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1

Guidebook to Geologic and Beach Features of the Rachel Carson Salt Pond Area, New Harbor, Maine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Rachel Carson Salt Pond Preserve is managed by the Maine Chapter of the Nature Conservancy. This organization is concerned with the preservation of unique or essential natural features. The Salt Pond area is a particularly good area for viewing certai...

V. T. King B. W. Nelson

1977-01-01

2

Bedrock Geologic Map of Maine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students study a map of bedrock geology which describes the types of rocks that exist in a given area. It shows these rock units as well as their known and inferred contacts. Consideration is also given to folding, faulting, unconformities, and similar rock relationships. These features are often included in bedrock geology maps. Students study the legend and scale and become aware of the other information that is included on the map such as the stratigraphic column, list of formations, and inset map of metamorphic grade. Students then locate their city or town and draw a 40-mile diameter circle around it and identify all the symbols inside the circle and the age of the various rocks. Student question sheets are available at this site. Although this activity was written for a map of Maine, it will work in any state where geological maps are available.

3

Surficial Geologic Map of Maine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students become familiar with the nature and use of the Surficial Geologic Map of Maine and gain practice in using maps other than topographic maps. They will discover that surficial geology deals primarily with the geologically youthful, unconsolidated sedimentary materials that exist at, or close to the surface of a specific area and are important because the surface deposits filter and control the access of water to the water table. Students also learn that the study of surficial geology is important for siting of waste disposal facilities and for resources such as sand, gravel, and clay. Although this activity was written for a map of Maine, it will work in any state where surficial geological maps are available.

4

Maine Geological Survey: Online Educational Materials  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Maine Geological Survey (MGS) has crafted a fine set of materials for those interested in learning more about the state's natural history via virtual tours, lesson plans, and maps. First up is the Virtual Tour of Maine Geology, which includes photographs of bedrock geology, geologic hazards, mineral collecting, and surficial geology. The Lesson Plans area contains 51 lessons, including "Igneous Rock Identification" and "Composition of Topsoil." A number of MGS maps are available online in the Maps and Publications area. The site includes a Bibliography of Maine Geology, which contains over 12,000 references. Additionally, the site contains a link to the MGS publications page, which has official state of Maine wall maps available for purchase.

2009-12-08

5

Geology of Gulf of Maine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The extensively folded, faulted, and regionally metamorphosed rocks contained within the Avalon platform, Appalachian geosyncline, and Meguma geosyncline are the foundation for the Gulf of Maine. Within the Avalon platform, which makes up most of the Gulf...

R. D. Ballard E. Uchupi

1974-01-01

6

Geology of the Cupsuptic quadrangle, Maine  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Cupsuptic quadrangle, in west-central Maine, lies in a relatively narrow belt of pre-Silurian rocks extending from the Connecticut River valley across northern New Hampshire to north-central Maine. The Albee Formation, composed of green, purple, and black phyllite with interbedded-quartzite, is exposed in the core of a regional anticlinorium overlain to the southeast by greenstone of the Oquossoc Formation which in turn is overlain by black slate of the Kamankeag Formation. In the northern part of the quadrangle the Albee Formation is overlain by black slate, feldspathic graywacke, and minor greenstone of the Dixville Formation. The Kamankeag Formation is dated as 1-ate Middle Ordovician by graptolites (zone 12) found near the base of the unit. The Dixville Formation is correlated with the Kamankeag Formation and Oquossoc Formation and is considered to be Middle Ordovician. The Albee Formation is considered to be Middle to Lower Ordovician from correlations with similar rocks in northeastern and southwestern Vermont. The Oquossoc and Kamankeag Formations are correlated with the Amonoosuc and Partridge Formations of northern New Hampshire. The pre-Silurian rocks are unconformably overlain by unnamed rocks of Silurian age in the southeast, west-central, and northwest ninths of the quadrangle. The basal Silurian units are boulder to cobble polymict conglomerate and quartz-pebble conglomerate of late Lower Silurian (Upper Llandovery) age. The overlying rocks are either well-bedded slate and quartzite, silty limestone, or arenaceous limestone. Thearenaceous limestone contains Upper Silurian (Lower Ludlow) brachiopods. The stratified rocks have been intruded by three stocks of biotite-muscovite quartz monzonite, a large body of metadiorite and associated serpentinite, smaller bodies of gabbro, granodiorite, and intrusive felsite, as well as numerous diabase and quartz monzonite dikes. The metadiorite and serpentinite, and possibly the gabbro and granodiorite are Late Ordovician in age. The quartz monzonite is considered to be Late Devonian. Five tectonic events are inferred from the structural features in the area. The earliest was a period of folding producing tightly-appressed, northeast-trending folds in the rocks of pre-Silurian age. In the second stage the folded pre-Silurian rocks were uplifted, eroded, and truncated to produce a major unconformity between the Middle Ordovician and Lower Silurian rocks. These events constitute the Taconic orogeny. The third tectonic event was a period of folding, probably of Middle Devonian age, that warped the unconformity and overlying rocks into open, gently-plunging, east-trending folds. This period of folding undoubtedly changed the attitude of the early folds in the pre-Silurian units but it did not produce any recognizable, cross-cutting planar features in the older rocks. The fourth tectonic event was a period of igneous intrusion that locally deformed the northeast-trending folds in the pre-Silurian rocks into a macroscopic drag fold plunging at 80 degrees in a direction S.10?w. A north-trending, subvertical slip cleavage was produced locally during this period of Late Devonian (?) deformation. A period of faulting, possibly of Triassic age, dislocated some of the earlier features. The rocks are in the chlorite zone of regional metamorphism, but have been contact metamorphosed to sillimanite-bearing hornfels adjacent to the quartz monzonite stocks. The chemical changes in chlorite, biotite, garnet, cordierite, and muscovite in the chlorite, biotite, andalusite, and sillimanite zones have been-studied by optical and x-ray methods and by partial chemical analyses. The progressive changes in mineral assemblages have been graphically portrayed on quaternary diagrams and ternary projections.

Harwood, David S.

1966-01-01

7

Pinnacles National Monument: A 3-D Tour Featuring Park Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This virtual tour features three-dimensional images from the United States Geological Survey's (USGS) collection. It introduces visitors to the geology and landforms of Pinnacles National Monument in California, the location of a belt of Tertiary volcanic rocks (tuff, breccia, and ash of rhyolite, dacite, and andesite composition). The location of the Pinnacles volcanic area near the San Andreas Fault has important implications for deciphering the geologic history of the fault system. Views include the trace of the San Andreas fault and erosional features (pinnacles, caves, cliffs, etc.) carved into the volcanic deposits. The 3-D images are anaglyphs and require red and cyan 3-D viewing glasses.

8

Some global features of palaeointensity in geological time  

Microsoft Academic Search

A global palaeointensity data base was constructed from all published data from volcanic rocks in geological time older than 0.03 Ma. The data base contains a total of 1123 flow mean data retrieved from 83 original papers. Various features of the Earth's dipole moment were examined from the data which are based on Thellier and Shaw methods.

Hidefumi Tanaka; Masaru Kono; Hideo Uchimura

1995-01-01

9

Topographic Maps Illustrating Common Geologic Features (title provided or enhanced by cataloger)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Links are provided to topographic maps that illustrate common geologic features and processes, such as igneous activity, mass movement, streams, underground water, glaciers, wind, ocean basins, geologic structures, and waves or currents. Cultural features and map symbols are also covered.

Slaymaker, Susan

10

Framework for a U.S. Geological Survey Hydrologic Climate-Response Program in Maine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents a framework for a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) hydrologic climate-response program designed to provide early warning of changes in the seasonal water cycle of Maine. Climate-related hydrologic changes on Maines rivers and lakes in th...

C. W. Schalk G. A. Hodgkins R. M. Lent R. W. Dudley

2009-01-01

11

Geological features that contribute to ground control problems in underground coal mines. Information circular\\/1993  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major portion of ground control problems encountered in underground coal mines can be attributed to geologic features in the strata surrounding the extracted coal seam. The U.S. Bureau of Mines has compiled information from several sources on the geological features that contribute to ground control problems in underground coal mines. The compilation includes sedimentary features such as paleochannels, crevasse

Shea-Albin

1993-01-01

12

LROC Observations of Geologic Features in the Marius Hills  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lunar volcanic cones, domes, and their associated geologic features are important objects of study for the LROC science team because they represent possible volcanic endmembers that may yield important insights into the history of lunar volcanism and are potential sources of lunar resources. Several hundred domes, cones, and associated volcanic features are currently targeted for high-resolution LROC Narrow Angle Camera [NAC] imagery[1]. The Marius Hills, located in Oceanus Procellarum (centered at ~13.4°N, -55.4°W), represent the largest concentration of these volcanic features on the Moon including sinuous rilles, volcanic cones, domes, and depressions [e.g., 2-7]. The Marius region is thus a high priority for future human lunar exploration, as signified by its inclusion in the Project Constellation list of notional future human lunar exploration sites [8], and will be an intense focus of interest for LROC science investigations. Previous studies of the Marius Hills have utilized telescopic, Lunar Orbiter, Apollo, and Clementine imagery to study the morphology and composition of the volcanic features in the region. Complementary LROC studies of the Marius region will focus on high-resolution NAC images of specific features for studies of morphology (including flow fronts, dome/cone structure, and possible layering) and topography (using stereo imagery). Preliminary studies of the new high-resolution images of the Marius Hills region reveal small-scale features in the sinuous rilles including possible outcrops of bedrock and lobate lava flows from the domes. The observed Marius Hills are characterized by rough surface textures, including the presence of large boulders at the summits (~3-5m diameter), which is consistent with the radar-derived conclusions of [9]. Future investigations will involve analysis of LROC stereo photoclinometric products and coordinating NAC images with the multispectral images collected by the LROC WAC, especially the ultraviolet data, to enable measurements of color variations within and amongst deposits and provide possible compositional insights, including the location of possibly related pyroclastic deposits. References: [1] J. D. Stopar et al. (2009), LRO Science Targeting Meeting, Abs. 6039 [2] Greeley R (1971) Moon, 3, 289-314 [3] Guest J. E. (1971) Geol. and Phys. of the Moon, p. 41-53. [4] McCauley J. F. (1967) USGS Geologic Atlas of the Moon, Sheet I-491 [5] Weitz C. M. and Head J. W. (1999) JGR, 104, 18933-18956 [6] Heather D. J. et al. (2003) JGR, doi:10.1029/2002JE001938 [7] Whitford-Stark, J. L., and J. W. Head (1977) Proc. LSC 8th, 2705-2724 [8] Gruener J. and Joosten B. K. (2009) LRO Science Targeting Meeting, Abs. 6036 [9] Campbell B. A. et al. (2009) JGR, doi:10.1029/2008JE003253.

Lawrence, S.; Stopar, J. D.; Hawke, R. B.; Denevi, B. W.; Robinson, M. S.; Giguere, T.; Jolliff, B. L.

2009-12-01

13

Geological features that contribute to ground control problems in underground coal mines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ground control problems are an important factor affecting safety, production, and efficiency in underground coal mines. A major portion of ground control problems encountered in underground coal mines can be attributed to geologic features in the strata surrounding the extracted coal seam. The U.S. Bureau of Mines has compiled information from numerous sources on the geological features that contribute to

Shea-Albin

1993-01-01

14

Geological and Topographical Features of the Zenis Ridge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Zenis Ridge locates SE part of the Nankai trough, and appears with a NE-SW direction from Izu-Ogasawara Arc (IOA) to Shikoku Basin. R/V Yokosuka bathymetrical survey and Shinkai 6500 dive survey were carried out in order to study the lithology and tectonics around the Zenis ridge. This ridge is composed three continual blocks such as 1) NE block, 2) Central block, and 3) SW block from east to west. The water depth of this ridge increases southwestward, and maximum depth is about 4000m at the southernmost of SW block. NE block develops as a part of IOA. Steep slope developed on the northern flank, but different topographical character such as valleys with gentle slope are observed on the southern flank of this block. On the Central block, steep slope develops on the northern side, but the step terrace with gentle slope expose on the southern side of this block. The northern flank of this block was composing of fresh basaltic to andesitic volcanic rocks. These are typical Island-Arc type volcanic rock, and these rocks show 6.40-5.33Ma (K-Ar age). Well-bedded sand to mudstone exposed along the southern slope of this block. Nannofossil from these sedimentary rocks indicates Late Pliocene (CN 11b to 12a) age. Some NS trend valleys, E-W and NE-SW trend fault blocks are observed around there. Vesicomyidae clams were observed in fractured sediments distributed along this fracture zone. SW block is different from other two blocks on the topographic and geological view. This block tilt to northwestward, and thick sediment are observed by seismic data. MORB type of volcanic rock was sampled from base of this block. Some active fault was estimated around the Zenis ridge based on the seismic survey. However, result of this survey such as topographic features, discovered Vesicomyidae clams and fractured sediment distribution indicate the active fault should exist along the southern foot of this ridge and cold seepage community with active fault formed there.

Sakamoto, I.; Wu, S.; Ishizuka, O.; Misawa, Y.; Ohota, S.

2001-12-01

15

Basic Features of the Geological Structure of the Hydrologic Regime and Biology of the Mediterranean Sea.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents include: Soviet marine geologic projects in the Mediterranean Sea; The relief of the Mediterranean sea bottom; Special features of the geomorphological structure and tectonic development; Sedimentary series of the Mediterranean Sea; Granulometric...

L. M. Fomin

1968-01-01

16

Main hydrographic features of the Sargasso Sea in Spring 1979  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrographic data for the period 19th March to 16th April 1979, obtained from cruise No. 210/92 of F.R.V. “Anton Dohrn” in the Sargasso Sea, are used for a description of the different water masses. Horizontal and vertical distributions are discussed, stressing the layering in particular. The regional differences of the t-S correlations are shown, especially the slight differences characterizing the deeper water masses. Dynamic computations lead to some conclusions concerning the influence of hydrographic features upon the 0-group eel larvae.

Wegner, G.

1982-09-01

17

Gestures for Structural Geology: Linear and Planar Features  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

à Gesturing a possible orientation for a planar feature cutting into a 3D solid. Provenance: Kinnari Atit, Temple University Reuse: This item is offered under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ You may reuse this item for non-commercial purposes as long as you provide attribution and offer any derivative works under a similar license. In this exercise, students use a pointer finger to gesture the orientations of linear features and use their hands (open and flat) to gesture the orientations of planar features. In the first part of the exercise, students can only see one surface of a wooden block, and are asked to speculate about how planar features penetrate through the interior. Later, they uncover the other faces of the block and gesture the actual orientations. This uses embodied learning to help students relate surficial (2D) observations to 3D interpretations.

Ormand, Carol

18

Development of a Web Geological Feature Server (WGFS) for sharing and querying of 3D objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to adequately fulfil specific requirements related to spatial database integration with 3D modeling tools, this paper\\u000a presents the development of a generic and open system architecture called Web Geological Feature Server (WGFS). WGFS provides\\u000a direct access through Web services to 3D geological models. WGFS is based on a three-tier architecture: a client (Gocad),\\u000a an application server (Apache Tomcat

Jacynthe Pouliot; Thierry Badard; Etienne Desgagné; Karine Bédard; Vincent Thomas

19

Crater Lake National Park: A 3-D Photographic Tour Featuring Park Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This virtual tour features three-dimensional images from the United States Geological Survey's (USGS) collection. It introduces visitors to the geology, landforms, and history of Crater Lake in Oregon, a lake filling the caldera of what was Mount Mazama, an ancient volcano in the Cascades Range that erupted and collapsed about 7,700 years ago. The 3-D images are anaglyphs and require red and cyan 3-D viewing glasses.

20

Geology and origin of Europa's "Mitten" feature (Murias Chaos)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The "Mitten" (provisionally named Murias Chaos by the International Astronomical Union) is a region of elevated chaos-like terrain in the leading hemisphere of Europa. Its origin had been explained under the currently debated theories of melting through a thin lithosphere or convection within a thick one. Galileo observations reveal several characteristics that suggest that the Mitten is distinct from typical chaos terrain and point to a different formational process. Photoclinometric elevation estimates suggest that the Mitten is slightly elevated with respect to the surrounding terrain; geologic relations indicate that it must have raised significantly from the plains in its past, resembling disrupted domes on Europa's trailing hemisphere. Moreover, the Mitten material appears to have extruded onto the plains and flowed for tens of kilometers. The area subsequently subsided as a result of isostatic adjustment, viscous relaxation, and/or plains loading. Using plate flexure models, we estimated the elastic lithosphere in the area to be several kilometers thick. We propose that the Mitten originated by the ascent and extrusion of a large thermal diapir. Thermal-mechanical modeling shows that a Mitten-sized plume would remain sufficiently warm and buoyant to pierce through the crust and flow unconfined on the surface. Such a diapir probably had an initial radius between 5 and 8 km and an initial depth of 20-40 km, consistent with a thick-lithosphere model. In this scenario the Mitten appears to represent the surface expression of the rare ascent of a large diapir, in contrast to lenticulae and chaos terrain, which may form by isolated and clustered small diapirs, respectively.

Figueredo, P. H.; Chuang, F. C.; Rathbun, J.; Kirk, R. L.; Greeley, R.

2002-01-01

21

Detailed side and overhead views of geologic features from joint panoramic and blimp operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A portion of the California coast, including the Loma Prieta earthquake damage at Moss Landing, is shown with the topography displayed from side and overhead viewing angles. This technique offers a different approach to mapping shorelines and studying the oceanographic forces creating and shaping these geologic features. Two pieces of equipment were developed to create these views. The first is

T. E. Chase; J. D. Young

1990-01-01

22

Geology of Ganymede and Multi-Image Analysis for Recognition of Surface Features  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ganymede's surface shows features never observed on the terrestrial planets. In this paper the authors present the geologic interpretation of the satellite derived by the photogeologic analysis of the Voyager images. The different terrains were classified according to their color, albedo, surface roughness, geometric patterns and occurrence of structures like tectonic features or impact craters. The results achieved by the application of image processing techniques to the Ganymede's surface is also shown.

Bianchi, R.; et al.

1986-06-01

23

Preliminary Integrated Geologic Map Databases for the United States: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Rhode Island and Vermont  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The rapid growth in the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has highlighted the need for regional and national scale digital geologic maps that have standardized information about geologic age and lithology. Such maps can be conveniently used to generate derivative maps for manifold special purposes such as mineral-resource assessment, metallogenic studies, tectonic studies, and environmental research. Although two digital geologic maps (Schruben and others, 1994; Reed and Bush, 2004) of the United States currently exist, their scales (1:2,500,000 and 1:5,000,000) are too general for many regional applications. Most states have digital geologic maps at scales of about 1:500,000, but the databases are not comparably structured and, thus, it is difficult to use the digital database for more than one state at a time. This report describes the result for a seven state region of an effort by the U.S. Geological Survey to produce a series of integrated and standardized state geologic map databases that cover the entire United States. In 1997, the United States Geological Survey's Mineral Resources Program initiated the National Surveys and Analysis (NSA) Project to develop national digital databases. One primary activity of this project was to compile a national digital geologic map database, utilizing state geologic maps, to support studies in the range of 1:250,000- to 1:1,000,000-scale. To accomplish this, state databases were prepared using a common standard for the database structure, fields, attribution, and data dictionaries. For Alaska and Hawaii new state maps are being prepared and the preliminary work for Alaska is being released as a series of 1:250,000 scale quadrangle reports. This document provides background information and documentation for the integrated geologic map databases of this report. This report is one of a series of such reports releasing preliminary standardized geologic map databases for the United States. The data products of the project consist of two main parts, the spatial databases and a set of supplemental tables relating to geologic map units. The datasets serve as a data resource to generate a variety of stratigraphic, age, and lithologic maps. This documentation is divided into four main sections: (1) description of the set of data files provided in this report, (2) specifications of the spatial databases, (3) specifications of the supplemental tables, and (4) an appendix containing the data dictionaries used to populate some fields of the spatial database and supplemental tables.

Nicholson, Suzanne W.; Dicken, Connie L.; Horton, John D.; Foose, Michael P.; Mueller, Julia A. L.; Hon, Rudi

2006-01-01

24

Mount Rainier National Park: A 3-D Tour Featuring Park Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This virtual tour features three-dimensional images from the United States Geological Survey's (USGS) collection. It introduces visitors to the landscapes of Mount Rainier National Park in Washington, including 14,410-foot Mount Rainier, an active volcano of the Cascades Range. Views include the volcano, nearby Tatoosh Range, and glacial landforms and streams associated with Carbon, Paradise, and Emmons Glaciers. The 3-D images are anaglyphs and require red and cyan 3-D viewing glasses.

25

Geology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Geologic history and geographic distribution of Central New York's surface and subsurface mineral resources are described. Present and potential economic uses are identified; abandoned, semi-active, and active extraction sites are depicted; and resources ...

J. F. Davis

1970-01-01

26

Geological structures from televiewer logs of GT-2, Fenton Hill, New Mexico: Part 1, Feature extraction  

SciTech Connect

Patterns in reflected sonic intensity recognized during examination of televiewer logs of basement gneiss at the Hot Dry Rock Site, Fenton Hill, New Mexico, are due to geological fractures and foliations and to incipient breakouts. These features are obscured by artifacts caused by wellbore ellipticity, tool off-centering, and tool oscillations. An interactive method, developed for extraction of the structural features (fractures and foliations), uses human perception as a pattern detector and a chi-square test of harmonic form as a pattern discriminator. From imagery of GT-2, 733 structures were recovered. The acceptance rate of the discriminator was 54%. Despite these positive results, the general conclusion of this study is that intensity-mode imagery from Fenton Hill is not directly invertible for geological information because of the complexity of the televiewer imaging process. Developing a forward model of the intensity-imaging process, or converting to caliper-mode imagery, or doing both, will be necessary for high-fidelity feature extraction from televiewer data.

Burns, K.L.

1987-07-01

27

Geologic Maps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web site provides an introduction to geologic maps. Topics covered include what is a geologic map, unique features of geologic maps, letter symbols, faults, and strike and dip. Users may click to view colored geologic maps, the geologic map of the United States and the geologic relief map of the United States.

Graymer, Russell

28

Phyllosilicate absorption features in main-belt and outer-belt asteroid reflectance spectra.  

PubMed

Absorption features having depths up to 5% are identified in high-quality, high-resolution reflectance spectra of 16 dark asteroids in the main belt and in the Cybele and Hilda groups. Analogs among the CM2 carbonaceous chondrite meteorites exist for some of these asteroids, suggesting that these absorptions are due to iron oxides in phyllosilicates formed on the asteroidal surfaces by aqueous alteration processes. Spectra of ten additional asteroids, located beyond the outer edge of the main belt, show no discernible absorption features, suggesting that aqueous alteration did not always operate at these heliocentric distances. PMID:17748705

Vilas, F; Gaffey, M J

1989-11-10

29

Main features of the interest-free banking movement in Pakistan (1980-2006)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The main objective of this paper is to highlight the main features of interest-free banking theory and practice in Pakistan over the last three decades. It explores the country-wide interest-free banking movement since its inception in 1980 to its demise in 2002, and the reasons for such outcome. Moreover, it addresses the question why interest-free banking has been

M. Mansoor Khan

2008-01-01

30

Geological images  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from Marli Bryant Miller, a professor at the University of Oregon, presents images of geological features from around the world. Photographs of glacial features, igneous and metamorphic rocks and processes, and structural geology are featured.

Miller, Marli B.; Oregon, University O.

31

Main Features of the Public Employment Service in the Slovak Republic  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report documents the main features of the Public Employment Service (PES) in Slovak Republic, with attention to unemployment benefit administration as well as employment services. The current institutional structure was established in 2004. The Central Office of Labour, Social Affairs and Family (COLSAF), a budget organisation of the state, governs 46 territorial local offices, corresponding to the needs of

Daniela Kalužná

2008-01-01

32

A Geologic Analysis of Martian Surface Features from Mariner 9 Photography as a Basis for Systematic Geologic Mapping of MARS: Geology of the Noachis Quadrangle, MARS.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A preliminary geologic mapping of that portion of the Noaches Quadrangle photographed by Mariner 7 is presented along with geologic mapping of the entire quadrangle based on Mariner 9 imagery. The data and conclusions of these two mappings are compared. A...

J. E. Peterson

1974-01-01

33

Investigating geologic features and processes: A field investigation for earth science students at Leif Erickson Park, Duluth, Minnesota.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is a field investigation where students observe and interpret the rocks types, geologic features, and processes typical to the north shore of Lake Superior. Students use their data to develop questions that could be further investigated and to predict the sequence of events leading to the formation of these rocks and features.

Severson, Laurie

34

Detection of silicate emission features in the 8- to 13-micron spectra of main belt asteroids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The authors present 8.0 - 13.0 micron spectra (??/? = 0.02 - 0.03) for six main belt asteroids, which range from 58 to 220 km in diameter and sample the five principal taxonomic classes (C, S, M, R and E). Narrow, well-defined silicate emission features are present on two of the asteroids, the C-type 19 Fortuna and the M-type 21 Lutetia. No comparable emission features are observed on the S-types 11 Parthenope and 14 Irene, the R-type 349 Dembowska or the E-type 64 Angelina.

Feierberg, M. A.; Witteborn, F. C.; Lebofsky, L. A.

1983-12-01

35

Structural geology of the Mount Cook Range and Main Divide, Hooker Valley region, New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structure of the Mt Cook Range is dominated by large, north-facing, steeply plunging, late folds. The Main Divide, on the western side of Hooker Valley, is formed of west-dipping beds, broken by west-northwest-dipping faults. Four episodes of folding occur in the Main Divide:F1 are possibly soft-sediment folds; F2 are isoclinal and display an axial plane schistosity; F3 are southwest-trending

R. H. Findlay; K. B. Spörli

1984-01-01

36

Spine trauma due to diving: main features and short-term neurological outcome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study design:This is a retrospective study.Objectives:The aim of this study is to examine the main features and short-term neurological outcomes associated with injuries to the spine due to diving into water in a Latin American country.Setting:Salvador, Brazil.Patient sample:A total of 1324 subjects were admitted with spinal trauma between 1991 and 2006 (inclusive). Subjects aged between 14 and 65 years who

E C Amorim; H Vetter; L B Mascarenhas; E G Gomes; J B F Carvalho; J F Gomes

2011-01-01

37

Mapping Geological Features in a 3D Seismic Volume for Gas Hydrate Investigation Offshore Southwestern Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Yung-An Ridge is a structural high located in the accretionary complex of the Luzon subduction-collision system offshore southwestern Taiwan. Bottom simulating reflectors (BSRs) are widespread in the region, and combined geophysical and geochemical investigations have revealed that large amount of gas hydrates and free gases are accumulated beneath the anticlines and adjacent slope basins on both sides of the Yung-An Ridge where high priority drilling sites for gas hydrate investigation are proposed. It is thus important to have a good understanding of the potential gas hydrate reservoir characters. In this study, we analyze a 3D seismic volume over the Yung-An Ridge area to map the geological features, such as buried channels, faults, gas migration paths and free gas bearing sediment strata, etc. which are associated with local gas hydrate system. Seismic attribute analyses of the 3D data help us to better constrain the geological features identified in the 3D seismic volume. The reflection strength analysis shows that in addition to the high amplitude character of BSRs, we have also observed some very strong reflection signals below BSRs in the slope basins on both sides of the Yung-An Ridge. Instantaneous frequency images show that there are low frequency patches beneath BSRs which may reflect gas-bearing strata. The analyses of instantaneous phase images help to identify faults easily. Those images also show that the characters of gas hydrate presence are approximately terminated in the west side of Penghu Canyon, the west flank of the Yung-An Ridge and the chimney structure located in the slope basin of the east part of Yung-An Ridge.

Lee, J. F.; Liu, C. S.; Hsu, H. H.; Chen, S. C.; Chung, S. H.

2012-04-01

38

Icelandic Geology Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The main feature of this site from Hamrahlio College of Reykjavik, Iceland is an interactive geological map of Iceland showing lava flows and glaciers. Other highlights include links to related Icelandic geology pages (e.g., The Effect of Diatom Mining, Iceland's Ministry of the Environment), news sources and journals, and Icelandic geological societies (not all are in English). A recommended resource for glaciologists, volcanologists, and educators in earth science.

Douglas, Georg R.

39

Geologic Concept Modeling, with Examples for Lithology and Some Other Basic Geoscience Features  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital geologic maps are a cornerstone of next gener- ation geologic information systems that will archive, query, retrieve, and display geologic information tailored to specific requirements. These systems will probably include a knowledge base component to support applica- tions that check the consistency of existing 'knowledge' with new interpretations and data. In order to maximize the utility of such a

Stephen M. Richard

40

Geologic Explorations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

One of the latest offerings from the North Carolina State University's Web site Science Junction (last mentioned in the November 25, 1998 Scout Report) is the Geologic Explorations page. By clicking on the respective coordinates of each location, users can explore twelve areas in the western United States with 360-degree panoramic QuickTime movies and digital photography. Set up as a type of lesson for students, the main page suggests paying close attention to the unique geologic features and gives a few questions to answer about each area. The site is very easy to use and provides some breathtaking vistas of some of the most beautiful areas of the US.

Bodzin, Alec M.

2001-01-01

41

The Main Shear Zone in Sør Rondane: A key feature for reconstructing the geodynamic evolution of East Antarctica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Structural investigations were carried out along the Main Shear Zone (MSZ) of western Sør Rondane (22°-25°E, 71.5°-72.5°S) to gain new information about the position of the East-/West-Gondwana suture and the ancient plate tectonic configuration during Gondwana amalgamation. The WSW-ENE striking MSZ divides south-western Sør Rondane in a northern amphibolite-facies terrane and a southern tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG) terrane. The structure can be traced over a distance of ca. 100 km and reaches several hundred meters in width. It is characterized by a right-lateral sense of movement and marked by a transpressional and also transtensional regime. Ductilely deformed granitoids (ca. 560 Ma: SHRIMP U-Pb of zircon) and ductile - brittle structures, which evolved in a transitional ductile to brittle regime in an undeformed syenite (ca. 499-459 Ma, Ar-Ar mica), provide a late Proterozoic/ early Paleozoic time limit for the activity of the shear zone (Shiraishi et al., 2008; Shiraishi et al., 1997). Documentation of ductile and brittle deformation allows reconstructing up to eight deformation stages. Cross-cutting relationships of structural features mapped in the field complemented by published kinematic data reveal the following relative age succession: [i] Dn+1 - formation of the main foliation during peak metamorphism, [ii] Dn+2 - isoclinal, intrafolial folding of the main foliation, mostly foliation-parallel mylonitic shear zones (1-2 meter thick), [iii] Dn+3 - formation of tight to closed folds, [iv] Dn+4 - formation of relatively upright, large-scale open folds, [v] Dn+5 - granitoid intrusion (e.g. Vengen granite), [vi] Dn+6 - dextral shearing between amphibolite and TTG terranes, formation of the MSZ, [vii] Dn+7 - intrusion of late- to post-tectonic granitoids, first stage of brittle deformation (late shearing along MSZ), intrusion of post-kinematic mafic dykes, [viii] Dn+8 - second stage of brittle deformation including formation of conjugate fault systems. The latter point to a WNW-ESE respectively NW-SE oriented maximum paleostress direction and indicate the latest deformation event; they are possibly related to the break-up and fragmentation of Gondwana. Two contrasting models describe the configuration of East Gondwana during the Neoproterozoic and the final amalgamation of Gondwana. The first model proposes the existence of a Pan-African Orogen (East African/ Antarctic Orogen). The Main Shear Zone could represent the eastern extension of this orogen and may be related to a NE-directed lateral-escape tectonic model. Both published structural data from Sør Rondane and adjacent regions and the outcome of this study agree with this model and propose a suture of East- and West Gondwana located between Mühlig-Hofmann-Gebirge and Sør Rondane. The second model of an overlap of two orogens with different formation ages cannot be proved by structural data from the MSZ. Instead, tight test constraints of the second model may be provided by new magnetic anomaly maps based on a 2012/13 aerogeophysical survey. Shiraishi, K.; Dunkley, D.J.; Hokada, T.; Fanning, C.M.; Kagami, H.; and Hamamoto, T. (2008): Geochronological constraints on the Late Proterozoic to Cambrian crustal evolution of eastern Dronning Maud Land, East Antarctica: a synthesis of SHRIMP U-Pb age and Nd model age data. Geological Society, 308(1):21-67. Shiraishi, K.; Osanai, Y.; Ishizuka, H.; and Asami, M. (1997): Geological map of the Sør Rondane Mountains, Antarctica. Antarctica Geological Map Series, sheet 35, scale 1 : 25 0000. National Institute of PolarResearch, Tokyo.

Ruppel, Antonia; Läufer, Andreas; Lisker, Frank; Jacobs, Joachim; Elburg, Marlina; Damaske, Detlef; Lucka, Nicole

2013-04-01

42

On the main flow features of the SE Levantine (CYBO cruises 1995-2012)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main characteristic of the circulation in the Eastern Mediterranean Levantine Basin is a general cyclonic flow following more or less the coastline, with several persistent eddies in the open sea. The interaction between all of these dynamical features produces a complicated flow pattern with strong spatial variability on a synoptic, seasonal and inter-annual scales. The continuous seasonal/annual hydrographic survey of the SE Levantine since 1995 within the frame of the Cyprus Basin Oceanography program (CYBO) and the Haifa-section cruises, along with data from project surveys (CYCLOPS, MSM/14) and recent data from autonomous platforms, such as those from Argos floats, drifters and gliders (NEMED, YPOKINOUMODA, GROOM projects) have all provided insight on the three dominating flow features in the SE Levantine Basin. Namely, the two warm core eddies, i.e. the Cyprus and Shikmona, and the open sea flow jet, that of the Mid Mediterranean. After some years of disputes, it is well-documented with all these in-situ data that the Cyprus warm core eddy is the most influential flow feature in the area, with significant fluctuations in time and space, while the generation of the Shikmona eddy was observed for the first time. Moreover, the cross basin flow of the MMJ is also well-document, confirming the relevant POEM results, to transfer also significant amount of AW further to the most-eastern part of the Levantine, after passing between Cyprus and along the northern periphery of the Cyprus warm core eddy.

Zodiatis, George; Hayes, Dan; Gertman, Isaac; Poulain, Pierre-Marie; Menna, Milena; Nicolaidis, Andreas

2013-04-01

43

The Hidden Earth: Visualization of Geologic Features and their Subsurface Geometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Geology is among the most visual of the sciences, with spatial reasoning taking place at various scales and in various contexts. Among,the spatial skills required in introductory college geology courses are spatial rotation (rotating objects in one’s mind), and visualization (transforming an object in one’s mind). To assess the role of spatial ability in geology, we designed an experiment

Michael D. Piburn; Stephen J. Reynolds; Debra E. Leedy; Carla M. McAuliffe; James P. Birk; Julia K. Johnson

2002-01-01

44

Main features of the new software control system for the YuMO instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last years the new software instrumental complex Sonix+ has been developed at FLNP JINR to replace the former Sonix control system [1]. This complex has been tested at a number of IBR-2 instruments (REMUR, NERA-PR) and on instruments at other centers - KIA, Moscow (MOND), etc. We plan to install the new complex at the YuMO instrument as well. The Sonix+ is implemented on the PC/Windows XP platform, whereas the Sonix is based on the VME/Os-9 obsolete platform. The Sonix+ [1] has been designed considering the experience of long-term operation of the predecessor and recent trends. The paper is devoted to the main features of the new software and the comparison with the former one.

Kirilov, A. S.

2012-03-01

45

The Cyborg Astrobiologist: Scouting Red Beds for Uncommon Features with Geological Significance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The ‘Cyborg Astrobiologist’ has undergone a second geologi cal field trial, at a site in northern Guadalajara, Spain, near Riba de Santiuste. The site at Riba de Santiuste is dominated by layered deposits of red sandstones. The Cyborg Astrobiologist is a wearable,computer,and video camera system that has demonstrated,a capability to find uncommon interest points in geological imagery in realtime

Patrick Charles McGuire; Enrique Díaz Martínez; Jens Ormö; Javier Gómez-Elvira; José Antonio Rodríguez Manfredi; Eduardo Sebastián-Martínez; Helge Ritter; Robert Haschke; Markus Oesker; Jörg Ontrup

2005-01-01

46

Automated feature extraction and spatial organization of seafloor pockmarks, Belfast Bay, Maine, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Seafloor pockmarks occur worldwide and may represent millions of m3 of continental shelf erosion, but few numerical analyses of their morphology and spatial distribution of pockmarks exist. We introduce a quantitative definition of pockmark morphology and, based on this definition, propose a three-step geomorphometric method to identify and extract pockmarks from high-resolution swath bathymetry. We apply this GIS-implemented approach to 25km2 of bathymetry collected in the Belfast Bay, Maine USA pockmark field. Our model extracted 1767 pockmarks and found a linear pockmark depth-to-diameter ratio for pockmarks field-wide. Mean pockmark depth is 7.6m and mean diameter is 84.8m. Pockmark distribution is non-random, and nearly half of the field's pockmarks occur in chains. The most prominent chains are oriented semi-normal to the steepest gradient in Holocene sediment thickness. A descriptive model yields field-wide spatial statistics indicating that pockmarks are distributed in non-random clusters. Results enable quantitative comparison of pockmarks in fields worldwide as well as similar concave features, such as impact craters, dolines, or salt pools. ?? 2010.

Andrews, B. D.; Brothers, L. L.; Barnhardt, W. A.

2010-01-01

47

Lunar topographic roughness maps from Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) data: Scale dependence and correlation with geologic features and units  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present maps of the topographic roughness of the Moon at hectometer and kilometer scales. The maps are derived from range profiles obtained by the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) instrument onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) spacecraft. As roughness measures, we used the interquartile range of profile curvature at several baselines, from 115 m to 1.8 km, and plotted these in a global map format. The maps provide a synoptic overview of variations of typical topographic textures and utilize the exceptional ranging precision of the LOLA instrument. We found that hectometer-scale roughness poorly correlates with kilometer-scale roughness, because they reflect different sets of processes and time scales. Hectometer-scale roughness is controlled by regolith accumulation and modification processes and affected by the most recent events, primarily, geologically recent (1–2 Ga) meteoritic impacts. Kilometer-scale roughness reflects major geological (impact, volcanic and tectonic) events in earlier geological history. Young large impact craters are rough, and their roughness decreases with age. The global roughness maps revealed a few unusually dense clusters of hectometer- and decameter-size impact craters that differ in their morphology and settings from typical secondary crater clusters and chains; the origin of these features is enigmatic. The maps can assist in the geological mapping of the lunar maria by revealing contacts between volcanic plain units. The global roughness maps also clearly reveal cryptomaria, old volcanic plains superposed by younger materials, primarily crater and basin ejecta.

Kreslavsky, Mikhail A.; Head, James W.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Rosenburg, Margaret A.; Aharonson, Oded; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.

2013-09-01

48

Information needs for characterization of high-level waste repository sites in six geologic media. Volume 1. Main report  

SciTech Connect

Evaluation of the geologic isolation of radioactive materials from the biosphere requires an intimate knowledge of site geologic conditions, which is gained through precharacterization and site characterization studies. This report presents the results of an intensive literature review, analysis and compilation to delineate the information needs, applicable techniques and evaluation criteria for programs to adequately characterize a site in six geologic media. These media, in order of presentation, are: granite, shale, basalt, tuff, bedded salt and dome salt. Guidelines are presented to assess the efficacy (application, effectiveness, and resolution) of currently used exploratory and testing techniques for precharacterization or characterization of a site. These guidelines include the reliability, accuracy and resolution of techniques deemed acceptable, as well as cost estimates of various field and laboratory techniques used to obtain the necessary information. Guidelines presented do not assess the relative suitability of media. 351 refs., 10 figs., 31 tabs.

NONE

1985-05-01

49

Maine's Diadromous Fish Community: Past, Present, and Implications for Atlantic Salmon Recovery FEATURE: ENDANGERED SPECIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Co-evolved diadromous fishes may play important roles in key life history events of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in northeastern U.S. riverine ecosys- tems. We reviewed available information on the historic and current abundance of alewives (Alosa pseudoharengus), blueback herring (Alosa aestivalis), American shad (Alosa sapidissima), rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax), and sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) for several rivers in Maine. Historically,

Rory Saunders; Michael A. Hachey; Clem W. Fay

2006-01-01

50

Geologic features and ground-water storage capacity of the Sacramento Valley, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Sacramento Valley constitutes the northern and smaller arm of the Central Valley of California. It is about 150 miles long by about 30 miles wide; and its area is about 5,000 square miles. The Sacramento Valley is drained by the Sacramento River, the largest in California, which rises west of Mount Shasta and flows southward to join the San Joaquin River near Suisun Bay and discharges through San Francisco Bay to the Pacific. Most of the valley floor is suitable for growing crops, and under irrigation the land is highly productive. The Sacramento Valley is underlain by sediments transported from the surrounding mountains by the Sacramento River and its tributaries. The floor of the valley slopes southward from about 300 feet above sea level at the north end near Red Bluff to sea level at Suisun Bay. The Sutter Buttes, which are erosional remnants of an old volcano rise to 2,132 feet above sea level near the center of the valley. The valley floor is not a featureless plain but is characterized by various types of topography, which have been assigned to four principal groups: 1, low hills and dissected alluvial uplands; 2, low alluvial plains and fans; 3, flood plains and natural levees; and 4, flood basins; a fifth and relatively minor group consists of the tidal Islands of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, which are south of the principal area of investigation. The rocks that underlie the Sacramento Valley and the bordering mountains range from crystalline rocks of Paleozoic and Mesozoic age to unconsolidated alluvium of Recent age. These rocks have been subdivided into 20 geologic units which may be assigned to 2 broad categories: rocks that yield little water and rocks that yield water freely. The rocks of the first category are chiefly marine sedimentary rocks of Late Jurassic, Cretaceous, and Early Tertiary age and a basement complex of pre-Tertiary crystalline rocks. The rocks of the second category consist predominantly of nonmarine valley-filling sediments of late Tertiary and Quaternary age, which constitute the principal ground-water reservoir in the Sacramento Valley. The rocks that yield little or no water includes the following geologic units: 1, Basement complex of the Sierra Nevada (pre-Tertiary); 2, Shasta series (Lower Cretaceous); 3, Chico formation (Upper Cretaceous); 4, Paleocene series; 5, Eocene series (in part, water yielding); 6, basalt (Tertiary); 7, sedimentary rocks of volcanic origin on the west side of the Sacramento Valley (Tertiary, in part water yielding) ; 8, intrusive rhyolite and andesite and vent tuff of the Sutter Buttes (Pliocene); and 9, tuff-breccia of the Sutter Buttes (Pliocene, in part water yielding). The rocks that yield water freely, comprises the following geologic units: 1, Volcanic rocks from the Sierra Nevada (Eocene to Pliocene; in part yield little or no water); 2, Tuscan formation (Pliocene; in part yield little or no water); 3, Tehama formation (Pliocene); 4, Tehama formation and related continental sediments, undifferentiated (Pliocene and Pleistocene); 5, Laguna formation and related continental sediments (Pliocene and Pleistocene); 6, fanglomerate from the Cascade Range (Pleistocene); 7, Red Bluff formation (Pleistocene); 8, Victor formation and related deposits (Pleistocene); 9, alluvial-fan deposits (Pleistocene and Recent); 10, river deposits (Recent); and 11, flood-basin deposits (Recent). The volcanic rocks from the Sierra Nevada consist chiefly of andesitic and rhyolitic detritus. Most of these volcanic rocks are fragmental and were deposited either as mudflows or by streams. Their permeability is extremely variable, the poorly consolidated sandstone and conglomerate strata locally yield water copiously to wells, but the interbedded fine-grained and cemented strata are virtually impermeable and act as confining layers. The Tuscan formation, which occurs in the northeastern part of the valley, consists of fragmental andesitic and basaltic mate

Olmsted, F. H.; Davis, G. H.

1961-01-01

51

Hydrological and Geological Features Contributing to a Seepage Event at Yucca Mountain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The occurrence of an unusual seepage event in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) tunnel at Yucca Mountain (YM) in 2005 provides an opportunity to further understand the hydrological system associated with flow in fractured rocks and seepage into tunnels. Understanding the contributing factors for this seepage occurrence in the ventilated tunnel will assist U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission in its assessment of Department of Energy flow models. The seepage event begin in the later portion of an El Nino winter (February 2005) predominantly along a 40-m [130-ft] section of the south ramp of the ESF tunnel. The stratigraphic section at this location is comprised of a portion of the Tiva Canyon Tuff, which is a rhyolitic ignimbrite. The effect of El Nino conditions in the semi-arid climate of southern Nevada near YM is greatly increased winter precipitation. Based on the ~50 years of record at a nearby meteorological station, the winter of 2004-2005 was the wettest winter on record. The previous largest winter precipitation amounts were recorded in the El Nino years of 1992-1993 and 1997-1998. During the 1997 El Nino year, a monitored set of boreholes in nearby Pagany Wash indicated that a saturated front traversed the entire Tiva Canyon Tuff section during a single event (Le Cain and Kurmack, 2002, USGS Water Resources Investigations Report 02-4035). It is unclear if the fracture system in the south ramp location was saturated in the February 2005 event; no data were available to estimate the saturated state of the fracture system. With heavy precipitation occurring throughout the winter, however, the matrix and fracture systems were likely primed (i.e., saturation levels were likely significantly higher than normal) for a significant percolation event. Ponding caused by focusing of runoff at the ground surface above seepage location in the south ramp of the ESF tunnel likely did not occur based on topographical and catchment considerations (no significant depressions or gullies). Analyses of the geological characteristics associated with the seepage location suggest the contributing factors that constrained seepage to this particular portion of the tunnel include (i) distance to the surface (i.e., ~60 m [200 ft]), (ii) gently dipping strata with distinct lithological contacts that may have laterally diverted water, (iii) faults and fractures, and (iv) downslope capping by rock units with different hydrological characteristics. This is an independent product of the CNWRA and does not necessarily reflect the views of regulatory positions of the NRC. The NRC staff views expressed herein are preliminary and do not constitute a final judgment or determination of the matters addressed or of the acceptability of a license application for a geologic repository at Yucca Mountain.

Fedors, R. W.; Smart, K. J.; Parrott, J. D.

2006-05-01

52

Main features of anthropogenic inner-urban soils in Szeged, Hungary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the beginning of the 21st century, due to the intensive urbanization it is necessary to gather more and more information on altered physical, chemical and biological parameters of urban soils in order to ensure their suitable management and protection for appropriate living conditions. Nowadays, these measures are very relevant since negative environmental effects can modify the soil forming factors in cities. Szeged, the 4th largest city of Hungary, proved to be an ideal sampling area for the research of urban soils since its original surface has been altered by intensive anthropogenic activities. The main objectives of my research are the investigation, description and evaluation of the altered soils in Szeged. For the physical and chemical analysis (humus, nitrogen, carbonate content, heavy metals, pH, artefacts etc.) of soils 124 samples were taken from the horizons of 25 profiles in Szeged and its peripherals (as control samples). The profiles were sampled at sites affected by different extent of artificial infill according to infill maps (1. profiles fully made up of infill; 2. so-called mixed profiles consisting of considerable amount of infill material and buried soil horizons; 3. natural profiles located in the peripherals of the city). With the help of the above-mentioned parameters, the studied soils of Szeged were assigned into the classification system of WRB(2006), which classifies the soils of urban and industrial areas as an individual soil group (under the term Technosols) for the first time. In accordance with the WRB(2006) nomenclature three main soil types can be identified in Szeged with respect to the degree of human influence: profiles slightly influenced, strongly modified, completely altered by human activities. During this poster, we present the peculiarities of typical urban profiles strongly and completely altered by human influence. Most profiles were placed into the group of Technosols due to the considerable transformation of their diagnostic properties (e.g. coverage by artificial objects, intensive compaction, horizontal and vertical variability, abrupt colour and textural changes usually high amount of artefacts, irregular fluctuation of diagnostic properties along the profiles, anthropogenic parent material, high pH and carbonate content, poor humus quality, mainly sand, sandy loam texture etc.). Transformations were best reflected by suffixes such as Ekranic, Urbic, Linic. Among the suffix qualifiers Calcaric, Ruptic, Densic and Arenic were used the most frequently. Furthermore, we found that some of the studied profiles were not situated in the city centre. Consequently, the location of these profiles in the city centre is not necessary since local influences can overwhelm the effect of artificial infill. Considering all the profiles, two of them in city centre can be consider to be the most anthropogenic: profile No. 11 [Ekranic Technosol (Ruptic, Toxic, Endoclayic)] and profile No. 22 [Urbic Technosol (Calcaric, Ruptic, Densic, Arenic)]. It can be claimed that profile No. 11 with "technic hard rock" has the least chance to experience pedogenetic processes since the horizons are covered by thick, surface artificial object, and isolated from the outside world. However, in case of profile No. 22 with dense vegetation and without surface artificial object, the high amount of artefact inhibits pedogenesis.

Puskás, Irén.; Farsang, Andrea

2010-05-01

53

Deterministic features of side-chain main-chain hydrogen bonds in globular protein structures.  

PubMed

A total of 19 835 polar residues from a data set of 250 non-homologous and highly resolved protein crystal structures were used to identify side-chain main-chain (SC-MC) hydrogen bonds. The ratio of the number of SC-MC hydrogen bonds to the total number of polar residues is close to 1:2, indicating the ubiquitous nature of such hydrogen bonds. Close to 56% of the SC-MC hydrogen bonds are local involving side-chain acceptor/donor ('i') and a main-chain donor/acceptor within the window i-5 to i+5. These short-range hydrogen bonds form well defined conformational motifs characterized by specific combinations of backbone and side-chain torsion angles. (a) The Ser/Thr residues show the greatest preference in forming intra-helical hydrogen bonds between the atoms O(gamma)(i) and O(i-4). More than half the examples of such hydrogen bonds are found at the middle of alpha-helices rather than at their ends. The most favoured motif of these examples is alpha(R)alpha(R)alpha(R)alpha(R)(g(-)). (b) These residues also show great preference to form hydrogen bonds between O(gamma)(i) and O(i-3), which are closely related to the previous type and though intra-helical, these hydrogen bonds are more often found at the C-termini of helices than at the middle. The motif represented by alpha(R)alpha(R)alpha(R)alpha(R)(g(+)) is most preferred in these cases. (c) The Ser, Thr and Glu are the most frequently found residues participating in intra-residue hydrogen bonds (between the side-chain and main-chain of the same residue) which are characterized by specific motifs of the form beta(g(+)) for Ser/Thr residues and alpha(R)(g(-)g(+)t) for Glu/Gln. (d) The side-chain acceptor atoms of Asn/Asp and Ser/Thr residues show high preference to form hydrogen bonds with acceptors two residues ahead in the chain, which are characterized by the motifs beta (tt')alphaR and beta(t)alpha(R), respectively. These hydrogen bonded segments, referred to as Asx turns, are known to provide stability to type I and type I' beta-turns. (e) Ser/Thr residues often form a combination of SC-MC hydrogen bonds, with the side-chain donor hydrogen bonded to the carbonyl oxygen of its own peptide backbone and the side-chain acceptor hydrogen bonded to an amide hydrogen three residues ahead in the sequence. Such motifs are quite often seen at the beginning of alpha-helices, which are characterized by the beta(g(+))alpha(R)alpha(R) motif. A remarkable majority of all these hydrogen bonds are buried from the protein surface, away from the surrounding solvent. This strongly indicates the possibility of side-chains playing the role of the backbone, in the protein interiors, to satisfy the potential hydrogen bonding sites and maintaining the network of hydrogen bonds which is crucial to the structure of the protein. PMID:10810153

Eswar, N; Ramakrishnan, C

2000-04-01

54

Atmospheric chemistry on Venus, Earth, and Mars: Main features and comparison  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with two common problems and then considers major aspects of chemistry in the atmospheres of Mars and Venus. (1) The atmospheres of the terrestrial planets have similar origins but different evolutionary pathways because of the different masses and distances to the Sun. Venus lost its water by hydrodynamic escape, Earth lost CO 2 that formed carbonates and is strongly affected by life, Mars lost water in the reaction with iron and then most of the atmosphere by the intense meteorite impacts. (2) In spite of the higher solar radiation on Venus, its thermospheric temperatures are similar to those on Mars because of the greater gravity acceleration and the higher production of O by photolysis of CO 2. O stimulates cooling by the emission at 15 ?m in the collisions with CO 2. (3) There is a great progress in the observations of photochemical tracers and minor constituents on Mars in the current decade. This progress is supported by progress in photochemical modeling, especially by photochemical GCMs. Main results in these areas are briefly discussed. The problem of methane presents the controversial aspects of its variations and origin. The reported variations of methane cannot be explained by the existing data on gas-phase and heterogeneous chemistry. The lack of current volcanism, SO 2, and warm spots on Mars favor the biological origin of methane. (4) Venus' chemistry is rich and covers a wide range of temperatures and pressures and many species. Photochemical models for the middle atmosphere (58-112 km), for the nighttime atmosphere and night airglow at 80-130 km, and the kinetic model for the lower atmosphere are briefly discussed.

Krasnopolsky, Vladimir A.

2011-08-01

55

Detection of coxarthrosis in femoral head radiographic images seems limited mainly to vertically oriented pattern features.  

PubMed

Out of 120 conventional hip joint X-rays, two indepenendent examiners have chosen 27 healthy and 62 coxarthrotic joints. Central parts of femoral head images were digitalized (300 points/inch) and pixel density values analysed. Two methods were applied separately to horizontal rows and to vertical columns: variance coefficient calculation and power coefficients of Fourier harmonics. The arithmetic mean and median of variance coefficient for 256 pixel columns were both significantly higher in data of osteoarthrotic femurs (Mann-Whitney U-test, p = 0.0046 and p = 0.0011, respectively), while no difference was found for horizontal rows. The arithmetic mean and median of variance coefficient for 128 pixels long columns were significantly lower in data of osteoarthrotic femurs (p < 0.001) with wider standard deviation (p = 0.0274), while standard deviation was significantly lower in rows of coxarthrotic heads (p < 0.001). Fourier analysis of 128 pixel vertical columns showed significantly higher values in coxarthrotic femoral heads (from 1st harmonic, wave length of 10.8 mm to 33rd harmonic, wave length of 0.328 mm, p < 0.05). Fourier analysis of 128 pixel horizontal rows did not differ much between coxarthrotic and normal femoral heads. Only valuds for the 60th and 61st harmonic (wavelength near 0.2 mm) showed significantly lower power in coxarthrotic images than in controls (p < 0.01). Results suggest that in the analyzed set of digitalized x-ray femoral head images, information regarding osteoarthrotic changes in the central part of femoral head is detectable mainly through mathematic postprocessing of vertically oriented patterns. PMID:23697270

Rapan, Sasa; Jovanovi?, Savo; Gulan, Gordan; Kurbel, Sven

2013-03-01

56

Geology and slope stability in selected parts of The Geysers geothermal resources area: a guide to geologic features indicative of stable and unstable terrain in areas underlain by Franciscan and related rocks  

SciTech Connect

The results of a 4-month study of various geologic and topographic features related to the stability of Franciscan terrain in The Geysers GRA are presented. The study consisted of investigations of geologic and topographic features, throughout The Geysers GRA, and geologic mapping at a scale of 1:12,000 of approximately 1500 acres (600 hectares) of landslide terrain within the canyon of Big Sulphur Creek in the vicinity of the Buckeye mine (see plate 1). The area mapped during this study was selected because: (1) it is an area of potential future geothermal development, and (2) it illustrates that large areas mapped as landslides on regional scales (McLaughlin, 1974, 1975b; McNitt, 1968a) may contain zones of varying slope stability and, therefore, should be mapped in more detail prior to development of the land.

Bedrossian, T.L.

1980-01-01

57

Geologically recent small-scale surface features in Meridiani Planum, Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Leveed fissures and gutters, small scale (<1m) depositional and erosional features that have been imaged at several locations in the equatorial Meridiani Planum region by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity, occur in loose, dark basaltic sands that partly cover exposures of light-toned bedrock. Leveed fissures appear to have been formed by venting from beneath; possible explanations include wind creating blowholes near crater margins, volcanic fumarole activity, or gas/vapour escape resulting from the decomposition of small pockets of ground ice, methane clathrates or hydrated sulphate minerals. Some leveed fissures cross-cut and are therefore younger than aeolian ripples which are thought to have last been active c. 50,000 years ago. Some gutters are sharply defined and fresh, internally terraced, have a hole or hollow at or near one end, and in one case seem to give way to small depositional fans downslope; they have the appearance of having been formed by liquid flow rather than by wind erosion. There is evidence elsewhere that contemporary ground-ice thaw and consequent transient surface run-off may occur occasionally under present conditions in low, near-equatorial latitudes on Mars; short-lived (even for just a few minutes) meltwater emission and flow at the surface could erode gutters before evaporating. The decomposition of buried pockets of methane clathrates, which theoretical considerations suggest might be present and stable even in equatorial regions, could give rise to both methane venting (leveed fissures) and transient surface water (gutters). Yet another possibility is the decomposition, in response to local changes in thermal conditions, of hydrated magnesium sulphate minerals in the bedrock, which could release liquid water to the surface. Whatever their explanation, these features hint at previously unrecognized, young (perhaps even contemporary) martian surface processes.

Horne, David

2013-04-01

58

Groundwater study using drill holes in the Abukuma granitic province, NE Japan: chemical and isotopic features in the fracture zone around the geological tectonic line  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemical and isotopic features of groundwater in a granitic province are considered to be controlled by water origin, water-rock reaction and/or fracture connection in rocks. Under the depth of a weathering layer, groundwater is existed only in cracks of granite, and its chemical nature or origin has been poorly understood because of difficulties on collection of water samples preserving its natural conditions. On the other hand, a geological tectonic line in a granitic province might provide an influence to groundwater as a path for ascending deep fluid. We conducted a study for chemical processes of groundwater in cracks with investigation of an influence of tectonic line by drilling three bore holes at two sites in a same rock body; Miharu site is located ca. 1.2km west from the Morioka-Shirakawa tectonic line, and Shirasawa site is ca. 5km west. In situ sampling of waters in cracks of granite are done with the single and double packer methods. The drill holes were made 305m and 135m at the Miharu site and 230m at the Shirasawa site. Using these bole holes, groundwater features in the fracture zone around the geological tectonic line can be compared with those outside it. Chemical type of groundwater has a variety with depth; the shallower groundwater is categorized as Ca-HCO3- type with slight NO3 contamination whereas deeper groundwater has Na-HCO3- type. Stable isotope composition of water showed that all the sample water is meteoric origin. Those have significantly low values (ca. 10‰ of ?D lower than shallow groundwater) obviously indicating that the groundwater does not originate from the present meteoric water. Groundwater with low ?D and ?18O values is likely recharged in an ice age consistent with the 14C date showing the age of carbon ranging from 10000 to 15000 yrBP. The vertical trends of chemical and isotopic components are similar between the two holes at the Miharu site, but different between the two sites, Miharu and Shirasawa. The differences between the two sites mainly appear as the ?13C values and concentration of total dissolved inorganic carbon, calcium and magnesium concentrations with higher values at the Miharu site. These suggest that carbonate dissolution is predicted at the Miharu site. Assuming carbonate dissolution occurred with external CO2 supply at the Miharu site only, chemical relationship could be expressed well. The ?13C profiles suggest that deep-seated CO2 is supplied at the Miharu site, and not be supplied at the Shirasawa site. Therefore, it is considered that the fractures related to the geological tectonic line acts as the pathway of ascending deep-seated CO2.

Takahashi, H. A.; Tsukamoto, H.; Kazahaya, K.; Takahashi, M.; Morikawa, N.; Yasuhara, M.; Inamura, A.; Handa, H.; Nakamura, T.

2010-12-01

59

Geologic features of areas of abnormal radioactivity south of Ocala, Marion County, Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Areas of abnormal radioactivity south of Ocala, Marion County, Fla., discovered in 1953 by aerial survey, were investigated by surface examination and by 10 power auger drill holes. Inter-bedded clay, clayey sand, and uraniferous phosphorite occur in the areas of anomalous radioactivityo Miocene fossils occur at three localities in these beds which are evidently outliers- of Miocene sediments on the Ocala limestone of Eocene age. The preserved outliers are southwest of the main belt of Miocene sediments. The principal uraniferous rocks are clayey, sandy, pellet phosphori1te that occurs in beds a few feet thick, and very porous, phosphatic sand rock which makes abundant float at many places. Apatite forms the phosphate pellets in the unweathered phosphorite. The very porous, phosphatic sand rock is the highly leached residuum of the pellet phosphorite and is composed mainly of quartz, kaolinite, wavellite, and crandallite (pseudowavellite). It closely resembles the aluminum phosphate rock of the 'leached zone' of the Bone Valley formation in the land-pebble phosphate district.

Espenshade, Gilbert H.

1956-01-01

60

Detailed Geological Features of The Arabian Peninsula Obtained From The Aeromagnetic Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new seamless high-resolution data set, is presented showing more detailed features of the Arabian Shield and the Cover Rocks than any of the existing compilations. This paper describe the procedures of editing and reprocessing 28 separate aeromagnetic surveys covering the Arabian Shield and the Cover Rocks areas and merging them into one regional aeromagnetic dataset. These surveys have different specification of time-span, flightline spacing, flightheight, flightline direction as well as data errors. Processing was not straight forward since some continuation lines did not overlap, resulting in the generation of significant noise in the derived grid. Also the archived digital aeromagnetic surveys over the Cover Rocks had locations of data points truncated to 3 decimal places of a degree; this resulted in zigzagging of location points along the flightlines. A further problem was the original data had more than one flightline assigned with the same line number. These shortcomings resulted in many automated processing errors which were impossible to simply correct by using the available commercial software. Therefore, specially written software was designed to solve these problems. Finally microlevelling each survey, bring all surveys to a common datum and merging the surveys into an integrated/unified survey at a grid cell size of 200 m was achieved. This new compilation was comprehensively used to map the tectonic fabric of the Arabian Shield and the extension of the fault systems beneath the Phanerozoic cover, enabling a better understanding of basement evolution.

Mogren, S.; Fairhead, D.; Jassim, S.

2009-05-01

61

Web Geologic Time Scale  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of California-Berkeley Museum of Paleontology (last mentioned in the June 16, 1995 Scout Report) has recently updated its Web Geologic Time Scale, an online feature that helps users learn about the geologic timeline and explore related museum exhibits. The familiar geologic timeline appears on the main page of the Web site, with hypertext links for each division of time. Every page of the Web Geologic Time Machine site is liberally sprinkled with links to related UCMP Web pages; think of it as a portal to all online information available from the museum. Altogether, this Web site provides a well-organized and comprehensive resource for learning how the planet has changed over time, and would be a great addition to earth or life sciences classroom material for a broad range of grades.

1994-01-01

62

Yellowstone Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Yellowstone National Park website provides geological information about the Park. Links include geologic highlights, hydrothermal features, reports by park geologists, and scientists' talks (videos). A wide array of information can be found on these links and the webpage is expanding as more topics are added.

Park, Yellowstone N.

63

A Study on Clinical and Pathologic Features in Lupus Nephritis with Mainly IgA Deposits and a Literature Review  

PubMed Central

Objective. To study the clinical and pathologic features of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) that has atypical lupus nephritis (LN) with mainly IgA deposits. Methods. We searched the SLE patients who had nephritis with mainly IgA deposits in our hospital and selected the information including clinical manifestations, laboratory tests, treatments, and prognosis. Results. From January 2009 to June 2012, 5 patients were definitely diagnosed as SLE according to both 1982 and 2009 ACR classification criteria. But renal biopsy showed that all cases had mainly IgA deposits and were free of IgG, C1q, and fibrinogen-related antigen deposits under immunofluorescent microscopy, which did not match with typical LN. There were 2 males and 3 females, aging from 31 to 64 years and with an average of (42.20 ± 13.59) years. The 5 cases had multiple-system involvements, mainly the renal system. Compared to primary IgAN, the atypical LN showed some differences: older than primary IgAN, more women than men, no previous infection history, lower incidence of serum IgA elevation, and ACL positive rate as high as 100%. Conclusion. Nephritis with mainly IgAN deposits, as an atypical LN, may be a special subtype of SLE.

Hongyan, Liu; Yi, Zheng; Bao, Dong; Yuewu, Lu; Juan, Meng

2013-01-01

64

Tour of Park Geology: Shoreline Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Park Service (NPS) site provides links to shoreline geology fieldnotes for National Parks, Monuments, and Recreation Areas. When appropriate, fieldnotes include visitor information, geology, maps, photographs, multimedia resources, geologic research, and teacher features (lessons for teaching geology with National Park examples). Some of the parks included on this site: Acadia National Park, Everglades National Park, and Padre Island National Seashore.

65

Geological features indicative of processes related to the hematite formation in Meridiani Planum and Aram Chaos, Mars: a comparison with diagenetic hematite deposits in southern Utah, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to understand the formation of the few but large, hematite deposits on Mars, comparisons are often made with terrestrial hematite occurrences. In southern Utah, hematite concretions have formed within continental sandstones and are exposed as extensive weathered-out beds. The hematite deposits are linked to geological and geomorphological features such as knobs, buttes, bleached beds, fractures and rings. These

Jens Ormö; Goro Komatsu; Marjorie A. Chan; Brenda Beitler; William T. Parry

2004-01-01

66

Effect of Anthropogenic Landscape Features on Population Genetic Differentiation of Przewalski's Gazelle: Main Role of Human Settlement  

PubMed Central

Anthropogenic landscapes influence evolutionary processes such as population genetic differentiation, however, not every type of landscape features exert the same effect on a species, hence it is necessary to estimate their relative effect for species management and conservation. Przewalski's gazelle (Procapra przewalskii), which inhabits a human-altered area on Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, is one of the most endangered antelope species in the world. Here, we report a landscape genetic study on Przewalski's gazelle. We used skin and fecal samples of 169 wild gazelles collected from nine populations and thirteen microsatellite markers to assess the genetic effect of anthropogenic landscape features on this species. For comparison, the genetic effect of geographical distance and topography were also evaluated. We found significant genetic differentiation, six genetic groups and restricted dispersal pattern in Przewalski's gazelle. Topography, human settlement and road appear to be responsible for observed genetic differentiation as they were significantly correlated with both genetic distance measures [FST/(1?FST) and F?ST/(1?F?ST)] in Mantel tests. IBD (isolation by distance) was also inferred as a significant factor in Mantel tests when genetic distance was measured as FST/(1?FST). However, using partial Mantel tests, AICc calculations, causal modeling and AMOVA analysis, we found that human settlement was the main factor shaping current genetic differentiation among those tested. Altogether, our results reveal the relative influence of geographical distance, topography and three anthropogenic landscape-type on population genetic differentiation of Przewalski's gazelle and provide useful information for conservation measures on this endangered species.

Yang, Ji; Jiang, Zhigang; Zeng, Yan; Turghan, Mardan; Fang, Hongxia; Li, Chunwang

2011-01-01

67

MAINE AQUIFERS  

EPA Science Inventory

AQFRS24 contains polygons of significant aquifers in Maine (glacial deposits that are a significant ground water resource) mapped at a scale 1:24,000. This statewide coverage was derived from aquifer boundaries delineated and digitized by the Maine Geological Survey from data com...

68

Schoolyard Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This set of lessons provides teachers with ideas on how to turn their schoolyards into a rich geologic experience that students will find familiar, easily accessible, and personally relevant. The three lesson plans feature materials on mapping, rock descriptions and geologic interpretations, ages of rocks, and dinosaur tracks. Lesson 1, "Map Your Schoolyard," teaches students what maps are, what they are used for, and some features used on maps (north arrow, scale bar, legend, etc.). Lesson 2, "Rock Stories," illustrates how to make geologic observations and what important properties of rocks to look for. Lesson 3, "GeoSleuth Schoolyard," teaches students that geology is a lot like detective work, in which geologists infer the sequence and timing of events by collecting evidence and making observations. Relevant California state science standards are also listed.

69

Demarcation of geological and geomorphological features of parts of Dharwar Craton, Karnataka, using IRS LISS-II data  

Microsoft Academic Search

To demonstrate the capabilities of Indian Remote Sensing Satellite (IRS) Linear Imaging Self-scanning Sensor-II (LISS-II) data in preparation of regional level geological, structural and geomorphological maps of 1:500000 scale and to understand the interrelation between lithology, structures, landforms and drainage details in diverse geologic environs, a study has been carried out. The area chosen for the study is a strip

J. Krishnamurthy; G. Srinivas

1996-01-01

70

Geological features indicative of processes related to the hematite formation in Meridiani Planum and Aram Chaos, Mars: a comparison with diagenetic hematite deposits in southern Utah, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to understand the formation of the few but large, hematite deposits on Mars, comparisons are often made with terrestrial hematite occurrences. In southern Utah, hematite concretions have formed within continental sandstones and are exposed as extensive weathered-out beds. The hematite deposits are linked to geological and geomorphological features such as knobs, buttes, bleached beds, fractures and rings. These terrestrial features are visible in aerial and satellite images, which enables a comparison with similar features occurring extensively in the martian hematite-rich areas. The combination of processes involved in the movement and precipitation of iron in southern Utah can provide new insights in the context of the hematite formation on Mars. Here we present a mapping of the analogue geological and geomorphological features in parts of Meridiani Planum and Aram Chaos. Based on mapping comparisons with the Utah occurrences, we present models for the formation of the martian analogues, as well as a model for iron transport and precipitation on Mars. Following the Utah model, high albedo layers and rings in the mapped area on Mars are due to removal or lack of iron, and precipitation of secondary diagenetic minerals as fluids moved up along fractures and permeable materials. Hematite was precipitated intraformationally where the fluid transporting the reduced iron met oxidizing conditions. Our study shows that certain geological/geomorphological features can be linked to the hematite formation on Mars and that pH differences could suffice for the transport of the iron from an orthopyroxene volcanoclastic source rock. The presence of organic compounds can enhance the iron mobilization and precipitation processes. Continued studies will focus on possible influence of biological activity and/or methane in the formation of the hematite concretions in Utah and on Mars.

Ormö, Jens; Komatsu, Goro; Chan, Marjorie A.; Beitler, Brenda; Parry, William T.

2004-10-01

71

A geostatistical approach to assess the spatial association between indoor radon concentration, geological features and building characteristics: the case of Lombardy, Northern Italy.  

PubMed

Radon is a natural gas known to be the main contributor to natural background radiation exposure and second to smoking, a major leading cause of lung cancer. The main source of radon is the soil, but the gas can enter buildings in many different ways and reach high indoor concentrations. Monitoring surveys have been promoted in many countries in order to assess the exposure of people to radon. In this paper, two complementary aspects are investigated. Firstly, we mapped indoor radon concentration in a large and inhomogeneous region using a geostatistical approach which borrows strength from the geologic nature of the soil. Secondly, knowing that geologic and anthropogenic factors, such as building characteristics, can foster the gas to flow into a building or protect against this, we evaluated these effects through a multiple regression model which takes into account the spatial correlation of the data. This allows us to rank different building typologies, identified by architectonic and geological characteristics, according to their proneness to radon. Our results suggest the opportunity to differentiate construction requirements in a large and inhomogeneous area, as the one considered in this paper, according to different places and provide a method to identify those dwellings which should be monitored more carefully. PMID:21655128

Borgoni, Riccardo; Tritto, Valeria; Bigliotto, Carlo; de Bartolo, Daniela

2011-05-06

72

A Geostatistical Approach to Assess the Spatial Association between Indoor Radon Concentration, Geological Features and Building Characteristics: The Case of Lombardy, Northern Italy  

PubMed Central

Radon is a natural gas known to be the main contributor to natural background radiation exposure and second to smoking, a major leading cause of lung cancer. The main source of radon is the soil, but the gas can enter buildings in many different ways and reach high indoor concentrations. Monitoring surveys have been promoted in many countries in order to assess the exposure of people to radon. In this paper, two complementary aspects are investigated. Firstly, we mapped indoor radon concentration in a large and inhomogeneous region using a geostatistical approach which borrows strength from the geologic nature of the soil. Secondly, knowing that geologic and anthropogenic factors, such as building characteristics, can foster the gas to flow into a building or protect against this, we evaluated these effects through a multiple regression model which takes into account the spatial correlation of the data. This allows us to rank different building typologies, identified by architectonic and geological characteristics, according to their proneness to radon. Our results suggest the opportunity to differentiate construction requirements in a large and inhomogeneous area, as the one considered in this paper, according to different places and provide a method to identify those dwellings which should be monitored more carefully.

Borgoni, Riccardo; Tritto, Valeria; Bigliotto, Carlo; de Bartolo, Daniela

2011-01-01

73

Relationships between satellite-measured thermal features and Alexandrium-imposed toxicity in the Gulf of Maine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Relationships between satellite-derived sea-surface temperature (SST) patterns and the occurrence of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxicity events caused by Alexandrium fundyense in the western Gulf of Maine are examined. Comparisons between surface A. fundyense cell distribution patterns and SST images indicate that highest cell concentrations are associated with colder waters of the eastern segment of the Gulf of Maine coastal current (EMCC) and that frontal zones at the edges of the EMCC often act as boundaries to surface distributions. Surface thermal patterns coincident with a May 2000 PSP toxic event and shellfish harvesting closure on the western Maine coast show enhanced connectivity between the EMCC and the western Gulf of Maine, suggesting transport linking A. fundyense cells in the EMCC to inshore areas of the western Gulf of Maine. Surface drifter data support such transport. Thirteen years (1990-2002) of toxicity data from eight monitoring sites along the coast of Maine and concurrent SST data show that in years of either large or very reduced toxicity, a consistent relationship exists between the timing and strength of fronts, taken as an indicator of alongshore connectivity, and the occurrence and strength of toxic events. Years with weak fronts and/or fronts that become established relatively late in the summer growing season are years of the strongest toxicity events in western Gulf of Maine. Years of early and strong fronts are years with few and/or weak toxicity events. Our results suggest that advective connections exist between cells present in the EMCC and toxicity along the western Gulf of Maine coast and that large-scale hydrographic processes, characterized here as surface thermal patterns, influence A. fundyense populations in the western Gulf of Maine, either through delivery of actual cells or advection of advantageous conditions into the region. These data point to the utility of satellite and other coastal observing system data for the monitoring and prediction of conditions linked to toxic events in coastal waters.

Luerssen, Remy M.; Thomas, Andrew C.; Hurst, John

2005-09-01

74

The use of fluoride as a natural tracer in water and the relationship to geological features: Examples from the Animas River Watershed, San Juan Mountains, Silverton, Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Investigations within the Silverton caldera, in southwestern Colorado, used a combination of traditional geological mapping, alteration-assemblage mapping, and aqueous geochemical sampling that showed a relationship between geological and hydrologic features that may be used to better understand the provenance and evolution of the water. Veins containing fluorite, huebnerite, and elevated molybdenum concentrations are temporally and perhaps genetically associated with the emplacement of high-silica rhyolite intrusions. Both the rhyolites and the fluorite-bearing veins produce waters containing elevated concentrations of F-, K and Be. The identification of water samples with elevated F/Cl molar ratios (> 10) has also aided in the location of water draining F-rich sources, even after these waters have been diluted substantially. These unique aqueous geochemical signatures can be used to relate water chemistry to key geological features and mineralized source areas. Two examples that illustrate this relationship are: (1) surface-water samples containing elevated F-concentrations (> 1.8 mg/l) that closely bracket the extent of several small high-silica rhyolite intrusions; and (2) water samples containing elevated concentrations of F-(> 1.8 mg/ l) that spatially relate to mines or areas that contain late-stage fluorite/huebnerite veins. In two additional cases, the existence of high F-concentrations in water can be used to: (1) infer interaction of the water with mine waste derived from systems known to contain the fluorite/huebnerite association; and (2) relate changes in water quality over time at a high elevation mine tunnel to plugging of a lower elevation mine tunnel and the subsequent rise of the water table into mineralized areas containing fluorite/huebnerite veining. Thus, the unique geochemical signature of the water produced from fluorite veins indicates the location of high-silica rhyolites, mines, and mine waste containing the veins. Existence of high F-concentrations along with K and Be in water in combination with other geological evidence may be used to better understand the provenance of the water. ?? 2009 AAG/Geological Society of London.

Bove, D. J.; Walton-Day, K.; Kimball, B. A.

2009-01-01

75

Louisiana Geological Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Louisiana Geological Survey, located at Louisiana State University, developed this website to promote its goal to provide geological and environmental data that will allow for environmentally sound natural resource development and economic decisions. Users can find general information about the Survey's mission, staff, plan, and history. The website features the research and publications of the Basin Research, Cartographic, Coastal, Geologic Mapping, and Water and Environmental sections. Researchers can discover stratigraphic charts of Louisiana, information on lignite resources, and other geologic data.

76

The SCALENEA-1 multipurpose Sn calculation sequence for application in fusion field: main features and its validation based on experimental data from a low-level waste repository  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents the main features of the Sn calculation sequence SCALENEA-1 that has been extensively used for radioactive inventories, source terms, wastes and dose rates calculation for ITER, SEAFP and IFMIF fusion machines. As part of the validation process for the code package and for the calculation sequence, experimental-calculation comparison has been performed using the information and the measured

D. G. Cepraga; G. Cambi; M. Frisoni

2003-01-01

77

Marine Geological Discoveries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site by a Norwegian researcher features descriptions of marine geological formations: pockmarks, mud volcanoes, deep-water coral reefs, and gas hydrates. Using ROV technology, he has taken photos of these deep seafloor features, and compares them to geological structures seen on land, and even on the moon.

78

Physical Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Tulane University course covers the nature of the Earth, the development of its surficial features, and the results of the interaction of chemical, physical, and biological factors on the planet. Lecture notes are about energy and minerals; igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks; weathering and soils; geologic time; mass wasting; streams; groundwater; wind action and deserts; oceans; deformation of rock; earthquakes and the interior of the Earth; global tectonics; planetary changes; and glaciers.

Nelson, Stephen

79

Continuous hourly radon gradient observations at Cabauw, the Netherlands - a review of main features of the 2007-2009 dataset  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on results of the first three years of radon time series and radon gradient observations at the Cabauw site in the Netherlands (51.971oN, 4.927oE). Two 1500 L dual flow loop, two filter radon detectors with a sensitivity better than 40 mBq m-3 are installed at the site, ensuring that gradients can be defined to the required precision every hour. The inlets are mounted on the main meteorological tower at 20 m and 200 m above ground level. The Cabauw site, located 50 km inland on a polder in an agricultural region, has a simple orography with surface elevations changing by a few metres at most within a 20 km radius. The radon gradient observations are part of our larger program to characterise turbulent mixing processes throughout the lower atmosphere. The two other related measurement projects are the continuous hourly measurements of radon gradients in the surface layer on a 50 m tower at Lucas Heights, Australia (34.053°S, 150.981°E; see Chambers et al, this conference), and campaign-style measurements of radon profiles up to altitudes of 4000 m above ground level using light aircraft (see Williams et al., this conference). We observe well pronounced absolute radon and radon gradient signals at Cabauw, influenced by atmospheric processes occurring on seasonal, synoptic, and diurnal time scales. Seasonal variability. The lowest radon concentrations were observed in winter and summer, when the dominant air mass fetch was the Atlantic Ocean. In spring and autumn, concentrations were generally high, as the air mass fetch was primarily over western and/or central Europe. Even when the fetch was oceanic during the latter seasons, it was often over the North Sea where radon concentrations are perturbed by land emissions. In autumn, radon concentrations from the mainland European fetch were more than three times larger than the corresponding concentration from the Atlantic/North Sea regions. Synoptic variability. The radon signal is typically a combination of local and remote influences. Synoptic and diurnal components can be separated by comparing the radon signal at 20 m and 200 m, and by using wind speed as a selecting condition. For most of the data, the diurnal signal is strongly pronounced in the 20 m data, especially when wind speeds are lower than 3 ms-1. In low wind conditions, local influences dominate and the radon signal is predominantly a combination of local source variations and diurnal changes in the local mixing depth. On the other hand, under high wind conditions (> 7 ms-1) the remote signal dominates at both levels, reflecting variations in the radon source function over a wider fetch area, the geographic extent of which is defined by the radon half-life and prevailing wind conditions. The separation of these two signals provides an opportunity to compare subsets of radon time series and gradient observations with a column or regional model and thus evaluate mixing and transport schemes characteristic for the site and the region. Diurnal variability. Diurnal composite plots show that the 20 m signal is characterized by an early morning maximum and early afternoon minimum, predominantly reflecting changes in the boundary layer mixing depth on this time scale. The amplitude of this cycle ranged from 450 mBq m-3 in winter to 1460 mBq m-3 in spring. The 200 m Cabauw data exhibited a modest mid-morning maximum, consistent with upward mixing of radon from the surface as the nocturnal inversion breaks down.

Zahorowski, Wlodek; Vermeulen, Alex; Williams, Alastair; Chambers, Scott; Verheggen, Bart

2010-05-01

80

Regional setting and new information on some critical geologic features of the West Shasta district, California ( USA).  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The West Shasta massive sulfide district is in the easternmost of a series of accreted island-arc and oceanic crust terranes that comprise the Klamath Mountains. A sequence of submarine volcanic rocks of predominantly Early Devonian age is the principal component of the island-arc terrane in which the sulfide deposits are hosted. The Copley Greenstone, consisting mainly of andesitic and basaltic pillow lavas and breccias totaling at least 1800 m in thickness, is the oldest rock unit in the sequence. It is overlain and also intruded by dikes of the Balaklala Rhyolite. Northeast of the West Shasta district, greenstone also overlies the Balaklala Rhyolite, suggesting that a major greenstone unit may overlie potentially mineralized rhyolite E of the district. However, recent studies have shown that the complex relations in that area can be explained by folding. -from Authors

Albers, J. P.; Bain, J. H. C.

1985-01-01

81

Multiscale analysis of geomorphological and geological features in high resolution digital elevation models using the wavelet transform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the end of the 1990s the emergence of high resolution (1 m) digital elevation models (DEMs) settled the context of high precision geomorphological analysis. These new elevation models permitted to reveal structures that remained heretofore undetectable. Earth scientists henceforth benefit from a source of data with a textural detail that was never attained before. Despite its richness, this information must be treated efficiently to extract features helping geomorphologists to analyze the processes occurring at the surface. Such processes are complex, localized and naturally multiscale. Recently, space-frequential descriptors as wavelets have been proposed successfully for the analysis of DEMs. The wavelet transform is widely used in image processing since it allows us to decompose a signal into a weighted sum of atoms with joint space-frequency localization. Such a decomposition facilitates a coherent navigation from scale to scale, but also permits to detect heretofore undiscerned phenomena at different scales. This is appealing in geomorphology, where structural components, related to a given phenomenon, are well determined in these sub-spaces specific to the scale continuum. In this paper, we propose a filtering procedure of the wavelet decomposition as an approach for the analysis of geomorphological multiscale structures. This filtering procedure enhances the high pass information contained at each scale. The proposed bottom-up approach is applied here to a case study to detect geomorphological structural elements in a valley of the Swiss Jura. It demonstrates that the proposed filtering procedure is an efficient tool for geomorphological multiscale generalization.

Kalbermatten, Michael; Van De Ville, Dimitri; Turberg, Pascal; Tuia, Devis; Joost, Stéphane

2012-02-01

82

Geological Considerations for Lunar Telescopes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The geological features of the Moon that may be advantageous for astronomical observations are listed and described. The Moon's geologic environment offers wondrous opportunities for astronomy and presents fascinating challenges for engineers designing te...

G. J. Taylor

1988-01-01

83

Louisiana Geological Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the homepage of the Louisiana Geological Survey (LGS). The site includes general information about LGS and its various offices, as well as an overview of the Basin Research Energy Section, the oil, gas, and coal research section of LGS. The publications and data page features a catalog and ordering information for documents on mineral resources, fossils, water resources, geological bulletins and maps, and many others, as well as a selection of downloadable maps, including 30 x 60 minute geologic quadrangles, a generalized geologic map of the state with accompanying text, and an online map viewer of the state with selectable layers (geology, water bodies, cultural features, and Landsat imagery). There is also an online listing of well logs, grouped by parish, online listings of core samples, grouped by state, and downloadable public information documents on a variety of geologic topics.

84

Ohio Geological Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the homepage of the Ohio Geological Survey. Materials available through the site include a variety of publications, particularly the Survey's reports, bulletins, information circulars, guidebooks, and many others. There is an extensive selection of maps, including topographic maps in several scales, and downloadable geologic maps of several themes (drift thickness, bedrock geology, karst areas, glacial geology, and many others), as well as digital maps and data. The interactive maps section features online map viewers of abandoned mines, earthquake epicenters, surficial geology, geology of Lake Erie, and others. The educational resources page has links to the 'Hands On Earth' series of activities, GeoFacts (short bulletins on Ohio geological topics), nontechnical educational leaflets, field guides, and links to other publications, rock and mineral clubs, educational associations, and related websites. There is also a link to the Ohio Seismic Network, a network of seismograph stations located at colleges, universities, and other institutions that collects and disseminates information about earthquakes in Ohio.

85

Wyoming State Geological Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This agency's mission is to study, examine, and seek an understanding of the geology, mineral resources, and physical features of the State; to prepare, publish, and distribute reports and maps of Wyoming's geology, mineral resources, and physical features; and to provide information, advice, and services related to the geology, mineral resources, and physical features of the State. This site contains details and reports about metals in Wyoming, earthquakes and other hazards, coal, industrial minerals, uranium, oil and gas. The field trip section contains details about various areas to visit with students and gives a general geologic description. There is also a searchable bibliography with publications about Wyoming geology. Links are provided for additional resources.

86

Systems study of the feasibility of high-level nuclear-waste fractionation for thermal stress control in a geologic repository: main report  

SciTech Connect

This study assesses the benefits and costs of fractionating the cesium and strontium (Cs/Sr) components in commercial high-level waste (HLW) to a separate waste stream for the purpose of reducing geologic-repository thermal stresses in the region of the HLW. System costs are developed for a broad range of conditions comparing the Cs/Sr fractionation concept with disposal of 10-year-old vitrified HLW and vitrified HLW aged to achieve (through decay) the same heat output as the fractionated high-level waste (FHLW). All comparisons are based on a 50,000 metric ton equivalent (MTE) system. The FHLW and the Cs/Sr waste are both disposed of as vitrified waste but emplaced in separate areas of a basalt repository. The FHLW is emplaced in high-integrity packages at relatively high waste loading but low heat loading, while the Cs/Sr waste is emplaced in minimum-integrity packages at relatively high heat loading in a separate region of the repository. System cost comparisons are based on minimum cost combinations of canister diameter, waste concentration, and canister spacing in a basalt repository. The effects on both long- and near-term safety considerations are also addressed. The major conclusion is that the Cs/Sr fractionation concept offers the prospect of a substantial total system cost advantage for HLW disposal if reduced HLW package temperatures in a basalt repository are desired. However, there is no cost advantage if currently designated maximum design temperatures are acceptable. Aging the HLW for 50 to 100 years can accomplish similar results at equivalent or lower costs. 37 figures, 58 tables.

McKee, R.W.; Elder, H.K.; McCallum, R.F.; Silviera, D.J.; Swanson, J.L.; Wiles, L.E.

1983-06-01

87

Radiocarbon Ages from Two Submerged Strandline Features in the Western Gulf of Maine and a Sea-Level Curve for the Northeastern Massachusetts Coastal Region  

USGS Publications Warehouse

New radiocarbon dates provide ages for two submerged strandline features on the Massachusetts inner shelf. These ages provide limited control on a relative sea-level (RSL) curve for the late Wisconsinan and Holocene. The curve indicates a late Wisconsinan high stand of RSL of +33 m about 14,000 yr ago and a very short-lived relative low stand of about -43 m at about 12,000 yr ago followed by a rise to present sea level. Rapid changes of RSL around 12,000 yr ago may be related to changes in global glacial meltwater discharge and eustatic sea-level change shown by dated corals off Barbados. Variations in the magnitude and timing of RSL change from south to north along the coast of the western Gulf of Maine are due to greater crustal depression and later deglaciation to the north.

Oldale, R. N.; Colman, S. M.; Jones, G. A.

1993-01-01

88

Geology Fieldnotes: Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Visitors can access park geology information, photographs, related links, visitor information, multimedia resources, and resources for teaching geology with National Park examples. The park geology section discusses the Grand Canyon's geologic history, structural geology, and features a question-and-answer section about the canyon. The history of the canyon as a park and environmental issues surrounding it are also discussed. A geologic cross section of the canyon showing the various rock layers is included.

89

The Geology and Gravity Anomalies of the Troodos Massif, Cyprus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over Cyprus there is one of the largest recorded gravity anomalies which reaches a maximum of over +250 mgal. This paper records the main geological features of the island, investigates the source of the gravity anomaly and correlates both lines of evidence in support of an hypothesis on the evolution and structure of the area. The topography of Cyprus, which

I. G. Gass; D. Masson-Smith

1963-01-01

90

Archeological Geology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the rapid expansion of archeological geology, especially in the area of archeological excavations, where geologists use dating techniques and knowledge of geological events to interpret archeological sites. (MLH)|

Rapp, George

1977-01-01

91

Structural Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by the University of Nebraska-Lincoln, this site describes the basics of structural geology with text and images. The page includes the discussion of stress, strain, strike and dip, faults, folds, mountain building, erosion, economic geology, and environmental geology. This is a nice introduction to the basic topics in geology. Images from the field help to enhance the topics on the site. Instructors can use this resource to help create or simply enhance their curriculum.

2009-05-21

92

Geology Fieldnotes: Great Basin National Park, Nevada  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Great Basin National Park site contains park geology information, park maps, visitor information, and teacher features (educational resources and links for teaching geology using National Park examples). The park geology section discusses the region's biogeography, glacial history, and the Lehman Caves. A park map and a features/relief map of the Great Basin National Park are included.

93

Geology Fieldnotes: Kobuk Valley National Park  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This feature discusses the geology, landforms, glacial history, soils, and mineral resources of Kobuk Valley National Park. Links are provided to maps, visitor information, a history of gold prospecting in the area, and to related geology and conservation organizations.

94

Geology Fieldnotes: Guadalupe Mountains National Park, Texas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Guadalupe Mountains National Park site contains park geology information, park maps, photographs, related links, visitor information, multimedia resources, and teacher features (resources for teaching geology with National Park examples). The park geology section discusses the geologic history of Guadalupe Mountains' ancient marine fossil reef and the structural geology of the Mountains' Western Escarpment (including the Frijole Ranch area, the Pine Springs area, and the Capitan Limestone structures). The park maps section includes a map of the Capitan Reef today.

95

Geology Fieldnotes: Timpanogos National Monument, Utah  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Timpanogos Cave National Monument, in the Wasatch Mountains, features spectacularly decorated caverns, each of which has unique colors and formations. Features of the site include park geology information, maps, photographs of cave formations, related links, and visitor information. The park geology section discusses the caves' geologic history, structural geology, and details the discovery of the Hansen and Middle Caves (by Martin, George, and Wayne Hansen) and the Timpanogos Cave (by Veral Manwill).

96

North Dakota Geological Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the homepage of the North Dakota Geological Survey. Site materials include information on the state's oil, gas and coal resources, maps, publications, and regulations. The paleontology page features educational articles, information on fossil collecting, articles about fossil exhibits, and information on the state fossil collection. The state GIS hub creates and distributes digital spatial data that conforms to national mapping standards. The teaching tools page includes illustrations and descriptions of rocks and minerals found in the state, as well as information on meteorites and newsletter articles about teaching North Dakota geology. There are also links to landslide maps, surficial geology maps, and links to other survey publications such as reports, bulletins, field studies, other geological and topographic maps, and information on groundwater resources.

97

Lunar geology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of a lunar geological map is traced, from the post-war period through the final Apollo mission. The impact of geological discoveries on earth on lunar geology is explained, and the use of photographs of the lunar surface to deduce its stratigraphy is described. The confirmation of the ages of various parts of the moon's surface through analysis of moon rocks is also discussed.

Shoemaker, E.

98

The Montana-Yellowstone Geologic Field Guide Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For any college student majoring in the geophysical sciences, getting out into the field can be a key academic experience. This novel initiative, created by Carleton College's Science Education Resource Center (SERC), is a pilot project designed to make the field guide literature more accessible and useful to geoscience educators, students, and researchers. This site features published field guides and road logs for Montana and Yellowstone National Park, both of which are popular locations for summer field courses conducted by geology departments from San Diego, California to Orono, Maine. Visitors can search the database by topic, geographic location, and geologic province. Additionally, they can use the Top 10 area to find a list of the top ten geology field trips in the area based on geological interest, scenery, and general access. The site is rounded out by a collection of student exercises based on specific field localities in Montana.

2012-03-16

99

The geology of Ganymede  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A broad outline of the geologic history of Ganymede is presented, obtained from a first attempt to map the geology on a global scale and to interpret the characteristics of the observed geologic units. Features of the ancient cratered terrain such as craters and palimpsests, furrows and troughs, are discussed. The grooved terrain is described, including its sulci and cells, and the age relation of these units is considered along with the structure and origin of this terrain. The Gilgamesh Basin and Western Equatorial Basin in the post grooved terrain are treated, as are the bright and dark ray craters and the regolith. The development of all these regions and features is discussed in context. For the regolith, this includes the effect of water migration, sputtering, and thermal annealing. The histories of the ancient cratered terrain, the grooved terrain, and the post grooved terrain are presented.

Shoemaker, E. M.; Lucchitta, B. K.; Wilhelms, D. E.; Plescia, J. B.; Squyres, S. W.

100

Geology By Lightplane  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In 1966, Professor Louis J. Maher of the University of Wisconsin-Madison's Department of Geology and Geophysics piloted a department-owned Cessna over the continental US taking photos for use in his geology courses. As Maher flew, his trusty co-pilot and graduate assistant, Charles Mansfield, snapped the photos. The resulting collection is an assortment of breathtaking images of classic geological features, now available online for noncommercial use by educators (download via FTP). Maher gives us birds-eye views of structural features in Wyoming's Wind River Range, sedimentary strata in Arches National Park and the Grand Canyon, glacial landscapes in Northern Minnesota, and ancient lava flows in Arizona, to name just a few.

Maher, Louis J.

2001-01-01

101

California Geological Survey: Geologic Maps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This index provides access to a selection of geologic maps of California, as well as an overview of geologic and other mapping activities in the state. The index, which can be accessed by clicking on an interactive map of the state, contains lists of selected geologic maps in California prepared by the Regional Geologic Mapping Project (RGMP). The RGMP staff monitors the literature and collects references that contain geologic mapping that may be useful for future compilations. In addition, the site has information about Caltrans Highway Corridor Mapping, The Mineral Resources and Mineral Hazards Mapping Program, North Coast Watersheds Assessment Program, The Timber Harvesting Plan Enforcement Program, and The Seismic Hazards Mapping Program. A set of links is provided to other sources of geologic maps and map information.

102

North Cascades Geology: Geologic Time  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes the period of geologic time spanned by the rocks of the North Cascades area of Washington. Users can access a simplified geologic time scale that provides links to geologic events in the North Cascades region. These include the deposition of various terranes, periods of intrusion and metamorphism, the beginning of the Cascade volcanic arc, and periods of major glaciation. Links to related materials are also provided.

103

Geology of Callisto.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The geology of Callisto is not boring. Although cratered terrain dominates Callisto (a key end-member of the Jovian satellite system), a number of more interesting features are apparent. Cratered terrain is broken into irregular map-able bright and dark s...

P. M. Schenk

1995-01-01

104

Soviet geology, 1976  

Microsoft Academic Search

The geological history of the Jurassic period shows that the most abrupt change in physiogeographical, and particularly in climatic, conditions occured not at its lower or upper limit but at the boundary between the middle and late epochs. This is shown especially clearly by a study of the lacustral and continental sediments which form such a significant feature of the

V. A. Vakhrameyev

1976-01-01

105

Physical geology  

SciTech Connect

The book integrates current thinking on processes (plate techtonics, chemical cycles, changes throughout geologic time). It is an introduction to investigations into the way the earth works, how mountains are formed, how the atmosphere, hydrosphere, crust and mantle interact with each other. Treatments on climate, paleoclimatology and landscape evolution are included, as is a discussion on how human activity affects geological interactions.

Skinner, B.; Porter, S.

1987-01-01

106

Engineering Geology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Engineering geology remains a potpourri of applied classical geology, and 1977 witnessed an upswing in demand for these services. Traditional foundation-related work was slight, but construction related to national needs increased briskly. Major cities turned to concerns of transit waste-water treatment and solid-waste disposal. (Author/MA)

Hatheway, Allen W.

1978-01-01

107

USGS Geologic Hazards  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Geologic Hazards section of the US Geological Survey (USGS) conducts research into the causes of geological phenomena such as landslides and earthquakes. The homepage connects visitors to the Geologic Hazards team's three main areas of endeavor. Geomagnetism provides links to the National Geomagnetic Information Center; Magnetic Observatories, Models, and Charts; and the Geomagnetic Information Node, which receives geomagnetic observatory data from around the world. The Landslide group studies the "causes and mechanisms of ground failure" to prevent "long-term losses and casualties." Their section provides links to the program and information center, publications, events, and current projects. The Earthquakes department hosts a wealth of information, including neotectonics, engineering seismology, and paleoseismology. Interactive maps are also provided.

108

Experimental Eolian Erosion of Soft Sedimentary Rocks with a Variety of Abrasives --- Observed Features and Potential Applications for Mars Rover Geology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soft sediments (shales and evaporites) were wind-abraded with various media to study resulting surface textures for use in future rover missions. Shales\\/mudstones differentiate from evaporite rocks, details of sedimentary features are revealed.

R. Wilson; J. Schieber; T. V. Howald

2011-01-01

109

Tour of Park Geology: Fossils  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Park Service Geology site provides links to tours of individual National Parks, Monuments, and Recreation Areas that contain fossils. Where appropriate, for each park, links are provided to park geology, maps, photographs, geologic research, related links, visitor information, multimedia resources, and teacher features (resources for teaching geology with National Park examples). The list includes places such as the Grand Canyon, Dinosaur National Monument, Yellowstone, and Death Valley, along with less well-known areas such as the John Day Fossil Beds National Monument in Oregon.

110

Humboldt River main stem, Nevada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This data set contains the main stem of the Humboldt River as defined by Humboldt Project personnel of the U.S. Geological Survey Nevada District, 2001. The data set was digitized on screen using digital orthophoto quadrangles from 1994.

Warmath, Eric; Medina, Rose L.

2001-01-01

111

Geologic Time  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Earth is very old -- 4.5 billion years or more -- according to recent estimates. This vast span of time, called geologic time by earth scientists, is difficult to comprehend in the familiar time units of months and years, or even centuries. How then do scientists reckon geologic time, and why do they believe the Earth is so old? A great part of the secret of the Earth's age is locked up in its rocks, and our centuries-old search for the key led to the beginning and nourished the growth of geologic science.

Newman, William L.

1997-01-01

112

Geologic time  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Earth is very old 4 1/2 billion years or more according to recent estimates. This vast span of time, called geologic time by earth scientists, is difficult to comprehend in the familiar time units of months and years, or even centuries. How then do scientists reckon geologic time, and why do they believe the Earth is so old? A great part of the secret of the Earth's age is locked up in its rocks, and our centuries-old search for the key led to the beginning and nourished the growth of geologic science.

Newman, William L.

2000-01-01

113

Yosemite in Depth: Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This reference provides detailed information and activities related to the geology of Yosemite National Park. The introduction provides a history of ideas on Yosemite's origin. An overview describes the geologic history of the Sierra Nevada Mountains. An interactive timeline is featured to provide users with a temporal reference on park history. For students, there is a field journal with interactive questions and exercises about the park, and a set of online activities that take place on the park's Mirror Lake Trail. Links to a glossary are embedded in the text, and a list of references is provided.

114

Mathematical Geology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The year 1978 marked a continued trend toward practical applications in mathematical geology. Developments included work in interactive computer graphics, factor analysis, the vanishing tons problem, universal kriging, and resource estimating. (BB)

McCammon, Richard B.

1979-01-01

115

Engineering Geology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Briefly reviews the increasing application of geologic principles, techniques and data to engineering practices in the areas of land use and zoning controls, resource management energy programs and other fields. (BR)

Lee, Fitzhugh T.

1974-01-01

116

Geologic Timeline  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dive into the depths of time with this Geologic Timeline. The farther you scroll down, the farther back in time you'll travel. Also, the longer a period is on this page, the longer it lasted in history!

2000-01-01

117

Geology in North Dakota  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Department of Geosciences at North Dakota State University educates visitors about the geologic features and landforms of North Dakota through clear text and astonishing images at this website. In the Glacial Features of North Dakota link, visitors can learn about end moraines, eskers, kettle lakes, and kames. Educators can find amazing photographs of mass wasting including creep, slope failure, and slumps. Users can also find materials on stream features and satellite imagery of North Dakota. While the website concentrates on North Dakota, the materials can be a great addition to any earth science or geomorphology class.

118

Geology 101 at University of Washington  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by teaching assistant Gwyn Jones for students of Geology 101 at the University of Washington, Seattle, this Website offers good introductory geology lessons and study hints. Here, users will find lab and lecture notes, study questions and answers, and abundant links. Besides links to pages relevant to study topics, Jones's favorite geological sites are linked and also a comprehensive list of recommended books is given. Rocks, minerals, geologic time, geologic mapping, and natural hazards are the introductory topics featured. Students new to geology and instructors looking for ideas should visit this site. Please note that because the site is not updated regularly some links might not work.

Jones, Gwyneth.

1998-01-01

119

Geology Fieldnotes: Oregon Caves National Monument  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Oregon Caves National Monument is an active marble cave created by natural forces over hundreds of thousands of years in one of the world's most diverse geologic realms. Features of the site include park geology information, maps, photographs, related links, and visitor information. The park geology section discusses the cave's development and geologic history, its formations, and its development as a National Monument. The maps section includes an area map of the National Monument.

120

Main features of the deep structure by local earthquake tomography and active tectonics: case of Rif Mountain (morocco) and Betic Cordillera (Spain)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the Spain and Moroccan networks, a large volume of seismic data has been collected and used for investigating the lithosphere in the Betic-Rif Cordillera. The present study has two main goals: (1) Use the most actual seismological data from recent earthquakes in the Betic-Rif arc for investigating the lithosphere through the application of seismic local tomography techniques. (2) Define the possible structural blocks and explain the GPS velocities perturbation in this region. The resolution tests results indicate that the calculated images gave a close true structure for the studied regions from 5- to 60-km depth. The resulting tomographic image shows that the presence of two upper crust body (velocity 6.5 km/s) at 3- to 13-km depth between Iberian Betic and Moroccan Rif in the western and in the middle of Alboran Sea also shows the low velocity favoring the presence of melt in the base of these two bodies. The crustal bodies forms tectonic blocks in the Central Rif and in the Central Betic Cordillera.

Timoulali, Y.; Hahou, Y.; Jabour, N.; Merrouch, R.; El Kharrim, A.

2013-08-01

121

ECOSYSTEM MODELING IN COBSCOOK BAY, MAINE:A SUMMARY, PERSPECTIVE, AND LOOK FORWARD  

EPA Science Inventory

In the mid-1990s, an interdisciplinary, multi-institutional team of scientists was assembled to address basic issues concerning biological productivity and the unique co-occurrence of many unusual ecological features in Cobscook Bay, Maine. Cobscook Bay is a geologically complex,...

122

Venus: Analysis of the degree of impact crater deposit degradation and assessment of its use for dating geological units and features  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use the degree of degradation of crater-associated radar-dark deposits on Venus to estimate the age of the crater and neighboring units. We analyzed craters >=30 km in diameter superposed on regional plains (subpopulation 1; 138 craters) and on later units (subpopulation 2; 30 craters) and estimated percentages of craters with dark parabolas (DP), clear dark halo (CH), faint dark halo (FH), and no dark halo (NH). We constructed theoretical models of the evolution of these percentages with time for two possible interpretations of the upper boundary of the regional plains: (1) globally synchronous and (2) nonsynchronous (diachronous). They show that in the synchronous case the dark deposit lifetimes are proportional to the corresponding percentages observed for subpopulation 1: TDP = 0.15T, TCH = 0.3T, and TFH = 0.3T, where T is the mean global surface age of Venus. In diachronous cases the percentages may or may not be proportional to the appropriate lifetimes, depending on the range of the regional plains. If the time range of plains emplacement is not larger than +/-0.5T, the use of TDP = 0.15T and TCH = 0.3T is appropriate. We consider the time ~0.5T ago as the lower time boundary for the age of the now-observed CH craters and the time 0.1-0.15T ago as the lower boundary for the age of DP craters. We propose that the Atlian Period of the geologic history of Venus be subdivided into Upper and Lower Epochs, with the boundary between them at ~0.5T ago, and the lower boundary of the Aurelian Period be placed at 0.1-0.15T ago. We apply this approach to assess ages of activity of three volcanic-tectonic structures on Venus: Beta Regio-Devana Chasma (shows evidence of activity younger than 0.5T ago), Mylitta Fluctus (also younger than 0.5T), and Atla Regio (shows evidence of activity younger than 0.1-0.15T ago).

Basilevsky, Alexander T.; Head, James W.

2002-08-01

123

Pennsylvania Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Three decades after it was published, the Second Geological Survey of Pennsylvania was described as "the most remarkable series of reports ever issued by any survey." Considering the diversity of other geological reports, this was no small compliment. Drawing on support from the Marion and Kenneth Pollock Libraries Program Fund, the Pennsylvania State University Libraries' Digital Preservation Unit was able to digitize not only this fabled Survey, but also the Third and Fourth Surveys as well. Visitors can use the search engine on the homepage to look for items of interest, or they can just browse through the collection at their leisure. The surveys include various maps and illustrations that track mineral deposits and the disposition and location of other natural resources. Additionally, users can look through a miscellaneous set of publications from the early 20th century related to survey work performed by the U.S. Geological Survey.

124

Teaching Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This rather remarkable website contains a great collection of resources for web-based instruction and demonstrations of geology concepts. The collection includes, under Classroom demonstration, the very useful SeisMac 3.0, which is an application for Mac OS X that turns a laptop computer into a " low-resolution strong-motion accelerometer," or a basic seismograph. It works by accessing the computer's Sudden Motion Sensor in order to display real-time, three axis accelerations graphs. Visitors can use the application to watch the seismic waves go up and down just by tapping their feet on the floor nearby. Other resources include Virtual Earth (an "interactive minicourse on thermal convection") and a link to Geology in the news, which collates important news stories with a geological theme.

125

Greater Yellowstone Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site features a collection of papers and maps about the Yellowstone hotspot by Dr. Ken Pierce of the Northern Rocky Mountain Science Center, an expert in the field. Papers on this site address topics such as Yellowstone glaciation, tracking the hotspot, the Yellowstone plume head, and a seven-day field trip guide to the quaternary geology and ecology of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Each downloadable paper map is listed with a brief description and a full citation.

Institute, Mountain P.; Infrastructure, National B.

126

MAINE OTRANS  

EPA Science Inventory

OTRANS represents other transportation features - electric, pipeline, railroad, and telephone lines at 1:24,000 scale. Some New Hampshire and New Brunswick features are also included. Data for this coverage were digitized from USGS 1:24000 scale quadrangle maps by various contra...

127

Geologic features of the sea bottom around a municipal sludge dumpsite near 39 degrees N., 73 degrees W., offshore New Jersey and New York  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The sea-floor of a dumpsite area offshore New York and New Jersey (Deep-water dumpsite 106) was studied using detailed bathymetry, sidescan-sonar images, subbottom profiles, bottom photographs, and bottom-sediment samples. These data show that this continental rise area contains deposits of submarine landslides and pathways of sediment gravity flows. Images of the sea floor obtained with a deep-towed high-resolution sidescan sonar system show offshore-trending furrowed surfaces over parts of the area. If such furrows are old, one might expect them to have been obliterated by sediment resuspension and redeposition due to the mostly gentle contour-parallel bottom currents that are measured in the present day. While most of the sea-floor features were probably formed during Pleistocene or early Holocene (glacial or early post-glacial) times, our information suggests that vigorous present-day episodes of offshore-directed transport may continue to occur, at unknown intervals.

Robb, James M.

1994-01-01

128

MAINE POPULATION  

EPA Science Inventory

MEPOP250 depicts Maine's 1950-1990 population data by town or Census in unorganized territories. Populations were compiled from US Census Bureau data where available or from Maine Municipal Information (mainly for older records). Unorganized towns with very low or zero pop...

129

Geology Fieldnotes: Lake Mead National Recreation Area, Nevada/Arizona  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Lake Mead National Recreation Area site contains park geology information, maps, photographs, visitor information, and teacher features (resources for teaching geology using national park examples). Park Geology is a guided tutorial, covering two billion years of geologic time from the Precambrian through the Cenozoic.

130

Geology Fieldnotes: Death Valley National Park, California/Nevada  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Death Valley National Park site contains park geology information, park maps, photographs, visitor information, and teacher features (resources for teaching geology using National Park examples). The Park Geology section contains an exaggerated cross-section showing the vertical rise within Death Valley. A link is provided to Death Valley's expanded geology page.

131

Geologic Time  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains 24 questions on the topic of geologic time, which covers dating techniques and unconformities. This is part of the Principles of Earth Science course at the University of South Dakota. Users submit their answers and are provided immediate feedback.

Heaton, Timothy

132

Physical geology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The book integrates current thinking on processes (plate techtonics, chemical cycles, changes throughout geologic time). It is an introduction to investigations into the way the earth works, how mountains are formed, how the atmosphere, hydrosphere, crust and mantle interact with each other. Treatments on climate, paleoclimatology and landscape evolution are included, as is a discussion on how human activity affects

B. Skinner; S. Porter

1987-01-01

133

Geologic Time.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the historical development of the concept of geologic time. Develops the topic by using the major discoveries of geologists, beginning with Steno and following through to the discovery and use of radiometric dating. An extensive reference list is provided. (JM)|

Albritton, Claude C., Jr.

1984-01-01

134

Geological Surveys Bureau Browse Area  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Offered by the Iowa Geological Survey Bureau, the Browse Area page is a great collection of articles, photos, and maps about the state's geology geared especially to the public. Topics include Age of Dinosaurs in Iowa, Landscape Features, Satellite Image, Field Travels of Early Iowa Geologists, Meteorites in Iowa's History, Oil Exploration, and much more. This is a wonderful example of how government can provide informative and fun sites to the public without going overboard with high-end and complicated Web design.

135

Roadside Geology of Yosemite Valley  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This field trip guide provides an introduction to the geology of Yosemite Valley, emphasizing the changes that have been made by a series of geological events and natural disasters in the 1990's. The field trip moves from Arch Rock Entrance station, via Bridalveil Meadow and Inspiration Point. It features background notes on glaciation, granitic and plutonic rock, and rockfall events. Users can also examine information on field debris, rock composition, granites, diorites, and sedimentary structures. Other materials include a geological map, images, and bibliographic references of interest. In addition, there are also computer generated images of some of the park's landforms.

136

Geology of National Parks  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This is a set of two sheets of 3D images showing geologic features of many National Parks. Red-and-cyan viewing glasses are need to see the three-dimensional effect. A search on the World Wide Web will yield many sites about anaglyphs and where to get 3D glasses. Red-blue glasses will do but red-cyan glasses are a little better. This publication features a photo quiz game: Name that park! where you can explore, interpret, and identify selected park landscapes. Can you identify landscape features in the images? Can you explain processes that may have helped form the landscape features? You can get the answers online.

Stoffer, Philip W.

2008-01-01

137

Geological assessing of urban environments with a systematic mapping survey: The 1:5000 urban geological map of Catalonia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ground features of urban areas and the geologic processes that operate on them are, in general, strongly altered from their natural original condition as a result of anthropogenic activities. Assessing the stability of the ground, the flooding areas, and, the health risk as a consequence of soil pollution, are, among others, fundamental topics of urban areas that require a better understanding. The development of systematic urban geological mapping projects provides valuable resources to address these issues. Since 2007, the Institut Geologic de Catalunya (IGC) runs an urban geological mapping project, to provide accurate geologic information of county capitals and towns of more than 10000 inhabitants of Catalonia. The urban zones of 131 towns will be surveyed for this project, totalizing an area of about 2200 km2 to be mapped in 15 years. According to the 2008 census, the 82 % of the population of Catalonia (7.242.458 inhabitants) lives in the areas to be mapped in this project. The mapping project integrates in a GIS environment the following subjects: - Data from pre-existing geotechnical reports, historical geological and topographical maps and, from historical aerial photographs. - Data from available borehole databases. - Geological characterization of outcrops inside the urban network and neighbouring areas. - Geological, chemical and physical characterisation of representative rocks, sediments and soils. - Ortophotographs (0.5 m pixel size) and digital elevation models (5 meter grid size) made from historical aerial photographs, to depict land use changes, artificial deposits and geomorphological elements that are either hidden or destroyed by urban sprawl. - Detailed geological mapping of quaternary sediments, subsurface bedrock and artificial deposits. - Data from subsurface prospection in areas with insufficient or confuse data. - 3D modelling of the main geological surfaces such as the top of the pre-quaternary basement. All the gathered data is harmonised and stored it in a database. The analysis of the database allows to compile and print the 1:5000 scale urban geological map according to the 1:5000 topographic grid of Catalonia. The map is composed by a principal map, geologic cross sections and several complementary maps, charts and tables. Regardless of the geological map units, the principal map also includes the main artificial deposits (such as infilled river valleys and road embankments), very recent or current superficial deposits, contours of outcropping areas, structural data and other relevant information gathered in stations, sampling points, boreholes indicating the thickness of artificial deposits and the depth of the pre-quaternary basement, contour lines of the top of the pre-quaternary basement surface and, water level data. The complementary maps and charts may change depending on the gathered data, the geological features of the area and the urban typology. However, the most representative complementary maps that includes the printed urban map are the quaternary subsurface bedrock map and the isopach map of thickness of quaternary and anthropogenic deposits. The map also includes charts and tables of relevant physical and chemical parameters of the geological materials, harmonised downhole lithological columns from selected boreholes, and, photographs and figures illustrating the geology of the mapped area and how urbanisation has changed the natural environment. The object of this systematic urban mapping survey is to provide a robust database to be used in targeted studies related to urban planning, geoengineering works, soil pollution and other important environmental issues that society should deal in the future.

Vilà, Miquel; Pi, Roser; Cirés, Jordi; de Paz, Ana; Berástegui, Xavier

2010-05-01

138

Geology of Crater Lake  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Geology of Crater Lake is a resource for an introductory course on the geology of Mount Mazama and the Crater Lake caldera. The actual course consists of two evening presentations and a one-day field trip. The presentations outline the mountain's geologic setting, eruptive history, and potential hazards. The field trip affords an opportunity to examine volcanic and glacial features around the caldera rim and to explore one of the most spectacular lakes in the world. Upon successful completion of this course a student will be capable of the following: to describe the geologic setting of Mount Mazama and the other Cascade volcanoes; to identify andesite, dacite, and basalt and explain how the compositions of the lavas that form these rocks influence their eruptive characters; and to outline the major types of hazards that future eruptions of Mount Mazama may pose to regional communities. Along with a course syllabus, a bibliography and related links are available. Those registered for the course can visit the Gradebook to view their marks.

Hirt, William

139

Main features of overexpanded triple jets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The flowfield of an overexpanded triple free jet has been investigated. The flowfield was generated by three Laval nozzles set in a common end wall with equal spacing in a triangular configuration. Total pressure measurements were made for three exit Mach numbers of 1.5, 2, and 2.5 with the range of stagnation pressure from 2.9 to 4.5 atmospheres. The spacing between the nozzles based on the throat diameter was varied as 2.8, 3.6, 4.4, and 6. The triple jet has been compared to a single jet operating at the same initial flow conditions. It is shown that the triple jet in triangular configuration undergoes a transformation in its shape and axis orientation. The triple jet spreads at the base side more than at the top side. The differential spreading rate generates more flow disturbance and, therefore, enhances the mixing process.

Moustafa, Gamal H.

1994-11-01

140

Main Features of the Caspian Sea Hydrology  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The Caspian Sea constantly attracts considerable attention thanks to its natural uniqueness, resource abundance, great historical\\u000a value and vital importance to human societies of the vast Caspian region. In these circumstances, improving theoretical and\\u000a applied knowledge of the sea is indispensable for addressing many complex issues. Specifically, there has been increasing\\u000a environmental concern over expanding extraction of hydrocarbons off and

Aleksey N. Kosarev; Valentin S. Tuzhilkin; Andrey G. Kostianoy

141

Geologic nozzles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sonic velocities of geologic fluids, such as volcanic magmas and geothermal fluids, can be as low as 1 m\\/s. Critical velocities in large rivers can be of the order of 1-10 m\\/s. Because velocities of fluids moving in these settings can exceed these characteristic velocities, sonic and supersonic gas flow and critical and supercritical shallow-water flow can occur. The importance

Susan Werner Kieffer

1989-01-01

142

Geology on a Sand Budget  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Earth science teaches know how frustrating it can be to spend hundreds of dollars on three-dimensional (3-D) models of Earth's geologic features, only to use the models for a few class periods. To avoid emptying an already limited science budget, teachers can use a simple alternative to the expensive 3-D models--sand. Modeling geologic processes and features with sand is an effective way for teachers to promote student understanding of Earth science topics, quickly assess students' prior knowledge, and identify common misconceptions.

Kane, Jacqueline

2004-09-01

143

Geologic controls on radon  

SciTech Connect

This text provides a review of recent research on geological controls of [sup 222]Rn concentrations in soil gas in relation to the problem of high indoor radon concentrations in houses. The importance of the subject matter is highlighted in the preface by the observation that the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) estimates that 15,000 to 25,000 deaths result from radon-induced lung cancer each year in the United States. The text contains 8 Chapters: (1) Geology of radon in the United States; (2) Sensitivity of soil radon to geology and the distribution of radon and uranium in the Hylas Zone Area, Virginia; (3) Geologic and environmental implications of high soil-gas radon concentrations in The Great Valley, Jefferson and Berkeley Counties, West Virginia; (4) Soil radon distribution in glaciated areas: an example from the New Jersey Highlands; (5) Radon in the coastal plain of Texas, Alabama, and New Jersey; (6) Effects of weather and soil characteristics on temporal variations in soil-gas radon concentrations; (7) A theoretical model for the flux of radon from rock to ground water; (8) The influence of season, bedrock, overburden, and house construction on airborne levels of radon in Maine homes. The individual chapters are written by different authors in the form of self-contained research papers, each of which is followed by a comprehensive list of references.

Gates, A.E.; Gundersen, L.C.S. (eds.)

1992-01-01

144

National Archive of Geological Photographs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided by the British Geological Survey, this site contains a database of some 6,400 digitized images drawn from the National Archive of Geological Photographs (NAGP). The archive may be searched by keyword, advanced search, or browsed via themed galleries (Montserrat Volcanic Eruption, Beltmoss Quarry - working stone, Aerial photographs in and around Edinburgh, etc.). Unfortunately, the images are only available in one, rather small, size. They are accompanied by information on location, photographer, geologist, year taken, and descriptions of varying length. Additional information on the British Geological Survey may be accessed from the main page.

145

The Geology of Atlantis Basin, Mars, and Its Astrobiological Interest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here is presented a general description of the Atlantis Basin geology, where the existence of different geological features seem to indicate the long-term presence of a thermal source and a water reservoir stable enaough to sustain biological processes.

M. A. de Pablo; A. G. Fairén; A. Márquez

2004-01-01

146

Upper Cenozoic Geologic Map, Yellowstone Plateau Volcanic Field  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This geologic map shows Tertiary and Quaternary rock formations, volcanic and surficial deposits, faults, contacts, and other geologic features in Yellowstone National Park. The map is freely downloadable as a PDF file.

Robert, Christiansen; Survey, U. S.

147

Geologic history of Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mars accumulated and differentiated into crust, mantle and core within a few tens of millions of years of Solar System formation. Formation of Hellas, which has been adopted as the base of the Noachian period, is estimated to have occurred around 4.1 to 3.8 Gyr ago, depending on whether or not the planet experienced a late cataclysm. Little is known of the pre-Noachian period except that it was characterized by a magnetic field, subject to numerous large basin-forming impacts, probably including one that formed the global dichotomy. The Noachian period, which ended around 3.7 Gyr ago, was characterized by high rates of cratering, erosion, and valley formation. Most of Tharsis formed and surface conditions were at least episodically such as to cause widespread production of hydrous weathering products such as phyllosilicates. Extensive sulfate deposits accumulated late in the era. Average erosion rates, though high compared with later epochs, fell short of the lowest average terrestrial rates. The record suggests that warm, wet conditions necessary for fluvial activity were met only occasionally, such as might occur if caused by large impacts or volcanic eruptions. At the end of the Noachian, rates of impact, valley formation, weathering, and erosion all dropped precipitously but volcanism continued at a relatively high average rate throughout the Hesperian, resulting in the resurfacing of at least 30% of the planet. Large water floods formed episodically, possibly leaving behind large bodies of water. The canyons formed. The observations suggest the change at the end of the Noachian suppressed most aqueous activity at the surface other than large floods, and resulted in growth of a thick cryosphere. However, presence of discrete sulfate rich deposits, sulfate concentrations in soils, and occasional presence of Hesperian valley networks indicates that water activity did not decline to zero. After the end of the Hesperian around 3 Gyr ago the pace of geologic activity slowed further. The average rate of volcanism during the Amazonian was approximately a factor of ten lower than in the Hesperian and activity was confined largely to Tharsis and Elysium. The main era of water flooding was over, although small floods occurred episodically until geologically recent times. Canyon development was largely restricted to formation of large landslides. Erosion and weathering rates remained extremely low. The most distinctive characteristic of the Amazonian is formation of features that have been attributed to the presence, accumulation, and movement of ice. Included are the polar layered deposits, glacial deposits on volcanoes, ice-rich veneers at high latitudes, and a variety of landforms in the 30-55° latitude belts, including lobate debris aprons, lineated valley fill and concentric crater fill. Most of the gullies on steep slopes also formed late in this era. The rate of formation of the ice-related features and the gullies probably varied as changes in obliquity affected the ice stability relations.

Carr, Michael H.; Head, James W.

2010-06-01

148

Engineering geology of Stockholm, Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bedrock in the Stockholm area provides an excellent material for construction. The paper describes the geology of the\\u000a area and provides case histories, mainly related to infrastructure development, illustrating the use of underground construction\\u000a and the importance given to environmental considerations. It discusses the research being undertaken to establish data bases\\u000a which will record the geological and geotechnical information

L. Persson

1998-01-01

149

Application of fracture mechanics in geological materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Application of conventional fracture mechanics concepts to treat crack growth and failure problems in geological media is discussed in this paper. Conventional fracture mechanics methods were developed mainly for metallic materials which exhibit nonlinearity associated mainly with plasticity type responses. Thus, these are not directly applicable to geological materials whose inelastic responses originate from inherent large-scale heterogenities, microcracking, strain softening,

1991-01-01

150

Vesta: A Geological Overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations from the Dawn spacecraft [1] enable the derivation of the asteroid 4Vesta's shape, facilitate mapping of the surface geology, and provide the first evidence for interpreting Vesta's geological evolution. Science data were acquired during the approach to Vesta, a circular polar (Survey) orbit at an altitude of 2700 km providing ~ 230 m/pix camera scale, and during a circular high-altitude mapping orbit (HAMO) at 700 km altitude with a camera scale of ~ 65 m/pixel. Currently Dawn is orbiting Vesta in a low-altitude mapping orbit (LAMO) at 210 km altitude, yielding a global image coverage of ~20 m/pixel at the time of EGU [2,3,4,5]. Geomorphology and distribution of surface features provide evidence for impact cratering, tectonic activity, and regolith and probable volcanic processes. Craters with dark rays, bright rays, and dark rim streaks have been observed, suggesting buried stratigraphy. The largest fresh craters retain a simple bowl-shaped morphology, with depth/diameter ratios roughly comparable to lunar values. The largest crater Rheasilvia, an ~500 km diameter depression at the south pole, includes an incomplete inward facing cuspate scarp and a large central mound surrounded by unusual complex arcuate ridge and groove patterns, and overlies an older ~400 km wide basin. A set of large equatorial troughs is related to these south polar structures. Vesta exhibits rugged topography ranging from -22 km to +19 km relative to a best fit ellipsoidal shape. Vesta's topography has a much greater range in elevation relative to its radius (15%) than do the Moon and Mars (1%) or the Earth (0.3%), but less than highly battered smaller asteroids like Lutetia (40%). This also identifies Vesta as a transitional body between asteroids and planets. The surface of Vesta exhibits very steep topographic slopes that are near the angle of repose. Impacts onto these steep surfaces, followed by slope failure, make resurfacing - due to impacts and their associated gravitational forces and seismic activity - an important geologic process on Vesta that significantly alters the morphology of geologic features and adds to the complexity of its geologic history. In general, Vesta's geology is more like the Moon and rocky planets than other asteroids.

Jaumann, R.

2012-04-01

151

National Park Service: Tour of Park Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The tour of Park geologic resources includes pages specific to individual National Parks, Monuments, Recreation Areas, Preserves, Seacoasts, Reserves, and Recreation Areas. These pages are indexed by park name, state, or by one of the following topics: basin and range, caves, Colorado Plateau, fossils, glaciers, hot springs, human use, mountain building, oldest rocks, plate tectonics, river systems, sand dunes, shoreline geology, or volcanoes. Organization of each of the pages typically follows a NPS template with categories for park geology, maps, photographs, geologic research, related links, visitor information, multimedia, and "teacher features" (educational resources and links for teaching geology with National Park examples.) Common subjects that are addressed at various park sites include: minerals, rocks, fossils, cave and karst systems, coastlines, glaciers, volcanoes, faults, landforms, landslides, structures, fluvial systems, sediments, soils, stratigraphic relations, processes that form or act on geologic features and their chemical compositions, and the history of the planet and its life forms.

152

Tour of Park Geology: Cave and Karst Parks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Park Geology site provides links to tours of individual National Parks, Monuments, and Recreation Areas with caves and other karst features. Where appropriate, park sites contain park geology information, maps, photographs, geologic research, related links, visitor information, multimedia resources, and teacher features (resources for teaching geology with National Park examples). The list includes places such as Carlsbad Caverns National Park, Mammoth Cave National Park, Sequoia National Park, and the Ozark National Scenic Riverways.

153

MAINE WOODLOTS  

EPA Science Inventory

MEOWN250 describes industrial, non-industrial, and public woodlot ownership in Maine at 1:250,000 scale. Industrial owners are those having at least one primary wood processing facility. Non-industrial owners are those with no primary wood processing facility. Public ownership...

154

MAINE HYDROGRAPHY  

EPA Science Inventory

Hydronet_me24 and Hydropoly_me24 depict Maine's hydrography data, based on 8-digit hydrological unit codes (HUC's) at the 1:24,000 scale. Some New Hampshire and New Brunswick hydrography data are also included. The NHD hydrography data was compiled from previous ArcIn...

155

Tethys geology and tectonics revisited  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tethys, a medium sized icy satellite of Saturn, was imaged by both Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft at sufficiently high resolution to allow some geologic analysis. One fairly complete and several brief descriptions of Tethys' geology have been given. Partial results are given herein of a new analysis of Tethys' geology done as part of a comparative tectonic and cryovolcanic study of the saturnian satellites. A new geologic sketch map of Tethys' north polar area is given. This map is based on a sequence of images transformed to a polar stereographic projection at the same scale. The images present the same area under different illuminations, each of which brings out different features. A new global map is in progress.

Croft, Steven K.

1991-06-01

156

Northeastern Regional geologic characterization report. Volume 1. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents available geologic information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont. For each of the states within the Northeastern Region, information is provided on the geologic disqualifying factor and the geologic regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening. The geologic factor and variables include deep mines and quarries, rock mass extent, postemplacement faulting, suspected Quaternary faulting, seismicity, rock and mineral resources, major ground-water discharge zones, ground-water resources, state of stress, thickness of rock mass, and thickness of overburden. Information is presented on age, areal extent, shape, composition, texture, degree and type of alteration, thickness, and structural features associated with each rock body or complex. Regional seismic and tectonic information is presented, including patterns of earthquake occurrence, earthquake magnitudes, horizontal ground accelerations, and vertical crusal movements. Also included are discussions of the rock and mineral deposits or mines located within or near crystalline bodies; ground-water resources and regional hydrology; postulated changes in climate and the associated effects; and landforms, surface processes, and surficial materials on or near the rock bodies. A discussion is also presented on the relationship between the US Department of Energy (DOE) Siting Guidelines (10 CFR 960) and the geologic disqualifying factor and regional screening variables to be used in the region-to-area screening process.

Not Available

1985-08-01

157

What Forces Created These Geologic Features  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Exploring Earth Investigations are Internet-based activities that use animations, interactive graphics, and unique imagery to help students gather information about a particular Earth science theme, issue, or concept.

TERC (www.terc.edu)

158

Geology Fieldnotes: Capitol Reef National Park, Utah  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Capitol Reef National Park site contains park geology information, park maps, photographs, visitor information, and a teacher feature (resources for teaching geology with National Park examples). Geologic data includes descriptions of the Waterpocket Fold, a monocline formed in the Laramide Orogeny and made of sedimentary rock. Also covered is erosion, and details about the Cathedral Valley outcrop of gypsum. This formation is Permian to Cretaceous in age (270-80 million years old).

159

The Geologic Time Scale  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains a large, easy to read, detailed geologic time scale for the Phanerozoic Eon (544 million years ago - Present). This is the period of time, also known as an eon, between the end of the Precambrian and today. The Phanerozoic begins with the start of the Cambrian period, 544 million years ago. It encompasses the period of abundant, complex life on Earth. The chart includes the Era, Period or System, and the Epoch or Series and features a brief description of each.

160

British Geological Survey: Geomagnetism  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The British Geological Survey illustrates its work monitoring the earth's magnetic field in the UK at this website. Users can learn about the six observatories located in the Atlantic and the UK. Using the Grid Magnetic Angle Calculator, visitors can determine the angle between the British National grid north and the magnetic north. The website features Mercator projects created with the World Magnetic Model, geomagnetic data for the academic community, space weather services for industry, and more. Students can find tutorials about the Earth's magnetic field, magnetic reversals, and magnetic storms.

161

Applications of imaging radar to geology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tone, texture, and features imaged by radars were studied. A variety of computer image processing techniques were developed to reveal characteristics of these scences. Field checking of sites suggests links between the geology and the images. Tonal studies examine the effects of varying frequency polarization, and illumination geometry. Most surficial geologic units in Death Valley, California, are distinguishable by use

M. I. Daily

1985-01-01

162

The Geology of Callisto  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The geology of Callisto is not boring. Although cratered terrain dominates Callisto (a key end-member of the Jovian satellite system), a number of more interesting features are apparent. Cratered terrain is broken into irregular mappable bright and dark subunits that vary in albedo by a factor of 2, and several relatively smooth units are depleted of small craters. Some of these areas may have been volcanically resurfaced. Lineaments, including parallel and radial sets, may be evidence for early global tectonism. Frost deposition occurs in cold traps, and impact scars have formed from tidally disrupted comets. Geologic evidence suggests that Callisto does have a chemically differentiated crust. Central pit and central dome craters and palimpsests are common. The preferred interpretation is that a relatively ice-rich material, at depths of 5 km or more, has been mobilized during impact and exposed as domes or palimpsests. The close similarity in crater morphologies and dimensions indicates that the outermost 10 km or so of Callisto may be as differentiated as on Ganymede. The geology of cratered terrain on Callisto is simpler than that of cratered terrain on Ganymede, however. Orbital evolution and tidal heating may provide the answer to the riddle of why Callisto and Ganymede are so different (Malhotra, 1991). We should expect a few surprises and begin to answer some fundamental questions when Callisto is observed by Galileo in late 1996.

Schenk, Paul M.

1995-09-01

163

Geology on a Sand Budget  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Earth science teachers know how frustrating it can be to spend hundreds of dollars on three-dimensional (3-D) models of Earth's geologic features, to use the models for only a few class periods. To avoid emptying an already limited science budget, the author states that teachers can use a simple alternative to the expensive 3-D models--sand. She…

Kane, Jacqueline

2004-01-01

164

Slope processes in weathred volcaniclastic rocks of the Camaldoli hill (Naples, Italy): geological, structural and volcanological aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Camaldoli hill is the remnant of the north-eastern margin of the Campi Flegrei caldera (CFc), generated by two main collapses related to the Campanian Ignimbrite (CI; 39 ka) and Neapolitan Yellow Tuff (NYT; 15 ka) eruptions. We have reconstructed its geological, lithological and structural features, and their effects on slope instability. The backbone of the hill includes the remnants

G. Orsi; M. A. di Vito; S. de Vita; D. Calcaterra; D. Coppin; B. Palma; M. Parise

2003-01-01

165

USGS - Coastal and Marine Geology Program Internet Map Server  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from the USGS features marine geology resources, including the Coastal and Marine Map Server, the Gloria Mapping Program and data, and the Coastal and Marine Geology Program. Each of these resources presents data, maps, and publications. For example, the GLORIA system was developed specifically to map the morphology and texture of seafloor features in the deep ocean, while the Coastal and Marine Geology program features an interactive map server to view and create maps using available CMGP data sets.

Usgs

166

Geology Fieldnotes: Badlands National Park, South Dakota  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Badlands National Park, located in southwestern South Dakota, consists of 244,000 acres of sharply eroded buttes, pinnacles and spires blended with the largest, protected mixed grass prairie in the United States. Features include information on park geology, maps, photographs, visitor information, links to related publications, and lesson plans for teaching geology with National Park examples. The park geology section discusses the Park's geologic history during the Eocene and Oligocene epochs and the rich fossil deposits found there. Maps of the park and the surrounding area are included.

167

Geology Fieldnotes: Dinosaur National Monument, Colorado / Utah  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dinosaur National Monument preserves a fossil bone deposit containing the bones of hundreds of dinosaurs, which was once enclosed in the sands of an ancient river. Features of the site include park geology information, maps, photographs, related links, visitor information, multimedia resources, and resources for teaching geology with National Park examples. The geology section discusses the park's geologic history and fossil beds. A park map of the Monument is included, and the photo album section contains drawings of some of the dinosaur species found at the Monument's Dinosaur Quarry.

168

Geology Fieldnotes: Fossil Butte National Monument, Wyoming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Fossil Butte National Monument preserves a 50-million year old bed of Eocene limestone that contains one of the richest fossil deposits in the world. Site features include park geology information, photographs of fossils, related links, visitor information, multimedia resources, and resources for teaching geology with National Park examples. The park geology section discusses the Monument's geologic history and fossil beds, focusing on the conditions that created the fossil-rich region and on the history of fossil collection in the area. A map of the Monument is also included.

169

Geological Time Scale  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This document describes how geologic time is approached in discussions of geologic topics. The uses of relative time and absolute time are compared, and a geologic time scale is provided to represent both concepts. References are provided.

170

Geology Fieldnotes: Bryce Canyon National Park, Utah  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Located on the Colorado Plateau in Utah, this canyon is comprised mostly of sedimentary rocks, and continues to be eroded and shaped by the Paria River. Its geologic and human history are outlined on this site, including the formation of the canyon, from the Cretaceous period (144 million years ago) to the present, and geologic features, such as fins, columns, pinnacles, and hoodoos. Visitor information, links to other resources, maps, and a teacher feature (resources for teaching geology with National Park examples) are also available.

Foos, Annabelle

171

Main Report  

PubMed Central

Background: States vary widely in their use of newborn screening tests, with some mandating screening for as few as three conditions and others mandating as many as 43 conditions, including varying numbers of the 40+ conditions that can be detected by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). There has been no national guidance on the best candidate conditions for newborn screening since the National Academy of Sciences report of 19751 and the United States Congress Office of Technology Assessment report of 1988,2 despite rapid developments since then in genetics, in screening technologies, and in some treatments. Objectives: In 2002, the Maternal and Child Health Bureau (MCHB) of the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) of the United States Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) commissioned the American College of Medical Genetics (ACMG) to: Conduct an analysis of the scientific literature on the effectiveness of newborn screening.Gather expert opinion to delineate the best evidence for screening for specified conditions and develop recommendations focused on newborn screening, including but not limited to the development of a uniform condition panel.Consider other components of the newborn screening system that are critical to achieving the expected outcomes in those screened. Methods: A group of experts in various areas of subspecialty medicine and primary care, health policy, law, public health, and consumers worked with a steering committee and several expert work groups, using a two-tiered approach to assess and rank conditions. A first step was developing a set of principles to guide the analysis. This was followed by developing criteria by which conditions could be evaluated, and then identifying the conditions to be evaluated. A large and broadly representative group of experts was asked to provide their opinions on the extent to which particular conditions met the selected criteria, relying on supporting evidence and references from the scientific literature. The criteria were distributed among three main categories for each condition: The availability and characteristics of the screening test;The availability and complexity of diagnostic services; andThe availability and efficacy of treatments related to the conditions. A survey process utilizing a data collection instrument was used to gather expert opinion on the conditions in the first tier of the assessment. The data collection format and survey provided the opportunity to quantify expert opinion and to obtain the views of a diverse set of interest groups (necessary due to the subjective nature of some of the criteria). Statistical analysis of data produced a score for each condition, which determined its ranking and initial placement in one of three categories (high scoring, moderately scoring, or low scoring/absence of a newborn screening test). In the second tier of these analyses, the evidence base related to each condition was assessed in depth (e.g., via systematic reviews of reference lists including MedLine, PubMed and others; books; Internet searches; professional guidelines; clinical evidence; and cost/economic evidence and modeling). The fact sheets reflecting these analyses were evaluated by at least two acknowledged experts for each condition. These experts assessed the data and the associated references related to each criterion and provided corrections where appropriate, assigned a value to the level of evidence and the quality of the studies that established the evidence base, and determined whether there were significant variances from the survey data. Survey results were subsequently realigned with the evidence obtained from the scientific literature during the second-tier analysis for all objective criteria, based on input from at least three acknowledged experts in each condition. The information from these two tiers of assessment was then considered with regard to the overriding principles and other technology or condition-specific recommendations. On the basis of this information, conditions were assigned to one of thr

2006-01-01

172

Geology Fieldnotes: Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming/Idaho/Montana  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Yellowstone National Park site contains park geology information, photographs, related links, visitor information, multimedia resources, and teacher features (resources for teaching geology with National Park examples). The park geology section discusses the Park's geologic history, structural geology, and describes many of the geologic sites and wildlife found in the park. It describes the sites found on the routes from Old Faithful to Mammoth Springs (East Thumb, Old Faithful, Midway, Lower, and Norris geysers, geyser basins, Gibbon Falls), Mammoth Springs to Tower Junction and the Canyon (Undine Falls, Lava Creek, Lamar Valley, Hayden Valley), and at the Yellowstone Lake area (West Thumb and Grant Village).

173

MAINE BEDROCK SOURCE WATER PROTECTION AREAS  

EPA Science Inventory

Bedrocksqpa_region_pws is a REGIONS SDE layer of bedrock source water protection areas in Maine with a high, moderate, or low probability of contributing water to community public water supplies. The Maine Drinking Water Program (MEDWP), in cooperation with the Maine Geological S...

174

History of Geology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses: (1) geologists and the history of geology; (2) American historians and the history of geology; (3) history of geology in the 1980s; (4) sources for the history of geology (bibliographies, dictionaries, encyclopedias, handbooks, periodicals, public/official histories, compilations, and books); (5) research opportunities; and (6) other…

Greene, Mott T.

1985-01-01

175

Practical petroleum geology  

SciTech Connect

This book presents the scope and content of the field of petroleum geology from the standpoint of the practicing petroleum geologist. Includes chapters on basic geological concepts, the sedimentation process, accumulation of hydrocarbons, exploration, economic examination, drilling of exploratory wells, recovering oil and gas (reservoir geology), and the relationship of geology to the petroleum industry as a whole.

Not Available

1985-01-01

176

Origins of Sinuous and Braided Channels on Ascraeus Mons, Mars — A Keck Geology Consortium Undergraduate Research Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This Keck Geology Consortium project, involving four undergrad geology students, mapped and analyzed sinuous channel features on Ascraeus Mons, Mars, to better understand the role of volcanic and fluvial processes in the geological evolution of Mars.

de Wet, A. P.; Bleacher, J. E.; Garry, W. B.

2012-03-01

177

Tennessee Division of Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the homepage of the Geology Division of the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation. It provides information on the division's programs, including geologic hazards research, public service, education programs, basic and applied research on geology and mineral resources, publication of geologic information, permitting of oil and gas wells, and regulation of Tennessee's oil and gas industry. Materials include a catalog of publications, maps, geologic bulletins, and the Public Information series of pamphlets; the Geology Division Newsletter; and information on the state's mineral industry. There is also a section on the Gray Fossil Site, an unusual assemblage of fossils and sedimentary geology encountered during road construction near the town of Gray, Tenessee.

178

Oklahoma Geological Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Oklahoma Geological Survey is a state agency dedicated to geological research and public service. This site contains information on earthquakes, geographic names, general Oklahoma geology, and the mountains and water resources of the state. There are educational materials available to order, many of which are free. Geologic maps indicate rock types and ages, as well as the geologic provinces of the state. Links are provided for more resources.

179

Vermont Geological Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Vermont Geological Survey, also known as the Division of Geology and Mineral Resources in the Department of Environmental Conservation, conducts surveys and research relating to the geology, mineral resources and topography of the State. This site provides details about the states geology with a downloadable state geologic map and key, state rock information, gold in Vermont, fossils found in the state, bedrock mapping details, stream geomorphology, the Champlain thrust fault, earthquakes, radioactive waste and links for additional information.

180

Geologic Frameworks and Faulty Hydrology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydraulic properties frequently are distributed in groundwater flow and transport models with geologic frameworks that can be quite complex. The complexity of these frameworks increases exponentially as fault structures are explicitly incorporated. Creation of complex frameworks that support hydrologic investigations can be a reasonable endeavor where the hydraulic significance of geologic units and fault structures are substantiated with water-level and hydraulic property data. This underlying assumption seems highly suspect in practice because of differences in scale between water-level data and hydraulic data. Proposed connections between geology and hydraulic properties seem more tenuous when justified with scatter plots that resemble a line in a shot-gun blast. Weak correlations between hydraulic property estimates and geologic structures have been developed primarily with hydraulic property estimates from physical property measurements from cores and limited hydraulic tests. These hydraulic properties typically are estimated at length scales of less than 1 m and rarely exceeded 10 m. Water levels primarily are the hydraulic data that constrain groundwater-flow model calibration and typically are sampled at length scales of more than 1,000 m. Differences in length scales between weak correlations and hydraulic data are bridged with assumed geologic relations between development of secondary permeability and proximity to faults, rock type, and degree of alteration. The utility of geologic frameworks for extrapolating hydraulic properties at length scales that are commensurate with hydraulic data has been assessed at the Nevada National Security Site in highly faulted, volcanic rocks. Observed drawdowns from multiple aquifer tests provided necessary constraints. Bulk hydraulic properties in a volume of more than 40 cubic km were defined primarily by drawdowns that were detected across fault structures and more than 3 km from pumping wells. Hydraulic properties were estimated by simultaneously interpreting all aquifer tests. Each geologic framework was incorporated and tested as prior information that assumed homogeneity in each geologic structure. Hydraulic differences between geologic units and fault structures were less than the inherent uncertainty of the hydraulic conductivity estimates. Geologic frameworks that conceptualized fault structures as unique hydraulic features degraded extrapolation of hydraulic properties.

Halford, K. J.; Sweetkind, D. S.; Fenelon, J.; Garcia, C.

2011-12-01

181

Geology of Kilauea volcano  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes studies of the structure, stratigraphy, petrology, drill holes, eruption frequency, and volcanic and seismic hazards of Kilauea volcano. All the volcano is discussed, but the focus is on its lower east rift zone (LERZ) because active exploration for geothermal energy is concentrated in that area. Kilauea probably has several separate hydrothermal-convection systems that develop in response to the dynamic behavior of the volcano and the influx of abundant meteoric water. Important features of some of these hydrothermal-convection systems are known through studies of surface geology and drill holes. Observations of eruptions during the past two centuries, detailed geologic mapping, radiocarbon dating, and paleomagnetic secular-variation studies indicate that Kilauea has erupted frequently from its summit and two radial rift zones during Quaternary time. Petrologic studies have established that Kilauea erupts only tholeiitic basalt. Extensive ash deposits at Kilauea's summit and on its LERZ record locally violent, but temporary, disruptions of local hydrothermal-convection systems during the interaction of water or steam with magma. Recent drill holes on the LERZ provide data on the temperatures of the hydrothermal-convection systems, intensity of dike intrusion, porosity and permeability, and an increasing amount of hydrothermal alteration with depth. The prehistoric and historic record of volcanic and seismic activity indicates that magma will continue to be supplied to deep and shallow reservoirs beneath Kilauea's summit and rift zones and that the volcano will be affected by eruptions and earthquakes for many thousands of years. 71 refs., 2 figs.

Moore, R.B. (Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States). Federal Center); Trusdell, F.A. (Geological Survey, Hawaii National Park, HI (United States). Hawaiian Volcano Observatory)

1993-08-01

182

Geologic mapping of Europa  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Galileo data enable the major geological units, structures, and surface features to be identified on Europa. These include five primary units (plains, chaos, band, ridge, and crater materials) and their subunits, along with various tectonic structures such as faults. Plains units are the most widespread. Ridged plains material spans a wide range of geological ages, including the oldest recognizable features on Europa, and appears to represent a style of tectonic resurfacing, rather than cryovolcanism. Smooth plains material typically embays other terrains and units, possibly as a type of fluid emplacement, and is among the youngest material units observed. At global scales, plains are typically mapped as undifferentiated plains material, although in some areas differences can be discerned in the near infrared which might be related to differences in ice grain size. Chaos material is composed of plains and other preexisting materials that have been severely disrupted by inferred internal activity; chaos is characterized by blocks of icy material set in a hummocky matrix. Band material is arrayed in linear, curvilinear, wedge-shaped, or cuspate zones with contrasting albedo and surface textures with respect to the surrounding terrain. Bilateral symmetry observed in some bands and the relationships with the surrounding units suggest that band material forms by the lithosphere fracturing, spreading apart, and infilling with material derived from the subsurface. Ridge material is mapped as a unit on local and some regional maps but shown with symbols at global scales. Ridge material includes single ridges, doublet ridges, and ridge complexes. Ridge materials are considered to represent tectonic processes, possibly accompanied by the extrusion or intrusion of subsurface materials, such as diapirs. The tectonic processes might be related to tidal flexing of the icy lithosphere on diurnal or longer timescales. Crater materials include various interior (smooth central, rough inner, and annular massif) and exterior (continuous ejecta) subunits. Structural features and landforms are shown with conventional symbols. Type localities for the units are identified, along with suggestions for portraying the features on geological maps, including colors and letter abbreviations for material units. Implementing these suggestions by the planetary mapping community would facilitate comparisons of maps for different parts of Europa and contribute to an eventual global synthesis of its complex geology. On the basis of initial mapping results, a stratigraphic sequence is suggested in which ridged plains form the oldest unit on Europa, followed by development of band material and individual ridges. Band materials tend to be somewhat older than ridges, but in many areas the two units formed simultaneously. Similarly, the formation of most chaos follows the development of ridged plains; although chaos is among the youngest materials on Europa, some chaos units might have formed contemporaneously with ridged plains. Smooth plains generally embay all other units and are late-stage in the evolution of the surface. C1 craters are superposed on ridged plains but are crosscut by other materials, including bands and ridges. Most c2 craters postdate all other units, but a few c2 craters are cut by ridge material. C3 craters constitute the youngest recognizable material on Europa. Copyright 2000 by the American Geophysical Union.

Greeley, R.; Figueredo, P. H.; Williams, D. A.; Chuang, F. C.; Klemaszewski, J. E.; Kadel, S. D.; Prockter, L. M.; Pappalardo, R. T.; Head, III, J. W.; Collins, G. C.; Spaun, N. A.; Sullivan, R. J.; Moore, J. M.; Senske, D. A.; Tufts, B. R.; Johnson, T. V.; Belton, M. J. S.; Tanaka, K. L.

2000-01-01

183

Petroleum geological activities in West Greenland in 2001  

Microsoft Academic Search

Greenland petroleum geological activities at the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) during 2001 were focused mainly on the preparation of the 2002 licensing round offshore West Greenland. Promotion of the exploration opportunities in the licensing round area between 63° and 68°N has played an important role together with launching of new seismic and geological pro- jects. Critical evaluation

Flemming G. Christiansen; Jørgen A. Bojesen-Koefoed; James A. Chalmers; Finn Dalhoff; Tove Nielsen; Henrik Nøhr-Hansen; Martin Sønderholm

184

Geology Fieldnotes: Olympic National Park, Washington  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Park Service (NPS) website highlights the geology of Olympic National Park in Washington state. It discusses the mountains and rocks of the park, Ice Age features (Puget Sound), coastal features, and forests of the area. There are links to park maps, visitor information, and additional resources.

185

GeoScape: AN INSTRUCTIONAL ROCK GARDEN FOR INQUIRY BASED COOPERATIVE LEARNING EXERCISES IN INTRODUCTORY GEOLOGY COURSES  

Microsoft Academic Search

GeoScape is a landscape design, consisting of colored gravel, strategically placed flagstone and boulders, and two vertical features that simulates the geology of some fictitious region (a combination of geologic features in Utah, Arizona and Nevada). The design incorporates many topographic and geologic concepts that introductory geology students are expected to understand. GeoScape is an educational tool employing \\

Gary J. Calderone; Wayne M. Johnson; Steve D. Kadel; Pamela J. Nelson; Robert F. Butler

186

Kentucky Geological Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Kentucky maintains the Kentucky Geological Survey Web site. Visitors will find a number of educational general information pages on rocks and minerals, fossils, coal, geologic hazards, industrial minerals, maps and GIS, oil and natural gas, and water, as well as the general geology of Kentucky. Each page contains specific information, data, and research summaries from the university. The geology of Kentucky page, for example, shows a map of geologic periods and gives descriptions of the rock strata in the state, a description of its landforms, and a geological photo album of physiographic regions and points of interest.

1997-01-01

187

Tour of Park Geology: Colorado Plateau  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides links to geology fieldnotes about National Parks, Monuments, and Recreation Areas that are part of the Colorado Plateau. Each park site provides links to visitor information, photographs, park maps, multimedia resources, and teacher features (tools for teaching geology with National Park examples). Some of the areas linked to this site include: Dinosaur National Monument, Mesa Verde National Park, and Glen Canyon National Recreation Area.

188

Geophysics & Geology Inspected.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes findings of a recently published report of the Canadian Geoscience Council, which includes the following topics regarding college geology: facilities; teaching; undergraduate enrollments; postgraduate enrollments; geologic research; and integration of Canadian geoscience with other countries. (CS)

Neale, E. R. W.

1981-01-01

189

GSA Geologic Time Scale  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Geological Society of America (GSA) site contains a detailed geologic time scale as an educational resource. It may be downloaded to a larger size, and includes all Eras, Eons, Periods, Epochs and ages as well as magnetic polarity information.

1999-01-01

190

Geologic Report for the Beaufort Sea Planning Area, Alaska: Regional Geology, Petroleum Geology, Environmental Geology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 192-page report provides a summary of the geologic framework, hydrocarbon potential, and physical environment of the offshore area tentatively scheduled for Federal OCS (Outer Continental Shelf) Oil and Gas Lease Sale 97. The geologic interpretation i...

J. D. Craig K. W. Sherwood P. P. Johnson

1985-01-01

191

Geologic spatial analysis  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the development of geologic spatial analysis research which focuses on conducting comprehensive three-dimensional analysis of regions using geologic data sets that can be referenced by latitude, longitude, and elevation/depth. (CBS)

Thiessen, R.L.; Eliason, J.R.

1989-01-01

192

Tour of Park Geology: Sand Dunes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Park Geology site provides links to tours of individual National Parks, Monuments, and Recreation Areas with sand dunes. Where appropriate for each park, links are provided to maps, photographs, geologic research, related links, visitor information, and teacher features (resources for teaching geology with National Park examples). The list includes places such as Death Valley and Mojave National Preserve, along with less well-known areas such as the Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore in Michigan and the Wright Brothers National Memorial in North Carolina.

193

Digital geologic map and GIS database of Venezuela  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The digital geologic map and GIS database of Venezuela captures GIS compatible geologic and hydrologic data from the 'Geologic Shaded Relief Map of Venezuela,' which was released online as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2005-1038. Digital datasets and corresponding metadata files are stored in ESRI geodatabase format; accessible via ArcGIS 9.X. Feature classes in the geodatabase include geologic unit polygons, open water polygons, coincident geologic unit linework (contacts, faults, etc.) and non-coincident geologic unit linework (folds, drainage networks, etc.). Geologic unit polygon data were attributed for age, name, and lithologic type following the Lexico Estratigrafico de Venezuela. All digital datasets were captured from source data at 1:750,000. Although users may view and analyze data at varying scales, the authors make no guarantee as to the accuracy of the data at scales larger than 1:750,000.

Garrity, Christopher P.; Hackley, Paul C.; Urbani, Franco

2006-01-01

194

South Carolina Geological Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The South Carolina Geological Survey (SCGS) homepage contains information about state mapping, education and outreach programs, and recent news. For educators, there is the Earth Science education series of publications which includes presentations and page-size graphics on such topics as earthquakes, plate tectonics, geologic time, fossils, and others. Other materials include information on mineral resources, links to organizations in and about South Carolina geology, the South Carolina core repository, the Geologic Map of South Carolina, and others.

195

Geological Survey Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If your research or interests lie in the geology of South Dakota, then the state's Geological Survey Program Web site is for you. Offered are online publications and maps, a geologic reference database, a lithologic logs database, digital base maps, a water quality database, and several other quality information sources worth checking out.

196

Analysis of Geological Structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

A knowledge of structural geology is fundamental to understanding the processes by which the earth's crust has evolved. It is a subject of fundamental importance to students of geology, experienced field geologists and academic researchers as well as to petroleum and mining engineers. In contrast to many structural textbooks which dwell upon geometrical descriptions of geological structures, this book emphasises

Neville J. Price; John W. Cosgrove

1990-01-01

197

Teaching Sedimentary Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains a variety of resources for faculty members who teach undergraduate sedimentary geology. You will find links to a growing collection of activities and assignments, internet and computer resources, useful articles, presentations from the summer 2006 workshop on teaching sedimentary geology, and lots of creative ideas for teaching sedimentary geology.

198

The West Virginia Geological and Economic Survey (WVGES)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site includes materials on geology, coal and petroleum resources, industrial minerals, geologic hazards, ground water, topographic and geologic maps, education, and earth science. Teacher education materials include rock camps and telecourses. Special features include popular geology pages and frequently-asked-questions about geology and resources; updates about new museum specimens, flood and landslide information for homeowners, documents on mountaintop removal mining materials, and coal resource and mapping project information. Consultations, maps, publications, selected database items, and copies of documents are available at modest cost.

199

Utah Geological Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the homepage of the Utah Geological Survey. Materials available here include news articles and information on geologic hazards; information on places of geological interest; and popular geology topics such as earthquakes, rocks and minerals, fossils, economic resources, groundwater resources, and others. Educational resources include teaching kits, the 'Teacher's Corner' column in the survey's newsletter, and a series of 'Glad You Asked' articles on state geological topics. There is also an extensive list of free K-12 educational materials, as well as a set of curriculum materials such as activity packets, slide shows, and teachers' handbooks, which are available to order.

2011-03-30

200

Geology of Kentucky  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website contains geologic maps of Kentucky, with a discussion of geologic time in regards to the rocks, minerals, fossils, and economic deposits found there. There are also sections that describe strata and geologic structures beneath the surface (faults, basins, and arches), the structural processes (folding and faulting) that create stratigraphic units, the geomorphology of the state, geologic information by county, a general description of geologic time, fossil, rocks, and minerals of Kentucky, and a virtual field trip through Natural Bridges State Park. Links are provided for further information.

201

Virtual-Geology.Info  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

At virtual-geology.info, Roger Suthren, a professor at Oxford Brookes University, offers educational materials on geologic phenomena throughout the world. Users can take virtual field trips to study the geology of Scotland, Alaska, and France. In the Regional Geology link, visitors can view wonderful pictures of the volcanoes of Germany, Italy, France, and Greece. Educators can find images of sediments and sedimentary rocks which can be used in a variety of classroom exercises. The website supplies descriptions and additional educational links about sedimentology and environmental geology.

202

Main Injector power distribution system  

SciTech Connect

The paper describes a new power distribution system for Fermilab's Main Injector. The system provides 13.8 kV power to Main Injector accelerator (accelerator and conventional loads) and is capable of providing power to the rest of the laboratory (backfeed system). Design criteria, and features including simulation results are given.

Cezary Jach and Daniel Wolff

2002-06-03

203

Windows on Maine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created with funds provided by the Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS), Windows on Maine contains interesting and informative programs and video clips from Maine Public Broadcasting and other partners. On their homepage, visitors can use their interactive map and timeline to locate video clips of interest, and they can also search the entire collection for specific items. Visitors can also use the subject category menu to look over 25 different headings, including "earth sciences", "land disputes", and "Penobscot tribe". The map feature is a real pip, and visitors can customize their search by location and date, and it's a great way to learn about different regions, including Aroostook County (also known as "the County") and Downeast. Also, many of the videos also have additional resources attached to them, such as railroad timetables, historic photographs, and so on.

204

Geologically constrained migration velocity analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In areas of complex geology, prestack depth migration is the only way to produce an accurate image of the subsurface. Prestack depth migration requires an accurate interval velocity model. With few exceptions, the subsurface velocities are not known beforehand and must be estimated. When the velocity structure is complex, with significant lateral variations, reflection tomography methods must be applied. Unfortunately, reflection tomography often converges slowly, to a model that geologically unreasonable, or not at all. One reason for this slow or non-convergence is that reflection tomography attempts to simultaneously estimate reflector position (mapping velocity) and image the data (focusing velocity). In this dissertation, I present a new approach to finding an acceptable interval velocity model for prestack migration. By performing tomography in vertical travel-time space, I avoid estimating mapping velocity, instead concentrating on focusing velocity. The large null space of reflection tomography problems forces a sparse parameterization of the model and/or regularization criteria to be added to the estimation. Standard tomography schemes tend to create isotropic features in velocity that are inconsistent with geology. These isotropic features are due in large part to using symmetric regularization operators or by choosing a poor model parameterization. By replacing these symmetric operators with operators that tend to spread information along structural dips, I can generate velocity models that are more geologically reasonable. In addition, by forming these operators in helical 1-D space and performing polynomial division, I can find the inverse of these space-varying anisotropic operators. These inverse operators can be used as a preconditioner to a standard tomography problem, significantly improving convergence speed compared to the typical, regularized inversion problem. Results from synthetic, 2-D field, and 3-D field data are shown. In each case the velocity obtained improves the focusing of the migrated image.

Clapp, Robert G.

205

MAINE 1:24,000 HYDROLOGY POLYGONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The Maine 1:24,000 Hydrology Polygons SDE feature class depicts double line river features, single line streams, pond, lake and coastal outlines in Maine from USGS 1:24,000 scale quadrangles. Some New Hampshire and New Brunswick features are also included. Codes are included to ...

206

Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The mission of the Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys is "to determine the potential of Alaskan land for production of metals, minerals, fuels, and geothermal resources." The homepage features a "Headlines" area that includes mining reports, links to press releases, and a fascinating interactive map of quaternary faults and folds that will be of great interest to geologists. Moving on, the Sections area contains links to specific department projects, including work on engineering geology, energy resources, and volcanology. Visitors won't want to miss the Geologic Materials Center area. Here they can learn about the Division's work cataloging, storing, and studying key metrics that tell the story of Alaska's geological resources. Finally, the Publications area contains links to all of the organization's written works, including those from the Mineral Industry Research Laboratory at the University of Alaska at Fairbanks and a number of crucial reports from the U.S. Bureau of Mines. [KMG

207

Geology Fieldnotes: Craters of the Moon National Monument Idaho  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Craters of the Moon lava field covers 618 square miles and is the largest young basaltic lava field in the conterminous United States. Features include maps, photographs, related links, visitor information, and resources for teaching geology with National Park examples. The park geology section discusses the park's volcanic history and structural geology, as well as the various sites at the park, such as Devils Orchard, Big Cinder Butte, and the Tree Molds Area.

208

Geologic Time: Online Edition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Offered by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) as a general interest publication, this site is an online edition of a text by the same name, offering a concise overview of the concepts associated with the age of the Earth. The online edition was revised in October of 1997 to reflect current thinking on this topic. Section headers are Geologic Time, Relative Time Scale, Major Divisions of Geologic Time, Index Fossils, Radiometric Time Scale, and Age of the Earth.

1997-10-09

209

Image Gallery for Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These images of geologic phenomena are used to supplement introductory geology classes at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. The images are categorized under plutonic, volcanic and sedimentary rocks; structural geology; weathering; and coastlines. There are photographs of different kinds of volcanoes; lavas and pyroclastic rocks; volcanic hazards; different types of sedimentary rocks and sedimentary structures; folds and faults; beach processes; and barrier islands.

Glazner, Allen

210

Sedimentology and petroleum geology  

SciTech Connect

This book presents an introduction to sedimentology as well as petroleum geology. It integrates both subjects, which are closely related but mostly treated separately. The author covers the basic aspects of sedimentology, sedimentary geochemistry and diagenesis. Principles of stratigraphy, seismic stratigraphy and basin modelling forms the base for the part on petroleum geology. Subjects discussed include the composition of kerogen and hydrocarbons, theories of migration and trapping of hydrocarbons and properties of reservoir rocks. Introductions to well logging and production geology are given.

Bjorlykke, K.O. (Oslo Univ. (Norway))

1989-01-01

211

Pennsylvania Geological Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the homepage of the Pennsylvania Geological Survey. Users can access digital maps, data, and Geographic Information Systems (GIS), information on economic resources, and information on field mapping in the state. Classroom resources include a set of lesson plans on Pennsylvania geology; 'Rock Boxes', a set of rock samples which can be ordered; information on mineral collecting; and a series of educational publications, page-sized maps, and the 'Trail of Geology' park guide.

2011-03-29

212

The Geology of Virginia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From the College of William of Mary Department of Geology comes the Geology of Virginia Web site. From the Appalachian Plateau to the coastal plain, visitors can explore the geology and physical characteristics of the diverse landscape of the commonwealth of Virginia through simple descriptions and well designed graphics. Even if you don't live in the area, the site does a good job of capturing the interest of anyone looking for quality material on the presented subjects.

1997-01-01

213

Practical petroleum geology  

SciTech Connect

This book contains the following eight chapters: Basic Concepts of Geology; Sedimentation; Oil and Gas Accumulation; Exploration; Economics; Well Sitting; Field Development; and Past, Present and Future. The goal of the book is to present a description of the field of petroleum geology that is centered on the point of view of the practicing petroleum geologist. After the beginning three chapters of pure geology, slanted toward the petroleum geologist's interest in oil and gas, the discussion turns toward more active concerns.

Leecraft, J.

1985-01-01

214

Arizona Geological Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the homepage of the Arizona Geological Survey. Information accessible here includes maps, information on oil, gas, and minerals in the state, back issues of the survey's newsletter, and a list of resources for public education in the state. These resources include information centers for Arizona geology and Earth Science, the survey's geology library and bibliographic database, a repository of rock cuttings and cores, and a contact for earth science education who will assist teacher groups in introducing local geology to their classes.

215

Understanding Geologic Maps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an exercise in which students are reintroduced to geologic maps and encouraged to "deconstruct" the map into constituent elements in order to understand the geologic history of the area. The preceding lectures in the course have recapitulated material that the students have covered in Introduction to Physical Geology. During class, the students work through the maps that were part of lab exercises in the Intro level course, so that basic concepts are recalled (superposition, cross-cutting relationships, basic faults and folds). The final product is a geologic history of this map area.

Burberry, Cara

216

Modeling Geologic Time  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students convert major events in Earth history from years before present into scale distances. After a list of events and their scale distances have been formulated, students construct a geologic time scale on 5 meters of adding machine paper, beginning with the formation of the Earth. Students will investigate change through geologic time; design, construct and interpret a model of geologic time; relate major events in Earth history to the geologic time scale; and compare and relate the span of Earth history to events of historical time and of the human lifetime. Some sample events and their approximate relative ages are included.

Firebaugh, James

217

Geologic Mapping Exercise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This exercise is designed to simulate how a basic geological investigation of a site takes place. A basic geological investigation includes familiarizing yourself with the unconsolidated sediments, rocks, structural geology, and groundwater present at your site. As part of this exercise you will have to properly identify a variety of rock types and sediments, create maps that represent data you collected at each location, and complete a basic report of your findings (optional). Once completed, this exercise should give students a basic understanding of how the various concepts used throughout the semester are applied in the real world in the form of a geological investigation.

Smith, Andrew

218

Geological models of petroleum entrapment  

SciTech Connect

Assessing petroleum potential of a sedimentary basin requires an in depth knowledge of the relative timings of seven geological factors: source rock, hydrocarbon generation and maturation, primary migration, secondary migration, trap, reservoir rock, and cap or sealing rock. The main theme of this book is to estimate the relative timings of these events through simple geological modelling. The methods discussed in the book use graphs, charts and some simple mathematics. Assuming limited availability of data, Dr. Magara distinguishes static and dynamic elements and attempts to integrate evidence and inference fundamental to the practical exploration for oil and gas. His essential prediction is that even with limited data, or where, by definition, the record no longer exists, marginal predictive capability is superior to no prediction at all.

Magara, K.

1986-01-01

219

Connecting Soils and Glacial Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The goal of this activity is to provide students an opportunity to connect soil science to surficial geology by using a Soil Surveys. By the end of the activity, students should be able to use a Soil Survey to identify and interpret landforms and surficial features. This activity can be adapted to variety of process (ex. eolian deposits, glacial deposits, bedrock weathering, etc.). County-level soil surveys are available in both paper and online formats for the majority of the United States. Designed for a geomorphology course Has minimal/no quantitative component

Dolliver, Holly

220

Subsurface Flow Model Identification under Uncertain Geologic Continuity: A Sparse Model Representation and Detection Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Subsurface characterization is subject to several sources of errors and uncertainty that are originated from the lack of sufficient data to constrain predictive flow and transport models. A major source of uncertainty is related to inaccurate and incomplete description of spatially distributed model parameters. In particular, the uncertainty in specifying large-scale geologic variability play a significant role in flow and transport regimes in an aquifer. In this paper, we present a novel algorithm for calibrating flow models under significant uncertainty in the geologic model. In the proposed algorithm, we first use uncertain geologic datasets to generate a dictionary of geologic model elements with the property that only a small subset of these elements can be combined to construct any model in the prior datasets. As a result, any prior model representation in the geologic dictionary becomes sparse (i.e., many of the dictionary elements become inactive in representing each prior model). Having constructed a diverse sparse geologic dictionary in the first step, we use an efficient sparsity-promoting regularization method to identify and properly combine the subset of model elements that provide the best match to available flow data. We use several two-phase flow examples to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm in correctly identifying the main features (directionality, shape, and continuity) in spatially variable permeability distributions from the lumped information in the flow data. The examples clearly demonstrate the ability of the method to adaptively reconstruct the correct model using a highly diverse geologic dictionary containing a wide range of variability in the structural continuity model.

Jafarpour, B.; Khaninezhad, M. M.

2010-12-01

221

Geology Museum-Based Learning in Soil Science Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Museums provide unique learning opportunities in soil science. The Bob Campbell Geology Museum in Clemson, SC, features an exhibit of minerals and rocks common in the state and in its geologic history. We developed a hands-on laboratory exercise utilizing an exhibit that gives college students an opportunity to visualize regional minerals and…

Mikhailova, E. A.; Tennant, C. H.; Post, C. J.; Cicimurri, C.; Cicimurri, D.

2013-01-01

222

Generalized Geologic Map of the Conterminous United States  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from the USGS features a geologic map of the United States using data prepared for publication in the National Atlas of the United States. There are explanations, documentations, and PDF files presenting the geologic map and a map unit chart, plus archives of ArcInfo files in several formats.

Usgs

223

Geologic Time Scale 2004 - why, how, and where next!  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Geologic Time Scale (GTS2004) is presented that integrates currently available stratigraphic and geochronologic information. Key features of the new scale are outlined, how it was constructed, and how it can be improved Since Geologic Time Scale 1989 by Harland and his team, many developments have taken place: (1) Stratigraphic standardization through the work of the International Commission on Stratigraphy

Felix Gradstein; James Ogg

2004-01-01

224

Development of the main requirements for contemporary systems of radiographic testing including digital image processing taking into account specific features of inspection of welded joints of oil and gas pipelines (a review)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contemporary radiographic systems with digital image processing for testing welded joints of oil and gas pipelines are analyzed.\\u000a The main requirements for systems for computer interpretation and archiving of radiographic images and personnel interpreting\\u000a radiograms are formulated.

E. A. Alekhnovich; N. E. Van’kova; V. I. Kapustin; A. I. Karpenko; T. N. Maksimova

2008-01-01

225

Geology: The Science of our World  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online course provides interactive laboratory exercises and information on mineralogy, map reading, and topography of New York City. There are also sections on rock formation and origins, geologic time, and Earth history. The course also features 'The Drowning of New York', an interactive study of the effects of climate change, sea level rise, and storm surges on the city.

Leveson, David

2002-02-05

226

U.S. Geological Survey Research Centers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Website of USGS' Coastal and Marine Geology Program. Site features an easy to use interactive resource locator with pull down menus. Resources are broken down by topic, region, and resource type. Information includes tsunamis, earthquakes, erosion, hurricanes, and much more. Information available for many different science disciplines. Access SoundWaves, USGS's monthly newsletter, and read impact studies from past hurricanes.

227

Iapetus: Tectonic Structure and Geologic History.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Many papers have been written about the surface of Iapetus, but most of these have discussed either the nature of the strongly contrasting light and dark materials or the cratering record. Little has been said about other geologic features on Iapetus, suc...

S. K. Croft

1991-01-01

228

OneGeology-Europe - The Challenges and progress of implementing a basic geological infrastructure for Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

OneGeology-Europe is making geological spatial data held by the geological surveys of Europe more easily discoverable and accessible via the internet. This will provide a fundamental scientific layer to the European Plate Observation System Rich geological data assets exist in the geological survey of each individual EC Member State, but they are difficult to discover and are not interoperable. For those outside the geological surveys they are not easy to obtain, to understand or to use. Geological spatial data is essential to the prediction and mitigation of landslides, subsidence, earthquakes, flooding and pollution. These issues are global in nature and their profile has also been raised by the OneGeology global initiative for the International Year of Planet Earth 2008. Geology is also a key dataset in the EC INSPIRE Directive, where it is also fundamental to the themes of natural risk zones, energy and mineral resources. The OneGeology-Europe project is delivering a web-accessible, interoperable geological spatial dataset for the whole of Europe at the 1:1 million scale based on existing data held by the European geological surveys. Proof of concept will be applied to key areas at a higher resolution and some geological surveys will deliver their data at high resolution. An important role is developing a European specification for basic geological map data and making significant progress towards harmonising the dataset (an essential first step to addressing harmonisation at higher data resolutions). It is accelerating the development and deployment of a nascent international interchange standard for geological data - GeoSciML, which will enable the sharing and exchange of the data within and beyond the geological community within Europe and globally. The geological dataset for the whole of Europe is not a centralized database but a distributed system. Each geological survey implements and hosts an interoperable web service, delivering their national harmonized geological data. These datasets are registered in a multilingual catalogue, who is one the main part of this system. This catalogue and a common metadata profile allows the discovery of national geological and applied geological maps at all scapes, Such an architecture is facilitating re-use and addition of value by a wide spectrum of users in the public and private sector and identifying, documenting and disseminating strategies for the reduction of technical and business barriers to re-use. In identifying and raising awareness in the user and provider communities, it is moving geological knowledge closer to the end-user where it will have greater societal impact and ensure fuller exploitation of a key data resource gathered at huge public expense. The project is providing examples of best practice in the delivery of digital geological spatial data to users, e.g. in the insurance, property, engineering, planning, mineral resource and environmental sectors. The scientifically attributed map data of the project will provide a pan-European base for science research and, importantly, a prime geoscience dataset capable of integration with other data sets within and beyond the geoscience domain. This presentation will demonstrate the first results of this project and will indicate how OneGeology-Europe is ensuring that Europe may play a leading role in the development of a geoscience spatial data infrastructure (SDI) globally.

Asch, Kristine; Tellez-Arenas, Agnes

2010-05-01

229

Geologic mapping of tectonic planets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geological analysis of planets typically begins with the construction of a geologic map of the planets’ surfaces using remote data sets. Geologic maps provide the basis for interpretations of geologic histories, which in turn provide critical relations for understanding the range of processes that contributed to the evolution. Because geologic mapping should ultimately lead to the discovery of the types

Vicki L. Hansen

2000-01-01

230

The encyclopedia of applied geology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This compendium of engineering geology data includes contributions by experts from many countries. Topics center around the field of engineering geology, with special focus on landscapes, earth materials, and the ''management'' of geological processes. How to use geology to serve man is given particular attention. More than 80 entries deal with hydrology, rock structure monitoring, soil mechanics, and engineering geology.

Finkl

1984-01-01

231

Geology of California. Second Edition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two introductory chapters familiarize readers with basic geologic concepts. The following chapters describe the geology of each of California's 11 geomorphic provinces; the San Andreas fault and offshore geology are discussed in two separate chapters. Four appendices acquaint readers with technical words and terms, common minerals and rocks in California, geologic time, and geologic theories that pertain to California. During

R. M. Norris; R. W. Webb

1990-01-01

232

Earthquakes and Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students investigate the relationship between intensity of ground motion and type of rock or alluvium, as seen in the 1994 Northridge, California earthquake. They will examine a map of Mercalli intensity, a cross-section showing geologic structures and rock types, and a map of surficial geology, and answer questions pertaining to amplification of ground motion and S-wave velocities.

Ozsvath, David

233

SOPAC marine geology atlases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US Geological Survey conducted a series of marine geologic and geophysical cruises in the southwest Pacific Ocean in 1982 and 1984 as part of a program with participation by Australia and New Zealand. These two SOPAC expeditions obtained various data, which have been compiled into a series of charts and thematic products for the offshore areas of Tonga, Fiji,

T. E. Chase; B. A. Seekins; J. D. Young; J. A. Wahler

1986-01-01

234

Geological hydrogen storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The probably least expensive form of hydrogen storage would be geological storage in formations easy to excavate, such as salt dome intrusions near the surface (which can be excavated by water flushing) or vertically curved, capped aquifer layers not requiring excavation at all. Such geological formation are already in use for natural gas storage and have proven very stable. Consideration

Bent Sørensen

235

Earthquakes and Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students investigate the relationship between intensity of ground motion and type of rock or alluvium, as seen in the 1994 Northridge, California earthquake. They will examine a map of Mercalli intensity, a cross-section showing geologic structures and rock types, and a map of surficial geology, and answer questions pertaining to amplification of ground motion and S-wave velocities.

Ozsvath, David

2011-09-06

236

People and Geology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Provides background information on the many natural resources we extract from the earth's crust, including metals, graphite, and other minerals, as well as fossil fuels. Contains teaching activities such as a geologic scavenger hunt, a geology chronology, and the recycling of aluminum. Includes a reproducible handout for the activity on aluminum.…

Naturescope, 1987

1987-01-01

237

Radiometric Dating in Geology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Described are several aspects and methods of quantitatively measuring geologic time using a constant-rate natural process of radioactive decay. Topics include half lives and decay constants, radiogenic growth, potassium-argon dating, rubidium-strontium dating, and the role of geochronology in support of geological exploration. (DS)|

Pankhurst, R. J.

1980-01-01

238

Radiometric Dating in Geology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described are several aspects and methods of quantitatively measuring geologic time using a constant-rate natural process of radioactive decay. Topics include half lives and decay constants, radiogenic growth, potassium-argon dating, rubidium-strontium dating, and the role of geochronology in support of geological exploration. (DS)

Pankhurst, R. J.

1980-01-01

239

Forensic geology exhumed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic geology binds applied geology to the world of legal controversy and action. However, the term ``forensic'' is often misconstrued. Although even some attorneys apply it only to the marshalling of evidence in criminal cases, it has a much broader definition. One dictionary defines it as ``pertaining to, connected with, or used in courts of law or public discussion and

Joseph Didier Martinez

1991-01-01

240

Layer Cake Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This classroom activity uses a cake to demonstrate geologic processes and introduce geologic terms. Students will learn how folds and faults occur, recognize the difference in behavior between brittle and ductile rocks, and attempt to predict structures likely to result from application of various forces to layered rocks. They will also attempt to interpret 'core samples' to determine subsurface rock structure.

Wagner, John

241

Structural Geology Techniques  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Wisconsin - Green Bay has created this collection of material and instructions on how to analyze and plot structural geology data. Topics covered includes planes, lines, relations between lines and planes, geologic structures, intersection of structures with topography, stereonet techniques, stress and strain, and analysis of complex structures.

Dutch, Steven

2009-05-21

242

California Geological Survey - Landslides  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page from the CA Geological Survey (CGS) presents information on landslides as well as maps and products of various past and present CGS programs to map and respond to landslides in the state of California, including the Forest and Watershed Geology Program, the Seismic Hazards Zonation Program, the Caltrans Highway Corridor Mapping project, and the Landslide Map Index.

Survey, California G.

243

National Geologic Map Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Geologic Map Database (NGMDB) is an Internet-based system for query and retrieval of earth-science map information, created as a collaborative effort between the USGS and the Association of American State Geologists. Its functions include providing a catalog of available map information; a data repository; and a source for general information on the nature and intended uses of the various types of earth-science information. The map catalog is a comprehensive, searchable catalog of all geoscience maps of the United States, in paper or digital format. It includes maps published in geological survey formal series and open-file series, maps in books, theses and dissertations, maps published by park associations, scientific societies, and other agencies, as well as publications that do not contain a map but instead provide a geological description of an area (for example, a state park). The geologic-names lexicon (GEOLEX) is a search tool for lithologic and geochronologic unit names. It now contains roughly 90% of the geologic names found in the most recent listing of USGS-approved geologic names. Current mapping activities at 1:24,000- and 1:100,000-scale are listed in the Geologic Mapping in Progress Database. Information on how to find topographic maps and list of geology-related links is also available.

1997-01-01

244

People and Geology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides background information on the many natural resources we extract from the earth's crust, including metals, graphite, and other minerals, as well as fossil fuels. Contains teaching activities such as a geologic scavenger hunt, a geology chronology, and the recycling of aluminum. Includes a reproducible handout for the activity on aluminum.…

Naturescope, 1987

1987-01-01

245

LOMONOSOV AND MODERN GEOLOGY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tribute to Mikhail V. Lomonosov on the occasion of his 250th anniversary of his birth enables better students of the history of geological science to identify the obvious confusion and glaring flaws in this overstated presentation of Lomonosov as the father of geology. Perhaps it will stimulate interest in Lomonosov's On Terrestrial Strata, published in 1763. The article contains

V. Ye Khain

1963-01-01

246

Importance of Charles Lyell’s works for the formation of scientific geological ideology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ch. Lyell’s works, the main work among which entitled Principles of Geology was published 180 years ago in 1830, created a new concept and laid the groundwork for modern geological science, methods\\u000a for the study of geological processes and geological history based on the investigation of recent environments and processes.\\u000a These propositions with natural corrections are also used in geological

V. G. Kuznetsov

2011-01-01

247

Supervised Classification of Surficial Geology Units Using Local Statistics from Digital Orthophoto Quadrangles as Input into an Artificial Neural Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the arid southwestern United States a U.S. Geological Survey project is underway to create 100,000 scale surficial geologic maps. Surficial geologic deposits are classified according to process of deposition using geomorphic and sedimentologic features. Geomorphic position, surface roughness, pavement maturity, pedogenesis, and inset relations are used to establish relative deposit ages. Geologic mapping is conducted using field methods and

G. A. Phelps; D. M. Miller

2003-01-01

248

Geology of Badlands National Park: A Preliminary Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Badlands National Park is host to perhaps the most scenic geology and landscape features in the Western Interior region of the United States. Ongoing erosion that forms the badlands exposes ancient sedimentary strata . This report provides a basic overvie...

P. W. Stoffer

2003-01-01

249

Geology of the Lachesis Tessera V18 Quadrangle, Venus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Summary of the geology of the Lachesis Tessera, focusing on a linear grouping of structural features that includes Breksta Linea. This grouping includes an unnamed corona that is obscured by a large gore.

McGowan, E. M.; McGill, G. E.

2011-03-01

250

The Basics of Rocks and Minerals and Polar Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article gives an overview of the differences between rocks and minerals, the three types of rocks, the rock cycle, and Antarctica's geologic features. It also includes resources for further reading and alignment with the National Science Education Standards.

Codispoti, Julie

251

Geology of Earth's Moon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

First, researchers at the University of California, San Diego discuss the importance of studying earthquakes on the moon, also known as moonquakes, and the Apollo Lunar Seismic Experiment (1). Users can discover the problems scientists must deal with when collecting the moon's seismic data. The students at Case Western Reserve University created the second website to address three missions the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) has planned between now and 2010, including a mission to the moon (2). Visitors can learn about the Lunar-A probe that will be used to photograph the surface of the moon, "monitor moonquakes, measure temperature, and study the internal structure." Next, the Planetary Data Service (PDS) at the USGS offers users four datasets that they can use to create an image of a chosen area of the moon (3). Each dataset can be viewed as a basic clickable map; a clickable map where users can specify size, resolution, and projection; or an advanced version where visitors can select areas by center latitude and longitude. The fourth site, produced by Robert Wickman at the University of North Dakota, presents a map of the volcanoes on the moon and compares their characteristics with those on earth (4). Students can learn how the gravitational forces on the Moon affect the lava flows. Next, Professor Jeff Ryan at the University of South Florida at Tampa supplies fantastic images and descriptive text of the lunar rocks obtained by the Apollo missions (5). Visitors can find links to images of meteorites, terrestrial rocks, and Apollo landings as well. At the Science Channel website, students and educators can find a video clip discussing the geologic studies on the moon along with videos about planets (6). Users can learn about how studying moon rocks help scientists better understand the formation of the earth. Next, the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum presents its research of "lunar topography, cratering and impacts basins, tectonics, lava flows, and regolith properties" (7). Visitors can find summaries of the characteristics of the moon and the main findings since the 1950s. Lastly, the USGS Astrogeology Research Program provides archived lunar images and data collected between 1965 and 1992 by Apollo, Lunar Orbiter, Galileo, and Zond 8 missions (8). While the data is a little old, students and educators can still find valuable materials about the moon's topography, chemical composition, and geology.

252

Mapping Vesta Northern Quadrangle V-2NE: Exploring troughs, craters and linear features  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's Dawn spacecraft arrived at the asteroid 4Vesta on July 15, 2011, and is now collecting imaging, spectroscopic, and elemental abundance data during its one-year orbital mission. As part of the geological analysis of the surface, a series of 15 quadrangle maps are being produced based on Framing Camera images (FC: spatial resolution: ~65 m/pixel) along with Visible & Infrared Spectrometer data (VIR: spatial resolution: ~180 m/pixel) obtained during the High-Altitude Mapping Orbit (HAMO). This poster presentation concentrates on our geologic analysis and mapping of quadrangle V-2NE. This quadrangle is located from 0°E to 90°E and 21°N to 66°N. The main feature of this quadrangle is a large trough that trends NW-SE across most of the quadrangle. Smaller troughs and other linear features trend in roughly the same direction as this large trough. There are also various topographic features, which may be fault scarps. The area of this quadrangle is reasonably heavily cratered and crater counting ages can be determined for the various geological units. Some of the larger craters contain features associated with slumping. Color variations across the quadrangle, seen in FC and VIR multispectral images, can help to constrain geological units and relative compositions. Acknowledgement: The authors acknowledge the support of the Dawn Science, Instrument and Operations Teams.

Scully, J. E.; Russell, C. T.; Williams, D. A.; Garry, W. B.; Buczkowski, D.; Hiesinger, H.; Yingst, R.; Schenk, P.; Wagner, R. J.; Jaumann, R.; Pieters, C. M.; Raymond, C. A.; Roatsch, T.; Preusker, F.; Ammannito, E.

2011-12-01

253

Essential Elements of Geologic Reports.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Described is a report outline for geologic reports. Essential elements include title; abstract; introduction; stratigraphy; petrography; geochemistry; petrology; geophysics; structural geology; geologic history; modeling; economics; conclusions; and recommendations. (Author/CW)|

Webb, Elmer James

1988-01-01

254

North-south geological differences between the residual polar caps on Mars.  

PubMed

Polar processes can be sensitive indicators of global climate, and the geological features associated with polar ice caps can therefore indicate evolution of climate with time. The polar regions on Mars have distinctive morphologic and climatologic features: thick layered deposits, seasonal CO2 frost caps extending to mid latitudes, and near-polar residual frost deposits that survive the summer. The relationship of the seasonal and residual frost caps to the layered deposits has been poorly constrained, mainly by the limited spatial resolution of the available data. In particular, it has not been known if the residual caps represent simple thin frost cover or substantial geologic features. Here we show that the residual cap on the south pole is a distinct geologic unit with striking collapse and erosional topography; this is very different from the residual cap on the north pole, which grades into the underlying layered materials. These findings indicate that the differences between the caps are substantial (rather than reflecting short-lived differences in frost cover), and so support the idea of long-term asymmetry in the polar climates of Mars. PMID:10724162

Thomas, P C; Malin, M C; Edgett, K S; Carr, M H; Hartmann, W K; Ingersoll, A P; James, P B; Soderblom, L A; Veverka, J; Sullivan, R

2000-03-01

255

Nature and Science: Natural Features and Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Yellowstone National Park website gives a brief overview of how geologic characteristics form the foundation of the park's ecosystem. Yellowstone has a unique interplay between volcanic, hydrothermal, and glacial processes that exert control on the distribution of flora and fauna. Topics include summaries on geologic formations, glaciation, geothermal features, and volcanism.

Park, Yellowstone N.

256

Geological, Geochemical, and Geophysical Studies by the U.S. Geological Survey in Big Bend National Park, Texas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Geologic features in Big Bend National Park (BBNP) formed from repetitive cycles of rifting, mountain building, basin development, faulting and folding, and volcanism and plutonism. The oldest tectonic episode recorded in the park is mountain building ass...

J. E. Gray W. R. Page

2008-01-01

257

Digital mapping in structural geology — Examples from Namibia and Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many problems in geology, especially structural geology, can only be solved by detailed mapping. Presently, mapping is still\\u000a mainly carried out on paper using techniques from the 19th Century. However, tools are now available to carry out most mapping tasks on microcomputers in the field without any need\\u000a of paper. This speeds up geological mapping and reduces the errors involved

Cees W. Passchier; Ulrike Exner

2010-01-01

258

Traditional and New Ways to Handle Uncertainty in Geology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents an overview of the main types of uncertainty in geology. The best guess and uncertainty oriented approaches are outlined. Traditional methods of uncertainty analysis—deterministic and probabilistic—are discussed with special references to their limitations in geology. New mathematical methods, developed during the last decades are suitable to handle uncertainty in geology in scalar, spatial, and spatial-temporal conditions, such

George Bárdossy; János Fodor

2001-01-01

259

Geological map and stratigraphy of asteroid 21 Lutetia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The OSIRIS (Optical, Spectroscopic, and Infrared Remote Imaging System) images acquired during the recent Rosetta fly-by of Lutetia (10th of July 2010), enabled us to unravel the long geological history of the asteroid. This is recorded on its highly varied surface which displays geological units of disparate ages. In particular, using images of the closest approach, five main regions (in turn subdivided into minor units) have been discriminated on the basis of crater density, overlapping and cross-cutting relationships, and presence of linear features (i.e., fractures, faults, grooves, troughs). Other regions, with still unclear stratigraphic position, were also recognized on images of lower resolution on the bases of geomorphological properties such as crater density, relationship with scarp and ridges, and sharp morphological boundaries. In this work the geological evolution of Lutetia surface is reconstructed through the description of its main units and related contacts. The oldest regions imaged during the closest approach (Achaia and Noricum) are pervasively affected by fractures and grooves and display surfaces so heavily cratered to be dated back to a period not far from the Late Heavy Bombardment (yielding Achaia a crater retention age of 3.6-3.7 Ga). A crater of 55 km diameter, named Massilia and corresponding to the Narbonensis region, cuts both Achaia and Noricum regions and probably represents the most prominent event of the Lutetia history. The considerable crater density on its floor and walls, the absence of discernable deposits related to the impact event, and the intense deformation of it floor - all attest to its relatively great age. The North Polar Cluster (Baetica region) is associated with smooth ejecta broadly mantling the surrounding units and displays few craters and no linear features, demonstrating its relatively young age (estimated at less than 300 Ma). The North Polar Crater Cluster is the product of superimposed impacts; the last one of 24 km of diameter excavated the pre-existing ejecta up to the bedrock which locally outcrops at the crater rim. The ejecta of this last impact were involved in several gravitational phenomena testified by the great variety of deposits made up of mega-boulders diamictons, fine materials, gravitational taluses and debris, and landslide accumulations. A part from the big cratering events generating Massilia and the North Polar Crater Cluster, the Lutetia geological history is also punctuated by minor events still recorded by its stratigraphic record well imaged by the closest approach data.

Massironi, Matteo; Marchi, Simone; Pajola, Maurizio; Snodgrass, Colin; Thomas, Nicolas; Tubiana, Cecilia; Baptiste Vincent, Jean; Cremonese, Gabriele; da Deppo, Vania; Ferri, Francesca; Magrin, Sara; Sierks, Holger; Barbieri, Cesare; Lamy, Philippe; Rickman, Hans; Rodrigo, Rafael; Koschny, Detlef; Osiris Team

2012-06-01

260

Accounting for spatial patterns of multiple geological data sets in geological thematic mapping using GIS-based spatial analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a Geographic Information System (GIS)-based spatial analysis scheme to account for spatial patterns and\\u000a association in geological thematic mapping with multiple geological data sets. The multi-buffer zone analysis, the main part\\u000a of the present study, was addressed to reveal the spatial pattern around geological source primitives and statistical analysis\\u000a based on a contingency table was performed to

No-Wook Park; Kwang-Hoon Chi; Byung-Doo Kwon

2007-01-01

261

Indiana Geological Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the homepage of the Indiana Geological Survey (IGS). Site materials include information on Earth science issues such as groundwater, mapping, coal and mineral resources, oil and gas, and seismic hazards. There is also information on the geologic time scale and stratigraphic record, rocks and minerals, fossils (including nautiloids of the Ordovician period in Indiana), caves and karst topography in Indiana, and glacial geology. The Geographic Information Ssytems (GIS) and mapping section includes a GIS atlas for the state, an online map viewer, links to the Indiana coal mine information system, petroleum database management system, and a download page where users can access GIS datasets for the state.

262

Journal of Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From the University of Chicago Press's Journals Division, the Journal of Geology is currently available online free of charge (note: subscription fees may soon apply, but no initiation date is provided). This first-rate technical journal, which publishes "research and theory in geophysics, geochemistry, sedimentology, geomorphology, petrology, plate tectonics, volcanology, structural geology, mineralogy, and planetary sciences" has been in print form since 1893. All of the 1999 issues of the Journal of Geology electronic edition are available here. Internet users can access full-text articles with internal links to references and figures (html, .pdf. .ps).

263

Formation evaluation: Geological procedures  

SciTech Connect

This volume goes beyond a discussion of petroleum geology and the techniques of hydrocarbon (oil and gas) logging as a reservoir evaluation tool. It provides the logging geologist with a review of geological techniques and classification systems that will ensure the maximum development of communicable geological information. Contents include: 1. Introduction--cuttings recovery, cutting sampling, core sampling, rock classification; 2. Detrital rocks--classification, description; 3. Carbonate rocks--classification, description; 4. Chemical rocks-introduction, siliceous rocks, ferruginous rocks, aluminous rocks, phosphatic rocks, aluminous rocks, carbonaceous rocks; 5. Igneous and metamorpbic rocks; Appendix; References and Index.

Whittaker, A.

1985-01-01

264

What is Geologic Time?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This webpage of the National Park Service (NPS) and United States Geological Survey (USGS) discusses geologic time and what it represents. Beginning about 4.6 billion years ago and ending in the present day, this site exhibits (to scale) the various eras, periods, eons, and epochs of Earth's history with a downloadable geologic time scale available. Links provide maps of what the Earth looked like at various times in its history, as well as a description of how scientists developed the time scale and how they know the age of the Earth.

265

Geology of caves  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A cave is a natural opening in the ground extending beyond the zone of light and large enough to permit the entry of man. Occurring in a wide variety of rock types and caused by widely differing geological processes, caves range in size from single small rooms to intercorinecting passages many miles long. The scientific study of caves is called speleology (from the Greek words spelaion for cave and logos for study). It is a composite science based on geology, hydrology, biology, and archaeology, and thus holds special interest for earth scientists of the U.S. Geological Survey.

Morgan, I. M., Davies, W. E.

1991-01-01

266

Gulf of Maine Research Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Teaching about aquatic environments, serving as neutral conveners, and facilitating marine research is the mission of the Gulf of Maine Research Institute. Features hundreds of web pages with information and classroom activities covering: oceans, human impact, weather, satellite imagery, remote sensing, Antarctica, global climate change, lobsters, turtles, marine, freshwater issues and more. The project of building the new aquarium at Portland is specially considered.

267

Geology Fieldnotes: Ice Age National Scientific Preserve  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Park Service (NPS) site gives information on the Ice Age National Scientific Preserve in Wisconsin, including geology, park maps, a photo album, and other media (books, videos, CDs). There is also a selection of links to other geologic and conservation organizations, and to information for visitors. This preserve contains a wealth of glacial features associated with the most recent Pleistocene continental glaciation including drumlins, kames, kettles, moraines, erratics, and eskers. It also contains a segment of the Ice Age National Scenic Trail, a 1000-plus mile hiking and backpacking trail that passes through this unique glacial landscape.

268

Geologic map of Chickasaw National Recreation Area, Murray County, Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This 1:24,000-scale geologic map is a compilation of previous geologic maps and new geologic mapping of areas in and around Chickasaw National Recreation Area. The geologic map includes revisions of numerous unit contacts and faults and a number of previously “undifferentiated” rock units were subdivided in some areas. Numerous circular-shaped hills in and around Chickasaw National Recreation Area are probably the result of karst-related collapse and may represent the erosional remnants of large, exhumed sinkholes. Geospatial registration of existing, smaller scale (1:72,000- and 1:100,000-scale) geologic maps of the area and construction of an accurate Geographic Information System (GIS) database preceded 2 years of fieldwork wherein previously mapped geology (unit contacts and faults) was verified and new geologic mapping was carried out. The geologic map of Chickasaw National Recreation Area and this pamphlet include information pertaining to how the geologic units and structural features in the map area relate to the formation of the northern Arbuckle Mountains and its Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer. The development of an accurate geospatial GIS database and the use of a handheld computer in the field greatly increased both the accuracy and efficiency in producing the 1:24,000-scale geologic map.

Blome, Charles D.; Lidke, David J.; Wahl, Ronald R.; Golab, James A.

2013-01-01

269

Comprehending Geologic Time  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online calculator helps students understand the classic analogy of relating the geologic time scale to a yard stick. It will help reinforce the concept of the briefness of human history relative to the age of the Earth.

270

Interactive Geologic Timeline Activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this learning activity, students use a web-based geologic timeline to examine temperature, CO2 concentration, and ice cover data to investigate how climate has changed during the last 715 million years.

University, Environmental L.

271

Geologic Puzzles: Morrison Formation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Images of faulted strata, tilted turbidites, and beach rocks bring the field into the classroom, giving students practice in doing what geoscientists do. These images are examples of geologic puzzles.

Macdonald, Heather

272

Economic Geology (Oil & Gas)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Briefly reviews the worldwide developments in petroleum geology in 1971, including exploration, new fields, and oil production. This report is condensed from the October Bulletin of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists. (PR)|

Geotimes, 1972

1972-01-01

273

Curating Geological Collections.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

ONR funding was used to accomplish the long-term goals of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography Geological Collections, which have been and continue to be, to serve the scientific community by acquisition, maintenance, conservation and curation of marin...

J. W. Hawkins A. Sanfilippo

2004-01-01

274

Geology in the field  

SciTech Connect

This book is an entirely new one-volume text and reference that covers the procedures essential to geologic field studies. It presents information not found in other field geology texts, including identification and modern classification of rocks, means of recognizing and interpreting primary structures in rocks (which reveal their origin), coverage of engineering geologic maps, and recognition of recently active faults. The procedures are described thoroughly enough so that students can proceed largely on their own. It follows the typical sequence of a student's experience in learning field work-starting with the first observation of an outcrop and proceeding to methods of measurement and mapping, ending with preparation of a full geologic report.

Compton, R.R.

1985-01-01

275

Photos of structural geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page contains four categories of structural geology photos: brittle structures, ductile structures, active tectonics, and unconformities. All photos are freely downloadable and are at resolutions sufficient for power point.

Miller, Marli

276

External Resource: Geology Jeopardy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive Geology Jeopardy game can by used by the individual to review concepts in earth science or in the classroom as a classroom activity. Topics: rocks, minerals, topography, plate tectonics, weathering, erosion, astronomy, meteorology.

1900-01-01

277

Main Pass Sampling  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

On April 20, 2010, the Deepwater Horizon Drilling Platform exploded and sank, causing an enormous oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. U.S. Geological Survey field offices responded immediately by organizing teams to take pre-spill sediment and water samples in order to establish a baseline survey. This...

2010-06-04

278

Recruiting and Retaining Geology Majors at CSUSB: Successes and Barriers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our efforts to build a strong geology department at CSUSB have focused on two main areas (1) increasing the number of geology majors, and (2) involving our majors more directly in the department through their involvement in scientific research and outreach activities. To increase the number of majors we have undertaken a three pronged approach: (a) by actively working with

A. L. Smith; S. F. McGill; J. E. Fryxell; W. B. Leatham; E. Melchiorre; B. Brunkhorst

2003-01-01

279

Geodynamics applications of continuum physics to geological problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This textbook deals with the fundamental physical processes necessary for an understanding of plate tectonics and a variety of geologic phenomena. The first chapter reviews plate tectonics; its main purpose is to provide physics, chemistry, and engineering students with the geologic background necessary to understand the applications throughout the rest of the book. It goes on to discuss in following

D. L. Turcotte; G. Schubert

1982-01-01

280

Geology and Human Health  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains a variety of educational and supporting materials for faculty teaching in the emerging field of geology and human health. You will find links to internet resources, books, teaching activities, and a group email list, as well as posters, presentations and discussions from the spring 2004 workshop on Geology and Human Health. These resources reflect the contributions of faculty members from across the country and the collections will continue to grow as materials are developed.

281

Introduction to Petroleum Geology  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a Petroleum geology comprises those geological disciplines which are of greatest significance for the finding and recovery of oil and gas. Since\\u000a most of the obvious and “easy to find” petroleum already has been discovered it is necessary to use sophisticated methods\\u000a in the exploration of sedimentary basins. These include advanced geophysical techniques and basin modelling. There is also\\u000a much more

Knut Bjørlykke

282

Geology of Scotland  

Microsoft Academic Search

MAY I supplement Prof. Green's history of geological mapping in Scotland (NATURE, vol. xlvii. p. 49) by pointing out that Mr. Cruchley published, on March 23, 1840, ``A Geological Map of Scotland by Dr. MacCulloch, F.R.S., &c., published by order of the Lords of the Treasury by S. Arrowsmith, Hydrographer to the King.'' This fine map is on the scale

Grenville A. J. Cole

1892-01-01

283

Interpreting Geologic Sections  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Athro, Limited is a for-profit corporation that publishes high school and college level biology, earth science, and geology course supplements and independent learning materials on the Web. This site provides instruction in interpreting the order of events in three hypothetical and one real geological section. For each section there is a list of events and an animation of the history of the section once the student has decided on the order of events.

Morris, Paul

284

A generalized geologic map of Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

A geologic map of Mars has been constructed largely on the basis of photographic evidence. Four classes of units are recognized: (1) primitive cratered terrain; (2) sparsely cratered volcanic eolian plains; (3) circular radially symmetric volcanic constructs such as shield volcanoes, domes, and craters; and (4) tectonic erosional units such as chaotic and channel deposits. Grabens are the main structural

M. H. Carr; H. Masursky; R. S. Saunders

1974-01-01

285

Geotechnical characterization for the Main Drift of the Exploratory Studies Facility  

SciTech Connect

Geotechnical characterization of the Main Drift of the Exploratory Studies Facility was based on borehole data collected in site characterization drilling and on scanline rock mass quality data collected during the excavation of the North Ramp. The Main Drift is the planned 3,131-m near-horizontal tunnel to be excavated at the potential repository horizon for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. Main Drift borehole data consisted of three holes--USW SD-7, SD-9, and SD-12--drilled along the tunnel alignment. In addition, boreholes USW UZ-14, NRG-6, and NRG-7/7A were used to supplement the database on subsurface rock conditions. Specific data summarized and presented included lithologic and rock structure core logs, rock mechanics laboratory testing, and rock mass quality indices. Cross sections with stratigraphic and thermal-mechanical units were also presented. Topics discussed in the report include geologic setting, geologic features of engineering and construction significance, anticipated ground conditions, and the range of required ground support. Rock structural and rock mass quality data have been developed for each 3-m interval of core in the middle nonlithophysal stratigraphic zone of the Topopah Spring Tuff Formation. The distribution of the rock mass quality data in all boreholes used to characterize the Main Drift was assumed to be representative of the variability of the rock mass conditions to be encountered in the Main Drift. Observations in the North Ramp tunnel have been used to project conditions in the lower lithophysal zone and in fault zones.

Kicker, D.C.; Martin, E.R.; Brechtel, C.E.; Stone, C.A. [Agapito Associates, Inc., Las Vegas, NV (United States); Kessel, D.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Yucca Mountain Project Management

1997-07-01

286

Origins of Niagara: A Geological History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site describes the geologic history and current hydrologic and cultural concerns associated with the natural resources of the Niagara region. Many topics are discussed, including the birth of Niagara Falls, the Wisconsin Glacier, rocks and sedimentary deposits, and the future of the falls. Hyperlinks connect one to related histories and facts concerning the Niagara Glen, Devil's Hole, the Niagara River Water Diversion Treaty, and two geologic tables: the Rock of Ages Chart and the Silurian Era Rock Chart. There are thumbnail photos dispersed throughout this document, which display geologic features such as a knick point, a gorge, and strata. A link connects to Thunder Alley, a comprehensive web site about Niagara Falls, of which this site is a part.

Berketa, Rick

287

USGS Coastal and Marine Geology Infobank  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This clearinghouse provides organized access to U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) coastal and marine data and metadata. The facilities section features material on Coastal and Marine Geology (CMG) regional centers such as maps and information about staff, facilities, labs, research libraries and archives. The Atlas includes maps for specific geographic areas and information about specific types of data within the area such as bathymetry, gravity, magnetics, sampling, and others. The Field Activities section provides information about specific data collection activities (date, place, crew, equipment used, data collected, publications). The Field Activity Collection System (FACS) provides information about field activities (overviews, crew lists, equipment lists, and events). The "Geology School" provides general, broad-based information about earth science concepts, processes and terminology, indexed to keywords. There is also a set of links to additional databases, software tools and viewers, and to related topics.

288

Geological mapping of the moon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new 1:5,000,000 scale geological map of the moon has been compiled at the Geological Institute of the USSR Academy of Sciences. This paper gives a brief description of the legend of this map, and compares this map to previous geological maps compiled at the Geological Institute.

Sukhanov, A. L.

289

Visualization in Undergraduate Geology Courses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visualization is an essential skill in undergraduate geology courses as it is for expert geologists. Geology students and geologists must visualize the shape of the land from topographic maps, the three-dimensional geometry of geologic structures from limited exposures, and the geologic history recorded in sequences of layers and in natural landscapes. Interactive animations have proven successful in helping college students

Stephen Reynolds; Julia Johnson; Michael Piburn; Debra Leedy; Joshua Coyan; Melanie Busch

290

The growth of geological structures by repeated earthquakes, 1, conceptual framework  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In many places, earthquakes with similar characteristics have been shown to recur. If this is common, then relatively small deformations associated with individual earthquake cycles should accumulate over time to create geological structures. It is shown that existing models developed to describe leveling line changes associated with the seismic cycle can be adapted to explain geological features associated with a fault. In these models an elastic layer containing the fault overlies a viscous half-space with a different density. Fault motion associated with an earthquake results in immediate deformation followed by a long period of readjustment as stresses relax in the viscous layer and isostatic equilibrium is restored. The flexural rigidity of the crust (or the apparent elastic thickness) provides the main control of the width of a structure. The loading due to erosion and deposition of sediment determines the ratio of uplift to subsidence between the two sides of the fault. -Authors

King, G. C. P.; Stein, R. S.; Rundle, J. B.

1988-01-01

291

Evolution of geological processes; International Geological Congress, Session, 28th, Washington, DC, July 9-19, 1989, Reports  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Topics discussed include the initial stages in the evolution of lithosphere, the tectonic evolution of the lithosphere in the Precambrian and the Phanerozoic, the evolution of sedimentation and lithogenesis in the Precambrian and the Phanerozoic, the evolution of the paleoenvironment of the ocean, and the evolution of ore formation. Papers are presented on the evolution of granite-greenstone terrains according to Sm-Nd geochronometry; volcanic belts as indicators of the tectonic evolution of the eastern continental margin of Eurasia; and the role of the earth tides in the tectonic evolution of the earth. Attention is also given to the evolution of Alpine-type molasses, the phenomena of irreversibility and recurrence in ore-formation in the course of the earth's geological history, the main features in the evolution of volcanogenic ferroaccumulation in the Early Precambrian, and the evolution of hydrocarbon and ore formation in the sedimentary strata of platform regions.

Ianshin, A. L.

292

Geodetic Modeling With Realistic Geology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Crustal structure has significant impact on the gravity field in short to intermediate wavelengths and lateral variations in density at or near the surface also affect the field. The U.S. Naval Research Laboratory will begin in FY2010 a research program to develop advanced geodetic modeling techniques utilizing realistic geologic and geophysical constraints to improve gravity anomaly estimation in mountainous terrains. The effort is facilitated by several new high-altitude airborne gravity data sets that will provide ground truth for modeling in several different geologic environments. Data sets collected over the Himalayas, the Alps and the mountains of Taiwan will be used to develop, calibrate and test regional models having different geologic conditions including crustal thickness and flexural rigidity, average regional sediment thickness, fault geometry, geomorphology and local density variations. Medium wavelength satellite gravity such as the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) data will allow comparison with the upward continued models as a check on the accuracy of the estimates and can also be used to estimate longer wavelength components due to the crust-mantle interface from either remove-restore methods of modeling or from two dimensional loaded plate theory under appropriate assumptions of flexural rigidity. Buried basement topography masked by sediments is a primary contributor to unknown short wavelength features and will be of great importance in stream-cut mountain valleys and depositional plains adjacent to exposed mountain ridges: we will use existing data sets to test the effects of various basement morphologies. Our modeling strategies will be tested for biases in medium and short wavelength components against existing ground truth, airborne and satellite data sets. Some of the proposed modeling has been previously done for specific and limited areas but we propose to examine to what extent it is possible to determine regional parameterizations that can be used to forward model large areas.

Brozena, J. M.; Peters, M. F.; Jung, W.

2009-05-01

293

Geological assessment of the greenhouse effect  

SciTech Connect

Geologic studies provide a valuable perspective on the importance of greenhouse forcing for climate change. On both Pleistocene and tectonic time scales, changes in climate are positively correlated with greenhouse gas variations. However, the sensitivity of the system to greenhouse gas changes cannot yet be constrained by paleoclimate data below its present large range. Geologic records do not support one of the major predictions of greenhouse models-namely, that tropical sea surface temperatures will increase. Geologic data also suggest that winter cooling in high-latitude land areas is less than predicted by models. As the above-mentioned predictions appear to be systemic features of the present generation of climate models, some significant changes in model design may be required to reconcile models and geologic data. However, full acceptance of this conclusion requires more measurements and more systematic compilations of existing geologic data. Since progress in data collection in this area has been quite slow, uncertainties associated with these conclusions may persist for some time. 106 refs., 6 figs.

Crowley, T.J. (Texas A M Univ., College Station, TX (United States))

1993-12-01

294

Remote geologic structural analysis of Yucca Flat  

SciTech Connect

The Remote Geologic Analysis (RGA) system was developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to identify crustal structures that may affect seismic wave propagation from nuclear tests. Using automated methods, the RGA system identifies all valleys in a digital elevation model (DEM), fits three-dimensional vectors to valley bottoms, and catalogs all potential fracture or fault planes defined by coplanar pairs of valley vectors. The system generates a cluster hierarchy of planar features having greater-than-random density that may represent areas of anomalous topography manifesting structural control of erosional drainage development. Because RGA uses computer methods to identify zones of hypothesized control of topography, ground truth using a well-characterized test site was critical in our evaluation of RGA`s characterization of inaccessible test sites for seismic verification studies. Therefore, we applied RGA to a study area centered on Yucca Flat at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and compared our results with both mapped geology and geologic structures and with seismic yield-magnitude models. This is the final report of PNL`s RGA development project for peer review within the US Department of Energy Office of Arms Control (OAC) seismic-verification community. In this report, we discuss the Yucca Flat study area, the analytical basis of the RGA system and its application to Yucca Flat, the results of the analysis, and the relation of the analytical results to known topography, geology, and geologic structures. 41 refs., 39 figs., 2 tabs.

Foley, M.G.; Heasler, P.G.; Hoover, K.A. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Rynes, N.J. [Northern Illinois Univ., De Kalb, IL (United States); Thiessen, R.L.; Alfaro, J.L. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States)

1991-12-01

295

Remote geologic structural analysis of Yucca Flat  

SciTech Connect

The Remote Geologic Analysis (RGA) system was developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to identify crustal structures that may affect seismic wave propagation from nuclear tests. Using automated methods, the RGA system identifies all valleys in a digital elevation model (DEM), fits three-dimensional vectors to valley bottoms, and catalogs all potential fracture or fault planes defined by coplanar pairs of valley vectors. The system generates a cluster hierarchy of planar features having greater-than-random density that may represent areas of anomalous topography manifesting structural control of erosional drainage development. Because RGA uses computer methods to identify zones of hypothesized control of topography, ground truth using a well-characterized test site was critical in our evaluation of RGA's characterization of inaccessible test sites for seismic verification studies. Therefore, we applied RGA to a study area centered on Yucca Flat at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and compared our results with both mapped geology and geologic structures and with seismic yield-magnitude models. This is the final report of PNL's RGA development project for peer review within the US Department of Energy Office of Arms Control (OAC) seismic-verification community. In this report, we discuss the Yucca Flat study area, the analytical basis of the RGA system and its application to Yucca Flat, the results of the analysis, and the relation of the analytical results to known topography, geology, and geologic structures. 41 refs., 39 figs., 2 tabs.

Foley, M.G.; Heasler, P.G.; Hoover, K.A. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Rynes, N.J. (Northern Illinois Univ., De Kalb, IL (United States)); Thiessen, R.L.; Alfaro, J.L. (Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States))

1991-12-01

296

Database of the Geology and Thermal Activity of Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This dataset contains contacts, geologic units and map boundaries from Plate 1 of USGS Professional Paper 1456, 'The Geology and Remarkable Thermal Activity of Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming.' The features are contained in the Annotation, basins_poly, contours, geology_arc, geology_poly, point_features, and stream_arc feature classes as well as a table of geologic units and their descriptions. This dataset was constructed to produce a digital geologic map as a basis for studying hydrothermal processes in Norris Geyser Basin. The original map does not contain registration tic marks. To create the geodatabase, the original scanned map was georegistered to USGS aerial photographs of the Norris Junction quadrangle collected in 1994. Manmade objects, i.e. roads, parking lots, and the visitor center, along with stream junctions and other hydrographic features, were used for registration.

Flynn, Kathryn; Graham Wall, Brita; White, Donald E.; Hutchinson, Roderick A.; Keith, Terry E. C.; Clor, Laura; Robinson, Joel E.

2008-01-01

297

Deterministic geologic processes and stochastic modeling  

SciTech Connect

Recent outcrop sampling at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, has produced significant new information regarding the distribution of physical properties at the site of a potential high-level nuclear waste repository. Consideration of the spatial distribution of measured values and geostatistical measures of spatial variability indicates that there are a number of widespread deterministic geologic features at the site that have important implications for numerical modeling of such performance aspects as ground water flow and radionuclide transport. These deterministic features have their origin in the complex, yet logical, interplay of a number of deterministic geologic processes, including magmatic evolution; volcanic eruption, transport, and emplacement; post-emplacement cooling and alteration; and late-stage (diagenetic) alteration. Because of geologic processes responsible for formation of Yucca Mountain are relatively well understood and operate on a more-or-less regional scale, understanding of these processes can be used in modeling the physical properties and performance of the site. Information reflecting these deterministic geologic processes may be incorporated into the modeling program explicitly, using geostatistical concepts such as soft information, or implicitly, through the adoption of a particular approach to modeling. It is unlikely that any single representation of physical properties at the site will be suitable for all modeling purposes. Instead, the same underlying physical reality will need to be described many times, each in a manner conducive to assessing specific performance issues.

Rautman, C.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Flint, A.L. [Geological Survey, Mercury, NV (United States)

1991-12-31

298

Minnesota Geological Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Minnesota Geological Survey (MGS) was established in 1872 as part of the University of Minnesota. The function of the MGS is to serve "the people of Minnesota by providing systematic geoscience information to support stewardship of water, land, and mineral resources." This website from the Digital Conservancy at the University of Minnesota provides access to all of items published by the MGS. The items are contained within the Collections area, and visitors will find headings here such as "Geology of Minnesota Parks," "County Atlas Series," and the "Bulletin of the Minnesota Geological and Natural History Survey." First-time visitors can check out the Recent Submissions area on the right-hand side of the page to look over some new findings, including hydrogeological maps of different counties around the state. One item that should not be missed is the "Geology of Minnesota: A Centennial Volume" from 1972. It's a tremendous volume and one that cannot be ignored by students of the physical landscape and geological history of the state.

2012-09-21

299

Features for FORTRAN Portability  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper briefly summarizes experience with a Fortran preprocessor that simplifies the task of writing efficient and transportable mathematical software. The main part of the paper lists features in the preprocessor and other features that would have been useful to have.

Fred T. Krogh

1976-01-01

300

A Literary Map of Maine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sure, you might know that Longfellow was a member of the literati who called Maine home, but did you know that Robert McCloskey was one as well? In case you might have forgotten, McCloskey was the author and illustrator of those children's classics "Make Way for Ducklings" and "Blueberries for Sal". It's easy to learn about dozens of Maine authors via this delightful website created as part of a partnership between the Maine Sunday Telegram and a number of library and humanities groups in Maine. Currently, the map features over 50 sites, and visitors can browse around at their leisure to learn about authors like Longfellow, Stephen King, and Richard Russo. Clicking on each site will pull up a brief excerpt of each author's work, along with a brief bio.

301

Geologic Map of the Hellas Region of Mars  

USGS Publications Warehouse

INTRODUCTION This geologic map of the Hellas region focuses on the stratigraphic, structural, and erosional histories associated with the largest well-preserved impact basin on Mars. Along with the uplifted rim and huge, partly infilled inner basin (Hellas Planitia) of the Hellas basin impact structure, the map region includes areas of ancient highland terrain, broad volcanic edifices and deposits, and extensive channels. Geologic activity recorded in the region spans all major epochs of martian chronology, from the early formation of the impact basin to ongoing resurfacing caused by eolian activity. The Hellas region, whose name refers to the classical term for Greece, has been known from telescopic observations as a prominent bright feature on the surface of Mars for more than a century (see Blunck, 1982). More recently, spacecraft imaging has greatly improved our visual perception of Mars and made possible its geologic interpretation. Here, our mapping at 1:5,000,000 scale is based on images obtained by the Viking Orbiters, which produced higher quality images than their predecessor, Mariner 9. Previous geologic maps of the region include those of the 1:5,000,000-scale global series based on Mariner 9 images (Potter, 1976; Peterson, 1977; King, 1978); the 1:15,000,000-scale global series based on Viking images (Greeley and Guest, 1987; Tanaka and Scott, 1987); and detailed 1:500,000-scale maps of Tyrrhena Patera (Gregg and others, 1998), Dao, Harmakhis, and Reull Valles (Price, 1998; Mest and Crown, in press), Hadriaca Patera (D.A. Crown and R. Greeley, map in preparation), and western Hellas Planitia (J.M. Moore and D.E. Wilhelms, map in preparation). We incorporated some of the previous work, but our map differs markedly in the identification and organization of map units. For example, we divide the Hellas assemblage of Greeley and Guest (1987) into the Hellas Planitia and Hellas rim assemblages and change the way units within these groupings are identified and mapped (table 1). The new classification scheme includes broad, geographically related categories and local, geologically and geomorphically related subgroups. Because of our mapping at larger scale, many of our map units were incorporated within larger units of the global-scale mapping (see table 1). Available Viking images of the Hellas region vary greatly in several aspects, which has complicated the task of producing a consistent photogeologic map. Best available image resolution ranges from about 30 to 300 m/pixel from place to place. Many images contain haze caused by dust clouds, and contrast and shading vary among images because of dramatic seasonal changes in surface albedo, opposing sun azimuths, and solar inclination. Enhancement of selected images on a computer-display system has greatly improved our ability to observe key geologic relations in several areas. Determination of the geologic history of the region includes reconstruction of the origin and sequence of formation, deformation, and modification of geologic units constituting (1) the impact-basin rim and surrounding highlands, (2) volcanic and channel assemblages on the northeast and south sides of the basin, (3) interior basin deposits, and (4) slope and surficial materials throughout the map area. Various surface modifications are attributed to volcanic, fluvial, eolian, mass-wasting, and possibly glacial and periglacial processes. Structures include basin faults (mostly inferred), wrinkle ridges occurring mainly in volcanic terrains and interior plains, volcanic collapse craters, and impact craters. Our interpretations in some cases rely on previous work, but in many significant cases we have offered new interpretations that we believe are more consistent with the observations documented by our mapping. Our primary intent for this mapping has been to elucidate the history of emplacement and modification of Hellas Planitia materials, which form the basis for analysis of their r

Leonard, Gregory J.; Tanaka, Kenneth L.

2001-01-01

302

Geology and insolation-driven climatic history of Amazonian north polar materials on Mars.  

PubMed

Mariner 9 and Viking spacecraft images revealed that the polar regions of Mars, like those of Earth, record the planet's climate history. However, fundamental uncertainties regarding the materials, features, ages and processes constituting the geologic record remained. Recently acquired Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter data and Mars Orbiter Camera high-resolution images from the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft and moderately high-resolution Thermal Emission Imaging System visible images from the Mars Odyssey spacecraft permit more comprehensive geologic and climatic analyses. Here I map and show the history of geologic materials and features in the north polar region that span the Amazonian period (approximately 3.0 Gyr ago to present). Erosion and redeposition of putative circumpolar mud volcano deposits (formed by eruption of liquefied, fine-grained material) led to the formation of an Early Amazonian polar plateau consisting of dark layered materials. Crater ejecta superposed on pedestals indicate that a thin mantle was present during most of the Amazonian, suggesting generally higher obliquity and insolation conditions at the poles than at present. Brighter polar layered deposits rest unconformably on the dark layers and formed mainly during lower obliquity over the past 4-5 Myr (ref. 20). Finally, the uppermost layers post-date the latest downtrend in obliquity <20,000 years ago. PMID:16222294

Tanaka, Kenneth L

2005-10-13

303

Symmetries in geology and geophysics.  

PubMed

Symmetries have played an important role in a variety of problems in geology and geophysics. A large fraction of studies in mineralogy are devoted to the symmetry properties of crystals. In this paper, however, the emphasis will be on scale-invariant (fractal) symmetries. The earth's topography is an example of both statistically self-similar and self-affine fractals. Landforms are also associated with drainage networks, which are statistical fractal trees. A universal feature of drainage networks and other growth networks is side branching. Deterministic space-filling networks with side-branching symmetries are illustrated. It is shown that naturally occurring drainage networks have symmetries similar to diffusion-limited aggregation clusters. PMID:11607719

Turcotte, D L; Newman, W I

1996-12-10

304

Geology of Io  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geologic mapping of the Jovian satellite Io has been completed at 1:15,000,000 scale for an area lying between +40 and -90 deg latitude and 230 and 45 deg longitude, which includes portions of the Ruwa Patera quadrangle (Ji2) and the Lerna Region (Ji4) and the westernmost section of the Colchis Region (Ji3). Image resolution in the mapped area is commonly 0.5 to 2 km/pxl. High resolution areas (less than .5 km/pxl) are located near the south pole (Lerna Region) and in eastern Ruwa Patera quadrangle. Geologic maps for the Ruwa Patera quadrangle (Ji2) and the Lerna Region (Ji4) have been produced at 1:5,000,000 scale. The present effort reexamines the previously mapped areas and synthesizes the geology of Io on a global scale.

Greeley, R.; Craddock, R. A.; Crown, D. A.; Leshin, L. A.; Schaber, G. G.

1987-05-01

305

Geology for Everyone  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Geological Survey of Ireland website can increase the public's excitement about geology by offering simple, straightforward materials on the basics of geology. The website is divided into numerous themes such as Volcanoes, Rocks, Caves, and the Water Cycle. The links from each of the headings introduce the topic with simple descriptions and remarkable pictures and offer easy experiments when applicable. Students and educators can take virtual tours of the Ox Mountains, Killiney Beach, and other Irish landscapes. Everyone should visit the Landscapes for the Living link, which offers outstanding images of the diverse landscapes of Europe. While some of the themes are currently under construction, including Planet Earth, Plate Tectonics, and Earthquakes, the authors indicate that these materials will be added in the near future.

306

SOPAC marine geology atlases  

SciTech Connect

The US Geological Survey conducted a series of marine geologic and geophysical cruises in the southwest Pacific Ocean in 1982 and 1984 as part of a program with participation by Australia and New Zealand. These two SOPAC expeditions obtained various data, which have been compiled into a series of charts and thematic products for the offshore areas of Tonga, Fiji, Vanuatu, the Solomon Islands, and Papua New Guinea. The maps and charts presently being compiled or revised combine previously collected data with information from the SOPAC expeditions. Regional charts at a scale of approximately 1:3 million are included, and more detailed coverage is available at 1:1 million. Additional geologic information-such as gravity, magnetics, and possibly sediment isopachs-is provided on overlays to the topographic base charts. Reproductions of the seismic reflection data are also included, and tracklines with both time marks and shotpoints will permit correlation with the analog and digital seismic records.

Chase, T.E.; Seekins, B.A.; Young, J.D.; Wahler, J.A.

1986-07-01

307

Sedimentology and petroleum geology  

SciTech Connect

In this introduction to sedimentology and petroleum geology the subjects, which are closely related but mostly treated separately, are integrated. The first part covers the basic aspects of sedimentology, sedimentary geochemistry and diagenesis, including brief discussions of flow in rivers and channels, types of sediment transport, lake and river deposits, deltas (river-dominated, tide-dominated, and wave-dominated) and the water budget. Principles of stratigraphy, seismic stratigraphy and basin modeling form the basis for the last part on petroleum geology. Here subjects include the composition of kerogen and hydrocarbons, theories of migration and trapping of hydrocarbons and properties of reservoir rocks. Finally, short introductions to well logging and production geology are given.

Bjorlykke, K.

1989-01-01

308

Global sedimentary geology program  

SciTech Connect

The Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists, in collaboration with the International Association of Sedimentologists and the International Union of Geological Sciences Committee on Sedimentology, is developing a new international study under the provisional title of Global Sedimentary Geology Program (GSGP). Initially, three research themes are being considered: (1) event stratigraphy-the documentation of examples of mass extinctions, eustatic fluctuations in sea level, major episodes of volcanisms, and changes in ocean composition; (2) facies models in time and space-an expansion of the existing data base of examples of facies models (e.G., deltas, fluvial deposits, and submarine fans) and global-scale study of the persistence of facies at various times in geologic history; and (3) sedimentary indices of paleogeography and tectonics-the use of depositional facies and faunas in paleogeography and in assessing the timing, locus, and characteristics of tectonism. Plans are being developed to organize pilot projects in each of these themes.

Ginsburg, R.N.; Clifton, H.E.; Weimer, R.J.

1986-07-01

309

Project Primary Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Project Primary is a collaboration of professors from the departments of Botany-Microbiology, Chemistry, Education, Geology, Physics, and Zoology at Ohio Wesleyan University and K-3 teachers from Ohio's Delaware, Marion, and Union Counties to produce hands-on activities for the teaching of science. The geology activities are appropriate for children in grades K-12. Collectively, the goals for these activities are to demonstrate the inter-relatedness of life and the physical planet, the importance of understanding scientific phenomena for all people, not just future scientists, to impart knowledge which leads through student curiosity to continued inquiry, and to spur creativity. Topics covered include earthquakes, behavior of Earth materials, plate tectonics, the surface of the Earth, volcanoes, and geologic time and the evolution of the Earth.

Fryer, Karen

310

Use of Groundwater Lifetime Expectancy for the Performance Assessment of Deep Geologic Radioactive Waste Repositories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term solutions for the disposal of toxic wastes usually involve isolation of the wastes in a deep subsurface geologic environment. In the case of spent nuclear fuel, the safety of the host repository depends on two main barriers: the engineered barrier and the natural geological barrier. If radionuclide leakage occurs from the engineered barrier, the geological medium represents the ultimate

F. Cornaton; S. Normani; E. Sudicky; J. Sykes

2005-01-01

311

Principles of isotope geology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discussions of methods of isotope dating using Rb-Sr, K-Ar, ⁴°Ar\\/³⁹Ar, Re-Os, Lu-Hf, K-Ca, U, Tb-Pb, ¹⁴C, common lead, S,O,H, fission track, and U-series disequilibrium are included in respective chapters. Introductory chapters discussing the basics of isotope geology, atomic structure, decay mechanisms and mass spectrometry are included along with two appendices; the geological time scale for the Phanerzoic and a fitting

G Faure

1977-01-01

312

Understanding Geological Time  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this classroom activity, middle school students gain an understanding of geologic time. The activity opens with background information for teachers about carbon and radiometric dating. In a classroom discussion, students share what they know about geologic time. Then, working in small groups responsible for different eras, students create a timeline for their assigned era by conducting library and Internet research. The activity concludes by having students review all the timelines to compare how long humans have been on the Earth to the length of time dinosaurs inhabited the planet.

313

Petroleum development geology  

SciTech Connect

An overview of geological concepts and reservoir engineering practices as they apply to the field of development (production) geology is presented. The author touches on nearly every aspect of the field in the 21 chapters of the book. He summarizes the basic depositional origin, sedimentary characteristics, and petrology of hydrocarbon-bearing rocks. He discusses physical properties, origin, and migration of subsurface oil and gas, oil field water, and their behavior, including subsurface pressures and fluid mechanics. Also covered are various methods of estimating reserves, the major tools of the trade and their limitations, and case histories.

Dickey, P.A.

1986-01-01

314

Geology of Biblis Patera, ULYSSES Patera, and Jovis Tholus, Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are a variety of constructional volcanic features in Tharsis. These features range from Olympus Mons and the Tharsis Montes shields, to the small low shields and fissure eruptions that characterize much of the volcanic plains, to the smaller volcanic constructs in the northeast and western parts of Tharsis. I describe the geology of the western group, which includes Biblis

J. B. Plescia

1993-01-01

315

Morphologic and geologic effects of the subduction of bathymetric highs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Morphologic and geologic observations suggest that subduction of bathymetric highs, such as aseismic ridges, chains of seamounts, and fracture zones, are important in the development of many forearc features and that those features form during relatively brief episodes of intense tectonism. A bathymetric high obliquely entering a subduction zone tends to compress sediments along its leading edge, resulting in arcward

William R. McCann; Ray E. Habermann

1989-01-01

316

USGS Mars Geologic Maps in Progress  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This USGS Astrogeology website features a status report of the creation of Mars geologic maps at different scales. The site lists general information about each map and provides users with the option to download a PDF version for some maps (e.g. Pavonis Mons). There are also links to a Mars mapping chart, an index of maps from the solar system, and information regarding ordering maps.

Usgs

317

Geology Fieldnotes: Zion National Park, Utah  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Zion is located on the edge of the Colorado Plateau, and is part of a formation known as the Grand Staircase (Bryce Canyon and the Grand Canyon are also part of this formation). The site discusses the formation of the park, from sedimentation 240 million years ago (Triassic), to lithification, uplift, and erosion. Visible formations include the Navajo sandstone and the Kaibab formation. Additional resources include visitor information, maps, photographs, and a teacher feature (lessons for teaching geology with National Parks as examples).

Foos, Annabelle

318

Geology Fieldnotes: Arches National Park, Utah  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This park is located on the Colorado Plateau near Moab, Utah, and contains many arches and sculpted sedimentary rocks. The visible rock formations in the park are the Entrada and Navajo sandstones. Covered topics include the formation of arches in stages, different types of arches, as well as sizes and names (Delicate Arch being the most famous). The site also provides visitor information, photos, maps, additional links, and a teacher feature (tools for teaching geology with National Park examples).

Foos, Annabelle

319

Compositional Controls on the Geological Behavior of Icy Satellites, and a Call for More Lab Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tectonic, volcanic, and some other important types of geologic activity of solid planetary objects arises mainly from the differential partitioning and transport of thermal energy that produces rheological structures, density inversions, and unequilibrated pressure/stress gradients, thereby causing conditions that are prone to advective mass transfers and restabilization of stress conditions. The composition of icy satellites and solid planets determines the material properties of the condensed materials, and thus their physical responses to heating and virtually all geological processes. Many key mechanical and thermodynamic properties (e.g., melting temperature, effective viscosity, and thermal conductivity) vary across orders of magnitude among the volatile ices, silicates, metals, liquid solutions, gases, and other substances making up icy satellites. Given this wide range of material properties, it is easy to understand why there is so much variability in the appearance and geologic processes of icy satellites. However, another striking discovery are some key geological/morphological similarities among many satellites. There may be three explanations for their similar appearances. (1) Dissimilar materials and dissimilar satellite attributes and conditions may give rise to dissimilar features that merely appear to be similar but are actually produced by very different processes. (2) The icy satellites are actually made of very similar materials and have responded with roughly similar processes to make similar features. (3) The icy satellites are made of dissimilar materials and operate under disparate conditions, but nevertheless many of them tend to exhibit similar geological/geophysical processes so long as they are heated sufficiently. Examples may be cited that seem consistent with each of these explanations. Theoretical understanding and modeling of satellite differentiation, cryovolcanism, solid state diapirism, magnetic field induction, and other geologic and geophysical processes depends on adequate laboratory measurements of the physical and thermodynamic properties of ices, salts, silicates, brines, gases, and other materials making up icy satellites. Examples of existing measurements of solid/liquid phase equilibria, gas solubility in aqueous solutions, thermal conductivity of solids, and rheology of aqueous solutions, ices, and salts are shown, and theoretical applications to problems of cryovolcanism and tectonism on Enceladus and Titan are given. These applications, and comparisons to silicate systems controlling much about the geology of the terrestrial planets, suggest that the third explanation above may be a key to understanding strangely familiar landscapes on Titan and Enceladus. An insufficiency in our laboratory data and our compositional knowledge of icy satellites limits our understanding of those worlds.

Kargel, J. S.

2006-12-01

320

Impact, and its implications for geology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The publication of seminal texts on geology and on meteoritics in the 1790s, laid the groundwork for the emergence of each discipline as a modern branch of science. Within the past three decades, impact cratering has become universally accepted as a process that sculptures the surfaces of planets and satellites throughout the solar system. Nevertheless, one finds in-depth discussions of impact processes mainly in books on the Moon or in surveys of the Solar System. The historical source of the separation between meteoritics and geology is easy to identify. It began with Hutton. Meteorite impact is an extraordinary event acting instantaneously from outside the Earth. It violates Hutton's principles, which were enlarged upon and firmly established as fundamental to the geological sciences by Lyell. The split between meteoritics and geology surely would have healed as early as 1892 if the investigations conducted by Gilbert (1843-1918) at the crater in northern Arizona had yielded convincing evidence of meteorite impact. The 1950s and 1960s saw a burgeoning of interest in impact processes. The same period witnessed the so-called revolution in the Earth Sciences, when geologists yielded up the idea of fixed continents and began to view the Earth's lithosphere as a dynamic array of horizontally moving plates. Plate tectonics, however, is fully consistent with the geological concepts inherited from Hutton: the plates slowly split, slide, and suture, driven by forces intrinsic to the globe.

Marvin, Ursula B.

321

The California Geotour: Online Geologic Field Trip Guides  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

There are many great ways to learn about the geological history of California, including reading some of the works by noted writer John McPhee. Additionally, the state of California's Department of Conservation has created these very fine online geologic field trip guides. It might be more accurate to say that the site is an interactive index of web pages that contain geologic field guides containing photographs, maps, texts, and directions for local natural features from Humboldt County down to the Inland Empire. The index is organized into geographic regions collectively referred to as the "Geomorphic Provinces of California". Additionally, these geological areas are subdivided into groups like Owens Valley, Lassen Park, and Point Reyes. Overall, it's a great resource, and one that will be appreciated by just about anyone with a penchant for geology or the Golden State.

322

Main neuroendocrine features and therapy in primary sleep troubles.  

PubMed

Insomnia is a sleep trouble in which the patient has difficulties in falling or in staying asleep. There are patients who fall asleep easily, but wake up too early; others have troubles in falling asleep and a third category has troubles with both falling and staying asleep. Independent of the type of insomnia, the final result is a poor-quality sleep, responsible for depressive or irritable mood, loss in concentration, learning and memory capacities. Sleep is essential to emotional and physical health. Inadequate sleep over a period of time is increasing the risks for obesity, diabetes, heart disease and depression. People suffering of chronic insomnia show an increased predisposition for psychiatric problems. People who had sleep troubles reported impaired ability to fulfill tasks involving memory, learning, logical reasoning and mathematical operations. New studies show that insomnia might be a result of the decrease of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), a neurochemical responsible for the decrease of activity in many brain areas. Lower brain GABA levels were also found in people with major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders. Hypnotics, such as benzodiazepines are acting increasing the activity of the GABA neurons. Exposure to stress is associated with a greater risk for insomnia, with individual differences. Stress activates the sympathetic nervous system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Increased activity of HPA axis is stimulating the secretion of corticotropin-releasing hormone, further inducing sleep disruption. Insomnia is also associated with depression and anxiety disorders, in which the HPA axis is characteristically overactive. People who show predisposition to sleep troubles have a hyperactive sympathetic nervous system, they are usually suffering from hyperarousal and they have a more intense response to stressful events. Primary sleep troubles (insomnia) has no apparent causes, is lasting more than one month, and is affecting approximately a quarter of the adult population. Secondary insomnia is associated with chronic heart and/or lung diseases, medication which interfere with onset or duration of sleep, constant change of the sleep habits, restless leg syndrome, etc. Besides lifestyle changes and cogn itive-behavioral therapy, in the treatment of insomnia are used hypnotic medicines, advised to be prescribed on short-term cures of one or two weeks. Benzodiazepines are inducing and maintaining sleep. Longer use is responsible for severe side effects--dependency and withdrawal syndrome, daytime drowsiness and dizziness, low blood pressure, memory troubles and change in the melatonin secretion during night-time period. For these reasons were created non-benzodiazepines hypnotics--zolpidem, zaleplon, which are as effective as benzodiazepines, but have fewer side effects. Nevertheless the use of these hypnotics is also restricted to 7-10 days. Zopiclone (Imovane) another short-acting non-benzodiazepine hypnotic has a different chemical structure, but a pharmacologic profile similar to that of the benzod iazepines; the treatment should be of maximum four weeks. Besides generally known concerns related to the use of hypnotics (residual sedative effects, memory impairment, rebound insomnia, abuse, dose escalation, dependency and withdrawal problems) it was signaled a risk of death associated with the use of current hypnotic medications. PMID:23272543

Amih?esei, Ioana Cristina; Mungiu, O C

323

Main transition-like feature in polylactic acid langmuir films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polylactic acid is a simple polymer that has attracted interest, many years ago, as a biocompatible and biodegradable material for temporary implants and sutures that disintegrate gradually with time in vivo. Recently, it is also promoted as environmentally benign polymer for mass applications, e.g., packing film. We report about a phase transition in the monolayers, at the water–air interface, that

O. Albrecht

2006-01-01

324

Main features of the tomographic reconstruction algorithm OPED.  

PubMed

This paper discusses the advantages of both geometry of data required for the reconstruction algorithm, orthogonal polynomial expansion on disc (OPED), and polynomial structure of this algorithm. We show that this type of geometry is a result of special parameterisation used within the OPED formalism. The practicability of the OPED data geometry is discussed and it is shown that the data of such geometry can be acquired directly. A method of reducing typical artefacts by using the polynomial structure of the algorithm is summarised as well. PMID:20154021

Tischenko, O; Xu, Y; Hoeschen, C

2010-02-12

325

Life on Guam: Geology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This unit is part of a series of materials produced by a project to develop locally applicable class, lab, and field materials in ecology and social studies for Guam junior and senior high schools. While the materials were designed for Guam, they can be adapted to other localities. This unit is designed to acquaint the students with the geology of…

Elkins, Gail

326

Geology of Wisconsin.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Included are a teacher's guidebook and two filmstrips, "Geology of Wisconsin," and associated materials. The following are described: outline of objectives; suggested use of the filmstrips and guidebook; outline of the filmstrip content; four pages of illustrations suitable for duplication; a test for each filmstrip; and a list of additional…

Madison Public Schools, WI.

327

Marine Geology and Geophysics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration website provides bathymetry, topography and relief data; digital coastlines; an interactive coastline extractor; ocean mapping; the geomorphology and bathymetry of the Great Lakes; geological data of the seafloor, and total sediment thickness; and geophysical data, including trackline measurements of gravity, and magnetics from global ocean areas.

328

Geology of Io.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Geologic mapping of the Jovian satellite Io has been completed at 1:15,000,000 scale for an area lying between +40 and -90 deg latitude and 230 and 45 deg longitude, which includes portions of the Ruwa Patera quadrangle (Ji2) and the Lerna Region (Ji4) an...

R. Greeley R. A. Craddock D. A. Crown L. A. Leshin G. G. Schaber

1987-01-01

329

Appendix E: Geology  

SciTech Connect

This appendix provides a detailed description of geology under the Central Plateau of the Hanford Site, emphasizing the areas around tank farms. It is to be published by client CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., as part of a larger, multi-contractor technical report.

Reidel, Steve; Chamness, Mickie A.

2008-01-17

330

Apollo's geology lesson  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An historical account of the Apollo Project's lunar rock samples are presented. The discovery of the rocks and the methods and equipment used in analyzing them are discussed. The results of the analysis of the lunar samples are briefly summarized with respect to lunar geology, evolution, and origin.

Goodman, Billy

1994-06-01

331

Geologic Structures Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about the variables governing the brittle and ductile behavior of rocks, the simple geological structures associated with differential stress, and look at and apply real data to evaluate the depth to the brittle-ductile transition in the crust and how that depth can change temporarily due to sudden changes in stress introduced by large earthquakes.

Leland, John

332

Geological and Inorganic Materials.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents a review focusing on techniques and their application to the analysis of geological and inorganic materials that offer significant changes to research and routine work. Covers geostandards, spectroscopy, plasmas, microbeam techniques, synchrotron X-ray methods, nuclear activation methods, chromatography, and electroanalytical methods.…

Jackson, L. L.; And Others

1989-01-01

333

Geologic exploration of Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scientific objectives and methods involved in a geologic exploration of Mars from a manned outpost are discussed. The constraints on outpost activities imposed by the limited crew size, limited amount of time available for science, the limited diversity of scientific expertise, and the competition between scientific disciplines are addressed. Three examples of possible outpost locations are examined: the Olympus

J. B. Plescia

1990-01-01

334

Glacial Geology of Wisconsin.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This publication is a teacher's resource and guidebook for the presentation of the three filmstrips in the "Glacial Geology of Wisconsin" series. The first filmstrip is subtitled, "Evidence of the Glaciers," the second "How the Glaciers Reshaped the Landscape," and the third "Fossils of the Ice Age." Included are a list of objectives, an outline…

Madison Public Schools, WI.

335

Characterizing Lunar Crustal Geology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In our initiative to return to the Moon, knowledge of regional crustal geology is necessary both for locating resources of scientific interest and for establishing a sustained human presence. Characterizing crustal geology with global remote sensing data is difficult due to the types of weathering processes experienced by an airless, geologically torpid planetary body, which tend to reduce lithologic contrast and obscure the lithology of true bedrock. Fortunately, these processes are relatively straightforward, involving parameters with largely understood, fixed rates of flux. We describe a methodology for characterizing the chemical and mineralogical compositions of discrete geologic units, interpreted from remotely sensed surface spectra. The method utilizes two established techniques: small impact ejecta viewing and extrapolation (SIEVE) (McCord et al., JGR 1981; Staid & Pieters, LPSC 29; Kramer et al., LPSC 36; Kramer et al., JGR (in review)) and spectral mixing analysis (SMA) (Adams & Gillespie, Cambridge Univ. Press 2006, and references therein). The results of this work will be invaluable for identifying regions of interest for current and future lunar missions, such as Chandrayaan-1, carrying NASA's Moon Mineralogy Mapper, and Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter. Furthermore, the methodology can be used to explore other planetary bodies that experience similar weathering processes (e.g., Mercury, Ceres, Vesta, and Mars).

Kramer, G.; Combe, J.; McCord, T.

2007-12-01

336

Urban Geology (GEOL357)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This webpage describes the Urban Geology class at California State University - Los Angeles. The course explores the natural environment in and around urban population centers and looks at how planners can mitigate the effects of natural phenomena such as earthquakes, floods, and landslides.

California State University, L. A.

337

Principles of nuclear geology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book treats the basic principles of nuclear physics and the mineralogy, geochemistry, distribution and ore deposits of uranium and thorium. The application of nuclear methodology in radiogenic heat and thermal regime of the earth, radiometric prospecting, isotopic age dating, stable isotopes and cosmic-ray produced isotopes is covered. Geological processes, such as metamorphic chronology, petrogenesis, groundwater movement, and sedimentation rate

Aswathanarayana

1985-01-01

338

Geology: The Active Earth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Ranger Rick's NatureScope is a creative education series dedicated to inspiring in children an understanding and appreciation of the natural world while developing the skills they will need to make responsible decisions about the environment. The topic of this issue is "Geology: The Active Earth." Contents are organized into the following…

Braus, Judy, Ed.

1987-01-01

339

Lyell's Geological Texts  

Microsoft Academic Search

RECENTLY, while referring to Charles Lyell' ``Elements of Geology'', it was found that the Yale Library copy, of date September 12, 1839, had been sent by the publishers to Benjamin Silliman. This was the first American edition from the first London edition as published by Kay Bros., Philadelphia, with 316 pages and 295 figures in the text. After one hundred

G. R. Wieland

1940-01-01

340

Elements of petroleum geology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work surveys the modern science of petroleum geology. Its aim is twofold: to describe generation, migration, and entrapment of oil and gas, and to outline the various procedures used in their location, evaluation, and production. Selley begins the book with an account of the physical and chemical properties of petroleum, followed by a review of the methods of petroleum

Selley

1985-01-01

341

Geology of Mars  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website provides information about the six geological processes that are either currently operating on Mars or have operated during Martian history. These include the aeolian, cratering, hydro, landslides, tectonic, and volcanic processes. Example images of the results of these processes are provided.

Hsui, Albert T.

2004-07-14

342

Geology en Espanol  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a program in which an introductory geology class was conducted in Spanish at Western Michigan University. Although difficulties were encountered, the author evaluated the program as a great success, and a valuable experience for the person who wants to be effectively bilingual in his profession. (JR)|

McGehee, Richard V.

1973-01-01

343

Macroalgae Industry in Maine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Physical description and climate of the Maine coast; Seaweed biology; Some uses of macroalgae; Determination of candidates for aquaculture; Economically important macroalgae in Maine--Porphyra; Chondrus crispus; Mastocarpus stellata; Palmaria pa...

S. Crawford

1991-01-01

344

Environmental geology of the santander bay area, northern Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Santander Bay area on the north coast of Spain has been selected for a study comparing its environmental geology features\\u000a with the resource capability, and present land and water use.\\u000a \\u000a The environmental geologic map of the Santander Bay area consists of 53 environmental units grouped into six major environmental\\u000a systems.Systems are process-defined, whereasunits are defined according to active processes,

Antonio Cendrero

1975-01-01

345

Geology as a Structuring Mechanism of Stream Fish Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the influence of the Precambrian Shield, a broad-scale geological feature of North America, on stream abiotic conditions and on the associated fish communities relative to an adjacent series of sites located on sedimentary geology (i.e., “off-Shield” streams) in south-central Ontario, Canada. Constrained and unconstrained multivariate analyses were used to quantify relationships in fish species composition, abiotic variables, and

Margaret R. Neff; Donald A. Jackson

2012-01-01

346

Geologic Mapping of Mawrth Vallis and Nili Fossae, Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mapping studies using traditional photogeologic and modern digital geologic mapping techniques of Mawrth Vallis (six MTM quads; 17.5-27.5N, 335-350E) and Nili Fossae (six MTM quads; 17.5-32.5N, 070-080E) at 1:1M-scale are being used to assess geologic materials and processes that shape the highlands along the Arabia Terra dichotomy boundary. Placing these landscapes, their material units, structural features, and unique compositional outcrops

L. F. Bleamaster; F. Chuang

2010-01-01

347

Geologic mapping of Northern Atla Regio on Venus: Preliminary data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Northern part of Atla Regio within the frame of C1-formate Magellan photo map 15N197 was mapped geologically at scale 1:8,000,000. This is a part of Russia's contribution into C1 geologic mapping efforts. The map is reproduced here being reduced about twice. The map shows that the Northern Atla area is predominantly a volcanic plain with numerous volcanic features: shield

A. M. Nikishin; G. A. Burba

1993-01-01

348

Geologic Map Database of Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The purpose of this report is to release a digital geologic map database for the State of Texas. This database was compiled for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Program, National Surveys and Analysis Project, whose goal is a nationwide assemblage of geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and other data. This release makes the geologic data from the Geologic Map of Texas available in digital format. Original clear film positives provided by the Texas Bureau of Economic Geology were photographically enlarged onto Mylar film. These films were scanned, georeferenced, digitized, and attributed by Geologic Data Systems (GDS), Inc., Denver, Colorado. Project oversight and quality control was the responsibility of the U.S. Geological Survey. ESRI ArcInfo coverages, AMLs, and shapefiles are provided.

Stoeser, Douglas B.; Shock, Nancy; Green, Gregory N.; Dumonceaux, Gayle M.; Heran, William D.

2005-01-01

349

Using Snow to Teach Geology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A lesson plan, directed at middle school students and older, describes using snow to study the geological processes of solidification of molten material, sedimentation, and metamorphosis. Provides background information on these geological processes. (MCO)

Roth, Charles

1991-01-01

350

Geology of the Colorado Plateau  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page provides a general description of the geology of the Colorado Plateau. Topics include information about the various geologic environments and processes active during the Precambrian and the Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic Eras.

Institute, Colorado P.

351

The Fabled Maine Winter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

No study of Maine weather would be complete without analysis of the year of 1816 - the year with no summer in an area from western Pennsylvania and New York, up through Quebec and across to Maine and the Canadian maritimes. In this five-unit lesson, students will investigate the causes and effects of the Fabled Maine Winter by exploring a variety of data sources. They will locate, graph, and analyze meteorological and climatological data for Portland, Maine, for more recent years to try to find one that most closely resembles the fabled Maine winter of 1816.

352

Geologic mapping of the Semipalatinsk region, Eastern Kazakstan, using Landsat Thematic Mapper and spot panchromatic data  

SciTech Connect

This geologic reconnaissance study centers on a 90 by 140 km area about 100 km southwest of Semipalatinsk near the east border of the Kazakstan Republic of the USSR. Semipalatinsk, a regional center for grain growing, and several other cities along the Irtysh River were originally established as fortified outposts by the Russians during the 18th and 19th centuries to contain the indigenous, nomadic Kazak herdsmen. The Kazakstan region remained largely undeveloped until after the 1917 Russian Revolution, when exploration geologists began discovering many large mineral deposits. Today, known resources include coal, copper, iron ore, lead, zinc, and barite; most of these are of national significance. These vast mineral resources have prompted development of many metallurgical and chemical industries in the republic. Despite the extensive exploration for mineral resources in this region, published geologic maps (Nalivkin, 1960; Esenov, 1971; Borovikov, 1972) are all at scales of 1:1,100,000 or smaller, and there are no detailed descriptions of the geology around Semipalatinsk in the open literature. Our preliminary examination of commercial remote-sensing, data indicated that the lithology and structure of this area are extremely varied and complex at all scales -- much more so than that portrayed on the published geologic maps. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to use commercially available remotely sensed data for the area and remotely sensed data obtained for analog study sites, as well as the sparse, sketchy information in the published literature, to better define and map the geologic units (Sheet 1), structure (Sheet 2), and drainage features (Sheet 3) of this area.

Davis, P.A. [Geological Survey, Flagstaff, AZ (United States); Berlin, G.L. [Northern Arizona Univ., Flagstaff, AZ (United States)

1992-12-31

353

A campus-based course in field geology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

GEO 305: Field Geology offers students practical experience in the field and in the computer laboratory conducting geological field studies on the Stony Brook University campus. Computer laboratory exercises feature mapping techniques and field studies of glacial and environmental geology, and include geophysical and hydrological analysis, interpretation, and mapping. Participants learn to use direct measurement and mathematical techniques to compute the location and geometry of features and gain practical experience in representing raster imagery and vector geographic data as features on maps. Data collecting techniques in the field include the use of hand-held GPS devices, compasses, ground-penetrating radar, tape measures, pacing, and leveling devices. Assignments that utilize these skills and techniques include mapping campus geology with GPS, using Google Earth to explore our geologic context, data file management and ArcGIS, tape and compass mapping of woodland trails, pace and compass mapping of woodland trails, measuring elevation differences on a hillside, measuring geologic sections and cores, drilling through glacial deposits, using ground penetrating radar on glaciotectonic topography, mapping the local water table, and the identification and mapping of boulders. Two three-hour sessions are offered per week, apportioned as needed between lecture; discussion; guided hands-on instruction in geospatial and other software such as ArcGIS, Google Earth, spreadsheets, and custom modules such as an arc intersection calculator; outdoor data collection and mapping; and writing of illustrated reports.

Richard, G. A.; Hanson, G. N.

2009-12-01

354

Ordering Geologic Events and Interpreting Geologic History: The Grand Canyon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is designed to help students recognize the connections among things like rock identification and map reading with the "story" that these things can tell us in terms of geologic history. Students have already learned about using observation to identify rocks and the principles of interpreting geologic cross-sections. The activity gives students practice in rock ID, topo map reading, geologic map reading and the aspects of geologic time. Students work with rock samples and a geologic map of the Grand Canyon to interpret a history for the area.

Wenner, Jennifer

355

Geologic Map of North America  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

The Geologic Map of North America is a product of GSA's Decade of North American Geology (DNAG) project. At a scale of 1:5,000,000, this map covers ~15% of Earth's surface and differs from previous maps in several important respects: it is the first such map to depict the geology of the seafloor, th...

2010-06-25

356

The Second Flowering of Geology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses two "golden" ages in geological investigations/inquiry. The first, extending from the late eighteenth century through the early nineteenth century, established geology as a science based on naturalistic principles. The second, beginning after World War II, is characterized by advances in geological specialities and explanations based on…

Cloud, Preston

1983-01-01

357

Geologic Maps and Geologic Structures: A Texas Example  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Historical Geology lab exercise is an accompaniment to lab class instruction about geologic structures (folding and faulting) and geologic maps. It also serves as an excellent introduction to the Geology of the state of Texas. "Coloring" geologic maps, an important part of the exercise, may seem like a very elementary learning technique. But this lab engages students actively, and since the subject is often already somewhat familiar to them, emphasizing both the geology and geography of Texas, students receive it enthusiastically. This activity could be adapted to other regions, since most states have color 8 1/2 by 11 geologic maps available. A color map could be scanned and modified in Photoshop to create a simplified black and white version as was done in the assignment handout.

Steinberg, Roger

358

Elements of petroleum geology  

SciTech Connect

This work surveys the modern science of petroleum geology. Its aim is twofold: to describe generation, migration, and entrapment of oil and gas, and to outline the various procedures used in their location, evaluation, and production. Selley begins the book with an account of the physical and chemical properties of petroleum, followed by a review of the methods of petroleum exploration and production, including drilling, geophysical exploration techniques, wireline logging, and subsurface geological mapping. Selley next describes the temperatures and pressures of the subsurface environment and the composition and hydrodynamics of connate fluids. He goes on to examine the generation and migration of petroleum, reservoir rocks, and trapping mechanisms, the habitat of petroleum in sedimentary basins, and the composition and formation of tar sands and oil shales. Selley ends the book with a brief review of prospect risk analysis, reserve estimation, and other economic topics.

Selley, R.C.

1985-01-01

359

Oceanography - Marine Geological Processes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A first year course in oceanography with extensive Internet resources. Topics covered include: principles of thermodynamics, heat and mass transfer, fluid mechanics, continuum mechanics, and time-series analysis applied to marine geological and geophysical data; applications to transport of marine sediments; Pleistocene sedimentation and global climate change; and the thermal balance of the oceanic lithosphere. The link to the lecture schedule provides detailed supporting materials.

Mcduff, Russell

360

Medical Geology in Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A large body of evidence points to significant health effects resulting from our interactions with the physical environment\\u000a and we continue to recognise connections between geological materials and processes and human and animal disease. In Africa,\\u000a these relationships have been observed for many years, but only recently have any real attempts been made to formalise their\\u000a study. Africa is a

T. C. Davies

361

Geologic controls on radon  

Microsoft Academic Search

This text provides a review of recent research on geological controls of [sup 222]Rn concentrations in soil gas in relation to the problem of high indoor radon concentrations in houses. The importance of the subject matter is highlighted in the preface by the observation that the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) estimates that 15,000 to 25,000 deaths result from radon-induced

A. E. Gates; L. C. S. Gundersen

1992-01-01

362

Principles of nuclear geology  

SciTech Connect

This book treats the basic principles of nuclear physics and the mineralogy, geochemistry, distribution and ore deposits of uranium and thorium. The application of nuclear methodology in radiogenic heat and thermal regime of the earth, radiometric prospecting, isotopic age dating, stable isotopes and cosmic-ray produced isotopes is covered. Geological processes, such as metamorphic chronology, petrogenesis, groundwater movement, and sedimentation rate are focussed on.

Aswathanarayana, U.

1985-01-01

363

ecological geological maps: GIS-based evaluation of the Geo-Ecological Quality Index (GEQUI) in Sicily (Central Mediterranean)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The condition of landscapes and the ecological communities within them is strongly related to levels of human activity. As a consequence, determining status and trends in the pattern of human-dominated landscapes can be useful for understanding the overall conditions of geo-ecological resources. Ecological geological maps are recent tools providing useful informations about a-biotic and biotic features worldwide. These maps represents a new generation of geological maps and depict the lithospheric components conditions on surface, where ecological dynamics (functions and properties) and human activities develop. Thus, these maps are too a fundamental political tool to plan the human activities management in relationship to the territorial/environmental patterns of a date region. Different types of ecological geological maps can be develop regarding the: conditions (situations), zoning, prognosis and recommendations. The ecological geological conditions maps reflects the complex of parameters or individual characteristics of lithosphere, which characterized the opportunity of the influence of lithosphere components on the biota (man, fauna, flora, and ecosystem). The ecological geological zoning maps are foundamental basis for prognosis estimation and nature defenses measures. Estimation from the position of comfort and safety of human life and function of ecosystem is given on these maps. The ecological geological prognosis maps reflect the spatial-temporary prognoses of ecological geological conditions changing during the natural dynamic of natural surrounding and the main-during the economic mastering of territory and natural technical systems. Finally, the ecological geological recommendation maps are based on the ecological geological and social-economical informations, aiming the regulation of territory by the regulation of economic activities and the defense of bio- and socio-sphere extents. Each of these maps may also be computed or in analytic or in synthetic way. The first, characterized or estimated, prognosticated one or several indexes of geological ecological conditions. In the second type of maps, the whole complex is reflected, which defined the modern or prognosticable ecological geological situation. Regarding the ecological geological zoning maps, the contemporary state of ecological geological conditions may be evaluated by a range of parameters into classes of conditions and, on the basis of these informations, the estimation from the position of comfort and safety of human life and function of ecosystem is given. Otherwise, the concept of geoecological land evaluation has become established in the study of landscape/environmental plannings in recent years. It requires different thematic data-sets, deriving from the natural-, social- and amenity-environmental resources analysis, that may be translate in environmental (vulnerability/quality) indexes. There have been some attempts to develop integrated indices related to various aspects of the environment within the framework of sustainable development (e.g.: United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, World Economic Forum, Advisory Board on Indicators of Sustainable Development of the International Institute for Sustainable Development, Living Planet Index established by the World Wide Fund for Nature, etc.). So, the ecological geological maps represent the basic tool for the geoecological land evaluation policies and may be computed in terms of index-maps. On these basis, a GIS application for assessing the ecological geological zoning is presented for Sicily (Central Mediterranean). The Geo-Ecological Quality Index (GEQUI) map was computed by considering a lot of variables. Ten variables (lithology, climate, landslide distribution, erosion rate, soil type, land cover, habitat, groundwater pollution, roads density and buildings density) generated from available data, were used in the model, in which weighting values to each informative layer were assigned. An overlay analysis was carried out, allowing to classify the region into five classes

Nigro, Fabrizio; Arisco, Giuseppe; Perricone, Marcella; Renda, Pietro; Favara, Rocco

2010-05-01

364

Geology of the Syrtis Major/Isidis Region of Mars: New Results from MOLA, MOC, and THEMIS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We characterize the Syrtis Major/Isidis region in terms of topography and morphology, investigate the origin of the geologic units and their morphologic features, study the geologic history and evolution of the region, and provide additional geologic context for the Beagle lander.

Hiesinger, H.; Head, J. W., III

2003-07-01

365

Applications of imaging radar to geology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tone, texture, and features imaged by radars were studied. A variety of computer image processing techniques were developed to reveal characteristics of these scences. Field checking of sites suggests links between the geology and the images. Tonal studies examine the effects of varying frequency polarization, and illumination geometry. Most surficial geologic units in Death Valley, California, are distinguishable by use of multifrequency, multipolarization radar data. Quaternary basalt flows in Idaho are separable by changing illumination geometry in the vertical plane, whereas desert fans and dunes show little tonal variation as function of changing illumination aximuth. Topographic texture is strongly enhanced by radar's unusual imaging physics computer image processing techniques prove useful in classifying and enhancing image texture. The classification technique, yield results in good agreement with those of human interpreters. The enhancement technique resolves a plunging anticline that was not evident on unprocessed imagery. Identification of features such as lineaments and large topographic highs is critically dependent on radar system parameters. A mathematical model of topography-induced distortion provides insight into the relationship between a radar image and the illuminated terrain. Imaging radar is shown to be a useful sensor for geologic mapping, especially when complementary data are present. Careful image processing, field checking of interpretations, and an understanding of radar imaging physics are critical to effective utilization of this unusual sensor.

Daily, M. I.

366

Modelling of Geological Structures Using Emergence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A complex system based approach is used to model geological structures. Preliminary work is presented to show how mutually interacting agents can be used to probe local regions and obtain emergent behaviour of its geometrical properties. Models are built bottom up from the smaller components to simulate regions from camp scales to regional scales. In nature, very complex structures exhibiting discontinuous and heterogeneous features are common. Modelling such regions using conventional methods is cumbersome and influences between close proximity zones are generally not considered. Agents are able to detect local and global features in the entire model space, as detailed as the data set allows. These features are incorporated into the interpolation of a modeled zone if those features are coupled to that location. We attempt to see if opportunities exist for exploiting complex systems approaches in what is a classical knowledge driven modelling domain with high emphasis on expert interpretive methods. Geological maps (2D, 3D or 4D) are fundamentally an emergent result of an iterative mental process which focuses on reconciling disparate data. The end goal of our research is to point a way forward in which complexity can support the simulation of maps and thus support the interpretive workflow.

Hillier, M.; de Kemp, E. A.; Sprague, K.

2009-05-01

367

Exploring Main Belt Asteroids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Terrestrial planet formation in the main asteroid belt was interrupted when growing protoplanets became sufficiently massive to gravitationally perturb the local population, causing bodies to collide with increased energy, thus ending accretion and commencing fragmentation and disruption. Few of these protoplanets are thought to have survived unshattered (e.g., Ceres, Vesta, Pallas), leaving a main belt population dominated by fragments of

M. V. Sykes; S. M. Larson; R. Whiteley; U. Fink; R. Jedicke; J. Emery; R. Fevig; M. Kelley; A. W. Harris; S. Ostro; K. Reed; R. P. Binzel; A. Rivkin; C. Magri; W. Bottke; D. Durda; R. Walker; D. Davis; W. K. Hartmann; D. Sears; H. Yano; J. Granahan; A. Storrs; S. J. Bus; J. F. Bell; D. Tholen; A. Cellino

2001-01-01

368

MAINE MARINE WORM HABITAT  

EPA Science Inventory

WORM provides a generalized representation at 1:24,000 scale of commercially harvested marine worm habitat in Maine, based on Maine Department of Marine Resources data from 1970's. Original maps were created by MDMR and published by USF&WS as part of the ""&quo...

369

Gulf of Maine: Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Lessons and activities from the Gulf of Maine Research Institute (formerly Gulf of Maine Aquarium), focused on hurricanes, El Nino, fog, and volcanic eruptions. Emphasis on important hurricanes of the past. Resources include lessons, guides for simple experiments, and a student weather network. Downloadable materials and additional webpages also provided.

370

Main Belt Comets  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have identified objects which are physically comets but which occupy orbits within the main belt of asteroids No dynamical routes from the Kuiper belt or Oort Cloud cometary reservoirs have been identified Therefore we conclude that these are true comets formed in-place and constituting a new type of comet from a previously unobserved reservoir The main belt comets MBCs

D. Jewitt; H. Hsieh

2006-01-01

371

Space Shuttle Main Engine. Overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An overview of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) is presented. The Space Shuttle propulsion system consists of two large solid booster motors, three SSME's, two orbital maneuvering system engines, and 44 reaction control system thrusters. The three SSME's burn liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen from the external tank and are sequentially started at launch. Engine thrust is throttleable. The major components and some of their key features and operational parameters are outlined. The life and reliability being achieved by the SSME are presented.

Jackson, Eugene D.

372

Mapping Vesta: A Geological Overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations from the Dawn (Russell et al., 2007) spacecraft enabled deriva-tion of 4Vesta's shape, facilitated mapping of the surface geology and pro-vided the first evidence for Vesta's geological evolution. The Dawn mission is equipped with a framing camera (FC), a visible and infrared mapping spectrometer (VIR) and a gamma-ray and neutron detector (GRaND). So far science data are collected during the approach to the asteroid and protoplanet Vesta, a circular polar orbit at an altitude of 2700 km providing ~ 230 m/pix camera resolution and a lower orbit, at 700 km altitude with a camera resolu-tion of ~ 65 m/pixel. Geomorphology and distribution of surface features provide evidence for impact cratering, tectonic activity, regolith and prob-able volcanic processes. Craters with dark rays, bright rays, and dark rim streaks have been observed, suggesting possible buried stratigraphy. The largest fresh craters retain a simple bowl-shaped morphology, with depth/diameter ratios roughly comparable to lunar values. The largest candi-date crater, a ~460 km depression at the south pole, has been shown to con-tain an incomplete inward facing cuspate scarp, and a large central mound surrounded by unusual complex arcuate ridge and groove patterns. Although asymmetric in general form, these characteristics do not contradict an impact origin but may also allow endogenic processes like convective downwelling or hybrid modification of an impact. Rapid rotation of Vesta during impact may explain some anomalous features (Jutzi and Asphaug, 2010). A set of large equatorial troughs may be related to the formation process of the south polar structure or due to stress caused by changes of the rotational axis. The crater size frequency and the chronology function is derived from the lunar chronology, scaled to impact frequencies modeled for Vesta according to (Bottke et al., 1994) and (O'Brien and Sykes, 2011). The northern hemi-sphere is heavily cratered by a large variety of ancient degraded and fresh sharp craters. Preliminary crater counts indicate only small differences in absolute surface model ages between the northern region and the south polar structure.

Jaumann, R.; Pieters, C. M.; Russell, C. T.; Raymond, C. A.; Yingst, R.; Williams, D. A.; Schenk, P.; Neukum, G.; Mottola, S.; Buczkowski, D.; O'Brien, D. P.; Garry, W. B.; Blewett, D. T.; Denevi, B. W.; Roatsch, T.; Preusker, F.; Nathues, A.; Sierks, H.; Sykes, M. V.; De sanctis, M.; McSween, H. Y.; Keller, H. U.; Marchi, S.

2011-12-01

373

Sunset Crater National Monument: A 3-D Photographic Geology Tour  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This virtual tour features three-dimensional images from the United States Geological Survey's (USGS) collection. It introduces visitors to the geology, landforms, and volcanic history of Sunset Crater National Monument, which was the scene of volcanic activity beginning in 1064 to 1065 AD and continuing for approximately 200 years. Visitors can see Sunset Cater itself, cinder and spatter cones, the features of the Bonito Lava Flow, and other volcanoes of the San Francisco Volcanic Field. The 3-D images are anaglyphs and require red and cyan 3-D viewing glasses.

374

Structural geology of the Earth's exterior*  

PubMed Central

Plate tectonics offers an explanation for the present motions and heterogeneity of the rocks that form the external part of the Earth. It explains the origin of the first-order heterogeneity of oceanic and continental lithospheres. Furthermore, it explains the youth and simplicity of the oceanic lithosphere and offers the potential to explain the antiquity, complexity, and evolution of the continental lithosphere. The framework of plate tectonics must be used carefully, because there are geological features within continents, particularly in the more ancient rocks, that may require alternative explanations. The task of understanding lithospheric motions through geologic time must be focused on the continents, where the major evidence for 95% of Earth history resides. In interpreting earth motions from the geologic record, three needs seem paramount: (i) to develop a three-dimensional understanding of the kinematics, dynamics, and thermal structure of modern plate boundary systems and at the same time to recognize those geological and geophysical features that are unrelated to plate interaction; (ii) to use this understanding to reconstruct the extent and evolution of ancient systems that form the major elements of continental crust; and (iii) to determine the dynamics and evolution of systems that have no modern analogs. Decoupling along subhorizontal zones within the lithosphere may be widespread in all types of plate boundary systems. Thus, in order to interpret the motion and dynamics of the mantle correctly, it is important to know if upper lithospheric motion within boundary systems is controlled directly or indirectly by or is independent of deeper mantle motions.

Burchfiel, B. C.

1979-01-01

375

Structural geology of the Earth's exterior.  

PubMed

Plate tectonics offers an explanation for the present motions and heterogeneity of the rocks that form the external part of the Earth. It explains the origin of the first-order heterogeneity of oceanic and continental lithospheres. Furthermore, it explains the youth and simplicity of the oceanic lithosphere and offers the potential to explain the antiquity, complexity, and evolution of the continental lithosphere. The framework of plate tectonics must be used carefully, because there are geological features within continents, particularly in the more ancient rocks, that may require alternative explanations. The task of understanding lithospheric motions through geologic time must be focused on the continents, where the major evidence for 95% of Earth history resides.IN INTERPRETING EARTH MOTIONS FROM THE GEOLOGIC RECORD, THREE NEEDS SEEM PARAMOUNT: (i) to develop a three-dimensional understanding of the kinematics, dynamics, and thermal structure of modern plate boundary systems and at the same time to recognize those geological and geophysical features that are unrelated to plate interaction; (ii) to use this understanding to reconstruct the extent and evolution of ancient systems that form the major elements of continental crust; and (iii) to determine the dynamics and evolution of systems that have no modern analogs. Decoupling along subhorizontal zones within the lithosphere may be widespread in all types of plate boundary systems. Thus, in order to interpret the motion and dynamics of the mantle correctly, it is important to know if upper lithospheric motion within boundary systems is controlled directly or indirectly by or is independent of deeper mantle motions. PMID:16592704

Burchfiel, B C

1979-09-01

376

MAINE WEIRS 1990  

EPA Science Inventory

WEIR90 shows point locations of herring weirs in Maine based on 1990 overflight by MDMR Marine Patrol, mapped at an approximate scale of 1:100,000. Data were screen digitized from paper maps used during the overflight....

377

Modernizing Main Street  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article features Entrepreneurship Pioneers Initiative (EPI), a nine-month-long educational program targeted to first-generation, small business owners offered through the Rutgers University Center for Urban Entrepreneurship and Economic Development. In its second year, EPI has worked with more than 40 businesses out of an applicant pool of…

Oguntoyinbo, Lekan

2010-01-01

378

Structural Geology and Geomechanics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The teaching and research program, Structural Geology and Geomechanics at Stanford University, concentrates on brittle deformation in the earth's crust as well as fracturing and faulting of rocks under ductile conditions. Researchers can learn about the group's research which effectively unites field observations, laboratory experiments, and theoretical modeling. Scientists can learn about the program's software such as the Poly3Dinv which uses triangular dislocations to solve linear inverse problems. The site also publicizes the Stanford Rock Fracture Project, which researches rock fractures, crustal deformation, and fluid flow.

379

Geological Survey of Tanzania  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The United Republic of Tanzania was formed in 1964 by the merger of Tanganyika and Zanzibar and is located on the eastern coast of Africa between the Great Lakes of the Rift Valley. Tanzania has a diverse mineral resource base that includes gold and base metals, diamond-bearing kimberlites, nickel, cobalt, copper, coal resources, and a variety of industrial minerals and rocks such as kaolin, graphite, and dimension stone. This web site was created by the Mineral Resources Department (MRD), a subsidiary of the Ministry of Energy and Minerals, and contains basic information about the country's logistical environment, mineral sector policy, geological database, and more.

1997-01-01

380

Co2 geological sequestration  

SciTech Connect

Human activities are increasingly altering the Earth's climate. A particular concern is that atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) may be rising fast because of increased industrialization. CO{sub 2} is a so-called ''greenhouse gas'' that traps infrared radiation and may contribute to global warming. Scientists project that greenhouse gases such as CO{sub 2} will make the arctic warmer, which would melt glaciers and raise sea levels. Evidence suggests that climate change may already have begun to affect ecosystems and wildlife around the world. Some animal species are moving from one habitat to another to adapt to warmer temperatures. Future warming is likely to exceed the ability of many species to migrate or adjust. Human production of CO{sub 2} from fossil fuels (such as at coal-fired power plants) is not likely to slow down soon. It is urgent to find somewhere besides the atmosphere to put these increased levels of CO{sub 2}. Sequestration in the ocean and in soils and forests are possibilities, but another option, sequestration in geological formations, may also be an important solution. Such formations could include depleted oil and gas reservoirs, unmineable coal seams, and deep saline aquifers. In many cases, injection of CO2 into a geological formation can enhance the recovery of hydrocarbons, providing value-added byproducts that can offset the cost of CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration. Before CO{sub 2} gas can be sequestered from power plants and other point sources, it must be captured. CO{sub 2} is also routinely separated and captured as a by-product from industrial processes such as synthetic ammonia production, H{sub 2} production, and limestone calcination. Then CO{sub 2} must be compressed into liquid form and transported to the geological sequestration site. Many power plants and other large emitters of CO{sub 2} are located near geological formations that are amenable to CO{sub 2} sequestration.

Xu, Tianfu

2004-11-18

381

Minnesota Geological Survey funded  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Minnesota Geological Survey, which was in danger of being closed down due to lack of funding, recently had their $1,075 million budget restored for fiscal 1993. Governor Ann Carlson signed the new bill into law on January 17.“Enactment of this legislation has effectively removed the threat of closure that has hung over our heads since the veto on June 4, 1991,” according to MGS director Priscilla Grew. Carlson vetoed the line item of the 2-year University of Minnesota budget that funds the MGS. The MGS is funded under Minnesota's Higher Education bill, rather than as a state agency.

Bush, Susan

1992-03-01

382

Geologic Evolution of North America: Geologic features suggest that the continent has grown and differentiated through geologic time.  

PubMed

The oldest decipherable rock complexes within continents (more than 2.5 billion years old) are largely basaltic volcanics and graywacke. Recent and modern analogs are the island arcs formed along and adjacent to the unstable interface of continental and oceanic crusts. The major interfacial reactions (orogenies) incorporate pre-existing sial, oceanic crust, and mantle into crust of a more continental type. Incipient stages of continental evolution, more than 3 billion years ago, remain obscure. They may involve either a cataclysmic granite-forming event or a succession of volcanic-sedimentary and granite-forming cycles. Intermediate and recent stages of continental evolution, as indicated by data for North America, involve accretion of numerous crustal interfaces with fragments of adjacent continental crust and their partial melting, reinjection, elevation, unroofing, and stabilization. Areas of relict provinces defined by ages of granites suggest that continental growth is approximately linear. But the advanced differentiation found in many provinces and the known overlaps permit wide deviation from linearity in the direction of a more explosive early or intermediate growth. PMID:17819825

Engel, A E

1963-04-12

383

Geology Fieldnotes: Hagerman Fossil Beds National Monument, Idaho  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hagerman Fossil Beds National Monument preserves the world's richest known fossil deposits from the late Pliocene epoch, approximately 3.5 million years ago. Site features include park geology information, maps, photographs, related links, visitor information, multimedia resources, and resources for teaching geology with National Park examples. The park geology section discusses the Monument's geologic history and includes information on some of the plants and animals found in the fossil beds. These plants and animals represent the last glimpse of time that existed before the Ice Age, and the earliest appearances of modern flora and fauna. A timeline of events during the Cenozoic era accompanies this information. The maps section includes a map of the National Monument and surrounding area.

384

Geologic Mapping of Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Planetary geologic mapping involves integrating a terrestrial-based understanding of surface and subsurface processes and mapping principles to investigate scientific questions. Mars mappers must keep in mind that physical processes, such as wind and flowing water on Mars, are or were different from terrestrial processes because the planetary atmospheres have changed differently over time. Geologic mapping of Mars has traditionally been done by hand using overlays on photomosaics of Viking Orbiter and Mariner images. Photoclinometry and shadow measurements have been used to determine elevations, and the distribution and size of craters have been used to determine the relative ages of surfaces- more densely cratered surfaces are older. Some mappers are now using computer software (ranging from Photoshop to ArcInfo) to facilitate mapping, though their applications must be carefully executed so that registration of the images remains true. Images and some mapping results are now available on the internet, and new data from recent missions to Mars (Pathfinder and Surveyor) will offer clarifying information to mapping efforts. This paper consists chiefly of pictures and diagrams.

Price, Katherine H.

1998-05-01

385

The Maine Memory Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Once you have visited Maine, it is most certainly not a place that you will soon forget. This website is designed to make sure longtime residents and visitors alike will not forget this tranquil state, as it brings together a very wide range of historical documents and memories from around the state. The site itself was created by the Maine Historical Society, and is supported by monies from the Institute of Museum and Library Services and several other partners. Within the site, visitors can search for historical items and documents, view thematic online exhibits, and learn about how the site may be used effectively in classroom settings. One particularly fine exhibit is the one that offers some visual documentation of rural Aroostook County around the year 1900. In this exhibit, visitors can experience the dense forests and rugged terrain that dominate the landscape of this part of Maine.

386

Main sequence mass loss  

SciTech Connect

It has been hypothesized that variable stars may experience mass loss, driven, at least in part, by oscillations. The class of stars we are discussing here are the delta Scuti variables. These are variable stars with masses between about 1.2 and 2.25 M/sub theta/, lying on or very near the main sequence. According to this theory, high rotation rates enhance the rate of mass loss, so main sequence stars born in this mass range would have a range of mass loss rates, depending on their initial rotation velocity and the amplitude of the oscillations. The stars would evolve rapidly down the main sequence until (at about 1.25 M/sub theta/) a surface convection zone began to form. The presence of this convective region would slow the rotation, perhaps allowing magnetic braking to occur, and thus sharply reduce the mass loss rate. 7 refs.

Brunish, W.M.; Guzik, J.A.; Willson, L.A.; Bowen, G.

1987-01-01

387

Geologically current plate motions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe best-fitting angular velocities and MORVEL, a new closure-enforced set of angular velocities for the geologically current motions of 25 tectonic plates that collectively occupy 97 per cent of Earth's surface. Seafloor spreading rates and fault azimuths are used to determine the motions of 19 plates bordered by mid-ocean ridges, including all the major plates. Six smaller plates with little or no connection to the mid-ocean ridges are linked to MORVEL with GPS station velocities and azimuthal data. By design, almost no kinematic information is exchanged between the geologically determined and geodetically constrained subsets of the global circuit-MORVEL thus averages motion over geological intervals for all the major plates. Plate geometry changes relative to NUVEL-1A include the incorporation of Nubia, Lwandle and Somalia plates for the former Africa plate, Capricorn, Australia and Macquarie plates for the former Australia plate, and Sur and South America plates for the former South America plate. MORVEL also includes Amur, Philippine Sea, Sundaland and Yangtze plates, making it more useful than NUVEL-1A for studies of deformation in Asia and the western Pacific. Seafloor spreading rates are estimated over the past 0.78 Myr for intermediate and fast spreading centres and since 3.16 Ma for slow and ultraslow spreading centres. Rates are adjusted downward by 0.6-2.6mmyr-1 to compensate for the several kilometre width of magnetic reversal zones. Nearly all the NUVEL-1A angular velocities differ significantly from the MORVEL angular velocities. The many new data, revised plate geometries, and correction for outward displacement thus significantly modify our knowledge of geologically current plate motions. MORVEL indicates significantly slower 0.78-Myr-average motion across the Nazca-Antarctic and Nazca-Pacific boundaries than does NUVEL-1A, consistent with a progressive slowdown in the eastward component of Nazca plate motion since 3.16 Ma. It also indicates that motions across the Caribbean-North America and Caribbean-South America plate boundaries are twice as fast as given by NUVEL-1A. Summed, least-squares differences between angular velocities estimated from GPS and those for MORVEL, NUVEL-1 and NUVEL-1A are, respectively, 260 per cent larger for NUVEL-1 and 50 per cent larger for NUVEL-1A than for MORVEL, suggesting that MORVEL more accurately describes historically current plate motions. Significant differences between geological and GPS estimates of Nazca plate motion and Arabia-Eurasia and India-Eurasia motion are reduced but not eliminated when using MORVEL instead of NUVEL-1A, possibly indicating that changes have occurred in those plate motions since 3.16 Ma. The MORVEL and GPS estimates of Pacific-North America plate motion in western North America differ by only 2.6 +/- 1.7mmyr-1, ~25 per cent smaller than for NUVEL-1A. The remaining difference for this plate pair, assuming there are no unrecognized systematic errors and no measurable change in Pacific-North America motion over the past 1-3 Myr, indicates deformation of one or more plates in the global circuit. Tests for closure of six three-plate circuits indicate that two, Pacific-Cocos-Nazca and Sur-Nubia-Antarctic, fail closure, with respective linear velocities of non-closure of 14 +/- 5 and 3 +/- 1mmyr-1 (95 per cent confidence limits) at their triple junctions. We conclude that the rigid plate approximation continues to be tremendously useful, but-absent any unrecognized systematic errors-the plates deform measurably, possibly by thermal contraction and wide plate boundaries with deformation rates near or beneath the level of noise in plate kinematic data.

DeMets, Charles; Gordon, Richard G.; Argus, Donald F.

2010-04-01

388

Geologic studies in the Sierra de Pena Blanca, Chihuahua, Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sierra del Cuervo has been endowed with uranium mineralization, which has attracted many geological studies, and recently the author was part of a team with the goal of selecting a site of a radioactive waste repository. The first part of the work adds to the regional framework of stratigraphy and tectonics of the area. It includes the idea of a pull apart basin development, which justifies the local great thickness of the Cuervo Formation. It includes the regional structural frame work and the composite stratigraphic column of the Chihuahua Trough and the equivalent Cretaceous Mexican Sea. The general geologic features of the NE part of the Sierra del Cuervo are described, which include the folded ignimbrites and limestones in that area; the irregular large thicknesses of the Cuervo Formation; and the western vergence of the main folding within the area. Sanidine phenocrystals gave ages of 54.2 Ma and 51.8 Ma ± 2.3 Ma. This is the first time these dates have been reported in print. This age indicates a time before the folded structures which outcrop in the area, and 44 Ma is a date after the Cuervo Formation was folded. The Hidalgoan orogeny cycle affected the rocks between this lapse of time. Since then the area has been partially affected by three tensional overlapped stages, which resulted in the actual Basin and Range physiography. The jarosite related to the tectonic activity mineralization has been dated by the Ar-Ar method and yields an age of 9.8 Ma. This is the first report of a date of mineralization timing at Pena Blanca Uranium District in the Sierra del Cuervo. These are some of the frame work features that justify the allocation of a radioactive waste repository in the Sierra del Cuervo. An alluvial fan system within the Boquilla Colorada microbasin was selected as the best target for more detailed site assessment. The study also included the measurement of the alluvium thicknesses by geoelectric soundings; studies of petrography and weathered grade of the rock units; and the possible paths of potential leachate through the geologic media. The last part of the work relates to the natural analog of the Yucca Mountain, the Nopal I orebody, which is compared and found similar in its geologic frame work, in the lithologic units and their weathering, in the stratigraphic relationships with the vitrophyres and tuff horizons, in the climatic dryness, in the regional water table depth and the hydrologic features, in the ignimbritic units mineralogy, and in the radioactive waste fuel compared to the ore mineralogy of the Nopal I. There are mineralogic determinations of the fracture fill material in the orebody and host rock; detailed mapping of the fractures and surface alterations; and gamma ray grid measurements and electromagnetic soundings. All these studies indicate a support criteria to take the Nopal I as a natural analogue of the Yucca Mountain repository. The total evolution of the Nopal I orebody is exposed in the walls and floors of the +00 and +10 levels, which are ready to perform final safety tests in order to compare it with the future Yucca Mountain repository behavior. The Nopal in orebody has been there for several hundred of thousands and may be millions of years in an natural equilibrium with the surrounding environment. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Reyes-Cortes, Ignacio Alfonso

389

Geologic report for the Beaufort Sea planning area, Alaska: regional geology, petroleum geology, environmental geology. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The 192-page report provides a summary of the geologic framework, hydrocarbon potential, and physical environment of the offshore area tentatively scheduled for Federal OCS (Outer Continental Shelf) Oil and Gas Lease Sale 97. The geologic interpretation is based on high-quality, gridded seismic reflection data and publicly available exploration wells. Seven regional seismic lines, released by Western Geophysical Company for this report, illustrate the geology of the petroleum provinces within the planning area. Hydrocarbon play concepts for large, untested areas of the continental margin off northern Alaska are developed from a detailed analysis of the structural and stratigraphic evolution. Environmental geology is described along with implications for future offshore petroleum activities.

Craig, J.D.; Sherwood, K.W.; Johnson, P.P.

1985-12-01

390

Geologic Map of the Tokachidake Volcano Group, Northern Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Tokachidake volcano group, located at the southwestern end of the Kurile arc, is one of the most active volcanoes in Japan with an eruptive history spanning approximately 1.0 Ma. It extends 25 km mainly in the NE-SW direction, consisting of at least twelve volcanic edifices which are 5~10 km in diameter. We have mapped the 55 geologic units in the area of 270 km2 centered on the most active crater using by traditional mapping methods, airborne laser scanner data, and new 33 K-Ar and 16 radiocarbon ages. The Tokachidake volcano group overlies Pliocene volcanic rocks and Late Pliocene to Early Pleistocene rhyolite ignimbrites. The activity of the volcano group can be divided into three stages - the Older, Middle and Younger - on the basis of their radiometric ages, eruption centers and petrologic features. In the Older stage, the products have limited distribution and consist mainly of andesite lava flows that erupted during 1.0 Ma~500 ka. The Middle stage activity occurred during 300~70 ka, and had increased extensively. Five basalt to basaltic andesite stratovolcanoes were built in the margins of the volcano group, whereas six andesite stratovolcanoes and a dacite lava flow erupted around its center. The Younger stage began around 60~50 ka, and the active region is concentrated in the central part of the volcano group. The topographical features of each volcanic unit are preserved. The products are composed of andesite to basalt lava flows and pyroclastic fall, pyroclastic flow and debris avalanche deposits with a dacite lava dome. These products are enriched in K2O relative than those of the Middle stage. In the past 8,400 years magmatic eruptions occurred at least eleven times, including historical records in 1926, 1962 and 1988-89. The eruption volume is 0.15 km3DRE. Fumaroles within the 1962 crater are still extremely active. The most characteristic of the eruptive history of the Tokachidake volcano group is that the activity expanded approximately 300 ka and gradually contracted to the center. Then mafic magmas were erupted in the whole area of the volcano group, whereas the intermediate to felsic magmas were done only around the center. We could reevaluate the area to observe volcanic activity preponderantly in the point of view of this geologic mapping.

Ishizuka, Y.; Nakagawa, M.; Fujiwara, S.

2011-12-01

391

Wisconsin Geological and Natural History Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Wisconsin Geological and Natural History Survey, as part of the University of Wisconsin-Extension, is "an interdisciplinary organization that conducts natural resources surveys and research to produce information used for decision making, problem solving, planning, management, development, and education". The site offers downloadable online publications such as annual groundwater level summaries and understanding Wisconsin township, range, and section land descriptions. It also contains lists of other publications and various maps of Wisconsin, all of which can be ordered by mail. Information on the history of the survey and an interesting section that includes pictures and descriptions of karst (limestone) development and features is also available.

2001-01-01

392

Spaceborne imaging radar: geologic and oceanographic applications.  

PubMed

Synoptic, large-area radar images of the earth's land and ocean surface, obtained from the Seasat orbiting spacecraft, show the potential for geologic mapping and for monitoring of ocean surface patterns. Structural and topographic features such as lineaments, anticlines, folds and domes, drainage patterns, stratification, and roughness units can be mapped. Ocean surface waves, internal waves, current boundaries, and large-scale eddies have been observed in numerous images taken by the Seasat imaging radar. This article gives an illustrated overview of these applications. PMID:17841450

Elachi, C

1980-09-01

393

MAINE SCHOOLS AND LIBRARIES  

EPA Science Inventory

SCHLIB shows point locations of libraries and educational institutions in Maine at 1:24,000 scale. Colleges, universities, technical colleges, high schools, middle schools, elementary schools, kindergarten/sub-primary and other special schools are included. The data was developed...

394

Newbury Neck Quadrangle, Maine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ellsworth Schist has been deformed at least three times, steeply inclined faults approximately parallel to the length of Patten Bay producing a highly contorted rock structure. In the main stage of (Photo 9). The orientation of these minor faults suggests that an old fault deformation, wet sediments together with the interlayered volcanic trace may lie beneath Patten Bay. Another

Douglas N. Reusch; John P. Hogan; Robert G. Marvinney; Susan S. Tolman; Robert D. Tucker; Henry N. Berry

2002-01-01

395

GEOCITY: a drill-hole database as a tool to assess geological hazard in Napoli urban area  

Microsoft Academic Search

The geological investigations of Napoli city, which represent the basic data source for geological hazard assessment, are characterized by the absence of well exposed and continuous outcrops, mainly due to the development of the urbanized area occurred in the last 50 years. In order to increase the set of available geological information, a database named GEOCITY has been realized on the

I Alberico; P Petrosino; G Zeni; F D’Andrea; L Lirer

2005-01-01

396

Development of a 3-D geological model towards natural hazards mitigation, St. Lawrence River Valley, Eastern Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the Canadian Government's main goals to ensure safe and strong communities for its citizens, the Geological Survey of Canada has recently undertaken the development of a 3-D geological model and a seamless surficial geology map of the St. Lawrence River valley in Eastern Canada. This paper summarizes the initial phase of this project, which consists of gathering,

RÉJEAN COUTURE; DOMINIQUE GAUVREAU; J. ROBERT BÉLANGER

397

Geologic map of Io  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Io, discovered by Galileo Galilei on January 7–13, 1610, is the innermost of the four Galilean satellites of the planet Jupiter (Galilei, 1610). It is the most volcanically active object in the Solar System, as recognized by observations from six National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) spacecraft: Voyager 1 (March 1979), Voyager 2 (July 1979), Hubble Space Telescope (1990–present), Galileo (1996–2001), Cassini (December 2000), and New Horizons (February 2007). The lack of impact craters on Io in any spacecraft images at any resolution attests to the high resurfacing rate (1 cm/yr) and the dominant role of active volcanism in shaping its surface. High-temperature hot spots detected by the Galileo Solid-State Imager (SSI), Near-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS), and Photopolarimeter-Radiometer (PPR) usually correlate with darkest materials on the surface, suggesting active volcanism. The Voyager flybys obtained complete coverage of Io's subjovian hemisphere at 500 m/pixel to 2 km/pixel, and most of the rest of the satellite at 5–20 km/pixel. Repeated Galileo flybys obtained complementary coverage of Io's antijovian hemisphere at 5 m/pixel to 1.4 km/pixel. Thus, the Voyager and Galileo data sets were merged to enable the characterization of the whole surface of the satellite at a consistent resolution. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) produced a set of four global mosaics of Io in visible wavelengths at a spatial resolution of 1 km/pixel, released in February 2006, which we have used as base maps for this new global geologic map. Much has been learned about Io's volcanism, tectonics, degradation, and interior since the Voyager flybys, primarily during and following the Galileo Mission at Jupiter (December 1995–September 2003), and the results have been summarized in books published after the end of the Galileo Mission. Our mapping incorporates this new understanding to assist in map unit definition and to provide a global synthesis of Io's geology.

Williams, David A.; Keszthelyi, Laszlo P.; Crown, David A.; Yff, Jessica A.; Jaeger, Windy L.; Schenk, Paul M.; Geissler, Paul E.; Becker, Tammy L.

2011-01-01

398

Astrogeology - lunar geology  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryA discussion of the morphology of lunar surface features is given. The circular features are, principally, impact craters, volcanic craters, and ring-structures. There is evidence for lava flows and for isostatic adjustments of the larger rings. Adjustments have also taken place by faulting and, on a global scale, ridgelineaments thought to be fault-controlled conform to a definite pattern. There appears

Gilbert Fielder

1966-01-01

399

Identification of geologic contrasts from landscape dissection pattern: An application to the Cascade Range, Oregon, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper demonstrates the plausibility of inferring the spatial variability of geology from topographically derived landscape dissection patterns. This enables surveying large regions for spatial variability in geology, for which direct remote sensing is not feasible, by studying variability in dissection pattern, a feature extracted straight off from digital elevation model data. Dissection pattern is obtained automatically by a novel

Wei Luo; Tomasz Stepinski

2008-01-01

400

Slope processes in weathred volcaniclastic rocks of the Camaldoli hill (Naples, Italy): geological, structural and volcanological aspects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Camaldoli hill is the remnant of the north-eastern margin of the Campi Flegrei caldera (CFc), generated by two main collapses related to the Campanian Ignimbrite (CI; 39 ka) and Neapolitan Yellow Tuff (NYT; 15 ka) eruptions. We have reconstructed its geological, lithological and structural features, and their effects on slope instability. The backbone of the hill includes the remnants of two partially superposed tuff cones, lying between CI and NYT. All these rocks are mantled by a sequence of loose pyroclastic, anthropic and epiclastic deposits, with abrupt thickness and facies variations. Only the uppermost 50-100 cm have been reworked by exogenous agents and anthropic and biological activity. The hill is affected by three fault systems. Its structural setting is mainly due to reactivation of the CI caldera faults until 9.5 ka. Deformation younger than 15 ka is testified by landslide deposits, due to slope instability induced by volcanotectonism, and by a high-angle erosional unconformity, which likely is the response to a base level lowering, generated by faults activation. A detailed stratigraphic analysis of the reworked deposits at the foot of the slopes allowed us to define both depositional mechanisms and sedimentation rate. The results of combined volcanological, and geomorphological and engineering-geological (Calcaterra et al., this session) studies, allowed to constrain and quantify past geological processes and to hypothesise the future evolution of the hill's slopes.

Orsi, G.; di Vito, M. A.; de Vita, S.; Calcaterra, D.; Coppin, D.; Palma, B.; Parise, M.

2003-04-01

401

Discovery of oil reserves through production geology  

SciTech Connect

Production geology, effectively integrated with other disciplines, resulted in an increase in main area Claymore reserves of 29 million standard bbl to date. From mid-1983 to mid-1987, daily oil production increased from 43,000 to 55,000 standard bbl. The Claymore field is located in the North Sea, 110 mi northeast of Aberdeen, Scotland. It was discovered in 1974 and brought on stream in 1977. In 1978, main area Claymore peak daily production was 62,000 standard bbl. Production is from Late Jurassic sandstones in a truncated, tilted fault block on the southwest margin of the Witch Ground graben. The Sgiath and Piper formations of the lower reservoir are overlain by the Claymore Sandstone Member of the Kimmeridge Clay Formation. The Claymore consists of up to 1,630 ft of thinly bedded, fine-grained turbidite sandstones and contained 95% of the main area Claymore original oil in place. The Claymore Sandstone Member is divided into two informal units: low gamma-ray sands and high gamma-ray sands. Areal sweep and water injection effectiveness are evaluated by the use of well logs, flowmeter surveys, and RFT pressures. New well locations are selected only after very detailed sedimentology and structural geology appraisal. True vertical thickness logs are used for stratigraphic correlation. Together with core studies, high-resolution dipmeter is used for bed definition as well as structural interpretation. Three-dimensional seismic coverage is fully integrated with the use of many true-scale structural cross sections. The integration of all available geological, geophysical, and engineering data is crucial to the continuing success of main area Claymore reservoir management.

Harker, S.D.

1988-01-01

402

Acting Locally, Thinking Globally: One Geology?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geological survey organizations around the world are responsible for geological data for their own countries, but until recently those data had never been made accessible worldwide. This raised the question of whether we really do have a holistic understanding of the geology of our planet—one geology. OneGeology (http://www.onegeology.org) is a global venture created to increase the accessibility of geological map data and make them available on the Web. Geological survey organizations from 113 countries are currently participating in ¬OneGeology, and to date more than 40 of those organizations are serving geological data to a dedicated Web map portal (see Figure 1).

Jackson, Ian

2010-02-01

403

Mapping Vesta South Polar Quadrangle V-15SP: A Complex Geological Structure Dominates Vesta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Images of the asteroid and protoplanet 4Vesta by the Hubble Space Telescope in 1994 and 1996 revealed a ~460 km diameter feature at its south pole that was interpreted to be a large impact structure. NASA's Dawn spacecraft arrived at the asteroid Vesta on July 15, 2011 and collected science data during the approach to Vesta, a circular polar orbit at an altitude of 2700 km providing ~ 230 m/pix camera resolution and a lower main mapping orbit, at 700 km altitude with a camera resolution of ~ 65 m/pixel. As part of the geological analysis of Vesta's surface, a series of 15 quadrangle maps are being produced. We present the results of the geological mapping achieved for quadrangle V-15SP. Unit boundaries and feature characteristics were determined primarily using morphologic data. Color and spectral data was utilized to refine unit contacts and to separate compositional or mineralogical distinctions. Those units that could be discerned both in morphology and in the color data were interpreted as geologically derived units. The south polar feature is a semi-circular structure with a central hill that is characterized by a white-grey color and smoother texture distinctive from the surrounding terrain. Some images show patches of bright, smooth terrain on the central hill, perhaps indicative of impact melt or ponded volcanic flows. A complex network of deep grooves and ridges is the primary characteristic on the feature floor; these grooves appear radial to the central mound or trend along a north-south line. The structure also has a distinctive color from both the central hill and surrounding terrain, consistent with a different composition or texture. A steep semi-arcuate scarp bounds part of the outer perimeter of the south polar feature. Although asymmetric in general form, these characteristics do not contradict an impact origin but may also allow endogenic processes like convective downwelling or hybrid modification of an impact. Rapid rotation of Vesta during impact may explain some anomalous features (Jutzi and Asphaug, 2010). The crater size frequency and the chronology function is derived from the lunar chronology, scaled to impact frequencies modeled for Vesta according to (Bottke et al., 1994) and (O'Brien and Sykes, 2011) on Vesta. Preliminary crater counts indicate only small differences in absolute surface model ages between the northern region and the south polar structure.

Jaumann, R.; Yingst, R.; Schenk, P.; Schmedemann, N.; Williams, D. A.; Pieters, C. M.; Buczkowski, D.; Stephan, K.; Roatsch, T.; Preusker, F.; Scholten, F.; Neukum, G.; O'Brien, D. P.; Mest, S. C.; Krohn, K.; Marchi, S.; Filacchione, G.; Russell, C. T.; Raymond, C. A.; De Sanctis, M. C.

2011-12-01

404

Web Features  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Web Features, presented by the Economic Policy Institute (EPI), is a collection of online resources for consumers about public opinion data. An economic snapshot, updated weekly, provides graphs and charts to highlight an economic issue, and this site also includes a selection of opinions from the EPI staff and their analysis of current economic data written in layperson's terms.

405

Geological consequences of superplumes  

SciTech Connect

Superplumes are suggested to have caused the period of constant normal magnetic polarity in mid-Cretaceous time (124-83 Ma) and, possibly, the period of constant reversed polarity in Pennsylvania-Permian time (323-248 Ma). These times coincide with increases in world temperature, deposition of black shales, oil generation, and eustatic sea level in the mid-Cretaceous, and increased coal generation and gas accumulation in the Pennsylvanian-Permian, accompanied by an intracratonic Pennsylvanian transgression of epicontinental seas. These geologic anomalies are associated with episodes of increased world-wide ocean-crust production and mantle outgassing, especially of carbon and nutrients. These superplumes originated just above the core-mantle boundary, significantly increased convection in the outer core, and stopped the magnetic field reversal process for 41 m.y. in the Cretaceous and 75 m.y. in Pennsylvanian-Permian time.

Larson, R.L. (Univ. of Rhode Island, Narragansett (United States))

1991-10-01

406

Geology in the News  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For this activity students read the newspaper on a daily basis, listen to news on the radio, or watch television, to acquire material related to the earth sciences. They will look for natural hazards (earthquakes, volcanoes, landslides, hurricanes, etc.), human-made hazards (urbanization, compromised engineering projects, etc.), environmental issues, or resource extraction issues which all appear in the news with great frequency and are easily accessible. Students are reminded that they should look for information on the local level (water quality, solid waste management, development issues, etc.), as well as national and world wide issues. The news items may then be presented to the class as show-and-tell exercises with follow-up discussion by the class; a bulletin board that could be dedicated to posting the geologic events of the week; or scrapbooks of events, arranged either chronologically or by category of events compiled by individuals or classes.

Mogk, David

407

Planetary Biology--Paleontological, Geological, and Molecular Histories of Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

The history of life on Earth is chronicled in the geological strata, the fossil record, and the genomes of contemporary organisms. When examined together, these records help identify metabolic and regulatory pathways, annotate protein se- quences, and identify animal models to develop new drugs, among other features of scientific and biomedical interest. Together, planetary analysis of genome and proteome databases

Steven A. Benner; M. Daniel Caraco; J. Michael Thomson; Eric A. Gaucher

2002-01-01

408

Regional geology of eastern Idaho and western Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first section, Regional Synthesis, consists of a single 53-page chapter entitled The track of the Yellowstone hot spot: Volcanism faulting, and uplift.'' The authors' approach is to interpret major features or regional geology as resulting in large part from the last 16 Ma of southwesterly migration by the North American plate over a stationary thermal plume in the mantle.

P. K. Link; M. A. Kuntz; L. B. Platt

1993-01-01

409

Geology and petroleum resources of basins in western China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Western China contains 11 recognized petroliferous or potentially petroliferous basins. Despite their great difference in size, these basins have important common features: (1) their Mesozoic-Cenozoic sedimentary sequences are composed of rocks of essentially terrestrial orgin; and (2) they experienced predominantly compressional stress during the late stages of their geologic history. The topics discussed for each basin include the stratigraphic and

G. Ulmishek

1984-01-01

410

Integration of Geological Datasets for Gold Exploration in Nova Scotia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vari ety of regi onal geoscience datasets from Nova Scotia have been co-registered and ana lyzed using a geographic information system (GIS). The datasets include bedrock and surficial geological maps, airborne geophysical survey data, geochemistry of lake-sediment sa mples, and mineral occurrence data. A number of line features, including structural lineaments, fold axes and formation contacts, have also been

G. F. Bonham-Carter; F. P. Agterberg; D. F. Wright

1988-01-01

411

The National Park Service: Geologic Resources Photo Search  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site allows the user to search through the Park Service photo database. Search hundreds of photos by park name, state, year, or photo name. Pictures include descriptions, the photographer, and scales when available. Images are of rocks, fossils, volcanoes, caves, and general geologic features.

412

Geology of North Cascades National Park: Virtual Field Trips  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

At this site, users can choose from three virtual field trips in Cascades National Park: along the scenic North Cascade Highway (State Route 20), up the Baker Lake Road, and along the Mount Baker Highway (State Route 542). Each trip features an interactive map and detailed descriptions of geologic features that can be seen at stops and side trips along the routes. Links to a glossary and to more detailed information for advanced learners are embedded in the text.

413

Main roads to melanoma  

PubMed Central

The characterization of the molecular mechanisms involved in development and progression of melanoma could be helpful to identify the molecular profiles underlying aggressiveness, clinical behavior, and response to therapy as well as to better classify the subsets of melanoma patients with different prognosis and/or clinical outcome. Actually, some aspects regarding the main molecular changes responsible for the onset as well as the progression of melanoma toward a more aggressive phenotype have been described. Genes and molecules which control either cell proliferation, apoptosis, or cell senescence have been implicated. Here we provided an overview of the main molecular changes underlying the pathogenesis of melanoma. All evidence clearly indicates the existence of a complex molecular machinery that provides checks and balances in normal melanocytes. Progression from normal melanocytes to malignant metastatic cells in melanoma patients is the result of a combination of down- or up-regulation of various effectors acting on different molecular pathways.

Palmieri, Giuseppe; Capone, Mariaelena; Ascierto, Maria Libera; Gentilcore, Giusy; Stroncek, David F; Casula, Milena; Sini, Maria Cristina; Palla, Marco; Mozzillo, Nicola; Ascierto, Paolo A

2009-01-01

414

Stars main sequence  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What happens during most of a star's life? This activity page, part of an interactive laboratory series for grades 8-12, introduces students to the main sequence phase of a star's existence. This phase is where a star lives out the majority of its life. In an interactive lab activity, students predict the length of the main sequence for four different stars. The predictions can be printed for later evaluation. Students view diagrams that compare the size and color of stars to human lives, and equilibrium within a star is stressed. Finally, students choose between two hypotheses about the length of life of a star. Students write a one- to three-sentence explanation for their hypotheses. The correct answer is provided. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

University of Utah. Astrophysics Science Project Integrating Research and Education (ASPIRE)

2003-01-01

415

Maine coast winds  

SciTech Connect

The Maine Coast Winds Project was proposed for four possible turbine locations. Significant progress has been made at the prime location, with a lease-power purchase contract for ten years for the installation of turbine equipment having been obtained. Most of the site planning and permitting have been completed. It is expect that the turbine will be installed in early May. The other three locations are less suitable for the project, and new locations are being considered.

Avery, Richard

2000-01-28

416

Geologic mapping of Argyre Planitia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report describes the results from the geologic mapping of the central and southern Argyre basin of Mars. At the Mars Geologic Mapper's Meeting in Flagstaff during July, 1993, Dave Scott (United States Geological Survey, Mars Geologic Mapping Steering Committee Chair) recommended that all four quadrangles be combined into a single 1:1,000,000 scale map for publication. It was agreed that this would be cost-effective and that the decrease in scale would not compromise the original science goals of the mapping. Tim Parker completed mapping on the 1:500,000 scale base maps, for which all the necessary materials had already been produced, and included the work as a chapter in his dissertation, which was completed in the fall of 1994. Geologic mapping of the two southernmost quadrangles (MTM -55036 and MTM -55043; MTM=Mars Transverse Mercator) was completed as planned during the first year of work. These maps and a detailed draft of the map text were given a preliminary review by Dave Scott during summer, 1993. Geologic mapping of the remaining two quadrangles (MTM -50036 and MTM -50043) was completed by summer, 1994. Results were described at the Mars Geologic Mappers Meeting, held in Pocatello, Idaho, during July, 1994. Funds for the third and final year of the project have been transferred to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, where Tim Parker will revise and finalize all maps and map text for publication by the United States Geological Survey at the 1:1,000,000 map scale.

Gorsline, Donn S.; Parker, Timothy J.

1995-03-01

417

Biologically Enhanced Geologic Carbon Sequestration  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are four trapping mechanisms proposed to play significant roles in the deep geologic sequestration of CO2: i) formation trapping, ii) capillary trapping, iii) solubility trapping, and iv) mineral trapping. Our research has shown that microbial biofilms are capable of enhancing formation trapping, solubility trapping, and mineral trapping under conditions found in brine aquifers targeted for geologic carbon sequestration. We

Robin Gerlach; Andrew C. Mitchell; Lee H. Spangler; Al B. Cunningham

2010-01-01

418

The Geophysical Revolution in Geology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discussed is the physicists' impact on the revolution in the earth sciences particularly involving the overthrow of the fixist notions in geology. Topics discussed include the mobile earth, the route to plate tectonics, radiometric dating, the earth's magnetic field, ocean floor spreading plate boundaries, infiltration of physics into geology and…

Smith, Peter J.

1980-01-01

419

The Geophysical Revolution in Geology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussed is the physicists' impact on the revolution in the earth sciences particularly involving the overthrow of the fixist notions in geology. Topics discussed include the mobile earth, the route to plate tectonics, radiometric dating, the earth's magnetic field, ocean floor spreading plate boundaries, infiltration of physics into geology and…

Smith, Peter J.

1980-01-01

420

The geology of the moon  

Microsoft Academic Search

With traditional astronomical methods in the background, geological exploration of the Moon has developed rapidly, but logically, since the dawn of the space age. Geological maps were prepared, fist, from Earth-based photographs of the Moon. They were improved when close-up pictures of the Moon were taken from spacecraft. Artificial satellites of the Moon were used as platforms on which to

G. Fielder

1973-01-01

421

Creationism, Uniformitarianism, Geology and Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Points out that the most basic of creationist attacks of geology, their claim that uniformitarianism is an unreliable basis for interpreting the past, fail because the uniformitarianism they describe is no longer a part of geology. Indicates that modern uniformitarianism is merely the philosophical principle of simplicity. (Author/JN)|

Shea, James H.

1983-01-01

422

Geology: Just Touching the Surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this unit, students will explore patterns of change in the earth's layers through hands-on experiments and activities, as well as case studies of geologic phenomena. Students will learn about volcano types, volcanic activity, and plate movement and its effects. Students will be exposed to the plate tectonic theory and its implications on geologic history. They will observe the effects

Michael Shay; Carrie Susong

2006-01-01

423

Geologic Map of the Central Marysvale Volcanic Field, Southwestern Utah  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The geologic map of the central Marysvale volcanic field, southwestern Utah, shows the geology at 1:100,000 scale of the heart of one of the largest Cenozoic volcanic fields in the Western United States. The map shows the area of 38 degrees 15' to 38 degrees 42'30' N., and 112 degrees to 112 degrees 37'30' W. The Marysvale field occurs mostly in the High Plateaus, a subprovince of the Colorado Plateau and structurally a transition zone between the complexly deformed Great Basin to the west and the stable, little-deformed main part of the Colorado Plateau to the east. The western part of the field is in the Great Basin proper. The volcanic rocks and their source intrusions in the volcanic field range in age from about 31 Ma (Oligocene) to about 0.5 Ma (Pleistocene). These rocks overlie sedimentary rocks exposed in the mapped area that range in age from Ordovician to early Cenozoic. The area has been deformed by thrust faults and folds formed during the late Mesozoic to early Cenozoic Sevier deformational event, and later by mostly normal faults and folds of the Miocene to Quaternary basin-range episode. The map revises and updates knowledge gained during a long-term U.S. Geological Survey investigation of the volcanic field, done in part because of its extensive history of mining. The investigation also was done to provide framework geologic knowledge suitable for defining geologic and hydrologic hazards, for locating hydrologic and mineral resources, and for an understanding of geologic processes in the area. A previous geologic map (Cunningham and others, 1983, U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Investigations Series I-1430-A) covered the same area as this map but was published at 1:50,000 scale and is obsolete due to new data. This new geologic map of the central Marysvale field, here published as U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Investigations Series I-2645-A, is accompanied by gravity and aeromagnetic maps of the same area and the same scale (Campbell and others, 1999, U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Investigations Series I-2645-B).

Rowley, Peter D.; Cunningham, Charles G.; Steven, Thomas A.; Workman, Jeremiah B.; Anderson, John J.; Theissen, Kevin M.

2002-01-01

424

Assessment of the geothermal resources of Indiana based on existing geologic data  

SciTech Connect

The general geology of Indiana is presented including the following: physiography, stratigraphy, and structural features. The following indicators of geothermal energy are discussed: heat flow and thermal gradient, geothermal occurrences, seismic activity, geochemistry, and deep sedimentary basins. (MHR)

Vaught, T.L.

1980-12-01

425

Influence of the Geological Structure on the Performance of Full-Face Tunnelling Machines in Mining.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Cuttability and drillability of rock are similarly affected by geological structural features as are strength and deformability of a rock mass. The results of wedge penetration tests and disk cutting experiments on rocks with a distinctive strength anisot...

H. P. Sanio H. K. Kutter

1982-01-01

426

Evolucao geologica da regiao de Tucurui - Para. (Geologic evolution of Tucurui region - Para).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The northern part of the Araguaia Belt is exposed in the Tucurui region and their stratigraphic, structural, metamorphic and magmatic features had been studied aiming at contributing for the understanding of the geological evolution of the area. Dating wi...

M. A. Silva Matta

1982-01-01

427

National uranium resource evaluation Bangor and Eastport quadrangles Maine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Bangor and Eastport 1° x 2° quadrangles, Maine, were evaluated to a depth of 1500 m for uranium favorability, using National Uranium Resource Evaluation criteria. The geologic environments emphasized were granites, Precambrian gneisses, continental sediments, and rhyolites. No areas favorable for the occurrence of uranium deposits were found, although some granites have moderate radioactivity. Two granitic areas are unevaluated

M. T. Field; D. B. Truesdale

1982-01-01

428

National uranium resource evaluation Bangor and Eastport quadrangles Maine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Bangor and East port 1° x 2° quadrangles, Maine, were evaluated to a depth of 1500 m for uranium favorability, using National Uranium Resource Evaluation criteria. The geologic environments emphasized were granites, Precambrian gneisses, continental sediments, and rhyolites. No areas favorable for the occurrence of uranium deposits were found, although some granites have moderate radioactivity. Two granitic areas are

M. T. Field; D. B. Truesdale

1982-01-01

429

Spatial features register: toward standardization of spatial features  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As the need to share spatial data increases, more than agreement on a common format is needed to ensure that the data is meaningful to both the importer and the exporter. Effective data transfer also requires common definitions of spatial features. To achieve this, part 2 of the Spatial Data Transfer Standard (SDTS) provides a model for a spatial features data content specification and a glossary of features and attributes that fit this model. The model provides a foundation for standardizing spatial features. The glossary now contains only a limited subset of hydrographic and topographic features. For it to be useful, terms and definitions must be included for other categories, such as base cartographic, bathymetric, cadastral, cultural and demographic, geodetic, geologic, ground transportation, international boundaries, soils, vegetation, water, and wetlands, and the set of hydrographic and topographic features must be expanded. This paper will review the philosophy of the SDTS part 2 and the current plans for creating a national spatial features register as one mechanism for maintaining part 2.

Cascio, Janette

1994-01-01

430

Volcanic Features  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Most people will never see the eruption of an active volcano. Even so, evidence of these dramatic displays can be found all over the world. In fact, more can be learned about some aspects of volcanic activity by exploring evidence left by past eruptions than by watching an eruption in progress. This interactive resource adapted from the National Park Service explores a variety of volcanic landforms and features, and describes how they form.

2010-10-25

431

Minerals yearbook, 1991: Maine. Annual report  

SciTech Connect

The report has been prepared under a Memorandum of Understanding between the U.S. Bureau of Mines, U.S. Department of the Interior, and the Maine Geological Survey for collecting information on all nonfuel minerals. The value of Maine's nonfuel mineral production in 1991 was $41.3 million, a $21.2 million decrease compared with that of 1990. Decreases in output and value were reported for most of the nonfuel minerals produced. The largest decreases in both production and value were for construction sand and gravel and dimension stone. Smaller decreases were estimated for both masonry and portland cement. Other mineral commodities produced in the State included common clay, gemstones, and peat. Perlite was shipped in from out-of-State and expanded at one plant in the State.

Harrison, D.K.; Anderson, W.; Foley, M.E.

1993-07-01

432

Geological-geotechnical studies for siting the superconducting super collider in Illinois: Preliminary geological feasibility report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Site suitability was determined from a geological perspective. A preliminary compilation of existing geologic maps, reports, and other readily available geologic data is reported. Maps and cross sections were prepared to focus on the geologic units relevant to ring siting; geologic units were described and characterized to a geologically and economically practical depth (about 600 ft (180 m)). The data

J. P. Kempton; R. C. Vaiden; D. R. Kolata; P. B. Dumontelle; M. M. Killey

1985-01-01

433

New prospective areas for geological exploration in eastern Europe  

SciTech Connect

Eastern Europe is a highly complex geological region. The region comprises platforms of various ages, each exhibiting a variety of structural styles. The major tectonic elements often straddle more than one country, with each country usually interpreting the geological features differently. This complicates the study of both geology and petroleum occurrence. This study of the geological structure and petroleum occurrence was done for the territory as a whole, notwithstanding national boundaries. Based on a series of structural-geological features, these basins are grouped into three categories: (1) platformal, (2) fold (in fold-nappe belts and intermontane depressions), and (3) combined (at the junctions of platformal and fold areas, i.e., foredeeps). The basins are divided into petroleum subbasins. To scientifically estimate the petroleum prospectivity, VNI-Izarubezhgeologia has recently analyzed the lithofacies characteristics of the sedimentary sequences occurring in Eastern Europe; the palaegeographical environments of sedimentation, organic matter and its maturity,a nd the distribution of reservoirs and seals. As a result of these studies a series of lithofacies maps (18 maps at 1:1,000,000 scale), a tectonic map (1:1,00,000), a petroleum distribution map, a prospectivity map (1:2,500,000), and a series of geodynamic reconstructions have been produced. As the result of this analysis, new petroleum exploration targets have been outlined. These new targets are in stratigraphic trap zones, in deep horizons (deeper than 3-3.5 km) and in areas defined as a result of geodynamic analysis.

Namestnikov, Y.G. (Jebco Seismic, London (United Kingdom))

1991-08-01

434

Extending GIS Technology to Study Karst Features of Southeastern Minnesota  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper summarizes ongoing research on karst feature distribution of southeastern Minnesota. The main goals of this interdisciplinary research are: 1) to look for large-scale patterns in the rate and distribution of sinkhole development; 2) to conduct statistical tests of hypotheses about the formation of sinkholes; 3) to create management tools for land-use managers and planners; and 4) to deliver geomorphic and hydrogeologic criteria for making scientifically valid land-use policies and ethical decisions in karst areas of southeastern Minnesota. Existing county and sub-county karst feature datasets of southeastern Minnesota have been assembled into a large GIS-based database capable of analyzing the entire data set. The central database management system (DBMS) is a relational GIS-based system interacting with three modules: GIS, statistical and hydrogeologic modules. ArcInfo and ArcView were used to generate a series of 2D and 3D maps depicting karst feature distributions in southeastern Minnesota. IRIS ExplorerTM was used to produce satisfying 3D maps and animations using data exported from GIS-based database. Nearest-neighbor analysis has been used to test sinkhole distributions in different topographic and geologic settings. All current nearest-neighbor analyses testify that sinkholes in southeastern Minnesota are not evenly distributed in this area (i.e., they tend to be clustered). More detailed statistical methods such as cluster analysis, histograms, probability estimation, correlation and regression have been used to study the spatial distributions of some mapped karst features of southeastern Minnesota. A sinkhole probability map for Goodhue County has been constructed based on sinkhole distribution, bedrock geology, depth to bedrock, GIS buffer analysis and nearest-neighbor analysis. A series of karst features for Winona County including sinkholes, springs, seeps, stream sinks and outcrop has been mapped and entered into the Karst Feature Database of Southeastern Minnesota. The Karst Feature Database of Winona County is being expanded to include all the mapped karst features of southeastern Minnesota. Air photos from 1930s to 1990s of Spring Valley Cavern Area in Fillmore County were scanned and geo-referenced into our GIS system. This technology has been proved to be very useful to identify sinkholes and study the rate of sinkhole development.

Gao, Y.; Tipping, R. G.; Alexander, E. C.; Alexander, S. C.

2001-12-01

435

Geological Evolution of Lada Terra, Venus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents geologic history of Lada Terra of Venus. Geological mapping revealed formation of large-scale extensional belts, coronae, and volcanogenic plains. The sequence of geologic events provides clues to deeper geodynamic processes.

Kumar, P. S.; Head, J. W.

2011-03-01

436

Geological Storage as a Carbon Mitigation Option  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the most promising approaches for carbon mitigation involves essentially-zero-emission power plants based on carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology. The key to any CCS strategy is a suitable choice for large-scale storage of the captured CO2. While a variety of storage options are being studied, geological storage appears to be most viable. Injection of captured CO2 into deep geological formations leads to a fairly complex flow system involving multiple fluid phases, a range of potential geochemical reactions, and mass transfer across phase interfaces. General models of this system are computationally demanding, with the problem made more difficult by the large range of spatial scales involved as well as the importance of local features for both fluid flow and geochemical reactions. An especially important local feature involves leakage pathways, with one example being abandoned wells associated with the century-long legacy of oil and gas exploration and production. Such pathways also have large uncertainties associated with their properties. Therefore, inclusion of leakage in the storage analysis requires resolution of multiple scales and incorporation of large uncertainties. Furthermore, when implemented at full scale, geological storage will induce subsurface perturbations that extend across entire basins. Taken together, these requirements render standard numerical simulators ineffective due to their excessive computational demands. A series of physically-motivated simplifications to the governing equations can ultimately render the system solvable by analytical or semi-analytical methods. These solutions, while restrictive in their assumptions, allow for large-scale analysis of leakage in a probabilistic framework and can provide a basis for regulatory policies.

Celia, M. A.; Nordbotten, J. M.; Gasda, S. E.

2007-12-01

437

Defining the Himalayan Main Central Thrust in Nepal  

Microsoft Academic Search

An inverted metamorphic field gradient associated with a crustal-scale south-vergent thrust fault, the Main Central Thrust, has been recognized along the Himalaya for over 100 years. A major problem in Himalayan structural geology is that recent workers have mapped the Main Central Thrust within the Greater Himalayan Sequence high-grade metamorphic sequence along several different structural levels. Some workers map the

MICHAEL P. S EARLE; D. L AW; L AURENT G ODIN; K YLE P. L ARSON; M. C OT; J. J ESSUP

2008-01-01

438

Deep Time: The Geologic Time Scale  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page examines the issues involved in teaching students about the geologic time scale. There are suggestions for tackling troublesome issues in class as well as activities that can be used to clarify how geoscientists look at deep time. Five main concepts with which students struggle when thinking about Deep Time are addressed here: imagining or comprehending big numbers; the difference between relative and numerical age; the concept of "timescales"; the ways we know about the age of the Earth and other materials; and resolving perceived issues with religious beliefs.

2007-01-01

439

Coyote Creek Geologic Map  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are required to make field observations, collect data and then create a detailed geologic map and report for a small area (approximately 1 sq. mile) on the edge of the Tularosa Basin in south central New Mexico. The study area is located within the Tularosa NE quadrangle, but maps from the Cat Mountain quadrangle to the East are also useful. Gently dipping carbonate and siliciclastic beds, igneous intrusions, bioherms and a normal fault are present in the study area along Coyote Creek, a few miles north of Tularosa, NM. The creek generally runs parallel to dip, allowing relatively easy access to inclined strata. Bioherm(s) are present in the lower section. Several dikes are present running both parallel and perpendicular to sedimentary bed strike. One is very non-resistant to weathering, creating unusual troughs as it passes through the carbonate bioherms. A sill is present in the upper section and a N/S trending normal fault roughly parallels strike of sedimentary beds.

Walsh, Timothy R.

440

General features  

SciTech Connect

The San Andreas fault system, a complex of faults that display predominantly large-scale strike slip, is part of an even more complex system of faults, isolated segments of the East Pacific Rise, and scraps of plates lying east of the East Pacific Rise that collectively separate the North American plate from the Pacific plate. This chapter briefly describes the San Andreas fault system, its setting along the Pacific Ocean margin of North America, its extent, and the patterns of faulting. Only selected characteristics are described, and many features are left for depictions on maps and figures.

Wallace, R.E.

1990-01-01

441

Revised draft: Northeastern Regional geologic characterization report. Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

This report presents available geologic information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont. For each of the states within the Northeastern Region, information is provided on the disqualifying factor and the screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening. These factors and variables include: hydrologically significant natural resources, rock mass extent, post-emplacement faulting, suspected Quaternary faulting, seismicity, rock and mineral resources, major ground-water discharge zones, water resources, ground-water salinity, and state of stress. Information is presented on its age, areal extent, shape, thickness of overburden, composition, texture, degree and type of alteration, rock mass thickness, and structural features associated with each rock body or complex. Regional seismic and tectonic information is presented, including patterns of earthquake occurrence, earthquake magnitudes, horizontal ground accelerations, and vertical crustal movements. Also included are discussions of the rock and mineral deposits or mines located within or near crystalline bodies; ground-water resources and regional hydrology; postulated changes in climate and the associated effects; and landforms, surface processes, and surficial materials on or near the subject rock bodies.

Not Available

1984-11-01

442

Galapagos Geology on the Web  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For those interested in natural history, there are few places quite as facinating as the Galapagos. The intention of this web site is to provide information on the Galapagos Islands to both scientists and non-scientists alike. While the emphasis of this web site is on geology, Galapagos wildlife is difficult to ignore, so you will find many images and observations on biology, as well as geology, on this site. Sections include: a brief introduction to Galapagos geology, Tour the Islands, Galapagos Climate and Oceanography, Galapagos History (which includes a discussion of Darwin's work related to evolution and natural selection), and a Bibliography.

443

U.S. Geological Survey: The National Map Corps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Map Corps consists of citizens who devote some of their time to provide mapping information to the U.S. Geological Survey. Volunteers may download a guide that provides instructions on how to collect and send Global Positioning System (GPS) data to the USGS. A link is also provided to the National Map, an online, interacive mapping service. National Map users can zoom and pan about a map of the United States, find and identify features, and add layers of administrative and cultural data, elevations, topography, geology, and other data.

2008-03-19

444

Comprehensive Community Environmental Inventory, Yarmouth, Maine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This manual is a compilation and evaluation of data gathered from an inventory of the natural and man-made features of a community (Yarmouth, Maine). It brings together comprehensive information which may help local governmental officials, citizens, and students gain a broad understanding of their environment and its associated problems.…

Bennett, Dean B.

445

Geologic Images Associated with Lectures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains photographs of igneous rocks, sedimentary rocks (plus erosion & karst topography), faults, folding, metamorphism, and glaciation. Each photo can be viewed as the original photo or with annotations that describe the associated geology.

Hochstaedter, Alfred

446

Geologic interpretation of gravity anomalies  

SciTech Connect

This Russian textbook provides a sufficiently complete and systematic illumination of physico-geologic and mathematical aspect of complex problem of interpretation of gravity anomalies. The rational methods of localization of anomalies are examined in detail. All methods of interpreting gravity anomalies are described which have found successful application in practice. Also given are ideas of some new methods of the interpretation of gravity anomalies, the prospects for further development and industrial testing. Numerous practical examples to interpretation are given. Partial Contents: Bases of gravitational field theory; Physico-geologic bases of gravitational prospecting; Principles of geologic interpretation of gravity anomalies; Conversions and calculations of anomalies; Interpretation of gravity anomalies for bodies of correct geometric form and for bodies of arbitrary form; Geologic interpretation of the results of regional gravitational photographing; Searches and prospecting of oil- and gas-bearing structures and of deposits of ore and nonmetalliferous useful minerals.

Andreyev, B.A.; Klushin, I.G.

1990-04-19

447

Perspectives in geology. Circular 525  

SciTech Connect

The papers in this symposium present diverse perspectives in geology, mineral resources, paleontology, and environmental concerns. Papers within the scope of EDB have been entered individually into the data base. (ACR)

Not Available

1982-01-01

448

A Primer in Lunar Geology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Primary topics in lunar geology range from the evolution of the solar system to lunar photointerpretation, impact crater formation, and sampling to analyses on various Apollo lunar landing site geomorphologies.

P. H. Schultz R. Greeley

1974-01-01

449

Geology Programs and Disciplinary Accreditation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes geology department attitudes toward accreditation. Most departments would not currently welcome accreditation. Those persons currently neutral or uncertain about disciplinary accreditation should learn more about it and take a firm position. (Author/SAH)

Corbett, Robert G.; Corbett, Erica A.

2001-01-01

450

Report on Geologic Exploration Activities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report provides an overview of the geological exploration activities being carried out as part of the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program, which has been established by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to develop the technology and provid...

J. Breslin R. B. Laughon R. J. Hall J. W. Voss

1980-01-01

451

Nutrients, Organic Compounds, and Mercury in the Meduxnekeag River Watershed, Maine, 2003.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Houlton Band of Maliseet Indians, sampled streambed sediments and surface water of the Meduxnekeag River watershed in northeastern Maine under various hydrologic conditions for nutrients, hydrop...

C. W. Schalk L. Tornes

2005-01-01

452

FUNDAMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS ABOUT RETRIEVABILITY OF HLW FROM A DEEP GEOLOGICAL REPOSITORY  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past years retrievability of HLW and of spent nuclear fuel after their disposal in a deep geological repository is increasingly receiving attention. Fundamental technological aspects of waste retrieval from a deep geological disposal are outlined in this paper based on a comprehensive analysis of a previous study. Main tasks in analyzing the generic feasibility of waste retrieval are

E. Biurrun; J. Lempert

453

Central American geologic map project  

SciTech Connect

During the Northeast Quadrant Panel meeting of the Circum-Pacific Map Project held in Mexico City, February 1985, Central American panel members proposed and adopted plans for compiling a geologic map of Central America, probably at a scale of 1:500,000. A local group with participants from each country was organized and coordinated by Rolando Castillo, director, Central American School of Geology, University of Costa Rica, for the geologic aspects, and Fernando Rudin, director, Geographic Institute of Costa Rica, for the topographic base. In 1956, the US Geological Survey published a geologic map of the region at a scale of 1:1 million. Subsequent topographic and geologic mapping projects have provided a large amount of new data. The entire area is now covered by topographic maps at a scale of 1:50,000, and these maps have been used in several countries as a base for geologic mapping. Another regional map, the Metallogenic Map of Central America (scale = 1:2 million), was published in 1969 by the Central American Research Institute for Industry (ICAITI) with a generalized but updated geologic base map. Between 1969 and 1980, maps for each country were published by local institutions: Guatemala-Belize at 1:500,000, Honduras at 1:500,000, El Salvador at 1:100,000, Nicaragua at 1:1 million, Costa Rica at 1:200,000, and Panama at 1:1 million. This information, in addition to that of newly mapped areas, served as the base for the Central American part of the Geologic-Tectonic Map of the Caribbean Region (scale = 1:2.5 million), published by the US Geological Survey in 1980, and also fro the Northeast Quadrant Maps of the Circum-Pacific Region. The new project also involves bathymetric and geologic mapping of the Pacific and Caribbean margins of the Central American Isthmus. A substantial amount of new information of the Middle America Trench has been acquired through DSDP Legs 67 and 84.

Dengo, G.

1986-07-01

454

GeoSciML version 3: A GML application for geologic information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After 2 years of testing and development, XML schema for GeoSciML version 3 are now ready for application deployment. GeoSciML draws from many geoscience data modelling efforts to establish a common suite of feature types to represent information associated with geologic maps (materials, structures, and geologic units) and observations including structure data, samples, and chemical analyses. After extensive testing and use case analysis, in December 2008 the CGI Interoperability Working Group (IWG) released GeoSciML 2.0 as an application schema for basic geological information. GeoSciML 2.0 is in use to deliver geologic data by the OneGeology Europe portal, the Geological Survey of Canada Groundwater Information Network (wet GIN), and the Auscope Mineral Resources portal. GeoSciML to version 3.0 is updated to OGC Geography Markup Language v3.2, re-engineered patterns for association of element values with controlled vocabulary concepts, incorporation of ISO19156 Observation and Measurement constructs for representing numeric and categorical values and for representing analytical data, incorporation of EarthResourceML to represent mineral occurrences and mines, incorporation of the GeoTime model to represent GSSP and stratigraphic time scale, and refactoring of the GeoSciML namespace to follow emerging ISO practices for decoupling of dependencies between standardized namespaces. These changes will make it easier for data providers to link to standard vocabulary and registry services. The depth and breadth of GeoSciML remains largely unchanged, covering the representation of geologic units, earth materials and geologic structures. ISO19156 elements and patterns are used to represent sampling features such as boreholes and rock samples, as well as geochemical and geochronologic measurements. Geologic structures include shear displacement structures (brittle faults and ductile shears), contacts, folds, foliations, lineations and structures with no preferred orientation (e.g. 'miarolitic cavities'). The Earth material package allows for the description of both individual components, such as minerals, and compound materials, such as rocks or unconsolidated materials. Provision is made for alteration, weathering, metamorphism, particle geometry, fabric, and petrophysical descriptions. Mapped features describe the shape of the geological features using standard GML geometries, such as polygons, lines, points or 3D volumes. Geological events provide the age, process and environment of formation of geological features. The Earth Resource section includes features to represent mineral occurrences and mines and associated human activities independently. This addition allows description of resources and reserves that can comply with national and internationally accepted reporting codes. GeoSciML v3 is under consideration as the data model for INSPIRE annex 2 geologic reporting in Europe.

International Union of Geological Sciences., I. C.; Richard, S. M.

2011-12-01

455

Geology of the Cook Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The geology of the 15 Cook Islands in the south-central Pacific is briefly described and their geological history outlined. All are the summit portions of extinct Tertiary volcanoes; six of the seven Northern Group islands are atolls, four of the Southern Group are makatea-type islands, and the others include a high mountainous volcanic island, a hilly near-atoll, an atoll, and

B. L. Wood

1967-01-01

456

The Bureau of Economic Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The homepage of the Texas Bureau of Economic Geology provides links to information on the Bureau's research and industrial associates programs, its publications, news and events, and presentations by Bureau staff. A section for teachers and students includes on-line learning modules, which investigate earth science topics including soils, meteorites, floods and oil wells, as well as a coastal monitoring program for high school students and publications of general interest on Texas geology.

457

Central American geologic map project  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the Northeast Quadrant Panel meeting of the Circum-Pacific Map Project held in Mexico City, February 1985, Central American panel members proposed and adopted plans for compiling a geologic map of Central America, probably at a scale of 1:500,000. A local group with participants from each country was organized and coordinated by Rolando Castillo, director, Central American School of Geology,

Dengo

1986-01-01

458

Mass transfer and transport in a geologic environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report is in a continuing series of reports that present analytic solutions for the dissolution and hydrogeologic transport of radionuclides from geologic repositories of nuclear waste. Previous reports have dealt mainly with radionuclide transport in the far-field, away from the effects of the repository. In the present report, the emphasis is on near-field processes, the transfer and transport of

P. L. Chambre; T. H. Pigford; W. W. L. Lee; J. Ahn; S. Kajiwara; C. L. Kim; H. Kimura; H. Lung; W. J. Williams; S. J. Zavoshy

1985-01-01

459

The Economics of Geological CO2 Storage and Leakage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The economics of CO2 capture and storage in relation to the possibility of significant leakage of CO2 from geological reservoirs once this greenhouse gas has been stored artificially underground will be among the main determinants of whether CCS can significantly contribute to a deep cut in global CO2 emissions. This paper presents an analysis of the economic and climatic implications

Bob van der Zwaan; Reyer Gerlagh

2008-01-01

460

Community Perceptions of Geologic Sequestration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Political momentum for mitigating climate change through the use of large-scale energy technologies such as geologic sequestration is growing. This paper explores the views of communities living near an actual or potential geologic sequestration project site. Given the potential importance of geologic sequestration to U.S. energy policy, what might explain and influence the views of this technology by the community-members. Through focus groups and one-on-one interviews, we gathered the views of two communities in California's Central Valley. One community close to a Department of Energy sponsored geologic sequestration pilot-project and another similarly located community that is not actually a project site. Our analysis combined a review of the history of the communities with other technologies and their social and economic indicators with the results of the focus groups and interviews. The results suggest that the sense of community empowerment, as contextualized by the history of the community and socio-economic indicators, is an important indicator of positive views of geologic sequestration. In addition, the results indicate community members prefer to be informed about geologic sequestration from a variety of sources (e.g., academia and industry).

Wong-Parodi, G. M.; Farrell, A.; Ray, I.

2007-12-01

461

Geology Field Trips as Performance Evaluations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the most important goals the author has for students in his introductory-level physical geology course is to give them the conceptual skills for solving geologic problems on their own. He wants students to leave his course as individuals who can use their knowledge of geologic processes and logic to figure out the extended geologic history…

Bentley, Callan

2009-01-01

462

Basic petroleum geology, 2nd ed. , revised  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book contains revised and updated material, including approximately 200 additional illustrations and an extensive glossary of terms. A valuable reference for geology students and petroleum professionals, the text presents fundamental concepts of geology in terms of sedimentary deposition, petroleum occurrence, exploration, and recovery. This book contains information on geologic time, historical geology and stratigraphy; Minerals and rocks; Weathering erosion,

Link

1990-01-01

463

Application of three dimensional geological models to hydrogeology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, three dimensional (3D) numerical simulation of subsurface structure has become a common engineering geological tool to investigate a variety of geological settings. Besides, hydrogeology always tightly combines with geological structures. For these reasons, coupling 3D geological models with hydrogeology will not only improve understanding of subsurface conditions, but also provide a common stratigraphic framework for hydrogeological applications. The reliability of 3D geological models largely depends on the quality and quantity of data. Normally, before 3D geological models are constructed in the software package, the initial data (borehole descriptions, geological maps, geological cross sections, outcrop data, geo-electrical survey, digital elevation model, etc.) are acquired from archive as much as possible and standardized in a single table. To ensure the precision of models, new drilling data should be gathered from local authorities such as Geological Survey in time. Some experimental data are necessary to be kept at the initial moment to create a subset for verification of the models. In particular, the resulting models will be used for hydrogeological applications. So, more parameters should be collected to construct the 3D property models. Properties contain porosities of soil, bearing capacity, compressibility and particular geological phenomenon such as the regional aquifers, aquitard and faults. During the processing of model construction, the minimum element of the models is grid, which can be converted to some finite elements software. Further studies of these models to hydrogeological application involve: integrating faulted horizons of the 3D geological model into the groundwater modeling software package and simulating the groundwater flow within the main relevant aquifers using a finite elements approach; simulating distribution and calculating volume of groundwater in particular area; providing 3D parameters for vulnerability maps of groundwater, and comparing the results with the vulnerability maps constructed by 2D parameters; establishing the information system as a complement for long-term land use planning of cities; and helping to control widespread land subsidence risks in cities where the water table is lower by overexploitation of groundwater.

Dong, M.; Neukum, C.; Azzam, R.

2009-04-01

464

Markov chains and embedded Markov chains in geology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geological data are structured as first-order, discrete-state discrete-time Markov chains in two main ways. In one, observations are spaced equally in time or space to yield transition probability matrices with nonzero elements in the main diagonal; in the other, only state transitions are recorded, to yield matrices with diagonal elements exactly equal to zero. The mathematical differences in these two

W. C. Krumbein; Michael F. Dacey

1969-01-01

465

Airborne remote sensing for geology and the environment: Present and future. Bulletin  

SciTech Connect

In 1988, a group of leading experts from government, academia, and industry attended a workshop on airborne remote sensing sponsored by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and hosted by the Branch of Geophysics. The report has arranged the six resulting working-group reports under two main headings: (1) Geologic Remote Sensing, for the reports on geologic mapping, mineral resoures, and fossil fuels and geothermal resources; and (2) Environmental Remote Sensing, for the reports on environmental geology, geologic hazards, and water resources. The intent of the workshop was to provide an evaluation of demonstrated capabilities, their direct extensions, and possible future applications, and this was the organizational format used for the geologic remote sensing reports. A final section examines future advances and limitations in the field.

Watson, K.; Knepper, D.H.

1994-12-31

466

Geologic Map of the Valles Caldera, Jemez Mountains, New Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Valles caldera is famous as the type locality of large resurgent calderas (Smith and Bailey, 1968), the location of a classic 260-300 °C liquid-dominated geothermal system (Goff and Gardner, 1994), and the site of a long-lived late Pleistocene lake (Fawcett et al., 2011). We have published a detailed color geologic map of the Valles caldera and surrounding areas at 1:50,000 scale obtainable from New Mexico Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources (geoinfo.nmt.edu/publications/maps/geologic/gm/79/). The new Valles map has been compiled from all or parts of nine 1:24,000 geologic maps completed between 2004 and 2008 (Bland, Cerro del Grant, Jarosa, Jemez Springs, Polvadera Peak, Redondo Peak, Seven Springs, Valle San Antonio, and Valle Toledo). Our map provides more detailed geology on the resurgent dome, caldera collapse breccias, post-caldera lava and tuff eruptions, intracaldera sedimentary and lacustrine deposits, and precaldera volcanic and sedimentary rocks than previous maps and incorporates recent stratigraphic revisions to the geology of the Jemez Mountains volcanic field. Three cross sections supported by surface geology, geophysical data and deep borehole logs (?4500 m) show an updated view of the caldera interior, depict a modern interpretation of caldera collapse and resurgence, and provide caldera-wide subsurface isotherms (?500 °C). A 30 page booklet included with the map contains extensive rock descriptions for 162 stratigraphic units and figures showing physiographic features, structural relations between Valles (1.25 Ma) and the earlier, comparably sized Toledo caldera (1.62 Ma), correlation charts of map units, and the distribution of pre- and post-caldera