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1

September 2012 Malaria: vector mosquitoes  

E-print Network

N° 413 September 2012 Malaria: vector mosquitoes are constantly adapting Scientific news Actualidad cientifica Actualité scientifique On the recommendations of the WHO, 290 million impregnated mosquito nets ability of the mosquitoes that carry it to adapt to pyrethrinoids, the officially recommended insecticides

2

Genetics of Mosquito Vector Competence  

PubMed Central

Mosquito-borne diseases are responsible for significant human morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Efforts to control mosquito-borne diseases have been impeded, in part, by the development of drug-resistant parasites, insecticide-resistant mosquitoes, and environmental concerns over the application of insecticides. Therefore, there is a need to develop novel disease control strategies that can complement or replace existing control methods. One such strategy is to generate pathogen-resistant mosquitoes from those that are susceptible. To this end, efforts have focused on isolating and characterizing genes that influence mosquito vector competence. It has been known for over 70 years that there is a genetic basis for the susceptibility of mosquitoes to parasites, but until the advent of powerful molecular biological tools and protocols, it was difficult to assess the interactions of pathogens with their host tissues within the mosquito at a molecular level. Moreover, it has been only recently that the molecular mechanisms responsible for pathogen destruction, such as melanotic encapsulation and immune peptide production, have been investigated. The molecular characterization of genes that influence vector competence is becoming routine, and with the development of the Sindbis virus transducing system, potential antipathogen genes now can be introduced into the mosquito and their effect on parasite development can be assessed in vivo. With the recent successes in the field of mosquito germ line transformation, it seems likely that the generation of a pathogen-resistant mosquito population from a susceptible population soon will become a reality. PMID:10704476

Beerntsen, Brenda T.; James, Anthony A.; Christensen, Bruce M.

2000-01-01

3

Molecular Genetic Manipulation of Vector Mosquitoes  

PubMed Central

Genetic strategies for reducing populations of vector mosquitoes or replacing them with those that are not able to transmit pathogens benefit greatly from molecular tools that allow gene manipulation and transgenesis. Mosquito genome sequences and associated EST (Expressed Sequence Tags) databases enable large-scale investigations to provide new insights into evolutionary, biochemical, genetic, metabolic and physiological pathways. Additionally, comparative genomics reveals the bases for evolutionary mechanisms with particular focus on specific interactions between vectors and pathogens. We discuss how this information may be exploited for the optimization of transgenes that interfere with the propagation and development of pathogens in their mosquito hosts. PMID:18996342

Terenius, Olle; Marinotti, Osvaldo; Sieglaff, Douglas; James, Anthony A.

2008-01-01

4

Using Cell Phones for Mosquito Vector Surveillance and Control  

E-print Network

Using Cell Phones for Mosquito Vector Surveillance and Control S. Lozano-Fuentes, S. Ghosh, J. M--Novel, low-cost approaches to improving prevention and control of vector-borne diseases, such as mosquito the use of cell phones for field capture and rapid transfer of mosquito vector surveillance data

Bieman, James M.

5

Host-seeking strategies of mosquito disease vectors.  

PubMed

Disease transmission by arthropods normally requires at least 2 host contacts. During the first, a pathogen (nematode, protozoan, or virus) is acquired along with the blood from an infected vertebrate host. The pathogen penetrates the vector's midgut and infects a variety of tissues, where replication may occur during an extrinsic incubation period lasting 3-30, days depending on vector and parasite physiology and ambient temperature. Following salivary-gland infection, the pathogen is usually transmitted to additional susceptible vertebrate hosts during future probing or blood feeding. The host-seeking strategies used by arthropod vectors can, in part, affect the efficiency of disease transmission. Vector abundance, seasonal distribution, habitat and host preference, and susceptibility to infection are all important components of disease-transmission cycles. Examples of 3 mosquito vectors of human disease are presented here to highlight the diversity of host seeking and to show how specific behaviors may influence disease-transmission cycles. In the African tropics, Anopheles gambiae s.s. is an efficient vector of human malaria due to its remarkably focused preference for human blood. Aedes aegypti is the main vector of dengue viruses in the New and Old World tropics and subtropics. This mosquito has evolved a domestic lifestyle and shares human habitations throughout much of its range. It prospers in settings where humans are its main source of blood. In south Florida, Culex nigripalpus is the major vector of St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) and West Nile (WN) viruses. This mosquito is opportunistic and blood feeds on virtually any available vertebrate host. It serves as an arboviral vector, in part, due to its ability to produce large populations in a short period of time. These 3 host-seeking and blood-feeding strategies make the specialist, as well as the opportunist, equally dangerous disease vectors. PMID:16921679

Day, Jonathan F

2005-12-01

6

Genetic elimination of dengue vector mosquitoes  

PubMed Central

An approach based on mosquitoes carrying a conditional dominant lethal gene (release of insects carrying a dominant lethal, RIDL) is being developed to control the transmission of dengue viruses by vector population suppression. A transgenic strain, designated OX3604C, of the major dengue vector, Aedes aegypti, was engineered to have a repressible female-specific flightless phenotype. This strain circumvents the need for radiation-induced sterilization, allows genetic sexing resulting in male-only releases, and permits the release of eggs instead of adult mosquitoes. OX3604C males introduced weekly into large laboratory cages containing stable target mosquito populations at initial ratios of 8.510?1 OX3604C?target eliminated the populations within 1020weeks. These data support the further testing of this strain in contained or confined field trials to evaluate mating competitiveness and environmental and other effects. Successful completion of the field trials should facilitate incorporation of this approach into area-wide dengue control or elimination efforts as a component of an integrated vector management strategy. PMID:21383140

Wise de Valdez, Megan R.; Nimmo, Derric; Betz, John; Gong, Hong-Fei; James, Anthony A.; Alphey, Luke; Black, William C.

2011-01-01

7

ORIGINAL RESEARCH Chikungunya Virus and the Mosquito Vector  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL RESEARCH Chikungunya Virus and the Mosquito Vector Aedes aegypti in New Caledonia (South mosquitoes. During the 2005­ 2006 epidemic that occurred in the Indian Ocean Islands, a viral strain of infected Aedes species mosquitoes, particularly Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. It induces an arthro

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

8

Repellency of Volatile Oils from Plants against Three Mosquito Vectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Volatile oils extracted by steam distillation from four plant species turmeric (Curcuma longa), kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix), citronella grass (Cymbopogon winterianus) and hairy basil (Ocimum americanum)), were evaluated in mosquito cages and in a large room for their repellency effects against three mosquito vectors, Aedes aegypti, Anopheles dirus and Culex quinquefasciatus. The oils from turmeric, citronella grass and hairy basil,

Apiwat Tawatsin; Steve D. Wratten; R. Roderic Scott; Usavadee Thavara; Yenchit Techadamrongsin

2004-01-01

9

Vector competence of New Zealand mosquitoes for selected arboviruses.  

PubMed

New Zealand (NZ) historically has been free of arboviral activity with the exception of Whataroa virus (Togaviridae: Alphavirus), which is established in bird populations and is transmitted by local mosquitoes. This naive situation is threatened by global warming, invasive mosquitoes, and tourism. To determine the threat of selected medically important arboviruses to NZ, vector competence assays were conducted using field collected endemic and introduced mosquito species. Four alphaviruses (Togaviridae): Barmah Forest virus, Chikungunya virus, Ross River virus, and Sindbis virus, and five flaviviruses (Flaviviridae): Dengue virus 2, Japanese encephalitis virus, Murray Valley encephalitis virus, West Nile virus, and Yellow fever virus were evaluated. Results indicate some NZ mosquito species are highly competent vectors of selected arboviruses, particularly alphaviruses, and may pose a threat were one of these arboviruses introduced at a time when the vector was prevalent and the climatic conditions favorable for virus transmission. PMID:21734146

Kramer, Laura D; Chin, Pam; Cane, Rachel P; Kauffman, Elizabeth B; Mackereth, Graham

2011-07-01

10

Vector Competence of New Zealand Mosquitoes for Selected Arboviruses  

PubMed Central

New Zealand (NZ) historically has been free of arboviral activity with the exception of Whataroa virus (Togaviridae: Alphavirus), which is established in bird populations and is transmitted by local mosquitoes. This naive situation is threatened by global warming, invasive mosquitoes, and tourism. To determine the threat of selected medically important arboviruses to NZ, vector competence assays were conducted using field collected endemic and introduced mosquito species. Four alphaviruses (Togaviridae): Barmah Forest virus, Chikungunya virus, Ross River virus, and Sindbis virus, and five flaviviruses (Flaviviridae): Dengue virus 2, Japanese encephalitis virus, Murray Valley encephalitis virus, West Nile virus, and Yellow fever virus were evaluated. Results indicate some NZ mosquito species are highly competent vectors of selected arboviruses, particularly alphaviruses, and may pose a threat were one of these arboviruses introduced at a time when the vector was prevalent and the climatic conditions favorable for virus transmission. PMID:21734146

Kramer, Laura D.; Chin, Pam; Cane, Rachel P.; Kauffman, Elizabeth B.; Mackereth, Graham

2011-01-01

11

The evolution and genetics of vector competence in mosquito disease vectors  

E-print Network

Vector competence is a complex characteristic which governs an insect's ability to acquire, support the development and transmit a parasite from one host to another. It influences variation in disease transmission among mosquito populations, hence...

Osei-Poku, Jewelna

2013-03-12

12

Vector Competence of California Mosquitoes for West Nile virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

To identify the mosquito species competent for West Nile virus (WNV) transmission, we evaluated 10 Cali- fornia species that are known vectors of other arboviruses or major pests: Culex tarsalis, Cx. pipiens pipi- ens, Cx. p. quinquefasciatus, Cx. stigmatosoma, Cx. erythrothorax, Ochlerotatus dorsalis, Oc. melanimon, Oc. sierrensis, Aedes vexans, and Culiseta inornata. All 10 became infected and were able to

Laura B. Goddard; Amy E. Roth; William K. Reisen; Thomas W. Scott

2002-01-01

13

Silica nanoparticle: a potential new insecticide for mosquito vector control.  

PubMed

Presently, there is a need for increased efforts to develop newer and effective methods to control mosquito vectors as the existing chemical and biological methods are not as effective as in earlier period owing to different technical and operational reasons. The use of nanomaterial products in various sectors of science including health increased during the last decade. We tested three types of nanosilica, namely lipophilic, hydrophilic and hydrophobic, to assess their larvicidal, pupicidal and growth inhibitor properties and also their influence on oviposition behaviour (attraction/deterrence) of mosquito species that transmit human diseases, namely malaria (Anopheles), yellow fever, chickungunya and dengue (Aedes), lymphatic filariasis and encephalitis (Culex and Aedes). Application of hydrophobic nanosilica at 112.5 ppm was found effective against mosquito species tested. The larvicidal effect of hydrophobic nanosilica on mosquito species tested was in the order of Anopheles stephensi > Aedes aegypti > Culex quinquefasciatus, and the pupicidal effect was in the order of A. stephensi > C. quinquefasciatus > Ae. aegypti. Results of combined treatment of hydrophobic nanosilica with temephos in larvicidal test indicated independent toxic action without any additive effect. This is probably the first report that demonstrated that nanoparticles particularly nanosilica could be used in mosquito vector control. PMID:22565400

Barik, Tapan K; Kamaraju, Raghavendra; Gowswami, Arunava

2012-09-01

14

Interspecific transfer of Wolbachia into the mosquito disease vector Aedes albopictus  

E-print Network

Interspecific transfer of Wolbachia into the mosquito disease vector Aedes albopictus Zhiyong Xi success of Wolbachia is due in part to an ability to manipulate reproduction. In mosquitoes and many other important mosquito. Using embryonic microinjection, Wolbachia is transferred from Drosophila simulans

Dobson, Stephen L.

15

Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus in Mosquitoes and Their Role as Bridge Vectors  

PubMed Central

Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is maintained in an enzootic cycle involving Culiseta melanura mosquitoes and avian hosts. Other mosquito species that feed opportunistically on mammals have been incriminated as bridge vectors to humans and horses. To evaluate the capacity of these mosquitoes to acquire, replicate, and potentially transmit EEEV, we estimated the infection prevalence and virus titers in mosquitoes collected in Connecticut, USA, by cell culture, plaque titration, and quantitative reverse transcriptionPCR. Cs. melanura mosquitoes were the predominant source of EEEV (83 [68%] of 122 virus isolations) and the only species to support consistently high virus titers required for efficient transmission. Our findings suggest that Cs. melanura mosquitoes are primary enzootic and epidemic vectors of EEEV in this region, which may explain the relative paucity of human cases. This study emphasizes the need for evaluating virus titers from field-collected mosquitoes to help assess their role as vectors. PMID:21122215

Andreadis, Theodore G.

2010-01-01

16

Climatic and landscape correlates for potential West Nile virus mosquito vectors in the Seattle region.  

PubMed

Climatic and landscape patterns have been associated with both relative mosquito abundance and transmission of mosquito-borne illnesses in many parts of the world, especially warm and tropical climes. To determine if temperature, precipitation, or degree of urbanization were similarly important in the number of potential mosquito vectors for West Nile virus in the moderately temperate climate of western Washington, mosquitoes were collected using CDC carbon-dioxide/light traps set throughout the Seattle region during the summers of 2003 and 2004. The type and abundance of recovered species were compared to ecological correlates. Temperature and mosquito abundance were positively correlated, while precipitation was not strongly correlated with numbers of mosquitoes. Potential WNV mosquito vectors were most abundant in urban and suburban sites, including sites near communal roosts of American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos). Exurban sites had the greatest vector species diversity, and Culex pipiens was the most abundant species throughout the region. PMID:17633422

Pecoraro, Heidi L; Day, Heather L; Reineke, Robert; Stevens, Nathan; Withey, John C; Marzluff, John M; Meschke, J Scott

2007-06-01

17

Vector Competence of Selected North American Culex and Coquillettidia Mosquitoes for West Nile Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

To control West Nile virus (WNV), it is necessary to know which mosquitoes are able to transmit this virus. Therefore, we evaluated the WNV vector potential of several North American mosquito species. Culex restuans and Cx. salinarius, two species from which WNV was isolated in New York in 2000, were efficient laboratory vectors. Cx. quinquefasciatus and Cx. nigri- palpus from

Michael R. Sardelis; Michael J. Turell; David J. Dohm; Monica L. O'Guinn

2001-01-01

18

Vector competence of selected North American Culex and Coquillettidia mosquitoes for West Nile virus.  

PubMed Central

To control West Nile virus (WNV), it is necessary to know which mosquitoes are able to transmit this virus. Therefore, we evaluated the WNV vector potential of several North American mosquito species. Culex restuans and Cx. salinarius, two species from which WNV was isolated in New York in 2000, were efficient laboratory vectors. Cx. quinquefasciatus and Cx. nigripalpus from Florida were competent but only moderately efficient vectors. Coquillettidia perturbans was an inefficient laboratory vector. As WNV extends its range, exposure of additional mosquito species may alter its epidemiology. PMID:11747732

Sardelis, M. R.; Turell, M. J.; Dohm, D. J.; O'Guinn, M. L.

2001-01-01

19

Odorant receptor-mediated sperm activation in disease vector mosquitoes  

PubMed Central

Insects, such as the malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, depend upon chemoreceptors to respond to volatiles emitted from a range of environmental sources, most notably blood meal hosts and oviposition sites. A subset of peripheral signaling pathways involved in these insect chemosensory-dependent behaviors requires the activity of heteromeric odorant receptor (OR) ion channel complexes and ligands for numerous A. gambiae ORs (AgOrs) have been identified. Although AgOrs are expressed in nonhead appendages, studies characterizing potential AgOr function in nonolfactory tissues have not been conducted. In the present study, we explore the possibility that AgOrs mediate responses of spermatozoa to endogenous signaling molecules in A. gambiae. In addition to finding AgOr transcript expression in testes, we show that the OR coreceptor, AgOrco, is localized to the flagella of A. gambiae spermatozoa where Orco-specific agonists, antagonists, and other odorant ligands robustly activate flagella beating in an Orco-dependent process. We also demonstrate Orco expression and Orco-mediated activation of spermatozoa in the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti. Moreover, we find Orco localization in testes across distinct insect taxa and posit that OR-mediated responses in spermatozoa may represent a general characteristic of insect reproduction and an example of convergent evolution. PMID:24550284

Pitts, R. Jason; Liu, Chao; Zhou, Xiaofan; Malpartida, Juan C.; Zwiebel, Laurence J.

2014-01-01

20

MosquitoMap and the Mal-area calculator: new web tools to relate mosquito species distribution with vector borne disease  

PubMed Central

Background Mosquitoes are important vectors of diseases but, in spite of various mosquito faunistic surveys globally, there is a need for a spatial online database of mosquito collection data and distribution summaries. Such a resource could provide entomologists with the results of previous mosquito surveys, and vector disease control workers, preventative medicine practitioners, and health planners with information relating mosquito distribution to vector-borne disease risk. Results A web application called MosquitoMap was constructed comprising mosquito collection point data stored in an ArcGIS 9.3 Server/SQL geodatabase that includes administrative area and vector species x country lookup tables. In addition to the layer containing mosquito collection points, other map layers were made available including environmental, and vector and pathogen/disease distribution layers. An application within MosquitoMap called the Mal-area calculator (MAC) was constructed to quantify the area of overlap, for any area of interest, of vector, human, and disease distribution models. Data standards for mosquito records were developed for MosquitoMap. Conclusion MosquitoMap is a public domain web resource that maps and compares georeferenced mosquito collection points to other spatial information, in a geographical information system setting. The MAC quantifies the Mal-area, i.e. the area where it is theoretically possible for vector-borne disease transmission to occur, thus providing a useful decision tool where other disease information is limited. The Mal-area approach emphasizes the independent but cumulative contribution to disease risk of the vector species predicted present. MosquitoMap adds value to, and makes accessible, the results of past collecting efforts, as well as providing a template for other arthropod spatial databases. PMID:20167090

2010-01-01

21

Monitoring malaria vector control interventions: effectiveness of five different adult mosquito sampling methods.  

PubMed

Long-term success of ongoing malaria control efforts based on mosquito bed nets (long-lasting insecticidal net) and indoor residual spraying is dependent on continuous monitoring of mosquito vectors, and thus on effective mosquito sampling tools. The objective of our study was to identify the most efficient mosquito sampling tool(s) for routine vector surveillance for malaria and lymphatic filariasis transmission in coastal Kenya. We evaluated relative efficacy of five collection methods--light traps associated with a person sleeping under a net, pyrethrum spray catches, Prokopack aspirator, clay pots, and urine-baited traps--in four villages representing three ecological settings along the south coast of Kenya. Of the five methods, light traps were the most efficient for collecting female Anopheles gambiae s.l. (Giles) (Diptera: Culicidae) and Anopheles funestus (Giles) (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes, whereas the Prokopack aspirator was most efficient in collecting Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) (Diptera: Culicidae) and other culicines. With the low vector densities here, and across much of sub-Saharan Africa, wherever malaria interventions, long-lasting insecticidal nets, and/or indoor residual spraying are in place, the use of a single mosquito collection method will not be sufficient to achieve a representative sample of mosquito population structure. Light traps will remain a relevant tool for host-seeking mosquitoes, especially in the absence of human landing catches. For a fair representation of the indoor mosquito population, light traps will have to be supplemented with aspirator use, which has potential for routine monitoring of indoor resting mosquitoes, and can substitute the more labor-intensive and intrusive pyrethrum spray catches. There are still no sufficiently efficient mosquito collection methods for sampling outdoor mosquitoes, particularly those that are bloodfed. PMID:24180120

Onyango, Shirley A; Kitron, Uriel; Mungai, Peter; Muchiri, Eric M; Kokwaro, Elizabeth; King, Charles H; Mutuku, Francis M

2013-09-01

22

Screening Mosquito House Entry Points as a Potential Method for Integrated Control of Endophagic Filariasis, Arbovirus and Malaria Vectors  

PubMed Central

Background Partial mosquito-proofing of houses with screens and ceilings has the potential to reduce indoor densities of malaria mosquitoes. We wish to measure whether it will also reduce indoor densities of vectors of neglected tropical diseases. Methodology The main house entry points preferred by anopheline and culicine vectors were determined through controlled experiments using specially designed experimental huts and village houses in Lupiro village, southern Tanzania. The benefit of screening different entry points (eaves, windows and doors) using PVC-coated fibre glass netting material in terms of reduced indoor densities of mosquitoes was evaluated compared to the control. Findings 23,027 mosquitoes were caught with CDC light traps; 77.9% (17,929) were Anopheles gambiae sensu lato, of which 66.2% were An. arabiensis and 33.8% An. gambiae sensu stricto. The remainder comprised 0.2% (50) An. funestus, 10.2% (2359) Culex spp. and 11.6% (2664) Mansonia spp. Screening eaves reduced densities of Anopheles gambiae s. l. (Relative ratio (RR) ?=?0.91; 95% CI?=?0.84, 0.98; P?=?0.01); Mansonia africana (RR?=?0.43; 95% CI?=?0.26, 0.76; P<0.001) and Mansonia uniformis (RR?=?0.37; 95% CI?=?0.25, 0.56; P<0.001) but not Culex quinquefasciatus, Cx. univittatus or Cx. theileri. Numbers of these species were reduced by screening windows and doors but this was not significant. Significance This study confirms that across Africa, screening eaves protects households against important mosquito vectors of filariasis, Rift Valley Fever and O'Nyong nyong as well as malaria. While full house screening is required to exclude Culex species mosquitoes, screening of eaves alone or fitting ceilings has considerable potential for integrated control of other vectors of filariasis, arbovirus and malaria. PMID:20689815

Ogoma, Sheila B.; Lweitoijera, Dickson W.; Ngonyani, Hassan; Furer, Benjamin; Russell, Tanya L.; Mukabana, Wolfgang R.; Killeen, Gerry F.; Moore, Sarah J.

2010-01-01

23

Pathogen evolution issues in genetically modified mosquito vector strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, pathogen evolution will not be considered in the extended concept of adaptation through mutability, heredity and long-term adaptation through speciation. In contrast, the main issues deal with aspects related to polymorphism and population diversity that arise by selection processes and how these may influence vector- pathogen-human relationships. Three aspects related to these relationships will be presented in

Mario H. Rodriguez

24

Landscape ecology of sylvatic chikungunya virus and mosquito vectors in southeastern Senegal.  

PubMed

The risk of human infection with sylvatic chikungunya (CHIKV) virus was assessed in a focus of sylvatic arbovirus circulation in Senegal by investigating distribution and abundance of anthropophilic Aedes mosquitoes, as well as the abundance and distribution of CHIKV in these mosquitoes. A 1650 km(2) area was classified into five land cover classes: forest, barren, savanna, agriculture and village. A total of 39,799 mosquitoes was sampled from all classes using human landing collections between June 2009 and January 2010. Mosquito diversity was extremely high, and overall vector abundance peaked at the start of the rainy season. CHIKV was detected in 42 mosquito pools. Our data suggest that Aedes furcifer, which occurred abundantly in all land cover classes and landed frequently on humans in villages outside of houses, is probably the major bridge vector responsible for the spillover of sylvatic CHIKV to humans. PMID:22720097

Diallo, Diawo; Sall, Amadou A; Buenemann, Michaela; Chen, Rubing; Faye, Oumar; Diagne, Cheikh T; Faye, Ousmane; Ba, Yamar; Dia, Ibrahima; Watts, Douglas; Weaver, Scott C; Hanley, Kathryn A; Diallo, Mawlouth

2012-01-01

25

Downscaling modeling of the aggressiveness of mosquitoes vectors of diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aggressiveness of mosquitoes towards humans is often measured on different time scales but never continuously because of the amount of work required in practice. We developed a general downscaling method to simulate the aggressiveness of mosquitoes over short and long time periods based on a series of imbricated generalized linear models that link aggressiveness with explicative environmental variables according

Karine Chalvet-Monfray; Philippe Sabatier; Dominique J. Bicout

2007-01-01

26

Comparative Genomic Analysis of Drosophila melanogaster and Vector Mosquito Developmental Genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genome sequencing projects have presented the opportunity for analysis of developmental genes in three vector mosquito species: Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Anopheles gambiae. A comparative genomic analysis of developmental genes in Drosophila melanogaster and these three important vectors of human disease was performed in this investigation. While the study was comprehensive, special emphasis centered on genes that 1) are

Susanta K. Behura; Morgan Haugen; Ellen Flannery; Joseph Sarro; Charles R. Tessier; David W. Severson; Molly Duman-Scheel

2011-01-01

27

Different mosquito species host Wickerhamomyces anomalus (Pichia anomala): perspectives on vector-borne diseases symbiotic control.  

PubMed

The genetic manipulation of the microbial community associated with hematophagus insects is particularly relevant for public health applications. Within mosquito populations, this relationship has been overlooked until recently. New advances in molecular biotechnology propose the genetic manipulation of mosquito symbionts to prevent the transmission of pathogens to humans by interfering with the obligatory life cycle stages within the insect through the use of effector molecules. This approach, defined as 'paratransgenesis', has opened the way for the investigation and characterization of microbes residing in the mosquito body, particularly those localised within the gut. Some interesting bacteria have been identified as candidates for genetic modification, however, endosymbiotic yeasts remain largely unexplored with little information on the symbiotic relationships to date. Here we review the recent report of symbiotic relationship between Wickerhamomyces anomalus (Pichia anomala) and several mosquito vector species as promising methods to implement control of mosquito-borne diseases. PMID:21113816

Ricci, Irene; Mosca, Michela; Valzano, Matteo; Damiani, Claudia; Scuppa, Patrizia; Rossi, Paolo; Crotti, Elena; Cappelli, Alessia; Ulissi, Ulisse; Capone, Aida; Esposito, Fulvio; Alma, Alberto; Mandrioli, Mauro; Sacchi, Luciano; Bandi, Claudio; Daffonchio, Daniele; Favia, Guido

2011-01-01

28

Interplay between Plasmodium infection and resistance to insecticides in vector mosquitoes.  

PubMed

Despite its epidemiological importance, the impact of insecticide resistance on vector-parasite interactions and malaria transmission is poorly understood. Here, we explored the impact of Plasmodium infection on the level of insecticide resistance to dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) in field-caught Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto homozygous for the kdr mutation. Results showed that kdr homozygous mosquitoes that fed on infectious blood were more susceptible to DDT than mosquitoes that fed on noninfectious blood during both ookinete development (day 1 after the blood meal) and oocyst maturation (day 7 after the blood meal) but not during sporozoite invasion of the salivary glands. Plasmodium falciparum infection seemed to impose a fitness cost on mosquitoes by reducing the ability of kdr homozygous A. gambiae sensu stricto to survive exposure to DDT. These results suggest an interaction between Plasmodium infection and the insecticide susceptibility of mosquitoes carrying insecticide-resistant alleles. We discuss this finding in relation to vector control efficacy. PMID:24829465

Alout, Haoues; Yameogo, Bienvenue; Djogbnou, Luc Salako; Chandre, Fabrice; Dabir, Roch Kounbobr; Corbel, Vincent; Cohuet, Anna

2014-11-01

29

Neural Responses to One-and Two-Tone Stimuli in the Hearing Organ of the Dengue Vector Mosquito  

E-print Network

Neural Responses to One- and Two-Tone Stimuli in the Hearing Organ of the Dengue Vector Mosquito Short title: Auditory Responses in Mosquitoes Keywords: sound recognition, efference copy, frequency studies demonstrate that mosquitoes listen to each other's wing beats just prior to mating in flight

Hoy, Ronald R.

30

Repellent, Irritant and Toxic Effects of 20 Plant Extracts on Adults of the Malaria Vector Anopheles gambiae Mosquito  

PubMed Central

Pyrethroid insecticides induce an excito-repellent effect that reduces contact between humans and mosquitoes. Insecticide use is expected to lower the risk of pathogen transmission, particularly when impregnated on long-lasting treated bednets. When applied at low doses, pyrethroids have a toxic effect, however the development of pyrethroid resistance in several mosquito species may jeopardize these beneficial effects. The need to find additional compounds, either to kill disease-carrying mosquitoes or to prevent mosquito contact with humans, therefore arises. In laboratory conditions, the effects (i.e., repellent, irritant and toxic) of 20 plant extracts, mainly essential oils, were assessed on adults of Anopheles gambiae, a primary vector of malaria. Their effects were compared to those of DEET and permethrin, used as positive controls. Most plant extracts had irritant, repellent and/or toxic effects on An. gambiae adults. The most promising extracts, i.e. those combining the three types of effects, were from Cymbopogon winterianus, Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Thymus vulgaris. The irritant, repellent and toxic effects occurred apparently independently of each other, and the behavioural response of adult An. gambiae was significantly influenced by the concentration of the plant extracts. Mechanisms underlying repellency might, therefore, differ from those underlying irritancy and toxicity. The utility of the efficient plant extracts for vector control as an alternative to pyrethroids may thus be envisaged. PMID:24376515

Deletre, Emilie; Martin, Thibaud; Campagne, Pascal; Bourguet, Denis; Cadin, Andy; Menut, Chantal; Bonafos, Romain; Chandre, Fabrice

2013-01-01

31

Repellent, irritant and toxic effects of 20 plant extracts on adults of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae mosquito.  

PubMed

Pyrethroid insecticides induce an excito-repellent effect that reduces contact between humans and mosquitoes. Insecticide use is expected to lower the risk of pathogen transmission, particularly when impregnated on long-lasting treated bednets. When applied at low doses, pyrethroids have a toxic effect, however the development of pyrethroid resistance in several mosquito species may jeopardize these beneficial effects. The need to find additional compounds, either to kill disease-carrying mosquitoes or to prevent mosquito contact with humans, therefore arises. In laboratory conditions, the effects (i.e., repellent, irritant and toxic) of 20 plant extracts, mainly essential oils, were assessed on adults of Anopheles gambiae, a primary vector of malaria. Their effects were compared to those of DEET and permethrin, used as positive controls. Most plant extracts had irritant, repellent and/or toxic effects on An. gambiae adults. The most promising extracts, i.e. those combining the three types of effects, were from Cymbopogon winterianus, Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Thymus vulgaris. The irritant, repellent and toxic effects occurred apparently independently of each other, and the behavioural response of adult An. gambiae was significantly influenced by the concentration of the plant extracts. Mechanisms underlying repellency might, therefore, differ from those underlying irritancy and toxicity. The utility of the efficient plant extracts for vector control as an alternative to pyrethroids may thus be envisaged. PMID:24376515

Deletre, Emilie; Martin, Thibaud; Campagne, Pascal; Bourguet, Denis; Cadin, Andy; Menut, Chantal; Bonafos, Romain; Chandre, Fabrice

2013-01-01

32

Efficacy of Mosquito Traps for Collecting Potential West Nile Mosquito Vectors in a Natural Mediterranean Wetland  

PubMed Central

Surveillance, research, and control of mosquito-borne diseases such as West Nile virus require efficient methods for sampling mosquitoes. We compared the efficacy of BG-Sentinel and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-CO2 traps in terms of the abundances of host-seeking and blood-fed female mosquitoes and the origin of mosquito bloodmeals. Our results indicate that BG-Sentinel traps that use CO2 and attractants are as effective as CDC-CO2 traps for Culex mosquito species, Ochlerotatus caspius, and they are also highly efficient at capturing Anopheles atroparvus host-seeking and blood-fed females with or without CO2. The CDC-CO2 trap is the least efficient method for capturing blood-fed females. BG-Sentinel traps with attractants and CO2 were significantly better at capturing mosquitoes that had fed on mammals than the unbaited BG-Sentinel and CDC-CO2 traps in the cases of An. atroparvus and Cx. theileri. These results may help researchers to optimize trapping methods by obtaining greater sample sizes and saving time and money. PMID:22492149

Roiz, David; Roussel, Marion; Munoz, Joaquin; Ruiz, Santiago; Soriguer, Ramon; Figuerola, Jordi

2012-01-01

33

Fighting malaria with engineered symbiotic bacteria from vector mosquitoes.  

PubMed

The most vulnerable stages of Plasmodium development occur in the lumen of the mosquito midgut, a compartment shared with symbiotic bacteria. Here, we describe a strategy that uses symbiotic bacteria to deliver antimalaria effector molecules to the midgut lumen, thus rendering host mosquitoes refractory to malaria infection. The Escherichia coli hemolysin A secretion system was used to promote the secretion of a variety of anti-Plasmodium effector proteins by Pantoea agglomerans, a common mosquito symbiotic bacterium. These engineered P. agglomerans strains inhibited development of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum and rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei by up to 98%. Significantly, the proportion of mosquitoes carrying parasites (prevalence) decreased by up to 84% for two of the effector molecules, scorpine, a potent antiplasmodial peptide and (EPIP)(4), four copies of Plasmodium enolase-plasminogen interaction peptide that prevents plasminogen binding to the ookinete surface. We demonstrate the use of an engineered symbiotic bacterium to interfere with the development of P. falciparum in the mosquito. These findings provide the foundation for the use of genetically modified symbiotic bacteria as a powerful tool to combat malaria. PMID:22802646

Wang, Sibao; Ghosh, Anil K; Bongio, Nicholas; Stebbings, Kevin A; Lampe, David J; Jacobs-Lorena, Marcelo

2012-07-31

34

Vertebrate attenuated West Nile virus mutants have differing effects on vector competence in Culex tarsalis mosquitoes  

PubMed Central

Previous mutational analyses of naturally occurring West Nile virus (WNV) strains and engineered mutant WNV strains have identified locations in the viral genome that can have profound phenotypic effect on viral infectivity, temperature sensitivity and neuroinvasiveness. We chose six mutant WNV strains to evaluate for vector competence in the natural WNV vector Culex tarsalis, two of which contain multiple ablations of glycosylation sites in the envelope and NS1 proteins; three of which contain mutations in the NS4B protein and an attenuated natural bird isolate (Bird 1153) harbouring an NS4B mutation. Despite vertebrate attenuation, all NS4B mutant viruses displayed enhanced vector competence by Cx. tarsalis. Non-glycosylated mutant viruses displayed decreased vector competence in Cx. tarsalis mosquitoes, particularly when all three NS1 glycosylation sites were abolished. These results indicate the importance of both the NS4B protein and NS1 glycosylation in the transmission of WNV by a significant mosquito vector. PMID:23303828

Van Slyke, Greta A.; Jia, Yongqing; Whiteman, Melissa C.; Wicker, Jason A.; Barrett, Alan D. T.

2013-01-01

35

Host Feeding Patterns of Established and Potential Mosquito Vectors of West Nile Virus in the Eastern United States  

PubMed Central

An important variable in determining the vectorial capacity of mosquito species for arthropod-borne infections is the degree of contact of the vector and the vertebrate reservoir. This parameter can be estimated by examining the host-feeding habits of vectors. Serological and polymerase chain reaction based methods have been used to study the host-feedings patterns of 21 mosquito species from New York, New Jersey, and Tennessee, 19 of which previously have been found infected with West Nile virus. Mammalophilic mosquito species in New Jersey and New York fed primarily upon white-tailed deer, while those from Memphis, Tennessee, fed mainly upon domestic dogs. A total of 24 different avian host species were detected among the avian-derived blood meals. American Robin, Northern Cardinal, Northern Mockingbird, Tufted Titmouse, and Brown-headed Cowbird were common avian hosts, while blood meals derived from the American Crow were relatively rare. Although the majority of common host species were potentially among the most abundant birds at each location, the proportion of blood meals from the most commonly fed upon avian species was greater than was predicted based upon the likely abundance of these species alone. These findings suggest that vector species for West Nile virus may preferentially feed upon certain avian hosts. PMID:15018775

APPERSON, CHARLES S.; HASSAN, HASSAN K.; HARRISON, BRUCE A.; SAVAGE, HARRY M.; ASPEN, STEPHEN E.; FARAJOLLAHI, ARY; CRANS, WAYNE; DANIELS, THOMAS J.; FALCO, RICHARD C.; BENEDICT, MARK; ANDERSON, MICHAEL; McMILLEN, LARRY; UNNASCH, THOMAS R.

2008-01-01

36

The Effective Population Size of Malaria Mosquitoes: Large Impact of Vector Control  

PubMed Central

Malaria vectors in sub-Saharan Africa have proven themselves very difficult adversaries in the global struggle against malaria. Decades of anti-vector interventions have yielded mixed resultswith successful reductions in transmission in some areas and limited impacts in others. These varying successes can be ascribed to a lack of universally effective vector control tools, as well as the development of insecticide resistance in mosquito populations. Understanding the impact of vector control on mosquito populations is crucial for planning new interventions and evaluating existing ones. However, estimates of population size changes in response to control efforts are often inaccurate because of limitations and biases in collection methods. Attempts to evaluate the impact of vector control on mosquito effective population size (Ne) have produced inconclusive results thus far. Therefore, we obtained data for 1315 microsatellite markers for more than 1,500 mosquitoes representing multiple time points for seven populations of three important vector speciesAnopheles gambiae, An. melas, and An. mouchetiin Equatorial Guinea. These populations were exposed to indoor residual spraying or long-lasting insecticidal nets in recent years. For comparison, we also analyzed data from two populations that have no history of organized vector control. We used Approximate Bayesian Computation to reconstruct their demographic history, allowing us to evaluate the impact of these interventions on the effective population size. In six of the seven study populations, vector control had a dramatic impact on the effective population size, reducing Ne between 55%87%, the exception being a single An. melas population. In contrast, the two negative control populations did not experience a reduction in effective population size. This study is the first to conclusively link anti-vector intervention programs in Africa to sharply reduced effective population sizes of malaria vectors. PMID:23271973

Athrey, Giridhar; Hodges, Theresa K.; Reddy, Michael R.; Overgaard, Hans J.; Matias, Abrahan; Ridl, Frances C.; Kleinschmidt, Immo; Caccone, Adalgisa; Slotman, Michel A.

2012-01-01

37

Evidence for regular ongoing introductions of mosquito disease vectors into the Galpagos Islands  

PubMed Central

Wildlife on isolated oceanic islands is highly susceptible to the introduction of pathogens. The recent establishment in the Galpagos Islands of the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus, a vector for diseases such as avian malaria and West Nile fever, is considered a serious risk factor for the archipelago's endemic fauna. Here we present evidence from the monitoring of aeroplanes and genetic analysis that C. quinquefasciatus is regularly introduced via aircraft into the Galpagos Archipelago. Genetic population structure and admixture analysis demonstrates that these mosquitoes breed with, and integrate successfully into, already-established populations of C. quinquefasciatus in the Galpagos, and that there is ongoing movement of mosquitoes between islands. Tourist cruise boats and inter-island boat services are the most likely mechanism for transporting Culex mosquitoes between islands. Such anthropogenic mosquito movements increase the risk of the introduction of mosquito-borne diseases novel to Galpagos and their subsequent widespread dissemination across the archipelago. Failure to implement and maintain measures to prevent the human-assisted transport of mosquitoes to and among the islands could have catastrophic consequences for the endemic wildlife of Galpagos. PMID:19675009

Bataille, Arnaud; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Cedeo, Virna; Cruz, Marilyn; Eastwood, Gillian; Fonseca, Dina M.; Causton, Charlotte E.; Azuero, Ronal; Loayza, Jose; Martinez, Jose D. Cruz; Goodman, Simon J.

2009-01-01

38

The Vector Population Monitoring Tool (VPMT): High-Throughput DNA-Based Diagnostics for the Monitoring of Mosquito Vector Populations  

PubMed Central

Regular monitoring of mosquito vector populations is an integral component of most vector control programmes. Contemporary data on mosquito species composition, infection status, and resistance to insecticides are a prerequisite for effective intervention. For this purpose we, with funding from the Innovative Vector Control Consortium (IVCC), have developed a suite of high-throughput assays based on a single closed-tube platform that collectively comprise the Vector Population Monitoring Tool (VPMT). The VPMT can be used to screen mosquito disease vector populations for a number of traits including Anopheles gambiae s.l. and Anopheles funestus species identification, detection of infection with Plasmodium parasites, and identification of insecticide resistance mechanisms. In this paper we focus on the Anopheles-specific assays that comprise the VPMT and include details of a new assay for resistance todieldrin Rdl detection. The application of these tools, general and specific guidelines on their use based on field testing in Africa, and plans for further development are discussed. PMID:22347668

Bass, Chris; Nikou, Dimitra; Vontas, John; Donnelly, Martin J.; Williamson, Martin S.; Field, Linda M.

2010-01-01

39

Man Bites Mosquito: Understanding the Contribution of Human Movement to Vector-Borne Disease Dynamics  

PubMed Central

In metropolitan areas people travel frequently and extensively but often in highly structured commuting patterns. We investigate the role of this type of human movement in the epidemiology of vector-borne pathogens such as dengue. Analysis is based on a metapopulation model where mobile humans connect static mosquito subpopulations. We find that, due to frequency dependent biting, infection incidence in the human and mosquito populations is almost independent of the duration of contact. If the mosquito population is not uniformly distributed between patches the transmission potential of the pathogen at the metapopulation level, as summarized by the basic reproductive number, is determined by the size of the largest subpopulation and reduced by stronger connectivity. Global extinction of the pathogen is less likely when increased human movement enhances the rescue effect but, in contrast to classical theory, it is not minimized at an intermediate level of connectivity. We conclude that hubs and reservoirs of infection can be places people visit frequently but briefly and the relative importance of human and mosquito populations in maintaining the pathogen depends on the distribution of the mosquito population and the variability in human travel patterns. These results offer an insight in to the paradoxical observation of resurgent urban vector-borne disease despite increased investment in vector control and suggest that successful public health intervention may require a dual approach. Prospective studies can be used to identify areas with large mosquito populations that are also visited by a large fraction of the human population. Retrospective studies can be used to map recent movements of infected people, pinpointing the mosquito subpopulation from which they acquired the infection and others to which they may have transmitted it. PMID:19707544

Adams, Ben; Kapan, Durrell D.

2009-01-01

40

The genome of Anopheles darlingi, the main neotropical malaria vector.  

PubMed

Anopheles darlingi is the principal neotropical malaria vector, responsible for more than a million cases of malaria per year on the American continent. Anopheles darlingi diverged from the African and Asian malaria vectors ?100 million years ago (mya) and successfully adapted to the New World environment. Here we present an annotated reference A. darlingi genome, sequenced from a wild population of males and females collected in the Brazilian Amazon. A total of 10 481 predicted protein-coding genes were annotated, 72% of which have their closest counterpart in Anopheles gambiae and 21% have highest similarity with other mosquito species. In spite of a long period of divergent evolution, conserved gene synteny was observed between A. darlingi and A. gambiae. More than 10 million single nucleotide polymorphisms and short indels with potential use as genetic markers were identified. Transposable elements correspond to 2.3% of the A. darlingi genome. Genes associated with hematophagy, immunity and insecticide resistance, directly involved in vector-human and vector-parasite interactions, were identified and discussed. This study represents the first effort to sequence the genome of a neotropical malaria vector, and opens a new window through which we can contemplate the evolutionary history of anopheline mosquitoes. It also provides valuable information that may lead to novel strategies to reduce malaria transmission on the South American continent. The A. darlingi genome is accessible at www.labinfo.lncc.br/index.php/anopheles-darlingi. PMID:23761445

Marinotti, Osvaldo; Cerqueira, Gustavo C; de Almeida, Luiz Gonzaga Paula; Ferro, Maria Ins Tiraboschi; Loreto, Elgion Lucio da Silva; Zaha, Arnaldo; Teixeira, Santuza M R; Wespiser, Adam R; Almeida E Silva, Alexandre; Schlindwein, Aline Daiane; Pacheco, Ana Carolina Landim; Silva, Artur Luiz da Costa da; Graveley, Brenton R; Walenz, Brian P; Lima, Bruna de Araujo; Ribeiro, Carlos Alexandre Gomes; Nunes-Silva, Carlos Gustavo; de Carvalho, Carlos Roberto; Soares, Clia Maria de Almeida; de Menezes, Claudia Beatriz Afonso; Matiolli, Cleverson; Caffrey, Daniel; Arajo, Demetrius Antonio M; de Oliveira, Diana Magalhes; Golenbock, Douglas; Grisard, Edmundo Carlos; Fantinatti-Garboggini, Fabiana; de Carvalho, Fabola Marques; Barcellos, Fernando Gomes; Prosdocimi, Francisco; May, Gemma; Azevedo Junior, Gilson Martins de; Guimares, Giselle Moura; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique; Padilha, Itcio Q M; Batista, Jacqueline da Silva; Ferro, Jesus Aparecido; Ribeiro, Jos M C; Fietto, Juliana Lopes Rangel; Dabbas, Karina Maia; Cerdeira, Louise; Agnez-Lima, Lucymara Fassarella; Brocchi, Marcelo; de Carvalho, Marcos Oliveira; Teixeira, Marcus de Melo; Diniz Maia, Maria de Mascena; Goldman, Maria Helena S; Cruz Schneider, Maria Paula; Felipe, Maria Sueli Soares; Hungria, Mariangela; Nicols, Marisa Fabiana; Pereira, Maristela; Montes, Martn Alejandro; Canto, Maurcio E; Vincentz, Michel; Rafael, Miriam Silva; Silverman, Neal; Stoco, Patrcia Hermes; Souza, Rangel Celso; Vicentini, Renato; Gazzinelli, Ricardo Tostes; Neves, Rogrio de Oliveira; Silva, Rosane; Astolfi-Filho, Spartaco; Maciel, Talles Eduardo Ferreira; Urmnyi, Turn P; Tadei, Wanderli Pedro; Camargo, Erney Plessmann; de Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza Ribeiro

2013-08-01

41

The Genome of Anopheles darlingi, the main neotropical malaria vector  

PubMed Central

Anopheles darlingi is the principal neotropical malaria vector, responsible for more than a million cases of malaria per year on the American continent. Anopheles darlingi diverged from the African and Asian malaria vectors ?100 million years ago (mya) and successfully adapted to the New World environment. Here we present an annotated reference A. darlingi genome, sequenced from a wild population of males and females collected in the Brazilian Amazon. A total of 10 481 predicted protein-coding genes were annotated, 72% of which have their closest counterpart in Anopheles gambiae and 21% have highest similarity with other mosquito species. In spite of a long period of divergent evolution, conserved gene synteny was observed between A. darlingi and A. gambiae. More than 10 million single nucleotide polymorphisms and short indels with potential use as genetic markers were identified. Transposable elements correspond to 2.3% of the A. darlingi genome. Genes associated with hematophagy, immunity and insecticide resistance, directly involved in vectorhuman and vectorparasite interactions, were identified and discussed. This study represents the first effort to sequence the genome of a neotropical malaria vector, and opens a new window through which we can contemplate the evolutionary history of anopheline mosquitoes. It also provides valuable information that may lead to novel strategies to reduce malaria transmission on the South American continent. The A. darlingi genome is accessible at www.labinfo.lncc.br/index.php/anopheles-darlingi. PMID:23761445

Marinotti, Osvaldo; Cerqueira, Gustavo C.; de Almeida, Luiz Gonzaga Paula; Ferro, Maria Ines Tiraboschi; Loreto, Elgion Lucio da Silva; Zaha, Arnaldo; Teixeira, Santuza M. R.; Wespiser, Adam R.; Almeida e Silva, Alexandre; Schlindwein, Aline Daiane; Pacheco, Ana Carolina Landim; da Silva, Artur Luiz da Costa; Graveley, Brenton R.; Walenz, Brian P.; Lima, Bruna de Araujo; Ribeiro, Carlos Alexandre Gomes; Nunes-Silva, Carlos Gustavo; de Carvalho, Carlos Roberto; Soares, Celia Maria de Almeida; de Menezes, Claudia Beatriz Afonso; Matiolli, Cleverson; Caffrey, Daniel; Araujo, Demetrius Antonio M.; de Oliveira, Diana Magalhaes; Golenbock, Douglas; Grisard, Edmundo Carlos; Fantinatti-Garboggini, Fabiana; de Carvalho, Fabiola Marques; Barcellos, Fernando Gomes; Prosdocimi, Francisco; May, Gemma; de Azevedo Junior, Gilson Martins; Guimaraes, Giselle Moura; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique; Padilha, Itacio Q. M.; Batista, Jacqueline da Silva; Ferro, Jesus Aparecido; Ribeiro, Jose M. C.; Fietto, Juliana Lopes Rangel; Dabbas, Karina Maia; Cerdeira, Louise; Agnez-Lima, Lucymara Fassarella; Brocchi, Marcelo; de Carvalho, Marcos Oliveira; Teixeira, Marcus de Melo; Diniz Maia, Maria de Mascena; Goldman, Maria Helena S.; Cruz Schneider, Maria Paula; Felipe, Maria Sueli Soares; Hungria, Mariangela; Nicolas, Marisa Fabiana; Pereira, Maristela; Montes, Martin Alejandro; Cantao, Mauricio E.; Vincentz, Michel; Rafael, Miriam Silva; Silverman, Neal; Stoco, Patricia Hermes; Souza, Rangel Celso; Vicentini, Renato; Gazzinelli, Ricardo Tostes; Neves, Rogerio de Oliveira; Silva, Rosane; Astolfi-Filho, Spartaco; Maciel, Talles Eduardo Ferreira; Urmenyi, Turan P.; Tadei, Wanderli Pedro; Camargo, Erney Plessmann; de Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza Ribeiro

2013-01-01

42

An Integrated Genetic Map of the African Human Malaria Vector Mosquito, Anopheles gambiae  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a genetic map based on microsatellite polymorphisms for the African human malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae. Polymorphisms in laboratory strains were detected for 89% of the tested microsatellite markers. Genotyping was performed for individual mosquitoes from 13 backcross families that included 679 progeny. Three linkage groups were identified, corresponding to the three chromo- somes. We added 22 new markers

Liangbiao Zheng; Mark Q. Benedict; Anton J. Cornel; Frank H. Collins; Fotis C. Kafatos

43

Outdoor host seeking behaviour of Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes following initiation of malaria vector control on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundIndoor-based anti-vector interventions remain the preferred means of reducing risk of malaria transmission in malaria endemic\\u000a areas around the world. Despite demonstrated success in reducing human-mosquito interactions, these methods are effective\\u000a solely against endophilic vectors. It may be that outdoor locations serve as an important venue of host seeking by Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (s.l.) mosquitoes where indoor vector suppression

Michael R Reddy; Hans J Overgaard; Simon Abaga; Vamsi P Reddy; Adalgisa Caccone; Anthony E Kiszewski; Michel A Slotman

2011-01-01

44

Phylogenetic analyses of vector mosquito basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors.  

PubMed

Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors play critical roles in the regulation of a wide range of developmental processes in higher organisms and have been identified in more than 20 organisms. Mosquitoes are important vectors of certain human diseases. In this study, Aedes aegypti, Anopheles gambiae str. PEST and Culex quinquefasciatus genomes were found to encode 55, 55 and 57 bHLH genes, respectively. Further phylogenetic analyses and OrthoDB and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes orthology database searches led us to define orthology for all the identified mosquito bHLHs successfully. This provides useful information with which to update annotations to 40 Ae.?aegypti, 55 An.?gambiae and 38 C.?quinquefasciatus?bHLH genes in VectorBase. The mosquito lineage has more bHLH genes in the Atonal, neurogenin (Ngn) and Hes-related with YRPW motif (Hey) families than do other insect species, suggesting that mosquitoes have evolved to be more sensitive to vibration, light and chemicals. Mosquito bHLH genes generally have higher evolutionary rates than other insect species. However, no pervasive positive selection occurred in the evolution of insect bHLH genes. Only episodic positive selection was found to affect evolution of bHLH genes in 11 families. Besides, coding regions of several Ae.?aegypti?bHLH motifs have unusually long introns in which multiple copies of transposable elements have been identified. These data provide a solid basis for further studies on structures and functions of bHLH proteins in the regulation of mosquito development and for prevention and control of mosquito-mediated human diseases. PMID:23906262

Zhang, D B; Wang, Y; Liu, A K; Wang, X H; Dang, C W; Yao, Q; Chen, K P

2013-10-01

45

Constitutive differences between natural and artificial container mosquito habitats: vector communities, resources, microorganisms, and habitat parameters.  

PubMed

Aquatic containers, including tree holes and vehicle tires, harbor a diverse assemblage of mosquitoes capable of vectoring important diseases. Many studies have examined containers as a mosquito breeding site, although no data exist that have simultaneously compared mosquito communities between tree holes and tires, and few have quantified differences in environmental factors or food resources that may be important for explaining population or community differences. At two times (early and late summer 2009) we sampled two tire and two tree hole sites in south-central Mississippi, and for each container we enumerated mosquito larvae and measured several environmental parameters (canopy cover, water volume, and detritus), and biomass and productivity of fungi and bacteria, and species richness and abundance of protozoans. Tree holes held less water but were more shaded compared with tires; however, after correcting for volume differences, tree holes contained more detritus and were higher in some microorganism measures (protozoan richness, bacterial productivity in the water column). Based on community dissimilarity analysis of mosquitoes, strong differences existed between container types and sampling period; Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) were dominant in tires, whereas Ae. triseriatus (Say) and Orthopodomyia signifera (Coquillett) were dominant in tree holes. This study also reports the use of tires by the invasive mosquito Cx. coronator (Dyar and Knab). Tree holes supported a higher density of larvae but fewer species than tires, though there was variation across time. Our work illustrates that detrital inputs and some microorganisms differ in fundamental ways between tires and tree holes, and because of compositional differences in mosquito communities, these small aquatic habitats cannot be considered to be homogeneous mosquito habitats. PMID:22679854

Yee, D A; Allgood, D; Kneitel, J M; Kuehn, K A

2012-05-01

46

Relationship between Exposure to Vector Bites and Antibody Responses to Mosquito Salivary Gland Extracts  

PubMed Central

Mosquito-borne diseases are major health problems worldwide. Serological responses to mosquito saliva proteins may be useful in estimating individual exposure to bites from mosquitoes transmitting these diseases. However, the relationships between the levels of these IgG responses and mosquito density as well as IgG response specificity at the genus and/or species level need to be clarified prior to develop new immunological markers to assess human/vector contact. To this end, a kinetic study of antibody levels against several mosquito salivary gland extracts from southeastern French individuals living in three areas with distinct ecological environments and, by implication, distinct Aedes caspius mosquito densities were compared using ELISA. A positive association was observed between the average levels of IgG responses against Ae. caspius salivary gland extracts and spatial Ae. caspius densities. Additionally, the average level of IgG responses increased significantly during the peak exposure to Ae. caspius at each site and returned to baseline four months later, suggesting short-lived IgG responses. The species-specificity of IgG antibody responses was determined by testing antibody responses to salivary gland extracts from Cx. pipiens, a mosquito that is present at these three sites at different density levels, and from two other Aedes species not present in the study area (Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus). The IgG responses observed against these mosquito salivary gland extracts contrasted with those observed against Ae. caspius salivary gland extracts, supporting the existence of species-specific serological responses. By considering different populations and densities of mosquitoes linked to environmental factors, this study shows, for the first time, that specific IgG antibody responses against Ae. caspius salivary gland extracts may be related to the seasonal and geographical variations in Ae. caspius density. Characterisation of such immunological-markers may allow the evaluation of the effectiveness of vector-control strategies or estimation of the risk of vector-borne disease transmission. PMID:22195000

Orlandi-Pradines, Eve; Diouf, Ibrahima; Remoue, Franck; Pages, Frederic; Fusai, Thierry; Rogier, Christophe; Almeras, Lionel

2011-01-01

47

Chikungunya virus impacts the diversity of symbiotic bacteria in mosquito vector.  

PubMed

Mosquitoes transmit numerous arboviruses including dengue and chikungunya virus (CHIKV). In recent years, mosquito species Aedes albopictus has expanded in the Indian Ocean region and was the principal vector of chikungunya outbreaks in La Reunion and neighbouring islands in 2005 and 2006. Vector-associated bacteria have recently been found to interact with transmitted pathogens. For instance, Wolbachia modulates the replication of viruses or parasites. However, there has been no systematic evaluation of the diversity of the entire bacterial populations within mosquito individuals particularly in relation to virus invasion. Here, we investigated the effect of CHIKV infection on the whole bacterial community of Ae.albopictus. Taxonomic microarrays and quantitative PCR showed that members of Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria phyla, as well as Bacteroidetes, responded to CHIKV infection. The abundance of bacteria from the Enterobacteriaceae family increased with CHIKV infection, whereas the abundance of known insect endosymbionts like Wolbachia and Blattabacterium decreased. Our results clearly link the pathogen propagation with changes in the dynamics of the bacterial community, suggesting that cooperation or competition occurs within the host, which may in turn affect the mosquito traits like vector competence. PMID:22433115

Zouache, Karima; Michelland, Rory J; Failloux, Anna-Bella; Grundmann, Genevieve L; Mavingui, Patrick

2012-05-01

48

Antennal-Expressed Ammonium Transporters in the Malaria Vector Mosquito Anopheles gambiae  

PubMed Central

The principal Afrotropical malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles gambiae remains a significant threat to human health. In this anthropophagic species, females detect and respond to a range of human-derived volatile kairomones such as ammonia, lactic acid, and other carboxylic acids in their quest for blood meals. While the molecular underpinnings of mosquito olfaction and host seeking are becoming better understood, many questions remain unanswered. In this study, we have identified and characterized two candidate ammonium transporter genes, AgAmt and AgRh50 that are expressed in the mosquito antenna and may contribute to physiological and behavioral responses to ammonia, which is an important host kairomone for vector mosquitoes. AgAmt transcripts are highly enhanced in female antennae while a splice variant of AgRh50 appears to be antennal-specific. Functional expression of AgAmt in Xenopus laevis oocytes facilitates inward currents in response to both ammonium and methylammonium, while AgRh50 is able to partially complement a yeast ammonium transporter mutant strain, validating their conserved roles as ammonium transporters. We present evidence to suggest that both AgAmt and AgRh50 are in vivo ammonium transporters that are important for ammonia sensitivity in An. gambiae antennae, either by clearing ammonia from the sensillar lymph or by facilitating sensory neuron responses to environmental exposure. Accordingly, AgAmt and AgRh50 represent new and potentially important targets for the development of novel vector control strategies. PMID:25360676

Pulous, Fadi E.; Zwiebel, Laurence J.

2014-01-01

49

Diversity of Mosquito Vectors (Diptera: Culicidae) in Caxiuan?, Par?, Brazil  

PubMed Central

This paper presents a study based on ecological parameters represented by diversity and richness indices applied in a community of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae), at the National Forest of Caxiuan, Melgao municipality, state of Par, in the Brazilian Amazon. A total of 25,433 specimens of culicids were collected in the study, from five field collection periods, over 10 months, between 2005 and 2006. Specimens were collected in four heights of the forest (ground level, 8?m, 16?m, and 30?m-canopy). Diversity indices of Shannon and Berger-Parker were obtained, and indicators of dominance of species were calculated. The species Culex portesi was dominant in this site, representing about 84% of specimens. Measures of richness and similarity (Jaccard) were obtained for the five strata of time and four height levels. According to the richness estimator abundance-based covered estimator (ACE) the greatest value occurred in April (2006), considering the levels of height to 16?m and on the ground. The estimates obtained have shown quantitative parameters of mosquito populations in the region of the Forest of Caxiuan. PMID:22997514

Confalonieri, Ulisses E. C.; Costa Neto, Cristina

2012-01-01

50

Diversity of mosquito vectors (Diptera: culicidae) in caxiuan, par, Brazil.  

PubMed

THIS PAPER PRESENTS A STUDY BASED ON ECOLOGICAL PARAMETERS REPRESENTED BY DIVERSITY AND RICHNESS INDICES APPLIED IN A COMMUNITY OF MOSQUITOES (DIPTERA: Culicidae), at the National Forest of Caxiuan, Melgao municipality, state of Par, in the Brazilian Amazon. A total of 25,433 specimens of culicids were collected in the study, from five field collection periods, over 10 months, between 2005 and 2006. Specimens were collected in four heights of the forest (ground level, 8?m, 16?m, and 30?m-canopy). Diversity indices of Shannon and Berger-Parker were obtained, and indicators of dominance of species were calculated. The species Culex portesi was dominant in this site, representing about 84% of specimens. Measures of richness and similarity (Jaccard) were obtained for the five strata of time and four height levels. According to the richness estimator abundance-based covered estimator (ACE) the greatest value occurred in April (2006), considering the levels of height to 16?m and on the ground. The estimates obtained have shown quantitative parameters of mosquito populations in the region of the Forest of Caxiuan. PMID:22997514

Confalonieri, Ulisses E C; Costa Neto, Cristina

2012-01-01

51

Sheep Skin Odor Improves Trap Captures of Mosquito Vectors of Rift Valley Fever  

PubMed Central

In recent years, the East African region has seen an increase in arboviral diseases transmitted by blood-feeding arthropods. Effective surveillance to monitor and reduce incidence of these infections requires the use of appropriate vector sampling tools. Here, trapped skin volatiles on fur from sheep, a known preferred host of mosquito vectors of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), were used with a standard CDC light trap to improve catches of mosquito vectors. We tested the standard CDC light trap alone (L), and baited with (a) CO2 (LC), (b) animal volatiles (LF), and (c) CO2 plus animal volatiles (LCF) in two highly endemic areas for RVF in Kenya (Marigat and Ijara districts) from MarchJune and SeptemberDecember 2010. The incidence rate ratios (IRR) that mosquito species chose traps baited with treatments (LCF, LC and LF) instead of the control (L) were estimated. Marigat was dominated by secondary vectors and host-seeking mosquitoes were 34 times more likely to enter LC and LCF traps [IRR?=?3.1 and IRR?=?3.8 respectively] than the L only trap. The LCF trap captured a greater number of mosquitoes than the LC trap (IRR?=?1.23) although the difference was not significant. Analogous results were observed at Ijara, where species were dominated by key primary and primary RVFV vectors, with 1.6-, 6.5-, and 8.5-fold increases in trap captures recorded in LF, LC and LCF baited traps respectively, relative to the control. These catches all differed significantly from those trapped in L only. Further, there was a significant increase in trap captures in LCF compared to LC (IRR?=?1.63). Mosquito species composition and trap counts differed between the RVF sites. However, within each site, catches differed in abundance only and no species preferences were noted in the different baited-traps. Identifying the attractive components present in these natural odors should lead to development of an effective odor-bait trapping system for population density-monitoring and result in improved RVF surveillance especially during the inter-epidemic period. PMID:23133687

Tchouassi, David P.; Sang, Rosemary; Sole, Catherine L.; Bastos, Armanda D. S.; Mithoefer, Klaus; Torto, Baldwyn

2012-01-01

52

Turning cigarette butt waste into an alternative control tool against an insecticide-resistant mosquito vector.  

PubMed

Annually, 4.5 trillion cigarette butts (CBs) are flicked into our environment. Evidence exists that CB waste is deadly to aquatic life, but their lethality to the aquatic life of the main dengue vector is unknown. CBs are full of toxicants that occur naturally, during planting and manufacturing, which may act as larvicidal agents. We assessed Aedes aegypti vulnerability to Marlboro butts during its development. Overall, CBs showed insecticidal activities against larvae. At early phases of development, mortality rates were much higher in two CBs solution (2CBSol) and 3CBSol microcosms (MICRs). Larval survival gradually decreased with development in 1CBSol-MICRs. However, in great presence of CBs, mortality was high even for the late developmental stages. These results suggest that A. aegypti larvae are vulnerable to CB presence in their habitats, but this effect was seen most during the early developmental phases and in the presence of increased amounts of cigarette remnants. CB filters are being used as raw material in many sectors, i.e., brick, art, fashion, plastic industries, as a practical solution to the pollution problem, the observed butt waste toxicity to mosquito larvae open new avenues for the identification of novel insecticide products. PMID:23999373

Dieng, Hamady; Rajasaygar, Sudha; Ahmad, Abu Hassan; Ahmad, Hamdan; Rawi, Che Salmah Md; Zuharah, Wan Fatma; Satho, Tomomitsu; Miake, Fumio; Fukumitsu, Yuki; Saad, Ahmad Ramli; Ghani, Idris Abd; Vargas, Ronald Enrique Morales; Majid, Abdul Hafiz Ab; Abubakar, Sazaly

2013-12-01

53

Ecological Niche Modeling of Potential West Nile Virus Vector Mosquito Species in Iowa  

PubMed Central

Ecological niche modeling (ENM) algorithms, Maximum Entropy Species Distribution Modeling (Maxent) and Genetic Algorithm for Rule-set Prediction (GARP), were used to develop models in Iowa for three species of mosquito two significant, extant West Nile virus (WNV) vectors (Culex pipiens L and Culex tarsalis Coquillett (Diptera: Culicidae)), and the nuisance mosquito, Aedes vexans Meigen (Diptera: Culicidae), a potential WNV bridge vector. Occurrence data for the three mosquito species from a state-wide arbovirus surveillance program were used in combination with climatic and landscape layers. Maxent successfully created more appropriate niche models with greater accuracy than GARP. The three Maxent species' models were combined and the average values were statistically compared to human WNV incidence at the census block group level. The results showed that the Maxent-modeled species' niches averaged together were a useful indicator of WNV human incidence in the state of Iowa. This simple method for creating probability distribution maps proved useful for understanding WNV dynamics and could be applied to the study of other vector-borne diseases. PMID:20874412

Larson, Scott R.; DeGroote, John P.; Bartholomay, Lyric C.; Sugumaran, Ramanathan

2010-01-01

54

West Nile Virus Vector Competency of Culex quinquefasciatus Mosquitoes in the Gal?pagos Islands  

PubMed Central

The mosquito-transmitted pathogen West Nile virus (WNV) is not yet present in the Galpagos Archipelago of Ecuador. However, concern exists for fragile endemic island fauna after population decreases in several North American bird species and pathology in certain reptiles. We examined WNV vector competency of a Galpagos strain of mosquito (Culex quinquefasciatus Say). Field specimens were tested for their capacity to transmit the WN02-1956 strain of WNV after incubation at 27C or 30C. Rates of infection, dissemination, and transmission all increased with days post-exposure to WNV, and the highest rates were observed at 28 days. Infection rates peaked at 59% and transmission rates peaked at 44% (of mosquitoes tested). Vector efficiency increased after day 14. Rates of infection but not of transmission were significantly influence by temperature. No vertical transmission was detectable. We demonstrate that Galpagos Cx. quinquefasciatus are competent WNV vectors, and therefore should be considered an animal and public health risk for the islands and controlled wherever possible. PMID:21896799

Eastwood, Gillian; Kramer, Laura D.; Goodman, Simon J.; Cunningham, Andrew A.

2011-01-01

55

The Spin Vector Distribution of Main Belt Asteroids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The large main belt asteroids have been formed during an accretion process where their original physical properties (e.g. spin state) depended on the medium they formed from and the details of the growth mechanism. In this context the spin vector of an asteroid is an important property since it is closely linked to the general evolution of the main belt. New photometric observations have been acquired for 42 main belt asteroids in order to determine a substantial data set of reliable spin vectors. In combination with already existing lightcurves, the observational data yielded models of the spin vectors for 46 asteroids using standard computing procedures. Together with previously published models the new data set consists of spin vector parameters for 73 main belt asteroids. Compared to previous studies, this data set represents a doubling of asteroids with known spin vectors and is close of being complete for the largest objects (D>200 km). The spin vector distribution has following basic properties: There exists a significant dominance of asteroids with a prograde sense of rotation and with their spin vectors concentrated towards the north ecliptic pole. A comparison of the spin vector distribution between asteroids with different diameters reveals three specific zones. The large asteroids (D>200 km) for which the spin vectors are moderately anisotropic. An intermediate size range (D 70-150 km) including objects with the strongest spin vector concentration toward the north ecliptic pole and the smaller asteroids with a completely isotropic distribution. There exists a strong correlation between the spin vector distribution and the orbital inclination of the studied asteroids. Variations in the spin vector distribution are present between asteroids of different taxonomic types. The above results will be interpreted in an evolutionary scenario for the main belt population.

Erikson, A.

1999-09-01

56

Insecticidal and repellent activity of Hiptage benghalensis L. Kruz (Malpighiaceae) against mosquito vectors.  

PubMed

Plant-based insecticides for vector control are urgently needed for Anopheles barbirostris, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Aedes albopictus which are the primary vectors of malaria, lymphatic filariasis, and dengue, respectively, in India and other South East Asian countries. In the present study, larvicidal, adulticidal, and repellent activities of acetone root bark extract of Hiptage benghalensis were tested against the larvae and adults of the three mosquito vectors. The acetone root bark extracts of H. benghalensis was more effective as larvicides with low LC(50) (11.15-16.78 ppm) and LT50 (1.25-4.84 h at 200 and 400 ppm) values. Results of log probit analysis (at 95 % confidence level) and regression analysis of crude acetone root bark extract of H. benghalensis revealed that lethal concentration (LC(50)) values gradually decreased with the exposure periods; lethal time (LT(50)) decreased with the concentration, and the mortality is positively correlated with the concentration. The order of susceptibility of the three mosquito species was as follows: A. albopictus > A. barbirostris > C. quinquefascitus. Biochemical changes were also evidenced in third instar larvae of three mosquito species following a sublethal exposure for 24 h. The level of sugar, glycogen, lipids, and proteins was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced in larvae treated with H. benghalensis. The acetone root bark extracts of H. benghalensis is less toxic to adults and repelled laboratory-reared female A. barbirostris, A. albopictus, and C. quinquefascitus with the short median protection times of 57.66-135, 72.41-134.16, and 47.66-93 min, respectively. The present investigation proves it as a potent larvicide against A. albopictus, A. barbirostris, and C. quinquefascitus, which can be recommended to control these mosquito species on its breeding site. However, further investigations are needed to confirm the lethal effects of H. benghalensis in field conditions and its impact on the nontarget organisms. PMID:22565399

Lalrotluanga; Ngente, Lalchawimawii; Nachimuthu, Senthil Kumar; Guruswami, Gurusubramanian

2012-09-01

57

Anopheles plumbeus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Europe: a mere nuisance mosquito or potential malaria vector?  

PubMed Central

Background Anopheles plumbeus has been recognized as a minor vector for human malaria in Europe since the beginning of the 20th century. In recent years this tree hole breeding mosquito species appears to have exploited novel breeding sites, including large and organically rich man-made containers, with consequently larger mosquito populations in close vicinity to humans. This lead to investigate whether current populations of An. plumbeus would be able to efficiently transmit Plasmodium falciparum, the parasite responsible for the most deadly form of malaria. Methods Anopheles plumbeus immatures were collected from a liquid manure pit in Switzerland and transferred as adults to the CEPIA (Institut Pasteur, France) where they were fed on P. falciparum gametocytes produced in vitro. Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes served as controls. Development of P. falciparum in both mosquito species was followed by microscopical detection of oocysts on mosquito midguts and by sporozoite detection in the head/thorax by PCR and microscopy. Results A total of 293 wild An. plumbeus females from four independent collections successfully fed through a membrane on blood containing P. falciparum gametocytes. Oocysts were observed in mosquito midguts and P. falciparum DNA was detected in head-thorax samples in all four experiments, demonstrating, on a large mosquito sample, that An. plumbeus is indeed receptive to P. falciparum NF54 and able to produce sporozoites. Importantly, the proportion of sporozoites-infected An. plumbeus was almost similar to that of An. gambiae (31 to 88% An. plumbeus versus 67 to 97% An. gambiae). However, the number of sporozoites produced was significantly lower in infected An. plumbeus. Conclusion The results show that a sample of field-caught An. plumbeus has a moderate to high receptivity towards P. falciparum. Considering the increased mobility of humans between Europe and malaria endemic countries and changes in environment and climate, these data strongly suggest that An. plumbeus could act as a vector for malaria and thus significantly contribute to increasing the malaria transmission risk in Central-Western Europe. In locations showing high vulnerability to the presence of gametocyte carriers, the risk of transmission of malaria by An. plumbeus should be considered. PMID:23181931

2012-01-01

58

Habitat Segregation of Mosquito Arbovirus Vectors in South Florida  

PubMed Central

Oviposition traps set in rural to urban environments in three south Florida counties were colonized predominantly by Culex quinquefasciatus Say (35.1%), Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (34.5%), Aedes aegypti (L.) (23.8%), and Culex nigripalpus Theobald (6.6%) during 1 yr of monthly sampling. Significant differences were detected among counties for abundances of Cx. quinquefasciatus and for percentage composition of that species and Ae. albopictus. Aerial images of habitats around each collection site were digitized, and coverages by each of 16 habitat variables were recorded. Abundances of Ae. aegypti were positively related to habitat variables associated with urbanization and negatively correlated to those reflecting rural characteristics. Multiple regression models of habitat selection explained similar proportions of variances in abundance of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, but signs of significant variables were opposite for these two species. No consistent trends of habitat associations were observed among counties for the two Culex spp. Co-occurrences of the four species in individual traps depended on container type (tub versus cup), and, for Aedes spp. with Culex spp., county. The results underscore the importance of scale in evaluating habitat selection and the utility of quantifiable habitat characteristics of intermediate scale to identify site characteristics favored by the arboviral vectors Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. PMID:17162945

REY, JORGE R.; NISHIMURA, NAOYA; WAGNER, BILLI; BRAKS, MARIETA A.H.; O'CONNELL, SHEILA M.; LOUNIBOS, L. PHILIP

2007-01-01

59

Habitat segregation of mosquito arbovirus vectors in south Florida.  

PubMed

Oviposition traps set in rural to urban environments in three south Florida counties were colonized predominantly by Culex quinquefasciatus Say (35.1%), Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (34.5%), Aedes aegypti (L.) (23.8%), and Culex nigripalpus Theobald (6.6%) during 1 yr of monthly sampling. Significant differences were detected among counties for abundances of Cx. quinquefasciatus and for percentage composition of that species and Ae. albopictus. Aerial images of habitats around each collection site were digitized, and coverages by each of 16 habitat variables were recorded. Abundances ofAe. aegypti were positively related to habitat variables associated with urbanization and negatively correlated to those reflecting rural characteristics. Multiple regression models of habitat selection explained similar proportions of variances in abundance of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, but signs of significant variables were opposite for these two species. No consistent trends of habitat associations were observed among counties for the two Culex spp. Co-occurrences of the four species in individual traps depended on container type (tub versus cup), and, for Aedes spp. with Culex spp., county. The results underscore the importance of scale in evaluating habitat selection and the utility of quantifiable habitat characteristics of intermediate scale to identify site characteristics favored by the arboviral vectors Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. PMID:17162945

Rey, Jorge R; Nishimura, Naoya; Wagner, Billi; Braks, Marieta A H; O'Connell, Sheila M; Lounibos, L Philip

2006-11-01

60

miRNA Genes of an Invasive Vector Mosquito, Aedes albopictus  

PubMed Central

Aedes albopictus, a vector of Dengue and Chikungunya viruses, is a robust invasive species in both tropical and temperate environments. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression and biological processes including embryonic development, innate immunity and infection. While a number of miRNAs have been discovered in some mosquitoes, no comprehensive effort has been made to characterize them from different developmental stages from a single species. Systematic analysis of miRNAs in Ae. albopictus will improve our understanding of its basic biology and inform novel strategies to prevent virus transmission. Between 1014 million Illumina sequencing reads per sample were obtained from embryos, larvae, pupae, adult males, sugar-fed and blood-fed adult females. A total of 119 miRNA genes represented by 215 miRNA or miRNA star (miRNA*) sequences were identified, 15 of which are novel. Eleven, two, and two of the newly-discovered miRNA genes appear specific to Aedes, Culicinae, and Culicidae, respectively. A number of miRNAs accumulate predominantly in one or two developmental stages and the large number that showed differences in abundance following a blood meal likely are important in blood-induced mosquito biology. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis of the targets of all Ae. albopictus miRNAs provides a useful starting point for the study of their functions in mosquitoes. This study is the first systematic analysis of miRNAs based on deep-sequencing of small RNA samples of all developmental stages of a mosquito species. A number of miRNAs are related to specific physiological states, most notably, pre- and post-blood feeding. The distribution of lineage-specific miRNAs is consistent with mosquito phylogeny and the presence of a number of Aedes-specific miRNAs likely reflects the divergence between the Aedes and Culex genera. PMID:23840875

Zheng, Peiming; Chen, Maoshan; James, Anthony A.; Chen, Xiaoguang; Tu, Zhijian

2013-01-01

61

Ambient temperature and dietary supplementation interact to shape mosquito vector competence for malaria.  

PubMed

The extent to which environmental factors influence the ability of Anopheles mosquitoes to transmit malaria parasites remains poorly explored. Environmental variation, such as change in ambient temperature, will not necessarily influence the rates of host and parasite processes equivalently, potentially resulting in complex effects on infection outcomes. As proof of principle, we used Anopheles stephensi and the rodent malaria parasite, Plasmodium yoelii, to examine the effects of a range of constant temperatures on one aspect of host defense (detected as alterations in expression of nitric oxide synthase gene - NOS) to parasite infection. We experimentally boosted mosquito midgut immunity to infection through dietary supplementation with the essential amino acid l-Arginine (l-Arg), which increases midgut nitric oxide (NO) levels by infection-induced NOS catalysis in A. stephensi. At intermediate temperatures, supplementation reduced oocyst prevalence, oocyst intensity, and sporozoite prevalence suggesting that the outcome of parasite infection was potentially dependent upon the rate of NOS-mediated midgut immunity. At low and high temperature extremes, however, infection was severely constrained irrespective of supplementation. The effects of l-Arg appeared to be mediated by NO-dependent negative feedback on NOS expression, as evidenced by depressed NOS expression in l-Arg treated groups at temperatures where supplementation decreased parasite infection. These results suggest the need to consider the direct (e.g. effects of mosquito body temperature on parasite physiology) and indirect effects (e.g. mediated through changes in mosquito physiology/immunity) of environmental factors on mosquito-malaria interactions in order to understand natural variation in vector competence. PMID:24911425

Murdock, Courtney C; Blanford, Simon; Luckhart, Shirley; Thomas, Matthew B

2014-08-01

62

[The relationship between mosquito vectors and aquatic birds in the potential transmission of 2 arboviruses].  

PubMed

The authors studied for two years the role of the chicks of aquatic birds in the arboviral cycles in coastal lagoons in central Panama in order to determine the relation between Culex (Melanoconion) ocossa and Mansonia (Mansonia) dyari mosquitoes in the transmission and dissemination of the viruses of Saint Louis Encephalitis (SLE) and Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis (VEE). Mosquitoes were captured every fifteen days on two consecutive nights to isolate the virus, using light traps (CDC) and baited traps. The attempts to isolate the virus were made using Vero cell cultures and the determination of antibodies was performed. The results of the serologic tests seem to indicate that four bird species: the ex (?) heron (Bubulcus ibis), the American heron (Casmerodius albus), the spoon-billed duck (Cochlearius cochlearius) and the needle crow (Anhinga anhinga) could function as intermediate hosts in the transmission cycle of SLE. Two species, the ibis (Endocimus albus) and the spoon-billed duck (Cochlearius cochlearius) could also be intermediate hosts of VEE in the coastal lagoons of Panama. The presence of antibodies in chicks could indicate an infection acquired recently, after their birth, in this area. The VEE virus was recovered from blood filled mosquitoes which had fed on a spoon-billed duck probably infected and exposed in a Trinidad #10 trap. No SLE virus was isolated. Other unknown viruses were isolated from mosquitoes selected for these studies, such as C. ocossa and M. dyari. The results obtained with these studies indicate the need for more studies utilizing new field techniques in order to establish a link between SLE and VEE, the vector mosquitoes and the aquatic birds in the coastal lagoons of the area under investigation. PMID:8101009

Adames, A J; Dutary, B; Tejera, H; Adames, E; Galindo, P

1993-05-01

63

Challenges in undertaking mosquito surveillance at UK seaports and airports to prevent the entry and establishment of invasive vector species.  

PubMed

Port health authorities have played an important role in the control of infectious diseases worldwide. The International Health Regulations (2005) further clarifies this role and provides a legal statutory instrument that aims to assist the international community to prevent and respond to global public health risks. Eleven UK sea and airports participated in a pilot, investigating the challenges ports could face in attempting to monitor for mosquitoes. The study also examined the types of habitat that could support mosquitoes. There is a concern that exotic vector species, such as Aedes albopictus, could invade and become established in the UK. Environments in and around the ports differed, and this was reflected in the species of mosquitoes caught. Ports used different methods to collect mosquitoes and developed a range of techniques for surveying, which suited the conditions at their port. This paper discusses the implications of invasive mosquito surveillance to UK port health authorities. PMID:22924592

Murphy, Gai; Vaux, Alex; Medlock, Jolyon

2013-01-01

64

The role of proboscis of the malaria vector mosquito Anopheles stephensi in host-seeking behavior  

PubMed Central

Background The proboscis is an essential head appendage in insects that processes gustatory code during food intake, particularly useful considering that blood-sucking arthropods routinely reach vessels under the host skin using this proboscis as a probe. Results Here, using an automated device able to quantify CO2-activated thermo (35C)-sensing behavior of the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi, we uncovered that the protruding proboscis of mosquitoes contributes unexpectedly to host identification from a distance. Ablation experiments indicated that not only antennae and maxillary palps, but also proboscis were required for the identification of pseudo-thermo targets. Furthermore, the function of the proboscis during this behavior can be segregated from CO2 detection required to evoke mosquito activation, suggesting that the proboscis of mosquitoes divide the proboscis into a "thermo-antenna" in addition to a "thermo-probe". Conclusions Our findings support an emerging view with a possible role of proboscis as important equipment during host-seeking, and give us an insight into how these appendages likely evolved from a common origin in order to function as antenna organs. PMID:21272298

2011-01-01

65

Circulation of Japanese Encephalitis Virus in Pigs and Mosquito Vectors within Can Tho City, Vietnam  

PubMed Central

Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a mosquito-borne, zoonotic flavivirus causing encephalitis in humans and reproductive disorder in pigs. JEV is present in large parts of Asia, where urbanization is high. Households within and outside Can Tho city, South Vietnam, were selected to monitor circulation of JEV. A nested RT-PCR was established to detect the presence of JEV in mosquitoes whereas sera from pigs belonging to households within the province were analyzed for the presence of antibodies to JEV. A total of 7885 mosquitoes were collected and divided into 352 pools whereof seven were JEV-positive, six of which were collected within the city. Fragments from four pools clustered with JEV genotype III and three with genotype I. Of the 43 pigs sampled inside the city 100% had JEV antibodies. Our study demonstrates exposure to JEV in pigs, and co-circulation of JEV genotype I and III in mosquitoes within an urban environment in South Vietnam. Thus, although JEV has mainly been considered a rural disease, the potential for transmission in urban areas cannot be ignored. PMID:23593520

Lindahl, Johanna F.; Stahl, Karl; Chirico, Jan; Boqvist, Sofia; Thu, Ho Thi Viet; Magnusson, Ulf

2013-01-01

66

Vector competence tests with Rift Valley fever virus and five South African species of mosquito.  

PubMed

Aedes juppi was readily infected by inoculation with virus but failed to transmit either horizontally or vertically. Seventy-five to 90% of the other 4 mosquito species became infected after ingesting 6.8-9.8 log10CPD50/ml of virus. These species all transmitted virus at the following rates on the post-infection days indicated: Aedes unidentatus (58%--day 11), Aedes dentatus (32%--day 11, 50%--day 18), Culex poicilipes (15%--day 15, 80%--day 30) and Aedes argenteopunctatus (14% on day 30). On the basis of these results and the relative prevalence of each species, it was concluded that Ae. unidentatus and Ae. dentatus are potential epizootic and possibly reservoir vectors and Cx. poicilipes a potential epizootic vector of Rift Valley fever virus in South Africa. PMID:2903903

Jupp, P G; Cornel, A J

1988-03-01

67

Optimization and synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Isaria fumosorosea against human vector mosquitoes.  

PubMed

The efficacy of silver generated larvicide with the help of entomopathogenic fungi, Isaria fumosorosea (Ifr) against major vector mosquitoes Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti. The Ifr-silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were characterized structurally and functionally using UV-visible spectrophotometer followed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra. The optimum pH (alkaline), temperature (30 C) and agitation (150 rpm) for AgNP synthesis and its stability were confirmed through colour change. Ae. aegypti larvae (I-IV instars) were found highly susceptible to synthesized AgNPs than the larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus. However, the mortality rate was indirectly proportional to the larval instar and the concentration. The lethal concentration that kills 50% of the exposed larvae (LC50) and lethal concentration that kills 90% of the exposed larvae (LC90) values of the tested concentration are 0.240, 0 0.075.337, 0.430, 0.652 and 1.219, 2.210, 2.453, 2.916; 0.065, 0.075, 0.098, 0.137 and 0.558, 0.709, 0.949, 1.278 ppm with respect to 0.03 to 1.00 ppm of Ifr-AgNPs against first, second, third and fourth instars of Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti, respectively. This is the first report for synthesis of AgNPs using Ifr against human vector mosquitoes. Hence, Ifr-AgNPs would be significantly used as a potent mosquito larvicide. PMID:25085201

Banu, A Najitha; Balasubramanian, C

2014-10-01

68

Simulation Modelling of Population Dynamics of Mosquito Vectors for Rift Valley Fever Virus in a Disease Epidemic Setting  

PubMed Central

Background Rift Valley Fever (RVF) is weather dependent arboviral infection of livestock and humans. Population dynamics of mosquito vectors is associated with disease epidemics. In our study, we use daily temperature and rainfall as model inputs to simulate dynamics of mosquito vectors population in relation to disease epidemics. Methods/Findings Time-varying distributed delays (TVDD) and multi-way functional response equations were implemented to simulate mosquito vectors and hosts developmental stages and to establish interactions between stages and phases of mosquito vectors in relation to vertebrate hosts for infection introduction in compartmental phases. An open-source modelling platforms, Universal Simulator and Qt integrated development environment were used to develop models in C++ programming language. Developed models include source codes for mosquito fecundity, host fecundity, water level, mosquito infection, host infection, interactions, and egg time. Extensible Markup Language (XML) files were used as recipes to integrate source codes in Qt creator with Universal Simulator plug-in. We observed that Floodwater Aedines and Culicine population continued to fluctuate with temperature and water level over simulation period while controlled by availability of host for blood feeding. Infection in the system was introduced by floodwater Aedines. Culicines pick infection from infected host once to amplify disease epidemic. Simulated mosquito population show sudden unusual increase between December 1997 and January 1998 a similar period when RVF outbreak occurred in Ngorongoro district. Conclusion/Significance Findings presented here provide new opportunities for weather-driven RVF epidemic simulation modelling. This is an ideal approach for understanding disease transmission dynamics towards epidemics prediction, prevention and control. This approach can be used as an alternative source for generation of calibrated RVF epidemics data in different settings. PMID:25259792

Mweya, Clement N.; Holst, Niels; Mboera, Leonard E. G.; Kimera, Sharadhuli I.

2014-01-01

69

The Effect of Oral Anthelmintics on the Survivorship and Re-feeding Frequency of Anthropophilic Mosquito Disease Vectors  

PubMed Central

In the Tropics, there is substantial temporal and spatial overlap of diseases propagated by anthropophilic mosquito vectors (such as malaria and dengue) and human helminth diseases (such as onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis) that are treated though mass drug administrations (MDA). This overlap will result in mosquito vectors imbibing significant quantities of these drugs when they blood feed on humans. Since many anthelmintic drugs have broad anti-invertebrate effects, the possibility of combined helminth control and mosquito-borne disease control through MDA is apparent. It has been previously shown that ivermectin can reduce mosquito survivorship when administered in a blood meal, but more detailed examinations are needed if MDA is to ever be developed into a tool for malaria or dengue control. We examined concentrations of drugs that follow human pharmacokinetics after MDA and that matched with mosquito feeding times, for effects against the anthropophilic mosquito vectors Anopheles gambiae s.s. and Aedes aegypti. Ivermectin was the only human-approved MDA drug we tested that affected mosquito survivorship, and only An. gambiae s.s. were affected at concentrations respecting human pharmacokinetics at indicated doses. Ivermectin also delayed An. gambiae s.s. re-feeding frequency and defecation rates, and two successive ivermectin-spiked blood meals following human pharmacokinetic concentrations compounded mortality effects compared to controls. These findings suggest that ivermectin MDA in Africa may be used to decrease malaria transmission if MDAs were administered more frequently. Such a strategy would broaden the current scope of polyparasitism control already afforded by MDAs, and which is needed in many African villages simultaneously burdened by many parasitic diseases. PMID:20540931

Kobylinski, Kevin C.; Deus, Kelsey M.; Butters, Matt T.; Hongyu, Tan; Gray, Meg; Silva, Ines Marques da; Sylla, Massamba; Foy, Brian D.

2010-01-01

70

Seasonal population dynamics and the genetic structure of the mosquito vector Aedes aegypti in S?o Paulo, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Population genetic studies of insect vectors can generate knowledge to improve epidemiological studies focused on the decrease of pathogen transmission. In this study, we used nine SNPs across the Aedes aegypti genome to characterize seasonal population variations of this important dengue vector. Mosquito samples were obtained by ovitraps placed over Botucatu SP from 2005 to 2010. Our data show that, regardless of the large variation in mosquito abundance (deduced from the number of eggs obtained from ovitraps), the effective population size remained stable over the years. These results suggest that Ae. aegypti is able to maintain a sufficiently large active breeding population during the dry season to keep genetic frequencies stable. These results open new perspectives on mosquito survey and control methods. PMID:23170214

Campos, Melina; Spenassatto, Carine; Lourdes da Graca Macoris, Maria; Paduan, Karina dos Santos; Pinto, Joao; Ribolla, Paulo Eduardo Martins

2012-01-01

71

Chemical composition and larvicidal activities of the essential oil of Zanthoxylum armatum DC (Rutaceae) against three mosquito vectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Background & objectives: In view of the recently increased interest in developing ,plant origin insecticides as an alternative to chemical insecticide, this study was undertaken to assess the larvicidal potential of the essential oil from the seeds of Zanthoxylum armatum DC [syn. Z. alatum Roxb] (Rutaceae) against three medically important species of mosquito vectors, Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and

Mohini Tiwary; S. n. Naik; Dhananjay Kumar Tewary; P. k. Mittal; S. Yadav

72

Vector ability of mosquitoes for isolates of Plasmodium elongatum from raptors in Florida.  

PubMed

Three isolates of Plasmodium elongatum were obtained from 3 species of raptors (red-tailed hawk [Buteo jamaicensis], bald eagle [Haliaeetus leucocephalus], and eastern screech owl [Otus asio]) from Florida using isodiagnostic techniques in Pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos). Six to 10 species of mosquitoes were tested for susceptibility to these 3 isolates. Complete development of the sporogonic cycle of the 3 isolates of P. elongatum occurred in 3 species of mosquitoes, Culex nigripalpus, Culex restuans, and Culex salinarius. The pattern of susceptibility was similar among the 3 isolates of P. elongatum in Cx. nigripalpus. Culex restuans and Cx. salinarius were significantly more susceptible than Cx. nigripalpus to the 3 isolates of P. elongatum tested. Culex nigripalpus transmitted all 3 isolates of P. elongatum from duck to duck both by bite and after intraperitoneal injection of sporozoites. Infections of the 2 isolates tested occurred in ducks after intraperitoneal injection of sporozoites from Cx. restuans and Cx. salinarius. The results suggest that these 3 Culex species are potential vectors of P. elongatum from raptors in Florida. PMID:9645854

Nayar, J K; Knight, J W; Telford, S R

1998-06-01

73

Insecticide resistance in potential vector mosquitoes for West Nile virus in Japan.  

PubMed

Culex pipiens complex is the significant vector mosquito of West Nile virus. To take stock of the current situation of insecticide susceptibilities and design an ideal mosquito control strategy, we collected Culex pipiens pallens Coquillet, Culex pipiens form molestus Forskal, and Culex quinquefasciatus Say from fields in Japan and conducted bioassays for five larvicides (fenitrothion, temephos, etofenprox, diflubenzuron, and pyriproxyfen) by using a larval dipping method. Among five insecticides tested, obvious reduced susceptibilities were observed for etofenprox, which is the only pyrethroid compound registered as a larvicide in Japan. Twenty-two of 56 colonies exhibited a >10% survival rate at the etofenprox concentration of 5.7 microg/ml, which is a 10 times higher concentration of the working solution. The LC50 of a colony collected from Fukuoka prefecture for etofenprox exceeded 60 microg/ml (resistance ratio >2,307), and this colony also exhibited cross-resistance to other pyrethroids, permethrin (299-fold) and phenothrin (1,200-fold). The insect growth regulators diflubenzuron and pyriproxyfen were found to be sufficiently effective enough to control Culex larvae present, but decreased sensitivities to these insecticides were slightly detected in some colonies of Cx. p. form molestus collected from urban areas. Several etofenprox-resistant colonies of Cx. p. form molestus exhibited simultaneously decreased susceptibilities to other insecticides, including temephos, diflubenzuron, and pyriproxyfen. PMID:17915515

Kasai, Shinji; Shono, Toshio; Komagata, Osamu; Tsuda, Yoshio; Kobayashi, Mutsuo; Motoki, Mitsugu; Kashima, Ichiro; Tanikawa, Tsutomu; Yoshida, Masahiro; Tanaka, Ikuo; Shinjo, Goro; Hashimoto, Tomoyuki; Ishikawa, Takeshi; Takahashi, Tomoya; Higa, Yukiko; Tomita, Takashi

2007-09-01

74

Distribution of the main malaria vectors in Kenya  

PubMed Central

Background A detailed knowledge of the distribution of the main Anopheles malaria vectors in Kenya should guide national vector control strategies. However, contemporary spatial distributions of the locally dominant Anopheles vectors including Anopheles gambiae, Anopheles arabiensis, Anopheles merus, Anopheles funestus, Anopheles pharoensis and Anopheles nili are lacking. The methods and approaches used to assemble contemporary available data on the present distribution of the dominant malaria vectors in Kenya are presented here. Method Primary empirical data from published and unpublished sources were identified for the period 1990 to 2009. Details recorded for each source included the first author, year of publication, report type, survey location name, month and year of survey, the main Anopheles species reported as present and the sampling and identification methods used. Survey locations were geo-positioned using national digital place name archives and on-line geo-referencing resources. The geo-located species-presence data were displayed and described administratively, using first-level administrative units (province), and biologically, based on the predicted spatial margins of Plasmodium falciparum transmission intensity in Kenya for the year 2009. Each geo-located survey site was assigned an urban or rural classification and attributed an altitude value. Results A total of 498 spatially unique descriptions of Anopheles vector species across Kenya sampled between 1990 and 2009 were identified, 53% were obtained from published sources and further communications with authors. More than half (54%) of the sites surveyed were investigated since 2005. A total of 174 sites reported the presence of An. gambiae complex without identification of sibling species. Anopheles arabiensis and An. funestus were the most widely reported at 244 and 265 spatially unique sites respectively with the former showing the most ubiquitous distribution nationally. Anopheles gambiae, An. arabiensis, An. funestus and An. pharoensis were reported at sites located in all the transmission intensity classes with more reports of An. gambiae in the highest transmission intensity areas than the very low transmission areas. Conclusion A contemporary, spatially defined database of the main malaria vectors in Kenya provides a baseline for future compilations of data and helps identify areas where information is currently lacking. The data collated here are published alongside this paper where it may help guide future sampling location decisions, help with the planning of vector control suites nationally and encourage broader research inquiry into vector species niche modeling. PMID:20202199

2010-01-01

75

Evaluation of larvicidal activity of biogenic nanoparticles against filariasis causing Culex mosquito vector  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the larvicidal activity of biogenic nanoparticles against filariasis causing Culex mosquito vector. Methods The synthesized AgNPs were characterized by UV-vis. spectrum, Fourier transform infrared and X-ray diffraction. Larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of aqueous extract of synthesized AgNPs for 10 min. The different concentrations of 5, 2.5, 1.25, 0.625 and 0.312 mg/L silver nanoparticles were tested against the Culex larvae. Results The mortality rate of Agaricus bisporus biogenic nanoparticles against Culex larvae are 5 mg/L (100%), 2.5 mg/L (81%), 1.25 mg/L (62%), 0.625 mg/L (28%) and 0.312 mg/L (11%). Conclusions These results suggest that the synthesized biogenic AgNPs have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for controlling Culex larvae.

Dhanasekaran, Dharumadurai; Thangaraj, Ramasamy

2013-01-01

76

Identification of wild collected mosquito vectors of diseases using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in Jazan Province, Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

Thirty-three species of mosquitoes have been reported from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Several of these mosquitoes, Anopheles gambiae Giles s.l., Anopheles stephensi Liston, Culex pipiens Linnaeus, Culex quinquefasciatus Say, Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles, Stegomyia aegypti (Linnaeus) and Aedimorphus vexans arabiensis (Patton) are known vectors of human and animal diseases. In this study, the cuticular hydrocarbon profiles of eight mosquito species using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were analyzed. Wild collected fourth-instar larvae were reared, and single, newly emerged, unfed adult females were used for the analysis. A total of 146-160 peaks were detected from the cuticular extracts by gas chromatography. Repeated analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey HSD Post Hoc test was used to test for quantitative differences in relative hydrocarbon quantity. In addition, a linear regression model was applied using Enter method to determine the diagnostic peaks for the eight mosquito specimens. The ANOVA test indicated that relative peaks were significant (P < 0.05) when selected pairs of peaks were compared. Also, seven compounds showed qualitative differences among the five mosquito vectors tested. The classes of constituents present were n-alkanes, monomethylalkanes, dimethylalkanes, trimethylalkanes, alkenes, branched aromatic hydrocarbons, aldehydes and esters. These compounds have a carbon chain length ranging from 8 to 18 carbons. The most abundant compound in all adult mosquito specimens was n-hexylacrylate [retention time (RT) 6.73 min], which was not detected in Cx. pipiens. In Cx. pipiens, the most abundant peak was benzaldehyde (RT 2.98 min). Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry is a suitable method to identify adult mosquitoes, especially from focal areas of public health concern such as Jazan Province, Saudi Arabia. This method allows a wide range of adult collected material to be identified with high accuracy. PMID:24259205

Al Ahmed, Azzam M; Badjah-Hadj-Ahmed, Ahmed-Yacine; Al Othman, Zeid A; Sallam, Mohamed F

2013-11-01

77

Host-Feeding Patterns of Potential Mosquito Vectors in Connecticut, USA: Molecular Analysis of Bloodmeals from 23 Species of Aedes , Anopheles , Culex , Coquillettidia , Psorophora , and Uranotaenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the blood-feeding patterns in several mosquito species that may serve as vectors of disease agents in the northeastern United States. Blood-fed mosquitoes were collected from 91 different sites throughout Connecticut over a 6-yr period (JuneOctober 20022007), and the host-feeding patterns of 23 mosquito species representing six genera were examined by using a polymerase chain reaction-based assay and sequencing

Goudarz Molaei; Theodore G. Andreadis; Philip M. Armstrong; Maria Diuk-Wasser

2008-01-01

78

First report of the infection of insecticide-resistant malaria vector mosquitoes with an entomopathogenic fungus under field conditions  

PubMed Central

Background Insecticide-resistant mosquitoes are compromising the ability of current mosquito control tools to control malaria vectors. A proposed new approach for mosquito control is to use entomopathogenic fungi. These fungi have been shown to be lethal to both insecticide-susceptible and insecticide-resistant mosquitoes under laboratory conditions. The goal of this study was to see whether entomopathogenic fungi could be used to infect insecticide-resistant malaria vectors under field conditions, and to see whether the virulence and viability of the fungal conidia decreased after exposure to ambient African field conditions. Methods This study used the fungus Beauveria bassiana to infect the insecticide-resistant malaria vector Anopheles gambiae s.s (Diptera: Culicidae) VKPER laboratory colony strain. Fungal conidia were applied to polyester netting and kept under West African field conditions for varying periods of time. The virulence of the fungal-treated netting was tested 1, 3 and 5 days after net application by exposing An. gambiae s.s. VKPER mosquitoes in WHO cone bioassays carried out under field conditions. In addition, the viability of B. bassiana conidia was measured after up to 20 days exposure to field conditions. Results The results show that B. bassiana infection caused significantly increased mortality with the daily risk of dying being increased by 2.5 for the fungus-exposed mosquitoes compared to the control mosquitoes. However, the virulence of the B. bassiana conidia decreased with increasing time spent exposed to the field conditions, the older the treatment on the net, the lower the fungus-induced mortality rate. This is likely to be due to the climate because laboratory trials found no such decline within the same trial time period. Conidial viability also decreased with increasing exposure to the net and natural abiotic environmental conditions. After 20 days field exposure the conidial viability was 30%, but the viability of control conidia not exposed to the net or field conditions was 79%. Conclusions This work shows promise for the use of B. bassiana fungal conidia against insecticide-resistant mosquitoes in the field, but further work is required to examine the role of environmental conditions on fungal virulence and viability with a view to eventually making the fungal conidia delivery system more able to withstand the ambient African climate. PMID:21288359

2011-01-01

79

The Effects of Climate Change and Globalization on Mosquito Vectors: Evidence from Jeju Island, South Korea on the Potential for Asian Tiger Mosquito (Aedes albopictus) Influxes and Survival from Vietnam Rather Than Japan  

PubMed Central

Background Climate change affects the survival and transmission of arthropod vectors as well as the development rates of vector-borne pathogens. Increased international travel is also an important factor in the spread of vector-borne diseases (VBDs) such as dengue, West Nile, yellow fever, chikungunya, and malaria. Dengue is the most important vector-borne viral disease. An estimated 2.5 billion people are at risk of infection in the world and there are approximately 50 million dengue infections and an estimated 500,000 individuals are hospitalized with dengue haemorrhagic fever annually. The Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus) is one of the vectors of dengue virus, and populations already exist on Jeju Island, South Korea. Currently, colder winter temperatures kill off Asian tiger mosquito populations and there is no evidence of the mosquitos being vectors for the dengue virus in this location. However, dengue virus-bearing mosquito vectors can inflow to Jeju Island from endemic area such as Vietnam by increased international travel, and this mosquito vector's survival during colder winter months will likely occur due to the effects of climate change. Methods and Results In this section, we show the geographical distribution of medically important mosquito vectors such as Ae. albopictus, a vector of both dengue and chikungunya viruses; Culex pipiens, a vector of West Nile virus; and Anopheles sinensis, a vector of Plasmodium vivax, within Jeju Island, South Korea. We found a significant association between the mean temperature, amount of precipitation, and density of mosquitoes. The phylogenetic analyses show that an Ae. albopictus, collected in southern area of Jeju Island, was identical to specimens found in Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam, and not Nagasaki, Japan. Conclusion Our results suggest that mosquito vectors or virus-bearing vectors can transmit from epidemic regions of Southeast Asia to Jeju Island and can survive during colder winter months. Therefore, Jeju Island is no longer safe from vector borne diseases (VBDs) due to the effects of globalization and climate change, and we should immediately monitor regional climate change to identify newly emerging VBDs. PMID:23894312

Jeong, Ji Yeon; Yoo, Seung Jin; Koh, Young-Sang; Lee, Seogjae; Heo, Sang Taek; Seong, Seung-Yong; Lee, Keun Hwa

2013-01-01

80

Transmission Blocking Immunity in Plasmodium v\\/vax Malaria: Antibodies Raised against a Peptide Block Parasite Development in the Mosquito Vector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary One approach towards the development of a vaccine against malaria is to immunize against the parasite sexual stages that mediate transmission of the parasite from man to mosquito. Anti- bodies against these stages, ingested with the blood meal, inhibit the parasite development in the mosquito vector, constituting \\

Valerie A. Snewin; Sunil Premawansa; S Gamini; M. G. Kapilananda; Preethi V. Udagama; Denise M. Mattei; Elizabeth Khouri; Giuseppe De; J. S. M. Peiris; Kamini N. Mendis; Peter H. David

81

Spatial distribution of arboviral mosquito vectors (Diptera, Culicidae) in Vale do Ribeira in the South-eastern Brazilian Atlantic Forest.  

PubMed

Mosquitoes are vectors of arboviruses that can cause encephalitis and hemorrhagic fevers in humans. Aedes serratus (Theobald), Aedes scapularis (Rondani) and Psorophora ferox (Von Humboldt) are potential vectors of arboviruses and are abundant in Vale do Ribeira, located in the Atlantic Forest in the southeast of the State of So Paulo, Brazil. The objective of this study was to predict the spatial distribution of these mosquitoes and estimate the risk of human exposure to mosquito bites. Results of the analyses show that humans are highly exposed to bites in the municipalities of Canania, Iguape and Ilha Comprida. In these localities the incidence of Rocio encephalitis was 2% in the 1970s. Furthermore, Ae. serratus, a recently implicated vector of yellow fever virus in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, should be a target for the entomological surveillance in the southeastern Atlantic Forest. Considering the continental dimensions of Brazil and the inherent difficulties in sampling its vast area, the habitat suitability method used in the study can be an important tool for predicting the distribution of vectors of pathogens. PMID:22331150

Laporta, Gabriel Zorello; Ribeiro, Milton Cezar; Ramos, Daniel Garkauskas; Sallum, Maria Anice Mureb

2012-02-01

82

Distribution and habitat characterization of the recently introduced invasive mosquito Aedes koreicus [Hulecoeteomyia koreica], a new potential vector and pest in north-eastern Italy  

PubMed Central

Background The container breeding species belonging to the genus Aedes (Meigen) are frequently recorded out of their place of origin. Invasive Aedes species are proven or potential vectors of important Arboviruses and their establishment in new areas pose a threat for human and animal health. A new species of exotic mosquito was recorded in 2011 in north-eastern Italy: Aedes (Finlaya) koreicus [Hulecoeteomyia koreica]. The aim of this study was to characterize the biology, the environment and the current distribution of this mosquito in north-eastern Italy. Morphological details useful to discriminate this species from other invasive Aedes mosquitoes are also given (see Additional files). Methods All possible breeding sites for larval development were monitored. In addition, ovitraps and traps for adults were used to collect eggs and adults. The mosquitoes (larvae and adults) were identified morphologically and molecularly. Environmental data and climatic variables during the period of mosquito activity (from April to October) were considered. Results Aedes koreicus was found in 37 municipalities (39.4%) and was detected in 40.2% of places and in 37.3% of larval habitats monitored, in a range of altitude from 173 to 1250m.a.s.l.. Garden centres were the most common locations (66.7%), followed by streets/squares (57.1%), private gardens (46.4%) and cemeteries (21.1%) (p?main larval habitats were catch basins (48.5%) and artificial water containers (41.8%). As for Aedes albopictus [Stegomyia albopicta], ovitraps were attractive for adult females resulting in the higher rate of positivity (15/21; 71.4%) among breeding sites. The period of Ae. koreicus activity ranged from March 29 to October 29. Conclusion The species is clearly established in the area and is now overlapping with other vectors such as Ae. albopictus and colonizing areas over 800m.a.s.l, not yet or sporadically reached by the tiger mosquito. The data collected are essential to assess the risk of colonization of other parts of Italy and Europe, as well as the risk of spreading of pathogens transmitted. These findings stress the importance of implementing entomological surveillance for early detection of invasive species, which is necessary for eradication or limitation of its further spread. PMID:24457085

2013-01-01

83

Seasonal Prevalence of Mosquitoes, Including Vectors of Brugian Filariasis, in Southern Islands of the Republic of Korea  

PubMed Central

A survey of mosquitoes, including the vector status of Brugia malayi filariasis and their relative larval density, was conducted from 2002 to 2005 at several southern remote islands of Jeollanam-do (province), Gyeongsangnam-do, and Jeju-do, Korea, where filariasis was previously endemic. Overall, a total of 9 species belonging to 7 genera were collected. Ochlerotatus togoi (formerly known as Aedes togoi), Anopheles (Hyrcanus) group, and Culex pipiens were the predominant species captured at all areas. Oc. togoi larvae were most frequently collected at salinity levels <0.5% during June and July, with densities decreasing sharply during the rainy season in August. The most likely explanation for the eradication of filariasis in these areas is suggested to be an aggressive treatment program executed during the 1970s and the 1990s. However, high prevalence of the vector mosquitoes may constitute a potential risk for reemerging of brugian filariasis in these areas. PMID:21461270

Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Lee, Hee-Il; Shin, E-Hyun; Lee, Jong-Soo; Kim, Tong-Soo; Lee, Won-Ja

2011-01-01

84

Field evaluation of CDC gravid trap attractants to primary West Nile virus vectors, Culex mosquitoes in New York State.  

PubMed

A field study was conducted to evaluate two CDC gravid trap attractants available for the West Nile virus surveillance program in New York State (NYS). According to potential attractiveness, a common lawn sod in NYS, Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis) infusion and a rabbit chow infusion were compared for attractiveness to primary West Nile virus vectors, Culex mosquitoes. Attractiveness of each infusion was measured by the number of adult mosquitoes caught in CDC gravid traps and the number of egg rafts laid in ovitraps. Both gravid trap and ovitrap studies demonstrated that lawn sod infusion with a 7-day incubation period had better attractiveness to Culex restuans/Culex pipiens than rabbit chow infusion with the same incubation period. Attractiveness of lawn sod infusions was increased as they became aged within a week's period. Lawn sod infusion also attracted more Ochlerotatus japonicus, a potentially important West Nile virus vector in New York. PMID:15532922

Lee, Joon-Hak; Kokas, John E

2004-09-01

85

A web-based, component-oriented application for spatial modelling of habitat suitability of mosquito vectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a web-enabled computational environment for the spatial modelling of habitat suitability of mosquito vectors. Under a component-based architecture and implemented using an object-oriented data model, we integrate database interfaces, Web feature services (WFS) based on the open GIS consortium (OGC) protocols, and the data-mining tool WEKA, coupled through Java servlet scripts (JSP). The prototype, based exclusively on

P. Zeilhofer; P. S. Arraes Neto; W. Y. Maja; D. A. Vecchiato

2009-01-01

86

Adulticidal properties of synthesized silver nanoparticles using leaf extracts of Feronia elephantum (Rutaceae) against filariasis, malaria, and dengue vector mosquitoes.  

PubMed

Mosquito-borne diseases with an economic impact create loss in commercial and labor outputs, particularly in countries with tropical and subtropical climates. Mosquito control is facing a threat because of the emergence of resistance to synthetic insecticides. Extracts from plants may be alternative sources of mosquito control agents because they constitute a rich source of bioactive compounds that are biodegradable into nontoxic products and potentially suitable for use to control mosquitoes. Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. In view of the recently increased interest in developing plant origin insecticides as an alternative to chemical insecticide, in the present study, the adulticidal activity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized using Feronia elephantum plant leaf extract against adults of Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus was determined. The range of concentrations of synthesized AgNPs (8, 16, 24, 32, and 40?gmL(-1)) and aqueous leaf extract (40, 80, 120, 160, and 200?gmL(-1)) were tested against the adults of A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus. Adults were exposed to varying concentrations of aqueous crude extract and synthesized AgNPs for 24h. Considerable mortality was evident after the treatment of F. elephantum for all three important vector mosquitoes. The synthesized AgNPs from F. elephantum were highly toxic than crude leaf aqueous extract to three important vector mosquito species. The results were recorded from UV-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis (EDX), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Synthesized AgNPs against the vector mosquitoes A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus had the following lethal dose (LD)50 and LD90 values: A. stephensi had LD50 and LD90 values of 18.041 and 32.575?gmL(-1); A. aegypti had LD50 and LD90 values of 20.399 and 37.534?gmL(-1); and C. quinquefasciatus had LD50 and LD90 values of 21.798 and 39.596?gmL(-1). No mortality was observed in the control. These results suggest that the leaf aqueous extracts of F. elephantum and green synthesis of AgNPs have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of the A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus. This is the first report on the adulticidal activity of the plant extracts and AgNPs. PMID:25146645

Veerakumar, Kaliyan; Govindarajan, Marimuthu

2014-11-01

87

vectors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The word vector comes from the Latin term vehere, to carry. In Biology, a vector is an agent which carries disease, such as a mosquito carrying infected blood from one patient to the next. In physics, a vector is a quantity which has both a magnitude and a direction associated with it. The most commonly used example of vectors in everyday life is velocity. When you drive your car, your speedometer tells you the speed of your car, but it doesn't tell you where you are going. The combination of both where you are going and how fast you are going there is your car's velocity.

Joiner, David; The Shodor Education Foundation, Inc.

88

Comparative Genomic Analysis of Malaria Mosquito Vector-Associated Novel Pathogen Elizabethkingia anophelis  

PubMed Central

Acquisition of Elizabethkingia infections in intensive care units (ICUs) has risen in the past decade. Treatment of Elizabethkingia infections is challenging due to the lack of effective therapeutic regimens, leading to a high mortality rate. Elizabethkingia infections have long been attributed to Elizabethkingia meningoseptica. Recently, we used whole-genome sequencing to reveal that E. anophelis is the pathogenic agent for an Elizabethkingia outbreak at two ICUs. We performed comparative genomic analysis of seven hospital-isolated E. anophelis strains with five available Elizabethkingia spp. genomes deposited in the National Center for Biotechnology Information Database. A pan-genomic approach was applied to identify the core- and pan-genome for the Elizabethkingia genus. We showed that unlike the hospital-isolated pathogen E. meningoseptica ATCC 12535 strain, the hospital-isolated E. anophelis strains have genome content and organization similar to the E. anophelis Ag1 and R26 strains isolated from the midgut microbiota of the malaria mosquito vector Anopheles gambiae. Both the core- and accessory genomes of Elizabethkingia spp. possess genes conferring antibiotic resistance and virulence. Our study highlights that E. anophelis is an emerging bacterial pathogen for hospital environments. PMID:24803570

Teo, Jeanette; Tan, Sean Yang-Yi; Liu, Yang; Tay, Martin; Ding, Yichen; Li, Yingying; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Givskov, Michael; Lin, Raymond T.P.; Yang, Liang

2014-01-01

89

Aromatic plant-derived essential oil: An alternative larvicide for mosquito control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five aromatic plants, Carum carvi (caraway), Apium graveolens (celery), Foeniculum vulgare (fennel), Zanthoxylum limonella (mullilam) and Curcuma zedoaria (zedoary) were selected for investigating larvicidal potential against mosquito vectors. Two laboratory-reared mosquito species, Anopheles dirus, the major malaria vector in Thailand, and Aedes aegypti, the main vector of dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever in urban areas, were used. All of the

B. Pitasawat; D. Champakaew; W. Choochote; A. Jitpakdi; U. Chaithong; D. Kanjanapothi; E. Rattanachanpichai; P. Tippawangkosol; D. Riyong; B. Tuetun; D. Chaiyasit

2007-01-01

90

Toward the incrimination of epidemic vectors of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus in Massachusetts: abundance of mosquito populations at epidemic foci.  

PubMed

Putative epidemic/epizootic eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (EEE) vector populations were compared at 15 recent (1982-90) human and horse case sites in Bristol and Plymouth counties in southeastern Massachusetts. Carbon dioxide-baited American Biophysics Corporation light traps were used for trapping adult mosquitoes to estimate biting risk in these foci of known transmission. Population data suggest that Coquillettidia perturbans, Aedes canadensis, and Culex salinarius are more likely vectors of EEE in Massachusetts than Aedes vexans, Anopheles punctipennis, and Anopheles quadrimaculatus. PMID:10612612

Moncayo, A C; Edman, J D

1999-12-01

91

The evolution of virulence of West Nile virus in a mosquito vector: implications for arbovirus adaptation and evolution  

PubMed Central

Background Virulence is often coupled with replicative fitness of viruses in vertebrate systems, yet the relationship between virulence and fitness of arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) in invertebrates has not been evaluated. Although the interactions between vector-borne pathogens and their invertebrate hosts have been characterized as being largely benign, some costs of arbovirus exposure have been identified for mosquitoes. The extent to which these costs may be strain-specific and the subsequent consequences of these interactions on vector and virus evolution has not been adequately explored. Results Using West Nile virus (WNV) and Culex pipiens mosquitoes, we tested the hypothesis that intrahost fitness is correlated with virulence in mosquitoes by evaluating life history traits following exposure to either non-infectious bloodmeals or bloodmeals containing wildtype (WNV WT) or the high fitness, mosquito-adapted strain, WNV MP20 derived from WNV WT. Our results demonstrate strain-specific effects on mosquito survival, fecundity, and blood feeding behavior. Specifically, both resistance to and infection with WNV MP20, but not WNV WT, decreased survival of Cx. pipiens and altered fecundity and bloodfeeding such that early egg output was enhanced at a later cost. Conclusions As predicted by the trade-off hypothesis of virulence, costs of infection with WNV MP20 in terms of survival were directly correlated to viral load, yet resistance to infection with this virulent strain was equally costly. Taken together, these results demonstrate that WNV MP20 infection decreases the transmission potential of Cx. pipiens populations despite the increased intrahost fitness of this strain, indicating that a virulence-transmission trade-off in invertebrates could contribute significantly to the adaptive and evolutionary constraint of arboviruses. PMID:23514328

2013-01-01

92

Field trials on the efficacy of DEET-impregnated anklets, wristbands, shoulder, and pocket strips against mosquito vectors of disease.  

PubMed

A field trial was undertaken in order to determine the efficacy of DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide) impregnated anklets, wristbands, shoulder and pocket fabric strips against mosquito vectors of disease. The present study was conducted in the urban locality of Pondicherry, India. Human test subjects were exposed to natural populations of mosquitoes for a 12 h (18.00-06.00) night time period. The fabric strips (anklets, wristbands, shoulder, and pocket strips) were impregnated with DEET at two different concentrations of 1.5 mg/cm(2) and 2.0 mg/cm(2). The results clearly revealed that DEET-impregnated anklets, wristbands, shoulder and pocket fabric strips were found more effective against mosquitoes remarkably. The DEET-impregnated anklets, wristbands, shoulder and pocket fabric strips at a concentration of 2 mg/cm(2) provided 5 h complete protection against mosquitoes bites and the reduction of man-landing rate varied between 65.85 and 100%. However, DEET-impregnated fabric strips at a concentration of 1.5 mg/cm(2) provided 4 h complete protection against mosquito bites and the reduction of man-landing rate varied between 51.21 and 100%. The final results clearly demonstrate that repellent activity of DEET-impregnated anklets, wristbands, shoulder, and pocket strips were dose-dependent. Certainly, the DEET-impregnated fabric strips can be used as an effective potential personal protection measure in order to avoid those insects/mosquitoes that prefer to feed outdoors or those that feed in the early evening. PMID:19352705

Karunamoorthi, Kaliyaperumal; Sabesan, Shanmugavelu

2009-09-01

93

Requirement of Glycosylation of West Nile Virus Envelope Protein for Infection of, but Not Spread within, Culex quinquefasciatus Mosquito Vectors  

PubMed Central

Most of sequenced West Nile virus (WNV) genomes encode a single N-linked glycosylation site on their envelope (E) proteins. We previously found that WNV lacking the E protein glycan was severely inhibited in its ability to replicate and spread within two important mosquito vector species, Culex pipiens and Cx. tarsalis. However, recent work with a closely related species, Cx. pipiens pallens, found no association between E protein glycosylation and either replication or dissemination. To examine this finding further, we expanded upon our previous studies to include an additional Culex species, Cx. quinquefasciatus. The non-glycosylated WNV-N154I virus replicated less efficiently in mosquito tissues after intrathoracic inoculation, but there was little difference in replication efficiency in the midgut after peroral infection. Interestingly, although infectivity was inhibited when WNV lacked the E protein glycan, there was little difference in viral spread throughout the mosquito. These data indicate that E protein glycosylation affects WNVvector interactions in a species-specific manner. PMID:21813861

Moudy, Robin M.; Payne, Anne F.; Dodson, Brittany L.; Kramer, Laura D.

2011-01-01

94

Identification of Salivary Gland Proteins Depleted after Blood Feeding in the Malaria Vector Anopheles campestris-like Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae)  

PubMed Central

Malaria sporozoites must invade the salivary glands of mosquitoes for maturation before transmission to vertebrate hosts. The duration of the sporogonic cycle within the mosquitoes ranges from 10 to 21 days depending on the parasite species and temperature. During blood feeding salivary gland proteins are injected into the vertebrate host, along with malaria sporozoites in the case of an infected mosquito. To identify salivary gland proteins depleted after blood feeding of female Anopheles campestris-like, a potential malaria vector of Plasmodium vivax in Thailand, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and nano-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry techniques were used. Results showed that 19 major proteins were significantly depleted in three to four day-old mosquitoes fed on a first blood meal. For the mosquitoes fed the second blood meal on day 14 after the first blood meal, 14 major proteins were significantly decreased in amount. The significantly depleted proteins in both groups included apyrase, 5?-nucleotidase/apyrase, D7, D7-related 1, short form D7r1, gSG6, anti-platelet protein, serine/threonine-protein kinase rio3, putative sil1, cyclophilin A, hypothetical protein Phum_PHUM512530, AGAP007618-PA, and two non-significant hit proteins. To our knowledge, this study presents for the first time the salivary gland proteins that are involved in the second blood feeding on the day corresponding to the transmission period of the sporozoites to new mammalian hosts. This information serves as a basis for future work concerning the possible role of these proteins in the parasite transmission and the physiological processes that occur during the blood feeding. PMID:24599352

Sor-suwan, Sriwatapron; Jariyapan, Narissara; Roytrakul, Sittiruk; Paemanee, Atchara; Phumee, Atchara; Phattanawiboon, Benjarat; Intakhan, Nuchpicha; Chanmol, Wetpisit; Bates, Paul A.; Saeung, Atiporn; Choochote, Wej

2014-01-01

95

Chromobacterium Csp_P Reduces Malaria and Dengue Infection in Vector Mosquitoes and Has Entomopathogenic and In Vitro Anti-pathogen Activities  

PubMed Central

Plasmodium and dengue virus, the causative agents of the two most devastating vector-borne diseases, malaria and dengue, are transmitted by the two most important mosquito vectors, Anopheles gambiae and Aedes aegypti, respectively. Insect-bacteria associations have been shown to influence vector competence for human pathogens through multi-faceted actions that include the elicitation of the insect immune system, pathogen sequestration by microbes, and bacteria-produced anti-pathogenic factors. These influences make the mosquito microbiota highly interesting from a disease control perspective. Here we present a bacterium of the genus Chromobacterium (Csp_P), which was isolated from the midgut of field-caught Aedes aegypti. Csp_P can effectively colonize the mosquito midgut when introduced through an artificial nectar meal, and it also inhibits the growth of other members of the midgut microbiota. Csp_P colonization of the midgut tissue activates mosquito immune responses, and Csp_P exposure dramatically reduces the survival of both the larval and adult stages. Ingestion of Csp_P by the mosquito significantly reduces its susceptibility to Plasmodium falciparum and dengue virus infection, thereby compromising the mosquito's vector competence. This bacterium also exerts in vitro anti-Plasmodium and anti-dengue activities, which appear to be mediated through Csp_P -produced stable bioactive factors with transmission-blocking and therapeutic potential. The anti-pathogen and entomopathogenic properties of Csp_P render it a potential candidate for the development of malaria and dengue control strategies. PMID:25340821

Bahia, Ana C.; Saraiva, Raul G.; Dong, Yuemei; Kang, Seokyoung; Tripathi, Abhai; Mlambo, Godfree; Dimopoulos, George

2014-01-01

96

Different mosquito species host Wickerhamomyces anomalus ( Pichia anomala ): perspectives on vector-borne diseases symbiotic control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic manipulation of the microbial community associated with hematophagus insects is particularly relevant for public\\u000a health applications. Within mosquito populations, this relationship has been overlooked until recently. New advances in molecular\\u000a biotechnology propose the genetic manipulation of mosquito symbionts to prevent the transmission of pathogens to humans by\\u000a interfering with the obligatory life cycle stages within the insect through

Irene Ricci; Michela Mosca; Matteo Valzano; Claudia Damiani; Patrizia Scuppa; Paolo Rossi; Elena Crotti; Alessia Cappelli; Ulisse Ulissi; Aida Capone; Fulvio Esposito; Alberto Alma; Mauro Mandrioli; Luciano Sacchi; Claudio Bandi; Daniele Daffonchio; Guido Favia

2011-01-01

97

West Nile Virus Transmission in Sentinel Chickens and Potential Mosquito Vectors, Senegal River Delta, 2008-2009  

PubMed Central

West Nile virus (WNV) is an arthropod-borne Flavivirus usually transmitted to wild birds by Culex mosquitoes. Humans and horses are susceptible to WNV but are dead-end hosts. WNV is endemic in Senegal, particularly in the Senegal River Delta. To assess transmission patterns and potential vectors, entomological and sentinel serological was done in Ross Bethio along the River Senegal. Three sentinel henhouses (also used as chicken-baited traps) were set at 100 m, 800 m, and 1,300 m from the river, the latter close to a horse-baited trap. Blood samples were taken from sentinel chickens at 2-week intervals. Seroconversions were observed in sentinel chickens in November and December. Overall, the serological incidence rate was 4.6% with 95% confidence interval (0.9; 8.4) in the sentinel chickens monitored for this study. Based on abundance pattern, Culex neavei was the most likely mosquito vector involved in WNV transmission to sentinel chickens, and a potential bridge vector between birds and mammals. PMID:24084679

Fall, Assane Gueye; Diaite, Amadou; Seck, Momar Talla; Bouyer, Jeremy; Lefrancois, Thierry; Vachiery, Nathalie; Aprelon, Rosalie; Faye, Ousmane; Konate, Lassana; Lancelot, Renaud

2013-01-01

98

The ecology of vector snail habitats and mosquito breeding-places  

PubMed Central

The ecology of freshwater snailsin particular those which act as intermediate hosts of bilharziasisis reviewed in the light of the much more extensive knowledge available on the breeding-places of anopheline mosquitos. Experimental ecological methods are recommended for the field and laboratory investigation of a number of common problems involved in the study of snail habitats and mosquito breeding-places. Among the environmental factors discussed are temperature, oxygen concentration, water movement, pollution and salinity. Sampling methods for estimating populations of both snails and mosquito larvae are also described. An attempt is made to show how malacologists and entomologists alike would benefit from improved facilities for keeping abreast of general developments in the wider field of freshwater ecology. PMID:13596888

Muirhead-Thomson, R. C.

1958-01-01

99

Olfactory learning and memory in the disease vector mosquito Aedes aegypti.  

PubMed

Olfactory learning in blood-feeding insects, such as mosquitoes, could play an important role in host preference and disease transmission. However, standardised protocols allowing testing of their learning abilities are currently lacking, and how different olfactory stimuli are learned by these insects remains unknown. Using a Pavlovian conditioning paradigm, we trained individuals and groups of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes to associate an odorant conditioned stimulus (CS) with a blood-reinforced thermal stimulus (unconditioned stimulus; US). Results showed, first, that mosquitoes could learn the association between L-lactic acid and the US, and retained the association for at least 24 h. Second, the success of olfactory conditioning was dependent upon the CS--some odorants that elicited indifferent responses in nave mosquitoes, such as L-lactic acid and 1-octen-3-ol, were readily learned, whereas others went from aversive to attractive after training (Z-3-hexen-1-ol) or were untrainable (?-myrcene and benzyl alcohol). Third, we examined whether mosquitoes' ability to learn could interfere with the action of the insect repellent DEET. Results demonstrated that pre-exposure and the presence of DEET in the CS reduced the aversive effects of DEET. Last, the nature of the formed memories was explored. Experiments using cold-shock treatments within the first 6 h post-training (for testing anaesthesia-resistant memory) and a protein synthesis inhibitor (cycloheximide; to disrupt the formation of long-term memory) both affected mosquitoes' performances. Together, these results show that learning is a crucial component in odour responses in A. aegypti, and provide the first evidence for the functional role of different memory traces in these responses. PMID:24737761

Vinauger, Clment; Lutz, Eleanor K; Riffell, Jeffrey A

2014-07-01

100

In-silico homology modeling of three isoforms of insect defensins from the dengue vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti (Linn., 1762).  

PubMed

Dengue is a serious public health problem in tropical and subtropical countries. It is caused by any of the four serologically distinct dengue viruses, namely DENV1-4. The viruses are transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. Understanding various defence mechanisms of insects has become a prime area of research worldwide. In insects, the first line of defence against invading pathogens includes cellular mechanisms and a battery of antimicrobial peptides such as defensins, cecropins etc. Defensins--cationic, cysteine-rich peptides consisting of approximately 40 amino acids with broad-spectrum activity against Gram-positive bacteria--have been reported from a wide range of organisms. In the dengue vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti, three isoforms of defensins are reported to be expressed in a spatial and temporal fashion. This report presents the three-dimensional structures of the three isoforms of Ae. aegypti defensins predicted by comparative modeling. Prediction was done with Modeller 9v1 and the structures validated through a series of tests. The best results of the prediction study are presented, and may help lead to the discovery of new synthetic peptides or derivatives of defensins that could be useful in the control of vector-borne diseases. PMID:19085024

Dhananjeyan, K J; Sivaperumal, R; Paramasivan, R; Thenmozhi, V; Tyagi, B K

2009-05-01

101

Diagnostic methods for detection & isolation of dengue viruses from vector mosquitoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dengue is a deadly mosquito-borne infection warranting urgent attention for its containment particularly in the tropical and subtropical countries. In the absence of a vaccine or any specific drug for its treatment, an early diagnosis is considered indispensable to prevent any casualty. Detection of viruses in human sera particularly in endemic areas is cumbersome, difficult and also not desirable. Therefore,

P. Philip Samuel; B. K. Tyagi

2006-01-01

102

Standardizing operational vector sampling techniques for measuring malaria transmission intensity: evaluation of six mosquito collection methods in western Kenya  

PubMed Central

Background Operational vector sampling methods lack standardization, making quantitative comparisons of malaria transmission across different settings difficult. Human landing catch (HLC) is considered the research gold standard for measuring human-mosquito contact, but is unsuitable for large-scale sampling. This study assessed mosquito catch rates of CDC light trap (CDC-LT), Ifakara tent trap (ITT), window exit trap (WET), pot resting trap (PRT), and box resting trap (BRT) relative to HLC in western Kenya to 1) identify appropriate methods for operational sampling in this region, and 2) contribute to a larger, overarching project comparing standardized evaluations of vector trapping methods across multiple countries. Methods Mosquitoes were collected from June to July 2009 in four districts: Rarieda, Kisumu West, Nyando, and Rachuonyo. In each district, all trapping methods were rotated 10 times through three houses in a 3??3 Latin Square design. Anophelines were identified by morphology and females classified as fed or non-fed. Anopheles gambiae s.l. were further identified as Anopheles gambiae s.s. or Anopheles arabiensis by PCR. Relative catch rates were estimated by negative binomial regression. Results When data were pooled across all four districts, catch rates (relative to HLC indoor) for An. gambiae s.l (95.6% An. arabiensis, 4.4% An. gambiae s.s) were high for HLC outdoor (RR?=?1.01), CDC-LT (RR?=?1.18), and ITT (RR?=?1.39); moderate for WET (RR?=?0.52) and PRT outdoor (RR?=?0.32); and low for all remaining types of resting traps (PRT indoor, BRT indoor, and BRT outdoor; RR?vector sampling in western Kenya. Ultimately, choice of collection method for operational surveillance should be driven by trap efficacy and scalability, rather than fine-scale precision with respect to HLC. When compared with recent, similar trap evaluations in Tanzania and Zambia, these data suggest that traps which actively lure host-seeking females will be most useful for surveillance in the face of declining vector densities. PMID:23631641

2013-01-01

103

Made-to-measure malaria vector control strategies: rational design based on insecticide properties and coverage of blood resources for mosquitoes  

PubMed Central

Eliminating malaria from highly endemic settings will require unprecedented levels of vector control. To suppress mosquito populations, vector control products targeting their blood hosts must attain high biological coverage of all available sources, rather than merely high demographic coverage of a targeted resource subset, such as humans while asleep indoors. Beyond defining biological coverage in a measurable way, the proportion of blood meals obtained from humans and the proportion of bites upon unprotected humans occurring indoors also suggest optimal target product profiles for delivering insecticides to humans or livestock. For vectors that feed only occasionally upon humans, preferred animal hosts may be optimal targets for mosquito-toxic insecticides, and vapour-phase insecticides optimized to maximize repellency, rather than toxicity, may be ideal for directly protecting people against indoor and outdoor exposure. However, for vectors that primarily feed upon people, repellent vapour-phase insecticides may be inferior to toxic ones and may undermine the impact of contact insecticides applied to human sleeping spaces, houses or clothing if combined in the same time and place. These concepts are also applicable to other mosquito-borne anthroponoses so that diverse target species could be simultaneously controlled with integrated vector management programmes. Measurements of these two crucial mosquito behavioural parameters should now be integrated into programmatically funded, longitudinal, national-scale entomological monitoring systems to inform selection of available technologies and investment in developing new ones. PMID:24739261

2014-01-01

104

Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization - Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry: An Emerging Tool for the Rapid Identification of Mosquito Vectors  

PubMed Central

Background The identification of mosquito vectors is typically based on morphological characteristics using morphological keys of determination, which requires entomological expertise and training. The use of protein profiling by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS), which is increasingly being used for the routine identification of bacteria, has recently emerged for arthropod identification. Methods To investigate the usefulness of MALDI-TOF-MS as a mosquito identification tool, we tested protein extracts made from mosquito legs to create a database of reference spectra. The database included a total of 129 laboratory-reared and field-caught mosquito specimens consisting of 20 species, including 4 Aedes spp., 9 Anopheles spp., 4 Culex spp., Lutzia tigripes, Orthopodomyia reunionensis and Mansonia uniformis. For the validation study, blind tests were performed with 76 specimens consisting of 1 to 4 individuals per species. A cluster analysis was carried out using the MALDI-Biotyper and some spectra from all mosquito species tested. Results Biomarker mass sets containing 22 and 43 masses have been detected from 100 specimens of the Anopheles, Aedes and Culex species. By carrying out 3 blind tests, we achieved the identification of mosquito vectors at the species level, including the differentiation of An. gambiae complex, which is possible using MALDI-TOF-MS with 1.8 as the cut-off identification score. A cluster analysis performed with all available mosquito species showed that MALDI-Biotyper can distinguish between specimens at the subspecies level, as demonstrated for An gambiae M and S, but this method cannot yet be considered a reliable tool for the phylogenetic study of mosquito species. Conclusions We confirmed that even without any specific expertise, MALDI-TOF-MS profiling of mosquito leg protein extracts can be used for the rapid identification of mosquito vectors. Therefore, MALDI-TOF-MS is an alternative, efficient and inexpensive tool that can accurately identify mosquitoes collected in the field during entomological surveys. PMID:23977292

Yssouf, Amina; Socolovschi, Cristina; Flaudrops, Christophe; Ndiath, Mamadou Ousmane; Sougoufara, Seynabou; Dehecq, Jean-Sebastien; Lacour, Guillaume; Berenger, Jean-Michel; Sokhna, Cheikh Sadibou; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

2013-01-01

105

Isolation and Characterization of Sylvatic Mosquito-Borne Viruses in Trinidad: Enzootic Transmission and a New Potential Vector of Mucambo Virus  

PubMed Central

Mosquito surveillance was carried out in three forested regions of Trinidad during July 2007March 2009. A total of 185,397 mosquitoes representing at least 46 species was collected, divided into pools of 150 mosquitoes according to species and sex, and screened for arboviruses using cytopathic effect assays on Vero cell monolayers. Eighty-five viruses were isolated, including members of the genera Alphavirus (Mucambo virus; MUCV) and Orthobunyavirus (Caraparu, Oriboca, Bimiti, and Wyeomyia viruses). Species of the Culex subgenus Melanoconion accounted for 56% of the total number of mosquitoes collected and 97% of the viruses isolated; Cx. (Mel.) portesi accounted for 92% of virus isolations. Our results also implicate for the first time Aedes (Ochlerotatus) hortator as a potential vector of MUCV. Phylogenetic analyses of 43 MUCV strains suggest population subdivision within Trinidad, consistent with the hypothesis of enzootic maintenance in localized rodent populations. PMID:21118932

Auguste, Albert J.; Adams, A. Paige; Arrigo, Nicole C.; Martinez, Raymond; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P. A.; Adesiyun, Abiodun A.; Chadee, Dave D.; Tesh, Robert B.; Carrington, Christine V. F.; Weaver, Scott C.

2010-01-01

106

Toxicity of essential oil from Indian borage on the larvae of the African malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles gambiae  

PubMed Central

Background Essential oils are currently studied for the control of different disease vectors, because of their efficacy on targeted organisms. In the present investigation, the larvicidal potential of essential oil extracted from Indian borage (Plectranthus amboinicus) was studied against the African anthropophagic malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles gambiae. The larvae of An. gambiae s.s laboratory colony and An. gambiae s.l of wild populations were assayed and the larval mortality was observed at 12, 24 and 48 h after exposure period with the concentrations of 3.125, 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50 and 100 ppm. Findings Larval mortality rates of the essential oil was entirely time and dose dependent. The LC50 values of the laboratory colony were 98.56 (after 12h) 55.20 (after 24 h) and 32.41 ppm (after 48 h) and the LC90 values were 147.40 (after 12h), 99.09 (after 24 h) and 98.84 ppm (after 48 h). The LC50 and LC90 values of the wild population were 119.52, 179.85 (after 12h) 67.53, 107.60 (after 24 h) and 25.51, 111.17 ppm (after 48 h) respectively. The oil showed good larvicidal potential after 48 h of exposure period against An. gambiae. The essential oil of Indian borage is a renowned natural source of larvicides for the control of the African malaria vector mosquito, An. gambiae. Conclusion The larvicidal efficacy shown by plant extracts against An. gambiae should be tested in semi field and small scale trials for effective compounds to supplement the existing larval control tools. PMID:23206364

2012-01-01

107

Use of a simple DNA extraction method for high-throughput detection of filarial parasite Wuchereria bancrofti in the vector mosquitoes.  

PubMed

Molecular xenomonitoring of filariasis is the detection of filarial DNA in mosquitoes by PCR and a useful tool for monitoring transmission. DNA extraction coupled with PCR allows rapid detection of the presence or absence of the filarial parasite in vector mosquitoes compared to traditional method of manual dissection of the mosquito and observation for parasite under a microscope. A Tris-EDTA (TE) buffer-based boiling method of DNA extraction developed earlier by us was employed and explored for its suitability in the detection of Wuchereria bancrofti DNA in pools of Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes in real-time PCR assay. In this preliminary study, 1,000 laboratory-reared C. quinquefasciatus were made into 40 pools, each containing 25 mosquitoes spiked with 2mf. DNA from the first 20 pools was extracted using Qiagen DNeasy blood and tissue kit as standard, and the other 20 pools were subjected to TE buffer-based boiling method of DNA extraction. When the results (Ct values) obtained for DNA samples extracted by TE buffer-based boiling method were compared with that of the DNA samples extracted by the standard Qiagen method, they were found to be highly concordant without any significant difference (P = 0.9). Besides being cost- and time-effective, this protocol was found useful in extracting filarial DNA from two other mosquito genus Aedes and Anopheles, species of which have been reported as important vectors of W. bancrofti in other endemic regions of the world. Thus, TE buffer-based boiling method of DNA extraction is useful for the high-throughput detection of W. bancrofti in vector mosquitoes. PMID:22777703

Vasuki, V; Subramanian, S; Hoti, S L; Jambulingam, P

2012-12-01

108

In vitro activation and enzyme kinetic analysis of recombinant midgut serine proteases from the Dengue vector mosquito Aedes aegypti  

PubMed Central

Background The major Dengue virus vector Aedes aegypti requires nutrients obtained from blood meal proteins to complete the gonotrophic cycle. Although bioinformatic analyses of Ae. aegypti midgut serine proteases have provided evolutionary insights, very little is known about the biochemical activity of these digestive enzymes. Results We used peptide specific antibodies to show that midgut serine proteases are expressed as zymogen precursors, which are cleaved to the mature form after blood feeding. Since midgut protein levels are insufficient to purify active proteases directly from blood fed mosquitoes, we engineered recombinant proteins encoding a heterologous enterokinase cleavage site to permit generation of the bona fide mature form of four midgut serine proteases (AaET, AaLT, AaSPVI, AaSPVII) for enzyme kinetic analysis. Cleavage of the chromogenic trypsin substrate BApNA showed that AaET has a catalytic efficiency (kcat/KM) that is ~30 times higher than bovine trypsin, and ~2-3 times higher than AaSPVI and AaSPVII, however, AaLT does not cleave BApNA. To measure the enzyme activities of the mosquito midgut proteases using natural substrates, we developed a quantitative cleavage assay based on cleavage of albumin and hemoglobin proteins. These studies revealed that the recombinant AaLT enzyme was indeed catalytically active, and cleaved albumin and hemoglobin with equivalent efficiency to that of AaET, AaSPVI, and AaSPVII. Structural modeling of the AaLT and AaSPVI mature forms indicated that AaLT is most similar to serine collagenases, whereas AaSPVI appears to be a classic trypsin. Conclusions These data show that in vitro activation of recombinant serine proteases containing a heterologous enterokinase cleavage site can be used to investigate enzyme kinetics and substrate cleavage properties of biologically important mosquito proteases. PMID:21827688

2011-01-01

109

Evaluation of a new formulation of adulticide, DUET, against West Nile virus vector mosquitoes.  

PubMed

DUET was evaluated against field-collected mosquito populations in St. John's County, FL, under laboratory and field conditions. Ten serial dilutions ranging from 22 to 2.2E-08 microg/ml of the product were tested against Aedes albopictus, Ae. taeniorhynchus, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Psorophora columbiae. At 0.0022 microg/ml, 100% mortality was recorded for all species except for Cx. quinquefasciatus. The 50% lethal concentration value for Cx. quinquefasciatus was 0.0029 microg/ml (CI = 0.00069 to 0.013). At the lowest dilution (2.2E-08 microg/ml) evaluated, Ae. albopictus, Ae. taeniorhynchus, and Ps. columbiae showed > 50% mortality. Ground ultralow-volume application of DUET resulted in overall average mortality of 87% of field-collected Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes. There was a significant difference in mortality based on the distance of the caged mosquitoes (P < 0.05). However, mortality was > 70% at the farthest distance from the application (106 m). PMID:20649133

Qualls, Whitney A; Xue, Rui-De

2010-06-01

110

REPELLENCY OF ESSENTIAL OILS EXTRACTED FROM PLANTS IN THAILAND AGAINST FOUR MOSQUITO VECTORS (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE) AND OVlPOSlTlON DETERRENT EFFECTS AGAINST AEDES AEGYPTl (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we evaluated and reported repellent effects of essential oils from Thai plants against 4 mosquito vectors: Aedes aegypti, Ae. albopictus, Anopheles dirus and Culex quinquefasciatus under laboratory conditions using human volunteers. The essent~al oils were ex- tracted from 18 plant species, belonging to 11 families, and the oils were then prepared as 10% solution in absolute ethanol

Apiwat Tawatsin; Preecha Asavadachanukorn; Usavadee Thavara; Prapai Wongsinkongman; Pranee Chavalit-tumrong; Noppamas Soonthornchareonnon; Mir S Mulla; Narumon Komalamisra

2006-01-01

111

POTENTIAL MOSQUITO (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE) VECTORS OF DIROFILARIA IMMITIS (FILARIIDAE: ONCHOCERCIDAE) IN TWO URBAN AREAS OF KUALA LUMPUR AND ITS PREVALENCE IN STRAY DOGS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted in the urban areas of Kuala Lumpur using CDC light trap, dog-baited trap and human landing collection to determine the vectors. Eleven species of mosquitoes were obtained, of which only Aedes albopictus, Armigeres subalbatus and Culex quinquefasciatus were in significant numbers. The predominant species was Ar. subalbatus in both the human landing and dog bait collection.

INDRA VYTHILINGAM; PATRICK MOOTO; JOHN JEFFERY; M. S. PARAMESWARAN

112

Molecular and Functional Characterization of Odorant-Binding Protein Genes in an Invasive Vector Mosquito, Aedes albopictus  

PubMed Central

Aedes albopictus is a major vector of dengue and Chikungunya viruses. Olfaction plays a vital role in guiding mosquito behaviors and contributes to their ability to transmit pathogens. Odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) are abundant in insect olfactory tissues and involved in the first step of odorant reception. While comprehensive descriptions are available of OBPs from Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles gambiae, only a few genes from Ae. albopictus have been reported. In this study, twenty-one putative AalbOBP genes were cloned using their homologues in Ae. aegypti to query an Ae. albopictus partial genome sequence. Two antenna-specific OBPs, AalbOBP37 and AalbOBP39, display a remarkable similarity in their overall folding and binding pockets, according to molecular modeling. Binding affinity assays indicated that AalbOBP37 and AalbOBP39 had overlapping ligand affinities and are affected in different pH condition. Electroantennagrams (EAG) and behavioral tests show that these two genes were involved in olfactory reception. An improved understanding of the Ae. albopictus OBPs is expected to contribute to the development of more efficient and environmentally-friendly mosquito control strategies. PMID:23935894

Deng, Yuhua; Yan, Hui; Gu, Jinbao; Xu, Jiabao; Wu, Kun; Tu, Zhijian; James, Anthony A.; Chen, Xiaoguang

2013-01-01

113

Molecular and functional characterization of odorant-binding protein genes in an invasive vector mosquito, Aedes albopictus.  

PubMed

Aedes albopictus is a major vector of dengue and Chikungunya viruses. Olfaction plays a vital role in guiding mosquito behaviors and contributes to their ability to transmit pathogens. Odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) are abundant in insect olfactory tissues and involved in the first step of odorant reception. While comprehensive descriptions are available of OBPs from Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles gambiae, only a few genes from Ae. albopictus have been reported. In this study, twenty-one putative AalbOBP genes were cloned using their homologues in Ae. aegypti to query an Ae. albopictus partial genome sequence. Two antenna-specific OBPs, AalbOBP37 and AalbOBP39, display a remarkable similarity in their overall folding and binding pockets, according to molecular modeling. Binding affinity assays indicated that AalbOBP37 and AalbOBP39 had overlapping ligand affinities and are affected in different pH condition. Electroantennagrams (EAG) and behavioral tests show that these two genes were involved in olfactory reception. An improved understanding of the Ae. albopictus OBPs is expected to contribute to the development of more efficient and environmentally-friendly mosquito control strategies. PMID:23935894

Deng, Yuhua; Yan, Hui; Gu, Jinbao; Xu, Jiabao; Wu, Kun; Tu, Zhijian; James, Anthony A; Chen, Xiaoguang

2013-01-01

114

Evaluation of plant-mediated synthesized silver nanoparticles against vector mosquitoes.  

PubMed

Diseases transmitted by blood-feeding mosquitoes, such as dengue fever, dengue hemorrhagic fever, Japanese encephalitis, malaria, and filariasis, are increasing in prevalence, particularly in tropical and subtropical zones. To control mosquitoes and mosquito-borne diseases, which have worldwide health and economic impacts, synthetic insecticide-based interventions are still necessary, particularly in situations of epidemic outbreak and sudden increases of adult mosquitoes. Green nanoparticle synthesis has been achieved using environmentally acceptable plant extract and eco-friendly reducing and capping agents. In view of the recently increased interest in developing plant origin insecticides as an alternative to chemical insecticide, in the present study, the adulticidal activity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized using Heliotropium indicum plant leaf extract against adults of Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus was determined. Adult mosquitoes were exposed to varying concentrations of aqueous extract of H. indicum and synthesized AgNPs for 24h. AgNPs were rapidly synthesized using the leaf extract of H. indicum, and the formation of nanoparticles was observed within 6h. The results recorded from UV-vis spectrum, Fourier transform infrared, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy support the biosynthesis and characterization of AgNPs. The maximum efficacy was observed in synthesized AgNPs against the adult of A. stephensi (lethal dose (LD)50?=?26.712?g/mL; LD90?=?49.061?g/mL), A. aegypti (LD50?=?29.626?g/mL; LD90?=?54.269?g/mL), and C. quinquefasciatus (LD50?=?32.077?g/mL; LD90?=?58.426?g/mL), respectively. No mortality was observed in the control. These results suggest that the leaf aqueous extracts of H.indicum and green synthesis of AgNPs have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of the A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus. This is the first report on the adulticidal activity of the plant extracts and AgNPs. PMID:25300419

Veerakumar, Kaliyan; Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Hoti, S L

2014-12-01

115

Fine-scale population genetic structure of a wildlife disease vector: The southern house mosquito on the island of Hawaii  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The southern house mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus, is a widespread tropical and subtropical disease vector. In the Hawaiian Islands, where it was introduced accidentally almost two centuries ago, it is considered the primary vector of avian malaria and pox. Avian malaria in particular has contributed to the extinction and endangerment of Hawaii's native avifauna, and has altered the altitudinal distribution of native bird populations. We examined the population genetic structure of Cx. quinquefasciatus on the island of Hawaii at a smaller spatial scale than has previously been attempted, with particular emphasis on the effects of elevation on population genetic structure. We found significant genetic differentiation among populations and patterns of isolation by distance within the island. Elevation per se did not have a limiting effect on gene flow; however, there was significantly lower genetic diversity among populations at mid elevations compared to those at low elevations. A recent sample taken from just above the predicted upper altitudinal distribution of Cx. quinquefasciatus on the island of Hawaii was confirmed as being a temporary summer population and appeared to consist of individuals from more than one source population. Our results indicate effects of elevation gradients on genetic structure that are consistent with known effects of elevation on population dynamics of this disease vector. ?? 2006 The Authors.

Keyghobadi, N.; LaPointe, D.; Fleischer, R.C.; Fonseca, D.M.

2006-01-01

116

Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of Blumea densiflora essential oils against Anopheles anthropophagus: a malarial vector mosquito.  

PubMed

Blumea densiflora, an edible and medicinal plant, is chiefly distributed in Southeast Asia and South Asia. Essential oils extracted by steam distillation from B. densiflora were investigated for their chemical composition and larvicidal activity against Anopheles anthropophagus, the primary vector of malaria in China and other East Asian countries. Totally, 46 compounds were identified by gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy. The major chemical compounds identified were borneol (11.43%), germacrene D (8.66%), ?-caryophyllene (6.68%), ?-terpinene (4.35%), sabinene (4.34%), and ?-bisabolene (4.24%). A series of concentrations of essential oil (that ranged from 6.25 to 150 ppm) were tested against A. anthropophagus fourth-instar larvae according to WHO recommendation. In general, larval mortality increased as concentration and exposure time increased, indicating a dose-dependent effect, and high insecticidal activity showed that 100% mortality occurred within 6 h at 150 ppm, 10 h at 100 ppm, 30 h at 50 ppm, and 30 h at 25 ppm essential oil concentration. The LC(50) values were 22.32 (after 12 h) and 10.55 ppm (after 24 h), and the LC(90) values were 54.04 (after 12 h) and 33.56 ppm (after 24 h). Pylarvex, the reference standard, had better larvicidal activity, causing 100% mortality within 2 h at 150 ppm and within 6 h at 6.25 ppm. The results clearly reveal that the essential oil of B. densiflora served as a potential, eco-friendly mosquito larvicide against the malarial vector mosquito A. anthropophagus. PMID:21556689

Zhu, Liang; Tian, Yingjuan

2011-11-01

117

Is Housing Quality Associated with Malaria Incidence among Young Children and Mosquito Vector Numbers? Evidence from Korogwe, Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Several studies conducted in Northeast Tanzania have documented declines in malaria transmission even before interventions were scaled up. One explanation for these reductions may be the changes in socio-environmental conditions associated with economic development, and in particular improvements in housing construction. Objective This analysis seeks to identify (1) risk factors for malaria incidence among young children and (2) household and environmental factors associated with mosquito vector numbers collected in the childs sleeping area. Both analyses focus on housing construction quality as a key determinant. Methodology For 435 children enrolled in a larger trial of intermittent preventive treatment for malaria in infants in the Korogwe District in Tanga, Northeastern Tanzania, detailed information on their dwelling characteristics were collected in the last year of the trial. Principal components analysis was used to construct an index of housing structure quality and converted to quintile units for regression analysis. Univariate and multivariate random effects negative binomial regressions were used to predict risk factors for child malaria incidence and the mean total number of indoor female Anopheles gambiae and funestus mosquitoes collected per household across three occasions. Findings Building materials have substantially improved in Korogwe over time. Multivariate regressions showed that residing in rural areas (versus urban) increased malaria incidence rates by over three-fold and mean indoor female A. gambiae and funestus numbers by nearly two-fold. Compared to those residing in the lowest quality houses, children residing in the highest quality houses had one-third lower malaria incidence rates, even when wealth and rural residence were controlled for. Living in the highest quality houses reduced vector numbers while having cattle near the house significantly increased them. Conclusions Results corroborate findings from other studies that show associations between malaria incidence and housing quality; associations were concentrated amongst the highest quality houses. PMID:24505285

Liu, Jenny X.; Bousema, Teun; Zelman, Brittany; Gesase, Samwel; Hashim, Ramadhan; Maxwell, Caroline; Chandramohan, Daniel; Gosling, Roly

2014-01-01

118

Effects of extract of soapnut Sapindus emarginatus on esterases and phosphatases of the vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).  

PubMed

Our earlier investigations with kernels from the soapnut Sapindus emarginatus revealed it as a new source of botanical biocide with potent antimosquito activity, as evident from the proven unique ability of the aqueous kernel extract to kill all the developmental stages of three important vector mosquito species, Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus. This extract was also found to be safe for two non-target aquatic insects. As a sequel to these findings, we have further examined quantitative and qualitative changes in total proteins, esterases, and phosphatases in whole body homogenates of fourth instar larvae and pupae of A. aegypti exposed to this extract at an appropriate threshold time for its lethal effect to gain insights into the impact of the botanical biocide on biochemical characteristics of the target vector mosquito at two distinct developmental stages. The profiles of proteins, esterases (acetylcholinesterse, ?- and ?-carboxylesterases), and phosphatases (acid and alkaline) exhibited distinct patterns of variation during normal development of fourth instar larvae and pupae, indicating intrinsic difference in biochemical features between these two developmental stages of A. aegypti. Upon exposure of the larvae to the extract, significant reduction in the activities of acetylcholinesterse, ?-carboxylesterase, and acid phosphatases were recorded, whereas the total proteins, ?-carboxylesterase and alkaline phosphatase activities were unaffected. By contrast, only alkaline phosphatase activity was significantly affected in pupae exposed to the extract. Analysis of these enzymes in native PAGE revealed that they exist in isoforms in both the larvae and pupae. The alterations in the levels of enzymatic activities observed from the quantitative assays of various enzymes were reflected by the respective zymograms with perceptible differences in the intensity and the number of bands detected especially with ?-carboxylesterase, acid and alkaline phosphatase activity between the control and exposed test organisms. Despite the fact that the soapnut kernel extract causes mortality of both the larvae and pupae of A. aegypti, the findings of this study demonstrate that the impact of this extract is most pronounced in various enzyme profiles of the larvae rather than the pupae. Such discrepancy implicates the presence of unique biochemical mechanisms in the pupae of mosquito for detoxification of botanical biocides. PMID:21251906

Koodalingam, Arunagirinathan; Mullainadhan, Periasamy; Arumugam, Munusamy

2011-04-01

119

Cell phone-based system (Chaak) for surveillance of immatures of dengue virus mosquito vectors.  

PubMed

Capture of surveillance data on mobile devices and rapid transfer of such data from these devices into an electronic database or data management and decision support systems promote timely data analyses and public health response during disease outbreaks. Mobile data capture is used increasingly for malaria surveillance and holds great promise for surveillance of other neglected tropical diseases. We focused on mosquito-borne dengue, with the primary aims of: 1) developing and field-testing a cell phone-based system (called Chaak) for capture of data relating to the surveillance of the mosquito immature stages, and 2) assessing, in the dengue endemic setting of Mrida, Mexico, the cost-effectiveness of this new technology versus paper-based data collection. Chaak includes a desktop component, where a manager selects premises to be surveyed for mosquito immatures, and a cell phone component, where the surveyor receives the assigned tasks and captures the data. Data collected on the cell phone can be transferred to a central database through different modes of transmission, including near-real time where data are transferred immediately (e.g., over the Internet) or by first storing data on the cell phone for future transmission. Spatial data are handled in a novel, semantically driven, geographic information system. Compared with a pen-and-paper-based method, use of Chaak improved the accuracy and increased the speed of data transcription into an electronic database. The cost-effectiveness of using the Chaak system will depend largely on the up-front cost of purchasing cell phones and the recurring cost of data transfer over a cellular network. PMID:23926788

Lozano-Fuentes, Saul; Wedyan, Fadi; Hernandez-Garcia, Edgar; Sadhu, Devadatta; Ghosh, Sudipto; Bieman, James M; Tep-Chel, Diana; Garca-Rejn, Julin E; Eisen, Lars

2013-07-01

120

Cell Phone-Based System (Chaak) for Surveillance of Immatures of Dengue Virus Mosquito Vectors  

PubMed Central

Capture of surveillance data on mobile devices and rapid transfer of such data from these devices into an electronic database or data management and decision support systems promote timely data analyses and public health response during disease outbreaks. Mobile data capture is used increasingly for malaria surveillance and holds great promise for surveillance of other neglected tropical diseases. We focused on mosquito-borne dengue, with the primary aims of: 1) developing and field-testing a cell phone-based system (called Chaak) for capture of data relating to the surveillance of the mosquito immature stages, and 2) assessing, in the dengue endemic setting of Mrida, Mxico, the cost-effectiveness of this new technology versus paper-based data collection. Chaak includes a desktop component, where a manager selects premises to be surveyed for mosquito immatures, and a cell phone component, where the surveyor receives the assigned tasks and captures the data. Data collected on the cell phone can be transferred to a central database through different modes of transmission, including near-real time where data are transferred immediately (e.g., over the Internet) or by first storing data on the cell phone for future transmission. Spatial data are handled in a novel, semantically driven, geographic information system. Compared with a pen-and-paper-based method, use of Chaak improved the accuracy and increased the speed of data transcription into an electronic database. The cost-effectiveness of using the Chaak system will depend largely on the up-front cost of purchasing cell phones and the recurring cost of data transfer over a cellular network. PMID:23926788

LOZANO-FUENTES, SAUL; WEDYAN, FADI; HERNANDEZ-GARCIA, EDGAR; SADHU, DEVADATTA; GHOSH, SUDIPTO; BIEMAN, JAMES M.; TEP-CHEL, DIANA; GARCIA-REJON, JULIAN E.; EISEN, LARS

2014-01-01

121

Hey! A Mosquito Bit Me!  

MedlinePLUS

... Main Page The Pink Locker Society Hey! A Mosquito Bit Me! KidsHealth > Kids > Illnesses & Injuries > Bug Bites ... Do How to Avoid Getting Bitten What's a Mosquito? A mosquito (say: mus-KEE-toe) is an ...

122

G? Encoding Gene Family of the Malaria Vector Mosquito Anopheles gambiae: Expression Analysis and Immunolocalization of AG?q and AG?o in Female Antennae  

PubMed Central

To initiate a comprehensive investigation of chemosensory signal transduction downstream of odorant receptors, we identified and characterized the complete set of genes that encode G-protein ? subunits in the genome of the malaria vector mosquito An. gambiae. Data are provided on the tissue-specific expression patterns of 10 corresponding aga-transcripts in adult mosquitoes and pre-imago developmental stages. Specific immunoreactivity in chemosensory hairs of female antennae provides evidence in support of the participation of a subset of AG?q isoforms in olfactory signal transduction in this mosquito. In contrast, AG?o is localized along the flagellar axon bundle but is absent from chemosensory sensilla, which suggests that this G-protein ? subunit does not participate in olfactory signal transduction. PMID:17029251

Rtzler, Michael; Lu, Tan; Zwiebel, Laurence J.

2011-01-01

123

Associative learning in the dengue vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti: avoidance of a previously attractive odor or surface color that is paired with an aversive stimulus.  

PubMed

Associative learning has been shown in a variety of insects, including the mosquitoes Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles gambiae. This study demonstrates associative learning for the first time in Aedes aegypti, an important vector of dengue, yellow fever and chikungunya viruses. This species prefers to rest on dark surfaces and is attracted to the odor of 1-octen-3-ol. After training in which a dark surface alone or a dark surface with odor was paired with electric shock, mosquitoes avoided the previously attractive area. The association was stronger when odor was included in training, was retained for at least 60 min but not for 24 h, and was equal for males and females. These results demonstrate the utility of a bulk-training paradigm for mosquitoes similar to that used with Drosophila melanogaster. PMID:22996441

Menda, Gil; Uhr, Joshua H; Wyttenbach, Robert A; Vermeylen, Franoise M; Smith, David M; Harrington, Laura C; Hoy, Ronald R

2013-01-15

124

Biogeography of the two major arbovirus mosquito vectors, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera, Culicidae), in Madagascar  

PubMed Central

Background In the past ten years, the Indian Ocean region has been the theatre of severe epidemics of chikungunya and dengue. These outbreaks coincided with a high increase in populations of Aedes albopictus that outcompete its sister taxon Aedes aegypti in most islands sampled. The objective of this work was to update the entomological survey of the two Aedes species in the island of Madagascar which has to face these arboviroses. Methods The sampling of Aedes mosquitoes was conducted during two years, from October 2007 to October 2009, in fifteen localities from eight regions of contrasting climates. Captured adults were identified immediately whereas immature stages were bred until adult stage for determination. Phylogenetic analysis was performed using two mtDNA genes, COI and ND5 and trees were constructed by the maximum likelihood (ML) method with the gene time reversible (GTR) model. Experimental infections with the chikungunya virus strain 06.21 at a titer of 107.5 pfu/mL were performed to evaluate the vector competence of field-collected mosquitoes. Disseminated infection rates were measured fourteen days after infection by immunofluorescence assay performed on head squashes. Results The species Aedes aegypti was detected in only six sites in native forests and natural reserves. In contrast, the species Aedes albopictus was found in 13 out of the 15 sites sampled. Breeding sites were mostly found in man-made environments such as discarded containers, used tires, abandoned buckets, coconuts, and bamboo cuts. Linear regression models showed that the abundance of Ae. albopictus was significantly influenced by the sampling region (F = 62.00, p < 2.2 10-16) and period (F = 36.22, p = 2.548 10-13), that are associated with ecological and climate variations. Phylogenetic analysis of the invasive Ae. albopictus distinguished haplotypes from South Asia and South America from those of Madagascar, but the markers used were not discriminant enough to discern Malagasy populations. The experimental oral infection method showed that six Ae. albopictus populations exhibited high dissemination infection rates for chikungunya virus ranging from 98 to 100%. Conclusion In Madagascar, Ae. albopictus has extended its geographical distribution whereas, Ae. aegypti has become rare, contrasting with what was previously observed. Changes are predominantly driven by human activities and the rainfall regime that provide suitable breeding sites for the highly anthropophilic mosquito Ae. albopictus. Moreover, these populations were found to be highly susceptible to chikungunya virus. In the light of this study, Ae. albopictus may have been involved in the recent outbreaks of chikungunya and dengue epidemics in Madagascar, and consequently, control measures should be promoted to limit its current expansion. PMID:22433186

2012-01-01

125

Main Vector Adaptation: A CMA Variant with Linear Time and Space Complexity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The covariance matrix adaptation (CMA)is one of the most powerful self adaptationmechanisms for Evolution Strategies.However, for increasing search space dimension N , the performance declines, since theCMA has space and time complexity O(N2).Adapting the main mutation vector insteadof the covariance matrix yields an adaptationmechanism with space and time complexityO(N ). Thus, the main vector adaptation(MVA) is appropriate for large-scale problemsin

Andreas Zell

2001-01-01

126

Rapid detection of Dirofilaria immitis in mosquito vectors and dogs using a real-time fluorescence resonance energy transfer PCR and melting curve analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A real-time fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) PCR supplemented with melting curve analysis for the rapid molecular detection of Dirofilaria immitis in mosquito vectors and dog blood samples was developed. This real-time FRET PCR was based on the fluorescence melting curve analysis of a hybrid between an amplicon generated from the D. immitis ribosomal RNA gene sequence and specific fluorophore-labeled

Tongjit Thanchomnang; Pewpan M. Intapan; Viraphong Lulitanond; Somboon Sangmaneedet; Sudchit Chungpivat; Piyanan Taweethavonsawat; Wej Choochote; Wanchai Maleewong

2010-01-01

127

Efficient transformation of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti using the piggyBac transposable element vector pBac[3xP3-EGFP afm  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report efficient germ-line transformation in the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti accomplished using the piggyBac transposable element vector pBac[3xP3-EGFP afm]. Two transgenic lines were established and characterized; each contained the Vg-Defensin A transgene with strong eye-specific expression of the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) marker gene regulated by the artificial 3xP3 promoter. Southern blot hybridization and inverse PCR analyses

V. Kokoza; A. Ahmed; E. A. Wimmer; A. S. Raikhel

2001-01-01

128

Anti-mosquito plants as an alternative or incremental method for malaria vector control among rural communities of Bagamoyo District, Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Plants represent one of the most accessible resources available for mosquito control by communities in Tanzania. However, no documented statistics exist for their contribution in the management of mosquitoes and other insects except through verbal and some publications. This study aimed at assessing communities knowledge, attitudes and practices of using plants as an alternative method for mosquito control among selected communities in a malaria-prone area in Tanzania. Methods Questionnaires were administered to 202 respondents from four villages of Bagamoyo District, Pwani Region, in Tanzania followed by participatory rural appraisal with village health workers. Secondary data collection for plants mentioned by the communities was undertaken using different search engines such as googlescholar, PubMED and NAPRALERT. Results Results showed about 40.3% of respondents used plants to manage insects, including mosquitoes. A broad profile of plants are used, including mwarobaini (Azadirachta indica) (22.5%), mtopetope (Annona spp) (20.8%), mchungwa/mlimau (Citrus spp) (8.3%), mvumbashi/uvumbati (Ocimum spp) (7.4%), mkorosho (Anacadium occidentale) (7.1%), mwembe (5.4%) (Mangifera indica), mpera (4.1%) (Psidium spp) and maganda ya nazi (4.1%) (Cocos nucifera). Majority of respondents collected these plants from the wild (54.2%), farms (28.9%) and/or home gardens (6%). The roles played by these plants in fighting mosquitoes is reflected by the majority that deploy them with or without bed-nets (p > 0.55) or insecticidal sprays (p >0.22). Most respondents were aware that mosquitoes transmit malaria (90.6%) while few respondents associated elephantiasis/hydrocele (46.5%) and yellow fever (24.3%) with mosquitoes. Most of the ethnobotanical uses mentioned by the communities were consistent with scientific information gathered from the literature, except for Psidium guajava, which is reported for the first time in insect control. Conclusion This survey has indicated some knowledge gap among community members in managing mosquito vectors using plant. The communities need a basic health education and sensitization for effective exploitation of this valuable tool for reducing mosquitoes and associated disease burdens. On the other hand, the government of Tanzania should strengthen advocacy of botanical pesticides development, registration and regulation for public health benefits because they are source of pest control tools people rely on them. PMID:25015092

2014-01-01

129

Large fluctuations in the effective population size of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae s.s. during vector control cycle.  

PubMed

On Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea, indoor residual spraying (IRS) has been part of the Bioko Island Malaria Control Project since early 2004. Despite success in reducing childhood infections, areas of high transmission remain on the island. We therefore examined fluctuations in the effective population size (N e ) of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae in an area of persistent high transmission over two spray rounds. We analyzed data for 13 microsatellite loci from 791 An.gambiae specimens collected at six time points in 2009 and 2010 and reconstructed the demographic history of the population during this period using approximate Bayesian computation (ABC). Our analysis shows that IRS rounds have a large impact on N e , reducing it by 65%-92% from prespray round N e . More importantly, our analysis shows that after 3-5months, the An.gambiae population rebounded by 2818% compared shortly following the spray round. Our study underscores the importance of adequate spray round frequency to provide continuous suppression of mosquito populations and that increased spray round frequency should substantially improve the efficacy of IRS campaigns. It also demonstrates the ability of ABC to reconstruct a detailed demographic history across only a few tens of generations in a large population. PMID:24478799

Hodges, Theresa K; Athrey, Giridhar; Deitz, Kevin C; Overgaard, Hans J; Matias, Abrahan; Caccone, Adalgisa; Slotman, Michel A

2013-12-01

130

Multiple Origins of Knockdown Resistance Mutations in the Afrotropical Mosquito Vector Anopheles gambiae  

PubMed Central

How often insecticide resistance mutations arise in natural insect populations is a fundamental question for understanding the evolution of resistance and also for modeling its spread. Moreover, the development of resistance is regarded as a favored model to study the molecular evolution of adaptive traits. In the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae two point mutations (L1014F and L1014S) in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene, that confer knockdown resistance (kdr) to DDT and pyrethroid insecticides, have been described. In order to determine whether resistance alleles result from single or multiple mutation events, genotyping of the kdr locus and partial sequencing of the upstream intron-1 was performed on a total of 288 A. gambiae S-form collected from 28 localities in 15 countries. Knockdown resistance alleles were found to be widespread in West Africa with co-occurrence of both 1014S and 1014F in West-Central localities. Differences in intron-1 haplotype composition suggest that kdr alleles may have arisen from at least four independent mutation events. Neutrality tests provided evidence for a selective sweep acting on this genomic region, particularly in West Africa. The frequency and distribution of these kdr haplotypes varied geographically, being influenced by an interplay between different mutational occurrences, gene flow and local selection. This has important practical implications for the management and sustainability of malaria vector control programs. PMID:18043750

Pinto, Joao; Lynd, Amy; Vicente, Jose L.; Santolamazza, Federica; Randle, Nadine P.; Gentile, Gabriele; Moreno, Marta; Simard, Frederic; Charlwood, Jacques Derek; do Rosario, Virgilio E.; Caccone, Adalgisa; della Torre, Alessandra; Donnelly, Martin J.

2007-01-01

131

Mosquito Immunity against Arboviruses  

PubMed Central

Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) pose a significant threat to global health, causing human disease with increasing geographic range and severity. The recent availability of the genome sequences of medically important mosquito species has kick-started investigations into the molecular basis of how mosquito vectors control arbovirus infection. Here, we discuss recent findings concerning the role of the mosquito immune system in antiviral defense, interactions between arboviruses and fundamental cellular processes such as apoptosis and autophagy, and arboviral suppression of mosquito defense mechanisms. This knowledge provides insights into co-evolutionary processes between vector and virus and also lays the groundwork for the development of novel arbovirus control strategies that target the mosquito vector. PMID:25415198

Sim, Shuzhen; Jupatanakul, Natapong; Dimopoulos, George

2014-01-01

132

September 2012 The tiger mosquito  

E-print Network

N° 412 September 2012 The tiger mosquito is more flighty than first thought Scientific news Actualidad cientifica Actualité scientifique Female tiger mosquitoes, the vectors of the chikun- gunya virus in previous studies, male mosquitoes sterilised by radiation2 in the laboratory nevertheless succeeded

133

Yellow Fever Virus in Haemagogus leucocelaenus and Aedes serratus Mosquitoes, Southern Brazil, 2008  

PubMed Central

Yellow fever virus (YFV) was isolated from Haemagogus leucocelaenus mosquitoes during an epizootic in 2001 in the Rio Grande do Sul State in southern Brazil. In October 2008, a yellow fever outbreak was reported there, with nonhuman primate deaths and human cases. This latter outbreak led to intensification of surveillance measures for early detection of YFV and support for vaccination programs. We report entomologic surveillance in 2 municipalities that recorded nonhuman primate deaths. Mosquitoes were collected at ground level, identified, and processed for virus isolation and molecular analyses. Eight YFV strains were isolated (7 from pools of Hg. leucocelaenus mosquitoes and another from Aedes serratus mosquitoes); 6 were sequenced, and they grouped in the YFV South American genotype I. The results confirmed the role of Hg. leucocelaenus mosquitoes as the main YFV vector in southern Brazil and suggest that Ae. serratus mosquitoes may have a potential role as a secondary vector. PMID:21122222

Cardoso, Jader da C.; de Almeida, Marco A.B.; dos Santos, Edmilson; da Fonseca, Daltro F.; Sallum, Maria A.M.; Noll, Carlos A.; Monteiro, Hamilton A. de O.; Cruz, Ana C.R.; Carvalho, Valeria L.; Pinto, Eliana V.; Castro, Francisco C.; Neto, Joaquim P. Nunes; Segura, Maria N.O.

2010-01-01

134

Mechanisms of pyrethroid resistance in the dengue mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti: target site insensitivity, penetration, and metabolism.  

PubMed

Aedes aegypti is the major vector of yellow and dengue fevers. After 10 generations of adult selection, an A. aegypti strain (SP) developed 1650-fold resistance to permethrin, which is one of the most widely used pyrethroid insecticides for mosquito control. SP larvae also developed 8790-fold resistance following selection of the adults. Prior to the selections, the frequencies of V1016G and F1534C mutations in domains II and III, respectively, of voltage-sensitive sodium channel (Vssc, the target site of pyrethroid insecticide) were 0.44 and 0.56, respectively. In contrast, only G1016 alleles were present after two permethrin selections, indicating that G1016 can more contribute to the insensitivity of Vssc than C1534. In vivo metabolism studies showed that the SP strain excreted permethrin metabolites more rapidly than a susceptible SMK strain. Pretreatment with piperonyl butoxide caused strong inhibition of excretion of permethrin metabolites, suggesting that cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) play an important role in resistance development. In vitro metabolism studies also indicated an association of P450s with resistance. Microarray analysis showed that multiple P450 genes were over expressed during the larval and adult stages in the SP strain. Following quantitative real time PCR, we focused on two P450 isoforms, CYP9M6 and CYP6BB2. Transcription levels of these P450s were well correlated with the rate of permethrin excretion and they were certainly capable of detoxifying permethrin to 4'-HO-permethrin. Over expression of CYP9M6 was partially due to gene amplification. There was no significant difference in the rate of permethrin reduction from cuticle between SP and SMK strains. PMID:24945250

Kasai, Shinji; Komagata, Osamu; Itokawa, Kentaro; Shono, Toshio; Ng, Lee Ching; Kobayashi, Mutsuo; Tomita, Takashi

2014-06-01

135

Mechanisms of Pyrethroid Resistance in the Dengue Mosquito Vector, Aedes aegypti: Target Site Insensitivity, Penetration, and Metabolism  

PubMed Central

Aedes aegypti is the major vector of yellow and dengue fevers. After 10 generations of adult selection, an A. aegypti strain (SP) developed 1650-fold resistance to permethrin, which is one of the most widely used pyrethroid insecticides for mosquito control. SP larvae also developed 8790-fold resistance following selection of the adults. Prior to the selections, the frequencies of V1016G and F1534C mutations in domains II and III, respectively, of voltage-sensitive sodium channel (Vssc, the target site of pyrethroid insecticide) were 0.44 and 0.56, respectively. In contrast, only G1016 alleles were present after two permethrin selections, indicating that G1016 can more contribute to the insensitivity of Vssc than C1534. In vivo metabolism studies showed that the SP strain excreted permethrin metabolites more rapidly than a susceptible SMK strain. Pretreatment with piperonyl butoxide caused strong inhibition of excretion of permethrin metabolites, suggesting that cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) play an important role in resistance development. In vitro metabolism studies also indicated an association of P450s with resistance. Microarray analysis showed that multiple P450 genes were over expressed during the larval and adult stages in the SP strain. Following quantitative real time PCR, we focused on two P450 isoforms, CYP9M6 and CYP6BB2. Transcription levels of these P450s were well correlated with the rate of permethrin excretion and they were certainly capable of detoxifying permethrin to 4?-HO-permethrin. Over expression of CYP9M6 was partially due to gene amplification. There was no significant difference in the rate of permethrin reduction from cuticle between SP and SMK strains. PMID:24945250

Kasai, Shinji; Komagata, Osamu; Itokawa, Kentaro; Shono, Toshio; Ng, Lee Ching; Kobayashi, Mutsuo; Tomita, Takashi

2014-01-01

136

Comparative field evaluation of combinations of long-lasting insecticide treated nets and indoor residual spraying, relative to either method alone, for malaria prevention in an area where the main vector is Anopheles arabiensis  

PubMed Central

Background Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) are commonly used together in the same households to improve malaria control despite inconsistent evidence on whether such combinations actually offer better protection than nets alone or IRS alone. Methods Comparative tests were conducted using experimental huts fitted with LLINs, untreated nets, IRS plus untreated nets, or combinations of LLINs and IRS, in an area where Anopheles arabiensis is the predominant malaria vector species. Three LLIN types, Olyset, PermaNet 2.0 and Icon Life nets and three IRS treatments, pirimiphos-methyl, DDT, and lambda cyhalothrin, were used singly or in combinations. We compared, number of mosquitoes entering huts, proportion and number killed, proportions prevented from blood-feeding, time when mosquitoes exited the huts, and proportions caught exiting. The tests were done for four months in dry season and another six months in wet season, each time using new intact nets. Results All the net types, used with or without IRS, prevented >99% of indoor mosquito bites. Adding PermaNet 2.0 and Icon Life, but not Olyset nets into huts with any IRS increased mortality of malaria vectors relative to IRS alone. However, of all IRS treatments, only pirimiphos-methyl significantly increased vector mortality relative to LLINs alone, though this increase was modest. Overall, median mortality of An. arabiensis caught in huts with any of the treatments did not exceed 29%. No treatment reduced entry of the vectors into huts, except for marginal reductions due to PermaNet 2.0 nets and DDT. More than 95% of all mosquitoes were caught in exit traps rather than inside huts. Conclusions Where the main malaria vector is An. arabiensis, adding IRS into houses with intact pyrethroid LLINs does not enhance house-hold level protection except where the IRS employs non-pyrethroid insecticides such as pirimiphos-methyl, which can confer modest enhancements. In contrast, adding intact bednets onto IRS enhances protection by preventing mosquito blood-feeding (even if the nets are non-insecticidal) and by slightly increasing mosquito mortality (in case of LLINs). The primary mode of action of intact LLINs against An. arabiensis is clearly bite prevention rather than insecticidal activity. Therefore, where resources are limited, priority should be to ensure that everyone at risk consistently uses LLINs and that the nets are regularly replaced before being excessively torn. Measures that maximize bite prevention (e.g. proper net sizes to effectively cover sleeping spaces, stronger net fibres that resist tears and burns and net use practices that preserve net longevity), should be emphasized. PMID:23433393

2013-01-01

137

Septiembre de 2012 El mosquito tigre  

E-print Network

N° 412 Septiembre de 2012 El mosquito tigre: más promiscuo de lo previsto Scientific news Actualidad cientifica Actualité scientifique Los mosquitos tigre hembra, que transmiten el virus chikungunya los mosquitos machos, permitiría reducir la población de mosquitos vectores presente en la naturaleza

138

Genotyping Plasmodium vivax isolates infecting Anopheles stephensi, an Asian main malaria vector.  

PubMed

Malaria is a serious vector-borne infectious disease in Iran and Anopheles stephensi has long been suspected as a main malaria vector. However, opinions about its vectorial capacity in supporting Plasmodium species and strains are not clear. This study investigates the susceptibility of an Asian main malaria vector, An. stephensi, to Plasmodium vivax isolates, collected from tropical region of Iran. P. vivax gametocytes which used in ex vivo assay to An. stephensi infection were genotyped by using PCR-RFLP and sequencing. A 650-bp fragment was amplified from patients, followed by RFLP analysis using Alu I restriction enzyme determined the presence of P. vivax VK210 variants. Sequence analysis also showed 100% similarity with the previously reported VK210 sequences of haplotype B from Iran. This is the first study that reports An. stephensi mysorensis is susceptible to P. vivax VK210 haplotype, VK210B. This finding help in useful in better understanding the composition and interaction of Anopheles-Plasmodium and its implication in targeting the main malaria vector for control and elimination programs in Eastern Mediterranean region. PMID:23384706

Gholizadeh, Saber; Zakeri, Sedigheh; Djadid, Navid Dinparast

2013-05-01

139

Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of the essential oil of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng against Anopheles stephensi : a malarial vector mosquito  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essential oil of Plectranthus amboinicus was studied for its chemical composition and larvicidal potential against the malarial vector mosquito Anopheles stephensi. Totally 26 compounds were identified by GC and GC-MS. The major chemical compounds were carvacrol (28.65%) followed by thymol\\u000a (21.66%), ?-humulene (9.67%), undecanal (8.29%), ?-terpinene (7.76%), ?-cymene (6.46%), caryophyllene oxide (5.85%), ?-terpineol (3.28%) and ?-selinene (2.01%). The larvicidal assay

Annadurai Senthilkumar; Venugopalan Venkatesalu

2010-01-01

140

Exploring the salivary gland transcriptome and proteome of the Anopheles stephensi mosquito  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anopheles stephensi is the main urban mosquito vector of malaria in the Indian subcontinent, and belongs to the same subgenus as Anopheles gambiae, the main malaria vector in Africa. Recently the genome and proteome sets of An. gambiae have been described, as well as several protein sequences expressed in its salivary glands, some of which had their expression confirmed by

Jesus G. Valenzuela; Ivo M. B. Francischetti; Van My Pham; Mark K. Garfield; Jos M. C. Ribeiro

2003-01-01

141

Structural changes of the follicular cells during developmental stages of the malaria vector mosquitoes Anopheles pharoensis (Diptera: Culicidae) in Egypt.  

PubMed

The structure modulation of follicular cells and the ovarian changes during fourth larval instar and pupal stage of the malaria vector mosquitoes Anopheles pharoensis Theobald were investigated using the light and electron microscopy. The generative organs consist of a pair of polytrophic ovaries (OV), which are oblong, spindle-shaped bodies, lying dorsolaterally and occupying the region from the mid-fifth to the mid-sixth abdominal segment in the fourth larval instar, while in the pupal stage, each ovary (OV) is situated in the haemocoel of the sixth abdominal segment. It is an oblong body slightly larger in diameter; the lumen of the calyx becomes wider and central, and the pedicel (P) consists of one row of compact discoidal cells; meanwhile, in the fourth larval instar, the pedicel is without a lumen and consists of two rows of discoidal cells which are arranged as a short column between the follicle and calyx. The mean volume of the follicle in the fourth larval instar is 9.078??3.0178?m(3), meanwhile in the pupal stage being 12.051??2.427?m(3). The germarium (G) decreases in size in the pupal stage and contains a group of cells from which the oogonia differentiate, follicular cells which are similar to trophocytes, undifferentiated into one oocyte (O), which will develop into an egg and it is statistically the smallest one measured (0.058??0.0041?m(3), 0.303??0.0086?m(3)) in fourth larval instar and pupal stage, respectively as compared to the others within the follicle which will be accompanied as nurse cells (NC). The follicle is enclosed by a mononuclear flattened cells (follicular membrane), which have distinct boundaries. The vitellarium is differentiated into primary (F1) and secondary follicles (F2) in the pupal stage. The Golgi apparatus (GA) appears as discrete bits which are restricted to the perinuclear zone. The mitochondria (M) in the fourth larval instar are in the form of granules and short rods. They are perinuclearly distributed, forming a ring that surrounds the comparatively large nucleus. In the pupal stage, a similar condition to that described for the larva is observed, but with an increase in size and numbers, due to breaking up of rods into granules. PMID:25241910

Yamany, Abeer S; Adham, Fatma K; Mehlhorn, Heinz

2014-11-01

142

Collagen-binding protein, Aegyptin, regulates probing time and blood feeding success in the dengue vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti  

PubMed Central

Mosquito salivary glands have important roles in blood feeding and pathogen transmission. However, the biological relevance of many salivary components has yet to be determined. Aegyptin, a secreted salivary protein from Aedes aegypti, binds collagen and inhibits platelet aggregation and adhesion. We used a transgenic approach to study the relevance of Aegyptin in mosquito blood feeding. Aedes aegypti manipulated genetically to express gene-specific inverted-repeat RNA sequences exhibited significant reductions in Aegyptin mRNA accumulation (8587%) and protein levels (>80-fold) in female mosquito salivary glands. Transgenic mosquitoes had longer probing times (78300 s, P < 0.0001) when feeding on mice compared with controls (1556 s), feeding success was reduced, and those feeding took smaller blood meals. However, no differences in feeding success or blood meal size were found in membrane feeding experiments using defibrinated human blood. Salivary gland extracts from transgenic mosquitoes failed to inhibit collagen-induced platelet aggregation in vitro. Reductions of Aegyptin did not affect salivary ADP-induced platelet aggregation inhibition or disturb anticlotting activities. Our results demonstrate the relevance of Aegyptin for A. aegypti blood feeding, providing further support for the hypothesis that platelet aggregation inhibition is a vital salivary function in blood feeding arthropods. It has been suggested that the multiple mosquito salivary components mediating platelet aggregation (i.e., Aegyptin, apyrase, D7) represent functional redundancy. Our findings do not support this hypothesis; instead, they indicate that multiple salivary components work synergistically and are necessary to achieve maximum blood feeding efficiency. PMID:24778255

Chagas, Andrezza Campos; Ramirez, Jose Luis; Jasinskiene, Nijole; James, Anthony A.; Ribeiro, Jose M. C.; Marinotti, Osvaldo; Calvo, Eric

2014-01-01

143

Into the environment of mosquito-borne disease: A spatial analysis of vector distribution using traditional and remotely sensed methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spatially explicit information is increasingly available for infectious disease modeling. However, such information is reluctantly or inappropriately incorporated. My dissertation research uses spatially explicit data to assess relationships between landscape and mosquito species distribution and discusses challenges regarding accurate predictive risk modeling. The goal of my research is to use remotely sensed environmental information and spatial statistical methods to better

Heidi E. Brown

2007-01-01

144

Novel tests for rapid detection of insecticide resistance in mosquito vectors. Annual report, 15 June 1986-14 June 1987  

SciTech Connect

During this project, priority was given to research on the formulation of simple diagnostic tests for the detection of organophosphate (OP) resistance in individual mosquitoes. Emphasis was placed on the mechanisms of insensitive acetycholinesterase and of detoxification of OP's by esterases.

Georghiou, G.P.

1987-07-01

145

Impact of Wolbachia on Infection with Chikungunya and Yellow Fever Viruses in the Mosquito Vector Aedes aegypti  

PubMed Central

Incidence of disease due to dengue (DENV), chikungunya (CHIKV) and yellow fever (YFV) viruses is increasing in many parts of the world. The viruses are primarily transmitted by Aedes aegypti, a highly domesticated mosquito species that is notoriously difficult to control. When transinfected into Ae. aegypti, the intracellular bacterium Wolbachia has recently been shown to inhibit replication of DENVs, CHIKV, malaria parasites and filarial nematodes, providing a potentially powerful biocontrol strategy for human pathogens. Because the extent of pathogen reduction can be influenced by the strain of bacterium, we examined whether the wMel strain of Wolbachia influenced CHIKV and YFV infection in Ae. aegypti. Following exposure to viremic blood meals, CHIKV infection and dissemination rates were significantly reduced in mosquitoes with the wMel strain of Wolbachia compared to Wolbachia-uninfected controls. However, similar rates of infection and dissemination were observed in wMel infected and non-infected Ae. aegypti when intrathoracic inoculation was used to deliver virus. YFV infection, dissemination and replication were similar in wMel-infected and control mosquitoes following intrathoracic inoculations. In contrast, mosquitoes with the wMelPop strain of Wolbachia showed at least a 104 times reduction in YFV RNA copies compared to controls. The extent of reduction in virus infection depended on Wolbachia strain, titer and strain of the virus, and mode of exposure. Although originally proposed for dengue biocontrol, our results indicate a Wolbachia-based strategy also holds considerable promise for YFV and CHIKV suppression. PMID:23133693

van den Hurk, Andrew F.; Hall-Mendelin, Sonja; Pyke, Alyssa T.; Frentiu, Francesca D.; McElroy, Kate; Day, Andrew; Higgs, Stephen; O'Neill, Scott L.

2012-01-01

146

An affordable, quality-assured community-based system for high-resolution entomological surveillance of vector mosquitoes that reflects human malaria infection risk patterns  

PubMed Central

Background More sensitive and scalable entomological surveillance tools are required to monitor low levels of transmission that are increasingly common across the tropics, particularly where vector control has been successful. A large-scale larviciding programme in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania is supported by a community-based (CB) system for trapping adult mosquito densities to monitor programme performance. Methodology An intensive and extensive CB system for routine, longitudinal, programmatic surveillance of malaria vectors and other mosquitoes using the Ifakara Tent Trap (ITT-C) was developed in Urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, and validated by comparison with quality assurance (QA) surveys using either ITT-C or human landing catches (HLC), as well as a cross-sectional survey of malaria parasite prevalence in the same housing compounds. Results Community-based ITT-C had much lower sensitivity per person-night of sampling than HLC (Relative Rate (RR) [95% Confidence Interval (CI)]?=?0.079 [0.051, 0.121], P?vectors caught) and cost-effective (153US$ versus 187US$ per An. gambiae caught) because it allowed more spatially extensive and temporally intensive sampling (4284 versus 335 trap nights distributed over 615 versus 240 locations with a mean number of samples per year of 143 versus 141). Despite the very low vectors densities (Annual estimate of about 170 An gambiae s.l bites per person per year), CB-ITT was the only entomological predictor of parasite infection risk (Odds Ratio [95% CI]?=?4.43[3.027,7. 454] per An. gambiae or Anopheles funestus caught per night, P =0.0373). Discussion and conclusion CB trapping approaches could be improved with more sensitive traps, but already offer a practical, safe and affordable system for routine programmatic mosquito surveillance and clusters could be distributed across entire countries by adapting the sample submission and quality assurance procedures accordingly. PMID:22624853

2012-01-01

147

Evolutionary and dispersal history of Triatoma infestans, main vector of Chagas disease, by chromosomal markers.  

PubMed

Chagas disease, one of the most important vector-borne diseases in the Americas, is caused by Trypanosoma cruzi and transmitted to humans by insects of the subfamily Triatominae. An effective control of this disease depends on elimination of vectors through spraying with insecticides. Genetic research can help insect control programs by identifying and characterizing vector populations. In southern Latin America, Triatoma infestans is the main vector and presents two distinct lineages, known as Andean and non-Andean chromosomal groups, that are highly differentiated by the amount of heterochromatin and genome size. Analyses with nuclear and mitochondrial sequences are not conclusive about resolving the origin and spread of T. infestans. The present paper includes the analyses of karyotypes, heterochromatin distribution and chromosomal mapping of the major ribosomal cluster (45S rDNA) to specimens throughout the distribution range of this species, including pyrethroid-resistant populations. A total of 417 specimens from seven different countries were analyzed. We show an unusual wide rDNA variability related to number and chromosomal position of the ribosomal genes, never before reported in species with holocentric chromosomes. Considering the chromosomal groups previously described, the ribosomal patterns are associated with a particular geographic distribution. Our results reveal that the differentiation process between both T. infestans chromosomal groups has involved significant genomic reorganization of essential coding sequences, besides the changes in heterochromatin and genomic size previously reported. The chromosomal markers also allowed us to detect the existence of a hybrid zone occupied by individuals derived from crosses between both chromosomal groups. Our genetic studies support the hypothesis of an Andean origin for T. infestans, and suggest that pyrethroid-resistant populations from the Argentinean-Bolivian border are most likely the result of recent secondary contact between both lineages. We suggest that vector control programs should make a greater effort in the entomological surveillance of those regions with both chromosomal groups to avoid rapid emergence of resistant individuals. PMID:25017654

Panzera, Francisco; Ferreiro, Mara J; Pita, Sebastin; Calleros, Luca; Prez, Ruben; Basmadjin, Yester; Guevara, Yenny; Brenire, Simone Frdrique; Panzera, Yanina

2014-10-01

148

Wash resistance and bioefficacy of Olyset net--a long-lasting insecticide-treated mosquito net against malaria vectors and nontarget household pests.  

PubMed

During recent years, long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) have been developed to overcome the problems of low retreatment rates, washing, and erratic dose of the insecticide resulting in the dilution of efficacy of the conventional insecticide-treated mosquito nets. These nets are treated at factory level with insecticide either incorporated into or coated around fibers. Olyset net, a polyethylene net with 2% permethrin incorporated within fibers, is one type of LLIN. Therefore, these nets were evaluated for their wash resistance and bioefficacy against malaria vectors Anopheles culicifacies Giles and Anopheles fluviatilis James (Diptera: Culicidae) and other nontarget species. Cone bioassay tests produced 100% mortality in these two vector species with 3-min exposure. Results of the bioassays on washed nets showed 100% mortality in An. fluviatilis even after 20 washings, whereas in An. culicifacies 100% mortality up to 11 washings and 80% mortality up to 20 washings were observed. Cone bioassay tests also were performed on nontarget mosquito species Culex quinquefasciatus Say; house fly, Musca domestica L.; American cockroach, Periplaneta americana (L.); head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer; and bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. with 30-min exposure. Except for bed bugs, 100% mortality was observed in these nontarget species after 24-h recovery period. In bed bugs, only 25% mortality was observed. The density of An. culicifacies and An. fluviatilis was significantly reduced in houses with Olyset nets compared with those with untreated nets or no nets. Thus, it may be concluded that Olyset nets are highly effective against malaria vectors and moderately against other nontarget household insects. PMID:17017224

Sharma, S K; Upadhyay, A K; Haque, M A; Padhan, K; Tyagi, P K; Ansari, M A; Dash, A P

2006-09-01

149

Mosquito surveillance for prevention and control of emerging mosquito-borne diseases in portugal - 2008-2014.  

PubMed

Mosquito surveillance in Europe is essential for early detection of invasive species with public health importance and prevention and control of emerging pathogens. In Portugal, a vector surveillance national program-REVIVE (REde de VIgilncia de VEctores)-has been operating since 2008 under the custody of Portuguese Ministry of Health. The REVIVE is responsible for the nationwide surveillance of hematophagous arthropods. Surveillance for West Nile virus (WNV) and other flaviviruses in adult mosquitoes is continuously performed. Adult mosquitoes-collected mainly with Centre for Disease Control light traps baited with CO2-and larvae were systematically collected from a wide range of habitats in 20 subregions (NUTS III). Around 500,000 mosquitoes were trapped in more than 3,000 trap nights and 3,500 positive larvae surveys, in which 24 species were recorded. The viral activity detected in mosquito populations in these years has been limited to insect specific flaviviruses (ISFs) non-pathogenic to humans. Rather than emergency response, REVIVE allows timely detection of changes in abundance and species diversity providing valuable knowledge to health authorities, which may take control measures of vector populations reducing its impact on public health. This work aims to present the REVIVE operation and to expose data regarding mosquito species composition and detected ISFs. PMID:25396768

Osrio, Hugo C; Z-Z, Lbia; Amaro, Ftima; Alves, Maria J

2014-01-01

150

Laboratory evaluation of traditional insect\\/mosquito repellent plants against Anopheles arabiensis, the predominant malaria vector in Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory study was carried out to evaluate the repellent efficiency of most commonly known four traditional insect\\/mosquito\\u000a repellent plants Wogert [vernacular name (local native language, Amharic); Silene macroserene], Kebercho [vernacular name (local native language, Amharic); Echinops sp.], Tinjut [vernacular name (local native language, Amharic); Ostostegia integrifolia], and Woira[vernacular name (local native language, Amharic); Olea europaea] against Anopheles arabiensis under the

Kaliyaperumal Karunamoorthi; Adane Mulelam; Fentahun Wassie

2008-01-01

151

Using a new odour-baited device to explore options for luring and killing outdoor-biting malaria vectors: a report on design and field evaluation of the Mosquito Landing Box  

PubMed Central

Background Mosquitoes that bite people outdoors can sustain malaria transmission even where effective indoor interventions such as bednets or indoor residual spraying are already widely used. Outdoor tools may therefore complement current indoor measures and improve control. We developed and evaluated a prototype mosquito control device, the Mosquito Landing Box (MLB), which is baited with human odours and treated with mosquitocidal agents. The findings are used to explore technical options and challenges relevant to luring and killing outdoor-biting malaria vectors in endemic settings. Methods Field experiments were conducted in Tanzania to assess if wild host-seeking mosquitoes 1) visited the MLBs, 2) stayed long or left shortly after arrival at the device, 3) visited the devices at times when humans were also outdoors, and 4) could be killed by contaminants applied on the devices. Odours suctioned from volunteer-occupied tents were also evaluated as a potential low-cost bait, by comparing baited and unbaited MLBs. Results There were significantly more Anopheles arabiensis, An. funestus, Culex and Mansonia mosquitoes visiting baited MLB than unbaited controls (P?0.028). Increasing sampling frequency from every 120 min to 60 and 30 min led to an increase in vector catches of up to 3.6 fold (P?0.002), indicating that many mosquitoes visited the device but left shortly afterwards. Outdoor host-seeking activity of malaria vectors peaked between 7:30 and 10:30pm, and between 4:30 and 6:00am, matching durations when locals were also outdoors. Maximum mortality of mosquitoes visiting MLBs sprayed or painted with formulations of candidate mosquitocidal agent (pirimiphos-methyl) was 51%. Odours from volunteer occupied tents attracted significantly more mosquitoes to MLBs than controls (P<0.001). Conclusion While odour-baited devices such as the MLBs clearly have potential against outdoor-biting mosquitoes in communities where LLINs are used, candidate contaminants must be those that are effective at ultra-low doses even after short contact periods, since important vector species such as An. arabiensis make only brief visits to such devices. Natural human odours suctioned from occupied dwellings could constitute affordable sources of attractants to supplement odour baits for the devices. The killing agents used should be environmentally safe, long lasting, and have different modes of action (other than pyrethroids as used on LLINs), to curb the risk of physiological insecticide resistance. PMID:23642306

2013-01-01

152

Avian host and mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) vector competence determine the efficiency of West Nile and St. Louis encephalitis virus transmission.  

PubMed

The ability of the invading NY99 strain of West Nile virus (WNV) to elicit an elevated viremia response in California passerine birds was critical for the effective infection of Culex mosquitoes. Of the bird species tested, Western scrub jays, Aphelocoma coerulescens, produced the highest viremia response, followed by house finches, Carpodacus mexicanus, and house sparrows, Passer domesticus. Most likely, few mourning, Zenaidura macroura, or common ground, Columbina passerine, doves and no California quail, Callipepla californica, or chickens would infect blood-feeding Culex mosquitoes. All Western scrub jays and most house finches succumbed to infection. All avian hosts produced a lower viremia response and survived after infection with an endemic strain of St. Louis encephalitis virus. Culex species varied in their susceptibility to infection with both viruses, with Culex stigmatosoma Dyar generally most susceptible, followed by Culex tarsalis Coquillett, and then Culex p. quinquefasciatus Say. Populations within Culex species varied markedly in their susceptibility, perhaps contributing to the focality of WNV amplification. Transmitting female Cx. tarsalis expectorated from six to 3,777 plaque-forming units (PFU) of WNV during transmission trials, thereby exposing avian hosts to a wide range of infectious doses. Highly susceptible house finches and moderately susceptible mourning doves were infected by subcutaneous inoculation with decreasing concentrations of WNV ranging from 15,800 to <0.3 PFU. All birds became infected and produced comparable peak viremias on days 2-3 postinoculation; however, the rise in viremia titer and onset of the acute phase of infection occurred earliest in birds inoculated with the highest doses. WNV virulence in birds seemed critical in establishing elevated viremias necessary to efficiently infect blood feeding Culex mosquitoes. PMID:15962789

Reisen, W K; Fang, Y; Martinez, V M

2005-05-01

153

INSECTICIDES RECOMMENDED FOR MOSQUITO CONTROL IN  

E-print Network

1 INSECTICIDES RECOMMENDED FOR MOSQUITO CONTROL IN NEW JERSEY IN 2012 L. B. Brattsten, Professor and proprietary examples APPENDIX: Best Management Practices for Mosquito Control in New Jersey New Jersey mosquito control commissions and agencies responsible for reducing the populations of nuisance and vector

Wang, Changlu

154

[Research progress on malaria vector control].  

PubMed

Vector control plays a crucial role in the stages of malaria control and elimination. Currently, it mainly relies on the chemical control methods for adult mosquitoes in malaria endemic areas, however, it is undergoing the serious threat by insecticide resistance. In recent years, the transgenic technologies of malaria vectors have made a great progress in the laboratory. This paper reviews the challenges of the traditional methods and the rapid developed genetic modified technology in the application of vector control. PMID:24024458

Zhu, Guo-Ding; Cao, Jun; Zhou, Hua-Yun; Gao, Qi

2013-06-01

155

Vector competence of mosquitoes (Diptera:Culicidae) from Massachusetts for a sympatric isolate of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus.  

PubMed

We tested susceptibility to per os infection and potential salivary transmission for eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE) virus in Aedes canadensis (Theobald), Aedes vexans (Meigen), Anopheles quadrimaculatus (Say), Anopheles punctipennis (Say), Coquillettidia perturbans (Walker), and Culex salinarius (Coquillett). Culiseta melanura (Coquillett), the documented enzootic vector of EEE virus, was our control. Based on these estimates of laboratory vector competence and other behavioral and ecological components of vectorial capacity, we ranked these 6 species from the most to least probable epidemic vectors: Cx. salinarius, An. quadrimaculatus, Ae. canadensis, Cq. perturbans, Ae. vexans, and An. punctipennis. PMID:9151501

Vaidyanathan, R; Edman, J D; Cooper, L A; Scott, T W

1997-05-01

156

Flight height preference for oviposition of mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) vectors of sylvatic yellow fever virus near the hydroelectric reservoir of Simplcio, Minas Gerais, Brazil.  

PubMed

In this study, the oviposition behavior of mosquito species exhibiting acrodendrophilic habits was investigated. The study was conducted near the Simplicio Hydroelectic Reservoir (SHR) located on the border of the states of Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Samples were collected using oviposition traps installed in forest vegetation cover between 1.70 and 4.30 m above ground level during the months of April, June, August, October, and December of 2011. Haemagogus janthinomys (Dyar), Haemagogus leucocelaenus (Dyar and Shannon), Aedes albopictus (Skuse), and Aedes terrens (Walker) specimens were present among the collected samples, the first two of which being proven vectors of sylvatic yellow fever (SYF) in Brazil and the latter is a vector of dengue in mainland Asia. As the data set was zero-inflated, a specific Poisson-based model was used for the statistical analysis. When all four species were considered in the model, only heights used for egg laying and months of sampling were explaining the distribution. However, grouping the species under the genera Haemagogus Williston and Aedes Meigen showed a significant preference for higher traps of the former. Considering the local working population of SHR is very large, fluctuating, and potentially exposed to SYF, and that this virus occurs in almost all Brazilian states, monitoring of Culicidae in Brazil is essential for assessing the risk of transmission of this arbovirus. PMID:23926776

Alencar, Jeronimo; Morone, Fernanda; De Mello, Ceclia Ferreira; Dgallier, Nicolas; Lucio, Paulo Srgio; de Serra-Freire, Nicolau Maus; Guimares, Anthony Erico

2013-07-01

157

The key breeding sites by pupal survey for dengue mosquito vectors, Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse), in Guba, Cebu City, Philippines.  

PubMed

We conducted this study to assess how well a pupal survey of dengue mosquito vectors, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, is able to target the most productive breeding sites. The study was carried out monthly during the rainy season (8 months) in 2008 in Cuba, Cebu City, Philippines. The hypotheses tested were: 1) most pupae of Ae. aegypti or Ae. albopictus were produced in a few types of breeding sites and 2) the most productive types of breeding sites for each species were the most abundant. Approximately 2,500 pupae were collected from 554 breeding sites in 279 houses. Thirty-eight point four percent of ten types of breeding sites were positive for Ae. aegypti, and 11.9% of nine types of sites were positive for Ae. albopictus. Plastic drums (40.2%), metal drums (29.6%), and plastic containers (10.5%) were the key sites for Ae. aegypti pupae, whereas bamboo stumps (28.5%), plastic drums (21.1%), and rubber tires (19.1%) were the key sites for Ae. albopictus. The most productive breeding sites for Ae. aegypti were common but not the most common for Ae. albopictus. These results are relevant for dengue vector control programs. PMID:23413699

Edillo, Frances E; Roble, Noel D; Otero, Nenito D

2012-11-01

158

Novel tests for rapid detection of insecticide resistance in mosquito vectors. Final report, 15 June 1985-31 January 1989  

SciTech Connect

This project is concerned with the formulation of novel diagnostic tests for the detection of organophosphate (OP) resistance in individual mosquitoes. Emphasis was placed on the mechanisms of detoxification by esterases and of insensitive acetycholinesterase. Seven diagnostic tests have resulted from this research to date. Five concern esterases, and two insensitive acetylcholinesterase. An eighth procedure concerns the qualification of proteins in single insects and is used in conjunction with other tests to account for variations in the size of the test insect. Three of the tests developed for esterases (FP/Est, NC/Est and MT/Est) utilize the ability of these enzymes to hydrolyze naphthyl acetate, and two (Dot-Blot/Est and ELISA/Est) involve immunological reactions. The tests for insensitive acetylcholinesterase (NC/AChE and MT/AChE) utilize the differences in inhibitory properties of insecticides on insensitive and normal enzymes.

Georghiou, G.P.

1989-01-31

159

Aedes Mosquito Saliva Modulates Rift Valley Fever Virus Pathogenicity  

E-print Network

Aedes Mosquito Saliva Modulates Rift Valley Fever Virus Pathogenicity Alain Le Coupanec1 , Divya) is a severe mosquito-borne disease affecting humans and domestic ruminants. Mosquito saliva contains compounds responses may facilitate virus infection. Indeed, Aedes mosquito saliva played a crucial role in the vector

Boyer, Edmond

160

Malaria-induced changes in host odors enhance mosquito attraction  

E-print Network

Malaria-induced changes in host odors enhance mosquito attraction Consuelo M. De Moraesa,b , Nina M has reported enhanced mosquito attraction to host organisms infected with malaria parasites but did as effects on the attractiveness of infected hosts to mosquito vectors. We observed enhanced mosquito

Read, Andrew

161

Biology of mosquitoes that are potential vectors of Rift Valley Fever virus in different biotopes of the central highlands of Madagascar.  

PubMed

There were epidemic-epizootics of Rift Valley Fever (RVF) affecting humans and cattle in Madagascar in the district of Anjozorobe in 2008. Little is known about the role of Malagasy mosquitoes in the circulation of RVF virus. Therefore, we investigated the species diversity, dynamics and biology of potential RVF virus vectors in the rainforest, rainforest edge (village of Anorana), and savanna biotope (village of Antanifotsy) of this district between November 2008 and July 2010. We captured 56,605 adults of 35 different species. Anopheles squamosus (Theobald), Anopheles coustani (Laveran), Culex antennatus (Becker), Culex pipiens (L.), and Culex univittatus (Theobald) were the most abundant during the rainy season with Cx. pipiens the most abundant species in the rainforest (47%), and An. squamosus the most abundant species in the rainforest edge and in the savanna biotope (56%, 60%, respectively). Only Cx. univittatus was abundant in the dry season. The parous rate was > 60% throughout the rainy season for An. squamosus and it was > 50% from the middle to the end of the rainy season for Cx. pipiens. Two additional species have been found only at larval stage. Cattle were the most attractive bait for all species, followed by sheep and poultry. Human was the least attractive for all species. Most of the 163 bloodmeals tested were taken from cattle. Three were from poultry, one was from dog and one was a mixed bloodmeal taken from sheep and cattle. These results on vectorial capacity parameters may allow considering the involvement of mosquito transmission of the virus in the district of Anjozorobe during the recent epidemic-epizootic. PMID:23802456

Tantely, Michal Luciano; Rakotoniaina, Jean-Claude; Tata, Etienne; Andrianaivolambo, Lala; Razafindrasata, Fidimanana; Fontenille, Didier; Elissa, Nohal

2013-05-01

162

Participatory mapping of target areas to enable operational larval source management to suppress malaria vector mosquitoes in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Half of the population of Africa will soon live in towns and cities where it can be protected from malaria by controlling aquatic stages of mosquitoes. Rigorous but affordable and scaleable methods for mapping and managing mosquito habitats are required to enable effective larval control in urban Africa. Methods A simple community-based mapping procedure that requires no electronic devices in the field was developed to facilitate routine larval surveillance in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The mapping procedure included (1) community-based development of sketch maps and (2) verification of sketch maps through technical teams using laminated aerial photographs in the field which were later digitized and analysed using Geographical Information Systems (GIS). Results Three urban wards of Dar es Salaam were comprehensively mapped, covering an area of 16.8 km2. Over thirty percent of this area were not included in preliminary community-based sketch mapping, mostly because they were areas that do not appear on local government residential lists. The use of aerial photographs and basic GIS allowed rapid identification and inclusion of these key areas, as well as more equal distribution of the workload of malaria control field staff. Conclusion The procedure developed enables complete coverage of targeted areas with larval control through comprehensive spatial coverage with community-derived sketch maps. The procedure is practical, affordable, and requires minimal technical skills. This approach can be readily integrated into malaria vector control programmes, scaled up to towns and cities all over Tanzania and adapted to urban settings elsewhere in Africa. PMID:17784963

Dongus, Stefan; Nyika, Dickson; Kannady, Khadija; Mtasiwa, Deo; Mshinda, Hassan; Fillinger, Ulrike; Drescher, Axel W; Tanner, Marcel; Castro, Marcia C; Killeen, Gerry F

2007-01-01

163

Larvicidal potential of wild mustard (Cleome viscosa) and gokhru (Tribulus terrestris) against mosquito vectors in the semi-arid region of Western Rajasthan.  

PubMed

Cleome viscosa L. (Family: Capparaceae) commonly known as Tickweed or wild mustard and Tribulus terrestris L. (Family: Zygophyllaceae) commonly known as Gokhru, growing wildly in the desert areas in the monsoon and post monsoon season, are of great medicinal importance. Comparative larvicidal efficacy of the extracts from seeds of C. viscosa and fruits and leaves of T. terrestris was evaluated against 3rd or early 4th stage larvae of Anopheles stephensi (Liston), Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) in different organic solvents. 24 and 48 hr LC50 and LC90 values along with their 95% fiducial limits, regression equation, chi-square (chi2)/ heterogeneity of the response was determined by log probit regression analysis. The 24 hr LC50 values as determined for seeds of C. viscosa were 144.1, 99.5 and 127.1 (methanol); 106.3, 138.9 and 118.5 (acetone) and 166.4, 162.5 and 301.9 mg l(-1) (petroleum ether extracts) for all the three mosquito species respectively showing that methanol and acetone extracts were a little bit more effective than the petroleum ether extracts. Experiments were carried out with fruits and leaves of T. terrestris with all the solvents and mosquito species. The 24 hr LC50 values, as determined for fruits of T. terrestris were 70.8, 103.4 and 268.2 (methanol); 74.0,120.5 and 132.0 (acetone) and 73.8,113.5 and 137.4 mg l(-1) (petroleum ether extracts) while the 24 hr LC50 values for leaves were 124.3, 196.8 and 246.5 (methanol); 163.4, 196.9 and 224.3 (acetone) and 135.8, 176.8 and 185.9 mg l(-1) (petroleum ether extracts) for all the three mosquito species respectively. The results clearly indicate that fruit extracts of T. terrestris were more effective as compared to leaves extracts in the three solvents tested. Larvae of An. stephensi were found more sensitive to both fruit and leaves extracts of T. terrestris followed by larvae of Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus. Extracts from the seeds of C. viscosa were found less effective as compared to the fruit extracts of T. terrestris indicating that active larvicidal principle may be present in the fruits of this plant species. The studywould be of great importance while formulating the control strategy, for vectors of malaria, dengue and lymphatic filariasis, based on alternative plant based insecticides in this semi-arid region. PMID:24665757

Bansal, S K; Singh, Karam V; Sharma, Sapna

2014-03-01

164

Mosquitos and You! Mosquito Control and Prevention  

E-print Network

Mosquitos and You! Mosquito Control and Prevention Teacher's Guide State of Florida Science Produced by Volusia County Health Department #12;Mosquitos and You! Mosquito Control and Prevention Training & Development Team Volusia County Health Department Jonas Stewart Mosquito Control Director

165

Changes in species richness and spatial distribution of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) inferred from museum specimen records and a recent inventory: a case study from Belgium suggests recent expanded distribution of arbovirus and malaria vectors.  

PubMed

Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) distribution data from a recent inventory of native and invading mosquito species in Belgium were compared with historical data from the period 1900-1960 that were retrieved from a revision of the Belgian Culicidae collection at the Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences. Both data sets were used to investigate trends in mosquito species richness in several regions in Belgium. The relative change in distribution area of mosquito species was particularly important for species that use waste waters and used tires as larval habitats and species that recently shifted their larval habitat to artificial larval habitats. More importantly, several of these species are known as vectors of arboviruses and Plasmodium sp. and the apparent habitat shift of some of them brought these species in proximity to humans. Similar studies comparing current mosquito richness with former distribution data retrieved from voucher specimens from collections is therefore encouraged because they can generate important information concerning health risk assessment at both regional and national scale. PMID:23540109

Dekoninck, W; Hendrickx, F; Versteirt, V; Coosemans, M; De Clercq, E M; Hendrickx, G; Hance, T; Grootaert, P

2013-03-01

166

Identification of chemical constituents and larvicidal activity of Kelussia odoratissima Mozaffarian essential oil against two mosquito vectors Anopheles stephensi and Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae).  

PubMed

The larvicidal activity of essential oil extracted from an indigenous plant, Kelussia odoratissima Mozaffarian was evaluated against two mosquito species, Anopheles stephensi and Culex pipiens. The chemical composition of the essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation from branch tips and leaf of this plant was determined by GC and GC/MS analysis. Forty-nine constituents were identified in the oil. The main constituents of the oil were Z-ligustilide (77.73%), 2-octen-1-ol acetate (6.27%), E-ligustilide (2.27%) and butylidene phthalide (1.97%). Five different logarithmic concentrations of essential oil were evaluated against the 4th instar larvae of An. Stephensi and Cx. pipiens. The LC(50) and LC(90) values against An. stephensi larvae were 4.88 and 9.60 ppm and for Cx. pipiens were 2.69 and 7.90 ppm, respectively. These properties suggest that K. odoratissima oil has potential source of valuable larvicidal compounds for mosquito larval control. This plant which causes high mortality at lower dose could be considered as a highly active plant. In this paper a guideline suggested for larvicidal activity of plant essential oils. PMID:23022522

Vatandoost, H; Sanei Dehkordi, A; Sadeghi, S M T; Davari, B; Karimian, F; Abai, M R; Sedaghat, M M

2012-12-01

167

Spatio-temporal Modeling of Mosquito Distribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider a quasilinear parabolic system to model mosquito displacement. In order to use efficiently vector control tools, like insecticides, and mechanical control, it is necessary to provide density estimates of mosquito populations, taking into account the environment and entomological knowledges. After a brief introduction to mosquito dispersal modeling, we present some theoretical results. Then, considering a compartmental approach, we get a quasilinear system of PDEs. Using the time splitting approach and appropriate numerical methods for each operator, we construct a reliable numerical scheme. Considering vector control scenarii, we show that the environment can have a strong influence on mosquito distribution and in the efficiency of vector control tools.

Dumont, Y.; Dufourd, C.

2011-11-01

168

A review of recent knowledge of the ecology of the main vectors of trypanosomiasis*  

PubMed Central

In this survey of recent ecological research on the main vectors of trypanosomiasis in those countries of East, Central and West Africa that are not predominantly French-speaking, the authors, after outlining the distribution of tsetse flies and the type of country in which they occur, discuss the direct and indirect effects of climate on these insectsparticularly on their physiological water balance and on pupal fat reservesand their recent advances into new areas. They review the considerable work that has been done on the resting habits and breeding-sites of different Glossina species, knowledge of which is important for effective control, and research on predators of pupae and adult flies and on the feeding activity of tsetse flies. Means of assessing populations and various factors affecting the size and nutritional status of tsetse flies are also discussed, as is the effect on the fly population of artificial changes in the habitat. Finally, a plea is made for a revision of present methods of land use and stock management, if full advantage is to be taken of achievements in fly control. PMID:13928678

Langridge, W. P.; Kernaghan, R. J.; Glover, P. E.

1963-01-01

169

Larvicidal activity of selected plant hydrodistillate extracts against the house mosquito, Culex pipiens , a West Nile virus vector  

Microsoft Academic Search

The larvicidal activity of hydrodistillate extracts from Chrysanthemum coronarium L., Hypericum scabrum L., Pistacia terebinthus L. subsp. palaestina (Boiss.) Engler, and Vitex agnus castus L. was investigated against the West Nile vector, Culex pipiens L. (Diptera: Culicidae). Yield and identification of the major essential oils from each distillation was determined by GC-MS\\u000a analyses. The major essential oil component for each

Huseyin Cetin; Atila Yanikoglu; James E. Cilek

2011-01-01

170

Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of Blumea densiflora essential oils against Anopheles anthropophagus : a malarial vector mosquito  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blumea densiflora, an edible and medicinal plant, is chiefly distributed in Southeast Asia and South Asia. Essential oils extracted by steam\\u000a distillation from B. densiflora were investigated for their chemical composition and larvicidal activity against Anopheles anthropophagus, the primary vector of malaria in China and other East Asian countries. Totally, 46 compounds were identified by gas chromatography\\u000a and mass spectroscopy.

Liang Zhu; Yingjuan Tian

171

Hidden Sylvatic Foci of the Main Vector of Chagas Disease Triatoma infestans: Threats to the Vector Elimination Campaign?  

PubMed Central

Background Establishing the sources of reinfestation after residual insecticide spraying is crucial for vector elimination programs. Triatoma infestans, traditionally considered to be limited to domestic or peridomestic (abbreviated as D/PD) habitats throughout most of its range, is the target of an elimination program that has achieved limited success in the Gran Chaco region in South America. Methodology/Principal Findings During a two-year period we conducted semi-annual searches for triatomine bugs in every D/PD site and surrounding sylvatic habitats after full-coverage spraying of pyrethroid insecticides of all houses in a well-defined rural area in northwestern Argentina. We found six low-density sylvatic foci with 24 T. infestans in fallen or standing trees located 1102,300 m from the nearest house or infested D/PD site detected after insecticide spraying, when house infestations were rare. Analysis of two mitochondrial gene fragments of 20 sylvatic specimens confirmed their species identity as T. infestans and showed that their composite haplotypes were the same as or closely related to D/PD haplotypes. Population studies with 10 polymorphic microsatellite loci and wing geometric morphometry consistently indicated the occurrence of unrestricted gene flow between local D/PD and sylvatic populations. Mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite sibship analyses in the most abundant sylvatic colony revealed descendents from five different females. Spatial analysis showed a significant association between two sylvatic foci and the nearest D/PD bug population found before insecticide spraying. Conclusions Our study shows that, despite of its high degree of domesticity, T. infestans has sylvatic colonies with normal chromatic characters (not melanic morphs) highly connected to D/PD conspecifics in the Argentinean Chaco. Sylvatic habitats may provide a transient or permanent refuge after control interventions, and function as sources for D/PD reinfestation. The occurrence of sylvatic foci of T. infestans in the Gran Chaco may pose additional threats to ongoing vector elimination efforts. PMID:22039559

Schachter-Broide, Judith; Dujardin, Jean-Pierre; Dotson, Ellen M.; Kitron, Uriel; Gurtler, Ricardo E.

2011-01-01

172

Source Reduction Behavior as an Independent Measurement of the Impact of a Public Health Education Campaign in an Integrated Vector Management Program for the Asian Tiger Mosquito  

PubMed Central

The goal of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a public health educational campaign to reduce backyard mosquito-larval habitats. Three communities each, within two New Jersey counties, were randomly selected to receive: (1) both education and mosquito control, (2) education only, and (3) no education or mosquito control. Four separate educational events included a 5-day elementary school curriculum in the spring, and three door to door distributions of educational brochures. Before and after each educational event, the numbers of mosquito-larval container habitats were counted in 50 randomly selected homes per study area. Container surveys allowed us to measure source reduction behavior. Although we saw reductions in container habitats in sites receiving education, they were not significantly different from the control. Our results suggest that traditional passive means of public education, which were often considered the gold standard for mosquito control programs, are not sufficient to motivate residents to reduce backyard mosquito-larval habitats. PMID:21655124

Bartlett-Healy, Kristen; Hamilton, George; Healy, Sean; Crepeau, Taryn; Unlu, Isik; Farajollahi, Ary; Fonseca, Dina; Gaugler, Randy; Clark, Gary G.; Strickman, Daniel

2011-01-01

173

Impact of larviciding with a Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis formulation, VectoBac WG, on dengue mosquito vectors in a dengue endemic site in Selangor State, Malaysia.  

PubMed

The field bioefficacy of a wettable granule (WG) formulation of Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti), VectoBac WG (Bti strain AM65-52) against dengue vectors, Aedes aegypti and Ae albopictus; was evaluated in a suburban residential area (TST) and in a temporary settlement site (KB) in the state of Selangor, Malaysia. Pre-control ovitrap surveillance of the trial sites indicated a high population of both types of Aedes mosquitoes. The populations were monitored continuously by weekly ovitrapping. Bti was sprayed biweekly at a dosage of 500 g/ha by using a mist-blower. The spray application was targeted into outdoor larval habitats. If required, Bti formulation was also applied directly into indoor water-holding containers at 8 g/1,000 l. Based on ovitrap surveillance, a significant reduction in Aedes populations was evident 4 weeks after initiating the first Bti treatment. The ovitrap index (OI) and the larvae density decreased drastically in both trial sites. In TST, the indoor OI was significantly reduced from 57.50 +/- 7.50% to 19.13 +/- 5.49% (p<0.05), while the outdoor OI decreased from 38.89 +/- 11.11% to 15.36 +/- 5.93%. In KB, similarly, the OI was significantly reduced by more than half, from 66.66 +/- 6.67% to 30.26 +/- 2.99% (p< 0.05). In all cases, the reduction in OI was paralleled by reduction in larval density. PMID:19058596

Lee, H L; Chen, C D; Masri, S Mohd; Chiang, Y F; Chooi, K H; Benjamin, S

2008-07-01

174

Vectors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson was created by Larry Friesen and Anne Gillis for Butler Community College. It will help physics and calculus students differentiate between the uses of vectors in mathematics vs. physics. This website provides two PDF documents that give detailed lessons about vectors, including an overview of terminology, sample problems, and an HTML worksheet is also provided. For educators or students, this site offers well laid-out lessons and/or practice with vectors.

Friesen, Larry; Gillis, Anne

2008-04-18

175

Remotely-Sensed Vegetation Indices Identify Mosquito Clusters of West Nile Virus Vectors in an Urban Landscape in the Northeastern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heterogeneity in urban landscapes can influence the effectiveness of mosquito-borne disease control. We used re- motely sensed vegetation indices to discriminate among mosquito habitats within a densely populated urban en- vironment in New Haven, CT. ASTER derived vegetation indices were identified for 16 sites where adult mos- quitoes were trapped over the summer of 2004. Canonical correlation analysis showed a

Heidi Brown; Maria Diuk-Wasser; Theodore Andreadis; Durland Fish

2008-01-01

176

Modeling Mosquito Distribution. Impact of the Landscape  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to use efficiently vector control tools, like insecticides, and mechanical control, it is necessary to provide mosquito density estimate and mosquito distribution, taking into account the environment and entomological knowledges. Mosquito dispersal modeling, together with a compartmental approach, leads to a quasilinear parabolic system. Using the time splitting approach and appropriate numerical methods for each operator, we construct a reliable numerical scheme. Considering various landscapes, we show that the environment can have a strong influence on mosquito distribution and, thus, in the efficiency or not of vector control.

Dumont, Y.

2011-09-01

177

Wetlands and mosquitoes: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review brings together information on mosquitoes, the diseases they transmit and the wetlands that provide habitats for\\u000a the immature stages (eggs and larvae). Wetland values are mentioned, though the main literature on this does not generally\\u000a overlap the mosquito issue. Mosquito management is overviewed to include: the use of larvicides, source reduction in intertidal\\u000a wetlands and management in freshwater

P. E. R. Dale; J. M. Knight

2008-01-01

178

A NEW SPECIES OF HEPATOZOON (APICOMPLEXA: ADELEORINA) FROM PYTHON REGIUS (SERPENTES: PYTHONIDAE) AND ITS EXPERIMENTAL TRANSMISSION BY A MOSQUITO VECTOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatozoon ayorgbor n. sp. is described from specimens of Python regius imported from Ghana. Gametocytes were found in the peripheral blood of 43 of 55 snakes examined. Localization of gametocytes was mainly inside the erythrocytes; free gametocytes were found in 15 (34.9%) positive specimens. Infections of laboratory-reared Culex quinquefasciatus feeding on infected snakes, as well as experimental infection of juvenile

Michal Sloboda; Martin Kamler; Jana Bulantov; Jan Votpka; David Modr

2007-01-01

179

Immature development of the malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles gambiae S.L. (Diptera: Culicidae), in relation to soil-substrate organic matter content of larval habitats in northcentral Nigeria.  

PubMed

This study elucidated the relationships between larval habitat soil-substrate Organic Matter Content (OMC) and immature development of the mosquito Anopheles gambiae S.L. Day-old larvae of the mosquito were reared in media substrated with typical soil samples (i.e., sandy, silt, clayey and loamy soils), from established anopheline breeding sites, to provide a gradient in soil-substrate OMC. The OMC of the soil samples were determined by ignition to a constant weight; while the developing A. gambiae mosquitoes in the culture media were monitored daily for survivorship and duration of immature life stages. The results indicated significant (p < 0.05) variation in OMC of the soil types (range = 11.21 +/- 2.91% in sandy to 29.83 +/- 2.96% in loamy soils). However, though Daily Larval Survival Rates (DLSR) were relatively high (range = 95.21 +/- 2.96 to 96.70 +/- 1.44%), as influenced by OMC, such values were not significantly different (p > 0.05) among the soil-substrate types; results contrary to those of Larval Success Rates (LSR) (i.e., range = 52.07 +/- 13.64 to 74.39 +/- 6.60%). Daily Pupation Rate (DPR) of the mosquitoes varied significantly among the soil-substrates, ranging from 13.87 +/- 2.39% in clayey to 25.00 +/- 4.30% in loamy substrates. Soil-substrate OMC significantly extended the Duration of Immature Life Stages (DILS) of the mosquitoes only in the sandy soil type (range = 12.76 +/- 1.74 to 15.81 +/- 2.40 days). On the whole, DILS was inversely related to soil-substrate OMC. Cross-correlational analysis revealed significant positive association among most of the variables tested. The findings of this study should serve as baseline information for the development of effective environmental management strategies for malaria larval-vector control. PMID:24171275

Olayemi, I K; Ojo, V O

2013-02-01

180

Feeding Patterns of Potential West Nile Virus Vectors in South-West Spain  

PubMed Central

Background Mosquito feeding behaviour determines the degree of vectorhost contact and may have a serious impact on the risk of West Nile virus (WNV) epidemics. Feeding behaviour also interacts with other biotic and abiotic factors that affect virus amplification and transmission. Methodology/Principal Findings We identified the origin of blood meals in five mosquito species from three different wetlands in SW Spain. All mosquito species analysed fed with different frequencies on birds, mammals and reptiles. Both mosquito species and locality explained a similar amount of variance in the occurrence of avian blood meals. However, season of year was the main factor explaining the presence of human blood meals. The differences in diet resulted in a marked spatial heterogeneity in the estimated WNV transmission risk. Culex perexiguus, Cx. modestus and Cx. pipiens were the main mosquito species involved in WNV enzootic circulation since they feed mainly on birds, were abundant in a number of localities and had high vector competence. Cx. perexiguus may also be important for WNV transmission to horses, as are Cx. pipiens and Cx. theileri in transmission to humans. Estimates of the WNV transmission risk based on mosquito diet, abundance and vector competence matched the results of previous WNV monitoring programs in the area. Our sensitivity analyses suggested that mosquito diet, followed by mosquito abundance and vector competence, are all relevant factors in understanding virus amplification and transmission risk in the studied wild ecosystems. At some of the studied localities, the risk of enzootic circulation of WNV was relatively high, even if the risk of transmission to humans and horses was less. Conclusions/Significance Our results describe for first time the role of five WNV candidate vectors in SW Spain. Interspecific and local differences in mosquito diet composition has an important effect on the potential transmission risk of WNV to birds, horses and humans. PMID:22745781

Munoz, Joaquin; Ruiz, Santiago; Soriguer, Ramon; Alcaide, Miguel; Viana, Duarte S.; Roiz, David; Vazquez, Ana; Figuerola, Jordi

2012-01-01

181

A New Flavivirus and a New Vector: Characterization of a Novel Flavivirus Isolated from Uranotaenia Mosquitoes from a Tropical Rain Forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Received 5 January 2009\\/Accepted 9 February 2009 A novel flavivirus was isolated from Uranotaenia mashonaensis, a mosquito genus not previously known to harbor flaviviruses. Mosquitoes were caught in the primary rain forest of the TaiNational Park, Cote d'Ivoire. The novel virus, termed nounanevirus (NOUV), seemed to grow only on C6\\/36 insect cells and not on vertebrate cells. Typical enveloped flavivirus-like

Sandra Junglen; Anne Kopp; Andreas Kurth; Georg Pauli; Heinz Ellerbrok; Fabian H. Leendertz

2009-01-01

182

Ecological profiling of bird-mosquito interactions in Central Virginia.  

E-print Network

??Current methods of mosquito surveillance estimate general population abundances, but fail to represent the relationship of vector abundance to host density important to determining transmission (more)

Riggan, Anna

2011-01-01

183

Larvicidal activity of neem oil (Azadirachta indica) formulation against mosquitoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of deaths every year. Use of synthetic insecticides to control vector mosquitoes has caused physiological resistance and adverse environmental effects in addition to high operational cost. Insecticides of botanical origin have been reported as useful for control of mosquitoes. Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae) and its derived products have shown a variety of insecticidal

Virendra K Dua; Akhilesh C Pandey; Kamaraju Raghavendra; Ashish Gupta; Trilochan Sharma; Aditya P Dash

2009-01-01

184

Historical applications of induced sterilisation in field populations of mosquitoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on sterile mosquito technology from 1955 to the 1980s provided a substantial body of knowledge on propagation and release of sterile mosquitoes. Radiation sterilisation and chemosterilisation have been used effectively to induce dominant lethality and thereby sterilise important mosquito vectors in the laboratory. Experimental releases of chemosterilised males provided complete control of Anopheles albimanus in a small breeding population

David A Dame; Christopher F Curtis; Mark Q Benedict; Alan S Robinson; Bart GJ Knols

2009-01-01

185

Odor-mediated behavior of afrotropical malaria mosquitoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The African mosquito species Anopheles gambiaesensu lato s.l. and Anophe- les funestus rank among the world's most efficient vectors of human malaria. Their unique bionomics, particularly their anthropophilic, endophagic and en- dophilic characters, guarantee a strong mosquito-host interaction, favorable to malaria transmission. Olfactory cues govern the various behaviors of female mosquitoes and here we review the role of semiochemicals in

Willem Takken; Bart G. J. Knols

1999-01-01

186

Modeling Genetic Strategies for Controlling Mosquito-Borne Diseases  

E-print Network

Modeling Genetic Strategies for Controlling Mosquito-Borne Diseases Alun L. Lloyd Biomathematics Gould, Krisztian Magori, Yunxin Huang and Matthieu Legros Department of Entomology, NCSU #12;Mosquito-Borne Diseases Mosquitoes are vectors for many of the most important human infections �! Malaria Protozoan

Langerhans, Brian

187

Review: Improving our knowledge of male mosquito biology in relation to genetic control programmes.  

PubMed

The enormous burden placed on populations worldwide by mosquito-borne diseases, most notably malaria and dengue, is currently being tackled by the use of insecticides sprayed in residences or applied to bednets, and in the case of dengue vectors through reduction of larval breeding sites or larviciding with insecticides thereof. However, these methods are under threat from, amongst other issues, the development of insecticide resistance and the practical difficulty of maintaining long-term community-wide efforts. The sterile insect technique (SIT), whose success hinges on having a good understanding of the biology and behaviour of the male mosquito, is an additional weapon in the limited arsenal against mosquito vectors. The successful production and release of sterile males, which is the mechanism of population suppression by SIT, relies on the release of mass-reared sterile males able to confer sterility in the target population by mating with wild females. A five year Joint FAO/IAEA Coordinated Research Project brought together researchers from around the world to investigate the pre-mating conditions of male mosquitoes (physiology and behaviour, resource acquisition and allocation, and dispersal), the mosquito mating systems and the contribution of molecular or chemical approaches to the understanding of male mosquito mating behaviour. A summary of the existing knowledge and the main novel findings of this group is reviewed here, and further presented in the reviews and research articles that form this Acta Tropica special issue. PMID:24252487

Lees, Rosemary Susan; Knols, Bart; Bellini, Romeo; Benedict, Mark Q; Bheecarry, Ambicadutt; Bossin, Herv Christophe; Chadee, Dave D; Charlwood, Jacques; Dabir, Roch K; Djogbenou, Luc; Egyir-Yawson, Alexander; Gato, Ren; Gouagna, Louis Clment; Hassan, Mo'awia Mukhtar; Khan, Shakil Ahmed; Koekemoer, Lizette L; Lemperiere, Guy; Manoukis, Nicholas C; Mozuraitis, Raimondas; Pitts, R Jason; Simard, Frederic; Gilles, Jeremie R L

2014-04-01

188

Understanding the effect of vector dynamics in epidemic models using center manifold analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In vector borne diseases the human hosts' epidemiology often acts on a much slower time scales than the one of the mosquitos which transmit the disease as a vector from human to human, due to their vastly different life cycles. We investigate in a model with susceptible (S), infected (I) and recovered (R) humans and susceptible (U) and infected (V) mosquitoes in how far the fast time scale of the mosquito epidemiology can be slaved by the slower human epidemiology, so that for the understanding of human disease data mainly the dynamics of the human time scale is essential and only slightly perturbed by the mosquito dynamics. This analysis of the SIRUV model is qualitatively in agreement with a previously investigated simpler SISUV model, hence a feature of vector-borne diseases in general.

Rocha, Filipe; Aguiar, Mara; Souza, Max; Stollenwerk, Nico

2012-09-01

189

Re-introducing bacteria in mosquitoesA method for determination of mosquito feeding preferences based on coloured sugar solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, sugar-feeding was investigated as a possible means of re-introducing bacteria into mosquito midguts with the aim of identifying bacteria that are suitable for creating paratransgenic mosquitoes. In a paratransgenic approach, bacteria are utilised to deliver effector molecules capable of inhibiting pathogen development in the midgut of the vector. To determine if mosquitoes discriminate between sterile sugar solutions

J. M. Lindh; O. Terenius; K. Eriksson-Gonzales; B. G. J. Knols; I. Faye

2006-01-01

190

Mosquitos and You! Mosquito Control and Prevention  

E-print Network

Mosquitos and You! Mosquito Control and Prevention Third, Fourth and Fifth Grades State Grades 3 ­ 5 Produced by Volusia County Health Department #12;Mosquitos and You! Mosquito Control Training & Development Team Volusia County Health Department Jonas Stewart Mosquito Control Director

191

Molecular Epidemiology of Japanese Encephalitis Virus in Mosquitoes in Taiwan during 2005-2012  

PubMed Central

Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a mosquito-borne zoonotic disease caused by the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). Pigs and water birds are the main amplifying and maintenance hosts of the virus. In this study, we conducted a JEV survey in mosquitoes captured in pig farms and water bird wetland habitats in Taiwan during 2005 to 2012. A total of 102,633 mosquitoes were collected. Culex tritaeniorhynchus was the most common mosquito species found in the pig farms and wetlands. Among the 26 mosquito species collected, 11 tested positive for JEV by RT-PCR, including Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Cx. annulus, Anopheles sinensis, Armigeres subalbatus, and Cx. fuscocephala. Among those testing positive, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus was the predominant vector species for the transmission of JEV genotypes I and III in Taiwan. The JEV infection rate was significantly higher in the mosquitoes from the pig farms than those from the wetlands. A phylogenetic analysis of the JEV envelope gene sequences isolated from the captured mosquitoes demonstrated that the predominant JEV genotype has shifted from genotype III to genotype I (GI), providing evidence for transmission cycle maintenance and multiple introductions of the GI strains in Taiwan during 2008 to 2012. This study demonstrates the intense JEV transmission activity in Taiwan, highlights the importance of JE vaccination for controlling the epidemic, and provides valuable information for the assessment of the vaccine's efficacy. PMID:25275652

Su, Chien-Ling; Yang, Cheng-Fen; Teng, Hwa-Jen; Lu, Liang-Chen; Lin, Cheo; Tsai, Kun-Hsien; Chen, Yu-Yu; Chen, Li-Yu; Chang, Shu-Fen; Shu, Pei-Yun

2014-01-01

192

Molecular Epidemiology of Japanese Encephalitis Virus in Mosquitoes in Taiwan during 2005-2012.  

PubMed

Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a mosquito-borne zoonotic disease caused by the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). Pigs and water birds are the main amplifying and maintenance hosts of the virus. In this study, we conducted a JEV survey in mosquitoes captured in pig farms and water bird wetland habitats in Taiwan during 2005 to 2012. A total of 102,633 mosquitoes were collected. Culex tritaeniorhynchus was the most common mosquito species found in the pig farms and wetlands. Among the 26 mosquito species collected, 11 tested positive for JEV by RT-PCR, including Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Cx. annulus, Anopheles sinensis, Armigeres subalbatus, and Cx. fuscocephala. Among those testing positive, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus was the predominant vector species for the transmission of JEV genotypes I and III in Taiwan. The JEV infection rate was significantly higher in the mosquitoes from the pig farms than those from the wetlands. A phylogenetic analysis of the JEV envelope gene sequences isolated from the captured mosquitoes demonstrated that the predominant JEV genotype has shifted from genotype III to genotype I (GI), providing evidence for transmission cycle maintenance and multiple introductions of the GI strains in Taiwan during 2008 to 2012. This study demonstrates the intense JEV transmission activity in Taiwan, highlights the importance of JE vaccination for controlling the epidemic, and provides valuable information for the assessment of the vaccine's efficacy. PMID:25275652

Su, Chien-Ling; Yang, Cheng-Fen; Teng, Hwa-Jen; Lu, Liang-Chen; Lin, Cheo; Tsai, Kun-Hsien; Chen, Yu-Yu; Chen, Li-Yu; Chang, Shu-Fen; Shu, Pei-Yun

2014-10-01

193

Exotic mosquitoes in New Zealand: a review of species intercepted, their pathways and ports of entry.  

PubMed

A review was carried out to identify the exotic mosquito species intercepted in New Zealand to 2004, together with their origins, pathways and ports of entry into the country. A total of 171 interceptions have been recorded since 1929. There was little or no taxonomic information available for many, but at least 27 exotic species not yet established in New Zealand have been intercepted, including important disease vectors such as Aedes albopictus, Aedes aegypti and Culex annulirostris. Of 152 interception records with a described origin, 100 (66%) have originated from the South Pacific, 42 (28%) from Australia alone, while Japan was the likely source for 22 (15%) interceptions and has become the main source of exotic mosquitoes since the 1990s. Aircraft have clearly been the main vessel for invading mosquitoes with 94 (62%) of 151 cases with a described entrance pathway, but that pattern has changed greatly in the past 15 years, with 51 (82%) of 62 interceptions occurring on ships. Auckland, New Zealand's largest city, has been the main port of entry for invaders (75/93; 81%). The data indicate that it is somewhat fortunate that New Zealand has only four exotic mosquito species established. It is necessary, therefore, to adopt comprehensive exotic species monitoring and border surveillance, with particular emphasis on incoming ships and their cargo, in order to stop further mosquito invasions that could potentially lead to future outbreaks of mosquito-borne diseases. PMID:15707185

Derraik, Jos G B

2004-10-01

194

Vector-Host Interactions Governing Epidemiology of West Nile Virus in Southern California  

PubMed Central

Southern California remains an important focus of West Nile virus (WNV) activity, with persistently elevated incidence after invasion by the virus in 2003 and subsequent amplification to epidemic levels in 2004. Eco-epidemiological studies of vectors-hosts-pathogen interactions are of paramount importance for better understanding of the transmission dynamics of WNV and other emerging mosquito-borne arboviruses. We investigated vector-host interactions and host-feeding patterns of 531 blood-engorged mosquitoes in four competent mosquito vectors by using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method targeting mitochondrial DNA to identify vertebrate hosts of blood-fed mosquitoes. Diagnostic testing by cell culture, real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR, and immunoassays were used to examine WNV infection in blood-fed mosquitoes, mosquito pools, dead birds, and mammals. Prevalence of WNV antibodies among wild birds was estimated by using a blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Analyses of engorged Culex quinquefasciatus revealed that this mosquito species acquired 88.4% of the blood meals from avian and 11.6% from mammalian hosts, including humans. Similarly, Culex tarsalis fed 82% on birds and 18% on mammals. Culex erythrothorax fed on both birds (59%) and mammals (41%). In contrast, Culex stigmatosoma acquired all blood meals from avian hosts. House finches and a few other mostly passeriform birds served as the main hosts for the blood-seeking mosquitoes. Evidence of WNV infection was detected in mosquito pools, wild birds, dead birds, and mammals, including human fatalities during the study period. Our results emphasize the important role of house finches and several other passeriform birds in the maintenance and amplification of WNV in southern California, with Cx. quinquefasciatus acting as both the principal enzootic and bridge vector responsible for the spillover of WNV to humans. Other mosquito species, such as Cx. tarsalis and Cx. stigmatosoma, are important but less widely distributed, and also contribute to spatial and temporal transmission of WNV in southern California. PMID:21118934

Molaei, Goudarz; Cummings, Robert F.; Su, Tianyun; Armstrong, Philip M.; Williams, Greg A.; Cheng, Min-Lee; Webb, James P.; Andreadis, Theodore G.

2010-01-01

195

Identification of Wolbachia Strains in Mosquito Disease Jewelna Osei-Poku1  

E-print Network

Identification of Wolbachia Strains in Mosquito Disease Vectors Jewelna Osei-Poku1 *, Calvin Han1 Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes could prevent the transmission of arboviruses and other human parasites. We disease transmission rates of infected mosquito species, and could be transferred into other mosquito

Jiggins, Francis

196

Natural Plant Sugar Sources of Anopheles Mosquitoes Strongly Impact Malaria Transmission Potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved knowledge of mosquito life history could strengthen malaria vector control efforts that primarily focus on killing mosquitoes indoors using insecticide treated nets and indoor residual spraying. Natural sugar sources, usually floral nectars of plants, are a primary energy resource for adult mosquitoes but their role in regulating the dynamics of mosquito populations is unclear. To determine how the

Weidong Gu; Gnter Mller; Yosef Schlein; Robert J. Novak; John C. Beier

2011-01-01

197

Free flight of the mosquito Aedes aegypti  

E-print Network

High speed video observations of free flying male Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, the dengue and yellow fever vector, along with custom measurement methods, enable measurement of wingbeat frequency, body position and body orientation of mosquitoes during flight. We find these mosquitoes flap their wings at approximately 850 Hz. We also generate body yaw, body pitch and wing deviation measurements with standard deviations of less than 1 degree and find that sideways velocity and acceleration are important components of mosquito motion. Rapid turns involving changes in flight direction often involve large sideways accelerations. These do not correspond to commensurate changes in body heading, and the insect's flight direction and body heading are decoupled during flight. These findings call in to question the role of yaw control in mosquito flight. In addition, using orientation data, we find that sideways accelerations are well explained by roll-based rotation of the lift vector. In contrast, the insect's body pitch...

Iams, S M

2012-01-01

198

Finding the Right Plugin: Mosquitoes Have the Answer Tracey Chapman*  

E-print Network

on the identification of seminal fluid proteins in the mosquito vectors of dengue/yellow fever and of malaria [15 injection in the yellow fever vector Aedes aegypti is also reported to affect flight (e.g., [23]), responses

Nachman, Michael

199

Repellent activity of catmint, Nepeta cataria, and iridoid nepetalactone isomers against Afro-tropical mosquitoes, ixodid ticks and red poultry mites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The repellent activity of the essential oil of the catmint plant, Nepeta cataria (Lamiaceae), and the main iridoid compounds (4aS,7S,7aR) and (4aS,7S,7aS)-nepetalactone, was assessed against (i) major Afro-tropical pathogen vector mosquitoes, i.e. the malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae s.s. and the Southern house mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus, using a World Health Organisation (WHO)-approved topical application bioassay (ii) the brown ear tick, Rhipicephalus

Michael A. Birkett; Ahmed Hassanali; Solveig Hoglund; Jan Pettersson; John A. Pickett

2011-01-01

200

Perspectives of people in Mali toward genetically-modified mosquitoes for malaria control  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Genetically-modified (GM) mosquitoes have been proposed as part of an integrated vector control strategy for malaria control. Public acceptance is essential prior to field trials, particularly since mosquitoes are a vector of human disease and genetically modified organisms (GMOs) face strong scepticism in developed and developing nations. Despite this, in sub-Saharan Africa, where the GM mosquito effort is primarily

John M Marshall; Mahamoudou B Tour; Mohamed M Traore; Shannon Famenini; Charles E Taylor

2010-01-01

201

Mosquitos and You! Mosquito Control and Prevention  

E-print Network

Mosquitos and You! Mosquito Control and Prevention Kindergarten, First, and Second Sunshine State Standards Grades PreK ­ 2 Produced by Volusia County Health Department #12;Mosquitos and You! Mosquito Control and Prevention Produced and Created by: Volusia County Health Department

202

Species composition and population dynamics of Aedes mosquitoes, potential vectors of arboviruses, at the container terminal of the autonomous port of Abidjan, C?te d'Ivoire  

PubMed Central

An entomological survey of Aedes mosquitoes was initiated at the container terminal of the Autonomous Port of Abidjan in 2009 following the occurrence of two outbreaks of yellow fever in less than 10years and dengue cases reported in 2008 among expatriates returning from Cte dIvoire (Ivory Coast). It was based on regular monitoring of ovitraps from July 2009 to June 2010. A total of 4,739 adult mosquitoes represented by four species of Aedes (97% of total) and one unexpected species of Culex (3%) were obtained. Aedes aegypti was dominant with 98% of total Aedes (n=4,594). Its density variation was closely related to the amount of rainfall. The other species of Aedes were collected in the second half of the major rainy season including Ae. albopictus (1.17% of Aedes) and Ae. angustus (0.13%) whose presence was discovered for the first time in Cte dIvoire. PMID:23567057

Konan, Yao Lucien; Coulibaly, Zanakoungo Ibrahim; Kone, Atiuomounan Blaise; Ekra, Kouadio Daniel; Doannio, Julien Marie-Christian; Dosso, Mirielle; Odehouri-Koudou, Paul

2013-01-01

203

The essential oil of Zingiber officinalis Linn (Zingiberaceae) as a mosquito larvicidal and repellent agent against the filarial vector Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essential oils extracted by steam distillation from Zingiber officinalis was evaluated for larvicidal and repellent activity against the filarial mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus. The larval mortality was observed after 24h treated for late third instar. The LC50 value was 50.78ppm. Skin repellent test at 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, and 4.0mg\\/cm2 concentration of Z. officinalis gave 100% protection up to 15, 30, 60,

Thambusamy Pushpanathan; Arulsamy Jebanesan; Marimuthu Govindarajan

2008-01-01

204

Entomological study on transmission of avian malaria parasites in a zoological garden in Japan: bloodmeal identification and detection of avian malaria parasite DNA from blood-fed mosquitoes.  

PubMed

Several species of captive and wild birds have been found to be infected with various avian blood protozoa in Japan. We investigated the prevalence and transmission of avian malaria parasite and determined the bloodmeal hosts of mosquitoes collected in a zoological garden in Tokyo, Japan, by using the polymerase chain reaction. In total, 310 unfed and 140 blood-fed mosquitoes of seven species were collected by using sweep nets and CDC traps. Bloodmeal identification indicated that mosquitoes had fed on 17 avian and five mammalian species, including captive animals. The results of avian malaria parasite detection from mosquitoes with avian bloodmeals indicated that Culex pipiens pallens Coquillet is a main vector of avian Plasmodium in the current study site and that some captive and wild birds could be infected with avian malaria parasites. Furthermore, the distances between the collection site of blood-fed mosquitoes and the locations of their blood-source captive animals were estimated. Most females with fresh bloodmeals were found within 40 m of caged animals, whereas half-gravid and gravid females were found between 10 and 350 m from caged host animals. We demonstrated that blood-fed mosquitoes can provide useful information regarding the mosquito vector species of avian malaria parasites and allows for noninvasive detection of the presence of avian malaria parasites in bird populations. PMID:21661321

Ejiri, Hiroko; Sato, Yukita; Kim, Kyeong-Soon; Hara, Tatsuko; Tsuda, Yoshio; Imura, Takayuki; Murata, Koichi; Yukawa, Masayoshi

2011-05-01

205

North American wetlands and mosquito control.  

PubMed

Wetlands are valuable habitats that provide important social, economic, and ecological services such as flood control, water quality improvement, carbon sequestration, pollutant removal, and primary/secondary production export to terrestrial and aquatic food chains. There is disagreement about the need for mosquito control in wetlands and about the techniques utilized for mosquito abatement and their impacts upon wetlands ecosystems. Mosquito control in wetlands is a complex issue influenced by numerous factors, including many hard to quantify elements such as human perceptions, cultural predispositions, and political climate. In spite of considerable progress during the last decades, habitat protection and environmentally sound habitat management still remain inextricably tied to politics and economics. Furthermore, the connections are often complex, and occur at several levels, ranging from local businesses and politicians, to national governments and multinational institutions. Education is the key to lasting wetlands conservation. Integrated mosquito abatement strategies incorporate many approaches and practicable options, as described herein, and need to be well-defined, effective, and ecologically and economically sound for the wetland type and for the mosquito species of concern. The approach will certainly differ in response to disease outbreaks caused by mosquito-vectored pathogens versus quality of life issues caused by nuisance-biting mosquitoes. In this contribution, we provide an overview of the ecological setting and context for mosquito control in wetlands, present pertinent information on wetlands mosquitoes, review the mosquito abatement options available for current wetlands managers and mosquito control professionals, and outline some necessary considerations when devising mosquito control strategies. Although the emphasis is on North American wetlands, most of the material is applicable to wetlands everywhere. PMID:23222252

Rey, Jorge R; Walton, William E; Wolfe, Roger J; Connelly, C Roxanne; O'Connell, Sheila M; Berg, Joe; Sakolsky-Hoopes, Gabrielle E; Laderman, Aimlee D

2012-12-01

206

North American Wetlands and Mosquito Control  

PubMed Central

Wetlands are valuable habitats that provide important social, economic, and ecological services such as flood control, water quality improvement, carbon sequestration, pollutant removal, and primary/secondary production export to terrestrial and aquatic food chains. There is disagreement about the need for mosquito control in wetlands and about the techniques utilized for mosquito abatement and their impacts upon wetlands ecosystems. Mosquito control in wetlands is a complex issue influenced by numerous factors, including many hard to quantify elements such as human perceptions, cultural predispositions, and political climate. In spite of considerable progress during the last decades, habitat protection and environmentally sound habitat management still remain inextricably tied to politics and economics. Furthermore, the connections are often complex, and occur at several levels, ranging from local businesses and politicians, to national governments and multinational institutions. Education is the key to lasting wetlands conservation. Integrated mosquito abatement strategies incorporate many approaches and practicable options, as described herein, and need to be well-defined, effective, and ecologically and economically sound for the wetland type and for the mosquito species of concern. The approach will certainly differ in response to disease outbreaks caused by mosquito-vectored pathogens versus quality of life issues caused by nuisance-biting mosquitoes. In this contribution, we provide an overview of the ecological setting and context for mosquito control in wetlands, present pertinent information on wetlands mosquitoes, review the mosquito abatement options available for current wetlands managers and mosquito control professionals, and outline some necessary considerations when devising mosquito control strategies. Although the emphasis is on North American wetlands, most of the material is applicable to wetlands everywhere. PMID:23222252

Rey, Jorge R.; Walton, William E.; Wolfe, Roger J.; Connelly, Roxanne; OConnell, Sheila M.; Berg, Joe; Sakolsky-Hoopes, Gabrielle E.; Laderman, Aimlee D.

2012-01-01

207

The Effect of Deltamethrin-treated Net Fencing around Cattle Enclosures on Outdoor-biting Mosquitoes in Kumasi, Ghana  

PubMed Central

Classic vector control strategies target mosquitoes indoors as the main transmitters of malaria are indoor-biting and resting mosquitoes. However, the intensive use of insecticide-treated bed-nets (ITNs) and indoor residual spraying have put selective pressure on mosquitoes to adapt in order to obtain human blood meals. Thus, early-evening and outdoor vector activity is becoming an increasing concern. This study assessed the effect of a deltamethrin-treated net (100 mg/m2) attached to a one-meter high fence around outdoor cattle enclosures on the number of mosquitoes landing on humans. Mosquitoes were collected from four cattle enclosures: Pen A with cattle and no net; B with cattle and protected by an untreated net; C with cattle and protected by a deltamethrin-treated net; D no cattle and no net. A total of 3217 culicines and 1017 anophelines were collected, of which 388 were Anopheles gambiae and 629 An. ziemanni. In the absence of cattle nearly 3 times more An. gambiae (p<0.0001) landed on humans. The deltamethrin-treated net significantly reduced (nearly three-fold, p<0.0001) culicine landings inside enclosures. The sporozoite rate of the zoophilic An. ziemanni, known to be a secondary malaria vector, was as high as that of the most competent vector An. gambiae; raising the potential of zoophilic species as secondary malaria vectors. After deployment of the ITNs a deltamethrin persistence of 9 months was observed despite exposure to African weather conditions. The outdoor use of ITNs resulted in a significant reduction of host-seeking culicines inside enclosures. Further studies investigating the effectiveness and spatial repellence of ITNs around other outdoor sites, such as bars and cooking areas, as well as their direct effect on vector-borne disease transmission are needed to evaluate its potential as an appropriate outdoor vector control tool for rural Africa. PMID:23029245

Maia, Marta Ferreira; Abonuusum, Ayimbire; Lorenz, Lena Maria; Clausen, Peter-Henning; Bauer, Burkhard; Garms, Rolf; Kruppa, Thomas

2012-01-01

208

Human to Mosquito Transmission of Dengue Viruses  

PubMed Central

The successful transmission of dengue virus from a human host to a mosquito vector requires a complex set of factors to align. It is becoming increasingly important to improve our understanding of the parameters that shape the human to mosquito component of the transmission cycle so that vaccines and therapeutic antivirals can be fully evaluated and epidemiological models refined. Here we describe these factors, and discuss the biological and environmental impacts and demographic changes that are influencing these dynamics. Specifically, we examine features of the human infection required for the mosquito to acquire the virus via natural blood feeding, as well as the biological and environmental factors that influence a mosquitos susceptibility to infection, up to the point that they are capable of transmitting the virus to a new host. PMID:24987394

Carrington, Lauren B.; Simmons, Cameron P.

2014-01-01

209

Evolution of mosquito preference for humans linked to an odorant receptor.  

PubMed

Female mosquitoes are major vectors of human disease and the most dangerous are those that preferentially bite humans. A 'domestic' form of the mosquito Aedes aegypti has evolved to specialize in biting humans and is the main worldwide vector of dengue, yellow fever, and chikungunya viruses. The domestic form coexists with an ancestral, 'forest' form that prefers to bite non-human animals and is found along the coast of Kenya. We collected the two forms, established laboratory colonies, and document striking divergence in preference for human versus non-human animal odour. We further show that the evolution of preference for human odour in domestic mosquitoes is tightly linked to increases in the expression and ligand-sensitivity of the odorant receptor AaegOr4, which we found recognizes a compound present at high levels in human odour. Our results provide a rare example of a gene contributing to behavioural evolution and provide insight into how disease-vectoring mosquitoes came to specialize on humans. PMID:25391959

McBride, Carolyn S; Baier, Felix; Omondi, Aman B; Spitzer, Sarabeth A; Lutomiah, Joel; Sang, Rosemary; Ignell, Rickard; Vosshall, Leslie B

2014-11-13

210

The first report of the main vector of visceral leishmaniasis in America, Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae), in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.  

PubMed

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a widespread zoonosis in Brazil and, up to now, there has been no record of the main vector of its agent, Lutzomyia longipalpis, in the Southern Region. Due to the diagnosis of VL in a dog in October 2008 in the city of So Borja, in the southernmost Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul, a collection of phlebotomines was undertaken to detect the presence of the vector Lu. longipalpis. The captures were carried out with CDC light traps on three consecutive nights in 2008. A total of 39 specimens of Lu. longipalpis were captured, thereby increasing the knowledge of the geographical distribution of this important vector. PMID:20140381

Souza, Getlio Dornelles; Santos, Edmilson dos; Andrade Filho, Jos Dilermando

2009-12-01

211

Analyses of ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase in the malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, as receptors of Cry11Ba toxin of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. jegathesan.  

PubMed

Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. jegathesan produces Cry11Ba crystal protein with high toxicity to mosquito larvae. The Cry11Ba toxicity is dependent on its receptors on mosquito larval midgut epithelial cells. Previously, a cadherin-like protein (AgCad2), aminopeptidase (AgAPN2) and alkaline phosphatase (AgALP1) were reported to be involved in regulation of Cry11Ba toxicity on Anopheles gambiae larvae. Here, the cDNAs encoding ?-amylase (AgAmy1) and ?-glucosidase (Agm3) were cloned from A.gambiae larva midgut. Both are glycophosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchored proteins on brush border membranes (BBMV). Immunohistochemistry revealed their localization on different regions of the larval midgut. AgAmy1 and Agm3 bound Cry11Ba with high affinity, 37.6nM and 21.1nM respectively. Cry11Ba toxicity against A.gambiae larvae was neutralized by both AgAmy1 and Agm3. The results provide evidence that both AgAmy1 and Agm3 function as receptors of Cry11Ba in A.gambiae. PMID:23872242

Zhang, Qi; Hua, Gang; Bayyareddy, Krishnareddy; Adang, Michael J

2013-10-01

212

Mosquitocidal and water purification properties of Cynodon dactylon, Aloe vera, Hemidesmus indicus and Coleus amboinicus leaf extracts against the mosquito vectors.  

PubMed

Ethanolic extracts of Cynodon dactylon, Aloe vera, Hemidesmus indicus and Coleus amboinicus were tested for their toxicity effect on the third-instar larvae of Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti. The leaves of C. dactylon, A. vera, H. indicus and C. amboinicus were collected from natural habitats (forests) in Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India. A total of 250 g of fresh, mature leaves were rinsed with distilled water and dried in shade. The dried leaves were put in Soxhlet apparatus and extract prepared using 100% ethanol for 72 h at 30-40C. Dried residues were obtained from 100 g of extract evaporated to dryness in rotary vacuum evaporator. Larvicidal properties of ethanolic leaf extracts showed that the extracts are effective as mosquito control agents. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h exposure. No mortality was observed in the control. The median lethal concentration (LC(50)) values observed for the larvicidal activities are 0.44%, 0.51%, 0.59% and 0.68% for extracts of C. dactylon, A. vera, H. indicus and C. amboinicus, respectively. The observed mortality were statistically significant at P?mosquito larvae in laboratory and field. The selected plants were shown to exhibit water purification properties. Water quality parameters such as turbidity, pH and water clarity were analyzed in the water samples (pre-treatment and post-treatment of plant extracts) taken from the different breeding sites of mosquitoes. Water colour, turbidity and pH were reduced significantly after treatment with C. dactylon (13 HU, 31.5 mg/l and 6.9), H. indicus (13.8 HU, 33 mg/l and 7.1), A. vera (16 HU, 33.8 mg/l and 7.4) and C. amboinicus (21 HU, 35 mg/l and 7.5) extracts. The study proved that the extracts of C. dactylon, A. vera, H. indicus and C. amboinicus have both mosquitocidal and water sedimentation properties. PMID:21947308

Arjunan, Nareshkumar; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Prasannakumar, Kanagarajan; Thangamani, Sundaram; Barnard, Donald R

2012-04-01

213

Combining Hydrology and Mosquito Population Models to Identify the Drivers of Rift Valley Fever Emergence in Semi-Arid Regions of West Africa  

PubMed Central

Background Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a vector-borne viral zoonosis of increasing global importance. RVF virus (RVFV) is transmitted either through exposure to infected animals or through bites from different species of infected mosquitoes, mainly of Aedes and Culex genera. These mosquitoes are very sensitive to environmental conditions, which may determine their presence, biology, and abundance. In East Africa, RVF outbreaks are known to be closely associated with heavy rainfall events, unlike in the semi-arid regions of West Africa where the drivers of RVF emergence remain poorly understood. The assumed importance of temporary ponds and rainfall temporal distribution therefore needs to be investigated. Methodology/Principal Findings A hydrological model is combined with a mosquito population model to predict the abundance of the two main mosquito species (Aedes vexans and Culex poicilipes) involved in RVFV transmission in Senegal. The study area is an agropastoral zone located in the Ferlo Valley, characterized by a dense network of temporary water ponds which constitute mosquito breeding sites. The hydrological model uses daily rainfall as input to simulate variations of pond surface areas. The mosquito population model is mechanistic, considers both aquatic and adult stages and is driven by pond dynamics. Once validated using hydrological and entomological field data, the model was used to simulate the abundance dynamics of the two mosquito species over a 43-year period (19612003). We analysed the predicted dynamics of mosquito populations with regards to the years of main outbreaks. The results showed that the main RVF outbreaks occurred during years with simultaneous high abundances of both species. Conclusion/Significance Our study provides for the first time a mechanistic insight on RVFV transmission in West Africa. It highlights the complementary roles of Aedes vexans and Culex poicilipes mosquitoes in virus transmission, and recommends the identification of rainfall patterns favourable for RVFV amplification. PMID:22928055

Soti, Valerie; Tran, Annelise; Degenne, Pascal; Chevalier, Veronique; Lo Seen, Danny; Thiongane, Yaya; Diallo, Mawlouth; Guegan, Jean-Francois; Fontenille, Didier

2012-01-01

214

The fate of Hepatozoon species naturally infecting Florida black racers and watersnakes in potential mosquito and soft tick vectors, and histological evidence of pathogenicity in unnatural host species.  

PubMed

Haemogregarine parasites, derived from the Florida snakes Coluber constrictor and Nerodia fasciata and ingested by Aedes aegypti, completed sporogony within the hemocoeles of nearly all fed mosquitoes in 14-18 days, and produced oocysts typical of Hepatozoon. However, mortalities and morbidity were high in the Culex which had fed on the Coluber. Oocysts were not found in any Ornithodoros turicata (Argasidae) which fed upon either snake host, but many sections of fed ticks had gametocyte-like cells within the gut lumen. Most lizards, Anolis carolinensis and Anolis sagrei, infected per os with oocysts derived from both snake species developed infections. Infections in the lizards were largely confined to hepatic schizonts with few parasites found in erythrocytes. Unlike naturally infected snake hosts, Hepatozoon schizonts in livers of lizards were often either surrounded by an unidentified dark pigment or heavily infiltrated with mononuclear inflammatory cells. PMID:1683862

Wozniak, E J; Telford, S R

1991-09-01

215

Susceptibility and irritability of adult forms of main malaria vectors against insecticides used in the indoor residual sprays in Muzaffargarh District, Pakistan: a field survey.  

PubMed

In southern Punjab, Pakistan, Muzaffargarh District is known to have insecticide-resistant Anopheles and drug-resistant Plasmodium spp. In this part of the country, five anopheline mosquitoes, Anopheles stephensi Liston, Anopheles culicifacies Giles, Anopheles fluviatilis James, Anopheles superpictus Grassi, and Anopheles subpictus Grassi (Diptera: Culicidae) are known as malaria vectors. Among these, An. culicifacies is the primary and An. stephensi is the secondary malaria vector. Outbreaks of malaria usually occur after rainy episodes. We conducted field surveys to collect field strains of An. culicifacies and An. stephensi mosquitoes from different areas of Muzaffargarh District. We determined susceptibility and irritability levels of their adult stages to the discriminative dose of different insecticides. For this purpose, we used World Health Organization's established criteria for assessment. Mortality was calculated after 1 h exposure and for 24 h recovery period for various insecticides. An. stephensi was found to be significantly resistant to dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT, an organochlorine), dieldrin (a chlorinated hydrocarbon), and malathion (organophosphorus), with lethal times (LT50) of 83.17, 52.48, and 37.53, respectively. However, the species was significantly sensitive to permethrin, deltamethrin (pyrethroids), and fenitrothion (organophosphate) with LT50 of 2.85, 2.34, and 13.18, respectively. Among these, permethrin showed more promising results against adult An. stephensi. When analyzed for irritancy, we found that among pyrethroids, permethrin was the most irritant insecticide for both An. stephensi and An. culicifacies. DDT and dieldrin showed least irritancy with 0.42 +/- 0.08 and 0.77 +/- 0.12 takeoffs per minute per adult, respectively, against An. stephensi. The mean number of takeoffs per minute per adult with permethrin showed significant irritancy for permethrin when compared with DDT. Based on this study, we conclude that the use of organochlorine (DDT) and chlorinated hydrocarbon (dieldrin) should not be reintroduced in Malaria Control Programme in Pakistan until there is enough evidence to do so at any stage in future, and the use of pyrethroids should continue, with preference to permethrin for better control of malariaby indoor residual spraying. PMID:24724288

Rana, Saleem M; Khan, Ejaz A; Yaqoob, Aashifa; Latif, Asma A; Abbasi, Mudassar M

2014-03-01

216

Exploiting mosquito sugar feeding to detect mosquito-borne pathogens  

PubMed Central

Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) represent a global public health problem, with dengue viruses causing millions of infections annually, while emerging arboviruses, such as West Nile, Japanese encephalitis, and chikungunya viruses have dramatically expanded their geographical ranges. Surveillance of arboviruses provides vital data regarding their prevalence and distribution that may be utilized for biosecurity measures and the implementation of disease control strategies. However, current surveillance methods that involve detection of virus in mosquito populations or sero-conversion in vertebrate hosts are laborious, expensive, and logistically problematic. We report a unique arbovirus surveillance system to detect arboviruses that exploits the process whereby mosquitoes expectorate virus in their saliva during sugar feeding. In this system, infected mosquitoes captured by CO2-baited updraft box traps are allowed to feed on honey-soaked nucleic acid preservation cards within the trap. The cards are then analyzed for expectorated virus using real-time reverse transcription-PCR. In field trials, this system detected the presence of Ross River and Barmah Forest viruses in multiple traps deployed at two locations in Australia. Viral RNA was preserved for at least seven days on the cards, allowing for long-term placement of traps and continuous collection of data documenting virus presence in mosquito populations. Furthermore no mosquito handling or processing was required and cards were conveniently shipped to the laboratory overnight. The simplicity and efficacy of this approach has the potential to transform current approaches to vector-borne disease surveillance by streamlining the monitoring of pathogens in vector populations. PMID:20534559

Hall-Mendelin, Sonja; Ritchie, Scott A.; Johansen, Cheryl A.; Zborowski, Paul; Cortis, Giles; Dandridge, Scott; Hall, Roy A.; van den Hurk, Andrew F.

2010-01-01

217

The Role of Innate Immunity in Conditioning Mosquito Susceptibility to West Nile Virus  

PubMed Central

Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) represent an emerging threat to human and livestock health globally. In particular, those transmitted by mosquitoes present the greatest challenges to disease control efforts. An understanding of the molecular basis for mosquito innate immunity to arbovirus infection is therefore critical to investigations regarding arbovirus evolution, virus-vector ecology, and mosquito vector competence. In this review, we discuss the current state of understanding regarding mosquito innate immunity to West Nile virus. We draw from the literature with respect to other virus-vector pairings to attempt to draw inferences to gaps in our knowledge about West Nile virus and relevant vectors. PMID:24351797

Prasad, Abhishek N.; Brackney, Doug. E.; Ebel, Gregory D.

2013-01-01

218

Mosquito cytogenetics  

PubMed Central

Although an intensified interest in mosquito cytogenetics in the past decade has produced a number of contributions to knowledge on this subject, the available information is still superficial and limited to a few mosquito species only. The author of this review summarizes the research done in this field between 1953 and 1962. The following are some of the achievements and some of the gaps that remain to be filled. Karyotypes of several species of Anopheles, Aedes and Culex conform to the general pattern 2n=6, with heterosomes distinguishable only in Anopheles. At least three different karyotypes are present in Anopheles. Salivary gland chromosome maps are now available for several anopheline species, but are still lacking for Culex and Aedes. No precise correlation may yet be made between the frequency of chromosomal aberrations and the degree of insecticide-resistance. Sexual differences in the salivary X-chromosomes have been reported for several species of Anopheles. Chromosomal polymorphism is common in some anophelines, but rare in others. Chromosomal mutation has been induced by means of X-rays. In his conclusions, the author stresses that prospects are especially good for evolutionary and genetic studies involving chromosomal polymorphism. PMID:14058227

Kitzmiller, James B.

1963-01-01

219

Genetic control of Aedes mosquitoes.  

PubMed

Aedes mosquitoes include important vector species such as Aedes aegypti, the major vector of dengue. Genetic control methods are being developed for several of these species, stimulated by an urgent need owing to the poor effectiveness of current methods combined with an increase in chemical pesticide resistance. In this review we discuss the various genetic strategies that have been proposed, their present status, and future prospects. We focus particularly on those methods that are already being tested in the field, including RIDL and Wolbachia-based approaches. PMID:23816508

Alphey, Luke; McKemey, Andrew; Nimmo, Derric; Neira Oviedo, Marco; Lacroix, Renaud; Matzen, Kelly; Beech, Camilla

2013-06-01

220

Genetic control of Aedes mosquitoes  

PubMed Central

Aedes mosquitoes include important vector species such as Aedes aegypti, the major vector of dengue. Genetic control methods are being developed for several of these species, stimulated by an urgent need owing to the poor effectiveness of current methods combined with an increase in chemical pesticide resistance. In this review we discuss the various genetic strategies that have been proposed, their present status, and future prospects. We focus particularly on those methods that are already being tested in the field, including RIDL and Wolbachia-based approaches. PMID:23816508

Alphey, Luke; McKemey, Andrew; Nimmo, Derric; Neira Oviedo, Marco; Lacroix, Renaud; Matzen, Kelly; Beech, Camilla

2013-01-01

221

Effects of Single and Multiple Applications of Mosquito Insecticides on Nontarget Arthropods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mosquito management plans have been implemented in the United States and globally to manage mosquito vectors of West Nile virus and many other diseases. However, there is public concern about ecological risks from using insecticides to manage mosquitoes. Two studies were conducted during the late summers of 2004 through 2006 at Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge near Great Falls, MT.

Ryan S. Davis; Robert K. D. Peterson

2008-01-01

222

The Major Yolk Protein Vitellogenin Interferes with the Anti-Plasmodium Response in the Malaria Mosquito  

E-print Network

Mosquito Anopheles gambiae Martin K. Rono1,2,3¤a , Miranda M. A. Whitten1,2,3¤b , Mustapha Oulad on a person infected with malaria, female Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes, the major vector of human malaria, they infect themselves with the malaria parasite. On traversing the mosquito midgut epithelium, invading

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

223

A Quantitative Study of Gene Regulation Involved in the Immune Response of Anopheline Mosquitoes  

E-print Network

A Quantitative Study of Gene Regulation Involved in the Immune Response of Anopheline Mosquitoes Plasmodium falciparum and the mosquito vector 1 Anopheles. Of particular interest is the molecular biology. This paper reports a statistical analysis of gene expression time profiles from mosquitoes which have been

Holmes, Chris

224

Anopheles plumbeus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Europe: a mere nuisance mosquito or potential malaria  

E-print Network

Anopheles plumbeus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Europe: a mere nuisance mosquito or potential malaria mosquito or potential malaria vector? Francis Schaffner1* , Isabelle Thiéry2 , Christian Kaufmann1 , Agnès of the 20th century. In recent years this tree hole breeding mosquito species appears to have exploited

Boyer, Edmond

225

Drought-induced mosquito outbreaks in wetlands Jonathan M. Chase1  

E-print Network

REPORT Drought-induced mosquito outbreaks in wetlands Jonathan M. Chase1 * and Tiffany M. Knight2 1 Mosquitoes are not only a nuisance, but also vector many important human and animal diseases. Here, in opposition with the dogma that increased precipitation predicts mosquito abundance, we hypothesize

226

Dengue Vectors and their Spatial Distribution  

PubMed Central

The distribution of dengue vectors, Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, is affected by climatic factors. In addition, since their life cycles are well adapted to the human environment, environmental changes resulting from human activity such as urbanization exert a great impact on vector distribution. The different responses of Ae. aegypti and Ae albopictus to various environments result in a difference in spatial distribution along north-south and urban-rural gradients, and between the indoors and outdoors. In the north-south gradient, climate associated with survival is an important factor in spatial distribution. In the urban-rural gradient, different distribution reflects a difference in adult niches and is modified by geographic and human factors. The direct response of the two species to the environment around houses is related to different spatial distribution indoors and outdoors. Dengue viruses circulate mainly between human and vector mosquitoes, and the vector presence is a limiting factor of transmission. Therefore, spatial distribution of dengue vectors is a significant concern in the epidemiology of the disease. Current technologies such as GIS, satellite imagery and statistical models allow researchers to predict the spatial distribution of vectors in the changing environment. Although it is difficult to confirm the actual effect of environmental and climate changes on vector abundance and vector-borne diseases, environmental changes caused by humans and human behavioral changes due to climate change can be expected to exert an impact on dengue vectors. Longitudinal monitoring of dengue vectors and viruses is therefore necessary. PMID:22500133

Higa, Yukiko

2011-01-01

227

Discovery of DNA Viruses in Wild-Caught Mosquitoes Using Small RNA High throughput Sequencing  

PubMed Central

Background Mosquito-borne infectious diseases pose a severe threat to public health in many areas of the world. Current methods for pathogen detection and surveillance are usually dependent on prior knowledge of the etiologic agents involved. Hence, efficient approaches are required for screening wild mosquito populations to detect known and unknown pathogens. Methodology/principal findings In this study, we explored the use of Next Generation Sequencing to identify viral agents in wild-caught mosquitoes. We extracted total RNA from different mosquito species from South China. Small 1830 bp length RNA molecules were purified, reverse-transcribed into cDNA and sequenced using Illumina GAIIx instrumentation. Bioinformatic analyses to identify putative viral agents were conducted and the results confirmed by PCR. We identified a non-enveloped single-stranded DNA densovirus in the wild-caught Culex pipiens molestus mosquitoes. The majority of the viral transcripts (.>80% of the region) were covered by the small viral RNAs, with a few peaks of very high coverage obtained. The +/? strand sequence ratio of the small RNAs was approximately 7?1, indicating that the molecules were mainly derived from the viral RNA transcripts. The small viral RNAs overlapped, enabling contig assembly of the viral genome sequence. We identified some small RNAs in the reverse repeat regions of the viral 5?- and 3? -untranslated regions where no transcripts were expected. Conclusions/significance Our results demonstrate for the first time that high throughput sequencing of small RNA is feasible for identifying viral agents in wild-caught mosquitoes. Our results show that it is possible to detect DNA viruses by sequencing the small RNAs obtained from insects, although the underlying mechanism of small viral RNA biogenesis is unclear. Our data and those of other researchers show that high throughput small RNA sequencing can be used for pathogen surveillance in wild mosquito vectors. PMID:21949749

Ma, Maijuan; Huang, Yong; Gong, Zhengda; Zhuang, Lu; Li, Cun; Yang, Hong; Tong, Yigang; Liu, Wei; Cao, Wuchun

2011-01-01

228

Comparative Genome Analysis of the Yellow Fever Mosquito Aedes aegypti  

E-print Network

Comparative Genome Analysis of the Yellow Fever Mosquito Aedes aegypti with Drosophila melanogaster aegypti, and Culex pipiens, the primary vectors for malaria, yellow fever and dengue, and lymphatic 103

Severson, David

229

Mosquito control by larvivorous fish.  

PubMed

There is growing of the effects of insecticide used controlling the vectors of human diseases. Manipulating or introducing an auto-reproducing predator into the ecosystem may provide sustained biological control of pest populations. The selection of a biological agent should be based on its self-replicating capacity, preference for the target pest population in the presence of alternate natural prey, adaptability to the introduced environment, and overall interaction with indigenous organisms. In order to achieve an acceptable range of control, a sound knowledge of various attributes of interactions between the pest population and the predator to be introduced is desirable. Biological larviciding for the control of mosquito borne diseases is feasible and effective only when breeding sites are relatively few or are easily identified and treated. Larval control appears to be promising in urban areas, given that the density of humans needing protection is higher than the limited number of breeding sites. Since 1937, fish have been employed for controlling mosquito larvae. Different types of fish have been used so far in this operational technique. However, use of fish of indigenous origin is found to be more appropriate in this operation. This review presents information on different larvivorous fish species and the present status of their use in mosquito control and provides a ready reference for workers involved and interested in mosquito research. PMID:18316849

Chandra, G; Bhattacharjee, I; Chatterjee, S N; Ghosh, A

2008-01-01

230

Mosquito-borne arboviruses in arctic america.  

PubMed

Mosquito-borne arboviruses are prevalent throughout subarctic regions of Canada and Alaska, principally in the boreal forest extending between latitudes 53 and 66 degrees N, but they have been identified in tundra regions as far north as 70 degrees N. All mosquito-borne agents have been bunyaviruses, comprising principally the snowshoe hare subtype of California encephalitis (CE) virus, but also Northway virus. Mosquito vectors comprise several Aedes species and Culiseta inornata, all of which have supported replication of CE virus following incubation at 13 degrees C or lower temperatures. Isolation of virus from wild-caught larvae points towards transovarial transfer. Principal vertebrate reservoirs of infection are mammals, especially snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) and ground squirrels (Citellus undulatus). Where the boreal forest merges into prairie grassland around 53 degrees N, Culex tarsalis mosquitoes become prevalent, and an alphavirus, western equine encephalomyelitis, is detected more frequently than CE virus. PMID:1602

Mclean, D M

1975-10-01

231

The impact of uniform and mixed species blood meals on the fitness of the mosquito vector Anopheles gambiae s.s: does a specialist pay for diversifying its host species diet?  

PubMed

We investigated the fitness consequences of specialization in an organism whose host choice has an immense impact on human health: the African malaria vector Anopheles gambiae s.s. We tested whether this mosquito's specialism on humans can be attributed to the relative fitness benefits of specialist vs. generalist feeding strategies by contrasting their fecundity and survival on human-only and mixed host diets consisting of blood meals from humans and animals. When given only one blood meal, An.gambiae s.s. survived significantly longer on human and bovine blood, than on canine or avian blood. However, when blood fed repeatedly, there was no evidence that the fitness of An.gambiae s.s. fed a human-only diet was greater than those fed generalist diets. This suggests that the adoption of generalist host feeding strategies in An.gambiae s.s. is not constrained by intraspecific variation in the resource quality of blood from other available host species. PMID:22221693

Lyimo, I N; Keegan, S P; Ranford-Cartwright, L C; Ferguson, H M

2012-03-01

232

Plant based products: use and development as repellents against mosquitoes: A review.  

PubMed

Global warming and deforestation have resulted in the relocation of many living creatures including insects during the recent years. This has affected the population balance of disease vectors including mosquitoes resulting in outbreaks. Traditionally, mankind has been using plants as means of protection from the mosquitoes which are considered to be environment friendly unlike the synthetic chemicals that cause major risk to human health and the ecosystem. Researchers explored mainly, essential oils and traditional plants using different testing methodologies to find out repellent molecules effective against mosquitoes which is the main focus of this review. Among the promising plant species, Eucalyptus spp., Ocimum spp. and Cymbopogon spp. are the most cited. Data of repellency produced from the bioassay systems is difficult to quantify because of different parameters, testing system and standards of material used against mosquitoes. Mainly, the human forearm based bioassays have been used with different sizes of treatment area in the laboratory and the results have not been tested in the field conditions for residual activity. In addition, effectiveness of essential oils and their protection time can be increased by using vanillin as synergist and formulation techniques like microencapsulation and nanoemulsion. There is a need to develop an alternate in vitro bioassay system that can address the problems of uniformity of the results. PMID:24631763

Rehman, Junaid U; Ali, Abbas; Khan, Ikhlas A

2014-06-01

233

Boosting the sterile insect technique to control mosquitoes.  

PubMed

Mosquitoes are vectors of major diseases. Auto-dissemination recently proved very efficient to control Aedes species, using adult females contaminated with dissemination stations of juvenile hormone to treat breeding habitats, but cannot be used at large scales. Here we propose to combine it to the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) to create a new control concept, named 'boosted SIT' that might enable the area-wide eradication of mosquitoes and many other vectors and insect pests. PMID:24746400

Bouyer, Jrmy; Lefranois, Thierry

2014-06-01

234

Mosquito, Bird and Human Surveillance of West Nile and Usutu Viruses in Emilia-Romagna Region (Italy) in 2010  

PubMed Central

Background In 2008, after the first West Nile virus (WNV) detection in the Emilia-Romagna region, a surveillance system, including mosquito- and bird-based surveillance, was established to evaluate the virus presence. Surveillance was improved in following years by extending the monitoring to larger areas and increasing the numbers of mosquitoes and birds tested. Methodology/Principal Findings A network of mosquito traps, evenly distributed and regularly activated, was set up within the surveyed area. A total of 438,558 mosquitoes, grouped in 3,111 pools and 1,276 birds (1,130 actively sampled and 146 from passive surveillance), were tested by biomolecular analysis. The survey detected WNV in 3 Culex pipiens pools while Usutu virus (USUV) was found in 89 Cx. pipiens pools and in 2 Aedes albopictus pools. Two birds were WNV-positive and 12 were USUV-positive. Furthermore, 30 human cases of acute meningoencephalitis, possibly caused by WNV or USUV, were evaluated for both viruses and 1,053 blood bags were tested for WNV, without any positive result. Conclusions/Significance Despite not finding symptomatic human WNV infections during 2010, the persistence of the virus, probably due to overwintering, was confirmed through viral circulation in mosquitoes and birds, as well as for USUV. In 2010, circulation of the two viruses was lower and more delayed than in 2009, but this decrease was not explained by the relative abundance of Cx. pipiens mosquito, which was greater in 2010. The USUV detection in mosquito species confirms the role of Cx. pipiens as the main vector and the possible involvement of Ae. albopictus in the virus cycle. The effects of meteorological conditions on the presence of USUV-positive mosquito pools were considered finding an association with drought conditions and a wide temperature range. The output produced by the surveillance system demonstrated its usefulness and reliability in terms of planning public health policies. PMID:22666446

Calzolari, Mattia; Gaibani, Paolo; Bellini, Romeo; Defilippo, Francesco; Pierro, Anna; Albieri, Alessandro; Maioli, Giulia; Luppi, Andrea; Rossini, Giada; Balzani, Agnese; Tamba, Marco; Galletti, Giorgio; Gelati, Antonio; Carrieri, Marco; Poglayen, Giovanni; Cavrini, Francesca; Natalini, Silvano; Dottori, Michele; Sambri, Vittorio; Angelini, Paola; Bonilauri, Paolo

2012-01-01

235

Resistance status of the malaria vector mosquitoes, Anopheles stephensi and Anopheles subpictus towards adulticides and larvicides in arid and semi-arid areas of India.  

PubMed

Susceptibility studies of malaria vectors Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae) and An. subpictus Grassi collected during 2004-2007 from various locations of Arid and Semi-Arid Zone of India were conducted by adulticide bioassay of DDT, malathion, deltamethrin and larvicide bioassay of fenthion, temephos, chlorpyriphos and malathion using diagnostic doses. Both species from all locations exhibited variable resistance to DDT and malathion from majority of location. Adults of both the species were susceptible to Deltamethrin. Larvae of both the Anopheline species showed some evidence of resistance to chlorpyriphos followed by fenthion whereas susceptible to temephos and malathion. PMID:21870971

Tikar, S N; Mendki, M J; Sharma, A K; Sukumaran, D; Veer, Vijay; Prakash, Shri; Parashar, B D

2011-01-01

236

Rickettsia Species in African Anopheles Mosquitoes  

PubMed Central

Background There is higher rate of R. felis infection among febrile patients than in healthy people in Sub-Saharan Africa, predominantly in the rainy season. Mosquitoes possess a high vectorial capacity and, because of their abundance and aggressiveness, likely play a role in rickettsial epidemiology. Methodology/Principal Findings Quantitative and traditional PCR assays specific for Rickettsia genes detected rickettsial DNA in 13 of 848 (1.5%) Anopheles mosquitoes collected from Cte dIvoire, Gabon, and Senegal. R. felis was detected in one An. gambiae molecular form S mosquito collected from Kahin, Cte dIvoire (1/77, 1.3%). Additionally, a new Rickettsia genotype was detected in five An. gambiae molecular form S mosquitoes collected from Cte dIvoire (5/77, 6.5%) and one mosquito from Libreville, Gabon (1/88, 1.1%), as well as six An. melas (6/67, 9%) mosquitoes collected from Port Gentil, Gabon. A sequence analysis of the gltA, ompB, ompA and sca4 genes indicated that this new Rickettsia sp. is closely related to R. felis. No rickettsial DNA was detected from An. funestus, An. arabiensis, or An. gambiae molecular form M mosquitoes. Additionally, a BLAST analysis of the gltA sequence from the new Rickettsia sp. resulted in a 99.71% sequence similarity to a species (JQ674485) previously detected in a blood sample of a Senegalese patient with a fever from the Bandafassi village, Kedougou region. Conclusion R. felis was detected for the first time in An. gambiae molecular form S, which represents the major African malaria vector. The discovery of R. felis, as well as a new Rickettsia species, in mosquitoes raises new issues with respect to African rickettsial epidemiology that need to be investigated, such as bacterial isolation, the degree of the vectorial capacity of mosquitoes, the animal reservoirs, and human pathogenicity. PMID:23118963

Socolovschi, Cristina; Pages, Frederic; Ndiath, Mamadou O.; Ratmanov, Pavel; Raoult, Didier

2012-01-01

237

The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana reduces instantaneous blood feeding in wild multi-insecticide-resistant Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes in Benin, West Africa  

PubMed Central

Background Mosquito-borne diseases are still a major health risk in many developing countries, and the emergence of multi-insecticide-resistant mosquitoes is threatening the future of vector control. Therefore, new tools that can manage resistant mosquitoes are required. Laboratory studies show that entomopathogenic fungi can kill insecticide-resistant malaria vectors but this needs to be verified in the field. Methods The present study investigated whether these fungi will be effective at infecting, killing and/or modifying the behaviour of wild multi-insecticide-resistant West African mosquitoes. The entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana were separately applied to white polyester window netting and used in combination with either a permethrin-treated or untreated bednet in an experimental hut trial. Untreated nets were used because we wanted to test the effect of fungus alone and in combination with an insecticide to examine any potential additive or synergistic effects. Results In total, 1125 female mosquitoes were collected during the hut trial, mainly Culex quinquefasciatus Say. Unfortunately, not enough wild Anopheles gambiae Giles were collected to allow the effect the fungi may have on this malaria vector to be analysed. None of the treatment combinations caused significantly increased mortality of Cx. quinquefasciatus when compared to the control hut. The only significant behaviour modification found was a reduction in blood feeding by Cx. quinquefasciatus, caused by the permethrin and B. bassiana treatments, although no additive effect was seen in the B. bassiana and permethrin combination treatment. Beauveria bassiana did not repel blood foraging mosquitoes either in the laboratory or field. Conclusions This is the first time that an entomopathogenic fungus has been shown to reduce blood feeding of wild mosquitoes. This behaviour modification indicates that B. bassiana could potentially be a new mosquito control tool effective at reducing disease transmission, although further field work in areas with filariasis transmission should be carried out to verify this. In addition, work targeting malaria vector mosquitoes should be carried out to see if these mosquitoes manifest the same behaviour modification after infection with B. bassiana conidia. PMID:20843321

2010-01-01

238

Symbiotic control of mosquito borne disease.  

PubMed

It is well accepted that the symbiotic relationships insects have established with several microorganisms have had a key role in their evolutionary success. Bacterial symbiosis is also prevalent in insects that are efficient disease vectors, and numerous studies have sought to decrypt the basic mechanisms of the host-symbiont relationships and develop ways to control vector borne diseases. 'Symbiotic control', a new multifaceted approach that uses symbiotic microorganisms to control insect pests or reduce vector competence, seems particularly promising. Three such approaches currently at the cutting edge are: (1) the disruption of microbial symbionts required by insect pests; (2) the manipulation of symbionts that can express anti-pathogen molecules within the host; and (3) the introduction of endogenous microbes that affect life-span and vector capacity of the new hosts in insect populations. This work reviews current knowledge on microbial symbiosis in mosquitoes that holds promise for development of symbiotic control for mosquito borne diseases. PMID:23265608

Ricci, Irene; Valzano, Matteo; Ulissi, Ulisse; Epis, Sara; Cappelli, Alessia; Favia, Guido

2012-11-01

239

Mosquito, adult (image)  

MedlinePLUS

This illustration shows an adult southern house mosquito. This mosquito feeds on blood and is the carrier of many diseases, such as encephalitis, West Nile, dengue fever, yellow fever, and others. ( ...

240

Mosquito Population Regulation and Larval Source Management in Heterogeneous Environments  

PubMed Central

An important question for mosquito population dynamics, mosquito-borne pathogen transmission and vector control is how mosquito populations are regulated. Here we develop simple models with heterogeneity in egg laying patterns and in the responses of larval populations to crowding in aquatic habitats. We use the models to evaluate how such heterogeneity affects mosquito population regulation and the effects of larval source management (LSM). We revisit the notion of a carrying capacity and show how heterogeneity changes our understanding of density dependence and the outcome of LSM. Crowding in and productivity of aquatic habitats is highly uneven unless egg-laying distributions are fine-tuned to match the distribution of habitats carrying capacities. LSM reduces mosquito population density linearly with coverage if adult mosquitoes avoid laying eggs in treated habitats, but quadratically if eggs are laid in treated habitats and the effort is therefore wasted (i.e., treating 50% of habitat reduces mosquito density by approximately 75%). Unsurprisingly, targeting (i.e. treating a subset of the most productive pools) gives much larger reductions for similar coverage, but with poor targeting, increasing coverage could increase adult mosquito population densities if eggs are laid in higher capacity habitats. Our analysis suggests that, in some contexts, LSM models that accounts for heterogeneity in production of adult mosquitoes provide theoretical support for pursuing mosquito-borne disease prevention through strategic and repeated application of modern larvicides. PMID:23951118

Smith, David L.; Perkins, T. Alex; Tusting, Lucy S.; Scott, Thomas W.; Lindsay, Steven W.

2013-01-01

241

Prevalence of avian malaria parasite in mosquitoes collected at a zoological garden in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several species of captive birds at zoological gardens of Japan were found to be infected with avian Plasmodium. However, incriminated vector mosquito species have not been identified yet. To indicate the competent vectors of avian malaria\\u000a parasite, we collected mosquitoes at a zoological garden in Japan and examined for the avian malaria parasite DNA. Totally,\\u000a 1,361 mosquitoes of 11 species

Hiroko Ejiri; Yukita Sato; Risa Sawai; Emi Sasaki; Rei Matsumoto; Miya Ueda; Yukiko Higa; Yoshio Tsuda; Sumie Omori; Koichi Murata; Masayoshi Yukawa

2009-01-01

242

In silico models for predicting vector control chemicals targeting Aedes aegypti  

PubMed Central

Human arboviral diseases have emerged or re-emerged in numerous countries worldwide due to a number of factors including the lack of progress in vaccine development, lack of drugs, insecticide resistance in mosquitoes, climate changes, societal behaviours, and economical constraints. Thus, Aedes aegypti is the main vector of the yellow fever and dengue fever flaviviruses and is also responsible for several recent outbreaks of the chikungunya alphavirus. As for the other mosquito species, the A. aegypti control relies heavily on the use of insecticides. However, because of increasing resistance to the different families of insecticides, reduction of Aedes populations is becoming increasingly difficult. Despite the unquestionable utility of insecticides in fighting mosquito populations, there are very few new insecticides developed and commercialized for vector control. This is because the high cost of the discovery of an insecticide is not counterbalanced by the low profitability of the vector control market. Fortunately, the use of quantitative structureactivity relationship (QSAR) modelling allows the reduction of time and cost in the discovery of new chemical structures potentially active against mosquitoes. In this context, the goal of the present study was to review all the existing QSAR models on A. aegypti. The homology and pharmacophore models were also reviewed. Specific attention was paid to show the variety of targets investigated in Aedes in relation to the physiology and ecology of the mosquito as well as the diversity of the chemical structures which have been proposed, encompassing man-made and natural substances. PMID:25275884

Devillers, J.; Lagneau, C.; Lattes, A.; Garrigues, J.C.; Clemente, M.M.; Yebakima, A.

2014-01-01

243

In silico models for predicting vector control chemicals targeting Aedes aegypti.  

PubMed

Human arboviral diseases have emerged or re-emerged in numerous countries worldwide due to a number of factors including the lack of progress in vaccine development, lack of drugs, insecticide resistance in mosquitoes, climate changes, societal behaviours, and economical constraints. Thus, Aedes aegypti is the main vector of the yellow fever and dengue fever flaviviruses and is also responsible for several recent outbreaks of the chikungunya alphavirus. As for the other mosquito species, the A. aegypti control relies heavily on the use of insecticides. However, because of increasing resistance to the different families of insecticides, reduction of Aedes populations is becoming increasingly difficult. Despite the unquestionable utility of insecticides in fighting mosquito populations, there are very few new insecticides developed and commercialized for vector control. This is because the high cost of the discovery of an insecticide is not counterbalanced by the 'low profitability' of the vector control market. Fortunately, the use of quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) modelling allows the reduction of time and cost in the discovery of new chemical structures potentially active against mosquitoes. In this context, the goal of the present study was to review all the existing QSAR models on A. aegypti. The homology and pharmacophore models were also reviewed. Specific attention was paid to show the variety of targets investigated in Aedes in relation to the physiology and ecology of the mosquito as well as the diversity of the chemical structures which have been proposed, encompassing man-made and natural substances. PMID:25275884

Devillers, J; Lagneau, C; Lattes, A; Garrigues, J C; Clment, M M; Ybakima, A

2014-01-01

244

MAN, MOSQUITOES AND MICROBES.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE CONTROL OF MOSQUITOES IS A MATTER OF INCREASING CONCERN IN THE STATE OF FLORIDA. A BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE LIFE CYCLE, VARIOUS SPECIES, CONTROL, AND DESCRIPTION OF DISEASES TRANSMITTED BY THE MOSQUITO WAS PRESENTED. THE ARTICLE CONCLUDED THAT MOSQUITO CONTROL IS NOT ONLY A HEALTH PROBLEM, BUT ALSO A MATTER OF IMPROVED ECONOMICS IN RELATION TO

SCHOONOVER, ROBERT A.

245

Novel flaviviruses from mosquitoes: Mosquito-specific evolutionary lineages within the phylogenetic group of mosquito-borne flaviviruses  

PubMed Central

Novel flaviviruses that are genetically related to pathogenic mosquito-borne flaviviruses (MBFV) have been isolated from mosquitoes in various geographical locations, including Finland. We isolated and characterized another novel virus of this group from Finnish mosquitoes collected in 2007, designated as Ilomantsi virus (ILOV). Unlike the MBFV that infect both vertebrates and mosquitoes, the MBFV-related viruses appear to be specific to mosquitoes similar to the insect-specific flaviviruses (ISFs). In this overview of MBFV-related viruses we conclude that they differ from the ISFs genetically and antigenically. Phylogenetic analyses separated the MBFV-related viruses isolated in Africa, the Middle East and South America from those isolated in Europe and Asia. Serological cross-reactions of MBFV-related viruses with other flaviviruses and their potential for vector-borne transmission require further characterization. The divergent MBFV-related viruses are probably significantly under sampled to date and provide new information on the variety, properties and evolution of vector-borne flaviviruses. PMID:25108382

Huhtamo, Eili; Cook, Shelley; Moureau, Gregory; Uzcategui, Nathalie Y.; Sironen, Tarja; Kuivanen, Suvi; Putkuri, Niina; Kurkela, Satu; Harbach, Ralph E.; Firth, Andrew E.; Vapalahti, Olli; Gould, Ernest A.; de Lamballerie, Xavier

2014-01-01

246

Amazonian malaria: Asymptomatic human reservoirs, diagnostic challenges, environmentally-driven changes in mosquito vector populations, and the mandate for sustainable control strategies  

PubMed Central

Across the Americas and the Caribbean, nearly 561,000 slide-confirmed malaria infections were reported officially in 2008. The nine Amazonian countries accounted for 89% of these infections; Brazil and Peru alone contributed 56% and 7% of them, respectively. Local populations of the relatively neglected parasite P. vivax, which currently accounts for 77% of the regional malaria burden, are extremely diverse genetically and geographically structured. At a time when malaria elimination is placed on the public health agenda of several endemic countries, it remains unclear why malaria proved so difficult to control in areas of relatively low levels of transmission such as the Amazon Basin. We hypothesize that asymptomatic parasite carriage and massive environmental changes that affect vector abundance and behavior are major contributors to malaria transmission in epidemiologically diverse areas across the Amazon Basin. Here we review available data supporting this hypothesis and discuss their implications for current and future malaria intervention policies in the region. Given that locally generated scientific evidence is urgently required to support malaria control interventions in Amazonia, we briefly describe the aims of our current field-oriented malaria research in rural villages and gold-mining enclaves in Peru and a recently opened agricultural settlement in Brazil. PMID:22015425

da Silva-Nunes, Monica; Moreno, Marta; Conn, Jan E.; Gamboa, Dionicia; Abeles, Shira; Vinetz, Joseph M.; Ferreira, Marcelo U.

2012-01-01

247

Differential Expression of Salivary Proteins between Susceptible and Insecticide-Resistant Mosquitoes of Culex quinquefasciatus  

PubMed Central

Background The Culex quinquefasciatus mosquito, a major pest and vector of filariasis and arboviruses in the tropics, has developed multiple resistance mechanisms to the main insecticide classes currently available in public health. Among them, the insensitive acetylcholinesterase (ace-1R allele) is widespread worldwide and confers cross-resistance to organophosphates and carbamates. Fortunately, in an insecticide-free environment, this mutation is associated with a severe genetic cost that can affect various life history traits. Salivary proteins are directly involved in human-vector contact during biting and therefore play a key role in pathogen transmission. Methods and Results An original proteomic approach combining 2D-electrophoresis and mass spectrometry was adopted to compare the salivary expression profiles of two strains of C. quinquefasciatus with the same genetic background but carrying either the ace-1R resistance allele or not (wild type). Four salivary proteins were differentially expressed (>2 fold, P<0.05) in susceptible (SLAB) and resistant (SR) mosquito strains. Protein identification indicated that the D7 long form, a major salivary protein involved in blood feeding success, presented lower expression in the resistant strain than the susceptible strain. In contrast, three other proteins, including metabolic enzymes (endoplasmin, triosephosphate isomerase) were significantly over-expressed in the salivary gland of ace-1R resistant mosquitoes. A catalogue of 67 salivary proteins of C. quinquefasciatus sialotranscriptome was also identified and described. Conclusion The resistance-dependent expression of salivary proteins in mosquitoes may have considerable impact on biting behaviour and hence on the capacity to transmit parasites/viruses to humans. The behaviour of susceptible and insecticide-resistant mosquitoes in the presence of vertebrate hosts and its impact on pathogen transmission urgently requires further investigation. Data Deposition All proteomic data will be deposited at PRIDE (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/pride/). PMID:21448269

Rossignol, Marie; Demettre, Edith; Seveno, Martial; Remoue, Franck; Corbel, Vincent

2011-01-01

248

Genetic control of mosquitoes: population suppression strategies.  

PubMed

Over the last two decades, morbidity and mortality from malaria and dengue fever among other pathogens are an increasing Public Health problem. The increase in the geographic distribution of vectors is accompanied by the emergence of viruses and diseases in new areas. There are insufficient specific therapeutic drugs available and there are no reliable vaccines for malaria or dengue, although some progress has been achieved, there is still a long way between its development and actual field use. Most mosquito control measures have failed to achieve their goals, mostly because of the mosquito's great reproductive capacity and genomic flexibility. Chemical control is increasingly restricted due to potential human toxicity, mortality in no target organisms, insecticide resistance, and other environmental impacts. Other strategies for mosquito control are desperately needed. The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) is a species-specific and environmentally benign method for insect population suppression, it is based on mass rearing, radiation mediated sterilization, and release of a large number of male insects. Releasing of Insects carrying a dominant lethal gene (RIDL) offers a solution to many of the drawbacks of traditional SIT that have limited its application in mosquitoes while maintaining its environmentally friendly and species-specific utility. The self-limiting nature of sterile mosquitoes tends to make the issues related to field use of these somewhat less challenging than for self-spreading systems characteristic of population replacement strategies. They also are closer to field use, so might be appropriate to consider first. The prospect of genetic control methods against mosquito vectored human diseases is rapidly becoming a reality, many decisions will need to be made on a national, regional and international level regarding the biosafety, social, cultural and ethical aspects of the use and deployment of these vector control methods. PMID:22983293

Wilke, Andr Barretto Bruno; Marrelli, Mauro Toledo

2012-01-01

249

The Mosquito Melanization Response Is Implicated in Defense against the Entomopathogenic Fungus Beauveria bassiana  

PubMed Central

Mosquito immunity studies have focused mainly on characterizing immune effector mechanisms elicited against parasites, bacteria and more recently, viruses. However, those elicited against entomopathogenic fungi remain poorly understood, despite the ubiquitous nature of these microorganisms and their unique invasion route that bypasses the midgut epithelium, an important immune tissue and physical barrier. Here, we used the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae as a model to investigate the role of melanization, a potent immune effector mechanism of arthropods, in mosquito defense against the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana, using in vivo functional genetic analysis and confocal microscopy. The temporal monitoring of fungal growth in mosquitoes injected with B. bassiana conidia showed that melanin eventually formed on all stages, including conidia, germ tubes and hyphae, except the single cell hyphal bodies. Nevertheless, melanin rarely aborted the growth of any of these stages and the mycelium continued growing despite being melanized. Silencing TEP1 and CLIPA8, key positive regulators of Plasmodium and bacterial melanization in A. gambiae, abolished completely melanin formation on hyphae but not on germinating conidia or germ tubes. The detection of a layer of hemocytes surrounding germinating conidia but not hyphae suggested that melanization of early fungal stages is cell-mediated while that of late stages is a humoral response dependent on TEP1 and CLIPA8. Microscopic analysis revealed specific association of TEP1 with surfaces of hyphae and the requirement of both, TEP1 and CLIPA8, for recruiting phenoloxidase to these surfaces. Finally, fungal proliferation was more rapid in TEP1 and CLIPA8 knockdown mosquitoes which exhibited increased sensitivity to natural B. bassiana infections than controls. In sum, the mosquito melanization response retards significantly B. bassiana growth and dissemination, a finding that may be exploited to design transgenic fungi with more potent bio-control activities against mosquitoes. PMID:23166497

Osta, Mike A.

2012-01-01

250

Analysing the generality of spatially predictive mosquito habitat models  

PubMed Central

The increasing spread of multi-drug resistant malaria in African highlands has highlighted the importance of malaria suppression through vector control. Its historical success has meant that larval control has been proposed as part of an integrated malaria vector control program. Due to high operation costs, larval control activities would benefit greatly if the locations of mosquito habitats could be identified quickly and easily, allowing for focal habitat source suppression. Several mosquito habitat models have been developed to predict the location of mosquito habitats. However, to what extent these models can be generalised across time and space to predict the distribution of dynamic mosquito habitats remains largely unexplored. This study used mosquito habitat data collected in six different time periods and four different modelling approaches to establish 24 mosquito habitat models. We systematically tested the generality of these 24 mosquito habitat models. We found that although habitatenvironment relationships change temporally, a modest level of performance was attained when validating the models using data collected from different time periods. We also describe flexible approaches to the predictive modelling of mosquito habitats, that provide novel modelling architecture for future research efforts. PMID:21527240

Li, Li; Bian, Ling; Yakob, Laith; Zhou, Guofa; Yan, Guiyun

2013-01-01

251

Malaria mosquitoes attracted by fatal fungus.  

PubMed

Insect-killing fungi such as Beauveria bassiana are being evaluated as possible active ingredients for use in novel biopesticides against mosquito vectors that transmit malaria. Fungal pathogens infect through contact and so applications of spores to surfaces such as walls, nets, or other resting sites provide possible routes to infect mosquitoes in and around domestic dwellings. However, some insects can detect and actively avoid fungal spores to reduce infection risk. If true for mosquitoes, such behavior could render the biopesticide approach ineffective. Here we find that the spores of B. bassiana are highly attractive to females of Anopheles stephensi, a major anopheline mosquito vector of human malaria in Asia. We further find that An. stephensi females are preferentially attracted to dead and dying caterpillars infected with B. bassiana, landing on them and subsequently becoming infected with the fungus. Females are also preferentially attracted to cloth sprayed with oil-formulated B. bassiana spores, with 95% of the attracted females becoming infected after a one-minute visit on the cloth. This is the first report of an insect being attracted to a lethal fungal pathogen. The exact mechanisms involved in this behavior remain unclear. Nonetheless, our results indicate that biopesticidal formulations comprising B. bassiana spores will be conducive to attraction and on-source visitation by malaria vectors. PMID:23658757

George, Justin; Jenkins, Nina E; Blanford, Simon; Thomas, Matthew B; Baker, Thomas C

2013-01-01

252

Malaria Mosquitoes Attracted by Fatal Fungus  

PubMed Central

Insect-killing fungi such as Beauveria bassiana are being evaluated as possible active ingredients for use in novel biopesticides against mosquito vectors that transmit malaria. Fungal pathogens infect through contact and so applications of spores to surfaces such as walls, nets, or other resting sites provide possible routes to infect mosquitoes in and around domestic dwellings. However, some insects can detect and actively avoid fungal spores to reduce infection risk. If true for mosquitoes, such behavior could render the biopesticide approach ineffective. Here we find that the spores of B. bassiana are highly attractive to females of Anopheles stephensi, a major anopheline mosquito vector of human malaria in Asia. We further find that An. stephensi females are preferentially attracted to dead and dying caterpillars infected with B. bassiana, landing on them and subsequently becoming infected with the fungus. Females are also preferentially attracted to cloth sprayed with oil-formulated B. bassiana spores, with 95% of the attracted females becoming infected after a one-minute visit on the cloth. This is the first report of an insect being attracted to a lethal fungal pathogen. The exact mechanisms involved in this behavior remain unclear. Nonetheless, our results indicate that biopesticidal formulations comprising B. bassiana spores will be conducive to attraction and on-source visitation by malaria vectors. PMID:23658757

George, Justin; Jenkins, Nina E.; Blanford, Simon; Thomas, Matthew B.; Baker, Thomas C.

2013-01-01

253

The Fat Body Transcriptomes of the Yellow Fever Mosquito Aedes aegypti, Pre-and Post-Blood Meal  

E-print Network

The Fat Body Transcriptomes of the Yellow Fever Mosquito Aedes aegypti, Pre- and Post- Blood Meal Transcriptomes of the Yellow Fever Mosquito Aedes aegypti, Pre- and Post- Blood Meal. PLoS ONE 6(7): e22573. doi@nmsu.edu Introduction The yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, is the primary vector for dengue fever, several

Houde, Peter

254

Effects of Local Anthropogenic Changes on Potential Malaria Vector Anopheles hyrcanus and West Nile Virus Vector Culex modestus, Camargue, France  

PubMed Central

Using historical data, we highlight the consequences of anthropogenic ecosystem modifications on the abundance of mosquitoes implicated as the current most important potential malaria vector, Anopheles hyrcanus, and the most important West Nile virus (WNV) vector, Culex modestus, in the Camargue region, France. From World War II to 1971, populations of these species increased as rice cultivation expanded in the region in a political context that supported agriculture. They then fell, likely because of decreased cultivation and increased pesticide use to control a rice pest. The species increased again after 2000 with the advent of more targeted pest-management strategies, mainly the results of European regulations decisions. An intertwined influence of political context, environmental constraints, technical improvements, and social factors led to changes in mosquito abundance that had potential consequences on malaria and WNV transmission. These findings suggest that anthropogenic changes should not be underestimated in vectorborne disease recrudescence. PMID:18258028

Poncon, Nicolas; Balenghien, Thomas; Toty, Celine; Ferre, Jean Baptiste; Thomas, Cyrille; Dervieux, Alain; L'Ambert, Gregory; Schaffner, Francis; Bardin, Olivier

2007-01-01

255

Re-introducing bacteria in mosquitoes--a method for determination of mosquito feeding preferences based on coloured sugar solutions.  

PubMed

In this study, sugar-feeding was investigated as a possible means of re-introducing bacteria into mosquito midguts with the aim of identifying bacteria that are suitable for creating paratransgenic mosquitoes. In a paratransgenic approach, bacteria are utilised to deliver effector molecules capable of inhibiting pathogen development in the midgut of the vector. To determine if mosquitoes discriminate between sterile sugar solutions and sugar solutions with bacteria, a method for screening mosquito feeding preferences was developed. This method was tested for Aedes aegypti, Anopheles arabiensis and An. gambiae s.s. mosquitoes and is based on a dual-choice test of solutions labelled with food dyes. Three different tests (dye/colour detection, sugar detection and sugar-concentration detection) were performed to evaluate the method, after which bacteria previously isolated from mosquitoes were used in the experiments. It was shown that mosquitoes do not discriminate between sugar solutions with or without these bacteria indicating that sugar-feeding is a possible means to introduce bacteria into mosquitoes. Furthermore, two different setups of the method were used, enabling us to differentiate between tactile/taste and olfactory responses. The method described in this paper is easy to use, cost-effective and allows broad screening of mosquito sugar-feeding preferences. PMID:16999928

Lindh, J M; Terenius, O; Eriksson-Gonzales, K; Knols, B G J; Faye, I

2006-10-01

256

Analysing the generality of spatially predictive mosquito habitat models  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing spread of multi-drug resistant malaria in African highlands has highlighted the importance of malaria suppression through vector control. Its historical success has meant that larval control has been proposed as part of an integrated malaria vector control program. Due to high operation costs, larval control activities would benefit greatly if the locations of mosquito habitats could be identified

Li Li; Ling Bian; Laith Yakob; Guofa Zhou; Guiyun Yan

2011-01-01

257

The roles of serpins in mosquito immunology and physiology  

PubMed Central

In vector-borne diseases, the complex interplay between pathogen and its vectors immune system determines the outcome of infection and therefore disease transmission. Serpins have been shown in many animals to be key regulators of innate immune reactions. Their control over regulatory proteolytic cascades ultimately decides whether the recognition of a pathogen will lead to an appropriate immune response. In mosquitoes, serpins (SRPNs) regulate the activation of prophenoloxidase and thus melanization, contribute to malaria parasite lysis, and likely Toll pathway activation. Additionally, in culicine mosquitoes, SRPNs are able to regulate hemostasis in the vertebrate host, suggesting a crucial role during bloodfeeding. This review summarizes the annotation, transcriptional regulation, and current knowledge of SRPN function in the three mosquito species for which the complete genome sequence is available. Additionally, we give a brief overview of how SRPNs may be used to prevent transmission of vector-borne diseases. PMID:22960307

Gulley, Melissa M.; Zhang, Xin; Michel, Kristin

2012-01-01

258

Chemical composition, larvicidal evaluation, and adult repellency of endemic Greek Thymus essential oils against the mosquito vector of West Nile virus.  

PubMed

The volatile metabolites of Greek wild growing Thymus leucospermus and Thymus teucrioides subsp. candilicus were determined by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The monoterpene hydrocarbon p-cymene (64.2%) dominated T. leucospermus oil, followed by ?-terpinene (7.9%), thymol (4.8%), and borneol (4.7%), whereas the most abundant constituents in T. teucrioides subsp. candilicus oil were p-cymene (25.5%), ?-terpinene (19.0%), thymol (18.8%), borneol (5.7%), and ?-pinene (5.7%). The larvicidal and repellent activities of the analyzed essential oils were tested on Culex pipiens larvae and adults, respectively. Additionally, the main metabolite of the essential oils, p-cymene was tested against C. pipiens adults in order to define the affiliation between p-cymene and the repellent properties of the oil. The essential oils of T. leucospermus and T. teucrioides subsp. candilicus provided repellency 78.1% and 72.9%, respectively, statistically equal to the reference product icaridin. The compound p-cymene showed almost no repellent activity. The essential oil of T. leucospermus presented lower larvicidal activity (LC(50) = 34.26 mgl(-1)) against C. pipiens third-fourth instar larvae while T. teucrioides subsp. candilicus was the most active with an estimated LC(50) value of 23.17 mgl(-1). PMID:21301870

Pitarokili, Danae; Michaelakis, Antonios; Koliopoulos, George; Giatropoulos, Athanassios; Tzakou, Olga

2011-08-01

259

Mosquito Distribution Maps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These maps show mosquito habitat distribution for four mosquito species. The red-black areas are results of satellite data analysis showing where particular species of mosquitos can be found. The yellow lines are the published boundaries for where these species can be found. There is a strong correlation between the two. These images were created in support of a story describing how NASA is assisting the CDC and EPA in tracking the spread of West Nile Virus.

Shirah, Greg; Mitchell, Horace; Rogers, David; Venezia, Bob

2002-10-09

260

Green Nanoparticles for Mosquito Control  

PubMed Central

Here, we have used the green method for synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles. In the present study the silver (Ag) and gold (Au) nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by using the aqueous bark extract of Indian spice dalchini (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) (C. zyelanicum or C. verum J. Presl). Additionally, we have used these synthesized nanoparticles for mosquito control. The larvicidal activity has been tested against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi and filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus. The results were obtained using UV-visible spectrophotometer and the images were recorded with a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The efficacy tests were then performed at different concentrations and varying numbers of hours by probit analysis. The synthesized AgNPs were in spherical shape and average sizes (11.77?nm AgNPs and 46.48?nm AuNPs). The larvae of An. stephensi were found highly susceptible to the synthesized AgNPs and AuNPs than the Cx. quinquefasciatus. These results suggest that the C. zeylanicum synthesized silver and gold nanoparticles have the potential to be used as an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of mosquito.

Soni, Namita; Prakash, Soam

2014-01-01

261

Mosquito infection responses to developing filarial worms.  

PubMed

Human lymphatic filariasis is a mosquito-vectored disease caused by the nematode parasites Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi and Brugia timori. These are relatively large roundworms that can cause considerable damage in compatible mosquito vectors. In order to assess how mosquitoes respond to infection in compatible mosquito-filarial worm associations, microarray analysis was used to evaluate transcriptome changes in Aedes aegypti at various times during B. malayi development. Changes in transcript abundance in response to the different stages of B. malayi infection were diverse. At the early stages of midgut and thoracic muscle cell penetration, a greater number of genes were repressed compared to those that were induced (20 vs. 8). The non-feeding, intracellular first-stage larvae elicited few differences, with 4 transcripts showing an increased and 9 a decreased abundance relative to controls. Several cecropin transcripts increased in abundance after parasites molted to second-stage larvae. However, the greatest number of transcripts changed in abundance after larvae molted to third-stage larvae and migrated to the head and proboscis (120 induced, 38 repressed), including a large number of putative, immunity-related genes (approximately 13% of genes with predicted functions). To test whether the innate immune system of mosquitoes was capable of modulating permissiveness to the parasite, we activated the Toll and Imd pathway controlled rel family transcription factors Rel1 and Rel2 (by RNA interference knockdown of the pathway's negative regulators Cactus and Caspar) during the early stages of infection with B. malayi. The activation of either of these immune signaling pathways, or knockdown of the Toll pathway, did not affect B. malayi in Ae. aegypti. The possibility of LF parasites evading mosquito immune responses during successful development is discussed. PMID:19823571

Erickson, Sara M; Xi, Zhiyong; Mayhew, George F; Ramirez, Jose L; Aliota, Matthew T; Christensen, Bruce M; Dimopoulos, George

2009-01-01

262

Evolutionary studies of malaria vectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rationales given for studies of the population genetics of vectors are usually: (1) to predict the spread of genes, such as genes conferring insecticide resistance or possibly refractoriness to parasites and (2) to reveal novel insights into the epidemiology and transmission of vector-borne disease. The successful genetic transformation of mosquitoes has highlighted the need for a critical assessment of

Martin J. Donnelly; Frdric Simard; Tovi Lehmann

2002-01-01

263

Effects of fipronil on dogs over Triatoma infestans, the main vector of Trypanosoma cruzi, causative agent of Chagas disease.  

PubMed

Chagas disease is the most important endemic disease in Latin America, mainly transmitted by Triatoma infestans in the Southern Cone countries of South America. Dogs are one of the main domestic reservoirs of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease. The presence of dogs in rural households of endemic areas significantly increases the likelihood of the vectorial transmission of the parasite. We studied the mortality and blood intake of T. infestans exposed to dogs treated with different doses and formulations of fipronil. Two doses, two formulations, and different distances to the application point of fipronil were compared. Third instar nymphs of T. infestans were fed at different time intervals after the insecticide application up to 45 days post-application. No significant difference was found between the blood intake of nymphs fed on control and treated dogs with different doses and formulations (p > 0.05). The spray formulation showed lower effect and persistence than the spot-on formulation. The mortality rate caused by the spot-on formulation in the 26.8-mg active ingredient (a.i.)/kg dose was higher (48%) than with the 13.4-mg a.i./kg dose (25%), 24 h after the insecticide application. The effect was highly heterogeneous among replicates of the same treatment. The mortality rate of nymphs fed over the point of the insecticide application was higher than the mortality of nymphs fed over places 12 cm apart from the fipronil application point, suggesting that the distribution of fipronil over the dog body is lower than the needed one to obtain a persistent triatomicide effect. PMID:22669692

Amelotti, Ivana; Catal, Silvia S; Gorla, David E

2012-10-01

264

The basic rules and methods of mosquito rearing (Aedes aegypti)  

PubMed Central

The rearing of Aedes mosquitoes is complex and demanding for several reasons. Aedes larvae are affected by temperature, density and available nutrition, mating is not necessarily accomplished naturally and females need a blood meal to develop eggs. The climate chambers where the mosquitoes are kept are warm and sweaty. Due to these tropical conditions the larvae develop fast and need to be cared for daily. The Laboratory of Entomology in National Institute of Malaria Research Bangalore has cultured different colonies of different vectors successfully. In this paper, we discuss different aspects off the rearing process which affect mosquito fitness and are of importance for the quality of fundamental and applied research. PMID:24754030

Imam, Hashmat; Zarnigar; Sofi, Ghulamuddin; Seikh, Aziz

2014-01-01

265

An insight into the sialome of Simulium guianense (DIPTERA:SIMulIIDAE), the main vector of River Blindness Disease in Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background Little is known about the composition and function of the saliva in black flies such as Simulium guianense, the main vector of river blindness disease in Brazil. The complex salivary potion of hematophagous arthropods counteracts their host's hemostasis, inflammation, and immunity. Results Transcriptome analysis revealed ubiquitous salivary protein families--such as the Antigen-5, Yellow, Kunitz domain, and serine proteases--in the S. guianense sialotranscriptome. Insect-specific families were also found. About 63.4% of all secreted products revealed protein families found only in Simulium. Additionally, we found a novel peptide similar to kunitoxin with a structure distantly related to serine protease inhibitors. This study revealed a relative increase of transcripts of the SVEP protein family when compared with Simulium vittatum and S. nigrimanum sialotranscriptomes. We were able to extract coding sequences from 164 proteins associated with blood and sugar feeding, the majority of which were confirmed by proteome analysis. Conclusions Our results contribute to understanding the role of Simulium saliva in transmission of Onchocerca volvulus and evolution of salivary proteins in black flies. It also consists of a platform for mining novel anti-hemostatic compounds, vaccine candidates against filariasis, and immuno-epidemiologic markers of vector exposure. PMID:22182526

2011-01-01

266

Mosquito RNAi is the major innate immune pathway controlling arbovirus infection and transmission  

PubMed Central

Mosquito-borne arboviruses cause serious diseases in humans that are increasingly becoming public health problems, yet arbovirus infections cause minimal pathology in the mosquito vector, allowing persistent infections and lifelong virus transmission. The principal mosquito innate immune response to virus infections, RNAi, differs substantially from the human immune response and this difference could be the basis for the disparate outcomes of infection in the two hosts. Understanding the mosquito antiviral immune response could lead to strategies for interruption of arbovirus transmission and greatly reduce disease. Research focused on RNAi as the primary mosquito antiviral response has the greatest potential for developing a full understanding of mosquito innate immunity. This article reviews our current knowledge of mosquito antiviral RNAi and charts some of the future directions needed to fill knowledge gaps. PMID:21449839

Blair, Carol D

2011-01-01

267

Title: Exploring Mosquito Larval Immunity upon Exposure to Larvicidal Bacillus Sphaericus  

E-print Network

1 of 2 Title: Exploring Mosquito Larval Immunity upon Exposure to Larvicidal Bacillus Sphaericus interactions among mosquito gut microbiota, Plasmodium, and host immunity in the context of gut microenvironment. Mosquito immunity studies have been mainly focusing on the adults. Larva-pathogen interaction

Johnson, Eric E.

268

Odorant-Binding Proteins of the Malaria Mosquito Anopheles funestus sensu stricto  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe mosquito Anopheles funestus is one of the major malaria vector species in sub-Saharan Africa. Olfaction is essential in guiding mosquito behaviors. Odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) are highly expressed in insect olfactory tissues and involved in the first step of odorant reception. An improved understanding of the function of malaria mosquito OBPs may contribute to identifying new attractants\\/repellents and assist in

Wei Xu; Anthony J. Cornel; Walter S. Leal; Andreas Hofmann

2010-01-01

269

The roles of kairomones, synomones and pheromones in the chemically-mediated behaviour of male mosquitoes.  

PubMed

Despite decades of intensive study of the chemical ecology of female mosquitoes, relatively little is known about the chemical ecology of males. This short review summarizes the current state of knowledge of the chemicals that mediate male mosquito behaviour. Various trophic interactions including insect-plant, insect-host, and insect-insect responses are emphasized. The relevance of the chemical ecology of male mosquitoes in the context of vector control programmes is discussed. PMID:24055544

Pitts, R Jason; Moz?raitis, Raimondas; Gauvin-Bialecki, Anne; Lemprire, Guy

2014-04-01

270

Dry season refugia for anopheline larvae and mapping of the seasonal distribution in mosquito larval habitats in Kandi, northeastern Benin  

PubMed Central

Background The dynamics of mosquito populations depends on availability of suitable surface water for oviposition. It is well known that suitable management of mosquito larval habitats in the sub-Saharan countries, particularly during droughts, could help to suppress vector densities and malaria transmission. We conducted a field survey to investigate the spatial and seasonal distribution of mosquito larval habitats and identify drought-refugia for anopheline larvae. Methods A GIS approach was used to identify, geo-reference and follow up longitudinally from May 2012 to May 2013, all mosquito breeding sites in two rural sites (Yondarou and Thui), one urban (Kossarou), and one peri-urban (Pd) site at Kandi, a municipality in northeastern Benin. In Kandi, droughts are excessive with no rain for nearly six months and a lot of sunshine. A comprehensive record of mosquito larval habitats was conducted periodically in all sites for the identification of drought-refugia of anopheline larval stages. With geospatialisation data, seasonal larval distribution maps were generated for each study site with the software ArcGIS version 10.2. Results Overall, 187 mosquito breeding sites were identified of which 29.95% were recorded during drought. In rural, peri-urban and urban sites, most of the drought-refugia of anopheline larvae were domestic in nature (61.54%). Moreover, in rural settings, anopheline larvae were also sampled in cisterns and wells (25% of larval habitats sampled during drought in Yondarou and 20% in Thui). The mapping showed a significant decrease in the spatial distribution of mosquito larval habitats in rural, peri-urban and urban sites during drought, except in Yondarou (rural) where the aridity did not seem to influence the distribution of larval habitats. Conclusion Our data showed that the main drought-refugia of anopheline larvae were of a domestic nature as well as wells and cisterns. A suitable management of mosquito larvae in sub-Saharan countries, particularly during droughts, should target such larval habitats for a meaningful impact on the dynamics of mosquito populations and malaria transmission. PMID:24684886

2014-01-01

271

Mosquito-Host Interactions during and after an Outbreak of Equine Viral Encephalitis in Eastern Panama  

PubMed Central

Mosquito blood meals provide information about the feeding habits and host preference of potential arthropod-borne disease vectors. Although mosquito-borne diseases are ubiquitous in the Neotropics, few studies in this region have assessed patterns of mosquito-host interactions, especially during actual disease outbreaks. Based on collections made during and after an outbreak of equine viral encephalitis, we identified the source of 338 blood meals from 10 species of mosquitoes from Aruza Abajo, a location in Darien province in eastern Panama. A PCR based method targeting three distinct mitochondrial targets and subsequent DNA sequencing was used in an effort to delineate vector-host relationships. At Aruza Abajo, large domesticated mammals dominated the assemblage of mosquito blood meals while wild bird and mammal species represented only a small portion of the blood meal pool. Most mosquito species fed on a variety of hosts; foraging index analysis indicates that eight of nine mosquito species utilize hosts at similar proportions while a stochastic model suggests dietary overlap among species was greater than would be expected by chance. The results from our null-model analysis of mosquito diet overlap are consistent with the hypothesis that in landscapes where large domestic animals dominate the local biomass, many mosquito species show little host specificity, and feed upon hosts in proportion to their biomass, which may have implications for the role of livestocking patterns in vector-borne disease ecology. PMID:24339965

Navia-Gine, Wayra G.; Loaiza, Jose R.; Miller, Matthew J.

2013-01-01

272

Mosquito-host interactions during and after an outbreak of equine viral encephalitis in Eastern Panama.  

PubMed

Mosquito blood meals provide information about the feeding habits and host preference of potential arthropod-borne disease vectors. Although mosquito-borne diseases are ubiquitous in the Neotropics, few studies in this region have assessed patterns of mosquito-host interactions, especially during actual disease outbreaks. Based on collections made during and after an outbreak of equine viral encephalitis, we identified the source of 338 blood meals from 10 species of mosquitoes from Aruza Abajo, a location in Darien province in eastern Panama. A PCR based method targeting three distinct mitochondrial targets and subsequent DNA sequencing was used in an effort to delineate vector-host relationships. At Aruza Abajo, large domesticated mammals dominated the assemblage of mosquito blood meals while wild bird and mammal species represented only a small portion of the blood meal pool. Most mosquito species fed on a variety of hosts; foraging index analysis indicates that eight of nine mosquito species utilize hosts at similar proportions while a stochastic model suggests dietary overlap among species was greater than would be expected by chance. The results from our null-model analysis of mosquito diet overlap are consistent with the hypothesis that in landscapes where large domestic animals dominate the local biomass, many mosquito species show little host specificity, and feed upon hosts in proportion to their biomass, which may have implications for the role of livestocking patterns in vector-borne disease ecology. PMID:24339965

Navia-Gine, Wayra G; Loaiza, Jose R; Miller, Matthew J

2013-01-01

273

Mosquito host-feeding patterns and implications for Japanese encephalitis virus transmission in northern Australia and Papua New Guinea.  

PubMed

Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus spread to northern Australia during the 1990s, transmitted by Culex annulirostris Skuse and other mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). To determine the relative importance of various hosts for potential vectors of JE virus, we investigated the host-feeding patterns of mosquitoes in northern Australia and Western Province of Papua New Guinea, with particular attention to pigs, Sus scrofa L. - the main amplifying host of JE virus in South-east Asia. Mosquitoes were collected by CDC light traps baited with dry ice and 1-octen-3-ol, run 16.00-08.00 hours, mostly set away from human habitations, if possible in places frequented by feral pigs. Bloodmeals of 2569 mosquitoes, representing 15 species, were identified by gel diffusion assay. All species had fed mostly on mammals: only <10% of bloodmeals were from birds. The predominant species was Cx. annulirostris (88%), with relatively few (4.4%) bloodmeals obtained from humans. From all 12 locations sampled, the mean proportion of Cx. annulirostris fed on pigs (9.1%) was considerably lower than fed on other animals (90.9%). Highest rates of pig-fed mosquitoes (>30%) were trapped where domestic pigs were kept close to human habitation. From seven of eight locations on the Australian mainland, the majority of Cx. annulirostris had obtained their bloodmeals from marsupials, probably the Agile wallaby Macropus agilis (Gould). Overall proportions of mosquito bloodmeals identified as marsupial were 60% from the Gulf Plains region of Australia, 78% from the Cape York Peninsula and 64% from the Daru area of Papua New Guinea. Thus, despite the abundance of feral pigs in northern Australia, our findings suggest that marsupials divert host-seeking Cx. annulirostris away from pigs. As marsupials are poor JE virus hosts, the prevalence of marsupials may impede the establishment of JE virus in Australia. PMID:14651654

Van Den Hurk, A F; Johansen, C A; Zborowski, P; Paru, R; Foley, P N; Beebe, N W; Mackenzie, J S; Ritchie, S A

2003-12-01

274

Influence of biofuel crops on mosquito production and oviposition site selection  

E-print Network

Influence of biofuel crops on mosquito production and oviposition site selection E P H A N T U S J of biofuels production may cause unintended land-use changes and potentially alter ecosystem services and Miscanthus) biofuel crops on production and oviposition site selection by two vector mosquitoes, the yellow

Allan, Brian

275

Zoonotic Dirofilaria repens (Nematoda: Filarioidea) in Aedes vexans mosquitoes, Czech Republic.  

PubMed

The surveillance of vectors for arthropod-borne pathogens is nowadays an important tool in surveillance programmes throughout Europe. Whereas many studies have been performed to screen arthropods for viruses or bacterial pathogens, only limited information is available concerning the geographical distribution and vector range of pathogenic filariae in Central Europe. To consider the prevalence of filarial parasites in mosquito vectors, we performed a molecular survey of mosquitoes for filarial DNA. Mosquito collection was conducted at six study sites in the South Moravian region (Czech Republic) close to the borders with Slovakia and Austria from 2009 to 2011. Molecular screening of mosquitoes was conducted using conventional PCR with primers designed to amplify the mitochondrial cytochromoxidase subunit I gene as well as the partial 5.8S ribosomal RNA gene. A total of 13,222 mosquitoes belonging to six species were captured and distributed into 237 pools with different numbers of individuals. Overall, four pools were positive for Dirofilaria repens (a minimum infection rate 0.03 %) at two study sites (both natural and urban). Another filarial parasite detected during a study into Aedes vexans mosquitoes revealed the closest homology to Setaria spp. We detected specific D. repens DNA in Ae. vexans mosquitoes for the first time in the Czech Republic and confirmed the circulation of Dirofilaria spp. in a natural focus of infection providing an epidemiological link between autochthonous canine cases and mosquito vectors in the area studied. PMID:25346197

Rudolf, Ivo; Sebesta, Old?ich; Mendel, Jan; Betov, Lenka; Bockov, Eva; Jedli?kov, Petra; Venclkov, Kristna; Blaejov, Hana; Sikutov, Silvie; Hublek, Zden?k

2014-12-01

276

Feasible Introgression of an Anti-pathogen Transgene into an Urban Mosquito Population without Using  

E-print Network

S Negl Trop Dis 8(7): e2827. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0002827 Editor: Jason L. Rasgon, The Pennsylvania, much attention now focuses instead on transgenic strategies aimed at mosquito population suppression, an approach generally perceived to be practical. By contrast, aiming to replace vector competent mosquito

Lloyd, Alun

277

Chikungunya Virus and Aedes Mosquitoes: Saliva Is Infectious as soon as Two Days after Oral Infection  

E-print Network

Chikungunya Virus and Aedes Mosquitoes: Saliva Is Infectious as soon as Two Days after Oral and Aedes albopictus are potential vectors of chikungunya virus (CHIKV). The recent CHIKV outbreaks were: Dubrulle M, Mousson L, Moutailler S, Vazeille M, Failloux A-B (2009) Chikungunya Virus and Aedes Mosquitoes

Boyer, Edmond

278

Species Composition of Bacterial Communities Influences Attraction of Mosquitoes to Experimental Plant Infusions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the container habitats of immature mosquitoes, catabolism of plant matter and other organic detritus by microbial organisms produces metabolites that mediate the oviposition behavior of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. Public health agencies commonly use oviposition traps containing plant infusions for monitoring populations of these mosquito species, which are global vectors of dengue viruses. In laboratory experiments, gravid females

Loganathan Ponnusamy; Dawn M. Wesson; Consuelo Arellano; Coby Schal; Charles S. Apperson

2009-01-01

279

Climate Change and Range Expansion of the Asian Tiger Mosquito (Aedes albopictus) in Northeastern USA  

E-print Network

, Pennsylvania, United States of America, 3 Mercer County Mosquito Control, West Trenton, New Jersey, United States of America, 4 Center for Vector Biology, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey, United States of America Abstract The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Skuse), is an invasive species

280

Protection Practices Against Mosquito Among Students of a Tertiary Institution in Southwest Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various species of mosquitoes are recognized as vectors of a number of human infections in the tropics. One thousand (490 males, 510 females) self-selected students of a tertiary institution (Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago-Iwoye) in Ogun State, southwest Nigeria were interviewed between November 2007 and March 2008 to determine their protective measures against mosquitoes and their knowledge of the vectorial role

Olufemi Moses Agbolade; Olayemi Basirat Akintola; Ndubuisi Chinweike Agu; Tolulope Raufu; Olusola Johnson

281

Composition of Human Skin Microbiota Affects Attractiveness to Malaria Mosquitoes  

PubMed Central

The African malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto continues to play an important role in malaria transmission, which is aggravated by its high degree of anthropophily, making it among the foremost vectors of this disease. In the current study we set out to unravel the strong association between this mosquito species and human beings, as it is determined by odorant cues derived from the human skin. Microbial communities on the skin play key roles in the production of human body odour. We demonstrate that the composition of the skin microbiota affects the degree of attractiveness of human beings to this mosquito species. Bacterial plate counts and 16S rRNA sequencing revealed that individuals that are highly attractive to An. gambiae s.s. have a significantly higher abundance, but lower diversity of bacteria on their skin than individuals that are poorly attractive. Bacterial genera that are correlated with the relative degree of attractiveness to mosquitoes were identified. The discovery of the connection between skin microbial populations and attractiveness to mosquitoes may lead to the development of new mosquito attractants and personalized methods for protection against vectors of malaria and other infectious diseases. PMID:22216154

Verhulst, Niels O.; Qiu, Yu Tong; Beijleveld, Hans; Maliepaard, Chris; Knights, Dan; Schulz, Stefan; Berg-Lyons, Donna; Lauber, Christian L.; Verduijn, Willem; Haasnoot, Geert W.; Mumm, Roland; Bouwmeester, Harro J.; Claas, Frans H. J.; Dicke, Marcel; van Loon, Joop J. A.; Takken, Willem; Knight, Rob; Smallegange, Renate C.

2011-01-01

282

Composition of human skin microbiota affects attractiveness to malaria mosquitoes.  

PubMed

The African malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto continues to play an important role in malaria transmission, which is aggravated by its high degree of anthropophily, making it among the foremost vectors of this disease. In the current study we set out to unravel the strong association between this mosquito species and human beings, as it is determined by odorant cues derived from the human skin. Microbial communities on the skin play key roles in the production of human body odour. We demonstrate that the composition of the skin microbiota affects the degree of attractiveness of human beings to this mosquito species. Bacterial plate counts and 16S rRNA sequencing revealed that individuals that are highly attractive to An. gambiae s.s. have a significantly higher abundance, but lower diversity of bacteria on their skin than individuals that are poorly attractive. Bacterial genera that are correlated with the relative degree of attractiveness to mosquitoes were identified. The discovery of the connection between skin microbial populations and attractiveness to mosquitoes may lead to the development of new mosquito attractants and personalized methods for protection against vectors of malaria and other infectious diseases. PMID:22216154

Verhulst, Niels O; Qiu, Yu Tong; Beijleveld, Hans; Maliepaard, Chris; Knights, Dan; Schulz, Stefan; Berg-Lyons, Donna; Lauber, Christian L; Verduijn, Willem; Haasnoot, Geert W; Mumm, Roland; Bouwmeester, Harro J; Claas, Frans H J; Dicke, Marcel; van Loon, Joop J A; Takken, Willem; Knight, Rob; Smallegange, Renate C

2011-01-01

283

Unforeseen costs of cutting mosquito surveillance budgets.  

PubMed

A budget proposal to stop the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) funding in surveillance and research for mosquito-borne diseases such as dengue and West Nile virus has the potential to leave the country ill-prepared to handle new emerging diseases and manage existing ones. In order to demonstrate the consequences of such a measure, if implemented, we evaluated the impact of delayed control responses to dengue epidemics (a likely scenario emerging from the proposed CDC budget cut) in an economically developed urban environment. We used a mathematical model to generate hypothetical scenarios of delayed response to a dengue introduction (a consequence of halted mosquito surveillance) in the City of Cairns, Queensland, Australia. We then coupled the results of such a model with mosquito surveillance and case management costs to estimate the cumulative costs of each response scenario. Our study shows that halting mosquito surveillance can increase the management costs of epidemics by up to an order of magnitude in comparison to a strategy with sustained surveillance and early case detection. Our analysis shows that the total costs of preparedness through surveillance are far lower than the ones needed to respond to the introduction of vector-borne pathogens, even without consideration of the cost in human lives and well-being. More specifically, our findings provide a science-based justification for the re-assessment of the current proposal to slash the budget of the CDC vector-borne diseases program, and emphasize the need for improved and sustainable systems for vector-borne disease surveillance. PMID:21049010

Vazquez-Prokopec, Gonzalo M; Chaves, Luis F; Ritchie, Scott A; Davis, Joe; Kitron, Uriel

2010-01-01

284

Evaluation of a stable isotope method to mark naturally-breeding larval mosquitoes for adult dispersal studies.  

PubMed

Understanding mosquito dispersal is critically important for vector-borne disease control and prevention. Mark-release-recapture methods using various marking techniques have made substantial contributions to the study of mosquito biology. However, the ability to mark naturally breeding mosquitoes noninvasively and with life-long retention has remained problematic. Here, we describe a method to mark naturally breeding mosquitoes with stable isotopes. Culex pipiens f. molestus mosquitoes were provisioned as larvae in laboratory experiments with 15N-labeled potassium nitrate and 13C-labeled glucose. Larval enrichment was sufficient to differentiate marked adult mosquitoes from unmarked control mosquitoes and the natural source population from Chicago Illinois, using either delta 15N or delta 13C. Isotopic retention lasted for at least 55 d for adult male and females mosquitoes. There were no consistent effects of isotopic enrichment on immature mosquito survival or adult mosquito body size. We then applied this marking technique to naturally breeding Culex pipiens mosquitoes in suburban Chicago, IL, and for the first time, report successful isotopic enrichment of mosquitoes in the field. This stable isotope marking technique will facilitate studies of mosquito dispersal. PMID:22308772

Hamer, Gabriel L; Donovan, Danielle J; Hood-Nowotny, Rebecca; Kaufman, Michael G; Goldberg, Tony L; Walker, Edward D

2012-01-01

285

Host-feeding habits of Culex and other mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Borough of Queens in New York City, with characters and techniques for identification of Culex mosquitoes.  

PubMed

The host-feeding patterns of mosquitoes (n = 247) collected in the Borough of Queens in New York City in July and August 2000 were investigated using an indirect ELISA and a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-heteroduplex assay. Culex pipiens L. and Cx. restuans Theobald fed primarily on birds, and their feeding habits support their implication as enzootic vectors of West Nile virus. Culex salinarius Coquillett and Coquillettidia perturbans (Walker) fed mainly on mammals, with fewer blood meals taken from birds, and these two species are potential bridge vectors of West Nile virus. Culex mosquitoes took blood meals (n = 54) from 11 different avian species. Only the northern cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis), American robin (Turdus migratorius), and Brown-headed cow bird (MolIothrus ater) were fed upon by all three Culex species. Multiple blood feedings on avian hosts were detected in Cx. pipiens and Cx. restuans. Species identifications of Culex mosquitoes made using morphological characteristics were confirmed with a PCR assay that employed species-specific primers. All Cx. pipiens (n = 20) and Cx. salinarius (n = 10) specimens were correctly identified, but three (20%) of 15 Cx. restuans were misidentified as Cx. pipiens. PMID:12349862

Apperson, Charles S; Harrison, Bruce A; Unnasch, Thomas R; Hassan, Hassan K; Irby, William S; Savage, Harry M; Aspen, Stephen E; Watson, D Wesley; Rueda, Leopoldo M; Engber, Barry R; Nasci, Roger S

2002-09-01

286

Mosquito biology for the homeowner  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A good resource site from Cornell's Entomology Department covering the biology and management of mosquitoes. This site is designed primarily for homeowners but there is some good, concise information for all interested in control of mosquitoes. Sections are clearly laid out with practical advice on what works and what does not in mosquito control including control of larvae, adults and personal protection from mosquitoes. A good reference list is provided at the end for anyone wishing to read more on mosquitoes. This is an excellent general mosquito reference with good, science-based recommendations. There are a few minor typographical errors that should be corrected.

0002-11-30

287

Climatic effects on mosquito abundance in Mediterranean wetlands  

PubMed Central

Background The impact of climate change on vector-borne diseases is highly controversial. One of the principal points of debate is whether or not climate influences mosquito abundance, a key factor in disease transmission. Methods To test this hypothesis, we analysed ten years of data (20032012) from biweekly surveys to assess inter-annual and seasonal relationships between the abundance of seven mosquito species known to be pathogen vectors (West Nile virus, Usutu virus, dirofilariasis and Plasmodium sp.) and several climatic variables in two wetlands in SW Spain. Results Within-season abundance patterns were related to climatic variables (i.e. temperature, rainfall, tide heights, relative humidity and photoperiod) that varied according to the mosquito species in question. Rainfall during winter months was positively related to Culex pipiens and Ochlerotatus detritus annual abundances. Annual maximum temperatures were non-linearly related to annual Cx. pipiens abundance, while annual mean temperatures were positively related to annual Ochlerotatus caspius abundance. Finally, we modelled shifts in mosquito abundances using the A2 and B2 temperature and rainfall climate change scenarios for the period 20112100. While Oc. caspius, an important anthropophilic species, may increase in abundance, no changes are expected for Cx. pipiens or the salt-marsh mosquito Oc. detritus. Conclusions Our results highlight that the effects of climate are species-specific, place-specific and non-linear and that linear approaches will therefore overestimate the effect of climate change on mosquito abundances at high temperatures. Climate warming does not necessarily lead to an increase in mosquito abundance in natural Mediterranean wetlands and will affect, above all, species such as Oc. caspius whose numbers are not closely linked to rainfall and are influenced, rather, by local tidal patterns and temperatures. The final impact of changes in vector abundance on disease frequency will depend on the direct and indirect effects of climate and other parameters related to pathogen amplification and spillover on humans and other vertebrates. PMID:25030527

2014-01-01

288

British Container Breeding Mosquitoes: The Impact of Urbanisation and Climate Change on Community Composition and Phenology  

PubMed Central

The proliferation of artificial container habitats in urban areas has benefitted urban adaptable mosquito species globally. In areas where mosquitoes transmit viruses and parasites, it can promote vector population productivity and fuel mosquito-borne disease outbreaks. In Britain, storage of water in garden water butts is increasing, potentially expanding mosquito larval habitats and influencing population dynamics and mosquito-human contact. Here we show that the community composition, abundance and phenology of mosquitoes breeding in experimental water butt containers were influenced by urbanisation. Mosquitoes in urban containers were less species-rich but present in significantly higher densities (100.421.3) per container than those in rural containers (77.715.1). Urban containers were dominated by Culex pipiens (a potential vector of West Nile Virus [WNV]) and appear to be increasingly exploited by Anopheles plumbeus (a human-biting potential WNV and malaria vector). Culex phenology was influenced by urban land use type, with peaks in larval abundances occurring earlier in urban than rural containers. Among other factors, this was associated with an urban heat island effect which raised urban air and water temperatures by 0.9C and 1.2C respectively. Further increases in domestic water storage, particularly in urban areas, in combination with climate changes will likely alter mosquito population dynamics in the UK. PMID:24759617

Townroe, Susannah; Callaghan, Amanda

2014-01-01

289

British container breeding mosquitoes: the impact of urbanisation and climate change on community composition and phenology.  

PubMed

The proliferation of artificial container habitats in urban areas has benefitted urban adaptable mosquito species globally. In areas where mosquitoes transmit viruses and parasites, it can promote vector population productivity and fuel mosquito-borne disease outbreaks. In Britain, storage of water in garden water butts is increasing, potentially expanding mosquito larval habitats and influencing population dynamics and mosquito-human contact. Here we show that the community composition, abundance and phenology of mosquitoes breeding in experimental water butt containers were influenced by urbanisation. Mosquitoes in urban containers were less species-rich but present in significantly higher densities (100.421.3) per container than those in rural containers (77.715.1). Urban containers were dominated by Culex pipiens (a potential vector of West Nile Virus [WNV]) and appear to be increasingly exploited by Anopheles plumbeus (a human-biting potential WNV and malaria vector). Culex phenology was influenced by urban land use type, with peaks in larval abundances occurring earlier in urban than rural containers. Among other factors, this was associated with an urban heat island effect which raised urban air and water temperatures by 0.9C and 1.2C respectively. Further increases in domestic water storage, particularly in urban areas, in combination with climate changes will likely alter mosquito population dynamics in the UK. PMID:24759617

Townroe, Susannah; Callaghan, Amanda

2014-01-01

290

The Effect of Temperature on Anopheles Mosquito Population Dynamics and the Potential for Malaria Transmission  

PubMed Central

The parasites that cause malaria depend on Anopheles mosquitoes for transmission; because of this, mosquito population dynamics are a key determinant of malaria risk. Development and survival rates of both the Anopheles mosquitoes and the Plasmodium parasites that cause malaria depend on temperature, making this a potential driver of mosquito population dynamics and malaria transmission. We developed a temperature-dependent, stage-structured delayed differential equation model to better understand how climate determines risk. Including the full mosquito life cycle in the model reveals that the mosquito population abundance is more sensitive to temperature than previously thought because it is strongly influenced by the dynamics of the juvenile mosquito stages whose vital rates are also temperature-dependent. Additionally, the model predicts a peak in abundance of mosquitoes old enough to vector malaria at more accurate temperatures than previous models. Our results point to the importance of incorporating detailed vector biology into models for predicting the risk for vector borne diseases. PMID:24244467

Beck-Johnson, Lindsay M.; Nelson, William A.; Paaijmans, Krijn P.; Read, Andrew F.; Thomas, Matthew B.; Bj?rnstad, Ottar N.

2013-01-01

291

[Physico-chemical signals involved in host localization and in the induction of mosquito bites].  

PubMed

Disease vector female mosquitoes respond to physic-chemical signals to localize vertebrate hosts for blood meals. Zoophylic mosquitoes preferentially respond to CO2 and octenol released in the breath and bodily fluids, while anthropophylic mosquitoes respond to lactic acid and a variety of sweat compounds. These compounds are modified by saprophytic microorganisms in the skin sebaceous glands. Other factors present in human dwellings contribute to the integration of microsystems with characteristic odors that have different attraction for mosquitoes, explaining the focalization of malaria transmission in few households in endemic areas. The identification of the chemical attractants and their molecular receptors could be used to complement new methods to attract mosquitoes to traps during epidemiological surveys, to increase their contact with insecticides in control interventions, and for genetic manipulation to divert mosquito bites towards other animal populations. The English version of this paper is available at:http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html. PMID:14974294

Torres-Estrada, Jos Luis; Rodrguez, Mario H

2003-01-01

292

Mosquito Problems after a Storm  

E-print Network

Areas flooded after a severe storm are prone to mosquito problems. Several mosquito species are a danger to humans because of the diseases they transmit. This publication explains the symptoms of dengue fever, West Nile virus and St. Louis...

Johnsen, Mark

2008-08-05

293

Constituents of the essential oil of Suregada zanzibariensis leaves are repellent to the mosquito, Anopheles gambiae s.s.  

PubMed

In traditional African communities, repellent volatiles from certain plants generated by direct burning or by thermal expulsion have played an important role in protecting households against vectors of malaria and other diseases. Previous research on volatile constituents of plants has shown that some are good sources of potent mosquito repellents. In this bioprospecting initiative, the essential oil of leaves of the tree, Suregada zanzibariensis Verdc. (Angiospermae: Euphobiaceae) was tested against the mosquito, Anopheles gambiae s.s. Giles (Diptera: Culicidae) and found to be repellent. Gas chromatography (GC), GC-linked mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and, where possible, GC-co-injections with authentic compounds, led to the identification of about 34 compounds in the essential oil. About 56% of the constituents were terpenoid ketones, mostly methyl ketones. Phenylacetaldehyde (14.4%), artemisia ketone (10.1%), (1S)-(-)-verbenone (12.1%) and geranyl acetone (9.4%) were the main constituents. Apart from phenylacetaldehyde, repellent activities of the other main constituents were higher than that of the essential oil. The blends of the main constituents in proportions found in the essential oil were more repellent to An. gambiae s.s. than was the parent oil (p < 0.05), and the presence of artemisia ketone in the blend caused a significant increase in the repellency of the resulting blend. These results suggested that blends of some terpenoid ketones can serve as effective An. gambiae s.s. mosquito repellents. PMID:20569134

Innocent, Ester; Joseph, Cosam C; Gikonyo, Nicholas K; Nkunya, Mayunga H H; Hassanali, Ahmed

2010-01-01

294

Human migration, mosquitoes and the evolution of Plasmodium falciparum  

Microsoft Academic Search

To date, coalescent analysis of the Plasmodium falciparum genome sequence has failed to provide a unifying theory regarding the parasite's evolution. While a better understanding of the evolution of the malaria genome will undoubtedly clarify the current controversy, the importance of the parasite's interplay with both the human host and mosquito vector cannot be underestimated. Changes in the population biology

Jennifer C. C. Hume; Emily J. Lyons; Karen P. Day

2003-01-01

295

Etiology of interepidemic periods of mosquito-borne disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dengue viruses and malaria protozoa are of increasing global concern in public health. The diseases caused by these pathogens often show regular seasonal patterns in incidence because of the sensitivity of their mosquito vectors to climate. Between years in endemic areas, however, there can be further significant variation in case numbers for which public health systems are generally unprepared. There

Simon I. Hay; Monica F. Myers; Donald S. Burke; David W. Vaughn; Nisalak Anandai; G. Dennis Shanksi; Robert W. Snow; David J. Rogers

2000-01-01

296

Analyzing the control of mosquito-borne diseases by a dominant lethal genetic system  

PubMed Central

Motivated by the failure of current methods to control dengue fever, we formulate a mathematical model to assess the impact on the spread of a mosquito-borne viral disease of a strategy that releases adult male insects homozygous for a dominant, repressible, lethal genetic trait. A dynamic model for the female adult mosquito population, which incorporates the competition for female mating between released mosquitoes and wild mosquitoes, density-dependent competition during the larval stage, and realization of the lethal trait either before or after the larval stage, is embedded into a susceptibleexposedinfectioussusceptible human-vector epidemic model for the spread of the disease. For the special case in which the number of released mosquitoes is maintained in a fixed proportion to the number of adult female mosquitoes at each point in time, we derive mathematical formulas for the disease eradication condition and the approximate number of released mosquitoes necessary for eradication. Numerical results using data for dengue fever suggest that the proportional policy outperforms a release policy in which the released mosquito population is held constant, and that eradication in ?1 year is feasible for affected human populations on the order of 105 to 106, although the logistical considerations are daunting. We also construct a policy that achieves an exponential decay in the female mosquito population; this policy releases approximately the same number of mosquitoes as the proportional policy but achieves eradication nearly twice as fast. PMID:17519336

Atkinson, Michael P.; Su, Zheng; Alphey, Nina; Alphey, Luke S.; Coleman, Paul G.; Wein, Lawrence M.

2007-01-01

297

Isolations of Jamestown Canyon Virus (Bunyaviridae: Orthobunyavirus ) from Field-Collected Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Connecticut, USA: A Ten-Year Analysis, 19972006  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jamestown Canyon virus (JCV) (Bunyaviridae: Orthobunyavirus) is a mosquito-borne zoonosis belonging to the California serogroup. It has a wide geographic distribution, occurring throughout much of temperate North Amer- ica. White-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus are the principal amplification hosts, and boreal Aedes and Ochlero- tatus mosquitoes are the primary vectors. A 10-year study was undertaken to identify potential mosquito vectors in

Theodore G. Andreadis; John F. Anderson; Philip M. Armstrong; Andrew J. Main

2008-01-01

298

Post Flood Alternatives Mosquito Flats  

E-print Network

Post Flood Alternatives for Mosquito Flats (an entirely amateur perspective) Douglas Jones 816 Park of problems in Mosquito Flats: ! As developed, this is a single-exit neighborhood. This never should have been the Normandy ­ Park Road intersection approached gridlock. ! The storm drains serving Mosquito flats are very

Jones, Douglas W.

299

Bunyavirus-Vector Interactions  

PubMed Central

The Bunyaviridae family is comprised of more than 350 viruses, of which many within the Hantavirus, Orthobunyavirus, Nairovirus, Tospovirus, and Phlebovirus genera are significant human or agricultural pathogens. The viruses within the Orthobunyavirus, Nairovirus, and Phlebovirus genera are transmitted by hematophagous arthropods, such as mosquitoes, midges, flies, and ticks, and their associated arthropods not only serve as vectors but also as virus reservoirs in many cases. This review presents an overview of several important emerging or re-emerging bunyaviruses and describes what is known about bunyavirus-vector interactions based on epidemiological, ultrastructural, and genetic studies of members of this virus family. PMID:25402172

Horne, Kate McElroy; Vanlandingham, Dana L.

2014-01-01

300

The remarkable journey of adaptation of the Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasite to New World anopheline mosquitoes  

PubMed Central

Plasmodium falciparum originated in Africa, dispersed around the world as a result of human migration and had to adapt to several different indigenous anopheline mosquitoes. Anophelines from the New World are evolutionary distant form African ones and this probably resulted in a more stringent selection of Plasmodium as it adapted to these vectors. It is thought that Plasmodium has been genetically selected by some anopheline species through unknown mechanisms. The mosquito immune system can greatly limit infection and P. falciparum evolved a strategy to evade these responses, at least in part mediated by Pfs47, a highly polymorphic gene. We propose that adaptation of P. falciparum to new vectors may require evasion of their immune system. Parasites with a Pfs47 haplotype compatible with the indigenous mosquito vector would be able to survive and be transmitted. The mosquito antiplasmodial response could be an important determinant of P. falciparum population structure and could affect malaria transmission in the Americas. PMID:25185006

Molina-Cruz, Alvaro; Barillas-Mury, Carolina

2014-01-01

301

Flavivirus-Mosquito Interactions  

PubMed Central

The Flavivirus genus is in the family Flaviviridae and is comprised of more than 70 viruses. These viruses have a broad geographic range, circulating on every continent except Antarctica. Mosquito-borne flaviviruses, such as yellow fever virus, dengue virus serotypes 14, Japanese encephalitis virus, and West Nile virus are responsible for significant human morbidity and mortality in affected regions. This review focuses on what is known about flavivirus-mosquito interactions and presents key data collected from the field and laboratory-based molecular and ultrastructural evaluations. PMID:25421894

Huang, Yan-Jang S.; Higgs, Stephen; Horne, Kate McElroy; Vanlandingham, Dana L.

2014-01-01

302

Fauna of mosquito larvae (Diptera: Culicida) in Asir Provence, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

An entomological survey was undertaken for one year to update the mosquito fauna of Asir Region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A total of 31 species of 8 genera were reported of which genus Culex (55%) was the most common. Most of collected larvae (59%) belonged to genus Culex (+ Lutzia) followed by Culiseta (26%), Anopheles (13%) and Aedine spp. (2%). Cx. pipiens (39%) and Cs. longiareolata (26.%) were generally the most abundant of all collected larvae. Of the Anopheles spp., An. dthali was common (40%), of Culex spp., Cx. pipiens was predominating (66%) and of Aedine spp., St. aegypti was predominating (71%). Four species: An. fluviatilis, Cx. mattinglyi, Cx. arbieeni and Cx. mimeticus were new reports in Asir Region and Cx. wigglesworthi recorded for the first time from the kingdom. Larvae were more common in low- and highlands than in the moderately altitude areas. In general all species prefer stagnant water but with the exception of Aedine larvae (altogether), the other species prefer presence of algae, vegetation and shade and absence of turbidity (except Culex spp.). A total of 98 different forms of association were reported of which 9 forms were common. All genera breed year round with peaks of abundance during spring for Anopheles spp. and Culex spp. and during winter for Aedine spp. and Cs. longiareolata. A complete list of mosquito fauna of Asir Region comprising 45 spp. was presented based on the present and previous surveys. The study concluded that the occurrence and prevalence of mosquito species mainly the disease vectors in Asir carry the thread of maintaining and transmission of several mosquito-borne diseases. PMID:24961023

Al Ashry, Hamdy A; Kenawy, Mohamed A; Shobrak, Mohammed

2014-04-01

303

Daily oviposition patterns of the African malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae Giles (Diptera: Culicidae) on different types of aqueous substrates.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: Anopheles gambiae Giles is the most important vector of human malaria in sub-Saharan Africa. Knowledge of the factors that influence its daily oviposition pattern is crucial if field interventions targeting gravid females are to be successful. This laboratory study investigated the effect of oviposition substrate and time of blood feeding on daily oviposition patterns of An. gambiae mosquitoes. METHODS: Greenhouse-reared gravid and hypergravid (delayed oviposition onset) An. gambiae sensu stricto and wild-caught An. gambiae sensu lato were exposed to three types of substrates in choice and no-choice cage bioassays: water from a predominantly anopheline colonised ground pool (anopheline habitat water), swamp water mainly colonised by culicine larvae (culicine habitat water) and distilled water. The daily oviposition pattern and the number of eggs oviposited on each substrate during the entire egg-laying period were determined. The results were subjected to analysis of variance using the General Linear Model (GLM) procedure. RESULTS: The main oviposition time for greenhouse-reared An. gambiae s.s. was between 19:00 and 20:00 hrs, approximately one hour after sunset. Wild-caught gravid An. gambiae s.l. displayed two distinct peak oviposition times between 19:00 and 20:00 hrs and between 22:00 and 23:00 hrs, respectively. During these times, both greenhouse-reared and wild-caught mosquitoes significantly (P < 0.05) preferred anopheline habitat water to the culicine one. Peak oviposition activity was not delayed when the mosquitoes were exposed to the less preferred oviposition substrate (culicine habitat water). However, culicine water influenced negatively (P < 0.05) not only the number of eggs oviposited by the mosquitoes during peak oviposition time but also the overall number of gravid mosquitoes that laid their eggs on it. The differences in mosquito feeding times did not affect the daily oviposition patterns displayed. CONCLUSION: This study shows that the peak oviposition time of An. gambiae s.l. may be regulated by the light-dark cycle rather than oviposition habitat characteristics or feeding times. However, the number of eggs laid by the female mosquito during the peak oviposition time is affected by the suitability of the habitat. PMID:15596009

Sumba, Leunita A; Okoth, Kenneth; Deng, Arop L; Githure, John; Knols, Bart Gj; Beier, John C; Hassanali, Ahmed

2004-12-13

304

Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) for Rapid Identification of Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles arabiensis Mosquitoes  

PubMed Central

The main malaria vectors of sub-Saharan Africa, Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto and Anopheles arabiensis are morphologically indistinguishable, but often occur in sympatry and differ in feeding preference and vector competence. It is important to assess vector species identity for understanding the vectorial system and establishing appropriate vector control measures. The currently available species diagnosis methods for An. gambiae sensu latu require equipment to which public health practitioners in many African countries may not have access. This report describes a loop-mediated isothermal amplification technique (LAMP) for An. gambiae species diagnosis. The LAMP method was tested in single mosquito legs and whole body. The sensitivity and specificity of the LAMP method, in reference to the conventional rDNA-polymerse chain reaction (PCR) method, ranged from 0.93 to 1.00. The LAMP-based species identification method can be performed in a water bath and completed within 65 minutes, representing an alternative method for rapid and field applicable vector species diagnosis. PMID:19996433

Bonizzoni, Mariangela; Afrane, Yaw; Yan, Guiyun

2013-01-01

305

Insecticide resistance and malaria transmission: infection rate and oocyst burden in Culex pipiens mosquitoes infected with Plasmodium relictum  

PubMed Central

Background The control of most vectors of malaria is threatened by the spread of insecticide resistance. One factor that has been hitherto largely overlooked is the potential effects of insecticide resistance on the ability of mosquitoes to transmit malaria: are insecticide-resistant mosquitoes as good vectors of Plasmodium as susceptible ones? The drastic physiological changes that accompany the evolution of insecticide resistance may indeed alter the ability of vectors to transmit diseases, a possibility that, if confirmed, could have major epidemiological consequences. Methods Using a novel experimental system consisting of the avian malaria parasite (Plasmodium relictum) and its natural vector (the mosquito Culex pipiens), two of the most common mechanisms of insecticide resistance (esterase overproduction and acetylcholinesterase modification) were investigated for their effect on mosquito infection rate and parasite burden. For this purpose two types of experiments were carried out using (i) insecticide-resistant and susceptible laboratory isogenic lines of Cx. pipiens and (ii) wild Cx. pipiens collected from a population where insecticide resistant and susceptible mosquitoes coexist in sympatry. Results The isogenic line and wild-caught mosquito experiments were highly consistent in showing no effect of either esterase overproduction or of acetylcholinesterase modification on either the infection rate or on the oocyst burden of mosquitoes. The only determinant of these traits was blood meal size, which was similar across the different insecticide resistant categories in both experiments. Conclusions Insecticide resistance was found to have no effect on Plasmodium development within the mosquito. This is the first time this question has been addressed using a natural mosquito-Plasmodium combination, while taking care to standardize the genetic background against which the insecticide resistance genes operate. Infection rate and oocyst burden are but two of the factors that determine the vectorial capacity of mosquitoes. Other key determinants of parasite transmission, such as mosquito longevity and behaviour, or the parasite's incubation time, need to be investigated before concluding on whether insecticide resistance influences the ability of mosquitoes to transmit malaria. PMID:21194433

2010-01-01

306

Health research ethics in malaria vector trials in Africa  

PubMed Central

Malaria mosquito research in Africa as elsewhere is just over a century old. Early trials for development of mosquito control tools were driven by colonial enterprises and war efforts; they were, therefore, tested in military or colonial settings. The failure of those tools and environmental concerns, coupled with the desperate need for integrated malaria control strategies, has necessitated the development of new malaria mosquito control tools, which are to be tested on humans, their environment and mosquito habitats. Ethical concerns start with phase 2 trials, which pose limited ethical dilemmas. Phase 3 trials, which are undertaken on vulnerable civilian populations, pose ethical dilemmas ranging from individual to community concerns. It is argued that such trials must abide by established ethical principles especially safety, which is mainly enshrined in the principle of non-maleficence. As there is total lack of experience with many of the promising candidate tools (eg genetically modified mosquitoes, entomopathogenic fungi, and biocontrol agents), great caution must be exercised before they are introduced in the field. Since malaria vector trials, especially phase 3 are intrusive and in large populations, individual and community respect is mandatory, and must give great priority to community engagement. It is concluded that new tools must be safe, beneficial, efficacious, effective, and acceptable to large populations in the short and long-term, and that research benefits should be equitably distributed to all who bear the brunt of the research burdens. It is further concluded that individual and institutional capacity strengthening should be provided, in order to undertake essential research, carry out scientific and ethical review, and establish competent regulatory frameworks. PMID:21144083

2010-01-01

307

Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) Fauna of Qom Province, Iran  

PubMed Central

Background There is very little information about the mosquito fauna of Qom Province, central Iran. By now only three species; Anopheles claviger, An. multicolor, and An. superpictus have been reported in the province. To study mosquito fauna and providing a primary checklist, an investigation was carried out on a collection of mosquitoes in this province. Methods: To study the mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) fauna, larval collections were carried out from different habitats on 19 occasions using the standard dipping technique during spring and summer 2008 and 2009. Results: In total, 371 mosquito larvae were collected and morphologically identified including 14 species representing four genera: Anopheles claviger, An. marteri, An. turkhudi, An. superpictus, Culex arbieeni, Cx. hortensis, Cx. mimeticus, Cx. modestus, Cx. pipiens, Cx. territans, Cx. theileri, Culiseta longiareolata, Cs. subochrea, and Ochlerotatus caspius s.l. All species except for An. claviger and An. superpictus were collected for the first time in the province. All larvae were found in natural habitats. The association occasions and percentages of the mosquito larvae in Qom Province were discussed. Conclusion: There are some potential or proven vectors of different human and domesticated animal pathogens in Qom Province. The ecology of these species and the unstudied areas of Qom Province need to be investigated extensively. PMID:23293779

Saghafipour, A; Abai, MR; Farzinnia, B; Nafar, R; Ladonni, H; Azari-Hamidian, S

2012-01-01

308

Taxis assays measure directional movement of mosquitoes to olfactory cues  

PubMed Central

Background Malaria control methods targeting indoor-biting mosquitoes have limited impact on vectors that feed and rest outdoors. Exploiting mosquito olfactory behaviour to reduce blood-feeding outdoors might be a sustainable approach to complement existing control strategies. Methodologies that can objectively quantify responses to odour under realistic field conditions and allow high-throughput screening of many compounds are required for development of effective odour-based control strategies. Methods The olfactory responses of laboratory-reared Anopheles gambiae in a semi-field tunnel and A. arabiensis females in an outdoor field setting to three stimuli, namely whole human odour, a synthetic blend of carboxylic acids plus carbon dioxide and CO2 alone at four distances up to 100 metres were measured in two experiments using three-chambered taxis boxes that allow mosquito responses to natural or experimentally-introduced odour cues to be quantified. Results Taxis box assays could detect both activation of flight and directional mosquito movement. Significantly more (6-18%) A. arabiensis mosquitoes were attracted to natural human odour in the field up to 30 metres compared to controls, and blended synthetic human odours attracted 20% more A. gambiae in the semi-field tunnel up to 70 metres. Whereas CO2 elicited no response in A. arabiensis in the open field, it was attractive to A. gambiae up to 50 metres (65% attraction compared to 36% in controls). Conclusions We have developed a simple reproducible system to allow for the comparison of compounds that are active over medium- to long-ranges in semi-field or full-field environments. Knowing the natural range of attraction of anopheline mosquitoes to potential blood sources has substantial implications for the design of malaria control strategies, and adds to the understanding of olfactory behaviour in mosquitoes. This experimental strategy could also be extended from malaria vectors to other motile arthropods of medical, veterinary and agricultural significance. PMID:23642138

2013-01-01

309

The phenology of malaria mosquitoes in irrigated rice fields in Mali.  

PubMed

A field study was carried out in the large-scale rice irrigation scheme of the Office du Niger in Mali to investigate the relation between anopheline mosquito larval development and small-scale differences in irrigation practices, such as water level, irrigation application and irrigation frequency. The objective of the study was to find out if water management can be used as a tool for vector control to reduce the malaria transmission risk. Larvae of Anopheles gambiae s.s.,; the main malaria vector in the study area, developed mostly in the first 6 weeks after transplanting the rice. During rice development, a succession of anopheline species was observed. This was associated with a marked decrease in light intensity reaching the water surface as plant height increased. Minor differences in water management resulted in noticeable variations in larval densities and species composition. A. gambiae s.s. larvae were most abundant during the early growing stages and almost absent in a closed rice crop. Due to improper drainage after harvest, A. gambiae s.s. breeding was soon re-established in fields where small pools of water were retained. The results suggest that larval mosquito habitats in the Office du Niger can be significantly reduced by water management, simultaneous planting and harvesting and proper drainage of fallow fields. PMID:12505185

Klinkenberg, E; Takken, W; Huibers, F; Tour, Y T

2003-01-01

310

Comparative transcriptome analyses of deltamethrin-resistant and -susceptible Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes from Kenya by RNA-Seq.  

PubMed

Malaria causes more than 300 million clinical cases and 665,000 deaths each year, and the majority of the mortality and morbidity occurs in sub-Saharan Africa. Due to the lack of effective vaccines and wide-spread resistance to antimalarial drugs, mosquito control is the primary method of malaria prevention and control. Currently, malaria vector control relies on the use of insecticides, primarily pyrethroids. The extensive use of insecticides has imposed strong selection pressures for resistance in the mosquito populations. Consequently, resistance to pyrethroids in Anopheles gambiae, the main malaria vector in sub-Saharan Africa, has become a major obstacle for malaria control. A key element of resistance management is the identification of resistance mechanisms and subsequent development of reliable resistance monitoring tools. Field-derived An. gambiae from Western Kenya were phenotyped as deltamethrin-resistant or -susceptible by the standard WHO tube test, and their expression profile compared by RNA-seq. Based on the current annotation of the An. gambiae genome, a total of 1,093 transcripts were detected as significantly differentially accumulated between deltamethrin-resistant and -susceptible mosquitoes. These transcripts are distributed over the entire genome, with a large number mapping in QTLs previously linked to pyrethorid resistance, and correspond to heat-shock proteins, metabolic and transport functions, signal transduction activities, cytoskeleton and others. The detected differences in transcript accumulation levels between resistant and susceptible mosquitoes reflect transcripts directly or indirectly correlated with pyrethroid resistance. RNA-seq data also were used to perform a de-novo Cufflinks assembly of the An. gambiae genome. PMID:22970263

Bonizzoni, Mariangela; Afrane, Yaw; Dunn, William Augustine; Atieli, Francis K; Zhou, Goufa; Zhong, Daibin; Li, Jun; Githeko, Andrew; Yan, Guiyun

2012-01-01

311

Challenges and future perspective for dengue vector control in the Western Pacific Region  

PubMed Central

Dengue remains a significant public health issue in the Western Pacific Region. In the absence of a vaccine, vector control is the mainstay for dengue prevention and control. In this paper we describe vector surveillance and vector control in the Western Pacific countries and areas. Vector surveillance and control strategies used by countries and areas of the Western Pacific Region vary. Vector control strategies include chemical, biological and environmental management that mainly target larval breeding sites. The use of insecticides targeting larvae and adult mosquitoes remains the mainstay of vector control programmes. Existing vector control tools have several limitations in terms of cost, delivery and long-term sustainability. However, there are several new innovative tools in the pipeline. These include Release of Insects Carrying a Dominant Lethal system and Wolbachia, an endosymbiotic bacterium, to inhibit dengue virus in the vector. In addition, the use of biological control such as larvivorous fish in combination with community participation has potential to be scaled up. Any vector control strategy should be selected based on evidence and appropriateness for the entomological and epidemiological setting and carried out in both inter-epidemic and epidemic periods. Community participation and interagency collaboration are required for effective and sustainable dengue prevention and control. Countries and areas are now moving towards integrated vector management. PMID:23908883

Christophel, Eva Maria; Gopinath, Deyer; Abdur, Rashid Md.; Vectorborne, Other; Diseases, Parasitic

2011-01-01

312

Broad Surveys of DNA Viral Diversity Obtained through Viral Metagenomics of Mosquitoes  

PubMed Central

Viruses are the most abundant and diverse genetic entities on Earth; however, broad surveys of viral diversity are hindered by the lack of a universal assay for viruses and the inability to sample a sufficient number of individual hosts. This study utilized vector-enabled metagenomics (VEM) to provide a snapshot of the diversity of DNA viruses present in three mosquito samples from San Diego, California. The majority of the sequences were novel, suggesting that the viral community in mosquitoes, as well as the animal and plant hosts they feed on, is highly diverse and largely uncharacterized. Each mosquito sample contained a distinct viral community. The mosquito viromes contained sequences related to a broad range of animal, plant, insect and bacterial viruses. Animal viruses identified included anelloviruses, circoviruses, herpesviruses, poxviruses, and papillomaviruses, which mosquitoes may have obtained from vertebrate hosts during blood feeding. Notably, sequences related to human papillomaviruses were identified in one of the mosquito samples. Sequences similar to plant viruses were identified in all mosquito viromes, which were potentially acquired through feeding on plant nectar. Numerous bacteriophages and insect viruses were also detected, including a novel densovirus likely infecting Culex erythrothorax. Through sampling insect vectors, VEM enables broad survey of viral diversity and has significantly increased our knowledge of the DNA viruses present in mosquitoes. PMID:21674005

Ng, Terry Fei Fan; Willner, Dana L.; Lim, Yan Wei; Schmieder, Robert; Chau, Betty; Nilsson, Christina; Anthony, Simon; Ruan, Yijun; Rohwer, Forest; Breitbart, Mya

2011-01-01

313

A portable approach for the surveillance of dengue virus-infected mosquitoes.  

PubMed

Dengue virus is the most significant human viral pathogen spread by the bite of an infected mosquito. With no vaccine or antiviral therapy currently available, disease prevention relies largely on surveillance and mosquito control. Preventing the onset of dengue outbreaks and effective vector management would be considerably enhanced through surveillance of dengue virus prevalence in natural mosquito populations. However, current approaches to the identification of virus in field-caught mosquitoes require relatively slow and labor intensive techniques such as virus isolation or RT-PCR involving specialized facilities and personnel. A rapid and portable method for detecting dengue virus-infected mosquitoes is described. Using a hand held battery operated homogenizer and a dengue diagnostic rapid strip the viral protein NS1 was detected as a marker of dengue virus infection. This method could be performed in less than 30 min in the field, requiring no downstream processing, and is able to detect a single infected mosquito in a pool of at least 50 uninfected mosquitoes. The method described in this study allows rapid, real-time monitoring of dengue virus presence in mosquito populations and could be a useful addition to effective monitoring and vector control responses. PMID:22575689

Muller, David A; Frentiu, Francesca D; Rojas, Alejandra; Moreira, Luciano A; O'Neill, Scott L; Young, Paul R

2012-07-01

314

Prevalence of avian malaria parasite in mosquitoes collected at a zoological garden in Japan.  

PubMed

Several species of captive birds at zoological gardens of Japan were found to be infected with avian Plasmodium. However, incriminated vector mosquito species have not been identified yet. To indicate the competent vectors of avian malaria parasite, we collected mosquitoes at a zoological garden in Japan and examined for the avian malaria parasite DNA. Totally, 1,361 mosquitoes of 11 species were collected in the zoological garden of Kanagawa, the south of Tokyo in Japan in 2005. Captured mosquitoes were pooled by each species, date collected, and location and used for DNA extraction. Eight out of 169 DNA samples were positive for the nested PCR of avian Plasmodium cyt b gene. Estimated minimum infection rates of mosquitoes were 5.9 per 1,000. The PCR positive mosquito species were Culex pipiens group and Lutzia vorax. Some DNA sequences amplified from collected mosquitoes were identical to avian Plasmodium lineages detected from captive birds in the same zoological garden studied. Our results suggest that C. pipiens group and L. vorax could be incriminated vectors of avian malaria parasite transmitting in captive birds kept in the zoological garden in Japan. PMID:19352704

Ejiri, Hiroko; Sato, Yukita; Sawai, Risa; Sasaki, Emi; Matsumoto, Rei; Ueda, Miya; Higa, Yukiko; Tsuda, Yoshio; Omori, Sumie; Murata, Koichi; Yukawa, Masayoshi

2009-09-01

315

Biochem. J. (2013) 455, 7585 (Printed in Great Britain) doi:10.1042/BJ20130577 75 The central role of mosquito cytochrome P450 CYP6Zs in insecticide  

E-print Network

of mosquito cytochrome P450 CYP6Zs in insecticide detoxification revealed by functional expression, Lausanne 1015, Switzerland The resistance of mosquitoes to chemical insecticides is threatening vector, members of the mosquito CYP6Z subfamily, like Aedes aegypti CYP6Z8 and its Anopheles gambiae orthologue

Alvarez, Nadir

316

Nigeria Anopheles Vector Database: An Overview of 100 Years' Research  

PubMed Central

Anopheles mosquitoes are important vectors of malaria and lymphatic filariasis (LF), which are major public health diseases in Nigeria. Malaria is caused by infection with a protozoan parasite of the genus Plasmodium and LF by the parasitic worm Wuchereria bancrofti. Updating our knowledge of the Anopheles species is vital in planning and implementing evidence based vector control programs. To present a comprehensive report on the spatial distribution and composition of these vectors, all published data available were collated into a database. Details recorded for each source were the locality, latitude/longitude, time/period of study, species, abundance, sampling/collection methods, morphological and molecular species identification methods, insecticide resistance status, including evidence of the kdr allele, and P. falciparum sporozoite rate and W. bancrofti microfilaria prevalence. This collation resulted in a total of 110 publications, encompassing 484,747 Anopheles mosquitoes in 632 spatially unique descriptions at 142 georeferenced locations being identified across Nigeria from 1900 to 2010. Overall, the highest number of vector species reported included An. gambiae complex (65.2%), An. funestus complex (17.3%), An. gambiae s.s. (6.5%). An. arabiensis (5.0%) and An. funestus s.s. (2.5%), with the molecular forms An. gambiae M and S identified at 120 locations. A variety of sampling/collection and species identification methods were used with an increase in molecular techniques in recent decades. Insecticide resistance to pyrethroids and organochlorines was found in the main Anopheles species across 45 locations. Presence of P. falciparum and W. bancrofti varied between species with the highest sporozoite rates found in An. gambiae s.s, An. funestus s.s. and An. moucheti, and the highest microfilaria prevalence in An. gambiae s.l., An. arabiensis, and An. gambiae s.s. This comprehensive geo-referenced database provides an essential baseline on Anopheles vectors and will be an important resource for malaria and LF vector control programmes in Nigeria. PMID:22162764

Okorie, Patricia Nkem; McKenzie, F. Ellis; Ademowo, Olusegun George; Bockarie, Moses; Kelly-Hope, Louise

2011-01-01

317

Nigeria Anopheles vector database: an overview of 100 years' research.  

PubMed

Anopheles mosquitoes are important vectors of malaria and lymphatic filariasis (LF), which are major public health diseases in Nigeria. Malaria is caused by infection with a protozoan parasite of the genus Plasmodium and LF by the parasitic worm Wuchereria bancrofti. Updating our knowledge of the Anopheles species is vital in planning and implementing evidence based vector control programs. To present a comprehensive report on the spatial distribution and composition of these vectors, all published data available were collated into a database. Details recorded for each source were the locality, latitude/longitude, time/period of study, species, abundance, sampling/collection methods, morphological and molecular species identification methods, insecticide resistance status, including evidence of the kdr allele, and P. falciparum sporozoite rate and W. bancrofti microfilaria prevalence. This collation resulted in a total of 110 publications, encompassing 484,747 Anopheles mosquitoes in 632 spatially unique descriptions at 142 georeferenced locations being identified across Nigeria from 1900 to 2010. Overall, the highest number of vector species reported included An. gambiae complex (65.2%), An. funestus complex (17.3%), An. gambiae s.s. (6.5%). An. arabiensis (5.0%) and An. funestus s.s. (2.5%), with the molecular forms An. gambiae M and S identified at 120 locations. A variety of sampling/collection and species identification methods were used with an increase in molecular techniques in recent decades. Insecticide resistance to pyrethroids and organochlorines was found in the main Anopheles species across 45 locations. Presence of P. falciparum and W. bancrofti varied between species with the highest sporozoite rates found in An. gambiae s.s, An. funestus s.s. and An. moucheti, and the highest microfilaria prevalence in An. gambiae s.l., An. arabiensis, and An. gambiae s.s. This comprehensive geo-referenced database provides an essential baseline on Anopheles vectors and will be an important resource for malaria and LF vector control programmes in Nigeria. PMID:22162764

Okorie, Patricia Nkem; McKenzie, F Ellis; Ademowo, Olusegun George; Bockarie, Moses; Kelly-Hope, Louise

2011-01-01

318

Effect of combining mosquito repellent and insecticide treated net on malaria prevalence in Southern Ethiopia: a cluster-randomised trial  

PubMed Central

Background A mosquito repellent has the potential to prevent malaria infection, but there has been few studies demonstrating the effectiveness of combining this strategy with the highly effective long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs). This study aimed to determine the effect of combining community-based mosquito repellent with LLINs in the reduction of malaria. Methods A community-based clustered-randomised trial was conducted in 16 rural villages with 1,235 households in southern Ethiopia between September and December of 2008. The villages were randomly assigned to intervention (mosquito repellent and LLINs, eight villages) and control (LLINs alone, eight villages) groups. Households in the intervention villages received mosquito repellent (i.e., Buzz-Off petroleum jelly, essential oil blend) applied every evening. The baseline survey was followed by two follow-up surveys, at one month interval. The primary outcome was detection of Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, or both parasites, through microscopic examination of blood slides. Analysis was by intention to treat. Baseline imbalances and clustering at individual, household and village levels were adjusted using a generalized linear mixed model. Results 3,078 individuals in intervention and 3,004 in control group were enrolled into the study. Compared with the control arm, the combined use of mosquito repellent and LLINs significantly reduced malaria infection of all types over time [adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR)?=?0.66; 95% CI?=?0.45-0.97]. Similarly, a substantial reduction in P. falciparum malaria infection during the follow-up surveys was observed in the intervention group (aOR?=?0.53, 95% CI?=?0.31-0.89). The protective efficacy of using mosquito repellent and LLINs against malaria infection of both P. falciparum/P. vivax and P. falciparum was 34% and 47%, respectively. Conclusions Daily application of mosquito repellent during the evening followed by the use of LLINs during bedtime at community level has significantly reduced malaria infection. The finding has strong implication particularly in areas where malaria vectors feed mainly in the evening before bedtime. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01160809. PMID:24678612

2014-01-01

319

Blood feeding patterns of mosquitoes: random or structured?  

PubMed Central

Background The foraging behavior of blood-sucking arthropods is the defining biological event shaping the transmission cycle of vector-borne parasites. It is also a phenomenon that pertains to the realm of community ecology, since blood-feeding patterns of vectors can occur across a community of vertebrate hosts. Although great advances in knowledge of the genetic basis for blood-feeding choices have been reported for selected vector species, little is known about the role of community composition of vertebrate hosts in determining such patterns. Methods & Results Here, we present an analysis of feeding patterns of vectors across a variety of locations, looking at foraging patterns of communities of mosquitoes, across communities of hosts primarily comprised of mammals and birds. Using null models of species co-occurrence, which do not require ancillary information about host abundance, we found that blood-feeding patterns were aggregated in studies from multiple sites, but random in studies from a single site. This combination of results supports the idea that mosquito species in a community may rely primarily on host availability in a given landscape, and that contacts with specific hosts will be influenced more by the presence/absence of hosts than by innate mosquito choices. This observation stresses the importance of blood-feeding plasticity as a key trait explaining the emergence of many zoonotic mosquito transmitted diseases. Discussion From an epidemiological perspective our observations support the idea that phenomena promoting synchronization of vectors and hosts can promote the emergence of vector-borne zoonotic diseases, as suggested by observations on the linkages between deforestation and the emergence of several human diseases. PMID:20205866

2010-01-01

320

Transcriptome response to pollutants and insecticides in the dengue vector Aedes aegypti using next-generation sequencing technology  

PubMed Central

Background The control of mosquitoes transmitting infectious diseases relies mainly on the use of chemical insecticides. However, mosquito control programs are now threatened by the emergence of insecticide resistance. Hitherto, most research efforts have been focused on elucidating the molecular basis of inherited resistance. Less attention has been paid to the short-term response of mosquitoes to insecticides and pollutants which could have a significant impact on insecticide efficacy. Here, a combination of LongSAGE and Solexa sequencing was used to perform a deep transcriptome analysis of larvae of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti exposed for 48 h to sub-lethal doses of three chemical insecticides and three anthropogenic pollutants. Results Thirty millions 20 bp cDNA tags were sequenced, mapped to the mosquito genome and clustered, representing 6850 known genes and 4868 additional clusters not located within predicted genes. Mosquitoes exposed to insecticides or anthropogenic pollutants showed considerable modifications of their transcriptome. Genes encoding cuticular proteins, transporters, and enzymes involved in the mitochondrial respiratory chain and detoxification processes were particularly affected. Genes and molecular mechanisms potentially involved in xenobiotic response and insecticide tolerance were identified. Conclusions The method used in the present study appears as a powerful approach for investigating fine transcriptome variations in genome-sequenced organisms and can provide useful informations for the detection of novel transcripts. At the biological level, despite low concentrations and no apparent phenotypic effects, the significant impact of these xenobiotics on mosquito transcriptomes raise important questions about the 'hidden impact' of anthropogenic pollutants on ecosystems and consequences on vector control. PMID:20356352

2010-01-01

321

Insecticide resistance in disease vectors from Mayotte: an opportunity for integrated vector management  

PubMed Central

Background Mayotte, a small island in the Indian Ocean, has been affected for many years by vector-borne diseases. Malaria, Bancroftian filariasis, dengue, chikungunya and Rift Valley fever have circulated or still circulate on the island. They are all transmitted by Culicidae mosquitoes. To limit the impact of these diseases on human health, vector control has been implemented for more than 60years on Mayotte. In this study, we assessed the resistance levels of four major vector species (Anopheles gambiae, Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus) to two types of insecticides: i) the locally currently-used insecticides (organophosphates, pyrethroids) and ii) alternative molecules that are promising for vector control and come from different insecticide families (bacterial toxins or insect growth regulators). When some resistance was found to one of these insecticides, we characterized the mechanisms involved. Methods Larval and adult bioassays were used to evaluate the level of resistance. When resistance was found, we tested for the presence of metabolic resistance through detoxifying enzyme activity assays, or for target-site mutations through molecular identification of known resistance alleles. Results Resistance to currently-used insecticides varied greatly between the four vector species. While no resistance to any insecticides was found in the two Aedes species, bioassays confirmed multiple resistance in Cx. p. quinquefasciatus (temephos: ~ 20 fold and deltamethrin: only 10% mortality after 24hours). In An. gambiae, resistance was scarce: only a moderate resistance to temephos was found (~5 fold). This resistance appears to be due only to carboxyl-esterase overexpression and not to target modification. Finally, and comfortingly, none of the four species showed resistance to any of the new insecticides. Conclusions The low resistance observed in Mayottes main disease vectors is particularly interesting, because it leaves a range of tools useable by vector control services. Together with the relative isolation of the island (thus limited immigration of mosquitoes), it provides us with a unique place to implement an integrated vector management plan, including all the good practices learned from previous experiences. PMID:24984704

2014-01-01

322

40 CFR 258.22 - Disease vector control.  

...of human health and the environment. (b) For purposes of this section, disease vectors means any rodents, flies, mosquitoes, or other animals, including insects, capable of transmitting disease to...

2014-07-01

323

Distribution of African Malaria Mosquitoes Belonging to the Anopheles gambiae Complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of malaria vector mosquitoes, especially those belonging to species complexes that contain non-vector species, is important for strategic planning of malaria control programmes. Geographical information systems have allowed researchers to visualize distribution data on maps together with environmental parameters, such as rainfall and temperature. Here, Maureen Coetzee, Marlies Craig and David le Sueur review our current knowledge on

M. Coetzee; M. Craig; D. le Sueur

2000-01-01

324

Visual and olfactory associative learning in the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto  

PubMed Central

Background Memory and learning are critical aspects of the ecology of insect vectors of human pathogens because of their potential effects on contacts between vectors and their hosts. Despite this epidemiological importance, there have been only a limited number of studies investigating associative learning in insect vector species and none on Anopheline mosquitoes. Methods A simple behavioural assays was developed to study visual and olfactory associative learning in Anopheles gambiae, the main vector of malaria in Africa. Two contrasted membrane qualities or levels of blood palatability were used as reinforcing stimuli for bi-directional conditioning during blood feeding. Results Under such experimental conditions An. gambiae females learned very rapidly to associate visual (chequered and white patterns) and olfactory cues (presence and absence of cheese or Citronella smell) with the reinforcing stimuli (bloodmeal quality) and remembered the association for up to three days. Associative learning significantly increased with the strength of the conditioning stimuli used. Importantly, learning sometimes occurred faster when a positive reinforcing stimulus (palatable blood) was associated with an innately preferred cue (such as a darker visual pattern). However, the use of too attractive a cue (e.g. Shropshire cheese smell) was counter-productive and decreased learning success. Conclusions The results address an important knowledge gap in mosquito ecology and emphasize the role of associative memory for An. gambiae's host finding and blood-feeding behaviour with important potential implications for vector control. PMID:22284012

2012-01-01

325

Susceptibility of Anopheles stephensi to Plasmodium gallinaceum: A Trait of the Mosquito, the Parasite, and the Environment  

PubMed Central

Background Vector susceptibility to Plasmodium infection is treated primarily as a vector trait, although it is a composite trait expressing the joint occurrence of the parasite and the vector with genetic contributions of both. A comprehensive approach to assess the specific contribution of genetic and environmental variation on vector susceptibility is lacking. Here we developed and implemented a simple scheme to assess the specific contributions of the vector, the parasite, and the environment to vector susceptibility. To the best of our knowledge this is the first study that employs such an approach. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted selection experiments on the vector (while holding the parasite constant) and on the parasite (while holding the vector constant) to estimate the genetic contributions of the mosquito and the parasite to the susceptibility of Anopheles stephensi to Plasmodium gallinaceum. We separately estimated the realized heritability of (i) susceptibility to parasite infection by the mosquito vector and (ii) parasite compatibility (transmissibility) with the vector while controlling the other. The heritabilities of vector and the parasite were higher for the prevalence, i.e., fraction of infected mosquitoes, than the corresponding heritabilities of parasite load, i.e., the number of oocysts per mosquito. Conclusions The vector's genetics (heritability) comprised 67% of vector susceptibility measured by the prevalence of mosquitoes infected with P. gallinaceum oocysts, whereas the specific contribution of parasite genetics (heritability) to this trait was only 5%. Our parasite source might possess minimal genetic diversity, which could explain its low heritability (and the high value of the vector). Notably, the environment contributed 28%. These estimates are relevant only to the particular system under study, but this experimental design could be useful for other parasite-host systems. The prospects and limitations of the genetic manipulation of vector populations to render the vector resistant to the parasite are better considered on the basis of this framework. PMID:21694762

Hume, Jen C. C.; Hamilton, Howard; Lee, Kevin L.; Lehmann, Tovi

2011-01-01

326

Predicting seasonal abundance of mosquitoes based on off-season meteorological conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modeling mosquito population dynamics has become an important part of understanding the transmission of mosquito-borne arboviruses.\\u000a Of these models, those including meteorological variables have mainly focused on conditions during or immediately preceding\\u000a the mosquito breeding season. While these conditions are clearly critical biologically and statistically, it is also biologically\\u000a plausible that conditions during the off-season may contribute to interannual variation

Andrew S. Walsh; Gregory E. Glass; Cyrus R. Lesser; Frank C. Curriero

2008-01-01

327

Fatty acids in anopheline mosquito larvae and their habitats.  

PubMed

Larvae of the three important Central American malaria vectors, Anopheles albimanus, An. vestitipennis, and An. darlingi, are found in distinctly different habitats broadly defined by hydrology and aquatic vegetation, but little is known about the actual food quality and quantity of these habitats. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are of special interest, because mosquitoes require 20:5?3 (EPA), 20:4?6 (ARA), and 22:6?3 (DHA) and without an adequate supply of these PUFAs they are not able to complete their life cycle. We collected samples of larvae and their corresponding habitats and analyzed their fatty acid (FA) composition to reveal if there are any species-specific and habitat-specific differences in FA composition, and if habitat FA differences can be linked to differences in the mosquito FA pattern and, ultimately, mosquito performance. We also assessed how FA of wild larvae compare to the laboratory-reared larvae. Habitats were generally low in essential PUFAs and there were no significant differences among the FA composition of habitat samples. There were significant differences in FA composition of larvae. An. darlingi contained significantly higher amounts of FA, specifically a higher content of ?-6 PUFA, represented mainly by the linoleic acid (18:2?-6). Large differences were found between field-collected and laboratory-reared An. vestitipennis larvae, especially in the content of PUFAs. The laboratory-reared larvae contained significantly more of the total FA, ?3 PUFA, and MUFA. The laboratory-reared larvae contained three to five times more essential PUFAs, EPA, and DHA. However, there were no differences in the total dry weight of the 4(th) instar larvae between the wild vs laboratory-reared larvae. Total FA in both larvae and habitats of An. albimanus and An. darlingi were positively correlated with the concentration of particulate organic carbon and nitrogen (POC, PON) in their respective habitats, but no such correlation was found for An. vestitipennis. PUFA are a good indicator of nutritional quality, although factors controlling the success of anopheline development from larval habitats are likely to be more complex and would include the presence of predators, pathogens, and toxins as interacting factors. PMID:23181863

Komnkov, Dana; Rejmnkov, Elika; Grieco, John; Achee, Nicole

2012-12-01

328

Progress in mosquito net coverage in Papua New Guinea  

PubMed Central

Background Since 2004, the Global Fund-supported National Malaria Control Programme of Papua New Guinea (PNG) has been implementing country-wide free long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN) distribution campaigns. In 2009, after the first distribution, only 32.5% of the population used a LLIN, mainly due to an insufficient number of nets available. This study investigated changes in mosquito net ownership and use following the continued free distribution of LLINs across PNG. Methods Five villages from each province and 30 households from each village were randomly sampled in a country-wide household survey in 2010/11. A structured questionnaire administered to household heads recorded information on mosquito net ownership and use alongside household characteristics. Revised ownership and access indicators were applied in the analysis to reveal coverage gaps. Results The survey covered 1,996 households in 77 villages. Ownership of at least one LLIN was reported by 81.8% of households, compared to 64.6% in 2009 (P?=?0.002). Sufficient LLINs to cover all household members (one net per two people) were found in 41.3% of the households (21.4% in 2009, P?mosquito net ownership and use with few regional exceptions. Additional nets are required in areas where access is low, while major efforts are required to encourage the use of existing nets in region where access is high but use remains low. Complementary vector control approaches should also be considered in such settings. PMID:24961245

2014-01-01

329

European Surveillance for West Nile Virus in Mosquito Populations  

PubMed Central

A wide range of arthropod-borne viruses threaten both human and animal health either through their presence in Europe or through risk of introduction. Prominent among these is West Nile virus (WNV), primarily an avian virus, which has caused multiple outbreaks associated with human and equine mortality. Endemic outbreaks of West Nile fever have been reported in Italy, Greece, France, Romania, Hungary, Russia and Spain, with further spread expected. Most outbreaks in Western Europe have been due to infection with WNV Lineage 1. In Eastern Europe WNV Lineage 2 has been responsible for human and bird mortality, particularly in Greece, which has experienced extensive outbreaks over three consecutive years. Italy has experienced co-circulation with both virus lineages. The ability to manage this threat in a cost-effective way is dependent on early detection. Targeted surveillance for pathogens within mosquito populations offers the ability to detect viruses prior to their emergence in livestock, equine species or human populations. In addition, it can establish a baseline of mosquito-borne virus activity and allow monitoring of change to this over time. Early detection offers the opportunity to raise disease awareness, initiate vector control and preventative vaccination, now available for horses, and encourage personal protection against mosquito bites. This would have major benefits through financial savings and reduction in equid morbidity/mortality. However, effective surveillance that predicts virus outbreaks is challenged by a range of factors including limited resources, variation in mosquito capture rates (too few or too many), difficulties in mosquito identification, often reliant on specialist entomologists, and the sensitive, rapid detection of viruses in mosquito pools. Surveillance for WNV and other arboviruses within mosquito populations varies between European countries in the extent and focus of the surveillance. This study reviews the current status of WNV in mosquito populations across Europe and how this is informing our understanding of virus epidemiology. Key findings such as detection of virus, presence of vector species and invasive mosquito species are summarized, and some of the difficulties encountered when applying a cost-effective surveillance programme are highlighted. PMID:24157510

Engler, Olivier; Savini, Giovanni; Papa, Anna; Figuerola, Jordi; Groschup, Martin H.; Kampen, Helge; Medlock, Jolyon; Vaux, Alexander; Wilson, Anthony J.; Werner, Doreen; Jost, Hanna; Goffredo, Maria; Capelli, Gioia; Federici, Valentina; Tonolla, Mauro; Patocchi, Nicola; Flacio, Eleonora; Portmann, Jasmine; Rossi-Pedruzzi, Anya; Mourelatos, Spiros; Ruiz, Santiago; Vazquez, Ana; Calzolari, Mattia; Bonilauri, Paolo; Dottori, Michele; Schaffner, Francis; Mathis, Alexander; Johnson, Nicholas

2013-01-01

330

Mosquito Lagoon environmental resources inventory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document provides a synopsis of biotic and abiotic data collected in the Mosquito Lagoon area in relation to water quality. A holistic ecological approach was used in this review to allow for summaries of climate, land use, vegetation, geohydrology, water quality, fishes, sea turtles, wading birds, marine mammals, invertebrates, shellfish, and mosquito control. The document includes a bibliographic database list of 157 citations that have references to the Mosquito Lagoon, many of which were utilized in development of the text.

Provancha, Jane A.; Hall, Carlton R.; Oddy, Donna M.

1992-01-01

331

Heartworm Disease (Dirofilaria immitis) and Their Vectors in Europe - New Distribution Trends  

PubMed Central

Cardiopulmonary dirofilariasis is a cosmopolitan disease caused by Dirofilaria immitis, which affects mainly canids and felids. Moreover, it causes zoonotic infections, producing pulmonary dirofilariasis in humans. Heartworm disease is a vector-borne transmitted disease, thus transmission depends on the presence of competent mosquito species, which is directly related to favorable climate conditions for its development and survival. Cardiopulmonary dirofilariasis is mainly located in countries with temperate and tropical climates. Europe is one of the continents where animal dirofilariasis has been studied more extensively. In this article we review the current prevalence of canine and feline cardiopulmonary dirofilariasis in the European continent, the transmission vectors, the current changes in the distribution and the possible causes, though the analysis of the epidemiological studies carried out until 2001 and between 2002 and 2011. The highest prevalences have been observed in the southern European countries, which are considered historically endemic/hyperendemic countries. Studies carried out in the last 10?years suggest an expansion of cardiopulmonary dirofilariasis in dogs toward central and northern Europe. Several factors can exert an influence on the spreading of the disease, such as movement of infected animals, the introduction of new species of mosquitoes able to act as vectors, the climate change caused by the global warming, and development of human activity in new areas. Veterinary controls to prevent the spreading of this disease, programs of control of vectors, and adequate protocols of prevention of dirofilariasis in the susceptible species should be carried out. PMID:22701433

Morchon, Rodrigo; Carreton, E.; Gonzalez-Miguel, J.; Mellado-Hernandez, I.

2012-01-01

332

Heartworm Disease (Dirofilaria immitis) and Their Vectors in Europe - New Distribution Trends.  

PubMed

Cardiopulmonary dirofilariasis is a cosmopolitan disease caused by Dirofilaria immitis, which affects mainly canids and felids. Moreover, it causes zoonotic infections, producing pulmonary dirofilariasis in humans. Heartworm disease is a vector-borne transmitted disease, thus transmission depends on the presence of competent mosquito species, which is directly related to favorable climate conditions for its development and survival. Cardiopulmonary dirofilariasis is mainly located in countries with temperate and tropical climates. Europe is one of the continents where animal dirofilariasis has been studied more extensively. In this article we review the current prevalence of canine and feline cardiopulmonary dirofilariasis in the European continent, the transmission vectors, the current changes in the distribution and the possible causes, though the analysis of the epidemiological studies carried out until 2001 and between 2002 and 2011. The highest prevalences have been observed in the southern European countries, which are considered historically endemic/hyperendemic countries. Studies carried out in the last 10?years suggest an expansion of cardiopulmonary dirofilariasis in dogs toward central and northern Europe. Several factors can exert an influence on the spreading of the disease, such as movement of infected animals, the introduction of new species of mosquitoes able to act as vectors, the climate change caused by the global warming, and development of human activity in new areas. Veterinary controls to prevent the spreading of this disease, programs of control of vectors, and adequate protocols of prevention of dirofilariasis in the susceptible species should be carried out. PMID:22701433

Morchn, Rodrigo; Carretn, E; Gonzlez-Miguel, J; Mellado-Hernndez, I

2012-01-01

333

Seasonal genetic partitioning in the neotropical malaria vector, Anopheles darlingi  

PubMed Central

Background Anopheles darlingi is the main malaria mosquito vector in the Amazonia region. In spite of being considered a riverine, forest-dwelling species, this mosquito is becoming more abundant in peri-urban areas, increasing malaria risk. This has been associated with human-driven environmental changes such as deforestation. Methods Microsatellites were used to characterize A. darlingi from seven localities along the Madeira River, Rondnia (Brazil), collected in the early and late periods of the rainy season. Results Two genetically distinct subpopulations were detected: one (subpopulation A) was associated with the late rainfall period and seems to be ecologically closer to the typical forest A. darlingi; the other (subpopulation B) was associated with the early rainfall period and is probably more adapted to drier conditions by exploiting permanent anthropogenic breeding sites. Results suggest also a pattern of asymmetric introgression, with more subpopulation A alleles introgressed into subpopulation B. Both subpopulations (and admixed mosquitoes) presented similar malaria infection rates, highlighting the potential for perennial malaria transmission in the region. Conclusions The co-occurrence of two genetically distinct subpopulations of A. darlingi adapted to different periods of rainfall may promote a more perennial transmission of malaria throughout the year. These findings, in a context of strong environmental impact due to deforestation and dam construction, have serious implications for malaria epidemiology and control in the Amazonian region. PMID:24885508

2014-01-01

334

A Visit to Florida's Mosquito Man  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This radio broadcast features an interview with George O'Meara, the world's foremost expert on mosquitoes, who studies mosquito biology and dispenses fun facts (such as: only female mosquitoes bite). There are descriptions of the most aggressive mosquito species, how to tell female mosquitoes from males, and a discussion of landing rates of mosquitoes in the Everglades National Park. The clip is 5 minutes and 30 seconds in length.

2010-10-01

335

Infection of Laboratory-Colonized Anopheles darlingi Mosquitoes by Plasmodium vivax  

PubMed Central

Anopheles darlingi Root is the most important malaria vector in the Amazonia region of South America. However, continuous propagation of An. darlingi in the laboratory has been elusive, limiting entomological, genetic/genomic, and vectorpathogen interaction studies of this mosquito species. Here, we report the establishment of an An. darlingi colony derived from wild-caught mosquitoes obtained in the northeastern Peruvian Amazon region of Iquitos in the Loreto Department. We show that the numbers of eggs, larvae, pupae, and adults continue to rise at least to the F6 generation. Comparison of feeding Plasmodium vivax ex vivo of F4 and F5 to F1 generation mosquitoes showed the comparable presence of oocysts and sporozoites, with numbers that corresponded to blood-stage asexual parasitemia and gametocytemia, confirming P. vivax vectorial capacity in the colonized mosquitoes. These results provide new avenues for research on An. darlingi biology and study of An. darlingiPlasmodium interactions. PMID:24534811

Moreno, Marta; Tong, Carlos; Guzman, Mitchel; Chuquiyauri, Raul; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro; Rodriguez, Hugo; Gamboa, Dionicia; Meister, Stephan; Winzeler, Elizabeth A.; Maguina, Paula; Conn, Jan E.; Vinetz, Joseph M.

2014-01-01

336

A Spatial Model of Mosquito Host-Seeking Behavior  

PubMed Central

Mosquito host-seeking behavior and heterogeneity in host distribution are important factors in predicting the transmission dynamics of mosquito-borne infections such as dengue fever, malaria, chikungunya, and West Nile virus. We develop and analyze a new mathematical model to describe the effect of spatial heterogeneity on the contact rate between mosquito vectors and hosts. The model includes odor plumes generated by spatially distributed hosts, wind velocity, and mosquito behavior based on both the prevailing wind and the odor plume. On a spatial scale of meters and a time scale of minutes, we compare the effectiveness of different plume-finding and plume-tracking strategies that mosquitoes could use to locate a host. The results show that two different models of chemotaxis are capable of producing comparable results given appropriate parameter choices and that host finding is optimized by a strategy of flying across the wind until the odor plume is intercepted. We also assess the impact of changing the level of host aggregation on mosquito host-finding success near the end of the host-seeking flight. When clusters of hosts are more tightly associated on smaller patches, the odor plume is narrower and the biting rate per host is decreased. For two host groups of unequal number but equal spatial density, the biting rate per host is lower in the group with more individuals, indicative of an attack abatement effect of host aggregation. We discuss how this approach could assist parameter choices in compartmental models that do not explicitly model the spatial arrangement of individuals and how the model could address larger spatial scales and other probability models for mosquito behavior, such as Lvy distributions. PMID:22615546

Cummins, Bree; Cortez, Ricardo; Foppa, Ivo M.; Walbeck, Justin; Hyman, James M.

2012-01-01

337

Zika Virus Emergence in Mosquitoes in Southeastern Senegal, 2011  

PubMed Central

Background Zika virus (ZIKV; genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae) is maintained in a zoonotic cycle between arboreal Aedes spp. mosquitoes and nonhuman primates in African and Asian forests. Spillover into humans has been documented in both regions and the virus is currently responsible for a large outbreak in French Polynesia. ZIKV amplifications are frequent in southeastern Senegal but little is known about their seasonal and spatial dynamics. The aim of this paper is to describe the spatio-temporal patterns of the 2011 ZIKV amplification in southeastern Senegal. Methodology/Findings Mosquitoes were collected monthly from April to December 2011 except during July. Each evening from 18?00 to 21?00 hrs landing collections were performed by teams of 3 persons working simultaneously in forest (canopy and ground), savannah, agriculture, village (indoor and outdoor) and barren land cover sites. Mosquitoes were tested for virus infection by virus isolation and RT-PCR. ZIKV was detected in 31 of the 1,700 mosquito pools (11,247 mosquitoes) tested: Ae. furcifer (5), Ae. luteocephalus (5), Ae. africanus (5), Ae. vittatus (3), Ae. taylori, Ae. dalzieli, Ae. hirsutus and Ae. metallicus (2 each) and Ae. aegypti, Ae. unilinaetus, Ma. uniformis, Cx. perfuscus and An. coustani (1 pool each) collected in June (3), September (10), October (11), November (6) and December (1). ZIKV was detected from mosquitoes collected in all land cover classes except indoor locations within villages. The virus was detected in only one of the ten villages investigated. Conclusions/Significance This ZIKV amplification was widespread in the Kdougou area, involved several mosquito species as probable vectors, and encompassed all investigated land cover classes except indoor locations within villages. Aedes furcifer males and Aedes vittatus were found infected within a village, thus these species are probably involved in the transmission of Zika virus to humans in this environment. PMID:25310102

Diallo, Diawo; Sall, Amadou A.; Diagne, Cheikh T.; Faye, Oumar; Faye, Ousmane; Ba, Yamar; Hanley, Kathryn A.; Buenemann, Michaela; Weaver, Scott C.; Diallo, Mawlouth

2014-01-01

338

Rapid identification of virus-carrying mosquitoes using reverse transcription-loop-mediated isothermal amplification.  

PubMed

Mosquitoes are critical vectors in many arboviral transmission cycles. Considering the increasing incidence of arboviral infections throughout the world, monitoring of vector populations for the presence of an arbovirus could be considered an important initial step of risk assessment to humans and animals. In response to this need, increased efforts to develop rapid and reliable diagnostic techniques have been undertaken; a single-step reverse transcription-loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay was developed to detect virus in vector mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti) using the Flock House Virus (FHV) as a model. The robustness of the RT-LAMP reaction was revealed by its ability to detect FHV from an "all-in-one" template using whole mosquito bodies within 30min. Furthermore, RT-LAMP identified successfully a mosquito carrying just a single FHV particle, a level easily overlooked in conventional analysis such as plaque forming assays. These observations suggest that RT-LAMP is more reliable and useful for routine diagnosis of vector mosquitoes in regions where the prevalence of vector-borne diseases such as West Nile fever or dengue fever are common. PMID:19027038

Perera, Namal; Aonuma, Hiroka; Yoshimura, Aya; Teramoto, Tokiyasu; Iseki, Hiroshi; Nelson, Bryce; Igarashi, Ikuo; Yagi, Takeshi; Fukumoto, Shinya; Kanuka, Hirotaka

2009-03-01

339

How mosquitoes fly in the rain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mosquitoes thrive during rainfall and high humidity. If raindrops are 50 times heavier than mosquitoes, how do mosquitoes fly in the rain? In this combined experimental and theoretical study, we measure the impact force between a falling drop and a free-flying mosquito. High-speed videography of mosquitoes and custom-built mimics reveals a mosquito's low inertia renders it impervious to falling drops. Drops do not splash on mosquitoes, but simply push past them allowing a mosquito to continue on its flight path undeterred. We rationalize the force imparted using scaling relations based on the time of rebound between a falling drop and a free body of significantly less mass.

Dickerson, Andrew; Shankles, Peter; Madhavan, Nihar; Hu, David

2011-11-01

340

Mosquito repellent activity of essential oils of aromatic plants growing in Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mosquitoes are important vectors of diseases and nuisance pests. Repellents minimize contact with mosquitoes. Repellents based on essential oils (EO) are being developed as an alternative to DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-methylbenzamide), an effective compound that has disadvantages including toxic reactions, and damage to plastic and synthetic fabric. This work evaluated the repellency against Aedes aegypti of EO from aromatic plants that grow

Y. G. Gillij; R. M. Gleiser; J. A. Zygadlo

2008-01-01

341

Host Selection by Culex pipiens Mosquitoes and West Nile Virus Amplification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. , Recent field studies have suggested,that the dynamics,of West Nile virus (WNV) transmission,are influenced strongly by a,few key super spreader,bird species that function both as primary,blood hosts of the,vector mosquitoes (in particular Culex pipiens ) and as reservoir-competent,virus hosts. It has been,hypothesized,that human,cases result from a shift in mosquito feeding from these key bird species to humans after abundance,of

Gabriel L. Hamer; Uriel D. Kitron; Tony L. Goldberg; Jeffrey D. Brawn; Scott R. Loss; Marilyn O. Ruiz; Daniel B. Hayes; Edward D. Walker

342

Species Composition of Bacterial Communities Influences Attraction of Mosquitoes to Experimental Plant Infusions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the container habitats of immature mosquitoes, catabolism of plant matter and other organic detritus by microbial organisms\\u000a produces metabolites that mediate the oviposition behavior of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. Public health agencies commonly use oviposition traps containing plant infusions for monitoring populations of these mosquito\\u000a species, which are global vectors of dengue viruses. In laboratory experiments, gravid females

Loganathan Ponnusamy; Dawn M. Wesson; Consuelo Arellano; Coby Schal; Charles S. Apperson

2010-01-01

343

Mosquito species abundance and diversity in Malindi, Kenya and their potential implication in pathogen transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are important vectors of human disease-causing pathogens. Mosquitoes are found both in rural\\u000a and urban areas. Deteriorating infrastructure, poor access to health, water and sanitation services, increasing population\\u000a density, and widespread poverty contribute to conditions that modify the environment, which directly influences the risk of\\u000a disease within the urban and peri-urban ecosystem. The objective of this study

Joseph M. Mwangangi; Janet Midega; Samuel Kahindi; Laban Njoroge; Joseph Nzovu; John Githure; Charles M. Mbogo; John C. Beier

344

Comparison of mosquito control programs in seven urban sites in Africa, the Middle East, and the Americas.  

PubMed

Mosquito control programs at seven urban sites in Kenya, Egypt, Israel, Costa Rica, and Trinidad are described and compared. Site-specific urban and disease characteristics, organizational diagrams, and strengths, weaknesses, obstacles and threats (SWOT) analysis tools are used to provide a descriptive assessment of each mosquito control program, and provide a comparison of the factors affecting mosquito abatement. The information for SWOT analysis is collected from surveys, focus-group discussions, and personal communication. SWOT analysis identified various issues affecting the efficiency and sustainability of mosquito control operations. The main outcome of our work was the description and comparison of mosquito control operations within the context of each study site's biological, social, political, management, and economic conditions. The issues identified in this study ranged from lack of inter-sector collaboration to operational issues of mosquito control efforts. A lack of sustainable funding for mosquito control was a common problem for most sites. Many unique problems were also identified, which included lack of mosquito surveillance, lack of law enforcement, and negative consequences of human behavior. Identifying common virtues and shortcomings of mosquito control operations is useful in identifying "best practices" for mosquito control operations, thus leading to better control of mosquito biting and mosquito-borne disease transmission. PMID:17316882

Impoinvil, Daniel E; Ahmad, Sajjad; Troyo, Adriana; Keating, Joseph; Githeko, Andrew K; Mbogo, Charles M; Kibe, Lydiah; Githure, John I; Gad, Adel M; Hassan, Ali N; Orshan, Laor; Warburg, Alon; Caldern-Arguedas, Olger; Snchez-Lora, Victoria M; Velit-Suarez, Rosanna; Chadee, Dave D; Novak, Robert J; Beier, John C

2007-10-01

345

Comparison of mosquito control programs in seven urban sites in Africa, the Middle East, and the Americas  

PubMed Central

Mosquito control programs at seven urban sites in Kenya, Egypt, Israel, Costa Rica, and Trinidad are described and compared. Site-specific urban and disease characteristics, organizational diagrams, and strengths, weaknesses, obstacles and threats (SWOT) analysis tools are used to provide a descriptive assessment of each mosquito control program, and provide a comparison of the factors affecting mosquito abatement. The information for SWOT analysis is collected from surveys, focus group discussions, and personal communication. SWOT analysis identified various issues affecting the efficiency and sustainability of mosquito control operations. The main outcome of our work was the description and comparison of mosquito control operations within the context of each study sites biological, social, political, management, and economic conditions. The issues identified in this study ranged from lack of inter-sector collaboration to operational issues of mosquito control efforts. A lack of sustainable funding for mosquito control was a common problem for most sites. Many unique problems were also identified, which included lack of mosquito surveillance, lack of law enforcement, and negative consequences of human behavior. Identifying common virtues and shortcomings of mosquito control operations is useful in identifying best practices for mosquito control operations, thus leading to better control of mosquito biting and mosquito-borne disease transmission. PMID:17316882

Impoinvil, Daniel E.; Ahmad, Sajjad; Troyo, Adriana; Keating, Joseph; Githeko, Andrew K.; Mbogo, Charles M; Kibe, Lydiah; Githure, John I.; Gad, Adel M.; Hassan, Ali N.; Orshan, Laor; Warburg, Alon; Calderon-Arguedas, Olger; Sanchez-Loria, Victoria M.; Velit-Suarez, Rosanna; Chadee, Dave D.; Novak, Robert J.; Beier, John C.

2007-01-01

346

Chikungunya VirusVector Interactions  

PubMed Central

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that causes chikungunya fever, a severe, debilitating disease that often produces chronic arthralgia. Since 2004, CHIKV has emerged in Africa, Indian Ocean islands, Asia, Europe, and the Americas, causing millions of human infections. Central to understanding CHIKV emergence is knowledge of the natural ecology of transmission and vector infection dynamics. This review presents current understanding of CHIKV infection dynamics in mosquito vectors and its relationship to human disease emergence. The following topics are reviewed: CHIKV infection and vector life history traits including transmission cycles, genetic origins, distribution, emergence and spread, dispersal, vector competence, vector immunity and microbial interactions, and co-infection by CHIKV and other arboviruses. The genetics of vector susceptibility and host range changes, population heterogeneity and selection for the fittest viral genomes, dual host cycling and its impact on CHIKV adaptation, viral bottlenecks and intrahost diversity, and adaptive constraints on CHIKV evolution are also discussed. The potential for CHIKV re-emergence and expansion into new areas and prospects for prevention via vector control are also briefly reviewed. PMID:25421891

Coffey, Lark L.; Failloux, Anna-Bella; Weaver, Scott C.

2014-01-01

347

Rutgers University: New Jersey Mosquito Homepage-Mosquito Biology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As the weather warms and the pre-summer rains fall, the familiar buzz of the mosquito can be heard in our ears. This website from entomologists at Rutgers University provides a nice overview of Mosquito Biology including sections on Life Cycle, Anatomy, Habitats, and Behavior. The site also includes some New Jersey-specific sections such as A Classification System for the Life Cycles of Mosquitoes in New Jersey, a fact sheet about the Asian Tiger Mosquito in New Jersey, a Morphological Comparison of Ochlerotatus Species in New Jersey, and a New Jersey Species List. The Species List contains profiles for 63 species of mosquitoes found in New Jersey, and provides information about their geographic distribution, larval habitat, larval identification, anatomical features, and more.

348

Distribution of Mosquitoes and Mosquito-Borne Arboviruses in Yunnan Province near the China-Myanmar-Laos Border  

PubMed Central

Economic development and increased tourism in the southern region of Yunnan Province in China, adjacent to several countries in Southeast Asia, has increased the likelihood of import and export of vectors and vector-borne diseases. We report the results of surveillance of mosquitoes and mosquito-borne arboviruses along the border of ChinaMyanmarLaos in 2005 and 2006, and information associating several arboviruses with infections and possibly disease in local human populations. Seventeen mosquito species representing four genera were obtained, and 14 strains of mosquito-borne viruses representing six viruses in five genera were isolated from Culex tritaeniorhynchus. In addition, IgM against Japanese encephalitis virus, Sindbis virus, Yunnan orbivirus and novel Banna virus was detected in acute-phase serum samples obtained from hospitalized patients with fever and encephalitis near the areas where the viruses were isolated. This investigation suggests that Japanese encephalitis virus, Sindbis virus, and lesser-known arboviruses circulate and may be infecting humans in the ChinaMyanmarLaos border region. PMID:21540383

Wang, Jinglin; Zhang, Hailin; Sun, Xiaohong; Fu, Shihong; Wang, Huanqin; Feng, Yun; Wang, Huanyu; Tang, Qing; Liang, Guo-Dong

2011-01-01

349

De Havilland F-8 Mosquito  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

De Havilland F-8 Mosquito: Not a Royal Air Force de Havilland DH-98, but an Air Force de Havilland F-8 Mosquito. A pair of these Canadian built, U. S. Army Air Force procured aircraft were flown at Langley. The Americans used these aircraft as photo-reconnaissance and meteorological aircraft.

1944-01-01

350

De Havilland F-8 Mosquito  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

De Havilland F-8 Mosquito: This de Havilland F-8 Mosquito was flown at Langley by NACA pilot Bill Gray during longitudinal stability and control studies of the aircraft. This fast twin engine design was noteworthy for its wooden construction and its versatility.

1945-01-01

351

Mosquitoes, malaria and essential oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biocidal (insect repellent) preparations used against mosquito bites to prevent infection are reviewed, comparing the use of essential oils and natural aromatic materials with various synthetic topical agents. A synopsis of malaria prevention strategies and insecticidal toxicity is also discussed, in the light of emergent mosquito resistance to synthetic chemical pesticides.The use of natural products for use as anti-malarials is

T. Burfield; S.-L. Reekie

2005-01-01

352

Molecular Identification of Vertebrate and Hemoparasite DNA Within Mosquito Blood Meals From Eastern North Dakota  

PubMed Central

Abstract To understand local transmission of vector-borne diseases, it is important to identify potential vectors, characterize their host feeding patterns, and determine if vector-borne pathogens are circulating within the region. This study simultaneously investigated these aspects of disease transmission by collecting engorged mosquitoes within two rural study sites in the central Red River Valley of North Dakota. Mosquitoes were identified, midguts were excised, and the blood was expelled from the midguts. DNA was extracted from blood meals and subjected to PCR and direct sequencing to identify the vertebrate origin of the blood. Using different primer sets, PCR was used to screen for two types of vector-borne pathogens, filarioid nematodes and hemosporidian parasites. White-tailed deer were the primary source of blood meals for the eight aedine mosquito species collected. None of the 288 deer-derived blood meals contained filarioid or hemosporidian DNA. In contrast, 18 of 32 Culex tarsalis and three of three Cx. pipiens blood meals contained avian blood, representing eight different species of birds. Of 24 avian-derived blood meals examined, 12 contained Plasmodium DNA, three of which also contained Leucocytozoon DNA (i.e., dual infection). Potential confounding effects resulting from parasite acquisition and development from previous blood meals (e.g., oocysts) were eliminated because host blood had been removed from the midguts prior to DNA extraction. Thus, specific parasite lineages/species could be unequivocally linked to specific vertebrate species. By combining mosquito identification with molecular techniques for identifying blood meal source and pathogens, a relatively small sample of engorged mosquitoes yielded important new information about mosquito feeding patterns and hemosporidia infections in birds. Thorough analyses of wild-caught engorged mosquitoes and other arthropods represent a powerful tool in understanding the local transmission of vector-borne and zoonotic diseases. PMID:24107213

Vaughan, Jefferson A.

2013-01-01

353

Mosquito repellents in frog skin  

PubMed Central

The search for novel insect repellents has been driven by health concerns over established synthetic compounds such as diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET). Given the diversity of compounds known from frog skin and records of mosquito bite and ectoparasite infestation, the presence of mosquito repellents in frogs seemed plausible. We investigated frog skin secretions to confirm the existence of mosquito repellent properties. Litoria caerulea secretions were assessed for mosquito repellency by topical application on mice. The secretions provided protection against host-seeking Culex annulirostris mosquitoes. Olfactometer tests using aqueous washes of skin secretions from L. caerulea and four other frog species were conducted to determine whether volatile components were responsible for repellency. Volatiles from Litoria rubella and Uperoleia mjobergi secretions were repellent to C. annulirostris, albeit not as repellent as a DEET control. The demonstration of endogenous insect repellents in amphibians is novel, and demonstrates that many aspects of frog chemical ecology remain unexplored. PMID:17148373

Williams, C.R; Smith, B.P.C; Best, S.M; Tyler, M.J

2006-01-01

354

Multiple resistances and complex mechanisms of Anopheles sinensis mosquito: a major obstacle to mosquito-borne diseases control and elimination in China.  

PubMed

Malaria, dengue fever, and filariasis are three of the most common mosquito-borne diseases worldwide. Malaria and lymphatic filariasis can occur as concomitant human infections while also sharing common mosquito vectors. The overall prevalence and health significance of malaria and filariasis have made them top priorities for global elimination and control programmes. Pyrethroid resistance in anopheline mosquito vectors represents a highly significant problem to malaria control worldwide. Several methods have been proposed to mitigate insecticide resistance, including rotational use of insecticides with different modes of action. Anopheles sinensis, an important malaria and filariasis vector in Southeast Asia, represents an interesting mosquito species for examining the consequences of long-term insecticide rotation use on resistance. We examined insecticide resistance in two An. Sinensis populations from central and southern China against pyrethroids, organochlorines, organophosphates, and carbamates, which are the major classes of insecticides recommended for indoor residual spray. We found that the mosquito populations were highly resistant to the four classes of insecticides. High frequency of kdr mutation was revealed in the central population, whereas no kdr mutation was detected in the southern population. The frequency of G119S mutation in the ace-1 gene was moderate in both populations. The classification and regression trees (CART) statistical analysis found that metabolic detoxification was the most important resistance mechanism, whereas target site insensitivity of L1014 kdr mutation played a less important role. Our results indicate that metabolic detoxification was the dominant mechanism of resistance compared to target site insensitivity, and suggests that long-term rotational use of various insecticides has led An. sinensis to evolve a high insecticide resistance. This study highlights the complex network of mechanisms conferring multiple resistances to chemical insecticides in mosquito vectors and it has important implication for designing and implementing vector resistance management strategies. PMID:24852174

Chang, Xuelian; Zhong, Daibin; Fang, Qiang; Hartsel, Joshua; Zhou, Guofa; Shi, Linna; Fang, Fujin; Zhu, Changliang; Yan, Guiyun

2014-05-01

355

Multiple Resistances and Complex Mechanisms of Anopheles sinensis Mosquito: A Major Obstacle to Mosquito-Borne Diseases Control and Elimination in China  

PubMed Central

Malaria, dengue fever, and filariasis are three of the most common mosquito-borne diseases worldwide. Malaria and lymphatic filariasis can occur as concomitant human infections while also sharing common mosquito vectors. The overall prevalence and health significance of malaria and filariasis have made them top priorities for global elimination and control programmes. Pyrethroid resistance in anopheline mosquito vectors represents a highly significant problem to malaria control worldwide. Several methods have been proposed to mitigate insecticide resistance, including rotational use of insecticides with different modes of action. Anopheles sinensis, an important malaria and filariasis vector in Southeast Asia, represents an interesting mosquito species for examining the consequences of long-term insecticide rotation use on resistance. We examined insecticide resistance in two An. Sinensis populations from central and southern China against pyrethroids, organochlorines, organophosphates, and carbamates, which are the major classes of insecticides recommended for indoor residual spray. We found that the mosquito populations were highly resistant to the four classes of insecticides. High frequency of kdr mutation was revealed in the central population, whereas no kdr mutation was detected in the southern population. The frequency of G119S mutation in the ace-1 gene was moderate in both populations. The classification and regression trees (CART) statistical analysis found that metabolic detoxification was the most important resistance mechanism, whereas target site insensitivity of L1014 kdr mutation played a less important role. Our results indicate that metabolic detoxification was the dominant mechanism of resistance compared to target site insensitivity, and suggests that long-term rotational use of various insecticides has led An. sinensis to evolve a high insecticide resistance. This study highlights the complex network of mechanisms conferring multiple resistances to chemical insecticides in mosquito vectors and it has important implication for designing and implementing vector resistance management strategies. PMID:24852174

Fang, Qiang; Hartsel, Joshua; Zhou, Guofa; Shi, Linna; Fang, Fujin; Zhu, Changliang; Yan, Guiyun

2014-01-01

356

Olfaction: Mosquito receptor for human-sweat odorant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Female Anopheles mosquitoes, the world's most important vector of Plasmodium falciparum malaria, locate their human hosts primarily through olfactory cues, but the molecular mechanisms that underlie this recognition are a mystery. Here we show that the Anopheles gambiae protein AgOr1, a female-specific member of a family of putative odorant receptors, responds to a component of human sweat. Compounds designed to

Elissa A. Hallem; A. Nicole Fox; Laurence J. Zwiebel; John R. Carlson

2004-01-01

357

Isolongifolenone: A Novel Sesquiterpene Repellent of Ticks and Mosquitoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A naturally occurring sesquiterpene, isolongifolenone, derivatives of which have been used extensively as ingredients in the cosmetics industry, was discovered to effectively repel blood- feeding arthropods that are important disease vectors. We show that ()-isolongifolenone deters the biting of the mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti (L.) and Anopheles stephensi Liston, more effectively than the widely used synthetic chemical repellent, N,N-diethyl-3-methyl benzamide (DEET),

Aijun Zhang; Jerome A. Klun; Shifa Wang; John F. Carroll; Mustapha Debboun

2009-01-01

358

Entomological indices, feeding sources, and molecular identification of Triatoma phyllosoma (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) one of the main vectors of Chagas disease in the Istmo de Tehuantepec, Oaxaca, Mexico.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to conduct an entomological analysis, determination of feeding sources, and molecular identification of triatomines in five communities of the Istmo de Tehuantepec, Oaxaca. The only found species in two of five searched communities (San Mateo del Mar and Tehuantepec City) was Triatoma phyllosoma. Colonization indices were high in both communities. In San Mateo del Mar, the insects were found indoors and in Tehuantepec City in peridomestic areas. The Trypanosoma cruzi infection indices were 2.1% in San Mateo del Mar and 39.4% in Tehuantepec City. This difference could be related to the high numbers of triatomine feeding on hens in the former community. In contrast, in Tehuantepec, dogs were the principal triatomine feeding sources. All nymphs and adults that were genetically analyzed belonged to the species T. phyllosoma. Low levels of genetic variation were found between vectors from both communities. PMID:21896810

Villalobos, Guiehdani; Martnez-Hernndez, Fernando; de la Torre, Patricia; Laclette, Juan Pedro; Espinoza, Bertha

2011-09-01

359

Entomological Indices, Feeding Sources, and Molecular Identification of Triatoma phyllosoma (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) One of the Main Vectors of Chagas Disease in the Istmo de Tehuantepec, Oaxaca, Mexico  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to conduct an entomological analysis, determination of feeding sources, and molecular identification of triatomines in five communities of the Istmo de Tehuantepec, Oaxaca. The only found species in two of five searched communities (San Mateo del Mar and Tehuantepec City) was Triatoma phyllosoma. Colonization indices were high in both communities. In San Mateo del Mar, the insects were found indoors and in Tehuantepec City in peridomestic areas. The Trypanosoma cruzi infection indices were 2.1% in San Mateo del Mar and 39.4% in Tehuantepec City. This difference could be related to the high numbers of triatomine feeding on hens in the former community. In contrast, in Tehuantepec, dogs were the principal triatomine feeding sources. All nymphs and adults that were genetically analyzed belonged to the species T. phyllosoma. Low levels of genetic variation were found between vectors from both communities. PMID:21896810

Villalobos, Guiehdani; Martinez-Hernandez, Fernando; de la Torre, Patricia; Laclette, Juan Pedro; Espinoza, Bertha

2011-01-01

360

Risk Factors for Mosquito House Entry in the Lao PDR  

PubMed Central

Background Construction of the Nam Theun 2 hydroelectric project and flooding of a 450 km2 area of mountain plateau in south-central Lao PDR resulted in the resettlement of 6,300 people to newly built homes. We examined whether new houses would have altered risk of house entry by mosquitoes compared with traditional homes built from poorer construction materials. Methodology/Principal Findings Surveys were carried out in the Nam Theun 2 resettlement area and a nearby traditional rice farming area in 2010. Mosquitoes were sampled in bedrooms using CDC light traps in 96 resettlement houses and 96 traditional houses and potential risk factors for mosquito house entry were recorded. Risk of mosquito house entry was more than twice as high in traditional bamboo houses compared with those newly constructed from wood (Putative Japanese Encephalitis (JE) vector incidence rate ratio (IRR)?=?2.26, 95% CI 1.383.70, P?=?0.001; Anopheline IRR?=?2.35, 95% CI: 1.304.23, P?=?0.005). Anophelines were more common in homes with cattle compared against those without (IRR?=?2.32, 95% CI: 1.294.17, P?=?0.005).Wood smoke from cooking fires located under the house or indoors was found to be protective against house entry by both groups of mosquito, compared with cooking in a separate room beside the house (Putative JE vector IRR?=?0.43, 95% CI: 0.260.73, P?=?0.002; Anopheline IRR?=?0.22, 95% CI: 0.100.51, P<0.001). Conclusions/Significance Construction of modern wooden homes should help reduce human-mosquito contact in the Lao PDR. Reduced mosquito contact rates could lead to reduced transmission of diseases such as JE and malaria. Cattle ownership was associated with increased anopheline house entry, so zooprophylaxis for malaria control is not recommended in this area. Whilst wood smoke was protective against putative JE vector and anopheline house entry we do not recommend indoor cooking since smoke inhalation can enhance respiratory disease. PMID:23700411

Hiscox, Alexandra; Khammanithong, Phasouk; Kaul, Surinder; Sananikhom, Pany; Luthi, Ruedi; Brey, Paul T.; Lindsay, Steve W.

2013-01-01

361

Vector ecology and susceptibility in a malaria-endemic focus in southern Islamic Republic of Iran.  

PubMed

This study aimed to carry out a malaria situation analysis, species composition and susceptibility levels of the main malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi, to different insecticides in Bashagard. A longitudinal survey was conducted in 2 randomly selected villages in Bashagard. Malaria vectors were sampled by dipping method for the larvae and hand catch, night-biting catch, total catch, and shelter pit collection for the adults. Standard WHO susceptibility tests were used for a variety of insecticides on F1 progeny of An. stephensi reared from wild-caught females. In total, 693 adult anopheline mosquitoes and 839 third and fourth-instar larvae were collected and identified. They comprised 7 species; the most abundant adult and larvae anopheline mosquito was An. dthali (40.7% and 30.5% respectively). An. culicifacies (24.2%) and An. stephensi (16.7%) were the next most common species for adult mosquitoes. An. stephensi was fully susceptible to malathion and pyrethroid insecticides but resistant to DDT and tolerant to dieldrin. PMID:23301358

Soleimani-Ahmadi, M; Vatandoost, H; Shaeghi, M; Raeisi, A; Abedi, F; Eshraghian, M R; Madani, A; Safari, R; Shahi, M; Mojahedi, A; Poorahmad-Garbandi, F

2012-10-01

362

Increased Larval Mosquito Densities from Modified Landuses in the Kapiti Region, New Zealand: Vegetation, Water Quality, and Predators as Associated Environmental Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Landuse changes, including deforestation, agriculture, and urbanization, have coincided with an increase in vector-borne diseases\\u000a worldwide. Landuse changes may alter mosquito populations by modifying the characteristics of aquatic larval habitats, but\\u000a we still poorly understand the physical, chemical, and biological factors involved. We examined a total of 81 mosquito larval\\u000a habitats for immature mosquitoes and 17 environmental variables in native

Paul T. Leisnham; David P. Slaney; Philip J. Lester; Philip Weinstein

2005-01-01

363

Mosquitoes: A Resource Book for the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet was written for anyone interested in growing mosquitoes and experimenting with them. There are three major sections: (1) rationale for studying mosquitoes, (2) raising mosquitoes, and (3) some scientific findings. The first section describes basic information about mosquitoes. The second section includes information about materials,

Gillmor, Mary S.; And Others

364

The Ultimate Buzz Kill Mosquito Control  

E-print Network

, ditches, and culverts free of weeds and trash so the water can drain properly. Change water in birdbaths adult mosquitoes will not hide there. Make sure ornamental ponds have fish that will feed on mosquito Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) Mosquito Dunks Mosquito Quick Kill Granules NOT harmful to fish

Johnson, Eric E.

365

Nationwide Investigation of the Pyrethroid Susceptibility of Mosquito Larvae Collected from Used Tires in Vietnam  

PubMed Central

Pyrethroid resistance is envisioned to be a major problem for the vector control program since, at present, there are no suitable chemical substitutes for pyrethroids. Cross-resistance to knockdown agents, which are mainly used in mosquito coils and related products as spatial repellents, is the most serious concern. Since cross-resistance is a global phenomenon, we have started to monitor the distribution of mosquito resistance to pyrethroids. The first pilot study was carried out in Vietnam. We periodically drove along the national road from the north end to the Mekong Delta in Vietnam and collected mosquito larvae from used tires. Simplified susceptibility tests were performed using the fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, and Culex quinquefasciatus. Compared with the other species, Ae. aegypti demonstrated the most prominent reduction in susceptibility. For Ae. aegypti, significant increases in the susceptibility indices with a decrease in the latitude of collection points were observed, indicating that the susceptibility of Ae. aegypti against d-allethrin was lower in the southern part, including mountainous areas, as compared to that in the northern part of Vietnam. There was a significant correlation between the susceptibility indices in Ae. aegypti and the sum of annual pyrethroid use for malaria control (19982002). This might explain that the use of pyrethroids as residual treatment inside houses and pyrethroid-impregnated bed nets for malaria control is attributable to low pyrethroid susceptibility in Ae. aegypti. Such insecticide treatment appeared to have been intensively administered in the interior and along the periphery of human habitation areas where, incidentally, the breeding and resting sites of Ae. aegypti are located. This might account for the strong selection pressure toward Ae. aegypti and not Ae. albopictus. PMID:19274072

Kawada, Hitoshi; Higa, Yukiko; Nguyen, Yen T.; Tran, Son H.; Nguyen, Hoa T.; Takagi, Masahiro

2009-01-01

366

Do Topical Repellents Divert Mosquitoes within a Community? - Health Equity Implications of Topical Repellents as a Mosquito Bite Prevention Tool  

PubMed Central

Objectives Repellents do not kill mosquitoes - they simply reduce human-vector contact. Thus it is possible that individuals who do not use repellents but dwell close to repellent users experience more bites than otherwise. The objective of this study was to measure if diversion occurs from households that use repellents to those that do not use repellents. Methods The study was performed in three Tanzanian villages using 15%-DEET and placebo lotions. All households were given LLINs. Three coverage scenarios were investigated: complete coverage (all households were given 15%-DEET), incomplete coverage (80% of households were given 15%-DEET and 20% placebo) and no coverage (all households were given placebo). A crossover study design was used and coverage scenarios were rotated weekly over a period of ten weeks. The placebo lotion was randomly allocated to households in the incomplete coverage scenario. The level of compliance was reported to be close to 100%. Mosquito densities were measured through aspiration of resting mosquitoes. Data were analysed using negative binomial regression models. Findings Repellent-users had consistently fewer mosquitoes in their dwellings. In villages where everybody had been given 15%-DEET, resting mosquito densities were fewer than half that of households in the no coverage scenario (Incidence Rate Ratio [IRR]=0.39 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.25-0.60); p<0.001). Placebo-users living in a village where 80% of the households used 15%-DEET were likely to have over four-times more mosquitoes (IRR=4.17; 95% CI: 3.08-5.65; p<0.001) resting in their dwellings in comparison to households in a village where nobody uses repellent. Conclusions There is evidence that high coverage of repellent use could significantly reduce man-vector contact but with incomplete coverage evidence suggests that mosquitoes are diverted from households that use repellent to those that do not. Therefore, if repellents are to be considered for vector control, strategies to maximise coverage are required. PMID:24376852

Maia, Marta Ferreira; Onyango, Sangoro Peter; Thele, Max; Simfukwe, Emmanuel Titus; Turner, Elizabeth Louise; Moore, Sarah Jane

2013-01-01

367

Development of guidelines for the surveillance of invasive mosquitoes in Europe  

PubMed Central

Background The recent notifications of autochthonous cases of dengue and chikungunya in Europe prove that the region is vulnerable to these diseases in areas where known mosquito vectors (Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti) are present. Strengthening surveillance of these species as well as other invasive container-breeding aedine mosquito species such as Aedes atropalpus, Aedes japonicus, Aedes koreicus and Aedes triseriatus is therefore required. In order to support and harmonize surveillance activities in Europe, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) launched the production of Guidelines for the surveillance of invasive mosquitoes in Europe. This article describes these guidelines in the context of the key issues surrounding invasive mosquitoes surveillance in Europe. Methods Based on an open call for tender, ECDC granted a pan-European expert team to write the guidelines draft. It content is founded on published and grey literature, contractors expert knowledge, as well as appropriate field missions. Entomologists, public health experts and end users from 17 EU/EEA and neighbouring countries contributed to a reviewing and validation process. The final version of the guidelines was edited by ECDC (Additional file 1). Results The guidelines describe all procedures to be applied for the surveillance of invasive mosquito species. The first part addresses strategic issues and options to be taken by the stakeholders for the decision-making process, according to the aim and scope of surveillance, its organisation and management. As the strategy to be developed needs to be adapted to the local situation, three likely scenarios are proposed. The second part addresses all operational issues and suggests options for the activities to be implemented, i.e. key procedures for field surveillance of invasive mosquito species, methods of identification of these mosquitoes, key and optional procedures for field collection of population parameters, pathogen screening, and environmental parameters. In addition, methods for data management and analysis are recommended, as well as strategies for data dissemination and mapping. Finally, the third part provides information and support for cost estimates of the planned programmes and for the evaluation of the applied surveillance process. Conclusion The Guidelines for the surveillance of invasive mosquitoes in Europe aim at supporting the implementation of tailored surveillance of invasive mosquito species of public health importance. They are intended to provide support to professionals involved in mosquito surveillance or control, decision/policy makers, stakeholders in public health and non-experts in mosquito surveillance. Surveillance also aims to support control of mosquito-borne diseases, including integrated vector control, and the guidelines are therefore part of a tool set for managing mosquito-borne disease risk in Europe. PMID:23866915

2013-01-01

368

Survey of the mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) of Mayotte.  

PubMed

A transversal survey of immature mosquitoes was conducted on Mayotte Island (France) in the Comoros Archipelago, western Indian Ocean, with the aim to inventory the Culicidae and to document inter-species relationships in different habitats. In total 420 habitats were sampled for larvae and/or pupae mosquitoes, resulting in more than 6,000 specimens. Forty species belonging to 15 genera were collected, with eight taxa integrated for the first time to the Mayotte mosquito list. The most frequently recorded species were Stegomyia aegypti, St. albopicta, Anopheles gambiae and Eretmapodites subsimplicipes, the first three species being known vectors of viruses and parasites transmitted to humans. Mean species richness in habitats ranged from 1.00 to 3.29, with notable differences between habitats. For example, water-filled axils of banana leaves, tree-holes and crab-holes had low species richness, while cut bamboo, water pools, abandoned tires and marsh and swamp water had notably higher species richness. Twenty-seven mosquito species belonging to 12 genera were routinely collected (in ?20% of at least one type of larval habitat) suggesting that multiple species play a role in the biocenosis of these aquatic habitats. Multispecies association was observed in 52% of the habitats. The co-occurrence of up to six species belonging to five genera was recorded in a single habitat. The mosquitoes of Mayotte show notable biogeographical affinities to those of Madagascar, as compared to the African continent. These two potential source areas are nearly equidistant from Mayotte, which in turn indicates biased dispersal from east to west. Our findings suggest that with relatively short-term intensive sampling in different habitats, it is possible to approach exhaustive species inventories based on collection of larvae. Mayotte, with its modest elevation range and land surface, has a notable species richness of mosquitoes with 45 well-documented species belonging to 15 genera. PMID:25004163

Le Goff, Gilbert; Goodman, Steven M; Elguero, Eric; Robert, Vincent

2014-01-01

369

Survey of the Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) of Mayotte  

PubMed Central

A transversal survey of immature mosquitoes was conducted on Mayotte Island (France) in the Comoros Archipelago, western Indian Ocean, with the aim to inventory the Culicidae and to document inter-species relationships in different habitats. In total 420 habitats were sampled for larvae and/or pupae mosquitoes, resulting in more than 6,000 specimens. Forty species belonging to 15 genera were collected, with eight taxa integrated for the first time to the Mayotte mosquito list. The most frequently recorded species were Stegomyia aegypti, St. albopicta, Anopheles gambiae and Eretmapodites subsimplicipes, the first three species being known vectors of viruses and parasites transmitted to humans. Mean species richness in habitats ranged from 1.00 to 3.29, with notable differences between habitats. For example, water-filled axils of banana leaves, tree-holes and crab-holes had low species richness, while cut bamboo, water pools, abandoned tires and marsh and swamp water had notably higher species richness. Twenty-seven mosquito species belonging to 12 genera were routinely collected (in ?20% of at least one type of larval habitat) suggesting that multiple species play a role in the biocenosis of these aquatic habitats. Multispecies association was observed in 52% of the habitats. The co-occurrence of up to six species belonging to five genera was recorded in a single habitat. The mosquitoes of Mayotte show notable biogeographical affinities to those of Madagascar, as compared to the African continent. These two potential source areas are nearly equidistant from Mayotte, which in turn indicates biased dispersal from east to west. Our findings suggest that with relatively short-term intensive sampling in different habitats, it is possible to approach exhaustive species inventories based on collection of larvae. Mayotte, with its modest elevation range and land surface, has a notable species richness of mosquitoes with 45 well-documented species belonging to 15 genera. PMID:25004163

Le Goff, Gilbert; Goodman, Steven M.; Elguero, Eric; Robert, Vincent

2014-01-01

370

Mosquito Host Selection Varies Seasonally with Host Availability and Mosquito Density  

PubMed Central

Host selection by vector mosquitoes is a critical component of virus proliferation, particularly for viruses such as West Nile (WNV) that are transmitted enzootically to a variety of avian hosts, and tangentially to dead-end hosts such as humans. Culex tarsalis is a principal vector of WNV in rural areas of western North America. Based on previous work, Cx. tarsalis utilizes a variety of avian and mammalian hosts and tends to feed more frequently on mammals in the late summer than during the rest of the year. To further explore this and other temporal changes in host selection, bloodfed females were collected at a rural farmstead and heron nesting site in Northern California from May 2008 through May 2009, and bloodmeal hosts identified using either a microsphere-based array or by sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene. Host composition during summer was dominated by four species of nesting Ardeidae. In addition, the site was populated with various passerine species as well as domestic farm animals and humans. When present, Cx. tarsalis fed predominantly (>80%) upon the ardeids, with Black-crowned Night-Herons, a highly competent WNV host, the most prevalent summer host. As the ardeids fledged and left the area and mosquito abundance increased in late summer, Cx. tarsalis feeding shifted to include more mammals, primarily cattle, and a high diversity of avian species. In the winter, Yellow-billed Magpies and House Sparrows were the predominant hosts, and Yellow-billed Magpies and American Robins were fed upon more frequently than expected given their relative abundance. These data demonstrated that host selection was likely based both on host availability and differences in utilization, that the shift of bloodfeeding to include more mammalian hosts was likely the result of both host availability and increased mosquito abundance, and that WNV-competent hosts were fed upon by Cx. tarsalis throughout the year. PMID:22206038

Thiemann, Tara C.; Wheeler, Sarah S.; Barker, Christopher M.; Reisen, William K.

2011-01-01

371

Bioactivity of Dianthus caryophyllus, Lepidium sativum, Pimpinella anisum, and Illicium verum essential oils and their major components against the West Nile vector Culex pipiens.  

PubMed

Mosquitoes constitute a severe health problem in many areas all over the world. There are many regions of the tropics and subtropics where mosquitoes are one of the main reasons for inhibiting the economic upgrade. Except nuisance, their medical importance is another matter of attention since mosquitoes are vectors for a wide variety of vector-borne diseases. Due to disadvantages of currently used chemical control methods, it is unavoidable to search for eco-friendly new molecules. We report herein the evaluation of the larvicidal effect exhibited by essential oils of Dianthus caryophyllus, Lepidium sativum, Pimpinella anisum, and Illicium verum against late third to early fourth instar mosquito larvae of Culex pipiens. Furthermore, phytochemical analysis of plant samples revealed their major compounds to be ?-caryophyllene, eugenol, eucalyptol, ?-terpinyl acetate, and (E)-anethole which were also tested for their potential larvicidal activity. For D. caryophyllus and L. sativum, this was the first report on the chemical composition of their essential oils. The essential oils of I. verum and P. anisum demonstrated high larvicidal activity with a LC(50) <18 mg L(-1). The other two essential oils of D. caryophyllus and L. sativum revealed moderate larvicidal activity, displaying a LC(50) value above 50 mg L(-1). Among the pure components, the most toxic were eugenol, (E)-anethole, and ?-terpinyl acetate, with LC(50) values 18.28, 16.56, and 23.03 mg L(-1), respectively. Eucalyptol (1,8 cineole) and ?-caryophyllene were inactive at concentrations even as high as 100 mg L(-1), showing the least significant activity against mosquito larvae. Results allow some rationalization on the relative importance of the major compounds regarding the larvicidal activity of selected essential oils and their potential use as vector control agents. PMID:22955447

Kimbaris, Athanasios C; Koliopoulos, George; Michaelakis, Antonios; Konstantopoulou, Maria A

2012-12-01

372

Evans Blue as a Simple Method to Discriminate Mosquitoes' Feeding Choice on Small Laboratory Animals  

PubMed Central

Background Temperature, humidity, vision, and particularly odor, are external cues that play essential roles to mosquito blood feeding and oviposition. Entomological and behavioral studies employ well-established methods to evaluate mosquito attraction or repellency and to identify the source of the blood meal. Despite the efficacy of such methods, the costs involved in the production or acquisition of all parts, components and the chemical reagents involved are unaffordable for most researchers from poor countries. Thus, a simple and relatively low-cost method capable of evaluating mosquito preferences and the blood volume ingested is desirable. Principal Findings By using Evans blue (EB) vital dye and few standard laboratory supplies, we developed and validated a system capable of evaluating mosquitos choice between two different host sources of blood. EB-injected and PBS-injected mice submitted to a number of situations were placed side by side on the top of a rounded recipient covered with tulle fabric and containing Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Homogenates from engorged mosquitoes clearly revealed the blood source (EB- or PBS-injected host), either visually or spectrometrically. This method was able to estimate the number of engorded mosquitoes, the volume of blood ingested, the efficacy of a commercial repellent and the attractant effects of black color and human sweat. Significance Despite the obvious limitations due to its simplicity and to the dependence of a live source of blood, the present method can be used to assess a number of host variables (diet, aging, immunity, etc) and optimized for several aspects of mosquito blood feeding and vector-host interactions. Thus, it is proposed as an alternative to field studies, and it could be used for initial screenings of chemical compound candidates for repellents or attractants, since it replicates natural conditions of exposure to mosquitoes in a laboratory environment. PMID:25333369

Maciel, Ceres; Fujita, Andre; Gueroni, Daniele I.; Ramos, Anderson D.; Capurro, Margareth L.; Sa-Nunes, Anderson

2014-01-01

373

Inhibition of luciferase expression in transgenic Aedes aegypti mosquitoes by Sindbis virus expression of antisense luciferase RNA  

PubMed Central

A rapid and reproducible method of inhibiting the expression of specific genes in mosquitoes should further our understanding of gene function and may lead to the identification of mosquito genes that determine vector competence or are involved in pathogen transmission. We hypothesized that the virus expression system based on the mosquito-borne Alphavirus, Sindbis (Togaviridae), may efficiently transcribe effector RNAs that inhibit expression of a targeted mosquito gene. To test this hypothesis, germ-line-transformed Aedes aegypti that express luciferase (LUC) from the mosquito Apyrase promoter were intrathoracically inoculated with a double subgenomic Sindbis (dsSIN) virus TE/3?2J/anti-luc (Anti-luc) that transcribes RNA complementary to the 5? end of the LUC mRNA. LUC activity was monitored in mosquitoes infected with either Anti-luc or control dsSIN viruses expressing unrelated antisense RNAs. Mosquitoes infected with Anti-luc virus exhibited 90% reduction in LUC compared with uninfected and control dsSIN-infected mosquitoes at 5 and 9 days postinoculation. We demonstrate that a gene expressed from the mosquito genome can be inhibited by using an antisense strategy. The dsSIN antisense RNA expression system is an important tool for studying gene function in vivo. PMID:10557332

Johnson, Barbara W.; Olson, Ken E.; Allen-Miura, Tanya; Rayms-Keller, Alfredo; Carlson, Jonathan O.; Coates, Craig J.; Jasinskiene, Nijole; James, Anthony A.; Beaty, Barry J.; Higgs, Stephen

1999-01-01

374

Malaria and the Anopheles mosquitoes of Tajikistan.  

PubMed

Surveys of Anopheles mosquitoes were conducted in urban, rural, and natural areas of Tajikistan to obtain updated information on their distributions, especially in southern districts of the country where malaria is a prevalent disease. Nine species of Anopheles are found in Tajikistan. Anopheles superpictus, An. claviger, An. hyrcanus, and An. pulcherrimus are the most widespread and abundant species. Investigations