newsletter articles about teaching North Dakota geology. There are also links to landslide maps, surficial geology maps, and links to other survey publications such as reports, bulletins, field studies, other geological and topographic maps, and information on groundwater resources.


Geology of the Black Hills  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This presents a virtual geology field trip of the Black Hills. The topics that are covered include the general geology of the area, engineering and environmental issues, economic uses such as gold mining and bentonite recovery, and fossils. This site also features a clickable map that displays the location, information, and photographs of interesting stops in the Black Hills.

University, South D.


Geology By Lightplane  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In 1966, Professor Louis J. Maher of the University of Wisconsin-Madison's Department of Geology and Geophysics piloted a department-owned Cessna over the continental US taking photos for use in his geology courses. As Maher flew, his trusty co-pilot and graduate assistant, Charles Mansfield, snapped the photos. The resulting collection is an assortment of breathtaking images of classic geological features, now available online for noncommercial use by educators (download via FTP). Maher gives us birds-eye views of structural features in Wyoming's Wind River Range, sedimentary strata in Arches National Park and the Grand Canyon, glacial landscapes in Northern Minnesota, and ancient lava flows in Arizona, to name just a few.

Maher, Louis J.



Humboldt River main stem, Nevada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This data set contains the main stem of the Humboldt River as defined by Humboldt Project personnel of the U.S. Geological Survey Nevada District, 2001. The data set was digitized on screen using digital orthophoto quadrangles from 1994.

Warmath, Eric; Medina, Rose L.



Soviet geology, 1976  

Microsoft Academic Search

The geological history of the Jurassic period shows that the most abrupt change in physiogeographical, and particularly in climatic, conditions occured not at its lower or upper limit but at the boundary between the middle and late epochs. This is shown especially clearly by a study of the lacustral and continental sediments which form such a significant feature of the

V. A. Vakhrameyev



Utah Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Utah Geological Survey's Web site, Utah Geology, offers a variety of interesting geological information about the state. Good descriptions, illustrations, and photographs can be accessed on earthquakes and hazards, dinosaurs and fossils, rocks and minerals, oil and energy, and more. For example, the Rocks and Minerals page contains everything from how to stake a mining claim to downloadable summaries of mineral activity in the state. There is quite a bit of information within the site, and anyone interested in geology will find themselves exploring these pages for quite a while.



California Geological Survey: Geologic Maps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This index provides access to a selection of geologic maps of California, as well as an overview of geologic and other mapping activities in the state. The index, which can be accessed by clicking on an interactive map of the state, contains lists of selected geologic maps in California prepared by the Regional Geologic Mapping Project (RGMP). The RGMP staff monitors the literature and collects references that contain geologic mapping that may be useful for future compilations. In addition, the site has information about Caltrans Highway Corridor Mapping, The Mineral Resources and Mineral Hazards Mapping Program, North Coast Watersheds Assessment Program, The Timber Harvesting Plan Enforcement Program, and The Seismic Hazards Mapping Program. A set of links is provided to other sources of geologic maps and map information.


Main features of the national standard DSTU-N B V.2.3-21:2008 “Determination of the remaining strength of trunk pipelines containing defects”  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review the currently available approaches, applicable codes and standards for assessment of defects in trunk pipelines\\u000a and discuss advantages and disadvantages of the National pipeline regulations. The paper outlines the main principles of the\\u000a newly introduced normative document that regulates the assessment of strength and remaining life of pipelines containing service\\u000a defects.

I. V. Orynyak; A. Ya. Krasovskii; M. V. Borodii




EPA Science Inventory

In the mid-1990s, an interdisciplinary, multi-institutional team of scientists was assembled to address basic issues concerning biological productivity and the unique co-occurrence of many unusual ecological features in Cobscook Bay, Maine. Cobscook Bay is a geologically complex,...


Physical geology  

SciTech Connect

The book integrates current thinking on processes (plate techtonics, chemical cycles, changes throughout geologic time). It is an introduction to investigations into the way the earth works, how mountains are formed, how the atmosphere, hydrosphere, crust and mantle interact with each other. Treatments on climate, paleoclimatology and landscape evolution are included, as is a discussion on how human activity affects geological interactions.

Skinner, B.; Porter, S.



Geology Fieldnotes: Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore site contains park geology information, park maps, related links, and visitor information. The park geology section discusses the park's geologic history, dunes, moraines, and vegetation. The park maps section contains links to a park features map and a map of the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore.


"Spacecraft Reveals Recent Geological Activity on the Moon": Exploring the Features of NASA Twitter Posts and Their Potential to Engage Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Through a content analysis of 200 "tweets," this study was an exploration into the distinct features of text posted to NASA's "Twitter" site and the potential for these posts to serve as more engaging scientific text than traditional textbooks for adolescents. Results of the content analysis indicated the tweets and linked…

Lesley, Mellinee



Geology in North Dakota  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Department of Geosciences at North Dakota State University educates visitors about the geologic features and landforms of North Dakota through clear text and astonishing images at this website. In the Glacial Features of North Dakota link, visitors can learn about end moraines, eskers, kettle lakes, and kames. Educators can find amazing photographs of mass wasting including creep, slope failure, and slumps. Users can also find materials on stream features and satellite imagery of North Dakota. While the website concentrates on North Dakota, the materials can be a great addition to any earth science or geomorphology class.


No geology without marine geology  

Microsoft Academic Search

A brief review is offered of the many problems where knowledge of the ocean floors and of marine processes in shallow water is indispensable for the further advancement of geology. The subject of turbidity currents is treated in greater detail, to demonstrate the interrelation of several aspects of marine geology with sedimentologic and paleogeographic investigations. It is obvious that the

P. H Kuenen



Physical Geology: Idaho Field Trip  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This optional field trip is designed to augment the in-class learning experience in introductory physical geology by providing students the opportunity to see firsthand local geological features and understand their context in the long-term tectonic evolution of the western United States. The university is conveniently located in a portion of the American west where a plethora of geological features are readily accessible over a total field trip duration of 6 hours. Over a total of 6 field stops, students are presented with an opportunity to observe features relevant to topics learned in class involving rock types, volcanic features (lava flows and ash fall deposits), faults and folds, mass wasting features, catastrophic flood deposits (Bonneville and Missoula floods), and loess deposits.

Kattenhorn, Simon


Geology Fieldnotes: Glen Canyon National Recreation Area, Utah and Arizona  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Glen Canyon National Recreation Area site contains park geology information, photographs, related links, visitor information, multimedia resources, and teacher features (resources for teaching geology with National Park examples). The park geology section briefly discusses the Park's geologic history, structural geology, Navajo sandstone, and fossil beds. The park maps section contains a link to a features/relief map of Glen Canyon and the surrounding area, from the University of Texas at Austin Perry-Castaneda Library Map Collection.


Geologic Time  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Earth is very old -- 4.5 billion years or more -- according to recent estimates. This vast span of time, called geologic time by earth scientists, is difficult to comprehend in the familiar time units of months and years, or even centuries. How then do scientists reckon geologic time, and why do they believe the Earth is so old? A great part of the secret of the Earth's age is locked up in its rocks, and our centuries-old search for the key led to the beginning and nourished the growth of geologic science.

Newman, William L.



Main features of the deep structure by local earthquake tomography and active tectonics: case of Rif Mountain (morocco) and Betic Cordillera (Spain)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the Spain and Moroccan networks, a large volume of seismic data has been collected and used for investigating the lithosphere in the Betic-Rif Cordillera. The present study has two main goals: (1) Use the most actual seismological data from recent earthquakes in the Betic-Rif arc for investigating the lithosphere through the application of seismic local tomography techniques. (2) Define the possible structural blocks and explain the GPS velocities perturbation in this region. The resolution tests results indicate that the calculated images gave a close true structure for the studied regions from 5- to 60-km depth. The resulting tomographic image shows that the presence of two upper crust body (velocity 6.5 km/s) at 3- to 13-km depth between Iberian Betic and Moroccan Rif in the western and in the middle of Alboran Sea also shows the low velocity favoring the presence of melt in the base of these two bodies. The crustal bodies forms tectonic blocks in the Central Rif and in the Central Betic Cordillera.

Timoulali, Y.; Hahou, Y.; Jabour, N.; Merrouch, R.; El Kharrim, A.



Using Vertical electrical sounding survey and refraction seismic survey for determining the geological layers depths, the structural features and assessment groundwater in Aqaba area in South Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study area is the Aqaba region (Southern wadi Araba basin). Aqaba region area located at 87900 and 89000 North and 147000 and 158000 East (Palestine grid). Tectonically Aqaba area lies within the tectonic plate boundary along the Arabian and African plate slide. This plate boundary comprises numerous and shot fault segments. The main aims of this study are to

Emad Akawwi; Abdallah Alzoubi; Zvi Ben Abraham; Abdel Rahamn Abo Alades; Rami Alrzouq; Gidon Tiber; Tina Neimi



Geologic Timeline  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dive into the depths of time with this Geologic Timeline. The farther you scroll down, the farther back in time you'll travel. Also, the longer a period is on this page, the longer it lasted in history!



Cave beetle genetics: geology and gene flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic structure of four species of obligate cave-dwelling carabid beetles, occurring in two plateau karsts, was examined using gel electrophoresis of proteins. Geological features, in particular streams and rivers, appear to be strong barriers to gene flow in both karst regions. Additional genetic differentiation among populations, which is not obviously related to geological features, occurs in both plateaus. As

Thomas C Kane; Thomas C Barr; William J Badaracca



Geology Fieldnotes: Death Valley National Park, California/Nevada  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Death Valley National Park site contains park geology information, park maps, photographs, visitor information, and teacher features (resources for teaching geology using National Park examples). The Park Geology section contains an exaggerated cross-section showing the vertical rise within Death Valley. A link is provided to Death Valley's expanded geology page.


Coastal Geological Processes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Coastlines are places of continuous, often dramatic geological activity. They change daily and seasonally, but especially over long time periods. This interactive feature discusses the forces that help shape coastal landforms like cliffs and beaches. Topics include waves, tides, and currents; weathering, erosion, and deposition; and other factors, such as the activity of organisms and human modifications. A background essay and discussion questions are included.



Coastal Geological Processes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Coastlines are places of continuous, often dramatic geological activity. They change daily and seasonally, but especially over long time periods. This interactive feature discusses the forces that help shape coastal landforms like cliffs and beaches. Topics include waves, tides, and currents; weathering, erosion, and deposition; and other factors, such as the activity of organisms and human modifications. A background essay and discussion questions are included.


Geological assessing of urban environments with a systematic mapping survey: The 1:5000 urban geological map of Catalonia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ground features of urban areas and the geologic processes that operate on them are, in general, strongly altered from their natural original condition as a result of anthropogenic activities. Assessing the stability of the ground, the flooding areas, and, the health risk as a consequence of soil pollution, are, among others, fundamental topics of urban areas that require a better understanding. The development of systematic urban geological mapping projects provides valuable resources to address these issues. Since 2007, the Institut Geologic de Catalunya (IGC) runs an urban geological mapping project, to provide accurate geologic information of county capitals and towns of more than 10000 inhabitants of Catalonia. The urban zones of 131 towns will be surveyed for this project, totalizing an area of about 2200 km2 to be mapped in 15 years. According to the 2008 census, the 82 % of the population of Catalonia (7.242.458 inhabitants) lives in the areas to be mapped in this project. The mapping project integrates in a GIS environment the following subjects: - Data from pre-existing geotechnical reports, historical geological and topographical maps and, from historical aerial photographs. - Data from available borehole databases. - Geological characterization of outcrops inside the urban network and neighbouring areas. - Geological, chemical and physical characterisation of representative rocks, sediments and soils. - Ortophotographs (0.5 m pixel size) and digital elevation models (5 meter grid size) made from historical aerial photographs, to depict land use changes, artificial deposits and geomorphological elements that are either hidden or destroyed by urban sprawl. - Detailed geological mapping of quaternary sediments, subsurface bedrock and artificial deposits. - Data from subsurface prospection in areas with insufficient or confuse data. - 3D modelling of the main geological surfaces such as the top of the pre-quaternary basement. All the gathered data is harmonised and stored it in a database. The analysis of the database allows to compile and print the 1:5000 scale urban geological map according to the 1:5000 topographic grid of Catalonia. The map is composed by a principal map, geologic cross sections and several complementary maps, charts and tables. Regardless of the geological map units, the principal map also includes the main artificial deposits (such as infilled river valleys and road embankments), very recent or current superficial deposits, contours of outcropping areas, structural data and other relevant information gathered in stations, sampling points, boreholes indicating the thickness of artificial deposits and the depth of the pre-quaternary basement, contour lines of the top of the pre-quaternary basement surface and, water level data. The complementary maps and charts may change depending on the gathered data, the geological features of the area and the urban typology. However, the most representative complementary maps that includes the printed urban map are the quaternary subsurface bedrock map and the isopach map of thickness of quaternary and anthropogenic deposits. The map also includes charts and tables of relevant physical and chemical parameters of the geological materials, harmonised downhole lithological columns from selected boreholes, and, photographs and figures illustrating the geology of the mapped area and how urbanisation has changed the natural environment. The object of this systematic urban mapping survey is to provide a robust database to be used in targeted studies related to urban planning, geoengineering works, soil pollution and other important environmental issues that society should deal in the future.

Vilà, Miquel; Pi, Roser; Cirés, Jordi; de Paz, Ana; Berástegui, Xavier



Searching the Sinus Amoris: Using profiles of geological units, impact and volcanic features to characterize a major terrane interface on the Moon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Geochemical profiles of surface units, impact, and volcanic features are studied in detail to determine the underlying structure in an area of extensive mare/highland interface, Sinus Amoris. This study region includes and surrounds the northeastern embayment of Mare Tranquillitatis. The concentrations of two major rock-forming elements (Mg and Al), which were derived from the Apollo 15 orbital geochemical measurements, were used in this study. Mapped units and deposits associated with craters in the northwestern part of the region tend to have correlated low Mg and Al concentrations, indicating the presence of Potassium (K)-Rare Earth Elements (REE)-Phosphorus (P) (KREEP)-enriched basalt. Found along the northeastern rim of Tranquillitatis were areas with correlated high Mg and Al concentration, indicating the presence of troctolite. Distinctive west/east and north/south trends were observed in the concentrations of Mg and Al, and, by implication, in the distribution of major rock components on the surface. Evidence for a systematic geochemical transition in highland or basin-forming units may be observed here in the form of distinctive differences in chemistry in otherwise similar units in the western and eastern portions of the study region.

Clark, P.; Joerg, S.; Dehon, R.



Main Features of the Caspian Sea Hydrology  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The Caspian Sea constantly attracts considerable attention thanks to its natural uniqueness, resource abundance, great historical\\u000a value and vital importance to human societies of the vast Caspian region. In these circumstances, improving theoretical and\\u000a applied knowledge of the sea is indispensable for addressing many complex issues. Specifically, there has been increasing\\u000a environmental concern over expanding extraction of hydrocarbons off and

Aleksey N. Kosarev; Valentin S. Tuzhilkin; Andrey G. Kostianoy


Antarctica Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains information about the continent of Antarctica. There is a classroom practice and instructional module. The students will be able to describe the general geology of the land under the Antarctic ice and to explain from where the rocks may have come.


Geologic Time  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains 24 questions on the topic of geologic time, which covers dating techniques and unconformities. This is part of the Principles of Earth Science course at the University of South Dakota. Users submit their answers and are provided immediate feedback.

Heaton, Timothy


Upper Cenozoic Geologic Map, Yellowstone Plateau Volcanic Field  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This geologic map shows Tertiary and Quaternary rock formations, volcanic and surficial deposits, faults, contacts, and other geologic features in Yellowstone National Park. The map is freely downloadable as a PDF file.

Robert, Christiansen; Survey, U. S.


Geologic Framework Model (GFM2000)  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to document the geologic framework model, version GFM2000 with regard to input data, modeling methods, assumptions, uncertainties, limitations, and validation of the model results, and the differences between GFM2000 and previous versions. The version number of this model reflects the year during which the model was constructed. This model supersedes the previous model version, documented in Geologic Framework Model (GFM 3.1) (CRWMS M&O 2000 [DIRS 138860]). The geologic framework model represents a three-dimensional interpretation of the geology surrounding the location of the monitored geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain. The geologic framework model encompasses and is limited to an area of 65 square miles (168 square kilometers) and a volume of 185 cubic miles (771 cubic kilometers). The boundaries of the geologic framework model (shown in Figure 1-1) were chosen to encompass the exploratory boreholes and to provide a geologic framework over the area of interest for hydrologic flow and radionuclide transport modeling through the unsaturated zone (UZ). The upper surface of the model is made up of the surface topography and the depth of the model is constrained by the inferred depth of the Tertiary-Paleozoic unconformity. The geologic framework model was constructed from geologic map and borehole data. Additional information from measured stratigraphic sections, gravity profiles, and seismic profiles was also considered. The intended use of the geologic framework model is to provide a geologic framework over the area of interest consistent with the level of detailed needed for hydrologic flow and radionuclide transport modeling through the UZ and for repository design. The model is limited by the availability of data and relative amount of geologic complexity found in an area. The geologic framework model is inherently limited by scale and content. The grid spacing used in the geologic framework model (200 feet [61 meters]), discussed in Section 6.4.2, limits the size of features that can be resolved by the model but is appropriate for the distribution of data available and its intended use. Uncertainty and limitations are discussed in Section 6.6 and model validation is discussed in Section 7.

T. Vogt



Geology on a Sand Budget  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Earth science teaches know how frustrating it can be to spend hundreds of dollars on three-dimensional (3-D) models of Earth's geologic features, only to use the models for a few class periods. To avoid emptying an already limited science budget, teachers can use a simple alternative to the expensive 3-D models--sand. Modeling geologic processes and features with sand is an effective way for teachers to promote student understanding of Earth science topics, quickly assess students' prior knowledge, and identify common misconceptions.

Kane, Jacqueline



Geologic Resource Evaluation of Pu'ukohola Heiau National Historic Site, Hawai'i: Part I, Geology and Coastal Landforms  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Geologic resource inventories of lands managed by the National Park Service (NPS) are important products for the parks and are designed to provide scientific information to better manage park resources. Park-specific geologic reports are used to identify geologic features and processes that are relevant to park ecosystems, evaluate the impact of human activities on geologic features and processes, identify geologic research and monitoring needs, and enhance opportunities for education and interpretation. These geologic reports are planned to provide a brief geologic history of the park and address specific geologic issues forming a link between the park geology and the resource manager. The Kona coast National Parks of the Island of Hawai'i are intended to preserve the natural beauty of the Kona coast and protect significant ancient structures and artifacts of the native Hawaiians. Pu'ukohola Heiau National Historic Site (PUHE), Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park (KAHO), and Pu'uhonua O Honaunau National Historical Park (PUHO) are three Kona parks studied by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology Team in cooperation with the National Park Service. This report is one of six related reports designed to provide geologic and benthic-habitat information for the three Kona parks. Each geology and coastal-landform report describes the regional geologic setting of the Hawaiian Islands, gives a general description of the geology of the Kona coast, and presents the geologic setting and issues for one of the parks. The related benthic-habitat mapping reports discuss the marine data and habitat classification scheme, and present results of the mapping program. Pu'ukohola Heiau National Historic Site (PUHE) is the smallest (~86 acres) of three National Parks located on the leeward Kona coast of the Island of Hawai'i. The main structure at PUHE, Pu'ukohola Heiau, is an important historical temple that was built during 1790-91 by King Kamehameha I (also known as Kamehameha the Great) and is often associated with the founding of the Hawaiian Kingdom (Greene, 1993). The temple was constructed to incur the favor of the king's personal war god Kuka'ilimoku during the time that Kamehameha I waged several battles in an attempt to extend his control over all the Hawaiian Islands. The park is also the site of the older Mailekini Heiau, which was used by the ancestors of Kamehameha I, and an offshore, submerged temple, Hale O Kapuni Heiau, that was dedicated to the shark god. The park occupies the scenic Hill of the Whale overlooking Kawaihae Bay and Pelekane Beach. The seaward-sloping lands of PUHE lie at the convergence of lava flows formed by both Mauna Kea and Kohala Volcanoes. The park coastline is mostly rocky, with the exception of a small beach developed at the north boundary where an intermittent stream enters the sea. The park is bounded to the north by Kawaihae Harbor, to the south by Samuel M. Spencer Beach Park, and to the west by a broad submerged reef. The adjacent reef area is discussed in detail in the accompanying report by Cochran and others (2006). They mapped from the shoreline to depths of approximately 40 m, where the shelf drops off to a sand-covered bottom. PUHE park boundaries extend only to the mean high-tide line, however, landscape impacts created by development around the park are of concern to Park management.

Richmond, Bruce M.; Cochran, Susan A.; Gibbs, Ann E.



Simulation of geological models using multipoint histogram  

SciTech Connect

Simulated annealing optimization technique was used to simulate geological models. After comparing one-point perturbation scheme with two-point swapping scheme, and the Metropolis algorithm with the greedy algorithm, an optimized combination of simulated annealing schedule is presented. The two-dimensional correlation coefficient matrix is introduced to determine a unit configuration which can represent essential features of a geological model. The proposed simulated annealing technique can be used to reproduce the characteristics of a geological model based on multipoint histogram which can be obtained by using a unit configuration. Various geological vertical cross sections and horizontal slices based on field data are used to validate this new technique. Simulated results confirm that one-point perturbation scheme with the Metropolis algorithm provides the best combination to capture the essential features of a geological model. Further, the two-dimensional correlation coefficient matrix provides a technique to choose a priori unit configuration for multipoint histogram, which captures the geological characteristics adequately.

Qiu, W.Y.; Kelkar, M.G. [SPE, Richardson, TX (United States); [Univ. of Tulsa, OK (United States)




EPA Science Inventory

MEOWN250 describes industrial, non-industrial, and public woodlot ownership in Maine at 1:250,000 scale. Industrial owners are those having at least one primary wood processing facility. Non-industrial owners are those with no primary wood processing facility. Public ownership...


Quaternary geologic map of Minnesota  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Quaternary Geologic Map of Minnesota is a compilation based both on the unique characteristics of satellite imagery and on the results of previous field investigations, both published and unpublished. The use of satellite imagery has made possible the timely and economical construction of this map. LANDSAT imagery interpretation proved more useful than expected. Most of the geologic units could be identified by extrapolating from specific sites where the geology had been investigated into areas where little was known. The excellent geographic registry coupled with the multi-spectral record of these images served to identify places where the geologic materials responded to their ecological environment and where the ecology responded to the geologic materials. Units were well located on the map at the scale selected for the study. Contacts between till units could be placed with reasonable accuracy. The reference points that were used to project delineations between units (rivers, lakes, hills, roads and other features), which had not been accurately located on early maps, could be accurately located with the help of the imagery. The tonal and color contrasts, the patterns reflecting geologic change and the resolution of the images permitted focusing attention on features which could be represented at the final scale of the map without distraction by other interesting but site-specific details.

Goebel, J. E.



Geologic mapping of Vesta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on a preliminary global geologic map of Vesta, based on data from the Dawn spacecraft's High-Altitude Mapping Orbit (HAMO) and informed by Low-Altitude Mapping Orbit (LAMO) data. This map is part of an iterative mapping effort; the geologic map has been refined with each improvement in resolution. Vesta has a heavily-cratered surface, with large craters evident in numerous locations. The south pole is dominated by an impact structure identified before Dawn's arrival. Two large impact structures have been resolved: the younger, larger Rheasilvia structure, and the older, more degraded Veneneia structure. The surface is also characterized by a system of deep, globe-girdling equatorial troughs and ridges, as well as an older system of troughs and ridges to the north. Troughs and ridges are also evident cutting across, and spiraling arcuately from, the Rheasilvia central mound. However, no volcanic features have been unequivocally identified. Vesta can be divided very broadly into three terrains: heavily-cratered terrain; ridge-and-trough terrain (equatorial and northern); and terrain associated with the Rheasilvia crater. Localized features include bright and dark material and ejecta (some defined specifically by color); lobate deposits; and mass-wasting materials. No obvious volcanic features are evident. Stratigraphy of Vesta's geologic units suggests a history in which formation of a primary crust was followed by the formation of impact craters, including Veneneia and the associated Saturnalia Fossae unit. Formation of Rheasilvia followed, along with associated structural deformation that shaped the Divalia Fossae ridge-and-trough unit at the equator. Subsequent impacts and mass wasting events subdued impact craters, rims and portions of ridge-and-trough sets, and formed slumps and landslides, especially within crater floors and along crater rims and scarps. Subsequent to the formation of Rheasilvia, discontinuous low-albedo deposits formed or were emplaced; these lie stratigraphically above the equatorial ridges that likely were formed by Rheasilvia. The last features to be formed were craters with bright rays and other surface mantling deposits. Executed progressively throughout data acquisition, the iterative mapping process provided the team with geologic proto-units in a timely manner. However, interpretation of the resulting map was hampered by the necessity to provide the team with a standard nomenclature and symbology early in the process. With regard to mapping and interpreting units, the mapping process was hindered by the lack of calibrated mineralogic information. Topography and shadow played an important role in discriminating features and terrains, especially in the early stages of data acquisition.

Yingst, R. A.; Mest, S. C.; Berman, D. C.; Garry, W. B.; Williams, D. A.; Buczkowski, D.; Jaumann, R.; Pieters, C. M.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Frigeri, A.; Le Corre, L.; Preusker, F.; Raymond, C. A.; Reddy, V.; Russell, C. T.; Roatsch, T.; Schenk, P. M.



Park Geology: Tour of Basin and Range Parks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides links to tours of individual National Parks within the Basin and Range region. Where appropriate for each park, links are provided to park geology, maps, photographs, geologic research, related links, visitor information, multimedia resources, and teacher features. Some of the parks have an expanded geology page that features the geologic time, history, plate tectonics, rocks and minerals, and a virtual field trip of the park. Of particular note is the teacher feature section, which provides educational resources and links for teaching geology with National Park examples.


Geologic Mapping of the Moon - Copernicus Crater  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lesson about the Moon's Copernicus Crater. Learners will use observation to make their own geologic map of the Crater. They then identify crater features in a photogeologic image and use those observations to color their map with the appropriate geologic units.


Geologic Time  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Classroom Connectors lesson plan discusses the characteristics of geologic time, including the law of superposition, fossil preservation, casts and molds, and various events through the history of the Earth. The site provides goals, objectives, an outline, time required, materials, activities, and closure ideas for the lesson. The Classroom Connectors address content with an activity approach while incorporating themes necessary to raise the activity to a higher cognition level. The major motivation is to employ instructional strategies that bring the students physically and mentally into touch with the science they are studying.


NSDL National Science Digital Library

This clearinghouse features an extensive selection of maps, imagery, news articles, and other Earth science resources. Highlights include an interactive map of meteor impact structures, an interactive map showing the highest points in the 50 states, and a state-by-state directory of imagery, maps, and links to geological information. There are also listings for imagery for U.S. cities and the continents, a map of the most dangerous volcanoes in the U.S., a mineral identification chart, and information on stream discharge monitoring.



The Geologic Time Scale  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains a large, easy to read, detailed geologic time scale for the Phanerozoic Eon (544 million years ago - Present). This is the period of time, also known as an eon, between the end of the Precambrian and today. The Phanerozoic begins with the start of the Cambrian period, 544 million years ago. It encompasses the period of abundant, complex life on Earth. The chart includes the Era, Period or System, and the Epoch or Series and features a brief description of each.


Weird Geology: The Devil's Tower  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page features a brief introduction to the several theories about the geological processes that formed Devil's Tower, which rises 1,267 feet above the nearby Belle Fourche River and is still considered a sacred place by some Native American Tribes. Information on climbing the tower as well as images and a cross section are provided.

Krystek, Lee; Mystery, The M.


Geologic map of the Metis Mons quadrangle (V–6), Venus  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Metis Mons quadrangle (V–6) in the northern hemisphere of Venus (lat 50° to 75° N., long 240° to 300° E.) includes a variety of coronae, large volcanoes, ridge and fracture (structure) belts, tesserae, impact craters, and other volcanic and structural features distributed within a plains setting, affording study of their detailed age relations and evolutionary development. Coronae in particular have magmatic, tectonic, and topographic signatures that indicate complex evolutionary histories. Previously, the geology of the map region has been described either in general or narrowly focused investigations. Based on Venera radar mapping, a 1:15,000,000-scale geologic map of part of the northern hemisphere of Venus included the V–6 map region and identified larger features such as tesserae, smooth and hummocky plains materials, ridge belts, coronae, volcanoes, and impact craters but proposed little relative-age information. Global-scale mapping from Magellan data identified similar features and also determined their mean global ages with crater counts. However, the density of craters on Venus is too low for meaningful relative-age determinations at local to regional scales. Several of the coronae in the map area have been described using Venera data (Stofan and Head, 1990), while Crumpler and others (1992) compiled detailed identification and description of volcanic and tectonic features from Magellan data. The main purpose of this map is to reconstruct the geologic history of the Metis Mons quadrangle at a level of detail commensurate with a scale of 1:5,000,000 using Magellan data. We interpret four partly overlapping stages of geologic activity, which collectively resulted in the formation of tesserae, coronae (oriented along structure belts), plains materials of varying ages, and four large volcanic constructs. Scattered impact craters, small shields and pancake-shaped domes, and isolated flows superpose the tectonically deformed materials and appear to be the most youthful materials in the map region.

Dohm, James M.; Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Skinner, James A.



The National Park Service: Park Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A National Park Service (NPS) site primarily composed of three main sections corresponding to the following program areas within the Geologic Resources Division (GRD): Disturbed Lands Restoration and Abandoned Mineral Lands (AML), Mineral Management Programs, and Geology and Soils Programs. Of these, the first two consist principally of textual resources pertaining to Park System procedures, policies, and regulations - as well as reports on example restoration projects with a focus on stream corridor restoration, bioengineering, riparian management, and revegetation. Perhaps of most interest to educators will be the third main program area, the Geology and Soils Programs section. Here are included textual resources pertaining to NPS-GRD programs on cave and karst formations, coastal and shoreline geology, paleontology, soils (e.g., soil biology and soil surveying), geological indicators (geoindicators), and stratigraphy. Lastly, a searchable photographic collection and geologic glossary are available.


Geological conditions of the time of formation of impact craters on Pai-Khoi  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Present-day ideas on the time of formation of the Kara and Ust-Kara astroblemes are presented, and the main features of the geological structure of Phai-Khoi (the region where these structures are located) are described. Based on an analysis of the geological conditions, a large complex of fossil fauna and diatomaceous algae, and radiological dating of tagamites and impact glasses, it is shown that the craters were formed on the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary about 66-67 million years ago.

Mashchak, M. S.



USGS Publications Warehouse

The Big John caldera is an obscure subsidence structure on the western flank of the Tushar Mountains, within the Marysvale volcanic field of west-central Utah. The caldera subsided about 23 m. y. ago in response to ash-flow eruptions that deposited the Delano Peak Tuff Member of the Bullion Canyon Volcanics. During caldera development and subsequent filling and erosion, several geologic environments were formed that were favorable for the concentration of uranium; these environments form the focus of this report describing the major geologic features and main mining areas of the Marysvale volcanic field.

Steven, Thomas, A.; Cunningham, Charles, G.; Anderson, John, J.



Efficient Geological Modelling of Large AEM Surveys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Combining geological expert knowledge with geophysical observations into a final 3D geological model is, in most cases, not a straight forward process. It typically involves many types of data and requires both an understanding of the data and the geological target. When dealing with very large areas, such as modelling of large AEM surveys, the manual task for the geologist to correctly evaluate and properly utilise all the data available in the survey area, becomes overwhelming. In the ERGO project (Efficient High-Resolution Geological Modelling) we address these issues and propose a new modelling methodology enabling fast and consistent modelling of very large areas. The vision of the project is to build a user friendly expert system that enables the combination of very large amounts of geological and geophysical data with geological expert knowledge. This is done in an "auto-pilot" type functionality, named Smart Interpretation, designed to aid the geologist in the interpretation process. The core of the expert system is a statistical model that describes the relation between data and geological interpretation made by a geological expert. This facilitates fast and consistent modelling of very large areas. It will enable the construction of models with high resolution as the system will "learn" the geology of an area directly from interpretations made by a geological expert, and instantly apply it to all hard data in the survey area, ensuring the utilisation of all the data available in the geological model. Another feature is that the statistical model the system creates for one area can be used in another area with similar data and geology. This feature can be useful as an aid to an untrained geologist to build a geological model, guided by the experienced geologist way of interpretation, as quantified by the expert system in the core statistical model. In this project presentation we provide some examples of the problems we are aiming to address in the project, and show some preliminary results.

Bach, Torben; Martlev Pallesen, Tom; Jørgensen, Flemming; Lundh Gulbrandsen, Mats; Mejer Hansen, Thomas



Illinois State Geological Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Illinois State Geological Survey (ISGS) homepage provides information on geologic mapping, earthquakes, fossils, groundwater, wetlands, glacial geology, bedrock geology, and Lake Michigan geology. Educational materials include field trip guides, short publications on Illinois geology for students and teachers, online tours, single-page maps, and a geologic column. Other materials include databases and collections of GIS data, well records, drill cores, and mining information; a bibliography of Illinois geology; online maps and data; and information on water and land use, resource development, and geologic hazards.


Geology Fieldnotes: Badlands National Park, South Dakota  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Badlands National Park, located in southwestern South Dakota, consists of 244,000 acres of sharply eroded buttes, pinnacles and spires blended with the largest, protected mixed grass prairie in the United States. Features include information on park geology, maps, photographs, visitor information, links to related publications, and lesson plans for teaching geology with National Park examples. The park geology section discusses the Park's geologic history during the Eocene and Oligocene epochs and the rich fossil deposits found there. Maps of the park and the surrounding area are included.


Geology. Grade 6. Anchorage School District Elementary Science Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This resource book introduces sixth-grade children to the environment by studying rocks and other geological features. Nine lessons are provided on a variety of topics including: (1) geologic processes; (2) mountain building; (3) weathering; (4) geologic history and time; (5) plate tectonics; (6) rocks and minerals; (7) mineral properties; (8)…

Anchorage School District, AK.


Bedrock geologic map of Vermont  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Bedrock Geologic Map of Vermont is the result of a cooperative agreement between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the State of Vermont. The State's complex geology spans 1.4 billion years of Earth's history. The new map comes 50 years after the most recent map of the State by Charles G. Doll and others in 1961 and a full 150 years since the publication of the first geologic map of Vermont by Edward Hitchcock and others in 1861. At a scale of 1:100,000, the map shows an uncommon level of detail for State geologic maps. Mapped rock units are primarily based on lithology, or rock type, to facilitate derivative studies in multiple disciplines. The 1961 map was compiled from 1:62,500-scale or smaller maps. The current map was created to integrate more detailed (1:12,000- to 1:24,000-scale) modern and older (1:62,500-scale) mapping with the theory of plate tectonics to provide a framework for geologic, tectonic, economic, hydrogeologic, and environmental characterization of the bedrock of Vermont. The printed map consists of three oversize sheets (52 x 76 inches). Sheets 1 and 2 show the southern and northern halves of Vermont, respectively, and can be trimmed and joined so that the entire State can be displayed as a single entity. These sheets also include 10 cross sections and a geologic structure map. Sheet 3 on the front consists of descriptions of 486 map units, a correlation of map units, and references cited. Sheet 3 on the back features a list of the 195 sources of geologic map data keyed to an index map of 7.5-minute quadrangles in Vermont, as well as a table identifying ages of rocks dated by uranium-lead zircon geochronology.

Ratcliffe, Nicholas M.; Stanley, Rolfe S.; Gale, Marjorie H.; Thompson, Peter J.; Walsh, Gregory J.; With contributions by Hatch, Norman L., Jr.; Rankin, Douglas W.; Doolan, Barry L.; Kim, Jonathan; Mehrtens, Charlotte J.; Aleinikoff, John N.; McHone, J. Gregory; Cartography by Masonic, Linda M.



Geologic Technician New Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a developing two-year geologic technician program at Bakersfield College in which a student may major in five areas - geologic drafting, land and legal, geologic assistant, engineering or paleontology. (RR)

Karp, Stanley E.



Geological Time Scale  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This document describes how geologic time is approached in discussions of geologic topics. The uses of relative time and absolute time are compared, and a geologic time scale is provided to represent both concepts. References are provided.


Geological issues in Alberto Fortis' Viaggio in Dalmazia (1774)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Italian abbot Alberto Fortis (1741-1803), educated in geology, petrology, mineralogy, and palaeontology by eminent 18th-century naturalists, performed several extensive explorations in Istria and Dalmatia - provinces of the former Venetian Republic, now the littoral part of Croatia. Notes from some of these journeys, collected in 1774 in the book Viaggio in Dalmazia, encompass observations of almost all aspects of social and physical features of Dalmatian people and land. From a geological point of view, Fortis' remarks generally correspond to recent studies, with some exceptions in palaeontological and petrological issues. His understanding of natural processes, mainly in karstology and hydrology, is mostly surprisingly good. Besides, he addressed critics to previous writers, whose theories, influenced by older authorities, had been taken for granted instead of being re-examined by field explorations. His unjustly neglected work was the first extensive and comprehensive study of this part of Europe, little known in the then scientific community.

Suri?, Maša; Lon?ari?, Robert; ?uka, Anica; Fari?i?, Josip



Geology of Wisconsin  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains geologic maps of Wisconsin including relief and topography maps; maps of the bedrock geology and elevation, Pleistocene geology, thickness of unconsolidated deposits, and soils; and atlases of geologic history. There is information on: rock types, Paleozoic formations, and the Pleistocene and Precambrian history of Wisconsin; how to obtain a geologic map of personal property; the Niagara Escarpment; castellated mounds; geologic field localities; and unusual weather events in Wisconsin. There is also a data table on earthquakes in Wisconsin.

Dutch, Steven



Geological storage of carbon dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon dioxide is the main compound identified as affecting the stability of the Earth's climate. A significant reduction in the volume of greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere is a key mechanism for mitigating against climate change. Geological storage of CO 2, or the injection and stabilization of large volumes of CO 2 in the subsurface in saline aquifers, existing




Colorado Geological Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Colorado Geological Survey (CGS) is an agency of state government within the Department of Natural Resources whose mission is to help reduce the impact of geologic hazards on the citizens of Colorado, to promote the responsible economic development of mineral and mineral fuel resources, to provide geologic insight into water resources, and to provide geologic advice and information to a variety of constituencies. This site contains extensive information about Colorado geology such as maps, a geologic time scale for the state, program information, and state field trip information. This site hosts the Avalanche Information Center which contains avalanche forecasting and education center details. Publications report on geologic hazards, land use, environmental geology, mineral resources, oil, gas, coal, geologic mapping and earthquake information for the state. There are online editions of RockTalk, which is a quarterly newsletter published by the Colorado Geological Survey dealing with all aspects of geology throughout the state of Colorado. Links are provided for more resources.


Preliminary Geologic Map of Newberry Volcano, Oregon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The late Pleistocene and Holocene rear-arc Newberry Volcano is located in central Oregon east of the Cascades arc axis. Total area covered by the broad, shield-shaped edifice and its accompanying lava field is about 3,200 square kilometers, encompassing all or part of 38 U.S.G.S. 1:24,000-scale quadrangles. Distance from the northernmost extent of lava flows to the southernmost is about 115 km; east-west maximum width is less than 50 km. A printed version of the preliminary map at its intended publication scale of 1:50,000 is 8 ft high by 4 ft wide. More than 200 units have been identified so far, each typically consisting of the lava flow(s) and accompanying vent(s) that represent single eruptive episodes, some of which extend 10’s of kilometers across the edifice. Vents are commonly aligned north-northwest to north-northeast, reflecting a strong regional tectonic influence. The largest individual units on the map are basaltic, some extending nearly 50 km to the north through the cities of Bend and Redmond from vents low on the northern flank of the volcano. The oldest and most distal of the basalts is dated at about 350 ka. Silicic lava flows and domes are confined to the main edifice of the volcano; the youngest rhyolite flows are found within Newberry Caldera, including the rhyolitic Big Obsidian Flow, the youngest flow at Newberry Volcano (~1,300 yr B.P.). The oldest known rhyolite dome is dated at about 400 ka. Andesite units (those with silica contents between 57% and 63%) are the least common, with only 13 recognized to date. The present 6.5 by 8 km caldera formed about 75 ka with the eruption of compositionally-zoned rhyolite to basaltic andesite ash-flow tuff. Older widespread silicic ash-flow tuffs imply previous caldera collapses. Approximately 20 eruptions have occurred at Newberry since ice melted off the volcano in latest Pleistocene time. The mapping is being digitally compiled as a spatial geodatabase in ArcGIS. Within the geodatabase, feature classes have been created representing geologic lines (contacts, faults, lava tubes, etc.), geologic unit polygons, and volcanic vent location points. The geodatabase can be queried to determine the spatial distributions of different rock types, geologic units, and other geologic and geomorphic features. Map colors are being used to indicate compositions. Some map patterns have been added to distinguish the youngest lavas and the ash-flow tuffs. Geodatabase information can be used to better understand the evolution, growth, and potential hazards of the volcano.

Donnelly-Nolan, J. M.; Ramsey, D. W.; Jensen, R. A.; Champion, D. E.; Calvert, A. T.



Multidisciplinary analysis of Skylab photography for highway engineering purposes. [Maine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. The greatly increased resolution of ground features by Skylab as compared with LANDSAT is considered to be best in the S190B high resolution film, followed by S190A camera stations 4, 5, and 6 respectfully. Results of the study of vegetation damage sites using data derived from S190A film were disappointing. The major cause of detection problems is the graininess of the CIR film. Good results were achieved for the hydrology-land use study. Both camera systems gave better agreement with the ground truth than did LANDSAT imagery. Surficial geology and glacial landform areas were clearly visible in single scenes. Several previously unmapped or unknown features were detected, especially in eastern coastal Maine.

Stoeckeler, E. G.; Woodman, R. G. (principal investigators); Farrell, R. S.



Maryland Geological Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Maryland Geological Survey (MGS) homepage contains information from MGS programs on hydrogeology, hydrology, coastal and estuarine geology, environmental geology and mineral resources; an online guide to Maryland geology; and information on oyster habitat restoration projects. There are also maps, data, information on MGS publications, MGS news, and online educational resources.


Tennessee Division of Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the homepage of the Geology Division of the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation. It provides information on the division's programs, including geologic hazards research, public service, education programs, basic and applied research on geology and mineral resources, publication of geologic information, permitting of oil and gas wells, and regulation of Tennessee's oil and gas industry. Materials include a catalog of publications, maps, geologic bulletins, and the Public Information series of pamphlets; the Geology Division Newsletter; and information on the state's mineral industry. There is also a section on the Gray Fossil Site, an unusual assemblage of fossils and sedimentary geology encountered during road construction near the town of Gray, Tenessee.


Geology of Kilauea volcano  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes studies of the structure, stratigraphy, petrology, drill holes, eruption frequency, and volcanic and seismic hazards of Kilauea volcano. All the volcano is discussed, but the focus is on its lower east rift zone (LERZ) because active exploration for geothermal energy is concentrated in that area. Kilauea probably has several separate hydrothermal-convection systems that develop in response to the dynamic behavior of the volcano and the influx of abundant meteoric water. Important features of some of these hydrothermal-convection systems are known through studies of surface geology and drill holes. Observations of eruptions during the past two centuries, detailed geologic mapping, radiocarbon dating, and paleomagnetic secular-variation studies indicate that Kilauea has erupted frequently from its summit and two radial rift zones during Quaternary time. Petrologic studies have established that Kilauea erupts only tholeiitic basalt. Extensive ash deposits at Kilauea's summit and on its LERZ record locally violent, but temporary, disruptions of local hydrothermal-convection systems during the interaction of water or steam with magma. Recent drill holes on the LERZ provide data on the temperatures of the hydrothermal-convection systems, intensity of dike intrusion, porosity and permeability, and an increasing amount of hydrothermal alteration with depth. The prehistoric and historic record of volcanic and seismic activity indicates that magma will continue to be supplied to deep and shallow reservoirs beneath Kilauea's summit and rift zones and that the volcano will be affected by eruptions and earthquakes for many thousands of years. 71 refs., 2 figs.

Moore, R.B. (Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States). Federal Center); Trusdell, F.A. (Geological Survey, Hawaii National Park, HI (United States). Hawaiian Volcano Observatory)



Geologic mapping of Europa  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Galileo data enable the major geological units, structures, and surface features to be identified on Europa. These include five primary units (plains, chaos, band, ridge, and crater materials) and their subunits, along with various tectonic structures such as faults. Plains units are the most widespread. Ridged plains material spans a wide range of geological ages, including the oldest recognizable features on Europa, and appears to represent a style of tectonic resurfacing, rather than cryovolcanism. Smooth plains material typically embays other terrains and units, possibly as a type of fluid emplacement, and is among the youngest material units observed. At global scales, plains are typically mapped as undifferentiated plains material, although in some areas differences can be discerned in the near infrared which might be related to differences in ice grain size. Chaos material is composed of plains and other preexisting materials that have been severely disrupted by inferred internal activity; chaos is characterized by blocks of icy material set in a hummocky matrix. Band material is arrayed in linear, curvilinear, wedge-shaped, or cuspate zones with contrasting albedo and surface textures with respect to the surrounding terrain. Bilateral symmetry observed in some bands and the relationships with the surrounding units suggest that band material forms by the lithosphere fracturing, spreading apart, and infilling with material derived from the subsurface. Ridge material is mapped as a unit on local and some regional maps but shown with symbols at global scales. Ridge material includes single ridges, doublet ridges, and ridge complexes. Ridge materials are considered to represent tectonic processes, possibly accompanied by the extrusion or intrusion of subsurface materials, such as diapirs. The tectonic processes might be related to tidal flexing of the icy lithosphere on diurnal or longer timescales. Crater materials include various interior (smooth central, rough inner, and annular massif) and exterior (continuous ejecta) subunits. Structural features and landforms are shown with conventional symbols. Type localities for the units are identified, along with suggestions for portraying the features on geological maps, including colors and letter abbreviations for material units. Implementing these suggestions by the planetary mapping community would facilitate comparisons of maps for different parts of Europa and contribute to an eventual global synthesis of its complex geology. On the basis of initial mapping results, a stratigraphic sequence is suggested in which ridged plains form the oldest unit on Europa, followed by development of band material and individual ridges. Band materials tend to be somewhat older than ridges, but in many areas the two units formed simultaneously. Similarly, the formation of most chaos follows the development of ridged plains; although chaos is among the youngest materials on Europa, some chaos units might have formed contemporaneously with ridged plains. Smooth plains generally embay all other units and are late-stage in the evolution of the surface. C1 craters are superposed on ridged plains but are crosscut by other materials, including bands and ridges. Most c2 craters postdate all other units, but a few c2 craters are cut by ridge material. C3 craters constitute the youngest recognizable material on Europa. Copyright 2000 by the American Geophysical Union.

Greeley, R.; Figueredo, P. H.; Williams, D. A.; Chuang, F. C.; Klemaszewski, J. E.; Kadel, S. D.; Prockter, L. M.; Pappalardo, R. T.; Head, III, J. W.; Collins, G. C.; Spaun, N. A.; Sullivan, R. J.; Moore, J. M.; Senske, D. A.; Tufts, B. R.; Johnson, T. V.; Belton, M. J. S.; Tanaka, K. L.



Venus geology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Magellan mission to Venus is reviewed. The scientific investigations conducted by 243-day cycles encompass mapping with a constant incidence angle for the radar, observing surface changes from one cycle to the next, and targeting young-looking volcanos. The topography of Venus is defined by the upper boundary of the crust and upwelling from lower domains. Tectonic features such as rift zones, linear mountain belts, ridge belts, and tesserae are described. The zones of tesserae are unique to the planet. Volcanism accounts for about 80 percent of the observed surface, the remainder being volcanic deposits which have been reworked by tectonism or impacts. Magellan data reveal about 900 impact craters with flow-like ejecta resulting from the fall of meteoroids. It is concluded that the age of the Venusian surface varies between 0 and 800 million years. Tectonic and volcanic activities dominate the formation of the Venus topography; such processes as weathering and erosion are relatively unimportant on Venus.

Mclaughlin, W. I.



Feature extraction Feature extraction  

E-print Network

(hyperspectral sensors) Meteosat thermal IR channel hyperspectral "image cube" #12;Raw intensities · ProsFeature extraction #12;Feature extraction · Image interpretation: extract information from images · but the desired information may not be explicit in the raw observed pixel intensities · Transform image to make

Giger, Christine


Feature extraction Feature extraction  

E-print Network

(hyperspectral sensors) Meteosat thermal IR channel hyperspectral "image cube" #12;Raw intensities ! � ProsFeature extraction #12;Feature extraction ! � Image interpretation: extract information from images � but the desired information may not be explicit in the raw observed pixel intensities � Transform image to make

Giger, Christine


Vesta: A Geological Overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Dawn spacecraft has collected over 28,000 images and a wealth of spectral data providing nearly complete coverage of Vesta’s surface with multiple views. These data enable analysis of Vesta’s diverse geology including impact craters of all sizes and unusual shapes, a variety of ejecta blankets, large troughs extending around the equatorial region, impact basins, enigmatic dark material, and considerable evidence for mass wasting and surface alteration features (1). Two large impact basins, Veneneia (400km) underlying the larger Rheasilvia basin (500km) dominate the south pole (1,2). Rheasilvia exhibits a huge central peak, with total relief of -22km to 19km, and steep scarps with mass wasting features. Vesta’s global tectonic patterns (two distinct sets of large troughs almost parallel to the equator) strongly correlate with the locations of the two south polar impact basins, and were likely created by their formation (1,3). Numerous unusual asymmetric impact craters and ejecta indicate the strong role of topographic slope in cratering processes on Vesta (1). Such very steep topographic slopes are near to the angle of repose; slope failures make resurfacing due to impacts and their associated gravitational slumping and seismic effects an important geologic process on Vesta (1). Outcrops in crater walls indicate reworked crustal material and impact melt in combination with clusters of pits that show thermal surface processes (4). Relatively dark material of still unknown origin is intermixed in the regolith layers and partially excavated by younger impacts yielding dark outcrops, rays and ejecta (1,5). Finally, Vesta’s surface is younger than expected (6). (1) Jaumann, et al., 2012, Science 336, 687-690; (2) Schenk et al., 2012, Science 336, 964-967; (3) Buczkowski, et al., 2012, GRL, submitted; (4) Denevi, et al., 2012, Science, submitted; (5) McCord, et al., 2012, Nature, submitted; (6) Marchi, et al., 2012, Science 336, 690-694.

Ralf, Jaumann; Russell, C. T.; Raymond, C. A.; Pieters, C. M.; Yingst, R. A.; Williams, D. A.; Buczkowski, D. L.; Schenk, P.; Denevi, B.; Krohn, K.; Stephan, K.; Roatsch, T.; Preusker, F.; Otto, K.; Mest, S. C.; Ammannito, E.; Blewett, D.; Carsenty, U.; DeSanctis, C. M.; Garry, W.; Hiesinger, H.; Keller, H. U.; Kersten, E.; Marchi, S.; Matz, K. D.; McCord, T. B.; McSween, H. Y.; Mottola, S.; Nathues, A.; Neukum, G.; O'Brien, D. P.; Schmedemann, N.; Scully, J. E. C.; Sykes, M. V.; Zuber, M. T.



Geology Fieldnotes: Canyonlands National Park, Utah  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains park maps, visitor information, details about park geology, and a teacher feature (lessons for teaching science using National Park examples) for Canyonlands National Park in Utah. It discusses the creation of the canyons by the Green and Colorado rivers, as well as the geologic and human histories of the park. Also covered is information about the surrounding mountains (La Sals, Abajos, and Henry Mountains), the famous Upheaval Dome, The Maze, The Needles, and arches found within the park.


Okinawa, Japan: Geologic Battleground  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of our main goals as instructors, particularly in introductory courses, is to impart students with an appreciation of how geology has influenced the course of human events. Despite the apparent accessibility of such topics, communicating this in a lively, relevant, and effective way often proves difficult. We use a series of historical events, the Pacific island hopping campaign of WWII, to engage students in an active, guided inquiry exercise to explore how terrain and the underlying geology of an area can shape historical events. Teams of students are assigned the role of planning either the defense or occupation of Okinawa Island, in the Ryukyu arc, in a theoretical version of the 1945 conflict. Students are given a package of information, including geologic and topographic maps, a list of military resources available to them at the time, and some historical background. Students also have access to "reconnaissance" images, 360o digital panoramas of the landscape of Okinawa, keyed to their maps. Each team has a week to plan their strategies and carry out additional research, which they subsequently bring to the table in the form of a written battle plan. With an instructor as arbiter, teams alternate drawing their maneuvers on a map of the island, to which the other team then responds. This continues one move at a time, until the instructor declares a victor. Throughout the exercise, the instructor guides students through analysis of each strategic decision in light of the island's structure and topography, with an emphasis on the appropriate interpretation of the maps. Students soon realize that an understanding of the island's terrain literally meant the difference between life and death for civilians and military participants alike in 1945. The karst landscape of Okinawa posed unique obstacles to both the Japanese and the American forces, including difficult landing sites, networks of natural caves, and sequences of hills aligned perpendicular to the length of the island and to American troop movement. This unique topography forced innovative tactics ranging from reverse slope defense to "blowtorch and corkscrew" offense in response. During this exercise, students apply their map-reading and interpretation skills, as well as their critical analysis abilities; the historical context, in turn, provides motivation to refine those skills. Sun Tzu wrote that all warfare is based on deception. What we hope to communicate to students with this activity is that much of warfare, and, more broadly, the way humans interact with the world, is inherently and undeniably based on geology.

Waymack, S. W.; Carrington, M. P.; Harpp, K. S.



Glossary of Geologic Terms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page from Iowa State University presents a general glossary of geologic terms. The site would be a good reference for geology coursework. This glossary of geologic terms is based on the glossary in Earth: An Introduction to Geologic Change, by S. Judson and S.M. Richardson (Englewood Cliffs, NJ, Prentice Hall, 1995). Where possible, definitions conform generally, and in some cases specifically, to definitions given in Robert L Bates and Julia A Jackson (editors), Glossary of Geology, 3rd ed., American Geological Institute, Alexandria, Virginia, 1987.



The West Virginia Geological and Economic Survey (WVGES)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site includes materials on geology, coal and petroleum resources, industrial minerals, geologic hazards, ground water, topographic and geologic maps, education, and earth science. Teacher education materials include rock camps and telecourses. Special features include popular geology pages and frequently-asked-questions about geology and resources; updates about new museum specimens, flood and landslide information for homeowners, documents on mountaintop removal mining materials, and coal resource and mapping project information. Consultations, maps, publications, selected database items, and copies of documents are available at modest cost.


Geology Fieldnotes: Theodore Roosevelt National Park, North Dakota  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Theodore Roosevelt National Park site contains park geology information, park maps, photographs, related links, visitor information, and teacher features (resources for teaching geology with National Park examples). The park geology section discusses the Park's geologic history and the region's role in shaping Theodore Roosevelt's conservation efforts while he was President. The section also contains a link to information on the geology of Theodore Roosevelt National Park. The park maps section contains an area map as well as two maps detailing the North and South Units of the Park.


Horse Evolution Geology 331Geology 331  

E-print Network

Horse Evolution Geology 331Geology 331 Paleontology #12;Horses #12;Equus caballus #12;#12;Equus;EquusMerychippusMiohippusHyracotherium Hind feet left, front feet right. #12;Hyracotherium or Eohippus;MerychippusMerychippus from the MioceneMiocene, a plains grazer #12;The modern horseThe modern horse Equus

Kammer, Thomas


Geology Major  

E-print Network

, including the quality of air, water, and soil. Geology majors have hiked the Appalachian Trail, gone of GEOL at the 1000 level or above. Chemistry requirements CHEM 0110 General Chemistry 1 CHEM 0120 General

Jiang, Huiqiang


GSA Geologic Time Scale  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Geological Society of America (GSA) site contains a detailed geologic time scale as an educational resource. It may be downloaded to a larger size, and includes all Eras, Eons, Periods, Epochs and ages as well as magnetic polarity information.



Geophysics & Geology Inspected.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes findings of a recently published report of the Canadian Geoscience Council, which includes the following topics regarding college geology: facilities; teaching; undergraduate enrollments; postgraduate enrollments; geologic research; and integration of Canadian geoscience with other countries. (CS)

Neale, E. R. W.




E-print Network

/Enhanced Thematic Mapper) Imagery Collection Examples of sensors used in CPRM geologic projects Geological Survey for ground water in crystalline terrain 3(VIS)4(NIR)5(SWIR) Moji and Pardo Rivers Basin ­ São Paulo State 3 and Reflection Radiometer) Imagery Collection in CPRM Examples of sensors used in the CPRM geologic projects #12


Glossary of Geology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Glossary has expanded coverage particularly in such active fields as carbonate sedimentology, environmental geology and geophysics, GIS, GPS, hydrology and hydraulics, marine and coastal geology, organic geochemistry, paleoecology, seismology, stratigraphic nomenclature, speleology and karst, and structural geology and tectonics. Many definitions provide a syllabification guide and background information. Thus a reader will learn the difference between look-alike pairs, such

Julia A. Jackson



DUST STORMS AND WATER ICE CLOUDS: FEATURE DETECTION FOR USE ONBOARD THEMIS. Kiri L. Wagstaff (, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA 91109, USA, Joshua L. Bandfield, Department of Geology,  

E-print Network

DUST STORMS AND WATER ICE CLOUDS: FEATURE DETECTION FOR USE ONBOARD THEMIS. Kiri L. Wagstaff (kiri), track the movements of the seasonal po- lar caps [1], and detect dust storms and water ice clouds when features of interest, such as lake ice breakup or volcanic eruptions, are present [2

Wagstaff, Kiri L.


A generalized geologic map of Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A generalized geologic map of Mars has been constructed largely on the basis of differences in the topography of the surface. A number of topographic features on Mars whose form is highly diagnostic of their origin are shown. Of particular note are the shield volcanoes and lava plains. In some areas, the original features have been considerably modified by subsequent erosional and tectonic processes. These have not, however, resulted in homogenization of the planet's surface, but rather have emphasized its variegated character by leaving a characteristic imprint in specific areas. The topography of the planet, therefore, lends itself well to remote geologic interpretation.

Carr, M. H.; Masursky, H.; Saunders, R. S.



Geology of Kentucky  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website contains geologic maps of Kentucky, with a discussion of geologic time in regards to the rocks, minerals, fossils, and economic deposits found there. There are also sections that describe strata and geologic structures beneath the surface (faults, basins, and arches), the structural processes (folding and faulting) that create stratigraphic units, the geomorphology of the state, geologic information by county, a general description of geologic time, fossil, rocks, and minerals of Kentucky, and a virtual field trip through Natural Bridges State Park. Links are provided for further information.


Utah Geological Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the homepage of the Utah Geological Survey. Materials available here include news articles and information on geologic hazards; information on places of geological interest; and popular geology topics such as earthquakes, rocks and minerals, fossils, economic resources, groundwater resources, and others. Educational resources include teaching kits, the 'Teacher's Corner' column in the survey's newsletter, and a series of 'Glad You Asked' articles on state geological topics. There is also an extensive list of free K-12 educational materials, as well as a set of curriculum materials such as activity packets, slide shows, and teachers' handbooks, which are available to order.


Geological Survey research 1976  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This U.S. Geological Survey activities report includes a summary of recent (1976 fiscal year) scientific and economic results accompanied by a list of geologic and hydrologic investigations in progress and a report on the status of topographic mapping. The summary of results includes: (1) Mineral resources, Water resources, (2) Engineering geology and hydrology, (3) Regional geology, (4) Principles and processes, (5) Laboratory and field methods, (6) Topographic surveys and mapping, (7) Management of resources on public lands, (8) Land information and analysis, and (9) Investigations in other countries. Also included are lists of cooperating agencies and Geological Survey offices. (Woodard-USGS)

Geological Survey (U.S.)



Geological Survey research 1978  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This U.S. Geological Survey activities report includes a summary of 1978 fiscal year scientific and economic results accompanied by a list of geologic and hydrologic investigations in progress and a report on the status of topographic mapping. The summary of results includes: (1) Mineral and water resources, (2) Engineering geology and hydrology, (3) Regional geology, (4) Principles and processes, (5) Laboratory and field methods, (6) Topographic surveys and mapping, (7) Management of resources on public lands, (8) Land information and analysis, and (9) Investigations in other countries. Also included are lists of cooperating agencies and Geological Survey offices. (Woodard-USGS)



Mount Apatite Park, Auburn, Maine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This guide discusses the geology, mineralogy, and mineral collecting opportunities of the Mount Apatite quarries at Auburn, Maine. Topics include the history and occurrence of the granite pegmatites, which contain collectible specimens of apatite, tourmaline, lepidolite, and other minerals; the history of glaciation in the area; and the history of the mining industry in Auburn, an important producer of commercial feldspar in the early 1900s. There is also information for mineral collectors, including permission and access, directions, and information on the exposures and how to extract specimens from them. References and links to additonal information are included.


Bald Mountain, Washington Plantation, Maine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This guide provides information on the geology of Bald Mountain, an outstanding example of an unvegetated mountain summit in western Maine. Topics include the petrology of the metamorphic rocks exposed on the mountain (layered quartzite and schist), which preserve evidence of their sedimentary origin (graded bedding, cross-bedding). There is also information on the glacial history of the area, as indicated by the presence of glacial striations and erratics. For visitors, there is information on permission and access, directions, sampling information, and activities. References are included.


Fractals in geology and geophysics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The definition of a fractal distribution is that the number of objects N with a characteristic size greater than r scales with the relation N of about r exp -D. The frequency-size distributions for islands, earthquakes, fragments, ore deposits, and oil fields often satisfy this relation. This application illustrates a fundamental aspect of fractal distributions, scale invariance. The requirement of an object to define a scale in photograhs of many geological features is one indication of the wide applicability of scale invariance to geological problems; scale invariance can lead to fractal clustering. Geophysical spectra can also be related to fractals; these are self-affine fractals rather than self-similar fractals. Examples include the earth's topography and geoid.

Turcotte, Donald L.



Maine Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit and Department of Wildlife Ecology, University of Maine  

E-print Network

Maine Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit and Department of Wildlife Ecology, University Fisheries and Wildlife United States Geological Survey United States Fish and Wildlife Service Wildlife of this report in any way is withheld pending specific authorization from the Leader, Maine Cooperative Fish

Thomas, Andrew


Kansas Geological Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The mission of the Kansas Geological Survey, operated by the University of Kansas in connection with its research and service program, is to conduct geological studies and research and to collect, correlate, preserve, and disseminate information leading to a better understanding of the geology of Kansas, with special emphasis on natural resources of economic value, water quality and quantity, and geologic hazards. The website includes information about the High Plains and Ogallala aquifers, the Upper Arkansas corridor, the Dakota aquifer, county and state geologic maps, an online bibliography of Kansas geology, publications, a photo archive, a digital petroleum atlas, a petroleum primer for the state, gravity and magnetic maps, Hugoton project information, and details about the Hutchinson Kansas natural gas fires. The educational resources section contains a mineral information page for the state, and GeoKansas, which provides information on state geology for schools.


Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The mission of the Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys is "to determine the potential of Alaskan land for production of metals, minerals, fuels, and geothermal resources." The homepage features a "Headlines" area that includes mining reports, links to press releases, and a fascinating interactive map of quaternary faults and folds that will be of great interest to geologists. Moving on, the Sections area contains links to specific department projects, including work on engineering geology, energy resources, and volcanology. Visitors won't want to miss the Geologic Materials Center area. Here they can learn about the Division's work cataloging, storing, and studying key metrics that tell the story of Alaska's geological resources. Finally, the Publications area contains links to all of the organization's written works, including those from the Mineral Industry Research Laboratory at the University of Alaska at Fairbanks and a number of crucial reports from the U.S. Bureau of Mines. [KMG


The geology and geophysics of Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current state of knowledge concerning the regional geology and geophysics of Mars is summarized. Telescopic observations of the planet are reviewed, pre-Mariner models of its interior are discussed, and progress achieved with the Mariner flybys, especially that of Mariner 9, is noted. A map of the Martian geological provinces is presented to provide a summary of the surface geology and morphology. The contrast between the northern and southern hemispheres is pointed out, and the characteristic features of the surface are described in detail. The global topography of the planet is examined along with its gravitational field, gravity anomalies, and moment of inertia. The general sequence of events in Martian geological history is briefly outlined.

Saunders, R. S.



Geological Study of Gale Crater on Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gale is an impact crater of 150 km in diameter, formed at Late Noachian/Early Hesperian located close to the dichotomy boundary and to the Medusae Fossae Formation. This crater is partially filled by a crescent-shaped mound of layered deposits up to 5 km thick and 6000 km2 in area, for which several origins have been proposed including volcanic, eolian, and fluviatile and lacustrine processes, precipitation as spring deposits, and a combination of several origins. The past presence of water is attested by the occurrence of many channels carved into the deposits and the crater rim, and of phyllosilicates and sulfates located in the lowest part of the deposits. Hence, Gale crater is a site of high interest to understand the evolution of the geochemical and climatic environment of the region through time, and may have had favorable conditions for supporting life in the past. This will be studied in situ by Curiosity (Mars Science Laboratory) from August 2012. In order to better constrain the history of Gale and the origin of its deposits, a geologic map of Gale crater based on the analysis of the orbital data CTX (~ 6 m/pixel) and HiRISE (25-32 cm/pixel) was produced. The geometry of the layered deposits was measured from HiRISE DEM. The geological units and landforms were defined according to their location, physical characteristics, albedo, erosion patterns, and mineralogical composition. Five main units were identified within the mound of layered deposits, which are interpreted as mainly airfall deposits including aeolian dunes. North of the mound, linear lobate features and a fan-shaped feature might have resulted from mass-wasting processes (i.e., landslides, debris flows, or viscous flows). The crater fill units correspond to deposits located on the rims and on the floor of the crater. They are incised by many valleys and superposed by sinuous ridges, interpreted as fluvial channels and inverted channels respectively. These crater fill units are interpreted as colluvial and alluvial deposits. Fan-shaped deposits are located at the outlet of canyons incised into the mound and the crater rim that may correspond to alluvial fans and/or fan deltas. Subhorizontal terraces, fan deltas, valleys and canyons, phyllosilicates and sulfates as well as mass-wasting deposits could be related in origin to a shallow lake that existed at a time when some of the mound units were already formed.

Le Deit, L.; Hauber, E.; Fueten, F.; Pondrelli, M.; Rossi, A.; Mangold, N.; Jaumann, R.



Using Geologic Maps, Cross Sections and Stratigraphic Columns Geological maps are topographic maps on which different rock types and geologic  

E-print Network

or agglomerations of intrusive bodies (esp. plutons) that have no visible bottom. Extrusive Igneous Rock Bodies maps on which different rock types and geologic features are represented. Types of rock bodies: Intrusive Igneous Rock Bodies Sills are sheet-like intrusions that force their way between and are parallel

Li, X. Rong


Nature and Science: Natural Features and Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Yellowstone National Park website gives a brief overview of how geologic characteristics form the foundation of the park's ecosystem. Yellowstone has a unique interplay between volcanic, hydrothermal, and glacial processes that exert control on the distribution of flora and fauna. Topics include summaries on geologic formations, glaciation, geothermal features, and volcanism.

Park, Yellowstone N.


Generalized Geologic Map of the Conterminous United States  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from the USGS features a geologic map of the United States using data prepared for publication in the National Atlas of the United States. There are explanations, documentations, and PDF files presenting the geologic map and a map unit chart, plus archives of ArcInfo files in several formats.



Activities in planetary geology for the physical and earth sciences  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A users guide for teaching activities in planetary geology, and for physical and earth sciences is presented. The following topics are discussed: cratering; aeolian processes; planetary atmospheres, in particular the Coriolis Effect and storm systems; photogeologic mapping of other planets, Moon provinces and stratigraphy, planets in stereo, land form mapping of Moon, Mercury and Mars, and geologic features of Mars.

Dalli, R.; Greeley, R.



Geology Fieldnotes: Mojave National Preserve, California  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Visitors can access information on the geology of the Mojave National Preserve in California. Features include a field trip describing areas of interest at the preserve, as well as a geologic time scale describing the history and development of the area. There are discussions of the formation and history of the present day playa lakes, the underlying Paleozoic limestone and dolomite, and the formation of Mitchell Caverns. Other topics include eolian activity and resulting features in the Kelso Dunes National Natural Landmark and the Devil's Playground, and the role of granitic and metamorphic rock in the formation of pediments. There is also a geologic map of the area and links to maps and technical papers.


Tour of Park Geology: River Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides links to National Parks, Monuments, Preserves, Rivers, and Recreation Areas with fluvial landforms. Park links provide maps, photographs, geologic and historical information, and teacher features (links for teaching tools). Parks in this category include Big Bend National Park, Canyonlands National Park, Buffalo National River, and more.


Calibrated Peer Review: Introduction - Why Study Geology?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sarah Andrews is a geologist who has also written a series of successful mystery novels featuring (naturally) a geologist who solves crimes in her spare time. Students read her article, "Why Study Geology?", then write and essay addressing points listed in the Writing Prompt. After this, students are introduced to the process of Calibrated Peer Review and evaluate their papers.

Heise, Elizabeth


Sedimentology and petroleum geology  

SciTech Connect

This book presents an introduction to sedimentology as well as petroleum geology. It integrates both subjects, which are closely related but mostly treated separately. The author covers the basic aspects of sedimentology, sedimentary geochemistry and diagenesis. Principles of stratigraphy, seismic stratigraphy and basin modelling forms the base for the part on petroleum geology. Subjects discussed include the composition of kerogen and hydrocarbons, theories of migration and trapping of hydrocarbons and properties of reservoir rocks. Introductions to well logging and production geology are given.

Bjorlykke, K.O. (Oslo Univ. (Norway))



The Basics of Rocks and Minerals and Polar Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article gives an overview of the differences between rocks and minerals, the three types of rocks, the rock cycle, and Antarctica's geologic features. It also includes resources for further reading and alignment with the National Science Education Standards.

Codispoti, Julie


Geology of the Lachesis Tessera V18 Quadrangle, Venus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Summary of the geology of the Lachesis Tessera, focusing on a linear grouping of structural features that includes Breksta Linea. This grouping includes an unnamed corona that is obscured by a large gore.

McGowan, E. M.; McGill, G. E.



Arizona Geological Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the homepage of the Arizona Geological Survey. Information accessible here includes maps, information on oil, gas, and minerals in the state, back issues of the survey's newsletter, and a list of resources for public education in the state. These resources include information centers for Arizona geology and Earth Science, the survey's geology library and bibliographic database, a repository of rock cuttings and cores, and a contact for earth science education who will assist teacher groups in introducing local geology to their classes.


Modeling Geologic Time  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students convert major events in Earth history from years before present into scale distances. After a list of events and their scale distances have been formulated, students construct a geologic time scale on 5 meters of adding machine paper, beginning with the formation of the Earth. Students will investigate change through geologic time; design, construct and interpret a model of geologic time; relate major events in Earth history to the geologic time scale; and compare and relate the span of Earth history to events of historical time and of the human lifetime. Some sample events and their approximate relative ages are included.

Firebaugh, James


Structural Geology 'Research' Conference  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this assignment students read and discuss a peer-reviewed journal article and prepare for and attend our class 'research' conference. In the conference they present on an area of current research as discussed in the journal article they read, and they practice formulating questions about other's research. Outcomes: 1. Read and discuss a structural geology peer-reviewed journal article. 2. Prepare a presentation that demonstrates your understanding of a current research topic in structural geology. 3. View and understand several diverse areas within geology and geophysics that use structural geology in research. 4. Ask questions relevant to a research presentation.

Willis, Julie


Geological Survey research 1981  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This U.S. Geological Survey activities report includes a summary of 1981 fiscal year scientific and economic results accompanied by a list of geologic, hydrologic, and cartographic investigations in progress. The summary of results includes: (1) Mineral, (2) Water resources, (3) Engineering geology and hydrology, (4) Regional geology, (5) Principles and processes, (6) Laboratory and field methods, (7) Topographic surveys and mapping, (8) Management of resources on public lands, (9) Land information and analysis, and (10) Investigations in other countries. Also included are lists of investigations in progress. (USGS)



Database for volcanic processes and geology of Augustine Volcano, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This digital release contains information used to produce the geologic map published as Plate 1 in U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1762 (Waitt and Begét, 2009). The main component of this digital release is a geologic map database prepared using geographic information systems (GIS) applications. This release also contains links to files to view or print the map plate, accompanying measured sections, and main report text from Professional Paper 1762. It should be noted that Augustine Volcano erupted in 2006, after the completion of the geologic mapping shown in Professional Paper 1762 and presented in this database. Information on the 2006 eruption can be found in U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1769. For the most up to date information on the status of Alaska volcanoes, please refer to the U.S. Geological Survey Volcano Hazards Program website.

McIntire, Jacqueline; Ramsey, David W.; Thoms, Evan; Waitt, Richard B.; Beget, James E.



Volcanic Features  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive resource adapted from the National Park Service illustrates the variety of landforms and features created by volcanoes. Featured are calderas, craters, fumaroles and other geothermal features, igneous rocks, lava flows, lava tubes, and maars.

Foundation, Wgbh E.



Hawaii Volcanoes National Park: A 3-D Photographic Geology Tour  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This virtual tour features three-dimensional images from the United States Geological Survey's (USGS) collection. It introduces visitors to the geology, landforms, and volcanism of Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. Features of interest include Kilauea Caldera and Halema'uma'u Crater, which have been the sites of very recent volcanic activity. There are also views of active lava flows, steam vents, and lava tubes. The 3-D images are anaglyphs and require red and cyan 3-D viewing glasses.


Roadside and Engineering Geology of Auke Bay, Juneau Alaska  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students have learned the rudiments of outcrop evaluation, surveying and mapping of geomorphic features, and the hazards of urbanization in Juneau's glacierized and high relief terrain. Their task in this lab is to assess geologic hazards inherent in the landscape by collecting structural data and making observations at 6 sites with interesting features. They use their field notes as a basis for writing an engineering geology report to the city with their recommendations for site selection for home building.

Connor, Cathy L.


Geotechnical characterization for the Main Drift of the Exploratory Studies Facility  

SciTech Connect

Geotechnical characterization of the Main Drift of the Exploratory Studies Facility was based on borehole data collected in site characterization drilling and on scanline rock mass quality data collected during the excavation of the North Ramp. The Main Drift is the planned 3,131-m near-horizontal tunnel to be excavated at the potential repository horizon for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. Main Drift borehole data consisted of three holes--USW SD-7, SD-9, and SD-12--drilled along the tunnel alignment. In addition, boreholes USW UZ-14, NRG-6, and NRG-7/7A were used to supplement the database on subsurface rock conditions. Specific data summarized and presented included lithologic and rock structure core logs, rock mechanics laboratory testing, and rock mass quality indices. Cross sections with stratigraphic and thermal-mechanical units were also presented. Topics discussed in the report include geologic setting, geologic features of engineering and construction significance, anticipated ground conditions, and the range of required ground support. Rock structural and rock mass quality data have been developed for each 3-m interval of core in the middle nonlithophysal stratigraphic zone of the Topopah Spring Tuff Formation. The distribution of the rock mass quality data in all boreholes used to characterize the Main Drift was assumed to be representative of the variability of the rock mass conditions to be encountered in the Main Drift. Observations in the North Ramp tunnel have been used to project conditions in the lower lithophysal zone and in fault zones.

Kicker, D.C.; Martin, E.R.; Brechtel, C.E.; Stone, C.A. [Agapito Associates, Inc., Las Vegas, NV (United States); Kessel, D.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Yucca Mountain Project Management



Geology Fieldnotes: Wind Cave National Park South Dakota  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Wind Cave National Park includes one of the world's longest and most complex caves and 28,295 acres of mixed-grass prairie, ponderosa pine forest, and associated wildlife. The cave is well known for its outstanding display of boxwork, an unusual cave formation composed of thin calcite fins resembling honeycombs. Features include park geology information, maps, photographs of cave formations, related links, and visitor information. The park geology section discusses geologic history, structural geology, cave formations, and history of exploration of the region. The park maps section includes an area map of Wind Cave National Park and a detailed cave map.


Quaternary Geologic Map of Connecticut and Long Island Sound Basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Quaternary geologic map (sheet 1) and explanatory figures and cross sections (sheet 2) portray the geologic features formed in Connecticut during the Quaternary Period, which includes the Pleistocene (glacial) and Holocene (postglacial) Epochs. The Quaternary Period has been a time of development of many details of the landscape and of all the surficial deposits. At least twice in the late Pleistocene, continental ice sheets swept across Connecticut. Their effects are of pervasive importance to the present occupants of the land. The Quaternary geologic map illustrates the geologic history and the distribution of depositional environments during the emplacement of glacial and postglacial surficial deposits and the landforms resulting from those events.

Stone, Janet Radway; Schafer, John P.; London, Elizabeth Haley; DiGiacomo-Cohen, Mary L.; Lewis, Ralph S.; Thompson, Woodrow B.



Geologic mapping of tectonic planets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geological analysis of planets typically begins with the construction of a geologic map of the planets’ surfaces using remote data sets. Geologic maps provide the basis for interpretations of geologic histories, which in turn provide critical relations for understanding the range of processes that contributed to the evolution. Because geologic mapping should ultimately lead to the discovery of the types

Vicki L. Hansen



External Resource: Geologic Time  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NASA sponsored webpage, Center for Educational Technologies, teaches students about Geologic Time. The age of Earth is so long compared to all periods of time that we humans are familiar with, it has been given a special name: Geologic time. The age



Radiometric Dating in Geology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described are several aspects and methods of quantitatively measuring geologic time using a constant-rate natural process of radioactive decay. Topics include half lives and decay constants, radiogenic growth, potassium-argon dating, rubidium-strontium dating, and the role of geochronology in support of geological exploration. (DS)

Pankhurst, R. J.



Earth Sciences Geology Option  

E-print Network

courses, core Earth Sciences courses, and focused coursework in the option. A graduation checklistEarth Sciences with Geology Option Geological sciences focus on understanding the Earth, from its composition and internal structure to its history and the processes that shape its surface. Our planet

Kurapov, Alexander


Structural Geology Techniques  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Wisconsin - Green Bay has created this collection of material and instructions on how to analyze and plot structural geology data. Topics covered includes planes, lines, relations between lines and planes, geologic structures, intersection of structures with topography, stereonet techniques, stress and strain, and analysis of complex structures.

Dutch, Steven



Layer Cake Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This classroom activity uses a cake to demonstrate geologic processes and introduce geologic terms. Students will learn how folds and faults occur, recognize the difference in behavior between brittle and ductile rocks, and attempt to predict structures likely to result from application of various forces to layered rocks. They will also attempt to interpret 'core samples' to determine subsurface rock structure.

Wagner, John


Earthquakes and Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students investigate the relationship between intensity of ground motion and type of rock or alluvium, as seen in the 1994 Northridge, California earthquake. They will examine a map of Mercalli intensity, a cross-section showing geologic structures and rock types, and a map of surficial geology, and answer questions pertaining to amplification of ground motion and S-wave velocities.

Ozsvath, David


Forensic geology exhumed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic geology binds applied geology to the world of legal controversy and action. However, the term ``forensic'' is often misconstrued. Although even some attorneys apply it only to the marshalling of evidence in criminal cases, it has a much broader definition. One dictionary defines it as ``pertaining to, connected with, or used in courts of law or public discussion and

Joseph Didier Martinez



Geological data bases combine  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a move designed to eliminate overlap and increase coverage of scholarly publications, three major institutions have agreed to pool their resources in compiling a common geological bibliographic data base. The American Geological Institute (AGI), the Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres (BRGM), and the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) will begin producing a joint bibliographic record in

Lee Greathouse



Geology in America  

Microsoft Academic Search

I AM somewhat chagrined to find that I appear to you (vol. xi. p. 381) to say that the Geological Survey of Great Britain is especially to blame for the diminution of interest in geology in the country that has done the most for its advancement. My remarks were taken down by a reporter, and I have not seen them

N. S. Shaler



Geology of the Caribbean.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes some of the geologic characteristics of the Caribbean region. Discusses the use of some new techniques, including broad-range swath imaging of the sea floor that produces photograph-like images, and satellite measurement of crustal movements, which may help to explain the complex geology of the region. (TW)

Dillon, William P.; And Others



Advances in Planetary Geology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advances in Planetary Geology is a new series intended to serve the planetary geology community with a form for quick and thorough communications. There are no set lists of acceptable topics or formats, and submitted manuscripts will not undergo a formal review. All submissions should be in a camera ready form, preferably spaced, and submitted to the editor.

Woronow, A. (editor)



Glossary of geology  

SciTech Connect

This third edition of the Glossary of Geology contains approximately 37,000 terms, or 1,000 more than the second edition. New entries are especially numerous in the fields of carbonate sedimentology, hydrogeology, marine geology, mineralogy, ore deposits, plate tectonics, snow and ice, and stratigraphic nomenclature. Many of the definitions provide background information.

Bates, R.L.; Jackson, J.A.



People and Geology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides background information on the many natural resources we extract from the earth's crust, including metals, graphite, and other minerals, as well as fossil fuels. Contains teaching activities such as a geologic scavenger hunt, a geology chronology, and the recycling of aluminum. Includes a reproducible handout for the activity on aluminum.…

Naturescope, 1987



Geologic time scale bookmark  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This bookmark, designed for use with U.S. Geological Survey activities at the 2nd USA Science and Engineering Festival (April 26–29, 2012), is adapted from the more detailed Fact Sheet 2010–3059 "Divisions of Geologic Time." The information that it presents is widely sought by educators and students.

U.S. Geological Survey



New geological data of New Siberian Archipelago  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The area of New Siberian Archipelago (NSA) encompasses different tectonic blocks is a clue for reconstruction of geological structure and geodynamic evolution of East Arctic. According to palaeomagnetic study two parts of the archipelago - Bennett and Anjou Islands formed a single continental block at least from the Early Palaeozoic. Isotope dating of De Long Islands igneous and sedimentary rocks suggests Neoproterozoic (Baikalian) age of its basement. The De Long platform sedimentary cover may be subdivided into two complexes: (1) intermediate of PZ-J variously deformed and metamorphosed rocks and (2) K-KZ of weakly lithified sediments. The former complex comprises the Cambrian riftogenic volcanic-clastic member which overlain by Cambrian-Ordovician turbiditic sequence, deposited on a continental margin. This Lower Palaeozoic complex is unconformably overlain by Early Cretaceous (K-Ar age of c.120 Ma) basalts with HALIP petrochemical affinities. In Anjou Islands the intermediate sedimentary complex encompasses the lower Ordovician -Lower Carboniferous sequence of shallow-marine limestone and subordinate dolomite, mudstone and sandstone that bear fossils characteristic of the Siberian biogeographic province. The upper Mid Carboniferous - Jurassic part is dominated by shallow-marine clastic sediments, mainly clays. The K-KZ complex rests upon the lower one with angular unconformity and consists mainly of coal-bearing clastic sediments with rhyolite lavas and tuffs in the bottom (117-110 Ma by K-Ar) while the complexe's upper part contains intraplate alkalic basalt and Neogene-Quaternary limburgite. The De-Long-Anjou block's features of geology and evolution resemble those of Wrangel Island located some 1000 km eastward. The Laptev Sea shelf outcrops in intrashelf rises (Belkovsky and Stolbovoy Islands) where its geology and structure may be observed directly. On Belkovsky Island non-dislocated Oligocene-Miocene sedimentary cover of littoral-marine coal-bearing unconformably overlies folded basement. The latter encompasses two sedimentary units: the Middle Devonian shallow-marine carbonate and Late-Devonian-Permian olistostrome - flysch deposited in transitional environment from carbonate platform to passive margin. Dating of detrital zircons suggests the Siberian Platform and Taimyr-Severnaya Zemlya areas as the most possible provenance. The magmatic activity on Belkovsky Island resulted in formation of Early Triassic gabbro-dolerite similar to the Siberian Platform traps. Proximity of Belkovsky Island to the north of Verkhoyansk foldbelt allows continuation of the latter into the Laptev Sea shelf. The geology of Bolshoy Lyakhovsky Island is discrepant from the rest of the NSA. In the south of Bolshoy Lyakhovsky Island the ophiolite crops complex out: it is composed of tectonic melange of serpentinized peridotite, bandedf gabbro, pillow-basalt, and pelagic sediments (black shales and cherts). All the rocks underwent epidot - amphibolite, glaucophane and greenschist facies metamorphism. The ophiolite is intruded by various in composition igneous massifs - from gabbro-diorite to leuco-granite, which occurred at 110-120 Ma. The Bolshoy Lyakhovsky Island structure is thought to be a westerly continuation of the South Anui suture of Chukchi.

Sobolev, Nikolay; Petrov, Evgeniy



Earth History at the Century Mark of the U.S. Geological Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earth history involves all aspects of geological and biological evolution, especially paleontology and stratigraphy. Early paleontological exploration of the western United States by and before the U.S. Geological Survey featured the dramatic discoveries and rivalries of the great vertebrate paleontologists Leidy, Cope, Marsh, and Osborn. Invertebrate paleontology and paleobotany in the U.S. Geological Survey blossomed with emphasis on practical missions.

George Gaylord Simpson



Geology of Earth's Moon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

First, researchers at the University of California, San Diego discuss the importance of studying earthquakes on the moon, also known as moonquakes, and the Apollo Lunar Seismic Experiment (1). Users can discover the problems scientists must deal with when collecting the moon's seismic data. The students at Case Western Reserve University created the second website to address three missions the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) has planned between now and 2010, including a mission to the moon (2). Visitors can learn about the Lunar-A probe that will be used to photograph the surface of the moon, "monitor moonquakes, measure temperature, and study the internal structure." Next, the Planetary Data Service (PDS) at the USGS offers users four datasets that they can use to create an image of a chosen area of the moon (3). Each dataset can be viewed as a basic clickable map; a clickable map where users can specify size, resolution, and projection; or an advanced version where visitors can select areas by center latitude and longitude. The fourth site, produced by Robert Wickman at the University of North Dakota, presents a map of the volcanoes on the moon and compares their characteristics with those on earth (4). Students can learn how the gravitational forces on the Moon affect the lava flows. Next, Professor Jeff Ryan at the University of South Florida at Tampa supplies fantastic images and descriptive text of the lunar rocks obtained by the Apollo missions (5). Visitors can find links to images of meteorites, terrestrial rocks, and Apollo landings as well. At the Science Channel website, students and educators can find a video clip discussing the geologic studies on the moon along with videos about planets (6). Users can learn about how studying moon rocks help scientists better understand the formation of the earth. Next, the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum presents its research of "lunar topography, cratering and impacts basins, tectonics, lava flows, and regolith properties" (7). Visitors can find summaries of the characteristics of the moon and the main findings since the 1950s. Lastly, the USGS Astrogeology Research Program provides archived lunar images and data collected between 1965 and 1992 by Apollo, Lunar Orbiter, Galileo, and Zond 8 missions (8). While the data is a little old, students and educators can still find valuable materials about the moon's topography, chemical composition, and geology.


Field Geology/Processes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The field geology/process group examined the basic operations of a terrestrial field geologist and the manner in which these operations could be transferred to a planetary lander. Four basic requirements for robotic field geology were determined: geologic content; surface vision; mobility; and manipulation. Geologic content requires a combination of orbital and descent imaging. Surface vision requirements include range, resolution, stereo, and multispectral imaging. The minimum mobility for useful field geology depends on the scale of orbital imagery. Manipulation requirements include exposing unweathered surfaces, screening samples, and bringing samples in contact with analytical instruments. To support these requirements, several advanced capabilities for future development are recommended. Capabilities include near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy, hyper-spectral imaging, multispectral microscopy, artificial intelligence in support of imaging, x ray diffraction, x ray fluorescence, and rock chipping.

Allen, Carlton; Jakes, Petr; Jaumann, Ralf; Marshall, John; Moses, Stewart; Ryder, Graham; Saunders, Stephen; Singer, Robert



Quantifying the Spatial Distribution of Geological Point Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geological point processes occur frequently in a wide variety of geoscience fields, including the study of mineral deposits, oil producing wells, earthquakes, and landsides. Characterization of the spatial distribution of geological point processes is important for understanding the properties of geological processes or events. Three examples of geological point processes respectively dealing with metallic mineral deposits, oil producing wells and Wenchuan aftershocks were studied. It is demonstrated that (1) the L(r), G(r), F(r) and J(r) functions are useful tools to assess whether or not a point pattern shows spatial clustering; (2) the clustering statistics of the underlying geological process are farctal; (3) a higher intensity point pattern generally has relatively large box dimension and low lacunarity; and (4) the features of geological point processes, such as metal grade, total amount or magnitude also have fractal properties.

Zuo, R.; Cheng, Q.



Geology Fieldnotes: Ice Age National Scientific Preserve  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Park Service (NPS) site gives information on the Ice Age National Scientific Preserve in Wisconsin, including geology, park maps, a photo album, and other media (books, videos, CDs). There is also a selection of links to other geologic and conservation organizations, and to information for visitors. This preserve contains a wealth of glacial features associated with the most recent Pleistocene continental glaciation including drumlins, kames, kettles, moraines, erratics, and eskers. It also contains a segment of the Ice Age National Scenic Trail, a 1000-plus mile hiking and backpacking trail that passes through this unique glacial landscape.


Geology Fieldnotes: Colorado National Monument, Colorado  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This monument lies in a region once known as the Uncompahgre Highland (igneous and metamorphic), but has been eroded away to the canyons and domes seen today. Mostly sandstone rocks are found today, dating back between 225-65 million years (Mesozoic), embedded with fossils dating back 100 million years. Uplift, faulting, and erosion are all processes that have shaped this area. The site covers geology as well as human history, and contains photos, links, visitor information, and a teacher feature (tools for teaching geology with National Park examples).

Foos, Annabelle


Geodynamics applications of continuum physics to geological problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This textbook deals with the fundamental physical processes necessary for an understanding of plate tectonics and a variety of geologic phenomena. The first chapter reviews plate tectonics; its main purpose is to provide physics, chemistry, and engineering students with the geologic background necessary to understand the applications throughout the rest of the book. It goes on to discuss in following

D. L. Turcotte; G. Schubert



Geologic guide to the island of Hawaii: A field guide for comparative planetary geology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With geological data available for all inner planets except Venus, we are entering an era of true comparative planetary geology, when knowledge of the differences and similarities for classes of structures (e.g., shield volcanoes) will lead to a better understanding of general geological processes, regardless of planet. Thus, it is imperative that planetologists, particularly those involved in geological mapping and surface feature analysis for terrestrial planets, be familiar with volcanic terrain in terms of its origin, structure, and morphology. One means of gaining this experience is through field trips in volcanic terrains - hence, the Planetology Conference in Hawaii. In addition, discussions with volcanologists at the conference provide an important basis for establishing communications between the two fields that will facilitate comparative studies as more data become available.

Greeley, R. (editor)



Main Pass Sampling  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

On April 20, 2010, the Deepwater Horizon Drilling Platform exploded and sank, causing an enormous oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. U.S. Geological Survey field offices responded immediately by organizing teams to take pre-spill sediment and water samples in order to establish a baseline survey. This...



Geology of caves  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A cave is a natural opening in the ground extending beyond the zone of light and large enough to permit the entry of man. Occurring in a wide variety of rock types and caused by widely differing geological processes, caves range in size from single small rooms to intercorinecting passages many miles long. The scientific study of caves is called speleology (from the Greek words spelaion for cave and logos for study). It is a composite science based on geology, hydrology, biology, and archaeology, and thus holds special interest for earth scientists of the U.S. Geological Survey.

Morgan, I. M., Davies, W. E.



New marine geology center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine geologists at Dalhousie University in Halifax, Nova Scotia, have created a new Center for Marine Geology. The formation of the center is part of a university-wide effort to extend interests in marine research in all directions, Director James M. Hall said. The center, formed in April, will be a focus for the expansion of research in marine geology, for the development of marine instrumentation, for the expansion of advanced training of Third World geologists in marine geology, and for the university's interaction with the petroleum industry involved in a major play in the areas off the eastern Canadian shore, Hall said.


Indiana Geological Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the homepage of the Indiana Geological Survey (IGS). Site materials include information on Earth science issues such as groundwater, mapping, coal and mineral resources, oil and gas, and seismic hazards. There is also information on the geologic time scale and stratigraphic record, rocks and minerals, fossils (including nautiloids of the Ordovician period in Indiana), caves and karst topography in Indiana, and glacial geology. The Geographic Information Ssytems (GIS) and mapping section includes a GIS atlas for the state, an online map viewer, links to the Indiana coal mine information system, petroleum database management system, and a download page where users can access GIS datasets for the state.


Journal of Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From the University of Chicago Press's Journals Division, the Journal of Geology is currently available online free of charge (note: subscription fees may soon apply, but no initiation date is provided). This first-rate technical journal, which publishes "research and theory in geophysics, geochemistry, sedimentology, geomorphology, petrology, plate tectonics, volcanology, structural geology, mineralogy, and planetary sciences" has been in print form since 1893. All of the 1999 issues of the Journal of Geology electronic edition are available here. Internet users can access full-text articles with internal links to references and figures (html, .pdf. .ps).


What is Geologic Time?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This webpage of the National Park Service (NPS) and United States Geological Survey (USGS) discusses geologic time and what it represents. Beginning about 4.6 billion years ago and ending in the present day, this site exhibits (to scale) the various eras, periods, eons, and epochs of Earth's history with a downloadable geologic time scale available. Links provide maps of what the Earth looked like at various times in its history, as well as a description of how scientists developed the time scale and how they know the age of the Earth.


Geology and insolation-driven climatic history of Amazonian north polar materials on Mars  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mariner 9 and Viking spacecraft images revealed that the polar regions of Mars, like those of Earth, record the planet's climate history. However, fundamental uncertainties regarding the materials, features, ages and processes constituting the geologic record remained. Recently acquired Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter data and Mars Orbiter Camera high-resolution images from the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft and moderately high-resolution Thermal Emission Imaging System visible images from the Mars Odyssey spacecraft permit more comprehensive geologic and climatic analyses. Here I map and show the history of geologic materials and features in the north polar region that span the Amazonian period (???3.0 Gyr ago to present). Erosion and redeposition of putative circumpolar mud volcano deposits (formed by eruption of liquefied, fine-grained material) led to the formation of an Early Amazonian polar plateau consisting of dark layered materials. Crater ejecta superposed on pedestals indicate that a thin mantle was present during most of the Amazonian, suggesting generally higher obliquity and insolation conditions at the poles than at present. Brighter polar layered deposits rest unconformably on the dark layers and formed mainly during lower obliquity over the past 4-5 Myr (ref. 20). Finally, the uppermost layers post-date the latest downtrend in obliquity <20,000 years ago. ?? 2005 Nature Publishing Group.

Tanaka, K.L.



Database of the Geology and Thermal Activity of Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This dataset contains contacts, geologic units and map boundaries from Plate 1 of USGS Professional Paper 1456, 'The Geology and Remarkable Thermal Activity of Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming.' The features are contained in the Annotation, basins_poly, contours, geology_arc, geology_poly, point_features, and stream_arc feature classes as well as a table of geologic units and their descriptions. This dataset was constructed to produce a digital geologic map as a basis for studying hydrothermal processes in Norris Geyser Basin. The original map does not contain registration tic marks. To create the geodatabase, the original scanned map was georegistered to USGS aerial photographs of the Norris Junction quadrangle collected in 1994. Manmade objects, i.e. roads, parking lots, and the visitor center, along with stream junctions and other hydrographic features, were used for registration.

Flynn, Kathryn; Graham Wall, Brita; White, Donald E.; Hutchinson, Roderick A.; Keith, Terry E.C.; Clor, Laura; Robinson, Joel E.



Origins of Niagara: A Geological History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site describes the geologic history and current hydrologic and cultural concerns associated with the natural resources of the Niagara region. Many topics are discussed, including the birth of Niagara Falls, the Wisconsin Glacier, rocks and sedimentary deposits, and the future of the falls. Hyperlinks connect one to related histories and facts concerning the Niagara Glen, Devil's Hole, the Niagara River Water Diversion Treaty, and two geologic tables: the Rock of Ages Chart and the Silurian Era Rock Chart. There are thumbnail photos dispersed throughout this document, which display geologic features such as a knick point, a gorge, and strata. A link connects to Thunder Alley, a comprehensive web site about Niagara Falls, of which this site is a part.

Berketa, Rick


Brazil-Africa geological links  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, the main evidence and conclusions regarding geological links between Brazil and Africa are summarized, with emphasis on the geochronological aspects. Taking into account the geographical position, as well as the similarities in the geochronological pattern, the following main provinces of the two continents are correlated: The Imataca and Falawatra complexes in the Guayana Shield and the Liberian Province of West Africa. The Paraguay-Araguaia and the Rockelide Fold Belts. The Sa˜o Luiz and the West African cratonic areas. The Caririan Fold Belt of northeastern Brazil and the Pan-Africa Belt of Nigeria and Cameroon. The JequiéComplex of Bahia, the Ntem Complex of Cameroon and similar rocks of Gabon and Angola. The Ribeira Fold Belt in Brazil and the West Congo and Damara Belts in West and South Africa. In addition, other geological links are considered, such as some of the major linear fault zones which can be traced across the margins of South America and Africa, in the pre-drift reconstructions. Correlations are also made of the tectonic and stratigraphic evolution of the Paranáand Karroo syneclises, and the Brazilian and African marginal basins around the South Atlantic, during their initial stages. Finally, several similarities in the tectonic evolution of South America and Africa, during and after the onset of drifting, are shown to be compatible with a recent origin for the South Atlantic floor, as required by sea-floor spreading and continental drift between South America and Africa.

Torquato, Joaquim Raul; Cordani, Umberto G.



Digital Geologic Map Database of Medicine Lake Volcano, Northern California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Medicine Lake volcano, located in the southern Cascades ~55 km east-northeast of Mount Shasta, is a large rear-arc, shield-shaped volcano with an eruptive history spanning nearly 500 k.y. Geologic mapping of Medicine Lake volcano has been digitally compiled as a spatial database in ArcGIS. Within the database, coverage feature classes have been created representing geologic lines (contacts, faults, lava tubes, etc.), geologic unit polygons, and volcanic vent location points. The database can be queried to determine the spatial distributions of different rock types, geologic units, and other geologic and geomorphic features. These data, in turn, can be used to better understand the evolution, growth, and potential hazards of this large, rear-arc Cascades volcano. Queries of the database reveal that the total area covered by lavas of Medicine Lake volcano, which range in composition from basalt through rhyolite, is about 2,200 km2, encompassing all or parts of 27 U.S. Geological Survey 1:24,000-scale topographic quadrangles. The maximum extent of these lavas is about 80 km north-south by 45 km east-west. Occupying the center of Medicine Lake volcano is a 7 km by 12 km summit caldera in which nestles its namesake, Medicine Lake. The flanks of the volcano, which are dotted with cinder cones, slope gently upward to the caldera rim, which reaches an elevation of nearly 2,440 m. Approximately 250 geologic units have been mapped, only half a dozen of which are thin surficial units such as alluvium. These volcanic units mostly represent eruptive events, each commonly including a vent (dome, cinder cone, spatter cone, etc.) and its associated lava flow. Some cinder cones have not been matched to lava flows, as the corresponding flows are probably buried, and some flows cannot be correlated with vents. The largest individual units on the map are all basaltic in composition, including the late Pleistocene basalt of Yellowjacket Butte (296 km2 exposed), the largest unit on the map, whose area is partly covered by a late Holocene andesite flow. Silicic lava flows are mostly confined to the main edifice of the volcano, with the youngest rhyolite flows found in and near the summit caldera, including the rhyolitic Little Glass Mountain (~1,000 yr B.P.) and Glass Mountain (~950 yr B.P.) flows, which are the youngest eruptions at Medicine Lake volcano. In postglacial time, 17 eruptions have added approximately 7.5 km3 to the volcano’s total estimated volume of 600 km3, which may be the largest by volume among Cascade Range volcanoes. The volcano has erupted nine times in the past 5,200 years, a rate more frequent than has been documented at all other Cascade volcanoes except Mount St. Helens.

Ramsey, D. W.; Donnelly-Nolan, J. M.; Felger, T. J.



Reconstructing the Geologic Timeline.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on the use of a non-traditional approach to constructing a geological timeline that allows students to manipulate data, explore their understanding, and confront misconceptions. Lists possible steps to use in engaging students in this constructivist activity. (DDR)

Hemler, Deb; Repine, Tom



Interactive Geologic Timeline Activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this learning activity, students use a web-based geologic timeline to examine temperature, CO2 concentration, and ice cover data to investigate how climate has changed during the last 715 million years.

University, Environmental L.


Economic Geology (Oil & Gas)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Briefly reviews the worldwide developments in petroleum geology in 1971, including exploration, new fields, and oil production. This report is condensed from the October Bulletin of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists. (PR)

Geotimes, 1972



Mass Extinctions Geology 331  

E-print Network

;Stromatoporoids and Corals #12;Rugose Corals #12;Victims · Permian ­ about 50 brachiopods ­ All rugose and tabulate corals ­ All remaining trilobites ­ Nearly all crinoids ­ Nearly all

Kammer, Thomas


Photos of structural geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page contains four categories of structural geology photos: brittle structures, ductile structures, active tectonics, and unconformities. All photos are freely downloadable and are at resolutions sufficient for power point.

Miller, Marli


Devil's Tower Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from the National Park Service briefly addresses the geology of Devil's Tower. The evolution of various theories on the formation of the tower are discussed. A slide show of the emplacement of the tower is also available.

National Park Service (NPS)


Geology and ground-water features of salt springs, seeps, and plains in the Arkansas and Red River basins of western Oklahoma and adjacent parts of Kansas and Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The salt springs, seeps, and plains described in this report are in the Arkansas and Red River basins in western Oklahoma and adjacent areas in Kansas and Texas. The springs and seeps contribute significantly to the generally poor water quality of the rivers by bringing salt (HaCI) to the surface at an estimated daily rate of more than 8,000 tons. The region investigated is characterized by low hills and rolling plains. Many of the rivers are eroded 100 feet or more below the .surrounding upland surface and in places the valleys are bordered by steep bluffs. The alluvial plains of the major rivers are wide and the river channels are shallow and unstable. The flow of many surface streams is intermittent, especially in the western part of the area. All the natural salt-contributing areas studied are within the outcrop area of rocks of Permian age. The Permian rocks, commonly termed red beds, are composed principally of red and gray gypsiferous shale, siltstone, sandstone, gypsum, anhydrite, and dolomite. Many of the formations contain halite in the subsurface. The halite occurs mostly as discontinuous lenses in shale, although some of the thicker, more massive beds are extensive. It underlies the entire region studied at depths ranging from about 30 feet to more than 2,000 feet. The salt and associated strata show evidence of extensive removal of salt through solution by ground water. Although the salt generally occurs in relatively impervious shale small joints and fractures ,allow the passage of small quantities of water which dissolves the salt. Salt water occurs in the report area at depths ranging from less than 100 feet to more than 1,000 feet. Salt water occurs both as meteoric and connate, but the water emerging as salt springs is meteoric. Tritium analyses show that the age of the water from several springs is less than 20 years. The salt springs, seeps, and plains are confined to 13 local areas. The flow of the springs and seeps is small, but the chloride concentration in the water ranges from a few hundred parts per million to about 190,000 ppm. The wide range of concentration is believed to be due, in part, to differential dilution by fresh water. Alluvium in the vicinity of the salt springs remains saturated with salt water and evaporation from the alluvial surface causes the formation of a salt crust during dry weather. Those areas appear as salt plains that range in size from less than an acre to as much as 60 square miles. The rocks exposed at the surface in the vicinity of the salt springs are permeable enough to allow the infiltration of some precipitation. Under certain geologic and hydrologic conditions ground water percolates down and through salt-bearing rocks where it dissolves the .salt. Hydrostatic pressure of ground water at higher elevations forces the salt water to emerge as salt springs at lower elevations.

Ward, P. E.



Environmental resources of selected areas of Hawaii: Geological hazards  

SciTech Connect

This report has been prepared to make available and archive the background scientific data and related information collected on geologic hazards during the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. The US Department of Energy (DOE) published a notice withdrawing its Notice of Intent to prepare the HGP-EIS. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated. This report presents a review of current information on geologic hazards in the Hawaiian Islands. Interrelationships among these hazards are discussed. Probabilities of occurrence of given geologic hazards are provided in various regions where sufficient geologic or historical data are available. Most of the information contained herein is compiled from recent US Geological Survey (USGS) publications and USGS open-file reports related to this project. This report describes the natural geologic hazards present in the area and does not represent an assessment of environmental impacts. Geologic hazards originate both onshore and offshore. Onshore geologic hazards such as volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, surface rupture, landslides, uplift and subsidence occur mainly on the southern third of the island of Hawaii (hereinafter referred to as Hawaii). Offshore geologic hazards are more widely distributed throughout the Hawaiian Islands. Examples of offshore geologic hazards are submarine landslides, turbidity currents, and seismic sea waves (tsunamis).

Staub, W.P.; Reed, R.M.



Johnston Geology Museum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Johnston Geology Museum is part of the Emporia State University Earth Science Department. There is an online virtual tour of the collection which includes a Cretaceous mosasaur, a giant ground sloth, mastodon bones and tusk, brachiopods, Paleozoic corals, sedimentary structures, minerals and crystals. The Museum contains geological specimens predominantly from Kansas, and include the world famous Hamilton Quarry Fossil Assemblage, the Tri-State Mining Display, petrified tree stumps, and the Hawkins and the Calkins Indian Artifact Collections.



Geological Development of Panama  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Panama that geologists see today is a young landscape that in form comprises a reclined S-shaped, generally E-W oriented\\u000a isthmus produced through complex geotectonic processes that created and assembled a diverse suite of geological units since\\u000a late Cretaceous\\/early Tertiary time. The geological development of Panama is a consequence of the relative motions of the\\u000a North and South American continental

Russell S. Harmon


Interpreting Geologic Sections  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Athro, Limited is a for-profit corporation that publishes high school and college level biology, earth science, and geology course supplements and independent learning materials on the Web. This site provides instruction in interpreting the order of events in three hypothetical and one real geological section. For each section there is a list of events and an animation of the history of the section once the student has decided on the order of events.

Morris, Paul


Geology and Human Health  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains a variety of educational and supporting materials for faculty teaching in the emerging field of geology and human health. You will find links to internet resources, books, teaching activities, and a group email list, as well as posters, presentations and discussions from the spring 2004 workshop on Geology and Human Health. These resources reflect the contributions of faculty members from across the country and the collections will continue to grow as materials are developed.


Geologic map of Big Bend National Park, Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The purpose of this map is to provide the National Park Service and the public with an updated digital geologic map of Big Bend National Park (BBNP). The geologic map report of Maxwell and others (1967) provides a fully comprehensive account of the important volcanic, structural, geomorphological, and paleontological features that define BBNP. However, the map is on a geographically distorted planimetric base and lacks topography, which has caused difficulty in conducting GIS-based data analyses and georeferencing the many geologic features investigated and depicted on the map. In addition, the map is outdated, excluding significant data from numerous studies that have been carried out since its publication more than 40 years ago. This report includes a modern digital geologic map that can be utilized with standard GIS applications to aid BBNP researchers in geologic data analysis, natural resource and ecosystem management, monitoring, assessment, inventory activities, and educational and recreational uses. The digital map incorporates new data, many revisions, and greater detail than the original map. Although some geologic issues remain unresolved for BBNP, the updated map serves as a foundation for addressing those issues. Funding for the Big Bend National Park geologic map was provided by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program and the National Park Service. The Big Bend mapping project was administered by staff in the USGS Geology and Environmental Change Science Center, Denver, Colo. Members of the USGS Mineral and Environmental Resources Science Center completed investigations in parallel with the geologic mapping project. Results of these investigations addressed some significant current issues in BBNP and the U.S.-Mexico border region, including contaminants and human health, ecosystems, and water resources. Funding for the high-resolution aeromagnetic survey in BBNP, and associated data analyses and interpretation, was from the USGS Crustal Geophysics and Geochemistry Science Center. Mapping contributed from university professors and students was mostly funded by independent sources, including academic institutions, private industry, and other agencies.

Turner, Kenzie J.; Berry, Margaret E.; Page, William R.; Lehman, Thomas M.; Bohannon, Robert G.; Scott, Robert B.; Miggins, Daniel P.; Budahn, James R.; Cooper, Roger W.; Drenth, Benjamin J.; Anderson, Eric D.; Williams, Van S.



Remote geologic structural analysis of Yucca Flat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Remote Geologic Analysis (RGA) system was developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to identify crustal structures that may affect seismic wave propagation from nuclear tests. Using automated methods, the RGA system identifies all valleys in a digital elevation model (DEM), fits three-dimensional vectors to valley bottoms, and catalogs all potential fracture or fault planes defined by coplanar pairs of valley vectors. The system generates a cluster hierarchy of planar features having greater-than-random density that may represent areas of anomalous topography manifesting structural control of erosional drainage development. Because RGA uses computer methods to identify zones of hypothesized control of topography, ground truth using a well-characterized test site was critical in our evaluation of RGA's characterization of inaccessible test sites for seismic verification studies. Therefore, we applied RGA to a study area centered on Yucca Flat at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and compared our results with both mapped geology and geologic structures and with seismic yield-magnitude models. This is the final report of PNL's RGA development project for peer review within the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Arms Control (OAC) seismic-verification community. In this report, we discuss the Yucca Flat study area, the analytical basis of the RGA system and its application to Yucca Flat, the results of the analysis, and the relation of the analytical results to known topography, geology, and geologic structures.

Foley, M. G.; Heasler, P. G.; Hoover, K. A.; Rynes, N. J.; Thiessen, R. L.; Alfaro, J. L.



Geological assessment of the greenhouse effect  

SciTech Connect

Geologic studies provide a valuable perspective on the importance of greenhouse forcing for climate change. On both Pleistocene and tectonic time scales, changes in climate are positively correlated with greenhouse gas variations. However, the sensitivity of the system to greenhouse gas changes cannot yet be constrained by paleoclimate data below its present large range. Geologic records do not support one of the major predictions of greenhouse models-namely, that tropical sea surface temperatures will increase. Geologic data also suggest that winter cooling in high-latitude land areas is less than predicted by models. As the above-mentioned predictions appear to be systemic features of the present generation of climate models, some significant changes in model design may be required to reconcile models and geologic data. However, full acceptance of this conclusion requires more measurements and more systematic compilations of existing geologic data. Since progress in data collection in this area has been quite slow, uncertainties associated with these conclusions may persist for some time. 106 refs., 6 figs.

Crowley, T.J. (Texas A M Univ., College Station, TX (United States))



Iapetus: Tectonic structure and geologic history  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many papers have been written about the surface of Iapetus, but most of these have discussed either the nature of the strongly contrasting light and dark materials or the cratering record. Little has been said about other geologic features on Iapetus, such as tectonic structures, which would provide constraints on Iapetus' thermal history. Most references have suggested that there is no conclusive evidence for any tectonic activity, even when thermal history studies indicate that there should be. However, a new study of Iapetus' surface involving the use of stereo pairs, an extensive tectonic network has been recognized. A few new observations concerning the craters and dark material were also made. Thus the geology and geologic history of Iapetus can be more fully outlined than before. The tectonic network is shown along with prominent craters and part of the dark material in the geologic/tectonic sketch map. The topology of crater rims and scarps are quite apparent and recognizable in the different image pairs. The heights and slopes of various features given are based on comparison with the depths of craters 50 to 100 km in diameter, which are assumed to have the same depths as craters of similar diameter on Rhea and Titania.

Croft, Steven K.



USGS: Geology in the Parks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The US Geological Survey Geology in the Parks Web site is a cooperative project of the USGS Western Earth Surface Processes Team and the National Park Service. This extensive site covers geologic maps, plate tectonics, rocks and minerals, geologic time, US geologic provinces, park geology of the Mojave, Sunset Crater, Lake Mead, North Cascades, Death Valley, Yosemite National Park, and much more. Descriptions, graphics, photographs, and animations all contribute to this informative and interesting Web site making it a one stop, all encompassing, resource for everything geology and US national park related.


Geological Evolution of Venus: Rises, Plains, Plumes, and Plateaus  

E-print Network

Geological Evolution of Venus: Rises, Plains, Plumes, and Plateaus Roger J. Phillips* and Vicki L. Hansen Crustal plateaus and volcanic rises, major physiographic features on Venus, both formed over, un- derstanding the differences in the formation of two major features on Venus--crustal plateaus

Hansen, Vicki


Main University Entrance Main University Reception  

E-print Network

Economics Research Group School of Arts (taught programmes) Marie Jahoda School of Social Sciences (UG, PG Athletics Centre Eastern Gateway Main Reception Beldam Gallery Brunel Business School Lancaster Suite Conference Office Mary Seacole Health and Social Care (enquiries) Sports Centre St Johns Information Systems

Martin, Ralph R.


Geologic Resource Evaluation of Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park, Hawai'i: Geology and Coastal Landforms  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Geologic resource inventories of lands managed by the National Park Service (NPS) are important products for the parks and are designed to provide scientific information to better manage park resources. Park-specific geologic reports are used to identify geologic features and processes that are relevant to park ecosystems, evaluate the impact of human activities on geologic features and processes, identify geologic research and monitoring needs, and enhance opportunities for education and interpretation. These geologic reports are planned to provide a brief geologic history of the park and address specific geologic issues that link the park geology and the resource manager. The Kona coast National Parks of the Island of Hawai'i are intended to preserve the natural beauty of the Kona coast and protect significant ancient structures and artifacts of the native Hawaiians. Pu'ukohola Heiau National Historic Site (PUHE), Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park (KAHO), and Pu'uhonua O Honaunau National Historical Park (PUHO) are three Kona parks studied by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology Team in cooperation with the National Park Service. This report is one of six related reports designed to provide geologic and benthic-habitat information for the three Kona parks. Each geology and coastal-landform report describes the regional geologic setting of the Hawaiian Islands, gives a general description of the geology of the Kona coast, and presents the geologic setting and issues for one of the parks. The related benthic-habitat mapping reports discuss the marine data and habitat classification scheme, and present results of the mapping program. Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park (KAHO) was established in 1978 in order to preserve and protect traditional native Hawaiian culture and cultural sites. The park is the site of an ancient Hawaiian settlement, occupies 469 ha and is considered a locale of considerable cultural and historical significance. Cultural resources include fishponds, petroglyphs and a heiau (religious site). The fishponds are also recognized as exceptional birding areas and are important wetlands for migratory birds. The ocean and reef have been designated as a Marine Area Reserve, where green sea turtles commonly come ashore to rest. The park is also a valuable recreational resource, with approximately 4 km of coastline and a protective cove ideal for snorkeling and swimming. KAHO park boundaries extend beyond the mean high tide line and include the adjacent marine environment. An accompanying report for KAHO presents the results of benthic habitat mapping of the offshore waters, from the shoreline to approximately 40 m water depth. Ground-water quality and potential downslope impacts created by development around the park are of concern to Park management.

Richmond, Bruce M.; Gibbs, Ann E.; Cochran, Susan A.



Geologic mapping of Northern Atla Regio on Venus: Preliminary data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Northern part of Atla Regio within the frame of C1-formate Magellan photo map 15N197 was mapped geologically at scale 1:8,000,000. This is a part of Russia's contribution into C1 geologic mapping efforts. The map is reproduced here being reduced about twice. The map shows that the Northern Atla area is predominantly a volcanic plain with numerous volcanic features: shield volcanoes, domes and hills with various morphology, corona-like constructions, radar bright and dark spots often with flow-like outlines. Relatively small areas of tessera occurred in the area are mainly semi-flooded with the plain material. Tesserae are considered to be the oldest terrains within the map sheet. There are many lineated terrains in the region. They are interpreted as the old, almost-buried tesserae (those with crossed lineaments) or partly buried ridge belts (those with parallel lineaments). These lineated terrains have an intermediate age between the young volcanic plains and the old tessera areas. Two prominent high volcanic shields are located within the region - Ozza Mons and Sapas Mona. The most prominent structure in Northern Atla is Ganis Chasma rift. The rift cuts volcanic plain and is considered to be under formation during approximately the same time with Ozza Mons shield. Ganis Chasma rift valley is highly fractured and bounded with fault scarps. Rift shoulder uplifts are typical for Ganis Chasma. There are few relatively young volcanic features inside the rift valley. The analysis of fracturing and rift valley geometry shows the rift originated due to 5-10 percent crustal extention followed by the crustal subsidence. The age sequence summary for the main terrain types in the region is (from older to younger ones): tesserae; lineated terrains with crossed lineaments; lineated terrains with parallel lineaments; volcanic plains; and prominent volcanic shields and Ganis Chasma rift valley. The geologic structure of Atla Regio as it appeared now with the Magellan high resolution images is very close to that of Beta Regio. Such conclusion coincide with the earlier ones based on the coarser data.

Nikishin, A. M.; Burba, G. A.



Geological myths and reality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Myths are the result of man's attempts to explain noteworthy features of his environment stemming from unfounded imagination. It is unbelievable that in 21st century the explanation of evident lithospheric plates movements and origin of forces causing this movement is still bound to myths, They are the myth about mantle convection, myth about Earth's expansion, myth about mantle heterogeneities causing the movement of plates and myth about mantle plumes. From 1971 to 1978 I performed extensive study (Ost?ihanský 1980) about the terrestrial heat flow and radioactive heat production of batholiths in the Bohemian Massive (Czech Republic). The result, gained by extrapolation of the heat flow and heat production relationship, revealed the very low heat flow from the mantle 17.7mW m-2 close to the site of the Quarterly volcano active only 115,000 - 15,000 years ago and its last outbreak happened during Holocene that is less than 10,000 years ago. This volcano Komorní H?rka (Kammerbühls) was known by J. W. Goethe investigation and the digging of 300 m long gallery in the first half of XIX century to reach the basaltic plug and to confirm the Stromboli type volcano. In this way the 19th century myth of neptunists that basalt was a sedimentary deposit was disproved in spite that famous poet and scientist J.W.Goethe inclined to neptunists. For me the result of very low heat flow and the vicinity of almost recent volcanoes in the Bohemian Massive meant that I refused the hypothesis of mantle convection and I focused my investigation to external forces of tides and solar heat, which evoke volcanic effects, earthquakes and the plate movement. To disclose reality it is necessary to present calculation of acting forces using correct mechanism of their action taking into account tectonic characteristics of geologic unites as the wrench tectonics and the tectonic of planets and satellites of the solar system, realizing an exceptional behavior of the Earth as quickly rotating body exposed to strong tidal action of Moon and Sun. Ostrihansky, L.: The structure of the earth's crust and the heat-flow--heat-generation relationship in the Bohemian Massif. Tectonophysics, 68(3-4), 325-337, doi:10.1016/0040-1951(80)90182-1 1980.

Ostrihansky, Lubor



Geology Fieldnotes: Arches National Park, Utah  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This park is located on the Colorado Plateau near Moab, Utah, and contains many arches and sculpted sedimentary rocks. The visible rock formations in the park are the Entrada and Navajo sandstones. Covered topics include the formation of arches in stages, different types of arches, as well as sizes and names (Delicate Arch being the most famous). The site also provides visitor information, photos, maps, additional links, and a teacher feature (tools for teaching geology with National Park examples).

Foos, Annabelle


USGS Mars Geologic Maps in Progress  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This USGS Astrogeology website features a status report of the creation of Mars geologic maps at different scales. The site lists general information about each map and provides users with the option to download a PDF version for some maps (e.g. Pavonis Mons). There are also links to a Mars mapping chart, an index of maps from the solar system, and information regarding ordering maps.



Wildlife Habitat of Maine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Wildlife Habitat of Maine map was created using data from the Maine Office of GIS and the United States National Atlas. The map shows the land cover characteristics of Maine, including human development and major roads. The most suitable wildlife habitat can be attributed to the areas with the most suitable land cover and the least human development. An

Wendy Sicard



Impact, and its implications for geology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The publication of seminal texts on geology and on meteoritics in the 1790s, laid the groundwork for the emergence of each discipline as a modern branch of science. Within the past three decades, impact cratering has become universally accepted as a process that sculptures the surfaces of planets and satellites throughout the solar system. Nevertheless, one finds in-depth discussions of impact processes mainly in books on the Moon or in surveys of the Solar System. The historical source of the separation between meteoritics and geology is easy to identify. It began with Hutton. Meteorite impact is an extraordinary event acting instantaneously from outside the Earth. It violates Hutton's principles, which were enlarged upon and firmly established as fundamental to the geological sciences by Lyell. The split between meteoritics and geology surely would have healed as early as 1892 if the investigations conducted by Gilbert (1843-1918) at the crater in northern Arizona had yielded convincing evidence of meteorite impact. The 1950s and 1960s saw a burgeoning of interest in impact processes. The same period witnessed the so-called revolution in the Earth Sciences, when geologists yielded up the idea of fixed continents and began to view the Earth's lithosphere as a dynamic array of horizontally moving plates. Plate tectonics, however, is fully consistent with the geological concepts inherited from Hutton: the plates slowly split, slide, and suture, driven by forces intrinsic to the globe.

Marvin, Ursula B.



Impact, and its implications for geology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The publication of seminal texts on geology and on meteoritics in the 1790s, laid the groundwork for the emergence of each discipline as a modern branch of science. Within the past three decades, impact cratering has become universally accepted as a process that sculptures the surfaces of planets and satellites throughout the solar system. Nevertheless, one finds in-depth discussions of impact processes mainly in books on the Moon or in surveys of the Solar System. The historical source of the separation between meteoritics and geology is easy to identify. It began with Hutton. Meteorite impact is an extraordinary event acting instantaneously from outside the Earth. It violates Hutton's principles, which were enlarged upon and firmly established as fundamental to the geological sciences by Lyell. The split between meteoritics and geology surely would have healed as early as 1892 if the investigations conducted by Gilbert (1843-1918) at the crater in northern Arizona had yielded convincing evidence of meteorite impact. The 1950s and 1960s saw a burgeoning of interest in impact processes. The same period witnessed the so-called revolution in the Earth Sciences, when geologists yielded up the idea of fixed continents and began to view the Earth's lithosphere as a dynamic array of horizontally moving plates. Plate tectonics, however, is fully consistent with the geological concepts inherited from Hutton: the plates slowly split, slide, and suture, driven by forces intrinsic to the globe.

Marvin, Ursula B.


Alaskan North Slope Geology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The discovery well for the Prudhoe Bay field, the largest oil accumulatn yet found in the United States, was drilled on the Arctic coast of Alaska by ARCO and Exxon in 1968. A decade of exploratory geology and increasingly detailed geophysical surveys, mostly by Sinclair and British Petroleum in the early years, but then by a number of companies, preceded the discovery. Systematic U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) reconnaissance of the Brooks Range—the great mountain system of northern Alaska—had begun in the 1940s and was accelerated after the discovery, as was industry work. In the last decade, scientists from the Alaska Division of Geology and Geophysics and from various universities have become increasingly involved. This modestly priced two-volume work presents hitherto unavailable summaries of much of this modern work.

Hamilton, Warren


Project Primary Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Project Primary is a collaboration of professors from the departments of Botany-Microbiology, Chemistry, Education, Geology, Physics, and Zoology at Ohio Wesleyan University and K-3 teachers from Ohio's Delaware, Marion, and Union Counties to produce hands-on activities for the teaching of science. The geology activities are appropriate for children in grades K-12. Collectively, the goals for these activities are to demonstrate the inter-relatedness of life and the physical planet, the importance of understanding scientific phenomena for all people, not just future scientists, to impart knowledge which leads through student curiosity to continued inquiry, and to spur creativity. Topics covered include earthquakes, behavior of Earth materials, plate tectonics, the surface of the Earth, volcanoes, and geologic time and the evolution of the Earth.

Fryer, Karen


Structural Geology Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Cutting Edge group at Carleton College has created a number of fine teaching resources for college-level instructors working across the geological sciences, and this website is no exception. This particular area of their larger site is primarily intended for educators who teach structural geology. As visitors scroll through the site, they will find thematic areas that include links to computer applications, geologic maps that can be used for instructional purposes, and specific classroom activities. Some of these activities include "Using Field Lab Write-ups to Develop Observational and Critical Thinking Skills" and "Analysis of Sidewalk Fractures". Additionally, visitors can sign up for their listserv discussions and view presentations from different workshops they have conducted in the past.


Sedimentology and petroleum geology  

SciTech Connect

In this introduction to sedimentology and petroleum geology the subjects, which are closely related but mostly treated separately, are integrated. The first part covers the basic aspects of sedimentology, sedimentary geochemistry and diagenesis, including brief discussions of flow in rivers and channels, types of sediment transport, lake and river deposits, deltas (river-dominated, tide-dominated, and wave-dominated) and the water budget. Principles of stratigraphy, seismic stratigraphy and basin modeling form the basis for the last part on petroleum geology. Here subjects include the composition of kerogen and hydrocarbons, theories of migration and trapping of hydrocarbons and properties of reservoir rocks. Finally, short introductions to well logging and production geology are given.

Bjorlykke, K.



Global sedimentary geology program  

SciTech Connect

The Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists, in collaboration with the International Association of Sedimentologists and the International Union of Geological Sciences Committee on Sedimentology, is developing a new international study under the provisional title of Global Sedimentary Geology Program (GSGP). Initially, three research themes are being considered: (1) event stratigraphy-the documentation of examples of mass extinctions, eustatic fluctuations in sea level, major episodes of volcanisms, and changes in ocean composition; (2) facies models in time and space-an expansion of the existing data base of examples of facies models (e.G., deltas, fluvial deposits, and submarine fans) and global-scale study of the persistence of facies at various times in geologic history; and (3) sedimentary indices of paleogeography and tectonics-the use of depositional facies and faunas in paleogeography and in assessing the timing, locus, and characteristics of tectonism. Plans are being developed to organize pilot projects in each of these themes.

Ginsburg, R.N.; Clifton, H.E.; Weimer, R.J.



Understanding Geological Time  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this classroom activity, middle school students gain an understanding of geologic time. The activity opens with background information for teachers about carbon and radiometric dating. In a classroom discussion, students share what they know about geologic time. Then, working in small groups responsible for different eras, students create a timeline for their assigned era by conducting library and Internet research. The activity concludes by having students review all the timelines to compare how long humans have been on the Earth to the length of time dinosaurs inhabited the planet.


Principles of isotope geology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discussions of methods of isotope dating using Rb-Sr, K-Ar, ⁴°Ar\\/³⁹Ar, Re-Os, Lu-Hf, K-Ca, U, Tb-Pb, ¹⁴C, common lead, S,O,H, fission track, and U-series disequilibrium are included in respective chapters. Introductory chapters discussing the basics of isotope geology, atomic structure, decay mechanisms and mass spectrometry are included along with two appendices; the geological time scale for the Phanerzoic and a fitting

G Faure



Environmental Resources of Selected Areas of Hawaii: Geological Hazards (DRAFT)  

SciTech Connect

This report has been prepared to make available and archive the background scientific data and related information collected on geologic hazards during the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) published a notice in the Federal Register on May 17, 1994 (Fed Regis. 5925638) withdrawing its Notice of Intent (Fed Regis. 575433) of February 14, 1992, to prepare the HGP-EIS. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated This report presents a review of current information on geologic hazards in the Hawaiian Islands. Interrelationships among these hazards are discussed. Probabilities of occurrence of given geologic hazards are provided in various regions where sufficient geologic or historical data are available. Most of the information contained herein is compiled from recent U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) publications and open-file reports. This report describes the natural geologic hazards present in the area and does not represent an assessment of environmental impacts. Geologic hazards originate both onshore and offshore. Onshore geologic hazards such as volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, surface rupture, landslides, uplift, and subsidence occur mainly on the southern third of the island of Hawaii (hereinafter referred to as Hawaii). Offshore geologic hazards are more widely distributed throughout the Hawaiian Islands. Examples of offshore geologic hazards are submarine landslides, turbidity currents, and seismic sea waves (tsunamis). First, overviews of volcanic and earthquake activity, and details of offshore geologic hazards is provided for the Hawaiian Islands. Then, a more detailed discussion of onshore geologic hazards is presented with special emphasis on the southern third of Hawaii and the east rift zone of Kilauea.

Staub, W.P.



Geology Fieldnotes: Agate Fossil Beds National Monument, Nebraska  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Agate Fossil Beds National Monument preserves an important source for 19.2 million year-old Miocene mammal fossils from a chapter of evolution frequently referred to as the "Age of Mammals". Features include information on park geology, maps, photographs, visitor information, and links to related publications. The park geology section discusses the Monument's geologic history and climate, profiles of some of the Miocene mammals found in the deposits, and discusses the history of fossil collecting at the locality. The park map indicates quarry and private property areas within the Monument.


Marine Environmental Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This course is an introduction to the aspects of marine geology and oceanography that affect the environment and marine resources. Service-learning is an essential component of how students learn about the earth. We deliver part of the content of this course by arranging for students to solve a problem with a local community partner.

Course taught by Prof. Ed Laine, Bowdoin College ( and Cathryn Field, Lab Instructor ( Example compiled by Suzanne Savanick, Science Education Resource Center (


Life on Guam: Geology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This unit is part of a series of materials produced by a project to develop locally applicable class, lab, and field materials in ecology and social studies for Guam junior and senior high schools. While the materials were designed for Guam, they can be adapted to other localities. This unit is designed to acquaint the students with the geology of…

Elkins, Gail


Geologic Structures Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about the variables governing the brittle and ductile behavior of rocks, the simple geological structures associated with differential stress, and look at and apply real data to evaluate the depth to the brittle-ductile transition in the crust and how that depth can change temporarily due to sudden changes in stress introduced by large earthquakes.

Leland, John


Geological and Inorganic Materials.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a review focusing on techniques and their application to the analysis of geological and inorganic materials that offer significant changes to research and routine work. Covers geostandards, spectroscopy, plasmas, microbeam techniques, synchrotron X-ray methods, nuclear activation methods, chromatography, and electroanalytical methods.…

Jackson, L. L.; And Others



Geology of Jewel Cave  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Park Service site provides an introduction to the Black Hill's Jewel Cave. The site describes the unique geologic history of the Black Hills, the formation of speleothems as well as unusual crystal growth in the cave. Photographs illustrate the descriptions.

National Park Services (NPS)


Geological Time Machine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This University of California site provides an interactive geologic time scale to explore the history of the Earth. Beginning in the Precambrian Eon (4.6 million years ago) and ending today (Holocene Epoch), each Epoch, Period, Era, and Eon are covered. Information provided includes ancient life, dates, descriptions of major events, localities, tectonics, and stratigraphy. Links to additional resources are also available.

Collins, Allen


Geology 12. Curriculum Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication, developed by the Ministry of Education, Province of British Columbia, Canada, is a teaching guide for the Geology 12 course. The course is intended to provide secondary school students with the background and desire to investigate their earth, its materials and its processes. The guide consists of the following four sections: (1)…

British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria.


IU GEOLOGICAL SCIENCES graduatehandbookappendices  

E-print Network

425 edmonsd Geol Sci Professor Michael Hamburger Geophysics, Seismology and Tectonics 5-2934 G419 jknjau Geol Sci Assoc. Professor Greg Olyphant Hydrogeology, Quaternary Geology and Geomorphology 5-1351 S301B olyphant Geol Sci Professor Gary Pavlis Geophysics, Seismology and Tectonics 5-5141 G401

Polly, David


Advances in planetary geology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A wide variety of topics on planetary geology are presented. Subjects include stratigraphy and geomorphology of Copernicus, the Mamers valle region, and other selected regions of Mars and the Moon. Crater density and distribution are discussed for Callisto and the lunar surface. Spectroscopic analysis is described for Europa and Ganymede.



Briefing on geological sequestration  

EPA Science Inventory

Geological sequestration (GS) is generally recognized as the injection and long-term (e.g., hundreds to thousands of years) trapping of gaseous, liquid or supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) in subsurface media ? primarily saline formations, depleted or nearly depleted oil and gas...


Geology and Radiometry of Chalkidiki.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A brief geological description of Chalkidiki (Greece) is given followed by car-borne-scintillometer (CBS) survey results showing that granitic rocks in Central and Eastern Chalkidiki constitute the most promising geological formations for uranium minerali...

D. G. Minatidis



Using Snow to Teach Geology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A lesson plan, directed at middle school students and older, describes using snow to study the geological processes of solidification of molten material, sedimentation, and metamorphosis. Provides background information on these geological processes. (MCO)

Roth, Charles



Exploring Main Belt Asteroids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Terrestrial planet formation in the main asteroid belt was interrupted when growing protoplanets became sufficiently massive to gravitationally perturb the local population, causing bodies to collide with increased energy, thus ending accretion and commencing fragmentation and disruption. Few of these protoplanets are thought to have survived unshattered (e.g., Ceres, Vesta, Pallas), leaving a main belt population dominated by fragments of

M. V. Sykes; S. M. Larson; R. Whiteley; U. Fink; R. Jedicke; J. Emery; R. Fevig; M. Kelley; A. W. Harris; S. Ostro; K. Reed; R. P. Binzel; A. Rivkin; C. Magri; W. Bottke; D. Durda; R. Walker; D. Davis; W. K. Hartmann; D. Sears; H. Yano; J. Granahan; A. Storrs; S. J. Bus; J. F. Bell; D. Tholen; A. Cellino




EPA Science Inventory

WORM provides a generalized representation at 1:24,000 scale of commercially harvested marine worm habitat in Maine, based on Maine Department of Marine Resources data from 1970's. Original maps were created by MDMR and published by USF&WS as part of the ""&quo...


Geology of the National Parks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource provides information about United States Geological Survey (USGS) resources and activities associated with National Parks. Users can choose from a selection of links that access items on park geology, virtual trips, research projects, and general topics such as plate tectonics, rocks and minerals, shorelines, glaciers, and many more. Links to geologic information for individual parks are arranged by alphabet, by state, or by geologic province.


Ordering Geologic Events and Interpreting Geologic History: The Grand Canyon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is designed to help students recognize the connections among things like rock identification and map reading with the "story" that these things can tell us in terms of geologic history. Students have already learned about using observation to identify rocks and the principles of interpreting geologic cross-sections. The activity gives students practice in rock ID, topo map reading, geologic map reading and the aspects of geologic time. Students work with rock samples and a geologic map of the Grand Canyon to interpret a history for the area.

Wenner, Jennifer


Geologic Map of North America  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

The Geologic Map of North America is a product of GSA's Decade of North American Geology (DNAG) project. At a scale of 1:5,000,000, this map covers ~15% of Earth's surface and differs from previous maps in several important respects: it is the first such map to depict the geology of the seafloor, th...




E-print Network

57th ANNUAL HIGHWAY GEOLOGY SYMPOSIUM BRECKENRIDGE, COLORADO SEPTEMBER 26-29, 2006 PROCEEDINGS, and Findley! ! ! 57 th Highway Geology Symposium -146- Breckenridge, Colorado September 26-29, 2006 Digital! ! ! 57 th Highway Geology Symposium -147- Breckenridge, Colorado September 26-29, 2006 *'!+8&+8'P#,%!(%*4

Haneberg, William C.


Geology of the Byrd Glacier Discontinuity (Ross Orogen): New survey data from the Britannia Range, Antarctica  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Field activities in the Britannia Range (Transantarctic Mountains, Antarctica) highlighted new geological features around the so-called Byrd Glacier discontinuity. Recent field surveys revealed the occurrence of significant amounts of medium- to high-grade metamorphic rocks, intruded by abundant coarse-grained porphyritic granitoids. Most of the granitoids are deformed, with foliation parallel to the regional foliation in the metamorphics. Two main episodes of deformation are observed. Tight to isoclinal folds and penetrative axial plane foliation are related to the D1 phase, open folds to the D2. The main foliation (D1) trends nearly E-W in agreement with the trend in the southern portion of the Byrd Glacier. In most outcrops, granitic dykes are folded and stretched by the D2 deformation, which shows similar characteristics with the D2 deformation south of the Byrd Glacier. This suggests the occurrence in the Ross orogen of an orogen-normal structure south and north of the Byrd Glacier.

Carosi, R.; Giacomini, F.; Talarico, F.; Stump, E.



Airborne magnetic survey for geological purposes in the USSR and Russian Federation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1991 it was 55 years since the application of airborne magnetic surveys on USSR territory, and 52 years since its practical usage at geological institutes. It is possible to outline three periods of such a survey. (1) 1936-55. In this period the magnetic field vertical component was measured with the use of an induction magnetometer developed by A.A. Logachev. The main features of this simple instrument is a half-ring collector, a type of suspension, a compensation mode of measuring with a semi-automatic analog recording, and so forth, and a special system of tuning enabling one to receive a root mean square error of the survey in the range of 50-200 nT. With the use of this magnetometer, the territory of 2,000,000 km2 was surveyed, a number of deposits were discovered ( Krasnokamensk iron-ore deposit in South Siberia in 1943 included), geological maps were refined, and in the period of 1948-49 the first survey in the Arctic (for geological zonation) was conducted.

Glebovsky, Yu. S.; Mishin, Alexey A.



Cenozoic extensional features in the geology of central mainland Greece  

E-print Network

The Hellenides of Greece have undergone a series of extensional deformation events from early Miocene to present time. Two of the fault systems that accommodate this deformation in central Greece are the Itea-Amfissa ...

Swanson, Erika (Erika M.)



Geologic Maps and Geologic Structures: A Texas Example  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Historical Geology lab exercise is an accompaniment to lab class instruction about geologic structures (folding and faulting) and geologic maps. It also serves as an excellent introduction to the Geology of the state of Texas. "Coloring" geologic maps, an important part of the exercise, may seem like a very elementary learning technique. But this lab engages students actively, and since the subject is often already somewhat familiar to them, emphasizing both the geology and geography of Texas, students receive it enthusiastically. This activity could be adapted to other regions, since most states have color 8 1/2 by 11 geologic maps available. A color map could be scanned and modified in Photoshop to create a simplified black and white version as was done in the assignment handout.

Steinberg, Roger


Geologic Map of the Nulato Quadrangle, West-Central Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Introduction The Nulato quadrangle encompasses approximately 17,000 km2 (6,500 mi2) of west-central Alaska within the Yukon River drainage basin. The quadrangle straddles two major geologic features-the Yukon-Koyukuk sedimentary basin, a huge triangle-shaped Cretaceous depression that stretches across western Alaska from the Brooks Range to the Yukon delta; and the Ruby geanticline,a broad uplift of pre-Cretaceous rocks that borders the Yukon-Koyukuk basin on the southeast. The Kaltag Fault crosses the quadrangle diagonally from northeast to southwest and dextrally offsets all major geologic features as much as 130 km.

Patton, W.W., Jr.; Moll-Stalcup, E. J.



Geologic Photo Field Trips to View Rocks, Geologic Structures, and Landforms in Introductory Physical Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Field photographs are used to enhance the instruction in teaching rocks, geologic structures, and landforms in Introductory Physical Geology lecture at East Carolina University. The field photographs are used to enhance the visual component of Physical Geology and are focused on rock outcrops (igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic), geologic structures (faults and folds), and landforms (volcanic, weathering-erosion, mass wasting, fluvial, wind-desert, coastal, and karst).

Harper, Stephen B.


Algebra, Geology and Economics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The American Mathematical Association of Two-Year Colleges (AMATYC) has compiled a collection of mathematics resources related to various subjects and disciplines. âÂÂMath Across the Community College Curriculumâ is the title of the collection, which includes great math resources and applications for educators and students alike. In this particular resource, concepts from algebra, geology and economics are intertwined to create two dynamic activities for students. The projects, created by Mary Dowse, Tom Gruszka, and George Muncrief of Western New Mexico University, include both general learning objectives and subject specific objectives for what students will learn through the completion of the activities. The first activity focuses on the mathematics of economics, and the second activity focuses on geology and graphing. These activities can be easily adapted for use in the classroom, and are also useful for students who are looking for extra practice with these concepts.

Dowse, Mary; Gruszka, Tom; Muncrief, George



Geology Training Module  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lesson where learners review the basic requirements for human survival. Learners will use an online, multimedia module, to which they make changes to Earth's layers and draw conclusions about the geologic conditions that are necessary for human survival. The lesson models scientific inquiry using the 5E instructional model and includes teacher notes, prerequisite concepts, common misconceptions, student journal and reading. This is lesson one in the Astro-Venture Geology Training Unit that were developed to increase students' awareness of and interest in astrobiology and the many career opportunities that utilize science, math and technology skills. The lessons are designed for educators to use with the Astro-Venture multimedia modules.


Geology of Britain Viewer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you've ever wanted to wander from John O'Groats to the Cotswolds without leaving your desk, this most wonderful website is for you. Created by the British Geological Survey, the Geology of Britain viewer helps interested parties learn more about the landforms in their backyards. After opening the viewer, visitors can click on an area of interest to look at everything from possible earthquake threats to rock layers to soil composition and more. Visitors should note that they can zoom in on the map and also use place names to refine their searches via the Go to Location button. Additionally, the basemap can be modified to show satellite photographs or various street maps as overlays. Finally, the site contains walking guides for several regions of Britain that might be helpful for those with a penchant for perambulation.


Geological Survey research, 1975  

USGS Publications Warehouse

'Geological Survey Research 1975 ' is the 16th annual synopsis of the results of U.S. Geological Survey investigations. These studies are largely directed toward the development of knowledge that will assist the Nation to use and conserve the land and its physical resources wisely. They are wide ranging in scope and deal with almost every facet of solid-earth science and fact finding. Many of the studies are continuations of investigations that have been in progress for several years. But others reflect the increased attention being given to problems that have assumed greater importance in recent years--problems relating to mineral fuels and mineral resources, water quality, environmental impact of mineral resources, land-use analysis, earthquake hazards reduction, subsidence, and the applications of LANDSAT data, to cite a few examples. (Woodard-USGS)



The Maine Music Box  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created through a collaboration between the University of Maine's Fogler Library and other Maine libraries, The Maine Music Box contains hundreds of digitized sheet music scores from five major collections. First-time visitors to the site will want to click on the "About Maine Music Box" project as a way of getting started. Here they can check out the "User Information" area, which contains helpful tips on viewing the music and how to best browse the entire database. Additionally, those with a penchant for technical details and information science in general can also learn in copious detail how the database was created for this project. From there, visitors can move straight away into the main collection. Visitors can browse the collection by music subject, sheet music cover art, or just type in their own keywords. One of the best ways to look over the collection is to browse around in such areas as "Instructional Violin", "Maine Collection" and "Parlor Salon Collection". It's also worth remarking that this site may inspire a sing-a-long, a campfire get-together, or a miniature Chautauqua.


Modernizing Main Street  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article features Entrepreneurship Pioneers Initiative (EPI), a nine-month-long educational program targeted to first-generation, small business owners offered through the Rutgers University Center for Urban Entrepreneurship and Economic Development. In its second year, EPI has worked with more than 40 businesses out of an applicant pool of…

Oguntoyinbo, Lekan



Geology: Plate Tectonics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is based on work by researcher Christopher Scotese of the University of Texas, Arlington. It is from the University of California, Berkeley, and it provides black-and-white animations based on Scotese's paleogeographic maps; these animations are organized by time period and offer the viewer insights into the shifting of the continents through different time periods. Both sites provide a fascinating geologic historical perspective and will be of great interest to researchers and educators, alike.


Oceanography - Marine Geological Processes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A first year course in oceanography with extensive Internet resources. Topics covered include: principles of thermodynamics, heat and mass transfer, fluid mechanics, continuum mechanics, and time-series analysis applied to marine geological and geophysical data; applications to transport of marine sediments; Pleistocene sedimentation and global climate change; and the thermal balance of the oceanic lithosphere. The link to the lecture schedule provides detailed supporting materials.

Mcduff, Russell


Principles of nuclear geology  

SciTech Connect

This book treats the basic principles of nuclear physics and the mineralogy, geochemistry, distribution and ore deposits of uranium and thorium. The application of nuclear methodology in radiogenic heat and thermal regime of the earth, radiometric prospecting, isotopic age dating, stable isotopes and cosmic-ray produced isotopes is covered. Geological processes, such as metamorphic chronology, petrogenesis, groundwater movement, and sedimentation rate are focussed on.

Aswathanarayana, U.



Medical Geology in Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A large body of evidence points to significant health effects resulting from our interactions with the physical environment\\u000a and we continue to recognise connections between geological materials and processes and human and animal disease. In Africa,\\u000a these relationships have been observed for many years, but only recently have any real attempts been made to formalise their\\u000a study. Africa is a

T. C. Davies


AGI: American Geological Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The American Geological Institute (AGI) created this website to promote its work dedicated to geoscientific services and outreach. The Information Services provides users with information on data repository systems and the GEoRef database. Students and educators can learn about professional development, conferences, scholarships, and more. The website provides action alerts, discussing key issues affecting geosciences in the federal government. Scientists can find a helpful human resources guide discussing geoscience careers and educational departments.


Comprehending Geologic Time  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

You can use this calculator to create your own metaphor for geologic time. The history of the could be the the distance from your home to school - you can figure out where dinosaurs would be on the trip. Or the history of time could be the length of a class - and you could figure how much of the class you have to sit through before intelligence appears.



Geologic Cross Sections  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For this project, students must select a several hundred kilometer long section of Earth's surface, ideally crossing one or more major plate boundaries and research all major tectonic events to construct a cross section. Students should also take into account other factors like age of the ocean floor, average elevation and gravity anomalies across their area. The purpose is to demonstrate the geologic/tectonic history of their cross section and present it in a clear, concise summary.

Browning, Sharon


Geological interpretation of a Gemini photo  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Study of the Gemini V photograph of the Salt Range and Potwar Plateau, West Pakistan, indicates that small-scale orbital photographs permit recognition of the regional continuity of some geologic features, particularly faults and folds that could he easily overlooked on conventional air photographs of larger scale. Some stratigraphic relationships can also be recognized on the orbital photograph, but with only minimal previous geologic knowledge of the area, these interpretations are less conclusive or reliable than the interpretation of structure. It is suggested that improved atmospheric penetration could be achieved through the use of color infrared film. Photographic expression of topography could also be improved by deliberately photographing some areas during periods of low sun angle.

Hemphill, William R.; Danilchik, Walter



Evaluation of thermal data for geologic applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sensitivity studies using thermal models indicated sources of errors in the determination of thermal inertia from HCMM data. Apparent thermal inertia, with only simple atmospheric radiance corrections to the measured surface temperature, would be sufficient for most operational requirements for surface thermal inertia. Thermal data does have additional information about the nature of surface material that is not available in visible and near infrared reflectance data. Color composites of daytime temperature, nighttime temperature, and albedo were often more useful than thermal inertia images alone for discrimination of lithologic boundaries. A modeling study, using the annual heating cycle, indicated the feasibility of looking for geologic features buried under as much as a meter of alluvial material. The spatial resolution of HCMM data is a major limiting factor in the usefulness of the data for geologic applications. Future thermal infrared satellite sensors should provide spatial resolution comparable to that of the LANDSAT data.

Kahle, A. B.; Palluconi, F. D.; Levine, C. J.; Abrams, M. J.; Nash, D. B.; Alley, R. E.; Schieldge, J. P.



Mapping Vesta: A Geological Overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations from the Dawn (Russell et al., 2007) spacecraft enabled deriva-tion of 4Vesta's shape, facilitated mapping of the surface geology and pro-vided the first evidence for Vesta's geological evolution. The Dawn mission is equipped with a framing camera (FC), a visible and infrared mapping spectrometer (VIR) and a gamma-ray and neutron detector (GRaND). So far science data are collected during the approach to the asteroid and protoplanet Vesta, a circular polar orbit at an altitude of 2700 km providing ~ 230 m/pix camera resolution and a lower orbit, at 700 km altitude with a camera resolu-tion of ~ 65 m/pixel. Geomorphology and distribution of surface features provide evidence for impact cratering, tectonic activity, regolith and prob-able volcanic processes. Craters with dark rays, bright rays, and dark rim streaks have been observed, suggesting possible buried stratigraphy. The largest fresh craters retain a simple bowl-shaped morphology, with depth/diameter ratios roughly comparable to lunar values. The largest candi-date crater, a ~460 km depression at the south pole, has been shown to con-tain an incomplete inward facing cuspate scarp, and a large central mound surrounded by unusual complex arcuate ridge and groove patterns. Although asymmetric in general form, these characteristics do not contradict an impact origin but may also allow endogenic processes like convective downwelling or hybrid modification of an impact. Rapid rotation of Vesta during impact may explain some anomalous features (Jutzi and Asphaug, 2010). A set of large equatorial troughs may be related to the formation process of the south polar structure or due to stress caused by changes of the rotational axis. The crater size frequency and the chronology function is derived from the lunar chronology, scaled to impact frequencies modeled for Vesta according to (Bottke et al., 1994) and (O'Brien and Sykes, 2011). The northern hemi-sphere is heavily cratered by a large variety of ancient degraded and fresh sharp craters. Preliminary crater counts indicate only small differences in absolute surface model ages between the northern region and the south polar structure.

Jaumann, R.; Pieters, C. M.; Russell, C. T.; Raymond, C. A.; Yingst, R.; Williams, D. A.; Schenk, P.; Neukum, G.; Mottola, S.; Buczkowski, D.; O'Brien, D. P.; Garry, W. B.; Blewett, D. T.; Denevi, B. W.; Roatsch, T.; Preusker, F.; Nathues, A.; Sierks, H.; Sykes, M. V.; De sanctis, M.; McSween, H. Y.; Keller, H. U.; Marchi, S.



Geologic map and digital database of the Yucaipa 7.5' quadrangle, San Bernardino and Riverside Counties, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This geologic database of the Yucaipa 7.5' quadrangle was prepared by the Southern California Areal Mapping Project (SCAMP), a regional geologic-mapping project sponsored jointly by the U.S. Geological Survey and the California Geological Survey. The database was developed as a contribution to the National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program's National Geologic Map Database, and is intended to provide a general geologic setting of the Yucaipa quadrangle. The database and map provide information about earth materials and geologic structures, including faults and folds that have developed in the quadrangle due to complexities in the San Andreas Fault system. The Yucaipa 7.5' quadrangle contains materials and structures that provide unique insight into the Mesozoic and Cenozoic geologic evolution of southern California. Stratigraphic and structural elements include: (1) strands of the San Andreas Fault that bound far-traveled terranes of crystalline and sedimentary rock; (2) Mesozoic crystalline rocks that form lower and upper plates of the regionwide Vincent-Orocopia Thrust system; and (3) late Tertiary and Quaternary sedimentary materials and geologic structures that formed during the last million years or so and that record complex geologic interactions within the San Andreas Fault system. These materials and the structures that deform them provide the geologic framework for investigations of geologic hazards and ground-water recharge and subsurface flow. Geologic information contained in the Yucaipa database is general-purpose data that is applicable to land-related investigations in the earth and biological sciences. The term "generalpurpose" means that all geologic-feature classes have minimal information content adequate to characterize their general geologic characteristics and to interpret their general geologic history. However, no single feature class has enough information to definitively characterize its properties and origin. For this reason the database cannot be used for site-specific geologic evaluations, although it can be used to plan and guide investigations at the site-specific level.

Matti, Jonathan C.; Morton, D.M.; Cox, B.F.; Carson, S.E.; Yetter, T.J.; Digital preparation by: Cossette, P.M.; Wright, M.C.; Kennedy, S.A.; Dawson, M.L.; Hauser, R.M.



Web Features  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Web Features, presented by the Economic Policy Institute (EPI), is a collection of online resources for consumers about public opinion data. An economic snapshot, updated weekly, provides graphs and charts to highlight an economic issue, and this site also includes a selection of opinions from the EPI staff and their analysis of current economic data written in layperson's terms.


Feature Algebra  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on experience from the hardware industry, product families have entered the software development process as well, since software developers often prefer not to build a single product but rather a family of similar products that share at least one common functionality while having well-identified variabilities. Such shared commonalities, also called features, reach from common hardware parts to software artefacts

Peter Höfner; Ridha Khédri; Bernhard Möller



Geologic studies in the Sierra de Pena Blanca, Chihuahua, Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sierra del Cuervo has been endowed with uranium mineralization, which has attracted many geological studies, and recently the author was part of a team with the goal of selecting a site of a radioactive waste repository. The first part of the work adds to the regional framework of stratigraphy and tectonics of the area. It includes the idea of a pull apart basin development, which justifies the local great thickness of the Cuervo Formation. It includes the regional structural frame work and the composite stratigraphic column of the Chihuahua Trough and the equivalent Cretaceous Mexican Sea. The general geologic features of the NE part of the Sierra del Cuervo are described, which include the folded ignimbrites and limestones in that area; the irregular large thicknesses of the Cuervo Formation; and the western vergence of the main folding within the area. Sanidine phenocrystals gave ages of 54.2 Ma and 51.8 Ma ± 2.3 Ma. This is the first time these dates have been reported in print. This age indicates a time before the folded structures which outcrop in the area, and 44 Ma is a date after the Cuervo Formation was folded. The Hidalgoan orogeny cycle affected the rocks between this lapse of time. Since then the area has been partially affected by three tensional overlapped stages, which resulted in the actual Basin and Range physiography. The jarosite related to the tectonic activity mineralization has been dated by the Ar-Ar method and yields an age of 9.8 Ma. This is the first report of a date of mineralization timing at Pena Blanca Uranium District in the Sierra del Cuervo. These are some of the frame work features that justify the allocation of a radioactive waste repository in the Sierra del Cuervo. An alluvial fan system within the Boquilla Colorada microbasin was selected as the best target for more detailed site assessment. The study also included the measurement of the alluvium thicknesses by geoelectric soundings; studies of petrography and weathered grade of the rock units; and the possible paths of potential leachate through the geologic media. The last part of the work relates to the natural analog of the Yucca Mountain, the Nopal I orebody, which is compared and found similar in its geologic frame work, in the lithologic units and their weathering, in the stratigraphic relationships with the vitrophyres and tuff horizons, in the climatic dryness, in the regional water table depth and the hydrologic features, in the ignimbritic units mineralogy, and in the radioactive waste fuel compared to the ore mineralogy of the Nopal I. There are mineralogic determinations of the fracture fill material in the orebody and host rock; detailed mapping of the fractures and surface alterations; and gamma ray grid measurements and electromagnetic soundings. All these studies indicate a support criteria to take the Nopal I as a natural analogue of the Yucca Mountain repository. The total evolution of the Nopal I orebody is exposed in the walls and floors of the +00 and +10 levels, which are ready to perform final safety tests in order to compare it with the future Yucca Mountain repository behavior. The Nopal in orebody has been there for several hundred of thousands and may be millions of years in an natural equilibrium with the surrounding environment. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Reyes-Cortes, Ignacio Alfonso


Geologic Map of the Tokachidake Volcano Group, Northern Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Tokachidake volcano group, located at the southwestern end of the Kurile arc, is one of the most active volcanoes in Japan with an eruptive history spanning approximately 1.0 Ma. It extends 25 km mainly in the NE-SW direction, consisting of at least twelve volcanic edifices which are 5~10 km in diameter. We have mapped the 55 geologic units in the area of 270 km2 centered on the most active crater using by traditional mapping methods, airborne laser scanner data, and new 33 K-Ar and 16 radiocarbon ages. The Tokachidake volcano group overlies Pliocene volcanic rocks and Late Pliocene to Early Pleistocene rhyolite ignimbrites. The activity of the volcano group can be divided into three stages - the Older, Middle and Younger - on the basis of their radiometric ages, eruption centers and petrologic features. In the Older stage, the products have limited distribution and consist mainly of andesite lava flows that erupted during 1.0 Ma~500 ka. The Middle stage activity occurred during 300~70 ka, and had increased extensively. Five basalt to basaltic andesite stratovolcanoes were built in the margins of the volcano group, whereas six andesite stratovolcanoes and a dacite lava flow erupted around its center. The Younger stage began around 60~50 ka, and the active region is concentrated in the central part of the volcano group. The topographical features of each volcanic unit are preserved. The products are composed of andesite to basalt lava flows and pyroclastic fall, pyroclastic flow and debris avalanche deposits with a dacite lava dome. These products are enriched in K2O relative than those of the Middle stage. In the past 8,400 years magmatic eruptions occurred at least eleven times, including historical records in 1926, 1962 and 1988-89. The eruption volume is 0.15 km3DRE. Fumaroles within the 1962 crater are still extremely active. The most characteristic of the eruptive history of the Tokachidake volcano group is that the activity expanded approximately 300 ka and gradually contracted to the center. Then mafic magmas were erupted in the whole area of the volcano group, whereas the intermediate to felsic magmas were done only around the center. We could reevaluate the area to observe volcanic activity preponderantly in the point of view of this geologic mapping.

Ishizuka, Y.; Nakagawa, M.; Fujiwara, S.



Investigation of fractal distribution law for the trace number of random and grouped fractures in a geological mass  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fractal study method of the number of geological mass fractures is introduced in detail in this paper. Three main aspects of the problem were studied: (1) The random distribution of fractures in a geological mass was in good agreement with the fractal law. The size scale of the studied geological mass ranged from 2400m to 1mm for the length

Yangsheng Zhao; Zengchao Feng; Weiguo Liang; Dong Yang; Yaoqin Hu; Tianhe Kang



Development of a 3-D geological model towards natural hazards mitigation, St. Lawrence River Valley, Eastern Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the Canadian Government's main goals to ensure safe and strong communities for its citizens, the Geological Survey of Canada has recently undertaken the development of a 3-D geological model and a seamless surficial geology map of the St. Lawrence River valley in Eastern Canada. This paper summarizes the initial phase of this project, which consists of gathering,



The main cubioid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The connectedness locus in the parameter space of quadratic polynomials is called the Mandelbrot set. A good combinatorial model of this set is due to Thurston. By definition, the principal hyperbolic domain of the Mandelbrot set consists of parameter values, for which the corresponding quadratic polynomials have an attracting fixed point. The closure of the principal hyperbolic domain of the Mandelbrot set is called the main cardioid. Its topology is completely described by Thurston's model. Less is known about the connectedness locus in the parameter space of cubic polynomials. In this paper, we discuss cubic analogues of the main cardioid and establish relationships between them.

Blokh, Alexander; Oversteegen, Lex; Ptacek, Ross; Timorin, Vladlen



Delineating the Rattlesnake Springs, New Mexico Watershed Using Shallow Subsurface Geophysical Techniques and Geologic Mapping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rattlesnake Springs serves as the sole water source for Carlsbad Caverns National Park. The recent development of oil and gas leases and agricultural lands surrounding the springs has led to concern about contamination of the karst aquifer. We have used geophysical techniques, combined with geologic mapping, to delineate possible fracture systems in the gypsum and carbonate bedrock that feed the spring system. Our initial work has focused on a 700 m by 700 m region surrounding the springs. We conducted a series of ground conductivity surveys with follow-up DC resistivity surveys (Wenner array vertical electrical soundings and a pole- pole survey) to determine variations in soil grain size and moisture content. Surface geologic mapping was used to identify a series of Holocene terraces and valleys that incise the terraces. Our combined results suggest that northwest-southeast and north-south trending fractures and dissolution features control regional water flow. Relict spring valleys are found to the west of the present springs. A pole-pole survey conducted around the perimeter of the springs suggests main water flow into the springs occurs from the northwest. We plan to complete a precision gravity survey in September and October 2007 to map bedrock topography and determine its relation to structural and dissolution features. Ground penetrating radar data will be collected on the northwestern side of the springs in an attempt to better delineate structures controlling inflow into the springs.

Doser, D. I.; Langford, R. P.; Boykov, N. D.; Baker, M. R.; Kaip, G. M.



Main Course Beef Lasagne  

E-print Network

with lemon and free range egg mayonnaise Mediterranean Quorn and Garlic Pie A ragu of roasted Mediterranean vegetables and Quorn topped with garlic bread slices Served with Sautéed New Potatoes or Penne Pasta Sweet Corn & Garlic Bread Salad Bar Should you wish to have salad as your main meal please see the choice

Bristol, University of



E-print Network

.................................... 43 David Braley Athletic Centre.... 54 Divinity College............................ 17 Dramatic Arts MAIN STREET WEST COLLEGE CRESCENT COOTESDRIVE WESTAWAY ROAD SCHOLAR'S ROAD STEARN DRIVE Entrance Pay Stations Short Term Parking - Pay and Display Campus Shuttle Bus Service Go Bus Stop A-Q CAMPUS

Thompson, Michael



E-print Network

....................................43 David Braley Athletic Centre ....54 Divinity College............................17 Dramatic Arts 37 MAIN STREET WEST COLLEGE CRESCENT COOTESDRIVE WESTAWAY ROAD SCHOLAR'S ROAD STEARN DRIVE EntranceCampus LEGEND McMaster University Entrance Security and Parking Services Parking Lot Location Pay Stations Short

Haykin, Simon



EPA Science Inventory

SCHLIB shows point locations of libraries and educational institutions in Maine at 1:24,000 scale. Colleges, universities, technical colleges, high schools, middle schools, elementary schools, kindergarten/sub-primary and other special schools are included. The data was developed...


Maine Dance Curriculum Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide is designed to support those in Maine who wish to establish or enhance dance education in any educational areas and at elementary or secondary levels. A preface describes the state's dance heritage. An introduction argues for the importance of dance education. The next section addresses pedagogy and explains how to create and…

Grindel, Susan; And Others


Geologic information from satellite images. [geological interpretation of ERTS-1 and Skylab multispectral photography of Rocky Mountain areas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Extracting geologic information from ERTS and Skylab/EREP images is best done by a geologist trained in photointerpretation. The information is at a regional scale, and three basic types are available: rock and soil, geologic structures, and landforms. Discrimination between alluvium and sedimentary or crystalline bedrock, and between units in thick sedimentary sequences is best, primarily because of topographic expression and vegetation differences. Discrimination between crystalline rock types is poor. Folds and fractures are the best displayed geologic features. They are recognizable by topographic expression, drainage patterns, and rock or vegetation tonal patterns. Landforms are easily discriminated by their familar shapes and patterns. It is possible to optimize the scale, format, spectral bands, conditions of acquisition, and sensor systems for best geologic interpretation. Several examples demonstrate the applicability of satellite images to tectonic analysis and petroleum and mineral exploration.

Lee, K.; Knepper, D. H., Jr. (principal investigators); Sawatzky, D. L.



Geologic Mapping and Geologic History: Sheep Mountain, Wyoming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Half way through the second semester of our year-long integrated Sed/Strat and Structure course we travel to Sheep Mountain, Wyoming where the students spend 5 days describing and measuring section and the constructing geologic and structural maps. The field data gathered then form the basis for a paper titled: "Geologic History of the Sheep Mountain Region". In addition to simply making geologic maps, stratigraphic sections and structural cross-sections, the students have to put the local geology into the broader contexts of the Big Horn Basin and sequences of western orogenies.

Malinconico, Lawrence L.


A Regional Guide to Iowa Landforms. Iowa Geological Survey Educational Series 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented is a non-technical account of the geological appearance and history of the state of Iowa. Included are Iowa's landscape features, geologic events, and processes that shaped the landscape. Maps and numerous illustrations picture the events and landforms described. Each of the state's seven principal landform regions is discussed in…

Prior, Jean Cutler


Analyzing Student Perceptions of Geological Time Through the Use of Graphic Timelines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Students' understanding of geological concepts has been studied through drawings but work with regard to geological timelines is lacking. Approximately 80 semi-structured interviews were conducted with introductory and non-science major college students at a large Midwestern university. Students were asked to make drawings of a variety of topics involving the Earth system; drawings included the Earth's interior, and features of

O. L. White; M. Beilfuss; W. Boone; J. Libarkin



Niagara Falls Storage Site, Lewiston, New York: geologic report  

SciTech Connect

This report is one of a series of engineering and environmental reports planned for the US Department of Energy's properties at Niagara Falls, New York. It describes the essential geologic features of the Niagara Falls Storage Site. It is not intended to be a definitive statement of the engineering methods and designs required to obtain desired performance features for any permanent waste disposal at the site. Results are presented of a geological investigation that consisted of two phases. Phase 1 occurred during July 1982 and included geologic mapping, geophysical surveys, and a limited drilling program in the vicinity of the R-10 Dike, planned for interim storage of radioactive materials. Phase 2, initiated in December 1982, included excavation of test pits, geophysical surveys, drilling, observation well installation, and field permeability testing in the South Dike Area, the Northern Disposal Area, and the K-65 Tower Area.

Not Available



Volcanic Features  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Most people will never see the eruption of an active volcano. Even so, evidence of these dramatic displays can be found all over the world. In fact, more can be learned about some aspects of volcanic activity by exploring evidence left by past eruptions than by watching an eruption in progress. This interactive resource adapted from the National Park Service explores a variety of volcanic landforms and features, and describes how they form.



Applicability of ERTS-1 to Montana geology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Late autumn imagery provides the advantages of topographic shadow enhancement and low cloud cover. Mapping of rock units was done locally with good results for alluvium, basin fill, volcanics, inclined Paleozoic and Mesozoic beds, and host strata of bentonite beds. Folds, intrusive domes, and even dip directions were mapped where differential erosion was significant. However, mapping was not possible for belt strata, was difficult for granite, and was hindered by conifers compared to grass cover. Expansion of local mapping required geologic control and encountered significant areas unmappable from ERTS imagery. Annotation of lineaments provided much new geologic data. By extrapolating test site comparisons, it is inferred that 27 percent of some 1200 lineaments mapped from western Montana represent unknown faults. The remainder appear to be localized mainly by undiscovered faults and sets of minor faults or joints.

Weidman, R. M. (principal investigator); Alt, D. D.; Berg, R.; Johns, W.; Flood, R.; Hawley, K.; Wackwitz, L.



Geology Online Laboratory Manual  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The 16 labs in this manual cover specific subjects from a range of topics including mineralogy, sedimentology, litho- and biostratigraphy, vertebrate and invertebrate paleontology, relative dating, and geologic map interpretation. Labs contain reference text, photos, illustrations, diagrams, and classification charts which prepare students for the accompanying exercises. Answers are not provided and labs are not designed for online interaction, but hard copies of the lab manual are available for purchase from the Georgia Perimeter College Online Bookstore. A link from the site provides ordering information and instructions.

Gore, P.; College, Georgia P.


Co2 geological sequestration  

SciTech Connect

Human activities are increasingly altering the Earth's climate. A particular concern is that atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) may be rising fast because of increased industrialization. CO{sub 2} is a so-called ''greenhouse gas'' that traps infrared radiation and may contribute to global warming. Scientists project that greenhouse gases such as CO{sub 2} will make the arctic warmer, which would melt glaciers and raise sea levels. Evidence suggests that climate change may already have begun to affect ecosystems and wildlife around the world. Some animal species are moving from one habitat to another to adapt to warmer temperatures. Future warming is likely to exceed the ability of many species to migrate or adjust. Human production of CO{sub 2} from fossil fuels (such as at coal-fired power plants) is not likely to slow down soon. It is urgent to find somewhere besides the atmosphere to put these increased levels of CO{sub 2}. Sequestration in the ocean and in soils and forests are possibilities, but another option, sequestration in geological formations, may also be an important solution. Such formations could include depleted oil and gas reservoirs, unmineable coal seams, and deep saline aquifers. In many cases, injection of CO2 into a geological formation can enhance the recovery of hydrocarbons, providing value-added byproducts that can offset the cost of CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration. Before CO{sub 2} gas can be sequestered from power plants and other point sources, it must be captured. CO{sub 2} is also routinely separated and captured as a by-product from industrial processes such as synthetic ammonia production, H{sub 2} production, and limestone calcination. Then CO{sub 2} must be compressed into liquid form and transported to the geological sequestration site. Many power plants and other large emitters of CO{sub 2} are located near geological formations that are amenable to CO{sub 2} sequestration.

Xu, Tianfu



Structural Geology and Geomechanics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The teaching and research program, Structural Geology and Geomechanics at Stanford University, concentrates on brittle deformation in the earth's crust as well as fracturing and faulting of rocks under ductile conditions. Researchers can learn about the group's research which effectively unites field observations, laboratory experiments, and theoretical modeling. Scientists can learn about the program's software such as the Poly3Dinv which uses triangular dislocations to solve linear inverse problems. The site also publicizes the Stanford Rock Fracture Project, which researches rock fractures, crustal deformation, and fluid flow.


Mineral resources, geologic structure, and landform surveys  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of ERTS-1 imagery for mineral resources, geologic structure, and landform surveys is discussed. Four categories of ERTS imagery application are defined and explained. The types of information obtained by the various multispectral band scanners are analyzed. Samples of land use maps and tectoning and metallogenic models are developed. It is stated that the most striking features visible on ERTS imagery are regional lineaments, or linear patterns in the topography, which reflect major fracture zones extending upward from the basement of the earth.

Lattman, L. H.



Wisconsin Geological and Natural History Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Wisconsin Geological and Natural History Survey, as part of the University of Wisconsin-Extension, is "an interdisciplinary organization that conducts natural resources surveys and research to produce information used for decision making, problem solving, planning, management, development, and education". The site offers downloadable online publications such as annual groundwater level summaries and understanding Wisconsin township, range, and section land descriptions. It also contains lists of other publications and various maps of Wisconsin, all of which can be ordered by mail. Information on the history of the survey and an interesting section that includes pictures and descriptions of karst (limestone) development and features is also available.



Understanding the forbidden pitch and assist feature placement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optical proximity effect is a well-known phenomenon in photolithography. Such an effect results from the structural interaction between the main feature and the neighboring features. Recent observations have shown that such structural interactions not only affect the critical dimension of the main feature at the image plane, but also the exposure latitude of the main feature. In this paper, it

Xuelong Shi; Stephen Hsu; J. Fung Chen; Michael Hsu; Robert J. Socha; Mircea V. Dusa



Understanding the forbidden pitch phenomenon and assist feature placement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optical proximity effect is a well-known phenomenon in photolithography. Such an effect results from the structural interaction between the main feature and the neighboring features. Recent observations have shown that such structural interactions not only affect the critical dimension of the main feature at the image plane, but also the exposure latitude of the main feature. In this paper, it

Xuelong Shi; Stephen Hsu; J. Fung Chen; Chungwei Michael Hsu; Robert J. Socha; Mircea V. Dusa



Geology Fieldnotes: Cape Lookout National Seashore, North Carolina  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Park Service (NPS) website highlights the geology of Cape Lookout National Seashore in North Carolina. This seashore consists of 55 miles of barrier islands with dunes and salt marshes. The formation of these features is discussed at this site. There are maps and photos, and links for visitor information and more resources.


Geology Fieldnotes: Golden Gate National Recreation Area, California  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Park Service (NPS) website discusses the geology of Golden Gate National Recreation Area in California. Access to this area as well as the many valleys, forests, and water features are discussed. There are park maps and photos, as well as links to visitor information and additional resources.


Maine Humanities Council  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Formed as a private nonprofit organization, the Maine Humanities Council (MHC) "promotes strong communities and informed citizens by providing Mainers with opportunities to explore the power and pleasure of ideas." Their work is supported by volunteer board members, and their projects include programs to promote reading and writing, guest lectures around the state, and online newsletters and discussion groups. In the "Programs" area, visitors can learn about these programs, and educators can check out the resources created especially for them. The "Connections" area contains links to their thoughtful blog, their "Humanities on Demand" podcasts, and their periodic newsletter "Synapse", which deals with medicine and literature. The podcasts are quite fun, and they include "Franco-American Women's Words in Maine" and a talk by Professor Dianne Sadoff of Rutgers University on Middlemarch, by George Eliot.


Stars main sequence  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What happens during most of a star's life? This activity page, part of an interactive laboratory series for grades 8-12, introduces students to the main sequence phase of a star's existence. This phase is where a star lives out the majority of its life. In an interactive lab activity, students predict the length of the main sequence for four different stars. The predictions can be printed for later evaluation. Students view diagrams that compare the size and color of stars to human lives, and equilibrium within a star is stressed. Finally, students choose between two hypotheses about the length of life of a star. Students write a one- to three-sentence explanation for their hypotheses. The correct answer is provided. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

University of Utah. Astrophysics Science Project Integrating Research and Education (ASPIRE)



COBRA Main Engine Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The COBRA (CO-Optimized Booster for Reusable Applications) project include the following: 1. COBRA main engine project team. 2. COBRA and RLX cycles selected. 3. COBRA proto-type engine approach enables mission success. 4. COBRA provides quick, low cost demo of cycle and technologies. 5. COBRA cycle I risk reduction supports. 6. Achieving engine safety. 6. RLX cycle I risk reduction supports. 7. Flight qualification. 9. Life extension engine testing.

Snoddy, Jim; Sides, Steve; Lyles, Garry M. (Technical Monitor)



First Indications of Intraplate Deformations in Central Germany from Reprocessed GNSS Time Series and Geological Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Six years of GPS data have been reprocessed in ITRF2008 for a regional SAPOS CORS network in the federal state of Hesse with 25 stations and some anchor sites of IGS and EPN to derive accurate and consistent coordinate time series. Based on daily network solutions coordinate time series parameters like velocities, offsets in case of antenna changes and annual periodic variation have been estimated. The estimation process includes the fitting of a sophisticated stochastic model for the time series which accounts for inherent time correlation. The results are blended with geological data to verify information from geology on potential recent deformations by the geodetic analyses. Besides of some information on the reprocessing of the GNSS the results the stochastics of the derived velocity field will be discussed in detail. Special emphasis will be on the intra-plate deformation: for the horizontal component the residual velocity field after removal of a plate rotation model is presented, while for the vertical velocities the datum-induced systematic effect is removed in order to analyze the remaining vertical motion. The residual velocity field is then matched with the geology for Hesse. Correlation of both vertical and horizontal movements with major geological structures reveals good accordance. SAPOS stations with documented significant subsidence are mainly located in tertiary Graben structures such as the Lower Hessian Basin (station Kassel), the Wetterau (station Kloppenheim) or the Upper Rhine Graben (Station Darmstadt). From the geological point of view these structures are supposed to be subsiding ones. Other major geological features, i.e. the Rhenish Shield as well as the East Hessian Bunter massif are supposed to be affected by recent uplift. SAPOS stations located in these regions match the assumed movement (e.g. Weilburg, Wiesbaden, Bingen, Fulda). Furthermore SAPOS-derived horizontal movements seem to trace tectonic movements in the region, i.e. extension along the tertiary Graben structures, including a sinistral strike slip component. However, a more detailed analysis is needed to confirm the link between detected movement and geodynamic processes.

Becker, Matthias; Leinen, Stefan; Läufer, Gwendolyn; Lehné, Rouwen



Bedrock geologic Map of the Central Block Area, Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

Bedrock geologic maps form the foundation for investigations that characterize and assess the viability of the potential high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. As such, this map focuses on the central block at Yucca Mountain, which contains the potential repository site. The central block is a structural block of Tertiary volcanic rocks bound on the west by the Solitario Canyon Fault, on the east by the Bow Ridge Fault, to the north by the northwest-striking Drill Hole Wash Fault, and on the south by Abandoned Wash. Earlier reconnaissance mapping by Lipman and McKay (1965) provided an overview of the structural setting of Yucca Mountain and formed the foundation for selecting Yucca Mountain as a site for further investigation. They delineated the main block-bounding faults and some of the intrablock faults and outlined the zoned compositional nature of the tuff units that underlie Yucca Mountain. Scott and Bonk (1984) provided a detailed reconnaissance geologic map of favorable area at Yucca Mountain in which to conduct further site-characterization studies. Of their many contributions, they presented a detailed stratigraphy for the volcanic units, defined several other block-bounding faults, and outlined numerous intrablock faults. This study was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy Yucca Mountain Project to provide a detailed (1:6,000-scale) bedrock geologic map for the area within and adjacent to the potential repository area at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada. Prior to this study, the 1:12,000-scale map of Scott and Bonk (1984) was the primary source of bedrock geologic data for the Yucca Mountain Project. However, targeted detailed mapping within the central block at Yucca Mountain revealed structural complexities along some of the intrablock faults that were not evident at 1:12,000 (Scott and Bonk, 1984). As a result, this study was undertaken to define the character and extent of the dominant structural features in the vicinity of the potential repository. In addition to structural considerations, ongoing subsurface excavation and geologic mapping within the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), development of a three-dimensional-framework geologic model, and borehole investigations required use of a consistent stratigraphic system to facilitate surface to underground comparisons. The map units depicted in this report correspond as closely as possible to the proposed stratigraphic nomenclature by Buesch and others (1996), as described.

W.C. Day; C. Potter; D. Sweetkind; R.P. Dickerson; C.A. San Juan



Assessment of the geothermal resources of Indiana based on existing geologic data  

SciTech Connect

The general geology of Indiana is presented including the following: physiography, stratigraphy, and structural features. The following indicators of geothermal energy are discussed: heat flow and thermal gradient, geothermal occurrences, seismic activity, geochemistry, and deep sedimentary basins. (MHR)

Vaught, T.L.



Minerals yearbook, 1991: Maine. Annual report  

SciTech Connect

The report has been prepared under a Memorandum of Understanding between the U.S. Bureau of Mines, U.S. Department of the Interior, and the Maine Geological Survey for collecting information on all nonfuel minerals. The value of Maine's nonfuel mineral production in 1991 was $41.3 million, a $21.2 million decrease compared with that of 1990. Decreases in output and value were reported for most of the nonfuel minerals produced. The largest decreases in both production and value were for construction sand and gravel and dimension stone. Smaller decreases were estimated for both masonry and portland cement. Other mineral commodities produced in the State included common clay, gemstones, and peat. Perlite was shipped in from out-of-State and expanded at one plant in the State.

Harrison, D.K.; Anderson, W.; Foley, M.E.



Geologic Mapping of Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Planetary geologic mapping involves integrating a terrestrial-based understanding of surface and subsurface processes and mapping principles to investigate scientific questions. Mars mappers must keep in mind that physical processes, such as wind and flowing water on Mars, are or were different from terrestrial processes because the planetary atmospheres have changed differently over time. Geologic mapping of Mars has traditionally been done by hand using overlays on photomosaics of Viking Orbiter and Mariner images. Photoclinometry and shadow measurements have been used to determine elevations, and the distribution and size of craters have been used to determine the relative ages of surfaces- more densely cratered surfaces are older. Some mappers are now using computer software (ranging from Photoshop to ArcInfo) to facilitate mapping, though their applications must be carefully executed so that registration of the images remains true. Images and some mapping results are now available on the internet, and new data from recent missions to Mars (Pathfinder and Surveyor) will offer clarifying information to mapping efforts. This paper consists chiefly of pictures and diagrams.

Price, Katherine H.



General features  

SciTech Connect

The San Andreas fault system, a complex of faults that display predominantly large-scale strike slip, is part of an even more complex system of faults, isolated segments of the East Pacific Rise, and scraps of plates lying east of the East Pacific Rise that collectively separate the North American plate from the Pacific plate. This chapter briefly describes the San Andreas fault system, its setting along the Pacific Ocean margin of North America, its extent, and the patterns of faulting. Only selected characteristics are described, and many features are left for depictions on maps and figures.

Wallace, R.E.



Analysis of seismological and geological observations formoderate-size earthquakes: the Colfiorito Fault System(Central Apennines, Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To contribute to the understanding of the relationships between moderate earthquakes and the faults that are recognizable in the geological record, we analysed seismological and geological data related to the 1997-1998 Umbria-Marche (Central Italy) earthquake swarm. The seismological recordings, collected by local networks, allowed accurate location of about 1000 events, whereas the geological field observations provided a picture of the structural features and the ground-surface deformations. We also re-examined and used some published data and results, mostly about the fault plane solutions and the geology. On the basis of earthquake locations, fault plane solutions, and geological mapping we explored the possible correlation between the earthquake causative fault planes and the normal faults exposed in the area. Our results show that the two main shocks that occurred on 1997 September 26 (MW=5.7 and MW=6.0) originated on the same structure, reactivating at depth the Colfiorito normal faults. Neither rupture propagated up to the ground surface, but both triggered gravitational sliding that occurred along pre-existing fault scarps. The earthquake that occurred on 1997 October 14 (MW=5.6) originated on another fault branch at a much shallower depth. In spite of its lower magnitude, this earthquake produced tectonic ruptures where the fault plane projects to the surface in an area where no faults were previously mapped. By comparing the palaeostress reconstruction, based on slickenside lineation analysis, and the focal mechanism solutions, we suggest a possible correlation between the long-term (Early Middle Pleistocene) cumulative effects of the Colfiorito Fault System and the short-term behaviour of the fault planes observed during this earthquake swarm, favouring the idea of a seismogenic source producing clustered moderate-size earthquakes rather than large events scattered in time.

Barba, Salvatore; Basili, Roberto



Geological assessing of urban environments with a systematic mapping survey: The 1:5000 urban geological map of Catalonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ground features of urban areas and the geologic processes that operate on them are, in general, strongly altered from their natural original condition as a result of anthropogenic activities. Assessing the stability of the ground, the flooding areas, and, the health risk as a consequence of soil pollution, are, among others, fundamental topics of urban areas that require a

Miquel Vilà; Roser Pi; Jordi Cirés; Ana de Paz; Xavier Berástegui



Geology 450: Introduction to Field Geology Spring 2014  

E-print Network

and no final exam. You will be graded on the exercises, field notes and geologic maps produced throughout the semester Grades Grades will be based on: 1) note books 20%, 2) geologic maps 60%, 3) exercises 20% 90 14 4/18 Hicks Dome 15 4/25 Dog Town Hollow Pere Marquette SP (Camp) 5/2 DTH

Nickrent, Daniel L.


Geologic Map of the Central Marysvale Volcanic Field, Southwestern Utah  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The geologic map of the central Marysvale volcanic field, southwestern Utah, shows the geology at 1:100,000 scale of the heart of one of the largest Cenozoic volcanic fields in the Western United States. The map shows the area of 38 degrees 15' to 38 degrees 42'30' N., and 112 degrees to 112 degrees 37'30' W. The Marysvale field occurs mostly in the High Plateaus, a subprovince of the Colorado Plateau and structurally a transition zone between the complexly deformed Great Basin to the west and the stable, little-deformed main part of the Colorado Plateau to the east. The western part of the field is in the Great Basin proper. The volcanic rocks and their source intrusions in the volcanic field range in age from about 31 Ma (Oligocene) to about 0.5 Ma (Pleistocene). These rocks overlie sedimentary rocks exposed in the mapped area that range in age from Ordovician to early Cenozoic. The area has been deformed by thrust faults and folds formed during the late Mesozoic to early Cenozoic Sevier deformational event, and later by mostly normal faults and folds of the Miocene to Quaternary basin-range episode. The map revises and updates knowledge gained during a long-term U.S. Geological Survey investigation of the volcanic field, done in part because of its extensive history of mining. The investigation also was done to provide framework geologic knowledge suitable for defining geologic and hydrologic hazards, for locating hydrologic and mineral resources, and for an understanding of geologic processes in the area. A previous geologic map (Cunningham and others, 1983, U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Investigations Series I-1430-A) covered the same area as this map but was published at 1:50,000 scale and is obsolete due to new data. This new geologic map of the central Marysvale field, here published as U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Investigations Series I-2645-A, is accompanied by gravity and aeromagnetic maps of the same area and the same scale (Campbell and others, 1999, U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Investigations Series I-2645-B).

Rowley, Peter D.; Cunningham, Charles G.; Steven, Thomas A.; Workman, Jeremiah B.; Anderson, John J.; Theissen, Kevin M.



Essentials of Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From subduction to the world of hot spot volcanoes, this online resource for students and teachers of geology will please users with its fun and useful animations, crossword puzzles, and well-written articles. The site was designed to complement a textbook created by W.W. Norton, but many of the materials can be used as stand-alone exercises. Visitors will want to begin by looking through the visually enticing animations, which cover the Earth's magnetic field, the spread of the sea floor, and the formation of ocean crust. All told, there are over sixty animations, and teachers may wish to recommend them to students. Additionally, visitors should note that they can also browse through the materials offered on the site by clicking on the chapter listings located near the top of the screen. It's hard to pass up a crossword puzzle, and visitors may find themselves spending more time there than at any other part of the site.

Marshak, Stephen



Geology of Europa  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Europa is a rocky object of radius 1565 km (slightly smaller than Earth s moon) and has an outer shell of water composition estimated to be of order 100 km thick, the surface of which is frozen. The total volume of water is about 3 x 10(exp 9) cubic kilometers, or twice the amount of water on Earth. Moreover, like its neighbor Io, Europa experiences internal heating generated from tidal flexing during its eccentric orbit around Jupiter. This raises the possibility that some of the water beneath the icy crust is liquid. The proportion of rock to ice, the generation of internal heat, and the possibility of liquid water make Europa unique in the Solar System. In this chapter, we outline the sources of data available for Europa (with a focus on the Galileo mission), review previous and on-going research on its surface geology, discuss the astrobiological potential of Europa, and consider plans for future exploration.

Greeley, R.; Chyba, C.; Head, J. W.; McCord, T.; McKinnon, W. B.; Pappalardo, R. T.



Geology orbiter comparison study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Instrument requirements of planetary geology orbiters were examined with the objective of determining the feasibility of applying standard instrument designs to a host of terrestrial targets. Within the basic discipline area of geochemistry, gamma-ray, X-ray fluorescence, and atomic spectroscopy remote sensing techniques were considered. Within the discipline area of geophysics, the complementary techniques of gravimetry and radar were studied. Experiments using these techniques were analyzed for comparison at the Moon, Mercury, Mars and the Galilean satellites. On the basis of these comparative assessments, the adaptability of each sensing technique was judged as a basic technique for many targets, as a single instrument applied to many targets, as a single instrument used in different mission modes, and as an instrument capability for nongeoscience objectives.

Cutts, J. A. J.; Blasius, K. R.; Davis, D. R.; Pang, K. D.; Shreve, D. C.



Exhumation of Greater Himalayan rock along the main central thrust in Nepal: Implications for channel flow  

USGS Publications Warehouse

South-vergent channel flow from beneath the Tibetan Plateau may have played an important role in forming the Himalaya. The possibility that Greater Himalayan rocks currently exposed in the Himalayan Fold-Thrust Belt flowed at mid-crustal depths before being exhumed is intriguing, and may suggest a natural link between orogenic processes operating under the Tibetan Plateau and in the fold-thrust belt. Conceptual and numeric models for the Himalayan-Tibetan Orogen currently reported in the literature do an admirable job of replicating many of the observable primary geological features and relationships. However, detailed observations from Greater Himalayan rocks exposed in the fold-thrust belt's external klippen, and from Lesser Himalayan rocks in the proximal footwall of the Main Central Thrust, suggest that since Early Miocene time, it may be more appropriate to model the evolution of the fold-thrust belt using the critical taper paradigm. This does not exclude the possibility that channel flow and linked extrusion of Greater Himalayan rocks may have occurred, but it places important boundaries on a permissible time frame during which these processes may have operated. ?? The Geological Society of London 2006.

Robinson, D. M.; Pearson, O. N.



Photomicrography in the Geological Sciences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the conversion of a standard biological brightfield microscope for examination of thin sections and characterize, in detail, the use of both black and white and color photomicrography in the geological sciences. Several illustrative examples on the use of transmitted and reflected polarized-light microscopy to solve geological problems…

Davidson, Michael W.



Facial features  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

THE STATE STANDARDS for this project are as follows; STANDARD 1 Making: Students will assemble and create works of art by experiencing a variety of art media and by learning the art elements and principles. STANDARD 2 Perceiving: Students will find meaning by analyzing, criticizing, and evaluating works of art. STANDARD 3 Expressing: Students will create meaning in art. STANDARD 4 Contextualizing: Students will find meaning in works of art through settings and other modes of learning. Below is a list of useful site to help in drawing facial features, along with useful tutorial and resources. QUICK TEST (test your ability and knowledge) * Draw a circle. * Draw a light vertical line at the center of the circle. * Make light horizontal dashes a little above the center of the circle. ...

Allan, Mrs.



The Geology of Vesta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Dawn spacecraft collected over 28,000 images and a wealth of spectral data of Vesta's surface. These data enable analysis of Vesta's diverse geology including impact craters of all sizes and unusual shapes, a variety of ejecta blankets, large troughs, impact basins, enigmatic dark material, and considerable evidence for mass wasting and surface alteration processes [1,2,3]. Two large impact basins, Veneneia underlying the larger Rheasilvia basin dominate the south polar region [1,4]. The depression surrounding Vesta's south pole was formed by two giant impacts about one billion and two billion years ago [4,5]. Vesta's global tectonic patterns (two distinct sets of large troughs orthogonal to the axes of the impacts) strongly correlate with the locations of the two south polar impact basins, and were likely created by their formation [1,6]. Numerous unusual asymmetric impact craters and ejecta indicate the strong influence of topographic slope in cratering on Vesta [1]. One type of gully in crater walls is interpreted to form by dry granular flow, but another type is consistent with transient water flow [7]. Very steep topographic slopes near to the angle of repose are common; slope failures make resurfacing due to impacts and their associated gravitational slumping and seismic effects an important geologic process on Vesta [1]. Clusters of pits in combination with impact melt [8] suggest the presence of volatile materials underlying that melt in some crater floors. Relatively dark material of uncertain origin is intermixed in the regolith layers and partially excavated by younger impacts yielding dark outcrops, rays and ejecta [1,9]. Vesta's surface is reworked by intense impacts and thus much younger than the formation of its crust [2,5].

Jaumann, R.; Russell, C. T.; Raymond, C. A.; Pieters, C. M.; Yingst, R. A.; Williams, D. A.; Buczkowski, D. L.; Krohn, K.; Otto, K.; Stephan, K.; DeSanctis, M. C.; Garry, W. B.; Blewett, D.



Geological Storage as a Carbon Mitigation Option  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the most promising approaches for carbon mitigation involves essentially-zero-emission power plants based on carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology. The key to any CCS strategy is a suitable choice for large-scale storage of the captured CO2. While a variety of storage options are being studied, geological storage appears to be most viable. Injection of captured CO2 into deep geological formations leads to a fairly complex flow system involving multiple fluid phases, a range of potential geochemical reactions, and mass transfer across phase interfaces. General models of this system are computationally demanding, with the problem made more difficult by the large range of spatial scales involved as well as the importance of local features for both fluid flow and geochemical reactions. An especially important local feature involves leakage pathways, with one example being abandoned wells associated with the century-long legacy of oil and gas exploration and production. Such pathways also have large uncertainties associated with their properties. Therefore, inclusion of leakage in the storage analysis requires resolution of multiple scales and incorporation of large uncertainties. Furthermore, when implemented at full scale, geological storage will induce subsurface perturbations that extend across entire basins. Taken together, these requirements render standard numerical simulators ineffective due to their excessive computational demands. A series of physically-motivated simplifications to the governing equations can ultimately render the system solvable by analytical or semi-analytical methods. These solutions, while restrictive in their assumptions, allow for large-scale analysis of leakage in a probabilistic framework and can provide a basis for regulatory policies.

Celia, M. A.; Nordbotten, J. M.; Gasda, S. E.



Deep Time: The Geologic Time Scale  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page examines the issues involved in teaching students about the geologic time scale. There are suggestions for tackling troublesome issues in class as well as activities that can be used to clarify how geoscientists look at deep time. Five main concepts with which students struggle when thinking about Deep Time are addressed here: imagining or comprehending big numbers; the difference between relative and numerical age; the concept of "timescales"; the ways we know about the age of the Earth and other materials; and resolving perceived issues with religious beliefs.

Wenner, Jennifer M.



Working towards a European Geological Data Infrastructure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increasing importance of geological information for policy, regulation and business needs at European and international level has been recognized by the European Parliament and the European Commission, who have called for the development of a common European geological knowledge base. The societal relevance of geoscience data/information is clear from many current issues such as shale gas exploration (including environmental impacts), the availability of critical mineral resources in a global economy, management and security with regard to geohazards (seismic, droughts, floods, ground stability), quality of (ground-)water and soil and societal responses to the impacts of climate change. The EGDI-Scope project responds to this, aiming to prepare an implementation plan for a pan-European Geological Data Infrastructure (EGDI), under the umbrella of the FP7 e- Infrastructures program. It is envisaged that the EGDI will build on geological datasets and models currently held by the European Geological Surveys at national and regional levels, and will also provide a platform for datasets generated by the large number of relevant past, ongoing and future European projects which have geological components. With European policy makers and decision makers from (international) industry as the main target groups (followed by research communities and the general public) stakeholder involvement is imperative to the successful realization and continuity of the EGDI. With these ambitions in mind, the presentation will focus on the following issues, also based on the first results and experiences of the EGDI-Scope project that started mid-2012: • The organization of stakeholder input and commitment connected to relevant 'use cases' within different thematic domains; a number of stakeholder representatives is currently involved, but the project is open to more extensive participation; • A large number of European projects relevant for data delivery to EGDI has been reviewed; what can we conclude and what is the way forward? • The project has evaluated relevant existing interoperable infrastructures revealing a typology of infrastructures that may be useful models for the EGDI; • Planning for the EGDI also need to be integrated with other relevant international initiatives and programs such as GMES, GEO and EPOS, and with legally binding regulations like INSPIRE. The outcomes of these relevant evaluations and activities will contribute to the implementation plan for the EGDI including the prioritization of relevant datasets and the most important functional, technical (design, use of standards), legal and organizational requirements.

van der Krogt, Rob; Hughes, Richard; Pedersen, Mikael; Serrano, Jean-Jacques; Lee, Kathryn A.; Tulstrup, Jørgen; Robida, François



Overview of Venus geology: Preliminary description of terrain units for Venus global geological mapping  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Venus terrain units can be categorized on the basis of morphology, reflectivity, backscatter, roughness, and emissivity. Morphology can be inferred from Magellan left-looking nominal incidence angle image mosaics, right-looking coverage, and more limited left-looking stereo. The typical resolution is about 300 m down to about 120 m near periapsis in the cycle one nominal coverage. The scale of geologic mapping governs definition of mappable terrain units. Initial global mapping is being compiled at a scale of 1:50 million. At this scale, the smallest individual features that can be mapped are about 125 km. The categories of terrain types are plains, complex ridge terrain, features with morphology suggesting volcanic or volcano-tectonic origin, features interpreted to be tectonic in origin, crater units, and surficial units such as splotches and streaks. Brief descriptions of terrain units are provided.

Saunders, R. Stephen; Stofan, Ellen R.; Plaut, Jeffrey J.; Michaels, Gregory A.



TerraLuna: A CosmoQuest Adventure in Geology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The content of the session will focus on CosmoQuest’s TerraLuna unit, a comparative geology unit that uses authentic data to study the geology of the Moon and Earth. Inquiry activities will allow teachers to help their students compare crater formation and other surface features on the two bodies, comparing Moon features to similar structures on Earth. Links to the latest data from NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter will be introduced and hands- on activities will be featured as the basis for inquiry learning in elementary and middle level classrooms. Teachers will be introduced to citizen science projects that will enable their students to think like real scientists and engage in authentic scientific research, providing a useful service to the scientific community. Participation in the workshop introduces teachers to the CosmoQuest website, which includes a suite of citizen science activities. The site provides teachers with an online community dedicated to science inquiry and educational support.

Gay, Pamela; Bracey, Georgia; Gugliucci, Nicole


The Essence of Urban Environmental Geology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides 60 quotations relating to urban geology, geologic hazards, engineering aspects of land use, urban resources, and geology and regional planning which have proven useful in developing central themes for lecture topics and student projects. (SL)

McKenzie, Garry D.; And Others



Geological Sciences Jeffrey D. Keith, Chair  

E-print Network

, plate tectonics, geochemistry, geophysics, paleontology, environmental geology, petroleum geology, hydrogeology, paleoclimatology, and planetary geology. Career Opportunities Graduates have the opportunity. Tectonism and plutonism in the northeast Appalachians. Trips to more distant localities (e.g., Italy, Great

Hart, Gus


Geological Survey Research 1966, Chapter B  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This collection of 43 short papers is the first published chapter of 'Geological Survey Research 1966.' The papers report on scientific and economic results of current work by members of the Conservation, Geologic, Topographic, and Water Resources Divisions of the U.S. Geological Survey. Chapter A, to be published later in the year, will present a summary of significant results of work done during fiscal year 1966, together with lists of investigations in progress, reports published, cooperating agencies, and Geological Survey offices. 'Geological Survey Research 1966' is the seventh volume of the annual series Geological Survey Research. The six volumes already published are listed below, with their series designations. Geological Survey Research 1960-Prof. Paper 400 Geological Survey Research 1961-Prof. Paper 424 Geological Survey Research 1962-Prof. Paper 450 Geological Survey Research 1963-Prof. Paper 475 Geological Survey Research 1964-Prof. Paper 501 Geological Survey Research 1965-Prof. Paper 525



Rocks and Geology in the San Francisco Bay Region  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This guide provides illustrated descriptions of 46 common and important varieties of igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rock found in the San Francisco Bay region. Rock types are described in context of their identification qualities, how they form, and where they occur. The guide also provides a discussion of regional geology, plate tectonics, the rock cycle, the significance of the selected rock types in relation to both earth history and the impact of mineral resources on the development in the region. There is also information on where rocks, fossils, and geologic features can be visited on public lands or in association with public displays in regional museums, park visitor centers, and other public facilities.

Stoffer, Phil


Selection of Image Features for Robot Vision System  

Microsoft Academic Search

In robot visual servo the system performance has a close relationship with image features. This paper mainly discusses two kinds of image features. One is geometrical moments, and the other is eigen-space transform features, which can be regarded as a kind of overall image features. Using overall features may avoid designing artificial marks on the objects, and make image feature

Qingjie Zhao; Hongbin Deng; Wenyao Zhang; Aixia Mu



Two different approaches to enhance learning in geological field trips by the use of modern technology  

E-print Network

with geological field trips. Field trips are essential to allow for a fuller understanding of geological. Furthermore, field trips represent some fundamental educational principles essential to enhance and support UK and Norway. The North Sea oil and gas reservoirs comprise mainly Jurassic and Triassic sandstones

Fossen, Haakon


GeoSciML version 3: A GML application for geologic information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After 2 years of testing and development, XML schema for GeoSciML version 3 are now ready for application deployment. GeoSciML draws from many geoscience data modelling efforts to establish a common suite of feature types to represent information associated with geologic maps (materials, structures, and geologic units) and observations including structure data, samples, and chemical analyses. After extensive testing and use case analysis, in December 2008 the CGI Interoperability Working Group (IWG) released GeoSciML 2.0 as an application schema for basic geological information. GeoSciML 2.0 is in use to deliver geologic data by the OneGeology Europe portal, the Geological Survey of Canada Groundwater Information Network (wet GIN), and the Auscope Mineral Resources portal. GeoSciML to version 3.0 is updated to OGC Geography Markup Language v3.2, re-engineered patterns for association of element values with controlled vocabulary concepts, incorporation of ISO19156 Observation and Measurement constructs for representing numeric and categorical values and for representing analytical data, incorporation of EarthResourceML to represent mineral occurrences and mines, incorporation of the GeoTime model to represent GSSP and stratigraphic time scale, and refactoring of the GeoSciML namespace to follow emerging ISO practices for decoupling of dependencies between standardized namespaces. These changes will make it easier for data providers to link to standard vocabulary and registry services. The depth and breadth of GeoSciML remains largely unchanged, covering the representation of geologic units, earth materials and geologic structures. ISO19156 elements and patterns are used to represent sampling features such as boreholes and rock samples, as well as geochemical and geochronologic measurements. Geologic structures include shear displacement structures (brittle faults and ductile shears), contacts, folds, foliations, lineations and structures with no preferred orientation (e.g. 'miarolitic cavities'). The Earth material package allows for the description of both individual components, such as minerals, and compound materials, such as rocks or unconsolidated materials. Provision is made for alteration, weathering, metamorphism, particle geometry, fabric, and petrophysical descriptions. Mapped features describe the shape of the geological features using standard GML geometries, such as polygons, lines, points or 3D volumes. Geological events provide the age, process and environment of formation of geological features. The Earth Resource section includes features to represent mineral occurrences and mines and associated human activities independently. This addition allows description of resources and reserves that can comply with national and internationally accepted reporting codes. GeoSciML v3 is under consideration as the data model for INSPIRE annex 2 geologic reporting in Europe.

International Union of Geological Sciences., I. C.; Richard, S. M.



The Geologic Nitrogen Cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

N2 is the dominant gas in Earth's atmosphere, and has been so through the majority of the planet's history. Originally thought to only be cycled in significant amounts through the biosphere, it is becoming increasingly clear that a large degree of geologic cycling can occur as well. N is present in crustal rocks at 10s to 100s of ppm and in the mantle at 1s to perhaps 10s of ppm. In light of new data, we present an Earth-system perspective of the modern N cycle, an updated N budget for the silicate Earth, and venture to explain the evolution of the N cycle over time. In an fashion similar to C, N has a fast, biologically mediated cycle and a slower cycle driven by plate tectonics. Bacteria fix N2 from the atmosphere into bioavailable forms. N is then cycled through the food chain, either by direct consumption of N-fixing bacteria, as NH4+ (the primary waste form), or NO3- (the most common inorganic species in the modern ocean). Some organic material settles as sediment on the ocean floor. In anoxic sediments, NH4+ dominates; due to similar ionic radii, it can readily substitute for K+ in mineral lattices, both in sedimentary rocks and in oceanic lithosphere. Once it enters a subduction zone, N may either be volatilized and returned to the atmosphere at arc volcanoes as N2 or N2O, sequestered into intrusive igneous rocks (as NH4+?), or subducted deep into the mantle, likely as NH4+. Mounting evidence indicates that a significant amount of N may be sequestered into the solid Earth, where it may remain for long periods (100s m.y.) before being returned to the atmosphere/biosphere by volcanism or weathering. The magnitude fluxes into the solid Earth and size of geologic N reservoirs are poorly constrained. The size of the N reservoirs contained in the solid Earth directly affects the evolution of Earth's atmosphere. It is possible that N now sequestered in the solid Earth was once in the atmosphere, which would have resulted in a higher atmospheric pressure, and therefore strengthened the greenhouse effect by pressure broadening the absorption of greenhouse gases. In addition,the behaviour of N is dependent on redox conditions in the ocean, which have not been constant over time.

Johnson, B. W.; Goldblatt, C.



Monitoring of Geologically Stored Carbon Dioxide Using Atmospheric Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geosequestration (carbon capture and underground storage) is planned as a major global emissions reduction measure and is an essential part of several low CO2 emission energy technologies. The potential escape of the geologically stored CO2 to the atmosphere is one of the main concerns of project operators, regulators, the carbon trade and the public. Although rates of escape large enough

D. Etheridge; R. Leuning; A. Luhar; D. Spencer; S. Zegelin; C. Allison; P. Steele; M. Meyer; K. Dodds; S. Sharma



Engineering Geology of Rock Slopes in Highway Construction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rock slopes form part of the components in many highway or roadway constructions in hilly terrain. The key question with regard to rock slopes along highways is their long-term stability since failure of a rock slope can have serious consequences. The stability of a particular rock slope is governed by three main engineering geologic factors, namely: lithology, structure and weathering

B. K. Tan


Communicating geological hazards: assisting geoscientists in communication skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

Communication is important in all aspects of the geosciences but is more prominent in the area of geological hazards, as the main audience for scientific information often lacks a geoscience background; and because the implications of not communicating results effectively can be very serious. Geoscientists working in the hazards area face particular challenges in communicating the concepts of risk, probability

D. G. E. Liverman



Geol 102 Historical Geology The Geologic Timescale 2009  

E-print Network

Geol 102 Historical Geology The Geologic Timescale 2009 EON ERA PERIOD (Special Units) EPOCH Range.5 - 55.8 Mesozoic Cretaceous 145.5 - 65.5 Jurassic 199.6 - 145.5 Triassic 251.0 - 199.6 Paleozoic Permian 299.0 - 251.0 Carboniferous Pennsylvanian Sub-period 318.1 - 299.0 Mississippian Sub-period 359

Holtz Jr., Thomas R.


Geol 102 Historical Geology The Geologic Timescale 2011  

E-print Network

Geol 102 Historical Geology The Geologic Timescale 2011 EON ERA PERIOD (Special Units) EPOCH Range 65.5 - 55.8 Mesozoic Cretaceous 145.5 - 65.5 Jurassic 201.5 - 145.5 Triassic 252.3 - 201.5 Paleozoic Permian 299.0 - 252.3 Carboniferous Pennsylvanian Sub-period 318.1 - 299.0 Mississippian Sub-period 359

Holtz Jr., Thomas R.


Geol 102 Historical Geology The Geologic Timescale 2012  

E-print Network

Geol 102 Historical Geology The Geologic Timescale 2012 EON ERA PERIOD (Special Units) EPOCH Range.332 Oligocene 33.9 - 23.03 Eocene 56.0 - 33.9 Paleocene 66.0 - 56.0 Cretaceous 145.0 - 66.0 Jurassic 201.3 - 145.0 Triassic 252.2 - 201.3 Permian 298.9 - 252.2 Pennsylvanian Sub-period 323.2 - 298.9 Mississippian Sub-period

Holtz Jr., Thomas R.


Uranium geology of Bulgaria  

SciTech Connect

Three major uranium districts containing several deposits, plus 32 additional deposits, have been identified in Bulgaria, all of which are detailed geologically in this article. Most of the deposits are located in the West Balkan mountains, the western Rhodope mountains, and the Thracian Basin. A few deposits occur in the East Balkan, eastern Rhodope and Sredna Gora mountains. The types of deposits are sandstone, vein, volcanic, and surficial. Sandstone deposits are hosted in Permian and Tertiary sediments. In early 1992, fifteen deposits were being exploited, of which roughly 70 percent of the uranium produced was being recovered using in-situ leaching (ISL) methods. The remainder was being recovered by conventional underground mining, except for one small deposit that utilized open-pit methods. Fifteen other Bulgarian deposits had been exhausted, while five deposits were still in the exploration stage. Uranium production began in Bulgaria in 1946, and cumulative production through 1991 exceeded 100 million pounds equivalent U3O8. Current annual production is on the order of one million pounds equivalent U3O8, about 750 thousand pounds of which are recovered by ISL operations.

Not Available



Geology of Sarawak deep water and its surroundings  

SciTech Connect

A geological and geophysical investigation based primarily on seismic data indicates that four tectonostratigraphic zonations are recognizable in the Sarawak deep water and its surroundings. Zone A is a 7-8-km-thick Tertiary sedimentary basin in Sarawak deep water characterized by north-south-trending buried hills, extensional fault-bounded features, and local occurrences of compressional structures, and is separated from the northwest Sabah platform (zone B) by a major north-south-trending basin margin fault. This margin fault is distinct from the northwest-southeast transform fault known as Baram-Tinjar Line. The northwest Sabah platform, an attenuated continental crust that underwent late Mesozoic-Tertiary crystal stretching and rifting, is characterized by northeast-southwest-tending rift systems and generally up to 4 km-thick sedimentary cover. The leading edge of the northwest Sabah platform that was subducted beneath the northwest Borneo crust is marked by the Sabah trough (zone C). The western Sarawak deep water is occupied by a 13-km-thick, north-south-trending basin, the west Luconia delta province (zone D), demonstrating post mid-Miocene deltaic growth faults and toe-thrusts. Crustal offsets of the South China Sea Basin, north-south-trending basin margin fault between zones A and B, and extensional and compressional structures in zone A are evidence for north-south-directed transform motions leading to the development of the Sarawak deep-water Tertiary basin. Four main sedimentation phases describe the sedimentation history in Sarawak deep water and its surroundings. Oligocene-Miocene coastal plain sediments form the main hydrocarbon plays in the Sarawak deep water, and the numerous occurrences of amplitude anomalies clearly suggest a working hydrocarbon charge system.

Ismail, M.I.; Mohamad, A.M.; Ganesan, M.S.; Aziz, S.A. (Esso Production Malaysia Inc., Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia))



Main memory unit. [hybrid computers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of a main memory unit (MMU) for the space ultrareliable module computer (SUMC) model HTC is discussed. The design, fabrication, and test of basic memory modules (BMM) which were to be used in the design and construction of the MMU are described. The BMM was designed from state-of-the-art technologies which included large scale integration devices mounted and interconnected on a substrate to form a functional module to be utilized in the MMU development. A SUMC memory system design study is discussed which addressed itself to the BMM design and analysis to be conducted to determine the most efficient organization of the BMM in order to establish such modularity features as: word length expandability without redesign, high reliability, and fault tolerance. One MMU was designed, fabricated, tested, and delivered which will be electrical and mechanically compatible with the hybrid technology computer (HTC) model of the SUMC family of computers. The MMU will contain a storage capacity of 8196 36 bit words which includes a parity bit for each 8 bit byte of data.



Geologic Evidence of Internal Activity on Europa  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This six frame mosaic of Europa's surface shows a variety of interesting geologic features. The prominent 'X' near the center of the mosaic is the junction of two 'triplebands.' Triplebands are seen here to be made up of parallel sets of ridges, and can be traced for over 1,600 kilometers (off the image) across Europa's surface. Directly to the south of the 'X' is a 75 by 100 kilometer (km) area where the icy crust of Europa has been disrupted by activity from below. This activity could be motion in liquid water, convection in warm ice, or some other process. Many icy blocks, some as large as 10 km across, have been rafted from the edges of this zone. Also seen in this mosaic are various pits and domes that range in size from a few kilometers to nearly 20 km across. These geologic features provide evidence of thermal activity below Europa's surface at the time that the features formed.

These images were obtained by the Solid State Imaging (CCD) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft during its sixth orbit around Jupiter. North is to the top of the picture, with the sun illuminating the scene from the right. The center of this mosaic is located near 10 degrees north latitude, 271 degrees west longitude. The image, which is about 300 by 300 km across, was acquired at a resolution of 180 meters per picture element.

The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL



Use of submerged aquatic vegetation as habitat by young-of-the-year epibenthic fishes in shallow Maine nearshore waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Epibenthic fishes were collected with daytime beam trawl tows ( n = 1713) in three shallow (<10 m) habitats of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV), Zostera marina (eelgrass), Laminaria longicruris (kelp), Phyllophora sp. (algae), and unvegetated sandy/mud areas. We divided the Maine coast into three broad zones based upon geological features and sampled over five consecutive years; during April-November 2000 in the mid coast, in 2001 and 2002 along the south coast and in 2003 and 2004 along the eastern Maine coast. We quantified habitat use by eight economically important fish species ( Gadus morhua, Microgadus tomcod, Pollachius virens, Urophycis chuss, Urophycis tenuis, Osmerus mordax, Tautogolabrus adspersus, and Pseudopleuronectes americanus) and 10 other common epibenthic species ( n = 18?571). We identified the physical and biological variables most important in discriminating between habitats with and without individual fish species. Logistic regression models based on nearshore habitat characteristics were developed to predict the distribution of these species along the three zones representing broad geological regions of the Maine coast. Logistic regression models correctly classified individual fish species 58.7-97.1% of the time based on the temporal and physical habitat variables (month, temperature, salinity, and depth) and the presence-absence of submerged aquatic vegetation ( Zostera, Laminaria, or Phyllophora). Overall fish presence and economically important fish presence were correctly classified 61.1-79.8% and 66.0-73.6% of the time, respectively. The Maine shallow water fish community was composed primarily of young-of-the-year and juvenile fishes with all habitats functioning as facultative nursery areas. Presence of most fish species was positively associated with Zostera, Laminaria, and to a lesser extent, Phyllophora. This study provides direct evidence of shallow waters of the Gulf of Maine as critical facultative nursery habitat for juvenile G. morhua, M. tomcod, P. virens, U. tenuis, U. chuss, T. adspersus, O. mordax and P. americanus, and many ecologically important species.

Lazzari, M. A.; Stone, B. Z.



Geophysical and geological characterization of a hyper-extended domain: a point of view from Iberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The domain that lies between the continent and the oceanic crust has been intensely surveyed and studied in the last decades. However, this region is not yet well constrained and the nature of the basement is almost unknown. The research community identified numerous questions that remain unanswered concerning the structural and thermal history and the nature of its crust. Despite the progress made, especially from the academic community on the Iberia and Newfoundland conjugate margins, the access to geological information is scarce and interpretations remain challenging. The available geological models still cannot account for the observed complexity, restricting the interpretations from the potential field methods and modeling, which depend on the geology to be reliable From this point of view, the aim of this study was to characterize the hyper-extended domain along the Iberia margin, i.e, the region that lies between the necking zone and the first true oceanic crust, using geophysical data. Along this margin, important geological and potential field datasets are available and decades of research provide good constrains for a variety of studies. We attempted to define the limits of this marginal system, identifying the main geophysical characteristics related to the different tectonic domains. Map transformations were used in order to enhance the lateral contrasts in the density and/or magnetization pattern, along with forward modeling, providing information about crustal composition/thickness variations. Our results suggest that the zone of exhumed mantle may extend far beyond what has been previously inferred based on the magnetic anomaly modeling. Our interpretations suggest the existence of a region characterized by an embryonic-type of crust to the west of the J magnetic anomaly, which structure and composition does not fit the expected "classical" oceanic crust. The lithospheric structure which is associated to this anomaly seems to constitute a key feature and its origin may be related to a profound change in the magmatic (and geodynamic?) history of this margin. However, it may not mark the continent-ocean boundary, once there is no geophysical evidence of a compositional change related to this feature. If this statement is true, one important remaining question is how the breakup is documented and when it occurred?

Stanton, Natasha; Manatschal, Gianreto; Marcia, Maia; Sauter, Daniel; Vianna, Adriano



Background seismicity controlled by heterogeneity in subsurface geology: An example from the Wakayama region, southwest Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heterogeneity associated with shallow geologic structure is one of the factors to control the earthquake occurrence in the crust. Material properties properties such as strength, permeability, fluid content, and rheology, reflected from different lithological units may influence faulting behavior, thus seismicity. To explore the role of geologic heterogeneity into the seismicity, here we examine the spatial relationship between seismicity and geologic structure in the Wakayama region, northwestern Kii Peninsula, in which a significant high background rate of seismicity has been continuously recorded since the mid-1900 (~100 M?2.0 earthquakes recorded per year since 2000). Epicenters of numerous small earthquakes are located mainly on the Mesozoic metamorphic rocks and accretion units bounded by major tectonic lines, which dimension is roughly ~40 km x ~40 km (hereinafter 'Wakayama seismic zone'). Within the Wakayama seismic zone, we observe many E-W and ENE-WSW trending dense seismic clusters plotted by the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) catalog. To see finer internal hypocenter distribution particularly characteristics of the seismic clusters, we employed the hypoDD method (Waldhauser and Ellsworth, 2000) to relocate the JMA hypocenters. Our hypoDD catalog made the clouds of clusters much sharper and enables us to compare with the detail and local geologic structure. We found that most of the E-W trending seismic clusters possibly correspond to the E-W trending local scale geologic faults, folds, bedding planes, and schistosity. We also found that there are two ~15-km-long and ~5-km-wide aseismic zones that are well corresponding to mafic to ultramafic rocks including serpentine (called 'Mikabu zone'). The Mikabu zones are also well expressed by the high Bouguer anomalies (Geological Survey of Japan, 2013). Employing Talwani model (Talwani, 1959), we estimated that higher density ultra-mafic rocks extended up to 5 km deep from the surface. We interpret that either high shear modulus (stronger) or less ductile property of ultra-mafic rocks dominate aseismic behavior. Unlike such significant E-W striking features, however, well-determined fault plane solutions by JMA and the National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED) show NS-trending reverse faults corresponding to EW compression. To resolve the inconsistency between the seismic trend and dominant fault strike, we further sought the focal mechanisms for smaller earthquakes using waveform data (P-wave first motion polarites) recorded in the SATARN seismic network system of DPRI, Kyoto University. As a result, among the many reverse fault mechanisms, we found some amounts of strike-slip ones, which may associate with the visible EW-trending seismic clusters. A few normal faulting solutions also suggest that local heterogeneity in stress and strength along the N-E trending geologic features originated from subduction accretional tectonics.

Maeda, S.; Toda, S.; Katao, H.



ELSEVIER Marine Geology 158 (1999) 111123  

E-print Network

to the central Arctic Ocean with the icebreaker Oden carried out a geological=geophysical program focused mainly (1999) 111­123 pedition to the central Arctic during summer 1996 (Arctic Ocean-96), using the icebreaker

Jakobsson, Martin


Terrestrial and Lunar Geological Terminology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This section is largely a compilation of defining geological terms concepts. Broader topics, such as the ramifications for simulant design and in situ resource utilization, are included as necessary for context.

Schrader, Christian




E-print Network

DEPARTMENT OF GEOLOGY & GEOPHYSICS UNDERGRADUATE SURVIVAL MANUAL 2013-2014 SCHOOL OF OCEAN & EARTH at Manoa requirements 3 School of Ocean & Earth Science & Technology requirements 4 Departmental Student, stimulating opportunities for multidisciplinary discoveries of great intellectual and practical importance


Physical Geology on the Fringe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dr. Robert C. Thomas, The University of Montana Western Summary This 3-week field trip includes a 5-day field excursion that explores the geology and cultural history of the Khumbu region of Nepal, the famous ...


JiTT - Geologic Dating  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

1) How are zircons formed? 2) Which of the following statements describes relative geologic dating? a) the Triceratops and Tyrannosaurus rex went extinct at the same time b) dinosaurs came later than horseshoe ...

Guertin, Laura


Perspectives in geology. Circular 525  

SciTech Connect

The papers in this symposium present diverse perspectives in geology, mineral resources, paleontology, and environmental concerns. Papers within the scope of EDB have been entered individually into the data base. (ACR)

Not Available



Internet Community for Geological Engineers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A site containing multiple resources for geological engineers. Contains current news headlines in oil, energy, and mining; information on borehole breakouts, hydraulic fracturing, core discing, pressurized slot testing, nuclear high level waste disposal, and water infrastructure security.



Geological mapping of the moon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Compilation and labelling of geological and morphological charts on a scale of 1:1,000,000 are discussed with emphasis on the regions of Maria Tranquilitatis, Crisium, Fecunditatis, Humorum and Nukium as well as certain prominent craters.

Markov, M. S.; Sukhanov, A. L.; Trifonov, V. G.; Florenskiy, P. V.; Shkerin, L. M.



Carbon Capture and Geologic Storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper will briefly discuss carbon capture and storage options, mechanisms and costs. Risks from geologic storage risks will be addressed and the need for monitoring. Some current field studies will be described.

Myer, Larry R.



March 29, 2008 Operating Systems: Main Memory 1 Main Memory  

E-print Network

March 29, 2008 Operating Systems: Main Memory 1 Main Memory Chapter 8 #12;March 29, 2008 Operating Systems: Main Memory 2 Chapter Outline Background Contiguous Memory Allocation Paging Structure of the Page Table Segmentation #12;March 29, 2008 Operating Systems: Main Memory 3 Objectives To provide

Adam, Salah


Central American geologic map project  

SciTech Connect

During the Northeast Quadrant Panel meeting of the Circum-Pacific Map Project held in Mexico City, February 1985, Central American panel members proposed and adopted plans for compiling a geologic map of Central America, probably at a scale of 1:500,000. A local group with participants from each country was organized and coordinated by Rolando Castillo, director, Central American School of Geology, University of Costa Rica, for the geologic aspects, and Fernando Rudin, director, Geographic Institute of Costa Rica, for the topographic base. In 1956, the US Geological Survey published a geologic map of the region at a scale of 1:1 million. Subsequent topographic and geologic mapping projects have provided a large amount of new data. The entire area is now covered by topographic maps at a scale of 1:50,000, and these maps have been used in several countries as a base for geologic mapping. Another regional map, the Metallogenic Map of Central America (scale = 1:2 million), was published in 1969 by the Central American Research Institute for Industry (ICAITI) with a generalized but updated geologic base map. Between 1969 and 1980, maps for each country were published by local institutions: Guatemala-Belize at 1:500,000, Honduras at 1:500,000, El Salvador at 1:100,000, Nicaragua at 1:1 million, Costa Rica at 1:200,000, and Panama at 1:1 million. This information, in addition to that of newly mapped areas, served as the base for the Central American part of the Geologic-Tectonic Map of the Caribbean Region (scale = 1:2.5 million), published by the US Geological Survey in 1980, and also fro the Northeast Quadrant Maps of the Circum-Pacific Region. The new project also involves bathymetric and geologic mapping of the Pacific and Caribbean margins of the Central American Isthmus. A substantial amount of new information of the Middle America Trench has been acquired through DSDP Legs 67 and 84.

Dengo, G.



Paleoliquefaction studies in continental setting; geologic and geotechnical factors in interpretations and back-analysis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Paleoliquefaction research in the last 15 years has greatly improved our ability to interpret the paleoseismic record throughout some large geographic areas, especially in regions of infrequent large earthquakes. Paleoliquefaction studies have been used extensively in the central and eastern U.S. to assess seismic hazards, and could be used elsewhere to good purpose because paleoliquefaction studies in some field settings can reveal more than other methods, such as fault studies, about the prehistoric strength of shaking and earthquake magnitude. We present guidelines for the conduct of a paleoliquefaction study in continental deposits, mainly in terms of the geologic/seismologic setting and geotechnical properties, because a successful interpretation requires factors from all these disciplines. No single discipline suffices alone. Their interactions must be appreciated in order to understand why seismically induced liquefaction features are found in some locales and not in others. The guidelines that we present also relate to three primary issues for which liquefaction features are especially useful for interpretations: Where was the tectonic source? What was the strength of shaking? And what was the magnitude? In discussing these issues we focus on the following aspects of level-ground liquefaction: (1) mechanisms that form seismic liquefaction features in the field; (2) field settings where liquefaction features should be present if strong seismic shaking has occurred; (3) field settings where an absence of liquefaction features indicates an absence of strong seismic shaking; (4) how liquefaction features should be used to interpret the tectonic source locale of a paleo-earthquake; and (5) how effects of liquefaction can be used to back-calculate the strength of shaking as well as earthquake magnitude. Several methods are available to back-calculate the strength of shaking and earthquake magnitude, and the most commonly used methods are presented and critiqued. Our critique of these methods points out the uncertainties attending each. Paleoliquefaction/paleoseismic case histories are presented to illustrate potential uncertainties in back-calculations and procedures to overcome these uncertainties. Reasonable confidence in paleoseismic interpretation generally requires using multiple methods of back-analysis, and achieving similar results from each method. An alternate approach can be used for paleo-earthquakes that were large enough to have caused liquefaction in a variety of geologic settings, in which there were differing factors affecting surface ground motions and liquefaction susceptibility. For this situation, a method such as the cyclic-stress method can be used to make back-calculations that can be cross-checked with results from other settings.

Obermeier, Stephen F.; Pond, Eric C.; Olson, Scott M.; Green, Russell A.; Stark, Timothy D.; Mitchell, James K.



The Bureau of Economic Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The homepage of the Texas Bureau of Economic Geology provides links to information on the Bureau's research and industrial associates programs, its publications, news and events, and presentations by Bureau staff. A section for teachers and students includes on-line learning modules, which investigate earth science topics including soils, meteorites, floods and oil wells, as well as a coastal monitoring program for high school students and publications of general interest on Texas geology.


Central American geologic map project  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the Northeast Quadrant Panel meeting of the Circum-Pacific Map Project held in Mexico City, February 1985, Central American panel members proposed and adopted plans for compiling a geologic map of Central America, probably at a scale of 1:500,000. A local group with participants from each country was organized and coordinated by Rolando Castillo, director, Central American School of Geology,




Object detection using feature subset selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Past work on object detection has emphasized the issues of feature extraction and classification, however, relatively less attention has been given to the critical issue of feature selection. The main trend in feature extraction has been representing the data in a lower dimensional space, for example, using Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Without using an eective scheme to select an appropriate

Zehang Sun; George Bebis; Ronald Miller



Testing Geological Models with Terrestrial Antineutrino Flux Measurements  

E-print Network

Uranium and thorium are the main heat producing elements in the earth. Their quantities and distributions, which specify the flux of detectable antineutrinos generated by the beta decay of their daughter isotopes, remain unmeasured. Geological models of the continental crust and the mantle predict different quantities and distributions of uranium and thorium. Many of these differences are resolvable with precision measurements of the terrestrial antineutrino flux. This precision depends on both statistical and systematic uncertainties. An unavoidable background of antineutrinos from nuclear reactors typically dominates the systematic uncertainty. This report explores in detail the capability of various operating and proposed geo-neutrino detectors for testing geological models.

Dye, Steve



Testing Geological Models with Terrestrial Antineutrino Flux Measurements  

E-print Network

Uranium and thorium are the main heat producing elements in the earth. Their quantities and distributions, which specify the flux of detectable antineutrinos generated by the beta decay of their daughter isotopes, remain unmeasured. Geological models of the continental crust and the mantle predict different quantities and distributions of uranium and thorium. Many of these differences are resolvable with precision measurements of the terrestrial antineutrino flux. This precision depends on both statistical and systematic uncertainties. An unavoidable background of antineutrinos from nuclear reactors typically dominates the systematic uncertainty. This report explores in detail the capability of various operating and proposed geo-neutrino detectors for testing geological models.

Steve Dye



Geodynamics applications of continuum physics to geological problems  

SciTech Connect

This textbook deals with the fundamental physical processes necessary for an understanding of plate tectonics and a variety of geologic phenomena. The first chapter reviews plate tectonics; its main purpose is to provide physics, chemistry, and engineering students with the geologic background necessary to understand the applications throughout the rest of the book. It goes on to discuss in following chapters: stress and strain relationships in the earths crust; basic principles of linear elasticity and the lithosphere; heat conduction in the earths crust; principles of gravity measurements; problems involving mantle convection and post glacial rebound; rock mechanics and rheology; principles of fluid flow in porous media; and, fault displacement measurements.

Turcotte, D.L.; Schubert, G.



Behavior of North-Central Texas Paleozoic Aquifers: Geological Controls vs. Surface Water Control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Paleozoic formations and small associated aquifers (Paleozoic aquifers) of North-Central Texas could become a target as Barnett Shale gas play development progresses westward. Paleozoic aquifers lie west of the productive Trinity aquifer, but well yields from Paleozoic aquifers are much lower. Although many recharge features such as streams and lakes exist in the region, lower salinity groundwater (<5,000 ppm) in Paleozoic aquifers is found mostly in outcrop areas, and salinity increases rapidly downdip. The limited availability of fresh water in Paleozoic aquifers could be attributed to the low permeability of the geological formations, whose regional trends show transition westward to muddier facies downdip. On the other hand, high water flux through geological formations by surface water driven circulation could generate active shallow systems having limited interaction with downdip confined sections. Whether such active shallow systems exist in the Paleozoic aquifers is unknown but important in understanding the behavior of Paleozoic aquifers. With the ultimate goal of quantifying Paleozoic aquifer capacity and yield, the study addresses the following related questions: (1) Are there active shallow systems associated with Paleozoic aquifers? (2) How does the groundwater interact with surface water in this environment? and (3) Does groundwater production in this system capture appreciable surface water? Hydraulic properties of geological formations, groundwater flow, and surface water fluxes (precipitation, recharge, evapotranspiration, streamflow, etc.) are analyzed to evaluate the main processes driving the regional hydrology. Hydrology of the Trinity and Paleozoic aquifers is compared to explain the difference in behavior between the two neighboring aquifers. Expected findings include a quantification of groundwater availability of Paleozoic aquifers and an understanding of how surface water influences groundwater availability. The study will (1) quantify groundwater and surface water fluxes, (2) enhance our understanding of groundwater surface water interaction in the footprint of the Paleozoic aquifers, and (3) provide a basis for evaluating groundwater production potential.

Huang, Y.; Wolaver, B. D.; Nicot, J.; Mercier, J.; Hingst, M.; Breton, C.



Health benefits of geologic materials and geologic processes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The reemerging field of Medical Geology is concerned with the impacts of geologic materials and geologic processes on animal and human health. Most medical geology research has been focused on health problems caused by excess or deficiency of trace elements, exposure to ambient dust, and on other geologically related health problems or health problems for which geoscience tools, techniques, or databases could be applied. Little, if any, attention has been focused on the beneficial health effects of rocks, minerals, and geologic processes. These beneficial effects may have been recognized as long as two million years ago and include emotional, mental, and physical health benefits. Some of the earliest known medicines were derived from rocks and minerals. For thousands of years various clays have been used as an antidote for poisons. "Terra sigillata," still in use today, may have been the first patented medicine. Many trace elements, rocks, and minerals are used today in a wide variety of pharmaceuticals and health care products. There is also a segment of society that believes in the curative and preventative properties of crystals (talismans and amulets). Metals and trace elements are being used in some of today's most sophisticated medical applications. Other recent examples of beneficial effects of geologic materials and processes include epidemiological studies in Japan that have identified a wide range of health problems (such as muscle and joint pain, hemorrhoids, burns, gout, etc.) that may be treated by one or more of nine chemically distinct types of hot springs, and a study in China indicating that residential coal combustion may be mobilizing sufficient iodine to prevent iodine deficiency disease. ?? 2006 MDPI. All rights reserved.

Finkelman, R.B.



Geological Education Since GEO-Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

GEO-Study, an NSF-sponsored study, conducted by the American Geological Institute (1962-64) to examine the educational environment of 44 geology departments, initiating a change in United States geological education. Discusses the early years of development and study (emphasizing undergraduate geological education) and the last 10 years during…

Coash, John R.



Coastal Geological Materials  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ocean basins are filled with loose sediments, which are the products of erosion. This sediment originates inland and is fed into oceans by rivers. Debris from cliffs and other coastal landforms provides additional sediment volume, as do skeletons, shells, teeth of marine organisms, ash from volcanoes, and even asteroids. This interactive feature shows how these different parent materials influence the color and size of the sediments that compose a beach, and discusses the idea of sorting, how uniform or variable the grain sizes of the sediments are. A background essay and discussion questions are included.


Geological mysteries on Ganymede  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image shows some unusual features on the surface of Jupiter's moon, Ganymede. NASA's Galileo spacecraft imaged this region as it passed Ganymede during its second orbit through the Jovian system. The region is located at 31 degrees latitude, 186 degrees longitude in the north of Marius Regio, a region of ancient dark terrain, and is near the border of a large swathe of younger, heavily tectonised bright terrain known as Nippur Sulcus. Situated in the transitional region between these two terrain types, the area shown here contains many complex tectonic structures, and small fractures can be seen crisscrossing the image. North is to the top-left of the picture, and the sun illuminates the surface from the southeast. This image is centered on an unusual semicircular structure about 33 kilometers (20 miles) across. A 38 kilometer (24 miles) long, remarkably linear feature cuts across its northern extent, and a wide east-west fault system marks its southern boundary. The origin of these features is the subject of much debate among scientists analyzing the data. Was the arcuate structure part of a larger feature? Is the straight lineament the result of internal or external processes? Scientists continue to study this data in order to understand the surface processes occurring on this complex satellite.

The image covers an area approximately 80 kilometers (50 miles) by 52 kilometers (32 miles) across. The resolution is 189 meters (630 feet) per picture element. The images were taken on September 6, 1996 at a range of 9,971 kilometers (6,232 miles) by the solid state imaging (CCD) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft.

The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL



State of Maine's Environment 2010  

Microsoft Academic Search

The State of Maine's Environment is a regular series of reports written by senior environmental policy majors at Colby College in Waterville, Maine. The State of Maine's Environment 2010 is the sixth State of Maine's Environment report created by students enrolled in ES 493: Environmental Policy Practicum taught by Philip J. Nyhus, Environmental Studies Program. Topics in this report include

Philip J. Nyhus



Pictorial Aids for Learning by Doing in a Multimedia Geology Simulation Game.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The task was to survey an area of a planet's surface to identify the presence of various geological features such as a trench, ridge, or basin. Students who received prior pictorial representations of features performed more accurately than students who did not, but there was no significant effect for including verbal statements about strategies…

Mayer, Richard E.; Mautone, Patricia; Prothero, William



Integration of potential-field and digital geologic data for two North American geoscience transects  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Two North American contributions to the Global Geoscience Transects Program, the Quebec-Maine-Gulf of Maine transect and the Great Lakes portion of the United States-Canadian Border transect, are among the first to produce digital geology in a form that can be combined with gridded gravity and aeromagnetic data. Maps of shaded relief and color-composite bandpass-filtered potential-field data combined with overlays of digitized geologic contacts and faults reveal significant new geologic information, including the relative thickness of plutons, the structure of poorly exposed or concealed magnetic units, and possible evidence for mineralized ground. -from Author

Phillips, J.D.



OneGeology-Europe - The Challenges and progress of implementing a basic geological infrastructure for Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

OneGeology-Europe is making geological spatial data held by the geological surveys of Europe more easily discoverable and accessible via the internet. This will provide a fundamental scientific layer to the European Plate Observation System Rich geological data assets exist in the geological survey of each individual EC Member State, but they are difficult to discover and are not interoperable. For

Kristine Asch; Agnes Tellez-Arenas



Geology and the environment in Kenya  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kenya is in a unique environmental setting by virtue of its geographical location, range of altitudes and perhaps most importantly, the Great Rift System that traverses it. The country displays virtually every facet of environmental geological phenonmena — seismicity, volcanism, mass-movements, the impact of mining, mineral processing and geothermal energy resources development, soil and beach erosion, desertification, air, water and soil pollution, etc. A significant mass of data on these topics already exists, but it lies scattered in various journals and agency reports, some of which are not readily available to environmental researchers and country-planners. The aim of this paper, therefore, is to highlight some features of geology and the environment in Kenya and to set the scene for the subsequent papers in this issue, which examine more deeply various aspects of the subject. The uniqueness of the country's environmental setting is emphasised throughout, since it gives it a special appeal to geomorphologists, geophysicists, hydrologists and land-use planners. A comprehensive list of references is given at the end of this paper in order to aid the search process of those who seek additional information on areas covered in this review.

Mathu, E. M.; Davies, T. C.



Geology of five small Australian impact craters  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Here we present detailed geological maps and cross-sections of Liverpool, Wolfe Creek, Boxhole, Veevers and Dalgaranga craters. Liverpool crater and Wolfe Creek Meteorite Crater are classic bowlshaped, Barringer-type craters, Liverpool was likely formed during the Neoproterozoic and was filled and covered with sediments soon thereafter. In the Cenozoic, this cover was exhumed exposing the crater's brecciated wall rocks. Wolfe Creek Meteorite Crater displays many striking features, including well-bedded ejecta units, crater-floor faults and sinkholes, a ringed aeromagnetic anomaly, rim-skirting dunes, and numerous iron-rich shale balls. Boxhole Meteorite Crater, Veevers Meteorite Crater and Dalgaranga crater are smaller, Odessa-type craters without fully developed, steep, overturned rims. Boxhole and Dalgaranga craters are developed in highly follated Precambrian basement rocks with a veneer of Holocene colluvium. The pre-existing structure at these two sites complicates structural analyses of the craters, and may have influenced target deformation during impact. Veevers Meteorite Crater is formed in Cenozoic laterites, and is one of the best-preserved impact craters on Earth. The craters discussed herein were formed in different target materials, ranging from crystalline rocks to loosely consolidated sediments, containing evidence that the impactors struck at an array of angles and velocities. This facilitates a comparative study of the influence of these factors on the structural and topographic form of small impact craters. ?? Geological Society of Australia.

Shoemaker, E.M.; Macdonald, F.A.; Shoemaker, C.S.



A predictive geologic model of radon occurrence  

SciTech Connect

Earlier work by LeGrand on predictive geologic models for radon focused on hydrogeologic aspects of radon transport from a given uranium/radium source in a fractured crystalline rock aquifer, and included submodels for bedrock lithology (uranium concentration), topographic slope, and water-table behavior and characteristics. LeGrand's basic geologic model has been modified and extended into a submodel for crystalline rocks (Blue Ridge and Piedmont Provinces) and a submodel for sedimentary rocks (Valley and Ridge and Coastal Plain Provinces). Each submodel assigns a ranking of 1 to 15 to the bedrock type, based on (a) known or supposed uranium/thorium content, (b) petrography/lithology, and (c) structural features such as faults, shear or breccia zones, diabase dikes, and jointing/fracturing. The bedrock ranking is coupled with a generalized soil/saprolite model which ranks soil/saprolite type and thickness from 1 to 10. A given site is thus assessed a ranking of 1 to 150 as a guide to its potential for high radon occurrence in the upper meter or so of soil. Field trials of the model are underway, comparing model predictions with measured soil-gas concentrations of radon.

Gregg, L.T. (Atlanta Testing and Engineering, Inc., Duluth, GA (USA))



Comparison and analysis of linear alignments from Landsat imagery of diverse geologic terrane  

SciTech Connect

Geometric alignments referred to as linears, linear features or lineaments are routinely observed on Landsat imagery. Alignments that cannot be accounted for by cultural, known geologic or other recognized sources are classed as speculative and of dubious geologic significance. These features may in fact be imaginary. Speculative alignments are however, important to exploration because of their frequent association with known hydrocarbon accumulations and/or areas of mineralization. Data pertaining to speculative linear alignments in diverse geologic terrane have been obtained. Alignment frequency rose diagrams are prepared for each area and statistical profiles are developed. Replication of linear alignments suggest that these features are real elements of the imagery and not imaginary lines. Observed orientation modal frequencies are consistent with alignment trends of known structural features in the different areas. Variation in spatial density of alignments appears to be related to lithologic factors.

Frederking, R.L.; Allenbach, R.T.; Jackson, R.B.; Keefer, W.D.; Motamedi, A.R.; Von Der Heyde, W.S.; Wingo, R.D.



Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology is the principal source of earth science information for the citizens of Montana. The bureau provides extensive advisory, technical, and informational services on geologic, mineral, energy, and water resources in the state of Montana. This includes earthquake studies, environmental assessment, Geographic Information Services (GIS), geology and minerals, groundwater, mines information, coal, state mapping, and more. The publications database contains all Bureau publications as well as U.S. Geological Survey publications related to Montana geology.


An unconventional GIS-based method to assess landslide susceptibility using point data features  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work are reported the results of a project performed by the students attending the course "GIS techniques in Applied Geology", in the master level of the Geological Sciences degree from the Department of Geosciences, University of Padua. The project concerns the evaluation of landslide susceptibility in the Val d'Agno basin, located in the North-Eastern Italian Alps and included in the Vicenza Province (Veneto Region, NE Italy). As well known, most of the models proposed to assess landslide susceptibility are based on the availability of spatial information on landslides and related predisposing environmental factors. Landslides and related factors are spatially combined in GIS systems to weight the influence of each predisposing factor and produce landslide susceptibility maps. The first and most important input factor is the layer landslide, which has to contain as minimum information shape and type of landslides, so it must be a polygon feature. In Italy, as well as in many countries all around the world, location and type of landslides are available in the main spatial databases (AVI project and IFFI project), but in few cases mass movements are delimited, thus they are spatially represented by point features. As an example, in the Vicenza Province, the IFFI database contains 1692 landslides stored in a point feature, but only 383 were delimited and stored in a polygon feature. In order to provide a method that allows to use all the information available and make an effective spatial prediction also in areas where mass movements are mainly stored in point features, punctual data representing landslide in the Val d'Agno basin have been buffered obtaining polygon features, which have been combined with morphometric (elevation, slope, aspect and curvature) and non-morphometric (land use, distance of roads and distance of river) factors. Two buffers have been created: the first has a radius of 10 meters, the minimum required for the analysis, and the second has a radius of 70 meters to obtain an area corresponding to the median value of landslide size distribution in the study area. The Val d'Agno basin has been chosen because the shape of a sufficient number of landslide is available, 169 over 451 phenomena stored in the IFFI point feature. A susceptibility analysis has been performed using the 169 shaped landslides and compared with the results coming from the analyses performed using buffered landslide point features. Finally, the prediction made using the different methods has been tested comparing the results with the landslides occurred in November 2010 due to an exceptional rainfall event that hit the study area triggering 128 instability phenomena.

Adami, S.; Bresolin, M.; Carraretto, M.; Castelletti, P.; Corò, D.; Di Mario, F.; Fiaschi, S.; Frasson, T.; Gandolfo, L.; Mazzalai, L.; Padovan, T.; Sartori, F.; Viganò, A.; Zulian, A.; De Agostini, A.; Pajola, M.; Floris, M.



To evaluate ERTS-1 data for usefulness as a geological sensor in the diverse geological terranes of New York State  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. In the present imagery, obtained during the full foliage of summer and fall, the greatest amount of spectral geology is displayed in the Adirondack region where bedrock geology is strongly linked to topography. Of the four spectral bands imaged, band 5 and 7 provide the most geological information. The boundary between the basement rocks of the Adirondack Dome and the surrounding Lower Paleozoic rocks is well delineated except in the Northwest Lowlands and along parts of the eastern Adirondacks. Within the basement complex, the most prominently displayed features are numerous north-northeast trending faults and topographic lineaments, and arcuate east-west valleys developed in some of the weaker metasedimentary rocks. The majority of the faults and lineaments shown on the geologic map of New York appear in the ERTS-1 imagery. In addition, many new linears were detected, as well as a number of anomalous curvilinear elements, some circular in plan and measuring up to 25 km in diameter, which do not bear any clear relationship to mapped geological contacts. The possibility that it is an astrobleme will be investigated after snow melts in the spring.

Isachsen, Y. W. (principal investigator)



Locating potential biosignatures on Europa from surface geology observations.  


We evaluated the astrobiological potential of the major classes of geologic units on Europa with respect to possible biosignatures preservation on the basis of surface geology observations. These observations are independent of any formational model and therefore provide an objective, though preliminary, evaluation. The assessment criteria include high mobility of material, surface concentration of non-ice components, relative youth, textural roughness, and environmental stability. Our review determined that, as feature classes, low-albedo smooth plains, smooth bands, and chaos hold the highest potential, primarily because of their relative young age, the emplacement of low-viscosity material, and indications of material exchange with the subsurface. Some lineaments and impact craters may be promising sites for closer study despite the comparatively lower astrobiological potential of their classes. This assessment will be expanded by multidisciplinary examination of the potential for habitability of specific features. PMID:14987486

Figueredo, Patricio H; Greeley, Ronald; Neuer, Susanne; Irwin, Louis; Schulze-Makuch, Dirk



Delivery mechanisms of 3D geological models - a perspective from the British Geological Survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The past decade has seen the British Geological Survey (BGS) construct over one hundred 3D geological models using software such as GOCAD®, GSI3D, EarthVision and Petrel across the United Kingdom and overseas. These models have been produced for different purposes and at different scales and resolutions in the shallow and deep subsurface. Alongside the construction of these models, the BGS and its collaborators have developed several options for disseminating these 3D geological models to external partners and the public. Initially, the standard formats for disseminating these 3D geological models by the BGS comprised of 2D images of cross-sections, GIS raster data and specialised visualisation software such as the LithoFrame Viewer. The LithoFrame Viewer is a thick-client software that allows the user to explore the 3D geometries of the geological units using a 3D interface, and generate synthetic cross-sections and boreholes on the fly. Despite the increased functionality of the LithoFrame Viewer over the other formats, the most popular data formats distributed remained 2D images of cross-sections, CAD based formats (e.g. DWG and DXF) and GIS raster data of surfaces and thicknesses, as these were the types of data that the external partners were most used too. Since 2009 software for delivering 3D geological models has advanced and types of data available have increased. Feature Manipulation Engine (FME) has been used to increase the number of outputs from 3D geological models. These include: • 3D PDFs (Adobe Acrobat) • KMZ/KML (GoogleEarth) • 3D shapefiles (ESRI) Alongside these later outputs, the BGS has developed other software such as GroundhogTM and Geovisionary (in collaboration with Virtalis). Groundhog is fully a web based application that allows the user to generate synthetic cross-sections, boreholes and horizontal slices from 3D geological models on the fly. Geovisionary provides some of the most advanced visualisation of 3D geological models in the world with its ability to stream high resolution national and world scale datasets seamlessly. All of these tools have some technological and visualisation limitations and not one delivery mechanism is suitable for all. The idea from the BGS when it comes to model delivery mechanisms is to offer as many different 3D data formats and delivery options as possible to cover all user requirements. Most importantly, it is about giving the user what they want and engaging with them to encourage the use of the advanced functionality of some of this software so that a deeper understanding about the subsurface is gained. Sometimes this solution might be a high-tech solution via mobile devices, but at other times a print-out of a contour plot might be what is required. In the end it is the consumer that has to be satisfied with the product they are receiving.

Terrington, Ricky; Myers, Antony; Wood, Ben; Arora, Baneet



3D geological to geophysical modelling and seismic wave propagation simulation: a case study from the Lalor Lake VMS (Volcanogenic Massive Sulphides) mining camp  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The global demand for base metals, uranium and precious metals has been pushing mineral explorations at greater depth. Seismic techniques and surveys have become essential in finding and extracting mineral rich ore bodies, especially for deep VMS mining camps. Geophysical parameters collected from borehole logs and laboratory measurements of core samples provide preliminary information about the nature and type of subsurface lithologic units. Alteration halos formed during the hydrothermal alteration process contain ore bodies, which are of primary interests among geologists and mining industries. It is known that the alteration halos are easier to detect than the ore bodies itself. Many 3D geological models are merely projection of 2D surface geology based on outcrop inspections and geochemical analysis of a small number of core samples collected from the area. Since a large scale 3D multicomponent seismic survey can be prohibitively expensive, performance analysis of such geological models can be helpful in reducing exploration costs. In this abstract, we discussed challenges and constraints encountered in geophysical modelling of ore bodies and surrounding geologic structures from the available coarse 3D geological models of the Lalor Lake mining camp, located in northern Manitoba, Canada. Ore bodies in the Lalor lake VMS camp are rich in gold, zinc, lead and copper, and have an approximate weight of 27 Mt. For better understanding of physical parameters of these known ore bodies and potentially unknown ones at greater depth, we constructed a fine resolution 3D seismic model with dimensions: 2000 m (width), 2000 m (height), and 1500 m (vertical depth). Seismic properties (P-wave, S-wave velocities, and density) were assigned based on a previous rock properties study of the same mining camp. 3D finite-difference elastic wave propagation simulation was performed in the model using appropriate parameters. The generated synthetic 3D seismic data was then compared to the 3D multicomponent field survey data. Main features of the geological models, especially boundaries of main ore bodies were comparable in both data sets. This shows that the 3D geophysical model based on local geology and limited core samples is in fair agreement with the lithologic units confirmed from the field seismic survey data.

Miah, Khalid; Bellefleur, Gilles



Geology of the Olkaria Geothermal Field  

SciTech Connect

Up to now development of the resource in Olkaria geothermal field, Kenya, has been based on fragmental information that is inconclusive in most respects. Development has been concentrated in an area of 4 km/sup 2/ at most, with well to well spacing of less than 300 m. The move now is to understand the greater Olkaria field by siting exploratory wells in different parts of the area considered of reasonable potential. To correlate the data available from the different parts of the field, the geology of the area, as a base for the composite field model, is discussed and shown to have major controls over fluid movements in the area and other features.

Ogoso-Odongo, M.E.



37. Fore and main masts, and main boom lying in ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

37. Fore and main masts, and main boom lying in storage yard. Stern of Museum Ship Wavetreet to left in photograph. - Schooner "Lettie G. Howard", South Street Seaport Museum, New York, New York County, NY


Flood Geology and the Grand Canyon: A Critique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four claims of Flood Geology—as they are related to the Grand Canyon and specifically to the book Grand Canyon: A Different View—are evaluated by directly addressing Young Earth Creationist arguments, by showing rock features that belie these claims, and by presenting the most up-to-date scientific theories on the origin of the Grand Canyon. We conclude that Young Earth Creationism promotes

Carol A. Hill; Stephen O. Moshier



Mapping Mars: Geologic Sequence of Craters and River Channels  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students approach studying the surface of Mars in the same way as photogeologists. After drawing a simple features map, they will have the tools to state the general geologic history of a part of Mars' surface. They focus on the evidence showing river channels that once flowed and caused erosion. The evidence for water and volcanoes on Mars points to possible environments where life could have existed.


Preliminary geologic investigation of the Apollo 15 landing site  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Apollo 15 lunar module (LM) landed at longitude 03°39'20'' E, latitude 26°26'00'' N on the mare surface of Palus Putredinis on the eastern edge of the Imbrium Basin. The site is between the Apennine Mountain front and Hadley Rille. The objectives of the mission, in order of decreasing priority, were description and sampling of three major geologic features—the Apennine Front, Hadley Rille, and the mare.

Swann, G. A.; Bailey, N. G.; Batson, R. M.; Freeman, V. L.; Hait, M. H.; Head, J. W.; Holt, H. E.; Howard, K. A.; Irwin, J. B.; Larson, K. B.; Muehlberger, W. R.; Reed, V. S.; Rennilson, J. J.; Schaber, G. G.; Scott, D. R.; Silver, L. T.; Sutton, R. L.; Ulrich, G. E.; Wilshire, H. G.; Wolfe, E. W.



Environmental geology of Harrison Bay, northern Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The surficial and shallow subsurface geology of Harrison Bay on the Beaufort Sea coast was mapped as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's prelease evaluation for Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Oil and Gas Lease Sale 71. During the 1980 summer season, approximately 1600 km of multisensored, high-resolution geophysical profile data were collected along a rectangular grid with 4.8 km line spacing. Interpretation of these data is presented on five maps showing bathymetry, sea-floor microrelief, ice-gouge characteristics, Holocene sediment thickness, and geologic structure to depths of approximately 1000 m. On a broad scale, the seafloor is shallow and almost flat, although microrelief features produced by sediment transport and ice-gouge processes typically vary up to several meters in amplitude. Microrelief bedforms related to hydraulic processes are predominant in water depths less than 12 m. Microrelief caused by ice gouging generally increases with water depth, reaching a maximum of 2 m or more in water depths beyond the 20 m isobath. This intensely gouged area lies beneath the shear zone between the seasonal landfast ice and the mobile polar ice pack. The thickness of recent (Holocene) sediment increases offshore, from 2 m near the Colville River delta to 30 m or more on the outer shelf. The thin Holocene layer is underlain by a complex horizon interpreted to be the upper surface of a Pleistocene deposit similar in composition to the present Arctic Coastal Plain. The base of the inferred Pleistocene section is interpreted to be a low-angle unconformity 100 m below sea level. Beneath this Tertiary-Quaternary unconformity, strata are interpreted to be alluvial fan-delta plain deposits corresponding to the Colville Group and younger formations of Late Cretaceous to Tertiary age. Numerous high-angle faults downthrown to the north trend across the survey area. With few exceptions, these faults terminate at or below the 100 m unconformity, suggesting that most tectonism occurred before Quaternary time. Acoustic anomalies suggesting gas accumulation are rare, and where identified typically occur adjacent to faults. A laterally continuous zone of poor seismic data occurs in the nearshore area and is interpreted to be caused by subsea permafrost. This report describes these geologic conditions in Harrison Bay and discusses potential hazards that they may pose for future oil and gas operations in Sale 71 and adjacent Beaufort Sea shelf areas.

Craig, J. D.; Thrasher, G. P.



Recent geologic activity on Mercury  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the MESSENGER spacecraft was inserted into orbit about Mercury in March 2011, global and targeted high-resolution image data sets have been acquired. These images support the conclusion that internal geological activity on Mercury did not end early in planetary history, as had generally been previously thought, but continued to geologically recent times. Three lines of evidence point to recent geological activity on Mercury. (1) There are smooth plains with surface areas up to 1.5×105 km2 that postdate young (morphological class 1) craters, indicating probable Kuiperian-aged volcanism. No volcanic vents, fissures, or flow fronts have been identified on these plains, suggesting that they are products of low-viscosity lavas, consistent with komatiite-like compositions of large areas on Mercury indicated by MESSENGER X-Ray Spectrometer observations. (2) Young lobate scarps transect class 1 craters as large as 30 km in diameter, indicating comparably recent crustal contraction. (3) A number of fresh-appearing, high-reflectance, irregularly shaped and rimless shallow depressions interpreted as pyroclastic vents have few superposed craters, suggesting that they have been recently active. Growing evidence from geological and geochemical observations indicates that Mercury's interior contains a higher abundance of volatile materials than was previously appreciated. Together these findings support the inference that Mercury experienced relatively recent volcanism and tectonic deformation, and the possibility that the planet is geologically active today cannot be discounted.

Xiao, Z.; Strom, R. G.; Blewett, D. T.; Solomon, S. C.; Head, J. W.; Watters, T. R.; Chabot, N. L.; Banks, M. E.; Chapman, C. R.



Conversion of geologic quadrangle maps to geologic coverages  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Three hundred sixty-eight geologic map$ of 7-1/2 minute quadrangles in Tennessee were coverted to geographic information system (GIS) coverages. The procedure used was documented and a list was made of the quadrangles included in the coverages. Maps were converted to GIS coverages by making film copies of scribecoats of the maps. The film copies were scanned, vectorized, and written into a generate format. Coverage polygons were tagged with symbels to identify geologic units, and coverage lines were tagged with line types to designate stratigraphic contacts.

Connell, Joseph F.; Barron, William R.; Mitchell, Reavis L.



A web-based 3D geological information visualization system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Construction of 3D geological visualization system has attracted much more concern in GIS, computer modeling, simulation and visualization fields. It not only can effectively help geological interpretation and analysis work, but also can it can help leveling up geosciences professional education. In this paper, an applet-based method was introduced for developing a web-based 3D geological information visualization system. The main aims of this paper are to explore a rapid and low-cost development method for constructing a web-based 3D geological system. First, the borehole data stored in Excel spreadsheets was extracted and then stored in SQLSERVER database of a web server. Second, the JDBC data access component was utilized for providing the capability of access the database. Third, the user interface was implemented with applet component embedded in JSP page and the 3D viewing and querying functions were implemented with PickCanvas of Java3D. Last, the borehole data acquired from geological survey were used for test the system, and the test results has shown that related methods of this paper have a certain application values.

Song, Renbo; Jiang, Nan



77 FR 38318 - National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program (NCGMP) and National Geological and Geophysical...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of the geologic mapping and data preservation programs. The...National Geological and Geophysical Data Preservation Program. DATES...National Geological and Geophysical Data Preservation Program Advisory Committee are open to the Public. Dated:...




E-print Network

years, Spring, TBA] ____ GEOL 1313 W - Scientific Communication for Environmental Professionals (3BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY DEPARTMENT OF GEOLOGY AND PLANETARY SCIENCE WWW" for a complete range of advising information plus the latest Environmental Geology requirements. CORE COURSES

Jiang, Huiqiang


76 FR 19783 - National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program (NCGMP) and National Geological and Geophysical...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Geological Survey on planning and implementation of the geologic mapping and data preservation programs. The Committee will hear updates on progress of the NCGMP toward fulfilling the purposes of the National Geological Mapping Act of 1992; the...



78 FR 57877 - National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program (NCGMP) and National Geological and Geophysical...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Geological Survey on planning and implementation of the geologic mapping and data preservation programs. The Committee will hear updates on progress of the NCGMP toward fulfilling the purposes of the National Geological Mapping Act of 1992, as well as...



Cooperative research in terrestrial planetary geology and geophysics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This final report for the period of July 1991 to August 1994 covered a variety of topics concerning the study of Earth and Mars. The Earth studies stressed the interpretation of the MAGSAT crustal magnetic anomalies in order to determine the geological structure, mineralogical composition, magnetic nature, and the historical background of submarine features, and also featured work in the area of terrestrial remote sensing. Mars research included the early evolution of the Martian atmosphere and hydrosphere and the investigations of the large Martian impact basins. Detailed summaries of the research is included, along with lists of the publications resulting from this research.



From Airborne EM to Geology, some examples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction Airborne Electro Magnetics (AEM) provide a model of the 3-dimensional distribution of resistivity of the subsurface. These resistivity models were used for delineating geological structures (e.g. Buried Valleys and salt domes) and for geohydrological modeling of aquifers (sandy sediments) and aquitards (clayey sediments). Most of the interpretation of the AEM has been carried out manually, by interpretation of 2 and 3-dimensional resistivity models into geological units by a skilled geologists / geophysicist. The manual interpretation is tiresome, takes a long time and is prone to subjective choices of the interpreter. Therefore, semi-automatic interpretation of AEM resistivity models into geological units is a recent research topic. Two examples are presented that show how resistivity, as obtained from AEM, can be "converted" to useful geological / geohydrolocal models. Statistical relation between borehole data and resistivity In the northeastern part of the Netherlands, the 3D distribution of clay deposits - formed in a glacio-lacustrine environment with buried glacial valleys - was modelled. Boreholes with description of lithology, were linked to AEM resistivity. First, 1D AEM resistivity models from each individual sounding were interpolated to cover the entire study area, resulting in a 3-dimensional model of resistivity. For each interval of clay and sand in the boreholes, the corresponding resistivity was extracted from the 3D resistivity model. Linear regression was used to link the clay and non-clay proportion in each borehole interval to the Ln(resistivity). This regression is then used to "convert" the 3D resistivity model into proportion of clay for the entire study area. This so-called "soft information" is combined with the "hard data" (boreholes) to model the proportion of clay for the entire study area using geostatistical simulation techniques (Sequential Indicator Simulation with collocated co-kriging). 100 realizations of the 3-dimensional distribution of clay and sand were calculated giving an appreciation of the variability of the 3-dimensional distribution of clay and sand. Each realization was input into a groundwatermodel to assess the protection the of the clay against pollution from the surface. Artificial Neural Networks AEM resistivity models in an area in Northern part of the Netherlands were interpreted by Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) to obtain a 3-dimensional model of a glacial till deposit that is important in geohydrological modeling. The groundwater in the study area was brackish to saline, causing the AEM resistivity model to be dominated by the low resistivity of the groundwater. After conducting Electrical Cone Penetration Tests (ECPTs) it became clear that the glacial till showed a distinct, non-linear, pattern of resistivity, that was discriminating it from the surrounding sediments. The patterns, found in the ECPTs were used to train an ANN and was consequently applied to the resistivity model that was derived from the AEM. The result was a 3-dimensional model of the probability of having the glacial till, which was checked against boreholes and proved to be quite reasonable. Conclusion Resistivity derived from AEM can be linked to geological features in a number of ways. Besides manual interpretation, statistical techniques are used, either in the form of regression or by means of Neural Networks, to extract geological and geohydrological meaningful interpretations from the resistivity model.

Gunnink, Jan



Mitigation of drought from global geological evidences  

SciTech Connect

As an introduction to the topic it is questioned first what could be the eventual role of the geologist with regard to the Greenhouse Effect and at the same time if Global Warming is possibly a result of the spirit of a Fin de Siecle'' or even of a Fin de Millenium.'' An analysis is given with regard to the geologist's position among biologists, climatologists and engineers raising the question whether geologists are recognized or not as environmentalists. A great number of tasks for which geologists are trained are currently indeed in the hands of biologists, climatologists and engineers. Apart from the energy and mineral prospecting activities which geologists are currently involved with, two new aspects of geological investigation are now developing fast. As demography is booming rapidly and industrial occupancy of terrestrial space increasingly expanding along with related pollution and waste problems, Quality of Life becomes largely dependent on Environmental Impact Studies and Energy Consumption which is the main cause for atmospheric pollution by the greenhouse gases. It is demonstrated how geologists can detect from geological proxy-data derived from the ocean and land sequences in China, Greece and West African Rift, can predict the possible evolution of the climate in the future, in applying FFT on geophysical and geochemical parameters.

Paepe, R.R.; Overloop, E.V. (Free Univ., Brussels (Belgium). Earth Technology Inst.)



Mineral resources, geological structure, and landform surveys  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Diagnostic ERTS imagery has been used to pinpoint surface conditions associated with known mining districts. These include enhancements which depict hitherto unrecognized surface alteration and allow analysis of ore-controlling fractures distribution in a regional context. ERTS has likewise provided observational data containing previously unrecognized surface anomalies in large oil-producing basins which correlate closely with known oil fields. These observational data offer promise of providing new and powerful techniques for oil exploration, especially if further work using more sophisticated enhancement-processing proves capable of emphasizing the anomalies. ERTS is showing a better-than-anticipated potential for producing accurate small-scale (large-area) geologic maps, often containing details that were previously not recorded on similar regional maps. The maps produced from ERTS imagery can be prepared more effectively than previously possible, mainly because of the synoptic, multispectral, and repetitive character of ERTS data. ERTS has also provided extensive information on possible geologic hazards. Many new fractures have been identified in several regions of the Pacific Coast seismic belt that have histories of recent earthquakes. This has obvious implications for engineering projects such as dams, aqueducts, and transportation routes. In the mid-continent area, ERTS data have been used to predict zones of rooffall danger in a working coal mine from newly discovered lineations (probably fractures) used as indicators of hazards.

Short, N. M.



Geology of Barents Sea  

SciTech Connect

The Barents Sea is situated on the continental shelf between Norway, the Spitsbergen Islands, and Novaya Zemlya. The main structural framework of the area was formed during the Caledonian and Hercynian orogenies, whereas the western parts were reactivated by the Kimmerian and Alpine orogenies. Because of the complex opening of the Greenland Norwegian Sea, important tertiary reactivation of Mesozoic normal faults occurred along southwest-northeast-trending systems of wrench faults. Owing to substantial erosion in the late Tertiary, the subsidence history and thermal development are more difficult to unravel in this area than in other places along the Norwegian Shelf. The erosion products were deposited in a huge sedimentary wedge extending onto the oceanic crust. The hydrocarbon discoveries in the Troms area in the southern part of the Barents Sea are encouraging for further exploration. However, the petroleum potential for large areas is not well known at this stage.

Riis, F.; Vollset, J.




E-print Network

of Maine waters were sounded and fished with a lampara seine, gill nets, midwater trawls, and otter trawls for Atlantic herring and to carry on research and developmental work on sardine fishing gear. Original efforts sought along the Maine coast and in the Gulf of Maine. Otter trawl surveys were made during the winters


Cosmological Models (mainly relativistic Cosmology)  

E-print Network

COSMOLOGY Cosmological Models (mainly relativistic Cosmology) [References] c 2009, F. Jegerlehner R Lect. 5 R 301 #12;COSMOLOGY Cosmological Models (mainly relativistic Cosmology) [References] Objects our local experience. c 2009, F. Jegerlehner R Lect. 5 R 301 #12;COSMOLOGY Cosmological Models (mainly

Peters, Achim


Society for Sedimentary Geology (SEPM)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Society for Sedimentary Geology (SEPM) "is dedicated to the dissemination of scientific information on sedimentology, stratigraphy, paleontology, environmental sciences, marine geology, hydrogeology, and many additional related specialties." The website presents the latest and upcoming meetings, workshops, and other events. Individuals can find newsletters of the many SEPM sections and information on publications. Users can learn about the scientific achievements of many geologists in the Awards & Metals link. Students and researchers can discover the benefits of a SEPM membership including short courses and field trip opportunities.


Geology of the American Southwest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scott Baldridge presents a concise guide to the geology of the Southwestern U.S. Two billion years of Earth history are represented in the rocks and landscape of the Southwest U.S., creating natural wonders such as the Grand Canyon, Monument Valley, and Death Valley. This region is considered a geologist's "dream", attracting a large number of undergraduate field classes and amateur geologists. The volume will prove invaluable to students and will also appeal to anyone interested in the geology and landscape of the region's National Parks.

Baldridge, W. Scott



Geology 106 Environmental Geology Schedule Spring 2009 MWF  

E-print Network

12 Geology and Stream Chemistry MF Apr 1317 Alternative Energy Water Pollution 13 Water/Wastewater Treatment, Text p. 388392 MF Apr 2024 Test Monday through Alt Energy Water Pollution Air Pollution Movement Waste Disposal p. 372389 7 Landfill MF Mar 26 Test Monday through Mass Movement Water

Kirby, Carl S.


Environmental Geology Major  

E-print Network

, including the quality of air, water, and soil. Geology majors have hiked the Appalachian Trail, gone BIOSC 0150 Foundations of Biology 1 Chemistry requirements CHEM 0110 General Chemistry 1 CHEM 0120 three credits of a non-introductory course in one of these disciplines: BIOSC, CEE, CHEM, CS, MATH

Jiang, Huiqiang


Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology (NBMG) is a research unit of the Mackay School of Mines at the University of Nevada, Reno and is the state geological survey. Scientists at NBMG conduct research and publish reports on mineral resources and various aspects of general, environmental, and engineering geology for the state of Nevada. There are on-line publications available to download, geologic maps, K-12 educational resources for teaching about Nevada geology, and a photo and image archive of the state. Links are provided for further information about the state and general geology resources.


Geology of the Upheaval Dome impact structure, southeast Utah  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Two vastly different phenomena, impact and salt diapirism, have been proposed for the origin of Upheaval Dome, a spectacular scenic feature in southeast Utah. Detailed geologic mapping and seismic refraction data indicate that the dome originated by collapse of a transient cavity formed by impact. Evidence is as follows: (1) sedimentary strata in the center of the structure are pervasively imbricated by top-toward-the-center thrust faulting and are complexly folded as well; (2) top-toward-the-center normal faults are found at the perimeter of the structure; (3) clastic dikes are widespread; (4) the top of the underlying salt horizon is at least 500 m below the surface at the center of the dome, and there are no exposures of salt or associated rocks of the Paradox Formation in the dome to support the possibility that a salt diapir has ascended through it; and (5) planar microstructures in quartz grains, fantailed fracture surfaces (shatter surfaces), and rare shatter cones are present near the center of the structure. We show that the dome formed mainly by centerward motion of rock units along listric faults. Outcrop-scale folding and upturning of beds, especially common in the center, are largely a consequence of this motion. We have also detected some centerward motion of fault-bounded wedges resulting from displacements on subhorizontal faults that conjoin and die out within horizontal bedding near the perimeter of the structure. The observed deformation corresponds to the central uplift and the encircling ring structural depression seen in complex impact craters. Copyright 1999 by the American Geophysical Union.

Kriens, B. J.; Shoemaker, E. M.; Herkenhoff, K. E.