Science.gov

Sample records for main geological features

  1. Cores from marine geologic features in the western Gulf of Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oldale, Robert N.; Edwards, Gerald B.

    1991-01-01

    Submerged geologic features located in the western Gulf of Maine between Cape Ann, Massachusetts and New Hampshire (fig. 1), were identified from high-resolution seismic-reflection data collected between 1979 and 1980. The features include the following. (1) A pair of end morained formed during the retreat of the Laurentide Ice Sheet from the Gulf of Maine (Oldale, 1985a). (2) A barrier spit and lagoon complex and (3) a paleodelta, both of which formed during a late Wisconsinan to early Holocene low relative sea-level stand (Oldale and others, 1983; Oldale, 1985b). (4) A wave-cut unconformity that was eroded as the sea transgressed to its present position. (5) A surficial sand depost that formed atop the unconformity in middle Holocene time. Vibracores (fig. 2) were taken in 1984 to corroborate the interpretations from the seismic data, to determine the sedimentary texture and structure of the features, to identify the nature of the unconformity, and to obtain material for 14C dating,

  2. Main features of meiosis

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 17, outlines the main features of meiosis, beginning with its significance and proceeding through the meiotic stages. Meiosis is the most important modification of mitosis because it is the reduction division that gives rise to the haploid generation in the life cycle. 17 refs., 6 figs.

  3. Digitization of a geologic map for the Quebec-Maine-Gulf of Maine global geoscience transect

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, Bruce E.; Stewart, David B.

    1990-01-01

    The Bedrock Geologic Map of Maine was digitized and combined with digital geologic data for Quebec and the Gulf of Maine for the Quebec-Maine-Gulf of Maine Geologic Transect Project. This map is being combined with digital geophysical data to produce three-dimensional depictions of the subsurface geology and to produce cross sections of the Earth's crust. It is an essential component of a transect that stretches from the craton near Quebec City, Quebec, to the Atlantic Ocean Basin south of Georges Bank. The transect is part of the Global Geosciences Transect Project of the International Lithosphere Program. The Digital Line Graph format is used for storage of the digitized data. A coding scheme similar to that used for base category planimetric data was developed to assign numeric codes to the digitized geologic data. These codes were used to assign attributes to polygon and line features to describe rock type, age, name, tectonic setting of original deposition, mineralogy, and composition of igneous plutonic rocks, as well as faults and other linear features. The digital geologic data can be readily edited, rescaled, and reprojected. The attribute codes allow generalization and selective retrieval of the geologic features. The codes allow assignment of map colors based on age, lithology, or other attribute. The Digital Line Graph format is a general transfer format that is supported by many software vendors and is easily transferred between systems.

  4. NASA Now: Geology: Curiosity -- Main Science Goals

    NASA Video Gallery

    Dr. Ashwin Vasavada, deputy project scientist for the Mars Science Laboratory, discusses the main science goals for Curiosity, including the investigation of the presence of water and evidence of l...

  5. Windblown Features on Venus and Geological Mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, Ronald

    1999-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to: 1) develop a global data base of aeolian features by searching Magellan coverage for possible time-variable wind streaks, 2) analyze the data base to characterize aeolian features and processes on Venus, 3) apply the analysis to assessments of wind patterns near the surface and for comparisons with atmospheric circulation models, 4) analyze shuttle radar data acquired for aeolian features on Earth to determine their radar characteristics, and 5) conduct geological mapping of two quadrangles. Wind, or aeolian, features are observed on Venus and aeolian processes play a role in modifying its surface. Analysis of features resulting from aeolian processes provides insight into characteristics of both the atmosphere and the surface. Wind related features identified on Venus include erosional landforms (yardangs), depositional dune fields, and features resulting from the interaction of the atmosphere and crater ejecta at the time of impact. The most abundant aeolian features are various wind streaks. Their discovery on Venus afforded the opportunity to learn about the interaction of the atmosphere and surface, both for the identification of sediments and in mapping near-surface winds.

  6. Maine Geological Survey Borehole Temperature Profiles

    DOE Data Explorer

    Marvinney, Robert

    2013-11-06

    This dataset includes temperature profiles from 30 boreholes throughout Maine that were selected for their depth, location, and lithologies encountered. Depths range from about 300 feet to 2,200 feet. Most of the boreholes selected for measurement were completed in granite because this lithology can be assumed to be nearly homogeneous over the depth of the borehole. Boreholes were also selected to address gaps in existing geothermal datasets. Temperature profiles were collected in October and November, 2012.

  7. Enceladus’ Geysers: Relation to Geological Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helfenstein, Paul; Porco, Carolyn C.

    2015-09-01

    We apply histogram analysis, photogeological methods, and tidal stress modeling to Porco et al.'s survey of 101 Enceladus South Polar Basin geysers and their three-dimensional orientations to test if the jet azimuths are influenced by their placement relative to surface morphology and tectonic structures. Geysers emplaced along the three most active tiger stripe fractures (Damascus Sulcus, Baghdad Sulcus, and Cairo Sulcus) occur in local groupings with relatively uniform nearest-neighbor separation distances (∼5 km). Their placement may be controlled by uniformly spaced en echelon Riedel-type shear cracks originating from left-lateral strike-slip fault motion inferred to occur along tiger stripes. The spacing would imply a lithosphere thickness of ∼5 km in the vicinity of the tiger stripes. The orientations of tilted geyser jets are not randomly distributed; rather their azimuths correlate with the directions either of tiger stripes, cross-cutting fractures, or else fine-scale local tectonic fabrics. Diurnal tidal stress modeling suggests that periodic changes of plume activity are significantly affected by cross-cutting fractures that open and close at different times than the tiger stripes that they intersect. We find evidence of sub-kilometer scale morphological modification of surface geological features surrounding geysers from sublimation-aided erosion, and ablation, and scouring. We propose that the simultaneous crushing and shearing action of periodic transpressional tidal stress on ice condensing on the inside walls of geyser conduits is the mechanism that extrudes the peculiar, paired narrow ridges known as “shark fins” that flank the medial tiger stripe fissures. We present a gallery of high-resolution image mosaics showing the placement of all the jets in their source region and consequently their geological context.

  8. Ambient tectonic stress as fragile geological feature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sleep, Norman H.

    2014-09-01

    seismic waves produce frictional failure within shallow pervasively cracked rocks. Distributed failure preferentially relaxes ambient tectonic stresses, providing a fragility measure of past strong shaking. Relaxation of the regional fault-normal compression appears to have occurred within granite from 768 m down to ˜1000-1600 m depth at the Pilot Hole near Parkfield, California. Subsequent movements on the main fault have imposed strike-slip stress within the relaxed region. Peak ground velocities of ˜2 m s-1 are inferred for infrequent (few 1000 yr recurrence) past earthquakes from stress relaxation within the granite and from the variation of S wave velocity with depth in the overlying sandstone. Conversely, frequent strong shaking in slowly deforming regions relaxes shallow ambient tectonic stress. This situation is expected beneath Whittier Narrows, where strong Love waves from numerous San Andreas events repeatedly produced nonlinear behavior.

  9. Surficial geology map of the Great Heath, Washington County, Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cameron, Cornelia Clermont; Mullen, Michael K.

    1983-01-01

    The major portion of the Great Heath, comprising 2,645 acres in the Cherryfield quadrangle, Washington County, Maine, generally averaging 13 feet in thickness, but with as great an average as 15 feet, contain an estimated 6,953 ,000 short tons air-dried peat. The peat #s chiefly sphagnum moss with some reed-sedge of high quality according to ASTM standards for agricultural and horticultural use. This same volume of peat may be considered for use as fuel because BTO per pound ranges from 8,600 to 10,500 with low sulfur and high hydrogen contents.

  10. The Monte Carlo code MCSHAPE: Main features and recent developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scot, Viviana; Fernandez, Jorge E.

    2015-06-01

    MCSHAPE is a general purpose Monte Carlo code developed at the University of Bologna to simulate the diffusion of X- and gamma-ray photons with the special feature of describing the full evolution of the photon polarization state along the interactions with the target. The prevailing photon-matter interactions in the energy range 1-1000 keV, Compton and Rayleigh scattering and photoelectric effect, are considered. All the parameters that characterize the photon transport can be suitably defined: (i) the source intensity, (ii) its full polarization state as a function of energy, (iii) the number of collisions, and (iv) the energy interval and resolution of the simulation. It is possible to visualize the results for selected groups of interactions. MCSHAPE simulates the propagation in heterogeneous media of polarized photons (from synchrotron sources) or of partially polarized sources (from X-ray tubes). In this paper, the main features of MCSHAPE are illustrated with some examples and a comparison with experimental data.

  11. Geological significance of features observed in Colorado from orbital altitudes. [using EREP and LANDSAT imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawatzky, D. L.; Prost, G. L.; Lee, K.; Knepper, D. H.

    1975-01-01

    Three major investigations using LANDSAT and Skylab imagery concerned with analyses of color anomalies and linear features of central Colorado are discussed. The studies conducted are concerned with the geological significance of spectral and spatial features on the images. Color anomalies in Skylab photographs were analyzed and evaluated for locating indicators of mineralization. The relationships were determined of all linear features in a LANDSAT image to the rock joint systems and the detectable larger geologic structures; techniques for extracting that geologic information are indicated. Some anomalous megalinear features in LANDSAT and Skylab images are analyzed which transect major structures and, their associated geologic features are described.

  12. The oceanic islands - Azores. [geological, geophysical and geochemical features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ridley, W. I.; Watkins, N. D.; Macfarlane, D. J.

    1974-01-01

    A presentation is made of the known geological, geophysical, and geochemical data on the Azores. The regional setting of the islands is described; under the geological heading, surface geology and petrochemistry are discussed; and paleomagnetism, marine magnetic surveys, gravity, seismology, and heat flow are treated in the geophysics category. A model for the origin of the Azores is constructed on the basis of these observations.

  13. Geological features and evolution history of Sinus Iridum, the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Le; Xiao, Long; Zhao, Jiannan; Huang, Qian; Haruyama, Junichi

    2014-10-01

    The Sinus Iridum region is one of the important candidate landing areas for the future Chinese lunar robotic and human missions. Considering its flat topography, abundant geomorphic features and complex evolutionary history, this region shows great significance to both lunar science and landing exploration, including powered descent, surface trafficability and in-situ exploration. First, we use Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Altimeter (LOLA) and Camera (LROC) data to characterize regional topographic and geomorphological features within Sinus Iridum, e.g., wrinkle ridges and sinuous rilles. Then, we deduce the iron and titanium content for the mare surface using the Clementine ultraviolet-visible (UVVIS) data and generate mineral absorption features using the Chandrayaan-1 Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) spectrometer data. Later, we date the mare surface using crater size-frequency distribution (CSFD) method. CSFD measurements show that this region has experienced four major lava infilling events with model ages ranging from 3.32 Ga to 2.50 Ga. The regional magmatic activities evolved from Imbrian-aged low-titanium to Eratosthenian-aged medium-titanium. The inner Sinus Iridum is mainly composed of pyroxene-rich basalts with olivine abundance increasing with time, while the surrounding highlands have a feldspar-dominated composition. In the northern wall of Sinus Iridum, some potential olivine-rich materials directly excavated from the lunar mantle are visible. The Sinus Iridum region is an ideal target for future landing exploration, we propose two candidate landing sites for the future Chinese robotic and human missions.

  14. Maps of Lunar Topographic Roughness: Correlation with Geological Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreslavsky, M. A.; Head, J. W.; Neumann, G. A.; Zuber, M. T.; Smith, D. E.

    2012-12-01

    Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter LOLA [Smith et al. 2010 Space Sci. Rev. 150, 209] on board the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter is accumulating high-precision lunar surface elevation measurements. This data set is an excellent source for mapping lunar topographic roughness [Rosenburg et al. 2011 JGR 116, E02001]. Such maps are useful in planetary geology for the following reasons. (1) Roughness maps provide a convenient one-glance synoptic overview of small-scale textures. (2) They help focus on typical background topography, while researcher's eyes usually pick prominent features. (3) Roughness maps utilize the exceptional along-orbit precision of laser altimeter data. In a series of roughness maps that we present here, we use the interquartile range of along-profile curvature at a given baseline as a measure of roughness. We use a progression of baselines starting from the double LOLA probing step: 0.12, 0.46, 0.92, 1.8 km. We also show some useful color composites combining these maps and showing the scale dependence of roughness. Available data allow roughness mapping at 8 pixels per degree resolution. The nature of the lunar roughness changes abruptly at sub-km scale. At 0.46 km baseline and longer, the most prominent feature on the roughness maps is the dichotomy between smooth maria and rough highlands. At 0.12 km baseline, the mare/highland boundary disappears; some mare surfaces are rougher and some are smoother than typical highlands. At this baseline the surface topography is controlled by regolith gardening and reflects small-scale resurfacing during the Copernican and Eratosthenian periods, while for longer baselines the topography is defined by bedrock geology and "remembers" Imbrian and earlier events. At short scales (0.12 km baseline) both the roughest and the smoothest terrains are related to Copernican-aged large impact craters. Craters themselves and their proximal ejecta are extremely rough; the roughest ejecta is separated from craters by prominent

  15. Field occurrences of liquefaction-induced features: A primer for engineering geologic analysis of paleoseismic shaking

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Obermeier, S.F.; Olson, S.M.; Green, R.A.

    2005-01-01

    Discussed in this paper are the factors that control the typical manifestations of liquefaction that are found in continental field settings. The factors are given mainly in terms of the local geologic field situation and the geotechnical properties there. A meaningful interpretation of liquefaction-based data for quantitative analysis of paleoseismic shaking requires understanding of both geologic and geotechnical roles in the mode of ground failure at a specific site. Recommendations are made for the size of the field area that must be searched for liquefaction effects, in order to develop adequate data for engineering geologic/geotechnical analyses of paleoseismicity. The areal extent must be based on an appreciation that the tectonic situation can cause seismically induced liquefaction effects to form in some locales, but not in others nearby, even for a strong earthquake in the region. Our guidelines for the conduct of the field search and preliminary analysis of the data relate to three issues for which liquefaction features are especially useful in answering: Has there been strong Holocene/latest Pleistocene shaking in the region? Where was the tectonic source? And what was the strength of shaking? Understanding of the various factors that control the manifestations of liquefaction effects, which we present in this paper, is essential for developing credible answers to these questions. ?? 2004 Elsvier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Geological Features Study of the Lunar Surface Using the Lunar Remote Sensing Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuping, G.; Yanmei, Y.

    2009-03-01

    Taking typical craters of lunar surface as the test areas, using the Clementine UVVIS, NIR and lidar data, we study the relationship between the geological features and physiognomy, analyze the rule of lithology or mineral distribution of the lunar.

  17. View of Feature 2, the remains of the Geology/Change Room, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Feature 2, the remains of the Geology/Change Room, view to the southeast - Orphan Lode Mine, North of West Rim Road between Powell Point and Maricopa Point, South Rim, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  18. Use and Features of Basalt Formations for Geologic Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    McGrail, B. Peter; Ho, Anita M.; Reidel, Steve P.; Schaef, Herbert T.

    2003-01-01

    Extrusive lava flows of basalt are a potential host medium for geologic sequestration of anthropogenic CO2. Flood basalts and other large igneous provinces occur worldwide near population and power-producing centers and could securely sequester a significant fraction of global CO2 emissions. We describe the location, extent, and general physical and chemical characteristics of large igneous provinces that satisfy requirements as a good host medium for CO2 sequestration. Most lava flows have vesicular flow tops and bottoms as well as interflow zones that are porous and permeable and serve as regional aquifers. Additionally, basalt is iron-rich, and, under the proper conditions of groundwater pH, temperature, and pressure, injected CO2 will react with iron released from dissolution of primary minerals in the basalt to form stable ferrous carbonate minerals. Conversion of CO2 gas into a solid form was confirmed in laboratory experiments with supercritical CO2 in contact with basalt samples from Washington state.

  19. Spectral Analysis of Hyperion, ALI, SPOT and ASTER Data to Characterize Geological Features in Northern Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmood, Syed Amer; Liesenberg, Veraldo; Wijaya, Arief; Shahzad, Faisal; Siddiqui, Saima; Gloaguen, Richard

    2010-12-01

    In this investigation, we intend to evaluate at which degree geomorphological features can be characterized from both hyperspectral and multispectral data in Chitral Region, Eastern Hindukush (N. Pakistan). We apply Minimum Noise Fraction-Transformation (MNF) for data quality assessment and noise reduction as well as Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) for classification purposes. Input data for this process was both corrected atmospherically and geometrically. The selection of the classes was based on inspection of previously published geologic maps and field work of the study area supported by the visual interpretation of high spatial resolution data. Preliminary results showed that hyperspectral data were better than multispectral data for lithology and the geological structure examination. The complementary use of the high spatial resolution of SPOT-5 was useful to characterize some main lithologic units by visual interpretation and selection of endmembers. However, classification results were affected by the steep and rugged topography that was responsible for reflectance value changes due to different degrees of exposure of the units and the generation of spectral endmembers with some degrees of uncertainties. Further investigations will include illumination and exposure effect correction based on a non-Lambertian assumption as well as seasonal remote sensing data analysis.

  20. Geology and Origin of Europa's Mitten Feature (Murias Chaos)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Figueredo, P. H.; Chuang, F. C.; Rathbun, J.; Kirk, R. L.; Greeley, R.

    2002-01-01

    The "Mitten" (provisionally named Murias Chaos by the International Astronomical Union) is a region of elevated chaos-like terrain in the leading hemisphere of Europa. Its origin had been explained under the currently debated theories of melting through a thin lithosphere or convection within a thick one. Galileo observations reveal several characteristics that suggest that the Mitten is distinct from typical chaos terrain and point to a different formational process. Photoclinometric elevation estimates suggest that the Mitten is slightly elevated with respect to the surrounding terrain; geologic relations indicate that it must have raised significantly from the plains in its past, resembling disrupted domes on Europa's trailing hemisphere. Moreover, the Mitten material appears to have extruded onto the plains and flowed for tens of kilometers. The area subsequently subsided as a result of isostatic adjustment, viscous relaxation, and/or plains loading. Using plate flexure models, we estimated the elastic lithosphere in the area to be several kilometers thick. We propose that the Mitten originated by the ascent and extrusion of a large thermal diapir. Thermal-mechanical modeling shows that a Mitten-sized plume would remain sufficiently warm and buoyant to pierce through the crust and flow unconfined on the surface. Such a diapir probably had an initial radius between 5 and 8 km and an initial depth of 20-40 km, consistent with a thick-lithosphere model. In this scenario the Mitten appears to represent the surface expression of the rare ascent of a large diapir, in contrast to lenticulae and chaos terrain, which may form by isolated and clustered small diapirs, respectively.

  1. Geology and origin of Europa's "Mitten" feature (Murias Chaos)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Figueredo, P.H.; Chuang, F.C.; Rathbun, J.; Kirk, R.L.; Greeley, R.

    2002-01-01

    The "Mitten" (provisionally named Murias Chaos by the International Astronomical Union) is a region of elevated chaos-like terrain in the leading hemisphere of Europa. Its origin had been explained under the currently debated theories of melting through a thin lithosphere or convection within a thick one. Galileo observations reveal several characteristics that suggest that the Mitten is distinct from typical chaos terrain and point to a different formational process. Photoclinometric elevation estimates suggest that the Mitten is slightly elevated with respect to the surrounding terrain; geologic relations indicate that it must have raised significantly from the plains in its past, resembling disrupted domes on Europa's trailing hemisphere. Moreover, the Mitten material appears to have extruded onto the plains and flowed for tens of kilometers. The area subsequently subsided as a result of isostatic adjustment, viscous relaxation, and/or plains loading. Using plate flexure models, we estimated the elastic lithosphere in the area to be several kilometers thick. We propose that the Mitten originated by the ascent and extrusion of a large thermal diapir. Thermal-mechanical modeling shows that a Mitten-sized plume would remain sufficiently warm and buoyant to pierce through the crust and flow unconfined on the surface. Such a diapir probably had an initial radius between 5 and 8 km and an initial depth of 20-40 km, consistent with a thick-lithosphere model. In this scenario the Mitten appears to represent the surface expression of the rare ascent of a large diapir, in contrast to lenticulae and chaos terrain, which may form by isolated and clustered small diapirs, respectively.

  2. A nonlinear controlling function of geological features on magmatic–hydrothermal mineralization

    PubMed Central

    Zuo, Renguang

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports a nonlinear controlling function of geological features on magmatic–hydrothermal mineralization, and proposes an alternative method to measure the spatial relationships between geological features and mineral deposits using multifractal singularity theory. It was observed that the greater the proximity to geological controlling features, the greater the number of mineral deposits developed, indicating a nonlinear spatial relationship between these features and mineral deposits. This phenomenon can be quantified using the relationship between the numbers of mineral deposits N(ε) of a D-dimensional set and the scale of ε. The density of mineral deposits can be expressed as ρ(ε) = Cε−(De−a), where ε is the buffer width of geological controlling features, De is Euclidean dimension of space (=2 in this case), a is singularity index, and C is a constant. The expression can be rewritten as ρ = Cεa−2. When a < 2, there is a significant spatial correlation between specific geological features and mineral deposits; lower a values indicate a more significant spatial correlation. This nonlinear relationship and the advantages of this method were illustrated using a case study from Fujian Province in China and a case study from Baguio district in Philippines. PMID:27255794

  3. A nonlinear controlling function of geological features on magmatic-hydrothermal mineralization.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Renguang

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports a nonlinear controlling function of geological features on magmatic-hydrothermal mineralization, and proposes an alternative method to measure the spatial relationships between geological features and mineral deposits using multifractal singularity theory. It was observed that the greater the proximity to geological controlling features, the greater the number of mineral deposits developed, indicating a nonlinear spatial relationship between these features and mineral deposits. This phenomenon can be quantified using the relationship between the numbers of mineral deposits N(ε) of a D-dimensional set and the scale of ε. The density of mineral deposits can be expressed as ρ(ε) = Cε(-(De-a)), where ε is the buffer width of geological controlling features, De is Euclidean dimension of space (=2 in this case), a is singularity index, and C is a constant. The expression can be rewritten as ρ = Cε(a-2). When a < 2, there is a significant spatial correlation between specific geological features and mineral deposits; lower a values indicate a more significant spatial correlation. This nonlinear relationship and the advantages of this method were illustrated using a case study from Fujian Province in China and a case study from Baguio district in Philippines. PMID:27255794

  4. A nonlinear controlling function of geological features on magmatic–hydrothermal mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Renguang

    2016-06-01

    This paper reports a nonlinear controlling function of geological features on magmatic–hydrothermal mineralization, and proposes an alternative method to measure the spatial relationships between geological features and mineral deposits using multifractal singularity theory. It was observed that the greater the proximity to geological controlling features, the greater the number of mineral deposits developed, indicating a nonlinear spatial relationship between these features and mineral deposits. This phenomenon can be quantified using the relationship between the numbers of mineral deposits N(ε) of a D-dimensional set and the scale of ε. The density of mineral deposits can be expressed as ρ(ε) = Cε‑(De‑a), where ε is the buffer width of geological controlling features, De is Euclidean dimension of space (=2 in this case), a is singularity index, and C is a constant. The expression can be rewritten as ρ = Cεa‑2. When a < 2, there is a significant spatial correlation between specific geological features and mineral deposits; lower a values indicate a more significant spatial correlation. This nonlinear relationship and the advantages of this method were illustrated using a case study from Fujian Province in China and a case study from Baguio district in Philippines.

  5. Features of surface topography and the geological activity of Pluto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidmachenko, A. P.

    2016-05-01

    According to the data "New Horizons" of the spacecraft, researchers were able to specify the diameter of Pluto-2374 km. Its surface temperature in the equatorial region varies from 33 to 55 K over the planet's orbital period around the Sun in ~248 years. Presumably the surface of Pluto has a rocky base covered with a mantle of water ice, of frozen methane, nitrogen, ammonia and CO. Due to the large eccentricity of the orbit of Pluto, as it approaches the Sun, the ice melts, and the atmosphere is formed mainly of nitrogen and methane; while removing of the planet from the Sun - the atmosphere freezes out again.

  6. Topographic attributes as a guide for automated detection or highlighting of geological features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viseur, Sophie; Le Men, Thibaud; Guglielmi, Yves

    2015-04-01

    Photogrammetry or LIDAR technology combined with photography allow geoscientists to obtain 3D high-resolution numerical representations of outcrops, generally termed as Digital Outcrop Models (DOM). For over a decade, these 3D numerical outcrops serve as support for precise and accurate interpretations of geological features such as fracture traces or plans, strata, facies mapping, etc. These interpretations have the benefit to be directly georeferenced and embedded into the 3D space. They are then easily integrated into GIS or geomodeler softwares for modelling in 3D the subsurface geological structures. However, numerical outcrops generally represent huge data sets that are heavy to manipulate and hence to interpret. This may be particularly tedious as soon as several scales of geological features must be investigated or as geological features are very dense and imbricated. Automated tools for interpreting geological features from DOMs would be then a significant help to process these kinds of data. Such technologies are commonly used for interpreting seismic or medical data. However, it may be noticed that even if many efforts have been devoted to easily and accurately acquire 3D topographic point clouds and photos and to visualize accurate 3D textured DOMs, few attentions have been paid to the development of algorithms for automated detection of the geological structures from DOMs. The automatic detection of objects on numerical data generally assumes that signals or attributes computed from this data allows the recognition of the targeted object boundaries. The first step consists then in defining attributes that highlight the objects or their boundaries. For DOM interpretations, some authors proposed to use differential operators computed on the surface such as normal or curvatures. These methods generally extract polylines corresponding to fracture traces or bed limits. Other approaches rely on the PCA technology to segregate different topographic plans

  7. Spatial Pattern of Groundwater Arsenic Occurrence and Association with Bedrock Geology in Greater Augusta, Maine, USA

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qiang; Jung, Hun Bok; Culbertson, Charles W.; Marvinney, Robert G.; Loiselle, Marc C.; Locke, Daniel B.; Cheek, Heidi; Thibodeau, Hilary; Zheng, Yan

    2009-01-01

    In New England, groundwater arsenic occurrence has been linked to bedrock geology on regional scales. To ascertain and quantify this linkage at intermediate (100-101 km) scales, 790 groundwater samples from fractured bedrock aquifers in the greater Augusta, Maine area are analyzed. 31% of the sampled wells have arsenic >10 μg/L. The probability of [As] exceeding 10 μg/L mapped by indicator kriging is highest in Silurian pelite-sandstone and pelite-limestone units (~40%). This probability differs significantly (p<0.001) from those in the Silurian-Ordovician sandstone (24%), the Devonian granite (15%) and the Ordovician-Cambrian volcanic rocks (9%). The spatial pattern of groundwater arsenic distribution resembles the bedrock map. Thus, bedrock geology is associated with arsenic occurrence in fractured bedrock aquifers of the study area at intermediate scales relevant to water resources planning. The arsenic exceedance rate for each rock unit is considered robust because low, medium and high arsenic occurrences in 4 cluster areas (3-20 km2) with a low sampling density of 1-6 wells per km2 are comparable to those with a greater density of 5-42 wells per km2. About 12,000 people (21% of the population) in the greater Augusta area (~1135 km2) are at risk of exposure to >10 μg/L arsenic in groundwater. PMID:19475939

  8. Spatial pattern of groundwater arsenic occurrence and association with bedrock geology in greater augusta, maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yang, Q.; Jung, H.B.; Culbertson, C.W.; Marvinney, R.G.; Loiselle, M.C.; Locke, D.B.; Cheek, H.; Thibodeau, H.; Zheng, Yen

    2009-01-01

    In New England, groundwater arsenic occurrence has been linked to bedrock geology on regional scales. To ascertain and quantify this linkage at intermediate (100-101 km) scales, 790 groundwater samples from fractured bedrock aquifers in the greater Augusta, Maine area are analyzed, and 31% of the sampled wells have arsenic concentrations >10 ??g/L. The probability of [As] exceeding 10 ??g/L mapped by indicator kriging is highest in Silurian pelite-sandstone and pelite-limestone units (???40%). This probability differs significantly (p < 0.001) from those in the Silurian - Ordovician sandstone (24%), the Devonian granite (15%), and the Ordovician - Cambrian volcanic rocks (9%). The spatial pattern of groundwater arsenic distribution resembles the bedrock map. Thus, bedrock geology is associated with arsenic occurrence in fractured bedrock aquifers of the study area at intermediate scales relevant to water resources planning. The arsenic exceedance rate for each rock unit is considered robust because low, medium, and high arsenic occurrences in four cluster areas (3-20 km2) with a low sampling density of 1-6 wells per km2 are comparable to those with a greater density of 5-42 wells per km2. About 12,000 people (21% of the population) in the greater Augusta area (???1135 km2) are at risk of exposure to >10 ??g/L arsenic in groundwater. ?? 2009 American Chemical Society.

  9. Spatial pattern of groundwater arsenic occurrence and association with bedrock geology in greater Augusta, Maine.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qiang; Jung, Hun Bok; Culbertson, Charles W; Marvinney, Robert G; Loiselle, Marc C; Locke, Daniel B; Cheek, Heidi; Thibodeau, Hilary; Zheng, Yan

    2009-04-15

    In New England, groundwater arsenic occurrence has been linked to bedrock geology on regional scales. To ascertain and quantify this linkage at intermediate (10(0)-10(1) km) scales, 790 groundwater samples from fractured bedrock aquifers in the greater Augusta, Maine area are analyzed, and 31% of the sampled wells have arsenic concentrations >10 microg/L. The probability of [As] exceeding 10 microg/L mapped by indicator kriging is highest in Silurian pelite-sandstone and pelite-limestone units (approximately 40%). This probability differs significantly (p < 0.001) from those in the Silurian-Ordovician sandstone (24%),the Devonian granite (15%), and the Ordovician-Cambrian volcanic rocks (9%). The spatial pattern of groundwater arsenic distribution resembles the bedrock map. Thus, bedrock geology is associated with arsenic occurrence in fractured bedrock aquifers of the study area at intermediate scales relevant to water resources planning. The arsenic exceedance rate for each rock unit is considered robust because low, medium, and high arsenic occurrences in four cluster areas (3-20 km2) with a low sampling density of 1-6 wells per km2 are comparable to those with a greater density of 5-42 wells per km2. About 12,000 people (21% of the population) in the greater Augusta area (approximately 1135 km2) are at risk of exposure to >10 microg/L arsenic in groundwater. PMID:19475939

  10. Framework for a U.S. Geological Survey Hydrologic Climate-Response Program in Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hodgkins, Glenn A.; Lent, Robert M.; Dudley, Robert W.; Schalk, Charles W.

    2009-01-01

    It is important to monitor hydrologic systems in the United States that could change dramatically over the short term as a result of climate change. Many ecological effects of climate change can be understood only if hydrologic data networks are in place. Because of its humid, temperate climate and its substantial annual snowpack, Maine's seasonal water cycle is sensitive to air temperature changes (Hodgkins and others, 2003). Monitoring of relevant hydrologic data would provide important baseline information against which future climate change can be measured. A series of recent investigations by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has documented changes in several components of the water cycle, including earlier snowmelt runoff in Maine during the last 30 to 40 years (Hodgkins and others, 2003), earlier lake- and river-ice breakups (Hodgkins and others, 2002; Hodgkins and others, 2005), and a denser and thinner late-winter snowpack (Hodgkins and Dudley, 2006). Snowmelt runoff timing was measured as the date, each year, by which half of the total winter-spring streamflow passed a streamflow-gaging station. Historical snowmelt runoff timing for the Piscataquis River in central Maine is shown in figure 1 as an example. Results of climate projections input to hydrologic models indicate that hydrologic trends, such as earlier spring snowmelt runoff, are expected to continue into the future (Hayhoe and others, 2007). These trends could affect species at the southern edge of their range in Maine, such as Atlantic salmon and Canada lynx, and may also affect availability of water for human use. This fact sheet describes the framework of a hydrologic climate-response program that would improve understanding of the effects of future climate change in Maine.

  11. Scaling filtering and multiplicative cascade information integration techniques for geological, geophysical and geochemical data processing and geological feature recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Q.

    2013-12-01

    This paper introduces several techniques recently developed based on the concepts of multiplicative cascade processes and multifractals for processing exploration geochemical and geophysical data for recognition of geological features and delineation of target areas for undiscovered mineral deposits. From a nonlinear point of view extreme geo-processes such as cloud formation, rainfall, hurricanes, flooding, landslides, earthquakes, igneous activities, tectonics and mineralization often show singular property that they may result in anomalous amounts of energy release or mass accumulation that generally are confined to narrow intervals in space or time. The end products of these non-linear processes have in common that they can be modeled as fractals or multifractals. Here we show that the three fundamental concepts of scaling in the context of multifractals: singularity, self-similarity and fractal dimension spectrum, make multifractal theory and methods useful for geochemical and geophysical data processing for general purposes of geological features recognition. These methods include: a local singularity analysis based on a area-density (C-A) multifractal model used as a scaling high-pass filtering technique capable of extracting weak signals caused by buried geological features; a suite of multifractal filtering techniques based on spectrum density - area (S-A) multifractal models implemented in various domain including frequency domain can be used for unmixing geochemical or geophysical fields according to distinct generalized self-similarities characterized in certain domain; and multiplicative cascade processes for integration of diverse evidential layers of information for prediction of point events such as location of mineral deposits. It is demonstrated by several case studies involving Fe, Sn, Mo-Ag and Mo-W mineral deposits that singularity method can be utilized to process stream sediment/soil geochemical data and gravity/aeromagnetic data as high

  12. Geology

    SciTech Connect

    Reidel, Stephen P.

    2008-01-17

    This chapter summarizes the geology of the single-shell tank (SST) farms in the context of the region’s geologic history. This chapter is based on the information in the geology data package for the SST waste management areas and SST RFI Appendix E, which builds upon previous reports on the tank farm geology and Integrated Disposal Facility geology with information available after those reports were published.

  13. Geological feature selection in reservoir modelling and history matching with Multiple Kernel Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demyanov, V.; Backhouse, L.; Christie, M.

    2015-12-01

    There is a continuous challenge in identifying and propagating geologically realistic features into reservoir models. Many of the contemporary geostatistical algorithms are limited by various modelling assumptions, like stationarity or Gaussianity. Another related challenge is to ensure the realistic geological features introduced into a geomodel are preserved during the model update in history matching studies, when the model properties are tuned to fit the flow response to production data. The above challenges motivate exploration and application of other statistical approaches to build and calibrate reservoir models, in particular, methods based on statistical learning. The paper proposes a novel data driven approach - Multiple Kernel Learning (MKL) - for modelling porous property distributions in sub-surface reservoirs. Multiple Kernel Learning aims to extract relevant spatial features from spatial patterns and to combine them in a non-linear way. This ability allows to handle multiple geological scenarios, which represent different spatial scales and a range of modelling concepts/assumptions. Multiple Kernel Learning is not restricted by deterministic or statistical modelling assumptions and, therefore, is more flexible for modelling heterogeneity at different scales and integrating data and knowledge. We demonstrate an MKL application to a problem of history matching based on a diverse prior information embedded into a range of possible geological scenarios. MKL was able to select the most influential prior geological scenarios and fuse the selected spatial features into a multi-scale property model. The MKL was applied to Brugge history matching benchmark example by calibrating the parameters of the MKL reservoir model parameters to production data. The history matching results were compared to the ones obtained from other contemporary approaches - EnKF and kernel PCA with stochastic optimisation.

  14. Skylab-4 visual observations project: Geological features of southwestern North America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silver, L. T.

    1975-01-01

    Visual observations conducted by Skylab-4 crewmen on seven designated geological target areas and other targets of opportunity in parts of southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico were described. The experiments were designed to learn how effectively geologic features could be observed from orbit and what research information could be obtained from the observations when supported by ground studies. For the limited preparation they received, the crewmen demonstrated exceptional observational ability and produced outstanding photographic studies. They also formulated cogent opinions on how to improve future observational and photo-documentation techniques. From the photographs and other observations, it was possible to obtain significant research contributions to on-going field investigations. These contributions were integrated into other aspects of the ground investigations to the following topics: major faults, regional stratigraphy, occurrence of Precambrian crystalline rocks, mapping of Mesozoic volcanic rocks, regional geology.

  15. Spatial analysis of geologic and hydrologic features relating to sinkhole occurrence in Jefferson County, West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doctor, Daniel H.; Doctor, Katarina Z.

    2012-01-01

    In this study the influence of geologic features related to sinkhole susceptibility was analyzed and the results were mapped for the region of Jefferson County, West Virginia. A model of sinkhole density was constructed using Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) that estimated the relations among discrete geologic or hydrologic features and sinkhole density at each sinkhole location. Nine conditioning factors on sinkhole occurrence were considered as independent variables: distance to faults, fold axes, fracture traces oriented along bedrock strike, fracture traces oriented across bedrock strike, ponds, streams, springs, quarries, and interpolated depth to groundwater. GWR model parameter estimates for each variable were evaluated for significance, and the results were mapped. The results provide visual insight into the influence of these variables on localized sinkhole density, and can be used to provide an objective means of weighting conditioning factors in models of sinkhole susceptibility or hazard risk.

  16. Sapping Features of the Colorado Plateau: a Comparative Planetary Geology Field Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Alan D. (Editor); Kochel, R. Craig (Editor); Holt, Henry E. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    This book is an attempt to determine geomorphic criteria to be used to distinguish between channels formed predominantly by sapping and seepage erosion and those formed principally by surface runoff processes. The geologic nature of the Colorado Plateau has resulted in geomorphic features that show similarities to some areas on Mars, especially certain valley networks within thick sandstone formations. Where spring sapping is an effective process, the valleys that develop are unique in terms of their morphology and network pattern.

  17. Hydrologic characterization of faults and other potentially conductive geologic features in the unsaturated zone

    SciTech Connect

    Javandel, I.; Shan, C.

    1990-01-01

    The capability of characterizing near-vertical faults and other potentially highly conductive geologic features in the vicinity of a high-level-waste repository is of great importance in site characterization of underground waste-isolation projects. The possibility of using transient air pressure data at depth for characterizing these features in the unsaturated zone are investigated. Analytical solutions for calculating the pressure response of such systems are presented. Solutions are given for two types of barometric pressure fluctuations, step function and sinusoidal. 3 refs., 9 figs.

  18. Geologic map of the Sherbrooke-Lewiston area, Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont, United States, and Quebec, Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moench, R.H.; Boone, G.M.; Bothner, W.A.; Boudette, E.L.; Hatch, N.L., Jr.; Hussey, A. M., III; Marvinney, R.G.

    1995-01-01

    This map is part of a folio of maps of the Lewiston I o x 2° quadrangle, Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont, and part of the Sherbrooke I o x 2° quadrangle, Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont, United States, and Quebec, Canada, prepared under the Conterminous United States Mineral Assessment Program (CUSMAP). Adjacent areas in Quebec are shown, in order to illustrate the geologic continuity between northwestern Maine and northern Vermont and New Hampshire. Other results of the project are contained in reports by Nowlan and others (1990a,b,c; stream sediment geochemistry), and Cox (1990; potential tin resources related to the White Mountain Plutonic-Volcanic Suite), Bothner and others (in press; complete Bouguer gravity and aeromagnetic maps), Moench and Boudette (in press, geologic synthesis and mineral occurrence map), and Moench (in press; metallic mineral resources).

  19. Geological structures from televiewer logs of GT-2, Fenton Hill, New Mexico: Part 1, Feature extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, K.L.

    1987-07-01

    Patterns in reflected sonic intensity recognized during examination of televiewer logs of basement gneiss at the Hot Dry Rock Site, Fenton Hill, New Mexico, are due to geological fractures and foliations and to incipient breakouts. These features are obscured by artifacts caused by wellbore ellipticity, tool off-centering, and tool oscillations. An interactive method, developed for extraction of the structural features (fractures and foliations), uses human perception as a pattern detector and a chi-square test of harmonic form as a pattern discriminator. From imagery of GT-2, 733 structures were recovered. The acceptance rate of the discriminator was 54%. Despite these positive results, the general conclusion of this study is that intensity-mode imagery from Fenton Hill is not directly invertible for geological information because of the complexity of the televiewer imaging process. Developing a forward model of the intensity-imaging process, or converting to caliper-mode imagery, or doing both, will be necessary for high-fidelity feature extraction from televiewer data.

  20. Geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, R. K.; Sabins, F. F., Jr.; Rowan, L. C.; Short, N. M.

    1975-01-01

    Papers from private industry reporting applications of remote sensing to oil and gas exploration were presented. Digitally processed LANDSAT images were successfully employed in several geologic interpretations. A growing interest in digital image processing among the geologic user community was shown. The papers covered a wide geographic range and a wide technical and application range. Topics included: (1) oil and gas exploration, by use of radar and multisensor studies as well as by use of LANDSAT imagery or LANDSAT digital data, (2) mineral exploration, by mapping from LANDSAT and Skylab imagery and by LANDSAT digital processing, (3) geothermal energy studies with Skylab imagery, (4) environmental and engineering geology, by use of radar or LANDSAT and Skylab imagery, (5) regional mapping and interpretation, and digital and spectral methods.

  1. Yasny lode-placer cluster: Geological and structural features and gold potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mel'nikov, A. V.; Stepanov, V. A.

    2014-03-01

    The geological and structural features and gold potential of the Yasny lode-placer cluster in Amur province have been investigated. The lode-placer cluster is an intrusive domal uplift elongated in the nearmeridional direction and surrounded by Neogene loose sediments. The cluster comprises placers that yielded 15 t gold mined from there and small occurrences of gold-quartz and gold-base-metal lodes. Association of native gold with cinnabar in the Yasny Creek placer allows us to forecast a new source of gold-mercury mineralization in the basin of this creek, which could be compared with the Kyuchyus deposit in Yakutia. Gold nuggets 79 kg in total weight were mined from Gar-2 River placer. They are comparable in weight and association with quartz to the world's largest Holtermann Plate nugget from Australia. Gold-quartz lodes have been forecasted in the basin of the Gar-2 Creek.

  2. Effects of some common geological features on two-dimensional variably saturated flow

    SciTech Connect

    Bagtzoglou, A.C.; Ababou, R.; Sagar, B.; Islam, M.R.

    1993-12-31

    This paper presents results of unsaturated flow simulations undertaken as an auxiliary analysis for the Iterative Performance Assessment (IPA) project, one of the approaches adopted by the U.S. NRC to develop repository license application review capabilities. The effects on flow of common geological features, such as nonhorizontal stratification and vertical or near-vertical fault zones intersecting the strata, in a two-dimensional (2D) domain are studied. Results indicate that the presence of layers and crosscutting fault zones tend to induce three-dimensional (3D) unstable flows in the unsaturated zone. The instability is manifested in our simulations by an oscillatory behavior of steady state. This numerical instability imposes extremely stringent criteria on the time step used in the simulation. Finally, once stable steady-state solutions are attained, the effect of the crossing point in the matrix-fault unsaturated hydraulic conductivity curve on groundwater flux vectors and moisture content distributions is studied.

  3. Geological features of Subduction Transfer Edge Propagator (STEP) faults, examples from the Betics and Rif

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth-Rea, Guillermo; Pérez-Peña, Vicente; Azañón, José Miguel; de Lis Mancilla, Flor; Morales, Jose; Stich, Daniel; Giaconia, Flavio

    2014-05-01

    Most of the geological features of the Betics and Rif have resulted from slab tearing, edge delamination and punctual slab breakoff events between offset STEP faults. New P-reciever function data of the deep structure under the Betics and Rif have helped to map the deep boundaries of slab tearing and rupture in the area. Linking surface geological features with the deep structure shows that STEP faulting under the Betics occurred along ENE-WSW segments offset towards the south, probably do to the westward narrowing of the Tethys slab. The surface expression of STEP faulting at the Betics consists of ENE-WSW dextral strike-slip fault segments like the Crevillente, Alpujarras or Torcal faults that are interrupted by basins and elongated extensional domes were exhumed HP middle crust occurs. Exhumation of deep crust erases the effects of strike-slip faulting in the overlying brittle crust. Slab tearing affected the eastern Betics during the Tortonian to Messinian, producing the Fortuna and Lorca basins, and later propagated westward generating the end-Messinian to Pleistocene Guadix-Baza basins and the Granada Pliocene-Pleistocene depocentre. At present slab tearing is occurring beneath the Málaga depression, where the Torcal dextral strike-slip fault ends in a region of active distributed shortening and where intermediate depth seismicity occurs. STEP fault migration has occurred at average rates between 2 and 4 cm/yr since the late Miocene, producing a wave of alternating uplift-subsidence pulses. These initiate with uplift related to slab flexure, subsidence related to slab-pull, followed by uplift after rupture and ending with thermal subsidence. This "yo-yo" type tectonic evolution leads to the generation of endorheic basins that later evolve to exhorheic when they are uplifted and captured above the region where asthenospheric upwelling occurs.

  4. Systematic comparison of automated geological feature detection methods for impact craters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinogradova, T.; Mjolsness, E.

    2001-12-01

    Accurate, automated crater counts will be essential in extrapolating from existing Mars crater catalogs to much larger catalogs of impact craters in high-resolution orbital imagery for use in relative dating of surfaces in such imagery. Once validated, automatic methods for performing crater counts could be integrated into tools such as the Planetary Image Atlas, which is designed to be a convenient interface through which a user can search for, display, and download images and other ancillary data for planetary Missions, and the Diamond Eye image mining system. Here we report on preliminary computational experiments in using a trainable feature detection algorithm [Burl et al. 2001] to detect craters in real and simulated Mars orbital imagery, and to derive approximate impact crater counts for geological use. In these experiments, we consider two uses of the trainable feature detector: first, directly as a crater detector, and second, as two detectors for sunlit and shadowed inner walls of craters which can then be assembled into a single crater detection based on multiple pieces of evidence. For both of these methods, we consider two data sources: one consisting of real Viking Orbiter imagery of Mars with human expert-supplied ground truth labels, and the other consisting of computer generated renderings of simplified, synthetic cratered terrain with 100% accurate ground truth labels and known, controllable crater density. Each detector reports out a numeric detection ``likelihood'' for every candidate crater. This likelihood must then be thresholded to produce a detection decision. For each combination of two data sources (one natural and one synthetic) and two crater detection methods (whole-crater and parts-model), we vary image complexity and finally measure detection accuracy. Detection accuracy is measured by a Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) curve in which detection efficiency (the fraction of true craters detected) and purity (the fraction of

  5. Structural features of eastern Tejon embayment from available seismic and subsurface data and field geology

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, E.D.; Malin, P.E.

    1988-03-01

    The temporal and spatial relationships of normal, thrust, and strikeslip faults in the eastern Tejon embayment were investigated, and an integrated study of new CALCRUST data, industrial seismic data, well data, and surface geology yielded a set of geologic cross sections and a detailed structure map. Buried normal faults, trending northeast, dominate the central embayment structure. At the basin margins, the normal faults are truncated by younger thrust faults. The Springs fault zone is a complex subvertical fault with branching reverse faults. The White Wolf fault is probably segmented and multistranded. The active, lower angle segment of the White Wolf fault may be related to buried thrust faults west of uplifted Comanche Point. Thrust faulting also may explain the presence of exhumed normal faults at Comanche Point and in the Tehachapi foothills. These exhumed normal faults are probably late Oligocene to Pliocene. The Tunis volcanics formed during a period of widespread late Oligocene-early Miocene volcanism in central California. Volcanism and the inception of normal faulting at Tejon embayment apparently predated the passing of the Mendocino triple junction. Younger volcanic rocks are also widely distributed, probably due to regional transtension that occurred south of the Mendocino triple junction. Seismic data suggest that the deepening of Tejon embayment occurred mainly during the late early and middle Miocene. Convergence beginning during the Pliocene-Pleistocene is consistent with other documented changes along the modern San Andreas fault.

  6. Influence of ecological and geological features on rangewide patterns of genetic structure in a widespread passerine

    PubMed Central

    Adams, R V; Burg, T M

    2015-01-01

    Geological and ecological features restrict dispersal and gene flow, leading to isolated populations. Dispersal barriers can be obvious physical structures in the landscape; however microgeographic differences can also lead to genetic isolation. Our study examined dispersal barriers at both macro- and micro-geographical scales in the black-capped chickadee, a resident North American songbird. Although birds have high dispersal potential, evidence suggests dispersal is restricted by barriers. The chickadee's range encompasses a number of physiological features which may impede movement and lead to divergence. Analyses of 913 individuals from 34 sampling sites across the entire range using 11 microsatellite loci revealed as many as 13 genetic clusters. Populations in the east were largely panmictic whereas populations in the western portion of the range showed significant genetic structure, which often coincided with large mountain ranges, such as the Cascade and Rocky Mountains, as well as areas of unsuitable habitat. Unlike populations in the central and southern Rockies, populations on either side of the northern Rockies were not genetically distinct. Furthermore, Northeast Oregon represents a forested island within the Great Basin; genetically isolated from all other populations. Substructuring at the microgeographical scale was also evident within the Fraser Plateau of central British Columbia, and in the southeast Rockies where no obvious physical barriers are present, suggesting additional factors may be impeding dispersal and gene flow. Dispersal barriers are therefore not restricted to large physical structures, although mountain ranges and large water bodies do play a large role in structuring populations in this study. PMID:25074576

  7. Influence of ecological and geological features on rangewide patterns of genetic structure in a widespread passerine.

    PubMed

    Adams, R V; Burg, T M

    2015-02-01

    Geological and ecological features restrict dispersal and gene flow, leading to isolated populations. Dispersal barriers can be obvious physical structures in the landscape; however microgeographic differences can also lead to genetic isolation. Our study examined dispersal barriers at both macro- and micro-geographical scales in the black-capped chickadee, a resident North American songbird. Although birds have high dispersal potential, evidence suggests dispersal is restricted by barriers. The chickadee's range encompasses a number of physiological features which may impede movement and lead to divergence. Analyses of 913 individuals from 34 sampling sites across the entire range using 11 microsatellite loci revealed as many as 13 genetic clusters. Populations in the east were largely panmictic whereas populations in the western portion of the range showed significant genetic structure, which often coincided with large mountain ranges, such as the Cascade and Rocky Mountains, as well as areas of unsuitable habitat. Unlike populations in the central and southern Rockies, populations on either side of the northern Rockies were not genetically distinct. Furthermore, Northeast Oregon represents a forested island within the Great Basin; genetically isolated from all other populations. Substructuring at the microgeographical scale was also evident within the Fraser Plateau of central British Columbia, and in the southeast Rockies where no obvious physical barriers are present, suggesting additional factors may be impeding dispersal and gene flow. Dispersal barriers are therefore not restricted to large physical structures, although mountain ranges and large water bodies do play a large role in structuring populations in this study. PMID:25074576

  8. The Main Shear Zone in Sør Rondane: A key feature for reconstructing the geodynamic evolution of East Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruppel, Antonia; Läufer, Andreas; Lisker, Frank; Jacobs, Joachim; Elburg, Marlina; Damaske, Detlef; Lucka, Nicole

    2013-04-01

    Structural investigations were carried out along the Main Shear Zone (MSZ) of western Sør Rondane (22°-25°E, 71.5°-72.5°S) to gain new information about the position of the East-/West-Gondwana suture and the ancient plate tectonic configuration during Gondwana amalgamation. The WSW-ENE striking MSZ divides south-western Sør Rondane in a northern amphibolite-facies terrane and a southern tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG) terrane. The structure can be traced over a distance of ca. 100 km and reaches several hundred meters in width. It is characterized by a right-lateral sense of movement and marked by a transpressional and also transtensional regime. Ductilely deformed granitoids (ca. 560 Ma: SHRIMP U-Pb of zircon) and ductile - brittle structures, which evolved in a transitional ductile to brittle regime in an undeformed syenite (ca. 499-459 Ma, Ar-Ar mica), provide a late Proterozoic/ early Paleozoic time limit for the activity of the shear zone (Shiraishi et al., 2008; Shiraishi et al., 1997). Documentation of ductile and brittle deformation allows reconstructing up to eight deformation stages. Cross-cutting relationships of structural features mapped in the field complemented by published kinematic data reveal the following relative age succession: [i] Dn+1 - formation of the main foliation during peak metamorphism, [ii] Dn+2 - isoclinal, intrafolial folding of the main foliation, mostly foliation-parallel mylonitic shear zones (1-2 meter thick), [iii] Dn+3 - formation of tight to closed folds, [iv] Dn+4 - formation of relatively upright, large-scale open folds, [v] Dn+5 - granitoid intrusion (e.g. Vengen granite), [vi] Dn+6 - dextral shearing between amphibolite and TTG terranes, formation of the MSZ, [vii] Dn+7 - intrusion of late- to post-tectonic granitoids, first stage of brittle deformation (late shearing along MSZ), intrusion of post-kinematic mafic dykes, [viii] Dn+8 - second stage of brittle deformation including formation of conjugate fault

  9. Geologic map of the Simcoe Mountains Volcanic Field, Main Central Segment, Yakama Nation, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hildreth, Wes; Fierstein, Judy

    2015-01-01

    Lava compositions other than various types of basalt are uncommon here. Andesite is abundant on and around Mount Adams but is very rare east of the Klickitat River. The only important nonbasaltic composition in the map area is rhyolite, which crops out in several patches around the central highland of the volcanic field, mainly in the upper canyons of Satus and Kusshi Creeks and Wilson Charley canyon. Because the rhyolites were some of the earliest lavas erupted here, they are widely concealed by later basalts and therefore crop out only in local windows eroded by canyons that cut through the overlying basalts.

  10. Phase II of the Small Main-Belt Asteroid Spectroscopic Survey. A Feature-Based Taxonomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bus, Schelte J.; Binzel, Richard P.

    2002-07-01

    The second phase of the Small Main-belt Asteroid Spectroscopic Survey (SMASSII) produced an internally consistent set of visible-wavelength charge-coupled device (CCD) spectra for 1447 asteroids (Bus and Binzel 2002, Icarus, ). These data provide a basis for developing a new asteroid taxonomy that utilizes more of the information contained in CCD spectra. Here we construct a classification system that builds on the robust framework provided by existing asteroid taxonomies. In particular, we define three major groupings (the S-, C-, and X-complexes) that adhere to the classical definitions of the S-, C-, and X-type asteroids. A total of 26 classes are defined, based on the presence or absence of specific spectral features. Definitions and boundary parameters are provided for each class, allowing new spectral observations to be placed in this system. Of these 26 classes, 12 bear familiar single-letter designations that follow previous conventions: A, B, C, D, K, O, Q, R, S, T, V, and X. A new L-class is introduced to describe 35 objects with spectra having a steep UV slope shortward of 0.75 μm, but which are relatively flat longward of 0.75 μm. Asteroids with intermediate spectral characteristics are assigned multiletter designations: Cb, Cg, Cgh, Ch, Ld, Sa, Sk, Sl, Sq, Sr, Xc, Xe, and Xk. Members of the Cgh- and Ch-classes have spectra containing a 0.7-μm feature that is generally attributed to hydration. Although previously considered featureless, CCD observations reveal distinct features of varying strengths in the spectra of asteroids in the X-complex, thus allowing the Xc-, Xe-, and Xk-classes to be established. Most notably, the spectra of Xe-type asteroids contain an absorption feature centered near 0.49 μm that may be associated with troilite. Several new members are identified for previously unique or sparsely populated classes: 12 A-types, 3 O-types, and 3 R-types. Q-types are common within the near-Earth asteroid population but remain unobserved in

  11. An analysis of the morphological, geological and structural features of Teide stratovolcano, Tenerife

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Potro, Rodrigo; Pinkerton, Harry; Hürlimann, Marcel

    2009-03-01

    A combined field, GIS and modelling study has given us new insights into the evolution and morphology of Teide stratovolcano in the central part of Tenerife. Central to our analysis was an investigation of the nature and development of a number of enigmatic morphological features, including two large 'bulges' at mid-elevation in the north-western and east-north-eastern flanks. This entailed a detailed analysis of high resolution digital elevation data, coupled with new photogeological, geological and geomorphological surveys which were examined using GIS. Our geological investigations reveal that widespread deposits on the steep northern flanks of the edifice were volcaniclastic deposits. These formed during the collapse of incandescent lava flow fronts and, possibly, domes and lobes. Careful examination of other deposits on the lower north-western flank has shown that they formed during magma-water interactions. Detailed analysis has revealed the presence of small coulée eruption vents, abrupt terminations to lava flows and vertical scarps. We were also able to confirm the presence of two nested gräben, along which there has been extensive hydrothermal alteration. Finite element modelling of the basement beneath Teide and structural stability suggest that the Teide edifice was emplaced on the headwall of the Icod island flank collapse. We conclude that the two bulges are flank vents, similar to Pico Viejo, although on a smaller scale. The presence of these flank vents suggests that conduit blockage has probably been more common than previously estimated on Teide. We suggest that future hazard mitigation measures should take into account the potential for large flank vents forming during future eruptions, the possibility of explosive activity from the central edifice, and pyroclastic density currents in front of advancing flows on the flanks of Teide.

  12. Steeply dipping heaving bedrock, Colorado: Part 1 - Heave features and physical geological framework

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Noe, D.C.; Higgins, J.D.; Olsen, H.W.

    2007-01-01

    Differentially heaving bedrock has caused severe damage near the Denver metropolitan area. This paper describes heave-feature morphologies, the underlying bedrock framework, and their inter-relationship. The heave features are linear to curvilinear and may attain heights of 0.7 m (2.4 ft), widths of 58 m (190 ft), and lengths of 1,067 m (3,500 ft). They are nearly symmetrical to highly asymmetrical in cross section, with width-to-height ratios of 45:1 to 400:1, and most are oriented parallel with the mountain front. The bedrock consists of Mesozoic sedimentary formations having dip angles of 30 degrees to vertical to overturned. Mixed claystone-siltstone bedding sequences up to 36-m (118-ft) thick are common in the heave-prone areas, and interbeds of bentonite, limestone, or sandstone may be present. Highly fractured zones of weathered to variably weathered claystone extend to depths of 19.5 to 22.3 m (64 to 73 ft). Fracture spacings are 0.1 to 0.2 m (0.3 to 0.7 ft) in the weathered and variably weathered bedrock and up to 0.75 m (2.5 ft) in the underlying, unweathered bedrock. Curvilinear shear planes in the weathered claystone show thrust or reverse offsets up to 1.2 m (3.9 ft). Three associations between heave-feature morphologies and the geological framework are recognized: (1) Linear, symmetrical to asymmetrical heaves are associated with primary bedding composition changes. (2) Linear, highly asymmetrical heaves are associated with shear planes along bedding. (3) Curvi-linear, highly asymmetrical heaves are associated with bedding-oblique shear planes.

  13. Digital field mapping for stimulating Secondary School students in the recognition of geological features and landforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giardino, Marco; Magagna, Alessandra; Ferrero, Elena; Perrone, Gianluigi

    2015-04-01

    Digital field mapping has certainly provided geoscientists with the opportunity to map and gather data in the field directly using digital tools and software rather than using paper maps, notebooks and analogue devices and then subsequently transferring the data to a digital format for subsequent analysis. But, the same opportunity has to be recognized for Geoscience education, as well as for stimulating and helping students in the recognition of landforms and interpretation of the geological and geomorphological components of a landscape. More, an early exposure to mapping during school and prior to university can optimise the ability to "read" and identify uncertainty in 3d models. During 2014, about 200 Secondary School students (aged 12-15) of the Piedmont region (NW Italy) participated in a research program involving the use of mobile devices (smartphone and tablet) in the field. Students, divided in groups, used the application Trimble Outdoors Navigators for tracking a geological trail in the Sangone Valley and for taking georeferenced pictures and notes. Back to school, students downloaded the digital data in a .kml file for the visualization on Google Earth. This allowed them: to compare the hand tracked trail on a paper map with the digital trail, and to discuss about the functioning and the precision of the tools; to overlap a digital/semitransparent version of the 2D paper map (a Regional Technical Map) used during the field trip on the 2.5D landscape of Google Earth, as to help them in the interpretation of conventional symbols such as contour lines; to perceive the landforms seen during the field trip as a part of a more complex Pleistocene glacial landscape; to understand the classical and innovative contributions from different geoscientific disciplines to the generation of a 3D structural geological model of the Rivoli-Avigliana Morainic Amphitheatre. In 2013 and 2014, some other pilot projects have been carried out in different areas of the

  14. Main features of the new software control system for the YuMO instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirilov, A. S.

    2012-03-01

    During the last years the new software instrumental complex Sonix+ has been developed at FLNP JINR to replace the former Sonix control system [1]. This complex has been tested at a number of IBR-2 instruments (REMUR, NERA-PR) and on instruments at other centers - KIA, Moscow (MOND), etc. We plan to install the new complex at the YuMO instrument as well. The Sonix+ is implemented on the PC/Windows XP platform, whereas the Sonix is based on the VME/Os-9 obsolete platform. The Sonix+ [1] has been designed considering the experience of long-term operation of the predecessor and recent trends. The paper is devoted to the main features of the new software and the comparison with the former one.

  15. Simulations using terrestrial geological analogues to assess interpretability of potential geological features of the Hermean surface restituted by the STereo imaging Camera of the SIMBIOSYS package (BepiColombo mission)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massironi, M.; Forlani, G.; Cremonese, G.; Capria, M. T.; Da Deppo, V.; Giacomini, L.; Naletto, G.; Pasquaré, G.; Roncella, R.; Flamini, E.

    2008-06-01

    The BepiColombo space mission is one of the European Space Agency's cornerstone projects; it is planned for launch in 2013 to study the planet Mercury. One of the imaging instruments of BepiColombo is a STereo Camera (STC), whose main scientific objective is the global stereo mapping of the entire surface of Mercury. STC will permit the generation of a Digital Terrain Model (DTM) of Mercury's surface, improving the interpretation of morphological features at different scales and clarifying the stratigraphic relationships between different geological units. To evaluate the effectiveness of the STC-derived DTM for geological purposes, a series of simulations has been performed to find out to what extent the errors expected in the DTM may prevent the correct classification and interpretation of geological features. To meet this objective, Earth analogues (a crater, a lava cone and an endogenous dome) of likely components of the Hermean surface, small enough to be near the detection limit of the STC, were selected and a photorealistic three-dimensional (3D) model of each feature was generated using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) stereo images. Stereoscopic pairs of synthetic images of each feature were then generated from the 3D model at different locations along the BepiColombo orbit. For each stereo pair, the corresponding Hermean DTM was computed using image correlation and compared to the reference data to assess the loss of detail and interpretability. Results show that interpretation and quantitative analysis of simple craters morphologies and small volcanic features should be possible all along the periherm orbit arc. At the apoherm only the larger features can be unequivocally distinguished, but they will be reconstructed to a poor approximation.

  16. Application of Geologic Mapping Techniques and Autonomous Feature Detection to Future Exploration of Europa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunte, M. K.; Tanaka, K. L.; Doggett, T.; Figueredo, P. H.; Lin, Y.; Greeley, R.; Saripalli, S.; Bell, J. F.

    2013-12-01

    Europa's extremely young surface age, evidence for extensive resurfacing, and indications of a sub-surface ocean elevate its astrobiological potential for habitable environments and make it a compelling focus for study. Knowledge of the global distribution and timing of Europan geologic units is a key step in understanding the history of the satellite and for identifying areas relevant for exploration. I have produced a 1:15M scale global geologic map of Europa which represents a proportionate distribution of four unit types and associated features: plains, linea, chaos, and crater materials. Mapping techniques differ somewhat from other planetary maps but do provide a method to establish stratigraphic markers and to illustrate the surface history through four periods of formation as a function of framework lineament cross-cutting relationships. Correlations of observed features on Europa with Earth analogs enforce a multi-process theory for formation rather than the typical reliance on the principle of parsimony. Lenticulae and microchaos are genetically similar and most likely form by diapirism. Platy and blocky chaos units, endmembers of archetypical chaos, are best explained by brine mobilization. Ridges account for the majority of lineaments and may form by a number of methods indicative of local conditions; most form by either tidal pumping or shear heating. The variety of morphologies exhibited by bands indicates that multiple formation mechanisms apply once fracturing of the brittle surface over a ductile subsurface is initiated. Mapping results support the interpretation that Europa's shell has thickened over time resulting in changes in the style and intensity of deformation. Mapping serves as an index for change detection and classification, aids in pre-encounter targeting, and supports the selection of potential landing sites. Highest priority target areas are those which indicate geophysical activity by the presence of volcanic plumes, outgassing, or

  17. Characterizing the natural radiation levels throughout the main geological units of Sabkhat al Jabboul area, northern Syria.

    PubMed

    Al-Hilal, Mohamed; Aissa, Mosa

    2015-02-01

    The concentrations of equivalent eU, eTh, and K% were determined together with soil gas radon values and carborne gamma-ray survey in order to define the natural radioactivity levels throughout main geological units of Sabkhat al Jabboul region. Forty five soil and rock samples were collected from various lithofacies in each geological unit, and analyzed by γ-ray spectrometric technique for determining the concentration values of major radioelements. Such radiometric data could be used to differentiate between various lithologies of the investigated rocks. Although no distinct radioactive anomalies were found in the area, the radiometric profiles showed some minor variations with slightly higher values than the normal level. Despite the low radioactivity and the lack of rocks diversity in the surveyed area, it was possible to classify some certain rock types based on their radiometric response. The relationships between eU, eTh and their ratios were discussed for the Quaternary, Neogene and Paleogene formations, in order to evaluate the degree of uranium distribution and remobilization. The overall results of this radiometric survey were generally low, and lying within the range of the normal background levels in Syrian. PMID:25461509

  18. Rare earth elements in coastal sediments of the northern Galician shelf: Influence of geological features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prego, Ricardo; Caetano, Miguel; Bernárdez, Patricia; Brito, Pedro; Ospina-Alvarez, Natalia; Vale, Carlos

    2012-03-01

    The Northern coast of Galicia, NW Iberian Peninsula, exhibits a variety of geological features: Ortegal allochthonous complex, Ollo-de-Sapo autochthonous domain and massifs of Bares, Barqueiro and San-Ciprian. In order to examine the influence of terrestrial lithologies on coastal sediments, 103 samples were collected in the Rias of Ortigueira, Barqueiro and Viveiro, their neighbouring shelf and the estuaries of Mera, Sor and Landro rivers. Aluminium, Fe, Sc, particulate inorganic and organic carbon and rare earth elements (REE) were determined in the <2 mm fraction. In addition, calcite, muscovite, quartz and riebeckite minerals were identified and quantified in 33 selected samples. The distributions of riebeckite and Fe reflect the influence of Ortegal complex on the coastal areas around the Cape Ortegal. The highest concentrations of ΣREE were found in fine sediments from confined inner parts of the Rias (up to 233 mg kg-1), while most of the sands contained 11-70 mg kg-1. ΣREE normalised to European Shale (ES) highlights the relative abundance of lanthanides (ΣREEN>6) near Cape Ortegal and the innermost ria zones. The ratio between light and heavy REE (L/H) showed lower values (4-11) around Cape Ortegal and the shelf while higher ratios (15-23) were detected in west of the Cape Estaca-de-Bares and in the inner Viveiro Ria due to elevated contributions of La and Ce. The L/H values normalised to ES reflects the importance of HREE in the adjacent area to Ortegal Complex (LN/HN<0.8) and the LREE (LN/HN>1.4) in the inner estuaries and west Cape Estaca-de-Bares. The highest REE individual ES normalised were measured in fine-grained sediments of the Mera and Sor estuaries. Sediments from the eastern shelf of Cape Ortegal presented enhanced ratios only for HREE. These results indicate that distribution of REE in the northern Galician region is highly depending on the neighbouring lithological pattern, contrasting with the situation found in the western Galician

  19. The New Madrid earthquakes; an engineering-geologic interpretation of relict liquefaction features

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Obermeier, Stephen F.

    1989-01-01

    Earthquake-induced sand blows and sand-filled fissures are present in a belt 40 to 60 km. wide that extends from near Charleston, Mo., southward to about 20 km. south of Marked Tree, Ark. This region of earthquake-induced sand blows and other liquefaction-related features is almost exclusively in the St. Francis Basin, an alluvial lowland that typically has a thin (2 to 8 m thick), clay-bearing topstratum underlain by about 30 to 60 m of unconsolidated sand (the substratum). Liquefaction of the substratum sands has made the sand blows. The sand blows and other liquefaction-related features on the ground surface in the St. Francis Basin are almost certainly results of the New Madrid earthquakes of 1811-12. In this report, geologic and engineering properties of the alluvium are used in combination with a map showing the bounds of the liquefaction-related features to locate approximately the epicentral zones for two of the major shocks: the earthquakes of December 16,1811, and February 7,1812. Properties used for the analysis included the Standard Penetration Resistance of the substratum sands, characteristics of the sand's grain size, thickness of the topstratum, and the thickness of the post-Tertiary alluvium. The method of analysis relies largely on the evaluation of the liquefaction potential of the sands. This is done by using the Standard Penetration Test blow counts and by devising a method that uses all possible combinations of liquefaction potential and a realistic relation between attenuation of earthquake accelerations and distance from the epicenter (or more correctly, energy-release center). Two interpreted 1811-12 energy-release centers generally agree well with zones of seismicity defined by modern, small earthquakes. Bounds on accelerations are placed at the limits of sand blows that were generated by the 1811-12 earthquakes in the St. Francis Basin. Conclusions show how the topstratum thickness, sand size of the substratum, and thickness of alluvium

  20. Extracranial stereotactic body radiotherapy. Review of main SBRT features and indications in primary tumors

    PubMed Central

    Rubio, Carmen; Morera, Rosa; Hernando, Ovidio; Leroy, Thomas.; Lartigau, S. Eric

    2013-01-01

    Aim Review of main SBRT features and indications in primary tumors. Background Stereotactic body radiotherapy has been developed in the last few years. SBRT allows the hypofractionated treatment of extra cranial tumors, using either a single or limited number of dose fractions, and resulting in the delivery of a high biological effective dose with low toxicity. Material and methods SBRT requires a high level of accuracy for all phases of the treatment process: effective patient immobilization, precise target localization, highly conformed dosimetry and image guided systems for treatment verification. The implementation of SBRT in routine requires a careful considering of organ motion. Gating and tracking are effective ways to do so, and less invasive technologies “fiducials free” have been developed. Due to the hypofractionated scheme, the physician must pay attention to new dosimetric constraints in organ at risk and new radiobiological models are needed to assess the optimal fractionation and dose schemes. Results Currently, SBRT is safe and effective to treat primary tumors, which are otherwise untreatable with conventional radiotherapy or surgery. SBRT has quickly developed because of its excellent results in terms of tolerance and its high locoregional control rates. SBRT indications in primary tumors, such as lung primary tumors, have become a standard of care for inoperable patients. SBRT seems to be effective in many others indications in curative or palliative intent such as liver primary tumors, and novel indications and strategies are currently emerging in prostate cancer, head and neck tumor recurrences or pelvis reirradiations. Conclusion Currently, SBRT is mainly used when there is no other therapeutic alternative for the patient. This is due to the lack of randomized trials in these settings. However, the results shown in retrospective studies let us hope to impose SBRT as a new standard of care for many patients in the next few years. PMID

  1. Automated feature extraction and spatial organization of seafloor pockmarks, Belfast Bay, Maine, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andrews, B.D.; Brothers, L.L.; Barnhardt, W.A.

    2010-01-01

    Seafloor pockmarks occur worldwide and may represent millions of m3 of continental shelf erosion, but few numerical analyses of their morphology and spatial distribution of pockmarks exist. We introduce a quantitative definition of pockmark morphology and, based on this definition, propose a three-step geomorphometric method to identify and extract pockmarks from high-resolution swath bathymetry. We apply this GIS-implemented approach to 25km2 of bathymetry collected in the Belfast Bay, Maine USA pockmark field. Our model extracted 1767 pockmarks and found a linear pockmark depth-to-diameter ratio for pockmarks field-wide. Mean pockmark depth is 7.6m and mean diameter is 84.8m. Pockmark distribution is non-random, and nearly half of the field's pockmarks occur in chains. The most prominent chains are oriented semi-normal to the steepest gradient in Holocene sediment thickness. A descriptive model yields field-wide spatial statistics indicating that pockmarks are distributed in non-random clusters. Results enable quantitative comparison of pockmarks in fields worldwide as well as similar concave features, such as impact craters, dolines, or salt pools. ?? 2010.

  2. Geologically recent small-scale surface features in Meridiani Planum and Gale Crater, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horne, David

    2014-05-01

    in plains areas between craters. Fumaroles seem unlikely since there is no other evidence of geologically young volcanic activity in the region. There is evidence elsewhere that contemporary ground-ice thaw and consequent transient surface run-off may occur occasionally under present conditions in low, near-equatorial latitudes on Mars; short-lived (even for just a few minutes) meltwater emission and flow at the surface could erode gutters before evaporating. The decomposition of buried pockets of methane clathrates, which theoretical considerations suggest might be present and stable even in equatorial regions, could give rise to both methane venting (leveed fissures) and transient surface water (gutters). Another possibility is the decomposition, due to local changes in thermal conditions, of hydrated magnesium sulphates in the bedrock, releasing liquid water. Whatever their explanation, these features hint at previously unrecognized, young martian surface processes which may even be active at the present day; in this context, the apparent downslope extension of a discrete dark dust streak on Burns Cliff (inside Endurance Crater), during Opportunity's approach to that locality, is particularly thought-provoking.

  3. Photographic analysis of seafloor geologic features at the 9 N Overlapping Spreading Center, East Pacific Rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunnery, A.; Klein, E.; White, S.; Perfit, M.; Fornari, D.; Soule, A.; Mason, J.

    2007-12-01

    In March and April 2007, a cruise to the overlapping spreading center (OSC) at 9 deg 03' N on the East Pacific Rise collected geological, geochemical, and hydrothermal activity data along both limbs of the OSC and within the overlap basin to explore linkages between the melt lenses identified by Kent et al. (2000) and surficial geological processes. Here we report preliminary results of photographic data obtained by the ROV Jason II (4 lowerings; covering ~ 20.4 km; ~7000 digital photographs; 213 hrs continuous video for each of the three video streams) and the WHOI TowCam (7 lowerings; covering 29.3 km; ~ 10,000 digital photographs). The majority of our work focused on and adjacent to the eastern (propagating) limb of the OSC. Along the east limb, lavas (including pillow/lobate and sheet/hackly flows) with the freshest and most abundant glass, least sediment cover, and most delicate ornamentation are present along the bathymetrically elevated portion of the ridge between ~9 deg 7'- 10'N. This area also includes lava lake-style collapse structures with remnant pillars, as well as the only hydrothermal vent site observed in this study (at 9 deg 8.3' N). Further south along the east limb, to 9 deg 0' N, sediment cover and tectonic features (predominantly ~N-S-trending fissures) gradually increase, only lobate flows are observed, and glassy surfaces on the lavas are less abundant. Along the southernmost portion of the east limb, the melt lens plunges and cuts east across the ridge axis fabric. Above the location of the plunging melt lens, heavily sedimented lavas are observed with no evidence of recent volcanism. Photographs collected west of the bathymetrically robust portion of the east limb, overlying the wide, off-axis melt lens, generally show volcanism older than that found on-axis at the same latitude, although some areas associated with an elevated NW-trending ridge appear younger than surrounding terrane. Our study of the west (dying) limb of the OSC extends

  4. Capability of ERTS-1 imagery to investigate geological and structural features in a sedimentary basin (Bassin Parisien, France)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavelier, C.; Scanvic, J. Y.; Weecksteen, G.; Zizerman, A.

    1973-01-01

    A preliminary study of the MSS imagery of a sedimentary basin whose structure is regular is reported. Crops and natural vegetation are distributed all over the site located under temperate climate. Ground data available concern plant species geology and tectonic and are correlated with results from ERTS 1 imagery. This comparison shows a good correlation. The main geological units are detected or enhanced by way of agricultural land use and/or natural vegetation. Alluvial deposits are outlined by vegetation grass land and poplar trees. Some spatial relationship of geostructures, suspected until now, are identified or extended in associating results from different spectral bands.

  5. Using thermodynamic data to reproduce main seismic features of transition zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fomin, Ilya; Saukko, Anna; Edwards, Paul; Schiffer, Christian

    2016-04-01

    Most of the seismic tomography studies nowadays are based on comprehensive models with optimization of lots of parameters. These models are able to resolve very subtle features of the Earth's mantle, but the influence of each specific parameter is not seen directly. In our research we try to minimize the number of processed parameters to produce simple synthetic cases. The main goals of our model are to see how water content influences the depth of the transition zone, and if melting at the transition zone is plausible. We also attempt to see how water content and the presence of melts influence the signal strength of the transition zone in receiver functions. Our MATLAB-code calculates phase assemblage according to specific temperature and pressure within 2D numerical domain (e.g. 300x700 km). Phase properties are calculated with database of Stixrude and Lithgow-Bertelloni [2011], with corrections for water impact on elastic constants according to Liu et al., [2012]. We use the mantle phase composition 55% garnet and 45% olivine-polymorph, soliduses by Ohtani et al. [2004] and melt properties by Sakamaki et al. [2006]. These data are used to calculate seismic velocities and, furthermore, receiver functions with standard routines (e.g.[Schiffer et al., 2012]). Model predicts Vs within 5 to 5.5 km/s and Vp around 9.5-10 km/s within transition zone (Vp/Vs = 1.84-1.87), which is close to standard values. The presence of water enlarges the wadsleyite region, but also dampens the peak of receiver functions down to background level. Increase in water content causes melting at much shallower depths. Using a normal thermal gradient, we can get up to 10% of melt at depths around 390 km with 80% of water saturation, shown by a negative anomaly on receiver functions. This result is similar to data obtained for Afar Plateau [Thompson et al., 2015]. With cratonic thermal gradient, the olivine-wadsleyite transition and corresponding melt layer appear at depths around 350 km

  6. The Cyborg Astrobiologist: scouting red beds for uncommon features with geological significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuire, Patrick Charles; Díaz-Martínez, Enrique; Ormö, Jens; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Rodríguez-Manfredi, José Antonio; Sebastián-Martínez, Eduardo; Ritter, Helge; Haschke, Robert; Oesker, Markus; Ontrup, Jörg

    2005-04-01

    The `Cyborg Astrobiologist' has undergone a second geological field trial, at a site in northern Guadalajara, Spain, near Riba de Santiuste. The site at Riba de Santiuste is dominated by layered deposits of red sandstones. The Cyborg Astrobiologist is a wearable computer and video camera system that has demonstrated a capability to find uncommon interest points in geological imagery in real time in the field. In this second field trial, the computer vision system of the Cyborg Astrobiologist was tested at seven different tripod positions, on three different geological structures. The first geological structure was an outcrop of nearly homogeneous sandstone, which exhibits oxidized-iron impurities in red areas and an absence of these iron impurities in white areas. The white areas in these `red beds' have turned white because the iron has been removed. The iron removal from the sandstone can proceed once the iron has been chemically reduced, perhaps by a biological agent. In one instance the computer vision system found several (iron-free) white spots to be uncommon and therefore interesting, as well as several small and dark nodules. The second geological structure was another outcrop some 600 m to the east, with white, textured mineral deposits on the surface of the sandstone, at the bottom of the outcrop. The computer vision system found these white, textured mineral deposits to be interesting. We acquired samples of the mineral deposits for geochemical analysis in the laboratory. This laboratory analysis of the crust identifies a double layer, consisting of an internal millimetre-size layering of calcite and an external centimetre-size efflorescence of gypsum. The third geological structure was a 50 cm thick palaeosol layer, with fossilized root structures of some plants. The computer vision system also found certain areas of these root structures to be interesting. A quasi-blind comparison of the Cyborg Astrobiologist's interest points for these images with the

  7. Correlations between topography and deep-seated structures in low-relief areas: Examples of subtle terrain features with high impact on geological interpretations of geophysical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandersen, Peter B. E.; Jørgensen, Flemming

    2014-05-01

    Denmark has a low-relief topography with a maximum elevation at 170 m above sea level and a near-surface geology dominated by the effects of numerous glacier advances during the Pleistocene. In 3D geological modelling of the Danish subsurface we combine near-surface geophysics, primarily AEM (Airborne ElectroMagnetic methods) with borehole data, seismic data etc. in order to model the groundwater-bearing sediments in the uppermost 300-400 m. The highly varied glacial succession and the underlying tertiary sediments require very dense data coverage in order to be able to perform modelling in sufficient detail. Geomorphological data and observations are used for the interpretations alongside the other data. The overall geomorphology of Denmark is generally the product of the youngest glacial episodes and the subsequent periglacial and postglacial modifications where the effects of earlier ice advances are either obscured or removed. As such, the geomorphology will mainly contribute with geological information about the youngest events and the uppermost parts of the subsurface. However, in many parts of the Danish area we have found a correlation between surface features and deep seated structures. These structures can be old faults that have created weak and easily erodible zones in the sediments above and these erosional patterns have created trends that have survived over a long period of time. Some of these fault zones have been tectonically active as late as the Holocene thus deforming near-surface sediments and the topography. Using geomorphological information such as lineament patterns, erosional patterns and variations in surface trends we are able to gain significant information about the deeper parts of the subsurface. This information is highly valuable when interpreting the geological setting from AEM data and seismic data. In the presentation we will show examples from Denmark that link geomorphological features in the present day terrain with deep

  8. Synergetic events in geological medium and nonlinear features of wave propagation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hachay, O. A.

    2009-04-01

    Geological medium is an open dynamical system, which is artificially and naturally influenced on different scale levels, which change it's state and which lead to a complicated many ranked hierarchic evolution. That is a topic of the synergetic theory (or science of self organization). The idea of physical meso mechanics which was elaborated by Russian academician Panin V.E., which includes the synergetic approach, is a constructive method for research of the state of heterogenic materials. That result had been obtained for specimens of different materials. In our investigations of time-dependent geological medium in the frame of natural experiments in real rock massive, which are hard man-caused influenced it had been showed, that the dynamics of the state can be revealed by using synergetic approach for hierarchic media. The important role for research of dynamic geological systems play the use of active and passive geophysical monitoring, which can be achieved with use of electromagnetic and seismic fields. As it had been showed by our experience the change of the system on the researched space bases and times can be revealed by parameters, linked with peculiarities of the medium of the second and higher rank. Thus the research of the state dynamics and the events of self organization we can provide with geophysical methods, oriented on the many ranked hierarchic time-dependent model of the medium. For fields of plastic deformation and stresses it had been considered a system of differential equations. The developing theory of modelling and interpretation of geophysical monitoring data must be active guided by the mathematical methods of nonlinear dynamics and control. The developing of that direction can allow us to forecast and prevent catastrophic man-made events (rock bursts). We had elaborated a new approach of forecasting such events using the method of constructing phase portraits using the data of electromagnetic monitoring and detailed seismological

  9. Information needs for characterization of high-level waste repository sites in six geologic media. Volume 1. Main report

    SciTech Connect

    1985-05-01

    Evaluation of the geologic isolation of radioactive materials from the biosphere requires an intimate knowledge of site geologic conditions, which is gained through precharacterization and site characterization studies. This report presents the results of an intensive literature review, analysis and compilation to delineate the information needs, applicable techniques and evaluation criteria for programs to adequately characterize a site in six geologic media. These media, in order of presentation, are: granite, shale, basalt, tuff, bedded salt and dome salt. Guidelines are presented to assess the efficacy (application, effectiveness, and resolution) of currently used exploratory and testing techniques for precharacterization or characterization of a site. These guidelines include the reliability, accuracy and resolution of techniques deemed acceptable, as well as cost estimates of various field and laboratory techniques used to obtain the necessary information. Guidelines presented do not assess the relative suitability of media. 351 refs., 10 figs., 31 tabs.

  10. Ordinary and Activated Bone Grafts: Applied Classification and the Main Features

    PubMed Central

    Deev, R. V.; Drobyshev, A. Y.; Bozo, I. Y.; Isaev, A. A.

    2015-01-01

    Bone grafts are medical devices that are in high demand in clinical practice for substitution of bone defects and recovery of atrophic bone regions. Based on the analysis of the modern groups of bone grafts, the particularities of their composition, the mechanisms of their biological effects, and their therapeutic indications, applicable classification was proposed that separates the bone substitutes into “ordinary” and “activated.” The main differential criterion is the presence of biologically active components in the material that are standardized by qualitative and quantitative parameters: growth factors, cells, or gene constructions encoding growth factors. The pronounced osteoinductive and (or) osteogenic properties of activated osteoplastic materials allow drawing upon their efficacy in the substitution of large bone defects. PMID:26649300

  11. Sativex(®) (tetrahydrocannabinol + cannabidiol), an endocannabinoid system modulator: basic features and main clinical data.

    PubMed

    Vermersch, Patrick

    2011-04-01

    Sativex(®) (nabiximols, USAN name) oromucosal spray contains the two main active constituents of Cannabis sativa, tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol in a 1:1 molecular ratio, and acts as an endocannabinoid system modulator. Randomized, controlled clinical trials of Sativex as add-on therapy provide conclusive evidence of its efficacy in the treatment of more than 1500 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS)-related resistant spasticity. The primary end point in clinical trials was the mean change from baseline in the 0-10 numerical rating scale (NRS) spasticity score. The first pivotal clinical trial included 189 patients treated for 6 weeks with Sativex (n = 124) or placebo (n = 65). At study end, there was a significant reduction from baseline in patient-recorded NRS spasticity scores with Sativex compared with placebo (-1.18 vs -0.63; p = 0.048). In the second pivotal trial, 337 patients with MS-related resistant spasticity received Sativex (n = 167) or placebo (n = 170) over a 15-week period. In the per-protocol analysis (79% of the patient population), mean baseline NRS spasticity score was reduced significantly in patients receiving Sativex compared with placebo: -1.3 versus -0.8 points (p = 0.035). The third pivotal clinical trial, evaluating the sustained efficacy of Sativex, had a two-phase study design: in phase A (n = 572), 47% of patients were initial responders (improvement ≥ 20%) after 4 weeks of single-blind Sativex treatment who then entered phase B, a randomized, double-blind, 12-week placebo comparison. At the end of phase B, the change in NRS spasticity score improved by a further 0.04 units in initial responders treated with Sativex, but decreased by 0.81 units in placebo recipients (p = 0.0002). Significant improvements in quality-of-life measures from baseline to week 16 were also observed in patients receiving Sativex. The most common treatment-related adverse events with Sativex were mild-to moderate and transient episodes of dizziness

  12. The geology and morphology of Ina. [comparison of lunar surface features with Icelandic lava pillars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strain, P. L.; El-Baz, F.

    1980-01-01

    The lunar feature Ina, an unusual D-shaped depression, is located in Lacus Felicitatis north of Mare Vaporum. Attention was drawn to the feature because of its strange 'blistered' appearance. Using detailed topographic data available from the Lunar Topographic Orthophotomap (LTO) series, it is now possible to depict the morphology and structure of Ina and the surrounding region more accurately than was previously feasible. The maps employed in the study are 41C3 and 41C4 at 1:250,000 scale, and 41C3S1 (Ina) at 1:10,000 scale. Attention is given to the regional setting, and the morphologic characteristics and origins of features. It is concluded that Ina is an apparently unique volcanic feature. It rests on a dome displaying evidence of episodic extrusive activity. Its odd D-shape is probably related to a local fracture pattern, since the straight edge is aligned with other small lineaments in the area. Ina's floor exhibits several volcanic units.

  13. Geological survey of Maryland using EREP flight data. [mining, mapping, Chesapeake Bay islands, coastal water features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, K. N. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Underflight photography has been used in the Baltimore County mined land inventory to determine areas of disturbed land where surface mining of sand and ground clay, or stone has taken place. Both active and abandoned pits and quarries were located. Aircraft data has been used to update cultural features of Calvert, Caroline, St. Mary's, Somerset, Talbot, and Wicomico Counties. Islands have been located and catalogued for comparison with older film and map data for erosion data. Strip mined areas are being mapped to obtain total area disturbed to aid in future mining and reclamation problems. Coastal estuarine and Atlantic Coast features are being studied to determine nearshore bedforms, sedimentary, and erosional patterns, and manmade influence on natural systems.

  14. Integrated geophysical and geological studies of selected major tectonic features in south-central U.S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alrefaee, Hamed

    The current dissertation includes three separate chapters, each utilizing the power of the integration of different geophysical datasets with geology to investigate tectonic and structural processes responsible for the geological evolution of selected major tectonic features in south-central U. S. These tectonic features are; the Arkoma basin of Oklahoma and Arkansas, the Llano uplift of central Texas, and the Meers fault of the southwestern Oklahoma. The Arkoma basin is an arcuate structural feature that extends from the Gulf coastal plain in central Arkansas westward 400 km to the Arbuckle Mountains in south-central Oklahoma. The interpretation of the 3-D seismic data reveals an E-W zone of crustal weakness in the northern part of the study area, which could be a Late Paleozoic tectonic inversion of the extension faulting that developed during Cambrian rifting and later foreland basin development. The seismic interpretation reveals a compressive deformation of the Late Paleozoic strata related to the Ouachita orogeny. Magnetic boundaries such as faults andor body edges extending E-W, NE-SW and NW-SE have been delineated using magnetic edge detector techniques in the northern, southeastern, and western parts of the study area, respectively. The Euler magnetic depth estimation method delineated the same faults determined using magnetic edge detector techniques. The maximum depth to faults dominating the basement and/or the intrabasement features determined by the Euler's method is about 3850 m. The fault trends delineated by the seismic interpretation and those determined by the Euler's method and the edge detector techniques show a very clear correlation. The Llano Uplift is a broad structural dome in central Texas with 2 to 3 km of structural relief relative to the subsurface Fort Worth and Kerr basins to the northeast and southwest. The initial uplift due to an arc-continent collision was followed by a continent-continent collision between the Laurentia and a

  15. The steepest slopes on the Moon from Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) Data: Spatial Distribution and Correlation with Geologic Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreslavsky, Mikhail A.; Head, James W.

    2016-07-01

    We calculated topographic gradients over the surface of the Moon at a 25 m baseline using data obtained by the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) instrument onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) spacecraft. The relative spatial distribution of steep slopes can be reliably obtained, although some technical characteristics of the LOLA dataset preclude statistical studies of slope orientation. The derived slope-frequency distribution revealed a steep rollover for slopes close to the angle of repose. Slopes significantly steeper than the angle of repose are almost absent on the Moon due to (1) the general absence of cohesion/strength of the fractured and fragmented megaregolith of the lunar highlands, and (2) the absence of geological processes producing steep-slopes in the recent geological past. The majority of slopes steeper than 32°-35° are associated with relatively young large impact craters. We demonstrate that these impact craters progressively lose their steepest slopes. We also found that features of Early Imbrian and older ages have almost no slopes steeper than 35°. We interpret this to be due to removal of all steep slopes by the latest basin-forming impact (Orientale), probably by global seismic shaking. The global spatial distribution of the steepest slopes correlates moderately well with the predicted spatial distribution of impact rate; however, a significant paucity of steep slopes in the southern farside remains unexplained.

  16. Interpretation and mapping of geological features using mobile devices for 3D outcrop modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley, Simon J.; Kehl, Christian; Mullins, James R.; Howell, John A.

    2016-04-01

    Advances in 3D digital geometric characterisation have resulted in widespread adoption in recent years, with photorealistic models utilised for interpretation, quantitative and qualitative analysis, as well as education, in an increasingly diverse range of geoscience applications. Topographic models created using lidar and photogrammetry, optionally combined with imagery from sensors such as hyperspectral and thermal cameras, are now becoming commonplace in geoscientific research. Mobile devices (tablets and smartphones) are maturing rapidly to become powerful field computers capable of displaying and interpreting 3D models directly in the field. With increasingly high-quality digital image capture, combined with on-board sensor pose estimation, mobile devices are, in addition, a source of primary data, which can be employed to enhance existing geological models. Adding supplementary image textures and 2D annotations to photorealistic models is therefore a desirable next step to complement conventional field geoscience. This contribution reports on research into field-based interpretation and conceptual sketching on images and photorealistic models on mobile devices, motivated by the desire to utilise digital outcrop models to generate high quality training images (TIs) for multipoint statistics (MPS) property modelling. Representative training images define sedimentological concepts and spatial relationships between elements in the system, which are subsequently modelled using artificial learning to populate geocellular models. Photorealistic outcrop models are underused sources of quantitative and qualitative information for generating TIs, explored further in this research by linking field and office workflows through the mobile device. Existing textured models are loaded to the mobile device, allowing rendering in a 3D environment. Because interpretation in 2D is more familiar and comfortable for users, the developed application allows new images to be captured

  17. Circular features on the Venus plains as an evidence of its geological history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolaeva, O. V.; Bazilevskii, A. T.; Ronca, L. B.

    1986-05-01

    Size and area distributions of various circular features detected on the images of Venus obtained by Venera-15 and Venera-16 satellites were analyzed. For some of them (ovoids and spider-like shapes) the new data support the earlier view of their origin as endogenous structures. Others (narrow rim depressions and their albedo counterparts) are natural extensions of obvious impact craters and can be classified as ancient and degraded impact craters. If this view is correct, the age of total crater population must be about 3 billion years, with the estimated rates of resurfacing being 3 to 4 orders of magnitude lower than terrestrial processes. Circular shapes of the phantom type can be classified as either unusual endogenic formations or formations by a specific impact event. If the latter is the case, the Venusian surface must still retain the evidence of a bombardment by meteorites that took place 4 to 4.5 billion years ago.

  18. Geologic features of areas of abnormal radioactivity south of Ocala, Marion County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Espenshade, Gilbert H.

    1956-01-01

    Areas of abnormal radioactivity south of Ocala, Marion County, Fla., discovered in 1953 by aerial survey, were investigated by surface examination and by 10 power auger drill holes. Inter-bedded clay, clayey sand, and uraniferous phosphorite occur in the areas of anomalous radioactivityo Miocene fossils occur at three localities in these beds which are evidently outliers- of Miocene sediments on the Ocala limestone of Eocene age. The preserved outliers are southwest of the main belt of Miocene sediments. The principal uraniferous rocks are clayey, sandy, pellet phosphori1te that occurs in beds a few feet thick, and very porous, phosphatic sand rock which makes abundant float at many places. Apatite forms the phosphate pellets in the unweathered phosphorite. The very porous, phosphatic sand rock is the highly leached residuum of the pellet phosphorite and is composed mainly of quartz, kaolinite, wavellite, and crandallite (pseudowavellite). It closely resembles the aluminum phosphate rock of the 'leached zone' of the Bone Valley formation in the land-pebble phosphate district.

  19. Distribution and geological control of mud volcanoes and other fluid/free gas seepage features in the Mediterranean Sea and nearby Gulf of Cadiz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mascle, Jean; Mary, Flore; Praeg, Daniel; Brosolo, Laetitia; Camera, Laurent; Ceramicola, Silvia; Dupré, Stéphanie

    2014-06-01

    Existing knowledge on the distribution of mud volcanoes (MVs) and other significant fluid/free gas-venting features (mud cones, mud pies, mud-brine pools, mud carbonate cones, gas chimneys and, in some cases, pockmark fields) discovered on the seafloor of the Mediterranean Sea and in the nearby Gulf of Cadiz has been compiled using regional geophysical information (including multibeam coverage of most deepwater areas). The resulting dataset comprises both features proven from geological sampling, or in situ observations, and many previously unrecognized MVs inferred from geophysical evidence. The synthesis reveals that MVs clearly have non-random distributions that correspond to two main geodynamic settings: (1) the vast majority occur along the various tectono-sedimentary accretionary wedges of the Africa-Eurasia subduction zone, particularly in the central and eastern Mediterranean basins (external Calabrian Arc, Mediterranean Ridge, Florence Rise) but also along its westernmost boundary in the Gulf of Cadiz; (2) other MVs characterize thick depocentres along parts of the Mesozoic passive continental margins that border Africa from eastern Tunisia to the Levantine coasts, particularly off Egypt and, locally, within some areas of the western Mediterranean back-arc basins. Meaningfully accounting for MV distribution necessitates evidence of overpressured fluids and mud-rich layers. In addition, cross-correlations between MVs and other GIS-based data, such as maps of the Messinian evaporite basins and/or active (or recently active) tectonic trends, stress the importance of assessing geological control in terms of the presence, or not, of thick seals and potential conduits. It is contended that new MV discoveries may be expected in the study region, particularly along the southern Ionian Sea continental margins.

  20. Coal mine bumps as related to geologic features in the northern part of the Sunnyside District, Carbon County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Osterwald, Frank W.; Dunrud, C. Richard; Collins, Donley S.

    1993-01-01

    Coal mine bumps, which are violent, spontaneous, and often catastrophic disruptions of coal and rock, were common in the Sunnyside coal mining district, Utah, before the introduction of protective-engineering methods, modern room-and-pillar retreat mining with continuous mining machines, and particularly modern longwall mining. The coal at Sunnyside, when stressed during mining, fails continuously with many popping, snapping, and banging noises. Although most of the bumps are beneficial because they make mining easier, many of the large ones are dangerous and in the past caused injuries and fatalities, particularly with room- and-pillar mining methods used in the early mining operations. Geologic mapping of underground mine openings revealed many types of deformational features, some pre-mine and some post-mine in age. Stresses resulting from mining are concentrated near the mine openings; if openings are driven at large angles to small pre-mine deformational features, particularly shatter zones in coal, abnormal stress buildups may occur and violent bumps may result. Other geologic features, such as ripple marks, oriented sand grains, intertongued rock contacts, trace fossils, and load casts, also influence the occurrence of bumps by impeding slip of coal and rocks along bedding planes. The stress field in the coal also varies markedly because of the rough ridge and canyon topography. These features may allow excessively large stress components to accumulate. At many places, the stresses that contribute to deformation and failures of mine openings are oriented horizontally. The stratigraphy of the rocks immediately above and below the mined coal bed strongly influences the deformation of the mine openings in response to stress accumulations. Triaxial compressive testing of coal from the Sunnyside No.1 and No.3 Mines indicates that the strength of the coal increases several times as the confining (lateral) stress is increased. Strengths of cores cut from single

  1. Geology and slope stability in selected parts of The Geysers geothermal resources area: a guide to geologic features indicative of stable and unstable terrain in areas underlain by Franciscan and related rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Bedrossian, T.L.

    1980-01-01

    The results of a 4-month study of various geologic and topographic features related to the stability of Franciscan terrain in The Geysers GRA are presented. The study consisted of investigations of geologic and topographic features, throughout The Geysers GRA, and geologic mapping at a scale of 1:12,000 of approximately 1500 acres (600 hectares) of landslide terrain within the canyon of Big Sulphur Creek in the vicinity of the Buckeye mine (see plate 1). The area mapped during this study was selected because: (1) it is an area of potential future geothermal development, and (2) it illustrates that large areas mapped as landslides on regional scales (McLaughlin, 1974, 1975b; McNitt, 1968a) may contain zones of varying slope stability and, therefore, should be mapped in more detail prior to development of the land.

  2. Mineralogy and morphology of geologic units at Libya Montes, Mars: Ancient aqueously derived outcrops, mafic flows, fluvial features, and impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, Janice L.; Tirsch, Daniela; Tornabene, Livio L.; Jaumann, Ralf; McEwen, Alfred S.; McGuire, Patrick C.; Ody, Anouck; Poulet, Francois; Clark, Roger N.; Parente, Mario; McKeown, Nancy K.; Mustard, John F.; Murchie, Scott L.; Voigt, Joana; Aydin, Zeynep; Bamberg, Marlene; Petau, Andreas; Michael, Gregory; Seelos, Frank P.; Hash, Christopher D.; Swayze, Gregg A.; Neukum, Gerhard

    2013-03-01

    There is ample evidence of both ancient and long-lasting fluvial activity and chemical alteration in the Libya Montes region south of Isidis Basin. The region hosts Noachian to Amazonian aged surface rocks with extensive outcrops of olivine- and pyroxene-bearing material. Libya Montes also features surface outcrops and/or deposits hosting Fe/Mg-smectite, Fe/Mg-smectite mixed with carbonate and/or other Fe/Mg-rich phyllosilicates, and Al-smectite. These units likely formed through chemical alteration connected with hydrothermal activity resulting from the formation of the Isidis Basin and/or the pervasive fluvial activity throughout this region. The morphology and stratigraphy of the aqueous and mafic minerals are described using High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment and High Resolution Stereo Camera derived digital terrain models. Analyses of the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars spectra show variations in the chemistry of the Fe/Mg-smectite from nontronite-like exposures with spectral features near 2.29 and 2.4 µm more consistent with Fe3+2OH groups in the mineral structure, and saponite-like outcrops with spectral features near 2.31 and 2.38 µm characteristic of Mg2+3OH groups. These Fe/Mg-smectite bearing materials also have bands near 1.9 µm due to H2O and near 2.5 µm that could be due to the smectite, other phyllosilicates, and carbonates. All regions exhibiting carbonate features near 3.4-3.5 µm also have features consistent with the presence of olivine and Fe/Mg-smectite, indicating that the carbonate signatures occur in rocks likely containing a mixture of these minerals. The Al-smectite-bearing rocks have bands near 1.41, 1.91, and 2.19 µm that are more consistent with beidellite than other Al-phyllosilicates, indicating a higher-temperature or diagenetically processed origin for this material. Our interpretation of the geologic history of this region is that ancient Noachian basaltic crustal materials experienced extensive

  3. The features of the use of GIS technologies for monitoring of the situation of main water lines in Azerbaijan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gojamanov, M. H.; Z, Qurbanov, Ch.

    2014-11-01

    The characteristic feature of the unified system of water supply of Azerbaijan is the large spatial remoteness between the main water sources (Greater and Small Caucasian mountains) and water-using economic areas (Baku, Ganja, Sumgait etc). When operating the pipelines arise accident and emergency situations, which are connected with interaction of the technological elements of the water supply and the natural environment. Often this process is a violation of dynamic equilibrium, and is accompanied by activation of dangerous natural and natural-anthropogenic processes that have a negative impact on the condition of pipelines. Given that in Azerbaijan the basis of the water supply network was put in the XIX century, it is necessary to pay close attention to the assessment of the ecological situation of main lines of water pipelines, i.e. to conduct their monitoring. Ensuring the reliability of existing and planned pipelines, a comprehensive study of the impacts on the natural environment during the construction and operation of the technical facilities, the organization of system of information and analytical monitoring requires a comprehensive attract the materials of the aerospace sensing and GIS technologies. In this paper describe the work experience and are the results of monitoring of pipelines of water supply in Azerbaijan.

  4. Geological History of the Tyre Region of Europa: A Regional Perspective on Europan Surface Features and Ice Thickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kadel, Steven D.; Chuang, Frank C.; Greeley, Ronald; Moore, Jeffrey M.

    2000-01-01

    Galileo images of the Tyre Macula region of Europa at regional (170 m/pixel) and local (approx. 40 m/pixel) scales allow mapping and understanding of surface processes and landforms. Ridged plains, doublet and complex ridges, shallow pits, domes, "chaos" areas. impact structures, tilted blocks and massifs, and young fracture systems indicate a complex history of surface deformation on Europa. Regional and local morphologies of the Tyre region of Europa suggest that an impactor penetrated through several kilometers of water ice tc a mobile layer below. The surface morphology was initially dominated by formation of ridged plains, followed by development of ridge bands and doublet ridges, with chaos and fracture formation dominating the latter part of the geologic history of the Tyre region. Two distinct types of chaos have been identified which, along with upwarped dome materials, appear to represent a continuum of features (domes-play chaos-knobby chaos) resulting from increasing degree of surface disruption associated with local lithospheric heating and thinning. Local and regional stratigraphic relationships, block heights, and the morphology of the Tyre impact structure suggest the presence of low-viscosity ice or liquid water beneath a thin (severa1 kilometers) surface ice shell at the time of the impact. The very low impact crater density on the surface of Europa suggests that this thin shell has either formed or been thoroughly resurfaced in the very recent past.

  5. The types of the landslide by the heavy rain presumed from geographical and geological features in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doshida, S.

    2014-12-01

    Various types of a landslide, such as a deep-seated landslide, a shallow landslide, and a debris flow, exist. And the risk and the damage area of a landslide change greatly with the types. Therefore it is very important to guess the type of a landslide generated in the future, in order to decrease the damage of a landslide. In this research, I investigated and studied the landslide disaster which occurred in the typhoon No.12 disaster in 2011 and the northern Kyusyu-island heavy rain disaster 2012, in Japan. The purpose of the study presumes the types of a landslide generated in the future by analyzing geographical and geological features.  Many deep-seated landslides and shallow landslides (debris flows) occurred by the typhoon No.12, 2011 in Japan. The precipitation exceeds 1,800 mm in four days in part regionally. Landslides occurred frequently in the Totsukawa area (Northern part) and Nachi-Katsuura area (Southern part), both area were the precipitation of about 1000 mm in four days. In the Totsukawa area, deep-seated landslides occurred frequently, and in Nachi-Katsuura area, shallow landslides (debris flows) occurred frequently. On the other hand, many deep-seated landslides and shallow landslides occurred by the northern Kyusyu-island heavy rain disaster 2012 in Japan too. Landslides occurred frequently in the Hoshino village area (Northern part) and Asodani area (Southern part). In both area, the total precipitation exceeds 500 mm and the hourly precipitation is about 80 mm. In the Hoshino village area, deep-seated landslides occurred frequently, and in Asodani area, shallow landslides occurred frequently.  The result compared with the deep-seated landslide area (Totsukawa and Hoshino village) and the shallow landslide area (Nachi-Katsuura and Asodani), area of landslide is larger and number of landslide is fewer in the deep-seated landslide area. In the shallow landslide area, the slope is steeper and the drainage network is more developed. It is

  6. Testing the Late Noachian Icy Highlands Model: Geological Observations, Processes and Origin of Fluvial and Lacustrine Features.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Head, James; Wordsworth, Robin; Forget, Francis; Madeleine, Jean-Baptiste; Halvey, Italy

    2014-05-01

    A new reconstruction of the Late Noachian Mars atmosphere and climate shows atmosphere-surface thermal coupling and an adiabatic cooling effect producing preferential distribution of snow and ice in the highlands. In this Late Noachian Icy Highlands (LNIH) scenario, snow and ice accumulate in the south circumpolar region and in the higher altitudes of the southern uplands, but the mean annual temperature is everywhere below freezing. How can the abundant evidence for water-related fluvial and lacustrine activity (valley networks, VN; open-basin lakes, OBL; closed-basin lakes; CBL) be reconciled with the icy highlands model? We investigate the nature of geologic processes operating in the icy highlands and use the Antarctic McMurdo Dry Valleys (MDV) as guidance in understanding and assessing how melting might be taking place. In the MDV, mean annual temperatures (MAT) are well below freezing. This results in a thick regional permafrost layer, the presence of an ice-table at shallow depths, and an overlying dry active layer. This configuration produces a perched aquifer and a horizontally stratified hydrologic system, where any melting results in local saturation of the dry active layer and channelized flow on top of the ice table. Top-down melting results in the dominance of lateral water transport, in contrast to temperate climates with vertical infiltration and transport to the groundwater table. Despite subzero MAT, MDV peak seasonal and peak daytime temperatures can exceed 273K and have a strong influence on the melting of available water ice. We present maps of the predicted distribution of LNIH snow and ice, compare these to the distribution of VN, OBL and CBL, and assess how top-down and bottom-up melting processes might explain the formation of these features in an otherwise cold and icy LN Mars. We assess the global near-surface water budget, analyze thickness estimates to distinguish areas of cold-based and wet-based glaciation, analyze the state of the

  7. Improving management of small natural features on private lands by negotiating the science-policy boundary for Maine vernal pools.

    PubMed

    Calhoun, Aram J K; Jansujwicz, Jessica S; Bell, Kathleen P; Hunter, Malcolm L

    2014-07-29

    Vernal pools are far more important for providing ecosystem services than one would predict based on their small size. However, prevailing resource-management strategies are not effectively conserving pools and other small natural features on private lands. Solutions are complicated by tensions between private property and societal rights, uncertainties over resource location and function, diverse stakeholders, and fragmented regulatory authority. The development and testing of new conservation approaches that link scientific knowledge, stakeholder decision-making, and conservation outcomes are important responses to this conservation dilemma. Drawing from a 15-y history of vernal pool conservation efforts in Maine, we describe the coevolution of pool conservation and research approaches, focusing on how research-based knowledge was produced and used in support of management decisions. As management shifted from reactive, top-down approaches to proactive and flexible approaches, research shifted from an ecology-focused program to an interdisciplinary program based on social-ecological systems. The most effective strategies for linking scientific knowledge with action changed as the decision-makers, knowledge needs, and context for vernal pool management advanced. Interactions among stakeholders increased the extent to which knowledge was coproduced and shifted the objective of stakeholder engagement from outreach to research collaboration and development of innovative conservation approaches. New conservation strategies were possible because of the flexible, solutions-oriented collaborations and trust between scientists and decision-makers (fostered over 15 y) and interdisciplinary, engaged research. Solutions to the dilemma of conserving small natural features on private lands, and analogous sustainability science challenges, will benefit from repeated negotiations of the science-policy boundary. PMID:25002496

  8. Effect of Anthropogenic Landscape Features on Population Genetic Differentiation of Przewalski's Gazelle: Main Role of Human Settlement

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ji; Jiang, Zhigang; Zeng, Yan; Turghan, Mardan; Fang, Hongxia; Li, Chunwang

    2011-01-01

    Anthropogenic landscapes influence evolutionary processes such as population genetic differentiation, however, not every type of landscape features exert the same effect on a species, hence it is necessary to estimate their relative effect for species management and conservation. Przewalski's gazelle (Procapra przewalskii), which inhabits a human-altered area on Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, is one of the most endangered antelope species in the world. Here, we report a landscape genetic study on Przewalski's gazelle. We used skin and fecal samples of 169 wild gazelles collected from nine populations and thirteen microsatellite markers to assess the genetic effect of anthropogenic landscape features on this species. For comparison, the genetic effect of geographical distance and topography were also evaluated. We found significant genetic differentiation, six genetic groups and restricted dispersal pattern in Przewalski's gazelle. Topography, human settlement and road appear to be responsible for observed genetic differentiation as they were significantly correlated with both genetic distance measures [FST/(1−FST) and F′ST/(1−F′ST)] in Mantel tests. IBD (isolation by distance) was also inferred as a significant factor in Mantel tests when genetic distance was measured as FST/(1−FST). However, using partial Mantel tests, AICc calculations, causal modeling and AMOVA analysis, we found that human settlement was the main factor shaping current genetic differentiation among those tested. Altogether, our results reveal the relative influence of geographical distance, topography and three anthropogenic landscape-type on population genetic differentiation of Przewalski's gazelle and provide useful information for conservation measures on this endangered species. PMID:21625459

  9. Improving management of small natural features on private lands by negotiating the science–policy boundary for Maine vernal pools

    PubMed Central

    Calhoun, Aram J. K.; Jansujwicz, Jessica S.; Bell, Kathleen P.; Hunter, Malcolm L.

    2014-01-01

    Vernal pools are far more important for providing ecosystem services than one would predict based on their small size. However, prevailing resource-management strategies are not effectively conserving pools and other small natural features on private lands. Solutions are complicated by tensions between private property and societal rights, uncertainties over resource location and function, diverse stakeholders, and fragmented regulatory authority. The development and testing of new conservation approaches that link scientific knowledge, stakeholder decision-making, and conservation outcomes are important responses to this conservation dilemma. Drawing from a 15-y history of vernal pool conservation efforts in Maine, we describe the coevolution of pool conservation and research approaches, focusing on how research-based knowledge was produced and used in support of management decisions. As management shifted from reactive, top-down approaches to proactive and flexible approaches, research shifted from an ecology-focused program to an interdisciplinary program based on social–ecological systems. The most effective strategies for linking scientific knowledge with action changed as the decision-makers, knowledge needs, and context for vernal pool management advanced. Interactions among stakeholders increased the extent to which knowledge was coproduced and shifted the objective of stakeholder engagement from outreach to research collaboration and development of innovative conservation approaches. New conservation strategies were possible because of the flexible, solutions-oriented collaborations and trust between scientists and decision-makers (fostered over 15 y) and interdisciplinary, engaged research. Solutions to the dilemma of conserving small natural features on private lands, and analogous sustainability science challenges, will benefit from repeated negotiations of the science–policy boundary. PMID:25002496

  10. Main clinical features in patients at their first psychiatric admission to Italian acute hospital psychiatric wards. The PERSEO study

    PubMed Central

    Ballerini, Andrea; Boccalon, Roberto M; Boncompagni, Giancarlo; Casacchia, Massimo; Margari, Francesco; Minervini, Lina; Righi, Roberto; Russo, Federico; Salteri, Andrea; Frediani, Sonia; Rossi, Andrea; Scatigna, Marco

    2007-01-01

    Background Few data are available on subjects presenting to acute wards for the first time with psychotic symptoms. The aims of this paper are (i) to describe the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients at their first psychiatric admission (FPA), including socio-demographic features, risk factors, life habits, modalities of onset, psychiatric diagnoses and treatments before admission; (ii) to assess the aggressive behavior and the clinical management of FPA patients in Italian acute hospital psychiatric wards, called SPDCs (Servizio Psichiatrico Diagnosi e Cura = psychiatric service for diagnosis and management). Method Cross-sectional observational multi-center study involving 62 Italian SPDCs (PERSEO – Psychiatric EmeRgency Study and EpidemiOlogy). Results 253 FPA aged <= 40 were identified among 2521 patients admitted to Italian SPDCs over the 5-month study period. About half of FPA patients showed an aggressive behavior as defined by a Modified Overt Aggression Scale (MOAS) score greater than 0 Vs 46% of non-FPA patients (p = 0.3651). The most common was verbal aggression, while about 20% of FPA patients actually engaged in physical aggression against other people. 74% of FPA patients had no diagnosis at admission, while 40% had received a previous psychopharmacological treatment, mainly benzodiazepines and antidepressants. During SPDC stay, diagnosis was established in 96% of FPA patients and a pharmacological therapy was prescribed to 95% of them, mainly benzodiazepines, antipsychotics and mood stabilizers. Conclusion Subjects presenting at their first psychiatric ward admission have often not undergone previous adequate psychiatric assessment and diagnostic procedures. The first hospital admission allows diagnosis and psychopharmacological treatment to be established. In our population, aggressive behaviors were rather frequent, although most commonly verbal. Psychiatric symptoms, as evaluated by psychiatrists and patients, improved

  11. Comparative proximal features of the main Plinian deposits (Campanian Ignimbrite and Pomici di Base) of Campi Flegrei and Vesuvius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarpati, Claudio; Sparice, Domenico; Perrotta, Annamaria

    2016-07-01

    The proximal Plinian fall deposits of the Campanian Ignimbrite (CI; 38 ky, Fedele et al., 2008) and Pomici di Base (PdB; 18 ky, Bertagnini et al., 1998) have been investigated in order to understand the contribution of each part of the plume to the proximal sedimentation. Following Houghton et al. (2004b) we consider three main transport regimes: jet phase (producing facies Fb), buoyant region of the plume (producing facies Fa) and direct lateral ejection (producing facies Fc). As well documented in medial locations (Sparks et al., 1992, 1997; Ernst et al., 1996), transport regimes can develop different facies even in proximal locations according to the dynamics of the eruptive column. Our proximal deposits show stratification and diffuse bedding allowing us to introduce two new facies: stratified Fa (sFa) and diffuse bedded Fb (dbFb). These facies retain the transport regime previously proposed for Fa (buoyant plume) and Fb (jet phase) but their lithological features are influenced by near-vent depositional conditions. Lithology and sedimentological data (grain-size, componentry, maximum clasts) suggest that most of the sedimentation occurred mainly from the buoyant plume with simultaneous contribution from the other two different dynamic regimes. Coarse clasts falling from the lower margins of the plume strongly affected the sedimentation of the CI proximal fall deposit with a minor contribution from lithic clasts ballistically emplaced and partial collapses of the plume forming pyroclastic density currents. In contrast, the PdB proximal fall deposit was strongly affected by coarse clasts emplaced directly from the vent through parabolic trajectories, with very little contribution of material emplaced from the lower part of the plume. These differences can be attributed to different vent/conduit processes acting during the eruptions.

  12. Stereo 3-D Imagery Uses for Definition of Geologic Structures and Geomorphic Features (Anaglyph colored glasses employed)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, B. G.; Fuente, J. D.

    2008-12-01

    Recently completed projects incorporating TopoMorpher* digital images as adjuncts to commonly employed tools has emphasized the distinct advantage gained with STEREO 3-D DIGITAL IMAGERY. By manipulating scale, relief (four types of digital shading), sun angle, direction of viewing and tilt of scene, etc. -- to produce differing views of the same terrain -- aids in identifying, tracing, and interpreting ground surface anomalies. *TopoMorpher is a digital software product of Eighteen Software (18 software.com). The advantage of Stereo 3-D views combined with digital removal of vegetation which blocked interpretation (commonly called 'bare earth/naked' views) cannot be over-emphasized. The TopoMorpher program creates scenes transferable to disk for printing at any size. Included is with computer projector which allows large display and discussion ease for groups. The examples include (1) fault systems for targeting water well locations in bedrock and (2) delineation of debris slide and avalanche terrain. Combining geologic mapping and spring locations with Stereo 3-D TopoMorpher tracing of fault lineaments has allowed targeting of water well drilling sites. Selection of geophysical study areas for well siting has been simplified. Stereo 3-D TopoMorpher has a specific "relief/terrain setting" to define potential failure sites by producing detailed colored slope maps keyed to field-data derived parameters. Posters display individual project images and large scale overviews for identifying unusual major terrain features. Images at scales using 10 and 30 meter digital data as well as Lidar (< 1 meter) will be shown.

  13. Remote sensing based improvement of the geological map of the Neoproterozoic Ras Gharib segment in the Eastern Desert (NE-Egypt) using texture features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakob, Sandra; Bühler, Benjamin; Gloaguen, Richard; Breitkreuz, Christoph; Eliwa, Hassan Ali; El Gameel, Khaled

    2015-11-01

    Geological mapping in the Eastern Desert is impeded by difficult accessibility. We improve the existing geological maps by including texture features in a classification scheme of ASTER and Landsat 8 data. We tested the improvement of support vector machine classification using band ratios, principal component analysis (PCA) and texture analysis in the Ras Gharib segment (NE Egypt). A very high classification overall accuracy of 99.85% was achieved. We demonstrate that the input of textures provide valuable additional data for lithological mapping. With the gained information, the existing geological map of the study area was improved distinctly in precision and resolution, but also in terms of correction of yet wrong or inaccurate locations and of lithological unit extents.

  14. Interpretability of potential geological features of the Hermean surface restituted by the STereo imaging Camera of the SIMBIO-SYS package (BepiColombo mission).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massironi, Matteo

    One of the imaging instruments of BepiColombo mission is the STereo Camera (STC) integrated in the SIMBIO-SYS package. STC will permit the generation of a Digital Terrain Model (DTM) of Mercury's surface, improving the interpretation of morphological features at different scales and clarifying the stratigraphic relationships between different geological units. To evaluate the effectiveness of the STC-derived DTM for geological purposes, a series of simulations has been performed to find out to what extent the errors expected in the DTM may prevent the correct classification and interpretation of geological features. To meet this objective, Earth analogues (craters, lava cones, endogenous domes, ridges) of likely components of the Hermean surface, small enough to be near the detection limit of the STC, were selected and a photorealistic 3D model of each feature was generated. Stereoscopic pairs of synthetic images of each feature were then generated from the 3D model at different locations along the BepiColombo orbit. For each stereo pair, the corresponding Hermean DTM was computed using image correlation and compared to the reference data to assess the loss of detail and interpretability. On these basis some considerations are made on scientific objectives that can be met thanks to STC surface restitution capabilities.

  15. MAINE AQUIFERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    AQFRS24 contains polygons of significant aquifers in Maine (glacial deposits that are a significant ground water resource) mapped at a scale 1:24,000. This statewide coverage was derived from aquifer boundaries delineated and digitized by the Maine Geological Survey from data com...

  16. Groundwater study using drill holes in the Abukuma granitic province, NE Japan: chemical and isotopic features in the fracture zone around the geological tectonic line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, H. A.; Tsukamoto, H.; Kazahaya, K.; Takahashi, M.; Morikawa, N.; Yasuhara, M.; Inamura, A.; Handa, H.; Nakamura, T.

    2010-12-01

    Chemical and isotopic features of groundwater in a granitic province are considered to be controlled by water origin, water-rock reaction and/or fracture connection in rocks. Under the depth of a weathering layer, groundwater is existed only in cracks of granite, and its chemical nature or origin has been poorly understood because of difficulties on collection of water samples preserving its natural conditions. On the other hand, a geological tectonic line in a granitic province might provide an influence to groundwater as a path for ascending deep fluid. We conducted a study for chemical processes of groundwater in cracks with investigation of an influence of tectonic line by drilling three bore holes at two sites in a same rock body; Miharu site is located ca. 1.2km west from the Morioka-Shirakawa tectonic line, and Shirasawa site is ca. 5km west. In situ sampling of waters in cracks of granite are done with the single and double packer methods. The drill holes were made 305m and 135m at the Miharu site and 230m at the Shirasawa site. Using these bole holes, groundwater features in the fracture zone around the geological tectonic line can be compared with those outside it. Chemical type of groundwater has a variety with depth; the shallower groundwater is categorized as Ca-HCO3- type with slight NO3 contamination whereas deeper groundwater has Na-HCO3- type. Stable isotope composition of water showed that all the sample water is meteoric origin. Those have significantly low values (ca. 10‰ of δD lower than shallow groundwater) obviously indicating that the groundwater does not originate from the present meteoric water. Groundwater with low δD and δ18O values is likely recharged in an ice age consistent with the 14C date showing the age of carbon ranging from 10000 to 15000 yrBP. The vertical trends of chemical and isotopic components are similar between the two holes at the Miharu site, but different between the two sites, Miharu and Shirasawa. The

  17. Low doses of mercuric chloride cause the main features of anti-nucleolar autoimmunity in female outbred CFW mice.

    PubMed

    Arefieva, Alla S; Kamaeva, Alfia G; Krasilshchikova, Marina S

    2016-09-01

    The growth of the influence of anthropogenic factors aimed on the improvement of human life has its side effect, for example, living organisms receive increasing exposure to toxic mercuric compounds. Experimental data show that mercury (Hg) salts are able to induce systemic autoimmunity in rodents. This Hg-induced autoimmune process (HgIA) is characterized by T cell-dependent polyclonal activation of B lymphocytes, increased level of serum immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) and immunoglobulin E (IgE), production of antinucleolar autoantibodies (ANoA), and immune complex deposition in multiple organs. HgIA in mice is used as a model of human systemic autoimmune disorders. However, the dose of mercuric chloride (HgCl2) usually used in laboratory mice to induce HgIA is above the allowable limit for everyday levels of Hg exposure in humans. So, we decided to determine the lowest dose of HgCl2 that is able to trigger autoimmunity in outbred Carworth Farms Swiss Webster (CFW) mice not genetically prone to HgIA development. The lowest dose (50 µg/kg body weight (b.w.)/week) was chosen to match the World Health Organization provisional weekly tolerable intake of total Hg for humans. We also tested HgCl2 at 500 and 1500 µg/kg b.w./week (6.5- and 2-fold less than usually used for induction of HgIA in mice). We found that even the lowest dose of Hg resulted in a statistically significant increase in serum level of IgG1 after 8 weeks of treatment. HgCl2 in doses 500 and 1500 µg/kg b.w./week resulted in a significant increase in serum level of IgG1 after 4 weeks of treatment, followed by ANoA production. Sera of HgCl2-treated mice stained the regions in which the major autoantigen in HgIA, fibrillarin, was revealed. These results suggest that low doses of Hg are able to induce the main features of HgIA in genetically heterozygous mice, and that humans chronically exposed to low doses of Hg may be at risk of autoimmunity induction regardless of their genetic background. PMID:25765285

  18. Identification of the emission features near 3.5 microns in the pre main sequence star HD 97048

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baas, F.; Allamandola, L. J.; Geballe, T. R.; Persson, S. E.; Lacy, J. H.

    1982-01-01

    The spectrum of HD97048 was measured with a resolving power of 450 between 3.37 and 3.64 microns. The prominent feature near 3.5 microns is well resolved, with a peak at 3.53 microns and a wing extending to a shorter wavelength. The weaker feature near 3.4 microns is found to peak at 3.43 microns, in contrast to the 3.40 micron feature seen in other astronomical objects. The observed spectrum strongly resembles laboratory spectra of mixtures of monomeric and dimeric formaldehyde embedded in low temperature solids. Of various possible excitation mechanisms, ultraviolet pumped infrared fluorescence of formaldehyde in interstellar grains provides the best explanation for the observed spectrum of HD 97048.

  19. Relationships between satellite-measured thermal features and Alexandrium-imposed toxicity in the Gulf of Maine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luerssen, Remy M.; Thomas, Andrew C.; Hurst, John

    2005-09-01

    Relationships between satellite-derived sea-surface temperature (SST) patterns and the occurrence of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxicity events caused by Alexandrium fundyense in the western Gulf of Maine are examined. Comparisons between surface A. fundyense cell distribution patterns and SST images indicate that highest cell concentrations are associated with colder waters of the eastern segment of the Gulf of Maine coastal current (EMCC) and that frontal zones at the edges of the EMCC often act as boundaries to surface distributions. Surface thermal patterns coincident with a May 2000 PSP toxic event and shellfish harvesting closure on the western Maine coast show enhanced connectivity between the EMCC and the western Gulf of Maine, suggesting transport linking A. fundyense cells in the EMCC to inshore areas of the western Gulf of Maine. Surface drifter data support such transport. Thirteen years (1990-2002) of toxicity data from eight monitoring sites along the coast of Maine and concurrent SST data show that in years of either large or very reduced toxicity, a consistent relationship exists between the timing and strength of fronts, taken as an indicator of alongshore connectivity, and the occurrence and strength of toxic events. Years with weak fronts and/or fronts that become established relatively late in the summer growing season are years of the strongest toxicity events in western Gulf of Maine. Years of early and strong fronts are years with few and/or weak toxicity events. Our results suggest that advective connections exist between cells present in the EMCC and toxicity along the western Gulf of Maine coast and that large-scale hydrographic processes, characterized here as surface thermal patterns, influence A. fundyense populations in the western Gulf of Maine, either through delivery of actual cells or advection of advantageous conditions into the region. These data point to the utility of satellite and other coastal observing system data

  20. LPS-induced Murine Neuroinflammation Model: Main Features and Suitability for Pre-clinical Assessment of Nutraceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Catorce, Miryam Nava; Gevorkian, Goar

    2016-01-01

    Neuroinflammation is an important feature in the pathogenesis and progression of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer´s disease (AD), Parkinson´s disease (PD), frontotemporal dementia and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Based on current knowledge in the field, suggesting that targeting peripheral inflammation could be a promising additional treatment/prevention approach for neurodegenerative diseases, drugs and natural products with anti-inflammatory properties have been evaluated in animal models of neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. In this review, we provide an extensive analysis of one of the most important and widely-used animal models of peripherally induced neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration - lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated mice, and address the data reproducibility in published research. We also summarize briefly basic features of various natural products, nutraceuticals, with known anti-inflammatory effects and present an overview of data on their therapeutic potential for reducing neuroinflammation in LPS-treated mice. PMID:26639457

  1. The correlation between the characteristics of seismic wave propagation in Western Caucasus and the geological-tectonic features of the region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharazova, Yu. V.; Pavlenko, O. V.; Dudinskii, K. A.

    2016-05-01

    The relationship between the characteristics of seismic waves in the Western Caucasus and the geological-tectonic structure of the region is studied for identifying the specificity of seismic propagation in the mountainous regions with a complicated geological structure and forecasting the characteristics of the propagation from the geological and tectonic data. The interpretation is presented for the estimates of the Q-factor of the medium ( Q( f) ~ 55 f 0.9 in the region of Sochi and Q( f) ~ 90 f 0.7 in the region of Anapa), seismic wave enhancement in the upper crustal layers ( A( f) ~ 1), and peak ground acceleration residuals, which were previously determined from the records of the local earthquakes and show the distributions of local variations in the parameters of seismic wave radiation and propagation. The obtained characteristics are interpreted in the context of the up-to-date information about the tectonic, geological, and deep structure of the epicentral zones in the Western Caucasus and neighboring territory of the Black Sea. The discrepancies revealed in the low-frequency behavior of the Q-factor in the vicinities of Sochi and Anapa is accounted for by the spatial scale and character of tectonic dislocations of the rocks in these regions. The local variations in the parameters of seismic radiation and propagation are probably related to the geological features of the region such as the fault structures, including the thrusts, shatter zones, oblique seismic boundaries, variations in the thickness and consolidation of the sedimentary cover, as well as the peculiarities in the structure and material composition of the basement.

  2. A Geostatistical Approach to Assess the Spatial Association between Indoor Radon Concentration, Geological Features and Building Characteristics: The Case of Lombardy, Northern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Borgoni, Riccardo; Tritto, Valeria; Bigliotto, Carlo; de Bartolo, Daniela

    2011-01-01

    Radon is a natural gas known to be the main contributor to natural background radiation exposure and second to smoking, a major leading cause of lung cancer. The main source of radon is the soil, but the gas can enter buildings in many different ways and reach high indoor concentrations. Monitoring surveys have been promoted in many countries in order to assess the exposure of people to radon. In this paper, two complementary aspects are investigated. Firstly, we mapped indoor radon concentration in a large and inhomogeneous region using a geostatistical approach which borrows strength from the geologic nature of the soil. Secondly, knowing that geologic and anthropogenic factors, such as building characteristics, can foster the gas to flow into a building or protect against this, we evaluated these effects through a multiple regression model which takes into account the spatial correlation of the data. This allows us to rank different building typologies, identified by architectonic and geological characteristics, according to their proneness to radon. Our results suggest the opportunity to differentiate construction requirements in a large and inhomogeneous area, as the one considered in this paper, according to different places and provide a method to identify those dwellings which should be monitored more carefully. PMID:21655128

  3. Correlation of Plio Pleistocene Tephra in Ethiopian and Kenyan rift basins: Temporal calibration of geological features and hominid fossil records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    WoldeGabriel, Giday; Hart, William K.; Katoh, Shigehiro; Beyene, Yonas; Suwa, Gen

    2005-10-01

    The 200-m-thick fossiliferous Konso Formation and overlying terrace deposits, which crop out at the end of the southern sector of the Main Ethiopian Rift (MER), contain more than 30 distal tephra layers. Local and regional tephra correlations of more than 20 tephra units were established using major and trace element data of discrete and purified bulk glass samples within the Konso study area. Eleven correlative marker tuffs were recognized in stratigraphic sections of both the Konso Formation and the Omo-Turkana Basin sediments in southern Ethiopia and northern Kenya. The Turoha, Hope, Ivory, Bright White, and Boleshe Tuffs in the Konso Formation, and the Upper White Tuff in the overlying terrace deposits are securely correlated with the KBS, Akait, Lokapetamoi, Chari, Lower Nariokotome, and Silbo Tuffs of the Omo-Turkana Basin, using least mobile major elements (CaO, Fe 2O 3*, and TiO 2) and geochronology. Preliminary correlations are also suggested between the Konso Formation distal tephra and proximal units of the Quaternary caldera-forming silicic centers in the central sector of the MER. The strongly peralkaline tuffs of the Konso Formation are compositionally similar to proximal eruptions mostly located along the Quaternary axial rift zone of the southern, central, and northern sectors of the MER. The tephra correlation provides information about the temporal and spatial features of the volcanic and tectonic processes recorded in the evolving basins. Thickness and sedimentation rate were determined for both the Konso Formation and the Omo-Turkana Basin sections, measured between the Turoha (=KBS; 1.91 ± 0.03 Ma) and the Bright White (=Chari; 1.40 ± 0.02 Ma) Tuffs. Although the lithostratigraphic sequence at the Konso study area is younger, sedimentation rate within the Konso Formation was comparable to that of the Koobi Fora Formation, higher in the Nachukui Formation, and lower in the Shungura Formation. Local and regional differences in thickness and

  4. Image analysis techniques with special reference to analysis and interpretation of geological features from LANDSAT imagery. [India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamat, D. S.; Majumder, K. L.; Naik, S. D.; Swaminathan, V. L.

    1977-01-01

    The principal component analysis enhances the contrast existing between the different cover types present in an imagery. A procedure is presented with regards to the determination of the principal components. The method is tested for a portion of the LANDSAT imagery pertaining to Anantapur region. Another technique, using the concept of non-linear contrast stretching is defined and developed and carried out on the same imagery. The results are presented as photographs. An interpretation of the geology of the region is derived from these photographs.

  5. The use of fluoride as a natural tracer in water and the relationship to geological features: Examples from the Animas River Watershed, San Juan Mountains, Silverton, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bove, D.J.; Walton-Day, K.; Kimball, B.A.

    2009-01-01

    Investigations within the Silverton caldera, in southwestern Colorado, used a combination of traditional geological mapping, alteration-assemblage mapping, and aqueous geochemical sampling that showed a relationship between geological and hydrologic features that may be used to better understand the provenance and evolution of the water. Veins containing fluorite, huebnerite, and elevated molybdenum concentrations are temporally and perhaps genetically associated with the emplacement of high-silica rhyolite intrusions. Both the rhyolites and the fluorite-bearing veins produce waters containing elevated concentrations of F-, K and Be. The identification of water samples with elevated F/Cl molar ratios (> 10) has also aided in the location of water draining F-rich sources, even after these waters have been diluted substantially. These unique aqueous geochemical signatures can be used to relate water chemistry to key geological features and mineralized source areas. Two examples that illustrate this relationship are: (1) surface-water samples containing elevated F-concentrations (> 1.8 mg/l) that closely bracket the extent of several small high-silica rhyolite intrusions; and (2) water samples containing elevated concentrations of F-(> 1.8 mg/ l) that spatially relate to mines or areas that contain late-stage fluorite/huebnerite veins. In two additional cases, the existence of high F-concentrations in water can be used to: (1) infer interaction of the water with mine waste derived from systems known to contain the fluorite/huebnerite association; and (2) relate changes in water quality over time at a high elevation mine tunnel to plugging of a lower elevation mine tunnel and the subsequent rise of the water table into mineralized areas containing fluorite/huebnerite veining. Thus, the unique geochemical signature of the water produced from fluorite veins indicates the location of high-silica rhyolites, mines, and mine waste containing the veins. Existence of high F

  6. Prevalence of malaria, prevention measures, and main clinical features in febrile children admitted to the Franceville Regional Hospital, Gabon

    PubMed Central

    Maghendji-Nzondo, Sydney; Nzoughe, Hermann; Lemamy, Guy Joseph; Kouna, Lady Charlene; Pegha-Moukandja, Irene; Lekoulou, Faustin; Mbatchi, Bertrand; Toure-Ndouo, Fousseyni; Lekana-Douki, Jean Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Recently, major progress has been made in controlling malaria in Africa. However, in Gabon, little information is available on the role of malaria in childhood febrile syndromes, the use and efficacy of preventive measures, and Plasmodium species distribution. Here, we characterized malaria in febrile children in Franceville, Gabon through a cross-sectional study at the pediatric unit of the Franceville Regional Hospital. We registered 940 febrile children. Their general condition was markedly altered in 11.7% of cases (n = 89/760); among them 19 (21.4%) had a severely altered condition. Malaria was the second most frequent etiology (22.0%; n = 162/738), after respiratory tract infections (37.3%; n = 275/738). Children with malaria (63 ± 39 months) were older than children without malaria (40 ± 37 months) (p = 0.0013). Hemoglobin, red blood cell, white blood cell, and platelet values were lower in children with malaria than in those without malaria (p < 0.0001). Anemia was the most common feature of severe malaria (70.6%; n = 12/17), followed by neurological involvement (23.5%; n = 4/17). The prevalence of malaria was significantly higher in children older than 60 months than in younger children (40% vs. 15.5%; p < 0.0001). Plasmodium falciparum accounted for 97.5% of cases (158/162), followed by Plasmodium malariae (2.5%; n = 4/162). Bed net use was high (74.4%; n = 697/936) and contributed to malaria prevention (p = 0.001). Good basic knowledge of malaria also had a preventive effect (p < 0.0001). The prevalence of malaria in children in Franceville did not decrease significantly from 2009 to 2012, remaining at about 20%, highlighting that preventive measures should be reinforced. PMID:27492564

  7. Continuous hourly radon gradient observations at Cabauw, the Netherlands - a review of main features of the 2007-2009 dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahorowski, Wlodek; Vermeulen, Alex; Williams, Alastair; Chambers, Scott; Verheggen, Bart

    2010-05-01

    We report on results of the first three years of radon time series and radon gradient observations at the Cabauw site in the Netherlands (51.971oN, 4.927oE). Two 1500 L dual flow loop, two filter radon detectors with a sensitivity better than 40 mBq m-3 are installed at the site, ensuring that gradients can be defined to the required precision every hour. The inlets are mounted on the main meteorological tower at 20 m and 200 m above ground level. The Cabauw site, located 50 km inland on a polder in an agricultural region, has a simple orography with surface elevations changing by a few metres at most within a 20 km radius. The radon gradient observations are part of our larger program to characterise turbulent mixing processes throughout the lower atmosphere. The two other related measurement projects are the continuous hourly measurements of radon gradients in the surface layer on a 50 m tower at Lucas Heights, Australia (34.053°S, 150.981°E; see Chambers et al, this conference), and campaign-style measurements of radon profiles up to altitudes of 4000 m above ground level using light aircraft (see Williams et al., this conference). We observe well pronounced absolute radon and radon gradient signals at Cabauw, influenced by atmospheric processes occurring on seasonal, synoptic, and diurnal time scales. Seasonal variability. The lowest radon concentrations were observed in winter and summer, when the dominant air mass fetch was the Atlantic Ocean. In spring and autumn, concentrations were generally high, as the air mass fetch was primarily over western and/or central Europe. Even when the fetch was oceanic during the latter seasons, it was often over the North Sea where radon concentrations are perturbed by land emissions. In autumn, radon concentrations from the mainland European fetch were more than three times larger than the corresponding concentration from the Atlantic/North Sea regions. Synoptic variability. The radon signal is typically a combination of

  8. Main Features of Plasma Control

    SciTech Connect

    Crisanti, F.; Albanese, R.; Ambrosino, G.

    2008-03-12

    In the recent years Plasma Control has always increased his importance in any advanced experiment. It is now clear that ITER will not be able to operate without a quite advanced and sophisticated control apparatus. Necessarily this system will have to integrate several different aspects of the Plasma behavior. One of the most important parts of a closed loop control system is the quality of the measurement of the plasma parameters that should be controlled. Eventually, this aspect involves sophisticated and complex diagnostic apparatus. This paper presents an overview of the present status, and further studies and developments needed, in the next future, for the design and realization of an integrated plasma control system aimed at both stabilizing the plasma non-axisymmetric instabilities and controlling the most important internal plasma parameters. In particular the Edge Localized Modes (ELMs), the Neo-Classical Tearing Modes (NTM), the Resistive Wall Mode (RWM) and the Plasma Profiles control system necessities will be shortly illustrated.

  9. The geomorphological and geological features of gravitational deformation of mountain and its history in the area from Mt. Yambushi to the Oya-Kuzure, Central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokudai, K.; Chigira, M.

    2003-04-01

    We clarified the geological structure and the geomorphological features of a mountain deformation as well as its deformation history in central Japan. The ridge we investigated is underlain by slate, of which cleavage trends at a small angle with the ridge trend. The cleavage dips very steeply in the depth, but dips gently toward the mountain in most higher elevations, clearly showing that the slaty cleavage bowed valleyward. The deformation left ridge-top depressions and uphill-facing scarps at the upper part of the mountain. The ridge-top depression was made earlier than 20 ka BP and uphill-facing scarps lower than those were formed in about 10 ka BP, which has been clarified by the trenching and tephra analysis of depression-filling deposits.

  10. Geology of the Caribbean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dillon, William P.; Edgar, N.T.; Scanlon, K.M.; Klitgord, Kim D.

    1987-01-01

    The Venezuelan and Colombian basins are located on the Caribbean Plate whilst the Yucatan basin is on the North American Plate. The processes occurring at the boundaries between the Caribbean Plate and the adjacent North American, South American and Cocos Plates, and the resulting surface features and patterns of volcanic and earthquake activity are described. Most of the Caribbean area is floored by atypical oceanic crust and its most valuable main geologic resources identified so far are petroleum, together with sand and gravel. Geological research is being carried out with techniques for broad-range swath imaging of the seafloor, such as GLORIA, and for directly measuring the movement between plates. -J.G.Harvey

  11. Influence of geological features (geochemistry and mineralogy) of soil wich constitutes adobes in their durability - Huambo, Angola.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, Isabel; Pedro, Elsa; Varum, Humberto; Mirão, José; Pinho, António

    2014-05-01

    After long years of war, great efforts have been made for the socio-economic development of Angola, mainly in the construction industry. Among the construction techniques, the Adobe is the most used in the province of Huambo, especially by low-income families, which constitute the majority. This technique was established as a historical heritage in the culture of that population. The Huambo province is located in the central region of Angola (Central Plateau) and is bounded on the northeast and east by the province of Bié, on the south and southern by province of Huila, and on the west by the province of Benguela and on the northwest by the province of Kwanza Sul. Has an area of 35,771 km2 and approximately 2,301,524 inhabitants, which corresponds to 58 inhabitants per km2 (Government of the Province of Huambo, 2006). The buildings in this province, particularly in rural areas, were deeply marked by war. Given the current scenario of development of the country and considering the possibility of integrate systems and traditional building materials, that respect the environment and fit harmoniously into its natural habitat, one of the alternative options in the actual construction, undergoes resume old solutions and traditional materials such as adobe construction.It is in this context that this project is part of a scientific research in order to permit the improvement and optimization of these traditional solutions, responding to current demands for social, economic and environmental sustainability. The adobe is a building element with potential degradation by water. Due to the climate, subtropical, hot and humid, and geomorphology of the province, about 1000 to 2000 meters of altitude and an extensive river system, these buildings can be vulnerable and present early degradation, exacerbated by lack of knowledge of the properties of geomaterials used and techniques that allow their stabilization and conservation. This paper aims to study the influence of

  12. Seismological, Geological and Geomorphic Aspects of Arc Segmentation and Their Relation to Subducting Bathymetric Features in the Solomon Island Arc, SW Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, M.; Frohlich, C.; Taylor, F. W.

    2006-12-01

    Arc segmentation partitions forearcs into multiple blocks so that the forearc behaves like a "keyboard on a piano" as each segment potentially interacts with the downgoing plate in a different tectonic style. For example, parts of the forearc of the Solomon Islands arc has undergone hundreds of meters of rapid subsidence and uplift during late Quaternary time. Other parts have undergone only minor late Quaternary movements. We use seismology, geology, and geomorphology to identify arc segments in order to evaluate how bathymetric features on the subducting plate influence seismicity and active tectonics and cause overriding plate segmentation. Seismic rupture areas for large earthquakes, seismicity patterns, seismicity cross sections, focal mechanisms, and seismic moment calculations all reveal that the central arc being underthrust by the Woodlark Basin system of active sea-floor spreading is very different from the northwest and southeast parts of the arc. Woodlark subduction is characterized by sparse seismicity, gentle subduction angle, and thrust faulting with some normal and strike-slip components. Observations from geologic maps, coastal geomorphology, and emerged coral reefs show that the arc segments are undergoing varying amounts and rates of uplift and submergence. Larger islands such as Guadalcanal and San Cristobal have both drowning and emerging coastlines. This information indicates the individual segments have dramatically different histories of vertical tectonics. We identify three supersegments: Bougainville, New Georgia, and Guadalcanal-San Cristobal. Smaller segments subdivide each supersegment. Thus we identify nine major boundaries, seven minor boundaries, and six possible boundaries. The classification of each boundary depends on the strength of evidence supporting its existence and the amount of change in tectonic behavior across the boundary. We speculate that subduction of the young Woodlark Spreading Center with seamounts and ridges on

  13. Geological Features and Crustal Structure of the Cretaceous Middle Benue Trough, Nigeria: Insights from Detailed Analysis and Modelling of Magnetic and Gravity Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anudu, G. K.; Stephenson, R.; Macdonald, D.

    2015-12-01

    The middle Benue Trough is the middle (central) segment of the Nigerian Benue Trough, an intra-continental rift that developed during the second phase of rifting of the Gondwana supercontinent that resulted in the opening of the South Atlantic Ocean, Gulf of Guinea and separation of South America from Africa in the Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous. Airborne magnetic and terrestrial gravity data from the area have been analysed and modelled in detail. Results obtained using a variety of edge enhancement (derivative) methods applied to high-resolution, airborne magnetic data reveal widespread magmatic intrusions (mainly volcanic/sub-volcanic rocks, with an areal extent greater than 12000 km2) and numerous geological structures. Rose (azimuth frequency) plots show that the geological structural trends are predominantly NE - SW, NW - SE and ESE - WNW with minor ENE -WSW/N - S trends and thus suggest that the area has undergone several phases of tectonic deformation at different geological times. Integrated two-dimensional (2-D) gravity and magnetic modelling along five profiles constrained by 2-D magnetic depth-to-source estimates and available seismological velocity models indicates the presence of a number of distinct crustal bodies and thin crust. Moho depth varies from ca. 21 - 29 km, while the crustal thickness ranges between ca. 19 and 29 km. Shallower Moho and thinner crust are observed along the trough axis. Results from the study also reveal that the amount of crustal thinning and crustal stretching factor (β) across the area varies from 3.3 - 14.5 km and 1.11 - 1.78, respectively. Broad positive to near positive Bouguer gravity anomalies in the region of the trough axis are due to the combined effects of dense (intermediate to basic) magmatic intrusions (both intra-sedimentary and intra-basement/crustal ones), shallow basement horsts (basement uplift zones) and thin crust replaced by dense abnormal upper mantle bodies. Reactivated intra-basement structures

  14. Maine Ingredients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, John K.

    2009-01-01

    This article features Maine Learning Technology Initiative (MLTI), the nation's first-ever statewide 1-to-1 laptop program which marks its seventh birthday by expanding into high schools, providing an occasion to celebrate--and to examine the components of its success. The plan to put laptops into the hands of every teacher and student in grades 7…

  15. Radiocarbon Ages from Two Submerged Strandline Features in the Western Gulf of Maine and a Sea-Level Curve for the Northeastern Massachusetts Coastal Region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oldale, R.N.; Colman, Steven M.; Jones, Glenn A.

    1993-01-01

    New radiocarbon dates provide ages for two submerged strandline features on the Massachusetts inner shelf. These ages provide limited control on a relative sea-level (RSL) curve for the late Wisconsinan and Holocene. The curve indicates a late Wisconsinan high stand of RSL of +33 m about 14,000 yr ago and a very short-lived relative low stand of about -43 m at about 12,000 yr ago followed by a rise to present sea level. Rapid changes of RSL around 12,000 yr ago may be related to changes in global glacial meltwater discharge and eustatic sea-level change shown by dated corals off Barbados. Variations in the magnitude and timing of RSL change from south to north along the coast of the western Gulf of Maine are due to greater crustal depression and later deglaciation to the north.

  16. Analysis of the OECD Main Steam Line Break Benchmark Problem Using the Refined Core Thermal-Hydraulic Nodalization Feature of the MARS/MASTER Code

    SciTech Connect

    Joo, Han Gyu; Jeong, Jae-Jun; Cho, Byung-Oh; Lee, Won Jae; Zee, Sung Quun

    2003-05-15

    The refined core thermal-hydraulics (T-H) nodalization feature of the MARS/MASTER code is used to generate a high-fidelity solution to the OECD main steam line break benchmark problem and to investigate the effects of core T-H nodalization. The MARS/MASTER coupling scheme is introduced first that enables efficient refined node core T-H calculations via the COBRA-III module. The base solution is generated using a fine T-H nodalization consisting of fuel assembly-sized radial nodes. Sensitivity studies are performed on core T-H nodalization to examine the impacts on core reactivity, power distribution, and transient behavior. The results indicate that the error in the peak local power can be very large (up to 25%) with a coarse T-H nodalization because of the inability to incorporate detailed thermal feedback. A demonstrative departure from nucleate boiling (DNB) calculation shows no occurrence of DNB in this problem.

  17. Mapping urban geology of the city of Girona, Catalonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilà, Miquel; Torrades, Pau; Pi, Roser; Monleon, Ona

    2016-04-01

    A detailed and systematic geological characterization of the urban area of Girona has been conducted under the project '1:5000 scale Urban geological map of Catalonia' of the Catalan Geological Survey (Institut Cartogràfic i Geològic de Catalunya). The results of this characterization are organized into: i) a geological information system that includes all the information acquired; ii) a stratigraphic model focused on identification, characterization and correlation of the geological materials and structures present in the area and; iii) a detailed geological map that represents a synthesis of all the collected information. The mapping project integrates in a GIS environment pre-existing cartographic documentation (geological and topographical), core data from compiled boreholes, descriptions of geological outcrops within the urban network and neighbouring areas, physico-chemical characterisation of representative samples of geological materials, detailed geological mapping of Quaternary sediments, subsurface bedrock and artificial deposits and, 3D modelling of the main geological surfaces. The stratigraphic model is structured in a system of geological units that from a chronostratigrafic point of view are structured in Palaeozoic, Paleogene, Neogene, Quaternary and Anthropocene. The description of the geological units is guided by a systematic procedure. It includes the main lithological and structural features of the units that constitute the geological substratum and represents the conceptual base of the 1:5000 urban geological map of the Girona metropolitan area, which is organized into 6 map sheets. These map sheets are composed by a principal map, geological cross sections and, several complementary maps, charts and tables. Regardless of the geological map units, the principal map also represents the main artificial deposits, features related to geohistorical processes, contours of outcrop areas, information obtained in stations, borehole data, and contour

  18. Mass Spectrometric Imaging of Wheat (Triticum spp.) and Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Cultivars: Distribution of Major Cell Wall Polysaccharides According to Their Main Structural Features.

    PubMed

    Veličković, Dušan; Saulnier, Luc; Lhomme, Margot; Damond, Aurélie; Guillon, Fabienne; Rogniaux, Hélène

    2016-08-17

    Arabinoxylans (AX) and (1→3),(1→4)-β-glucans (BG) are the main components of cereal cell walls and influence many aspects of their end uses. Important variations in the composition and structure of these polysaccharides have been reported among cereals and cultivars of a given species. In this work, the spatial distribution of AX and BG in the endosperm of mature grains was established for nine wheat varieties and eight barley varieties using enzymatically assisted mass spectrometry imaging (MSI). Important structural features of the AX and BG polymers that were previously shown to influence their physicochemical properties were assessed. Differences in the distribution of AX and BG structures were observed, both within the endosperm of a given cultivar and between wheat and barley cultivars. This study provides a unique picture of the structural heterogeneity of AX and BG polysaccharides at the scale of the whole endosperm in a series of wheat and barley cultivars. Thus, it can participate meaningfully in a strategy aiming at understanding the structure-function relationships of these two polymers. PMID:27463368

  19. Shallow submarine volcano group in the early stage of island arc development: Geology and petrology of small islands south off Hahajima main island, the Ogasawara Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanayama, Kyoko; Umino, Susumu; Ishizuka, Osamu

    2014-05-01

    Small Islands south off Hahajima, the southernmost of the Ogasawara Archipelago, consist of primitive basalts (<12 wt.% MgO) to dacite erupted during the transitional stage immediately following boninite volcanism on the incipient arc to sustained typical oceanic arc. Strombolian to Hawaiian fissure eruptions occurring on independent volcanic centers for the individual islands under a shallow sea produced magnesian basalt to dacite fall-out tephras, hyaloclastite and a small volume of pillow lava, which were intruded by NE-trending dikes. These volcanic strata are correlated to the upper part (<40 Ma) of the Hahajima main island. Volcanic rock samples have slightly lower FeO*/MgO ratios than the present volcanic front lavas, and are divided into three types with high, medium and low La/Yb ratios. Basalt to dacite of high- and medium-La/Yb types show both tholeiitic (TH) and calc-alkaline (CA) differentiation trends. Low-La/Yb type belongs only to TH basalt. The multiple magma types are coexistence on the each island. TH basalts have phenocrysts of olivine, clinopyroxene and plagioclase, while CA basalts are free from plagioclase phenocrysts.

  20. Distribution of Trichloroethylene and Geologic Controls on Contaminant Pathways near the Royal River, McKin Superfund Site Area, Gray, Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lyford, Forest P.; Flight, L.E.; Stone, Janet Radway; Clifford, Scott

    1999-01-01

    Vapor-diffusion samplers were used in the autumn of 1997 to determine the lateral extent and distribution of concentrations of a trichloroethylene (TCE) plume in the ground-water discharge area near the McKin Superfund Site, Gray, Maine. Analyses of vapor in the samplers identified a plume about 800 feet wide entering the river near Boiling Springs, an area of ground-water discharge on the flood plain of the Royal River. The highest observed concentration of TCE in vapor was in an area of sand boils on the western bank of the river and about 200 feet downstream from Boiling Springs. Previous studies showed that most of the TCE load in the river originated in the area of the sand boils. In general, highest concentrations were observed on the western side of the river on the upgradient side of the plume, but TCE also was detected at numerous locations in the center and eastern bank of the river. The TCE plume discharges to the river where fine-grained glaciomarine sediments of the Presumpscot Formation are absent and where coarse-grained facies of buried glaciomarine fan deposits provide a pathway for ground-water flow. Based on results of analyses of vapor-diffusion samples and other previous studies, the plume appears to pass under and beyond the river near Boiling Springs and along the river for about 300 feet downstream from the sand boils. A coarse-grained, organic-rich layer at the base of the alluvial flood plain sediments is confined by overlying fine-grained alluvial sediments and may provide a conduit for ground-water leaking upward from buried glaciomarine fan deposits.

  1. Multi-instrument observations of plasma features in the Arctic ionosphere during the main phase of a geomagnetic storm in December 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ye-wen; Liu, Rui-yuan; Zhang, Bei-chen; Wu, Zhen-sen; Hu, Hong-qiao; Zhang, Shun-rong; Zhang, Qing-he; Liu, Jun-ming; Honary, F.

    2013-12-01

    Arctic ionospheric variations during the main phase of a magnetic storm on 14-15 December, 2006 were investigated to characterize the high energy particle precipitation caused effects, based on multi-instrument observations. These include electron density observations provided by the Global Positioning System (GPS) total electron content (TEC) measurements, European Incoherent Scatter (EISCAT) radar, the radio occultation (RO) from both the CHAMP satellite and the Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (COSMIC) satellite, as well as the ionospheric absorption of cosmic radio noise measured by the Imaging Riometer for Ionospheric Studies (IRIS) at Kilpisjärvi in the northern Finland (69.05°N, 20.79°E). Significant increases in the electron density for these different observations were found in the Arctic ionosphere during the main phase of the magnetic storm. These increase occurred in Scandinavian, Northwest part of Russia and Svalbard (SNRS) region, primarily at an altitude of about 110 km. These results are first reported for the SNRS region, and our study contributes to a more complete description of this space weather event during 14-15 December, 2006. Our observations also provide direct evidence that the stormtime E-layer electron density enhancement (e.g., the sporadic E) can form a nearly dominant portion in the observed TEC increase. These increases were accompanied by the ionospheric absorption enhancement at the altitude of about 90 km. The Y-component of magnetic field to the south of SNRS decreased, indicating strong upward field aligned electric current in the Arctic ionosphere. These features are interpreted as the effect of the high energy electron precipitation during the magnetic storm, which is caused by the sub-storm reflected on AL index and the measurements of IMAGE (International Monitor for Auroral Geomagnetic Effects) chain. The average energy of the precipitation electrons reached to about 10 keV and the

  2. Advances in planetary geology

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-06-01

    The surface of Mars displays a broad range of channel and valley features. There is as great a range in morphology as in scale. Some of the features of Martian geography are examined. Geomorphic mapping, crater counts on selected surfaces, and a detailed study of drainage basins are used to trace the geologic evolution of the Margaritifer Sinus Quandrangle. The layered deposits in the Valles Marineris are described in detail and the geologic processes that could have led to their formation are analyzed.

  3. Advances in Planetary Geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, John A., III; Nedell, Susan S.

    1987-01-01

    The surface of Mars displays a broad range of channel and valley features. There is as great a range in morphology as in scale. Some of the features of Martian geography are examined. Geomorphic mapping, crater counts on selected surfaces, and a detailed study of drainage basins are used to trace the geologic evolution of the Margaritifer Sinus Quandrangle. The layered deposits in the Valles Marineris are described in detail and the geologic processes that could have led to their formation are analyzed.

  4. Geology of Brunei deltas, exploration status updated

    SciTech Connect

    Schreurs, J.

    1997-08-04

    This article summarizes the petroleum geology of Negara Brunei Darussalam, the smallest but oil and gas richest country in Northwest Borneo. The paper describes the exploration history, Brunei geology, structural geology, main hydrocarbon reservoirs, seals, formation pressures, and current exploration.

  5. The Geological, Geomorphological Features and Kinematic Analysis of Active Faults Controlling Kemalpaşa Basin, Southwestern Part of Gediz Graben, Western Anatolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tepe, Çiǧdem; Sözbilir, Hasan

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to discuss the geological and geomorphological features of active faults controlling Kemalpaşa Basin. The study consists of basin-bounding faults expressions, kinematic and geomorphic analysis. Kemalpaşa Basin, which is approximately ENE trending and asymmetric graben is located in the southern part of Gediz Graben. Menderes Massif and Bornova Complex comprise the basement rocks of basin. Kızılca Formation, Sütçüler Formation and Alluvium uncomformably overlie the basement rocks. Kemalpaşa Basin which is one of the Quaternary basin in the Western Anatolia Extensional Province was developed at the structural border of the Spildaǧı Fault Zone in the north and the Kemalpaşa Fault in the south. Both the north and south margin-bounding faults of Kemalpaşa Basin are oblique-slip normal faults. According to the results of kinematic analysis, Kemalpaşa Basin has been formed under a NE-GW trending extensional tectonic regime. The variation in the relative degree of tectonic activity in Kemalpaşa Basin and its surroundings were interpreted a detailed geomorphic study of the fault-generated mountain fronts and drainage pattern of the both sides. To identify the impacts of active faults controlling the north and south margins of Kemalpaşa Basin on the geomorphological evolution, the geomorphic indices such as drainage basin geometries, triangular facets, axial river profiles have been determined and the degree of tectonic activity in the both sides of Kemalpaşa Basin has been numerically defined using morphometric indexes such as asymmetry factor (AF), hypsometric curve and integral (HI), valley floor width-to-height ratio (Vf) and mountain front sinuosity (Smf). In morphometric analysis, the both sides of the basin were investigated separating into two segments as the west and east. The values of HI (0,28-0,60), Vf (0,27-0,60) and Smf (1,3) calculated for the western part of the north margin compared with the values of HI (0

  6. International Geology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Linn

    1977-01-01

    Briefly discusses recent international programs in various areas of geology, including land-use problems, coping with geological hazards, and conserving the environment while searching for energy and mineral resources. (MLH)

  7. Mathematical Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Thomas A.

    1983-01-01

    Mathematical techniques used to solve geological problems are briefly discussed (including comments on use of geostatistics). Highlights of conferences/meetings and conference papers in mathematical geology are also provided. (JN)

  8. Environmental Geology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passero, Richard N.

    1978-01-01

    1977 was a year of continued and expanding efforts in the application of the geosciences to land-use planning, especially as they relate to geologic hazards, and elucidating the role of geology in public policy. The work of environmental geological programs is reviewed. (Author/MA)

  9. Earthquakes & Volcanoes, Volume 21, Number 1, 1989: Featuring the U.S. Geological Survey's National Earthquake Information Center in Golden, Colorado, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey; Spall, Henry, (Edited By); Schnabel, Diane C.

    1989-01-01

    Earthquakes and Volcanoes is published bimonthly by the U.S. Geological Survey to provide current information on earthquakes and seismology, volcanoes, and related natural hazards of interest to both generalized and specialized readers. The Secretary of the Interior has determined that the publication of this periodical is necessary in the transaction of the public business required by law of this Department. Use of funds for printing this periodical has been approved by the Office of Management and Budget through June 30, 1989. Any use of trade, product, or firm names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.

  10. Old Geology and New Geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 28 May 2003

    Mangala Vallis one of the large outflow channels that channeled large quantities of water into the northern lowlands, long ago on geological timescales. This valley is one of the few in the southern hemisphere, as well as one of the few west of the Tharsis bulge. A closer look at the channel shows more recent weathering of the old water channel: the walls of the channel show small, dark slope streaks that form in dusty areas; and much of the surrounding terrain has subtle linear markings trending from the upper left to the lower right, which are probably features sculpted and streamlined by the wind. Geology still shapes the surface of Mars today, but its methods over the eons have changed.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -6, Longitude 209.6 East (150.4 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in

  11. Bacterial Community Features Are Shaped by Geographic Location, Physicochemical Properties, and Oil Contamination of Soil in Main Oil Fields of China.

    PubMed

    Liao, Jingqiu; Wang, Jie; Huang, Yi

    2015-08-01

    Geographic location and physicochemical properties are thought to represent major factors that shape soil bacterial community abundance and diversity. Crude oil contamination is becoming a notable concern with respect to soil property variation; however, the quantifiable influences of geographic location, physicochemical properties, and oil contamination are still poorly understood. In this study, the 16S ribosomal RNA genes of bacteria in the four oil fields in China were analyzed by using pyrosequencing. Results showed that physicochemical properties were the most dominant factor of bacterial community distribution, followed by geographical location. Oil contamination was a driving factor whose indirect influence was stronger than its direct influence. Under the impact of these three factors, different oil fields presented diversified and distinguishable bacterial community features. The soil of sites with the highest total petroleum hydrocarbon content (HB), nitrogen content (DQ), and phosphorus content (XJ) contained the largest proportion of functional groups participating in hydrocarbon degradation, nitrogen turnover, and phosphorus turnover, respectively. The first dominant phylum of the site with loam soil texture (HB) was Actinobacteria instead of Proteobacteria in other sites with sandy or sandy loam soil texture (DQ, SL, XJ). The site with the highest salinization and alkalization (SL) exhibited the largest proportion of unique local bacteria. The site that was located in the desert with extremely low precipitation (XJ) had the most diversified bacteria distribution. The bacterial community diversity was strongly influenced by soil physicochemical properties. PMID:25676171

  12. "Spacecraft Reveals Recent Geological Activity on the Moon": Exploring the Features of NASA Twitter Posts and Their Potential to Engage Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesley, Mellinee

    2014-01-01

    Through a content analysis of 200 "tweets," this study was an exploration into the distinct features of text posted to NASA's "Twitter" site and the potential for these posts to serve as more engaging scientific text than traditional textbooks for adolescents. Results of the content analysis indicated the tweets and linked…

  13. The main features of the interaction of mantle magmas with granulite complexes of the lower crust and their relationship with granitic melts (exemplified by the Early Caledonides of the West Baikal Region, Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vladimirov, Alexandr; Khromykh, Sergei; Mekhonoshin, Alexei; Volkova, Nina; Travin, Alexei; Mikheev, Evgeny; Vladimirova, Anna

    2016-04-01

    Granulite complexes occurring in the Early Caledonian southern folded framing of the Siberian Craton are deeply eroded fragments of the Vendian-Early Paleozoic accretionary prism, which is an indicator of the early stages of the Paleo-Asian Ocean (Gladkochub et al., 2010). The main feature of the granulite complexes is a wide development of gabbro-pyroxenites composing tectonic plates, synmetamorphic intrusive bodies, and numerous disintegrated fragments (boudins and enclaves), immersed in a metamorphic matrix. The volume of basites reaches 5-10 %, which allows us to consider mantle magmatism as a heat source for the granulite metamorphism. The most studied polygon is Chernorud granulite zone, which is a part of the Olkhon metamorphic terrane, West Baikal Region. Just this polygon was used for considering the problems of interaction of mantle magmas with lower crust granulite complexes and their relationship with granitic melts. The Chernorud Zone is a typical example of the accretionary prism with a predominance of metabasalts (70-80 %), subordinate amounts of marbles, quartzites and metapelites that have been subjected to granulite facies metamorphism and viscoelastic flow of rock masses. Study of two-pyroxene granulites (metabasalts) and garnet-sillimanite gneisses (metapelites) allows us to estimate P-T metamorphic conditions (P = 7.7-8.6 kbar, T = 770-820°C) and their U-Pb metamorphic age (530-500 Ma). Metabasalts correspond in their geochemistry to the island-arc tholeiitic series (Volkova et al., 2010; Gladkochub et al., 2010). Sin-metamorphic gabbro-pyroxenites formed in two stages: 1) Chernorud complex - tectonic slices and body's exhumed from deep earth crust levels (10-12 kb) and composed of arc tholeiitic series rocks (age T ≥ 500 Ma); 2) Ulan-Khargana complex - supply magmatic canals and fragmented tabular intrusions. This rocks composition corresponds to subalkaline petrochemical series (OIB) and U/Pb age is equal to 485±10 Ma (Travin et al., 2009

  14. Humboldt River main stem, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warmath, Eric; Medina, Rose L.

    2001-01-01

    This data set contains the main stem of the Humboldt River as defined by Humboldt Project personnel of the U.S. Geological Survey Nevada District, 2001. The data set was digitized on screen using digital orthophoto quadrangles from 1994.

  15. Mapping distribution and thickness of supraglacial debris in the Central Karakoram National Park: main features and implications to model glacier meltwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minora, Umberto; Mayer, Christoph; Bocchiola, Daniele; D'Agata, Carlo; Maragno, Davide; Lambrecht, Astrid; Vuillermoz, Elisa; smiraglia, claudio; diolaiuti, guglielmina

    2014-05-01

    Supraglacial debris plays a not negligible role in controlling magnitude and rates of buried ice melt (Østrem, 1959; Mattson et al., 1993). Knowledge on rock debris is essential to model ice melt (and consequently meltwater discharge) upon wide glacierized areas, as melt rates are mainly driven by debris thickness variability. This is particularly important for the Pamir-Himalaya-Karakoram area (PHK), where debris-covered glaciers are frequent (Smiraglia et al., 2007; Scherler et al., 2011) and where melt water from glaciers supports agriculture and hydropower production. By means of remote sensing techniques and field data, supraglacial debris can be detected, and then quantified in area and thickness. Supervised classifications of satellite imagery can be used to map debris on glaciers. They use different algorithms to cluster an image based on its pixel values, and Region Of Interests (ROIs) previously selected by the human operator. This can be used to obtain a supraglacial debris mask by which surface extension can be calculated. Moreover, kinetic surface temperature data derived from satellites (such as ASTER and Landsat), can be used to quantify debris thicknesses (Mihalcea et al., 2008). Ground Control Points (GCPs) are essential to validate the obtained debris thicknesses. We took the Central Karakoram National Park (CKNP) as a representative sample for PHK area. The CKNP is 12,000 km2 wide, with more than 700 glaciers, mostly debris covered (Minora et al., 2013). Among those we find some of the widest glaciers of the World (e.g: Baltoro). To improve the knowledge on these glaciers and to better model their melt and water discharge we proceeded as follows. Firstly we ran a Supervised Maximum Likelihood (SML) classification on 2001 and 2010 Landsat images to detect debris presence and distribution. Secondly we analyzed kinetic surface temperature (from Landsat) to map debris depth. This latter attempt took also advantage from field data of debris thickness

  16. Engineering Geology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatheway, Allen W.

    1978-01-01

    Engineering geology remains a potpourri of applied classical geology, and 1977 witnessed an upswing in demand for these services. Traditional foundation-related work was slight, but construction related to national needs increased briskly. Major cities turned to concerns of transit waste-water treatment and solid-waste disposal. (Author/MA)

  17. Physical geology

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, B.; Porter, S.

    1987-01-01

    The book integrates current thinking on processes (plate techtonics, chemical cycles, changes throughout geologic time). It is an introduction to investigations into the way the earth works, how mountains are formed, how the atmosphere, hydrosphere, crust and mantle interact with each other. Treatments on climate, paleoclimatology and landscape evolution are included, as is a discussion on how human activity affects geological interactions.

  18. Geologic features of the sea bottom around a municipal sludge dumpsite near 39 degrees N., 73 degrees W., offshore New Jersey and New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robb, James M.

    1994-01-01

    The sea-floor of a dumpsite area offshore New York and New Jersey (Deep-water dumpsite 106) was studied using detailed bathymetry, sidescan-sonar images, subbottom profiles, bottom photographs, and bottom-sediment samples. These data show that this continental rise area contains deposits of submarine landslides and pathways of sediment gravity flows. Images of the sea floor obtained with a deep-towed high-resolution sidescan sonar system show offshore-trending furrowed surfaces over parts of the area. If such furrows are old, one might expect them to have been obliterated by sediment resuspension and redeposition due to the mostly gentle contour-parallel bottom currents that are measured in the present day. While most of the sea-floor features were probably formed during Pleistocene or early Holocene (glacial or early post-glacial) times, our information suggests that vigorous present-day episodes of offshore-directed transport may continue to occur, at unknown intervals.

  19. MAINE OTRANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    OTRANS represents other transportation features - electric, pipeline, railroad, and telephone lines at 1:24,000 scale. Some New Hampshire and New Brunswick features are also included. Data for this coverage were digitized from USGS 1:24000 scale quadrangle maps by various contra...

  20. MAINE POPULATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    MEPOP250 depicts Maine's 1950-1990 population data by town or Census in unorganized territories. Populations were compiled from US Census Bureau data where available or from Maine Municipal Information (mainly for older records). Unorganized towns with very low or zero pop...

  1. How two gravity-gradient inversion methods can be used to reveal different geologic features of ore deposit - A case study from the Quadrilátero Ferrífero (Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlos, Dionísio U.; Uieda, Leonardo; Barbosa, Valeria C. F.

    2016-07-01

    Airborne gravity gradiometry data have been recently used in mining surveys to map the 3D geometry of ore deposits. This task can be achieved by different gravity-gradient inversion methods, many of which use a voxel-based discretization of the Earth's subsurface. To produce a unique and stable solution, an inversion method introduces particular constraints. One constraining inversion introduces a depth-weighting function in the first-order Tikhonov regularization imposing a smoothing on the density-contrast distributions that are not restricted to near-surface regions. Another gravity-gradient inversion, the method of planting anomalous densities, imposes compactness and sharp boundaries on the density-contrast distributions. We used these two inversion methods to invert the airborne gravity-gradient data over the iron-ore deposit at the southern flank of the Gandarela syncline in Quadrilátero Ferrífero (Brazil). Because these methods differ from each other in the particular constraint used, the estimated 3D density-contrast distributions reveal different geologic features of ore deposit. The depth-weighting smoothing inversion reveals variable dip directions along the strike of the retrieved iron-ore body. The planting anomalous density inversion estimates a compact iron-ore mass with a single density contrast, which reveals a variable volume of the iron ore along its strike increasing towards the hinge zone of the Gandarela syncline which is the zone of maximum compression. The combination of the geologic features inferred from each estimate leads to a synergistic effect, revealing that the iron-ore deposit is strongly controlled by the Gandarela syncline.

  2. Glamorous Education: Main Features and Manifestations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikhailovna, Nikolaeva Evgeniya; Dmitrievich, Schelkunov Mikhail

    2014-01-01

    Being a powerful social trend glamour culture has significant effect on a high education that results in the phenomenon of glamorous education (glam-education). Prerequisites of this type of education are democratization of high school that introduces stereotypes of glam-culture in educational environment; commercialization of education that uses…

  3. Mathematical Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCammon, Richard B.

    1979-01-01

    The year 1978 marked a continued trend toward practical applications in mathematical geology. Developments included work in interactive computer graphics, factor analysis, the vanishing tons problem, universal kriging, and resource estimating. (BB)

  4. Engineering Geology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Fitzhugh T.

    1974-01-01

    Briefly reviews the increasing application of geologic principles, techniques and data to engineering practices in the areas of land use and zoning controls, resource management energy programs and other fields. (BR)

  5. Searching the Sinus Amoris: Using profiles of geological units, impact and volcanic features to characterize a major terrane interface on the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, P.; Joerg, S.; Dehon, R.

    1994-01-01

    Geochemical profiles of surface units, impact, and volcanic features are studied in detail to determine the underlying structure in an area of extensive mare/highland interface, Sinus Amoris. This study region includes and surrounds the northeastern embayment of Mare Tranquillitatis. The concentrations of two major rock-forming elements (Mg and Al), which were derived from the Apollo 15 orbital geochemical measurements, were used in this study. Mapped units and deposits associated with craters in the northwestern part of the region tend to have correlated low Mg and Al concentrations, indicating the presence of Potassium (K)-Rare Earth Elements (REE)-Phosphorus (P) (KREEP)-enriched basalt. Found along the northeastern rim of Tranquillitatis were areas with correlated high Mg and Al concentration, indicating the presence of troctolite. Distinctive west/east and north/south trends were observed in the concentrations of Mg and Al, and, by implication, in the distribution of major rock components on the surface. Evidence for a systematic geochemical transition in highland or basin-forming units may be observed here in the form of distinctive differences in chemistry in otherwise similar units in the western and eastern portions of the study region.

  6. GeoSciML v2: an interchange and mark-up language for geologic information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laxton, J.

    2009-04-01

    GeoSciML was released in 2006 as a data transfer standard for geoscience. The scope of GeoSciML is the information generally shown on geological maps along with some observations, in particular those made using boreholes. Following further testing and use-case analysis GeoSciML v2 has recently been released incorporating enhanced representation of geologic units, earth materials, structures and associated vocabularies. The model utilizes the XML-based Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Geography Markup Language (GML) for spatial information, and Observations and Measurements markup schema (O&M) for field and lab observations, including boreholes. In the GeoSciML conceptual model, 'mapped features,' which represent occurrences such as a polygon or curve on a geologic map, are specified by a 'geologic feature,' which is a typed description of an entity analogous to a 'legend item' on a map. The two main types of geologic feature modelled are geologic units and geologic structures. GeoSciML also includes a structure for controlled concepts that may be defined in terms of normative geologic features, GeoSciML earth material descriptions, or an entity from some other schema. Controlled concepts can be built into geologic vocabularies, such as stratigraphic lexicons, and are used as the basis for classification. GeoSciMLv2 has been proven in an OGC web services compliant testbed comprising services from 10 geological surveys worldwide. Testbed services and products include Web Mapping Services (WMS) and Web Feature Services (WFS) serving data in GeoSciML v2 form; catalog and vocabulary services, and metadata for such services; registers of vocabularies; and clients capable of using, querying and rendering such services. The paper will describe the GeoSciML v2 resources available and how to obtain them. These include the schema representation in UML and W3C XSD, documentation describing the schema and how to use it, and example data files.

  7. Bazhenov fm unconventional reservoir 3D geological modeling methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telnova, A.; Baranov, V.; Bukhanov, N.

    2016-03-01

    The Bazhenov Formation has been studied for more than 50 years, but its petroleum potential, optimal STOIIP or resource estimation approaches, the methodology used to select a reservoir, determine its properties are still unclear. The distinctive features of bituminous shale are specific geochemical properties chosen as basic parameters to perform the geological modeling of the Bazhenov deposits and determine the key areas. The main objective of this paper is to choose an optimal 3D geological modeling algorithm and test conventional (petrophysical) and specific (geochemical) properties.

  8. Geology at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    1993-05-01

    Both advocates and critics disagree on the significance and interpretation of critical geological features which bear on the safety and suitability of Yucca Mountain as a site for the construction of a high-level radioactive waste repository. Critics believe that there is sufficient geological evidence to rule the site unsuitable for further investigation. Some advocates claim that there is insufficient data and that investigations are incomplete, while others claim that the site is free of major obstacles. We have expanded our efforts to include both the critical evaluations of existing geological and geochemical data and the collection of field data and samples for the purpose of preparing scientific papers for submittal to journals. Summaries of the critical reviews are presented in this paper.

  9. Destination: Geology?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Louise

    2016-04-01

    "While we teach, we learn" (Roman philosopher Seneca) One of the most beneficial ways to remember a theory or concept is to explain it to someone else. The offer of fieldwork and visits to exciting destinations is arguably the easiest way to spark a students' interest in any subject. Geology at A-Level (age 16-18) in the United Kingdom incorporates significant elements of field studies into the curriculum with many students choosing the subject on this basis and it being a key factor in consolidating student knowledge and understanding. Geology maintains a healthy annual enrollment with interest in the subject increasing in recent years. However, it is important for educators not to loose sight of the importance of recruitment and retention of students. Recent flexibility in the subject content of the UK curriculum in secondary schools has provided an opportunity to teach the basic principles of the subject to our younger students and fieldwork provides a valuable opportunity to engage with these students in the promotion of the subject. Promotion of the subject is typically devolved to senior students at Hessle High School and Sixth Form College, drawing on their personal experiences to engage younger students. Prospective students are excited to learn from a guest speaker, so why not use our most senior students to engage and promote the subject rather than their normal subject teacher? A-Level geology students embarking on fieldwork abroad, understand their additional responsibility to promote the subject and share their understanding of the field visit. They will typically produce a series of lessons and activities for younger students using their newly acquired knowledge. Senior students also present to whole year groups in seminars, sharing knowledge of the location's geology and raising awareness of the exciting destinations offered by geology. Geology fieldwork is always planned, organised and led by the member of staff to keep costs low, with recent visits

  10. ECOSYSTEM MODELING IN COBSCOOK BAY, MAINE:A SUMMARY, PERSPECTIVE, AND LOOK FORWARD

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the mid-1990s, an interdisciplinary, multi-institutional team of scientists was assembled to address basic issues concerning biological productivity and the unique co-occurrence of many unusual ecological features in Cobscook Bay, Maine. Cobscook Bay is a geologically complex,...

  11. Structural Geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, John; Frankel, Kurt L.

    2011-05-01

    Structural geology and continental tectonics were ushered in to the modern quantitative age of geosciences with the arrival of the global plate tectonics paradigm (circa 1968), derived using new data from the oceans' depths, and John Ramsay's 1967 seminal work, Folding and Fracturing of Rocks. Fossen is to be applauded for crafting a unique, high-caliber, and accessible undergraduate textbook on structural geology that faithfully reflects this advance and the subsequent evolution of the discipline. This well-written text draws on Fossen's wealth of professional experience, including his broad and diverse academic research and experience in the petroleum industry. This book is beautifully illustrated, with excellent original color diagrams and with impressive color field photographs that are all keyed to locations and placed into geologic context.

  12. ReliefSeq: a gene-wise adaptive-K nearest-neighbor feature selection tool for finding gene-gene interactions and main effects in mRNA-Seq gene expression data.

    PubMed

    McKinney, Brett A; White, Bill C; Grill, Diane E; Li, Peter W; Kennedy, Richard B; Poland, Gregory A; Oberg, Ann L

    2013-01-01

    Relief-F is a nonparametric, nearest-neighbor machine learning method that has been successfully used to identify relevant variables that may interact in complex multivariate models to explain phenotypic variation. While several tools have been developed for assessing differential expression in sequence-based transcriptomics, the detection of statistical interactions between transcripts has received less attention in the area of RNA-seq analysis. We describe a new extension and assessment of Relief-F for feature selection in RNA-seq data. The ReliefSeq implementation adapts the number of nearest neighbors (k) for each gene to optimize the Relief-F test statistics (importance scores) for finding both main effects and interactions. We compare this gene-wise adaptive-k (gwak) Relief-F method with standard RNA-seq feature selection tools, such as DESeq and edgeR, and with the popular machine learning method Random Forests. We demonstrate performance on a panel of simulated data that have a range of distributional properties reflected in real mRNA-seq data including multiple transcripts with varying sizes of main effects and interaction effects. For simulated main effects, gwak-Relief-F feature selection performs comparably to standard tools DESeq and edgeR for ranking relevant transcripts. For gene-gene interactions, gwak-Relief-F outperforms all comparison methods at ranking relevant genes in all but the highest fold change/highest signal situations where it performs similarly. The gwak-Relief-F algorithm outperforms Random Forests for detecting relevant genes in all simulation experiments. In addition, Relief-F is comparable to the other methods based on computational time. We also apply ReliefSeq to an RNA-Seq study of smallpox vaccine to identify gene expression changes between vaccinia virus-stimulated and unstimulated samples. ReliefSeq is an attractive tool for inclusion in the suite of tools used for analysis of mRNA-Seq data; it has power to detect both main

  13. Theoretical geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikeš, Daniel

    2010-05-01

    Theoretical geology Present day geology is mostly empirical of nature. I claim that geology is by nature complex and that the empirical approach is bound to fail. Let's consider the input to be the set of ambient conditions and the output to be the sedimentary rock record. I claim that the output can only be deduced from the input if the relation from input to output be known. The fundamental question is therefore the following: Can one predict the output from the input or can one predict the behaviour of a sedimentary system? If one can, than the empirical/deductive method has changes, if one can't than that method is bound to fail. The fundamental problem to solve is therefore the following: How to predict the behaviour of a sedimentary system? It is interesting to observe that this question is never asked and many a study is conducted by the empirical/deductive method; it seems that the empirical method has been accepted as being appropriate without question. It is, however, easy to argument that a sedimentary system is by nature complex and that several input parameters vary at the same time and that they can create similar output in the rock record. It follows trivially from these first principles that in such a case the deductive solution cannot be unique. At the same time several geological methods depart precisely from the assumption, that one particular variable is the dictator/driver and that the others are constant, even though the data do not support such an assumption. The method of "sequence stratigraphy" is a typical example of such a dogma. It can be easily argued that all the interpretation resulting from a method that is built on uncertain or wrong assumptions is erroneous. Still, this method has survived for many years, nonwithstanding all the critics it has received. This is just one example of the present day geological world and is not unique. Even the alternative methods criticising sequence stratigraphy actually depart from the same

  14. City Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markle, Sandra

    1989-01-01

    This article provides information on the evolution of the building material, concrete, and suggests hands-on activities that allow students to experience concrete's qualities, test the heat absorbency of various ground surface materials, discover how an area's geology changes, and search for city fossils. A reproducible activity sheet is included.…

  15. Geologic Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albritton, Claude C., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the historical development of the concept of geologic time. Develops the topic by using the major discoveries of geologists, beginning with Steno and following through to the discovery and use of radiometric dating. An extensive reference list is provided. (JM)

  16. Main Report

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    scientific literature. The criteria were distributed among three main categories for each condition: The availability and characteristics of the screening test;The availability and complexity of diagnostic services; andThe availability and efficacy of treatments related to the conditions. A survey process utilizing a data collection instrument was used to gather expert opinion on the conditions in the first tier of the assessment. The data collection format and survey provided the opportunity to quantify expert opinion and to obtain the views of a diverse set of interest groups (necessary due to the subjective nature of some of the criteria). Statistical analysis of data produced a score for each condition, which determined its ranking and initial placement in one of three categories (high scoring, moderately scoring, or low scoring/absence of a newborn screening test). In the second tier of these analyses, the evidence base related to each condition was assessed in depth (e.g., via systematic reviews of reference lists including MedLine, PubMed and others; books; Internet searches; professional guidelines; clinical evidence; and cost/economic evidence and modeling). The fact sheets reflecting these analyses were evaluated by at least two acknowledged experts for each condition. These experts assessed the data and the associated references related to each criterion and provided corrections where appropriate, assigned a value to the level of evidence and the quality of the studies that established the evidence base, and determined whether there were significant variances from the survey data. Survey results were subsequently realigned with the evidence obtained from the scientific literature during the second-tier analysis for all objective criteria, based on input from at least three acknowledged experts in each condition. The information from these two tiers of assessment was then considered with regard to the overriding principles and other technology or condition

  17. MAINE HYDROGRAPHY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydronet_me24 and Hydropoly_me24 depict Maine's hydrography data, based on 8-digit hydrological unit codes (HUC's) at the 1:24,000 scale. Some New Hampshire and New Brunswick hydrography data are also included. The NHD hydrography data was compiled from previous ArcIn...

  18. MAINE WOODLOTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    MEOWN250 describes industrial, non-industrial, and public woodlot ownership in Maine at 1:250,000 scale. Industrial owners are those having at least one primary wood processing facility. Non-industrial owners are those with no primary wood processing facility. Public ownership...

  19. Geology Fulbrights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fulbright grants in geology for 1988-89 remain open. Specific opportunities are available in Egypt, German Democratic Republic, Hungary, Iceland, Iraq, Kuwait, Morocco, Mozambique, Oman, Poland, Sudan, Syria, Tanzania, Turkey, U.S.S.R., West Bank, Yemen, and Zimbabwe. Other countries are also open to applications in any discipline, and geology is among their preferred fields.The grants are available until awarded and are open only to U.S. citizens. In Central and South America and French-speaking Africa, knowledge of host-country language is required. For more information, contact the Council for International Exchange of Scholars (CIES), 11 Dupont Circle N.W., Suite 300, Washington, DC 20036; tel. 202-939-5401.

  20. Semantics-informed cartography: the case of Piemonte Geological Map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piana, Fabrizio; Lombardo, Vincenzo; Mimmo, Dario; Giardino, Marco; Fubelli, Giandomenico

    2016-04-01

    In modern digital geological maps, namely those supported by a large geo-database and devoted to dynamical, interactive representation on WMS-WebGIS services, there is the need to provide, in an explicit form, the geological assumptions used for the design and compilation of the database of the Map, and to get a definition and/or adoption of semantic representation and taxonomies, in order to achieve a formal and interoperable representation of the geologic knowledge. These approaches are fundamental for the integration and harmonisation of geological information and services across cultural (e.g. different scientific disciplines) and/or physical barriers (e.g. administrative boundaries). Initiatives such as GeoScience Markup Language (last version is GeoSciML 4.0, 2015, http://www.geosciml.org) and the INSPIRE "Data Specification on Geology" http://inspire.jrc.ec.europa.eu/documents/Data_Specifications/INSPIRE_DataSpecification_GE_v3.0rc3.pdf (an operative simplification of GeoSciML, last version is 3.0 rc3, 2013), as well as the recent terminological shepherding of the Geoscience Terminology Working Group (GTWG) have been promoting information exchange of the geologic knowledge. Grounded on these standard vocabularies, schemas and data models, we provide a shared semantic classification of geological data referring to the study case of the synthetic digital geological map of the Piemonte region (NW Italy), named "GEOPiemonteMap", developed by the CNR Institute of Geosciences and Earth Resources, Torino (CNR IGG TO) and hosted as a dynamical interactive map on the geoportal of ARPA Piemonte Environmental Agency. The Piemonte Geological Map is grounded on a regional-scale geo-database consisting of some hundreds of GeologicUnits whose thousands instances (Mapped Features, polygons geometry) widely occur in Piemonte region, and each one is bounded by GeologicStructures (Mapped Features, line geometry). GeologicUnits and GeologicStructures have been spatially

  1. Geological Corrections in Gravimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikuška, J.; Marušiak, I.

    2015-12-01

    Applying corrections for the known geology to gravity data can be traced back into the first quarter of the 20th century. Later on, mostly in areas with sedimentary cover, at local and regional scales, the correction known as gravity stripping has been in use since the mid 1960s, provided that there was enough geological information. Stripping at regional to global scales became possible after releasing the CRUST 2.0 and later CRUST 1.0 models in the years 2000 and 2013, respectively. Especially the later model provides quite a new view on the relevant geometries and on the topographic and crustal densities as well as on the crust/mantle density contrast. Thus, the isostatic corrections, which have been often used in the past, can now be replaced by procedures working with an independent information interpreted primarily from seismic studies. We have developed software for performing geological corrections in space domain, based on a-priori geometry and density grids which can be of either rectangular or spherical/ellipsoidal types with cells of the shapes of rectangles, tesseroids or triangles. It enables us to calculate the required gravitational effects not only in the form of surface maps or profiles but, for instance, also along vertical lines, which can shed some additional light on the nature of the geological correction. The software can work at a variety of scales and considers the input information to an optional distance from the calculation point up to the antipodes. Our main objective is to treat geological correction as an alternative to accounting for the topography with varying densities since the bottoms of the topographic masses, namely the geoid or ellipsoid, generally do not represent geological boundaries. As well we would like to call attention to the possible distortions of the corrected gravity anomalies. This work was supported by the Slovak Research and Development Agency under the contract APVV-0827-12.

  2. Geological assessing of urban environments with a systematic mapping survey: The 1:5000 urban geological map of Catalonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilà, Miquel; Pi, Roser; Cirés, Jordi; de Paz, Ana; Berástegui, Xavier

    2010-05-01

    The ground features of urban areas and the geologic processes that operate on them are, in general, strongly altered from their natural original condition as a result of anthropogenic activities. Assessing the stability of the ground, the flooding areas, and, the health risk as a consequence of soil pollution, are, among others, fundamental topics of urban areas that require a better understanding. The development of systematic urban geological mapping projects provides valuable resources to address these issues. Since 2007, the Institut Geologic de Catalunya (IGC) runs an urban geological mapping project, to provide accurate geologic information of county capitals and towns of more than 10000 inhabitants of Catalonia. The urban zones of 131 towns will be surveyed for this project, totalizing an area of about 2200 km2 to be mapped in 15 years. According to the 2008 census, the 82 % of the population of Catalonia (7.242.458 inhabitants) lives in the areas to be mapped in this project. The mapping project integrates in a GIS environment the following subjects: - Data from pre-existing geotechnical reports, historical geological and topographical maps and, from historical aerial photographs. - Data from available borehole databases. - Geological characterization of outcrops inside the urban network and neighbouring areas. - Geological, chemical and physical characterisation of representative rocks, sediments and soils. - Ortophotographs (0.5 m pixel size) and digital elevation models (5 meter grid size) made from historical aerial photographs, to depict land use changes, artificial deposits and geomorphological elements that are either hidden or destroyed by urban sprawl. - Detailed geological mapping of quaternary sediments, subsurface bedrock and artificial deposits. - Data from subsurface prospection in areas with insufficient or confuse data. - 3D modelling of the main geological surfaces such as the top of the pre-quaternary basement. All the gathered data is

  3. Geologic Framework Model (GFM2000)

    SciTech Connect

    T. Vogt

    2004-08-26

    geologic framework model (200 feet [61 meters]), discussed in Section 6.4.2, limits the size of features that can be resolved by the model but is appropriate for the distribution of data available and its intended use. Uncertainty and limitations are discussed in Section 6.6 and model validation is discussed in Section 7.

  4. Synthetic geology - Exploring the "what if?" in geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klump, J. F.; Robertson, J.

    2015-12-01

    The spatial and temporal extent of geological phenomena makes experiments in geology difficult to conduct, if not entirely impossible and collection of data is laborious and expensive - so expensive that most of the time we cannot test a hypothesis. The aim, in many cases, is to gather enough data to build a predictive geological model. Even in a mine, where data are abundant, a model remains incomplete because the information at the level of a blasting block is two orders of magnitude larger than the sample from a drill core, and we have to take measurement errors into account. So, what confidence can we have in a model based on sparse data, uncertainties and measurement error? Synthetic geology does not attempt to model the real world in terms of geological processes with all their uncertainties, rather it offers an artificial geological data source with fully known properties. On the basis of this artificial geology, we can simulate geological sampling by established or future technologies to study the resulting dataset. Conducting these experiments in silico removes the constraints of testing in the field or in production, and provides us with a known ground-truth against which the steps in a data analysis and integration workflow can be validated.Real-time simulation of data sources can be used to investigate crucial questions such as the potential information gain from future sensing capabilities, or from new sampling strategies, or the combination of both, and it enables us to test many "what if?" questions, both in geology and in data engineering. What would we be able to see if we could obtain data at higher resolution? How would real-time data analysis change sampling strategies? Does our data infrastructure handle many new real-time data streams? What feature engineering can be deducted for machine learning approaches? By providing a 'data sandbox' able to scale to realistic geological scenarios we hope to start answering some of these questions.

  5. Geologic Mapping of Vesta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yingst, R. A.; Mest, S. C.; Berman, D. C.; Garry, W. B.; Williams, D. A.; Buczkowski, D.; Jaumann, R.; Pieters, C. M.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Frigeri, A.; Le Corre, L.; Preusker, F.; Raymond, C. A.; Reddy, V.; Russell, C. T.; Roatsch, T.; Schenk, P. M.

    2014-01-01

    We report on a preliminary global geologic map of Vesta, based on data from the Dawn spacecraft's High- Altitude Mapping Orbit (HAMO) and informed by Low-Altitude Mapping Orbit (LAMO) data. This map is part of an iterative mapping effort; the geologic map has been refined with each improvement in resolution. Vesta has a heavily-cratered surface, with large craters evident in numerous locations. The south pole is dominated by an impact structure identified before Dawn's arrival. Two large impact structures have been resolved: the younger, larger Rheasilvia structure, and the older, more degraded Veneneia structure. The surface is also characterized by a system of deep, globe-girdling equatorial troughs and ridges, as well as an older system of troughs and ridges to the north. Troughs and ridges are also evident cutting across, and spiraling arcuately from, the Rheasilvia central mound. However, no volcanic features have been unequivocally identified. Vesta can be divided very broadly into three terrains: heavily-cratered terrain; ridge-and-trough terrain (equatorial and northern); and terrain associated with the Rheasilvia crater. Localized features include bright and dark material and ejecta (some defined specifically by color); lobate deposits; and mass-wasting materials. No obvious volcanic features are evident. Stratigraphy of Vesta's geologic units suggests a history in which formation of a primary crust was followed by the formation of impact craters, including Veneneia and the associated Saturnalia Fossae unit. Formation of Rheasilvia followed, along with associated structural deformation that shaped the Divalia Fossae ridge-and-trough unit at the equator. Subsequent impacts and mass wasting events subdued impact craters, rims and portions of ridge-and-trough sets, and formed slumps and landslides, especially within crater floors and along crater rims and scarps. Subsequent to the formation of Rheasilvia, discontinuous low-albedo deposits formed or were

  6. Geologic mapping of Vesta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yingst, R. A.; Mest, S. C.; Berman, D. C.; Garry, W. B.; Williams, D. A.; Buczkowski, D.; Jaumann, R.; Pieters, C. M.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Frigeri, A.; Le Corre, L.; Preusker, F.; Raymond, C. A.; Reddy, V.; Russell, C. T.; Roatsch, T.; Schenk, P. M.

    2014-11-01

    We report on a preliminary global geologic map of Vesta, based on data from the Dawn spacecraft's High-Altitude Mapping Orbit (HAMO) and informed by Low-Altitude Mapping Orbit (LAMO) data. This map is part of an iterative mapping effort; the geologic map has been refined with each improvement in resolution. Vesta has a heavily-cratered surface, with large craters evident in numerous locations. The south pole is dominated by an impact structure identified before Dawn's arrival. Two large impact structures have been resolved: the younger, larger Rheasilvia structure, and the older, more degraded Veneneia structure. The surface is also characterized by a system of deep, globe-girdling equatorial troughs and ridges, as well as an older system of troughs and ridges to the north. Troughs and ridges are also evident cutting across, and spiraling arcuately from, the Rheasilvia central mound. However, no volcanic features have been unequivocally identified. Vesta can be divided very broadly into three terrains: heavily-cratered terrain; ridge-and-trough terrain (equatorial and northern); and terrain associated with the Rheasilvia crater. Localized features include bright and dark material and ejecta (some defined specifically by color); lobate deposits; and mass-wasting materials. No obvious volcanic features are evident. Stratigraphy of Vesta's geologic units suggests a history in which formation of a primary crust was followed by the formation of impact craters, including Veneneia and the associated Saturnalia Fossae unit. Formation of Rheasilvia followed, along with associated structural deformation that shaped the Divalia Fossae ridge-and-trough unit at the equator. Subsequent impacts and mass wasting events subdued impact craters, rims and portions of ridge-and-trough sets, and formed slumps and landslides, especially within crater floors and along crater rims and scarps. Subsequent to the formation of Rheasilvia, discontinuous low-albedo deposits formed or were

  7. Vesta: A Geological Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaumann, R.

    2012-04-01

    Observations from the Dawn spacecraft [1] enable the derivation of the asteroid 4Vesta's shape, facilitate mapping of the surface geology, and provide the first evidence for interpreting Vesta's geological evolution. Science data were acquired during the approach to Vesta, a circular polar (Survey) orbit at an altitude of 2700 km providing ~ 230 m/pix camera scale, and during a circular high-altitude mapping orbit (HAMO) at 700 km altitude with a camera scale of ~ 65 m/pixel. Currently Dawn is orbiting Vesta in a low-altitude mapping orbit (LAMO) at 210 km altitude, yielding a global image coverage of ~20 m/pixel at the time of EGU [2,3,4,5]. Geomorphology and distribution of surface features provide evidence for impact cratering, tectonic activity, and regolith and probable volcanic processes. Craters with dark rays, bright rays, and dark rim streaks have been observed, suggesting buried stratigraphy. The largest fresh craters retain a simple bowl-shaped morphology, with depth/diameter ratios roughly comparable to lunar values. The largest crater Rheasilvia, an ~500 km diameter depression at the south pole, includes an incomplete inward facing cuspate scarp and a large central mound surrounded by unusual complex arcuate ridge and groove patterns, and overlies an older ~400 km wide basin. A set of large equatorial troughs is related to these south polar structures. Vesta exhibits rugged topography ranging from -22 km to +19 km relative to a best fit ellipsoidal shape. Vesta's topography has a much greater range in elevation relative to its radius (15%) than do the Moon and Mars (1%) or the Earth (0.3%), but less than highly battered smaller asteroids like Lutetia (40%). This also identifies Vesta as a transitional body between asteroids and planets. The surface of Vesta exhibits very steep topographic slopes that are near the angle of repose. Impacts onto these steep surfaces, followed by slope failure, make resurfacing - due to impacts and their associated

  8. Geologic nozzles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Werner, Kieffer S.

    1989-01-01

    The importance of the low characteristic velocities of geologic fluids has not been widely recognized, and as a result, the importance of supercritical and supersonic flow in geological processes has generally been underestimated. The lateral blast at Mount St. Helens, Washington, propelled a gas heavily laden with dust into the atmosphere. Because of the low sound speed in this gas (about 100 m/s), the flow was internally supersonic. Old Faithful Geyser, Wyoming, is a converging-diverging nozzle in which liquid water refilling the conduit during the recharge cycle changes during eruption into a two-phase liquid-vapor mixture with a very low sound velocity. The high sound speed of liquid water determines the characteristics of harmonic tremor observed at the geyser during the recharge interval, whereas the low sound speed of the liquid-vapor mixture influences the fluid flow characteristics of the eruption. At the rapids of the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon, Arizona, the channel is constricted into the shape of a converging-diverging nozzle by the debris flows that enter from tributary canyons. Both subcritical and supercritical flow occur within the rapids. -from Author

  9. Quaternary geologic map of Minnesota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goebel, J. E.

    1977-01-01

    The Quaternary Geologic Map of Minnesota is a compilation based both on the unique characteristics of satellite imagery and on the results of previous field investigations, both published and unpublished. The use of satellite imagery has made possible the timely and economical construction of this map. LANDSAT imagery interpretation proved more useful than expected. Most of the geologic units could be identified by extrapolating from specific sites where the geology had been investigated into areas where little was known. The excellent geographic registry coupled with the multi-spectral record of these images served to identify places where the geologic materials responded to their ecological environment and where the ecology responded to the geologic materials. Units were well located on the map at the scale selected for the study. Contacts between till units could be placed with reasonable accuracy. The reference points that were used to project delineations between units (rivers, lakes, hills, roads and other features), which had not been accurately located on early maps, could be accurately located with the help of the imagery. The tonal and color contrasts, the patterns reflecting geologic change and the resolution of the images permitted focusing attention on features which could be represented at the final scale of the map without distraction by other interesting but site-specific details.

  10. Geologic Map of the Thaumasia Region, Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dohm, Janes M.; Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Hare, Trent M.

    2001-01-01

    ). The medium-resolution Viking images used for mapping and base preparation also formed the basis of the 1:2,000,000 scale subquadrangle series. Earlier geologic maps of all or parts of the region include: (1) maps of the Phoenicis Lacus, Coprates, Thaumasia, and Argyre quadrangles at 1:5,000,000 scale based mainly on Mariner 9 images (respectively, Masursky and others, 1978; McCauley, 1978; McGill, 1978; and Hodges, 1980), (2) the global map of Mars at 1:25,000,000 (Scott and Carr, 1978) compiled largely from the 1:5,000,000 scale geologic maps, (3) maps showing lava flows in the Tharsis region at 1:2,000,000 scale compiled from Viking and Mariner 9 images (Scott, 1981; Scott and Tanaka, 1981a, b; Scott and others, 1981), (4) the map of the western equatorial region of Mars at 1:15,000,000 scale based on Viking images (Scott and Tanaka, 1986), and (5) the map of the Valles Marineris region at 1:2,000,000 scale compiled from Viking images (Witbeck and others, 1991). The previous maps have described the overall geology and geomorphology of the region but have not unraveled the detailed stratigraphy and complex evolution of this unique and geologically diverse martian province. The main purpose of this comprehensive mapping project is to reconstruct the stratigraphic, structural, and erosional histories of the Thaumasia region. The region is the last major province of the Tharsis region to undergo detailed structural mapping using Viking images; its history is essential to documenting the overall tectonic history of Tharsis. Other provinces of Tharsis that have been structurally mapped include Syria Planum (Tanaka and Davis, 1988), Tempe Terra and Ulysses Patera (Scott and Dohm, 1990b), and Alba Patera (Tanaka, 1990). Another primary mapping objective is to determine the region's volcanic history and assess the relations among fault systems and volcanoes (Wise and others, 1979; Scott and Tanaka, 1980; Whitford-Stark, 1982; Scott and Dohm, 1990a). A secondary mapping

  11. Tethys geology and tectonics revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Croft, Steven K.

    1991-01-01

    Tethys, a medium sized icy satellite of Saturn, was imaged by both Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft at sufficiently high resolution to allow some geologic analysis. One fairly complete and several brief descriptions of Tethys' geology have been given. Partial results are given herein of a new analysis of Tethys' geology done as part of a comparative tectonic and cryovolcanic study of the saturnian satellites. A new geologic sketch map of Tethys' north polar area is given. This map is based on a sequence of images transformed to a polar stereographic projection at the same scale. The images present the same area under different illuminations, each of which brings out different features. A new global map is in progress.

  12. Northeastern Regional geologic characterization report. Volume 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-08-01

    This report presents available geologic information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont. For each of the states within the Northeastern Region, information is provided on the geologic disqualifying factor and the geologic regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening. The geologic factor and variables include deep mines and quarries, rock mass extent, postemplacement faulting, suspected Quaternary faulting, seismicity, rock and mineral resources, major ground-water discharge zones, ground-water resources, state of stress, thickness of rock mass, and thickness of overburden. Information is presented on age, areal extent, shape, composition, texture, degree and type of alteration, thickness, and structural features associated with each rock body or complex. Regional seismic and tectonic information is presented, including patterns of earthquake occurrence, earthquake magnitudes, horizontal ground accelerations, and vertical crusal movements. Also included are discussions of the rock and mineral deposits or mines located within or near crystalline bodies; ground-water resources and regional hydrology; postulated changes in climate and the associated effects; and landforms, surface processes, and surficial materials on or near the rock bodies. A discussion is also presented on the relationship between the US Department of Energy (DOE) Siting Guidelines (10 CFR 960) and the geologic disqualifying factor and regional screening variables to be used in the region-to-area screening process.

  13. Geologic Resource Evaluation of Pu'ukohola Heiau National Historic Site, Hawai'i: Part I, Geology and Coastal Landforms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richmond, Bruce M.; Cochran, Susan A.; Gibbs, Ann E.

    2008-01-01

    Geologic resource inventories of lands managed by the National Park Service (NPS) are important products for the parks and are designed to provide scientific information to better manage park resources. Park-specific geologic reports are used to identify geologic features and processes that are relevant to park ecosystems, evaluate the impact of human activities on geologic features and processes, identify geologic research and monitoring needs, and enhance opportunities for education and interpretation. These geologic reports are planned to provide a brief geologic history of the park and address specific geologic issues forming a link between the park geology and the resource manager. The Kona coast National Parks of the Island of Hawai'i are intended to preserve the natural beauty of the Kona coast and protect significant ancient structures and artifacts of the native Hawaiians. Pu'ukohola Heiau National Historic Site (PUHE), Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park (KAHO), and Pu'uhonua O Honaunau National Historical Park (PUHO) are three Kona parks studied by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology Team in cooperation with the National Park Service. This report is one of six related reports designed to provide geologic and benthic-habitat information for the three Kona parks. Each geology and coastal-landform report describes the regional geologic setting of the Hawaiian Islands, gives a general description of the geology of the Kona coast, and presents the geologic setting and issues for one of the parks. The related benthic-habitat mapping reports discuss the marine data and habitat classification scheme, and present results of the mapping program. Pu'ukohola Heiau National Historic Site (PUHE) is the smallest (~86 acres) of three National Parks located on the leeward Kona coast of the Island of Hawai'i. The main structure at PUHE, Pu'ukohola Heiau, is an important historical temple that was built during 1790-91 by King Kamehameha I

  14. The Geology of Callisto

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schenk, Paul M.

    1995-01-01

    The geology of Callisto is not boring. Although cratered terrain dominates Callisto (a key end-member of the Jovian satellite system), a number of more interesting features are apparent. Cratered terrain is broken into irregular map-able bright and dark subunits that vary in albedo by a factor of 2, and several relatively smooth units are depleted of small craters. Some of these areas may have been volcanically resurfaced. Lineaments, including parallel and radial sets, may be evidence for early global tectonism. Frost deposition occurs in cold traps, and impact scars have formed from tidally disrupted comets. Geologic evidence suggests that Callisto does have a chemically differentiated crust. Central pit and central dome craters and palimpsests are common. The preferred interpretation is that a relatively ice-rich material, at depths of 5 km or more, has been mobilized during impact and exposed as domes or palimpsests. The close similarity in crater morphologies and dimensions indicates that the outermost 10 km or so of Callisto may be as differentiated as on Ganymede. The geology of cratered terrain on Callisto is simpler than that of cratered terrain on Ganymede, however. Orbital evolution and tidal heating may provide the answer to the riddle of why Callisto and Ganymede are so different (Malhotra, 1991). We should expect a few surprises and begins to answer some fundamental questions when Callisto is observed by Galileo in late 1996.

  15. Geology on a Sand Budget

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Jacqueline

    2004-01-01

    Earth science teachers know how frustrating it can be to spend hundreds of dollars on three-dimensional (3-D) models of Earth's geologic features, to use the models for only a few class periods. To avoid emptying an already limited science budget, the author states that teachers can use a simple alternative to the expensive 3-D models--sand. She…

  16. Aerial geologic log from Livermore, California to the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagoner, J. L.

    1982-01-01

    Some geologic and cultural points of interest along Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's F-27 flight between Livermore, California, and the Nevada Test Site, Navada are outlined. A geologic history is given for each of the four geologic provinces. Approximately 60 air photos are included which will help the traveler identify specific geologic features. Geologic cross sections of the area from Livermore Valley to Gold Mountain describe the geologic structure across the geologic provinces. A LANDSAT mosaic of the flight path is also included.

  17. MAINE BEDROCK SOURCE WATER PROTECTION AREAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bedrocksqpa_region_pws is a REGIONS SDE layer of bedrock source water protection areas in Maine with a high, moderate, or low probability of contributing water to community public water supplies. The Maine Drinking Water Program (MEDWP), in cooperation with the Maine Geological S...

  18. Geologic Technician New Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karp, Stanley E.

    1970-01-01

    Describes a developing two-year geologic technician program at Bakersfield College in which a student may major in five areas - geologic drafting, land and legal, geologic assistant, engineering or paleontology. (RR)

  19. Global geological mapping of Ganymede

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, G. Wesley; Collins, Geoffrey C.; Head, James W.; Pappalardo, Robert T.; Prockter, Louise M.; Lucchitta, Baerbel K.; Kay, Jonathan P.

    2010-06-01

    We have compiled a global geological map of Ganymede that represents the most recent understanding of the satellite based on Galileo mission results. This contribution builds on important previous accomplishments in the study of Ganymede utilizing Voyager data and incorporates the many new discoveries that were brought about by examination of Galileo data. We discuss the material properties of geological units defined utilizing a global mosaic of the surface with a nominal resolution of 1 km/pixel assembled by the USGS with the best available Voyager and Galileo regional coverage and high resolution imagery (100-200 m/pixel) of characteristic features and terrain types obtained by the Galileo spacecraft. We also use crater density measurements obtained from our mapping efforts to examine age relationships amongst the various defined units. These efforts have resulted in a more complete understanding of the major geological processes operating on Ganymede, especially the roles of cryovolcanic and tectonic processes in the formation of might materials. They have also clarified the characteristics of the geological units that comprise the satellite's surface, the stratigraphic relationships of those geological units and structures, and the geological history inferred from those relationships. For instance, the characteristics and stratigraphic relationships of dark lineated material and reticulate material suggest they represent an intermediate stage between dark cratered material and light material units.

  20. Efficient Geological Modelling of Large AEM Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bach, Torben; Martlev Pallesen, Tom; Jørgensen, Flemming; Lundh Gulbrandsen, Mats; Mejer Hansen, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Combining geological expert knowledge with geophysical observations into a final 3D geological model is, in most cases, not a straight forward process. It typically involves many types of data and requires both an understanding of the data and the geological target. When dealing with very large areas, such as modelling of large AEM surveys, the manual task for the geologist to correctly evaluate and properly utilise all the data available in the survey area, becomes overwhelming. In the ERGO project (Efficient High-Resolution Geological Modelling) we address these issues and propose a new modelling methodology enabling fast and consistent modelling of very large areas. The vision of the project is to build a user friendly expert system that enables the combination of very large amounts of geological and geophysical data with geological expert knowledge. This is done in an "auto-pilot" type functionality, named Smart Interpretation, designed to aid the geologist in the interpretation process. The core of the expert system is a statistical model that describes the relation between data and geological interpretation made by a geological expert. This facilitates fast and consistent modelling of very large areas. It will enable the construction of models with high resolution as the system will "learn" the geology of an area directly from interpretations made by a geological expert, and instantly apply it to all hard data in the survey area, ensuring the utilisation of all the data available in the geological model. Another feature is that the statistical model the system creates for one area can be used in another area with similar data and geology. This feature can be useful as an aid to an untrained geologist to build a geological model, guided by the experienced geologist way of interpretation, as quantified by the expert system in the core statistical model. In this project presentation we provide some examples of the problems we are aiming to address in the project

  1. Geologic map of the Metis Mons quadrangle (V–6), Venus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dohm, James M.; Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Skinner, James A.

    2011-01-01

    The Metis Mons quadrangle (V–6) in the northern hemisphere of Venus (lat 50° to 75° N., long 240° to 300° E.) includes a variety of coronae, large volcanoes, ridge and fracture (structure) belts, tesserae, impact craters, and other volcanic and structural features distributed within a plains setting, affording study of their detailed age relations and evolutionary development. Coronae in particular have magmatic, tectonic, and topographic signatures that indicate complex evolutionary histories. Previously, the geology of the map region has been described either in general or narrowly focused investigations. Based on Venera radar mapping, a 1:15,000,000-scale geologic map of part of the northern hemisphere of Venus included the V–6 map region and identified larger features such as tesserae, smooth and hummocky plains materials, ridge belts, coronae, volcanoes, and impact craters but proposed little relative-age information. Global-scale mapping from Magellan data identified similar features and also determined their mean global ages with crater counts. However, the density of craters on Venus is too low for meaningful relative-age determinations at local to regional scales. Several of the coronae in the map area have been described using Venera data (Stofan and Head, 1990), while Crumpler and others (1992) compiled detailed identification and description of volcanic and tectonic features from Magellan data. The main purpose of this map is to reconstruct the geologic history of the Metis Mons quadrangle at a level of detail commensurate with a scale of 1:5,000,000 using Magellan data. We interpret four partly overlapping stages of geologic activity, which collectively resulted in the formation of tesserae, coronae (oriented along structure belts), plains materials of varying ages, and four large volcanic constructs. Scattered impact craters, small shields and pancake-shaped domes, and isolated flows superpose the tectonically deformed materials and appear to

  2. Visible Geology - Interactive online geologic block modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cockett, R.

    2012-12-01

    Geology is a highly visual science, and many disciplines require spatial awareness and manipulation. For example, interpreting cross-sections, geologic maps, or plotting data on a stereonet all require various levels of spatial abilities. These skills are often not focused on in undergraduate geoscience curricula and many students struggle with spatial relations, manipulations, and penetrative abilities (e.g. Titus & Horsman, 2009). A newly developed program, Visible Geology, allows for students to be introduced to many geologic concepts and spatial skills in a virtual environment. Visible Geology is a web-based, three-dimensional environment where students can create and interrogate their own geologic block models. The program begins with a blank model, users then add geologic beds (with custom thickness and color) and can add geologic deformation events like tilting, folding, and faulting. Additionally, simple intrusive dikes can be modelled, as well as unconformities. Students can also explore the interaction of geology with topography by drawing elevation contours to produce their own topographic models. Students can not only spatially manipulate their model, but can create cross-sections and boreholes to practice their visual penetrative abilities. Visible Geology is easy to access and use, with no downloads required, so it can be incorporated into current, paper-based, lab activities. Sample learning activities are being developed that target introductory and structural geology curricula with learning objectives such as relative geologic history, fault characterization, apparent dip and thickness, interference folding, and stereonet interpretation. Visible Geology provides a richly interactive, and immersive environment for students to explore geologic concepts and practice their spatial skills.; Screenshot of Visible Geology showing folding and faulting interactions on a ridge topography.

  3. Bedrock geologic map of Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ratcliffe, Nicholas M.; Stanley, Rolfe S.; Gale, Marjorie H.; Thompson, Peter J.; Walsh, Gregory J.; With contributions by Hatch, Norman L., Jr.; Rankin, Douglas W.; Doolan, Barry L.; Kim, Jonathan; Mehrtens, Charlotte J.; Aleinikoff, John N.; McHone, J. Gregory; Cartography by Masonic, Linda M.

    2011-01-01

    The Bedrock Geologic Map of Vermont is the result of a cooperative agreement between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the State of Vermont. The State's complex geology spans 1.4 billion years of Earth's history. The new map comes 50 years after the most recent map of the State by Charles G. Doll and others in 1961 and a full 150 years since the publication of the first geologic map of Vermont by Edward Hitchcock and others in 1861. At a scale of 1:100,000, the map shows an uncommon level of detail for State geologic maps. Mapped rock units are primarily based on lithology, or rock type, to facilitate derivative studies in multiple disciplines. The 1961 map was compiled from 1:62,500-scale or smaller maps. The current map was created to integrate more detailed (1:12,000- to 1:24,000-scale) modern and older (1:62,500-scale) mapping with the theory of plate tectonics to provide a framework for geologic, tectonic, economic, hydrogeologic, and environmental characterization of the bedrock of Vermont. The printed map consists of three oversize sheets (52 x 76 inches). Sheets 1 and 2 show the southern and northern halves of Vermont, respectively, and can be trimmed and joined so that the entire State can be displayed as a single entity. These sheets also include 10 cross sections and a geologic structure map. Sheet 3 on the front consists of descriptions of 486 map units, a correlation of map units, and references cited. Sheet 3 on the back features a list of the 195 sources of geologic map data keyed to an index map of 7.5-minute quadrangles in Vermont, as well as a table identifying ages of rocks dated by uranium-lead zircon geochronology.

  4. Venus geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaughlin, W. I.

    1991-05-01

    The Magellan mission to Venus is reviewed. The scientific investigations conducted by 243-day cycles encompass mapping with a constant incidence angle for the radar, observing surface changes from one cycle to the next, and targeting young-looking volcanos. The topography of Venus is defined by the upper boundary of the crust and upwelling from lower domains. Tectonic features such as rift zones, linear mountain belts, ridge belts, and tesserae are described. The zones of tesserae are unique to the planet. Volcanism accounts for about 80 percent of the observed surface, the remainder being volcanic deposits which have been reworked by tectonism or impacts. Magellan data reveal about 900 impact craters with flow-like ejecta resulting from the fall of meteoroids. It is concluded that the age of the Venusian surface varies between 0 and 800 million years. Tectonic and volcanic activities dominate the formation of the Venus topography; such processes as weathering and erosion are relatively unimportant on Venus.

  5. Venus geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclaughlin, W. I.

    1991-01-01

    The Magellan mission to Venus is reviewed. The scientific investigations conducted by 243-day cycles encompass mapping with a constant incidence angle for the radar, observing surface changes from one cycle to the next, and targeting young-looking volcanos. The topography of Venus is defined by the upper boundary of the crust and upwelling from lower domains. Tectonic features such as rift zones, linear mountain belts, ridge belts, and tesserae are described. The zones of tesserae are unique to the planet. Volcanism accounts for about 80 percent of the observed surface, the remainder being volcanic deposits which have been reworked by tectonism or impacts. Magellan data reveal about 900 impact craters with flow-like ejecta resulting from the fall of meteoroids. It is concluded that the age of the Venusian surface varies between 0 and 800 million years. Tectonic and volcanic activities dominate the formation of the Venus topography; such processes as weathering and erosion are relatively unimportant on Venus.

  6. Geologic conceptual model of the municipality of Sete Lagoas (MG, Brazil) and the surroundings.

    PubMed

    Galvão, Paulo; Hirata, Ricardo; Cordeiro, Arnaldo; Barbati, Daniela; Peñaranda, Jorge

    2016-03-01

    The study area is located in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, among the municipalities of Pedro Leopoldo, Matozinhos, and Sete Lagoas, with Velhas River as the eastern boundary. It is located in the São Francisco Craton, where carbonated argillo-arenaceous sediments are emplaced giving origin to the Bambuí Group, in the São Francisco Basin. Despite the geological knowledge previously developed, the region needs work on integration and detailing of such information. For this reason, the main objective was to contribute to the quality of the geologic cartography, the spatial distribution, and the structural framework geometry. Thus, geologic mapping, aerial photography interpretation, and evaluation of 270 lithologic well profiles were carried out. It was possible to establish a new geologic perspective of the region by obtaining the detailed geologic map of the municipality of Sete Lagoas, 14 geologic cross sections, and a geologic conceptual model. The study showed that the area is within a basin border, presenting a geometry conditioned by horst and graben system controlled by faulting. This structural feature displaced stratigraphic sequences positioning them side by side with lithologic sequences with different ages. PMID:26840000

  7. Geological conditions of the time of formation of impact craters on Pai-Khoi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashchak, M. S.

    Present-day ideas on the time of formation of the Kara and Ust-Kara astroblemes are presented, and the main features of the geological structure of Phai-Khoi (the region where these structures are located) are described. Based on an analysis of the geological conditions, a large complex of fossil fauna and diatomaceous algae, and radiological dating of tagamites and impact glasses, it is shown that the craters were formed on the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary about 66-67 million years ago.

  8. GEOLOGIC HISTORY AND URANIUM POTENTIAL OF THE BIG JOHN CALDERA, SOUTHERN TUSHAR MOUNTAINS, UTAH.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steven, Thomas A.; Cunningham, Charles G.; Anderson, John J.

    1984-01-01

    The Big John caldera is an obscure subsidence structure on the western flank of the Tushar Mountains, within the Marysvale volcanic field of west-central Utah. The caldera subsided about 23 m. y. ago in response to ash-flow eruptions that deposited the Delano Peak Tuff Member of the Bullion Canyon Volcanics. During caldera development and subsequent filling and erosion, several geologic environments were formed that were favorable for the concentration of uranium; these environments form the focus of this report describing the major geologic features and main mining areas of the Marysvale volcanic field.

  9. Geology. Grade 6. Anchorage School District Elementary Science Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anchorage School District, AK.

    This resource book introduces sixth-grade children to the environment by studying rocks and other geological features. Nine lessons are provided on a variety of topics including: (1) geologic processes; (2) mountain building; (3) weathering; (4) geologic history and time; (5) plate tectonics; (6) rocks and minerals; (7) mineral properties; (8)…

  10. History of Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Mott T.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses: (1) geologists and the history of geology; (2) American historians and the history of geology; (3) history of geology in the 1980s; (4) sources for the history of geology (bibliographies, dictionaries, encyclopedias, handbooks, periodicals, public/official histories, compilations, and books); (5) research opportunities; and (6) other…

  11. Geology of northeastern Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collier, Arthur J.

    1919-01-01

    A large region in northeastern Montana has never been thoroughly explored by geologists, owing to the fact that it is a part of the Great Plains and the belief that it is too monotonous and uninteresting to tempt anyone to turn aside from the pronounced geologic features a little farther west, for which Montana is noted. This region includes parts of Sheridan, Valley, Phillips, and Blaine counties. Its investigation was begun by Smith in 1908, when he made a geologic survey of the Fort Peck Indian Reservation. Beekly explored a strip of land along the Montana-North Dakota line from Missouri River to the international boundary, and Bauer examined the townships in which Plentywood and Scobey are situated. Their results are here included with those of the writer, who during the field seasons of 1915 and 1916 was engaged in an investigation of the lignite resources of the remainder of this region, which extends from a line within 12 miles of the Montana-North Dakota boundary westward about 200 miles.

  12. Geology of Kilauea volcano

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, R.B. . Federal Center); Trusdell, F.A. . Hawaiian Volcano Observatory)

    1993-08-01

    This paper summarizes studies of the structure, stratigraphy, petrology, drill holes, eruption frequency, and volcanic and seismic hazards of Kilauea volcano. All the volcano is discussed, but the focus is on its lower east rift zone (LERZ) because active exploration for geothermal energy is concentrated in that area. Kilauea probably has several separate hydrothermal-convection systems that develop in response to the dynamic behavior of the volcano and the influx of abundant meteoric water. Important features of some of these hydrothermal-convection systems are known through studies of surface geology and drill holes. Observations of eruptions during the past two centuries, detailed geologic mapping, radiocarbon dating, and paleomagnetic secular-variation studies indicate that Kilauea has erupted frequently from its summit and two radial rift zones during Quaternary time. Petrologic studies have established that Kilauea erupts only tholeiitic basalt. Extensive ash deposits at Kilauea's summit and on its LERZ record locally violent, but temporary, disruptions of local hydrothermal-convection systems during the interaction of water or steam with magma. Recent drill holes on the LERZ provide data on the temperatures of the hydrothermal-convection systems, intensity of dike intrusion, porosity and permeability, and an increasing amount of hydrothermal alteration with depth. The prehistoric and historic record of volcanic and seismic activity indicates that magma will continue to be supplied to deep and shallow reservoirs beneath Kilauea's summit and rift zones and that the volcano will be affected by eruptions and earthquakes for many thousands of years. 71 refs., 2 figs.

  13. Ontology-aided annotation, visualization, and generalization of geological time-scale information from online geological map services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xiaogang; Carranza, Emmanuel John M.; Wu, Chonglong; van der Meer, Freek D.

    2012-03-01

    Geological maps are increasingly published and shared online, whereas tools and services supporting information retrieval and knowledge discovery are underdeveloped. In this study, we developed an ontology of geological time scale by using a Resource Description Framework model to represent the ordinal hierarchical structure of the geological time scale and to encode collected annotations of geological time scale concepts. We also developed an animated graphical view of the developed ontology, and functions for interactions between the ontology, the animation and online geological maps published as layers of OGC Web Map Service. The featured functions include automatic annotations for geological time concepts recognized from a geological map, changing layouts in the animation to highlight a concept, showing legends of geological time contents in an online map with the animation, and filtering out and generalizing geological time features in an online map by operating the map legend shown in the animation. We set up a pilot system and carried out a user survey to test and evaluate the usability and usefulness of the developed ontology, animation and interactive functions. Results of the pilot system and the user survey demonstrate that our works enhance features of online geological map services and they are helpful for users to understand and to explore geological time contents and features, respectively, of a geological map.

  14. Geologic mapping of Europa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greeley, R.; Figueredo, P.H.; Williams, D.A.; Chuang, F.C.; Klemaszewski, J.E.; Kadel, S.D.; Prockter, L.M.; Pappalardo, R.T.; Head, J. W., III; Collins, G.C.; Spaun, N.A.; Sullivan, R.J.; Moore, Johnnie N.; Senske, D.A.; Tufts, B.R.; Johnson, T.V.; Belton, M.J.S.; Tanaka, K.L.

    2000-01-01

    Galileo data enable the major geological units, structures, and surface features to be identified on Europa. These include five primary units (plains, chaos, band, ridge, and crater materials) and their subunits, along with various tectonic structures such as faults. Plains units are the most widespread. Ridged plains material spans a wide range of geological ages, including the oldest recognizable features on Europa, and appears to represent a style of tectonic resurfacing, rather than cryovolcanism. Smooth plains material typically embays other terrains and units, possibly as a type of fluid emplacement, and is among the youngest material units observed. At global scales, plains are typically mapped as undifferentiated plains material, although in some areas differences can be discerned in the near infrared which might be related to differences in ice grain size. Chaos material is composed of plains and other preexisting materials that have been severely disrupted by inferred internal activity; chaos is characterized by blocks of icy material set in a hummocky matrix. Band material is arrayed in linear, curvilinear, wedge-shaped, or cuspate zones with contrasting albedo and surface textures with respect to the surrounding terrain. Bilateral symmetry observed in some bands and the relationships with the surrounding units suggest that band material forms by the lithosphere fracturing, spreading apart, and infilling with material derived from the subsurface. Ridge material is mapped as a unit on local and some regional maps but shown with symbols at global scales. Ridge material includes single ridges, doublet ridges, and ridge complexes. Ridge materials are considered to represent tectonic processes, possibly accompanied by the extrusion or intrusion of subsurface materials, such as diapirs. The tectonic processes might be related to tidal flexing of the icy lithosphere on diurnal or longer timescales. Crater materials include various interior (smooth central

  15. Geologic mapping of Europa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greeley, Ronald; Collins, Geoffrey C.; Spaun, Nicole A.; Sullivan, Robert J.; Moore, Jeffrey M.; Senske, David A.; Tufts, B. Randall; Johnson, Torrence V.; Belton, Michael J. S.; Tanaka, Kenneth L.

    2000-09-01

    Galileo data enable the major geological units, structures, and surface features to be identified on Europa. These include five primary units (plains, chaos, band, ridge, and crater materials) and their subunits, along with various tectonic structures such as faults. Plains units are the most widespread. Ridged plains material spans a wide range of geological ages, including the oldest recognizable features on Europa, and appears to represent a style of tectonic resurfacing, rather than cryovolcanism. Smooth plains material typically embays other terrains and units, possibly as a type of fluid emplacement, and is among the youngest material units observed. At global scales, plains are typically mapped as undifferentiated plains material, although in some areas differences can be discerned in the near infrared which might be related to differences in ice grain size. Chaos material is composed of plains and other preexisting materials that have been severely disrupted by inferred internal activity; chaos is characterized by blocks of icy material set in a hummocky matrix. Band material is arrayed in linear, curvilinear, wedge-shaped, or cuspate zones with contrasting albedo and surface textures with respect to the surrounding terrain. Bilateral symmetry observed in some bands and the relationships with the surrounding units suggest that band material forms by the lithosphere fracturing, spreading apart, and infilling with material derived from the subsurface. Ridge material is mapped as a unit on local and some regional maps but shown with symbols at global scales. Ridge material includes single ridges, doublet ridges, and ridge complexes. Ridge materials are considered to represent tectonic processes, possibly accompanied by the extrusion or intrusion of subsurface materials, such as diapirs. The tectonic processes might be related to tidal flexing of the icy lithosphere on diurnal or longer timescales. Crater materials include various interior (smooth central

  16. Geologic investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Orkild, P.P.; Baldwin, M.J.; Townsend, D.R.

    1983-12-31

    The Climax stock is a composite granitic intrusive of Cretaceous age, composed of quartz monzonite and granodiorite, which intrudes rocks of Paleozoic and Precambrian age. Tertiary volcanic rocks, consisting of ash-flow and ash-fall tuffs, and tuffaceous sedimentary rocks overlie the sedimentary rocks and the stock. Erosion has removed much of the Tertiary volcanic rocks. Hydrothermal alteration of quartz monzonite and granodiorite is found mainly along joints and faults and varies from location to location. The Paleozoic carbonate rocks have been thermally and metasomatically altered to marble and tactite as much as 457 m (1500 ft) from the contact with the stock, although minor discontinuous metasomatic effects are noted in all rocks out to 914 m (3000 ft). Three major faults which define the Climax area structurally are the Tippinip, Boundary and Yucca faults. North of the junction of the Boundary and Yucca faults, the faults are collectively referred to as the Butte fault. The dominant joint sets and their average attitudes are N 32{degrees} W, 22{degrees} NE; N 60{degrees} W, vertical and N 35{degrees} E, vertical. Joints in outcrop are weathered and generally open, but in subsurface, the joints are commonly filled and healed with secondary minerals. 12 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Multidisciplinary analysis of Skylab photography for highway engineering purposes. [Maine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoeckeler, E. G.; Woodman, R. G. (Principal Investigator); Farrell, R. S.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The greatly increased resolution of ground features by Skylab as compared with LANDSAT is considered to be best in the S190B high resolution film, followed by S190A camera stations 4, 5, and 6 respectfully. Results of the study of vegetation damage sites using data derived from S190A film were disappointing. The major cause of detection problems is the graininess of the CIR film. Good results were achieved for the hydrology-land use study. Both camera systems gave better agreement with the ground truth than did LANDSAT imagery. Surficial geology and glacial landform areas were clearly visible in single scenes. Several previously unmapped or unknown features were detected, especially in eastern coastal Maine.

  18. Okinawa, Japan: Geologic Battleground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waymack, S. W.; Carrington, M. P.; Harpp, K. S.

    2005-12-01

    One of our main goals as instructors, particularly in introductory courses, is to impart students with an appreciation of how geology has influenced the course of human events. Despite the apparent accessibility of such topics, communicating this in a lively, relevant, and effective way often proves difficult. We use a series of historical events, the Pacific island hopping campaign of WWII, to engage students in an active, guided inquiry exercise to explore how terrain and the underlying geology of an area can shape historical events. Teams of students are assigned the role of planning either the defense or occupation of Okinawa Island, in the Ryukyu arc, in a theoretical version of the 1945 conflict. Students are given a package of information, including geologic and topographic maps, a list of military resources available to them at the time, and some historical background. Students also have access to "reconnaissance" images, 360o digital panoramas of the landscape of Okinawa, keyed to their maps. Each team has a week to plan their strategies and carry out additional research, which they subsequently bring to the table in the form of a written battle plan. With an instructor as arbiter, teams alternate drawing their maneuvers on a map of the island, to which the other team then responds. This continues one move at a time, until the instructor declares a victor. Throughout the exercise, the instructor guides students through analysis of each strategic decision in light of the island's structure and topography, with an emphasis on the appropriate interpretation of the maps. Students soon realize that an understanding of the island's terrain literally meant the difference between life and death for civilians and military participants alike in 1945. The karst landscape of Okinawa posed unique obstacles to both the Japanese and the American forces, including difficult landing sites, networks of natural caves, and sequences of hills aligned perpendicular to the

  19. MAINE 1:24,000 HYDROLOGY POLYGONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Maine 1:24,000 Hydrology Polygons SDE feature class depicts double line river features, single line streams, pond, lake and coastal outlines in Maine from USGS 1:24,000 scale quadrangles. Some New Hampshire and New Brunswick features are also included. Codes are included to ...

  20. MAINE 1:24,000 HYDROLOGY LINES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Maine 1:24,000 Hydrology Lines SDE feature class depicts double line river features, single line streams, pond, lake and coastal outlines in Maine from USGS 1:24,000 scale quadrangles. Some New Hampshire and New Brunswick features are also included. Codes are included to sel...

  1. Geophysics & Geology Inspected.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neale, E. R. W.

    1981-01-01

    Summarizes findings of a recently published report of the Canadian Geoscience Council, which includes the following topics regarding college geology: facilities; teaching; undergraduate enrollments; postgraduate enrollments; geologic research; and integration of Canadian geoscience with other countries. (CS)

  2. Geology for the Masses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickinson, William R.

    1970-01-01

    Describes environmental geology as including planning to avoid natural hazards, acquire natural resources, and use land wisely. Describes philosophy and strategies for developing interdisciplinary, environmental geology education at the high school, college, professional graduate, and doctoral research levels. (PR)

  3. Geologic spatial analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Thiessen, R.L.; Eliason, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    This report describes the development of geologic spatial analysis research which focuses on conducting comprehensive three-dimensional analysis of regions using geologic data sets that can be referenced by latitude, longitude, and elevation/depth. (CBS)

  4. Geologic Map of the Northern Hemisphere of Vesta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiesinger, Harald; Ruesch, Ottaviano; Blewett, Dave T.; Buczkowski, Debra L.; Scully, Jennifer; Williams, Dave A.; Aileen Yingst, R.; Russell, Chris T.; Raymond, Carol A.

    2013-04-01

    For more than a year, the NASA Dawn mission acquired Framing Camera (FC) images from orbit around Vesta. The surface of the asteroid was completely imaged [1] before Dawn left for its next target, the asteroid Ceres. In an early phase of the mission, the southern and equatorial regions were imaged, allowing the production of several geologic quadrangle maps [2]. During the second High Altitude Mapping Orbit (HAMO-2), the northern hemisphere became illuminated and visible. Here we present the first geologic map of the northern vestan hemisphere, from 21°N to 85°N, derived mainly from HAMO-2 observations. Detailed studies of specific geologic features within this hemisphere are presented elsewhere [e.g., 3,4]. For our geologic map we used high-resolution FC images [5] with ~20 m/pixel from the Low Altitude Mapping Orbit (LAMO), which unfortunately only cover the southern part of the study area (21°N to 45°N). For areas farther north, LAMO images are supplemented with HAMO-2 images, which have a pixel scale of about 70 m/pixel. During the departure phase, images of the north pole area with even lower spatial resolutions were acquired. Due to observational constraints, considerable shadowing is present north of 75°. From these data, an albedo mosaic and a stereo-photogrammetric digital terrain model [6] was produced, which serve as basis for our geologic map. For the geologic mapping at a scale of 1:500,000, all data were incorporated into a Geographic Information System (ArcGIS). We have identified several geologic units within the study area, including cratered highland material (ch) and the Saturnalia Formation (Sf), which is characterized by large-scale ridges and troughs, presumably associated with the south polar Veneneia impact [7]. In addition, we mapped undifferentiated crater material (uc), discontinuous ejecta material (dem), and dark/bright crater material and dark/bright crater ray material (dc/bc and dcr/bcr). We will present a detailed description

  5. Geological exploration of Angola from Sumbe to Namibe: A review at the frontier between geology, natural resources and the history of geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masse, Pierre; Laurent, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a review of the Geological exploration of the Angola Coast (from Sumbe to Namibe) from pioneer's first geological descriptions and mining inventory to the most recent publications supported by the oil industry. We focus our attention on the following periods: 1875-1890 (Paul Choffat's work, mainly), 1910-1949 (first maps at country scale), 1949-1974 (detailed mapping of the Kwanza-Namibe coastal series), 1975-2000, with the editing of the last version of the Angola geological map at 1:1 million scale and the progressive completion of previous works. Since 2000, there is a renewal in geological fieldwork publications on the area mainly due to the work of university teams. This review paper thus stands at the frontier between geology, natural resources and the history of geology. It shows how geological knowledge has progressed in time, fueled by economic and scientific reasons.

  6. Main Oxidizer Valve Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Addona, Brad; Eddleman, David

    2015-01-01

    A developmental Main Oxidizer Valve (MOV) was designed by NASA-MSFC using additive manufacturing processes. The MOV is a pneumatically actuated poppet valve to control the flow of liquid oxygen to an engine's injector. A compression spring is used to return the valve to the closed state when pneumatic pressure is removed from the valve. The valve internal parts are cylindrical in shape, which lends itself to traditional lathe and milling operations. However, the valve body represents a complicated shape and contains the majority of the mass of the valve. Additive manufacturing techniques were used to produce a part that optimized mass and allowed for design features not practical with traditional machining processes.

  7. Digital geologic map and GIS database of Venezuela

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garrity, Christopher P.; Hackley, Paul C.; Urbani, Franco

    2006-01-01

    The digital geologic map and GIS database of Venezuela captures GIS compatible geologic and hydrologic data from the 'Geologic Shaded Relief Map of Venezuela,' which was released online as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2005-1038. Digital datasets and corresponding metadata files are stored in ESRI geodatabase format; accessible via ArcGIS 9.X. Feature classes in the geodatabase include geologic unit polygons, open water polygons, coincident geologic unit linework (contacts, faults, etc.) and non-coincident geologic unit linework (folds, drainage networks, etc.). Geologic unit polygon data were attributed for age, name, and lithologic type following the Lexico Estratigrafico de Venezuela. All digital datasets were captured from source data at 1:750,000. Although users may view and analyze data at varying scales, the authors make no guarantee as to the accuracy of the data at scales larger than 1:750,000.

  8. Forensic geology exhumed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Joseph Didier

    Forensic geology binds applied geology to the world of legal controversy and action. However, the term “forensic” is often misconstrued. Although even some attorneys apply it only to the marshalling of evidence in criminal cases, it has a much broader definition. One dictionary defines it as “pertaining to, connected with, or used in courts of law or public discussion and debate.” The American Geological Institute's Glossary of Geology defines forensic geology as “the application of the Earth sciences to the law.” The cited reference to Murray and Tedrow [1975], however, deals mostly if not exclusively with the gathering and use of evidence in criminal cases, despite the widespread involvement of geologists in more general legal matters. It seems appropriate to “exhume” geology's wider application to the law, which is encompassed by forensic geology.

  9. Fractals in geology and geophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turcotte, Donald L.

    1989-01-01

    The definition of a fractal distribution is that the number of objects N with a characteristic size greater than r scales with the relation N of about r exp -D. The frequency-size distributions for islands, earthquakes, fragments, ore deposits, and oil fields often satisfy this relation. This application illustrates a fundamental aspect of fractal distributions, scale invariance. The requirement of an object to define a scale in photograhs of many geological features is one indication of the wide applicability of scale invariance to geological problems; scale invariance can lead to fractal clustering. Geophysical spectra can also be related to fractals; these are self-affine fractals rather than self-similar fractals. Examples include the earth's topography and geoid.

  10. A Geospatial Information Grid Framework for Geological Survey

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Liang; Xue, Lei; Li, Chaoling; Lv, Xia; Chen, Zhanlong; Guo, Mingqiang; Xie, Zhong

    2015-01-01

    The use of digital information in geological fields is becoming very important. Thus, informatization in geological surveys should not stagnate as a result of the level of data accumulation. The integration and sharing of distributed, multi-source, heterogeneous geological information is an open problem in geological domains. Applications and services use geological spatial data with many features, including being cross-region and cross-domain and requiring real-time updating. As a result of these features, desktop and web-based geographic information systems (GISs) experience difficulties in meeting the demand for geological spatial information. To facilitate the real-time sharing of data and services in distributed environments, a GIS platform that is open, integrative, reconfigurable, reusable and elastic would represent an indispensable tool. The purpose of this paper is to develop a geological cloud-computing platform for integrating and sharing geological information based on a cloud architecture. Thus, the geological cloud-computing platform defines geological ontology semantics; designs a standard geological information framework and a standard resource integration model; builds a peer-to-peer node management mechanism; achieves the description, organization, discovery, computing and integration of the distributed resources; and provides the distributed spatial meta service, the spatial information catalog service, the multi-mode geological data service and the spatial data interoperation service. The geological survey information cloud-computing platform has been implemented, and based on the platform, some geological data services and geological processing services were developed. Furthermore, an iron mine resource forecast and an evaluation service is introduced in this paper. PMID:26710255

  11. A Geospatial Information Grid Framework for Geological Survey.

    PubMed

    Wu, Liang; Xue, Lei; Li, Chaoling; Lv, Xia; Chen, Zhanlong; Guo, Mingqiang; Xie, Zhong

    2015-01-01

    The use of digital information in geological fields is becoming very important. Thus, informatization in geological surveys should not stagnate as a result of the level of data accumulation. The integration and sharing of distributed, multi-source, heterogeneous geological information is an open problem in geological domains. Applications and services use geological spatial data with many features, including being cross-region and cross-domain and requiring real-time updating. As a result of these features, desktop and web-based geographic information systems (GISs) experience difficulties in meeting the demand for geological spatial information. To facilitate the real-time sharing of data and services in distributed environments, a GIS platform that is open, integrative, reconfigurable, reusable and elastic would represent an indispensable tool. The purpose of this paper is to develop a geological cloud-computing platform for integrating and sharing geological information based on a cloud architecture. Thus, the geological cloud-computing platform defines geological ontology semantics; designs a standard geological information framework and a standard resource integration model; builds a peer-to-peer node management mechanism; achieves the description, organization, discovery, computing and integration of the distributed resources; and provides the distributed spatial meta service, the spatial information catalog service, the multi-mode geological data service and the spatial data interoperation service. The geological survey information cloud-computing platform has been implemented, and based on the platform, some geological data services and geological processing services were developed. Furthermore, an iron mine resource forecast and an evaluation service is introduced in this paper. PMID:26710255

  12. Relief and geology of the north polar region of the planet Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuzmin, R. O.; Burba, G. A.; Shashkina, V. P.; Bogomolov, A. F.; Zherikhin, N. V.; Skrypnik, G. I.; Kudrin, L. V.; Bergman, M. Y.; Rzhiga, O. N.; Sidorenko, A. I.

    1986-01-01

    Description of topographic features is given for the North polar region of the planet Venus. Principal geomorphic types of terrain are characterized as well as their geologic relations. Relative ages of geologic units in Venus North polar region are discussed.

  13. The Gulf of Maine in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Michael J.

    This paper describes some of the correct, missing, and alternative conceptions which students possess related to the Gulf of Maine. Students (N=226) from grades 4, 8, and 11 were interviewed on 15 major concepts involving geology, physical and chemical oceanography, natural resources, ecology, and decision-making. The mean interview scores of the…

  14. The Geology of Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaumann, Ralf

    Titan, the largest and most complex satellite in the solar system exhibits an organic dominated surface chemistry and shares surface features with other large icy satellites as well as the terrestrial planets. It is subject to tidal stresses, and its surface appears to have been modified tectonically. Cassini's global observations at infrared and radar wavelengths as well as local investigations by the instruments on the Huygens probe has revealed that Titan has the largest known abundance of organic material in the solar system apart from Earth, and that its active hydrological cycle is analogous to that of Earth, but with methane replacing water. The surface of Titan exhibits morphological features of different sizes and origins created by geological processes that span the entire dynamic range of aeolian, fluvial and tectonic activities, with likely evidence that cryovolcanism might exists where liquid water, perhaps in concert with ammonia, methane and carbon dioxide, makes its way to the surface from the interior [e.g. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18]. Extended dune fields, lakes, mountainous terrain, dendritic erosion patterns and erosional remnants indicate dynamic surface processes. Valleys, small-scale gullies and rounded cobbles require erosion by extended energetic flow of liquids. There is strong evidence that liquid hydrocarbons are ponded on the surface in lakes, predominantly, but not exclusively, at high northern latitudes. A variety of features including extensive flows and caldera-like constructs are interpreted to be cryovolcanic in origin. Chains and isolated blocks of rugged terrain rising from smoother areas are best described as mountains and might be related to tectonic processes. Impact craters form on all solid bodies in the solar system, and have been detected on Titan. But very few have been observed so they must be rapidly destroyed or buried by other geologic processes The morphologies of the impact

  15. The geology and geophysics of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saunders, R. S.

    1976-01-01

    The current state of knowledge concerning the regional geology and geophysics of Mars is summarized. Telescopic observations of the planet are reviewed, pre-Mariner models of its interior are discussed, and progress achieved with the Mariner flybys, especially that of Mariner 9, is noted. A map of the Martian geological provinces is presented to provide a summary of the surface geology and morphology. The contrast between the northern and southern hemispheres is pointed out, and the characteristic features of the surface are described in detail. The global topography of the planet is examined along with its gravitational field, gravity anomalies, and moment of inertia. The general sequence of events in Martian geological history is briefly outlined.

  16. The influence of geology on blasthole deviation

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, S.P.

    1996-12-31

    Blasthole deviation is a frequent, well documented and undesirable occurrence in mining operations. It is caused by the drill string mechanics, operating variables and the interaction between the drill bit and the rock mass characteristics. It is composed of three distinct components: collaring or marking error, alignment error and trajectory deviation. This study has focused on the dependence of trajectory or natural deviation on the geological features of the rock mass being drilled. The methodology involved the study of visible half barrels at road cuts, open pits, quarries, underground drifting and breasting operations. The effects of the following geological features on drillhole deviation have been investigated and discussed in this paper (1) strength and hardness of rocks (2) alternate layers of hard and soft rocks (3) anisotropy in rock mass (4) thickness and inclination of layers and bedding planes and (5) joints or other geological boundaries.

  17. Cassini's geological and compositional view of Tethys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephan, Katrin; Wagner, Roland; Jaumann, Ralf; Clark, Roger N.; Cruikshank, Dale P.; Brown, Robert H.; Giese, Bernd; Roatsch, Thomas; Filacchione, Gianrico; Matson, Dennis; Ore, Cristina Dalle; Capaccioni, Fabrizio; Baines, Kevin H.; Rodriguez, Sebastien; Krupp, Norbert; Buratti, Bonnie J.; Nicholson, Phil D.

    2016-08-01

    The Saturnian satellite Tethys exhibits geological and spectral properties, whose appearance, nature and spatial distribution partly mirror those identified on the neighboring satellites Dione and Rhea or fit to the picture how spectral surface properties are expected to change from one satellite to the other within the inner Saturnian system. However, we also identified spectral variations that are unique in the Saturnian system. Whereas geologically young surface features are characterized by pure H2O-ice composition with relatively large particles, which match the particle sizes measured for fresh surface features also on Dione and Rhea, geologically old weathered regions are dominated by submicron-sized ice particles. Our investigations confirm that the Odysseus impact event did not cause the formation of Tethys' extended graben system Ithaca Chasma. On the contrary, Odysseus might be responsible for the N-S trending 'icy' bands that mark Tethys' surface in the center of its leading and trailing hemisphere.

  18. Stochastic simulation of geological data using isometric mapping and multiple-point geostatistics with data incorporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ting; Du, Yi; Huang, Tao; Li, Xue

    2016-02-01

    Constrained by current hardware equipment and techniques, acquisition of geological data sometimes is difficult or even impossible. Stochastic simulation for geological data is helpful to address this issue, providing multiple possible results of geological data for resource prediction and risk evaluation. Multiple-point geostatistics (MPS) being one of the main branches of stochastic simulation can extract the intrinsic features of patterns from training images (TIs) that provide prior information to limit the under-determined simulated results, and then copy them to the simulated regions. Because the generated models from TIs are not always linear, some MPS methods using linear dimensionality reduction are not suitable to deal with nonlinear models of TIs. A new MPS method named ISOMAPSIM was proposed to resolve this issue, which reduces the dimensionality of patterns from TIs using isometric mapping (ISOMAP) and then classifies these low-dimensional patterns for simulation. Since conditional models including hard data and soft data influence the simulated results greatly, this paper further studies ISOMAPSIM using hard data and soft data to obtain more accurate simulations for geological modeling. Stochastic simulation of geological data is processed respectively under several conditions according to different situations of conditional models. The tests show that the proposed method can reproduce the structural characteristics of TIs under all conditions, but the condition using soft data and hard data together performs best in simulation quality; moreover, the proposed method shows its advantages over other MPS methods that use linear dimensionality reduction.

  19. Women in Early Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elder, Eleanor S.

    1982-01-01

    Biographical sketches are given for several women who made early contributions to the science of geology. A short biography of Inge Lehmann is also included as a more recent example of a woman who has made a notable contribution to the geological field. (Author)

  20. Radiometric Dating in Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pankhurst, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    Described are several aspects and methods of quantitatively measuring geologic time using a constant-rate natural process of radioactive decay. Topics include half lives and decay constants, radiogenic growth, potassium-argon dating, rubidium-strontium dating, and the role of geochronology in support of geological exploration. (DS)

  1. Glossary of geology

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, R.L.; Jackson, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    This third edition of the Glossary of Geology contains approximately 37,000 terms, or 1,000 more than the second edition. New entries are especially numerous in the fields of carbonate sedimentology, hydrogeology, marine geology, mineralogy, ore deposits, plate tectonics, snow and ice, and stratigraphic nomenclature. Many of the definitions provide background information.

  2. Advances in planetary geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woronow, A. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    This second issue in a new series intended to serve the planetary geology community with a form for quick and thorough communications includes (1) a catalog of terrestrial craterform structures for northern Europe; (2) abstracts of results of the Planetary Geology Program, and (3) a list of the photographic holdings of regional planetary image facilities.

  3. People and Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Provides background information on the many natural resources we extract from the earth's crust, including metals, graphite, and other minerals, as well as fossil fuels. Contains teaching activities such as a geologic scavenger hunt, a geology chronology, and the recycling of aluminum. Includes a reproducible handout for the activity on aluminum.…

  4. Advances in Planetary Geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woronow, A. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    Advances in Planetary Geology is a new series intended to serve the planetary geology community with a form for quick and thorough communications. There are no set lists of acceptable topics or formats, and submitted manuscripts will not undergo a formal review. All submissions should be in a camera ready form, preferably spaced, and submitted to the editor.

  5. Geology of the Caribbean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, William P.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes some of the geologic characteristics of the Caribbean region. Discusses the use of some new techniques, including broad-range swath imaging of the sea floor that produces photograph-like images, and satellite measurement of crustal movements, which may help to explain the complex geology of the region. (TW)

  6. Geologic time scale bookmark

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2012-01-01

    This bookmark, designed for use with U.S. Geological Survey activities at the 2nd USA Science and Engineering Festival (April 26–29, 2012), is adapted from the more detailed Fact Sheet 2010–3059 "Divisions of Geologic Time." The information that it presents is widely sought by educators and students.

  7. Field Geology/Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Carlton; Jakes, Petr; Jaumann, Ralf; Marshall, John; Moses, Stewart; Ryder, Graham; Saunders, Stephen; Singer, Robert

    1996-01-01

    The field geology/process group examined the basic operations of a terrestrial field geologist and the manner in which these operations could be transferred to a planetary lander. Four basic requirements for robotic field geology were determined: geologic content; surface vision; mobility; and manipulation. Geologic content requires a combination of orbital and descent imaging. Surface vision requirements include range, resolution, stereo, and multispectral imaging. The minimum mobility for useful field geology depends on the scale of orbital imagery. Manipulation requirements include exposing unweathered surfaces, screening samples, and bringing samples in contact with analytical instruments. To support these requirements, several advanced capabilities for future development are recommended. Capabilities include near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy, hyper-spectral imaging, multispectral microscopy, artificial intelligence in support of imaging, x ray diffraction, x ray fluorescence, and rock chipping.

  8. Analysis of Geological Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Neville J.; Cosgrove, John W.

    1990-08-01

    A knowledge of structural geology is fundamental to understanding the processes by which the earth's crust has evolved. It is a subject of fundamental importance to students of geology, experienced field geologists and academic researchers as well as to petroleum and mining engineers. In contrast to many structural textbooks which dwell upon geometrical descriptions of geological structures, this book emphasises mechanical principles and the way in which they can be used to understand how and why a wide range of geological structures develop. Structures on all scales are considered but the emphasis of the book is on those that can be seen on the scale of hand specimen or outcrop. Drawing on their considerable teaching experience the authors present a coherent and lucid analysis of geological structures which will be welcomed by a wide variety of earth scientists.

  9. Reservoir geology using 3D modelling tools

    SciTech Connect

    Dubrule, O.; Samson, P.; Segonds, D.

    1996-12-31

    The last decade has seen tremendous developments in the area of quantitative geological modelling. These developments have a significant impact on the current practice of constructing reservoir models. A structural model can first be constructed on the basis of depth-converted structural interpretations produced on a seismic interpretation workstation. Surfaces and faults can be represented as geological objects, and interactively modified. Once the tectonic framework has been obtained, intermediate stratigraphic surfaces can be constructed between the main structural surfaces. Within each layer, reservoir attributes can be represented using various techniques. Examples show how the distribution of different facies (i.e. from fine to coarse grain) can be represented, or how various depositional units (for instance channels, crevasses and lobes in a turbidite setting) can be modelled as geological {open_quotes}objects{close_quotes} with complex geometries. Elf Aquitaine, in close co-operation with the GOCAD project in Nancy (France) is investigating how geological models can be made more realistic by developing interactive functionalities. Examples show that, contrary to standard deterministic or geostatistical modelling techniques (which tend to be difficult to control) the use of new 3D tools allows the geologist to interactively modify geological surfaces (including faults) or volumetric properties. Thus, the sensitivity of various economic parameters (oil in place, connected volumes, reserves) to major geological uncertainties can be evaluated. It is argued that future breakthroughs in geological modelling techniques are likely to happen in the development of interactive approaches rather than in the research of new mathematical algorithms.

  10. Reservoir geology using 3D modelling tools

    SciTech Connect

    Dubrule, O. ); Samson, P. ); Segonds, D. )

    1996-01-01

    The last decade has seen tremendous developments in the area of quantitative geological modelling. These developments have a significant impact on the current practice of constructing reservoir models. A structural model can first be constructed on the basis of depth-converted structural interpretations produced on a seismic interpretation workstation. Surfaces and faults can be represented as geological objects, and interactively modified. Once the tectonic framework has been obtained, intermediate stratigraphic surfaces can be constructed between the main structural surfaces. Within each layer, reservoir attributes can be represented using various techniques. Examples show how the distribution of different facies (i.e. from fine to coarse grain) can be represented, or how various depositional units (for instance channels, crevasses and lobes in a turbidite setting) can be modelled as geological [open quotes]objects[close quotes] with complex geometries. Elf Aquitaine, in close co-operation with the GOCAD project in Nancy (France) is investigating how geological models can be made more realistic by developing interactive functionalities. Examples show that, contrary to standard deterministic or geostatistical modelling techniques (which tend to be difficult to control) the use of new 3D tools allows the geologist to interactively modify geological surfaces (including faults) or volumetric properties. Thus, the sensitivity of various economic parameters (oil in place, connected volumes, reserves) to major geological uncertainties can be evaluated. It is argued that future breakthroughs in geological modelling techniques are likely to happen in the development of interactive approaches rather than in the research of new mathematical algorithms.

  11. Activities in planetary geology for the physical and earth sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalli, R.; Greeley, R.

    1982-01-01

    A users guide for teaching activities in planetary geology, and for physical and earth sciences is presented. The following topics are discussed: cratering; aeolian processes; planetary atmospheres, in particular the Coriolis Effect and storm systems; photogeologic mapping of other planets, Moon provinces and stratigraphy, planets in stereo, land form mapping of Moon, Mercury and Mars, and geologic features of Mars.

  12. Geology Museum-Based Learning in Soil Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikhailova, E. A.; Tennant, C. H.; Post, C. J.; Cicimurri, C.; Cicimurri, D.

    2013-01-01

    Museums provide unique learning opportunities in soil science. The Bob Campbell Geology Museum in Clemson, SC, features an exhibit of minerals and rocks common in the state and in its geologic history. We developed a hands-on laboratory exercise utilizing an exhibit that gives college students an opportunity to visualize regional minerals and…

  13. Hazardous geological processes on the eastern slope of Sakhalin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranov, B. V.; Dozorova, K. A.; Rukavishnikova, D. D.

    2015-11-01

    The analysis of geological and geophysical data obtained from the eastern slope of Sakhalin Island provided grounds for defining several potentially hazardous geological processes in the region, such as seismicity, active tectonics, gas seepage, slope failure, and slumping. The peculiar features of the distribution of these throughout the eastern slope of Sakhalin are used for its zoning with respect to potential hazards.

  14. Some aspects of geological information contained in LANDSAT images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Liu, C. C.; Vitorello, I.; Meneses, P. R.

    1980-01-01

    The characteristics of MSS images and methods of interpretation are analyzed from a geological point of view. The supportive role of LANDSAT data are illustrated in several examples of surface expressions of geological features, such as synclines and anticlines, spectral characteristics of lithologic units, and circular impact structures.

  15. 3D reconstruction of complex geological bodies: Examples from the Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanchi, Andrea; Francesca, Salvi; Stefano, Zanchetta; Simone, Sterlacchini; Graziano, Guerra

    2009-01-01

    Cartographic geological and structural data collected in the field and managed by Geographic Information Systems (GIS) technology can be used for 3D reconstruction of complex geological bodies. Using a link between GIS tools and gOcad, stratigraphic and tectonic surfaces can be reconstructed taking into account any geometrical constraint derived from field observations. Complex surfaces can be reconstructed using large data sets analysed by suitable geometrical techniques. Three main typologies of geometric features and related attributes are exported from a GIS-geodatabase: (1) topographic data as points from a digital elevation model; (2) stratigraphic and tectonic boundaries, and linear features as 2D polylines; (3) structural data as points. After having imported the available information into gOcad, the following steps should be performed: (1) construction of the topographic surface by interpolation of points; (2) 3D mapping of the linear geological boundaries and linear features by vertical projection on the reconstructed topographic surface; (3) definition of geometrical constraints from planar and linear outcrop data; (4) construction of a network of cross-sections based on field observations and geometrical constraints; (5) creation of 3D surfaces, closed volumes and grids from the constructed objects. Three examples of the reconstruction of complex geological bodies from the Italian Alps are presented here. The methodology demonstrates that although only outcrop data were available, 3D modelling has allows the checking of the geometrical consistency of the interpretative 2D sections and of the field geology, through a 3D visualisation of geometrical models. Application of a 3D geometrical model to the case studies can be very useful in geomechanical modelling for slope-stability or resource evaluation.

  16. Main features of nucleation in model solutions of oral cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golovanova, O. A.; Chikanova, E. S.; Punin, Yu. O.

    2015-05-01

    The regularities of nucleation in model solutions of oral cavity have been investigated, and the induction order and constants have been determined for two systems: saliva and dental plaque fluid (DPF). It is shown that an increase in the initial supersaturation leads to a transition from the heterogeneous nucleation of crystallites to a homogeneous one. Some additives are found to enhance nucleation: HCO{3/-} > C6H12O6 > F-, while others hinder this process: protein (casein) > Mg2+. It is established that crystallization in DPF occurs more rapidly and the DPF composition is favorable for the growth of small (52.6-26.1 μm) crystallites. On the contrary, the conditions implemented in the model saliva solution facilitate the formation of larger (198.4-41.8 μm) crystals.

  17. OneGeology-Europe - The Challenges and progress of implementing a basic geological infrastructure for Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asch, Kristine; Tellez-Arenas, Agnes

    2010-05-01

    geological data. These datasets are registered in a multilingual catalogue, who is one the main part of this system. This catalogue and a common metadata profile allows the discovery of national geological and applied geological maps at all scapes, Such an architecture is facilitating re-use and addition of value by a wide spectrum of users in the public and private sector and identifying, documenting and disseminating strategies for the reduction of technical and business barriers to re-use. In identifying and raising awareness in the user and provider communities, it is moving geological knowledge closer to the end-user where it will have greater societal impact and ensure fuller exploitation of a key data resource gathered at huge public expense. The project is providing examples of best practice in the delivery of digital geological spatial data to users, e.g. in the insurance, property, engineering, planning, mineral resource and environmental sectors. The scientifically attributed map data of the project will provide a pan-European base for science research and, importantly, a prime geoscience dataset capable of integration with other data sets within and beyond the geoscience domain. This presentation will demonstrate the first results of this project and will indicate how OneGeology-Europe is ensuring that Europe may play a leading role in the development of a geoscience spatial data infrastructure (SDI) globally.

  18. Geology of the Lachesis Tessera V18 Quadrangle, Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGowan, E. M.; McGill, G. E.

    2011-03-01

    Summary of the geology of the Lachesis Tessera, focusing on a linear grouping of structural features that includes Breksta Linea. This grouping includes an unnamed corona that is obscured by a large gore.

  19. The Geology of Mars: What the New Global Map Shows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, K. L.; Dohm, J. M.; Fortezzo, C. M.; Irwin, R. P.; Kolb, E. J.; Skinner, J. A.; Hare, T. M.; Platz, T.; Michael, G.; Robbins, S.

    2012-03-01

    We describe how post-Viking data sets and our comprehensive, digital, team-based mapping approach have resulted in more robust unit identification, stratigraphic analysis, and understanding of geologic materials and features on Mars.

  20. Fundamentals of Structural Geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollard, David D.; Fletcher, Raymond C.

    2005-09-01

    Fundamentals of Structural Geology provides a new framework for the investigation of geological structures by integrating field mapping and mechanical analysis. Assuming a basic knowledge of physical geology, introductory calculus and physics, it emphasizes the observational data, modern mapping technology, principles of continuum mechanics, and the mathematical and computational skills, necessary to quantitatively map, describe, model, and explain deformation in Earth's lithosphere. By starting from the fundamental conservation laws of mass and momentum, the constitutive laws of material behavior, and the kinematic relationships for strain and rate of deformation, the authors demonstrate the relevance of solid and fluid mechanics to structural geology. This book offers a modern quantitative approach to structural geology for advanced students and researchers in structural geology and tectonics. It is supported by a website hosting images from the book, additional colour images, student exercises and MATLAB scripts. Solutions to the exercises are available to instructors. The book integrates field mapping using modern technology with the analysis of structures based on a complete mechanics MATLAB is used to visualize physical fields and analytical results and MATLAB scripts can be downloaded from the website to recreate textbook graphics and enable students to explore their choice of parameters and boundary conditions The supplementary website hosts color images of outcrop photographs used in the text, supplementary color images, and images of textbook figures for classroom presentations The textbook website also includes student exercises designed to instill the fundamental relationships, and to encourage the visualization of the evolution of geological structures; solutions are available to instructors

  1. The geologic mapping of asteroid Vesta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, D.; Yingst, A.; Garry, B.

    2014-07-01

    As part of NASA's Dawn mission [1,2] we conducted a geologic mapping campaign to provide a systematic, cartography-based initial characterization of the global and regional geology of asteroid Vesta. The goal of geological maps is to place observations of surface features into their stratigraphic context to develop a geologic history of the evolution of planetary surfaces. Geologic mapping reduces the complexity of heterogeneous planetary surfaces into comprehensible portions, defining and characterizing discrete material units based upon physical attributes related to the geologic processes that produced them, and enabling identification of the relative roles of various processes (impact cratering, tectonism, volcanism, erosion and deposition) in shaping planetary surfaces [3,4]. The Dawn Science Team produced cartographic products of Vesta from the Framing Camera images, including global mosaics as well as 15 regional quadrangles [5], which served as bases for the mapping. We oversaw the geologic mapping campaign during the Nominal Mission, including production of a global geologic map at scale 1:500,000 using images from the High Altitude Mapping Orbit [6] and 15 quadrangle geologic maps at scale 1:250,000 using images from the Low Altitude Mapping Orbit [7]. The goal was to support the Dawn Team by providing geologic and stratigraphic context of surface features and supporting the analysis of data from the Visible and Infrared Spectrometer (VIR) and the Gamma Ray and Neutron Detector (GRaND). Mapping was done using ArcGIS™ software, in which quadrangle mapping built on interpretations derived from the global geologic map but were updated and modified to take advantage of the highest spatial resolution data. Despite challenges (e.g., Vesta's highly sloped surface [8] deforms impact craters and produces mass movements that buries contacts), we were successfully able to map the whole surface of Vesta and identify a geologic history as represented in our maps and

  2. Main structural lineaments of north-eastern Morocco derived from gravity and aeromagnetic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Gout, Radia; Khattach, Driss; Houari, Mohammed-Rachid; Kaufmann, Olivier; Aqil, Hicham

    2010-09-01

    Many years ago, geophysical surveys (gravity and aeromagnetic) were initiated for economic investigation and recently the analysis of gravity and magnetic anomalies are used as a powerful tool for the geological mapping. The present study is based on various filtered maps of gravity and aeromagnetic anomalies of north-eastern Morocco (NEM) in order to highlight its main structural features. Filtering techniques such as horizontal gradient, upward continuation and Euler deconvolution were used to map structural lineaments in NEM. The obtained structural map is consistent with many faults already recognized or supposed by traditional structural studies, and highlights new major accidents by specifying their layout and dips.

  3. Essential Elements of Geologic Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Elmer James

    1988-01-01

    Described is a report outline for geologic reports. Essential elements include title; abstract; introduction; stratigraphy; petrography; geochemistry; petrology; geophysics; structural geology; geologic history; modeling; economics; conclusions; and recommendations. (Author/CW)

  4. Geologic map of Detrital, Hualapai, and Sacramento Valleys and surrounding areas, northwest Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beard, L. Sue; Kennedy, Jeffrey; Truini, Margot; Felger, Tracey

    2011-01-01

    A 1:250,000-scale geologic map and report covering the Detrital, Hualapai, and Sacramento valleys in northwest Arizona is presented for the purpose of improving understanding of the geology and geohydrology of the basins beneath those valleys. The map was compiled from existing geologic mapping, augmented by digital photogeologic reconnaissance mapping. The most recent geologic map for the area, and the only digital one, is the 1:1,000,000-scale Geologic Map of Arizona. The larger scale map presented here includes significantly more detailed geology than the Geologic Map of Arizona in terms of accuracy of geologic unit contacts, number of faults, fault type, fault location, and details of Neogene and Quaternary deposits. Many sources were used to compile the geology; the accompanying geodatabase includes a source field in the polygon feature class that lists source references for polygon features. The citations for the source field are included in the reference section.

  5. Geology of caves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morgan, I.M., Davies,W.E.

    1991-01-01

    A cave is a natural opening in the ground extending beyond the zone of light and large enough to permit the entry of man. Occurring in a wide variety of rock types and caused by widely differing geological processes, caves range in size from single small rooms to intercorinecting passages many miles long. The scientific study of caves is called speleology (from the Greek words spelaion for cave and logos for study). It is a composite science based on geology, hydrology, biology, and archaeology, and thus holds special interest for earth scientists of the U.S. Geological Survey.

  6. Formation evaluation: Geological procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Whittaker, A.

    1985-01-01

    This volume goes beyond a discussion of petroleum geology and the techniques of hydrocarbon (oil and gas) logging as a reservoir evaluation tool. It provides the logging geologist with a review of geological techniques and classification systems that will ensure the maximum development of communicable geological information. Contents include: 1. Introduction--cuttings recovery, cutting sampling, core sampling, rock classification; 2. Detrital rocks--classification, description; 3. Carbonate rocks--classification, description; 4. Chemical rocks-introduction, siliceous rocks, ferruginous rocks, aluminous rocks, phosphatic rocks, aluminous rocks, carbonaceous rocks; 5. Igneous and metamorpbic rocks; Appendix; References and Index.

  7. Catastrophism in geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallam, A.

    An historical survey is presented of ideas relating to the concept of 'catastrophism' in geological studies during the last two centuries. It is noted in particular that the opposing concept of 'uniformitarianism', in which there is assumed to have been an overall constancy of geological processes through time so that there is no need to invoke catastrophic change, is now considered rather extreme. During the nineteen sixties and seventies, a neocatastrophist viewpoint has increasingly emerged in various branches of geology. Mass extinctions and their possible causes - bolide impact, climate, volcanism and sea-level change for example - are each considered in the context of this developing framework.

  8. Developing a geological 3D model for the Tanour and Rasoun spring catchment area using ArcGIS and GOCAD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamdan, Ibraheem; Benhsinat, Mohamed; Wagner, Bianca; Sauter, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Key words: Karst, 3D model, GOCAD, ArcGIS, Jordan. Tanour and Rasoun karst springs (around 75 km northwest of the capital city of Amman in Jordan) are used as main local water supply for the surrounding villages. Carbonate rocks are the predominant rock type in the study area (Upper Cretaceous age). The karstification degree is moderate to high, with the availability of different karst features like dolines, caves, dry valleys, and highly fractured rocks. During the last years, the water supply from these springs had to be disconnected for several times due to microbial contamination and waste water pollution from local olive oil mills. For better understanding of the geological and the hydrogeological setting of the study area, in addition to the delineation of the groundwater catchment area for Tanour and Rasoun springs, a geological 3D model of the main geological formations within the study area was established using ArcGIS and GOCAD. The model is based on geological maps and well data; it was established for seven geological layers that act as prominent aquifers and aquicludes. ArcGIS software was used for data preparation, processing and interpolation of varying thickness, while GOCAD used for geometrical modeling steps. After the completion of the first modeling steps, major faults are included. Then the subsurface catchments will be delineated and compared with the superficial watersheds. The model still under development and open for further development.

  9. Geological map and stratigraphy of asteroid 21 Lutetia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massironi, Matteo; Marchi, Simone; Pajola, Maurizio; Snodgrass, Colin; Thomas, Nicolas; Tubiana, Cecilia; Baptiste Vincent, Jean; Cremonese, Gabriele; da Deppo, Vania; Ferri, Francesca; Magrin, Sara; Sierks, Holger; Barbieri, Cesare; Lamy, Philippe; Rickman, Hans; Rodrigo, Rafael; Koschny, Detlef; Osiris Team

    2012-06-01

    The OSIRIS (Optical, Spectroscopic, and Infrared Remote Imaging System) images acquired during the recent Rosetta fly-by of Lutetia (10th of July 2010), enabled us to unravel the long geological history of the asteroid. This is recorded on its highly varied surface which displays geological units of disparate ages. In particular, using images of the closest approach, five main regions (in turn subdivided into minor units) have been discriminated on the basis of crater density, overlapping and cross-cutting relationships, and presence of linear features (i.e., fractures, faults, grooves, troughs). Other regions, with still unclear stratigraphic position, were also recognized on images of lower resolution on the bases of geomorphological properties such as crater density, relationship with scarp and ridges, and sharp morphological boundaries. In this work the geological evolution of Lutetia surface is reconstructed through the description of its main units and related contacts. The oldest regions imaged during the closest approach (Achaia and Noricum) are pervasively affected by fractures and grooves and display surfaces so heavily cratered to be dated back to a period not far from the Late Heavy Bombardment (yielding Achaia a crater retention age of 3.6-3.7 Ga). A crater of 55 km diameter, named Massilia and corresponding to the Narbonensis region, cuts both Achaia and Noricum regions and probably represents the most prominent event of the Lutetia history. The considerable crater density on its floor and walls, the absence of discernable deposits related to the impact event, and the intense deformation of it floor - all attest to its relatively great age. The North Polar Cluster (Baetica region) is associated with smooth ejecta broadly mantling the surrounding units and displays few craters and no linear features, demonstrating its relatively young age (estimated at less than 300 Ma). The North Polar Crater Cluster is the product of superimposed impacts; the last

  10. New geological data of New Siberian Archipelago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobolev, Nikolay; Petrov, Evgeniy

    2014-05-01

    The area of New Siberian Archipelago (NSA) encompasses different tectonic blocks is a clue for reconstruction of geological structure and geodynamic evolution of East Arctic. According to palaeomagnetic study two parts of the archipelago - Bennett and Anjou Islands formed a single continental block at least from the Early Palaeozoic. Isotope dating of De Long Islands igneous and sedimentary rocks suggests Neoproterozoic (Baikalian) age of its basement. The De Long platform sedimentary cover may be subdivided into two complexes: (1) intermediate of PZ-J variously deformed and metamorphosed rocks and (2) K-KZ of weakly lithified sediments. The former complex comprises the Cambrian riftogenic volcanic-clastic member which overlain by Cambrian-Ordovician turbiditic sequence, deposited on a continental margin. This Lower Palaeozoic complex is unconformably overlain by Early Cretaceous (K-Ar age of c.120 Ma) basalts with HALIP petrochemical affinities. In Anjou Islands the intermediate sedimentary complex encompasses the lower Ordovician -Lower Carboniferous sequence of shallow-marine limestone and subordinate dolomite, mudstone and sandstone that bear fossils characteristic of the Siberian biogeographic province. The upper Mid Carboniferous - Jurassic part is dominated by shallow-marine clastic sediments, mainly clays. The K-KZ complex rests upon the lower one with angular unconformity and consists mainly of coal-bearing clastic sediments with rhyolite lavas and tuffs in the bottom (117-110 Ma by K-Ar) while the complexe's upper part contains intraplate alkalic basalt and Neogene-Quaternary limburgite. The De-Long-Anjou block's features of geology and evolution resemble those of Wrangel Island located some 1000 km eastward. The Laptev Sea shelf outcrops in intrashelf rises (Belkovsky and Stolbovoy Islands) where its geology and structure may be observed directly. On Belkovsky Island non-dislocated Oligocene-Miocene sedimentary cover of littoral-marine coal

  11. Database for volcanic processes and geology of Augustine Volcano, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McIntire, Jacqueline; Ramsey, David W.; Thoms, Evan; Waitt, Richard B.; Beget, James E.

    2012-01-01

    This digital release contains information used to produce the geologic map published as Plate 1 in U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1762 (Waitt and Begét, 2009). The main component of this digital release is a geologic map database prepared using geographic information systems (GIS) applications. This release also contains links to files to view or print the map plate, accompanying measured sections, and main report text from Professional Paper 1762. It should be noted that Augustine Volcano erupted in 2006, after the completion of the geologic mapping shown in Professional Paper 1762 and presented in this database. Information on the 2006 eruption can be found in U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1769. For the most up to date information on the status of Alaska volcanoes, please refer to the U.S. Geological Survey Volcano Hazards Program website.

  12. The First Global Geological Map of Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prockter, L. M.; Head, J. W., III; Byrne, P. K.; Denevi, B. W.; Kinczyk, M. J.; Fassett, C.; Whitten, J. L.; Thomas, R.; Ernst, C. M.

    2015-12-01

    Geological maps are tools with which to understand the distribution and age relationships of surface geological units and structural features on planetary surfaces. Regional and limited global mapping of Mercury has already yielded valuable science results, elucidating the history and distribution of several types of units and features, such as regional plains, tectonic structures, and pyroclastic deposits. To date, however, no global geological map of Mercury exists, and there is currently no commonly accepted set of standardized unit descriptions and nomenclature. With MESSENGER monochrome image data, we are undertaking the global geological mapping of Mercury at the 1:15M scale applying standard U.S. Geological Survey mapping guidelines. This map will enable the development of the first global stratigraphic column of Mercury, will facilitate comparisons among surface units distributed discontinuously across the planet, and will provide guidelines for mappers so that future mapping efforts will be consistent and broadly interpretable by the scientific community. To date we have incorporated three major datasets into the global geological map: smooth plains units, tectonic structures, and impact craters and basins >20 km in diameter. We have classified most of these craters by relative age on the basis of the state of preservation of morphological features and standard classification schemes first applied to Mercury by the Mariner 10 imaging team. Additional datasets to be incorporated include intercrater plains units and crater ejecta deposits. In some regions MESSENGER color data is used to supplement the monochrome data, to help elucidate different plains units. The final map will be published online, together with a peer-reviewed publication. Further, a digital version of the map, containing individual map layers, will be made publicly available for use within geographic information systems (GISs).

  13. Application of groundwater aggressiveness assessment method for estimation of the karst process at main gas pipeline construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermolaeva, A. V.

    2016-03-01

    Main pipelines maintenance is connected with hazard engineering and geological working conditions. The article deals with the use of groundwater aggressiveness assessment method to estimate the karst processes development during the construction of main gas pipelines. The possibility of using this method is analyzed on the example of the initial section of the designed gas pipeline “Power of Siberia” (section “Chayanda-Lensk"). The calculation of the nonequilibrium index Ca was made in accordance with the geotechnical survey data. The dependencies between the geomorphological features of the terrain and the natural waters aggressiveness were determined.

  14. Prototype of Partial Cutting Tool of Geological Map Images Distributed by Geological Web Map Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nonogaki, S.; Nemoto, T.

    2014-12-01

    Geological maps and topographical maps play an important role in disaster assessment, resource management, and environmental preservation. These map information have been distributed in accordance with Web services standards such as Web Map Service (WMS) and Web Map Tile Service (WMTS) recently. In this study, a partial cutting tool of geological map images distributed by geological WMTS was implemented with Free and Open Source Software. The tool mainly consists of two functions: display function and cutting function. The former function was implemented using OpenLayers. The latter function was implemented using Geospatial Data Abstraction Library (GDAL). All other small functions were implemented by PHP and Python. As a result, this tool allows not only displaying WMTS layer on web browser but also generating a geological map image of intended area and zoom level. At this moment, available WTMS layers are limited to the ones distributed by WMTS for the Seamless Digital Geological Map of Japan. The geological map image can be saved as GeoTIFF format and WebGL format. GeoTIFF is one of the georeferenced raster formats that is available in many kinds of Geographical Information System. WebGL is useful for confirming a relationship between geology and geography in 3D. In conclusion, the partial cutting tool developed in this study would contribute to create better conditions for promoting utilization of geological information. Future work is to increase the number of available WMTS layers and the types of output file format.

  15. Quaternary Geologic Map of Connecticut and Long Island Sound Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, Janet Radway; Schafer, John P.; London, Elizabeth Haley; DiGiacomo-Cohen, Mary L.; Lewis, Ralph S.; Thompson, Woodrow B.

    2005-01-01

    The Quaternary geologic map (sheet 1) and explanatory figures and cross sections (sheet 2) portray the geologic features formed in Connecticut during the Quaternary Period, which includes the Pleistocene (glacial) and Holocene (postglacial) Epochs. The Quaternary Period has been a time of development of many details of the landscape and of all the surficial deposits. At least twice in the late Pleistocene, continental ice sheets swept across Connecticut. Their effects are of pervasive importance to the present occupants of the land. The Quaternary geologic map illustrates the geologic history and the distribution of depositional environments during the emplacement of glacial and postglacial surficial deposits and the landforms resulting from those events.

  16. Geotechnical characterization for the Main Drift of the Exploratory Studies Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Kicker, D.C.; Martin, E.R.; Brechtel, C.E.; Stone, C.A.; Kessel, D.S.

    1997-07-01

    Geotechnical characterization of the Main Drift of the Exploratory Studies Facility was based on borehole data collected in site characterization drilling and on scanline rock mass quality data collected during the excavation of the North Ramp. The Main Drift is the planned 3,131-m near-horizontal tunnel to be excavated at the potential repository horizon for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. Main Drift borehole data consisted of three holes--USW SD-7, SD-9, and SD-12--drilled along the tunnel alignment. In addition, boreholes USW UZ-14, NRG-6, and NRG-7/7A were used to supplement the database on subsurface rock conditions. Specific data summarized and presented included lithologic and rock structure core logs, rock mechanics laboratory testing, and rock mass quality indices. Cross sections with stratigraphic and thermal-mechanical units were also presented. Topics discussed in the report include geologic setting, geologic features of engineering and construction significance, anticipated ground conditions, and the range of required ground support. Rock structural and rock mass quality data have been developed for each 3-m interval of core in the middle nonlithophysal stratigraphic zone of the Topopah Spring Tuff Formation. The distribution of the rock mass quality data in all boreholes used to characterize the Main Drift was assumed to be representative of the variability of the rock mass conditions to be encountered in the Main Drift. Observations in the North Ramp tunnel have been used to project conditions in the lower lithophysal zone and in fault zones.

  17. Stratigraphy and structural geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, M. H.; Wilhelms, D. E.; Greeley, R.; Guest, J. E.

    1976-01-01

    The immediate goal of stratigraphy and structural geology is to reduce the enormous complexity of a planetary surface to comprehensible proportions by dividing the near-surface rocks into units and mapping their distribution and attitude.

  18. Geological science needs studied

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Geological Sciences Board of the National Academy of Science is conducting a study of the trends, needs, and priorities of the geological sciences for the 1980s. Many organizations and individuals already have been contacted regarding this task; however, in order to ensure that the forthcoming report is based broadly on ideas from the scientific community, the Geological Sciences Board solicits the thoughts of AGU members about the substance of the study. Please send your questions and comments by early this fall to William Dickinson, chairman of the Geological Sciences Board, National Academy of Sciences, Room 69, 2101 Constitution Ave., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20418. A draft report is expected in January 1983.

  19. Economic Geology (Oil & Gas)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geotimes, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Briefly reviews the worldwide developments in petroleum geology in 1971, including exploration, new fields, and oil production. This report is condensed from the October Bulletin of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists. (PR)

  20. Reconstructing the Geologic Timeline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemler, Deb; Repine, Tom

    2002-01-01

    Reports on the use of a non-traditional approach to constructing a geological timeline that allows students to manipulate data, explore their understanding, and confront misconceptions. Lists possible steps to use in engaging students in this constructivist activity. (DDR)

  1. Geologic utility of small-scale airphotos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, M. M.

    1969-01-01

    The geologic value of small scale airphotos is emphasized by describing the application of high altitude oblique and 1:120,000 to 1:145,000 scale vertical airphotos to several geologic problems in California. These examples show that small-scale airphotos can be of use to geologists in the following ways: (1) high altitude, high oblique airphotos show vast areas in one view; and (2) vertical airphotos offer the most efficient method of discovering the major topographic features and structural and lithologic characteristics of terrain.

  2. Brazil-Africa geological links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torquato, Joaquim Raul; Cordani, Umberto G.

    1981-04-01

    In this work, the main evidence and conclusions regarding geological links between Brazil and Africa are summarized, with emphasis on the geochronological aspects. Taking into account the geographical position, as well as the similarities in the geochronological pattern, the following main provinces of the two continents are correlated: The Imataca and Falawatra complexes in the Guayana Shield and the Liberian Province of West Africa. The Paraguay-Araguaia and the Rockelide Fold Belts. The Sa˜o Luiz and the West African cratonic areas. The Caririan Fold Belt of northeastern Brazil and the Pan-Africa Belt of Nigeria and Cameroon. The JequiéComplex of Bahia, the Ntem Complex of Cameroon and similar rocks of Gabon and Angola. The Ribeira Fold Belt in Brazil and the West Congo and Damara Belts in West and South Africa. In addition, other geological links are considered, such as some of the major linear fault zones which can be traced across the margins of South America and Africa, in the pre-drift reconstructions. Correlations are also made of the tectonic and stratigraphic evolution of the Paranáand Karroo syneclises, and the Brazilian and African marginal basins around the South Atlantic, during their initial stages. Finally, several similarities in the tectonic evolution of South America and Africa, during and after the onset of drifting, are shown to be compatible with a recent origin for the South Atlantic floor, as required by sea-floor spreading and continental drift between South America and Africa.

  3. Geologic guide to the island of Hawaii: A field guide for comparative planetary geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, R. (Editor)

    1974-01-01

    With geological data available for all inner planets except Venus, we are entering an era of true comparative planetary geology, when knowledge of the differences and similarities for classes of structures (e.g., shield volcanoes) will lead to a better understanding of general geological processes, regardless of planet. Thus, it is imperative that planetologists, particularly those involved in geological mapping and surface feature analysis for terrestrial planets, be familiar with volcanic terrain in terms of its origin, structure, and morphology. One means of gaining this experience is through field trips in volcanic terrains - hence, the Planetology Conference in Hawaii. In addition, discussions with volcanologists at the conference provide an important basis for establishing communications between the two fields that will facilitate comparative studies as more data become available.

  4. Geological myths and reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrihansky, Lubor

    2014-05-01

    Myths are the result of man's attempts to explain noteworthy features of his environment stemming from unfounded imagination. It is unbelievable that in 21st century the explanation of evident lithospheric plates movements and origin of forces causing this movement is still bound to myths, They are the myth about mantle convection, myth about Earth's expansion, myth about mantle heterogeneities causing the movement of plates and myth about mantle plumes. From 1971 to 1978 I performed extensive study (Ostřihanský 1980) about the terrestrial heat flow and radioactive heat production of batholiths in the Bohemian Massive (Czech Republic). The result, gained by extrapolation of the heat flow and heat production relationship, revealed the very low heat flow from the mantle 17.7mW m-2 close to the site of the Quarterly volcano active only 115,000 - 15,000 years ago and its last outbreak happened during Holocene that is less than 10,000 years ago. This volcano Komorní Hůrka (Kammerbühls) was known by J. W. Goethe investigation and the digging of 300 m long gallery in the first half of XIX century to reach the basaltic plug and to confirm the Stromboli type volcano. In this way the 19th century myth of neptunists that basalt was a sedimentary deposit was disproved in spite that famous poet and scientist J.W.Goethe inclined to neptunists. For me the result of very low heat flow and the vicinity of almost recent volcanoes in the Bohemian Massive meant that I refused the hypothesis of mantle convection and I focused my investigation to external forces of tides and solar heat, which evoke volcanic effects, earthquakes and the plate movement. To disclose reality it is necessary to present calculation of acting forces using correct mechanism of their action taking into account tectonic characteristics of geologic unites as the wrench tectonics and the tectonic of planets and satellites of the solar system, realizing an exceptional behavior of the Earth as quickly rotating

  5. Geologic coal assessment: The interface with economics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Attanasi, E.D.

    2001-01-01

    Geologic resource assessments describe the location, general characteristics, and estimated volumes of resources, whether in situ or technically recoverable. Such compilations are only an initial step in economic resource evaluation. This paper identifies, by examples from the Illinois and Appalachian basins, the salient features of a geologic assessment that assure its usefulness to downstream economic analysis. Assessments should be in sufficient detail to allocate resources to production units (mines or wells). Coal assessments should include the spatial distribution of coal bed characteristics and the ability to allocate parts of the resource to specific mining technologies. For coal bed gas assessment, the production well recoveries and well deliverability characteristics must be preserved and the risk structure should be specified so dryholes and noncommercial well costs are recovered by commercially successful wells. ?? 2001 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  6. Geologic map of Chickasaw National Recreation Area, Murray County, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blome, Charles D.; Lidke, David J.; Wahl, Ronald R.; Golab, James A.

    2013-01-01

    This 1:24,000-scale geologic map is a compilation of previous geologic maps and new geologic mapping of areas in and around Chickasaw National Recreation Area. The geologic map includes revisions of numerous unit contacts and faults and a number of previously “undifferentiated” rock units were subdivided in some areas. Numerous circular-shaped hills in and around Chickasaw National Recreation Area are probably the result of karst-related collapse and may represent the erosional remnants of large, exhumed sinkholes. Geospatial registration of existing, smaller scale (1:72,000- and 1:100,000-scale) geologic maps of the area and construction of an accurate Geographic Information System (GIS) database preceded 2 years of fieldwork wherein previously mapped geology (unit contacts and faults) was verified and new geologic mapping was carried out. The geologic map of Chickasaw National Recreation Area and this pamphlet include information pertaining to how the geologic units and structural features in the map area relate to the formation of the northern Arbuckle Mountains and its Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer. The development of an accurate geospatial GIS database and the use of a handheld computer in the field greatly increased both the accuracy and efficiency in producing the 1:24,000-scale geologic map.

  7. The growth of geological structures by repeated earthquakes, 1, conceptual framework

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, G.C.P.; Stein, R.S.; Rundle, J.B.

    1988-01-01

    In many places, earthquakes with similar characteristics have been shown to recur. If this is common, then relatively small deformations associated with individual earthquake cycles should accumulate over time to create geological structures. It is shown that existing models developed to describe leveling line changes associated with the seismic cycle can be adapted to explain geological features associated with a fault. In these models an elastic layer containing the fault overlies a viscous half-space with a different density. Fault motion associated with an earthquake results in immediate deformation followed by a long period of readjustment as stresses relax in the viscous layer and isostatic equilibrium is restored. The flexural rigidity of the crust (or the apparent elastic thickness) provides the main control of the width of a structure. The loading due to erosion and deposition of sediment determines the ratio of uplift to subsidence between the two sides of the fault. -Authors

  8. Commencement of Geoparks, Geology day and International Earth Science Olympiad, IYPE in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsukuda, Eikichi; Kodama, Kisaburo; Miyazaki, Teruki

    2010-05-01

    The GSJ is the main supporting organization of IYPE Japan, which is an implementation body of IYPE in Japan, serving as its secretariat. During the IYPE triennial activity, the GSJ has been supporting development of Geparks, establishment of "the Geology Day" and the Earth Science Olympiad activities with some academic societies, and has distributed geological maps with IYPE logo. The GSJ also established an outreach network "Geo-networks Tsukuba" as a local legacy of the IYPE, and has managed it with a local government, research organizations, nonprofit corporations and local media to increase geological and environmental literacy of public, especially among young people. The GSJ-AIST has also contributed internationally to IYPE by joining two international projects, OneGeology and the CCOP Book project. Geoparks in Japan are characterized by following features. The Japanese Islands and the surrounding seas are situated in the area of unique geologic features; the place where several tectonic plates meet and collide. This causes earthquakes and volcanic activities, and makes Japan one of most dynamic areas on the earth. The dynamics of the earth bring about not only geological hazards but also a lot of blessings. In August of 2009, three Geoparks, the Toya Caldera and Usu Volcano Geopark, the Itoigawa Geopark and the Unzen Volcanic Area Geopark, were accepted to join the Global Geopark Network from Japan for the first time. Since its launch in 2006, the GSJ has been playing a major role in promoting Geoparks in Japan together with Geological Society of Japan. The GSJ hosts the Japan Geopark Committee (JGC) for quality evaluation, serving as the information center of Geoparks in Japan. The Geology Day of Japan (10th of May) has been set up by the academic societies for geology in Japan and GSJ in 2007. The Geology Day is expected to provide the chances for the public to enjoy field trips and excursions and to understand the importance of geo-diversity. The Day

  9. Space Transportation Main Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monk, Jan C.

    1992-01-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: Space Transportation Main Engine (STME) definition, design philosophy, robust design, maximum design condition, casting vs. machined and welded forgings, operability considerations, high reliability design philosophy, engine reliability enhancement, low cost design philosophy, engine systems requirements, STME schematic, fuel turbopump, liquid oxygen turbopump, main injector, and gas generator. The major engine components of the STME and the Space Shuttle Main Engine are compared.

  10. Road guide to geological points of interest on the island of Hawaii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stearns, H. T.; Macdonald, G. A.; Greeley, R.

    1974-01-01

    This road guide briefly describes the points of geologic interest along the main roads on Hawaii. It begins at Hilo and proceeds around the island in a clockwise direction on State Route 11 to Kailua, then returns to Hilo on State Route 19 to Hilo via Waimea, with side excursions on the other principal roads. Minimum excursion time is two days, allowing only very brief time for the various stops. The return to Hilo from Waimea can be made via Route 19 along the Hamakua Coast (wet, leeward side of island, displaying typical tropical erosion) or via Route 20 over the Humuula Saddle (high, relatively dry and cool; young volcanic features).

  11. The MEMIN Research Unit: New results from impact cratering experiments into geological materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poelchau, M. H.; Deutsch, A.; Thoma, K.; Kenkmann, T.

    2013-09-01

    The MEMIN research unit (Multidisciplinary Experimental and Modeling Impact research Network) is focused on performing hypervelocity impact experiments, analyzing experimental impact craters and modeling cratering rocesses in geological materials. The main goal of the MEMIN project is to comprehensively quantify impact processes by conducting stringently controlled experimental impact cratering campaigns on the mesoscale with a multidisciplinary analytical approach. As a unique feature we use two-stage light gas guns capable of producing impact craters in thedecimeter size-range in solid rocks that, in turn, allow detailed spatial analysis of petrophysical, structural, and geochemical changes in target rocks and ejecta.

  12. The effect of geological and geographical features on environmental radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, J.; Oka, M.; Shimo, M.; Minami, K.; Minato, S.; Sugino, M.; Hosoda, M.; Fukushi, M.

    2008-08-07

    The gamma-ray dose rates were measured in Gifu and Tokushima Prefectures in Japan. Measurements were carried out by the car-borne survey method. The dose rate in basaltic terrain in Tokushima prefecture was almost same as average of basaltic terrain in Japan. On the other hand, the dose rate in basaltic terrain in Gifu Prefecture was not same. In situ measurement of terrestrial gamma-ray dose rate was carried out in this terrain to examine its cause. As a result, it was estimated that soil of rhyolite which attributed to neighbor terrain have deposited on this terrain.

  13. Edge-following algorithm for tracking geological features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tietz, J. C.

    1977-01-01

    Sequential edge-tracking algorithm employs circular scanning to point permit effective real-time tracking of coastlines and rivers from earth resources satellites. Technique eliminates expensive high-resolution cameras. System might also be adaptable for application in monitoring automated assembly lines, inspecting conveyor belts, or analyzing thermographs, or x ray images.

  14. Seismically damaged regolith as self-organized fragile geological feature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sleep, Norman H.

    2011-12-01

    The S-wave velocity in the shallow subsurface within seismically active regions self-organizes so that typical strong dynamic shear stresses marginally exceed the Coulomb elastic limit. The dynamic velocity from major strike-slip faults yields simple dimensional relations. The near-field velocity pulse is essentially a Love wave. The dynamic shear strain is the ratio of the measured particle velocity over the deep S-wave velocity. The shallow dynamic shear stress is this quantity times the local shear modulus. The dynamic shear traction on fault parallel vertical planes is finite at the free surface. Coulomb failure occurs on favorably oriented fractures and internally in intact rock. I obtain the equilibrium shear modulus by starting a sequence of earthquakes with intact stiff rock extending all the way to the surface. The imposed dynamic shear strain in stiff rock causes Coulomb failure at shallow depths and leaves cracks in it wake. Cracked rock is more compliant than the original intact rock. Cracked rock is also weaker in friction, but shear modulus changes have a larger effect. Each subsequent event causes additional shallow cracking until the rock becomes compliant enough that it just reaches Coulomb failure over a shallow depth range of tens to hundreds of meters. Further events maintain the material at the shear modulus as a function where it just fails. The formalism provided in the paper yields reasonable representation of the S-wave velocity in exhumed sediments near Cajon Pass and the San Fernando Valley of California. A general conclusion is that shallow rocks in seismically active areas just become nonlinear during typical shaking. This process causes transient changes in S-wave velocity, but not strong nonlinear attenuation of seismic waves. Wave amplitudes significantly larger than typical ones would strongly attenuate and strongly damage the rock.

  15. The spectral analysis and information extraction for small geological target detection using hyperion image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qingting; Wei, Xinxin; Zhang, Bing; Yan, Shouxun; Liu, Xiang

    2008-12-01

    Imaging spectroscopic technique has been used for the mineral and rock geological mapping and alteration information extraction successfully with many reasonable results, but it is mainly used in arid and semi-arid land with low vegetation covering. In the case of the high vegetation covering, the outcrop of the altered rocks is small and distributes sparsely, the altered rocks is difficult to be identified directly. The target detection technique using imaging spectroscopic data should be introduced to the extraction of small geological targets under high vegetation covering area. In the paper, we take Ding-Ma gold deposit as the study area which located in Zhenan country, Shanxi province, the spectral features of the targets and the backgrounds are studied and analyzed using the field reflectance spectra, in addition to the study of the principle of the algorithms, some target detection algorithms which is appropriate to the small geological target detection are introduced. At last, the small altered rock targets under the covering of vegetation in forest are detected and discriminated in imaging spectroscopy data with the methods of spectral angle mapper (SAM), Constrained Energy Minimization (CEM) and Adaptive Cosine Estimator (ACE). The detection results are reasonable and indicate the ability of target detection algorithms in geological target detection in the forest area.

  16. Geologic map of Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Skinner, James A.; Dohm, James M.; Irwin, Rossman P., III; Kolb, Eric J.; Fortezzo, Corey M.; Platz, Thomas; Michael, Gregory G.; Hare, Trent M.

    2014-01-01

    This global geologic map of Mars, which records the distribution of geologic units and landforms on the planet's surface through time, is based on unprecedented variety, quality, and quantity of remotely sensed data acquired since the Viking Orbiters. These data have provided morphologic, topographic, spectral, thermophysical, radar sounding, and other observations for integration, analysis, and interpretation in support of geologic mapping. In particular, the precise topographic mapping now available has enabled consistent morphologic portrayal of the surface for global mapping (whereas previously used visual-range image bases were less effective, because they combined morphologic and albedo information and, locally, atmospheric haze). Also, thermal infrared image bases used for this map tended to be less affected by atmospheric haze and thus are reliable for analysis of surface morphology and texture at even higher resolution than the topographic products.

  17. Geological fakes and frauds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruffell, Alastair; Majury, Niall; Brooks, William E.

    2012-02-01

    Some geological fakes and frauds are carried out solely for financial gain (mining fraud), whereas others maybe have increasing aesthetic appeal (faked fossils) or academic advancement (fabricated data) as their motive. All types of geological fake or fraud can be ingenious and sophisticated, as demonstrated in this article. Fake gems, faked fossils and mining fraud are common examples where monetary profit is to blame: nonetheless these may impact both scientific theory and the reputation of geologists and Earth scientists. The substitution or fabrication of both physical and intellectual data also occurs for no direct financial gain, such as career advancement or establishment of belief (e.g. evolution vs. creationism). Knowledge of such fakes and frauds may assist in spotting undetected geological crimes: application of geoforensic techniques helps the scientific community to detect such activity, which ultimately undermines scientific integrity.

  18. Global sedimentary geology program

    SciTech Connect

    Ginsburg, R.N.; Clifton, H.E.; Weimer, R.J.

    1986-07-01

    The Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists, in collaboration with the International Association of Sedimentologists and the International Union of Geological Sciences Committee on Sedimentology, is developing a new international study under the provisional title of Global Sedimentary Geology Program (GSGP). Initially, three research themes are being considered: (1) event stratigraphy-the documentation of examples of mass extinctions, eustatic fluctuations in sea level, major episodes of volcanisms, and changes in ocean composition; (2) facies models in time and space-an expansion of the existing data base of examples of facies models (e.G., deltas, fluvial deposits, and submarine fans) and global-scale study of the persistence of facies at various times in geologic history; and (3) sedimentary indices of paleogeography and tectonics-the use of depositional facies and faunas in paleogeography and in assessing the timing, locus, and characteristics of tectonism. Plans are being developed to organize pilot projects in each of these themes.

  19. Remote geologic structural analysis of Yucca Flat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foley, M. G.; Heasler, P. G.; Hoover, K. A.; Rynes, N. J.; Thiessen, R. L.; Alfaro, J. L.

    1991-12-01

    The Remote Geologic Analysis (RGA) system was developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to identify crustal structures that may affect seismic wave propagation from nuclear tests. Using automated methods, the RGA system identifies all valleys in a digital elevation model (DEM), fits three-dimensional vectors to valley bottoms, and catalogs all potential fracture or fault planes defined by coplanar pairs of valley vectors. The system generates a cluster hierarchy of planar features having greater-than-random density that may represent areas of anomalous topography manifesting structural control of erosional drainage development. Because RGA uses computer methods to identify zones of hypothesized control of topography, ground truth using a well-characterized test site was critical in our evaluation of RGA's characterization of inaccessible test sites for seismic verification studies. Therefore, we applied RGA to a study area centered on Yucca Flat at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and compared our results with both mapped geology and geologic structures and with seismic yield-magnitude models. This is the final report of PNL's RGA development project for peer review within the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Arms Control (OAC) seismic-verification community. In this report, we discuss the Yucca Flat study area, the analytical basis of the RGA system and its application to Yucca Flat, the results of the analysis, and the relation of the analytical results to known topography, geology, and geologic structures.

  20. Geological assessment of the greenhouse effect

    SciTech Connect

    Crowley, T.J. )

    1993-12-01

    Geologic studies provide a valuable perspective on the importance of greenhouse forcing for climate change. On both Pleistocene and tectonic time scales, changes in climate are positively correlated with greenhouse gas variations. However, the sensitivity of the system to greenhouse gas changes cannot yet be constrained by paleoclimate data below its present large range. Geologic records do not support one of the major predictions of greenhouse models-namely, that tropical sea surface temperatures will increase. Geologic data also suggest that winter cooling in high-latitude land areas is less than predicted by models. As the above-mentioned predictions appear to be systemic features of the present generation of climate models, some significant changes in model design may be required to reconcile models and geologic data. However, full acceptance of this conclusion requires more measurements and more systematic compilations of existing geologic data. Since progress in data collection in this area has been quite slow, uncertainties associated with these conclusions may persist for some time. 106 refs., 6 figs.

  1. Remote geologic structural analysis of Yucca Flat

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, M.G.; Heasler, P.G.; Hoover, K.A.; Rynes, N.J.; Thiessen, R.L.; Alfaro, J.L.

    1991-12-01

    The Remote Geologic Analysis (RGA) system was developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to identify crustal structures that may affect seismic wave propagation from nuclear tests. Using automated methods, the RGA system identifies all valleys in a digital elevation model (DEM), fits three-dimensional vectors to valley bottoms, and catalogs all potential fracture or fault planes defined by coplanar pairs of valley vectors. The system generates a cluster hierarchy of planar features having greater-than-random density that may represent areas of anomalous topography manifesting structural control of erosional drainage development. Because RGA uses computer methods to identify zones of hypothesized control of topography, ground truth using a well-characterized test site was critical in our evaluation of RGA`s characterization of inaccessible test sites for seismic verification studies. Therefore, we applied RGA to a study area centered on Yucca Flat at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and compared our results with both mapped geology and geologic structures and with seismic yield-magnitude models. This is the final report of PNL`s RGA development project for peer review within the US Department of Energy Office of Arms Control (OAC) seismic-verification community. In this report, we discuss the Yucca Flat study area, the analytical basis of the RGA system and its application to Yucca Flat, the results of the analysis, and the relation of the analytical results to known topography, geology, and geologic structures. 41 refs., 39 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Remote geologic structural analysis of Yucca Flat

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, M.G.; Heasler, P.G.; Hoover, K.A. ); Rynes, N.J. ); Thiessen, R.L.; Alfaro, J.L. )

    1991-12-01

    The Remote Geologic Analysis (RGA) system was developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to identify crustal structures that may affect seismic wave propagation from nuclear tests. Using automated methods, the RGA system identifies all valleys in a digital elevation model (DEM), fits three-dimensional vectors to valley bottoms, and catalogs all potential fracture or fault planes defined by coplanar pairs of valley vectors. The system generates a cluster hierarchy of planar features having greater-than-random density that may represent areas of anomalous topography manifesting structural control of erosional drainage development. Because RGA uses computer methods to identify zones of hypothesized control of topography, ground truth using a well-characterized test site was critical in our evaluation of RGA's characterization of inaccessible test sites for seismic verification studies. Therefore, we applied RGA to a study area centered on Yucca Flat at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and compared our results with both mapped geology and geologic structures and with seismic yield-magnitude models. This is the final report of PNL's RGA development project for peer review within the US Department of Energy Office of Arms Control (OAC) seismic-verification community. In this report, we discuss the Yucca Flat study area, the analytical basis of the RGA system and its application to Yucca Flat, the results of the analysis, and the relation of the analytical results to known topography, geology, and geologic structures. 41 refs., 39 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Geological Investigation Program for the Site of a New Nuclear Power Plant in Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerstenkorn, András; Trosits, Dalma; Chikán, Géza; János Katona, Tamás

    2015-04-01

    Comprehensive site evalaution program is implemented for the new Nuclear Power Plant to be constructed at Paks site in Hungary with the aim of confirmation of acceptability of the site and definition of site-related design basis data. Most extensive part of this program is to investigate geological-tectonical features of the site with particular aim on the assessment of the capability of faults at and around the site, characterization of site seismic hazard, and definition of the design basis earthquake. A brief description of the scope and methodology of the geological, seismological, geophysical, geotechnical and hydrogeological investigations will be given on the poster. Main focus of the presentation is to show the graded structure and extent of the geological investigations that follow the needs and scale of the geological modeling, starting with the site and its vicinity, as well as on the near regional and the regional scale. Geological inverstigations includes several boreholes up-to the base-rock, plenty of boreholes discovering the Pannonian and large number of shallow boreholes for investigation of more recent development. The planning of the geological investigations is based on the 3D seismic survey performed around the site, that is complemented by shallow-seimic survey at and in the vicinity of the site. The 3D geophysical imaging provides essential geodynamic information to assess the capability of near site faults and for the seismic hazard analysis, as well as for the hydrogeological modeling. The planned seismic survey gives a unique dataset for understanding the spatial relationship between individual fault segments. Planning of the research (trenching, etc.) for paleoseismic manifestations is also based on the 3D seismic survey. The seismic survey and other geophysical data (including data of space geodesy) allow the amendment of the understanding and the model of the tectonic evolution of the area and geological events. As it is known from

  4. Iapetus: Tectonic structure and geologic history

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Croft, Steven K.

    1991-01-01

    Many papers have been written about the surface of Iapetus, but most of these have discussed either the nature of the strongly contrasting light and dark materials or the cratering record. Little has been said about other geologic features on Iapetus, such as tectonic structures, which would provide constraints on Iapetus' thermal history. Most references have suggested that there is no conclusive evidence for any tectonic activity, even when thermal history studies indicate that there should be. However, a new study of Iapetus' surface involving the use of stereo pairs, an extensive tectonic network has been recognized. A few new observations concerning the craters and dark material were also made. Thus the geology and geologic history of Iapetus can be more fully outlined than before. The tectonic network is shown along with prominent craters and part of the dark material in the geologic/tectonic sketch map. The topology of crater rims and scarps are quite apparent and recognizable in the different image pairs. The heights and slopes of various features given are based on comparison with the depths of craters 50 to 100 km in diameter, which are assumed to have the same depths as craters of similar diameter on Rhea and Titania.

  5. Digital Geologic Map Database of Medicine Lake Volcano, Northern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsey, D. W.; Donnelly-Nolan, J. M.; Felger, T. J.

    2010-12-01

    Medicine Lake volcano, located in the southern Cascades ~55 km east-northeast of Mount Shasta, is a large rear-arc, shield-shaped volcano with an eruptive history spanning nearly 500 k.y. Geologic mapping of Medicine Lake volcano has been digitally compiled as a spatial database in ArcGIS. Within the database, coverage feature classes have been created representing geologic lines (contacts, faults, lava tubes, etc.), geologic unit polygons, and volcanic vent location points. The database can be queried to determine the spatial distributions of different rock types, geologic units, and other geologic and geomorphic features. These data, in turn, can be used to better understand the evolution, growth, and potential hazards of this large, rear-arc Cascades volcano. Queries of the database reveal that the total area covered by lavas of Medicine Lake volcano, which range in composition from basalt through rhyolite, is about 2,200 km2, encompassing all or parts of 27 U.S. Geological Survey 1:24,000-scale topographic quadrangles. The maximum extent of these lavas is about 80 km north-south by 45 km east-west. Occupying the center of Medicine Lake volcano is a 7 km by 12 km summit caldera in which nestles its namesake, Medicine Lake. The flanks of the volcano, which are dotted with cinder cones, slope gently upward to the caldera rim, which reaches an elevation of nearly 2,440 m. Approximately 250 geologic units have been mapped, only half a dozen of which are thin surficial units such as alluvium. These volcanic units mostly represent eruptive events, each commonly including a vent (dome, cinder cone, spatter cone, etc.) and its associated lava flow. Some cinder cones have not been matched to lava flows, as the corresponding flows are probably buried, and some flows cannot be correlated with vents. The largest individual units on the map are all basaltic in composition, including the late Pleistocene basalt of Yellowjacket Butte (296 km2 exposed), the largest unit on the

  6. Teaching Main Idea Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumann, James F., Ed.

    Intended to help classroom teachers, curriculum developers, and researchers, this book provides current information on theoretical and instructional aspects of main idea comprehension. Titles and authors are as follows: "The Confused World of Main Idea" (James W. Cunningham and David W. Moore); "The Comprehension of Important Information in…

  7. The Maine Event

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McHale, Tom

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the successful laptop program employed at Mt. Abram High School in Strong, Maine. Through the Maine Learning Technology Initiative, the school has issued laptops to all 36,000 teachers and students in grades 7-8. This program has helped level the playing field for a student population that is 50 percent to 55…

  8. MAINE MARINE WORM HABITAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    WORM provides a generalized representation at 1:24,000 scale of commercially harvested marine worm habitat in Maine, based on Maine Department of Marine Resources data from 1970's. Original maps were created by MDMR and published by USF&WS as part of the ""&quo...

  9. Aboveground roofed design for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste in Maine

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, J.A.

    1993-03-01

    The conceptual designs proposed in this report resulted from a study for the Maine Low-level Radioactive Waste Authority to develop conceptual designs for a safe and reliable disposal facility for Maine`s low-level radioactive waste (LLW). Freezing temperatures, heavy rainfall, high groundwater tables, and very complex and shallow glaciated soils found in Maine place severe constraints on the design. The fundamental idea behind the study was to consider Maine`s climatic and geological conditions at the beginning of conceptual design rather than starting with a design for another location and adapting it for Maine`s conditions. The conceptual designs recommended are entirely above ground and consist of an inner vault designed to provide shielding and protection against inadvertent intrusion and an outer building to protect the inner vault from water. The air dry conditions within the outer building should lead to almost indefinite service life for the concrete inner vault and the waste containers. This concept differs sharply from the usual aboveground vault in its reliance on at least two independent, but more or less conventional, roofing systems for primary and secondary protection against leakage of radioisotopes from the facility. Features include disposal of waste in air dry environment, waste loading and visual inspection by remote-controlled overhead cranes, and reliance on engineered soils for tertiary protection against release of radioactive materials.

  10. Environmental resources of selected areas of Hawaii: Geological hazards

    SciTech Connect

    Staub, W.P.; Reed, R.M.

    1995-03-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive the background scientific data and related information collected on geologic hazards during the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. The US Department of Energy (DOE) published a notice withdrawing its Notice of Intent to prepare the HGP-EIS. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated. This report presents a review of current information on geologic hazards in the Hawaiian Islands. Interrelationships among these hazards are discussed. Probabilities of occurrence of given geologic hazards are provided in various regions where sufficient geologic or historical data are available. Most of the information contained herein is compiled from recent US Geological Survey (USGS) publications and USGS open-file reports related to this project. This report describes the natural geologic hazards present in the area and does not represent an assessment of environmental impacts. Geologic hazards originate both onshore and offshore. Onshore geologic hazards such as volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, surface rupture, landslides, uplift and subsidence occur mainly on the southern third of the island of Hawaii (hereinafter referred to as Hawaii). Offshore geologic hazards are more widely distributed throughout the Hawaiian Islands. Examples of offshore geologic hazards are submarine landslides, turbidity currents, and seismic sea waves (tsunamis).

  11. Geology and insolation-driven climatic history of Amazonian north polar materials on Mars.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Kenneth L

    2005-10-13

    Mariner 9 and Viking spacecraft images revealed that the polar regions of Mars, like those of Earth, record the planet's climate history. However, fundamental uncertainties regarding the materials, features, ages and processes constituting the geologic record remained. Recently acquired Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter data and Mars Orbiter Camera high-resolution images from the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft and moderately high-resolution Thermal Emission Imaging System visible images from the Mars Odyssey spacecraft permit more comprehensive geologic and climatic analyses. Here I map and show the history of geologic materials and features in the north polar region that span the Amazonian period (approximately 3.0 Gyr ago to present). Erosion and redeposition of putative circumpolar mud volcano deposits (formed by eruption of liquefied, fine-grained material) led to the formation of an Early Amazonian polar plateau consisting of dark layered materials. Crater ejecta superposed on pedestals indicate that a thin mantle was present during most of the Amazonian, suggesting generally higher obliquity and insolation conditions at the poles than at present. Brighter polar layered deposits rest unconformably on the dark layers and formed mainly during lower obliquity over the past 4-5 Myr (ref. 20). Finally, the uppermost layers post-date the latest downtrend in obliquity <20,000 years ago. PMID:16222294

  12. Geology and insolation-driven climatic history of Amazonian north polar materials on Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tanaka, K.L.

    2005-01-01

    Mariner 9 and Viking spacecraft images revealed that the polar regions of Mars, like those of Earth, record the planet's climate history. However, fundamental uncertainties regarding the materials, features, ages and processes constituting the geologic record remained. Recently acquired Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter data and Mars Orbiter Camera high-resolution images from the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft and moderately high-resolution Thermal Emission Imaging System visible images from the Mars Odyssey spacecraft permit more comprehensive geologic and climatic analyses. Here I map and show the history of geologic materials and features in the north polar region that span the Amazonian period (???3.0 Gyr ago to present). Erosion and redeposition of putative circumpolar mud volcano deposits (formed by eruption of liquefied, fine-grained material) led to the formation of an Early Amazonian polar plateau consisting of dark layered materials. Crater ejecta superposed on pedestals indicate that a thin mantle was present during most of the Amazonian, suggesting generally higher obliquity and insolation conditions at the poles than at present. Brighter polar layered deposits rest unconformably on the dark layers and formed mainly during lower obliquity over the past 4-5 Myr (ref. 20). Finally, the uppermost layers post-date the latest downtrend in obliquity <20,000 years ago. ?? 2005 Nature Publishing Group.

  13. Space Shuttle Main Engine. Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Eugene D.

    An overview of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) is presented. The Space Shuttle propulsion system consists of two large solid booster motors, three SSME's, two orbital maneuvering system engines, and 44 reaction control system thrusters. The three SSME's burn liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen from the external tank and are sequentially started at launch. Engine thrust is throttleable. The major components and some of their key features and operational parameters are outlined. The life and reliability being achieved by the SSME are presented.

  14. Database of the Geology and Thermal Activity of Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flynn, Kathryn; Graham Wall, Brita; White, Donald E.; Hutchinson, Roderick A.; Keith, Terry E.C.; Clor, Laura; Robinson, Joel E.

    2008-01-01

    This dataset contains contacts, geologic units and map boundaries from Plate 1 of USGS Professional Paper 1456, 'The Geology and Remarkable Thermal Activity of Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming.' The features are contained in the Annotation, basins_poly, contours, geology_arc, geology_poly, point_features, and stream_arc feature classes as well as a table of geologic units and their descriptions. This dataset was constructed to produce a digital geologic map as a basis for studying hydrothermal processes in Norris Geyser Basin. The original map does not contain registration tic marks. To create the geodatabase, the original scanned map was georegistered to USGS aerial photographs of the Norris Junction quadrangle collected in 1994. Manmade objects, i.e. roads, parking lots, and the visitor center, along with stream junctions and other hydrographic features, were used for registration.

  15. Geologic Map of the Hellas Region of Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leonard, Gregory J.; Tanaka, Kenneth L.

    2001-01-01

    INTRODUCTION This geologic map of the Hellas region focuses on the stratigraphic, structural, and erosional histories associated with the largest well-preserved impact basin on Mars. Along with the uplifted rim and huge, partly infilled inner basin (Hellas Planitia) of the Hellas basin impact structure, the map region includes areas of ancient highland terrain, broad volcanic edifices and deposits, and extensive channels. Geologic activity recorded in the region spans all major epochs of martian chronology, from the early formation of the impact basin to ongoing resurfacing caused by eolian activity. The Hellas region, whose name refers to the classical term for Greece, has been known from telescopic observations as a prominent bright feature on the surface of Mars for more than a century (see Blunck, 1982). More recently, spacecraft imaging has greatly improved our visual perception of Mars and made possible its geologic interpretation. Here, our mapping at 1:5,000,000 scale is based on images obtained by the Viking Orbiters, which produced higher quality images than their predecessor, Mariner 9. Previous geologic maps of the region include those of the 1:5,000,000-scale global series based on Mariner 9 images (Potter, 1976; Peterson, 1977; King, 1978); the 1:15,000,000-scale global series based on Viking images (Greeley and Guest, 1987; Tanaka and Scott, 1987); and detailed 1:500,000-scale maps of Tyrrhena Patera (Gregg and others, 1998), Dao, Harmakhis, and Reull Valles (Price, 1998; Mest and Crown, in press), Hadriaca Patera (D.A. Crown and R. Greeley, map in preparation), and western Hellas Planitia (J.M. Moore and D.E. Wilhelms, map in preparation). We incorporated some of the previous work, but our map differs markedly in the identification and organization of map units. For example, we divide the Hellas assemblage of Greeley and Guest (1987) into the Hellas Planitia and Hellas rim assemblages and change the way units within these groupings are identified

  16. Briefing on geological sequestration

    EPA Science Inventory

    Geological sequestration (GS) is generally recognized as the injection and long-term (e.g., hundreds to thousands of years) trapping of gaseous, liquid or supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) in subsurface media – primarily saline formations, depleted or nearly depleted oil and gas...

  17. Glacial Geology of Wisconsin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madison Public Schools, WI.

    This publication is a teacher's resource and guidebook for the presentation of the three filmstrips in the "Glacial Geology of Wisconsin" series. The first filmstrip is subtitled, "Evidence of the Glaciers," the second "How the Glaciers Reshaped the Landscape," and the third "Fossils of the Ice Age." Included are a list of objectives, an outline…

  18. Digital solar system geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batson, R. M.; Kozak, R. C.; Isbell, Nancy K.

    1991-01-01

    All available synoptic maps of the solid-surface bodies of the Solar System were digitized for presentation in the planned Atlas of the Solar System by Greeley and Batson. Since the last report (Batson et al., 1990), preliminary Uranian satellite maps were replaced with improved versions, Galilean satellite geology was simplified and digitized, structure was added to many maps, and the maps were converted to a standard format, with corresponding standing colors for the mapped units. Following these changes, the maps were re-reviewed by their authors and are now undergoing final editing before preparation for publication. In some cases (for Mercury, Venus, and Mars), more detailed maps were digitized and then simplified for the Atlas. Other detailed maps are planned to be digitized in the coming year for the Moon and the Galilean satellites. For most of the remaining bodies such as the Uranian satellites, the current digitized versions contain virtually all the detail that can be mapped given the available data; those versions will be unchanged for the Atlas. These digital geologic maps are archived at the digital scale of 1/16 degree/ pixel, in sinusoidal format. The availability of geology of the Solar System in a digital database will facilitate comparisons and integration with other data: digitized lunar geologic maps have already been used in a comparison with Galileo SSI observations of the Moon.

  19. Life on Guam: Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkins, Gail

    This unit is part of a series of materials produced by a project to develop locally applicable class, lab, and field materials in ecology and social studies for Guam junior and senior high schools. While the materials were designed for Guam, they can be adapted to other localities. This unit is designed to acquaint the students with the geology of…

  20. Geology: The Active Earth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braus, Judy, Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Ranger Rick's NatureScope is a creative education series dedicated to inspiring in children an understanding and appreciation of the natural world while developing the skills they will need to make responsible decisions about the environment. The topic of this issue is "Geology: The Active Earth." Contents are organized into the following…

  1. Public perceptions of geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Hazel; Stewart, Iain; Anderson, Mark; Pahl, Sabine; Stokes, Alison

    2014-05-01

    Geological issues are increasingly intruding on the everyday lives of ordinary people. Whether it be onshore exploration and extraction of oil and gas, deep injection of water for geothermal power or underground storage of carbon dioxide and radioactive waste, many communities across Europe are being faced with potentially contested geological activity under their backyard. As well as being able to communicate the technical aspects of such work, geoscience professionals also need to appreciate that for most people the subsurface is an unfamiliar realm. In order to engage communities and individuals in effective dialogue about geological activities, an appreciation of what 'the public' already know and what they want to know is needed, but this is a subject that is in its infancy. In an attempt to provide insight into these key issues, this study examines the concerns the public have, relating to geology, by constructing 'Mental Models' of people's perceptions of the subsurface. General recommendations for public engagement strategies will be presented based on the results of selected case studies; specifically expert and non-expert mental models for communities in the south-west of England.

  2. Advances in planetary geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    A wide variety of topics on planetary geology are presented. Subjects include stratigraphy and geomorphology of Copernicus, the Mamers valle region, and other selected regions of Mars and the Moon. Crater density and distribution are discussed for Callisto and the lunar surface. Spectroscopic analysis is described for Europa and Ganymede.

  3. Geological and Inorganic Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, L. L.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Presents a review focusing on techniques and their application to the analysis of geological and inorganic materials that offer significant changes to research and routine work. Covers geostandards, spectroscopy, plasmas, microbeam techniques, synchrotron X-ray methods, nuclear activation methods, chromatography, and electroanalytical methods.…

  4. Geology of Wisconsin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madison Public Schools, WI.

    Included are a teacher's guidebook and two filmstrips, "Geology of Wisconsin," and associated materials. The following are described: outline of objectives; suggested use of the filmstrips and guidebook; outline of the filmstrip content; four pages of illustrations suitable for duplication; a test for each filmstrip; and a list of additional…

  5. Geological impacts on nutrition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter reviews the nutritional roles of mineral elements, as part of a volume on health implications of geology. The chapter addresses the absorption and post-absorptive utilization of the nutritionally essential minerals, including their physiological functions and quantitative requirements....

  6. Appendix E: Geology

    SciTech Connect

    Reidel, Steve; Chamness, Mickie A.

    2008-01-17

    This appendix provides a detailed description of geology under the Central Plateau of the Hanford Site, emphasizing the areas around tank farms. It is to be published by client CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., as part of a larger, multi-contractor technical report.

  7. IDAHO FLUVIAL GEOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Restricted availability. Major Attributes: Polygons described by geologic type codes & descriptions. May be incorporated into maps at the state/county/basin scale. Probably too coarse for use at the site scale. Scale: 1:500:000. Extent: Idaho. Projection: Albers. Source: ...

  8. Role of geology in diamond project development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakubec, Jaroslav

    2004-09-01

    For a mining operation to be successful, it is important to bring fundamental and applied science together. The mining engineer needs to understand the importance of geology, mineralogy and petrography, and how projects can benefit from the data collected during the exploration and pre-exploration stage. Geological scientists also need to understand the process of project development from the exploration stage through mine design and operation to mine closure. Kimberlite pipe or dyke emplacement, geology and petrology/mineralogy are three areas that illustrate how information obtained from the geological studies could directly influence the mining method selection and the project strategy and design. Kimberlite emplacement is one of the fundamental processes that rely on knowledge of the kimberlite body geology. Although the importance of the emplacement model is commonly recognized in the resource geology, mining engineers do not always appreciate its importance to the mine design. The knowledge of the orebody geometry, character of the contact zones, internal structures and distribution of inclusions could directly influence pit wall stability (thus strip ratio), underground mining method selection, dilution, treatability, and the dewatering strategy. Understanding the internal kimberlite geology mainly includes the geometry and character of individual phases, and the orientation and character of internal structures that transect the rock mass. For any mining method it is important to know "where the less and where the more competent rocks are located" to achieve stability. On the other hand, the detailed facies studies may not be important for the resource and mine design if the rock types have similar physical properties and diamond content. A good understanding of the kimberlite petrology and mineralogy could be crucial not only to the treatability (namely diamond damage and liberation), but also to the pit wall and underground excavation stability, support

  9. Geologic mapping of Northern Atla Regio on Venus: Preliminary data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nikishin, A. M.; Burba, G. A.

    1993-01-01

    The Northern part of Atla Regio within the frame of C1-formate Magellan photo map 15N197 was mapped geologically at scale 1:8,000,000. This is a part of Russia's contribution into C1 geologic mapping efforts. The map is reproduced here being reduced about twice. The map shows that the Northern Atla area is predominantly a volcanic plain with numerous volcanic features: shield volcanoes, domes and hills with various morphology, corona-like constructions, radar bright and dark spots often with flow-like outlines. Relatively small areas of tessera occurred in the area are mainly semi-flooded with the plain material. Tesserae are considered to be the oldest terrains within the map sheet. There are many lineated terrains in the region. They are interpreted as the old, almost-buried tesserae (those with crossed lineaments) or partly buried ridge belts (those with parallel lineaments). These lineated terrains have an intermediate age between the young volcanic plains and the old tessera areas. Two prominent high volcanic shields are located within the region - Ozza Mons and Sapas Mona. The most prominent structure in Northern Atla is Ganis Chasma rift. The rift cuts volcanic plain and is considered to be under formation during approximately the same time with Ozza Mons shield. Ganis Chasma rift valley is highly fractured and bounded with fault scarps. Rift shoulder uplifts are typical for Ganis Chasma. There are few relatively young volcanic features inside the rift valley. The analysis of fracturing and rift valley geometry shows the rift originated due to 5-10 percent crustal extention followed by the crustal subsidence. The age sequence summary for the main terrain types in the region is (from older to younger ones): tesserae; lineated terrains with crossed lineaments; lineated terrains with parallel lineaments; volcanic plains; and prominent volcanic shields and Ganis Chasma rift valley. The geologic structure of Atla Regio as it appeared now with the Magellan high

  10. The Main Idea Organizer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Jim

    2003-01-01

    Presents the Main Idea Organizer (MIO) to help students who may struggle with writing, reading, and thinking--though in different ways and for different reasons. Describes many different ways the author uses the MIO. (SG)

  11. MAINE WEIRS 1990

    EPA Science Inventory

    WEIR90 shows point locations of herring weirs in Maine based on 1990 overflight by MDMR Marine Patrol, mapped at an approximate scale of 1:100,000. Data were screen digitized from paper maps used during the overflight.

  12. FCC main fractionator revamps

    SciTech Connect

    Golden, S.W.; Martin, G.R.; Sloley, A.W. )

    1993-03-01

    Structured packing use in fluid catalytic cracker (FCC) main fractionators significantly impacts unit pressure profile. Unit pressure balance links the FCC main fractionator, reactor, regenerator, air compressor and wet gas compressor. Unit pressure balance should be viewed as a design variable when evaluating FCC unit revamps. Depending upon limitations of the particular FCC unit, capacity increases of 12.5% to 22.5% have been achieved without modifications to major rotating equipment, by revamping FCC main fractionators with structured packing. An examination of three FCC main fractionator revamps show improvements to pressure profiles and unit capacity. The three revamps described included a wet gas compressor volume limit; an air blower limitation; and a wet gas compressor motor limitation.

  13. Modernizing Main Street

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oguntoyinbo, Lekan

    2010-01-01

    This article features Entrepreneurship Pioneers Initiative (EPI), a nine-month-long educational program targeted to first-generation, small business owners offered through the Rutgers University Center for Urban Entrepreneurship and Economic Development. In its second year, EPI has worked with more than 40 businesses out of an applicant pool of…

  14. Geologic Resource Evaluation of Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park, Hawai'i: Geology and Coastal Landforms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richmond, Bruce M.; Gibbs, Ann E.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2008-01-01

    Geologic resource inventories of lands managed by the National Park Service (NPS) are important products for the parks and are designed to provide scientific information to better manage park resources. Park-specific geologic reports are used to identify geologic features and processes that are relevant to park ecosystems, evaluate the impact of human activities on geologic features and processes, identify geologic research and monitoring needs, and enhance opportunities for education and interpretation. These geologic reports are planned to provide a brief geologic history of the park and address specific geologic issues that link the park geology and the resource manager. The Kona coast National Parks of the Island of Hawai'i are intended to preserve the natural beauty of the Kona coast and protect significant ancient structures and artifacts of the native Hawaiians. Pu'ukohola Heiau National Historic Site (PUHE), Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park (KAHO), and Pu'uhonua O Honaunau National Historical Park (PUHO) are three Kona parks studied by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology Team in cooperation with the National Park Service. This report is one of six related reports designed to provide geologic and benthic-habitat information for the three Kona parks. Each geology and coastal-landform report describes the regional geologic setting of the Hawaiian Islands, gives a general description of the geology of the Kona coast, and presents the geologic setting and issues for one of the parks. The related benthic-habitat mapping reports discuss the marine data and habitat classification scheme, and present results of the mapping program. Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park (KAHO) was established in 1978 in order to preserve and protect traditional native Hawaiian culture and cultural sites. The park is the site of an ancient Hawaiian settlement, occupies 469 ha and is considered a locale of considerable cultural and historical

  15. Impact, and its implications for geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marvin, Ursula B.

    1988-01-01

    The publication of seminal texts on geology and on meteoritics in the 1790s, laid the groundwork for the emergence of each discipline as a modern branch of science. Within the past three decades, impact cratering has become universally accepted as a process that sculptures the surfaces of planets and satellites throughout the solar system. Nevertheless, one finds in-depth discussions of impact processes mainly in books on the Moon or in surveys of the Solar System. The historical source of the separation between meteoritics and geology is easy to identify. It began with Hutton. Meteorite impact is an extraordinary event acting instantaneously from outside the Earth. It violates Hutton's principles, which were enlarged upon and firmly established as fundamental to the geological sciences by Lyell. The split between meteoritics and geology surely would have healed as early as 1892 if the investigations conducted by Gilbert (1843-1918) at the crater in northern Arizona had yielded convincing evidence of meteorite impact. The 1950s and 1960s saw a burgeoning of interest in impact processes. The same period witnessed the so-called revolution in the Earth Sciences, when geologists yielded up the idea of fixed continents and began to view the Earth's lithosphere as a dynamic array of horizontally moving plates. Plate tectonics, however, is fully consistent with the geological concepts inherited from Hutton: the plates slowly split, slide, and suture, driven by forces intrinsic to the globe.

  16. The importance of geological data and derived information in seismic response assessment for urban sites. An example from the Island of Crete, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsangaratos, Paraskevas; Loupasakis, Constantinos; Rozos, Dimitrios; Rondoyianni, Theodora; Vafidis, Antonios; Savvaidis, Alexandros; Soupios, Pantelis; Papadopoulos, Nikos; Sarris, Apostolos

    2015-04-01

    The magnitude, frequency content and duration of an earthquake ground motion depends mainly on the surrounding geological, tectonic and geomorphological conditions. Numerous reports have been contacted illustrating the necessity of providing accurate geological information in order to estimate the level of seismic hazard. In this context, geological information is the outcome of processing primary, raw field data and geotechnical investigation data that are non - organized and associated with the geological model of the study area. In most cases, the geological information is provided as an advance element, a key component of the "function" that solves any geo-environmental problem and is primarily reflected on analogue or digital maps. The main objective of the present study is to illustrate the importance of accurate geological information in the thirteen (13) selected sites of the Hellenic Accelerometric Network (HAN) in the area of Crete Island, in order to estimate the seismic action according to Eurocode (EC8). As an example the detailed geological-geotechnical map of the area around HAN site in Rethymno city, Crete is presented. The research area covers a 250m radius surrounding the RTHE HAN-station at a scale of 1: 2000 with detail description of the geological and geotechnical characteristics of the formations as well as the tectonic features (cracks, upthrust, thrust, etc) of the rock mass. The field survey showed that the RTHE station is founded over limestones and dolomites formations. The formations exhibit very good geomechanical behaviour; however they present extensive fragmentation and karstification. At this particular site the identification of a fault nearby the station proved to be significant information for the geophysical research as the location and orientation of the tectonic setting provided new perspective on the models of seismic wave prorogation. So, the geological data and the induced information along with the tectonic structure of

  17. A multidimensional representation model of geographic features

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Usery, E. Lynn; Timson, George; Coletti, Mark

    2016-01-01

    A multidimensional model of geographic features has been developed and implemented with data from The National Map of the U.S. Geological Survey. The model, programmed in C++ and implemented as a feature library, was tested with data from the National Hydrography Dataset demonstrating the capability to handle changes in feature attributes, such as increases in chlorine concentration in a stream, and feature geometry, such as the changing shoreline of barrier islands over time. Data can be entered directly, from a comma separated file, or features with attributes and relationships can be automatically populated in the model from data in the Spatial Data Transfer Standard format.

  18. Geology of California. Second Edition

    SciTech Connect

    Norris, R.M.; Webb, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    Two introductory chapters familiarize readers with basic geologic concepts. The following chapters describe the geology of each of California's 11 geomorphic provinces; the San Andreas fault and offshore geology are discussed in two separate chapters. Four appendices acquaint readers with technical words and terms, common minerals and rocks in California, geologic time, and geologic theories that pertain to California. During the 1960s evidence collected from the east Pacific sea floor off the western coast of North America gave scientists supporting data for Alfred Wegener's 1910 theory of continental drift. In addition to the confirmation of continental drift, since the 1960s scientists have discovered paleomagnetism, sea-floor spreading, exotic and suspect terranes, and polar wandering. These important concepts have had far reaching effects about how we understand the geology of California and how this region has evolved through geologic time. Improved investigative procedures enable earth scientists to comprehend previously puzzling aspects of California's geology.

  19. Geologic Mapping of V-19

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, P.; Stofan, E. R.; Guest, J. E.

    2009-01-01

    A geologic map of the Sedna Planitia (V-19) quadrangle is being completed at the 1:5,000,000 scale as part of the NASA Planetary Geologic Mapping Program, and will be submitted for review by September 2009.

  20. Geologic Map Database of Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoeser, Douglas B.; Shock, Nancy; Green, Gregory N.; Dumonceaux, Gayle M.; Heran, William D.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to release a digital geologic map database for the State of Texas. This database was compiled for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Program, National Surveys and Analysis Project, whose goal is a nationwide assemblage of geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and other data. This release makes the geologic data from the Geologic Map of Texas available in digital format. Original clear film positives provided by the Texas Bureau of Economic Geology were photographically enlarged onto Mylar film. These films were scanned, georeferenced, digitized, and attributed by Geologic Data Systems (GDS), Inc., Denver, Colorado. Project oversight and quality control was the responsibility of the U.S. Geological Survey. ESRI ArcInfo coverages, AMLs, and shapefiles are provided.

  1. Using Snow to Teach Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Charles

    1991-01-01

    A lesson plan, directed at middle school students and older, describes using snow to study the geological processes of solidification of molten material, sedimentation, and metamorphosis. Provides background information on these geological processes. (MCO)

  2. Geologic Evolution of North America: Geologic features suggest that the continent has grown and differentiated through geologic time.

    PubMed

    Engel, A E

    1963-04-12

    The oldest decipherable rock complexes within continents (more than 2.5 billion years old) are largely basaltic volcanics and graywacke. Recent and modern analogs are the island arcs formed along and adjacent to the unstable interface of continental and oceanic crusts. The major interfacial reactions (orogenies) incorporate pre-existing sial, oceanic crust, and mantle into crust of a more continental type. Incipient stages of continental evolution, more than 3 billion years ago, remain obscure. They may involve either a cataclysmic granite-forming event or a succession of volcanic-sedimentary and granite-forming cycles. Intermediate and recent stages of continental evolution, as indicated by data for North America, involve accretion of numerous crustal interfaces with fragments of adjacent continental crust and their partial melting, reinjection, elevation, unroofing, and stabilization. Areas of relict provinces defined by ages of granites suggest that continental growth is approximately linear. But the advanced differentiation found in many provinces and the known overlaps permit wide deviation from linearity in the direction of a more explosive early or intermediate growth. PMID:17819825

  3. The main cubioid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blokh, Alexander; Oversteegen, Lex; Ptacek, Ross; Timorin, Vladlen

    2014-08-01

    The connectedness locus in the parameter space of quadratic polynomials is called the Mandelbrot set. A good combinatorial model of this set is due to Thurston. By definition, the principal hyperbolic domain of the Mandelbrot set consists of parameter values, for which the corresponding quadratic polynomials have an attracting fixed point. The closure of the principal hyperbolic domain of the Mandelbrot set is called the main cardioid. Its topology is completely described by Thurston's model. Less is known about the connectedness locus in the parameter space of cubic polynomials. In this paper, we discuss cubic analogues of the main cardioid and establish relationships between them.

  4. Introduction to ore geology

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    This textbook on ore geology is for second and third year undergraduates and closely parallels the undergraduate course given in this subject at England's University of Leicester. The volume covers three major areas: (1) principles of ore geology, (2) examples of the most important types of ore deposits, and (3) mineralization in space and time. Many chapters have been thoroughly revised for this edition and a chapter on diamonds has been added. Chapters on greisen and pegmatite have also been added, the former in response to the changing situation in tin mining following the recent tin crisis, and the latter in response to suggestions from geologists in a number of overseas countries. Some chapters have been considerably expanded and new sections added, including disseminated gold deposits and unconformity-associated uranium deposits. The author also expands on the importance of viewing mineral deposits from an economic standpoint.

  5. General features

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, R.E.

    1990-01-01

    The San Andreas fault system, a complex of faults that display predominantly large-scale strike slip, is part of an even more complex system of faults, isolated segments of the East Pacific Rise, and scraps of plates lying east of the East Pacific Rise that collectively separate the North American plate from the Pacific plate. This chapter briefly describes the San Andreas fault system, its setting along the Pacific Ocean margin of North America, its extent, and the patterns of faulting. Only selected characteristics are described, and many features are left for depictions on maps and figures.

  6. Principles of nuclear geology

    SciTech Connect

    Aswathanarayana, U.

    1985-01-01

    This book treats the basic principles of nuclear physics and the mineralogy, geochemistry, distribution and ore deposits of uranium and thorium. The application of nuclear methodology in radiogenic heat and thermal regime of the earth, radiometric prospecting, isotopic age dating, stable isotopes and cosmic-ray produced isotopes is covered. Geological processes, such as metamorphic chronology, petrogenesis, groundwater movement, and sedimentation rate are focussed on.

  7. 77 FR 19032 - Geological Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-29

    ... Geological Survey Announcement of National Geospatial Advisory Committee Meeting AGENCY: U.S. Geological Survey, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The National Geospatial Advisory Committee (NGAC... advance. Please register by contacting Arista Maher at the U.S. Geological Survey (703-648-6283,...

  8. Ladybugs of Maine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Color images are presented for the 57 species of Coccinellidae, commonly known as ladybugs, that are documented from Maine. Images are displayed in taxonomic order. Information on each species includes its genus-species name, length, and an actual-size silhouette beside a grid matched to the scale...

  9. 1 Main Street, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Located outside StenniSphere, the visitor center at John C. Stennis Space Center, 1 Main Street Mars is a model of how a habitat on Mars might look. Complete with thermometers, scales and clocks set to Martian equivalents, this exhibit shows how very different life on Mars can be.

  10. Indians of Maine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine State Dept. of Health and Welfare, Augusta.

    The relationships between the Penobscot and Passamaquoddy Indian Tribes and the State of Maine began in the 1820's. Treaties have left the Penobscot tribe with ownership of 146 islands in the Penobscot River while the Passamaquoddy tribe lives on land owned by the State. Both tribes presently have trust funds derived from the sale of land, and use…

  11. MAINE SCHOOLS AND LIBRARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    SCHLIB shows point locations of libraries and educational institutions in Maine at 1:24,000 scale. Colleges, universities, technical colleges, high schools, middle schools, elementary schools, kindergarten/sub-primary and other special schools are included. The data was developed...

  12. Main Parachute Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Shown is the testing of the Main Parachute for the Ares/CLV first stage in support of the Ares/Constellation program at the Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona. This image is extracted from high definition video and is the highest resolution available.

  13. Evaluation of ERTS-1 imagery for geological sensing over the diverse geological terrains of New York State

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Isachsen, Y. W.; Fakundiny, R. H.; Forster, S. W.

    1973-01-01

    Film positives of ERTS-1 imagery, both as received from NASA and photographically reprocessed, are analyzed by conventional and color additive viewing methods. The imagery reveals bedrock and surficial geological information at various scales. Features which can be identified to varying degrees include boundaries between major tectonic provinces, lithological contacts, foliation trends within massive gneisses, faults, and topographic lineaments. In the present imagery the greatest amount of spectral geology is displayed in the Adirondack region where bedrock geology is strongly linked to topography. Within this basement complex, the most prominantly displayed features are numerous north-northeast trending faults and topographic lineaments, and arcuate east-west valleys developed in some of the weaker metasedimentary rocks. The majority of the faults and lineaments shown on the geologic Map of New York at 1:250,000 appear in the ERTS imagery.

  14. Interactive geologic modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Glaeser, J.D.; Krajewski, S.A.

    1984-04-01

    Improved success in finding hydrocarbons and minerals depends on developing geologic models from seismic, gravity, and magnetic data that most closely approximate real-world settings. Although data processing remains the chore of mainframe and minicomputers, interpretations and modeling of geologic and geophysical information now are best accomplished on personal computers because these computers afford the explorationist maximum freedom to shape and fine tune geophysical evaluations. Three case histories use the GEOSIM geophysical modeling systems to delineate exploration targets. The first example is Silurian Niagaran reef trends in the Michigan basin. Here, differences in seismic reef anomalies result from variations in carbonate-evaporite stratigraphy encasing the reefs, reef geometry, and reef reservoir parameters. These variations which influence real seismic-response differences can be successfully matched using appropriate geologic models in generating synthetic seismic reef anomalies. The second example applies gravity and magnetic data to seismic modeling of a Wyoming coal field. Detailed seismic stratigraphy helps locate those portions of the field having multiple seams, although it does not resolve individual economic zones. Gravity data do identify pinchout margins of multiseam zones and pinchouts between principal coals. Magnetic data are then used to delineate the burn (clinker) margin. Seismic modeling of subtle stratigraphic traps is the broader area of exploration interest contained in the first 2 examples. In the third, successfully modeled and tested examples of lateral changes in deltaic facies and of faulted, unconformity-bounded continent-margin sequences are shown to be successful guides to reinterpretation of seismic data.

  15. Integrating geology and perforating

    SciTech Connect

    Araujo, P.F. de; Souza Padilha, S.T.C. de

    1997-02-01

    Perforating is a very common well completion operation. Usually, it is considered to be as simple as making holes in casing. Actually, perforating is one of the most critical tasks for establishing a path from reservoir rock to borehole form which hydrocarbons can flow to surface. The objective of this article is to relate perforating technology with geological aspects and completion type to determine the best shooting equipment (gun type, charge and differential pressure) to perform the most efficient perforating job. Several subjects related to formation geology are taken into account for a shooting job, such as: compressive strength, reservoir pressure and thickness, lithology type, porosity and permeability, ratio between horizontal and vertical permeabilities, and fluid type. Gun geometry used in the oil industry incorporates several parameters, including shot density, hole entrance diameter, gun phase and jet penetration. API tests are done on perforating guns to define applicability and performance. A new geometrical parameter is defined as the relative angle of the jet, which is the angle between the jet tunnel and formation dip. GEOCAN is a methodology which relates geology to gun geometry and type to define the most efficient gun system for perforated completions. It uses the intelligent perforating technique with the SPAN (Schlumberger Perforating Analysis) program to confirm optimum gun choice.

  16. Aeromagnetic data and geological structure of continental China: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Sheng-Qing; Tong, Jing; Ding, Yan-Yun; Li, Zhan-Kui

    2016-06-01

    We review the latest aeromagnetic geological data of continental China. We discuss the latest achievements in geological mapping and the newly detected features based on aeromagnetic data. Using aeromagnetic data collected for more than 50 years, a series of 1:5000000 and 1:1000000 aeromagnetic maps of continental China were compiled using state-of-the-art digital technology, and data processing and transformation. Guided by plate tectonics and continental dynamics, rock physical properties, and magnetic anomalies, we compiled maps of the depth of the magnetic basement of continental China and the major geotectonic units, and presented newly detected geological structures based on the aeromagnetic data.

  17. Mars Global Geologic Mapping: Amazonian Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanaka, K. L.; Dohm, J. M.; Irwin, R.; Kolb, E. J.; Skinner, J. A., Jr.; Hare, T. M.

    2008-01-01

    We are in the second year of a five-year effort to map the geology of Mars using mainly Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Express, and Mars Odyssey imaging and altimetry datasets. Previously, we have reported on details of project management, mapping datasets (local and regional), initial and anticipated mapping approaches, and tactics of map unit delineation and description [1-2]. For example, we have seen how the multiple types and huge quantity of image data as well as more accurate and detailed altimetry data now available allow for broader and deeper geologic perspectives, based largely on improved landform perception, characterization, and analysis. Here, we describe early mapping results, which include updating of previous northern plains mapping [3], including delineation of mainly Amazonian units and regional fault mapping, as well as other advances.

  18. Environmental Resources of Selected Areas of Hawaii: Geological Hazards (DRAFT)

    SciTech Connect

    Staub, W.P.

    1994-06-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive the background scientific data and related information collected on geologic hazards during the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) published a notice in the Federal Register on May 17, 1994 (Fed Regis. 5925638) withdrawing its Notice of Intent (Fed Regis. 575433) of February 14, 1992, to prepare the HGP-EIS. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated This report presents a review of current information on geologic hazards in the Hawaiian Islands. Interrelationships among these hazards are discussed. Probabilities of occurrence of given geologic hazards are provided in various regions where sufficient geologic or historical data are available. Most of the information contained herein is compiled from recent U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) publications and open-file reports. This report describes the natural geologic hazards present in the area and does not represent an assessment of environmental impacts. Geologic hazards originate both onshore and offshore. Onshore geologic hazards such as volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, surface rupture, landslides, uplift, and subsidence occur mainly on the southern third of the island of Hawaii (hereinafter referred to as Hawaii). Offshore geologic hazards are more widely distributed throughout the Hawaiian Islands. Examples of offshore geologic hazards are submarine landslides, turbidity currents, and seismic sea waves (tsunamis). First, overviews of volcanic and earthquake activity, and details of offshore geologic hazards is provided for the Hawaiian Islands. Then, a more detailed discussion of onshore geologic hazards is presented with special emphasis on the southern third of Hawaii and the east rift

  19. Geologic mapping of the Semipalatinsk region, Eastern Kazakstan, using Landsat Thematic Mapper and spot panchromatic data

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, P.A.; Berlin, G.L.

    1992-12-31

    This geologic reconnaissance study centers on a 90 by 140 km area about 100 km southwest of Semipalatinsk near the east border of the Kazakstan Republic of the USSR. Semipalatinsk, a regional center for grain growing, and several other cities along the Irtysh River were originally established as fortified outposts by the Russians during the 18th and 19th centuries to contain the indigenous, nomadic Kazak herdsmen. The Kazakstan region remained largely undeveloped until after the 1917 Russian Revolution, when exploration geologists began discovering many large mineral deposits. Today, known resources include coal, copper, iron ore, lead, zinc, and barite; most of these are of national significance. These vast mineral resources have prompted development of many metallurgical and chemical industries in the republic. Despite the extensive exploration for mineral resources in this region, published geologic maps (Nalivkin, 1960; Esenov, 1971; Borovikov, 1972) are all at scales of 1:1,100,000 or smaller, and there are no detailed descriptions of the geology around Semipalatinsk in the open literature. Our preliminary examination of commercial remote-sensing, data indicated that the lithology and structure of this area are extremely varied and complex at all scales -- much more so than that portrayed on the published geologic maps. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to use commercially available remotely sensed data for the area and remotely sensed data obtained for analog study sites, as well as the sparse, sketchy information in the published literature, to better define and map the geologic units (Sheet 1), structure (Sheet 2), and drainage features (Sheet 3) of this area.

  20. Modelling of Geological Structures Using Emergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillier, M.; de Kemp, E. A.; Sprague, K.

    2009-05-01

    A complex system based approach is used to model geological structures. Preliminary work is presented to show how mutually interacting agents can be used to probe local regions and obtain emergent behaviour of its geometrical properties. Models are built bottom up from the smaller components to simulate regions from camp scales to regional scales. In nature, very complex structures exhibiting discontinuous and heterogeneous features are common. Modelling such regions using conventional methods is cumbersome and influences between close proximity zones are generally not considered. Agents are able to detect local and global features in the entire model space, as detailed as the data set allows. These features are incorporated into the interpolation of a modeled zone if those features are coupled to that location. We attempt to see if opportunities exist for exploiting complex systems approaches in what is a classical knowledge driven modelling domain with high emphasis on expert interpretive methods. Geological maps (2D, 3D or 4D) are fundamentally an emergent result of an iterative mental process which focuses on reconciling disparate data. The end goal of our research is to point a way forward in which complexity can support the simulation of maps and thus support the interpretive workflow.

  1. Geotourism Features of Sinop (Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zehra Seyyah, Memnune; Güngör, Yıldırım

    2016-04-01

    Sinop and its surrounding area presents pretty interesting geological formations formed between Trias and Quaternary. Permo-Trias aged Boyabat Metamorphites is found at the bottom. Above this formation, Jurassic aged Akgöl and Bürnük Formations and Lower Cretaceous aged İnaltı Formation comes. After these, respectively Çaǧlayan Formation, Upper Cretaceous aged Kaplanboǧazı, Yemişliçay, Hamsaros, Görsökü Formations is observed. These units are also overlaid by Paleocene aged Akveren Formation, Eocene aged Atbaşı, Sakızdaǧı Formations and Miocene aged Sinop Formation. Plio-Quaternary aged Sarıkum Formation is located on this sequence. Boyabat columnar basalts and Bedire Formation are the youngest formations of Sinop and its surrounding area. 
 In this geological sequence, columnar basalts, different forms of laminated rocks, fossil containing levels, various sedimentological processes, faults and folds located in laminated rocks, canyons which has been occurred related tectonism in the region, waterfalls run through fault steps take place among the important geotouristical pieces of Sinop and surroundings. In this study, it will be discussed how these geological features contribute to Sinop district that's most important source of income is tourism. 
 Key Words: Geological Heritage, Geopark, Geosite, Geotourism, Sinop

  2. Main roads to melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Palmieri, Giuseppe; Capone, Mariaelena; Ascierto, Maria Libera; Gentilcore, Giusy; Stroncek, David F; Casula, Milena; Sini, Maria Cristina; Palla, Marco; Mozzillo, Nicola; Ascierto, Paolo A

    2009-01-01

    The characterization of the molecular mechanisms involved in development and progression of melanoma could be helpful to identify the molecular profiles underlying aggressiveness, clinical behavior, and response to therapy as well as to better classify the subsets of melanoma patients with different prognosis and/or clinical outcome. Actually, some aspects regarding the main molecular changes responsible for the onset as well as the progression of melanoma toward a more aggressive phenotype have been described. Genes and molecules which control either cell proliferation, apoptosis, or cell senescence have been implicated. Here we provided an overview of the main molecular changes underlying the pathogenesis of melanoma. All evidence clearly indicates the existence of a complex molecular machinery that provides checks and balances in normal melanocytes. Progression from normal melanocytes to malignant metastatic cells in melanoma patients is the result of a combination of down- or up-regulation of various effectors acting on different molecular pathways. PMID:19828018

  3. Main roads to melanoma.

    PubMed

    Palmieri, Giuseppe; Capone, Mariaelena; Ascierto, Maria Libera; Gentilcore, Giusy; Stroncek, David F; Casula, Milena; Sini, Maria Cristina; Palla, Marco; Mozzillo, Nicola; Ascierto, Paolo A

    2009-01-01

    The characterization of the molecular mechanisms involved in development and progression of melanoma could be helpful to identify the molecular profiles underlying aggressiveness, clinical behavior, and response to therapy as well as to better classify the subsets of melanoma patients with different prognosis and/or clinical outcome. Actually, some aspects regarding the main molecular changes responsible for the onset as well as the progression of melanoma toward a more aggressive phenotype have been described. Genes and molecules which control either cell proliferation, apoptosis, or cell senescence have been implicated. Here we provided an overview of the main molecular changes underlying the pathogenesis of melanoma. All evidence clearly indicates the existence of a complex molecular machinery that provides checks and balances in normal melanocytes. Progression from normal melanocytes to malignant metastatic cells in melanoma patients is the result of a combination of down- or up-regulation of various effectors acting on different molecular pathways. PMID:19828018

  4. COBRA Main Engine Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snoddy, Jim; Sides, Steve; Lyles, Garry M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The COBRA (CO-Optimized Booster for Reusable Applications) project include the following: 1. COBRA main engine project team. 2. COBRA and RLX cycles selected. 3. COBRA proto-type engine approach enables mission success. 4. COBRA provides quick, low cost demo of cycle and technologies. 5. COBRA cycle I risk reduction supports. 6. Achieving engine safety. 6. RLX cycle I risk reduction supports. 7. Flight qualification. 9. Life extension engine testing.

  5. Maine coast winds

    SciTech Connect

    Avery, Richard

    2000-01-28

    The Maine Coast Winds Project was proposed for four possible turbine locations. Significant progress has been made at the prime location, with a lease-power purchase contract for ten years for the installation of turbine equipment having been obtained. Most of the site planning and permitting have been completed. It is expect that the turbine will be installed in early May. The other three locations are less suitable for the project, and new locations are being considered.

  6. Geology of Badlands National Park: a preliminary report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoffer, Philip W.

    2003-01-01

    Badlands National Park is host to perhaps the most scenic geology and landscape features in the Western Interior region of the United States. Ongoing erosion that forms the "badlands" exposes ancient sedimentary strata of Late Cretaceous through Oligocene age. Quaternary erosional and depositional processes are responsible for most of the modern landscape features in the park and surrounding region. This report provides a basic overview of the park geology The discussions presented within include both well-established concepts and theories and new, preliminary data and interpretations. Much emphasis is placed on presenting information about the oldest and least studied rocks in the park (particularly the Late Cretaceous and earliest Tertiary deposits that underlie the White River beds throughout the park region). Rock formations and selected fossils they contain are described. Faults, folds, unconformities, and other geologic structures in the North Unit of the park are illustrated, including features associated with the Sage Creek anticline and fault system.

  7. Mapping Vesta: A Geological Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaumann, R.; Pieters, C. M.; Russell, C. T.; Raymond, C. A.; Yingst, R.; Williams, D. A.; Schenk, P.; Neukum, G.; Mottola, S.; Buczkowski, D.; O'Brien, D. P.; Garry, W. B.; Blewett, D. T.; Denevi, B. W.; Roatsch, T.; Preusker, F.; Nathues, A.; Sierks, H.; Sykes, M. V.; De sanctis, M.; McSween, H. Y.; Keller, H. U.; Marchi, S.

    2011-12-01

    Observations from the Dawn (Russell et al., 2007) spacecraft enabled deriva-tion of 4Vesta's shape, facilitated mapping of the surface geology and pro-vided the first evidence for Vesta's geological evolution. The Dawn mission is equipped with a framing camera (FC), a visible and infrared mapping spectrometer (VIR) and a gamma-ray and neutron detector (GRaND). So far science data are collected during the approach to the asteroid and protoplanet Vesta, a circular polar orbit at an altitude of 2700 km providing ~ 230 m/pix camera resolution and a lower orbit, at 700 km altitude with a camera resolu-tion of ~ 65 m/pixel. Geomorphology and distribution of surface features provide evidence for impact cratering, tectonic activity, regolith and prob-able volcanic processes. Craters with dark rays, bright rays, and dark rim streaks have been observed, suggesting possible buried stratigraphy. The largest fresh craters retain a simple bowl-shaped morphology, with depth/diameter ratios roughly comparable to lunar values. The largest candi-date crater, a ~460 km depression at the south pole, has been shown to con-tain an incomplete inward facing cuspate scarp, and a large central mound surrounded by unusual complex arcuate ridge and groove patterns. Although asymmetric in general form, these characteristics do not contradict an impact origin but may also allow endogenic processes like convective downwelling or hybrid modification of an impact. Rapid rotation of Vesta during impact may explain some anomalous features (Jutzi and Asphaug, 2010). A set of large equatorial troughs may be related to the formation process of the south polar structure or due to stress caused by changes of the rotational axis. The crater size frequency and the chronology function is derived from the lunar chronology, scaled to impact frequencies modeled for Vesta according to (Bottke et al., 1994) and (O'Brien and Sykes, 2011). The northern hemi-sphere is heavily cratered by a large variety of ancient

  8. The encyclopedia of applied geology

    SciTech Connect

    Finkl, C.W.

    1984-01-01

    This compendium of engineering geology data includes contributions by experts from many countries. Topics center around the field of engineering geology, with special focus on landscapes, earth materials, and the ''management'' of geological processes. How to use geology to serve man is given particular attention. More than 80 entries deal with hydrology, rock structure monitoring, soil mechanics, and engineering geology. Facts are provided on earth science information and sources, electrokinetics, forensic geology, geogryology, nuclear plant siting, photogrammetry, tunnels and tunneling, urban geomorphology, and well data systems. This guide explains the geology of alluvial plains, arid lands, beaches and coasts, delataic plains, cold regions, glacial landscapes, and urban environments. Detailed analyses are given of the geotechnical properties of caliche, clay, duricrust, soil, laterite, marine sediments, and rocks.

  9. Stress field modelling from digital geological map data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albert, Gáspár; Barancsuk, Ádám; Szentpéteri, Krisztián

    2016-04-01

    To create a model for the lithospheric stress a functional geodatabase is required which contains spatial and geodynamic parameters. A digital structural-geological map is a geodatabase, which usually contains enough attributes to create a stress field model. Such a model is not accurate enough for engineering-geological purposes because simplifications are always present in a map, but in many cases maps are the only sources for a tectonic analysis. The here presented method is designed for field geologist, who are interested to see the possible realization of the stress field over the area, on which they are working. This study presents an application which can produce a map of 3D stress vectors from a kml-file. The core application logic is implemented on top of a spatially aware relational database management system. This allows rapid and geographically accurate analysis of the imported geological features, taking advantage of standardized spatial algorithms and indexing. After pre-processing the map features in a GIS, according to the Type-Property-Orientation naming system, which was described in a previous study (Albert et al. 2014), the first stage of the algorithm generates an irregularly spaced point cloud by emitting a pattern of points within a user-defined buffer zone around each feature. For each point generated, a component-wise approximation of the tensor field at the point's position is computed, derived from the original feature's geodynamic properties. In a second stage a weighted moving average method calculates the stress vectors in a regular grid. Results can be exported as geospatial data for further analysis or cartographic visualization. Computation of the tensor field's components is based on the implementation of the Mohr diagram of a compressional model, which uses a Coulomb fracture criterion. Using a general assumption that the main principal stress must be greater than the stress from the overburden, the differential stress is

  10. Co2 geological sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Tianfu

    2004-11-18

    Human activities are increasingly altering the Earth's climate. A particular concern is that atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) may be rising fast because of increased industrialization. CO{sub 2} is a so-called ''greenhouse gas'' that traps infrared radiation and may contribute to global warming. Scientists project that greenhouse gases such as CO{sub 2} will make the arctic warmer, which would melt glaciers and raise sea levels. Evidence suggests that climate change may already have begun to affect ecosystems and wildlife around the world. Some animal species are moving from one habitat to another to adapt to warmer temperatures. Future warming is likely to exceed the ability of many species to migrate or adjust. Human production of CO{sub 2} from fossil fuels (such as at coal-fired power plants) is not likely to slow down soon. It is urgent to find somewhere besides the atmosphere to put these increased levels of CO{sub 2}. Sequestration in the ocean and in soils and forests are possibilities, but another option, sequestration in geological formations, may also be an important solution. Such formations could include depleted oil and gas reservoirs, unmineable coal seams, and deep saline aquifers. In many cases, injection of CO2 into a geological formation can enhance the recovery of hydrocarbons, providing value-added byproducts that can offset the cost of CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration. Before CO{sub 2} gas can be sequestered from power plants and other point sources, it must be captured. CO{sub 2} is also routinely separated and captured as a by-product from industrial processes such as synthetic ammonia production, H{sub 2} production, and limestone calcination. Then CO{sub 2} must be compressed into liquid form and transported to the geological sequestration site. Many power plants and other large emitters of CO{sub 2} are located near geological formations that are amenable to CO{sub 2} sequestration.

  11. Evaluation of thermal data for geologic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahle, A. B.; Palluconi, F. D.; Levine, C. J.; Abrams, M. J.; Nash, D. B.; Alley, R. E.; Schieldge, J. P.

    1982-01-01

    Sensitivity studies using thermal models indicated sources of errors in the determination of thermal inertia from HCMM data. Apparent thermal inertia, with only simple atmospheric radiance corrections to the measured surface temperature, would be sufficient for most operational requirements for surface thermal inertia. Thermal data does have additional information about the nature of surface material that is not available in visible and near infrared reflectance data. Color composites of daytime temperature, nighttime temperature, and albedo were often more useful than thermal inertia images alone for discrimination of lithologic boundaries. A modeling study, using the annual heating cycle, indicated the feasibility of looking for geologic features buried under as much as a meter of alluvial material. The spatial resolution of HCMM data is a major limiting factor in the usefulness of the data for geologic applications. Future thermal infrared satellite sensors should provide spatial resolution comparable to that of the LANDSAT data.

  12. Aquarius main structure configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eremenko, A.

    The Aquarius/SAC-D Observatory is a joint US-Argentine mission to map the salinity at the ocean surface. This information is critical to improving our understanding of two major components of Earth's climate system - the water cycle and ocean circulation. By measuring ocean salinity from space, the Aquarius/SAC-D Mission will provide new insights into how the massive natural exchange of freshwater between the ocean, atmosphere and sea ice influences ocean circulation, weather and climate. Aquarius is the primary instrument on the SAC-D spacecraft. It consists of a Passive Microwave Radiometer to detect the surface emission that is used to obtain salinity and an Active Scatterometer to measure the ocean waves that affect the precision of the salinity measurement. The Aquarius Primary Structure houses instrument electronics, feed assemblies, and supports a deployable boom with a 2.5 m Reflector, and provides the structural interface to the SAC-D Spacecraft. The key challenge for the Aquarius main structure configuration is to satisfy the needs of component accommodations, ensuring that the instrument can meet all operational, pointing, environmental, and launch vehicle requirements. This paper describes the evolution of the Aquarius main structure configuration, the challenges of balancing the conflicting requirements, and the major configuration driving decisions and compromises.

  13. The Geologic Story of Yellowstone National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keefer, William Richard

    1971-01-01

    In the aftermath of the Civil War, the United States expanded the exploration of her western frontiers to gain a measure of the vast lands and natural resources in the region now occupied by our Rocky Mountain States. As part of this effort, the Geological and Geographical Survey of the Territories was organized within the Department of the Interior, and staffed by a group of hardy, pioneering scientists under the leadership of geologist F. V. Hayden. During the summer of 1871, these men, accompanied by photographer William H. Jackson and artist Thomas Moran, made a reconnaissance geological study of the legendary and mysterious 'Yellowstone Wonderland' in remote northwestern Wyoming Territory. The scientific reports and illustrations prepared by Hayden and his colleagues, supplementing the startling accounts that had been published by members of the famous Washburn-Doane Expedition a year earlier, erased all doubts that this unique land was eminently worthy of being set aside 'for the benefit and enjoyment of the people.' By Act of Congress on March 1, 1872, our first National Park was established. During the past century, 50 million people have toured Yellowstone National Park, marveling at its never-ending display of natural wonders. No doubt many have paused to wonder about the origin of these unusual and complex geological features - a question, needless to say, that has intrigued and challenged scientists from the very first days of the Hayden Survey. During the past decade a group of U. S. Geological Survey scientists, in cooperation with the National Park Service and aided by the interest of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration in remote sensing of the geologic phenomena, has been probing the depths and farthest corners of the Park seeking more of the answers. Some of the results of this work, and those of earlier studies, are described in this book to provide a better understanding and enjoyment of this great National Park.

  14. Structural geology of the Earth's exterior*

    PubMed Central

    Burchfiel, B. C.

    1979-01-01

    Plate tectonics offers an explanation for the present motions and heterogeneity of the rocks that form the external part of the Earth. It explains the origin of the first-order heterogeneity of oceanic and continental lithospheres. Furthermore, it explains the youth and simplicity of the oceanic lithosphere and offers the potential to explain the antiquity, complexity, and evolution of the continental lithosphere. The framework of plate tectonics must be used carefully, because there are geological features within continents, particularly in the more ancient rocks, that may require alternative explanations. The task of understanding lithospheric motions through geologic time must be focused on the continents, where the major evidence for 95% of Earth history resides. In interpreting earth motions from the geologic record, three needs seem paramount: (i) to develop a three-dimensional understanding of the kinematics, dynamics, and thermal structure of modern plate boundary systems and at the same time to recognize those geological and geophysical features that are unrelated to plate interaction; (ii) to use this understanding to reconstruct the extent and evolution of ancient systems that form the major elements of continental crust; and (iii) to determine the dynamics and evolution of systems that have no modern analogs. Decoupling along subhorizontal zones within the lithosphere may be widespread in all types of plate boundary systems. Thus, in order to interpret the motion and dynamics of the mantle correctly, it is important to know if upper lithospheric motion within boundary systems is controlled directly or indirectly by or is independent of deeper mantle motions. PMID:16592704

  15. Toward digital geologic map standards: a progress report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ulrech, George E.; Reynolds, Mitchell W.; Taylor, Richard B.

    1992-01-01

    Establishing modern scientific and technical standards for geologic maps and their derivative map products is vital to both producers and users of such maps as we move into an age of digital cartography. Application of earth-science data in complex geographic information systems, acceleration of geologic map production, and reduction of population costs require that national standards be developed for digital geologic cartography and computer analysis. Since December 1988, under commission of the Chief Geologic of the U.S. Geological Survey and the mandate of the National Geologic Mapping Program (with added representation from the Association of American State Geologists), a committee has been designing a comprehensive set of scientific map standards. Three primary issues were: (1) selecting scientific symbology and its digital representation; (2) creating an appropriate digital coding system that characterizes geologic features with respect to their physical properties, stratigraphic and structural relations, spatial orientation, and interpreted mode of origin; and (3) developing mechanisms for reporting levels of certainty for descriptive as well as measured properties. Approximately 650 symbols for geoscience maps, including present usage of the U.S Geological Survey, state geological surveys, industry, and academia have been identified and tentatively adopted. A proposed coding system comprises four-character groupings of major and minor codes that can identify all attributes of a geologic feature. Such a coding system allows unique identification of as many as 105 geologic names and values on a given map. The new standard will track closely the latest developments of the Proposed Standard for Digital Cartographic Data soon to be submitted to the National Institute of Standards and Technology by the Federal Interagency Coordinating Committee on Digital Cartography. This standard will adhere generally to the accepted definitions and specifications for spatial

  16. Petroleum geology of Kuwait

    SciTech Connect

    Youash, Y.

    1988-02-01

    Kuwait is located in the Arabian platform geologic province and the stable shelf tectonic environment of the Mesopotamian geosyncline, a sedimentary basin extending from the Arabian shield on the west to the Zagros Mountains of complex folding and faulting history, on the east. The sedimentary cover in Kuwait consists of a complete succession 25,000 ft (7,600 m) thick on top of the basement and ranges in age from Paleozoic to Holocene. The relative geologic stability and homogeneity over virtually all its depositional history resulted in an extraordinary areal continuity of reservoirs, seals, and source rocks, giving rise to the accumulation of the largest concentration of the hydrocarbon reserves in the world in giant and super-giant oil and gas fields. The structures are very large, gentle with modest closure. The seals are very efficient. Because of the wide extent of the lithologic units and only gentle tectonic deformation, large-scale horizontal migration is very efficient and the large structures have great storage capacity.

  17. Geology of Lofn Crater, Callisto

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, Ronald; Heiner, Sarah; Klemaszewski, James E.

    2001-01-01

    Lofn crater is a 180-km-diameter impact structure in the southern cratered plains of Callisto and is among the youngest features seen on the surface. The Lofn area was imaged by the Galileo spacecraft at regional-scale resolutions (875 m/pixel), which enable the general geology to be investigated. The morphology of Lofn crater suggests that (1) it is a class of impact structure intermediate between complex craters and palimpsests or (2) it formed by the impact of a projectile which fragmented before reaching the surface, resulting in a shallow crater (even for Callisto). The asymmetric pattern of the rim and ejecta deposits suggests that the impactor entered at a low angle from the northwest. The albedo and other characteristics of the ejecta deposits from Lofn also provide insight into the properties of the icy lithosphere and subsurface configuration at the time of impact. The "target" for the Lofn impact is inferred to have included layered materials associated with the Adlinda multiring structure northwest of Loh and ejecta deposits from the Heimdall crater area to the southeast. The Lofn impact might have penetrated through these materials into a viscous substrate of ductile ice or possibly liquid water. This interpretation is consistent with models of the current interior of Callisto based on geophysical information obtained from the Galileo spacecraft.

  18. Terrestrial analogs, planetary geology, and the nature of geological reasoning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Victor R.

    2014-05-01

    Analogical reasoning is critical to planetary geology, but its role can be misconstrued by those unfamiliar with the practice of that science. The methodological importance of analogy to geology lies in the formulation of genetic hypotheses, an absolutely essential component of geological reasoning that was either ignored or denigrated by most 20th century philosophers of science, who took the theoretical/ experimental methodology of physics to be the sole model for all of scientific inquiry. Following the seminal 19th century work of Grove Karl Gilbert, an early pioneer of planetary geology, it has long been recognized that broad experience with and understanding of terrestrial geological phenomena provide geologists with their most effective resource for the invention of potentially fruitful, working hypotheses. The actions of (1) forming such hypotheses, (2) following their consequences, and (3) testing those consequences comprise integral parts of effective geological practice in regard to the understanding of planetary surfaces. Nevertheless, the logical terminology and philosophical bases for such practice will be unfamiliar to most planetary scientists, both geologists and nongeologists. The invention of geological hypotheses involves both inductive inferences of the type Gilbert termed “empiric classification” and abductive inferences of a logical form made famous by the 19th century American logician Charles Sanders Peirce. The testing and corroboration of geological hypotheses relies less on the correspondence logic of theoretical/ experimental sciences, like physics, and more on the logic of consistency, coherence, and consilience that characterizes the investigative and historical sciences of interpretation exemplified by geology.

  19. Martian polar geological studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cutts, J. A. J.

    1977-01-01

    Multiple arcs of rugged mountains and adjacent plains on the surface of Mars were examined. These features, located in the southern polar region were photographed by Mariner 9. Comparisons are made with characteristics of a lunar basin and mare; Mare imbrium in particular. The martian feature is interpreted to have originated in the same way as its lunar analog- by volcanic flooding of a large impact basin. Key data and methodology leading to this conclusion are cited.

  20. Putting the geology back into Earth models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCaffrey, K.; Imber, J.; Holdsworth, R.; Clegg, P.; de Paola, N.; Jones, R.; Hobbs, R.; Holliman, N.

    2005-12-01

    Geological architectures span at least 12 orders of magnitude length-scale from individual microstructures to lithospheric plates. Traditional paper-based geological mapping and fieldwork techniques have not been able to accurately capture the geospatial properties of mesoscale features in surface outcrops. In addition, geophysical imaging of the subsurface is poor at these length scales. This lack of fine-scale spatial precision has meant that the superbly detailed lithological units and structures we see in surface outcrops have not been integrated directly into predictive numerical and analogue models. As a result, models created to simulate mesoscale geology are currently not well calibrated to natural datasets and it is therefore difficult to demonstrate even partial confirmation of predictive, three dimensional (3D) models. This creates significant problems for industrial users interested in the extraction or storage of fluids in subsurface reservoirs, since accurate predictions of these processes rely critically on a complete 3D understanding of the subsurface mesoscale geology. Terrestrial laser scanners and Real Time Kinematic (RTK) GPS units are the principal tools used to capture digital data from surface outcrops. Automatic data collection involves scanning the outcrop surface with a laser to capture the topography with a cm-spaced grid of spatial coordinates in x,y and z. Using built-in digital cameras, the most recent laser scanners collect registered photographs that allow the software to colour the points to match the outcrop, and produce a photo-realistic 3D image. Laser scanning works best on cliff sections or in mines and quarries where the scanner can be placed directly in front of the outcrop. With RTK GPS data collection, any measurable attribute (surface dip, strike, lithology) can be recorded together with the spatial coordinates at a user-controlled sample spacing down to c. 5 cm. As the method is GPS-based, it works best on sub

  1. From digital mapping to GIS-based 3D visualization of geological maps: example from the Western Alps geological units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balestro, Gianni; Cassulo, Roberto; Festa, Andrea; Fioraso, Gianfranco; Nicolò, Gabriele; Perotti, Luigi

    2015-04-01

    Collection of field geological data and sharing of geological maps are nowadays greatly enhanced by using digital tools and IT (Information Technology) applications. Portable hardware allows accurate GPS localization of data and homogeneous storing of information in field databases, whereas GIS (Geographic Information Systems) applications enable generalization of field data and realization of geological map databases. A further step in the digital processing of geological map information consists of building virtual visualization by means of GIS-based 3D viewers, that allow projection and draping of significant geological features over photo-realistic terrain models. Digital fieldwork activities carried out by the Authors in the Western Alps, together with building of geological map databases and related 3D visualizations, are an example of application of the above described digital technologies. Digital geological mapping was performed by means of a GIS mobile software loaded on a rugged handheld device, and lithological, structural and geomorphological features with their attributes were stored in different layers that form the field database. The latter was then generalized through usual map processing steps such as outcrops interpolation, characterization of geological boundaries and selection of meaningful punctual observations. This map databases was used for building virtual visualizations through a GIS-based 3D-viewer that loaded detailed DTM (resolution of 5 meters) and aerial images. 3D visualizations were focused on projection and draping of significant stratigraphic contacts (e.g. contacts that separate different Quaternary deposits) and tectonic contacts (i.e. exhumation-related contacts that dismembered original ophiolite sequences). In our experience digital geological mapping and related databases ensured homogeneous data storing and effective sharing of information, and allowed subsequent building of 3D GIS-based visualizations. The latters gave

  2. Linear features determined from Landsat imagery in Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooley, M.E.

    1983-01-01

    This map is one of a series of linear-features maps compiled for the U.S. Geological Survey's Northern Great Plains Regional Aquifer System Analysis (U.S. Geological Survey, 1979).  This map shows the linear features that were recognized in Wyoming.  Other maps in the series cover South Dakota (Cooley, 1983a), Montana (Cooley, 1983b), and North Dakota (Cooley, 1983c).

  3. Geologic map of Io

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, David A.; Keszthelyi, Laszlo P.; Crown, David A.; Yff, Jessica A.; Jaeger, Windy L.; Schenk, Paul M.; Geissler, Paul E.; Becker, Tammy L.

    2011-01-01

    Io, discovered by Galileo Galilei on January 7–13, 1610, is the innermost of the four Galilean satellites of the planet Jupiter (Galilei, 1610). It is the most volcanically active object in the Solar System, as recognized by observations from six National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) spacecraft: Voyager 1 (March 1979), Voyager 2 (July 1979), Hubble Space Telescope (1990–present), Galileo (1996–2001), Cassini (December 2000), and New Horizons (February 2007). The lack of impact craters on Io in any spacecraft images at any resolution attests to the high resurfacing rate (1 cm/yr) and the dominant role of active volcanism in shaping its surface. High-temperature hot spots detected by the Galileo Solid-State Imager (SSI), Near-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS), and Photopolarimeter-Radiometer (PPR) usually correlate with darkest materials on the surface, suggesting active volcanism. The Voyager flybys obtained complete coverage of Io's subjovian hemisphere at 500 m/pixel to 2 km/pixel, and most of the rest of the satellite at 5–20 km/pixel. Repeated Galileo flybys obtained complementary coverage of Io's antijovian hemisphere at 5 m/pixel to 1.4 km/pixel. Thus, the Voyager and Galileo data sets were merged to enable the characterization of the whole surface of the satellite at a consistent resolution. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) produced a set of four global mosaics of Io in visible wavelengths at a spatial resolution of 1 km/pixel, released in February 2006, which we have used as base maps for this new global geologic map. Much has been learned about Io's volcanism, tectonics, degradation, and interior since the Voyager flybys, primarily during and following the Galileo Mission at Jupiter (December 1995–September 2003), and the results have been summarized in books published after the end of the Galileo Mission. Our mapping incorporates this new understanding to assist in map unit definition and to provide a global synthesis

  4. Geological modeling and infiltration pattern of a karstic system based upon crossed geophysical methods and image-guided inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duran, Lea; Jardani, Abderrahim; Fournier, Matthieu; Massei, Nicolas

    2015-04-01

    Karstic aquifers represent an important part of the water resources worldwide. Though they have been widely studied on many aspects, their geological and hydrogeological modeling is still complex. Geophysical methods can provide useful subsurface information for the characterization and mapping of karstic systems, especially when not accessible by speleology. The site investigated in this study is a sinkhole-spring system, with small diameter conduits that run within a chalk aquifer (Norville, in Upper Normandy, France). This site was investigated using several geophysical methods: electrical tomography, self-potential, mise-à-la-masse methods, and electromagnetic method (EM34). Coupling those results with boreholes data, a 3D geological model of the hydrogeological basin was established, including tectonic features as well as infiltration structures (sinkhole, covered dolines). The direction of the karstic conduits near the main sinkhole could be established, and the major fault was shown to be a hydraulic barrier. Also the average concentration of dolines on the basin could be estimated, as well as their depth. At last, several hypotheses could be made concerning the location of the main conduit network between the sinkhole and the spring, using previous hydrodynamic study of the site along with geophysical data. In order to validate the 3D geological model, an image-guided inversion of the apparent resistivity data was used. With this approach it is possible to use geological cross sections to constrain the inversion of apparent resistivity data, preserving both discontinuities and coherences in the inversion of the resistivity data. This method was used on the major fault, enabling to choose one geological interpretation over another (fault block structure near the fault, rather than important folding). The constrained inversion was also applied on covered dolines, to validate the interpretation of their shape and depth. Key words: Magnetic and electrical

  5. Minerals yearbook, 1991: Maine. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, D.K.; Anderson, W.; Foley, M.E.

    1993-07-01

    The report has been prepared under a Memorandum of Understanding between the U.S. Bureau of Mines, U.S. Department of the Interior, and the Maine Geological Survey for collecting information on all nonfuel minerals. The value of Maine's nonfuel mineral production in 1991 was $41.3 million, a $21.2 million decrease compared with that of 1990. Decreases in output and value were reported for most of the nonfuel minerals produced. The largest decreases in both production and value were for construction sand and gravel and dimension stone. Smaller decreases were estimated for both masonry and portland cement. Other mineral commodities produced in the State included common clay, gemstones, and peat. Perlite was shipped in from out-of-State and expanded at one plant in the State.

  6. Practical aspects of geological prediction

    SciTech Connect

    Mallio, W.J.; Peck, J.H.

    1981-11-01

    Nuclear waste disposal requires that geology be a predictive science. The prediction of future events rests on (1) recognizing the periodicity of geologic events; (2) defining a critical dimension of effect, such as the area of a drainage basin, the length of a fault trace, etc; and (3) using our understanding of active processes the project the frequency and magnitude of future events in the light of geological principles. Of importance to nuclear waste disposal are longer term processes such as continental denudation and removal of materials by glacial erosion. Constant testing of projections will allow the practical limits of predicting geological events to be defined. 11 refs.

  7. Geologic studies in the Sierra de Pena Blanca, Chihuahua, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes-Cortes, Ignacio Alfonso

    The Sierra del Cuervo has been endowed with uranium mineralization, which has attracted many geological studies, and recently the author was part of a team with the goal of selecting a site of a radioactive waste repository. The first part of the work adds to the regional framework of stratigraphy and tectonics of the area. It includes the idea of a pull apart basin development, which justifies the local great thickness of the Cuervo Formation. It includes the regional structural frame work and the composite stratigraphic column of the Chihuahua Trough and the equivalent Cretaceous Mexican Sea. The general geologic features of the NE part of the Sierra del Cuervo are described, which include the folded ignimbrites and limestones in that area; the irregular large thicknesses of the Cuervo Formation; and the western vergence of the main folding within the area. Sanidine phenocrystals gave ages of 54.2 Ma and 51.8 Ma ± 2.3 Ma. This is the first time these dates have been reported in print. This age indicates a time before the folded structures which outcrop in the area, and 44 Ma is a date after the Cuervo Formation was folded. The Hidalgoan orogeny cycle affected the rocks between this lapse of time. Since then the area has been partially affected by three tensional overlapped stages, which resulted in the actual Basin and Range physiography. The jarosite related to the tectonic activity mineralization has been dated by the Ar-Ar method and yields an age of 9.8 Ma. This is the first report of a date of mineralization timing at Pena Blanca Uranium District in the Sierra del Cuervo. These are some of the frame work features that justify the allocation of a radioactive waste repository in the Sierra del Cuervo. An alluvial fan system within the Boquilla Colorada microbasin was selected as the best target for more detailed site assessment. The study also included the measurement of the alluvium thicknesses by geoelectric soundings; studies of petrography and weathered

  8. OneGeology - improving access to geoscience globally

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Ian; Asch, Kristine; Tellez-Arenas, Agnès.; Komac, Marko; Demicheli, Luca

    2010-05-01

    options to incorporate Onegeology and consolidate its governance and sustainability. Two regional initiatives have been spawned which are strongly linked to OneGeology. OneGeology-Europe and the US project Geoscience Information Network (GIN) are progressing OneGeology goals in Europe and the USA. Additionally, in south-east Asia, CCOP members are making sure that OneGeology goals are progressed in their region. Each of these initiatives reinforces the other. A set of Success Criteria for the next 3 years, up to the 34 IGC in Brisbane, are providing new goals for the OneGeology work programme. Within these major aims are increasing the number of participants, increasing the number of those participants serving data, and increasing the number of participants moving from a web map service to a web feature service, which will offer significantly improved functionality. Communication and outreach have always been a priority for OneGeology; nonetheless the volume of global media coverage the project has received has been astounding. A dynamic website with rich and regularly updated content is a strong factor in that outreach. The audiences for these presentations range from geoscientists, to informatics and spatial data specialists, to environmental scientists, politicians and not least the general public. OneGeology has proved to be a project that has much broader appeal (and thus more opportunity to communicate the relevance of geology to society) than was ever envisaged. This external appeal has served to strengthen geoscience interest in the project, which has in turn given a higher profile and impetus to the interoperability standards OneGeology uses.

  9. Distinguishing seawater from geologic brine in saline coastal groundwater using radium-226; an example from the Sabkha of the UAE

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kraemer, Thomas F.; Wood, Warren W.; Sanford, Ward E.

    2014-01-01

    Sabkhat (Salt flats) are common geographic features of low-lying marine coastal areas that develop under hyper-arid climatic conditions. They are characterized by the presence of highly concentrated saline solutions and evaporitic minerals, and have been cited in the geologic literature as present-day representations of hyper-arid regional paleohydrogeology, paleoclimatology, coastal processes, and sedimentation in the geologic record. It is therefore important that a correct understanding of the origin and development of these features be achieved. Knowledge of the source of solutes is an important first step in understanding these features. Historically, two theories have been advanced as to the main source of solutes in sabkha brines: an early concept entailing seawater as the obvious source, and a more recent and dynamic theory involving ascending geologic brine forced upward into the base of the sabkha by a regional hydraulic gradient in the underlying formations. Ra-226 could uniquely distinguish between these sources under certain circumstances, as it is typically present at elevated activity of hundreds to thousands of Bq/m3 (Becquerels per cubic meter) in subsurface formation brines; at exceedingly low activities in open ocean and coastal water; and not significantly supplied to water from recently formed marine sedimentary framework material. The coastal marine sabkha of the Emirate of Abu Dhabi was used to test this hypothesis. The distribution of Ra-226 in 70 samples of sabkha brine (mean: 700 Bq/m3), 7 samples of underlying deeper formation brine (mean: 3416 Bq/m3), the estimated value of seawater (< 16 Bq/m3) and an estimate of supply from sabkha sedimentary framework grains (<~6 Bq/m3) provide the first direct evidence that ascending geologic brine contributes significantly to the solutes of this sabkha system.

  10. Geologic map of the Skull Creek Quadrangle, Moffat County Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Loenen, R. E.; Selner, Gary; Bryant, W.A.

    1999-01-01

    The Skull Creek quadrangle is in northwestern Colorado a few miles north of Rangely. The prominent structural feature of the Skull Creek quadrangle is the Skull Creek monocline. Pennsylvanian rocks are exposed along the axis of the monocline while hogbacks along its southern flank expose rocks that are from Permian to Upper Cretaceous in age. The Wolf Creek monocline and the Wolf Creek thrust fault, which dissects the monocline, are salient structural features in the northern part of the quadrangle. Little or no mineral potential exists within the quadrangle. A geologic map of the Lazy Y Point quadrangle, which is adjacent to the Skull Creek quadrangle on the west, is also available (Geologic Investigations Series I-2646). This companian map shows similar geologic features, including the western half of the Skull Creek monocline. The geology of this quadrangle was mapped because of its proximity to Dinosaur National Monument. It is adjacent to quadrangles previously mapped to display the geology of this very scenic and popular National Monument. The Skull Creek quadrangle includes parts of the Skull Creek Wilderness Study Area, which was assessed for its mineral resource potential.

  11. Geology of Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, R.; Chyba, C.; Head, J. W.; McCord, T.; McKinnon, W. B.; Pappalardo, R. T.

    2004-01-01

    Europa is a rocky object of radius 1565 km (slightly smaller than Earth s moon) and has an outer shell of water composition estimated to be of order 100 km thick, the surface of which is frozen. The total volume of water is about 3 x 10(exp 9) cubic kilometers, or twice the amount of water on Earth. Moreover, like its neighbor Io, Europa experiences internal heating generated from tidal flexing during its eccentric orbit around Jupiter. This raises the possibility that some of the water beneath the icy crust is liquid. The proportion of rock to ice, the generation of internal heat, and the possibility of liquid water make Europa unique in the Solar System. In this chapter, we outline the sources of data available for Europa (with a focus on the Galileo mission), review previous and on-going research on its surface geology, discuss the astrobiological potential of Europa, and consider plans for future exploration.

  12. Geology orbiter comparison study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cutts, J. A. J.; Blasius, K. R.; Davis, D. R.; Pang, K. D.; Shreve, D. C.

    1977-01-01

    Instrument requirements of planetary geology orbiters were examined with the objective of determining the feasibility of applying standard instrument designs to a host of terrestrial targets. Within the basic discipline area of geochemistry, gamma-ray, X-ray fluorescence, and atomic spectroscopy remote sensing techniques were considered. Within the discipline area of geophysics, the complementary techniques of gravimetry and radar were studied. Experiments using these techniques were analyzed for comparison at the Moon, Mercury, Mars and the Galilean satellites. On the basis of these comparative assessments, the adaptability of each sensing technique was judged as a basic technique for many targets, as a single instrument applied to many targets, as a single instrument used in different mission modes, and as an instrument capability for nongeoscience objectives.

  13. Geological consequences of superplumes

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, R.L. )

    1991-10-01

    Superplumes are suggested to have caused the period of constant normal magnetic polarity in mid-Cretaceous time (124-83 Ma) and, possibly, the period of constant reversed polarity in Pennsylvania-Permian time (323-248 Ma). These times coincide with increases in world temperature, deposition of black shales, oil generation, and eustatic sea level in the mid-Cretaceous, and increased coal generation and gas accumulation in the Pennsylvanian-Permian, accompanied by an intracratonic Pennsylvanian transgression of epicontinental seas. These geologic anomalies are associated with episodes of increased world-wide ocean-crust production and mantle outgassing, especially of carbon and nutrients. These superplumes originated just above the core-mantle boundary, significantly increased convection in the outer core, and stopped the magnetic field reversal process for 41 m.y. in the Cretaceous and 75 m.y. in Pennsylvanian-Permian time.

  14. Spaceborne imaging radar - Geologic and oceanographic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elachi, C.

    1980-01-01

    Synoptic, large-area radar images of the earth's land and ocean surface, obtained from the Seasat orbiting spacecraft, show the potential for geologic mapping and for monitoring of ocean surface patterns. Structural and topographic features such as lineaments, anticlines, folds and domes, drainage patterns, stratification, and roughness units can be mapped. Ocean surface waves, internal waves, current boundaries, and large-scale eddies have been observed in numerous images taken by the Seasat imaging radar. This article gives an illustrated overview of these applications.

  15. The Geology of Vesta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaumann, R.; Russell, C. T.; Raymond, C. A.; Pieters, C. M.; Yingst, R. A.; Williams, D. A.; Buczkowski, D. L.; Krohn, K.; Otto, K.; Stephan, K.; DeSanctis, M. C.; Garry, W. B.; Blewett, D.

    2013-09-01

    The Dawn spacecraft collected over 28,000 images and a wealth of spectral data of Vesta's surface. These data enable analysis of Vesta's diverse geology including impact craters of all sizes and unusual shapes, a variety of ejecta blankets, large troughs, impact basins, enigmatic dark material, and considerable evidence for mass wasting and surface alteration processes [1,2,3]. Two large impact basins, Veneneia underlying the larger Rheasilvia basin dominate the south polar region [1,4]. The depression surrounding Vesta's south pole was formed by two giant impacts about one billion and two billion years ago [4,5]. Vesta's global tectonic patterns (two distinct sets of large troughs orthogonal to the axes of the impacts) strongly correlate with the locations of the two south polar impact basins, and were likely created by their formation [1,6]. Numerous unusual asymmetric impact craters and ejecta indicate the strong influence of topographic slope in cratering on Vesta [1]. One type of gully in crater walls is interpreted to form by dry granular flow, but another type is consistent with transient water flow [7]. Very steep topographic slopes near to the angle of repose are common; slope failures make resurfacing due to impacts and their associated gravitational slumping and seismic effects an important geologic process on Vesta [1]. Clusters of pits in combination with impact melt [8] suggest the presence of volatile materials underlying that melt in some crater floors. Relatively dark material of uncertain origin is intermixed in the regolith layers and partially excavated by younger impacts yielding dark outcrops, rays and ejecta [1,9]. Vesta's surface is reworked by intense impacts and thus much younger than the formation of its crust [2,5].

  16. Applicability of ERTS-1 to Montana geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weidman, R. M. (Principal Investigator); Alt, D. D.; Berg, R.; Johns, W.; Flood, R.; Hawley, K.; Wackwitz, L.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Late autumn imagery provides the advantages of topographic shadow enhancement and low cloud cover. Mapping of rock units was done locally with good results for alluvium, basin fill, volcanics, inclined Paleozoic and Mesozoic beds, and host strata of bentonite beds. Folds, intrusive domes, and even dip directions were mapped where differential erosion was significant. However, mapping was not possible for belt strata, was difficult for granite, and was hindered by conifers compared to grass cover. Expansion of local mapping required geologic control and encountered significant areas unmappable from ERTS imagery. Annotation of lineaments provided much new geologic data. By extrapolating test site comparisons, it is inferred that 27 percent of some 1200 lineaments mapped from western Montana represent unknown faults. The remainder appear to be localized mainly by undiscovered faults and sets of minor faults or joints.

  17. Geological Map of the Fredegonde (V-57) Quadrangle, Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivanov, M. A.; Head, J. W.

    2009-01-01

    The area of V-57, the Fredegonde quadrangle (50-75degS, 60-120degE, Fig.1), is located within the eastern portion of Lada Terra within the topographic province of midlands (0-2 km above MPR [1,2]). Midlands form the most abundant portion of the surface of Venus and are characterized by diverse sets of units and structures [3-11]. The area of the Fredegonde quadrangle is in contact with the elevated portion of Lada Terra to the W and with the lowland of Aino Planitia to the NE. The transitions of the mid-lands to the lowlands and highlands are, thus, one of the main themes of the geology within the V-57 quadrangle. The character of the transitions and distribution and sequence of units/structures in the midlands are crucially important in understanding the time and modes of formation of this topographic province. The most prominent features in the map area are linear deformational zones consisting of swarms of grooves and graben and large coronae. The zones characterize the central and NW portions of the map area and represent regionally important, broad (up to 100s km wide) ridges that are 100s m high. Relatively small (100s km across, 100s m deep) equidimensional basins occur between the corona-groove-chains in the west and border the central chain from the east. Here we describe units that make up the surface within the V-57 quadrangle and present a summary of our geological map that shows the areal distribution of the major groups of units.

  18. Effects of anomalous salt features on caverns in Gulf Coast domes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Early solution miners encountered occasional difficulties with nonsymmetric caverns (including wings'' and chimneys''), gas releases, insoluble stringers, and excessive anhydrite sands.'' Apparently there was no early recognition of trends for these encounters, although certain areas were avoided after problems appeared consistently within them. Solution mining has now matured, and an accumulation of experience indicates that anomalous salt features occur on a number of Gulf Coast domes. Trends incorporating concentrations of anomalous features will be referred to as anomalous zones,'' or AZs (after Kupfer). The main objective of this Project is to determine the effects of AZ encounters on solution-mined caverns and related storage operations in domes. Geological features of salt domes related directly to cavern operations and AZs will be described briefly, but discussions of topics related generally to the evolution of Gulf Coast salt structures are beyond the scope of this Project.

  19. Effects of anomalous salt features on caverns in Gulf Coast domes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    Early solution miners encountered occasional difficulties with nonsymmetric caverns (including ``wings`` and ``chimneys``), gas releases, insoluble stringers, and excessive anhydrite ``sands.`` Apparently there was no early recognition of trends for these encounters, although certain areas were avoided after problems appeared consistently within them. Solution mining has now matured, and an accumulation of experience indicates that anomalous salt features occur on a number of Gulf Coast domes. Trends incorporating concentrations of anomalous features will be referred to as ``anomalous zones,`` or AZs (after Kupfer). The main objective of this Project is to determine the effects of AZ encounters on solution-mined caverns and related storage operations in domes. Geological features of salt domes related directly to cavern operations and AZs will be described briefly, but discussions of topics related generally to the evolution of Gulf Coast salt structures are beyond the scope of this Project.

  20. Planetary geological studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blasius, K. R.

    1981-02-01

    A global data base was assembled for the study of Mars crater ejecta morphology. The craters were classified as to morhology using individual photographic prints of Viking orbiter frames. Positional and scale information were derived by fitting digitized mosaic coordinates to lattitude-longitude coordinates of surface features from the Mars geodetic control net and feature coordinates from the U.S.G.S. series of 1:5,00,000 scale shaded relief maps. Crater morphology characteristics recorded are of two classes - attributes of each ejecta deposit and other crater charactersitics. Preliminary efforts to check the data base with findings of other workers are described.

  1. Discovery of oil reserves through production geology

    SciTech Connect

    Harker, S.D.

    1988-01-01

    Production geology, effectively integrated with other disciplines, resulted in an increase in main area Claymore reserves of 29 million standard bbl to date. From mid-1983 to mid-1987, daily oil production increased from 43,000 to 55,000 standard bbl. The Claymore field is located in the North Sea, 110 mi northeast of Aberdeen, Scotland. It was discovered in 1974 and brought on stream in 1977. In 1978, main area Claymore peak daily production was 62,000 standard bbl. Production is from Late Jurassic sandstones in a truncated, tilted fault block on the southwest margin of the Witch Ground graben. The Sgiath and Piper formations of the lower reservoir are overlain by the Claymore Sandstone Member of the Kimmeridge Clay Formation. The Claymore consists of up to 1,630 ft of thinly bedded, fine-grained turbidite sandstones and contained 95% of the main area Claymore original oil in place. The Claymore Sandstone Member is divided into two informal units: low gamma-ray sands and high gamma-ray sands. Areal sweep and water injection effectiveness are evaluated by the use of well logs, flowmeter surveys, and RFT pressures. New well locations are selected only after very detailed sedimentology and structural geology appraisal. True vertical thickness logs are used for stratigraphic correlation. Together with core studies, high-resolution dipmeter is used for bed definition as well as structural interpretation. Three-dimensional seismic coverage is fully integrated with the use of many true-scale structural cross sections. The integration of all available geological, geophysical, and engineering data is crucial to the continuing success of main area Claymore reservoir management.

  2. Niagara Falls Storage Site, Lewiston, New York: geologic report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-06-01

    This report is one of a series of engineering and environmental reports planned for the US Department of Energy's properties at Niagara Falls, New York. It describes the essential geologic features of the Niagara Falls Storage Site. It is not intended to be a definitive statement of the engineering methods and designs required to obtain desired performance features for any permanent waste disposal at the site. Results are presented of a geological investigation that consisted of two phases. Phase 1 occurred during July 1982 and included geologic mapping, geophysical surveys, and a limited drilling program in the vicinity of the R-10 Dike, planned for interim storage of radioactive materials. Phase 2, initiated in December 1982, included excavation of test pits, geophysical surveys, drilling, observation well installation, and field permeability testing in the South Dike Area, the Northern Disposal Area, and the K-65 Tower Area.

  3. Geological Mapping of the Lada Terra (V-56) Quadrangle, Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, P. Senthil; Head, James W., III

    2009-01-01

    Geological mapping of the V-56 quadrangle (Fig. 1) reveals various tectonic and volcanic features and processes in Lada Terra that consist of tesserae, regional extensional belts, coronae, volcanic plains and impact craters. This study aims to map the spatial distribution of different material units, deformational features or lineament patterns and impact crater materials. In addition, we also establish the relative age relationships (e.g., overlapping or cross-cutting relationship) between them, in order to reconstruct the geologic history. Basically, this quadrangle addresses how coronae evolved in association with regional extensional belts, in addition to evolution of tesserae, regional plains and impact craters, which are also significant geological units of Lada Terra.

  4. Geologic information from satellite images. [geological interpretation of ERTS-1 and Skylab multispectral photography of Rocky Mountain areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, K.; Knepper, D. H., Jr. (Principal Investigator); Sawatzky, D. L.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Extracting geologic information from ERTS and Skylab/EREP images is best done by a geologist trained in photointerpretation. The information is at a regional scale, and three basic types are available: rock and soil, geologic structures, and landforms. Discrimination between alluvium and sedimentary or crystalline bedrock, and between units in thick sedimentary sequences is best, primarily because of topographic expression and vegetation differences. Discrimination between crystalline rock types is poor. Folds and fractures are the best displayed geologic features. They are recognizable by topographic expression, drainage patterns, and rock or vegetation tonal patterns. Landforms are easily discriminated by their familar shapes and patterns. It is possible to optimize the scale, format, spectral bands, conditions of acquisition, and sensor systems for best geologic interpretation. Several examples demonstrate the applicability of satellite images to tectonic analysis and petroleum and mineral exploration.

  5. Geology of Caves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, W. E.; Morgan, I. M.

    One of a series of general interest publications on science topics, the booklet provides those interested in the study of caves (speleology) with a nontechnical introduction to the subject. Separate sections examine types of caves, how caves form, cave features, minerals found in caves, uses of caves, and caves as natural underground laboratories.…

  6. Geology on the Moon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stonehouse, H. B.

    1979-01-01

    Presents three activities that allow students to practice some of the techniques used by lunar researchers, and to become more familiar with lunar features through scrutiny of lunar photography. Topics include dimensions of a crater, different surface ages, and types of rilles. (Author/MA)

  7. Delineating the Rattlesnake Springs, New Mexico Watershed Using Shallow Subsurface Geophysical Techniques and Geologic Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doser, D. I.; Langford, R. P.; Boykov, N. D.; Baker, M. R.; Kaip, G. M.

    2007-12-01

    Rattlesnake Springs serves as the sole water source for Carlsbad Caverns National Park. The recent development of oil and gas leases and agricultural lands surrounding the springs has led to concern about contamination of the karst aquifer. We have used geophysical techniques, combined with geologic mapping, to delineate possible fracture systems in the gypsum and carbonate bedrock that feed the spring system. Our initial work has focused on a 700 m by 700 m region surrounding the springs. We conducted a series of ground conductivity surveys with follow-up DC resistivity surveys (Wenner array vertical electrical soundings and a pole- pole survey) to determine variations in soil grain size and moisture content. Surface geologic mapping was used to identify a series of Holocene terraces and valleys that incise the terraces. Our combined results suggest that northwest-southeast and north-south trending fractures and dissolution features control regional water flow. Relict spring valleys are found to the west of the present springs. A pole-pole survey conducted around the perimeter of the springs suggests main water flow into the springs occurs from the northwest. We plan to complete a precision gravity survey in September and October 2007 to map bedrock topography and determine its relation to structural and dissolution features. Ground penetrating radar data will be collected on the northwestern side of the springs in an attempt to better delineate structures controlling inflow into the springs.

  8. The Geophysical Revolution in Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Peter J.

    1980-01-01

    Discussed is the physicists' impact on the revolution in the earth sciences particularly involving the overthrow of the fixist notions in geology. Topics discussed include the mobile earth, the route to plate tectonics, radiometric dating, the earth's magnetic field, ocean floor spreading plate boundaries, infiltration of physics into geology and…

  9. Geologic mapping of Argyre Planitia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorsline, Donn S.; Parker, Timothy J.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the results from the geologic mapping of the central and southern Argyre basin of Mars. At the Mars Geologic Mapper's Meeting in Flagstaff during July, 1993, Dave Scott (United States Geological Survey, Mars Geologic Mapping Steering Committee Chair) recommended that all four quadrangles be combined into a single 1:1,000,000 scale map for publication. It was agreed that this would be cost-effective and that the decrease in scale would not compromise the original science goals of the mapping. Tim Parker completed mapping on the 1:500,000 scale base maps, for which all the necessary materials had already been produced, and included the work as a chapter in his dissertation, which was completed in the fall of 1994. Geologic mapping of the two southernmost quadrangles (MTM -55036 and MTM -55043; MTM=Mars Transverse Mercator) was completed as planned during the first year of work. These maps and a detailed draft of the map text were given a preliminary review by Dave Scott during summer, 1993. Geologic mapping of the remaining two quadrangles (MTM -50036 and MTM -50043) was completed by summer, 1994. Results were described at the Mars Geologic Mappers Meeting, held in Pocatello, Idaho, during July, 1994. Funds for the third and final year of the project have been transferred to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, where Tim Parker will revise and finalize all maps and map text for publication by the United States Geological Survey at the 1:1,000,000 map scale.

  10. Creationism, Uniformitarianism, Geology and Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, James H.

    1983-01-01

    Points out that the most basic of creationist attacks of geology, their claim that uniformitarianism is an unreliable basis for interpreting the past, fail because the uniformitarianism they describe is no longer a part of geology. Indicates that modern uniformitarianism is merely the philosophical principle of simplicity. (Author/JN)

  11. Geologic Map and Digital Data Base of the Almo Quadrangle and City of Rocks National Reserve, Cassia County, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, David M.; Armstrong, Richard L.; Bedford, David R.; Davis, Marsha

    2008-01-01

    This geologic map describes the geology of the City of Rocks National Reserve and environs, located in the Albion Mountains of south-central Idaho. The most prominent geologic features of the Reserve are the spectacular rock spires that attracted visitors, beginning with commentary in the journals of travelers to California during the Gold Rush of 1849. The tectonic history is outlined, and descriptions of landscape processes, a newly discovered Quaternary fault, and features of the pinnacles are presented.

  12. Experimental and geological approaches to elucidate chemical change in sporopollenin over geological time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, Wesley; Lomax, Barry; Jardine, Phillip

    2016-04-01

    Sporopollenin is the primary biopolymer comprising the walls of sporomorphs (pollen and spores), both in extant material and found within the fossil record. Maturation processes associated with sedimentation and burial over geological timescales have long been considered to dramatically alter the chemical nature of organic material, most notably via oxidation. Here we present experimental data derived from simulated maturation, analyses of Carboniferous fossil material, and modern-day material. Our data demonstrate the core structure of sporopollenin undergoes only minor chemical adjustments at lower grades of maturation, with the over-riding chemical signature remaining identifiable as that of sporopollenin, showing strong resemblance to modern material. This modern signature can, in specific cases be preserved in the geological record, demonstrated by the near-pristine chemical composition of megaspores preserved in cave deposits of Pennsylvanian age (Carboniferous, c. 310 Ma). Conversely, the labile component associated with sporopollenin is found to readily defunctionalise and repolymerise to generate a new polyalkyl macromolecule in situ. The labile component is shown to be held in position via ester linkages; a common chemical feature observed in extant sporopollenin. This combined experimental and geological investigation provides insights into i) the preservation of chemical signatures within the fossil record, ii) considerations for sample preparation when undertaking chemical analysis of fossil sporomorphs, and iii) the long-term evolutionary stasis of sporopollenin, spanning geological time.

  13. GIS-technologies as a mechanism to study geological structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharapatov, Abish

    2014-05-01

    Specialized GIS-technologies allow creating multi-parameter models, completing multi-criteria optimisation tasks, and issues of geological profile forecasts using miscellaneous data. Pictorial and attributive geological and geophysical information collected to create GIS database is supplemented by the ERS (Earth's Remote Sensing) data, air spectrometry, space images, and topographic data. Among the important tasks are as follows: a unification of initial geological, geophysical and other types of information on a tectonic position, rock classification and stratigraphic scale; topographic bases (various projectures, scales); the levels of detail and exhaustibility; colors and symbols of legends; data structures and their correlation; units of measurement of physical quantities, and attribute systems of descriptions. Methods of the geological environment investigation using GIS-technology are based on a principle of the research target analogy with a standard. A similarity ratio is quantitative estimate. A geological forecast model is formed by structuring of geological information based on detailed analysis and aggregation of geological and formal knowledge bases on standard targets. Development of a bank of models of the analyzed geological structures of various range, ore-bearing features described by numerous prospecting indicators is the way to aggregate geological knowledge. The south terrain of the Valerianovskaya structure-facies zone (SFZ) of the Torgai paleo-rift structure covered with thick Mesozoic and Cenozoic rocks up to 2,000m is considered a so-called training ground for the development of GIS-technology. Parameters of known magnetite deposits located in the north of the SFZ (Sarybaiskoye, Sokolovskoye, etc.) are used to create the standard model. A meaning of the job implemented involves the following: - A goal-seeking nature of the research being performed and integration of the geological, geo-physical and other data (in many cases, efforts of the

  14. Remote sensing aids geologic mapping.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knepper, D. H., Jr.; Marrs, R. W.

    1973-01-01

    Remote sensing techniques have been applied to general geologic mapping along the Rio Grande rift zone in central Colorado. A geologic map of about 1,100 square miles was prepared utilizing (1) prior published and unpublished maps, (2) detailed and reconnaissance field maps made for this study, and (3) remote sensor data interpretations. The map is to be used for interpretation of the complex Cenozoic tectonic and geomorphic histories of the area. Regional and local geologic mapping can be aided by the proper application of remote sensing techniques. Conventional color and color infrared photos contain a large amount of easily-extractable general geologic information and are easily used by geologists untrained in the field of remote sensing. Other kinds of sensor data used in this study, with the exception of SLAR imagery, were generally found to be impractical or unappropriate for broad-scale general geologic mapping.

  15. Geologic map and digital database of the Yucaipa 7.5' quadrangle, San Bernardino and Riverside Counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matti, Jonathan C.; Morton, D.M.; Cox, B.F.; Carson, S.E.; Yetter, T.J.; Digital preparation by: Cossette, P.M.; Wright, M.C.; Kennedy, S.A.; Dawson, M.L.; Hauser, R.M.

    2003-01-01

    This geologic database of the Yucaipa 7.5' quadrangle was prepared by the Southern California Areal Mapping Project (SCAMP), a regional geologic-mapping project sponsored jointly by the U.S. Geological Survey and the California Geological Survey. The database was developed as a contribution to the National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program's National Geologic Map Database, and is intended to provide a general geologic setting of the Yucaipa quadrangle. The database and map provide information about earth materials and geologic structures, including faults and folds that have developed in the quadrangle due to complexities in the San Andreas Fault system. The Yucaipa 7.5' quadrangle contains materials and structures that provide unique insight into the Mesozoic and Cenozoic geologic evolution of southern California. Stratigraphic and structural elements include: (1) strands of the San Andreas Fault that bound far-traveled terranes of crystalline and sedimentary rock; (2) Mesozoic crystalline rocks that form lower and upper plates of the regionwide Vincent-Orocopia Thrust system; and (3) late Tertiary and Quaternary sedimentary materials and geologic structures that formed during the last million years or so and that record complex geologic interactions within the San Andreas Fault system. These materials and the structures that deform them provide the geologic framework for investigations of geologic hazards and ground-water recharge and subsurface flow. Geologic information contained in the Yucaipa database is general-purpose data that is applicable to land-related investigations in the earth and biological sciences. The term "generalpurpose" means that all geologic-feature classes have minimal information content adequate to characterize their general geologic characteristics and to interpret their general geologic history. However, no single feature class has enough information to definitively characterize its properties and origin. For this reason the

  16. The Geologic Nitrogen Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, B. W.; Goldblatt, C.

    2013-12-01

    N2 is the dominant gas in Earth's atmosphere, and has been so through the majority of the planet's history. Originally thought to only be cycled in significant amounts through the biosphere, it is becoming increasingly clear that a large degree of geologic cycling can occur as well. N is present in crustal rocks at 10s to 100s of ppm and in the mantle at 1s to perhaps 10s of ppm. In light of new data, we present an Earth-system perspective of the modern N cycle, an updated N budget for the silicate Earth, and venture to explain the evolution of the N cycle over time. In an fashion similar to C, N has a fast, biologically mediated cycle and a slower cycle driven by plate tectonics. Bacteria fix N2 from the atmosphere into bioavailable forms. N is then cycled through the food chain, either by direct consumption of N-fixing bacteria, as NH4+ (the primary waste form), or NO3- (the most common inorganic species in the modern ocean). Some organic material settles as sediment on the ocean floor. In anoxic sediments, NH4+ dominates; due to similar ionic radii, it can readily substitute for K+ in mineral lattices, both in sedimentary rocks and in oceanic lithosphere. Once it enters a subduction zone, N may either be volatilized and returned to the atmosphere at arc volcanoes as N2 or N2O, sequestered into intrusive igneous rocks (as NH4+?), or subducted deep into the mantle, likely as NH4+. Mounting evidence indicates that a significant amount of N may be sequestered into the solid Earth, where it may remain for long periods (100s m.y.) before being returned to the atmosphere/biosphere by volcanism or weathering. The magnitude fluxes into the solid Earth and size of geologic N reservoirs are poorly constrained. The size of the N reservoirs contained in the solid Earth directly affects the evolution of Earth's atmosphere. It is possible that N now sequestered in the solid Earth was once in the atmosphere, which would have resulted in a higher atmospheric pressure, and

  17. Main memory unit. [hybrid computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The development of a main memory unit (MMU) for the space ultrareliable module computer (SUMC) model HTC is discussed. The design, fabrication, and test of basic memory modules (BMM) which were to be used in the design and construction of the MMU are described. The BMM was designed from state-of-the-art technologies which included large scale integration devices mounted and interconnected on a substrate to form a functional module to be utilized in the MMU development. A SUMC memory system design study is discussed which addressed itself to the BMM design and analysis to be conducted to determine the most efficient organization of the BMM in order to establish such modularity features as: word length expandability without redesign, high reliability, and fault tolerance. One MMU was designed, fabricated, tested, and delivered which will be electrical and mechanically compatible with the hybrid technology computer (HTC) model of the SUMC family of computers. The MMU will contain a storage capacity of 8196 36 bit words which includes a parity bit for each 8 bit byte of data.

  18. Canada's Deep Geological Repository For Used Nuclear Fuel -The Geoscientific Site Evaluation Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirschorn, S.; Ben Belfadhel, M.; Blyth, A.; DesRoches, A. J.; McKelvie, J. R. M.; Parmenter, A.; Sanchez-Rico Castejon, M.; Urrutia-Bustos, A.; Vorauer, A.

    2014-12-01

    The Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) is responsible for implementing Adaptive Phased Management, the approach selected by the Government of Canada for long-term management of used nuclear fuel generated by Canadian nuclear reactors. In May 2010, the NWMO published and initiated a nine-step site selection process to find an informed and willing community to host a deep geological repository for Canada's used nuclear fuel. The site selection process is designed to address a broad range of technical and social, economic and cultural factors. The suitability of candidate areas will be assessed in a stepwise manner over a period of many years and include three main steps: Initial Screenings; Preliminary Assessments; and Detailed Site Characterizations. The Preliminary Assessment is conducted in two phases. NWMO has completed Phase 1 preliminary assessments for the first eight communities that entered into this step. While the Phase 1 desktop geoscientific assessments showed that each of the eight communities contains general areas that have the potential to satisfy the geoscientific safety requirements for hosting a deep geological repository, the assessment identified varying degrees of geoscientific complexity and uncertainty between communities, reflecting their different geological settings and structural histories. Phase 2 activities will include a sequence of high-resolution airborne geophysical surveys and focused geological field mapping to ground-truth lithology and structural features, followed by limited deep borehole drilling and testing. These activities will further evaluate the site's ability to meet the safety functions that a site would need to ultimately satisfy in order to be considered suitable. This paper provides an update on the site evaluation process and describes the approach, methods and criteria that are being used to conduct the geoscientific Preliminary Assessments.

  19. Principles of computer processing of Landsat data for geologic applications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taranik, James V.

    1978-01-01

    The main objectives of computer processing of Landsat data for geologic applications are to improve display of image data to the analyst or to facilitate evaluation of the multispectral characteristics of the data. Interpretations of the data are made from enhanced and classified data by an analyst trained in geology. Image enhancements involve adjustments of brightness values for individual picture elements. Image classification involves determination of the brightness values of picture elements for a particular cover type. Histograms are used to display the range and frequency of occurrence of brightness values. Landsat-1 and -2 data are preprocessed at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) to adjust for the detector response of the multispectral scanner (MSS). Adjustments are applied to minimize the effects of striping, adjust for bad-data lines and line segments and lost individual pixel data. Because illumination conditions and landscape characteristics vary considerably and detector response changes with time, the radiometric adjustments applied at GSFC are seldom perfect and some detector striping remain in Landsat data. Rotation of the Earth under the satellite and movements of the satellite platform introduce geometric distortions in the data that must also be compensated for if image data are to be correctly displayed to the data analyst. Adjustments to Landsat data are made to compensate for variable solar illumination and for atmospheric effects. GeoMetric registration of Landsat data involves determination of the spatial location of a pixel in. the output image and the determination of a new value for the pixel. The general objective of image enhancement is to optimize display of the data to the analyst. Contrast enhancements are employed to expand the range of brightness values in Landsat data so that the data can be efficiently recorded in a manner desired by the analyst. Spatial frequency enhancements are designed to enhance boundaries between features

  20. A Regional Guide to Iowa Landforms. Iowa Geological Survey Educational Series 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prior, Jean Cutler

    Presented is a non-technical account of the geological appearance and history of the state of Iowa. Included are Iowa's landscape features, geologic events, and processes that shaped the landscape. Maps and numerous illustrations picture the events and landforms described. Each of the state's seven principal landform regions is discussed in…

  1. Geologic Landforms and Processes on Icy Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schenk, Paul M.; Moore, Jeffrey M.

    1998-01-01

    During the first reconaissence of the satellites of the outer solar system conducted by the Voyager missions (1979-1989), a surprising diversity of unusual geologic landforms were observed, in some cases with bewildering complexity (e.g., Triton). Impact features were certainly expected but the variety of volcanic, diapiric, tectonic, impact, and erosional landforms was only remotely suggested by some early theoretical works. These diagnostic features are manifestations of the internal composition, thermal history, and dynamical evolution of these bodies. It is the job of the geologist to interpret the morphology, stratigraphy, and composition of these deposits and structures to ascertain what materials were mobilized in the interior, in what amount, and the mechanism and cause of their mobilization. In this chapter, we review what is know about these features and what constraints can be placed on composition and thermal history. Particular emphasis is placed on volcanic features, as these are most directly related to satellite composition and thermal history. The surface spectra, high albedos, and low bulk densities of the satellites of the outer solar system indicate that water and other ices are abundant on these bodies, particularly on their surfaces. Ices, particularly water ice, are less dense than silicates and will tend to float and form crusts during differentiation or partial melting of the interior. Ices therefore take the place of silicates as 'crust-forming' minerals and dominate geologic processes on icy satellites. Melted ices form magma bodies, and sometimes are extruded as lavas, an unusual but still valid perspective for terrestrial geologists. The unusual properties of some ices, including their low melting temperatures, and low strengths (as well as the decrease in density on the freezing of water ice), will ultimately be very important in interpreting this record.

  2. Uranium geology of Bulgaria

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    Three major uranium districts containing several deposits, plus 32 additional deposits, have been identified in Bulgaria, all of which are detailed geologically in this article. Most of the deposits are located in the West Balkan mountains, the western Rhodope mountains, and the Thracian Basin. A few deposits occur in the East Balkan, eastern Rhodope and Sredna Gora mountains. The types of deposits are sandstone, vein, volcanic, and surficial. Sandstone deposits are hosted in Permian and Tertiary sediments. In early 1992, fifteen deposits were being exploited, of which roughly 70 percent of the uranium produced was being recovered using in-situ leaching (ISL) methods. The remainder was being recovered by conventional underground mining, except for one small deposit that utilized open-pit methods. Fifteen other Bulgarian deposits had been exhausted, while five deposits were still in the exploration stage. Uranium production began in Bulgaria in 1946, and cumulative production through 1991 exceeded 100 million pounds equivalent U3O8. Current annual production is on the order of one million pounds equivalent U3O8, about 750 thousand pounds of which are recovered by ISL operations.

  3. Petroleum geology of Kuwait

    SciTech Connect

    Youash, Y.

    1988-01-01

    The extremely large oil reserves in Kuwait result from the presence of all conditions necessary for hydrocarbon generation, migration, entrapment, and preservation, which can be ascribed to an exceptionally large trap volume in a simple geological setting and a late expulsion and migration from a huge area of thermally mature source rocks. The Lower and middle Cretaceous sequence of Kuwait is among the world's richest hydrocarbon habitats. The depositional history is dominated by sedimentation on a very stable broad platform characterized by quiescence as reflected by a continuous deposition in a slowly subsiding sea bottom. The reservoirs are composed of thick sandstone of the Wara, Burgan, and Zubar formations. In addition to these, Mauddud Limestone forms a good reservoir in the northern fields and, in the south, the oolitic limestone of the Lower Cretaceous in Greater Burgan, Umm Gudair, and Minagish fields contains substantial hydrocarbon deposits. The sandstone reservoirs are the world's largest over 1,500 ft (450 m) in thickness of perfect reservoir quality and composed of well-sorted, medium to coarse-grained sands that were deposited in a littoral or on the edge of a deltaic and coastal environment. The source rocks are mostly likely the same reservoir rocks, particularly with downdip more shaly development of widespread thermally mature organic rich facies juxataposed with a carbonate-sandstone shelf.

  4. National Association of Geology Teachers--U.S. Geological Survey Cooperative Summer Field Training Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Jacob

    1977-01-01

    Provides detailed procedures and policies concerning the National Association of Geology Teachers--U.S. Geological Survey Cooperative Summer Field Training Program to provide professional geologic field experiences for undergraduate Geology majors. (SL)

  5. Geologic Map of the Central Marysvale Volcanic Field, Southwestern Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rowley, Peter D.; Cunningham, Charles G.; Steven, Thomas A.; Workman, Jeremiah B.; Anderson, John J.; Theissen, Kevin M.

    2002-01-01

    The geologic map of the central Marysvale volcanic field, southwestern Utah, shows the geology at 1:100,000 scale of the heart of one of the largest Cenozoic volcanic fields in the Western United States. The map shows the area of 38 degrees 15' to 38 degrees 42'30' N., and 112 degrees to 112 degrees 37'30' W. The Marysvale field occurs mostly in the High Plateaus, a subprovince of the Colorado Plateau and structurally a transition zone between the complexly deformed Great Basin to the west and the stable, little-deformed main part of the Colorado Plateau to the east. The western part of the field is in the Great Basin proper. The volcanic rocks and their source intrusions in the volcanic field range in age from about 31 Ma (Oligocene) to about 0.5 Ma (Pleistocene). These rocks overlie sedimentary rocks exposed in the mapped area that range in age from Ordovician to early Cenozoic. The area has been deformed by thrust faults and folds formed during the late Mesozoic to early Cenozoic Sevier deformational event, and later by mostly normal faults and folds of the Miocene to Quaternary basin-range episode. The map revises and updates knowledge gained during a long-term U.S. Geological Survey investigation of the volcanic field, done in part because of its extensive history of mining. The investigation also was done to provide framework geologic knowledge suitable for defining geologic and hydrologic hazards, for locating hydrologic and mineral resources, and for an understanding of geologic processes in the area. A previous geologic map (Cunningham and others, 1983, U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Investigations Series I-1430-A) covered the same area as this map but was published at 1:50,000 scale and is obsolete due to new data. This new geologic map of the central Marysvale field, here published as U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Investigations Series I-2645-A, is accompanied by gravity and aeromagnetic maps of the same area and the same scale (Campbell and

  6. Geology and petroleum resources of northwestern Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, J.A.; Klemme, H.D.

    1986-05-01

    The main onshore basins of northwestern Africa are (1) basins in the Atlas folded geosynclinal belt adjacent to the Mediterranean Sea, (2) the Tindouf, Bechar, and Reggane basins of western Algeria and southern Morocco, and (3) the Taoudeni basin of Mauritania and Mali. Coastal basins are (1) the Essaouria basin of southwestern Morocco, (2) the Tarfaya basin of Western Sahara, (3) the Senegal basin of Senegal and western Mauritania, (4) the Sierra Leone-Liberia basin, and (5) the Ivory Coast basin. The petroleum geology and resource potential of these basins is detailed.

  7. The geologic evolution of the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowman, P. D., Jr.

    1971-01-01

    A synthesis of pre- and post-Apollo 11 studies is presented to produce an outline of the moon's geologic evolution from three lines of evidence: (1) relative ages of lunar landforms and rock types, (2) absolute ages of returned lunar samples, and (3) petrography, chemistry, and isotopic ratios of lunar rocks and soils. It is assumed that the ray craters, circular mare basins, and most intermediate circular landforms are primarily of impact origin, although many other landforms are volcanic or of hybrid origin. The moon's evolution is divided into four main stages, each including several distinct but overlapping events or processes.

  8. Bedrock geologic Map of the Central Block Area, Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    W.C. Day; C. Potter; D. Sweetkind; R.P. Dickerson; C.A. San Juan

    1998-09-29

    Bedrock geologic maps form the foundation for investigations that characterize and assess the viability of the potential high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. As such, this map focuses on the central block at Yucca Mountain, which contains the potential repository site. The central block is a structural block of Tertiary volcanic rocks bound on the west by the Solitario Canyon Fault, on the east by the Bow Ridge Fault, to the north by the northwest-striking Drill Hole Wash Fault, and on the south by Abandoned Wash. Earlier reconnaissance mapping by Lipman and McKay (1965) provided an overview of the structural setting of Yucca Mountain and formed the foundation for selecting Yucca Mountain as a site for further investigation. They delineated the main block-bounding faults and some of the intrablock faults and outlined the zoned compositional nature of the tuff units that underlie Yucca Mountain. Scott and Bonk (1984) provided a detailed reconnaissance geologic map of favorable area at Yucca Mountain in which to conduct further site-characterization studies. Of their many contributions, they presented a detailed stratigraphy for the volcanic units, defined several other block-bounding faults, and outlined numerous intrablock faults. This study was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy Yucca Mountain Project to provide a detailed (1:6,000-scale) bedrock geologic map for the area within and adjacent to the potential repository area at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada. Prior to this study, the 1:12,000-scale map of Scott and Bonk (1984) was the primary source of bedrock geologic data for the Yucca Mountain Project. However, targeted detailed mapping within the central block at Yucca Mountain revealed structural complexities along some of the intrablock faults that were not evident at 1:12,000 (Scott and Bonk, 1984). As a result, this study was undertaken to define the character and extent of the dominant structural features in the

  9. First Indications of Intraplate Deformations in Central Germany from Reprocessed GNSS Time Series and Geological Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Matthias; Leinen, Stefan; Läufer, Gwendolyn; Lehné, Rouwen

    2013-04-01

    Six years of GPS data have been reprocessed in ITRF2008 for a regional SAPOS CORS network in the federal state of Hesse with 25 stations and some anchor sites of IGS and EPN to derive accurate and consistent coordinate time series. Based on daily network solutions coordinate time series parameters like velocities, offsets in case of antenna changes and annual periodic variation have been estimated. The estimation process includes the fitting of a sophisticated stochastic model for the time series which accounts for inherent time correlation. The results are blended with geological data to verify information from geology on potential recent deformations by the geodetic analyses. Besides of some information on the reprocessing of the GNSS the results the stochastics of the derived velocity field will be discussed in detail. Special emphasis will be on the intra-plate deformation: for the horizontal component the residual velocity field after removal of a plate rotation model is presented, while for the vertical velocities the datum-induced systematic effect is removed in order to analyze the remaining vertical motion. The residual velocity field is then matched with the geology for Hesse. Correlation of both vertical and horizontal movements with major geological structures reveals good accordance. SAPOS stations with documented significant subsidence are mainly located in tertiary Graben structures such as the Lower Hessian Basin (station Kassel), the Wetterau (station Kloppenheim) or the Upper Rhine Graben (Station Darmstadt). From the geological point of view these structures are supposed to be subsiding ones. Other major geological features, i.e. the Rhenish Shield as well as the East Hessian Bunter massif are supposed to be affected by recent uplift. SAPOS stations located in these regions match the assumed movement (e.g. Weilburg, Wiesbaden, Bingen, Fulda). Furthermore SAPOS-derived horizontal movements seem to trace tectonic movements in the region, i

  10. Working towards a European Geological Data Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Krogt, Rob; Hughes, Richard; Pedersen, Mikael; Serrano, Jean-Jacques; Lee, Kathryn A.; Tulstrup, Jørgen; Robida, François

    2013-04-01

    The increasing importance of geological information for policy, regulation and business needs at European and international level has been recognized by the European Parliament and the European Commission, who have called for the development of a common European geological knowledge base. The societal relevance of geoscience data/information is clear from many current issues such as shale gas exploration (including environmental impacts), the availability of critical mineral resources in a global economy, management and security with regard to geohazards (seismic, droughts, floods, ground stability), quality of (ground-)water and soil and societal responses to the impacts of climate change. The EGDI-Scope project responds to this, aiming to prepare an implementation plan for a pan-European Geological Data Infrastructure (EGDI), under the umbrella of the FP7 e- Infrastructures program. It is envisaged that the EGDI will build on geological datasets and models currently held by the European Geological Surveys at national and regional levels, and will also provide a platform for datasets generated by the large number of relevant past, ongoing and future European projects which have geological components. With European policy makers and decision makers from (international) industry as the main target groups (followed by research communities and the general public) stakeholder involvement is imperative to the successful realization and continuity of the EGDI. With these ambitions in mind, the presentation will focus on the following issues, also based on the first results and experiences of the EGDI-Scope project that started mid-2012: • The organization of stakeholder input and commitment connected to relevant 'use cases' within different thematic domains; a number of stakeholder representatives is currently involved, but the project is open to more extensive participation; • A large number of European projects relevant for data delivery to EGDI has been reviewed

  11. 3D geological modeling based on gravitational and magnetic data inversion in the Luanchuan ore region, Henan Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Gongwen; Zhu, Yanyan; Zhang, Shouting; Yan, Changhai; Song, Yaowu; Ma, Zhenbo; Hong, Dongming; Chen, Tianzhen

    2012-05-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) geological modeling is an important method for understanding geological structures and exploring for mineral deposits. The Luanchuan super-large molybdenum polymetallic ore region has a complex geological setting and multiple metallogenic types. 3D geological modeling is implemented by combining geological knowledge with gravitational and magnetic data inversion in the study area. The 3D geological modeling methodology and the results are summarized as follows. (1) Based on the geological setting and the deposits/occurrences, the aim was to constrain and determine the main geological objects in 3D space to construct geological and metallogenic models. (2) Based on geological observations and rock physical measurements to derive qualitative information about geological objects at depths using gravitational and magnetic data inversion, 2.5D forward modeling was used to identify shallow/subsurface geological objects, and the 3D probability method of potential field inversion was used for coarse constraining of geological objects at depths. (3) A combination of geological information with gravitational and magnetic data inversion information was used to determine the space-time genesis of metallogenic objects in potential mineral targets (i.e., Late Jurassic granite intrusions, ore-forming strata, and ore mineralization favorable faults). (4)A 3D model of the study area (17.7 km × 12.0 km × 2.5 km) is associated with the surface and subsurface geological data, which has geophysical information that is beneficial for identifying and evaluating potential prospecting zones.

  12. Environmental and engineering problems of karst geology in China

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan Daoxian )

    1988-10-01

    Karst terrane is generally regarded as a fragile and vulnerable environment. Its underground drainage system can aggravate both drought and flood problems; the lack of filtration in an underground conduit makes waste disposal more difficult; and the lack of soil cover in bare karstland can enhance deforestation. Moreover, karst terranes are quite often haunted by a series of engineering problems, such as water gushing into mines or transportation tunnels; leakage from reservoirs; and failure of building foundations. In China, there are more than 200 cases of karst collapse, which include many thousands of individual collapse points. Some of these are paleo and natural collapses, but most of them are modern collapses induced by human activities and they have caused serious damage. Many factors such as geologic structure, overburden thickness and character, lithologic features of karstified rock, and intensity of karstification are related to development and distribution of modern collapses. However, China's karst is mainly developed in pre-Triassic, old phase, hard, compact, carbonate rock. Consequently most modern collapses have occurred only in the overlying soil. So it is understandable that the fluctuation of the water table in the underlying karstified strata plays an important role in the process of collapse. Nevertheless, there are different explanations as to how the groundwater activities can induce collapse.

  13. Revised draft: Northeastern Regional geologic characterization report. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-11-01

    This report presents available geologic information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont. For each of the states within the Northeastern Region, information is provided on the disqualifying factor and the screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening. These factors and variables include: hydrologically significant natural resources, rock mass extent, post-emplacement faulting, suspected Quaternary faulting, seismicity, rock and mineral resources, major ground-water discharge zones, water resources, ground-water salinity, and state of stress. Information is presented on its age, areal extent, shape, thickness of overburden, composition, texture, degree and type of alteration, rock mass thickness, and structural features associated with each rock body or complex. Regional seismic and tectonic information is presented, including patterns of earthquake occurrence, earthquake magnitudes, horizontal ground accelerations, and vertical crustal movements. Also included are discussions of the rock and mineral deposits or mines located within or near crystalline bodies; ground-water resources and regional hydrology; postulated changes in climate and the associated effects; and landforms, surface processes, and surficial materials on or near the subject rock bodies.

  14. The Essence of Urban Environmental Geology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Garry D.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Provides 60 quotations relating to urban geology, geologic hazards, engineering aspects of land use, urban resources, and geology and regional planning which have proven useful in developing central themes for lecture topics and student projects. (SL)

  15. 30 CFR 780.22 - Geologic information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Geologic information shall include, at a minimum the following: (1) A description of the geology of the... adversely impacted by mining. The description shall include the areal and structural geology of the...

  16. 30 CFR 780.22 - Geologic information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Geologic information shall include, at a minimum the following: (1) A description of the geology of the... adversely impacted by mining. The description shall include the areal and structural geology of the...

  17. 30 CFR 780.22 - Geologic information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Geologic information shall include, at a minimum the following: (1) A description of the geology of the... adversely impacted by mining. The description shall include the areal and structural geology of the...

  18. 30 CFR 780.22 - Geologic information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) Geologic information shall include, at a minimum the following: (1) A description of the geology of the... adversely impacted by mining. The description shall include the areal and structural geology of the...

  19. 30 CFR 780.22 - Geologic information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) Geologic information shall include, at a minimum the following: (1) A description of the geology of the... adversely impacted by mining. The description shall include the areal and structural geology of the...

  20. Geological evaluation and applications of ERTS-1 imagery over Georgia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickering, S. M.; Jones, R. C.

    1974-01-01

    ERTS-1 70mm and 9 x 9 film negatives are being used by conventional and color enhancement methods as a tool for geologic investigation. Geologic mapping and mineral exploration by conventional methods is very difficult in Georgia. Thick soil cover and heavy vegetation cause outcrops of bed rock to be small, rare and obscure. ERTS imagery, and remote sensing in general have helped delineate: (1) major tectonic boundaries; (2) lithologic contacts; (3) foliation trends; (4) topographic lineaments; and (5) faults. The ERTS-1 MSS imagery yields the greatest amount of geologic information on the Piedomont, Blue Ridge, and Valley and Ridge Provinces of Georgia where topography is strongly controlled by the bedrock geology. ERTS imagery, and general remote sensing techniques, have provided us with a powerful tool to assist geologic research; have significantly increased the mapping efficiency of our field geologists; have shown new lineaments associated with known shear and fault zones; have delineated new structural features; have provided a tool to re-evaluate our tectonic history; have helped to locate potential ground water sources and areas of aquifer recharge; have defined areas of geologic hazards; have shown areas of heavy siltation in major reservoirs; and by its close interval repetition, have aided in monitoring surface mine reclamation activities and the environmental protection of our intricate marshland system.

  1. Geological mysteries on Ganymede

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This image shows some unusual features on the surface of Jupiter's moon, Ganymede. NASA's Galileo spacecraft imaged this region as it passed Ganymede during its second orbit through the Jovian system. The region is located at 31 degrees latitude, 186 degrees longitude in the north of Marius Regio, a region of ancient dark terrain, and is near the border of a large swathe of younger, heavily tectonised bright terrain known as Nippur Sulcus. Situated in the transitional region between these two terrain types, the area shown here contains many complex tectonic structures, and small fractures can be seen crisscrossing the image. North is to the top-left of the picture, and the sun illuminates the surface from the southeast. This image is centered on an unusual semicircular structure about 33 kilometers (20 miles) across. A 38 kilometer (24 miles) long, remarkably linear feature cuts across its northern extent, and a wide east-west fault system marks its southern boundary. The origin of these features is the subject of much debate among scientists analyzing the data. Was the arcuate structure part of a larger feature? Is the straight lineament the result of internal or external processes? Scientists continue to study this data in order to understand the surface processes occurring on this complex satellite.

    The image covers an area approximately 80 kilometers (50 miles) by 52 kilometers (32 miles) across. The resolution is 189 meters (630 feet) per picture element. The images were taken on September 6, 1996 at a range of 9,971 kilometers (6,232 miles) by the solid state imaging (CCD) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov.

  2. Exhumation of Greater Himalayan rock along the main central thrust in Nepal: Implications for channel flow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, D.M.; Pearson, O.N.

    2006-01-01

    South-vergent channel flow from beneath the Tibetan Plateau may have played an important role in forming the Himalaya. The possibility that Greater Himalayan rocks currently exposed in the Himalayan Fold-Thrust Belt flowed at mid-crustal depths before being exhumed is intriguing, and may suggest a natural link between orogenic processes operating under the Tibetan Plateau and in the fold-thrust belt. Conceptual and numeric models for the Himalayan-Tibetan Orogen currently reported in the literature do an admirable job of replicating many of the observable primary geological features and relationships. However, detailed observations from Greater Himalayan rocks exposed in the fold-thrust belt's external klippen, and from Lesser Himalayan rocks in the proximal footwall of the Main Central Thrust, suggest that since Early Miocene time, it may be more appropriate to model the evolution of the fold-thrust belt using the critical taper paradigm. This does not exclude the possibility that channel flow and linked extrusion of Greater Himalayan rocks may have occurred, but it places important boundaries on a permissible time frame during which these processes may have operated. ?? The Geological Society of London 2006.

  3. Processing and attenuation of noise in deep seismic-reflection data from the Gulf of Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hutchinson, D.R.; Lee, M.W.

    1989-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey deep crustal studies reflection profile across the Gulf of Maine off southeastern New England was affected by three sources of noise: side-scattered noise, multiples, and 20-Hz whale sounds. The special processing most effective in minimizing this noise consisted of a combination of frequency-wavenumber (F-K) filtering, predictive deconvolution, and spectral whitening, each applied in the shot domain (prestack). Application of the F-K filter to remove side-scatter noise in the poststack domain resulted in a much poorer quality profile. The prestack noise suppression processing techniques resulted in a reflection profile with good signal-to-noise ratios and reliable strong reflections, especially at depths equivalent to the lower crust (24-34 km). Certain geologic features, such as a buried rift basin and a crustal fault are resolved much better within the upper crust after this processing. Finite difference migration of these data using realistic velocities produced excellent results. Migration was essential to distinguish between abundant dipping and subhorizontal reflections in the lower crust as well as to show an essentially transparent upper mantle. ?? 1989 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

  4. TerraLuna: A CosmoQuest Adventure in Geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gay, Pamela; Bracey, Georgia; Gugliucci, Nicole

    The content of the session will focus on CosmoQuest’s TerraLuna unit, a comparative geology unit that uses authentic data to study the geology of the Moon and Earth. Inquiry activities will allow teachers to help their students compare crater formation and other surface features on the two bodies, comparing Moon features to similar structures on Earth. Links to the latest data from NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter will be introduced and hands- on activities will be featured as the basis for inquiry learning in elementary and middle level classrooms. Teachers will be introduced to citizen science projects that will enable their students to think like real scientists and engage in authentic scientific research, providing a useful service to the scientific community. Participation in the workshop introduces teachers to the CosmoQuest website, which includes a suite of citizen science activities. The site provides teachers with an online community dedicated to science inquiry and educational support.

  5. Geologic structure map of the Beetown lead-zinc area, Grant County, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heyl, Allen V., Jr.; Lyons, Erwin J.; Theiler, John J.

    1952-01-01

    Recent geologic investigations in the area by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Wisconsin Geological and Natural History Survey, indicate that further prospecting for both lead and zinc ore is justified.  This brief preliminary paper discusses geologic features of the lead and the zinc deposits.  It is one of several areas within the district chosen for detailed geolgic study because surface indications and past production suggest that the area may contain undiscovered lead and zinc deposits.

  6. Terrestrial and Lunar Geological Terminology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrader, Christian

    2009-01-01

    This section is largely a compilation of defining geological terms concepts. Broader topics, such as the ramifications for simulant design and in situ resource utilization, are included as necessary for context.

  7. Planetary Geologic Mapping Handbook - 2009

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanaka, K. L.; Skinner, J. A.; Hare, T. M.

    2009-01-01

    Geologic maps present, in an historical context, fundamental syntheses of interpretations of the materials, landforms, structures, and processes that characterize planetary surfaces and shallow subsurfaces (e.g., Varnes, 1974). Such maps also provide a contextual framework for summarizing and evaluating thematic research for a given region or body. In planetary exploration, for example, geologic maps are used for specialized investigations such as targeting regions of interest for data collection and for characterizing sites for landed missions. Whereas most modern terrestrial geologic maps are constructed from regional views provided by remote sensing data and supplemented in detail by field-based observations and measurements, planetary maps have been largely based on analyses of orbital photography. For planetary bodies in particular, geologic maps commonly represent a snapshot of a surface, because they are based on available information at a time when new data are still being acquired. Thus the field of planetary geologic mapping has been evolving rapidly to embrace the use of new data and modern technology and to accommodate the growing needs of planetary exploration. Planetary geologic maps have been published by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) since 1962 (Hackman, 1962). Over this time, numerous maps of several planetary bodies have been prepared at a variety of scales and projections using the best available image and topographic bases. Early geologic map bases commonly consisted of hand-mosaicked photographs or airbrushed shaded-relief views and geologic linework was manually drafted using mylar bases and ink drafting pens. Map publishing required a tedious process of scribing, color peel-coat preparation, typesetting, and photo-laboratory work. Beginning in the 1990s, inexpensive computing, display capability and user-friendly illustration software allowed maps to be drawn using digital tools rather than pen and ink, and mylar bases became obsolete

  8. Perspectives in geology. Circular 525

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    The papers in this symposium present diverse perspectives in geology, mineral resources, paleontology, and environmental concerns. Papers within the scope of EDB have been entered individually into the data base. (ACR)

  9. A primer in lunar geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, R. (Editor); Schultz, P. H. (Editor)

    1974-01-01

    Primary topics in lunar geology range from the evolution of the solar system to lunar photointerpretation, impact crater formation, and sampling to analyses on various Apollo lunar landing site geomorphologies.

  10. Integration of geological remote-sensing techniques in subsurface analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taranik, James V.; Trautwein, Charles M.

    1976-01-01

    Geological remote sensing is defined as the study of the Earth utilizing electromagnetic radiation which is either reflected or emitted from its surface in wavelengths ranging from 0.3 micrometre to 3 metres. The natural surface of the Earth is composed of a diversified combination of surface cover types, and geologists must understand the characteristics of surface cover types to successfully evaluate remotely-sensed data. In some areas landscape surface cover changes throughout the year, and analysis of imagery acquired at different times of year can yield additional geological information. Integration of different scales of analysis allows landscape features to be effectively interpreted. Interpretation of the static elements displayed on imagery is referred to as an image interpretation. Image interpretation is dependent upon: (1) the geologist's understanding of the fundamental aspects of image formation, and (2.) his ability to detect, delineate, and classify image radiometric data; recognize radiometric patterns; and identify landscape surface characteristics as expressed on imagery. A geologic interpretation integrates surface characteristics of the landscape with subsurface geologic relationships. Development of a geologic interpretation from imagery is dependent upon: (1) the geologist's ability to interpret geomorphic processes from their static surface expression as landscape characteristics on imagery, (2) his ability to conceptualize the dynamic processes responsible for the evolution 6f interpreted geologic relationships (his ability to develop geologic models). The integration of geologic remote-sensing techniques in subsurface analysis is illustrated by development of an exploration model for ground water in the Tucson area of Arizona, and by the development of an exploration model for mineralization in southwest Idaho.

  11. Visualization of three dimensional earth fissures in geological structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, L.; Yu, J.; Liu, Y.; Gong, H.; Chen, Y.; Chen, B.

    2015-11-01

    This paper proposes a new method for visualizing the earth fissures of geological structure in three dimensional (3-D) domains on the basis of the seismic data and features information of earth fissures. The seismic data were interpreted for obtaining the stratagraphic data with various lithological information and the depth of the earth fissures. The spatial distribution of the ground fissures including the dip, strike and width were digitalized on an ArcGIS platform. Firstly, the 3-D geological structure was rebuilt using the Generalized Tri-Prism (GTP) method which is a real solid method for displaying geological structures. The GTP method can reflect the inner material of the strata and can simulate complicated geological structures such as faults and stratagraphic pinch outs. The upper and lower surfaces of each stratum consist of Triangle Irregular Networks (TIN). The inner solid between the two surfaces are a series of triangular prisms. Secondly, since the width of the ground fissure gradually decreases with depth, multiple edge lines of the earth fissures on the bottom stratum surface are deduced on the basis of the fissure characteristics. Then, the model of the earth fissures consisting of a series of triangular pyramids can be constructed using these points and the edge lines. A cutting operation was carried out on the 3-D geological structure using this ground fissures model. If the surfaces of the ground fissures model intersects with the GTPs in the geological structure model, new GTPs were generated within the local regions. During this process, the topological relations between TIN, triangular prism and lines were reconstructed so that the visualization of ground fissures in the geological structure model is realized. This method can facilitate the mechanism for studying fissures and avoid the gaps between the fissure solid and the geological structure to accurately reflect their 3-D characteristics.

  12. Serial publications commonly cited in technical bibliographies of the United States Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1967-01-01

    This compilation is a listing of the serial publications cited in the following publications of the United States Geological Survey: Geophysical Abstracts, Abstracts of North American Geology, Bibliography of North American Geology, and Bibliography of Hydrology of the United States. A supplement of publications added since the main list was compiled begins on page 83. New journals cited in Geophysical . Abstracts are listed in each monthly issue. Serial publications cited in each annual bibliography are listed in that volume.

  13. Areal geology of the Little Cone quadrangle, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bush, Alfred Lerner; Marsh, O.T.; Taylor, Richard Bartlett

    1958-01-01

    The Little Cone quadrangle includes an area of about 59 square miles in eastern San Miguel County in southwestern Colorado. It lies within and adjacent to the northeastern boundary of the Colorado Plateau physiographic province. The precipitous front of the San Juan Mountains lies a few miles to the east and northeast, and an outlier of the San Juans, the San Miguel Mountains, lies about a mile to the south. The quadrangle contains features characteristic of both the plateaus and the mountains, and has been affected by geologic events and processes of two different geologic environments.

  14. Central American geologic map project

    SciTech Connect

    Dengo, G.

    1986-07-01

    During the Northeast Quadrant Panel meeting of the Circum-Pacific Map Project held in Mexico City, February 1985, Central American panel members proposed and adopted plans for compiling a geologic map of Central America, probably at a scale of 1:500,000. A local group with participants from each country was organized and coordinated by Rolando Castillo, director, Central American School of Geology, University of Costa Rica, for the geologic aspects, and Fernando Rudin, director, Geographic Institute of Costa Rica, for the topographic base. In 1956, the US Geological Survey published a geologic map of the region at a scale of 1:1 million. Subsequent topographic and geologic mapping projects have provided a large amount of new data. The entire area is now covered by topographic maps at a scale of 1:50,000, and these maps have been used in several countries as a base for geologic mapping. Another regional map, the Metallogenic Map of Central America (scale = 1:2 million), was published in 1969 by the Central American Research Institute for Industry (ICAITI) with a generalized but updated geologic base map. Between 1969 and 1980, maps for each country were published by local institutions: Guatemala-Belize at 1:500,000, Honduras at 1:500,000, El Salvador at 1:100,000, Nicaragua at 1:1 million, Costa Rica at 1:200,000, and Panama at 1:1 million. This information, in addition to that of newly mapped areas, served as the base for the Central American part of the Geologic-Tectonic Map of the Caribbean Region (scale = 1:2.5 million), published by the US Geological Survey in 1980, and also fro the Northeast Quadrant Maps of the Circum-Pacific Region. The new project also involves bathymetric and geologic mapping of the Pacific and Caribbean margins of the Central American Isthmus. A substantial amount of new information of the Middle America Trench has been acquired through DSDP Legs 67 and 84.

  15. Q&A: Geological historian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witze, Alexandra

    2015-04-01

    The first geological map of a nation was made 200 years ago by British surveyor William Smith; the rediscovery of a first-edition copy in the archives of the Geological Society of London was announced last month (see go.nature.com/oogpht). As researchers gather for a conference to celebrate the anniversary of the 1815 chart of England and Wales, John Henry, chair of the society's history group, talks about the map and its pioneering creator.

  16. An overview of venus geology.

    PubMed

    Saunders, R S; Arvidson, R E; Head, J W; Schaber, G G; Stofan, E R; Solomon, S C

    1991-04-12

    The Magellan spacecraft is producing comprehensive image and altimetry data for the planet Venus. Initial geologic mapping of the planet reveals a surface dominated by volcanic plains and characterized by extensive volcanism and tectonic deformation. Geologic and geomorphologic units include plains terrains, tectonic terrains, and surficial material units. Understanding the origin of these units and the relation between them is an ongoing task of the Magellan team. PMID:17769270

  17. Remote sensing aids geologic mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knepper, D. H., Jr.; Marrs, R. W.

    1972-01-01

    Remote sensing techniques were applied to general geologic mapping along the Rio Grande rift zone in central Colorado. A geologic map of about 1,100 square miles was prepared utilizing (1) prior published and unpublished maps, (2) detailed and reconnaissance field maps made for this study, and (3) remote sensor data interpretations. The map is used for interpretation of the complex Cenozoic tectonic and geomorphic histories of the area.

  18. Generalized surficial geologic map of the Fort Irwin area, San Bernadino: Chapter B in Geology and geophysics applied to groundwater hydrology at Fort Irwin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, David M.; Menges, Christopher M.; Lidke, David J.

    2014-01-01

    The geology and landscape of the Fort Irwin area, typical of many parts of the Mojave Desert, consist of rugged mountains separated by broad alluviated valleys that form the main coarse-resolution features of the geologic map. Crystalline and sedimentary rocks, Mesozoic and older in age, form most of the mountains with lesser accumulations of Miocene sedimentary and volcanic rocks. In detail, the area exhibits a fairly complex distribution of surficial deposits resulting from diverse rock sources and geomorphology that has been driven by topographic changes caused by recent and active faulting. Depositional environments span those typical of the Mojave Desert: alluvial fans on broad piedmonts, major intermittent streams along valley floors, eolian sand dunes and sheets, and playas in closed valleys that lack through-going washes. Erosional environments include rocky mountains, smooth gently sloping pediments, and badlands in readily eroded sediment. All parts of the landscape, from regional distribution of mountains, valleys, and faults to details of degree of soil development in surface materials, are portrayed by the surficial geologic map. Many of these attributes govern infiltration and recharge, and the surface distribution of permeable rock units such as Miocene sedimentary and volcanic rocks provides a basis for evaluating potential groundwater storage. Quaternary faults are widespread in the Fort Irwin area and include sinistral, east-striking faults that characterize the central swath of the area and the contrasting dextral, northwest-striking faults that border the east and west margins. Bedrock distribution and thickness of valley-fill deposits are controlled by modern and past faulting, and faults on the map help to identify targets for groundwater exploration.

  19. Space shuttle main engine vibration data base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewallen, Pat

    1987-01-01

    In order to evaluate Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) vibration data without having to constantly replay analog tapes, the SSME Vibration Data Base was developed. This data base contains data that have been digitized at a high sample rate for the entire test duration. It provides quick and efficient recall capabilities for numerious computation and display routines. The data base components are described as well as some of the compution and display features.

  20. 22. View showing main anchor arm, as viewed from main ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. View showing main anchor arm, as viewed from main cantilever arm looking south. Note upper chord eyebar arrangement. - Williamstown-Marietta Bridge, Spanning Ohio River between Williamstown & Marietta, Williamstown, Wood County, WV

  1. 29. MAIN CONTROL ROOM, PANELS WEST OF MAIN CONTROL AREA, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. MAIN CONTROL ROOM, PANELS WEST OF MAIN CONTROL AREA, LOOKING SOUTH (LOCATION Q) - Shippingport Atomic Power Station, On Ohio River, 25 miles Northwest of Pittsburgh, Shippingport, Beaver County, PA

  2. 28. MAIN CONTROL ROOM, PANELS WEST OF MAIN CONTROL AREA, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. MAIN CONTROL ROOM, PANELS WEST OF MAIN CONTROL AREA, LOOKING NORTH (LOCATION Q) - Shippingport Atomic Power Station, On Ohio River, 25 miles Northwest of Pittsburgh, Shippingport, Beaver County, PA

  3. Geologic Evidence of Internal Activity on Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This six frame mosaic of Europa's surface shows a variety of interesting geologic features. The prominent 'X' near the center of the mosaic is the junction of two 'triplebands.' Triplebands are seen here to be made up of parallel sets of ridges, and can be traced for over 1,600 kilometers (off the image) across Europa's surface. Directly to the south of the 'X' is a 75 by 100 kilometer (km) area where the icy crust of Europa has been disrupted by activity from below. This activity could be motion in liquid water, convection in warm ice, or some other process. Many icy blocks, some as large as 10 km across, have been rafted from the edges of this zone. Also seen in this mosaic are various pits and domes that range in size from a few kilometers to nearly 20 km across. These geologic features provide evidence of thermal activity below Europa's surface at the time that the features formed.

    These images were obtained by the Solid State Imaging (CCD) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft during its sixth orbit around Jupiter. North is to the top of the picture, with the sun illuminating the scene from the right. The center of this mosaic is located near 10 degrees north latitude, 271 degrees west longitude. The image, which is about 300 by 300 km across, was acquired at a resolution of 180 meters per picture element.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov.

  4. Community Perceptions of Geologic Sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong-Parodi, G. M.; Farrell, A.; Ray, I.

    2007-12-01

    Political momentum for mitigating climate change through the use of large-scale energy technologies such as geologic sequestration is growing. This paper explores the views of communities living near an actual or potential geologic sequestration project site. Given the potential importance of geologic sequestration to U.S. energy policy, what might explain and influence the views of this technology by the community-members. Through focus groups and one-on-one interviews, we gathered the views of two communities in California's Central Valley. One community close to a Department of Energy sponsored geologic sequestration pilot-project and another similarly located community that is not actually a project site. Our analysis combined a review of the history of the communities with other technologies and their social and economic indicators with the results of the focus groups and interviews. The results suggest that the sense of community empowerment, as contextualized by the history of the community and socio-economic indicators, is an important indicator of positive views of geologic sequestration. In addition, the results indicate community members prefer to be informed about geologic sequestration from a variety of sources (e.g., academia and industry).

  5. Global Geologic Map of Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doggett, T.; Figueredo, P.; Greeley, R.; Hare, T.; Kolb, E.; Mullins, K.; Senske, D.; Tanaka, K.; Weiser, S.

    2008-01-01

    Europa, with its indications of a sub-ice ocean, is of keen interest to astrobiology and planetary geology. Knowledge of the global distribution and timing of Europan geologic units is a key step for the synthesis of data from the Galileo mission, and for the planning of future missions to the satellite. The first geologic map of Europa was produced at a hemisphere scale with low resolution Voyager data. Following the acquisition of higher resolution data by the Galileo mission, researchers have identified surface units and determined sequences of events in relatively small areas of Europa through geologic mapping using images at various resolutions acquired by Galileo's Solid State Imaging camera. These works provided a local to subregional perspective and employed different criteria for the determination and naming of units. Unified guidelines for the identification, mapping and naming of Europan geologic units were put forth by and employed in regional-to-hemispheric scale mapping which is now being expanded into a global geologic map. A global photomosaic of Galileo and Voyager data was used as a basemap for mapping in ArcGIS, following suggested methodology of all-stratigraphy for planetary mapping. The following units have been defined in global mapping and are listed in stratigraphic order from oldest to youngest: ridged plains material, Argadnel Regio unit, dark plains material, lineaments, disrupted plains material, lenticulated plains material and Chaos material.

  6. Floods of May 2006 and April 2007 in Southern Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lombard, Pamela J.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey Maine Water Science Center has worked with the Federal Emergency Management Agency for decades to document the magnitude and extent of major floods in Maine. Reports describing the May 2006 and April 2007 floods in southern Maine are examples of this cooperative relationship. The documentation of peak stream elevations and peak streamflow magnitudes and recurrence intervals provides essential information for the delineation of flood plains and for flood-mitigation decisions by local, State, and Federal emergency management officials.

  7. Health benefits of geologic materials and geologic processes.

    PubMed

    Finkelman, Robert B

    2006-12-01

    The reemerging field of Medical Geology is concerned with the impacts of geologic materials and geologic processes on animal and human health. Most medical geology research has been focused on health problems caused by excess or deficiency of trace elements, exposure to ambient dust, and on other geologically related health problems or health problems for which geoscience tools, techniques, or databases could be applied. Little, if any, attention has been focused on the beneficial health effects of rocks, minerals, and geologic processes. These beneficial effects may have been recognized as long as two million years ago and include emotional, mental, and physical health benefits. Some of the earliest known medicines were derived from rocks and minerals. For thousands of years various clays have been used as an antidote for poisons. "Terra sigillata," still in use today, may have been the first patented medicine. Many trace elements, rocks, and minerals are used today in a wide variety of pharmaceuticals and health care products. There is also a segment of society that believes in the curative and preventative properties of crystals (talismans and amulets). Metals and trace elements are being used in some of today's most sophisticated medical applications. Other recent examples of beneficial effects of geologic materials and processes include epidemiological studies in Japan that have identified a wide range of health problems (such as muscle and joint pain, hemorrhoids, burns, gout, etc.) that may be treated by one or more of nine chemically distinct types of hot springs, and a study in China indicating that residential coal combustion may be mobilizing sufficient iodine to prevent iodine deficiency disease. PMID:17159275

  8. Health benefits of geologic materials and geologic processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finkelman, R.B.

    2006-01-01

    The reemerging field of Medical Geology is concerned with the impacts of geologic materials and geologic processes on animal and human health. Most medical geology research has been focused on health problems caused by excess or deficiency of trace elements, exposure to ambient dust, and on other geologically related health problems or health problems for which geoscience tools, techniques, or databases could be applied. Little, if any, attention has been focused on the beneficial health effects of rocks, minerals, and geologic processes. These beneficial effects may have been recognized as long as two million years ago and include emotional, mental, and physical health benefits. Some of the earliest known medicines were derived from rocks and minerals. For thousands of years various clays have been used as an antidote for poisons. "Terra sigillata," still in use today, may have been the first patented medicine. Many trace elements, rocks, and minerals are used today in a wide variety of pharmaceuticals and health care products. There is also a segment of society that believes in the curative and preventative properties of crystals (talismans and amulets). Metals and trace elements are being used in some of today's most sophisticated medical applications. Other recent examples of beneficial effects of geologic materials and processes include epidemiological studies in Japan that have identified a wide range of health problems (such as muscle and joint pain, hemorrhoids, burns, gout, etc.) that may be treated by one or more of nine chemically distinct types of hot springs, and a study in China indicating that residential coal combustion may be mobilizing sufficient iodine to prevent iodine deficiency disease. ?? 2006 MDPI. All rights reserved.

  9. Internet-based information system of digital geological data providing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuon, Egor; Soukhanov, Mikhail; Markov, Kirill

    2015-04-01

    is the web-service, which realizes the interaction of all parts of the system and controls whole the way of the request from the user to the database and back, adopted to the GeoSciML and EarthResourceML view. The experience of creation the Internet-based information system of digital geological data providing, and also previous works, including the developing of web-service of NGKIS-system, allows to tell, that technological realization of presenting Russian geological-cartographical data with using of international standards is possible. While realizing, it could be some difficulties, associated with geological material depth. Russian informational geological model is more deep and wide, than foreign. This means the main problem of using international standards and formats: Russian geological data presentation is possible only with decreasing the data detalisation. But, such a problem becomes not very important, if the service publishes also Russian vocabularies, not associated with international vocabularies. In this case, the international format could be the interchange format to change data between Russian users. The integration into the international projects reaches developing of the correlation schemes between Russian and foreign classificators and vocabularies.

  10. Geologic Landforms on Io

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Shown here is one of the highest-resolution images of Io (Latitude: -60 to +20 degrees, Longitude: 150 to 230 degrees) acquired by the Galileo spacecraft, revealing a great variety of landforms. There are rugged mountains several miles high, layered materials forming plateaus, and many irregular depressions called volcanic calderas. Similar landforms were seen near Io's south pole by the Voyager spacecraft, but Galileo has revealed that such landforms are ubiquitous. Several of the dark, flow-like features correspond to hot spots, and may be active lava flows. There are no landforms resembling impact craters, as the volcanism covers the surface with new deposits much more rapidly than the flux of comets and asteroids can create large impact craters.

    North is to the top of the picture and the sun illuminates the surface from the left. The image covers an area 2000 kilometers wide and the smallest features that can be discerned are 2.5 kilometers in size. This image was taken on November 6th, 1996, at a range of 245,719 kilometers by the Solid State Imaging (CCD) system on the Galileo Spacecraft.

    Launched in October 1989, Galileo entered orbit around Jupiter on December 7, 1995. The spacecraft's mission is to conduct detailed studies of the giant planet, its largest moons and the Jovian magnetic environment. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the Galileo mission home page on the World Wide Web at http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  11. Morphology, geology and geochemistry of the "Salar del Gran Bajo del Gualicho" (Rio Negro, Argentina)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Angelucci, A.; Barbieri, M.; Brodtkorb, A.; Ciccacci, S.; Civitelli, G.; De Barrio, R.; Di, Filippo M.; Fredi, P.; Friedman, I.; Lombardi, S.; Schalamuk, A.I.; Toro, B.

    1996-01-01

    A multidisciplinary study of the Gran Bajo del Gualicho area (Rio Negro - Argentina) was carried out; the aim was to delineate its geological and geomorphological evolution and to estabilish the genesis of salts filling the depression. Climatic conditions were analized first to individuate their role in the present morphogenetic processes; moreover the main morphological features of present landscape were examined as well as the stratigraphy of the outcropping formations, and of the Gran Bajo del Gualicho Formation in particular. Finally, a possible geomorphological evolution of the studied area was traced. Geophysical analyses allowed to estabilish that the paleosurface shaped on the crystalline basement is strongly uneven and shows evidence of the strong tectonic phases it underwent. The result of isotope analyses confirmed that the salt deposits on the Gran Bajo del Gualicho bottom were produced by fresh water evaporation, while strontium isotope ratio suggested that such waters were responsible for solubilization of more ancient evaporitic deposits.

  12. The Geologic Story of the Uinta Mountains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, Wallace R.

    1969-01-01

    The opening of the West after the Civil War greatly stimulated early geologic exploration west of the 100th Meridian. One of the areas first studied, the Uinta Mountains region, gained wide attention as a result of the explorations of three Territorial Surveys, one headed by John Wesley Powell, one by Clarence King, and one by Ferdinand V. Hayden. Completion of the Union Pacific Railroad across southern Wyoming 100 years ago, in 1869, materially assisted geologic exploration, and the railheads at Green River and Rock Springs greatly simplified the outfitting of expeditions into the mountains. The overlap of the Powell, King, and Hayden surveys in the Uinta Mountains led to efforts that were less concerted than competitive and not without acrimony. Many parts of the area were seen by all three parties at almost the same time. Duplication was inevitable, of course, but all three surveys contributed vast quantities of new knowledge to the storehouse of geology, and many now-basic concepts arose from their observations. Powell's area of interest extended mainly southward from the Uinta Mountains to the Grand Canyon, including the boundless plateaus and canyons of southern Utah and northern Arizona. King's survey extended eastward from the High Sierra in California to Cheyenne, Wyoming, and encompassed a swath of country more than 100 miles wide. Hayden's explorations covered an immense region of mountains and basins from Yellowstone Park in Wyoming southeast throughout most of Colorado. Powell first entered the Uinta Mountains in the fall of 1868, having traveled north around the east end of the range from the White River country to Green River, Wyoming, then south over a circuitous route to Flaming Gorge and Browns Park, and finally back to the White River, where he spent the winter. In 1869, after reexamining much of the area visited the previous season, Powell embarked on his famous 'first boat trip' down the Green and Colorado Rivers. This trip was more exploratory

  13. The 3D Elevation Program: summary for Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Elevation data are essential to a broad range of applications, including forest resources management, wildlife and habitat management, national security, recreation, and many others. For the State of Maine, elevation data are critical for natural resources conservation, flood risk management, forest resources management, agriculture and precision farming, coastal zone management, and other business uses. Today, high-density light detection and ranging (lidar) data are the primary sources for deriving elevation models and other datasets. Federal, State, Tribal, and local agencies work in partnership to (1) replace data that are older and of lower quality and (2) provide coverage where publicly accessible data do not exist. A joint goal of State and Federal partners is to acquire consistent, statewide coverage to support existing and emerging applications enabled by lidar data. The National Enhanced Elevation Assessment evaluated multiple elevation data acquisition options to determine the optimal data quality and data replacement cycle relative to cost to meet the identified requirements of the user community. The evaluation demonstrated that lidar acquisition at quality level 2 for the conterminous United States and quality level 5 ifsar data for Alaska with a 6- to 10-year acquisition cycle provided the highest benefit/cost ratios. The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative selected an 8-year acquisition cycle for the respective quality levels. 3DEP, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Office of Management and Budget Circular A–16 lead agency for terrestrial elevation data, responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other 3D representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.

  14. Geology of Sarawak deep water and its surroundings

    SciTech Connect

    Ismail, M.I.; Mohamad, A.M.; Ganesan, M.S.; Aziz, S.A. )

    1994-07-01

    A geological and geophysical investigation based primarily on seismic data indicates that four tectonostratigraphic zonations are recognizable in the Sarawak deep water and its surroundings. Zone A is a 7-8-km-thick Tertiary sedimentary basin in Sarawak deep water characterized by north-south-trending buried hills, extensional fault-bounded features, and local occurrences of compressional structures, and is separated from the northwest Sabah platform (zone B) by a major north-south-trending basin margin fault. This margin fault is distinct from the northwest-southeast transform fault known as Baram-Tinjar Line. The northwest Sabah platform, an attenuated continental crust that underwent late Mesozoic-Tertiary crystal stretching and rifting, is characterized by northeast-southwest-tending rift systems and generally up to 4 km-thick sedimentary cover. The leading edge of the northwest Sabah platform that was subducted beneath the northwest Borneo crust is marked by the Sabah trough (zone C). The western Sarawak deep water is occupied by a 13-km-thick, north-south-trending basin, the west Luconia delta province (zone D), demonstrating post mid-Miocene deltaic growth faults and toe-thrusts. Crustal offsets of the South China Sea Basin, north-south-trending basin margin fault between zones A and B, and extensional and compressional structures in zone A are evidence for north-south-directed transform motions leading to the development of the Sarawak deep-water Tertiary basin. Four main sedimentation phases describe the sedimentation history in Sarawak deep water and its surroundings. Oligocene-Miocene coastal plain sediments form the main hydrocarbon plays in the Sarawak deep water, and the numerous occurrences of amplitude anomalies clearly suggest a working hydrocarbon charge system.

  15. Geology of 243 Ida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, R.; Greeley, R.; Pappalardo, R.; Asphaug, E.; Moore, J. M.; Morrison, D.; Belton, M. J. S.; Carr, M.; Chapman, C. R.; Geissler, P.; Greenberg, R.; Granahan, James; Head, J. W., III; Kirk, R.; McEwen, A.; Lee, P.; Thomas, P. C.; Veverka, J.

    1996-03-01

    The surface of 243 Ida is dominated by the effects of impacts. No complex crater morphologies are observed. A complete range of crater degradation states is present, which also reveals optical maturation of the surface (darkening and reddening of materials with increasing exposure age). Regions of bright material associated with the freshest craters might be ballistically emplaced deposits or the result of seismic disturbance of loosely-bound surface materials. Diameter/depth ratios for fresh craters on Ida are ∼1:6.5, similar to Gaspra results, but greater than the 1:5 ratios common on other rocky bodies. Contributing causes include rim degradation by whole-body “ringing,” relatively thin ejecta blankets around crater rims, or an extended strength gradient in near-surface materials due to low gravitational self-packing. Grooves probably represent expressions in surface debris of reactivated fractures in the deeper interior. Isolated positive relief features as large as 150 m are probably ejecta blocks related to large impacts. Evidence for the presence of debris on the surface includes resolved ejecta blocks, mass-wasting scars, contrasts in color and albedo of fresh crater materials, and albedo streaks oriented down local slopes. Color data indicate relatively uniform calcium abundance in pyroxenes and constant pyroxene/olivine ratio. A large, relatively blue unit across the northern polar area is probably related to regolith processes involving ejecta from Azzurra rather than representing internal compositional heterogeneity. A small number of bluer, brighter craters are randomly distributed across the surface, unlike on Gaspra where these features are concentrated along ridges. This implies that debris on Ida is less mobile and/or consistently thicker than on Gaspra. Estimates of the average depth of mobile materials derived from chute depths (20-60 m), grooves (≥30 m), and shallowing of the largest degraded craters (20-50 m minimum, ∼100 m maximum

  16. Geology of 243 Ida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sullivan, R.; Greeley, R.; Pappalardo, R.; Asphaug, E.; Moore, Johnnie N.; Morrison, D.; Belton, M.J.S.; Carr, M.; Chapman, C.R.; Geissler, P.; Greenberg, R.; Granahan, J.; Head, J. W., III; Kirk, R.; McEwen, A.; Lee, P.; Thomas, P.C.; Veverka, J.

    1996-01-01

    The surface of 243 Ida is dominated by the effects of impacts. No complex crater morphologies are observed. A complete range of crater degradation states is present, which also reveals optical maturation of the surface (darkening and reddening of materials with increasing exposure age). Regions of bright material associated with the freshest craters might be ballistically emplaced deposits or the result of seismic disturbance of loosely-bound surface materials. Diameter/depth ratios for fresh craters on Ida are ???1:6.5, similar to Gaspra results, but greater than the 1:5 ratios common on other rocky bodies. Contributing causes include rim degradation by whole-body "ringing," relatively thin ejecta blankets around crater rims, or an extended strength gradient in near-surface materials due to low gravitational self-packing. Grooves probably represent expressions in surface debris of reactivated fractures in the deeper interior. Isolated positive relief features as large as 150 m are probably ejecta blocks related to large impacts. Evidence for the presence of debris on the surface includes resolved ejecta blocks, mass-wasting scars, contrasts in color and albedo of fresh crater materials, and albedo streaks oriented down local slopes. Color data indicate relatively uniform calcium abundance in pyroxenes and constant pyroxene/olivine ratio. A large, relatively blue unit across the northern polar area is probably related to regolith processes involving ejecta from Azzurra rather than representing internal compositional heterogeneity. A small number of bluer, brighter craters are randomly distributed across the surface, unlike on Gaspra where these features are concentrated along ridges. This implies that debris on Ida is less mobile and/or consistently thicker than on Gaspra. Estimates of the average depth of mobile materials derived from chute depths (20-60 m), grooves (???30 m), and shallowing of the largest degraded craters (20-50 m minimum, ???100 m maximum

  17. The Necessity of Geologic Disposal

    SciTech Connect

    R. Linden

    2004-07-01

    Nuclear wastes are the radioactive byproducts of nuclear power generation, nuclear weapons production, and other uses of nuclear material. Experts from around the world agree that deep geologic disposal of nuclear waste in a mined repository is the most environmentally sound means of removing these potential sources of radiation from interaction with the biosphere. Of the 360 millirem of background radiation received annually by the average American, from both natural and man-made sources, less than 1 millirem results from the nuclear fuel cycle. Spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste, destined for geologic disposal, are located at 126 sites in 39 states. The proposed repository site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is far more isolated from the general population than any sites where these radioactive materials are presently located. Only solid forms of high-level wastes will be transported for disposal in a geologic repository. For more than 50 years, nuclear materials have been safely transported in North America, Europe, and Asia, without a single significant radiation release. Since the 1950s, select panels from the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council and interagency advisory groups, and international experts selected by the OECD/Nuclear Energy Agency, have examined the environmental, ethical, and intergenerational aspects of nuclear waste disposal, plus alternatives to geologic disposal. All have concluded that deep geologic disposal in a mined repository is clearly the preferred option. The concept of deep geologic disposal is based on the analogy to ore deposits, which are formed deep within the Earth's crust, commonly remain isolated from the biosphere for millions to billions of years, and are, generally, extremely difficult to detect. Before selecting the unsaturated tuffs at Yucca Mountain, DOE evaluated salt formations, basalts, and both crystalline and sedimentary rocks. Other nations generating nuclear power also plan to use

  18. Faithful Contrastive Features in Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tesar, Bruce

    2006-01-01

    This article pursues the idea of inferring aspects of phonological underlying forms directly from surface contrasts by looking at optimality theoretic linguistic systems (Prince & Smolensky, 1993/2004). The main result proves that linguistic systems satisfying certain conditions have the faithful contrastive feature property: Whenever 2 distinct…

  19. GeoSciML version 3: A GML application for geologic information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    International Union of Geological Sciences., I. C.; Richard, S. M.

    2011-12-01

    After 2 years of testing and development, XML schema for GeoSciML version 3 are now ready for application deployment. GeoSciML draws from many geoscience data modelling efforts to establish a common suite of feature types to represent information associated with geologic maps (materials, structures, and geologic units) and observations including structure data, samples, and chemical analyses. After extensive testing and use case analysis, in December 2008 the CGI Interoperability Working Group (IWG) released GeoSciML 2.0 as an application schema for basic geological information. GeoSciML 2.0 is in use to deliver geologic data by the OneGeology Europe portal, the Geological Survey of Canada Groundwater Information Network (wet GIN), and the Auscope Mineral Resources portal. GeoSciML to version 3.0 is updated to OGC Geography Markup Language v3.2, re-engineered patterns for association of element values with controlled vocabulary concepts, incorporation of ISO19156 Observation and Measurement constructs for representing numeric and categorical values and for representing analytical data, incorporation of EarthResourceML to represent mineral occurrences and mines, incorporation of the GeoTime model to represent GSSP and stratigraphic time scale, and refactoring of the GeoSciML namespace to follow emerging ISO practices for decoupling of dependencies between standardized namespaces. These changes will make it easier for data providers to link to standard vocabulary and registry services. The depth and breadth of GeoSciML remains largely unchanged, covering the representation of geologic units, earth materials and geologic structures. ISO19156 elements and patterns are used to represent sampling features such as boreholes and rock samples, as well as geochemical and geochronologic measurements. Geologic structures include shear displacement structures (brittle faults and ductile shears), contacts, folds, foliations, lineations and structures with no preferred

  20. MAINE MUSSEL SEED CONSERVATION AREAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    SEED shows point locations of Maine mussel seed conservation areas at 1:24,000 scale. Data for this coverage were screen digitized on a 1:24000 scale base using descriptions contained in Maine Department of Marine Resources (MDMR) rules. Coastal arcs from Maine Office of GIS 1:24...

  1. Understanding Oscillations of the Geological Carbon Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachan, A.; Payne, J.; Saltzman, M.; Thomas, E.; Kump, L. R.

    2015-12-01

    The geological cycling of carbon ties together the sedimentary reservoirs with Earth's biosphere and climate. Perturbations to this coupled system are recorded in the carbon isotopic composition of marine limestones (δ13Ccarb). In the past decade numerous intervals of large-amplitude oscillations in δ13Ccarbhave been identified, with a variety of explanations proposed for individual events. Yet, when data spanning the past ~1 Ga are viewed as a whole, it is clear that large-scale oscillations are a common feature of the carbon isotopic record. The ubiquity of oscillations suggests that they may share a single origin rather than having many disparate causes. Here we present a simple two-box model of the geological carbon cycle exhibiting such oscillations: the Carbon-Cycle Oscillator. Analogous to a damped mass-spring system, the burial fluxes of carbonate and phosphate in the model act like friction, whereas P supply and Corg burial act like the restoring force of the spring. When the sensitivities of P supply and Corg burial to the sizes of the C and P reservoirs, respectively, increase above a critical threshold, the model exhibits oscillations upon perturbation. We suggest that intervals with large oscillations in bulk ocean-atmosphere δ13C are characterized by a greater sensitivity of the C:P burial-ratio and ALK:P weathering-ratio to the state of the ocean-atmosphere carbon pool. In addition, moderating of the slope of that dependence in general can account for the observed decrease in the amplitude of oscillations over the past billion years. We hypothesize that factors with a unidirectional trajectory during Earth history (e.g. increased oxygenation of the deep ocean, and evolution of pelagic calcifiers) led to a decrease in the Earth System's gain and increase in its resilience over geologic time, even in the face of continuing perturbations from the solid Earth and extraterrestrial realms.

  2. The importance of geobotany in geological remote sensing applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mouat, D. A.; Collins, W.; Elvidge, C.; Lyon, R. J. P.; Labovitz, M. L.; Milton, N. M.; Parrish, J.; Rock, B. N.; Wickland, D. E.; Arp, G. K.

    1983-01-01

    A description of the different effects of variations in ground cover vegetation on remote sensing data in geological and prospecting applications is presented. The different variations are divided into three categories: structural; taxonomic and spectral. Structural variations include changes in the physical appearance of ground cover which may be detectable by a remote sensing instrument. Taxonomic variations occur in those plant communities which are associated with specific geological regions. Spectral variations are due to specific geochemical stresses which may be useful in characterizing geological features at a site. The need for a general scheme for the interpretation of geobotanical remote sensing data is discussed: Geosat data for the field reflectance spectra of different tree species in West Virginia are presented as examples.

  3. Geologic exploration: The contribution of LANDSAT-4 thematic mapper data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everett, J. R.; Dykstra, J. D.; Sheffield, C. A.

    1983-01-01

    The major advantages of the TM data over that of MSS systems are increased spatial resolution and a greater number of narrow, strategically placed spectral bands. The 30 meter pixel size permits finer definition of ground features and improves reliability of the photointerpretation of geologic structure. The value of the spatial data increases relative to the value of the spectral data as soil and vegetation cover increase. In arid areas with good exposure, it is possible with careful digital processing and some inventive color compositing to produce enough spectral differentiation of rock types and thereby produce facsimiles of standard geologic maps with a minimum of field work or reference to existing maps. Hue-saturation value images are compared with geological maps of Death Valley, California, the Big Horn/Wind River Basin of Wyoming, the area around Cement, Oklahoma, and Detroit. False color composites of the Ontario region are also examined.

  4. Geological Implications of a Physical Libration on Enceladus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurford, T. A.; Bills, B. G.; Helfenstein, P.; Greenberg, R.; Hoppa, G. V.; Hamilton, D. P.

    2008-01-01

    Given the non-spherical shape of Enceladus (Thomas et al., 2007), the satellite will experience gravitational torques that will cause it to physically librate as it orbits Saturn. Physical libration would produce a diurnal oscillation in the longitude of Enceladus tidal bulge which, could have a profound effect on the diurnal stresses experienced by the surface of the satellite. Although Cassini ISS has placed an observational upper limit on Enceladus libration amplitude of F < 1.5deg (Porco et al., 2006), smaller amplitudes can still have geologically significant consequences. Here we present the first detailed description of how physical libration affects tidal stresses and how those stresses then might affect geological processes including crack formation and propagation, south polar eruption activity, and tidal heating. Our goal is to provide a framework for testing the hypothesis that geologic features on Enceladus are produced by tidal stresses from diurnal physical and optical librations of the satellite.

  5. Geology of Barents Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Riis, F.; Vollset, J.

    1984-09-01

    The Barents Sea is situated on the continental shelf between Norway, the Spitsbergen Islands, and Novaya Zemlya. The main structural framework of the area was formed during the Caledonian and Hercynian orogenies, whereas the western parts were reactivated by the Kimmerian and Alpine orogenies. Because of the complex opening of the Greenland Norwegian Sea, important tertiary reactivation of Mesozoic normal faults occurred along southwest-northeast-trending systems of wrench faults. Owing to substantial erosion in the late Tertiary, the subsidence history and thermal development are more difficult to unravel in this area than in other places along the Norwegian Shelf. The erosion products were deposited in a huge sedimentary wedge extending onto the oceanic crust. The hydrocarbon discoveries in the Troms area in the southern part of the Barents Sea are encouraging for further exploration. However, the petroleum potential for large areas is not well known at this stage.

  6. Petroleum geology of Bangladesh

    SciTech Connect

    Woodside, P.R.

    1983-03-01

    The easternmost part of the Bengal foredeep or Surma basin is the most prospective area for finding additional gas because the degree of folding diminishes markedly in a westward direction. The foothills of the Tripura-Chittagong area and the Bengal basin (sometimes called Bengal foredeep or Surma basin) are locations of the gas fields in Bangladesh. These areas have sometimes been called the Outer Molasse basin. Folding occurred in four phases. Gas discoveries are in the Chittagong foothills. Similar structural features to those of the Chittagong foothills appear to be present in the extreme eastern part of the Bay of Bengal. Compressional folding did not affect the central and western part of the Bay of Bengal. However, by comparison with other areas of deltaic deposition, rollover structures associated with growth faults may be significant. The Oligocene to Holocene rock sequences were deposited in environments that range from abyssal marine prodelta to subaerial delta plain. In productive areas onshore and offshore, hydrocarbon traps include asymmetric, elongate, faulted anticlines. Strategic traps and sedimentary growth structures are found in the Bengal basin. Miocene sandstones constitute the gas reservoirs; Eocene, Paleocene, and Oligocene carbonaceous shales and Miocene shales are the source rocks. Total recoverable gas reserves are 7 to 7.8 tcf. Total estimated gas reserves in place are 9.33 to 10.39 tcf and possibly 10 to 20 tcf of gas resources yet to be discovered.

  7. Computer-assisted photogrammetric mapping systems for geologic studies-A progress report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pillmore, C.L.; Dueholm, K.S.; Jepsen, H.S.; Schuch, C.H.

    1981-01-01

    Photogrammetry has played an important role in geologic mapping for many years; however, only recently have attempts been made to automate mapping functions for geology. Computer-assisted photogrammetric mapping systems for geologic studies have been developed and are currently in use in offices of the Geological Survey of Greenland at Copenhagen, Denmark, and the U.S. Geological Survey at Denver, Colorado. Though differing somewhat, the systems are similar in that they integrate Kern PG-2 photogrammetric plotting instruments and small desk-top computers that are programmed to perform special geologic functions and operate flat-bed plotters by means of specially designed hardware and software. A z-drive capability, in which stepping motors control the z-motions of the PG-2 plotters, is an integral part of both systems. This feature enables the computer to automatically position the floating mark on computer-calculated, previously defined geologic planes, such as contacts or the base of coal beds, throughout the stereoscopic model in order to improve the mapping capabilities of the instrument and to aid in correlation and tracing of geologic units. The common goal is to enhance the capabilities of the PG-2 plotter and provide a means by which geologists can make conventional geologic maps more efficiently and explore ways to apply computer technology to geologic studies. ?? 1981.

  8. Geology Field Trips as Performance Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentley, Callan

    2009-01-01

    One of the most important goals the author has for students in his introductory-level physical geology course is to give them the conceptual skills for solving geologic problems on their own. He wants students to leave his course as individuals who can use their knowledge of geologic processes and logic to figure out the extended geologic history…

  9. Recent geologic activity on Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Z.; Strom, R. G.; Blewett, D. T.; Solomon, S. C.; Head, J. W.; Watters, T. R.; Chabot, N. L.; Banks, M. E.; Chapman, C. R.

    2011-12-01

    Since the MESSENGER spacecraft was inserted into orbit about Mercury in March 2011, global and targeted high-resolution image data sets have been acquired. These images support the conclusion that internal geological activity on Mercury did not end early in planetary history, as had generally been previously thought, but continued to geologically recent times. Three lines of evidence point to recent geological activity on Mercury. (1) There are smooth plains with surface areas up to 1.5×105 km2 that postdate young (morphological class 1) craters, indicating probable Kuiperian-aged volcanism. No volcanic vents, fissures, or flow fronts have been identified on these plains, suggesting that they are products of low-viscosity lavas, consistent with komatiite-like compositions of large areas on Mercury indicated by MESSENGER X-Ray Spectrometer observations. (2) Young lobate scarps transect class 1 craters as large as 30 km in diameter, indicating comparably recent crustal contraction. (3) A number of fresh-appearing, high-reflectance, irregularly shaped and rimless shallow depressions interpreted as pyroclastic vents have few superposed craters, suggesting that they have been recently active. Growing evidence from geological and geochemical observations indicates that Mercury's interior contains a higher abundance of volatile materials than was previously appreciated. Together these findings support the inference that Mercury experienced relatively recent volcanism and tectonic deformation, and the possibility that the planet is geologically active today cannot be discounted.

  10. Geologic Map of the Arctic Quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brosge, W.P.; Reiser, H.N.; Dutro, J.T., Jr.; Detterman, R.L.; Tailleur, I.L.

    2001-01-01

    Introduction The Arctic quadrangle is well located to shed light on the basic geologic relations of northern Alaska. The rocks represent all of the stratigraphic systems from Cambrian to Cretaceous and all but one of the tectono-stratigraphic subterranes of the Brooks Range, from the autochthonous subterrane in the north to the allochthonous subterranes farther south. Among the distinctive geologic features displayed in the Arctic quadrangle are voluminous volcanic rocks of probable Devonian age, a wide array of Carboniferous carbonate facies in the Lisburne Group (which here extends up into the Middle Pennsylvanian), the southward transition of Upper Devonian (Famennian) clastic facies from fluvial conglomerate to marine sandstone, a full display of Upper Devonian (Frasnian) reef-related strata, and fossiliferous Ordovician rocks in both carbonate and chert terranes. Most of the quadrangle is in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) and Arctic Wildlife Refuge Wilderness. The quadrangle also includes Arctic Village, the only village in the region and a potential destination or transfer point for visitors to the wildlife refuge.

  11. Geology of five small Australian impact craters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shoemaker, E.M.; Macdonald, F.A.; Shoemaker, C.S.

    2005-01-01

    Here we present detailed geological maps and cross-sections of Liverpool, Wolfe Creek, Boxhole, Veevers and Dalgaranga craters. Liverpool crater and Wolfe Creek Meteorite Crater are classic bowlshaped, Barringer-type craters, Liverpool was likely formed during the Neoproterozoic and was filled and covered with sediments soon thereafter. In the Cenozoic, this cover was exhumed exposing the crater's brecciated wall rocks. Wolfe Creek Meteorite Crater displays many striking features, including well-bedded ejecta units, crater-floor faults and sinkholes, a ringed aeromagnetic anomaly, rim-skirting dunes, and numerous iron-rich shale balls. Boxhole Meteorite Crater, Veevers Meteorite Crater and Dalgaranga crater are smaller, Odessa-type craters without fully developed, steep, overturned rims. Boxhole and Dalgaranga craters are developed in highly follated Precambrian basement rocks with a veneer of Holocene colluvium. The pre-existing structure at these two sites complicates structural analyses of the craters, and may have influenced target deformation during impact. Veevers Meteorite Crater is formed in Cenozoic laterites, and is one of the best-preserved impact craters on Earth. The craters discussed herein were formed in different target materials, ranging from crystalline rocks to loosely consolidated sediments, containing evidence that the impactors struck at an array of angles and velocities. This facilitates a comparative study of the influence of these factors on the structural and topographic form of small impact craters. ?? Geological Society of Australia.

  12. A predictive geologic model of radon occurrence

    SciTech Connect

    Gregg, L.T. )

    1990-01-01

    Earlier work by LeGrand on predictive geologic models for radon focused on hydrogeologic aspects of radon transport from a given uranium/radium source in a fractured crystalline rock aquifer, and included submodels for bedrock lithology (uranium concentration), topographic slope, and water-table behavior and characteristics. LeGrand's basic geologic model has been modified and extended into a submodel for crystalline rocks (Blue Ridge and Piedmont Provinces) and a submodel for sedimentary rocks (Valley and Ridge and Coastal Plain Provinces). Each submodel assigns a ranking of 1 to 15 to the bedrock type, based on (a) known or supposed uranium/thorium content, (b) petrography/lithology, and (c) structural features such as faults, shear or breccia zones, diabase dikes, and jointing/fracturing. The bedrock ranking is coupled with a generalized soil/saprolite model which ranks soil/saprolite type and thickness from 1 to 10. A given site is thus assessed a ranking of 1 to 150 as a guide to its potential for high radon occurrence in the upper meter or so of soil. Field trials of the model are underway, comparing model predictions with measured soil-gas concentrations of radon.

  13. Application of three dimensional geological models to hydrogeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, M.; Neukum, C.; Azzam, R.

    2009-04-01

    Recently, three dimensional (3D) numerical simulation of subsurface structure has become a common engineering geological tool to investigate a variety of geological settings. Besides, hydrogeology always tightly combines with geological structures. For these reasons, coupling 3D geological models with hydrogeology will not only improve understanding of subsurface conditions, but also provide a common stratigraphic framework for hydrogeological applications. The reliability of 3D geological models largely depends on the quality and quantity of data. Normally, before 3D geological models are constructed in the software package, the initial data (borehole descriptions, geological maps, geological cross sections, outcrop data, geo-electrical survey, digital elevation model, etc.) are acquired from archive as much as possible and standardized in a single table. To ensure the precision of models, new drilling data should be gathered from local authorities such as Geological Survey in time. Some experimental data are necessary to be kept at the initial moment to create a subset for verification of the models. In particular, the resulting models will be used for hydrogeological applications. So, more parameters should be collected to construct the 3D property models. Properties contain porosities of soil, bearing capacity, compressibility and particular geological phenomenon such as the regional aquifers, aquitard and faults. During the processing of model construction, the minimum element of the models is grid, which can be converted to some finite elements software. Further studies of these models to hydrogeological application involve: integrating faulted horizons of the 3D geological model into the groundwater modeling software package and simulating the groundwater flow within the main relevant aquifers using a finite elements approach; simulating distribution and calculating volume of groundwater in particular area; providing 3D parameters for vulnerability maps of

  14. Use of submerged aquatic vegetation as habitat by young-of-the-year epibenthic fishes in shallow Maine nearshore waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazzari, M. A.; Stone, B. Z.

    2006-09-01

    Epibenthic fishes were collected with daytime beam trawl tows ( n = 1713) in three shallow (<10 m) habitats of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV), Zostera marina (eelgrass), Laminaria longicruris (kelp), Phyllophora sp. (algae), and unvegetated sandy/mud areas. We divided the Maine coast into three broad zones based upon geological features and sampled over five consecutive years; during April-November 2000 in the mid coast, in 2001 and 2002 along the south coast and in 2003 and 2004 along the eastern Maine coast. We quantified habitat use by eight economically important fish species ( Gadus morhua, Microgadus tomcod, Pollachius virens, Urophycis chuss, Urophycis tenuis, Osmerus mordax, Tautogolabrus adspersus, and Pseudopleuronectes americanus) and 10 other common epibenthic species ( n = 18 571). We identified the physical and biological variables most important in discriminating between habitats with and without individual fish species. Logistic regression models based on nearshore habitat characteristics were developed to predict the distribution of these species along the three zones representing broad geological regions of the Maine coast. Logistic regression models correctly classified individual fish species 58.7-97.1% of the time based on the temporal and physical habitat variables (month, temperature, salinity, and depth) and the presence-absence of submerged aquatic vegetation ( Zostera, Laminaria, or Phyllophora). Overall fish presence and economically important fish presence were correctly classified 61.1-79.8% and 66.0-73.6% of the time, respectively. The Maine shallow water fish community was composed primarily of young-of-the-year and juvenile fishes with all habitats functioning as facultative nursery areas. Presence of most fish species was positively associated with Zostera, Laminaria, and to a lesser extent, Phyllophora. This study provides direct evidence of shallow waters of the Gulf of Maine as critical facultative nursery habitat for

  15. Ontological Encoding of GeoSciML and INSPIRE geological standard vocabularies and schemas: application to geological mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombardo, Vincenzo; Piana, Fabrizio; Mimmo, Dario; Fubelli, Giandomenico; Giardino, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Encoding of geologic knowledge in formal languages is an ambitious task, aiming at the interoperability and organic representation of geological data, and semantic characterization of geologic maps. Initiatives such as GeoScience Markup Language (last version is GeoSciML 4, 2015[1]) and INSPIRE "Data Specification on Geology" (an operative simplification of GeoSciML, last version is 3.0 rc3, 2013[2]), as well as the recent terminological shepherding of the Geoscience Terminology Working Group (GTWG[3]) have been promoting information exchange of the geologic knowledge. There have also been limited attempts to encode the knowledge in a machine-readable format, especially in the lithology domain (see e.g. the CGI_Lithology ontology[4]), but a comprehensive ontological model that connect the several knowledge sources is still lacking. This presentation concerns the "OntoGeonous" initiative, which aims at encoding the geologic knowledge, as expressed through the standard vocabularies, schemas and data models mentioned above, through a number of interlinked computational ontologies, based on the languages of the Semantic Web and the paradigm of Linked Open Data. The initiative proceeds in parallel with a concrete case study, concerning the setting up of a synthetic digital geological map of the Piemonte region (NW Italy), named "GEOPiemonteMap" (developed by the CNR Institute of Geosciences and Earth Resources, CNR IGG, Torino), where the description and classification of GeologicUnits has been supported by the modeling and implementation of the ontologies. We have devised a tripartite ontological model called OntoGeonous that consists of: 1) an ontology of the geologic features (in particular, GeologicUnit, GeomorphologicFeature, and GeologicStructure[5], modeled from the definitions and UML schemata of CGI vocabularies[6], GeoScienceML and INSPIRE, and aligned with the Planetary realm of NASA SWEET ontology[7]), 2) an ontology of the Earth materials (as defined by the

  16. Symmetries in geology and geophysics

    PubMed Central

    Turcotte, Donald L.; Newman, William I.

    1996-01-01

    Symmetries have played an important role in a variety of problems in geology and geophysics. A large fraction of studies in mineralogy are devoted to the symmetry properties of crystals. In this paper, however, the emphasis will be on scale-invariant (fractal) symmetries. The earth’s topography is an example of both statistically self-similar and self-affine fractals. Landforms are also associated with drainage networks, which are statistical fractal trees. A universal feature of drainage networks and other growth networks is side branching. Deterministic space-filling networks with side-branching symmetries are illustrated. It is shown that naturally occurring drainage networks have symmetries similar to diffusion-limited aggregation clusters. PMID:11607719

  17. Quaternary geology of Avery Island, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Autin, W.J.; McCulloh, R.P.; Davison, A.T.

    1986-09-01

    Avery Island, one of the Five Islands salt domes of south-central Louisiana, is a piercement-type dome that has been uplifted from several kilometers' depth. It is nearly circular in plan with a maximum elevation approximately 50 m above the surrounding coastal marsh. Dissection has produced a terrain of gullies and steep slopes. The features identified indicate a complex geologic history for Avery Island. Deposition of late Pleistocene sediments in a low-relief alluvial plain and subsequent soil development predate domal uplift. The stratigraphy of loess and colluvial silts indicates the island was emergent during loess depositions. The degree of dissection, distribution of colluvium, and shearing of Quaternary sediments reflects continual uplift after loess deposition.

  18. Early Proterozoic geology of Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conway, Clay M.; Karlstrom, Karl E.

    The Early Proterozoic geology of Arizona and adjoining regions was the topic of a workshop convened by Clay M. Conway (U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Flagstaff, Ariz.), Karl E. Karlstrom (Northern Arizona University (NAU), Flagstaff), and Leon T. Silver (California Institute of Technology (Caltech), Pasadena) in Flagstaff, October 3-5, 1985. The meeting, sponsored by USGS, NAU, Caltech, and the Arizona Geological Survey, was attended by 73 geologists from industry, academia, and governmental agencies. The workshop brought together for the first time workers in a variety of disciplines who have been studying facets of Early Proterozoic crustal evolution in the southwest. From responses during and following the workshop, we judge that the meeting successfully accomplished its objective of furthering communication, cooperation, and collaboration. The meeting encouraged contributions, including progress reports, from all participants and concentrated on specific problems of stratigraphy, structure, petrology, geochemistry, and ore formation, with a view toward understanding overall orogenic evolution and continental accretion.

  19. North Central Regional geologic characterization report. Volume 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-08-01

    This report presents available geologic information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. For each of the states within the North Central Region, information is provided on the geologic disqualifying factor and the geologic regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening. The geologic factor and variables include deep mines and quarries, rock mass extent, post-emplacement faulting, suspected Quaternary faulting, seismicity, rock and mineral resources, major groundwater discharge zones, groundwater resources, state of stress, thickness of rock mass, and thickness of overburden. Information is presented on age, areal extent, shape, composition, texture, degree and type of alteration, thickness, and structural features associated with each rock body or complex. Regional seismic and tectonic information is presented, including patterns of earthquake occurrence, earthquake magnitudes, horizontal ground accelerations, and vertical crustal movements. Also included are discussions of the rock and mineral deposits or mines located within or near crystalline rock bodies; groundwater resources and regional hydrology; postulated changes in climate and the associated effects; and landforms, surface processes, and surficial materials on or near the rock bodies. A discussion is also presented of the relationship between the US Department of Energy Siting Guidelines (10 CFR 960) and the geologic disqualifying factor and regional screening variables to be used in the region-to-area screening process. 43 figs., 15 tabs.

  20. Carleton College Geology Department: Seventy Years of Planning for Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savina, M. E.; Davidson, C.

    2003-12-01

    On the back of a fire door leading to the Carleton geology lounge and classroom, students have painted a geologic time scale representing the history of the geology department from its establishment in 1933 to its present configuration. Along the way, Laurence McKinley Gould, George Gibson, Duncan Stewart VII, Leonard Wilson, Eiler Henrickson, Ed Buchwald, Shelby Boardman, Mary Savina, David Bice, Clem Shearer, Bereket Haileab, Clint Cowan, Cam Davidson, Jenn Macalady and a host of other faculty have contributed to an excellent undergraduate program. Features that have maintained the strength of the program over the years include: Outstanding support staff (Betty Bray and Tim Vick); Weekly department meetings that include discussion of department goals and pedagogy, including attention to giving students the tools to complete the major and capstone project; Regular department retreats that allow more comprehensive discussion; Encouraging different teaching styles among the faculty; A curriculum that emphasizes active learning from day one in introductory geology through the senior capstone experience; Involving students in the department, from planning field trips to hiring to TAs; Increasing student role models by having sophomore, junior and senior majors in most courses; Emphasizing the liberal arts character of geology, rather than pre-professional; Bringing alumni back to campus on a regular basis; Publishing an annual alumni newsletter and maintaining a department web site; Creating a social and intellectual space within the department for students and faculty; Making a particular effort to be welcoming and affirming to people of all colors, ethnicities, affectional orientations and gender identities;

  1. The Enigmatic Thirteen Micron Feature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Queiroz e Souza, Nelson

    Low and intermediate mass stars (0.8--8 solar masses) will eventually evolve into Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars and pulsate out their atmosphere into the space around them. That ejected material will eventually cool and form dust. Understanding the nature and formation of cosmic dust is crucial to understanding the Universe. Evolved intermediate mass stars (i.e. AGB stars) are major contributors of dust to the cosmos. Dust around AGB stars are studied by means of infrared spectroscopy from which we observe several interesting spectral features. The observed AGB star spectra have been classified according to their shapes and wavelength positions of the dust features. Alongside the main spectral features around 8-12mum, there is an enigmatic 13mum feature that appears in about half the oxygen-rich AGB stars. The carrier of this feature has not yet been unequivocally identified but has been attributed to various dust species, including corundum (crystalline Al2O3), spinel (MgAl2O4), and silica (SiO2). While there have been several attempts to determine the cause of this 13mum feature, previous studies have been somewhat contradictory. In order to investigate the origin and characteristics of this spectral feature we observe variations in the 13mum feature over varying stellar parameters. We have also acquired spatially resolved spectroscopic observations of nearby O-rich AGB stars using Michelle on Gemini North. Here we present data on the 13mum feature strength mapped over space around their respective AGB star. The most popular hypothesis for the carrier of the 13mm feature is not supported by our findings.

  2. Paleoliquefaction studies in continental setting; geologic and geotechnical factors in interpretations and back-analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Obermeier, Stephen F.; Pond, Eric C.; Olson, Scott M.; Green, Russell A.; Stark, Timothy D.; Mitchell, James K.

    2001-01-01

    Paleoliquefaction research in the last 15 years has greatly improved our ability to interpret the paleoseismic record throughout some large geographic areas, especially in regions of infrequent large earthquakes. Paleoliquefaction studies have been used extensively in the central and eastern U.S. to assess seismic hazards, and could be used elsewhere to good purpose because paleoliquefaction studies in some field settings can reveal more than other methods, such as fault studies, about the prehistoric strength of shaking and earthquake magnitude. We present guidelines for the conduct of a paleoliquefaction study in continental deposits, mainly in terms of the geologic/seismologic setting and geotechnical properties, because a successful interpretation requires factors from all these disciplines. No single discipline suffices alone. Their interactions must be appreciated in order to understand why seismically induced liquefaction features are found in some locales and not in others. The guidelines that we present also relate to three primary issues for which liquefaction features are especially useful for interpretations: Where was the tectonic source? What was the strength of shaking? And what was the magnitude? In discussing these issues we focus on the following aspects of level-ground liquefaction: (1) mechanisms that form seismic liquefaction features in the field; (2) field settings where liquefaction features should be present if strong seismic shaking has occurred; (3) field settings where an absence of liquefaction features indicates an absence of strong seismic shaking; (4) how liquefaction features should be used to interpret the tectonic source locale of a paleo-earthquake; and (5) how effects of liquefaction can be used to back-calculate the strength of shaking as well as earthquake magnitude. Several methods are available to back-calculate the strength of shaking and earthquake magnitude, and the most commonly used methods are presented and critiqued

  3. The Geology of Ceres: an Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaumann, R.; Russell, C. T.; Raymond, C. A.; McSween, H. Y., Jr.; Williams, D. A.; Buczkowski, D.; Hiesinger, H.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Nathues, A.; Preusker, F.; Roatsch, T.; Ammannito, E.; Otto, K.; Krohn, K.; Stephan, K.; Matz, K. D.; Elgner, S.; Kersten, E.; Wagner, R. J.; Schroeder, S.; Schulzeck, F.; von der Gathen, I.; Schmedemann, N.; Kneissl, T.; Nessemann, A.; Scully, J. E. C.; Mest, S. C.; Marchi, S.; Schenk, P.; McCord, T. B.

    2015-12-01

    Ceres exhibits geological features indicating significant resurfacing due to impact cratering, tectonic stress, relaxation, mass displacement, upwelling, doming and possible cryo-volcanic and/or cryo-glacial processes. Ceres' surface is characterized by a smooth and rugged topography ranging from about -7.5km to 7.5km relative to a best-fit ellipsoidal shape with 482x482x446km. Ceres' topography has a much greater range in elevation relative to its ellipsoidal dimensions (3.2%) than the Moon and Mars (1% and 0.9%) or Earth (0.3%) but is lower compared to Vesta (15%). Its topography is comparable to the icy satellite Iapetus (3.6%) but significantly higher than that of other icy satellites (<1.8%). The topography of Ceres indicates a rigid crust manifesting a range of processes at large and small scales in the course of its geological evolution. Impact craters of all sizes, central peaks and rings, and a variety of ejecta blankets, as well as lineaments, apparent depression infills and distinctive bright spots characterize Ceres' surface. Impact craters range from pristine to highly degraded, comparable to that of various icy satellites, the Moon and Vesta, indicating an intensive cratering history over the age of the solar system as indicated by surface units with different crater densities. Some craters show upwelling dome-like structures on the floor. Bright spots with higher albedo than the surrounding terrain occur at different locations correlated with impact structures and tectonic crustal stress. These spots indicate material differences and possible time-variable effects related to cryo-processes either volcanic and/or glacial. Trough-like features and polygonal impact crater rims indicate crustal stress that compensates by tectonic processes. According to the relatively high topography to radius ratio, steep slopes, mass wasting, and flow processes are expected and observed. We thank the Dawn Science and Operations Team for their support.

  4. Ontology patterns for complex topographic feature yypes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Varanka, Dalia E.

    2011-01-01

    Complex feature types are defined as integrated relations between basic features for a shared meaning or concept. The shared semantic concept is difficult to define in commonly used geographic information systems (GIS) and remote sensing technologies. The role of spatial relations between complex feature parts was recognized in early GIS literature, but had limited representation in the feature or coverage data models of GIS. Spatial relations are more explicitly specified in semantic technology. In this paper, semantics for topographic feature ontology design patterns (ODP) are developed as data models for the representation of complex features. In the context of topographic processes, component assemblages are supported by resource systems and are found on local landscapes. The topographic ontology is organized across six thematic modules that can account for basic feature types, resource systems, and landscape types. Types of complex feature attributes include location, generative processes and physical description. Node/edge networks model standard spatial relations and relations specific to topographic science to represent complex features. To demonstrate these concepts, data from The National Map of the U. S. Geological Survey was converted and assembled into ODP.

  5. Sketch-based geologic modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rood, M. P.; Jackson, M.; Hampson, G.; Brazil, E. V.; de Carvalho, F.; Coda, C.; Sousa, M. C.; Zhang, Z.; Geiger, S.

    2015-12-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) maps and cross-sections, and 3D conceptual models, are fundamental tools for understanding, communicating and modeling geology. Yet geologists lack dedicated and intuitive tools that allow rapid creation of such figures and models. Standard drawing packages produce only 2D figures that are not suitable for quantitative analysis. Geologic modeling packages can produce 3D models and are widely used in the groundwater and petroleum communities, but are often slow and non-intuitive to use, requiring the creation of a grid early in the modeling workflow and the use of geostatistical methods to populate the grid blocks with geologic information. We present an alternative approach to rapidly create figures and models using sketch-based interface and modelling (SBIM). We leverage methods widely adopted in other industries to prototype complex geometries and designs. The SBIM tool contains built-in geologic rules that constrain how sketched lines and surfaces interact. These rules are based on the logic of superposition and cross-cutting relationships that follow from rock-forming processes, including deposition, deformation, intrusion and modification by diagenesis or metamorphism. The approach allows rapid creation of multiple, geologically realistic, figures and models in 2D and 3D using a simple, intuitive interface. The user can sketch in plan- or cross-section view. Geologic rules are used to extrapolate sketched lines in real time to create 3D surfaces. Quantitative analysis can be carried our directly on the models. Alternatively, they can be output as simple figures or imported directly into other modeling tools. The software runs on a tablet PC and can be used in a variety of settings including the office, classroom and field. The speed and ease of use of SBIM enables multiple interpretations to be developed from limited data, uncertainty to be readily appraised, and figures and models to be rapidly updated to incorporate new data or concepts.

  6. View of the main interior space facing east. The main ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the main interior space facing east. The main entry is on the left hand side at the rear. The exit to the deck is to the right. - San Luis Yacht Club, Avila Pier, South of Front Street, Avila Beach, San Luis Obispo County, CA

  7. 18. MAIN FLOOR HOLDING TANKS Main floor, looking at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. MAIN FLOOR - HOLDING TANKS Main floor, looking at holding tanks against the west wall, from which sluice gates are seen protruding. Right foreground-wooden holding tanks. Note narrow wooden flumes through which fish were sluiced into holding and brining tanks. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  8. Delivery mechanisms of 3D geological models - a perspective from the British Geological Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terrington, Ricky; Myers, Antony; Wood, Ben; Arora, Baneet

    2013-04-01

    The past decade has seen the British Geological Survey (BGS) construct over one hundred 3D geological models using software such as GOCAD®, GSI3D, EarthVision and Petrel across the United Kingdom and overseas. These models have been produced for different purposes and at different scales and resolutions in the shallow and deep subsurface. Alongside the construction of these models, the BGS and its collaborators have developed several options for disseminating these 3D geological models to external partners and the public. Initially, the standard formats for disseminating these 3D geological models by the BGS comprised of 2D images of cross-sections, GIS raster data and specialised visualisation software such as the LithoFrame Viewer. The LithoFrame Viewer is a thick-client software that allows the user to explore the 3D geometries of the geological units using a 3D interface, and generate synthetic cross-sections and boreholes on the fly. Despite the increased functionality of the LithoFrame Viewer over the other formats, the most popular data formats distributed remained 2D images of cross-sections, CAD based formats (e.g. DWG and DXF) and GIS raster data of surfaces and thicknesses, as these were the types of data that the external partners were most used too. Since 2009 software for delivering 3D geological models has advanced and types of data available have increased. Feature Manipulation Engine (FME) has been used to increase the number of outputs from 3D geological models. These include: • 3D PDFs (Adobe Acrobat) • KMZ/KML (GoogleEarth) • 3D shapefiles (ESRI) Alongside these later outputs, the BGS has developed other software such as GroundhogTM and Geovisionary (in collaboration with Virtalis). Groundhog is fully a web based application that allows the user to generate synthetic cross-sections, boreholes and horizontal slices from 3D geological models on the fly. Geovisionary provides some of the most advanced visualisation of 3D geological models in

  9. Geologic framework of oil and gas genesis in main sedimentary basins from Romania Oprea Dicea

    SciTech Connect

    Ionescu, N.; Morariu, C.D. )

    1991-03-01

    Oil and gas fields located in Moldavic nappes are encompassed in Oligocene and lower Miocene formations, mostly in the marginal folds nappe, where Kliwa Sandstone sequences have high porosity, and in the Black Sea Plateau. The origin of the hydrocarbon accumulations from the Carpathian foredeep seems to be connected to the Oligocene-lower Miocene bituminous formations of the marginal folds and sub-Carpathian nappes. In the Gethic depression, the hydrocarbon accumulations originate in Oligocene and Miocene source rocks and host in structural, stratigraphical, and lithological traps. The accumulations connected with tectonic lines that outline the areal extension of the Oligocene, Miocene, and Pliocene formations are in the underthrusted Moesian platform. The hydrocarbon accumulations related to the Carpathian foreland represent about 40% of all known accumulations in Romania. Most of them are located in the Moesian platform. In this unit, the oil and gas fields present a vertical distribution at different stratigraphic levels, from paleozoic to Neogene, and in all types of reservoirs, suggesting multicycles of oleogenesis, migration, accumulation, and sealing conditions. The hydrocarbon deposits known so far on the Black Sea continental plateau are confined in the Albian, Cenomanian, Turonian-Senonian, and Eocene formations. The traps are of complex type structural, lithologic, and stratigraphic. The reservoirs are sandstones, calcareous sandstones, limestones, and sands. The hydrocarbon source rocks are pelitic and siltic Oligocene formations. Other older source rocks are probably Cretaceous.

  10. Structural geology and geophysics as a support to build a hydrogeologic model of granite rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Landa, Lurdes; Carrera, Jesús; Pérez-Estaún, Andrés; Gómez, Paloma; Bajos, Carmen

    2016-06-01

    A method developed for low-permeability fractured media was applied to understand the hydrogeology of a mine excavated in a granitic pluton. This method includes (1) identifying the main groundwater-conducting features of the medium, such as the mine, dykes, and large fractures, (2) implementing this factors as discrete elements into a three-dimensional numerical model, and (3) calibrating these factors against hydraulic data . A key question is how to identify preferential flow paths in the first step. Here, we propose a combination of several techniques. Structural geology, together with borehole sampling, geophysics, hydrogeochemistry, and local hydraulic tests aided in locating all structures. Integration of these data yielded a conceptual model of the site. A preliminary calibration of the model was performed against short-term (< 1 day) pumping tests, which facilitated the characterization of some of the fractures. The hydraulic properties were then used for other fractures that, according to geophysics and structural geology, belonged to the same families. Model validity was tested by blind prediction of a long-term (4 months) large-scale (1 km) pumping test from the mine, which yielded excellent agreement with the observations. Model results confirmed the sparsely fractured nature of the pluton, which has not been subjected to glacial loading-unloading cycles and whose waters are of Na-HCO3 type.

  11. Environmental geology of Harrison Bay, northern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Craig, J.D.; Thrasher, G.P.

    1982-01-01

    The surficial and shallow subsurface geology of Harrison Bay on the Beaufort Sea coast was mapped as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's prelease evaluation for Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Oil and Gas Lease Sale 71. During the 1980 summer season, approximately 1600 km of multisensored, high-resolution geophysical profile data were collected along a rectangular grid with 4.8 km line spacing. Interpretation of these data is presented on five maps showing bathymetry, sea-floor microrelief, ice-gouge characteristics, Holocene sediment thickness, and geologic structure to depths of approximately 1000 m. On a broad scale, the seafloor is shallow and almost flat, although microrelief features produced by sediment transport and ice-gouge processes typically vary up to several meters in amplitude. Microrelief bedforms related to hydraulic processes are predominant in water depths less than 12 m. Microrelief caused by ice gouging generally increases with water depth, reaching a maximum of 2 m or more in water depths beyond the 20 m isobath. This intensely gouged area lies beneath the shear zone between the seasonal landfast ice and the mobile polar ice pack. The thickness of recent (Holocene) sediment increases offshore, from 2 m near the Colville River delta to 30 m or more on the outer shelf. The thin Holocene layer is underlain by a complex horizon interpreted to be the upper surface of a Pleistocene deposit similar in composition to the present Arctic Coastal Plain. The base of the inferred Pleistocene section is interpreted to be a low-angle unconformity 100 m below sea level. Beneath this Tertiary-Quaternary unconformity, strata are interpreted to be alluvial fan-delta plain deposits corresponding to the Colville Group and younger formations of Late Cretaceous to Tertiary age. Numerous high-angle faults downthrown to the north trend across the survey area. With few exceptions, these faults terminate at or below the 100 m unconformity, suggesting that most tectonism

  12. Geologic Framework Model Analysis Model Report

    SciTech Connect

    R. Clayton

    2000-12-19

    The purpose of this report is to document the Geologic Framework Model (GFM), Version 3.1 (GFM3.1) with regard to data input, modeling methods, assumptions, uncertainties, limitations, and validation of the model results, qualification status of the model, and the differences between Version 3.1 and previous versions. The GFM represents a three-dimensional interpretation of the stratigraphy and structural features of the location of the potential Yucca Mountain radioactive waste repository. The GFM encompasses an area of 65 square miles (170 square kilometers) and a volume of 185 cubic miles (771 cubic kilometers). The boundaries of the GFM were chosen to encompass the most widely distributed set of exploratory boreholes (the Water Table or WT series) and to provide a geologic framework over the area of interest for hydrologic flow and radionuclide transport modeling through the unsaturated zone (UZ). The depth of the model is constrained by the inferred depth of the Tertiary-Paleozoic unconformity. The GFM was constructed from geologic map and borehole data. Additional information from measured stratigraphy sections, gravity profiles, and seismic profiles was also considered. This interim change notice (ICN) was prepared in accordance with the Technical Work Plan for the Integrated Site Model Process Model Report Revision 01 (CRWMS M&O 2000). The constraints, caveats, and limitations associated with this model are discussed in the appropriate text sections that follow. The GFM is one component of the Integrated Site Model (ISM) (Figure l), which has been developed to provide a consistent volumetric portrayal of the rock layers, rock properties, and mineralogy of the Yucca Mountain site. The ISM consists of three components: (1) Geologic Framework Model (GFM); (2) Rock Properties Model (RPM); and (3) Mineralogic Model (MM). The ISM merges the detailed project stratigraphy into model stratigraphic units that are most useful for the primary downstream models and the

  13. Geology of the American Southwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldridge, W. Scott

    2004-06-01

    Scott Baldridge presents a concise guide to the geology of the Southwestern U.S. Two billion years of Earth history are represented in the rocks and landscape of the Southwest U.S., creating natural wonders such as the Grand Canyon, Monument Valley, and Death Valley. This region is considered a geologist's "dream", attracting a large number of undergraduate field classes and amateur geologists. The volume will prove invaluable to students and will also appeal to anyone interested in the geology and landscape of the region's National Parks.

  14. Geologic Mapping of Ascraeus Mons, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohr, K. J.; Williams, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    Ascraeus Mons is one of the three large shield volcanoes in the Tharsis Montes province on Mars. We are conducting geologic mapping of Ascraeus in ArcMap 10.3 at 1:1,000,000 scale using a CTX dataset as a primary basemap. The CTX dataset is supplemented by HRSC, HiRISE, THEMIS, and MOLA data. Our objective is to determine the areal extent, distribution, and age relationships of different lava flow morphologies on the main flank, rift apron, and associated small-vent field of Ascraeus Mons to: (1) identify and understand changes in effusive style across the volcano, and (2) provide insight into martian magma production rates. Our mapping, thus far, at a CTX resolution (~6 m/pixel) shows a variety of effusive styles on the flanks, rift aprons, and plains on and around Ascraeus Mons. Our plan to address (1) is to create a geologic map of Ascraeus Mons. We will use this map to determine where and how different lava flows were emplaced on the flanks and surrounding plains of Ascraeus Mons. We will determine relative ages of units using the emplacement of different geological units, impacts, tectonics, and erosion via superposition relations. We will relate eruptive styles by comparing how different flows are oriented around Ascraeus Mons. Our plan for (2) is to use CTX, MOLA and HRSC datasets to determine volumes of the emplaced lava flows. The volumes will be used to calculate yield strengths and viscosities of each flow. The yield strengths and viscosities will be used to calculate magma production rates. These will prove important to better understand the history and creation of Ascraeus Mons and other volcanoes on other planetary bodies.

  15. Airborne remote sensing for geology and the environment: Present and future. Bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, K.; Knepper, D.H.

    1994-12-31

    In 1988, a group of leading experts from government, academia, and industry attended a workshop on airborne remote sensing sponsored by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and hosted by the Branch of Geophysics. The report has arranged the six resulting working-group reports under two main headings: (1) Geologic Remote Sensing, for the reports on geologic mapping, mineral resoures, and fossil fuels and geothermal resources; and (2) Environmental Remote Sensing, for the reports on environmental geology, geologic hazards, and water resources. The intent of the workshop was to provide an evaluation of demonstrated capabilities, their direct extensions, and possible future applications, and this was the organizational format used for the geologic remote sensing reports. A final section examines future advances and limitations in the field.

  16. The Geological Context of Vesta's Dark Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaumann, R.; Otto, K.; Krohn, K.; McCord, T. B.; Williams, D. A.; Yingst, R.; Stephan, K.; Combe, J.; Palomba, E.; Tosi, F.; Hiesinger, H.; Blewett, D. T.; Raymond, C. A.; Russell, C. T.

    2012-12-01

    Deposits of dark material appear on Vesta's surface as low-albedo features in the visible wavelength range of the Dawn camera and spec-trometer (1, 2, 3). This material is intermixed into the regolith and partially excavated by younger impacts exposed as chunks or layers out-cropping in crater walls, uncovered, broken and wasted by the impact process. Fans slumping down crater walls and dark deposits on crater floors are the result of gravity-driven mass wasting triggered by steep slopes and impact seismicity. The mixing of dark material with impact ejecta indicates that this material is processed together with the ejected material. Some small craters possess continuous dark ejecta similar to lunar dark-halo impact craters, indicating that the impact excavated the material from beneath a higher-albedo surface. Asymmetric distribution of dark material in impact craters and ejecta suggests non-continuous distribution in the local subsurface. Some positive relief dark edifices appear to be impact-sculpted hills with dark material distributed over the hill slopes. Dark features are in some places arranged as linear outcrops along scarps or as dark streaks crossing a range of topographies. Dark features inside and outside of craters are in some places arranged as linear outcrops along scarps or dark streaks crossing different topographies. Dark material is distributed unevenly across Vesta's surface. Clustering occurs for all types of dark material exposure. On a local scale craters expose or are associated with dark material, while others in the immediate vicinity are free of dark material. The wide variety of the different surface exposures of dark material and their different geological correlations with surface features as well as their uneven distribution indicate a globally inhomogeneous distribution in the subsurface. However on a global scale the dark material seems to be correlated with the rim and ejecta of the older Veneneia south polar basin structure. The

  17. The subglacial geology of Wilkes Land, East Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aitken, A. R. A.; Young, D. A.; Ferraccioli, F.; Betts, P. G.; Greenbaum, J. S.; Richter, T. G.; Roberts, J. L.; Blankenship, D. D.; Siegert, M. J.

    2014-04-01

    Wilkes Land is a key region for studying the configuration of Gondwana and for appreciating the role of tectonic boundary conditions on East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS) behavior. Despite this importance, it remains one of the largest regions on Earth where we lack a basic knowledge of geology. New magnetic, gravity, and subglacial topography data allow the region's first comprehensive geological interpretation. We map lithospheric domains and their bounding faults, including the suture between Indo-Antarctica and Australo-Antarctica. Furthermore, we image subglacial sedimentary basins, including the Aurora and Knox Subglacial Basins and the previously unknown Sabrina Subglacial Basin. Commonality of structure in magnetic, gravity, and topography data suggest that pre-EAIS tectonic features are a primary control on subglacial topography. The preservation of this relationship after glaciation suggests that these tectonic features provide topographic and basal boundary conditions that have strongly influenced the structure and evolution of the EAIS.

  18. Practical geological comparison of some seafloor survey instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinrock, Martin C.; Hey, R. N.; Theberge, A. E., Jr.

    1992-07-01

    Seafloor survey instruments are integral to the study of marine geology. Because understanding their resolution and limitations is critical, we compare how different survey systems represent the seafloor. Coincident data collected at the Galapagos propagator (GLORIA, SeaMARC II, Sea Beam, Deep-Tow, camera sled, and Alvin) allow comparisons of how well seafloor features (e.g., faults and volcanoes) observed and characterized in high resolution data are represented in lower resolution, coarser-scale data sets. Our reported values for the minimum sizes of detected and well-represented features show that practical geological resolutions are generally ˜2-10 times lower than theoretical resolutions; care must be taken in evaluating which system to use to address a particular problem.

  19. Photogrammetric Analysis of CPAS Main Parachutes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Eric; Bretz, David

    2011-01-01

    The Crew Exploration Vehicle Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) is being designed to land the Orion Crew Module (CM) at a safe rate of descent at splashdown with a cluster of two to three Main parachutes. The instantaneous rate of descent varies based on parachute fly-out angles and geometric inlet area. Parachutes in a cluster oscillate between significant fly-out angles and colliding into each other. The former presents a sub-optimal inlet area and the latter lowers the effective drag area as the parachutes interfere with each other. The fly-out angles are also important in meeting a twist torque requirement. Understanding cluster behavior necessitates measuring the Mains with photogrammetric analysis. Imagery from upward looking cameras is analyzed to determine parachute geometry. Fly-out angles are measured from each parachute vent to an axis determined from geometry. Determining the scale of the objects requires knowledge of camera and lens calibration as well as features of known size. Several points along the skirt are tracked to compute an effective circumference, diameter, and inlet area as a function of time. The effects of this geometry are clearly seen in the system drag coefficient time history. Photogrammetric analysis is key in evaluating the effects of design features such as an Over-Inflation Control Line (OICL), Main Line Length Ratio (MLLR), and geometric porosity, which are varied in an attempt to minimize cluster oscillations. The effects of these designs are evaluated through statistical analysis.

  20. Slim Battery Modelling Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borthomieu, Y.; Prevot, D.

    2011-10-01

    Saft has developed a life prediction model for VES and MPS cells and batteries. The Saft Li-ion Model (SLIM) is a macroscopic electrochemical model based on energy (global at cell level). The main purpose is to predict the battery performances during the life for GEO, MEO and LEO missions. This model is based on electrochemical characteristics such as Energy, Capacity, EMF, Internal resistance, end of charge voltage. It uses fading and calendar law effects on energy and internal impedance vs. time, temperature, End of Charge voltage. Based on the mission profile, satellite power system characteristics, the model proposes the various battery configurations. For each configuration, the model gives the battery performances using mission figures and profiles: power, duration, DOD, end of charge voltages, temperatures during eclipses and solstices, thermal dissipations and cell failures. For the GEO/MEO missions, eclipse and solstice periods can include specific profile such as plasmic propulsion fires and specific balancing operations. For LEO missions, the model is able to simulate high power peaks to predict radar pulses. Saft's main customers have been using the SLIM model available in house for two years. The purpose is to have the satellite builder power engineers able to perform by themselves in the battery pre-dimensioning activities their own battery simulations. The simulations can be shared with Saft engineers to refine the power system designs. This model has been correlated with existing life and calendar tests performed on all the VES and MPS cells. In comparing with more than 10 year lasting life tests, the accuracy of the model from a voltage point of view is less than 10 mV at end Of Life. In addition, thethe comparison with in-orbit data has been also done. b This paper will present the main features of the SLIM software and outputs comparison with real life tests. b0