The primary vector at the origin of the 2007 outbreak in Libreville, Gabon is identified as Aedes albopictus, trapped around the nearby French military camp. The Chikungunya virus was isolated from mosquitoes and found to be identical to the A226V circulating human strain. This is the first field study showing the role of the recently arrived species Aedes albopictus in Chikungunya virus transmission in Central Africa, and it demonstrates this species' role in modifying the epidemiological presentation of Chikungunya in Gabon.
Pages, Frederic; Peyrefitte, Christophe N.; Mve, Medard Toung; Jarjaval, Fanny; Brisse, Sylvain; Iteman, Isabelle; Gravier, Patrick; Nkoghe, Dieudonne; Grandadam, Marc
Mosquito-borne diseases are responsible for significant human morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Efforts to control mosquito-borne diseases have been impeded, in part, by the development of drug-resistant parasites, insecticide-resistant mosquitoes, and environmental concerns over the application of insecticides. Therefore, there is a need to develop novel disease control strategies that can complement or replace existing control methods. One such strategy is to generate pathogen-resistant mosquitoes from those that are susceptible. To this end, efforts have focused on isolating and characterizing genes that influence mosquito vector competence. It has been known for over 70 years that there is a genetic basis for the susceptibility of mosquitoes to parasites, but until the advent of powerful molecular biological tools and protocols, it was difficult to assess the interactions of pathogens with their host tissues within the mosquito at a molecular level. Moreover, it has been only recently that the molecular mechanisms responsible for pathogen destruction, such as melanotic encapsulation and immune peptide production, have been investigated. The molecular characterization of genes that influence vector competence is becoming routine, and with the development of the Sindbis virus transducing system, potential antipathogen genes now can be introduced into the mosquito and their effect on parasite development can be assessed in vivo. With the recent successes in the field of mosquito germ line transformation, it seems likely that the generation of a pathogen-resistant mosquito population from a susceptible population soon will become a reality.
Beerntsen, Brenda T.; James, Anthony A.; Christensen, Bruce M.
Resistance to insecticides among mosquitoes that act as vectors for malaria (Anopheles gambiae) and West Nile virus (Culex pipiens) emerged more than 25 years ago in Africa, America and Europe; this resistance is frequently due to a loss of sensitivity of the insect's acetylcholinesterase enzyme to organophosphates and carbamates. Here we show that this insensitivity results from a single amino-acid
Mylène Weill; Georges Lutfalla; Knud Mogensen; Fabrice Chandre; Arnaud Berthomieu; Claire Berticat; Nicole Pasteur; Alexandre Philips; Philippe Fort; Michel Raymond
Background Human Malaria is transmitted by mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles. Transmission is a complex phenomenon involving biological and environmental factors of humans, parasites and mosquitoes. Among more than 500 anopheline species, only a few species from different branches of the mosquito evolutionary tree transmit malaria, suggesting that their vectorial capacity has evolved independently. Anopheles albimanus (subgenus Nyssorhynchus) is an important malaria vector in the Americas. The divergence time between Anopheles gambiae, the main malaria vector in Africa, and the Neotropical vectors has been estimated to be 100 My. To better understand the biological basis of malaria transmission and to develop novel and effective means of vector control, there is a need to explore the mosquito biology beyond the An. gambiae complex. Results We sequenced the transcriptome of the An. albimanus adult female. By combining Sanger, 454 and Illumina sequences from cDNA libraries derived from the midgut, cuticular fat body, dorsal vessel, salivary gland and whole body, we generated a single, high-quality assembly containing 16,669 transcripts, 92% of which mapped to the An. darlingi genome and covered 90% of the core eukaryotic genome. Bidirectional comparisons between the An. gambiae, An. darlingi and An. albimanus predicted proteomes allowed the identification of 3,772 putative orthologs. More than half of the transcripts had a match to proteins in other insect vectors and had an InterPro annotation. We identified several protein families that may be relevant to the study of Plasmodium-mosquito interaction. An open source transcript annotation browser called GDAV (Genome-Delinked Annotation Viewer) was developed to facilitate public access to the data generated by this and future transcriptome projects. Conclusions We have explored the adult female transcriptome of one important New World malaria vector, An. albimanus. We identified protein-coding transcripts involved in biological processes that may be relevant to the Plasmodium lifecycle and can serve as the starting point for searching targets for novel control strategies. Our data increase the available genomic information regarding An. albimanus several hundred-fold, and will facilitate molecular research in medical entomology, evolutionary biology, genomics and proteomics of anopheline mosquito vectors. The data reported in this manuscript is accessible to the community via the VectorBase website (http://www.vectorbase.org/Other/AdditionalOrganisms/).
An infected bovine-baited trap was utilised in summer 1994 to catch possible intermediate hosts of S. labiatopapillosa in northeastern Italy. Collections were made for 21 nights from 8.00 p.m. to 6.00 a.m. every 2 h and, after 12 September, every 30 min. Among the 16,159 mosquitoes sampled, 11,052 were freshly blood-fed. Most of the unfed females and a representative sample of those which had fed were identified as follows: Culex pipiens, Aedes caspius, A. vexans, Culiseta annulata, Anopheles maculipennis s.l., A. claviger and Coquillettidia richiardii. In spite of having the highest relative density, C. pipiens is the species which fed the least frequently and showed lower susceptibility and efficiency. The 2 Aedes species appear to act as vectors, particularly A. caspius, which proved to be the most efficient vector (K.I. = 0.8). A. claviger and A. maculipennis contribute to S. labiatopapillosa transmission, but their scarce presence reduces their epidemiological relevance. The other species identified showed a complete refractoriness to the infection. The risks for veterinary and medical health are discussed. PMID:9363488
Cancrini, G; Pietrobelli, M; Frangipane Di Regalbono, A; Tampieri, M P
New Zealand (NZ) historically has been free of arboviral activity with the exception of Whataroa virus (Togaviridae: Alphavirus), which is established in bird populations and is transmitted by local mosquitoes. This naive situation is threatened by global warming, invasive mosquitoes, and tourism. To determine the threat of selected medically important arboviruses to NZ, vector competence assays were conducted using field collected endemic and introduced mosquito species. Four alphaviruses (Togaviridae): Barmah Forest virus, Chikungunya virus, Ross River virus, and Sindbis virus, and five flaviviruses (Flaviviridae): Dengue virus 2, Japanese encephalitis virus, Murray Valley encephalitis virus, West Nile virus, and Yellow fever virus were evaluated. Results indicate some NZ mosquito species are highly competent vectors of selected arboviruses, particularly alphaviruses, and may pose a threat were one of these arboviruses introduced at a time when the vector was prevalent and the climatic conditions favorable for virus transmission.
Kramer, Laura D.; Chin, Pam; Cane, Rachel P.; Kauffman, Elizabeth B.; Mackereth, Graham
Dog heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) is dependent on mosquito vectors for its maintenance and transmission among vertebrate hosts. Consequently, D. immitis abundance and distribution are closely linked with mosquito vector biology and ecology. Information on the important dog heartworm vectors in the United States is limited and no comprehensive surveillance of dog heartworm in US mosquitoes has been undertaken to date. Here, we review information gleaned from a number of field surveys documenting heartworm presence in wild mosquito populations as well as laboratory assessments of mosquito vector capacity. Various biological and ecological factors likely contribute to the relative importance of different vector species. We describe some of these factors, rank the leading criteria for efficient vectors, and present the most likely vector species found across the United States. Considering the recent emergence of drug resistance among D. immitis strains, practical knowledge of heartworm vector biology and control should be incorporated into heartworm disease management programs. We conclude by proposing that heartworm control would benefit by targeting mosquito vectors, and we suggest ways in which veterinarians can incorporate the recognition of vector importance into heartworm prevention recommendations imparted to clients. PMID:22152605
Ledesma, Nicholas; Harrington, Laura
To identify the mosquito species competent for West Nile virus (WNV) transmission, we evaluated 10 Cali- fornia species that are known vectors of other arboviruses or major pests: Culex tarsalis, Cx. pipiens pipi- ens, Cx. p. quinquefasciatus, Cx. stigmatosoma, Cx. erythrothorax, Ochlerotatus dorsalis, Oc. melanimon, Oc. sierrensis, Aedes vexans, and Culiseta inornata. All 10 became infected and were able to
Laura B. Goddard; Amy E. Roth; William K. Reisen; Thomas W. Scott
Presently, there is a need for increased efforts to develop newer and effective methods to control mosquito vectors as the existing chemical and biological methods are not as effective as in earlier period owing to different technical and operational reasons. The use of nanomaterial products in various sectors of science including health increased during the last decade. We tested three types of nanosilica, namely lipophilic, hydrophilic and hydrophobic, to assess their larvicidal, pupicidal and growth inhibitor properties and also their influence on oviposition behaviour (attraction/deterrence) of mosquito species that transmit human diseases, namely malaria (Anopheles), yellow fever, chickungunya and dengue (Aedes), lymphatic filariasis and encephalitis (Culex and Aedes). Application of hydrophobic nanosilica at 112.5 ppm was found effective against mosquito species tested. The larvicidal effect of hydrophobic nanosilica on mosquito species tested was in the order of Anopheles stephensi > Aedes aegypti > Culex quinquefasciatus, and the pupicidal effect was in the order of A. stephensi > C. quinquefasciatus > Ae. aegypti. Results of combined treatment of hydrophobic nanosilica with temephos in larvicidal test indicated independent toxic action without any additive effect. This is probably the first report that demonstrated that nanoparticles particularly nanosilica could be used in mosquito vector control. PMID:22565400
Barik, Tapan K; Kamaraju, Raghavendra; Gowswami, Arunava
Alphavirus transducing systems (ATSs) are important tools for expressing genes of interest (GOI) during infection. ATSs are derived from cDNA clones of mosquito-borne RNA viruses (genus Alphavirus; family Togaviridae). The Alphavirus genus contains about 30 different mosquito-borne virus species. Alphaviruses are enveloped viruses and contain single-stranded RNA genomes (~11.7 Kb). Alphaviruses transcribe a subgenomic mRNA that encodes the structural proteins of the virus required for encapsidation of the genome and maturation of the virus. Alphaviruses are usually highly lytic in vertebrate cells, but persistently infect susceptible mosquito cells with minimal cytopathology. These attributes make them excellent tools for gene expression in mosquito vectors. The most common ATSs in use are derived from Sindbis virus (SINV). The broad species tropism of SINV allows for infection of insect, avian, and mammalian cells8. However, ATSs have been derived from other alphaviruses as well9,10,20. Foreign gene expression is made possible by the insertion of an additional viral subgenomic RNA initiation site or promoter. ATSs in which an exogenous gene sequence is positioned 5' to the viral structural genes is used for stable protein expression in insects. ATSs, in which a gene sequence is positioned 3' to the structural genes, is used to trigger RNAi and silence expression of that gene in the insect. ATSs have proven to be valuable tools for understanding vector-pathogen interactions, molecular details of viral replication and maintenance infectious cycles3,4,11,19,21. In particular, the expression of fluorescent and bioluminescent reporters has been instrumental tracking the viral infection in the vector and virus transmission5,14-16,18. Additionally, the vector immune response has been described using two strains of SINV engineered to express GFP2,9. Here, we present a method for the production of SINV containing a fluorescent reporter (GFP) from the cDNA infectious clone. Infectious, full-length RNA is transcribed from the linearized cDNA clone. Infectious RNA is introduced into permissive target cells by electroporation. Transfected cells generate infectious virus particles expressing the GOI. Harvested virus is used to infect mosquitoes, as described here, or other host species (not shown herein). Vector competence is assessed by detecting fluorescence outside the midgut or by monitoring virus transmission7. Use of a fluorescent reporter as the GOI allows for convenient estimation of virus spread throughout a cell culture, for determination of rate of infection, dissemination in exposed mosquitoes, virus transmission from the mosquito and provides a rapid gauge of vector competence.
Phillips, Aaron; Mossel, Eric; Sanchez-Vargas, Irma; Foy, Brian; Olson, Ken
BACKGROUND: Saliva of adult female mosquitoes help sugar and blood feeding by providing enzymes and polypeptides that help sugar digestion, control microbial growth and counteract their vertebrate host hemostasis and inflammation. Mosquito saliva also potentiates the transmission of vector borne pathogens, including arboviruses. Culex tarsalis is a bird feeding mosquito vector of West Nile Virus closely related to C. quinquefasciatus,
Eric Calvo; Irma Sanchez-Vargas; Amanda J Favreau; Kent D Barbian; Van M Pham; Kenneth E Olson; José MC Ribeiro
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to extend prior studies of molecular detection of Brugia malayi DNA in vector (Aedes aegypti- Liverpool) and non-vector (Culex pipiens) mosquitoes at different times after ingestion of infected blood. RESULTS: Parasite DNA was detected over a two week time course in 96% of pooled thoraces of vector mosquitoes. In contrast, parasite DNA was
Sara M Erickson; Kerstin Fischer; Gary J Weil; Bruce M Christensen; Peter U Fischer
Yellow fever is a re-emergent disease in many South American countries where its main vector is Haemagogus janthinomys. Epizootics and epidemics have long been associated with the onset of the rainy season, when mosquito densities are higher. Thus, a more precise understanding of the relationship between rainfall and mosquito densities is necessary to evaluate the risk of transmission. Mosquitoes were
Nicolas Degallier; Hamilton A. De Oliveira Monteiro; Francisco C. Castro; Orlando V. Da Silva; Gregório C. S. Á. Filho; Eric Elguero
Parasites of the genus Plasmodium are transmitted to mammalian hosts by anopheline mosquitoes. Within the insect vector, parasite growth and development are potentially limited by antimicrobial defence molecules. Here, we describe the isolation of cDNA and genomic clones encoding a cecropin antibacterial peptide from the malaria vector mosquito Anopheles gambiae . The locus was mapped to polytene division 1C of
J. Vizioli; P. Bulet; M. Charlet; C. Lowenberger; C. Blass; H.-M. Muller; G. Dimopoulos; J. Hoffmann; F. C. Kafatos; A. Richman
To control West Nile virus (WNV), it is necessary to know which mosquitoes are able to transmit this virus. Therefore, we evaluated the WNV vector potential of several North American mosquito species. Culex restuans and Cx. salinarius, two species from which WNV was isolated in New York in 2000, were efficient laboratory vectors. Cx. quinquefasciatus and Cx. nigri- palpus from
Michael R. Sardelis; Michael J. Turell; David J. Dohm; Monica L. O'Guinn
To control West Nile virus (WNV), it is necessary to know which mosquitoes are able to transmit this virus. Therefore, we evaluated the WNV vector potential of several North American mosquito species. Culex restuans and Cx. salinarius, two species from which WNV was isolated in New York in 2000, were efficient laboratory vectors. Cx. quinquefasciatus and Cx. nigripalpus from Florida were competent but only moderately efficient vectors. Coquillettidia perturbans was an inefficient laboratory vector. As WNV extends its range, exposure of additional mosquito species may alter its epidemiology.
Sardelis, M. R.; Turell, M. J.; Dohm, D. J.; O'Guinn, M. L.
Here, we show that an alpha-proteobacterium of the genus Asaia is stably associated with larvae and adults of Anopheles stephensi, an important mosquito vector of Plasmodium vivax, a main malaria agent in Asia. Asaia bacteria dominate mosquito-associated microbiota, as shown by 16S rRNA gene abundance, quantitative PCR, transmission electron microscopy and in situ-hybridization of 16S rRNA genes. In adult mosquitoes, Asaia sp. is present in high population density in the female gut and in the male reproductive tract. Asaia sp. from An. stephensi has been cultured in cell-free media and then transformed with foreign DNA. A green fluorescent protein-tagged Asaia sp. strain effectively lodged in the female gut and salivary glands, sites that are crucial for Plasmodium sp. development and transmission. The larval gut and the male reproductive system were also colonized by the transformed Asaia sp. strain. As an efficient inducible colonizer of mosquitoes that transmit Plasmodium sp., Asaia sp. may be a candidate for malaria control. PMID:17502606
Favia, Guido; Ricci, Irene; Damiani, Claudia; Raddadi, Noura; Crotti, Elena; Marzorati, Massimo; Rizzi, Aurora; Urso, Roberta; Brusetti, Lorenzo; Borin, Sara; Mora, Diego; Scuppa, Patrizia; Pasqualini, Luciano; Clementi, Emanuela; Genchi, Marco; Corona, Silvia; Negri, Ilaria; Grandi, Giulio; Alma, Alberto; Kramer, Laura; Esposito, Fulvio; Bandi, Claudio; Sacchi, Luciano; Daffonchio, Daniele
Here, we show that an ?-proteobacterium of the genus Asaia is stably associated with larvae and adults of Anopheles stephensi, an important mosquito vector of Plasmodium vivax, a main malaria agent in Asia. Asaia bacteria dominate mosquito-associated microbiota, as shown by 16S rRNA gene abundance, quantitative PCR, transmission electron microscopy and in situ-hybridization of 16S rRNA genes. In adult mosquitoes, Asaia sp. is present in high population density in the female gut and in the male reproductive tract. Asaia sp. from An. stephensi has been cultured in cell-free media and then transformed with foreign DNA. A green fluorescent protein-tagged Asaia sp. strain effectively lodged in the female gut and salivary glands, sites that are crucial for Plasmodium sp. development and transmission. The larval gut and the male reproductive system were also colonized by the transformed Asaia sp. strain. As an efficient inducible colonizer of mosquitoes that transmit Plasmodium sp., Asaia sp. may be a candidate for malaria control.
Favia, Guido; Ricci, Irene; Damiani, Claudia; Raddadi, Noura; Crotti, Elena; Marzorati, Massimo; Rizzi, Aurora; Urso, Roberta; Brusetti, Lorenzo; Borin, Sara; Mora, Diego; Scuppa, Patrizia; Pasqualini, Luciano; Clementi, Emanuela; Genchi, Marco; Corona, Silvia; Negri, Ilaria; Grandi, Giulio; Alma, Alberto; Kramer, Laura; Esposito, Fulvio; Bandi, Claudio; Sacchi, Luciano; Daffonchio, Daniele
In Mali, anopheline mosquito populations increase sharply during the rainy season, but are barely detectable in the dry season. This study attempted to identify the dry season mosquito breeding population in and near the village of Bancoumana, Mali, and in a fishing hamlet 5 km from this village and adjacent to the Niger River. In Bancoumana, most larval habitats were human made, and dried out in January-February. In contrast, in the fishing hamlet, productive larval habitats were numerous and found mainly during the dry season (January-May) as the natural result of drying riverbeds. Adult mosquitoes were abundant during the dry season in the fishermen hamlet and rare in Bancoumana. To the extent that the fishermen hamlet mosquito population seeds Bancoumana with the advent of the rainy season, vector control in this small hamlet may be a cost-effective way to ameliorate malaria transmission in the 40-times larger village. PMID:17620634
Sogoba, Nafomon; Doumbia, Seydou; Vounatsou, Penelope; Baber, Ibrahima; Keita, Moussa; Maiga, Mamoudou; Traoré, Sékou F; Touré, Abdoulaye; Dolo, Guimogo; Smith, Thomas; Ribeiro, José M C
Background Mosquitoes are important vectors of diseases but, in spite of various mosquito faunistic surveys globally, there is a need for a spatial online database of mosquito collection data and distribution summaries. Such a resource could provide entomologists with the results of previous mosquito surveys, and vector disease control workers, preventative medicine practitioners, and health planners with information relating mosquito distribution to vector-borne disease risk. Results A web application called MosquitoMap was constructed comprising mosquito collection point data stored in an ArcGIS 9.3 Server/SQL geodatabase that includes administrative area and vector species x country lookup tables. In addition to the layer containing mosquito collection points, other map layers were made available including environmental, and vector and pathogen/disease distribution layers. An application within MosquitoMap called the Mal-area calculator (MAC) was constructed to quantify the area of overlap, for any area of interest, of vector, human, and disease distribution models. Data standards for mosquito records were developed for MosquitoMap. Conclusion MosquitoMap is a public domain web resource that maps and compares georeferenced mosquito collection points to other spatial information, in a geographical information system setting. The MAC quantifies the Mal-area, i.e. the area where it is theoretically possible for vector-borne disease transmission to occur, thus providing a useful decision tool where other disease information is limited. The Mal-area approach emphasizes the independent but cumulative contribution to disease risk of the vector species predicted present. MosquitoMap adds value to, and makes accessible, the results of past collecting efforts, as well as providing a template for other arthropod spatial databases.
The generalized hematopathology frequently found in animals infected with vector-borne pathogens may maximize transmission by enhancing the ability of vectors to locate blood in infected hosts. We tested this idea of mutualism between parasite and vector by comparing duration of probing of mosquitoes feeding on noninfected and on malaria-(Plasmodium chabaudi) or arbovirus- (Rift Valley fever virus) infected animals. We found
P. A. Rossignol; J. M. C. Ribeiro; M. Jungery; M. J. Turell; A. Spielman; C. L. Bailey
Background Aedes aegypti mosquitoes are the main vectors of dengue viruses to humans. Understanding their biology and interactions with the pathogen are prerequisites for development of dengue transmission control strategies. Mosquito salivary glands are organs involved directly in pathogen transmission to vertebrate hosts. Information on the spatial distribution of gene expression in these organs is expected to assist in the development of novel disease control strategies, including those that entail the release of transgenic mosquitoes with impaired vector competence. Results We report here the hybridization in situ patterns of 30 transcripts expressed in the salivary glands of adult Ae. aegypti females. Distinct spatial accumulation patterns were identified. The products of twelve genes are localized exclusively in the proximal-lateral lobes. Among these, three accumulate preferentially in the most anterior portion of the proximal-lateral lobe. This pattern revealed a salivary gland cell type previously undescribed in Ae. aegypti, which was validated by transmission electron microscopy. Five distinct gene products accumulate in the distal-lateral lobes and another five localize in the medial lobe. Seven transcripts are found in the distal-lateral and medial lobes. The transcriptional product of one gene accumulates in proximal- and distal-lateral lobes. Seven genes analyzed by quantitative PCR are expressed constitutively. The most abundant salivary gland transcripts are those localized within the proximal-lateral lobes, while previous work has shown that the distal-lateral lobes are the most active in protein synthesis. This incongruity suggests a role for translational regulation in mosquito saliva production. Conclusions Transgenic mosquitoes with reduced vector competence have been proposed as tools for the control of dengue virus transmission. Expression of anti-dengue effector molecules in the distal-lateral lobes of Ae. aegypti salivary glands has been shown to reduce prevalence and mean intensities of viral infection. We anticipate greater efficiency of viral suppression if effector genes are expressed in all lobes of the salivary glands. Based on our data, a minimum of two promoters is necessary to drive the expression of one or more anti-dengue genes in all cells of the female salivary glands.
Shifts in temperature and precipitation patterns caused by global climate change may have profound impacts on the ecology of certain infectious diseases. We examine the potential impacts of climate change on the transmission and maintenance dynamics of dengue, a resurging mosquito-vectored infectious disease. In particular, we project changes in dengue season length for three cities: Atlanta, GA; Chicago, IL and
R A Erickson; K Hayhoe; S M Presley; L J S Allen; K R Long; S B Cox
The objective of this study is to quantify and model spatial dependence in mosquito vector populations and develop predictions for unsampled locations using geostatistics. Mosquito control program trap sites are often located too far apart to detect spatial dependence but the results show that integration of spatial data over time for Cx. pipiens-restuans and according to meteorological conditions for Ae. vexans enables spatial analysis of sparse sample data. This study shows that mosquito abundance is spatially correlated and that spatial dependence differs between Cx. pipiens-restuans and Ae. vexans mosquitoes.
Trawinski, P. R.; Mackay, D. S.
The risk of human infection with sylvatic chikungunya (CHIKV) virus was assessed in a focus of sylvatic arbovirus circulation in Senegal by investigating distribution and abundance of anthropophilic Aedes mosquitoes, as well as the abundance and distribution of CHIKV in these mosquitoes. A 1650 km2 area was classified into five land cover classes: forest, barren, savanna, agriculture and village. A total of 39,799 mosquitoes was sampled from all classes using human landing collections between June 2009 and January 2010. Mosquito diversity was extremely high, and overall vector abundance peaked at the start of the rainy season. CHIKV was detected in 42 mosquito pools. Our data suggest that Aedes furcifer, which occurred abundantly in all land cover classes and landed frequently on humans in villages outside of houses, is probably the major bridge vector responsible for the spillover of sylvatic CHIKV to humans.
Diallo, Diawo; Sall, Amadou A.; Buenemann, Michaela; Chen, Rubing; Faye, Oumar; Diagne, Cheikh T.; Faye, Ousmane; Ba, Yamar; Dia, Ibrahima; Watts, Douglas; Weaver, Scott C.; Hanley, Kathryn A.; Diallo, Mawlouth
Climate-based models simulating Culex mosquito population abundance in the Northeastern US were developed. Two West Nile vector species, Culex pipiens and Culex restuans, were included in model simulations. The model was optimized by a parameter-space search within biological bounds. Mosquito population dynamics were driven by major environmental factors including temperature, rainfall, evaporation rate and photoperiod. The results show a strong correlation between the timing of early population increases (as early warning of West Nile virus risk) and decreases in late summer. Simulated abundance was highly correlated with actual mosquito capture in New Jersey light traps and validated with field data. This climate-based model simulates the population dynamics of both the adult and immature mosquito life stage of Culex arbovirus vectors in the Northeastern US. It is expected to have direct and practical application for mosquito control and West Nile prevention programs.
Gong, Hongfei; Degaetano, Arthur T.; Harrington, Laura C.
This study aims at an integrated vector management (IVM) concept of implementing biological control agents against vector mosquito larvae as a cost-effective and scalable control strategy. In the first step, the mosquito species composition fauna of southern Benin was studied using standard entomological procedures in natural and man-made habitats. Altogether, 24 species belonging to 6 genera of mosquitoes Aedes, Anopheles, Culex, Mansonia, Uranotaenia, Ficalbia were recorded. Five species, Cx. thalassius, Cx. nebulosus, Cx. perfuscus, Cx. pocilipes and Fi. mediolineata are described the first time for Benin. The local mosquito species showed high susceptibility to a Bacillus sphaericus formulation (VectoLex(R) WDG ) in a standardized field test. A dosage of 1 g/m(2) was effective to achieve 100 percent mortality rate for Cx. quinquefasciatus late instar larvae in a sewage habitat, with a residual effect of up to 7 days. After more than 1 year of baseline data collection, operational larviciding with B. thuringiensis var. israelensis and B. sphaericus was commenced in 2006 in selected areas. Microbial insecticides products for larval control show great potential within IVM programmes and may augment control efforts against adult insects, such as the use of insecticide-treated bed nets or indoor wall spraying in many parts of Africa. PMID:20684480
Lingenfelser, Andre; Rydzanicz, Katarzyna; Kaiser, Achim; Becker, Norbert
Mosquitoes collected from coastal, inland valley, and alpine locations in California were evaluated for their experimental vector competence for two viruses in the California serogroup (Bunyaviridae:Bunyavirus). Aedes squamiger, a coastal salt marsh mosquito, was an efficient vector of a California encephalitis (CE)-like virus isolated from its habitat (89% of the pledget-fed females became infected and 61% transmitted virus). Aedes dorsalis, a coastal mosquito, and Ae. melanimon, an inland valley mosquito, were competent vectors of prototype CE virus (98% and 100% of the pledget-fed females became infected and 56% and 30%, respectively, transmitted virus). Aedes squamiger and Ae. dorsalis transmitted both viruses vertically to one or more of 20 of their progeny. Culiseta inornata was susceptible to infection with both viruses, but 5% or less transmitted virus perorally. Alpine mosquitoes, Ae. cataphylla, Ae. increpitus, and Ae. tahoensis, became infected with both CE and CE-like viruses, but 3% or less transmitted virus. All species of mosquitoes were more efficient vectors of both viruses following intrathoracic inoculation than following pledget feeding, suggesting the presence of mesenteronal barriers. PMID:1360192
Kramer, L D; Reeves, W C; Hardy, J L; Presser, S B; Eldridge, B F; Bowen, M D
Genome sequencing projects have presented the opportunity for analysis of developmental genes in three vector mosquito species: Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Anopheles gambiae. A comparative genomic analysis of developmental genes in Drosophila melanogaster and these three important vectors of human disease was performed in this investigation. While the study was comprehensive, special emphasis centered on genes that 1) are
Susanta K. Behura; Morgan Haugen; Ellen Flannery; Joseph Sarro; Charles R. Tessier; David W. Severson; Molly Duman-Scheel
Background Several observations support the hypothesis that vector-driven selection plays an important role in shaping dengue virus (DENV) genetic diversity. Clustering of DENV genetic diversity at a particular location may reflect underlying genetic structure of vector populations, which combined with specific vector genotype × virus genotype (G × G) interactions may promote adaptation of viral lineages to local mosquito vector genotypes. Although spatial structure of vector polymorphism at neutral genetic loci is well-documented, existence of G × G interactions between mosquito and virus genotypes has not been formally demonstrated in natural populations. Here we measure G × G interactions in a system representative of a natural situation in Thailand by challenging three isofemale families from field-derived Aedes aegypti with three contemporaneous low-passage isolates of DENV-1. Results Among indices of vector competence examined, the proportion of mosquitoes with a midgut infection, viral RNA concentration in the body, and quantity of virus disseminated to the head/legs (but not the proportion of infected mosquitoes with a disseminated infection) strongly depended on the specific combinations of isofemale families and viral isolates, demonstrating significant G × G interactions. Conclusion Evidence for genetic specificity of interactions in our simple experimental design indicates that vector competence of Ae. aegypti for DENV is likely governed to a large extent by G × G interactions in genetically diverse, natural populations. This result challenges the general relevance of conclusions from laboratory systems that consist of a single combination of mosquito and DENV genotypes. Combined with earlier evidence for fine-scale genetic structure of natural Ae. aegypti populations, our finding indicates that the necessary conditions for local DENV adaptation to mosquito vectors are met.
Lambrechts, Louis; Chevillon, Christine; Albright, Rebecca G; Thaisomboonsuk, Butsaya; Richardson, Jason H; Jarman, Richard G; Scott, Thomas W
The genetic manipulation of the microbial community associated with hematophagus insects is particularly relevant for public health applications. Within mosquito populations, this relationship has been overlooked until recently. New advances in molecular biotechnology propose the genetic manipulation of mosquito symbionts to prevent the transmission of pathogens to humans by interfering with the obligatory life cycle stages within the insect through the use of effector molecules. This approach, defined as 'paratransgenesis', has opened the way for the investigation and characterization of microbes residing in the mosquito body, particularly those localised within the gut. Some interesting bacteria have been identified as candidates for genetic modification, however, endosymbiotic yeasts remain largely unexplored with little information on the symbiotic relationships to date. Here we review the recent report of symbiotic relationship between Wickerhamomyces anomalus (Pichia anomala) and several mosquito vector species as promising methods to implement control of mosquito-borne diseases. PMID:21113816
Ricci, Irene; Mosca, Michela; Valzano, Matteo; Damiani, Claudia; Scuppa, Patrizia; Rossi, Paolo; Crotti, Elena; Cappelli, Alessia; Ulissi, Ulisse; Capone, Aida; Esposito, Fulvio; Alma, Alberto; Mandrioli, Mauro; Sacchi, Luciano; Bandi, Claudio; Daffonchio, Daniele; Favia, Guido
Mosquito-borne diseases are major health problems worldwide. Serological responses to mosquito saliva proteins may be useful in estimating individual exposure to bites from mosquitoes transmitting these diseases. However, the relationships between the levels of these IgG responses and mosquito density as well as IgG response specificity at the genus and/or species level need to be clarified prior to develop new immunological markers to assess human/vector contact. To this end, a kinetic study of antibody levels against several mosquito salivary gland extracts from southeastern French individuals living in three areas with distinct ecological environments and, by implication, distinct Aedes caspius mosquito densities were compared using ELISA. A positive association was observed between the average levels of IgG responses against Ae. caspius salivary gland extracts and spatial Ae. caspius densities. Additionally, the average level of IgG responses increased significantly during the peak exposure to Ae. caspius at each site and returned to baseline four months later, suggesting short-lived IgG responses. The species-specificity of IgG antibody responses was determined by testing antibody responses to salivary gland extracts from Cx. pipiens, a mosquito that is present at these three sites at different density levels, and from two other Aedes species not present in the study area (Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus). The IgG responses observed against these mosquito salivary gland extracts contrasted with those observed against Ae. caspius salivary gland extracts, supporting the existence of species-specific serological responses. By considering different populations and densities of mosquitoes linked to environmental factors, this study shows, for the first time, that specific IgG antibody responses against Ae. caspius salivary gland extracts may be related to the seasonal and geographical variations in Ae. caspius density. Characterisation of such immunological-markers may allow the evaluation of the effectiveness of vector-control strategies or estimation of the risk of vector-borne disease transmission.
Orlandi-Pradines, Eve; Diouf, Ibrahima; Remoue, Franck; Pages, Frederic; Fusai, Thierry; Rogier, Christophe; Almeras, Lionel
The traditional assumption that vector-borne pathogens should evolve towards a benign relationship with their arthropod vectors has been challenged on theoretical grounds and empirical evidence. However, in the case of arboviruses (arthropod-borne viruses), although a number of investigators have reported experimental evidence for virus-induced vector mortality, others have failed to detect any significant impact. Whether this variation in the observed level of arbovirus virulence depends on biological traits or experimental design is unclear. Here, we perform a meta-analysis of studies across a range of mosquito–virus systems to show that, overall, arboviruses do reduce the survival of their mosquito vectors, but that the magnitude of the effect depends on the vector/virus taxonomic groups and the mode of virus transmission. Alphaviruses were associated with highest virulence levels in mosquitoes. Horizontal transmission (intrathoracic inoculation or oral infection) was correlated with significant virus-induced mortality, whereas a lack of adverse effect was found for Aedes mosquitoes infected transovarially by bunyaviruses—a group of viruses characterized by high natural rates of vertical transmission in their enzootic vectors. Our findings are consistent with the general prediction that vertically transmitted pathogens should be less virulent than those transmitted horizontally. We conclude that varying degrees of virulence observed among vector–virus systems probably reflect different selective pressures imposed on arboviruses that are primarily transmitted horizontally versus vertically.
Lambrechts, Louis; Scott, Thomas W.
The traditional assumption that vector-borne pathogens should evolve towards a benign relationship with their arthropod vectors has been challenged on theoretical grounds and empirical evidence. However, in the case of arboviruses (arthropod-borne viruses), although a number of investigators have reported experimental evidence for virus-induced vector mortality, others have failed to detect any significant impact. Whether this variation in the observed level of arbovirus virulence depends on biological traits or experimental design is unclear. Here, we perform a meta-analysis of studies across a range of mosquito-virus systems to show that, overall, arboviruses do reduce the survival of their mosquito vectors, but that the magnitude of the effect depends on the vector/virus taxonomic groups and the mode of virus transmission. Alphaviruses were associated with highest virulence levels in mosquitoes. Horizontal transmission (intrathoracic inoculation or oral infection) was correlated with significant virus-induced mortality, whereas a lack of adverse effect was found for Aedes mosquitoes infected transovarially by bunyaviruses-a group of viruses characterized by high natural rates of vertical transmission in their enzootic vectors. Our findings are consistent with the general prediction that vertically transmitted pathogens should be less virulent than those transmitted horizontally. We conclude that varying degrees of virulence observed among vector-virus systems probably reflect different selective pressures imposed on arboviruses that are primarily transmitted horizontally versus vertically. PMID:19141420
Lambrechts, Louis; Scott, Thomas W
Mosquitoes were surveyed for the capability of filaria transmission at Sitio Bacolod and Barrio Salvacion, in Bicol region, Luzon, Philippines. The results of indoor collections and experimental infections showed that the infective rates and the median density of infective larvae per infected mosquito were significantly higher in Aedes poicilius than in Culex quinquefasciatus. Aedes poicilius was found to be the principal vector of bancroftian filariasis in this region. PMID:3900489
Suguri, S; Cabrera, B D; Shibuya, T; Harada, M; Valeza, F S; Nagata, T; Tanaka, H; Ishii, A; Go, T G
Lowenberger, C. A., Kamal, S., Chiles, J., Paskewitz, S., Bulet, P., Hoffmann, J. A., and Christensen, B. M. 1999. Mosquito-Plasmodiuminteractions in response to immune activation of the vector.Experimental Parasitology91,59–69. During the development ofPlasmodiumsp. within the mosquito midgut, the parasite undergoes a series of developmental changes. The elongated ookinete migrates through the layers of the midgut where it forms the oocyst
Carl A. Lowenberger; Sofie Kamal; Jody Chiles; Susan Paskewitz; Philippe Bulet; Jules A. Hoffmann; Bruce M. Christensen
Malaria parasites are transmitted to humans by mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles, and these insects are the targets of innovative vector control programs. Proposed approaches include the use of genetic strategies based on transgenic mosquitoes to suppress or modify vector populations. Although substantial advances have been made in engineering resistant mosquito strains, limited efforts have been made in refining mosquito transgene expression, in particular attenuating the effects of insertions sites, which can result in variations in phenotypes and impacts on fitness due to the random integration of transposon constructs. A promising strategy to mitigate position effects is the identification of insulator or boundary DNA elements that could be used to isolate transgenes from the effects of their genomic environment. We applied quantitative approaches that show that exogenous insulator-like DNA derived from the Drosophila melanogaster gypsy retrotransposon can increase and stabilize transgene expression in transposon-mediated random insertions and recombinase-catalyzed, site-specific integrations in the malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles stephensi. These sequences can contribute to precise expression of transgenes in mosquitoes engineered for both basic and applied goals.
Carballar-Lejarazu, Rebeca; Jasinskiene, Nijole; James, Anthony A.
Malaria parasites are transmitted to humans by mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles, and these insects are the targets of innovative vector control programs. Proposed approaches include the use of genetic strategies based on transgenic mosquitoes to suppress or modify vector populations. Although substantial advances have been made in engineering resistant mosquito strains, limited efforts have been made in refining mosquito transgene expression, in particular attenuating the effects of insertions sites, which can result in variations in phenotypes and impacts on fitness due to the random integration of transposon constructs. A promising strategy to mitigate position effects is the identification of insulator or boundary DNA elements that could be used to isolate transgenes from the effects of their genomic environment. We applied quantitative approaches that show that exogenous insulator-like DNA derived from the Drosophila melanogaster gypsy retrotransposon can increase and stabilize transgene expression in transposon-mediated random insertions and recombinase-catalyzed, site-specific integrations in the malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles stephensi. These sequences can contribute to precise expression of transgenes in mosquitoes engineered for both basic and applied goals. PMID:23584017
Carballar-Lejarazú, Rebeca; Jasinskiene, Nijole; James, Anthony A
Surveillance, research, and control of mosquito-borne diseases such as West Nile virus require efficient methods for sampling mosquitoes. We compared the efficacy of BG-Sentinel and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-CO2 traps in terms of the abundances of host-seeking and blood-fed female mosquitoes and the origin of mosquito bloodmeals. Our results indicate that BG-Sentinel traps that use CO2 and attractants are as effective as CDC-CO2 traps for Culex mosquito species, Ochlerotatus caspius, and they are also highly efficient at capturing Anopheles atroparvus host-seeking and blood-fed females with or without CO2. The CDC-CO2 trap is the least efficient method for capturing blood-fed females. BG-Sentinel traps with attractants and CO2 were significantly better at capturing mosquitoes that had fed on mammals than the unbaited BG-Sentinel and CDC-CO2 traps in the cases of An. atroparvus and Cx. theileri. These results may help researchers to optimize trapping methods by obtaining greater sample sizes and saving time and money.
Roiz, David; Roussel, Marion; Munoz, Joaquin; Ruiz, Santiago; Soriguer, Ramon; Figuerola, Jordi
Mosquito larviciding may prove to be an effective tool for incorporating into integrated vector management strategies for reducing malaria transmission. Here, we report the potential of potash alum, a traditionally known salt in Indian Ayurveda and Chinese medicine system, in malaria vector control by evaluating its aqueous suspension as larvicide and growth disruptor of Anopheles stephensi, under laboratory conditions. Immature stages of the mosquito were tested using WHO guidelines. 50 and 90% lethal concentrations among various larvae ranged between 2.1 to 48.74 ppm and 15.78 to 93.11 ppm, respectively. The results indicated that larvicidal effects of potash alum were comparable to various biological and chemical insecticides. The study provides considerable scope in exploiting local indigenous resources for the control of nuisance mosquito vectors. PMID:21966124
Preet, Shabad; Seema, K C
The most vulnerable stages of Plasmodium development occur in the lumen of the mosquito midgut, a compartment shared with symbiotic bacteria. Here, we describe a strategy that uses symbiotic bacteria to deliver antimalaria effector molecules to the midgut lumen, thus rendering host mosquitoes refractory to malaria infection. The Escherichia coli hemolysin A secretion system was used to promote the secretion of a variety of anti-Plasmodium effector proteins by Pantoea agglomerans, a common mosquito symbiotic bacterium. These engineered P. agglomerans strains inhibited development of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum and rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei by up to 98%. Significantly, the proportion of mosquitoes carrying parasites (prevalence) decreased by up to 84% for two of the effector molecules, scorpine, a potent antiplasmodial peptide and (EPIP)(4), four copies of Plasmodium enolase-plasminogen interaction peptide that prevents plasminogen binding to the ookinete surface. We demonstrate the use of an engineered symbiotic bacterium to interfere with the development of P. falciparum in the mosquito. These findings provide the foundation for the use of genetically modified symbiotic bacteria as a powerful tool to combat malaria. PMID:22802646
Wang, Sibao; Ghosh, Anil K; Bongio, Nicholas; Stebbings, Kevin A; Lampe, David J; Jacobs-Lorena, Marcelo
An important variable in determining the vectorial capacity of mosquito species for arthropod-borne infections is the degree of contact of the vector and the vertebrate reservoir. This parameter can be estimated by examining the host-feeding habits of vectors. Serological and polymerase chain reaction based methods have been used to study the host-feedings patterns of 21 mosquito species from New York, New Jersey, and Tennessee, 19 of which previously have been found infected with West Nile virus. Mammalophilic mosquito species in New Jersey and New York fed primarily upon white-tailed deer, while those from Memphis, Tennessee, fed mainly upon domestic dogs. A total of 24 different avian host species were detected among the avian-derived blood meals. American Robin, Northern Cardinal, Northern Mockingbird, Tufted Titmouse, and Brown-headed Cowbird were common avian hosts, while blood meals derived from the American Crow were relatively rare. Although the majority of common host species were potentially among the most abundant birds at each location, the proportion of blood meals from the most commonly fed upon avian species was greater than was predicted based upon the likely abundance of these species alone. These findings suggest that vector species for West Nile virus may preferentially feed upon certain avian hosts. PMID:15018775
Apperson, Charles S; Hassan, Hassan K; Harrison, Bruce A; Savage, Harry M; Aspen, Stephen E; Farajollahi, Ary; Crans, Wayne; Daniels, Thomas J; Falco, Richard C; Benedict, Mark; Anderson, Michael; McMillen, Larry; Unnasch, Thomas R
An important variable in determining the vectorial capacity of mosquito species for arthropod-borne infections is the degree of contact of the vector and the vertebrate reservoir. This parameter can be estimated by examining the host-feeding habits of vectors. Serological and polymerase chain reaction based methods have been used to study the host-feedings patterns of 21 mosquito species from New York, New Jersey, and Tennessee, 19 of which previously have been found infected with West Nile virus. Mammalophilic mosquito species in New Jersey and New York fed primarily upon white-tailed deer, while those from Memphis, Tennessee, fed mainly upon domestic dogs. A total of 24 different avian host species were detected among the avian-derived blood meals. American Robin, Northern Cardinal, Northern Mockingbird, Tufted Titmouse, and Brown-headed Cowbird were common avian hosts, while blood meals derived from the American Crow were relatively rare. Although the majority of common host species were potentially among the most abundant birds at each location, the proportion of blood meals from the most commonly fed upon avian species was greater than was predicted based upon the likely abundance of these species alone. These findings suggest that vector species for West Nile virus may preferentially feed upon certain avian hosts.
APPERSON, CHARLES S.; HASSAN, HASSAN K.; HARRISON, BRUCE A.; SAVAGE, HARRY M.; ASPEN, STEPHEN E.; FARAJOLLAHI, ARY; CRANS, WAYNE; DANIELS, THOMAS J.; FALCO, RICHARD C.; BENEDICT, MARK; ANDERSON, MICHAEL; McMILLEN, LARRY; UNNASCH, THOMAS R.
Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression in a variety of organisms, including insects, vertebrates, and plants. miRNAs play important roles in cell development and differentiation as well as in the cellular response to stress and infection. To date, there are limited reports of miRNA identification in mosquitoes, insects that act as essential vectors for the transmission of many human pathogens, including flaviviruses. West Nile virus (WNV) and dengue virus, members of the Flaviviridae family, are primarily transmitted by Aedes and Culex mosquitoes. Using high-throughput deep sequencing, we examined the miRNA repertoire in Ae. albopictus cells and Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes. Results We identified a total of 65 miRNAs in the Ae. albopictus C7/10 cell line and 77 miRNAs in Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes, the majority of which are conserved in other insects such as Drosophila melanogaster and Anopheles gambiae. The most highly expressed miRNA in both mosquito species was miR-184, a miRNA conserved from insects to vertebrates. Several previously reported Anopheles miRNAs, including miR-1890 and miR-1891, were also found in Culex and Aedes, and appear to be restricted to mosquitoes. We identified seven novel miRNAs, arising from nine different precursors, in C7/10 cells and Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes, two of which have predicted orthologs in An. gambiae. Several of these novel miRNAs reside within a ~350 nt long cluster present in both Aedes and Culex. miRNA expression was confirmed by primer extension analysis. To determine whether flavivirus infection affects miRNA expression, we infected female Culex mosquitoes with WNV. Two miRNAs, miR-92 and miR-989, showed significant changes in expression levels following WNV infection. Conclusions Aedes and Culex mosquitoes are important flavivirus vectors. Recent advances in both mosquito genomics and high-throughput sequencing technologies enabled us to interrogate the miRNA profile in these two species. Here, we provide evidence for over 60 conserved and seven novel mosquito miRNAs, expanding upon our current understanding of insect miRNAs. Undoubtedly, some of the miRNAs identified will have roles not only in mosquito development, but also in mediating viral infection in the mosquito host.
Malaria vectors in sub-Saharan Africa have proven themselves very difficult adversaries in the global struggle against malaria. Decades of anti-vector interventions have yielded mixed results—with successful reductions in transmission in some areas and limited impacts in others. These varying successes can be ascribed to a lack of universally effective vector control tools, as well as the development of insecticide resistance in mosquito populations. Understanding the impact of vector control on mosquito populations is crucial for planning new interventions and evaluating existing ones. However, estimates of population size changes in response to control efforts are often inaccurate because of limitations and biases in collection methods. Attempts to evaluate the impact of vector control on mosquito effective population size (Ne) have produced inconclusive results thus far. Therefore, we obtained data for 13–15 microsatellite markers for more than 1,500 mosquitoes representing multiple time points for seven populations of three important vector species—Anopheles gambiae, An. melas, and An. moucheti—in Equatorial Guinea. These populations were exposed to indoor residual spraying or long-lasting insecticidal nets in recent years. For comparison, we also analyzed data from two populations that have no history of organized vector control. We used Approximate Bayesian Computation to reconstruct their demographic history, allowing us to evaluate the impact of these interventions on the effective population size. In six of the seven study populations, vector control had a dramatic impact on the effective population size, reducing Ne between 55%–87%, the exception being a single An. melas population. In contrast, the two negative control populations did not experience a reduction in effective population size. This study is the first to conclusively link anti-vector intervention programs in Africa to sharply reduced effective population sizes of malaria vectors.
Athrey, Giridhar; Hodges, Theresa K.; Reddy, Michael R.; Overgaard, Hans J.; Matias, Abrahan; Ridl, Frances C.; Kleinschmidt, Immo; Caccone, Adalgisa; Slotman, Michel A.
Intracellular Wolbachia bacteria are obligate, maternally inherited endosymbionts found frequently in insects and other invertebrates. The evolutionary success of Wolbachia is due in part to an ability to manipulate reproduction. In mosquitoes and many other insects, Wolbachia causes a form of sterility known as cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI). Wolbachia-induced CI has attracted interest as a potential agent for affecting medically important disease vectors. However, application of the approach has been restricted by an absence of appropriate, naturally occurring Wolbachia infections. Here, we report the interspecific transfer of Wolbachia infection into a medically important mosquito. Using embryonic microinjection, Wolbachia is transferred from Drosophila simulans into the invasive pest and disease vector: Aedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito). The resulting infection is stably maintained and displays a unique pattern of bidirectional CI in crosses with naturally infected mosquitoes. Laboratory population cage experiments examine a strategy in which releases of Wolbachia-infected males are used to suppress mosquito egg hatch. We discuss the results in relation to developing appropriate Wolbachia-infected mosquito strains for population replacement and population suppression strategies.
Xi, Zhiyong; Khoo, Cynthia C.H; Dobson, Stephen L
The rapid spread of West Nile virus (WNv) in North America is a major public health concern. Culex pipiens-restuans is the principle mosquito vector of WNv in the northeastern United States while Aedes vexans is an important bridge vector of the virus in this region. Vector mosquito abundance is directly dependent on physical environmental factors that provide mosquito habitats. The objective of this research is to determine landscape elements that explain the population abundance and distribution of WNv vector mosquitoes using stepwise linear regression. We developed a novel approach for examining a large set of landscape variables based on a land use and land cover classification by selecting variables in stages to minimize multicollinearity. We also investigated the distance at which landscape elements influence abundance of vector populations using buffer distances of 200, 400, and 1000 m. Results show landscape effects have a significant impact on Cx. pipiens-estuans population distribution while the effects of landscape features are less important for prediction of Ae. vexans population distributions. Cx. pipiens-restuans population abundance is positively correlated with human population density, housing unit density, and urban land use and land cover classes and negatively correlated with age of dwellings and amount of forested land. PMID:20482343
Trawinski, Patricia R; Mackay, D Scott
Wildlife on isolated oceanic islands is highly susceptible to the introduction of pathogens. The recent establishment in the Galápagos Islands of the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus, a vector for diseases such as avian malaria and West Nile fever, is considered a serious risk factor for the archipelago's endemic fauna. Here we present evidence from the monitoring of aeroplanes and genetic analysis that C. quinquefasciatus is regularly introduced via aircraft into the Galápagos Archipelago. Genetic population structure and admixture analysis demonstrates that these mosquitoes breed with, and integrate successfully into, already-established populations of C. quinquefasciatus in the Galápagos, and that there is ongoing movement of mosquitoes between islands. Tourist cruise boats and inter-island boat services are the most likely mechanism for transporting Culex mosquitoes between islands. Such anthropogenic mosquito movements increase the risk of the introduction of mosquito-borne diseases novel to Galápagos and their subsequent widespread dissemination across the archipelago. Failure to implement and maintain measures to prevent the human-assisted transport of mosquitoes to and among the islands could have catastrophic consequences for the endemic wildlife of Galápagos.
Bataille, Arnaud; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Cedeno, Virna; Cruz, Marilyn; Eastwood, Gillian; Fonseca, Dina M.; Causton, Charlotte E.; Azuero, Ronal; Loayza, Jose; Martinez, Jose D. Cruz; Goodman, Simon J.
In metropolitan areas people travel frequently and extensively but often in highly structured commuting patterns. We investigate the role of this type of human movement in the epidemiology of vector-borne pathogens such as dengue. Analysis is based on a metapopulation model where mobile humans connect static mosquito subpopulations. We find that, due to frequency dependent biting, infection incidence in the human and mosquito populations is almost independent of the duration of contact. If the mosquito population is not uniformly distributed between patches the transmission potential of the pathogen at the metapopulation level, as summarized by the basic reproductive number, is determined by the size of the largest subpopulation and reduced by stronger connectivity. Global extinction of the pathogen is less likely when increased human movement enhances the rescue effect but, in contrast to classical theory, it is not minimized at an intermediate level of connectivity. We conclude that hubs and reservoirs of infection can be places people visit frequently but briefly and the relative importance of human and mosquito populations in maintaining the pathogen depends on the distribution of the mosquito population and the variability in human travel patterns. These results offer an insight in to the paradoxical observation of resurgent urban vector-borne disease despite increased investment in vector control and suggest that successful public health intervention may require a dual approach. Prospective studies can be used to identify areas with large mosquito populations that are also visited by a large fraction of the human population. Retrospective studies can be used to map recent movements of infected people, pinpointing the mosquito subpopulation from which they acquired the infection and others to which they may have transmitted it.
Adams, Ben; Kapan, Durrell D.
West Nile virus (WN), an agent of significant human and veterinary disease, is endemic in the Old World and rapidly spreading throughout the Americas. Vaccines are needed to halt the geographic expansion of this virus and prevent disease where it is established. However, to preclude introduction of a vaccine virus into the environment, a live attenuated WN vaccine should have low potential for transmission by mosquitoes. A chimeric WN vaccine candidate was previously generated by replacing the membrane and envelope structural protein genes of recombinant dengue type 4 virus (rDEN4) with those of WN; a derivative of this virus, WN/DEN4-3'delta30, contains a 30-nucleotide deletion in the 3' untranslated region. To assess the potential for transmission by mosquitoes of these vaccine candidates, the ability of each chimeric virus to infect the mosquito midgut, disseminate to the head, and pass into the saliva was compared to that of their wild-type parental WN and DEN4 viruses in three vector species. The WN/DEN4 chimeric viruses were significantly attenuated in both Culex tarsalis, a vector able to transmit WN but not dengue, and in Ae. aegypti, a vector able to transmit dengue but not WN. However, the chimeric viruses were as infectious as either wild-type virus for Ae. albopictus, a vector able to transmit both dengue and WN. These results indicate that chimerization caused a contraction in vector host range rather than universal attenuation for mosquitoes per se. This restriction in potential vectors renders it less likely that WN/DEN4 and WN/DEN4-3'delta30 would be transmitted from vaccinees to mosquitoes. PMID:15815144
Hanley, Kathryn A; Goddard, Laura B; Gilmore, Lara E; Scott, Thomas W; Speicher, James; Murphy, Brian R; Pletnev, Alexander G
Background Competitive displacement of a weakly virulent pathogen strain by a more virulent strain is one route to disease emergence. However the mechanisms by which pathogens compete for access to hosts are poorly understood. Among vector-borne pathogens, variation in the ability to infect vectors may effect displacement. The current study focused on competitive displacement in dengue virus serotype 3 (DENV3), a mosquito-borne pathogen of humans. In Sri Lanka in the 1980's, a native DENV3 strain associated with relatively mild dengue disease was displaced by an invasive DENV3 strain associated with the most severe disease manifestations, dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS), resulting in an outbreak of DHF/DSS. Here we tested the hypothesis that differences between the invasive and native strain in their infectivity for Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, the primary vector of DENV, contributed to the competitive success of the invasive strain Results To be transmitted by a mosquito, DENV must infect and replicate in the midgut, disseminate into the hemocoel, infect the salivary glands, and be released into the saliva. The ability of the native and invasive DENV3 strains to complete the first three steps of this process in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes was measured in vivo. The invasive strain infected a similar proportion of mosquitoes as the native strain but replicated to significantly higher titers in the midgut and disseminated with significantly greater efficiency than the native strain. In contrast, the native and invasive strain showed no significant difference in replication in cultured mosquito, monkey or human cells. Conclusion The invasive DENV3 strain infects and disseminates in Ae. aegypti more efficiently than the displaced native DENV3 strain, suggesting that the invasive strain is transmitted more efficiently. Replication in cultured cells did not adequately characterize the known phenotypic differences between native and invasive DENV3 strains. Infection dynamics within the vector may have a significant impact on the spread and replacement of dengue virus lineages.
Hanley, Kathryn A; Nelson, Jacob T; Schirtzinger, Erin E; Whitehead, Stephen S; Hanson, Christopher T
Avian defensive behavior against host-seeking arthropods influences transmission of vector-borne pathogens by affecting mosquito biting rate, either by preventing vector--host contact or by increasing the rate of multiple host feeding. We exposed house sparrows (Passer domesticus L.) and chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus L.) to Culex pipiens pipiens L. overnight in a large observation cage and measured avian defensive behavior rates
Jonathan M. Darbro; Laura C. Harrington
The mosquito Aedes taeniorhynchus is an important epidemic vector of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), but detailed studies of its infection are lacking. We compared infection by an epidemic VEEV strain to that by an enzootic strain using virus titrations, immunohistochemistry, and a virus expressing the green fluorescent protein. Ae. taeniorhynchus was more susceptible to the epidemic strain, which initially
Darci R. Smith; Nicole C. Arrigo; Grace Leal; Linda E. Muehlberger; Scott C. Weaver
The diversity of mosquito arbovirus vectors was investigated to define regional risk of arbovirus transmission in Kenya. Mosquitoes were sampled between April, 2007 and December, 2010 at thirteen sites across seven administrative provinces and ecological zones. CDC light traps were used to collect mosquitoes while human-landing collection was conducted in five of the sites to target day-feeding Aedes (Stegomyia) species. Over 524,000 mosquitoes were collected and identified into 101 species, 30 of them known vectors of arboviruses endemic to Kenya. Ae. (Neomelaniconion) mcintoshi and Ae. (Aedimorphus) ochraceus were most abundant in Garissa in the arid northeastern province, and Mansonia uniformis and Mn. africana in semi-arid Baringo in the Rift Valley Province. Ae. ochraceus, Mn. africana and Mn. uniformis were also significant in Nyanza Province, while Ae. (Neomelaniconion) circumluteolus predominated in Budalangi, Western Province. Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti was predominant in Rabai in the Coast Province but insignificant in the western and Nyanza sites. Culex pipiens was abundant in Rift Valley and Nyanza Provinces around the lake shores. This study highlights the potential for emergence and re-emergence of arboviral diseases among vulnerable populations. This calls for comprehensive mapping of vector distribution and abundance for planning focused vector control measures. PMID:23701618
Lutomiah, Joel; Bast, Joshua; Clark, Jeffrey; Richardson, Jason; Yalwala, Santos; Oullo, David; Mutisya, James; Mulwa, Francis; Musila, Lillian; Khamadi, Samoel; Schnabel, David; Wurapa, Eyako; Sang, Rosemary
The 16th Annual Latin American Symposium presented by the American Mosquito Control Association (AMCA) was held as part of the 72nd Annual Meeting in Detroit, Michigan in February 2006. The principal objective, as for the previous 15 symposia, was to promote participation in the AMCA by vector cont...
The 20th Annual Latin American symposium presented by the American Mosquito Control Association (AMCA) was held as part of the 76th Annual Meeting in Lexington, KY in March 2010. The principal objective, as for the previous 19 symposia, was to promote participation in the AMCA by vector control spec...
The 22nd Annual Latin American Symposium presented by the American Mosquito Control Association (AMCA) was held as part of the 78th Annual Meeting in Austin, TX in February 2012. The principal objective, as for the previous 21 symposia, was to promote participation in the AMCA by vector control spec...
The 17th Annual Latin America American symposium presented by the American Mosquito Control Association (AMCA) was held as part of the 73rd Annual Meeting in Orlando, FL, in April 2007. The principal objective, as for the previous 16 symposia, was to promote participation in the AMCA by vector cont...
The 19th Annual Latin American symposium presented by the American Mosquito Control Association (AMCA) was held as part of the 75th Annual Meeting in New Orleans, LA, in April 2009. The principal objective, as for the previous 18 symposia, was to promote participation in the AMCA by vector control s...
The 18th Annual Latin American symposium presented by the American Mosquito Control Association (AMCA) was held as part of the 74th Annual Meeting in Sparks, NV, in March 2008. The principal objective, as for the previous 17 symposia, was to promote participation in the AMCA by vector control speci...
The 21st Annual Latin American Symposium presented by the American Mosquito Control Association (AMCA) was held as part of the 77th Annual Meeting in Anaheim, CA in March 2011. The principal objective, as for the previous 20 symposia, was to promote participation in the AMCA by vector control specia...
Baculoviruses have been intensively investigated due to their potential as biological control agents for insects and because of their importance as gene expression vectors. Mosquito baculoviruses have been difficult if not impossible to transmit and therefore basic biological studies have been hind...
We present a genetic map based on microsatellite polymorphisms for the African human malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae. Polymorphisms in laboratory strains were detected for 89% of the tested microsatellite markers. Genotyping was performed for individual mosquitoes from 13 backcross families that included 679 progeny. Three linkage groups were identified, corresponding to the three chromo- somes. We added 22 new markers
Liangbiao Zheng; Mark Q. Benedict; Anton J. Cornel; Frank H. Collins; Fotis C. Kafatos
Background Indoor-based anti-vector interventions remain the preferred means of reducing risk of malaria transmission in malaria endemic\\u000a areas around the world. Despite demonstrated success in reducing human-mosquito interactions, these methods are effective\\u000a solely against endophilic vectors. It may be that outdoor locations serve as an important venue of host seeking by Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (s.l.) mosquitoes where indoor vector suppression
Michael R Reddy; Hans J Overgaard; Simon Abaga; Vamsi P Reddy; Adalgisa Caccone; Anthony E Kiszewski; Michel A Slotman
Mosquitoes are vectors for a diverse set of pathogens including arboviruses, protozoan parasites and nematodes. Investigation of transcripts and gene regulators that are expressed in tissues in which the mosquito host and pathogen interact, and in organs involved in reproduction are of great interest for strategies to reduce mosquito-borne disease transmission and disrupt egg development. A number of tools have been employed to study and validate the temporal and tissue-specific regulation of gene expression. Here, we describe protocols that have been developed to obtain spatial information, which enhances our understanding of where specific genes are expressed and their products accumulate. The protocol described has been used to validate expression and determine accumulation patterns of transcripts in tissues related to mosquito-borne pathogen transmission, such as female salivary glands, as well as subcellular compartments of ovaries and embryos, which relate to mosquito reproduction and development. The following procedures represent an optimized methodology that improves the efficiency of various steps in the protocol without loss of target-specific hybridization signals. Guidelines for RNA probe preparation, dissection of soft tissues and the general procedure for fixation and hybridization are described in Part A, while steps specific for the collection, fixation, pre-hybridization and hybridization of mosquito embryos are detailed in Part B.
Juhn, Jennifer; James, Anthony A.
Female mosquitoes commonly exhibit patterns of blood feeding from vertebrate hosts, a behavior that strongly influences mosquito pathogen infection and transmission. The vertebrate host dynamics of the mosquito transmitted arbovirus, West Nile virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, WNV) in sa...
This paper presents a study based on ecological parameters represented by diversity and richness indices applied in a community of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae), at the National Forest of Caxiuanã, Melgaço municipality, state of Pará, in the Brazilian Amazon. A total of 25,433 specimens of culicids were collected in the study, from five field collection periods, over 10 months, between 2005 and 2006. Specimens were collected in four heights of the forest (ground level, 8?m, 16?m, and 30?m-canopy). Diversity indices of Shannon and Berger-Parker were obtained, and indicators of dominance of species were calculated. The species Culex portesi was dominant in this site, representing about 84% of specimens. Measures of richness and similarity (Jaccard) were obtained for the five strata of time and four height levels. According to the richness estimator abundance-based covered estimator (ACE) the greatest value occurred in April (2006), considering the levels of height to 16?m and on the ground. The estimates obtained have shown quantitative parameters of mosquito populations in the region of the Forest of Caxiuanã.
Confalonieri, Ulisses E. C.; Costa Neto, Cristina
In villages near Sanaga river, in the forest zone of south Cameroon, Anopheles nili Theobald is the main species of mosquito regularly found biting man inside houses. Its densities are related to the flow level of the river. It is also the main malaria vector in terms of intensity and seasonal duration of transmission. The yearly malaria inoculation rate due to An. nili alone is 104 infective bites/man, varying between 3 infective bites/man in October and 20 in March. Anopheles gambiae Giles is a less important vector in the area but reached its peak in the dry season, when the Sanaga river is at its lowest level. These observations underline the influence of local ecology on malaria transmission and the need for entomological studies in each situation. PMID:1421483
Carnevale, P; Le Goff, G; Toto, J C; Robert, V
It has often been suggested that vector-borne parasites alter their vector's feeding behaviour to increase their transmission, but these claims are often based on laboratory studies and lack rigorous testing in a natural situation. We show in this field study that the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, alters the blood-feeding behaviour of its mosquito vector, Anopheles gambiae s.l., in two ways. First, mosquitoes infected with sporozoited, the parasite stage that is transmitted from the mosquito to a human, took up larger blood meals than uninfected mosquitoes. Whereas 72% of the uninfected mosquitoes had obtained a full blood meal, 82% of the infected ones had engorged fully. Second, mosquitoes harbouring sporozoites were more likely to bite several people per night. Twenty-two per cent of the infected mosquitoes, but only 10% of the uninfected mosquitoes, contained blood from at least two people. We conclude that the observed changes in blood-feeding behaviour allow the parasite to spread more rapidly among human hosts, and thus confirm that the parasite manipulates the mosquito to increase its own transmission.
Koella, J C; S?rensen, F L; Anderson, R A
Most adult mosquito surveillance in Maryland is performed using dry ice-baited or unbaited Centers for Disease Control (CDC) miniature light traps suspended approximately 1.5 m above the ground. However, standardized trapping methods may miss mosquito species involved in disease transmission cycles. During a 2-yr study, the effectiveness of the olfactory attractant 1-octen-3-ol alone and in combination with carbon dioxide was evaluated for collecting mosquito vector species. In addition, trap heights were examined to determine the optimal vertical placement to target various species. We evaluated the results during the second year by targeting selected species by using various habitat- height-bait combinations. Although Culex erraticus Dyar & Knab and Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say were not successfully targeted, Culex salinarius Coquillett, Aedes vexans Meigen, Anopheles bradleyi/crucians King, Coquillettidia perturbans Walker, Aedes sollicitans Walker, and Aedes taeniorhynchus Wiedemann were preferentially captured using targeted trapping schemes. PMID:16619593
Shone, Scott M; Glass, Gregory E; Norris, Douglas E
Mosquito-borne diseases, including dengue, malaria, and lymphatic filariasis, exact a devastating toll on global health and economics, killing or debilitating millions every year (54). Mosquito innate immune re- sponses are at the forefront of concerted research efforts aimed at defining potential target genes that could be manipulated to engineer pathogen resistance in vector populations. We aimed to describe the pivotal
Lyric C. Bartholomay; Wen-Long Cho; Thomas A. Rocheleau; Jon P. Boyle; Eric T. Beck; Jeremy F. Fuchs; Paul Liss; Michael Rusch; Katherine M. Butler; Roy Chen-Chih Wu; Shih-Pei Lin; Hang-Yen Kuo; I-Yu Tsao; Chiung-Yin Huang; Tze-Tze Liu; Kwang-Jen Hsiao; Shih-Feng Tsai; Ueng-Cheng Yang; Anthony J. Nappi; Nicole T. Perna; Chen-Cheng Chen; Bruce M. Christensen
BACKGROUND: In many parts of the world, salt marshes play a key ecological role as the interface between the marine and the terrestrial environments. Salt marshes are also exceedingly important for public health as larval habitat for mosquitoes that are vectors of disease and significant biting pests. Although grid ditching and pesticides have been effective in salt marsh mosquito control,
Ilia Rochlin; Tom Iwanejko; Mary E Dempsey; Dominick V Ninivaggi
Background Saliva of adult female mosquitoes help sugar and blood feeding by providing enzymes and polypeptides that help sugar digestion, control microbial growth and counteract their vertebrate host hemostasis and inflammation. Mosquito saliva also potentiates the transmission of vector borne pathogens, including arboviruses. Culex tarsalis is a bird feeding mosquito vector of West Nile Virus closely related to C. quinquefasciatus, a mosquito relatively recently adapted to feed on humans, and the only mosquito of the genus Culex to have its sialotranscriptome so far described. Results A total of 1,753 clones randomly selected from an adult female C. tarsalis salivary glands (SG) cDNA library were sequenced and used to assemble a database that yielded 809 clusters of related sequences, 675 of which were singletons. Primer extension experiments were performed in selected clones to further extend sequence coverage, allowing for the identification of 283 protein sequences, 80 of which code for putative secreted proteins. Conclusion Comparison of the C. tarsalis sialotranscriptome with that of C. quinquefasciatus reveals accelerated evolution of salivary proteins as compared to housekeeping proteins. The average amino acid identity among salivary proteins is 70.1%, while that for housekeeping proteins is 91.2% (P < 0.05), and the codon volatility of secreted proteins is significantly higher than those of housekeeping proteins. Several protein families previously found exclusive of mosquitoes, including only in the Aedes genus have been identified in C. tarsalis. Interestingly, a protein family so far unique to C. quinquefasciatus, with 30 genes, is also found in C. tarsalis, indicating it was not a specific C. quinquefasciatus acquisition in its evolution to optimize mammal blood feeding.
It is currently unclear if the potential for West Nile virus transmission by mosquito vectors in the eastern United States is related to landscape or climate factors or both. We compared abundance of vector species between urban and suburban neighborhoods of Henrico County, VA, in relation to the following factors: temperature, precipitation, canopy cover, building footprint, and proximity to drainage infrastructure. Mosquitoes were collected throughout the 2005, 2006, and 2007 seasons and tested for West Nile virus (WNV) in pools of 10-50. Test results of mosquito pools were compared to average site abundance from 37 sites in Henrico County, VA; abundance was then examined in relation to ecological variables. Urban infrastructure was positively correlated with the abundance of Culex pipiens L./Cx. restuans, and our findings implicate combined sewer overflow systems as large contributors to Culex vector populations. No measure of urbanization examined in our study was correlated with Aedes albopictus abundance. Our study showed that certain landscape variables identified using Geographic Information Systems are valuable for predicting primary WNV vector abundance in Virginia, and that temperature along with low precipitation are strong predictors of population growth. Our results support other regional studies that found WNV proliferates under drought conditions. PMID:21635644
Deichmeister, Jayne M; Telang, Aparna
Early studies on the genetics of insecticide resistance showed that single major semi-dominant genes were generally involved, and biochemical studies defined a limited number of enzymes and structural nerve proteins that were encoded by these genes. Recent advances in resistance detection now allow the measurement of genotype frequencies for some of these resistance mechanisms. Molecular studies are in progress for most of the major resistance genes, and the amplified esterase B(1) gene in Culex quinquefasciatus has been cloned. Changes in resistance gene expression occur, with increasing age of the adult insect, by way of specific mechanisms, and amplified esterase-based resistance genes that are not expressed can occur in aphids. Here Janet Hemingway assesses current knowledge of the genetics of insecticide resistance in mosquitoes. PMID:15463644
The regional malaria epidemics of the early 1900s provided the basis for much of our current understanding of malaria epidemiology. Colonel Gill, an eminent malariologist of that time, suggested that the explosive nature of the regional epidemics was due to a sudden increased infectiousness of the adult population. His pertinent observations underlying this suggestion have, however, gone unheeded. Here, the literature on Plasmodium seasonal behaviour is reviewed and three historical data sets, concerning seasonal transmission of Plasmodium falciparum, are examined. It is proposed that the dramatic seasonal increase in the density of uninfected mosquito bites results in an increased infectiousness of the human reservoir of infection and, therefore, plays a key role in "kick-starting" malaria parasite transmission.
Paul, Richard EL; Diallo, Mawlouth; Brey, Paul T
This tutorial is part of a series of entomological tutorials and covers the general biology and ecology of mosquitoes. The tutorial has 100 questions (50 in each of 2 tutorials); incorrect answers lead to additional information describing the correct answers. Covers all mosquito genera and their habitats, identification, life cycle, biology, and economic importance. Requires Windows. MAC is not supported. The cost for the tutorial CD is $15.
In recent years, the East African region has seen an increase in arboviral diseases transmitted by blood-feeding arthropods. Effective surveillance to monitor and reduce incidence of these infections requires the use of appropriate vector sampling tools. Here, trapped skin volatiles on fur from sheep, a known preferred host of mosquito vectors of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), were used with a standard CDC light trap to improve catches of mosquito vectors. We tested the standard CDC light trap alone (L), and baited with (a) CO(2) (LC), (b) animal volatiles (LF), and (c) CO(2) plus animal volatiles (LCF) in two highly endemic areas for RVF in Kenya (Marigat and Ijara districts) from March-June and September-December 2010. The incidence rate ratios (IRR) that mosquito species chose traps baited with treatments (LCF, LC and LF) instead of the control (L) were estimated. Marigat was dominated by secondary vectors and host-seeking mosquitoes were 3-4 times more likely to enter LC and LCF traps [IRR?=?3.1 and IRR?=?3.8 respectively] than the L only trap. The LCF trap captured a greater number of mosquitoes than the LC trap (IRR?=?1.23) although the difference was not significant. Analogous results were observed at Ijara, where species were dominated by key primary and primary RVFV vectors, with 1.6-, 6.5-, and 8.5-fold increases in trap captures recorded in LF, LC and LCF baited traps respectively, relative to the control. These catches all differed significantly from those trapped in L only. Further, there was a significant increase in trap captures in LCF compared to LC (IRR?=?1.63). Mosquito species composition and trap counts differed between the RVF sites. However, within each site, catches differed in abundance only and no species preferences were noted in the different baited-traps. Identifying the attractive components present in these natural odors should lead to development of an effective odor-bait trapping system for population density-monitoring and result in improved RVF surveillance especially during the inter-epidemic period. PMID:23133687
Tchouassi, David P; Sang, Rosemary; Sole, Catherine L; Bastos, Armanda D S; Mithoefer, Klaus; Torto, Baldwyn
The mosquito Aedes taeniorhynchus is an important epidemic vector of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), but detailed studies of its infection are lacking. We compared infection by an epidemic VEEV strain to that by an enzootic strain using virus titrations, immunohistochemistry, and a virus expressing the green fluorescent protein. Ae. taeniorhynchus was more susceptible to the epidemic strain, which initially infected the posterior midgut and occasionally the anterior midgut and cardia. Once dissemination beyond the midgut occurred, virus was present in nearly all tissues. Transmission of the epidemic strain to mice was first detected 4 days after infection. In contrast, the enzootic strain did not efficiently infect midgut cells but replicated in muscles and nervous tissue on dissemination. Because VEEV emergence can depend on adaptation to epidemic vectors, these results show that epidemic/enzootic strain comparisons not only comprise a useful model system to study alphavirus transmission by mosquitoes, but also have important public health implications. PMID:17620651
Smith, Darci R; Arrigo, Nicole C; Leal, Grace; Muehlberger, Linda E; Weaver, Scott C
The sixth Spanish language symposium presented by the American Mosquito Control Association (AMCA) was held as part of the 62nd Annual Meeting in Norfolk, VA, in March 1996. The principal objective, as for the previous 5 symposia, was to promote the participation in the AMCA meeting by vector control specialists, public health workers, and academicians from Latin America. This publication includes summaries of 25 presentations that were given in Spanish by participants from 6 countries in Latin America and the USA. The symposium included the following topics: ecological and genetic studies of anopheline vectors of malaria, laboratory and field evaluations of chemical control methods for several mosquito species, ecological studies and community control of Aedes aegypti, and reports of dengue/dengue hemorrhagic fever and Venezuelan equine encephalitis epidemics that occurred in Latin America in 1995. PMID:8887226
Clark, G G
The vector of bancroftian filariasis in Bongao, Sulu where abaca is not grown is Anopheles flavirostris. This finding confirms previous ones in Bontoc. Mt. Province and in Quezon, Palawan both of which do not grow abaca. Bancroftian filariasis in Sulu Arc...
B. D. Cabrera
Vector competence, the probability that a vector will transmit a pathogen after feeding on an infected host, is known to vary among vector species, populations, days since feeding, and temperature during the extrinsic incubation period. However, the extent of spatio-temporal variability and consistency in vector competence of populations is not known. We examined vector competence of Culex pipiens Linnaeus and Cx. restuans Theobald mosquitoes for West Nile virus collected over 3 years from 17 sites to measure spatial and temporal scales of variation in vector competence. We found extreme variation with 0–52% of mosquitoes transmitting West Nile virus at a single site between different sampling periods, and similar variation across populations. However, we also found that within a smaller geographic range, vector competence varied somewhat synchronously, suggesting that environmental and population genetic factors might influence vector competence. These results highlight the spatio-temporal variability in vector competence and the role of local processes.
Kilpatrick, A. Marm; Fonseca, Dina M.; Ebel, Gregory D.; Reddy, Michael R.; Kramer, Laura D.
Background High coverage of personal protection measures that kill mosquitoes dramatically reduce malaria transmission where vector populations depend upon human blood. However, most primary malaria vectors outside of sub-Saharan Africa can be classified as “very zoophagic,” meaning they feed occasionally (<10% of blood meals) upon humans, so personal protection interventions have negligible impact upon their survival. Methods and Findings We extended a published malaria transmission model to examine the relationship between transmission, control, and the baseline proportion of bloodmeals obtained from humans (human blood index). The lower limit of the human blood index enables derivation of simplified models for zoophagic vectors that (1) Rely on only three field-measurable parameters. (2) Predict immediate and delayed (with and without assuming reduced human infectivity, respectively) impacts of personal protection measures upon transmission. (3) Illustrate how appreciable indirect communal-level protection for non-users can be accrued through direct personal protection of users. (4) Suggest the coverage and efficacy thresholds required to attain epidemiological impact. The findings suggest that immediate, indirect, community-wide protection of users and non-users alike may linearly relate to the efficacy of a user’s direct personal protection, regardless of whether that is achieved by killing or repelling mosquitoes. High protective coverage and efficacy (?80%) are important to achieve epidemiologically meaningful impact. Non-users are indirectly protected because the two most common species of human malaria are strict anthroponoses. Therefore, the small proportion of mosquitoes that are killed or diverted while attacking humans can represent a large proportion of those actually transmitting malaria. Conclusions Simplified models of malaria transmission by very zoophagic vectors may be used by control practitioners to predict intervention impact interventions using three field-measurable parameters; the proportion of human exposure to mosquitoes occurring when an intervention can be practically used, its protective efficacy when used, and the proportion of people using it.
Kiware, Samson S.; Chitnis, Nakul; Moore, Sarah J.; Devine, Gregor J.; Majambere, Silas; Merrill, Stephen; Killeen, Gerry F.
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression in a variety of organisms, including insects, vertebrates, and plants. miRNAs play important roles in cell development and differentiation as well as in the cellular response to stress and infection. To date, there are limited reports of miRNA identification in mosquitoes, insects that act as essential vectors for
Rebecca L Skalsky; Dana L Vanlandingham; Frank Scholle; Stephen Higgs; Bryan R Cullen
Ecological niche modeling (ENM) algorithms, Maximum Entropy Species Distribution Modeling (Maxent) and Genetic Algorithm for Rule-set Prediction (GARP), were used to develop models in Iowa for three species of mosquito — two significant, extant West Nile virus (WNV) vectors (Culex pipiens L and Culex tarsalis Coquillett (Diptera: Culicidae)), and the nuisance mosquito, Aedes vexans Meigen (Diptera: Culicidae), a potential WNV bridge vector. Occurrence data for the three mosquito species from a state-wide arbovirus surveillance program were used in combination with climatic and landscape layers. Maxent successfully created more appropriate niche models with greater accuracy than GARP. The three Maxent species' models were combined and the average values were statistically compared to human WNV incidence at the census block group level. The results showed that the Maxent-modeled species' niches averaged together were a useful indicator of WNV human incidence in the state of Iowa. This simple method for creating probability distribution maps proved useful for understanding WNV dynamics and could be applied to the study of other vector-borne diseases.
Larson, Scott R.; DeGroote, John P.; Bartholomay, Lyric C.; Sugumaran, Ramanathan
The mosquito-transmitted pathogen West Nile virus (WNV) is not yet present in the Galápagos Archipelago of Ecuador. However, concern exists for fragile endemic island fauna after population decreases in several North American bird species and pathology in certain reptiles. We examined WNV vector competency of a Galápagos strain of mosquito (Culex quinquefasciatus Say). Field specimens were tested for their capacity to transmit the WN02-1956 strain of WNV after incubation at 27°C or 30°C. Rates of infection, dissemination, and transmission all increased with days post-exposure to WNV, and the highest rates were observed at 28 days. Infection rates peaked at 59% and transmission rates peaked at 44% (of mosquitoes tested). Vector efficiency increased after day 14. Rates of infection but not of transmission were significantly influence by temperature. No vertical transmission was detectable. We demonstrate that Galápagos Cx. quinquefasciatus are competent WNV vectors, and therefore should be considered an animal and public health risk for the islands and controlled wherever possible. PMID:21896799
Eastwood, Gillian; Kramer, Laura D; Goodman, Simon J; Cunningham, Andrew A
The mosquito-transmitted pathogen West Nile virus (WNV) is not yet present in the Galápagos Archipelago of Ecuador. However, concern exists for fragile endemic island fauna after population decreases in several North American bird species and pathology in certain reptiles. We examined WNV vector competency of a Galápagos strain of mosquito (Culex quinquefasciatus Say). Field specimens were tested for their capacity to transmit the WN02-1956 strain of WNV after incubation at 27°C or 30°C. Rates of infection, dissemination, and transmission all increased with days post-exposure to WNV, and the highest rates were observed at 28 days. Infection rates peaked at 59% and transmission rates peaked at 44% (of mosquitoes tested). Vector efficiency increased after day 14. Rates of infection but not of transmission were significantly influence by temperature. No vertical transmission was detectable. We demonstrate that Galápagos Cx. quinquefasciatus are competent WNV vectors, and therefore should be considered an animal and public health risk for the islands and controlled wherever possible.
Eastwood, Gillian; Kramer, Laura D.; Goodman, Simon J.; Cunningham, Andrew A.
Malaria is caused by Plasmodium parasites which are transmitted by mosquitoes. Until recently, human malaria was considered to be caused by human-specific Plasmodium species. Studies on Plasmodium parasites in non-human primates (NHPs), however, have identified parasite species in gorillas and chimpanzees that are closely related to human Plasmodium species. Moreover, P. knowlesi, long known as a parasite of monkeys, frequently infects humans. The requirements for such a cross-species exchange and especially the role of mosquitoes in this process are discussed, as the latter may act as bridge vectors of Plasmodium species between different primates. Little is known about the mosquito species that would bite both humans and NHPs and if so, whether humans and NHPs share the same Plasmodium vectors. To understand the vector-host interactions that can lead to an increased Plasmodium transmission between species, studies are required that reveal the nature of these interactions. Studying the potential role of NHPs as a Plasmodium reservoir for humans will contribute to the ongoing efforts of human malaria elimination, and will help to focus on critical areas that should be considered in achieving this goal.
Verhulst, Niels O.; Smallegange, Renate C.; Takken, Willem
Climate can strongly influence the population dynamics of disease vectors and is consequently a key component of disease ecology. Future climate change and variability may alter the location and seasonality of many disease vectors, possibly increasing the risk of disease transmission to humans. The mosquito species Culex quinquefasciatus is a concern across the southern United States because of its role as a West Nile virus vector and its affinity for urban environments. Using established relationships between atmospheric variables (temperature and precipitation) and mosquito development, we have created the Dynamic Mosquito Simulation Model (DyMSiM) to simulate Cx. quinquefasciatus population dynamics. The model is driven with climate data and validated against mosquito count data from Pasco County, Florida and Coachella Valley, California. Using 1-week and 2-week filters, mosquito trap data are reproduced well by the model ( P < 0.0001). Dry environments in southern California produce different mosquito population trends than moist locations in Florida. Florida and California mosquito populations are generally temperature-limited in winter. In California, locations are water-limited through much of the year. Using future climate projection data generated by the National Center for Atmospheric Research CCSM3 general circulation model, we applied temperature and precipitation offsets to the climate data at each location to evaluate mosquito population sensitivity to possible future climate conditions. We found that temperature and precipitation shifts act interdependently to cause remarkable changes in modeled mosquito population dynamics. Impacts include a summer population decline from drying in California due to loss of immature mosquito habitats, and in Florida a decrease in late-season mosquito populations due to drier late summer conditions.
Morin, Cory W.; Comrie, Andrew C.
Mosquitoes are vectors of a number of important human and animal diseases. The development of novel vector control strategies requires a thorough understanding of mosquito biology. To facilitate this, we used RNA-seq to identify novel genes and provide the first high-resolution view of the transcriptome throughout development and in response to blood feeding in a mosquito vector of human disease, Aedes aegypti, the primary vector for Dengue and yellow fever. We characterized mRNA expression at 34 distinct time points throughout Aedes development, including adult somatic and germline tissues, by using polyA+ RNA-seq. We identify a total of 14,238 novel new transcribed regions corresponding to 12,597 new loci, as well as many novel transcript isoforms of previously annotated genes. Altogether these results increase the annotated fraction of the transcribed genome into long polyA+ RNAs by more than twofold. We also identified a number of patterns of shared gene expression, as well as genes and/or exons expressed sex-specifically or sex-differentially. Expression profiles of small RNAs in ovaries, early embryos, testes, and adult male and female somatic tissues also were determined, resulting in the identification of 38 new Aedes-specific miRNAs, and ~291,000 small RNA new transcribed regions, many of which are likely to be endogenous small-interfering RNAs and Piwi-interacting RNAs. Genes of potential interest for transgene-based vector control strategies also are highlighted. Our data have been incorporated into a user-friendly genome browser located at www.Aedes.caltech.edu, with relevant links to Vectorbase (www.vectorbase.org)
Akbari, Omar S.; Antoshechkin, Igor; Amrhein, Henry; Williams, Brian; Diloreto, Race; Sandler, Jeremy; Hay, Bruce A.
The purpose of this investigation was to identify the mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) vectors of West Nile virus (WNV; family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus) during an epizootic WNV outbreak in eastern Puerto Rico in 2007. In June 2006, 12 sentinel chicken pens with five chickens per pen were deployed in six types of habitats: herbaceous wetlands, mangrove forests, deciduous forests, evergreen forests, rural areas, and urban areas. Once WNV seroconversion in chickens was detected in June 2007, we began trapping mosquitoes using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) miniature (light/CO2-baited) traps, CMT-20 collapsible mosquito (CO2- and ISCA SkinLure-baited) traps, and CDC gravid (hay infusion-baited) traps. We placed the CDC miniature traps both 2-4 m and >30 m from the chicken pens, the collapsible traps 2-4 m from the pens, and the gravid traps in backyards of houses with sentinel chicken pens and in a wetland adjacent to an urban area. We found numerous blood-engorged mosquitoes in the traps nearest to the sentinel chickens and reasoned that any such mosquitoes with a disseminated WNV infection likely served as vectors for the transmission of WNV to the sentinels. We used reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and isolation (C636) on pools of heads, thoraxes/ abdomens, and legs of collected blood-engorged mosquitoes to determine whether the mosquitoes carried WNV. We detected WNV-disseminated infections in and obtained WNV isolates from Culex nigripalpus Theo (minimum infection rate [MIR] 1.1-9.7/1,000), Culex bahamensis Dyar and Knab (MIR 1.8-6.0/1,000), and Aedes taeniorhynchus (Wied.) (MIR 0.34-0.36/1,000). WNV was also identified in and isolated from the pool of thoraxes and abdomens of Culex quinquefasciatus Say (4.17/1,000) and identified in one pool of thoraxes and abdomens of Culex habilitator Dyar and Knab (13.39/1,000). Accumulated evidence since 2002 suggests that WNV has not become endemic in Puerto Rico. PMID:21175071
Barrera, R; MacKay, A; Amador, M; Vasquez, J; Smith, J; Díaz, A; Acevedo, V; Cabán, B; Hunsperger, E A; Muñoz-Jordán, J L
We evaluated the potential for several North American mosquito species to transmit the newly introduced West Nile (WN) virus. Mosquitoes collected in the New York City metropolitan area during the recent WN virus outbreak, at the Assateague Island Wildlife Refuge, VA, or from established colonies were allowed to feed on chickens infected with WN virus isolated from a crow that died during the 1999 outbreak. These mosquitoes were tested approximately 2 wk later to determine infection, dissemination, and transmission rates. Aedes albopictus (Skuse), Aedes atropalpus (Coquillett), and Aedes japonicus (Theobald) were highly susceptible to infection, and nearly all individuals with a disseminated infection transmitted virus by bite. Culex pipiens L. and Aedes sollicitans (Walker) were moderately susceptible. In contrast, Aedes vexans (Meigen), Aedes aegypti (L.), and Aedes taeniorhynchus (Wiedemann) were relatively refractory to infection, but individual mosquitoes inoculated with WN virus did transmit virus by bite. Infected female Cx. pipiens transmitted WN virus to one of 1,618 F1 progeny, indicating the potential for vertical transmission of this virus. In addition to laboratory vector competence, host-feeding preferences, relative abundance, and season of activity also determine the role that these species could play in transmitting WN virus. PMID:11296813
Turell, M J; O'Guinn, M L; Dohm, D J; Jones, J W
Feeding behaviour of the malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis Patton (Diptera: Culicidae) was monitored for 12 months (March 2003-February 2004) in the Konso District of southern Ethiopia (5 degrees 15'N, 37 degrees 28'E). More than 45 000 An. arabiensis females were collected by host-baited sampling methods (light-traps, human landing catches, cattle-baited traps) and from resting sites (huts and pit shelters). In the village of Fuchucha, where the ratio of cattle : humans was 0.6 : 1, 51% of outdoor-resting mosquitoes and 66% of those collected indoors had fed on humans, human baits outdoors caught > 2.5 times more mosquitoes than those indoors and the mean catch of mosquitoes from pit shelters was about five times that from huts. Overall, the vast majority of feeding and resting occurred outdoors. In the cattle camps of Konso, where humans slept outdoors close to their cattle, approximately 46% of resting mosquitoes collected outdoors had fed on humans despite the high cattle : human ratio (17 : 1). In both places, relatively high proportions of bloodmeals were mixed cow + human: 22-25% at Fuchucha and 37% in the cattle camps. Anthropophily was also gauged experimentally by comparing the numbers of mosquitoes caught in odour-baited entry traps baited with either human or cattle odour. The human-baited trap caught about five times as many mosquitoes as the cattle-baited one. Notwithstanding the potential pitfalls of using standard sampling devices to analyse mosquito behaviour, the results suggest that the An. arabiensis population is inherently anthropophagic, but this is counterbalanced by exophagic and postprandial exophilic tendencies. Consequently, the population feeds sufficiently on humans to transmit malaria (sporozoite rates: 0.3% for Plasmodium falciparum and 0.5% for P. vivax, by detection of circumsporozoite antigen) but also takes a high proportion of meals from non-human hosts, with 59-91% of resting mosquitoes containing blood from cattle. Hence, classical zooprophylaxis is unlikely to have a significant impact on the malaria vectorial capacity of An. arabiensis in Konso, whereas treating cattle with insecticide might do. PMID:17199754
Tirados, I; Costantini, C; Gibson, G; Torr, S J
Background Transgenic mosquito strains are being developed to contribute to the control of dengue and malaria transmission. One approach uses genetic manipulation to confer conditional, female-specific dominant lethality phenotypes. Engineering of a female-specific flightless phenotype provides a sexing mechanism essential for male-only mosquito, release approaches that result in population suppression of target vector species. Methods An approach that uses a female-specific gene promoter and antibiotic-repressible lethal factor to produce a sex-specific flightless phenotype was adapted to the human malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi. Transposon- and site-specific recombination-mediated technologies were used to generate a number of transgenic An. stephensi lines that when combined through mating produced the phenotype of flight-inhibited females and flight-capable males. Results The data shown here demonstrate the successful engineering of a female-specific flightless phenotype in a malaria vector. The flightless phenotype was repressible by the addition of tetracycline to the larval diet. This conditional phenotype allows the rearing of the strains under routine laboratory conditions. The minimal level of tetracycline that rescues the flightless phenotype is higher than that found as an environmental contaminant in circumstances where there is intensive use of antibiotics. Conclusions These studies support the further development of flightless female technology for applications in malaria control programmes that target the vectors.
Oviposition traps set in rural to urban environments in three south Florida counties were colonized predominantly by Culex quinquefasciatus Say (35.1%), Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (34.5%), Aedes aegypti (L.) (23.8%), and Culex nigripalpus Theobald (6.6%) during 1 yr of monthly sampling. Significant differences were detected among counties for abundances of Cx. quinquefasciatus and for percentage composition of that species and Ae. albopictus. Aerial images of habitats around each collection site were digitized, and coverages by each of 16 habitat variables were recorded. Abundances of Ae. aegypti were positively related to habitat variables associated with urbanization and negatively correlated to those reflecting rural characteristics. Multiple regression models of habitat selection explained similar proportions of variances in abundance of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, but signs of significant variables were opposite for these two species. No consistent trends of habitat associations were observed among counties for the two Culex spp. Co-occurrences of the four species in individual traps depended on container type (tub versus cup), and, for Aedes spp. with Culex spp., county. The results underscore the importance of scale in evaluating habitat selection and the utility of quantifiable habitat characteristics of intermediate scale to identify site characteristics favored by the arboviral vectors Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus.
REY, JORGE R.; NISHIMURA, NAOYA; WAGNER, BILLI; BRAKS, MARIETA A.H.; O'CONNELL, SHEILA M.; LOUNIBOS, L. PHILIP
Port health authorities have played an important role in the control of infectious diseases worldwide. The International Health Regulations (2005) further clarifies this role and provides a legal statutory instrument that aims to assist the international community to prevent and respond to global public health risks. Eleven UK sea and airports participated in a pilot, investigating the challenges ports could face in attempting to monitor for mosquitoes. The study also examined the types of habitat that could support mosquitoes. There is a concern that exotic vector species, such as Aedes albopictus, could invade and become established in the UK. Environments in and around the ports differed, and this was reflected in the species of mosquitoes caught. Ports used different methods to collect mosquitoes and developed a range of techniques for surveying, which suited the conditions at their port. This paper discusses the implications of invasive mosquito surveillance to UK port health authorities. PMID:22924592
Murphy, Gai; Vaux, Alex; Medlock, Jolyon
The black salt-marsh mosquito, Aedes taeniorhynchus, plays an important role in the transmission of arboviruses such as West Nile virus and other pathogens of concern for human and animal health in North and Latin America. This mosquito is notably the only widely distributed mosquito species found in the Galápagos Islands, where its impact as disease vector has not yet been
Arnaud Bataille; Gavin J. Horsburgh; Deborah A. Dawson; Andrew A. Cunningham; Simon J. Goodman
Background Current vector control strategies focus largely on indoor measures, such as long-lasting insecticide treated nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS); however mosquitoes frequently feed on sugar sources outdoors, inviting the possibility of novel control strategies. Attractive toxic sugar baits (ATSB), either sprayed on vegetation or provided in outdoor bait stations, have been shown to significantly reduce mosquito densities in these settings. Methods Simple models of mosquito sugar-feeding behaviour were fitted to data from an ATSB field trial in Mali and used to estimate sugar-feeding rates and the potential of ATSB to control mosquito populations. The model and fitted parameters were then incorporated into a larger integrated vector management (IVM) model to assess the potential contribution of ATSB to future IVM programmes. Results In the Mali experimental setting, the model suggests that about half of female mosquitoes fed on ATSB solution per day, dying within several hours of ingesting the toxin. Using a model incorporating the number of gonotrophic cycles completed by female mosquitoes, a higher sugar-feeding rate was estimated for younger mosquitoes than for older mosquitoes. Extending this model to incorporate other vector control interventions suggests that an IVM programme based on both ATSB and LLINs may substantially reduce mosquito density and survival rates in this setting, thereby substantially reducing parasite transmission. This is predicted to exceed the impact of LLINs in combination with IRS provided ATSB feeding rates are 50% or more of Mali experimental levels. In addition, ATSB is predicted to be particularly effective against Anopheles arabiensis, which is relatively exophilic and therefore less affected by IRS and LLINs. Conclusions These results suggest that high coverage with a combination of LLINs and ATSB could result in substantial reductions in malaria transmission in this setting. Further field studies of ATSB in other settings are needed to assess the potential of ATSB as a component in future IVM malaria control strategies.
A field trial was undertaken in order to determine the efficacy of DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide) impregnated anklets, wristbands, shoulder and pocket fabric strips against mosquito vectors of disease. The present\\u000a study was conducted in the urban locality of Pondicherry, India. Human test subjects were exposed to natural populations of\\u000a mosquitoes for a 12 h (18.00–06.00) night time period. The fabric strips (anklets,
Kaliyaperumal Karunamoorthi; Shanmugavelu Sabesan
Global climate change can potentially increase the transmission of mosquito vector-borne diseases such as malaria, lymphatic filariasis, and dengue in many parts of the world. These predictions are based on the effects of changing temperature, rainfall, and humidity on mosquito breeding and survival, the more rapid development of ingested pathogens in mosquitoes and the more frequent blood feeds at moderately higher ambient temperatures. An expansion of saline and brackish water bodies (water with <0.5?ppt or parts per thousand, 0.5–30?ppt and >30?ppt salt are termed fresh, brackish, and saline respectively) will also take place as a result of global warming causing a rise in sea levels in coastal zones. Its possible impact on the transmission of mosquito-borne diseases has, however, not been adequately appreciated. The relevant impacts of global climate change on the transmission of mosquito-borne diseases in coastal zones are discussed with reference to the Ross–McDonald equation and modeling studies. Evidence is presented to show that an expansion of brackish water bodies in coastal zones can increase the densities of salinity-tolerant mosquitoes like Anopheles sundaicus and Culex sitiens, and lead to the adaptation of fresh water mosquito vectors like Anopheles culicifacies, Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Aedes albopictus to salinity. Rising sea levels may therefore act synergistically with global climate change to increase the transmission of mosquito-borne diseases in coastal zones. Greater attention therefore needs to be devoted to monitoring disease incidence and preimaginal development of vector mosquitoes in artificial and natural coastal brackish/saline habitats. It is important that national and international health agencies are aware of the increased risk of mosquito-borne diseases in coastal zones and develop preventive and mitigating strategies. Application of appropriate counter measures can greatly reduce the potential for increased coastal transmission of mosquito-borne diseases consequent to climate change and a rise in sea levels. It is proposed that the Jaffna peninsula in Sri Lanka may be a useful case study for the impact of rising sea levels on mosquito vectors in tropical coasts.
Ramasamy, Ranjan; Surendran, Sinnathamby Noble
Forty percent of the world's population is at risk of contracting dengue virus, which produces dengue fever with a potentially fatal hemorrhagic form. The wMelPop Wolbachia infection of Drosophila melanogaster reduces life span and interferes with viral transmission when introduced into the mosquito Aedes aegypti, the primary vector of dengue virus. Wolbachia has been proposed as an agent for preventing transmission of dengue virus. Population invasion by Wolbachia depends on levels of cytoplasmic incompatibility, fitness effects, and maternal transmission. Here we characterized these traits in an outbred genetic background of a potential target population of Ae. aegypti using two crossing schemes. Cytoplasmic incompatibility was strong in this background, and the maternal transmission rate of Wolbachia was high. The infection substantially reduced longevity of infected adult females, regardless of whether adults came from larvae cultured under high or low levels of nutrition or density. The infection reduced the viability of diapausing and nondiapausing eggs. Viability was particularly low when eggs were laid by older females and when diapausing eggs had been stored for a few weeks. The infection affected mosquito larval development time and adult body size under different larval nutrition levels and densities. The results were used to assess the potential for wMelPop-CLA to invade natural populations of Ae. aegypti and to develop recommendations for the maintenance of fitness in infected mosquitoes that need to compete against field insects. PMID:21135075
Yeap, H L; Mee, P; Walker, T; Weeks, A R; O'Neill, S L; Johnson, P; Ritchie, S A; Richardson, K M; Doig, C; Endersby, N M; Hoffmann, A A
Artificial membrane-feeding techniques have replaced direct feeding on animals for the maintenance of malaria and arbovirus vectors in many laboratories. Membrane feeding facilitates controlled experimentation of pathogen transmission during mosquito feeding. Sheep blood is commonly used due to its availability and low cost. We evaluated the impact of blood source (human, guinea pig, sheep, and hamster via direct feeding) on feeding rates, adult survival, fecundity, hatching rates, and developmental times for five species of laboratory-colonized mosquitoes (Anopheles dirus, An. cracens, An. minimus, An. sawadwongporni, and Ae. aegypti). We found that feeding rates differ among blood sources within mosquito species. Survival, fecundity, and hatching rates were lower in all Anopheles species and Ae. aegypti after membrane feeding on sheep blood. Survival rates seven days post-feeding on sheep blood were significantly lower (P<0.05) for An. dirus (84.2%), An. minimus (67.2%), An. sawadwongporni (51.5%), and An. cracens (35.5%) relative to other blood sources. An. minimus and An. sawadwongporni laid no eggs by seven days post-feeding with sheep blood, while An. dirus and An. cracens produced significantly fewer numbers of eggs and demonstrated significantly lower hatching rates relative to what was observed with the other blood sources. These findings support the conclusion that sheep blood is not a suitable blood source for laboratory rearing of Anopheles spp. PMID:23701605
Phasomkusolsil, Siriporn; Tawong, Jaruwan; Monkanna, Nantaporn; Pantuwatana, Kanchana; Damdangdee, Nuttapon; Khongtak, Weeraphan; Kertmanee, Yossasin; Evans, Brian P; Schuster, Anthony L
The 18th Annual Latin American symposium presented by the American Mosquito Control Association (AMCA) was held as part of the 74th Annual Meeting in Sparks, NV, in March 2008. The principal objective, as for the previous 17 symposia, was to promote participation in the AMCA by vector control specialists, public health workers, and academicians from Latin America. This publication includes summaries of 35 presentations that were given orally in Spanish or presented as posters by participants from 5 countries in Latin America and Puerto Rico. Topics addressed in the symposium included surveillance, chemical and biological control, insecticide resistance, and repellency of Aedes aegypti; distribution, behavior, transmission of West Nile virus, and control of Culex; bionomics, ecology, and chemical and biological control of Anopheles vectors of malaria; insecticide resistance; and studies of Triatoma and Rhodnius. PMID:19181067
Clark, Gary G; Rubio-Palis, Yasmin
The 22nd Annual Latin American Symposium presented by the American Mosquito Control Association (AMCA) was held as part of the 78th Annual Meeting in Austin, TX, in February 2012. The principal objective, as for the previous 21 symposia, was to promote participation in the AMCA by vector control specialists, public health workers, and academicians from Latin America. This publication includes summaries of 21 presentations that were given orally in Spanish or presented as posters by participants from Mexico, Colombia, Venezuela, and the USA. Topics addressed in the symposium included surveillance, chemical control, insecticide resistance, and genetics associated with Aedes aegypti; food sources and control of Culex; taxonomy, surveillance, and control of Anopheles vectors of malaria; and studies of dengue virus and Leishmania. PMID:22894120
Clark, Gary G; Rubio-Palis, Yasmin
The 15th Annual Latin American symposium presented by the American Mosquito Control Association (AMCA) was held as part of the 71st Annual Meeting in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, in April 2005. The principal objective, as for the previous 14 symposia, was to promote participation in the AMCA by vector control specialists, public health workers, and academicians from Latin America. This publication includes summaries of 40 presentations that were given orally in Spanish or presented as posters by participants from 8 countries in Latin America and the USA. Topics addressed in the symposium included results from chemical and biological control programs and studies; studies of insecticide resistance; and population genetics, molecular, ecological, and behavioral studies of vectors of dengue (Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus) and other arboviruses, malaria (Anopheles albimanus, An. aquasalis, An. neomaculipalpus, An. pseudopunctipennis), leishmaniasis (Lutzomyia), and Chagas Disease (Triatoma), as well as a vaccine for control of Boophilus ticks on cattle. PMID:16570381
Clark, Gary G; Quiroz Martínez, Humberto
The 14th annual Latin American symposium presented by the American Mosquito Control Association (AMCA) was held as part of the 70th Annual Meeting in Savannah, GA, in February 2004. The principal objective, as for the previous 13 symposia, was to promote participation in the AMCA by vector control specialists, public health workers, and academicians from Latin America. This publication includes summaries of 37 presentations that were given orally in Spanish or presented as posters by participants from 7 countries in Latin America. Topics addressed in the symposium included results from chemical and biological control programs and studies; studies of insecticide resistance; and population genetics, molecular, ecological, and behavioral studies of vectors of dengue (Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus) and other arboviruses, malaria (Anopheles albimanus and Anopheles pseudopunctipennis), leishmaniasis (Lutzomyia), and Chagas disease (Triatoma). PMID:15669378
Clark, Gary G; Quiroz Martínez, Humberto
The 20th Annual Latin American Symposium presented by the American Mosquito Control Association (AMCA) was held as part of the 76th Annual Meeting in Lexington, KY, in March 2010. The principal objective, as for the previous 19 symposia, was to promote participation in the AMCA by vector control specialists, public health workers, and academicians from Latin America. This publication includes summaries of 40 presentations that were given orally in Spanish or presented as posters by participants from 5 countries in Latin America, the United Kingdom, and the USA. Topics addressed in the symposium included: surveillance, chemical and biological control, and insecticide resistance associated with Aedes aegypti; distribution, behavior, and control of Culex; bionomics, ecology, and chemical and biological control of Anopheles vectors of malaria; insecticide resistance; and studies of dengue, West Nile virus, and Triatoma. PMID:21033058
Clark, Gary G; Rubio-Palis, Yasmin
The objective of this study was to develop a herbal formulation to control dengue vector mosquitoes. PONNEEM, a novel herbal formulation prepared using the oils of neem (Azadirachta indica), karanj (Pongamia glabra) and their extracts, was tested for larvicidal, ovicidal and oviposition deterrent activities against Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus at 1, 0.5, 0.3 and 0.1 ppm concentrations. Cent percent larvicidal and ovicidal activities were observed at 0.1 ppm in the two mosquito species under laboratory and sunlight-exposed conditions up to 12 months from the date of manufacture. Oviposition deterrent activity of 69.97% and 71.05% was observed at 1 ppm concentration of PONNEEM against A. aegypti and A. albopictus, respectively. Reduction in enzyme levels for ?-esterase was 0.089 ± 0.008 and 0.099 ± 0.140 ?g napthol produced/min/mg larval protein; for ?-esterase, it was 0.004 ± 0.009 and 0.001 ± 0.028 ?g napthol produced/min/mg larval protein; for glutathione S-transferase, it was 10.4814 ± 0.23 and 11.4811 ± 0.21 ?mol/min/mg larval protein and for total protein, it was 0.177 ± 0.010 and 0.008 ± 0.005 mg/individual larva in treated groups of A. aegypti and A. albopictus, respectively. The nontarget organisms such as Gambusia affinis and Diplonychus indicus were not affected. No mortality was observed in control. PONNEEM can be used effectively for the management of human vector mosquitoes. PMID:22042505
Maheswaran, Rajan; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu
Among the hopes for vector-based malaria control, the use of transgenic mosquitoes able to kill malaria parasites is seen as a potential way to interrupt malaria transmission. While this potential solution is gaining some support, the ethical and social aspects related to this high-tech method remain largely unexplored and underestimated. Related to those latter points, the aim of the present survey is to determine how scientists working on malaria and its vector mosquitoes perceive public opinion and how they evaluate public consultations on their research. This study has been performed through a questionnaire addressing questions related to the type of research, the location, the nationality and the perception of the public involvement by scientists. The results suggest that even if malaria researchers agree to interact with a non-scientific audience, they (especially the ones from the global North) remain quite reluctant to have their research project submitted in a jargon-free version to the evaluation and the prior-agreement by a group of non-specialists. The study, by interrogating the links between the scientific community and the public from the perspective of the scientists, reveals the importance of fostering structures and processes that could lead to a better involvement of a non specialist public in the actual debates linking scientific, technological and public health issues in Africa. PMID:21955738
Thermosensation provides vital inputs for the malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles gambiae which utilizes heat-sensitivity within a broad spectrum of behaviors, most notably, the localization of human hosts for blood feeding. In this study, we examine thermosensory behaviors in larval-stage An. gambiae, which as a result of their obligate aquatic habitats and importance for vectorial capacity, represents an opportunistic target for vector control as part of the global campaign to eliminate malaria. As is the case for adults, immature mosquitoes respond differentially to a diverse array of external heat stimuli. In addition, larvae exhibit a striking phenotypic plasticity in thermal-driven behaviors that are established by temperature at which embryonic development occurs. Within this spectrum, RNAi-directed gene-silencing studies provide evidence for the essential role of the Transient Receptor Potential sub-family A1 (TRPA1) channel in mediating larval thermal-induced locomotion and thermal preference within a discrete upper range of ambient temperatures. PMID:23940815
Liu, Chao; Zwiebel, Laurence J
Objective To evaluate the mosquito larvicidal activity of Pongamia pinnata (P. pinnata) extracts against three mosquito vectors. Methods The methanol and hydroalcohol extracts of bark part of P. pinnata L were tested against fourth instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi. The mortality was observed 24 h and 48 h after treatment, data was subjected to probit analysis to determine lethal concentration (LC50 and LC90) to kill 50 and 90 percent of treated larvae of tested species. Results The larval mortality was found in both methanol and hydroalcohol extracts of P. pinnata against Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi with LC50 values of 84.8, 118.2 and 151.7 ppm; 97.7, 128.3 and 513 ppm. The highest larval mortality was found in methanol extract of P. pinnata when comparable to the hydroalcohol extract. Conclusions These results suggest that both methanol and hyrdoalcohol extracts have the potential to be used as an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of disease vectors. This could lead to isolation of novel natural larvicidal compounds.
Kolli, Guna Ranjan; Balakrishnan; Vijayan; Sundararajan, Raja
Gaining a better understanding of parasite infection dynamics in the vector mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) population is central to improving knowledge regarding the transmission, persistence and hence control of lymphatic filariasis. Here, we use data on mosquito feeding experiments collated from the published literature to examine the available evidence regarding the functional form of the first component of this parasite-vector relationship for Wuchereria bancrofti (Filarioidea: Onchocercidae) causing Bancroftian filariasis, i.e. the rate of microfilariae (mf) uptake from the blood of infected humans by the feeding mosquito vector. Using a simple logarithmic regression model for describing the observed relationships between the mean numbers of mf ingested per mosquito and parasite load in humans in each study, and a linear mixed-effects meta-analytical framework for synthesizing the observed regressions across studies, we show here for the first time clear evidence for the existence of density-dependence in this process for all the three major filariasis transmitting mosquito vectors. An important finding of this study is that this regulation of mf uptake also varies significantly between the vector genera, being weakest in Culex, comparatively stronger in Aedes and most severe and occurring at significantly lower human mf loads in Anopheles mosquitoes. The analysis of the corresponding mf uptake prevalence data has further highlighted how density-dependence in mf uptake may influence the observed distributions of mf in vector populations. These results show that whereas strong regulation of mf uptake, especially when it leads to saturation in uptake at low human parasite intensities, can lead to static distributions of mf per mosquito with host parasite intensity, a weaker regulation of mf ingestion can give rise to changes in both mean mf loads and in the frequency distribution of parasites/mosquito with increasing human parasite intensity. These findings highlight the importance of considering local vector infection dynamics when attempting to predict the impacts of community-based filariasis control. They also emphasize the value of developing and applying robust meta-analytic methods for estimating functional relationships regarding parasitic infection from population ecological data. PMID:12510894
Snow, L C; Michael, E
Synthetic versions of human derived kairomones can be used as baits when trapping host seeking mosquitoes. The effectiveness of these lures depends not only on their attractiveness to the mosquitoes but also on the medium from which they are dispensed. We report on the development and evaluation of nylon strips as a method of dispensing odorants attractive to the malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae s.s. (Giles). When a synthetic blend of attractants was dispensed using this method, significantly more mosquitoes were trapped than when two previous methods, open glass vials or low density polyethylene sachets were used. We conclude that the nylon strips are suitable for dispensing odorants in mosquito trapping operations and can be adopted for use in rural and remote areas. The nylon material required is cheap and widely available and the strips can be prepared without specialized equipment or electricity. PMID:20380310
Okumu, F; Biswaro, L; Mbeleyela, E; Killeen, G F; Mukabana, R; Moore, S J
Background No commercially licensed vaccine or treatment is available for dengue fever, a potentially lethal infection that impacts millions of lives annually. New tools that target mosquito control may reduce vector populations and break the cycle of dengue transmission. Male mosquito seminal fluid proteins (Sfps) are one such target since these proteins, in aggregate, modulate the reproduction and feeding patterns of the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti. As an initial step in identifying new targets for dengue vector control, we sought to identify the suite of proteins that comprise the Ae. aegypti ejaculate and determine which are transferred to females during mating. Methodology and Principal Findings Using a stable-isotope labeling method coupled with proteomics to distinguish male- and female-derived proteins, we identified Sfps and sperm proteins transferred from males to females. Sfps were distinguished from sperm proteins by comparing the transferred proteins to sperm-enriched samples derived from testes and seminal vesicles. We identified 93 male-derived Sfps and 52 predicted sperm proteins that are transferred to females during mating. The Sfp protein classes we detected suggest roles in protein activation/inactivation, sperm utilization, and ecdysteroidogenesis. We also discovered that several predicted membrane-bound and intracellular proteins are transferred to females in the seminal fluids, supporting the hypothesis that Ae. aegypti Sfps are released from the accessory gland cells through apocrine secretion, as occurs in mammals. Many of the Ae. aegypti predicted sperm proteins were homologous to Drosophila melanogaster sperm proteins, suggesting conservation of their sperm-related function across Diptera. Conclusion and Significance This is the first study to directly identify Sfps transferred from male Ae. aegypti to females. Our data lay the groundwork for future functional analyses to identify individual seminal proteins that may trigger female post-mating changes (e.g., in feeding patterns and egg production). Therefore, identification of these proteins may lead to new approaches for manipulating the reproductive output and vectorial capacity of Ae. aegypti.
Sirot, Laura K.; Ribeiro, Jose M. C.; Kimura, Mari; Deewatthanawong, Prasit; Wolfner, Mariana F.; Harrington, Laura C.
In the Tropics, there is substantial temporal and spatial overlap of diseases propagated by anthropophilic mosquito vectors (such as malaria and dengue) and human helminth diseases (such as onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis) that are treated though mass drug administrations (MDA). This overlap will result in mosquito vectors imbibing significant quantities of these drugs when they blood feed on humans. Since many anthelmintic drugs have broad anti-invertebrate effects, the possibility of combined helminth control and mosquito-borne disease control through MDA is apparent. It has been previously shown that ivermectin can reduce mosquito survivorship when administered in a blood meal, but more detailed examinations are needed if MDA is to ever be developed into a tool for malaria or dengue control. We examined concentrations of drugs that follow human pharmacokinetics after MDA and that matched with mosquito feeding times, for effects against the anthropophilic mosquito vectors Anopheles gambiae s.s. and Aedes aegypti. Ivermectin was the only human-approved MDA drug we tested that affected mosquito survivorship, and only An. gambiae s.s. were affected at concentrations respecting human pharmacokinetics at indicated doses. Ivermectin also delayed An. gambiae s.s. re-feeding frequency and defecation rates, and two successive ivermectin-spiked blood meals following human pharmacokinetic concentrations compounded mortality effects compared to controls. These findings suggest that ivermectin MDA in Africa may be used to decrease malaria transmission if MDAs were administered more frequently. Such a strategy would broaden the current scope of polyparasitism control already afforded by MDAs, and which is needed in many African villages simultaneously burdened by many parasitic diseases.
Kobylinski, Kevin C.; Deus, Kelsey M.; Butters, Matt T.; Hongyu, Tan; Gray, Meg; Silva, Ines Marques da; Sylla, Massamba; Foy, Brian D.
Population genetic studies of insect vectors can generate knowledge to improve epidemiological studies focused on the decrease of pathogen transmission. In this study, we used nine SNPs across the Aedes aegypti genome to characterize seasonal population variations of this important dengue vector. Mosquito samples were obtained by ovitraps placed over Botucatu SP from 2005 to 2010. Our data show that, regardless of the large variation in mosquito abundance (deduced from the number of eggs obtained from ovitraps), the effective population size remained stable over the years. These results suggest that Ae. aegypti is able to maintain a sufficiently large active breeding population during the dry season to keep genetic frequencies stable. These results open new perspectives on mosquito survey and control methods.
Campos, Melina; Spenassatto, Carine; Lourdes da Graca Macoris, Maria; Paduan, Karina dos Santos; Pinto, Joao; Ribolla, Paulo Eduardo Martins
Climate can strongly influence the population dynamics of disease vectors and is consequently a key component of disease ecology.\\u000a Future climate change and variability may alter the location and seasonality of many disease vectors, possibly increasing\\u000a the risk of disease transmission to humans. The mosquito species Culex quinquefasciatus is a concern across the southern United States because of its role
Cory W. Morin; Andrew C. Comrie
Background Sampling malaria vectors and measuring their biting density is of paramount importance for entomological surveys of malaria transmission. Human landing catch (HLC) has been traditionally regarded as a gold standard method for surveying human exposure to mosquito bites. However, due to the risk of human participant exposure to mosquito-borne parasites and viruses, a variety of alternative, exposure-free trapping methods were compared in lowland, south-east Zambia. Methods Centres for Disease Control and Prevention miniature light trap (CDC-LT), Ifakara Tent Trap model C (ITT-C), resting boxes (RB) and window exit traps (WET) were all compared with HLC using a 3?×?3 Latin Squares design replicated in 4 blocks of 3 houses with long lasting insecticidal nets, half of which were also sprayed with a residual deltamethrin formulation, which was repeated for 10 rounds of 3 nights of rotation each during both the dry and wet seasons. Results The mean catches of HLC indoor, HLC outdoor, CDC-LT, ITT-C, WET, RB indoor and RB outdoor, were 1.687, 1.004, 3.267, 0.088, 0.004, 0.000 and 0.008 for Anopheles quadriannulatus Theobald respectively, and 7.287, 6.784, 10.958, 5.875, 0.296, 0.158 and 0.458, for An. funestus Giles, respectively. Indoor CDC-LT was more efficient in sampling An. quadriannulatus and An. funestus than HLC indoor (Relative rate [95% Confidence Interval]?=?1.873 [1.653, 2.122] and 1.532 [1.441, 1.628], respectively, P?0.001 for both). ITT-C was the only other alternative which had comparable sensitivity (RR?=?0.821 [0.765, 0.881], P?0.001), relative to HLC indoor other than CDC-LT for sampling An. funestus. Conclusions While the two most sensitive exposure-free techniques primarily capture host-seeking mosquitoes, both have substantial disadvantages for routine community-based surveillance applications: the CDC-LT requires regular recharging of batteries while the bulkiness of ITT-C makes it difficult to move between sampling locations. RB placed indoors or outdoors and WET had consistently poor sensitivity so it may be useful to evaluate additional alternative methods, such as pyrethrum spray catches and back packer aspirators, for catching resting mosquitoes.
A delayed vector-bias model for malaria transmission with incubation period in mosquitoes is studied. The delay t corresponds to the time necessary for a latently infected vector to become an infectious vector. We prove that the global stability is completely determined by the threshold parameter, R?(?). If R?(?) ? 1, the disease-free equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable. If R?(?) > 1 a unique endemic equilibrium exists and is globally asymptotically stable. We apply our results to Ross-MacDonald malaria models with an incubation period (extrinsic or intrinsic). PMID:22229402
We evaluated the blood-feeding patterns in several mosquito species that may serve as vectors of disease agents in the northeastern United States. Blood-fed mosquitoes were collected from 91 different sites throughout Connecticut over a 6-yr period (JuneÐOctober 2002Ð2007), and the host-feeding patterns of 23 mosquito species representing six genera were examined by using a polymerase chain reaction-based assay and sequencing
Goudarz Molaei; Theodore G. Andreadis; Philip M. Armstrong; Maria Diuk-Wasser
The products of the maternal-effect genes, nanos (nos) and oskar (osk), are important for the development of germ cells in insects. Furthermore, these genes have been proposed as candidates for donating functional DNA regulatory sequences for use in gene drive systems to control transmission of mosquito-borne pathogens. The nos and osk genes of the cosmopolitan vector mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus, encode proteins with domains common to orthologues found in other mosquitoes. Expression analyses support the conclusion that the role of these genes is conserved generally among members of the nematocera. Hybridization in situ analyses reveal differences in mRNA distribution in early embryos in comparison with the cyclorraphan, Drosophila melanogaster, highlighting a possible feature in the divergence of the clades each insect represents.
Juhn, J.; Marinotti, O.; Calvo, E.; James, A. A.
The Effects of Climate Change and Globalization on Mosquito Vectors: Evidence from Jeju Island, South Korea on the Potential for Asian Tiger Mosquito (Aedes albopictus) Influxes and Survival from Vietnam Rather Than Japan
Background Climate change affects the survival and transmission of arthropod vectors as well as the development rates of vector-borne pathogens. Increased international travel is also an important factor in the spread of vector-borne diseases (VBDs) such as dengue, West Nile, yellow fever, chikungunya, and malaria. Dengue is the most important vector-borne viral disease. An estimated 2.5 billion people are at risk of infection in the world and there are approximately 50 million dengue infections and an estimated 500,000 individuals are hospitalized with dengue haemorrhagic fever annually. The Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus) is one of the vectors of dengue virus, and populations already exist on Jeju Island, South Korea. Currently, colder winter temperatures kill off Asian tiger mosquito populations and there is no evidence of the mosquitos being vectors for the dengue virus in this location. However, dengue virus-bearing mosquito vectors can inflow to Jeju Island from endemic area such as Vietnam by increased international travel, and this mosquito vector's survival during colder winter months will likely occur due to the effects of climate change. Methods and Results In this section, we show the geographical distribution of medically important mosquito vectors such as Ae. albopictus, a vector of both dengue and chikungunya viruses; Culex pipiens, a vector of West Nile virus; and Anopheles sinensis, a vector of Plasmodium vivax, within Jeju Island, South Korea. We found a significant association between the mean temperature, amount of precipitation, and density of mosquitoes. The phylogenetic analyses show that an Ae. albopictus, collected in southern area of Jeju Island, was identical to specimens found in Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam, and not Nagasaki, Japan. Conclusion Our results suggest that mosquito vectors or virus-bearing vectors can transmit from epidemic regions of Southeast Asia to Jeju Island and can survive during colder winter months. Therefore, Jeju Island is no longer safe from vector borne diseases (VBDs) due to the effects of globalization and climate change, and we should immediately monitor regional climate change to identify newly emerging VBDs.
Jeong, Ji Yeon; Yoo, Seung Jin; Koh, Young-Sang; Lee, Seogjae; Heo, Sang Taek; Seong, Seung-Yong; Lee, Keun Hwa
BACKGROUND: The mosquito, Armigeres subalbatus, mounts a distinctively robust innate immune response when infected with the nematode Brugia malayi, a causative agent of lymphatic filariasis. In order to mine the transcriptome for new insight into the cascade of events that takes place in response to infection in this mosquito, 6 cDNA libraries were generated from tissues of adult female mosquitoes
George F Mayhew; Lyric C Bartholomay; Hang-Yen Kou; Thomas A Rocheleau; Jeremy F Fuchs; Matthew T Aliota; I-Yu Tsao; Chiung-Yen Huang; Tze-Tze Liu; Kwang-Jen Hsiao; Shih-Feng Tsai; Ueng-Cheng Yang; Nicole T Perna; Wen-Long Cho; Bruce M Christensen; Cheng-Chen Chen
Background Insecticide-resistant mosquitoes are compromising the ability of current mosquito control tools to control malaria vectors. A proposed new approach for mosquito control is to use entomopathogenic fungi. These fungi have been shown to be lethal to both insecticide-susceptible and insecticide-resistant mosquitoes under laboratory conditions. The goal of this study was to see whether entomopathogenic fungi could be used to infect insecticide-resistant malaria vectors under field conditions, and to see whether the virulence and viability of the fungal conidia decreased after exposure to ambient African field conditions. Methods This study used the fungus Beauveria bassiana to infect the insecticide-resistant malaria vector Anopheles gambiae s.s (Diptera: Culicidae) VKPER laboratory colony strain. Fungal conidia were applied to polyester netting and kept under West African field conditions for varying periods of time. The virulence of the fungal-treated netting was tested 1, 3 and 5 days after net application by exposing An. gambiae s.s. VKPER mosquitoes in WHO cone bioassays carried out under field conditions. In addition, the viability of B. bassiana conidia was measured after up to 20 days exposure to field conditions. Results The results show that B. bassiana infection caused significantly increased mortality with the daily risk of dying being increased by 2.5× for the fungus-exposed mosquitoes compared to the control mosquitoes. However, the virulence of the B. bassiana conidia decreased with increasing time spent exposed to the field conditions, the older the treatment on the net, the lower the fungus-induced mortality rate. This is likely to be due to the climate because laboratory trials found no such decline within the same trial time period. Conidial viability also decreased with increasing exposure to the net and natural abiotic environmental conditions. After 20 days field exposure the conidial viability was 30%, but the viability of control conidia not exposed to the net or field conditions was 79%. Conclusions This work shows promise for the use of B. bassiana fungal conidia against insecticide-resistant mosquitoes in the field, but further work is required to examine the role of environmental conditions on fungal virulence and viability with a view to eventually making the fungal conidia delivery system more able to withstand the ambient African climate.
We evaluated infection of Aedes taeniorhynchus mosquitoes, vectors of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), using radiolabeled virus and replicon particles expressing green (GFP) or cherry fluorescent protein (CFP). More epidemic VEEV bound to and infected mosquito midguts compared to an enzootic strain, and a small number of midgut cells was preferentially infected. Chimeric replicons infected midgut cells at rates comparable
Darci R. Smith; A. Paige Adams; Joan L. Kenney; Eryu Wang; Scott C. Weaver
A laboratory study was carried out to evaluate the relative efficacy of N-N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET)- and N,N-diethyl phenylacetamide (DEPA)-treated wristbands against three major vector mosquitoes viz., Anopheles stephensi Liston, Culex quinquefasciatus Say and Aedes aegypti (L.), at two different concentrations viz., 1.5 and 2.0 mg/cm(2). Overall, both DEET and DEPA have shown various degrees of repellency impact against all three vector mosquitoes. DEET offered the highest 317.0 min mean complete protection against An. stephensi and DEPA provided 275.6 min complete protection to Cx. quinquefasciatus at 2.0 mg/cm(2). However, DEPA-treated wristbands did not show any significant differences in terms of reduction of human landing rate and mean complete protection time against An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti between 1.5 and 2.0 mg/cm(2). DEET demonstrated relatively higher repellency impact to vector mosquitoes than DEPA. However, ?(2) analysis revealed that there was no statistically significant difference found in repellent efficiency between DEET and DEPA (P = 0.924). The present study result suggests that repellent-treated wristbands could serve as a means of potential personal protection expedient to avoid insect's annoyance and reduce vector-borne disease transmission. They are extremely valuable whenever and wherever other kinds of personal protection measures are unfeasible. PMID:24036563
Karunamoorthi, Kaliyaperumal; Sabesan, Shanmugavelu
Differences in midgut bacterial communities of Aedes aegypti, the primary mosquito vector of dengue viruses (DENV), might influence the susceptibility of these mosquitoes to infection by DENV. As a first step toward addressing this hypothesis, comparative analysis of bacterial communities from midguts of mosquito strains with differential genetic susceptibility to DENV was performed. 16S rRNA gene libraries and real-time PCR approaches were used to characterize midgut bacterial community composition and abundance in three Aedes aegypti strains: MOYO, MOYO-R, and MOYO-S. Although Pseudomonas spp.-related clones were predominant across all libraries, some interesting and potentially significant differences were found in midgut bacterial communities among the three strains. Pedobacter sp.- and Janthinobacterium sp.-related phylotypes were identified only in the MOYO-R strain libraries, while Bacillus sp. was detected only in the MOYO-S strain. Rahnella sp. was found in MOYO-R and MOYO strains libraries but was absent in MOYO-S libraries. Both 16S rRNA gene library and real-time PCR approaches confirmed the presence of Pedobacter sp. only in the MOYO-R strain. Further, real-time PCR-based quantification of 16S rRNA gene copies showed bacterial abundance in midguts of the MOYO-R strain mosquitoes to be at least 10-100-folds higher than in the MOYO-S and MOYO strain mosquitoes. Our study identified some putative bacteria with characteristic physiological properties that could affect the infectivity of dengue virus. This analysis represents the first report of comparisons of midgut bacterial communities with respect to refractoriness and susceptibility of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes to DENV and will guide future efforts to address the potential interactive role of midgut bacteria of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in determining vectorial capacity for DENV. PMID:23636307
Charan, Shakti S; Pawar, Kiran D; Severson, David W; Patole, Milind S; Shouche, Yogesh S
Five aromatic plants, Carum carvi (caraway), Apium graveolens (celery), Foeniculum vulgare (fennel), Zanthoxylum limonella (mullilam) and Curcuma zedoaria (zedoary) were selected for investigating larvicidal potential against mosquito vectors. Two laboratory-reared mosquito species, Anopheles dirus, the major malaria vector in Thailand, and Aedes aegypti, the main vector of dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever in urban areas, were used. All of the
B. Pitasawat; D. Champakaew; W. Choochote; A. Jitpakdi; U. Chaithong; D. Kanjanapothi; E. Rattanachanpichai; P. Tippawangkosol; D. Riyong; B. Tuetun; D. Chaiyasit
The global malaria agenda has undergone a reorientation from control of clinical cases to entirely eradicating malaria. For that purpose, a key objective is blocking transmission of malaria parasites from humans to mosquito vectors. The new antimalarial drug candidate NITD609 was evaluated for its transmission-reducing potential and compared to a few established antimalarials (lumefantrine, artemether, primaquine), using a suite of in vitro assays. By the use of a microscopic readout, NITD609 was found to inhibit the early and late development of Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes in vitro in a dose-dependent fashion over a range of 5 to 500 nM. In addition, using the standard membrane feeding assay, NITD609 was also found to be a very effective drug in reducing transmission to the Anopheles stephensi mosquito vector. Collectively, our data suggest a strong transmission-reducing effect of NITD609 acting against different P. falciparum transmission stages.
van Pelt-Koops, J. C.; Pett, H. E.; Graumans, W.; van der Vegte-Bolmer, M.; van Gemert, G. J.; Rottmann, M.; Yeung, B. K. S.; Diagana, T. T.
Background Indoor-based anti-vector interventions remain the preferred means of reducing risk of malaria transmission in malaria endemic areas around the world. Despite demonstrated success in reducing human-mosquito interactions, these methods are effective solely against endophilic vectors. It may be that outdoor locations serve as an important venue of host seeking by Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (s.l.) mosquitoes where indoor vector suppression measures are employed. This paper describes the host seeking activity of anopheline mosquito vectors in the Punta Europa region of Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea. In this area, An. gambiae sensu stricto (s.s.) is the primary malaria vector. The goal of the paper is to evaluate the importance of An gambiae s.l. outdoor host seeking behaviour and discuss its implications for anti-vector interventions. Methods The venue and temporal characteristics of host seeking by anopheline vectors in a hyperendemic setting was evaluated using human landing collections conducted inside and outside homes in three villages during both the wet and dry seasons in 2007 and 2008. Additionally, five bi-monthly human landing collections were conducted throughout 2009. Collections were segregated hourly to provide a time distribution of host-seeking behaviour. Results Surprisingly high levels of outdoor biting by An. gambiae senso stricto and An. melas vectors were observed throughout the night, including during the early evening and morning hours when human hosts are often outdoors. As reported previously, An. gambiae s.s. is the primary malaria vector in the Punta Europa region, where it seeks hosts outdoors at least as much as it does indoors. Further, approximately 40% of An. gambiae s.l. are feeding at times when people are often outdoors, where they are not protected by IRS or LLINs. Repeated sampling over two consecutive dry-wet season cycles indicates that this result is independent of seasonality. Conclusions An. gambiae s.l. mosquitoes currently seek hosts in outdoor venues as much as indoors in the Punta Europa region of Bioko Island. This contrasts with an earlier pre-intervention observation of exclusive endophagy of An. gambiae in this region. In light of this finding, it is proposed that the long term indoor application of insecticides may have resulted in an adaptive shift toward outdoor host seeking in An. gambiae s.s. on Bioko Island.
The word vector comes from the Latin term vehere, to carry. In Biology, a vector is an agent which carries disease, such as a mosquito carrying infected blood from one patient to the next. In physics, a vector is a quantity which has both a magnitude and a direction associated with it. The most commonly used example of vectors in everyday life is velocity. When you drive your car, your speedometer tells you the speed of your car, but it doesn't tell you where you are going. The combination of both where you are going and how fast you are going there is your car's velocity.
Joiner, David; The Shodor Education Foundation, Inc.
Background Virulence is often coupled with replicative fitness of viruses in vertebrate systems, yet the relationship between virulence and fitness of arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) in invertebrates has not been evaluated. Although the interactions between vector-borne pathogens and their invertebrate hosts have been characterized as being largely benign, some costs of arbovirus exposure have been identified for mosquitoes. The extent to which these costs may be strain-specific and the subsequent consequences of these interactions on vector and virus evolution has not been adequately explored. Results Using West Nile virus (WNV) and Culex pipiens mosquitoes, we tested the hypothesis that intrahost fitness is correlated with virulence in mosquitoes by evaluating life history traits following exposure to either non-infectious bloodmeals or bloodmeals containing wildtype (WNV WT) or the high fitness, mosquito-adapted strain, WNV MP20 derived from WNV WT. Our results demonstrate strain-specific effects on mosquito survival, fecundity, and blood feeding behavior. Specifically, both resistance to and infection with WNV MP20, but not WNV WT, decreased survival of Cx. pipiens and altered fecundity and bloodfeeding such that early egg output was enhanced at a later cost. Conclusions As predicted by the trade-off hypothesis of virulence, costs of infection with WNV MP20 in terms of survival were directly correlated to viral load, yet resistance to infection with this virulent strain was equally costly. Taken together, these results demonstrate that WNV MP20 infection decreases the transmission potential of Cx. pipiens populations despite the increased intrahost fitness of this strain, indicating that a virulence-transmission trade-off in invertebrates could contribute significantly to the adaptive and evolutionary constraint of arboviruses.
Background Commensal and symbiotic microbes have a considerable impact on the behavior of many arthropod hosts, including hematophagous species that transmit pathogens causing infectious diseases to human and animals. Little is known about the bacteria associated with mosquitoes other than the vectorized pathogens. This study investigated Wolbachia and cultivable bacteria that persist through generations in Ae. albopictus organs known to host transmitted arboviruses, such as dengue and chikungunya. Methodology/Principal Findings We used culturing, diagnostic and quantitative PCR, as well as in situ hybridization, to detect and locate bacteria in whole individual mosquitoes and in dissected tissues. Wolbachia, cultivable bacteria of the genera Acinetobacter, Comamonas, Delftia and Pseudomonas co-occurred and persisted in the bodies of both males and females of Ae. albopictus initially collected in La Réunion during the chikungunya outbreak, and maintained as colonies in insectaries. In dissected tissues, Wolbachia and the cultivable Acinetobacter can be detected in the salivary glands. The other bacteria are commonly found in the gut. Quantitative PCR estimates suggest that Wolbachia densities are highest in ovaries, lower than those of Acinetobacter in the gut, and approximately equal to those of Acinetobacter in the salivary glands. Hybridization using specific fluorescent probes successfully localized Wolbachia in all germ cells, including the oocytes, and in the salivary glands, whereas the Acinetobacter hybridizing signal was mostly located in the foregut and in the anterior midgut. Conclusions/Significance Our results show that Proteobacteria are distributed in the somatic and reproductive tissues of mosquito where transmissible pathogens reside and replicate. This location may portend the coexistence of symbionts and pathogens, and thus the possibility that competition or cooperation phenomena may occur in the mosquito vector Ae. albopictus. Improved understanding of the vectorial system, including the role of bacteria in the vector's biology and competence, could have major implications for understanding viral emergences and for disease control.
Zouache, Karima; Voronin, Denis; Tran-Van, Van; Mousson, Laurence; Failloux, Anna-Bella; Mavingui, Patrick
Interest in mosquito population genetics has risen dramatically over the past decade, driven mainly by renewed interest in vector control as a means of controlling malaria and dengue fever. Earlier work in mosquito population genetics focused on resolving taxonomic issues, especially in distinguishing and defining the geographic distributions of cryptic taxa that are common in mosquitoes, especially in the genus
Gregory C. Lanzaro; Sergey Nuzhdin; Frederic Tripet
Most of sequenced West Nile virus (WNV) genomes encode a single N-linked glycosylation site on their envelope (E) proteins. We previously found that WNV lacking the E protein glycan was severely inhibited in its ability to replicate and spread within two important mosquito vector species, Culex pipiens and Cx. tarsalis. However, recent work with a closely related species, Cx. pipiens pallens, found no association between E protein glycosylation and either replication or dissemination. To examine this finding further, we expanded upon our previous studies to include an additional Culex species, Cx. quinquefasciatus. The non-glycosylated WNV-N154I virus replicated less efficiently in mosquito tissues after intrathoracic inoculation, but there was little difference in replication efficiency in the midgut after peroral infection. Interestingly, although infectivity was inhibited when WNV lacked the E protein glycan, there was little difference in viral spread throughout the mosquito. These data indicate that E protein glycosylation affects WNV-vector interactions in a species-specific manner. PMID:21813861
Moudy, Robin M; Payne, Anne F; Dodson, Brittany L; Kramer, Laura D
Most of sequenced West Nile virus (WNV) genomes encode a single N-linked glycosylation site on their envelope (E) proteins. We previously found that WNV lacking the E protein glycan was severely inhibited in its ability to replicate and spread within two important mosquito vector species, Culex pipiens and Cx. tarsalis. However, recent work with a closely related species, Cx. pipiens pallens, found no association between E protein glycosylation and either replication or dissemination. To examine this finding further, we expanded upon our previous studies to include an additional Culex species, Cx. quinquefasciatus. The non-glycosylated WNV-N154I virus replicated less efficiently in mosquito tissues after intrathoracic inoculation, but there was little difference in replication efficiency in the midgut after peroral infection. Interestingly, although infectivity was inhibited when WNV lacked the E protein glycan, there was little difference in viral spread throughout the mosquito. These data indicate that E protein glycosylation affects WNV–vector interactions in a species-specific manner.
Moudy, Robin M.; Payne, Anne F.; Dodson, Brittany L.; Kramer, Laura D.
Mosquitoes collected in the Amazon Basin, near Iquitos, Peru, were evaluated for their susceptibility to epizootic (IAB and IC) and enzootic (ID and IE) strains of Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis (VEE) virus. After feeding on hamsters with a viremia of approximately 10(8) plaque-forming units of virus per milliliter, Culex (Melanoconion) gnomatus Sallum, Huchings, & Ferreira, Culex (Melanoconion) vomerifer Komp, and Aedes fulvus (Wiedemann) were highly susceptible to infection with all four subtypes of VEE virus (infection rates > or = 87%). Likewise, Psorophora albigenu (Peryassu) and a combination of Mansonia indubitans Dyar & Shannon and Mansonia titillans (Walker) were moderately susceptible to all four strains of VEE virus (infection rates > or = 50%). Although Psorophora cingulata (Fabricius) and Coquillettidia venezuelensis (Theobald) were susceptible to infection with each of the VEE strains, these two species were not efficient transmitters of any of the VEE strains, even after intrathoracic inoculation, indicating the presence of a salivary gland barrier in these species. In contrast to the other species tested, both Culex (Melanoconion) pedroi Sirivanakarn & Belkin and Culex (Culex) coronator Dyar & Knab were nearly refractory to each of the strains of VEE virus tested. Although many of the mosquito species found in this region were competent laboratory vectors of VEE virus, additional studies on biting behavior, mosquito population densities, and vertebrate reservoir hosts of VEE virus are needed to incriminate the principal vector species. PMID:11126537
Turell, M J; Jones, J W; Sardelis, M R; Dohm, D J; Coleman, R E; Watts, D M; Fernandez, R; Calampa, C; Klein, T A
In California, local mosquito and vector control districts have successfully controlled mosquito and vector-borne diseases by improving drainage patterns and applying pesticides. The Bay-Delta Conservation Plan, which is a proposed habitat conservation plan for the Sacramento-San Joaquin Bay-Delta estuary, proposes to add over 70,000 acres of habitat in the Delta to improve conditions for threatened and endangered aquatic and terrestrial species. This habitat could also be a suitable mosquito breeding habitat, which will be located in close proximity to urban and suburban communities. Wetland management practices and continued pesticide applications in the Delta could mitigate the effects of a new mosquito breeding habitat. Recent legal developments, however, require districts to obtain and comply with Clean Water Act permits, which restrict the application of pesticides in or near waters of the United States. Moreover, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has taken the first step in a rulemaking process that could further limit or prohibit the use of certain vector control pesticides in the Delta. In the near term and until less harmful methods for mosquito control are available, local vector control districts' application of mosquito control pesticides should be exempt from Clean Water Act permit requirements. PMID:23856372
Siptroth, Stephen M; Shanahan, Richard P
Experimental studies were undertaken to evaluate the vector competence of selected mosquito species [Aedes taeniorhynchus (Wiedemann), Culex declarator Dyar and Knab, and Mansonia titillans (Walker)] from northwestern Venezuela for the epizootic (IC) strain of Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) virus that was responsible for the 1995 outbreak of VEE in this area. Ae. taeniorhynchus was highly susceptible to infection (94% of 35), and 89% had a disseminated infection. Virus-exposed Ae. taeniorhynchus that refed on susceptible hamsters readily transmitted virus, confirming that this species was an efficient vector of VEE virus. In contrast, only 1 of 28 (4%) Cx. declarator was infected, and that individual did not develop a disseminated infection. Ma. titillans was moderately susceptible (3 of 8 infected, 38%), and 2 (25%) of these had a disseminated infection. These data indicate that Ae. taeniorhynchus was an important epizootic vector during the 1995 VEE outbreak in Columbia and Venezuela. PMID:10467764
Turell, M J
Mosquitoes (Culex pipiens L., 1758) are important vectors for diseases of both wildlife and humans. Under- standing how natural factors influence mosquito abundance may provide insights into the ecology of various diseases, as well as solutions to controlling disease vectors. One of the natural factors regulating mosquito distributions and population sizes is predation. A poorly understood source of natural mosquito
Sarah E. DuRant; William A. Hopkins
Mosquito-borne avian diseases, principally avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum Grassi and Feletti) and avian pox (Avipoxvirus sp.) have been implicated as the key limiting factor associated with recent declines of endemic avifauna in the Hawaiian Island archipelago. We present data on the relative abundance, infection status, and spatial distribution of the primary mosquito vector Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) across a mixed, residential-agricultural community adjacent to Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park on Hawai'i Island. We modeled the effect of agriculture and forest fragmentation in determining relative abundance of adult Cx. quinquefasciatus in Volcano Village, and we implement our statistical model in a geographic information system to generate a probability of mosquito capture prediction surface for the study area. Our model was based on biweekly captures of adult mosquitoes from 20 locations within Volcano Village from October 2001 to April 2003. We used mixed effects logistic regression to model the probability of capturing a mosquito, and we developed a set of 17 competing models a priori to specifically evaluate the effect of agriculture and fragmentation (i.e., residential landscapes) at two spatial scales. In total, 2,126 mosquitoes were captured in CO 2-baited traps with an average probability of 0.27 (SE = 0.10) of capturing one or more mosquitoes per trap night. Twelve percent of mosquitoes captured were infected with P. relictum. Our data indicate that agricultural lands and forest fragmentation significantly increase the probability of mosquito capture. The prediction surface identified areas along the Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park boundary that may have high relative abundance of the vector. Our data document the potential of avian malaria transmission in residential-agricultural landscapes and support the need for vector management that extends beyond reserve boundaries and considers a reserve's spatial position in a highly heterogeneous landscape.
Reiter, M. E.; Lapointe, D. A.
Mosquito-borne avian diseases, principally avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum Grassi and Feletti) and avian pox (Avipoxvirus sp.) have been implicated as the key limiting factor associated with recent declines of endemic avifauna in the Hawaiian Island archipelago. We present data on the relative abundance, infection status, and spatial distribution of the primary mosquito vector Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) across a mixed, residential-agricultural community adjacent to Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park on Hawai'i Island. We modeled the effect of agriculture and forest fragmentation in determining relative abundance of adult Cx. quinquefasciatus in Volcano Village, and we implement our statistical model in a geographic information system to generate a probability of mosquito capture prediction surface for the study area. Our model was based on biweekly captures of adult mosquitoes from 20 locations within Volcano Village from October 2001 to April 2003. We used mixed effects logistic regression to model the probability of capturing a mosquito, and we developed a set of 17 competing models a priori to specifically evaluate the effect of agriculture and fragmentation (i.e., residential landscapes) at two spatial scales. In total, 2,126 mosquitoes were captured in CO2-baited traps with an average probability of 0.27 (SE = 0.10) of capturing one or more mosquitoes per trap night. Twelve percent of mosquitoes captured were infected with P. relictum. Our data indicate that agricultural lands and forest fragmentation significantly increase the probability of mosquito capture. The prediction surface identified areas along the Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park boundary that may have high relative abundance of the vector. Our data document the potential of avian malaria transmission in residential-agricultural landscapes and support the need for vector management that extends beyond reserve boundaries and considers a reserve's spatial position in a highly heterogeneous landscape. PMID:17915520
Reiter, Matthew E; LaPointe, Dennis A
West Nile virus (WNV) is an arthropod-borne Flavivirus usually transmitted to wild birds by Culex mosquitoes. Humans and horses are susceptible to WNV but are dead-end hosts. WNV is endemic in Senegal, particularly in the Senegal River Delta. To assess transmission patterns and potential vectors, entomological and sentinel serological was done in Ross Bethio along the River Senegal. Three sentinel henhouses (also used as chicken-baited traps) were set at 100 m, 800 m, and 1,300 m from the river, the latter close to a horse-baited trap. Blood samples were taken from sentinel chickens at 2-week intervals. Seroconversions were observed in sentinel chickens in November and December. Overall, the serological incidence rate was 4.6% with 95% confidence interval (0.9; 8.4) in the sentinel chickens monitored for this study. Based on abundance pattern, Culex neavei was the most likely mosquito vector involved in WNV transmission to sentinel chickens, and a potential bridge vector between birds and mammals. PMID:24084679
Fall, Assane Gueye; Diaïté, Amadou; Seck, Momar Talla; Bouyer, Jérémy; Lefrançois, Thierry; Vachiéry, Nathalie; Aprelon, Rosalie; Faye, Ousmane; Konaté, Lassana; Lancelot, Renaud
This investigation was undertaken to obtain data on the woodland mosquitoes in sufficient detail to characterize, ecologically and behaviorally, the most common species. The specific goals were: (1) to find taxonomic characters for separating all life sta...
K. R. Boyd
BACKGROUND: Small RNA regulatory pathways (SRRPs) control key aspects of development and anti-viral defense in metazoans. Members of the Argonaute family of catalytic enzymes degrade target RNAs in each of these pathways. SRRPs include the microRNA, small interfering RNA (siRNA) and PIWI-type gene silencing pathways. Mosquitoes generate viral siRNAs when infected with RNA arboviruses. However, in some mosquitoes, arboviruses survive
Corey L Campbell; William C Black IV; Ann M Hess; Brian D Foy
Dietary carbohydrates provide an important source of energy for flight, and contribute to longevity and fecundity of mosquitoes. The most common sugar mosquitoes ingest is sucrose, and digestion of this substance is carried out mainly by ?-glucosidases. In the current work, we tested the efficiency of sucrose on Anopheles aquasalis female diet. The best longevity (days) was reached when sugar
Jayme A. Souza-Neto; Fábio P. Machado; José B. Lima; Denise Valle; Paulo E. M. Ribolla
BACKGROUND: As insecticide resistance may jeopardize the successful malaria control programmes in the Mekong region, a large investigation was previously conducted in the Mekong countries to assess the susceptibility of the main malaria vectors against DDT and pyrethroid insecticides. It showed that the main vector, Anopheles epiroticus, was highly pyrethroid-resistant in the Mekong delta, whereas Anopheles minimus sensu lato was
Katrijn Verhaeghen; Wim Van Bortel; Ho Trung; Tho Sochantha; Marc Coosemans
The 12th annual Latin American symposium presented by the American Mosquito Control Association (AMCA) was held as part of the 68th Annual Meeting in Denver, CO, in February 2002. The principal objective, as for the previous 11 symposia, was to promote participation in the AMCA by vector control specialists, public health workers, and academicians from Latin America. This publication includes summaries of 35 presentations that were given orally in Spanish or presented as posters by participants from 7 countries in Latin America. Topics addressed in the symposium included results from chemical and biological control programs and studies; studies of insecticide resistance; and population genetics, molecular, ecological, and behavioral studies of vectors of dengue (Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus) and other arboviruses, malaria (Anopheles albimanus and Anopheles pseudopunctipennis), leishmaniasis (Lutzomyia), and Chagas Disease (Triatoma). Related topics included biology and control of Culiseta inornata, Ochlerotatus taeniorhynchus, scorpions, Chironomus plumosus, and Musca domestica. PMID:12322934
Clark, Gary G; Martínez, Humberto Quiroz
Dengue is a serious public health problem in tropical and subtropical countries. It is caused by any of the four serologically distinct dengue viruses, namely DENV1-4. The viruses are transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. Understanding various defence mechanisms of insects has become a prime area of research worldwide. In insects, the first line of defence against invading pathogens includes cellular mechanisms and a battery of antimicrobial peptides such as defensins, cecropins etc. Defensins--cationic, cysteine-rich peptides consisting of approximately 40 amino acids with broad-spectrum activity against Gram-positive bacteria--have been reported from a wide range of organisms. In the dengue vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti, three isoforms of defensins are reported to be expressed in a spatial and temporal fashion. This report presents the three-dimensional structures of the three isoforms of Ae. aegypti defensins predicted by comparative modeling. Prediction was done with Modeller 9v1 and the structures validated through a series of tests. The best results of the prediction study are presented, and may help lead to the discovery of new synthetic peptides or derivatives of defensins that could be useful in the control of vector-borne diseases. PMID:19085024
Dhananjeyan, K J; Sivaperumal, R; Paramasivan, R; Thenmozhi, V; Tyagi, B K
Background Mosquitoes that breed in temporary pools in remote areas that dry up seasonally are especially difficult to control through chemical or biological means. The annual killifish has been suggested as a means of eradicating the aquatic stages of mosquitoes in transient pools because they can maintain permanent populations in such habitats by undergoing suspended animation or diapause during the embryonic stages to survive periodic drought. However, very little is known about the predatory activity of annual killifish and their usefulness in mosquito control. Results The annual killifish, Nothobranchius guentheri, native to Tanzania, was used in this investigation. Food preference was tested under laboratory conditions by feeding juvenile killifish with 2nd instar mosquito larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus in the presence of alternative food sources, such as rotifers and chironomid larvae. Semi-field tests were conducted by introduction of hibernating killifish embryos and juvenile fish to artificial ponds in an outdoor open environment that allowed natural oviposition of Cx. quinquefasciatus. Food preference studies show that N. guentheri preferred to prey on mosquito larvae than either chironomid or rotifers. When hibernating killifish embryos were added to ponds simultaneously with the addition of freshwater, the embryos hatched and fed on mosquito larval population resulting in complete elimination of the immature stages. The introduction of juvenile fish to ponds with high density of mosquito larvae resulted in total eradication of the mosquito population due to predation by fish. Complete biocontrol of the mosquito larval population was achieved in the presence of 3 fish per m2 of pond surface area. Conclusions The annual killifish provides yet another tool that may be employed in the eradication diseases carried by mosquitoes through vector control, particularly in temporary bodies of freshwater. The fish can be conveniently transported in the absence of water in the form of hibernating embryos. Once introduced either as embryos or juveniles in ponds, the annual killifish can effectively reduce the larval population because of its aggressive predatory activity.
The lack of efficient mechanisms for stable genetic transformation of medically important insects, such as anopheline mosquitoes, is the single most important impediment to progress in identifying novel control strategies. Currently available techniques for foreign gene expression in insect cells in culture lack the benefit of stable inheritance conferred by integration. To overcome this problem, a new class of pantropic
Tomoyo Matsubara; Richard W. Beeman; Hiroko Shike; Nora J. Besansky; Odette Mukabayire; Stephen Higgs; Anthony A. James; Jane C. Burns
Outbreaks of Rift Valley fever (RVF) in Egypt, Yemen, and Saudi Arabia have indicated the potential for this disease to spread from its enzootic areas in sub-Saharan Africa. Because little is known about the potential for most African mosquito species to transmit RVF virus (RVFV), we conducted stud...
A biological method was used to synthesize stable silver nanoparticles that were tested as mosquito larvicides against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus. Annona squamosa leaf broth (5%) reduced aqueous 1?mM AgNO? to stable silver nanoparticles with an average size of 450?nm. The structure and percentage of synthesized nanoparticles was characterized by using ultraviolet spectrophotometry, X-Ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy methods. The median lethal concentrations (LC??) of silver nanoparticles that killed fourth instars of Ae. aegypti, Cx. quinquefasciatus, and An. stephensi were 0.30, 0.41, and 2.12 ppm, respectively. Adult longevity (days) in male and female mosquitoes exposed as larvae to 0.1 ppm silver nanoparticles was reduced by ~30% (p<0.05), whereas the number of eggs laid by females exposed as larvae to 0.1 ppm silver nanoparticles decreased by 36% (p<0.05). PMID:22022807
Arjunan, Naresh Kumar; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Rejeeth, Chandrababu; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Barnard, Donald R
The mosquito larvicidal activities of different solvent extracts (chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol) from the leaves of Coccinia indica were studied. Among the extracts tested, the methanol extract showed the highest larvicidal activity against early fourth instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus (LC50?=?142?mg?L), Aedes aegypti (LC50?=?158?mg?L) and Anopheles stephensi (LC50?=?161?mg?L) after 24?h of exposure period. The lowest larval mortality was observed
A. Senthilkumar; S. N. Tikar; N. Gopalan; P. Sundaramoorthy; V. Venkatesalu
DUET was evaluated against field-collected mosquito populations in St. John's County, FL, under laboratory and field conditions. Ten serial dilutions ranging from 22 to 2.2E-08 microg/ml of the product were tested against Aedes albopictus, Ae. taeniorhynchus, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Psorophora columbiae. At 0.0022 microg/ml, 100% mortality was recorded for all species except for Cx. quinquefasciatus. The 50% lethal concentration value for Cx. quinquefasciatus was 0.0029 microg/ml (CI = 0.00069 to 0.013). At the lowest dilution (2.2E-08 microg/ml) evaluated, Ae. albopictus, Ae. taeniorhynchus, and Ps. columbiae showed > 50% mortality. Ground ultralow-volume application of DUET resulted in overall average mortality of 87% of field-collected Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes. There was a significant difference in mortality based on the distance of the caged mosquitoes (P < 0.05). However, mortality was > 70% at the farthest distance from the application (106 m). PMID:20649133
Qualls, Whitney A; Xue, Rui-De
Summary Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. israelensis (Bti) produces four Cry toxins (Cry4Aa, Cry4Ba, Cry10Aa and Cry11Aa), and two Cyt proteins (Cyt1Aa and Cyt2Ba), toxic to mosquito-larvae of the genus Aedes, Anopheles and Culex, important human disease vectors that transmit dengue virus, malaria and filarial parasites respectively. Previous work showed that Bti is highly toxic to Anopheles albimanus, the main vector for transmission of malaria in Mexico. In this work, we analysed the toxicity of isolated Cry proteins of Bti and identified an An. albimanus midgut protein as a putative Cry4Ba and Cry11Aa receptor molecule. Biossays showed that Cry4Ba and Cry11Aa of Bti are toxic to An. albimanus larvae. Ligand blot assays indicated that a 70 kDa glycosylphosphatidylinositolanchored protein present in midgut brush border membrane vesicles of An. albimanus interacts with Cry4Ba and Cry11Aa toxins. This protein was identified as an ?-amylase by mass spectrometry and enzymatic activity assays. The cDNA that codes for the ?-amylase was cloned by means of 5?- and 3?-RACE experiments. Recombinant ?-amylase expressed in Escherichia coli specifically binds Cry4Ba and Cry11Aa toxins.
Fernandez-Luna, Maria Teresa; Lanz-Mendoza, Humberto; Gill, Sarjeet S.; Bravo, Alejandra; Soberon, Mario; Miranda-Rios, Juan
Six mosquito species, selected because their prevalence, distribution and ecology favoured them as potential vectors of dengue (DEN) in South Africa, were tested for vector competence with DEN 1 and 2 viruses. After intrathoracic inoculation with DEN 1, head squash infection rates (HSIRs) by the indirect fluorescent antibody test were 92-100% in all species except Aedes demeilloni, for which rates were < 40%. After an infective blood meal containing DEN 1 and DEN 2 virus respectively, Ae. demeilloni, Ae. simpsoni and Eretmapodites quinquevittatus were refractory to infection, while the 3 other species became infected. Five populations of Ae. aegypti each 'transmitted' both serotypes into capillary tubes. With DEN 1, HSIRs and transmission rates (TRs) varied from 11% to 54% and 67% to 100%, while with DEN 2 they ranged from 19% to 46% and 71% to 86%. The mean vector competence index (VCI) was highest for Durban (0.47 for DEN 1 and 0.34 for DEN 2), while VCIs for the remaining populations varied from 0.13 to 0.28 (DEN 1) and 0.18 to 0.23 (DEN 2). With DEN 1, HSIRs for Ae. strelitziae and Ae. furcifer were 33% and 3% respectively, but no transmission occurred. With DEN 2, results for Ae. strelitziae were HSIR = 56%, TR = 29% and VCI = 0.16, while values for Ae. furcifer were HSIR = 12%, TR = 50% and VCI = 0.06. It is concluded that populations of Ae. aegypti are potentially the best vectors for both serotypes of the virus and that the Durban population could act as the most efficient vector in an urban or peri-urban epidemic.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7905212
Jupp, P G; Kemp, A
Two species of mosquitoes reared to adults from field-collected larvae or egg rafts in or near Los Angeles County, CA, were exposed to dogs with known levels of Dirofilaria immitis (Leidy) microfilariae per 20 cubic millimeters of blood. Aedes taeniorhynchus (Wiedemann) readily blood fed on an infected dog ingested microfilariae but did not become infected. Culiseta incidens (Thomson) also fed on an infected dog became infected, and 10% of the microfilariae developed to the L3 stage. Cs. incidens is a peridomestic species broadly distributed in Los Angeles County and abundant from February through December. The wide distribution of this species as well as its long annual period of reproductive activity in Los Angeles County may contribute to its potential as a vector of D. immitis. PMID:10730504
Theis, J H; Kovaltchouk, J G; Fujioka, K K; Saviskas, B
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an emerging, mosquito-borne alphavirus that has caused major epidemics in Africa and Asia. We developed chimeric vaccine candidates using the non-structural protein genes of either Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) attenuated vaccine strain TC-83 or a naturally attenuated strain of eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) and the structural genes of CHIKV. Because the transmission of genetically modified live vaccine strains is undesirable because of the potentially unpredictable evolution of these viruses as well as the potential for reversion, we evaluated the ability of these vaccines to infect the urban CHIKV vectors, Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Both vaccine candidates exhibited significantly lower infection and dissemination rates compared with the parent alphaviruses. Intrathoracic inoculations indicated that reduced infectivity was mediated by midgut infection barriers in both species. These results indicate a low potential for transmission of these vaccine strains in the event that a vaccinee became viremic.
Darwin, Justin R.; Kenney, Joan L.; Weaver, Scott C.
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an emerging, mosquito-borne alphavirus that has caused major epidemics in Africa and Asia. We developed chimeric vaccine candidates using the non-structural protein genes of either Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) attenuated vaccine strain TC-83 or a naturally attenuated strain of eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) and the structural genes of CHIKV. Because the transmission of genetically modified live vaccine strains is undesirable because of the potentially unpredictable evolution of these viruses as well as the potential for reversion, we evaluated the ability of these vaccines to infect the urban CHIKV vectors, Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Both vaccine candidates exhibited significantly lower infection and dissemination rates compared with the parent alphaviruses. Intrathoracic inoculations indicated that reduced infectivity was mediated by midgut infection barriers in both species. These results indicate a low potential for transmission of these vaccine strains in the event that a vaccinee became viremic. PMID:21633043
Darwin, Justin R; Kenney, Joan L; Weaver, Scott C
We recently reported the presence of potent anti-mosquito activity in aqueous kernel extract of the soapnut, Sapindus emarginatus, and demonstrated its impact on marker enzymes in larvae and pupae of the vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti. As a sequel to these findings, the present study elucidates immunotoxicity of this extract with respect to hemocyte-mediated cellular immune responses in fourth instar larvae and pupae as well as cuticular melanization reaction in the larvae of A. aegypti. The exposure of these two developmental stages of the mosquito to the soapnut extract at a lethal threshold concentration neither affected hemocyte viability tested up to 3h in vitro nor did it influence the hemocyte count. By contrast, exposure of the mosquito larvae and pupae to this extract significantly reduced the ability of their hemocytes to bind yeast cells, an important early event in the process of non-self recognition by immune cells. Consequently, the phagocytic activity of these hemocytes against yeast cells was also found to be adversely affected upon exposure of larvae and pupae to the extract. Besides, a perceptible initial delay in melanization reaction at the injured site of the cuticle in the extract-exposed larvae was observed. All these findings demonstrate, for the first time, the immuno-suppressive potential of a botanical biocide in the vector mosquito. PMID:23499862
Koodalingam, Arunagirinathan; Mullainadhan, Periasamy; Arumugam, Munusamy
Blumea densiflora, an edible and medicinal plant, is chiefly distributed in Southeast Asia and South Asia. Essential oils extracted by steam distillation from B. densiflora were investigated for their chemical composition and larvicidal activity against Anopheles anthropophagus, the primary vector of malaria in China and other East Asian countries. Totally, 46 compounds were identified by gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy. The major chemical compounds identified were borneol (11.43%), germacrene D (8.66%), ?-caryophyllene (6.68%), ?-terpinene (4.35%), sabinene (4.34%), and ?-bisabolene (4.24%). A series of concentrations of essential oil (that ranged from 6.25 to 150 ppm) were tested against A. anthropophagus fourth-instar larvae according to WHO recommendation. In general, larval mortality increased as concentration and exposure time increased, indicating a dose-dependent effect, and high insecticidal activity showed that 100% mortality occurred within 6 h at 150 ppm, 10 h at 100 ppm, 30 h at 50 ppm, and 30 h at 25 ppm essential oil concentration. The LC(50) values were 22.32 (after 12 h) and 10.55 ppm (after 24 h), and the LC(90) values were 54.04 (after 12 h) and 33.56 ppm (after 24 h). Pylarvex, the reference standard, had better larvicidal activity, causing 100% mortality within 2 h at 150 ppm and within 6 h at 6.25 ppm. The results clearly reveal that the essential oil of B. densiflora served as a potential, eco-friendly mosquito larvicide against the malarial vector mosquito A. anthropophagus. PMID:21556689
Zhu, Liang; Tian, Yingjuan
Capture of surveillance data on mobile devices and rapid transfer of such data from these devices into an electronic database or data management and decision support systems promote timely data analyses and public health response during disease outbreaks. Mobile data capture is used increasingly for malaria surveillance and holds great promise for surveillance of other neglected tropical diseases. We focused on mosquito-borne dengue, with the primary aims of: 1) developing and field-testing a cell phone-based system (called Chaak) for capture of data relating to the surveillance of the mosquito immature stages, and 2) assessing, in the dengue endemic setting of Mérida, Mexico, the cost-effectiveness of this new technology versus paper-based data collection. Chaak includes a desktop component, where a manager selects premises to be surveyed for mosquito immatures, and a cell phone component, where the surveyor receives the assigned tasks and captures the data. Data collected on the cell phone can be transferred to a central database through different modes of transmission, including near-real time where data are transferred immediately (e.g., over the Internet) or by first storing data on the cell phone for future transmission. Spatial data are handled in a novel, semantically driven, geographic information system. Compared with a pen-and-paper-based method, use of Chaak improved the accuracy and increased the speed of data transcription into an electronic database. The cost-effectiveness of using the Chaak system will depend largely on the up-front cost of purchasing cell phones and the recurring cost of data transfer over a cellular network. PMID:23926788
Lozano-Fuentes, Saul; Wedyan, Fadi; Hernandez-Garcia, Edgar; Sadhu, Devadatta; Ghosh, Sudipto; Bieman, James M; Tep-Chel, Diana; García-Rejón, Julián E; Eisen, Lars
The black salt-marsh mosquito, Aedes taeniorhynchus, plays an important role in the transmission of arboviruses such as West Nile virus and other pathogens of concern for human and animal health in North and Latin America. This mosquito is notably the only widely distributed mosquito species found in the Galápagos Islands, where its impact as disease vector has not yet been studied. The use of microsatellite markers can significantly improve our understanding of the population structure and dynamics of A. taeniorhynchus and its role in the transmission of diseases. Here we report the isolation of 12 unique microsatellite loci using an enrichment protocol. We also identified other multi-locus microsatellites linked to transposable elements. The presence of such elements may explain why the isolation of useful scorable microsatellite markers in the Aedes genus is often difficult. Four of the markers isolated amplified polymorphic products in Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus and/or Aedes japonicus. PMID:19655436
Bataille, Arnaud; Horsburgh, Gavin J; Dawson, Deborah A; Cunningham, Andrew A; Goodman, Simon J
The combined efficacy of a long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN) and a carbamate-treated plastic sheeting (CTPS) or indoor residual spraying (IRS) for control of insecticide-resistant mosquitoes was evaluated in experimental huts in Burkina Faso. Anopheles gambiae from the area is resistant to pyrethroids and to a lesser extent, carbamates. Relatively low mortality rates were observed with the LLIN (44%), IRS (42%), and CTPS (52%), whereas both combinations killed significantly more mosquitoes (~70% for LLIN + CTPS and LLIN + IRS). Blood feeding by An. gambiae was uninhibited by IRS and CTPS compared with LLIN (43%), LLIN + CTPS (58%), and LLIN + IRS (56%). No evidence for selection of the kdr and ace-1R alleles was observed with the combinations, whereas a survival advantage of mosquitoes bearing the ace-1R mutation was observed with IRS and CTPS. The results suggest that the combination of the two interventions constitutes a potential tool for vector-resistance management.
Djenontin, Armel; Chandre, Fabrice; Dabire, K. Roch; Chabi, Joseph; N'Guessan, Raphael; Baldet, Thierry; Akogbeto, Martin; Corbel, Vincent
Background In the past ten years, the Indian Ocean region has been the theatre of severe epidemics of chikungunya and dengue. These outbreaks coincided with a high increase in populations of Aedes albopictus that outcompete its sister taxon Aedes aegypti in most islands sampled. The objective of this work was to update the entomological survey of the two Aedes species in the island of Madagascar which has to face these arboviroses. Methods The sampling of Aedes mosquitoes was conducted during two years, from October 2007 to October 2009, in fifteen localities from eight regions of contrasting climates. Captured adults were identified immediately whereas immature stages were bred until adult stage for determination. Phylogenetic analysis was performed using two mtDNA genes, COI and ND5 and trees were constructed by the maximum likelihood (ML) method with the gene time reversible (GTR) model. Experimental infections with the chikungunya virus strain 06.21 at a titer of 107.5 pfu/mL were performed to evaluate the vector competence of field-collected mosquitoes. Disseminated infection rates were measured fourteen days after infection by immunofluorescence assay performed on head squashes. Results The species Aedes aegypti was detected in only six sites in native forests and natural reserves. In contrast, the species Aedes albopictus was found in 13 out of the 15 sites sampled. Breeding sites were mostly found in man-made environments such as discarded containers, used tires, abandoned buckets, coconuts, and bamboo cuts. Linear regression models showed that the abundance of Ae. albopictus was significantly influenced by the sampling region (F = 62.00, p < 2.2 × 10-16) and period (F = 36.22, p = 2.548 × 10-13), that are associated with ecological and climate variations. Phylogenetic analysis of the invasive Ae. albopictus distinguished haplotypes from South Asia and South America from those of Madagascar, but the markers used were not discriminant enough to discern Malagasy populations. The experimental oral infection method showed that six Ae. albopictus populations exhibited high dissemination infection rates for chikungunya virus ranging from 98 to 100%. Conclusion In Madagascar, Ae. albopictus has extended its geographical distribution whereas, Ae. aegypti has become rare, contrasting with what was previously observed. Changes are predominantly driven by human activities and the rainfall regime that provide suitable breeding sites for the highly anthropophilic mosquito Ae. albopictus. Moreover, these populations were found to be highly susceptible to chikungunya virus. In the light of this study, Ae. albopictus may have been involved in the recent outbreaks of chikungunya and dengue epidemics in Madagascar, and consequently, control measures should be promoted to limit its current expansion.
We evaluated infection of Aedes taeniorhynchus mosquitoes, vectors of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), using radiolabeled virus and replicon particles expressing green (GFP) or cherry fluorescent protein (CFP). More epidemic VEEV bound to and infected mosquito midguts compared to an enzootic strain, and a small number of midgut cells was preferentially infected. Chimeric replicons infected midgut cells at rates comparable to those of the structural gene donor. The numbers of midgut cells infected averaged 28, and many infections were initiated in only 1-5 cells. Infection by a mixture of GFP- and CFP-expressing replicons indicated that only about 100 midgut cells were susceptible. Intrathoracic injections yielded similar patterns of replication with both VEEV strains, suggesting that midgut infection is the primary limitation to transmission. These results indicate that the structural proteins determine initial infection of a small number of midgut cells, and that VEEV undergoes population bottlenecks during vector infection. PMID:18023837
Smith, Darci R; Adams, A Paige; Kenney, Joan L; Wang, Eryu; Weaver, Scott C
Background & objectives: This paper reports the larvicidal activity of seventeen Tanzanian plant species against the malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae s.s. Giles larvae. Some of the plants are used traditionally as sources of insecticidal materials. Methods: The crude extracts from the leaves, stem and root barks of the investigated plants were obtained by solvent extraction and then bio-assayed following WHO
Charles Kihampa; Stephen M. Magesa; Erich Kleinpetere
We report efficient germ-line transformation in the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti accomplished using the piggyBac transposable element vector pBac[3xP3-EGFP afm]. Two transgenic lines were established and characterized; each contained the Vg-Defensin A transgene with strong eye-specific expression of the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) marker gene regulated by the artificial 3xP3 promoter. Southern blot hybridization and inverse PCR analyses
V. Kokoza; A. Ahmed; E. A. Wimmer; A. S. Raikhel
Early observations suggested that the female sound was a possible cause of mating. Attempts had been made for introduction of female wing beat sound for removal male mosquitoes from the population for the control purpose. The traps emitted female wing beat sound, were set on black clothes as a swarm marker, could collect a large number of male Cx. tritaeniorhynchus in Japan. Those traps were later improved with introduction of two attractants, hamster and dry ice. Consequently, two systems were adopted for efficiency trapping of males and females. A cylinder trap with 350 Hz of wing beat frequency was introduced for male Cx. tritaeniorhynchus collection, while the cage trap with 530 Hz was for female collection. The traps were set every other days after sun set for three weeks in a paddy field. Although there was no decrease of population density, the reduction of parous rate was evident. For future effective control, it may suggest the need to distribute more wing beat sound traps to cover all larva breeding paddy field and near by blood sources. On the other hand, other control methods should be integrated. PMID:2576970
Kerdpibule, V; Thongrungkiat, S; Leemingsawat, S
Five aromatic plants, Carum carvi (caraway), Apium graveolens (celery), Foeniculum vulgare (fennel), Zanthoxylum limonella (mullilam) and Curcuma zedoaria (zedoary) were selected for investigating larvicidal potential against mosquito vectors. Two laboratory-reared mosquito species, Anopheles dirus, the major malaria vector in Thailand, and Aedes aegypti, the main vector of dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever in urban areas, were used. All of the volatile oils exerted significant larvicidal activity against the two mosquito species after 24-h exposure. Essential oil from mullilam was the most effective against the larvae of A. aegypti, while A. dirus larvae showed the highest susceptibility to zedoary oil. PMID:17337133
Pitasawat, B; Champakaew, D; Choochote, W; Jitpakdi, A; Chaithong, U; Kanjanapothi, D; Rattanachanpichai, E; Tippawangkosol, P; Riyong, D; Tuetun, B; Chaiyasit, D
There is currently considerable interest and practical progress in using the endosymbiotic bacteria Wolbachia as a vector control agent for human vector-borne diseases. Such vector control strategies may require the introduction of multiple, different Wolbachia strains into target vector populations, necessitating the identification and characterization of appropriate endosymbiont variants. Here, we report preliminary characterization of wFlu, a native Wolbachia from the neotropical mosquito Aedes fluviatilis, and evaluate its potential as a vector control agent by confirming its ability to cause cytoplasmic incompatibility, and measuring its effect on three parameters determining host fitness (survival, fecundity and fertility), as well as vector competence (susceptibility) for pathogen infection. Using an aposymbiotic strain of Ae. fluviatilis cured of its native Wolbachia by antibiotic treatment, we show that in its natural host wFlu causes incomplete, but high levels of, unidirectional cytoplasmic incompatibility, has high rates of maternal transmission, and no detectable fitness costs, indicating a high capacity to rapidly spread through host populations. However, wFlu does not inhibit, and even enhances, oocyst infection with the avian malaria parasite Plasmodium gallinaceum. The stage- and sex-specific density of wFlu was relatively low, and with limited tissue distribution, consistent with the lack of virulence and pathogen interference/symbiont-mediated protection observed. Unexpectedly, the density of wFlu was also shown to be specifically-reduced in the ovaries after bloodfeeding Ae. fluviatilis. Overall, our observations indicate that the Wolbachia strain wFlu has the potential to be used as a vector control agent, and suggests that appreciable mutualistic coevolution has occurred between this endosymbiont and its natural host. Future work will be needed to determine whether wFlu has virulent host effects and/or exhibits pathogen interference when artificially-transfected to the novel mosquito hosts that are the vectors of human pathogens.
Goncalves, Daniela da Silva; Moreira, Luciano Andrade
Background As insecticide resistance may jeopardize the successful malaria control programmes in the Mekong region, a large investigation was previously conducted in the Mekong countries to assess the susceptibility of the main malaria vectors against DDT and pyrethroid insecticides. It showed that the main vector, Anopheles epiroticus, was highly pyrethroid-resistant in the Mekong delta, whereas Anopheles minimus sensu lato was pyrethroid-resistant in northern Vietnam. Anopheles dirus sensu stricto showed possible resistance to type II pyrethroids in central Vietnam. Anopheles subpictus was DDT- and pyrethroid-resistant in the Mekong Delta. The present study intends to explore the resistance mechanisms involved. Methods By use of molecular assays and biochemical assays the presence of the two major insecticide resistance mechanisms, knockdown and metabolic resistance, were assessed in the main malaria vectors of the Mekong region. Results Two FRET/MCA assays and one PCR-RFLP were developed to screen a large number of Anopheles populations from the Mekong region for the presence of knockdown resistance (kdr), but no kdr mutation was observed in any of the study species. Biochemical assays suggest an esterase mediated pyrethroid detoxification in An. epiroticus and An. subpictus of the Mekong delta. The DDT resistance in An. subpictus might be conferred to a high GST activity. The pyrethroid resistance in An. minimus s.l. is possibly associated with increased detoxification by esterases and P450 monooxygenases. Conclusion As different metabolic enzyme systems might be responsible for the pyrethroid and DDT resistance in the main vectors, each species may have a different response to alternative insecticides, which might complicate the malaria vector control in the Mekong region.
Verhaeghen, Katrijn; Van Bortel, Wim; Trung, Ho Dinh; Sochantha, Tho; Coosemans, Marc
How often insecticide resistance mutations arise in natural insect populations is a fundamental question for understanding the evolution of resistance and also for modeling its spread. Moreover, the development of resistance is regarded as a favored model to study the molecular evolution of adaptive traits. In the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae two point mutations (L1014F and L1014S) in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene, that confer knockdown resistance (kdr) to DDT and pyrethroid insecticides, have been described. In order to determine whether resistance alleles result from single or multiple mutation events, genotyping of the kdr locus and partial sequencing of the upstream intron-1 was performed on a total of 288 A. gambiae S-form collected from 28 localities in 15 countries. Knockdown resistance alleles were found to be widespread in West Africa with co-occurrence of both 1014S and 1014F in West-Central localities. Differences in intron-1 haplotype composition suggest that kdr alleles may have arisen from at least four independent mutation events. Neutrality tests provided evidence for a selective sweep acting on this genomic region, particularly in West Africa. The frequency and distribution of these kdr haplotypes varied geographically, being influenced by an interplay between different mutational occurrences, gene flow and local selection. This has important practical implications for the management and sustainability of malaria vector control programs.
Pinto, Joao; Lynd, Amy; Vicente, Jose L.; Santolamazza, Federica; Randle, Nadine P.; Gentile, Gabriele; Moreno, Marta; Simard, Frederic; Charlwood, Jacques Derek; do Rosario, Virgilio E.; Caccone, Adalgisa; della Torre, Alessandra; Donnelly, Martin J.
Yellow fever virus (YFV) was isolated from Haemagogus leucocelaenus mosquitoes during an epizootic in 2001 in the Rio Grande do Sul State in southern Brazil. In October 2008, a yellow fever outbreak was reported there, with nonhuman primate deaths and human cases. This latter outbreak led to intensification of surveillance measures for early detection of YFV and support for vaccination programs. We report entomologic surveillance in 2 municipalities that recorded nonhuman primate deaths. Mosquitoes were collected at ground level, identified, and processed for virus isolation and molecular analyses. Eight YFV strains were isolated (7 from pools of Hg. leucocelaenus mosquitoes and another from Aedes serratus mosquitoes); 6 were sequenced, and they grouped in the YFV South American genotype I. The results confirmed the role of Hg. leucocelaenus mosquitoes as the main YFV vector in southern Brazil and suggest that Ae. serratus mosquitoes may have a potential role as a secondary vector.
Cardoso, Jader da C.; de Almeida, Marco A.B.; dos Santos, Edmilson; da Fonseca, Daltro F.; Sallum, Maria A.M.; Noll, Carlos A.; Monteiro, Hamilton A. de O.; Cruz, Ana C.R.; Carvalho, Valeria L.; Pinto, Eliana V.; Castro, Francisco C.; Neto, Joaquim P. Nunes; Segura, Maria N.O.
Malaria parasites must undergo sexual and sporogonic development in mosquitoes before they can infect their vertebrate hosts. We report the discovery and characterization of MISFIT, the first protein with paternal effect on the development of the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei in Anopheles mosquitoes. MISFIT is expressed in male gametocytes and localizes to the nuclei of male gametocytes, zygotes and
Ellen S. C. Bushell; Andrea Ecker; Timm Schlegelmilch; David Goulding; Gordon Dougan; Robert E. Sinden; George K. Christophides; Fotis C. Kafatos; Dina Vlachou
We performed a gene expression screen of the entire transcriptome of the major African malaria vector Anopheles gambiae for immune response genes in adult female mosquitoes, which is the developmental stage infected by malaria parasites. Mosquitoes were immune-stimulated for subtractive cloning by treatment with bacterial lipopolysaccharide, a potent and general elicitor of the innate immune response, and by injury. The screen yielded a highly enriched cDNA library in which more than half of the clones were immune responsive. In this paper, we describe 23 immune-regulated genes, including putative protease inhibitors, serine proteases, regulatory molecules, and a number of genes without known relatives. A molecule related to the protease inhibitor ?-2-macroglobulin responded strongly to malaria parasite infection, but displayed little or no response to bacteria, whereas other genes exhibited the inverse pattern. These results indicate that the insect immune system discriminates between molecular signals specific to infection with bacteria and malaria parasites.
Oduol, Frederick; Xu, Jiannong; Niare, Oumou; Natarajan, Ramya; Vernick, Kenneth D.
Aspergillus niger is a fungus of the genus Aspergillus. It has caused a disease called black mold on certain fruits and vegetables. The culture filtrates released from the A. niger ATCC 66566 were grown in Czapek dox broth (CDB) then filtered with flash chromatograph and were used for the bioassay after a growth of thirty days. The result demonstrated these mortalities with LC50, LC90, and LC99 values of Culex quinquefasciatus 0.76, 3.06, and 4.75, Anopheles stephensi 1.43, 3.2, and 3.86, and Aedes aegypti 1.43, 2.2, and 4.1??l/cm2, after exposure of seven hours. We have calculated significant LT90 values of Cx. quinquefasciatus 4.5, An. stephensi 3.54, and Ae. aegypti 6.0?hrs, respectively. This liquid spray of fungal culture isolate of A. niger can reduce malaria, dengue, and filarial transmission. These results significantly support broadening the current vector control paradigm beyond chemical adulticides.
Singh, Gavendra; Prakash, Soam
The larvicidal activity of hydrodistillate extracts from Chrysanthemum coronarium L., Hypericum scabrum L., Pistacia terebinthus L. subsp. palaestina (Boiss.) Engler, and Vitex agnus castus L. was investigated against the West Nile vector, Culex pipiens L. (Diptera: Culicidae). Yield and identification of the major essential oils from each distillation was determined by GC-MS analyses. The major essential oil component for each plant species was as follows: ?-pinene for P. terebinthus palaestina, and H. scabrum (45.3% and 42.3%, respectively), trans-?-caryophyllene for V. agnus castus (22.1%), and borneol for C. coronarium (20.9%). A series of distillate concentrations from these plants (that ranged from 1 ppm to 500 ppm, depending on plant species) were assessed against late third to early fourth C. pipiens larvae at 1, 6, and 24 h posttreatment. In general, larval mortality to water treated with a distillate increased as concentration and exposure time increased. H. scabrum and P. terebinthus palaestina were most effective against the mosquito larvae and both produced 100% mortality at 250 ppm at 24-h continuous exposure compared with the other plant species. Larval toxicity of the distillates at 24 h (LC(50) from most toxic to less toxic) was as follows: P. terebinthus palaestina (59.2 ppm) > H. scabrum (82.2 ppm) > V. agnus castus (83.3 ppm) > C. coronarium (311.2 ppm). But when LC(90) values were compared, relative toxicity ranking changed as follows: H. scabrum (185.9 ppm) > V. agnus castus (220.7 ppm) > P. terebinthus palaestina (260.7 ppm) > C. coronarium (496.3 ppm). Extracts of native Turkish plants continue to provide a wealth of potential sources for biologically active agents that may be applied against arthropod pests of man and animals. PMID:21053014
Cetin, Huseyin; Yanikoglu, Atila; Cilek, James E
Anopheline mosquitoes are the major vectors of human malaria. Mosquito–parasite interactions are a critical aspect of disease transmission and a potential target for malaria control. Mosquitoes vary in their innate ability to support development of the malaria parasite, but the molecular mechanisms that determine vector competence are poorly understood. This area of research has been revolutionized by recent advances in
Stéphanie Blandin; Elena A Levashina
Bioefficacy of thermal fogging application of 2 Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis formulations, Vectobac ABG 6511 water-dispersible granules (3,000 international toxic unit [ITU]/mg) and Vectobac 12AS liquid (1,200 ITU/mg), was assessed for larvicidal activities against Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, Anopheles dirus, and Culex quinquefasciatus. Portable Agrofog AF35 sprayers were used to apply the 2 formulations indoors in residential premises on Penang Island, Malaysia. Vectobac ABG 6511 showed good larvicidal effect against all 4 mosquito species at 3 of the higher doses tested (2.91 x 10(9), 1.45 x 10(9), and 0.71 x 10(9) ITU/ha), with more than 96% mortality at 48 h after spraying. As a comparative formulation, Vectobac 12AS also showed good larvicidal activity against all 4 mosquito species at 2 of the higher doses tested (2.87 x 10(9) and 1.46 x 10(9) ITU/ha), with more than 92.5% mortality at 48 h after spraying. Larvae of An. dirus were significantly more susceptible to both water-based Vectobac formulations when compared to the other 3 mosquito species. Both microbial formulations showed better efficacy at higher doses. However, even at the lowest dose tested, Vectobac ABG 6511 and Vectobac 12AS (both at 0.36 x 10(9) ITU/ha) showed larvicidal properties, with more than 66% mortality at 48 h after spraying. Overall, for this bacterial agent, the water-dispersible granule formulation has better prospects than the liquid formulation for the control of larvae of vector mosquitoes. PMID:11998931
Yap, H H; Lee, Y W; Zairi, J
Background More sensitive and scalable entomological surveillance tools are required to monitor low levels of transmission that are increasingly common across the tropics, particularly where vector control has been successful. A large-scale larviciding programme in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania is supported by a community-based (CB) system for trapping adult mosquito densities to monitor programme performance. Methodology An intensive and extensive CB system for routine, longitudinal, programmatic surveillance of malaria vectors and other mosquitoes using the Ifakara Tent Trap (ITT-C) was developed in Urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, and validated by comparison with quality assurance (QA) surveys using either ITT-C or human landing catches (HLC), as well as a cross-sectional survey of malaria parasite prevalence in the same housing compounds. Results Community-based ITT-C had much lower sensitivity per person-night of sampling than HLC (Relative Rate (RR) [95% Confidence Interval (CI)]?=?0.079 [0.051, 0.121], P?0.001 for Anopheles gambiae s.l. and 0.153 [0.137, 0.171], P?0.001 for Culicines) but only moderately differed from QA surveys with the same trap (0.536 [0.406,0.617], P?=?0.001 and 0.747 [0.677,0.824], P?0.001, for An. gambiae or Culex respectively). Despite the poor sensitivity of the ITT per night of sampling, when CB-ITT was compared with QA-HLC, it proved at least comparably sensitive in absolute terms (171 versus 169 primary vectors caught) and cost-effective (153US$ versus 187US$ per An. gambiae caught) because it allowed more spatially extensive and temporally intensive sampling (4284 versus 335 trap nights distributed over 615 versus 240 locations with a mean number of samples per year of 143 versus 141). Despite the very low vectors densities (Annual estimate of about 170 An gambiae s.l bites per person per year), CB-ITT was the only entomological predictor of parasite infection risk (Odds Ratio [95% CI]?=?4.43[3.027,7. 454] per An. gambiae or Anopheles funestus caught per night, P =0.0373). Discussion and conclusion CB trapping approaches could be improved with more sensitive traps, but already offer a practical, safe and affordable system for routine programmatic mosquito surveillance and clusters could be distributed across entire countries by adapting the sample submission and quality assurance procedures accordingly.
The access to the main memory of a vector processor system was investigated with analytical models, measurements on a double processor system CRAY X-MP, and simulations. Single processor systems and multiprocessor systems with shared memory are investigat...
The binary toxin (Bin) from Bacillus sphaericus exhibits a highly insecticidal activity against Culex and Anopheles mosquitoes. The cytotoxicity of Bin requires an interaction with a specific receptor present on the membrane of midgut epithelial cells in larvae. A direct correlation exists between binding affinity and toxicity. The toxin binds with high affinity to its receptor in its primary target,
Onya Opota; Jean-François Charles; Sylvie Warot; David Pauron; Isabelle Darboux
Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a mosquito-borne zoonotic hemorrhagic viral disease confined primarily to sub-Saharan Africa. In RVF endemic regions human and livestock populations suffer prominent health and economic impacts during RVF outbreaks. RVF virus is listed as an overlap Select Agent by both ...
During this project, priority was given to research on the formulation of simple diagnostic tests for the detection of organophosphate (OP) resistance in individual mosquitoes. Emphasis was placed on the mechanisms of insensitive acetycholinesterase and of detoxification of OP's by esterases.
During an epidemic of dengue hemorrhagic fever on Koh Samui, Thailand, dengue viruses were recovered from 10 patients and 29 mosquito pools. All recovered strains were dengue type 4. Virus was recovered from both Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus under c...
P. K. Russell D. J. Gould T. M. Yuill A. Nisalak P. E. Winter
This project is concerned with the formulation of novel diagnostic tests for the detection of organophosphate (OP) resistance in individual mosquitoes. Emphasis was placed on the mechanisms of detoxification by esterases and of insensitive acetycholinesterase. Seven diagnostic tests have resulted from this research to date. Five concern esterases, and two insensitive acetylcholinesterase. An eighth procedure concerns the qualification of proteins
Incidence of disease due to dengue (DENV), chikungunya (CHIKV) and yellow fever (YFV) viruses is increasing in many parts of the world. The viruses are primarily transmitted by Aedes aegypti, a highly domesticated mosquito species that is notoriously difficult to control. When transinfected into Ae. aegypti, the intracellular bacterium Wolbachia has recently been shown to inhibit replication of DENVs, CHIKV, malaria parasites and filarial nematodes, providing a potentially powerful biocontrol strategy for human pathogens. Because the extent of pathogen reduction can be influenced by the strain of bacterium, we examined whether the wMel strain of Wolbachia influenced CHIKV and YFV infection in Ae. aegypti. Following exposure to viremic blood meals, CHIKV infection and dissemination rates were significantly reduced in mosquitoes with the wMel strain of Wolbachia compared to Wolbachia-uninfected controls. However, similar rates of infection and dissemination were observed in wMel infected and non-infected Ae. aegypti when intrathoracic inoculation was used to deliver virus. YFV infection, dissemination and replication were similar in wMel-infected and control mosquitoes following intrathoracic inoculations. In contrast, mosquitoes with the wMelPop strain of Wolbachia showed at least a 104 times reduction in YFV RNA copies compared to controls. The extent of reduction in virus infection depended on Wolbachia strain, titer and strain of the virus, and mode of exposure. Although originally proposed for dengue biocontrol, our results indicate a Wolbachia-based strategy also holds considerable promise for YFV and CHIKV suppression.
van den Hurk, Andrew F.; Hall-Mendelin, Sonja; Pyke, Alyssa T.; Frentiu, Francesca D.; McElroy, Kate; Day, Andrew; Higgs, Stephen; O'Neill, Scott L.
Incidence of disease due to dengue (DENV), chikungunya (CHIKV) and yellow fever (YFV) viruses is increasing in many parts of the world. The viruses are primarily transmitted by Aedes aegypti, a highly domesticated mosquito species that is notoriously difficult to control. When transinfected into Ae. aegypti, the intracellular bacterium Wolbachia has recently been shown to inhibit replication of DENVs, CHIKV, malaria parasites and filarial nematodes, providing a potentially powerful biocontrol strategy for human pathogens. Because the extent of pathogen reduction can be influenced by the strain of bacterium, we examined whether the wMel strain of Wolbachia influenced CHIKV and YFV infection in Ae. aegypti. Following exposure to viremic blood meals, CHIKV infection and dissemination rates were significantly reduced in mosquitoes with the wMel strain of Wolbachia compared to Wolbachia-uninfected controls. However, similar rates of infection and dissemination were observed in wMel infected and non-infected Ae. aegypti when intrathoracic inoculation was used to deliver virus. YFV infection, dissemination and replication were similar in wMel-infected and control mosquitoes following intrathoracic inoculations. In contrast, mosquitoes with the wMelPop strain of Wolbachia showed at least a 10(4) times reduction in YFV RNA copies compared to controls. The extent of reduction in virus infection depended on Wolbachia strain, titer and strain of the virus, and mode of exposure. Although originally proposed for dengue biocontrol, our results indicate a Wolbachia-based strategy also holds considerable promise for YFV and CHIKV suppression. PMID:23133693
van den Hurk, Andrew F; Hall-Mendelin, Sonja; Pyke, Alyssa T; Frentiu, Francesca D; McElroy, Kate; Day, Andrew; Higgs, Stephen; O'Neill, Scott L
We describe a new family of repetitive elements, named Mimo, from the mosquito Culex pipiens. Structural characteristics of these elements fit well with those of miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs), which are ubiquitous and highly abundant in plant genomes. The occurrence of Mimo in C. pipiens provides new evidence that MITEs are not restricted to plant genomes, but may be
Cédric Feschotte; Claude Mouchès
An extended area of northern Italy has experienced several West Nile virus (WNV) outbreaks and the emergence of Usutu virus (USUV) during previous years. Our aim was to study some of the factors that could explain disease patterns in the Trentino region, where circulation was detected in human sera and sentinel chickens, but no human or equine cases were reported. We collected Culex species (Diptera: Culicidae) in peridomestic environments. The collected specimens were analyzed for feeding behavior, the influence of temperature and rainfall on the abundance of mosquitoes, and the occurrence of flaviviruses. Analysis of blood meals showed that Culex pipiens fed mainly on blackbirds (Turdus merula) and house sparrows (Passer domesticus), while Culex hortensis fed strictly on lizards. The abundance of Cx. pipiens females correlated positively with mean temperature and negatively with rainfall (one to four weeks before capture). This negative relationship could be due to the direct effect of the flushing of habitats together with an indirect effect of oviposition repellency. The mean weekly temperature influenced the abundance of Cx. hortensis. No flaviviruses were detected in the analyzed Culex mosquitoes. These data suggest a silent cycle at low enzootic transmission levels in the area. Furthermore, we present the first contribution to understanding the transmission role of Cx. pipiens mosquitoes in Italy by identifying vertebrate hosts to species level. PMID:22548533
Roiz, David; Vazquez, Ana; Rosà, Roberto; Muñoz, Joaquin; Arnoldi, Daniele; Rosso, Fausta; Figuerola, Jordi; Tenorio, Antonio; Rizzoli, Annapaola
We determined prevalence and altitudinal distribution of introduced avian malarial infections (Plasmodium relictum) and pox-like lesions (Avipoxvirus) in forest birds from Kipahulu Valley, Haleakal? National Park, on the island of Maui, and we identified primary larval habitat for the mosquito vector of this disease. This intensively managed wilderness area and scientific reserve is one of the most pristine areas of native forest remaining in the state of Hawai'i, and it will become increasingly important as a site for restoration and recovery of endangered forest birds. Overall prevalence of malarial infections in the valley was 8% (11/133) in native species and 4% (4/101) in nonnative passerines; prevalence was lower than reported for comparable elevations and habitats elsewhere in the state. Infections occurred primarily in 'Apapane (Himatione sanguinea) and Hawai'i 'Amakihi (Hemignathus virens) at elevations below 1,400 m. Pox-like lesions were detected in only two Hawai'i 'Amakihi (2%; 2/94) at elevations below 950 m. We did not detect malaria or pox in birds caught at 1,400 m in upper reaches of the valley. Adult mosquitoes (Culex quinquefasciatus) were captured at four sites at elevations of 640, 760, 915, and 975 m, respectively. Culex quinquefasciatus larvae were found only in rock holes along intermittent tributaries of the two largest streams in the valley, but not in standing surface water, pig wallows, ground pools, tree cavities, and tree fern cavities. Mosquito populations in the valley are low, and they are probably influenced by periods of high rainfall that flush stream systems. PMID:17984251
Aruch, Samuel; Atkinson, Carter T; Savage, Amy F; Lapointe, Dennis A
Background Mosquitoes that bite people outdoors can sustain malaria transmission even where effective indoor interventions such as bednets or indoor residual spraying are already widely used. Outdoor tools may therefore complement current indoor measures and improve control. We developed and evaluated a prototype mosquito control device, the ‘Mosquito Landing Box’ (MLB), which is baited with human odours and treated with mosquitocidal agents. The findings are used to explore technical options and challenges relevant to luring and killing outdoor-biting malaria vectors in endemic settings. Methods Field experiments were conducted in Tanzania to assess if wild host-seeking mosquitoes 1) visited the MLBs, 2) stayed long or left shortly after arrival at the device, 3) visited the devices at times when humans were also outdoors, and 4) could be killed by contaminants applied on the devices. Odours suctioned from volunteer-occupied tents were also evaluated as a potential low-cost bait, by comparing baited and unbaited MLBs. Results There were significantly more Anopheles arabiensis, An. funestus, Culex and Mansonia mosquitoes visiting baited MLB than unbaited controls (P?0.028). Increasing sampling frequency from every 120 min to 60 and 30 min led to an increase in vector catches of up to 3.6 fold (P?0.002), indicating that many mosquitoes visited the device but left shortly afterwards. Outdoor host-seeking activity of malaria vectors peaked between 7:30 and 10:30pm, and between 4:30 and 6:00am, matching durations when locals were also outdoors. Maximum mortality of mosquitoes visiting MLBs sprayed or painted with formulations of candidate mosquitocidal agent (pirimiphos-methyl) was 51%. Odours from volunteer occupied tents attracted significantly more mosquitoes to MLBs than controls (P<0.001). Conclusion While odour-baited devices such as the MLBs clearly have potential against outdoor-biting mosquitoes in communities where LLINs are used, candidate contaminants must be those that are effective at ultra-low doses even after short contact periods, since important vector species such as An. arabiensis make only brief visits to such devices. Natural human odours suctioned from occupied dwellings could constitute affordable sources of attractants to supplement odour baits for the devices. The killing agents used should be environmentally safe, long lasting, and have different modes of action (other than pyrethroids as used on LLINs), to curb the risk of physiological insecticide resistance.
Laboratory study was carried out to evaluate the repellent efficiency of most commonly known four traditional insect\\/mosquito\\u000a repellent plants Wogert [vernacular name (local native language, Amharic); Silene macroserene], Kebercho [vernacular name (local native language, Amharic); Echinops sp.], Tinjut [vernacular name (local native language, Amharic); Ostostegia integrifolia], and Woira[vernacular name (local native language, Amharic); Olea europaea] against Anopheles arabiensis under the
Kaliyaperumal Karunamoorthi; Adane Mulelam; Fentahun Wassie
Mosquito collections were carried out on microfilaraemic dogs, positive for Dirofilaria sp., for 18 consecutive nights in the coastal town of Celestún, Yucatan, southeast Mexico, during the rainy season (August) of 2007. A total of 292 female mosquitoes representing 12 species of dipteran Culicidae were collected: Anopheles albimanus (Wiedemann); Anopheles crucians (Wiedemann); Anopheles pseudopunctipennis (Theobald); Culex coronator (Dyar & Knab); Culex interrogator (Dyar & Knab); Culex nigripalpus (Theobald); Culex quinquefasciatus (Say); Culex salinarius (Coquillett); Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus); Aedes scapularis (Rondani); Aedes sollicitans (Walker), and Aedes taeniorhynchus (Wiedemann). Aedes taeniorhynchus and Cx. quinquefasciatus were the species found most commonly feeding on the dogs. Filarial nematodes were observed by microscopy in nine of the mosquito species collected; however, third-instar larvae were only observed in Ae. taeniorhynchus and An. crucians. Of 76 Ae. taeniorhynchus specimens found positive for Dirofilaria sp. by dissection, 14 were confirmed to be positive for Dirofilaria immitis (Leidy) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The resulting infection rate for D. immitis confirmed by PCR (6.2%) is higher than any infection rate for Ae. taeniorhynchus previously reported from the Americas. PMID:20572932
Manrique-Saide, P; Escobedo-Ortegón, J; Bolio-González, M; Sauri-Arceo, C; Dzib-Florez, S; Guillermo-May, G; Ceh-Pavía, E; Lenhart, A
A trans-packaging system for West Nile virus (WNV) subgenomic replicon RNAs (repRNAs), deleted for the structural coding region, was developed. WNV repRNAs were efficiently encapsidated by the WNV C/prM/E structural proteins expressed in trans from replication-competent, noncytopathic Sindbis virus-derived RNAs. Infectious virus-like particles (VLPs) were produced in titers of up to 109 infectious units/ml. WNV VLPs established a single round of infection in a variety of different cell lines without production of progeny virions. The infectious properties of WNV and VLPs were indistinguishable when efficiencies of infection of a number of different cell lines and inhibition of infection by neutralizing antibodies were determined. To investigate the usefulness of VLPs to address biological questions in vivo, Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus mosquitoes were orally and parenterally infected with VLPs, and dissected tissues were analyzed for WNV antigen expression. Antigen-positive cells in midguts of orally infected mosquitoes were detected as early as 2 days postinfection and as late as 8 days. Intrathoracic inoculation of VLPs into mosquitoes demonstrated a dose-dependent pattern of infection of secondary tissues and identified fat body, salivary glands, tracheal cells, and midgut muscle as susceptible WNV VLP infection targets. These results demonstrate that VLPs can serve as a valuable tool for the investigation of tissue tropism during the early stages of infection, where virus spread and the need for biosafety level 3 containment complicate the use of wild-type virus.
Scholle, Frank; Girard, Yvette A.; Zhao, Qizu; Higgs, Stephen; Mason, Peter W.
In Guatemala, the Ministry of Health (MoH) began a vector control project with Japanese cooperation in 2000 to reduce the risk of Chagas disease infection. Rhodnius prolixus is one of the principal vectors and is targeted for elimination. The control method consisted of extensive residual insecticide spraying campaigns, followed by community-based surveillance with selective respraying. Interventions in nine endemic departments identified 317 villages with R. prolixus of 4,417 villages surveyed. Two cycles of residual insecticide spraying covered over 98% of the houses in the identified villages. Fourteen villages reinfestated were all resprayed. Between 2000-2003 and 2008, the number of infested villages decreased from 317 to two and the house infestation rate reduced from 0.86% to 0.0036%. Seroprevalence rates in 2004-2005, when compared with an earlier study in 1998, showed a significant decline from 5.3% to 1.3% among schoolchildren in endemic areas. The total operational cost was US$ 921,815, where the cost ratio between preparatory, attack and surveillance phases was approximately 2:12:1. In 2008, Guatemala was certified for interruption of Chagas disease transmission by R. prolixus. What facilitated the process was existing knowledge in vector control and notable commitment by the MoH, as well as political, managerial and technical support by external stakeholders. PMID:23147143
Hashimoto, Ken; Alvarez, Hugo; Nakagawa, Jun; Juarez, Jaime; Monroy, Carlota; Cordón-Rosales, Celia; Gil, Enrique
In this survey of recent ecological research on the main vectors of trypanosomiasis in those countries of East, Central and West Africa that are not predominantly French-speaking, the authors, after outlining the distribution of tsetse flies and the type of country in which they occur, discuss the direct and indirect effects of climate on these insects—particularly on their physiological water balance and on pupal fat reserves—and their recent advances into new areas. They review the considerable work that has been done on the resting habits and breeding-sites of different Glossina species, knowledge of which is important for effective control, and research on predators of pupae and adult flies and on the feeding activity of tsetse flies. Means of assessing populations and various factors affecting the size and nutritional status of tsetse flies are also discussed, as is the effect on the fly population of artificial changes in the habitat. Finally, a plea is made for a revision of present methods of land use and stock management, if full advantage is to be taken of achievements in fly control.
Langridge, W. P.; Kernaghan, R. J.; Glover, P. E.
A trans-packaging system for West Nile virus (WNV) subgenomic replicon RNAs (repRNAs), deleted for the structural coding region, was developed. WNV repRNAs were efficiently encapsidated by the WNV C/prM/E structural proteins expressed in trans from replication-competent, noncytopathic Sindbis virus-derived RNAs. Infectious virus-like particles (VLPs) were produced in titers of up to 10(9) infectious units/ml. WNV VLPs established a single round of infection in a variety of different cell lines without production of progeny virions. The infectious properties of WNV and VLPs were indistinguishable when efficiencies of infection of a number of different cell lines and inhibition of infection by neutralizing antibodies were determined. To investigate the usefulness of VLPs to address biological questions in vivo, Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus mosquitoes were orally and parenterally infected with VLPs, and dissected tissues were analyzed for WNV antigen expression. Antigen-positive cells in midguts of orally infected mosquitoes were detected as early as 2 days postinfection and as late as 8 days. Intrathoracic inoculation of VLPs into mosquitoes demonstrated a dose-dependent pattern of infection of secondary tissues and identified fat body, salivary glands, tracheal cells, and midgut muscle as susceptible WNV VLP infection targets. These results demonstrate that VLPs can serve as a valuable tool for the investigation of tissue tropism during the early stages of infection, where virus spread and the need for biosafety level 3 containment complicate the use of wild-type virus. PMID:15479801
Scholle, Frank; Girard, Yvette A; Zhao, Qizu; Higgs, Stephen; Mason, Peter W
The binary toxin (Bin) from Bacillus sphaericus exhibits a highly insecticidal activity against Culex and Anopheles mosquitoes. The cytotoxicity of Bin requires an interaction with a specific receptor present on the membrane of midgut epithelial cells in larvae. A direct correlation exists between binding affinity and toxicity. The toxin binds with high affinity to its receptor in its primary target, Culex pipiens, and displays a lower affinity to the receptor in Anopheles gambiae, which is less sensitive to Bin. Although the Bin receptor has previously been identified and named Cpm1 in C. pipiens, its structure in Anopheles remains unknown. In this study, we hypothesize that the Anopheles Bin receptor is an ortholog of Cpm1. By screening the Anopheles genomic database, we identified a candidate gene (Agm3) which is expressed primarily on the surface of midgut cells in larvae and which functions as a receptor for Bin. A Cpm1-like gene is also present in the Bin-refractory species Aedes aegypti. Overall, our results indicate that the three mosquito genes examined share a very similar organization and are strongly conserved at the amino acid level, in particular in the NH(2)-terminus, a region believed to contain the ligand binding site, suggesting that relatively few amino acids residues are critical for high affinity binding of the toxin. PMID:18086545
Opota, Onya; Charles, Jean-François; Warot, Sylvie; Pauron, David; Darboux, Isabelle
Upon mating, male mosquitoes transfer accessory gland proteins (Acps) that induce refractoriness to further mating in females. This can also occur because of cross-insemination by males of related species, a process known as mating interference (satyrization). This mechanism could explain the competitive displacement of resident Aedes aegypti by the invasive Aedes albopictus where they co-occur. We tested this hypothesis in mosquito populations in Florida. A new polymerase chain reaction species diagnostic applied to sperm dissected from 304 field-collected females revealed bidirectional cross-mating in five (1.6%) individuals. Cross-injections of females with Acps showed that Ae. albopictus males induced monogamy in heterospecific females but not Ae. aegypti males. Despite its low frequency in the areas under study, the first evidence of cross-mating in nature and the asymmetric effect of Acps on mating suggest that satyrization may have initially contributed to the observed competitive reduction of Ae. aegypti by invasive Ae. albopictus in many areas.
Tripet, Frederic; Lounibos, L. Philip; Robbins, Dannielle; Moran, Jenny; Nishimura, Naoya; Blosser, Erik M.
An important component of arbovirus surveillance is monitoring the vector for presence of the pathogen. Intervention and preventive programs need early detection of arboviral activity in mosquito populations. In this report, we examine the factors affecting the probability of detection of mosquito infections. Since arbovirus infection rates in mosquito populations are very low, observations of zero-infected mosquito samples are common.
WEIDONG GU; ROBERT J. NOVAK
By transmitting major human diseases such as malaria, dengue fever and filariasis, mosquito species represent a serious threat worldwide in terms of public health, and pose a significant economic burden for the African continent and developing tropical regions. Most vector control programmes aiming at controlling life-threatening mosquitoes rely on the use of chemical insecticides, mainly belonging to the pyrethroid class. However, resistance of mosquito populations to pyrethroids is increasing at a dramatic rate, threatening the efficacy of control programmes throughout insecticide-treated areas, where mosquito-borne diseases are still prevalent. In the absence of new insecticides and efficient alternative vector control methods, resistance management strategies are therefore critical, but these require a deep understanding of adaptive mechanisms underlying resistance. Although insecticide resistance mechanisms are intensively studied in mosquitoes, such adaptation is often considered as the unique result of the selection pressure caused by insecticides used for vector control. Indeed, additional environmental parameters, such as insecticides/pesticides usage in agriculture, the presence of anthropogenic or natural xenobiotics, and biotic interactions between vectors and other organisms, may affect both the overall mosquito responses to pyrethroids and the selection of resistance mechanisms. In this context, the present work aims at updating current knowledge on pyrethroid resistance mechanisms in mosquitoes and compiling available data, often from different research fields, on the impact of the environment on mosquito response to pyrethroids. Key environmental factors, such as the presence of urban or agricultural pollutants and biotic interactions between mosquitoes and their microbiome are discussed, and research perspectives to fill in knowledge gaps are suggested. PMID:23123179
Nkya, Theresia Estomih; Akhouayri, Idir; Kisinza, William; David, Jean-Philippe
We consider a quasilinear parabolic system to model mosquito displacement. In order to use efficiently vector control tools, like insecticides, and mechanical control, it is necessary to provide density estimates of mosquito populations, taking into account the environment and entomological knowledges. After a brief introduction to mosquito dispersal modeling, we present some theoretical results. Then, considering a compartmental approach, we get a quasilinear system of PDEs. Using the time splitting approach and appropriate numerical methods for each operator, we construct a reliable numerical scheme. Considering vector control scenarii, we show that the environment can have a strong influence on mosquito distribution and in the efficiency of vector control tools.
Dumont, Y.; Dufourd, C.
This project is concerned with the formulation of novel diagnostic tests for the detection of organophosphate (OP) resistance in individual mosquitoes. Emphasis was placed on the mechanisms of detoxification by esterases and of insensitive acetycholinesterase. Seven diagnostic tests have resulted from this research to date. Five concern esterases, and two insensitive acetylcholinesterase. An eighth procedure concerns the qualification of proteins in single insects and is used in conjunction with other tests to account for variations in the size of the test insect. Three of the tests developed for esterases (FP/Est, NC/Est and MT/Est) utilize the ability of these enzymes to hydrolyze naphthyl acetate, and two (Dot-Blot/Est and ELISA/Est) involve immunological reactions. The tests for insensitive acetylcholinesterase (NC/AChE and MT/AChE) utilize the differences in inhibitory properties of insecticides on insensitive and normal enzymes.
There were epidemic-epizootics of Rift Valley Fever (RVF) affecting humans and cattle in Madagascar in the district of Anjozorobe in 2008. Little is known about the role of Malagasy mosquitoes in the circulation of RVF virus. Therefore, we investigated the species diversity, dynamics and biology of potential RVF virus vectors in the rainforest, rainforest edge (village of Anorana), and savanna biotope (village of Antanifotsy) of this district between November 2008 and July 2010. We captured 56,605 adults of 35 different species. Anopheles squamosus (Theobald), Anopheles coustani (Laveran), Culex antennatus (Becker), Culex pipiens (L.), and Culex univittatus (Theobald) were the most abundant during the rainy season with Cx. pipiens the most abundant species in the rainforest (47%), and An. squamosus the most abundant species in the rainforest edge and in the savanna biotope (56%, 60%, respectively). Only Cx. univittatus was abundant in the dry season. The parous rate was > 60% throughout the rainy season for An. squamosus and it was > 50% from the middle to the end of the rainy season for Cx. pipiens. Two additional species have been found only at larval stage. Cattle were the most attractive bait for all species, followed by sheep and poultry. Human was the least attractive for all species. Most of the 163 bloodmeals tested were taken from cattle. Three were from poultry, one was from dog and one was a mixed bloodmeal taken from sheep and cattle. These results on vectorial capacity parameters may allow considering the involvement of mosquito transmission of the virus in the district of Anjozorobe during the recent epidemic-epizootic. PMID:23802456
Tantely, Michaël Luciano; Rakotoniaina, Jean-Claude; Tata, Etienne; Andrianaivolambo, Lala; Razafindrasata, Fidimanana; Fontenille, Didier; Elissa, Nohal
There is currently renewed interest in assessing the feasibility of the sterile insect technique (SIT) to control African malaria vectors in designated areas. The SIT relies on the sterilization of males before mass release, with sterilization currently being achieved through the use of ionizing radiation. This paper reviews previous work on radiation sterilization of Anopheles mosquitoes. In general, the pupal
Michelle EH Helinski; Andrew G Parker; Bart GJ Knols
Identification of chemical constituents and larvicidal activity of Kelussia odoratissima Mozaffarian essential oil against two mosquito vectors Anopheles stephensi and Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae).
The larvicidal activity of essential oil extracted from an indigenous plant, Kelussia odoratissima Mozaffarian was evaluated against two mosquito species, Anopheles stephensi and Culex pipiens. The chemical composition of the essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation from branch tips and leaf of this plant was determined by GC and GC/MS analysis. Forty-nine constituents were identified in the oil. The main constituents of the oil were Z-ligustilide (77.73%), 2-octen-1-ol acetate (6.27%), E-ligustilide (2.27%) and butylidene phthalide (1.97%). Five different logarithmic concentrations of essential oil were evaluated against the 4th instar larvae of An. Stephensi and Cx. pipiens. The LC(50) and LC(90) values against An. stephensi larvae were 4.88 and 9.60 ppm and for Cx. pipiens were 2.69 and 7.90 ppm, respectively. These properties suggest that K. odoratissima oil has potential source of valuable larvicidal compounds for mosquito larval control. This plant which causes high mortality at lower dose could be considered as a highly active plant. In this paper a guideline suggested for larvicidal activity of plant essential oils. PMID:23022522
Vatandoost, H; Sanei Dehkordi, A; Sadeghi, S M T; Davari, B; Karimian, F; Abai, M R; Sedaghat, M M
Anopheles gambiae, the main mosquito vector of human malaria, is a challenging organism to manipulate genetically. As a consequence, reverse genetics studies in this disease vector have been largely limited to RNA interference experiments. Here, we report the targeted disruption of the immunity gene TEP1 using transgenic expression of Transcription-Activator Like Effector Nucleases (TALENs), and the isolation of several TEP1 mutant A. gambiae lines. These mutations inhibited protein production and rendered TEP1 mutants hypersusceptible to Plasmodium berghei. The TALEN technology opens up new avenues for genetic analysis in this disease vector and may offer novel biotechnology-based approaches for malaria control. PMID:23977401
Smidler, Andrea L; Terenzi, Olivier; Soichot, Julien; Levashina, Elena A; Marois, Eric
A summary is provided of mosquito identifications accomplished by the OL AD USAFOEHL Vector Taxonomy Section for sixteen PACAF installations/locations and one SAC air base in the Pacific Region. Discussions are also provided on mosquito surveillance, adul...
G. K. Pratt A. C. Ramos R. J. Macaspac
A summary is provided of mosquito identifications accomplished by the OL AD USAFOEHL Vector Taxonomy Section for sixteen PACAF Installations/locations and one SAC air base in the Pacific Region. Discussions are also provided on mosquito surveillance, adul...
G. K. Pratt A. C. Ramos R. J. Macaspac
The larvicidal activity of hydrodistillate extracts from Chrysanthemum coronarium L., Hypericum scabrum L., Pistacia terebinthus L. subsp. palaestina (Boiss.) Engler, and Vitex agnus castus L. was investigated against the West Nile vector, Culex pipiens L. (Diptera: Culicidae). Yield and identification of the major essential oils from each distillation was determined by GC-MS\\u000a analyses. The major essential oil component for each
Huseyin Cetin; Atila Yanikoglu; James E. Cilek
Malaria is considered a major health problem in Iran. There are different methods for vector control. In this study we tested the larvicidal effects of some Iranian plants. The methanolic extracts of 11 plants were prepared with percolation method. The larvicidal activities of them against malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi were studied using World Health Organization standard method. All LC50 values of methanolic extracts of plants that we screened were lower than 300 ppm. The methanolic extract of aerial parts of Lawsonia inermis and Stachys byzantina showed high larvicidal activity with LC50 values 69.40 ppm and 103.28 ppm respectively. The results obtained from this study suggest that the methanolic extracts of these plants have larvicidal effects against Anopheles stephensi larvae and could be useful in the search for new natural larvicidal compounds. PMID:23605596
Khanavi, Mahnaz; Vatandoost, Hassan; Khosravi Dehaghi, Nafiseh; Sanei Dehkordi, Alireza; Sedaghat, Mohammad Mehdi; Hadjiakhoondi, Abbas; Hadjiakhoondi, Farzaneh
Abstract Background & objectives:Jiroft district has subtropical climate and prone to seasonal malaria trans- mission with annual parasite index (API) 4.2 per 1000 in 2006. Anopheles stephensiListon is a domi- nant malaria vector. The monitoring of insecticide susceptibility and irritability was conducted using discriminative dose as described by WHO. Methods: The IV instar larvae were collected from different larval breeding
M. r. Abai; A. Mehravaran; H. Vatandoost; M. a. Oshaghi; E. Javadian; M. Mashayekhi; A. Mosleminia; N. Piyazak; H. Edallat; F. Mohtarami; H. Jabbari; F. Rafi
The vector competence in Ae. aegypti (L.) and Ae. albopictus (Skuse) from southern Taiwan to the dengue 1 virus was studied to elucidate the distribution of dengue infection during the 1987-1988 outbreak. The brain of Ae. aegypti was infected as early as 3 d after intrathoracic inoculation. The esophagus and the proboscis (tissues within the labium) were infected 5 d after inoculation. The salivary gland was highly susceptible to the virus, but no specific infection site was found. Gangli, muscles, and diverticula within the thorax were not infected. In the abdominal area, the ventral diverticula, Malpighian tubules, ganglia, and the dorsal vessel were not infected. However, the entire gut was susceptible to dengue 1 virus, although it was not infected simultaneously. Only a certain type of midgut epithelial cells was infected by the virus. The ovarioles, oviducts, and accessory glands frequently were infected. However, the spermathecae were not infected, perhaps because of the chitin-rich outer layer. Infections of the testes, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, and accessory glands of males also were detected in this study. The tissues of the proboscis were never infected in Ae. albopictus but frequently were infected in Ae. aegypti, indicating that the virus may escape the salivary gland barrier more efficiently in Ae. aegypti than in Ae. albopictus. When these mosquitoes were fed on hanging drops, the salivary gland infection and transmission rates of Ae. aegypti were always higher than those of Ae. albopictus. On Taiwan, Ae. aegypti appears to be a more competent vector in the transmission of the dengue 1 virus than Ae. albopictus. PMID:8510112
Chen, W J; Wei, H L; Hsu, E L; Chen, E R
Heartworm disease is caused by a mosquito-borne parasite that can affect many different mammalian species and has worldwide distribution. The agent, Dirofilaria immitis (Leidy 1856), infect mainly dogs but feline infection have been frequently reported in the last decade. Feline heartworm infection is difficult to detect, therefore, low reported prevalence could reflect true low prevalence or poor diagnostic efficiency. As mosquitoes are known to be attracted differently by different mammalian species, mosquitoes were collected from both a cattery and a contiguous home located in a canine heartworm enzootic area in Niterói, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. For 14 months, mosquitoes were collected weekly for genus identification, speciation when possible, and for individual blood meal identification. Culex species mosquitoes were the most captured and those most frequently found with feline blood meal, followed by Aedes species that, although captured in lower numbers, also fed on feline blood. While Culex species mosquitoes have been reported as potential secondary heartworm vectors for dogs and primary vectors for cats, the present results suggest that Aedes species mosquitoes may also be involved in feline heartworm transmission in a larger proportion than previously thought. PMID:17383920
Gomes, Luciana A M; Serrão, Maria Lucia; Duarte, Rosemere; Bendas, Alexandre; Labarthe, Norma
Background The purpose of this study was to establish whether the "bottle assay", a tool for monitoring insecticide resistance in mosquitoes, can complement and augment the capabilities of the established WHO assay, particularly in resource-poor, logistically challenging environments. Methods Laboratory reared Aedes aegypti and field collected Anopheles darlingi and Anopheles albimanus were used to assess the suitability of locally sourced solvents and formulated insecticides for use with the bottle assay. Using these adapted protocols, the ability of the bottle assay and the WHO assay to discriminate between deltamethrin-resistant Anopheles albimanus populations was compared. The diagnostic dose of deltamethrin that would identify resistance in currently susceptible populations of An. darlingi and Ae. aegypti was defined. The robustness of the bottle assay during a surveillance exercise in the Amazon was assessed. Results The bottle assay (using technical or formulated material) and the WHO assay were equally able to differentiate deltamethrin-resistant and susceptible An. albimanus populations. A diagnostic dose of 10 ?g a.i./bottle was identified as the most sensitive discriminating dose for characterizing resistance in An. darlingi and Ae. aegypti. Treated bottles, prepared using locally sourced solvents and insecticide formulations, can be stored for > 14 days and used three times. Bottles can be stored and transported under local conditions and field-assays can be completed in a single evening. Conclusion The flexible and portable nature of the bottle assay and the ready availability of its components make it a potentially robust and useful tool for monitoring insecticide resistance and efficacy in remote areas that require minimal cost tools.
Zamora Perea, Elvira; Balta Leon, Rosario; Palomino Salcedo, Miriam; Brogdon, William G; Devine, Gregor J
In order to use efficiently vector control tools, like insecticides, and mechanical control, it is necessary to provide mosquito density estimate and mosquito distribution, taking into account the environment and entomological knowledges. Mosquito dispersal modeling, together with a compartmental approach, leads to a quasilinear parabolic system. Using the time splitting approach and appropriate numerical methods for each operator, we construct a reliable numerical scheme. Considering various landscapes, we show that the environment can have a strong influence on mosquito distribution and, thus, in the efficiency or not of vector control.
This review brings together information on mosquitoes, the diseases they transmit and the wetlands that provide habitats for\\u000a the immature stages (eggs and larvae). Wetland values are mentioned, though the main literature on this does not generally\\u000a overlap the mosquito issue. Mosquito management is overviewed to include: the use of larvicides, source reduction in intertidal\\u000a wetlands and management in freshwater
P. E. R. Dale; J. M. Knight
BACKGROUND: Germline specific promoters are an essential component of potential vector control strategies which function by genetic drive, however suitable promoters are not currently available for the main human malaria vector Anopheles gambiae. RESULTS: We have identified the Anopheles gambiae vasa-like gene and found its expression to be specifically localized to both the male and female gonads in adult mosquitoes.
Philippos A Papathanos; Nikolai Windbichler; Miriam Menichelli; Austin Burt; Andrea Crisanti
The goal of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a public health educational campaign to reduce backyard mosquito-larval habitats. Three communities each, within two New Jersey counties, were randomly selected to receive (1) both education and mosquito control, (2) education only, and (3)...
BACKGROUND: Mosquitoes that breed in temporary pools in remote areas that dry up seasonally are especially difficult to control through chemical or biological means. The annual killifish has been suggested as a means of eradicating the aquatic stages of mosquitoes in transient pools because they can maintain permanent populations in such habitats by undergoing suspended animation or diapause during the
Jonathan R Matias; Araceli Q Adrias
The evolution and spread of insecticide resistance is an important factor in human disease prevention and crop protection. The mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus is the main vector of the disease filariasis and a member of a species complex which is a common biting nuisance worldwide. The common insecticide resist- ance mechanism in this species involves germline amplification of the esterases est
J. Hemingway; M. Coleman; M. Paton; L. McCarroll; A. Vaughan; D. DeSilva
Pyrethroid resistance is envisioned to be a major problem for the vector control program since, at present, there are no suitable chemical substitutes for pyrethroids. Cross-resistance to knockdown agents, which are mainly used in mosquito coils and related products as spatial repellents, is the most serious concern. Since cross-resistance is a global phenomenon, we have started to monitor the distribution
Hitoshi Kawada; Yukiko Higa; Yen T. Nguyen; Son H. Tran; Hoa T. Nguyen; Masahiro Takagi
This study elucidated the relationships between larval habitat soil-substrate Organic Matter Content (OMC) and immature development of the mosquito Anopheles gambiae S.L. Day-old larvae of the mosquito were reared in media substrated with typical soil samples (i.e., sandy, silt, clayey and loamy soils), from established anopheline breeding sites, to provide a gradient in soil-substrate OMC. The OMC of the soil samples were determined by ignition to a constant weight; while the developing A. gambiae mosquitoes in the culture media were monitored daily for survivorship and duration of immature life stages. The results indicated significant (p < 0.05) variation in OMC of the soil types (range = 11.21 +/- 2.91% in sandy to 29.83 +/- 2.96% in loamy soils). However, though Daily Larval Survival Rates (DLSR) were relatively high (range = 95.21 +/- 2.96 to 96.70 +/- 1.44%), as influenced by OMC, such values were not significantly different (p > 0.05) among the soil-substrate types; results contrary to those of Larval Success Rates (LSR) (i.e., range = 52.07 +/- 13.64 to 74.39 +/- 6.60%). Daily Pupation Rate (DPR) of the mosquitoes varied significantly among the soil-substrates, ranging from 13.87 +/- 2.39% in clayey to 25.00 +/- 4.30% in loamy substrates. Soil-substrate OMC significantly extended the Duration of Immature Life Stages (DILS) of the mosquitoes only in the sandy soil type (range = 12.76 +/- 1.74 to 15.81 +/- 2.40 days). On the whole, DILS was inversely related to soil-substrate OMC. Cross-correlational analysis revealed significant positive association among most of the variables tested. The findings of this study should serve as baseline information for the development of effective environmental management strategies for malaria larval-vector control. PMID:24171275
Olayemi, I K; Ojo, V O
This web page introduces vectors as an extension of numbers having both magnitude and direction. The initial motivation is to describe velocity but the material includes a general discussion of vector algebra and an application to forces for the inclined plane. The page contains links to a related lesson plan and further opportunities to explore vectors. This is part of the extensive web site "From Stargazers to Starships", that uses space exploration and space science to introduce topics in physics and astronomy. Translations in Spanish and French are available.
Objectives Until the early 2000s, lymphatic filariasis would commonly break out in the coastal areas in Korea. Through steady efforts combining investigation and treatment, filariasis was officially declared eradicated in 2008. This study surveyed the density of vector species of filariasis in past endemic areas, and inspected filariasis DNA from collected mosquitoes for protection against the reemergence of filariasis. Methods Between May and October 2009, mosquitoes were caught using the black night trap in past endemic coastal areas: Gyeongsangnam-do, Jeollanamdo, and Jeju-do. The collected mosquitoes were identified, and the extracted DNA from the collected vector mosquitoes was tested by polymerase chain reaction for Brugia malayi filariasis. Results Ochletotatus togoi, Anophel es (Hyrcanus) group and Culex pipiens were most frequently caught in Jeollanam-do (Geomun Island, Bogil Island, Heuksan Island), Jeju-do (Namone-ri, Wimi-ri). and Gyeongsangnam-do (Maemul Island). DNA of B malayi was not found in Och Togoi and An (Hyrcanus) group as main vectors of filariasis. Conclusion Lymphatic filariasis was not found in the vector mosquitoes collected in past endemic areas. However, considering that the proportion of vector species is quite high, there is a potential risk that filariasis could be reemerging through overseas travel or trade. Thus, there is a need to continuously monitor vector mosquitoes of lymphatic filariasis.
Cho, Shin Hyeong; Ma, Da Won; Koo, Bo Ra; Shin, Hee Eun; Lee, Wook Kyo; Jeong, Byong Suk; Chu, Chaeshin; Lee, Won Ja; Cheun, Hyeng Il
A salivary protein from a malaria-transmitting mosquito uses a single domain to bind to thromboxane A2 and cysteinyl leukotrienes and prevent blood clotting and inflammation in the host on which it feeds.
Patricia H. Alvarenga; Ivo M. B. Francischetti; Eric Calvo; Anderson Sá-Nunes; José M. C. Ribeiro; John F. Andersen
Received 5 January 2009\\/Accepted 9 February 2009 A novel flavivirus was isolated from Uranotaenia mashonaensis, a mosquito genus not previously known to harbor flaviviruses. Mosquitoes were caught in the primary rain forest of the TaiNational Park, Cote d'Ivoire. The novel virus, termed nounanevirus (NOUV), seemed to grow only on C6\\/36 insect cells and not on vertebrate cells. Typical enveloped flavivirus-like
Sandra Junglen; Anne Kopp; Andreas Kurth; Georg Pauli; Heinz Ellerbrok; Fabian H. Leendertz
The African mosquito species Anopheles gambiaesensu lato s.l. and Anophe- les funestus rank among the world's most efficient vectors of human malaria. Their unique bionomics, particularly their anthropophilic, endophagic and en- dophilic characters, guarantee a strong mosquito-host interaction, favorable to malaria transmission. Olfactory cues govern the various behaviors of female mosquitoes and here we review the role of semiochemicals in
Willem Takken; Bart G. J. Knols
BACKGROUND: Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of deaths every year. Use of synthetic insecticides to control vector mosquitoes has caused physiological resistance and adverse environmental effects in addition to high operational cost. Insecticides of botanical origin have been reported as useful for control of mosquitoes. Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae) and its derived products have shown a variety of insecticidal
Virendra K Dua; Akhilesh C Pandey; Kamaraju Raghavendra; Ashish Gupta; Trilochan Sharma; Aditya P Dash
Southern California remains an important focus of West Nile virus (WNV) activity, with persistently elevated incidence after invasion by the virus in 2003 and subsequent amplification to epidemic levels in 2004. Eco-epidemiological studies of vectors-hosts-pathogen interactions are of paramount importance for better understanding of the transmission dynamics of WNV and other emerging mosquito-borne arboviruses. We investigated vector-host interactions and host-feeding patterns of 531 blood-engorged mosquitoes in four competent mosquito vectors by using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method targeting mitochondrial DNA to identify vertebrate hosts of blood-fed mosquitoes. Diagnostic testing by cell culture, real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR, and immunoassays were used to examine WNV infection in blood-fed mosquitoes, mosquito pools, dead birds, and mammals. Prevalence of WNV antibodies among wild birds was estimated by using a blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Analyses of engorged Culex quinquefasciatus revealed that this mosquito species acquired 88.4% of the blood meals from avian and 11.6% from mammalian hosts, including humans. Similarly, Culex tarsalis fed 82% on birds and 18% on mammals. Culex erythrothorax fed on both birds (59%) and mammals (41%). In contrast, Culex stigmatosoma acquired all blood meals from avian hosts. House finches and a few other mostly passeriform birds served as the main hosts for the blood-seeking mosquitoes. Evidence of WNV infection was detected in mosquito pools, wild birds, dead birds, and mammals, including human fatalities during the study period. Our results emphasize the important role of house finches and several other passeriform birds in the maintenance and amplification of WNV in southern California, with Cx. quinquefasciatus acting as both the principal enzootic and “bridge vector” responsible for the spillover of WNV to humans. Other mosquito species, such as Cx. tarsalis and Cx. stigmatosoma, are important but less widely distributed, and also contribute to spatial and temporal transmission of WNV in southern California.
Molaei, Goudarz; Cummings, Robert F.; Su, Tianyun; Armstrong, Philip M.; Williams, Greg A.; Cheng, Min-Lee; Webb, James P.; Andreadis, Theodore G.
Geographical information systems and remote sensing were used to analyze the distribution of the Leishmania infantum-Phlebotomus perniciosus parasite-vector system in relation to environmental features of two opposite sides (coastal and Apennine) of Mt. Vesuvius, an area of intense transmission of human and canine leishmaniasis in southern Italy. Weekly phlebotomine collections were carried out during two consecutive warm seasons (2004- 2005) in 24 and 25 sites of the coastal and Apennine sides, respectively. Sandflies were caught using over one-thousand and seven hundred 20 x 20 cm-sticky traps placed in different environments. A total of 873 sandflies were collected, of which 284 (32.5%) were identified as P. perniciosus. The cumulative density (number of specimens/m2 of sticky trap/two nights) of this vector species was 3.9. P. perniciosus was significantly more abundant in the coastal side (5.8) as compared to the Apennine side (1.4). The main environmental differences between the two sides were the aspect (south-west for the coastal and north-east for the Apennine side) and land use. The predominance of green vegetated environments (forest, semi-natural and agricultural areas) in the coastal side, in contrast with the predominance of artificial surfaces (namely urban environment) in the Apennine side, could be responsible for the different P. perniciosus densities between the two surveyed areas. PMID:18686244
Rossi, Erika; Rinaldi, Laura; Musella, Vincenzo; Veneziano, Vincenzo; Carbone, Sabrina; Gradoni, Luigi; Cringoli, Giuseppe; Maroli, Michele
An improved knowledge of mosquito life history could strengthen malaria vector control efforts that primarily focus on killing mosquitoes indoors using insecticide treated nets and indoor residual spraying. Natural sugar sources, usually floral nectars of plants, are a primary energy resource for adult mosquitoes but their role in regulating the dynamics of mosquito populations is unclear. To determine how the
Weidong Gu; Günter Müller; Yosef Schlein; Robert J. Novak; John C. Beier
Dengue is a major public health concern in the tropics and subtropics. Innovative transgenic strategies to render Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, the primary vector of dengue, incompetent for dengue transmission are under development. We modeled the evolutionary impact of different transgenic mosquito strategies on dengue-induced mortality, that is, dengue virulence, to both humans and mosquitoes. This model incorporates various evolutionary trade-offs in dengue virus epidemiological traits, for example, a trade-off between dengue transmission rate and its virulence to humans. Our results indicate that strategies that block transmission or reduce mosquito biting impose selection on dengue virulence in humans. This selection can be for either higher or lower virulence, depending on the interaction between the effect of the transgene and the trade-offs in epidemiological traits, highlighting the need for detailed quantitative data to understand more fully the impact of mosquito transgenesis on dengue virulence. Dengue virulence in mosquitoes can be selected on by transgenic strategies of blocking transmission, decreased mosquito biting, increased mosquito background mortality, and increased mosquito infection-induced mortality. Our results suggest that dengue control strategies that raise mosquito background mortality or mosquito infection-induced mortality pose less risk of causing increased virulence to humans than strategies that block transmission or reduce mosquito biting.
Medlock, Jan; Luz, Paula M.; Struchiner, Claudio J.; Galvani, Alison P.
Five West African communities were visited to assess the knowledge of the cause of malaria and to document traditional ways of treating and preventing the infection. Knowledge of the cause of malaria was low in the five communities visited. People were more concerned about mosquitoes being a nuisance than a cause of the infection. Various herbs were used as mosquito repellents. Malaria was treated by a number of traditional practices, including herbal remedies. Bednets were used to a varying extent, from 44% Ghana to 86% Gambia, in each community to protect against mosquito bites but also for other purposes such as privacy, decoration and protection from roof debris dropping on the bed. PMID:8170007
Aikins, M K; Pickering, H; Greenwood, B M
A novel flavivirus was isolated from Uranotaenia mashonaensis, a mosquito genus not previously known to harbor flaviviruses. Mosquitoes were caught in the primary rain forest of the Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire. The novel virus, termed nounané virus (NOUV), seemed to grow only on C6/36 insect cells and not on vertebrate cells. Typical enveloped flavivirus-like particles of 60 to 65 nm in diameter were detected by electron microscopy in the cell culture supernatant of infected cells. The full genome was sequenced, and potential cleavage and glycosylation sites and cysteine residues were identified, suggesting that the processing of the NOUV polyprotein is similar to that of other flaviviruses. Phylogenetic analyses of the whole polyprotein and the NS3 protein showed that the virus forms a distinct cluster within the clade of mosquito-borne flaviviruses. Only a distant relationship to other known flaviviruses was found, indicating that NOUV is a novel lineage within the Flaviviridae.
Junglen, Sandra; Kopp, Anne; Kurth, Andreas; Pauli, Georg; Ellerbrok, Heinz; Leendertz, Fabian H.
BACKGROUND: Genetically-modified (GM) mosquitoes have been proposed as part of an integrated vector control strategy for malaria control. Public acceptance is essential prior to field trials, particularly since mosquitoes are a vector of human disease and genetically modified organisms (GMOs) face strong scepticism in developed and developing nations. Despite this, in sub-Saharan Africa, where the GM mosquito effort is primarily
John M Marshall; Mahamoudou B Touré; Mohamed M Traore; Shannon Famenini; Charles E Taylor
Mosquito transmitted infectious diseases, like eastern equine encephalitis (EEE), Rift Valley fever (RVF), and West Nile virus (WNV), pose an international threat to animal and human health. An introduction of RVF into the U.S. would severely impact wild ungulate populations and the beef and dairy ...
The four major flavivirus clades are transmitted by mosquitoes, ticks, directly between vertebrates or directly between arthropods, respectively, but the molecular determinants of mode of transmission in flaviviruses are unknown. To assess the role of the UTRs in transmission, we generated chimeric genomes in which the 5? UTR, capsid and/or 3? UTR of mosquito-borne dengue virus serotype 4 (rDENV-4) were replaced, separately or in combination, with those of tick-borne Langat virus (rLGTV). None of the chimeric genomes yielded detectable virus following transfection. Replacement of the variable region (VR) in the rDENV-4 3? UTR with that of rLGTV generated virus rDENV-4-rLGTswapVR, which showed lower replication than its wild-type parents in mammalian but not mosquito cells in culture and was able to infect mosquitoes in vivo. Neither rDENV-4 nor rDENV-4-rLGTswapVR could infect larval Ixodes scapularis ticks immersed in virus, while rLGTV was highly infectious via this route.
Tumban, Ebenezer; Mitzel, Dana N.; Maes, Nyree E.; Hanson, Christopher T.; Whitehead, Stephen S.; Hanley, Kathryn A.
Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) represent a global public health problem, with dengue viruses causing millions of infections annually, while emerging arboviruses, such as West Nile, Japanese encephalitis, and chikungunya viruses have dramatically expanded their geographical ranges. Surveillance of arboviruses provides vital data regarding their prevalence and distribution that may be utilized for biosecurity measures and the implementation of disease control strategies. However, current surveillance methods that involve detection of virus in mosquito populations or sero-conversion in vertebrate hosts are laborious, expensive, and logistically problematic. We report a unique arbovirus surveillance system to detect arboviruses that exploits the process whereby mosquitoes expectorate virus in their saliva during sugar feeding. In this system, infected mosquitoes captured by CO2-baited updraft box traps are allowed to feed on honey-soaked nucleic acid preservation cards within the trap. The cards are then analyzed for expectorated virus using real-time reverse transcription-PCR. In field trials, this system detected the presence of Ross River and Barmah Forest viruses in multiple traps deployed at two locations in Australia. Viral RNA was preserved for at least seven days on the cards, allowing for long-term placement of traps and continuous collection of data documenting virus presence in mosquito populations. Furthermore no mosquito handling or processing was required and cards were conveniently shipped to the laboratory overnight. The simplicity and efficacy of this approach has the potential to transform current approaches to vector-borne disease surveillance by streamlining the monitoring of pathogens in vector populations.
Hall-Mendelin, Sonja; Ritchie, Scott A.; Johansen, Cheryl A.; Zborowski, Paul; Cortis, Giles; Dandridge, Scott; Hall, Roy A.; van den Hurk, Andrew F.
Background In recent years human diseases due to mosquito-borne viruses were increasingly reported in Emilia-Romagna region (Italy), from the chikungunya virus in 2007 to the West Nile virus (WNV) in 2008. An extensive entomological survey was performed in 2009 to establish the presence and distribution of mosquito arboviruses in this region, with particular reference to flaviviruses. Methodology/Principal Findings From May 6 to October 31, a total of 190,516 mosquitoes were sampled in georeferenced stations, grouped in 1,789 pools according date of collection, location, and species, and analyzed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to detect the presence of RNA belong to Flavivirus genus. WNV was detected in 27 mosquito pools, producing sequences similar to those of birds and human strains obtained in 2008 outbreak, pointed out the probable virus overwintering. Isolation of WNV was achieved from one of these pools. Moreover 56 pools of mosquitoes tested positive for Usutu virus (USUV). Most PCR positive pools consisted of Culex pipiens, which also was the most analyzed mosquito species (81.4% of specimens); interestingly, USUV RNA was also found in two Aedes albopictus mosquito pools. Simultaneous circulation of WNV and USUV in the survey area was highlighted by occurrence of 8 mosquito WNV- and USUV-positive pools and by the overlaying of the viruses “hot spots”, obtained by kernel density estimation (KDE) analysis. Land use of sampled stations pointed out a higher proportion of WNV-positive Cx. pipiens pool in rural environments respect the provenience of total sampled pool, while the USUV-positive pools were uniformly captured in the different environments. Conclusions/Significance Obtained data highlighting the possible role of Cx. pipiens mosquito as the main vector for WNV and USUV in Northern Italy, and the possible involvement of Ae. albopictus mosquito in USUV cycle. The described mosquito-based surveillance could constitute the foundation for a public health alert system targeting mosquito borne arboviruses.
Calzolari, Mattia; Bonilauri, Paolo; Bellini, Romeo; Albieri, Alessandro; Defilippo, Francesco; Maioli, Giulia; Galletti, Giorgio; Gelati, Antoni; Barbieri, Ilaria; Tamba, Marco; Lelli, Davide; Carra, Elena; Cordioli, Paolo; Angelini, Paola; Dottori, Michele
Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are important vectors of human disease-causing pathogens. Mosquitoes are found both in rural and urban areas. Deteriorating infrastructure, poor access to health, water and sanitation services, increasing population density, and widespread poverty contribute to conditions that modify the environment, which directly influences the risk of disease within the urban and peri-urban ecosystem. The objective of this study was to evaluate the mosquito vector abundance and diversity in urban, peri-urban, and rural strata in Malindi along the Kenya coast. The study was conducted in the coastal district of Malindi between January and December 2005. Three strata were selected which were described as urban, peri-urban, and rural. Sampling was done during the wet and dry seasons. Sampling in the wet season was done in the months of April and June to cover the long rainy season and in November and December to cover the short rainy season, while the dry season was between January and March and September and October. Adult mosquito collection was done using Pyrethrum Spray Collection (PSC) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) light traps inside houses and specimens were identified morphologically. In the three strata (urban, peri-urban, and rural), 78.5% of the total mosquito (n?=?7,775) were collected using PSC while 18.1% (n?=?1,795) were collected using the CDC light traps. Using oviposition traps, mosquito eggs were collected and reared in the insectary which yielded 329 adults of which 83.8% (n?=?276) were Aedes aegypti and 16.2% (n?=?53) were Culex quinquefasciatus. The mosquito distribution in the three sites varied significantly in each collection site. Anopheles gambiae, Anopheles funestus and Anopheles coustani were predominant in the rural stratum while C. quinquefasciatus was mostly found in urban and peri-urban strata. However, using PSC and CDC light trap collection techniques, A. aegypti was only found in urban strata. In the three strata, mosquitoes were mainly found in high numbers during the wet season. Further, A. gambiae, C. quinquefasciatus, and A. aegypti mosquitoes were found occurring together inside the houses. This in turn exposes the inhabitants to an array of mosquito-borne diseases including malaria, bancroftian filariasis, and arboviruses (dengue fever, Yellow fever, Rift Valley fever, Chikungunya fever, and West Nile Virus). In conclusion, our findings provide useful information for the design of integrated mosquito and disease control programs in East African environments. PMID:21626425
Mwangangi, Joseph M; Midega, Janet; Kahindi, Samuel; Njoroge, Laban; Nzovu, Joseph; Githure, John; Mbogo, Charles M; Beier, John C
Mosquitoes act as a vector for most of the life threatening diseases like malaria, yellow fever, dengue fever, chikungunya ferver, filariasis, encephalitis, West Nile Virus infection, etc. Under the Integrated Mosquito Management (IMM), emphasis was given on the application of alternative strategies in mosquito control. The continuous application of synthetic insecticides causes development of resistance in vector species, biological magnification of toxic substances through the food chain and adverse effects on environmental quality and non target organisms including human health. Application of active toxic agents from plant extracts as an alternative mosquito control strategy was available from ancient times. These are non-toxic, easily available at affordable prices, biodegradable and show broad-spectrum target-specific activities against different species of vector mosquitoes. In this article, the current state of knowledge on phytochemical sources and mosquitocidal activity, their mechanism of action on target population, variation of their larvicidal activity according to mosquito species, instar specificity, polarity of solvents used during extraction, nature of active ingredient and promising advances made in biological control of mosquitoes by plant derived secondary metabolites have been reviewed.
Ghosh, Anupam; Chowdhury, Nandita; Chandra, Goutam
Mosquitoes act as a vector for most of the life threatening diseases like malaria, yellow fever, dengue fever, chikungunya ferver, filariasis, encephalitis, West Nile Virus infection, etc. Under the Integrated Mosquito Management (IMM), emphasis was given on the application of alternative strategies in mosquito control. The continuous application of synthetic insecticides causes development of resistance in vector species, biological magnification of toxic substances through the food chain and adverse effects on environmental quality and non target organisms including human health. Application of active toxic agents from plant extracts as an alternative mosquito control strategy was available from ancient times. These are non-toxic, easily available at affordable prices, biodegradable and show broad-spectrum target-specific activities against different species of vector mosquitoes. In this article, the current state of knowledge on phytochemical sources and mosquitocidal activity, their mechanism of action on target population, variation of their larvicidal activity according to mosquito species, instar specificity, polarity of solvents used during extraction, nature of active ingredient and promising advances made in biological control of mosquitoes by plant derived secondary metabolites have been reviewed. PMID:22771587
Ghosh, Anupam; Chowdhury, Nandita; Chandra, Goutam
Several species of captive and wild birds have been found to be infected with various avian blood protozoa in Japan. We investigated the prevalence and transmission of avian malaria parasite and determined the bloodmeal hosts of mosquitoes collected in a zoological garden in Tokyo, Japan, by using the polymerase chain reaction. In total, 310 unfed and 140 blood-fed mosquitoes of seven species were collected by using sweep nets and CDC traps. Bloodmeal identification indicated that mosquitoes had fed on 17 avian and five mammalian species, including captive animals. The results of avian malaria parasite detection from mosquitoes with avian bloodmeals indicated that Culex pipiens pallens Coquillet is a main vector of avian Plasmodium in the current study site and that some captive and wild birds could be infected with avian malaria parasites. Furthermore, the distances between the collection site of blood-fed mosquitoes and the locations of their blood-source captive animals were estimated. Most females with fresh bloodmeals were found within 40 m of caged animals, whereas half-gravid and gravid females were found between 10 and 350 m from caged host animals. We demonstrated that blood-fed mosquitoes can provide useful information regarding the mosquito vector species of avian malaria parasites and allows for noninvasive detection of the presence of avian malaria parasites in bird populations. PMID:21661321
Ejiri, Hiroko; Sato, Yukita; Kim, Kyeong-Soon; Hara, Tatsuko; Tsuda, Yoshio; Imura, Takayuki; Murata, Koichi; Yukawa, Masayoshi
An entomological survey of Aedes mosquitoes was initiated at the container terminal of the Autonomous Port of Abidjan in 2009 following the occurrence of two outbreaks of yellow fever in less than 10 years and dengue cases reported in 2008 among expatriates returning from Côte d’Ivoire (Ivory Coast). It was based on regular monitoring of ovitraps from July 2009 to June 2010. A total of 4,739 adult mosquitoes represented by four species of Aedes (97% of total) and one unexpected species of Culex (3%) were obtained. Aedes aegypti was dominant with 98% of total Aedes (n = 4,594). Its density variation was closely related to the amount of rainfall. The other species of Aedes were collected in the second half of the major rainy season including Ae. albopictus (1.17% of Aedes) and Ae. angustus (0.13%) whose presence was discovered for the first time in Côte d’Ivoire.
Konan, Yao Lucien; Coulibaly, Zanakoungo Ibrahim; Kone, Atiuomounan Blaise; Ekra, Kouadio Daniel; Doannio, Julien Marie-Christian; Dosso, Mirielle; Odehouri-Koudou, Paul
Tospoviruses have the ability to infect plants and their insect vectors. Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), the type species in the Tospovirus genus, infects its most important insect vector, Frankliniella occidentalis, the western flower thrips (WFT). However, no detrimental effects on the life cycle or cytopathological changes have been reported in the WFT after TSWV infection, and relatively few viral
Ricardo B. Medeiros; Renato de O. Resende; Antonio Carlos de Avila
Wetlands have traditionally been associated with harbouring mosquitoes, a well-known nuisance and vectors of diseases. Within mosquito life cycle, oviposition is a determinant event by shaping their individual fitness and vectorial capacity. The study was conducted in one of the main temperate wetlands in South America. We used Generalized Linear Models to study the relation between temperature, precipitation, tidal regime, land use, microenvironment, and the occurrence of floodwater (Ochlerotatus and Psorophora spp.) and raft-laying (Culex and Uranotaenia spp.) mosquitoes using temporary pools as larval habitats. Pool occurrence was negatively associated with temperature, and positively related to precipitation and high tides. As regards the land use, it was lowest in domestic areas and plantations, intermediate in secondary forests, and highest in marshes. Each oviposition strategy was best modelled as a function of different environmental factors. The occurrence of floodwater mosquitoes was positively associated with high cumulative precipitation and low tide records. Raft-laying mosquitoes were related to low temperature records, while the effect of flooding varied with the land use. In view of these results, physical (water inputs and movement), chemical, and biological (egg and larval flushing, and predatory interactions) considerations are given to provide insight in the oviposition patterns of mosquitoes occurring in this complex wetland. We finally propose the generation of a tidal flow as a control measure against floodwater mosquitoes, which are the most anthropophilic in the study area. PMID:22647341
Cardo, M V; Vezzani, D; Carbajo, A E
Classic vector control strategies target mosquitoes indoors as the main transmitters of malaria are indoor-biting and –resting mosquitoes. However, the intensive use of insecticide-treated bed-nets (ITNs) and indoor residual spraying have put selective pressure on mosquitoes to adapt in order to obtain human blood meals. Thus, early-evening and outdoor vector activity is becoming an increasing concern. This study assessed the effect of a deltamethrin-treated net (100 mg/m2) attached to a one-meter high fence around outdoor cattle enclosures on the number of mosquitoes landing on humans. Mosquitoes were collected from four cattle enclosures: Pen A – with cattle and no net; B – with cattle and protected by an untreated net; C – with cattle and protected by a deltamethrin-treated net; D – no cattle and no net. A total of 3217 culicines and 1017 anophelines were collected, of which 388 were Anopheles gambiae and 629 An. ziemanni. In the absence of cattle nearly 3 times more An. gambiae (p<0.0001) landed on humans. The deltamethrin-treated net significantly reduced (nearly three-fold, p<0.0001) culicine landings inside enclosures. The sporozoite rate of the zoophilic An. ziemanni, known to be a secondary malaria vector, was as high as that of the most competent vector An. gambiae; raising the potential of zoophilic species as secondary malaria vectors. After deployment of the ITNs a deltamethrin persistence of 9 months was observed despite exposure to African weather conditions. The outdoor use of ITNs resulted in a significant reduction of host-seeking culicines inside enclosures. Further studies investigating the effectiveness and spatial repellence of ITNs around other outdoor sites, such as bars and cooking areas, as well as their direct effect on vector-borne disease transmission are needed to evaluate its potential as an appropriate outdoor vector control tool for rural Africa.
Maia, Marta Ferreira; Abonuusum, Ayimbire; Lorenz, Lena Maria; Clausen, Peter-Henning; Bauer, Burkhard; Garms, Rolf; Kruppa, Thomas
Wetlands are valuable habitats that provide important social, economic, and ecological services such as flood control, water quality improvement, carbon sequestration, pollutant removal, and primary/secondary production export to terrestrial and aquatic food chains. There is disagreement about the need for mosquito control in wetlands and about the techniques utilized for mosquito abatement and their impacts upon wetlands ecosystems. Mosquito control in wetlands is a complex issue influenced by numerous factors, including many hard to quantify elements such as human perceptions, cultural predispositions, and political climate. In spite of considerable progress during the last decades, habitat protection and environmentally sound habitat management still remain inextricably tied to politics and economics. Furthermore, the connections are often complex, and occur at several levels, ranging from local businesses and politicians, to national governments and multinational institutions. Education is the key to lasting wetlands conservation. Integrated mosquito abatement strategies incorporate many approaches and practicable options, as described herein, and need to be well-defined, effective, and ecologically and economically sound for the wetland type and for the mosquito species of concern. The approach will certainly differ in response to disease outbreaks caused by mosquito-vectored pathogens versus quality of life issues caused by nuisance-biting mosquitoes. In this contribution, we provide an overview of the ecological setting and context for mosquito control in wetlands, present pertinent information on wetlands mosquitoes, review the mosquito abatement options available for current wetlands managers and mosquito control professionals, and outline some necessary considerations when devising mosquito control strategies. Although the emphasis is on North American wetlands, most of the material is applicable to wetlands everywhere.
Rey, Jorge R.; Walton, William E.; Wolfe, Roger J.; Connelly, Roxanne; O'Connell, Sheila M.; Berg, Joe; Sakolsky-Hoopes, Gabrielle E.; Laderman, Aimlee D.
As a geographically isolated island chain with no native mosquitoes, Hawaii is a model for examining the mechanisms behind insect vector invasions and their subsequent interactions with each other and with human populations. The yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, and the Asian tiger mosquito, Ae. albopictus, have been responsible for epidemics of dengue in Hawaii. As one of the world's earliest locations to be invaded by both species, Hawaii's history is particularly relevant because both species are currently invading new areas worldwide and are implicated in outbreaks of emergent or reemergent pathogens such as dengue, chikungunya, and yellow fever. Here we analyze the historical records of mosquito introductions in order to understand the factors that have led to the current distribution of these 2 mosquitoes in the Hawaiian Islands. PMID:23923330
Winchester, Jonathan C; Kapan, Durrell D
Phylogenetic evidence suggests that endemic and epidemic dengue viruses (DENV), transmitted among humans by the anthropophilic mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus, emerged when ancestral, sylvatic DENV transmitted among nonhuman primates by sylvatic Aedes mosquitoes adapted to these peridomestic vectors. We tested this hypothesis by retrospectively examining evidence for adaptation of epidemic and endemic versus sylvatic strains of DENV-2 to Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti. First and second-generation offspring of mosquitoes from different geographic regions in the Americas and Southeast Asia were tested for their susceptibility to epidemic/endemic and sylvatic DENV-2 isolates from West Africa, Southeast Asia, and Oceania. Both Aedes species were highly susceptible (up to 100% infected) to endemic/epidemic DENV-2 strains after ingesting artificial blood meals but significantly less susceptible (as low as 0%) to sylvatic DENV-2 strains. Our findings support the hypothesis that adaptation to peridomestic mosquito vectors mediated dengue emergence from sylvatic progenitor viruses.
Moncayo, Abelardo C.; Fernandez, Zoraida; Ortiz, Diana; Diallo, Mawlouth; Sall, Amadou; Hartman, Sammie; Davis, C. Todd; Coffey, Lark; Mathiot, Christian C.; Tesh, Robert B.
BackgroundThe Culex quinquefasciatus mosquito, a major pest and vector of filariasis and arboviruses in the tropics, has developed multiple resistance mechanisms to the main insecticide classes currently available in public health. Among them, the insensitive acetylcholinesterase (ace-1R allele) is widespread worldwide and confers cross-resistance to organophosphates and carbamates. Fortunately, in an insecticide-free environment, this mutation is associated with a severe
Innocent Djegbe; Sylvie Cornelie; Marie Rossignol; Edith Demettre; Martial Seveno; Franck Remoue; Vincent Corbel; Alan Christoffels
Mosquito-borne diseases, other than malaria, are becoming important public health problems in Bangladesh. Knowledge of the bionomics of the vector species is a pre-requisite for planning effective control measures against insect-borne diseases. With the above end in view, the bionomics of the common mosquitoes of Dacca city have been discussed under four headings, viz., seasonal prevalence, host preference, activity periods,
Mahmud-Ul Ameen; Muhammad Moizuddin
Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. jegathesan produces Cry11Ba crystal protein with high toxicity to mosquito larvae. The Cry11Ba toxicity is dependent on its receptors on mosquito larval midgut epithelial cells. Previously, a cadherin-like protein (AgCad2), aminopeptidase (AgAPN2) and alkaline phosphatase (AgALP1) were reported to be involved in regulation of Cry11Ba toxicity on Anopheles gambiae larvae. Here, the cDNAs encoding ?-amylase (AgAmy1) and ?-glucosidase (Agm3) were cloned from A. gambiae larva midgut. Both are glycophosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchored proteins on brush border membranes (BBMV). Immunohistochemistry revealed their localization on different regions of the larval midgut. AgAmy1 and Agm3 bound Cry11Ba with high affinity, 37.6 nM and 21.1 nM respectively. Cry11Ba toxicity against A. gambiae larvae was neutralized by both AgAmy1 and Agm3. The results provide evidence that both AgAmy1 and Agm3 function as receptors of Cry11Ba in A. gambiae. PMID:23872242
Zhang, Qi; Hua, Gang; Bayyareddy, Krishnareddy; Adang, Michael J
The epidemiology of vector-borne pathogens is largely determined by the host-choice behaviour of their vectors. Here, we investigate whether a Plasmodium infection renders the host more attractive to host-seeking mosquitoes. For this purpose, we work on a novel experimental system: the avian malaria parasite Plasmodium relictum, and its natural vector, the mosquito Culex pipiens. We provide uninfected mosquitoes with a choice between an uninfected bird and a bird undergoing either an acute or a chronic Plasmodium infection. Mosquito choice is assessed by microsatellite typing of the ingested blood. We show that chronically infected birds attract significantly more vectors than either uninfected or acutely infected birds. Our results suggest that malaria parasites manipulate the behaviour of uninfected vectors to increase their transmission. We discuss the underlying mechanisms driving this behavioural manipulation, as well as the broader implications of these effects for the epidemiology of malaria. PMID:23205903
Cornet, Stéphane; Nicot, Antoine; Rivero, Ana; Gandon, Sylvain
We examined the relationship between types of mosquito control programs and the mosquito-borne Ross River virus (RRV) disease in Queensland, Australia. Mosquito control information was collected through a survey of the responsible agencies (local governments), and RRV disease notification data were provided by the Queensland state health authority. The study developed a typology of mosquito control programs, based on the approaches used. Based on the analysis of data on RRV disease rates between mosquito control types within 4 climatic regions, each region had different combinations of mosquito control strategies in their programs; there were also general similarities in the relationship between program types and RRV rates between the regions. The long-term RRV disease rates were lower in areas where the mosquito control program included pre-emptive (rather than reactive) surveillance based on an extensive (rather than incomplete) knowledge of mosquito habitats, and where treatment of both saltwater and freshwater habitats (compared to only saltwater habitats, in coastal areas) occurred. The data indicate that mosquito control is an effective public health intervention to reduce mosquito-borne disease; hence, climate change adaptation strategies should ensure that adequate resources are available for effective vector control so as to manage the risk of mosquito-borne diseases. PMID:21476446
Tomerini, Deanna M; Dale, Pat E; Sipe, Neil
Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) have been shown to host diverse bacterial communities that vary depending on the sex of the mosquito, the developmental stage, and ecological factors. Some studies have suggested a potential role of microbiota in the nutritional, developmental and reproductive biology of mosquitoes. Here, we present a review of the diversity and functions of mosquito-associated bacteria across multiple variation factors, emphasizing recent findings. Mosquito microbiota is considered in the context of possible extended phenotypes conferred on the insect hosts that allow niche diversification and rapid adaptive evolution in other insects. These kinds of observations have prompted the recent development of new mosquito control methods based on the use of symbiotically-modified mosquitoes to interfere with pathogen transmission or reduce the host life span and reproduction. New opportunities for exploiting bacterial function for vector control are highlighted.
Background Serial blood passage of Plasmodium increases virulence, whilst mosquito transmission inherently regulates parasite virulence within the mammalian host. It is, therefore, imperative that all aspects of experimental malaria research are studied in the context of the complete Plasmodium life cycle. Methods Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi displays many characteristics associated with human Plasmodium infection of natural mosquito vectors and the mammalian host, and thus provides a unique opportunity to study the pathogenesis of malaria in a single infection setting. An optimized protocol that permits efficient and reproducible vector transmission of P. c. chabaudi via Anopheles stephensi was developed. Results and conclusions This protocol was utilized for mosquito transmission of genetically distinct P. c. chabaudi isolates, highlighting differential parasite virulence within the mosquito vector and the spectrum of host susceptibility to infection initiated via the natural route, mosquito bite. An apposite experimental system in which to delineate the pathogenesis of malaria is described in detail.
Host selection by vector mosquitoes is a critical component of virus proliferation, particularly for viruses such as West Nile (WNV) that are transmitted enzootically to a variety of avian hosts, and tangentially to dead-end hosts such as humans. Culex tarsalis is a principal vector of WNV in rural areas of western North America. Based on previous work, Cx. tarsalis utilizes
Tara C. Thiemann; Sarah S. Wheeler; Christopher M. Barker; William K. Reisen
Aedes mosquitoes include important vector species such as Aedes aegypti, the major vector of dengue. Genetic control methods are being developed for several of these species, stimulated by an urgent need owing to the poor effectiveness of current methods combined with an increase in chemical pesticide resistance. In this review we discuss the various genetic strategies that have been proposed, their present status, and future prospects. We focus particularly on those methods that are already being tested in the field, including RIDL and Wolbachia-based approaches. PMID:23816508
Alphey, Luke; McKemey, Andrew; Nimmo, Derric; Neira Oviedo, Marco; Lacroix, Renaud; Matzen, Kelly; Beech, Camilla
The African malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto continues to play an important role in malaria transmission, which is aggravated by its high degree of anthropophily, making it among the foremost vectors of this disease. In the current study we set out to unravel the strong association between this mosquito species and human beings, as it is determined by odorant
Niels O. Verhulst; Yu Tong Qiu; Hans Beijleveld; Chris Maliepaard; Dan Knights; Stefan Schulz; Donna Berg-Lyons; Christian L. Lauber; Willem Verduijn; Geert W. Haasnoot; Roland Mumm; Harro J. Bouwmeester; Frans H. J. Claas; Marcel Dicke; Joop J. A. van Loon; Willem Takken; Rob Knight; Renate C. Smallegange
A long-held view among parasitologists is that infection by malaria parasites does not harm the mosquito vector. One of the reasons for this belief is that the two partners of the association share interests in the most important life-history traits of the mosquito. Both partners benefit from increased survival and an increased rate of bloodfeeding – the mosquito to increase
Alex Schwartz; Jacob C. Koella
The importance of mosquitoes as disease vectors is now well established, but much remains to be learned about the fundamental processes of digestion in mosquitoes, especially as they relate to the transmission of these diseases. The studies reported here deal with the stimulation of proteolytic enzyme activity in the adult female yellow-fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti L., in relation to the
FRANK W. FISK; GEORGE F. SHAMBAUGH
A 50-kDa protein that binds to viral particles in solid-phase assays and that is recognized by anti-idiotypic antibodies made against anti-viral glycoproteins G1\\/G2 (anti-Ids) has been proposed as a receptor candidate for tomato spotted wilt tospovirus (TSWV) in its main thrips vector, Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande (Bandla et al., 1998. Phytopathology 88, 98–104). Here we show the immunoprecipitation of the 50-kDa
Ricardo B Medeiros; Diane E Ullman; John L Sherwood; Thomas L German
Determining the dose of an arbovirus transmitted by a mosquito is important to design transmission and pathogenesis studies simulating natural infection. Several different artificial infection and transmission methods used to assess vector competence and to estimate the dose injected during mosquito feeding have not been fully evaluated to determine whether they accurately reflect natural transmission. Additionally, it is not known
DARCI R. SMITH; ANNE-SOPHIE CARRARA; PATRICIA V. AGUILAR; SCOTT C. WEAVER
Background With the spread of pyrethroid resistance in mosquitoes, the combination of an insecticide (carbamate or organophosphate) with a repellent (DEET) is considered as a promising alternative strategy for the treatment of mosquito nets and other relevant materials. The efficacy of these mixtures comes from the fact that they reproduce pyrethroid features and that positive interactions occur between insecticides and repellent. To better understand the mechanisms involved and assess the impact of detoxifying enzymes (oxidases and esterases) in these interactions, bioassays were carried out in the laboratory against the main dengue vector Aedes aegypti. Methods Topical applications of DEET and propoxur (carbamate), used alone or as a mixture, were carried out on female mosquitoes, using inhibitors of the two main detoxification pathways in the insect. PBO, an inhibitor of multi-function oxidases, and DEF, an inhibitor of esterases, were applied one hour prior to the main treatment. Results Results showed that synergism between DEET and propoxur disappeared in the presence of PBO but not with DEF. This suggests that oxidases, contrary to esterases, play a key role in the interactions occurring between DEET and cholinesterase inhibitors in mosquitoes. Conclusion These findings are of great interest for the implementation of "combination nets" in the field. They support the need to combine insecticide with repellent to overcome insecticide resistance in mosquitoes of public health importance.
Bonnet, Julien; Pennetier, Cedric; Duchon, Stephane; Lapied, Bruno; Corbel, Vincent
The highly expressed D7 protein family of mosquito saliva has previously been shown to act as an anti-inflammatory mediator by binding host biogenic amines and cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs). In this study we demonstrate that AnSt-D7L1, a two-domain member of this group from Anopheles stephensi, retains the CysLT binding function seen in the homolog AeD7 from Aedes aegypti but has lost the ability to bind biogenic amines. Unlike any previously characterized members of the D7 family, AnSt-D7L1 has acquired the important function of binding thromboxane A2 (TXA2) and its analogs with high affinity. When administered to tissue preparations, AnSt-D7L1 abrogated Leukotriene C4 (LTC4)-induced contraction of guinea pig ileum and contraction of rat aorta by the TXA2 analog U46619. The protein also inhibited platelet aggregation induced by both collagen and U46619 when administered to stirred platelets. The crystal structure of AnSt-D7L1 contains two OBP-like domains and has a structure similar to AeD7. In AnSt-D7L1, the binding pocket of the C-terminal domain has been rearranged relative to AeD7, making the protein unable to bind biogenic amines. Structures of the ligand complexes show that CysLTs and TXA2 analogs both bind in the same hydrophobic pocket of the N-terminal domain. The TXA2 analog U46619 is stabilized by hydrogen bonding interactions of the ?-5 hydroxyl group with the phenolic hydroxyl group of Tyr 52. LTC4 and occupies a very similar position to LTE4 in the previously determined structure of its complex with AeD7. As yet, it is not known what, if any, new function has been acquired by the rearranged C-terminal domain. This article presents, to our knowledge, the first structural characterization of a protein from mosquito saliva that inhibits collagen mediated platelet activation.
Alvarenga, Patricia H.; Francischetti, Ivo M. B.; Calvo, Eric; Sa-Nunes, Anderson; Ribeiro, Jose M. C.; Andersen, John F.
This report includes the distribution records and updated checklists of the mosquitoes known to occur in Guam and nearby selected islands (ie, Saipan, Tinian, Rota), based on our field collections from various localities during 2010, published reports, and accessioned specimens deposited in the US National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. The status of common and potential mosquito vectors and their borne-pathogens are also noted. PMID:21805452
Rueda, Leopoldo M; Pecor, James E; Reeves, Will K; Wolf, Stephen P; Nunn, Peter V; Rabago, Rosanna Y; Gutierrez, Teresa L; Debboun, Mustapha
The transmission of vector-borne pathogens is greatly influenced by the ecology of their vector, which is in turn shaped by genetic ancestry, the environment, and the hosts that are fed on. One group of vectors, the mosquitoes in the Culex pipiens complex, play key roles in the transmission of a range of pathogens including several viruses such as West Nile
Ary Farajollahi; Dina M. Fonseca; Laura D. Kramer; A. Marm Kilpatrick
There is growing of the effects of insecticide used controlling the vectors of human diseases. Manipulating or introducing an auto-reproducing predator into the ecosystem may provide sustained biological control of pest populations. The selection of a biological agent should be based on its self-replicating capacity, preference for the target pest population in the presence of alternate natural prey, adaptability to the introduced environment, and overall interaction with indigenous organisms. In order to achieve an acceptable range of control, a sound knowledge of various attributes of interactions between the pest population and the predator to be introduced is desirable. Biological larviciding for the control of mosquito borne diseases is feasible and effective only when breeding sites are relatively few or are easily identified and treated. Larval control appears to be promising in urban areas, given that the density of humans needing protection is higher than the limited number of breeding sites. Since 1937, fish have been employed for controlling mosquito larvae. Different types of fish have been used so far in this operational technique. However, use of fish of indigenous origin is found to be more appropriate in this operation. This review presents information on different larvivorous fish species and the present status of their use in mosquito control and provides a ready reference for workers involved and interested in mosquito research. PMID:18316849
Chandra, G; Bhattacharjee, I; Chatterjee, S N; Ghosh, A
Mosquitoes use plant sugars and vertebrate blood as nutritional resources. When searching for blood hosts, some mosquitoes express preferential behavior for selected species. Here, we review the available knowledge on host preference, as this is expected to affect the life history and transmission of infectious pathogens. Host preference is affected by myriad extrinsic and intrinsic factors. Inherent factors are determined by genetic selection, which appears to be controlled by adaptive advantages that result from feeding on certain host species. Host preference of mosquitoes, although having a genetic basis, is characterized by high plasticity mediated by the density of host species, which by their abundance form a readily accessible source of blood. Host-selection behavior in mosquitoes is an exception rather than the rule. Those species that express strong and inherent host-selection behavior belong to the most important vectors of infectious diseases, which suggests that this behavioral trait may have evolved in parallel with parasite-host evolution. PMID:23020619
Takken, Willem; Verhulst, Niels O
VectorBase (http:\\/\\/www.vectorbase.org) is an NIAID-funded Bioinformatic Resource Center focused on invertebrate vectors of human patho- gens. VectorBase annotates and curates vector genomes providing a web accessible integrated resource for the research community. Currently, VectorBase contains genome information for three mosquito species: Aedes aegypti, Anopheles gam- biae and Culex quinquefasciatus, a body louse Pediculus humanus and a tick species Ixodes scapularis.
Daniel Lawson; Peter Arensburger; Peter Atkinson; Nora J. Besansky; Robert V. Bruggner; Ryan Butler; Kathryn S. Campbell; George K. Christophides; Scott Christley; Emmanuel Dialynas; Martin Hammond; Catherine A. Hill; Nathan Konopinski; Neil F. Lobo; Robert M. Maccallum; Gregory R. Madey; Karine Megy; Jason Meyer; Seth Redmond; David W. Severson; Eric O. Stinson; Pantelis Topalis; Ewan Birney; William M. Gelbart; Fotis C. Kafatos; Christos Louis; Frank H. Collins
The ability of malaria parasites to respond positively to the presence of feeding mosquito vectors would clearly be advantageous to transmission. In this study, Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes probed mice infected with the rodent malaria parasite, Plasmodium chabaudi. Growth of asexual stages was accelerated and gametocytes appeared 1–2 days earlier than in controls. This first study, to our knowledge, of the effects of mosquitoes on ‘in-host’ growth and development of Plasmodium has profound implications for malaria epidemiology, suggesting that individuals exposed to high mosquito numbers can contribute disproportionately high numbers of parasites to the transmission pool.
Billingsley, P.F; Snook, L.S; Johnston, V.J
Background: The aims of this study was to analysis the current situation of malaria and to find the distribution of anopheline mosquitoes, as probable vectors of the disease, in Qom Province, central Iran. Methods: This study was carried out in two parts. First stage was data collection about malaria cases using recorded documents of patients in the Province health center, during 2001–2008. The second stage was entomological survey conducted by mosquito larval collection method in 4 villages with different geographical positions in 2008. Data were analyzed using Excel software. Results: Of 4456 blood slides, 10.9% out were positive. Most of cases were imported from other countries (90.4%), mainly from Afghanistan (56.5%) and Pakistan (16.3%). Slide positive rate showed a maximum of 16.9% and a minimum of 2.9% in 2008 and 2007, respectively. Plasmodium vivax was causative agent of 93.75% of cases, followed by P. falciparum (6.25%). More than 15 years old age group contained the most malaria reported cases (66.7%). Two Anopheles species, An. superpictus and An. claviger were collected and identified. This is the first report of Anopheles claviger in Qom Province. Conclusion: Malaria is in the control stage in Qom Province. The rate of local transmission is very low (only 1 case), shows Anopheles superpictus, as the main malaria vector of central part of Iran, can play its role in malaria transmission in the area.
Farzinnia, B; Saghafipour, A; Abai, MR
We investigated the fitness consequences of specialization in an organism whose host choice has an immense impact on human health: the African malaria vector Anopheles gambiae s.s. We tested whether this mosquito's specialism on humans can be attributed to the relative fitness benefits of specialist vs. generalist feeding strategies by contrasting their fecundity and survival on human-only and mixed host diets consisting of blood meals from humans and animals. When given only one blood meal, An. gambiae s.s. survived significantly longer on human and bovine blood, than on canine or avian blood. However, when blood fed repeatedly, there was no evidence that the fitness of An. gambiae s.s. fed a human-only diet was greater than those fed generalist diets. This suggests that the adoption of generalist host feeding strategies in An. gambiae s.s. is not constrained by intraspecific variation in the resource quality of blood from other available host species. PMID:22221693
Lyimo, I N; Keegan, S P; Ranford-Cartwright, L C; Ferguson, H M
Background There is higher rate of R. felis infection among febrile patients than in healthy people in Sub-Saharan Africa, predominantly in the rainy season. Mosquitoes possess a high vectorial capacity and, because of their abundance and aggressiveness, likely play a role in rickettsial epidemiology. Methodology/Principal Findings Quantitative and traditional PCR assays specific for Rickettsia genes detected rickettsial DNA in 13 of 848 (1.5%) Anopheles mosquitoes collected from Côte d’Ivoire, Gabon, and Senegal. R. felis was detected in one An. gambiae molecular form S mosquito collected from Kahin, Côte d’Ivoire (1/77, 1.3%). Additionally, a new Rickettsia genotype was detected in five An. gambiae molecular form S mosquitoes collected from Côte d’Ivoire (5/77, 6.5%) and one mosquito from Libreville, Gabon (1/88, 1.1%), as well as six An. melas (6/67, 9%) mosquitoes collected from Port Gentil, Gabon. A sequence analysis of the gltA, ompB, ompA and sca4 genes indicated that this new Rickettsia sp. is closely related to R. felis. No rickettsial DNA was detected from An. funestus, An. arabiensis, or An. gambiae molecular form M mosquitoes. Additionally, a BLAST analysis of the gltA sequence from the new Rickettsia sp. resulted in a 99.71% sequence similarity to a species (JQ674485) previously detected in a blood sample of a Senegalese patient with a fever from the Bandafassi village, Kedougou region. Conclusion R. felis was detected for the first time in An. gambiae molecular form S, which represents the major African malaria vector. The discovery of R. felis, as well as a new Rickettsia species, in mosquitoes raises new issues with respect to African rickettsial epidemiology that need to be investigated, such as bacterial isolation, the degree of the vectorial capacity of mosquitoes, the animal reservoirs, and human pathogenicity.
Socolovschi, Cristina; Pages, Frederic; Ndiath, Mamadou O.; Ratmanov, Pavel; Raoult, Didier
Spatial modelling of the potential temperature-dependent transmission of vector-associated diseases in the face of climate change: main results and recommendations from a pilot study in Lower Saxony (Germany).
The sustained climate change is going to modify the geographic distribution, the seasonal transmission gate and the intensity of the transmission of vector-borne diseases such as malaria or the bluetongue disease. These diseases occur nowadays at higher latitudes or altitudes. A further rise in ambient temperature and rainfall will extend the duration of the season in which mosquito vectors are transmitting pathogens. The parasites transmitted by the vectors also benefit from increasing temperatures, as both their reproduction and development are then accelerated, too. Thus, it seemed prudent to examine potential effects on the seasonal transmission gate due to the ongoing and predicted climate changes. Lower Saxony (northwest Germany) is a former malaria region with highest incidences of Anopheles atroparvus and tertian malaria along the coastal zones before malaria had finally become extinct in the early 1950s. Nevertheless, the Anopheles mosquitoes which transmit the malaria pathogens have still been present in Lower Saxony up to now. This together with the climate change-related implications gave reason to investigate whether a new autochthonous transmission could take place if the malaria pathogen is introduced again in Lower Saxony. Thus, the potential spatial and temporal structure of temperature-driven malaria transmissions was mapped using the basic reproduction rate (R (0)) and measured and predicted air temperatures (1947-1960, 1961-1990, 1985-2004, 2020, 2060, 2100, each best case and worst case scenario). This paper focuses on both the summarizing of the results from this risk modelling approach and on the conclusions to be drawn. The recommendations highlight the need to link vector monitoring as one of the key elements of an epidemiological monitoring with the environmental monitoring. PMID:19030886
Schröder, Winfried; Schmidt, Gunther
Several species of captive birds at zoological gardens of Japan were found to be infected with avian Plasmodium. However, incriminated vector mosquito species have not been identified yet. To indicate the competent vectors of avian malaria\\u000a parasite, we collected mosquitoes at a zoological garden in Japan and examined for the avian malaria parasite DNA. Totally,\\u000a 1,361 mosquitoes of 11 species
Hiroko Ejiri; Yukita Sato; Risa Sawai; Emi Sasaki; Rei Matsumoto; Miya Ueda; Yukiko Higa; Yoshio Tsuda; Sumie Omori; Koichi Murata; Masayoshi Yukawa
Although variation in mortality is considered by virtually all vector-borne disease specialists to be one of the most important determinants of an arthropod’s capacity to transmit pathogens, the operational assumption often is that insect vector mortality is independent of age. Acceptance of the non-senescence assumption leads to the erroneous conclusion that mosquito age is unimportant, results in misleading predictions regarding disease reductions after vector control, and represses study of other aspects of mosquito biology that change with age. We brought large-scale laboratory life table techniques (N > 100,000) to bear on the question of age-dependent mortality in the mosquito vector of dengue virus, Aedes aegypti. Mortality was highly age dependent in both sexes. Mortality was low at young ages (< 10 days old), steadily increased at middle ages, and decelerated at older ages. A newly derived age-dependent model of pathogen transmission shows the importance of young mosquitoes and population age structure to transmission dynamics. Departure from the age-independent mortality paradigm encourages research on overlooked complexities in mosquito biology, the need for innovative methods to study mosquito population dynamics, and the need to study age-dependent changes for an accurate understanding of mosquito biology and pathogen transmission.
Styer, Linda M.; Carey, James R.; Wang, Jane-Ling; Scott, Thomas W.
Susceptibility studies of malaria vectors Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae) and An. subpictus Grassi collected during 2004-2007 from various locations of Arid and Semi-Arid Zone of India were conducted by adulticide bioassay of DDT, malathion, deltamethrin and larvicide bioassay of fenthion, temephos, chlorpyriphos and malathion using diagnostic doses. Both species from all locations exhibited variable resistance to DDT and malathion from majority of location. Adults of both the species were susceptible to Deltamethrin. Larvae of both the Anopheline species showed some evidence of resistance to chlorpyriphos followed by fenthion whereas susceptible to temephos and malathion. PMID:21870971
Tikar, S N; Mendki, M J; Sharma, A K; Sukumaran, D; Veer, Vijay; Prakash, Shri; Parashar, B D
Susceptibility studies of malaria vectors Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae) and An. subpictus Grassi collected during 2004–2007 from various locations of Arid and Semi-Arid Zone of India were conducted by adulticide bioassay of DDT, malathion, deltamethrin and larvicide bioassay of fenthion, temephos, chlorpyriphos and malathion using diagnostic doses. Both species from all locations exhibited variable resistance to DDT and malathion from majority of location. Adults of both the species were susceptible to Deltamethrin. Larvae of both the Anopheline species showed some evidence of resistance to chlorpyriphos followed by fenthion whereas susceptible to temephos and malathion.
Tikar, S. N.; Mendki, M.J.; Sharma, A. K.; Sukumaran, D.; Veer, Vijay; Prakash, Shri; Parashar, B. D.
Resistance to insecticides was monitored on Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus mosquitoes collected in twelve localities of La Réunion, a geographically isolated island of the Indian Ocean. This mosquito is of medical concern in the region as a known vector for filariasis and a potential vector for West Nile and Rift Valley Fever viruses. Our bioassays indicated the presence of resistance to
Michaël Luciano Tantely; Pablo Tortosa; Haoues Alout; Claire Berticat; Arnaud Berthomieu; Abdoul Rutee; Jean-Sébastien Dehecq; Patrick Makoundou; Pierrick Labbé; Nicole Pasteur; Mylène Weill
Mosquitoes transmit (vector) disease agents that cause malaria, yellow fever, dengue, West Nile fever, and encephalitis. Spread of these diseases is controlled by the management of mosquito population levels, changes in which are monitored in vector surveillance programs by the use of mechanical tr...
To determine the larvicidal activity of various extracts of Gymnema sylvestre against the Japanese Encephalitis vector, Culex tritaeniorynchus in Tamilnadu, India. To identify the active principle present in the promising fraction obtained in Chlorofom:Methanol extract of Fraction 2. The G. sylvestre leaf extracts were tested, employing WHO procedure against fourth instar larvae of C. tritaeniorhynchus and the larval mortalities were recorded at various concentrations (6.25, 12.5, 25.0, 50 and 100 µg/mL); the 24h LC50 values of the G. Sylvestre leaf extracts were determined following Probit analysis. It was noteworthy that treatment level 100 µg/mL exhibited highest mortality rates for the three different crude extracts and was significantly different from the mean mortalities recorded for the other concentrations. The LC50 values of 34.756 µg/mL (24.475-51.41), 31.351 µg/mL (20.634-47.043) and 28.577 µg/mL (25.159-32.308) were calculated for acetone, chloroform and methanol extract with the chi-square values of 10.301, 31.351 and 4.093 respectively. The present investigation proved that G. Sylvestre could be possibly utilized as an important component in the Vector Control Program. PMID:23152320
Elumalai, Kupppusamy; Dhanasekaran, Shanmugan; Krishnappa, Kaliamoorthy
The aim of the study was the construction of risk maps for exposure to Phlebotomus sergenti, the main vector of Leishmania tropica, with a view to identifying hot spots for the potential establishment of this parasite in the southwest of Europe. Data were collected on the presence/absence of this vector and the ecological and climatic characteristics of 662 sampling sites located in the southeast, centre and northeast of the Iberian Peninsula (south-western Europe). The environmental factors associated with the distribution of P. sergenti were determined. The best predictors for the presence of this dipteran were ‘altitude’, ‘land use’, ‘land surface temperature’, ‘aspect’, ‘adjacent land cover’, ‘absence of vegetation in wall’ and the ‘absence of PVC pipes in the drainage holes of retaining walls’. Risk maps for exposure to the vector were drawn up based on these variables. The validation of the predictive risk model confirmed its usefulness in the detection of areas with a high risk of P. sergenti being present. These locations represent potential hot spots for an autochthonous focus of L. tropica becoming established. The risk maps produced for P. sergenti presence revealed several areas in the centre and south of the Iberian Peninsula to be the most prone to this process, which would make it possible for the disease to enter south-western Europe. PMID:23965821
Barón, S D; Morillas-Márquez, F; Morales-Yuste, M; Díaz-Sáez, V; Gállego, M; Molina, R; Martín-Sánchez, J
Since 2001, alligator farms in the United States have sustained substantial economic losses because of West Nile virus (WNV) outbreaks in American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis). Once an initial infection is introduced into captive alligators, WNV can spread among animals by contaminative transmission. Some outbreaks have been linked to feeding on infected meat or the introduction of infected hatchlings, but the initial source of WNV infection has been uncertain in other outbreaks. We conducted a study to identify species composition and presence of WNV in mosquito populations associated with alligator farms in Louisiana. A second objective of this study was to identify the origin of mosquito blood meals collected at commercial alligator farms. Mosquitoes were collected from 2004 to 2006, using Centers for Disease Control light traps, gravid traps, backpack aspirators, and resting boxes. We collected a total of 58,975 mosquitoes representing 24 species. WNV was detected in 41 pools of females from 11 mosquito species: Anopheles crucians, Anopheles quadrimaculatus, Coquillettidia perturbans, Culex coronator, Culex erraticus, Culex nigripalpus, Culex quinquefasciatus, Mansonia titillans, Aedes sollicitans, Psorophora columbiae, and Uranotaenia lowii. The blood meal origins of 213 field-collected mosquitoes were identified based on cytochrome B sequence identity. Alligator blood was detected in 21 mosquitoes representing six species of mosquitoes, including Cx. quinquefasciatus and Cx. nigripalpus. Our results showed that mosquitoes of species that are known to be competent vectors of WNV fed regularly on captive alligators. Therefore, mosquitoes probably are important in the role of transmission of WNV at alligator farms. PMID:20695278
Unlu, Isik; Kramer, Wayne L; Roy, Alma F; Foil, Lane D
To advance our restricted knowledge on mosquito biodiversity and distribution in Belgium, a national inventory started in 2007 (MODIRISK) based on a random selection of 936 collection points in three main environmental types: urban, rural and natural areas. Additionally, 64 sites were selected because of the risk of importing a vector or pathogen in these sites. Each site was sampled once between May and October 2007 and once in 2008 using Mosquito Magnet Liberty Plus traps. Diversity in pre-defined habitat types was calculated using three indices. The association between species and environmental types was assessed using a correspondence analysis. Twenty-three mosquito species belonging to traditionally recognized genera were found, including 21 indigenous and two exotic species. Highest species diversity (Simpson 0.765) and species richness (20 species) was observed in natural areas, although urban sites scored also well (Simpson 0.476, 16 species). Four clusters could be distinguished based on the correspondence analysis. The first one is related to human modified landscapes (such as urban, rural and industrial sites). A second is composed of species not associated with a specific habitat type, including the now widely distributed Anopheles plumbeus. A third group includes species commonly found in restored natural or bird migration areas, and a fourth cluster is composed of forest species. Outcomes of this study demonstrate the effectiveness of the designed sampling scheme and support the choice of the trap type. Obtained results of this first country-wide inventory of the Culicidae in Belgium may serve as a basis for risk assessment of emerging mosquito-borne diseases. PMID:22971463
Versteirt, V; Boyer, S; Damiens, D; De Clercq, E M; Dekoninck, W; Ducheyne, E; Grootaert, P; Garros, C; Hance, T; Hendrickx, G; Coosemans, M; Van Bortel, W
This factsheet from the Environmental Protection Agency includes several summary documents on the problem of mosquito-borne diseases and the pesticides used to control mosquitoes. The resources cover issues from mosquito biology through the EPA's recent findings on the negative health impacts of Malathion.
Background The Culex quinquefasciatus mosquito, a major pest and vector of filariasis and arboviruses in the tropics, has developed multiple resistance mechanisms to the main insecticide classes currently available in public health. Among them, the insensitive acetylcholinesterase (ace-1R allele) is widespread worldwide and confers cross-resistance to organophosphates and carbamates. Fortunately, in an insecticide-free environment, this mutation is associated with a severe genetic cost that can affect various life history traits. Salivary proteins are directly involved in human-vector contact during biting and therefore play a key role in pathogen transmission. Methods and Results An original proteomic approach combining 2D-electrophoresis and mass spectrometry was adopted to compare the salivary expression profiles of two strains of C. quinquefasciatus with the same genetic background but carrying either the ace-1R resistance allele or not (wild type). Four salivary proteins were differentially expressed (>2 fold, P<0.05) in susceptible (SLAB) and resistant (SR) mosquito strains. Protein identification indicated that the D7 long form, a major salivary protein involved in blood feeding success, presented lower expression in the resistant strain than the susceptible strain. In contrast, three other proteins, including metabolic enzymes (endoplasmin, triosephosphate isomerase) were significantly over-expressed in the salivary gland of ace-1R resistant mosquitoes. A catalogue of 67 salivary proteins of C. quinquefasciatus sialotranscriptome was also identified and described. Conclusion The “resistance”-dependent expression of salivary proteins in mosquitoes may have considerable impact on biting behaviour and hence on the capacity to transmit parasites/viruses to humans. The behaviour of susceptible and insecticide-resistant mosquitoes in the presence of vertebrate hosts and its impact on pathogen transmission urgently requires further investigation. Data Deposition All proteomic data will be deposited at PRIDE (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/pride/).
Rossignol, Marie; Demettre, Edith; Seveno, Martial; Remoue, Franck; Corbel, Vincent
Background Among Chagas disease triatomine vectors, the largest genus, Triatoma, includes species of high public health interest. Triatoma dimidiata, the main vector throughout Central America and up to Ecuador, presents extensive phenotypic, genotypic, and behavioral diversity in sylvatic, peridomestic and domestic habitats, and non-domiciliated populations acting as reinfestation sources. DNA sequence analyses, phylogenetic reconstruction methods, and genetic variation approaches are combined to investigate the haplotype profiling, genetic polymorphism, phylogeography, and evolutionary trends of T. dimidiata and its closest relatives within Triatoma. This is the largest interpopulational analysis performed on a triatomine species so far. Methodology and Findings Triatomines from Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama, Cuba, Colombia, Ecuador, and Brazil were used. Triatoma dimidiata populations follow different evolutionary divergences in which geographical isolation appears to have had an important influence. A southern Mexican–northern Guatemalan ancestral form gave rise to two main clades. One clade remained confined to the Yucatan peninsula and northern parts of Chiapas State, Guatemala, and Honduras, with extant descendants deserving specific status. Within the second clade, extant subspecies diversity was shaped by adaptive radiation derived from Guatemalan ancestral populations. Central American populations correspond to subspecies T. d. dimidiata. A southern spread into Panama and Colombia gave the T. d. capitata forms, and a northwestern spread rising from Guatemala into Mexico gave the T. d. maculipennis forms. Triatoma hegneri appears as a subspecific insular form. Conclusions The comparison with very numerous Triatoma species allows us to reach highly supported conclusions not only about T. dimidiata, but also on different, important Triatoma species groupings and their evolution. The very large intraspecific genetic variability found in T. dimidiata sensu lato has never been detected in a triatomine species before. The distinction between the five different taxa furnishes a new frame for future analyses of the different vector transmission capacities and epidemiological characteristics of Chagas disease. Results indicate that T. dimidiata will offer problems for control, although dwelling insecticide spraying might be successful against introduced populations in Ecuador.
Bargues, Maria Dolores; Klisiowicz, Debora R.; Gonzalez-Candelas, Fernando; Ramsey, Janine M.; Monroy, Carlota; Ponce, Carlos; Salazar-Schettino, Paz Maria; Panzera, Francisco; Abad-Franch, Fernando; Sousa, Octavio E.; Schofield, Christopher J.; Dujardin, Jean Pierre; Guhl, Felipe; Mas-Coma, Santiago
Mosquito immunity studies have focused mainly on characterizing immune effector mechanisms elicited against parasites, bacteria and more recently, viruses. However, those elicited against entomopathogenic fungi remain poorly understood, despite the ubiquitous nature of these microorganisms and their unique invasion route that bypasses the midgut epithelium, an important immune tissue and physical barrier. Here, we used the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae as a model to investigate the role of melanization, a potent immune effector mechanism of arthropods, in mosquito defense against the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana, using in vivo functional genetic analysis and confocal microscopy. The temporal monitoring of fungal growth in mosquitoes injected with B. bassiana conidia showed that melanin eventually formed on all stages, including conidia, germ tubes and hyphae, except the single cell hyphal bodies. Nevertheless, melanin rarely aborted the growth of any of these stages and the mycelium continued growing despite being melanized. Silencing TEP1 and CLIPA8, key positive regulators of Plasmodium and bacterial melanization in A. gambiae, abolished completely melanin formation on hyphae but not on germinating conidia or germ tubes. The detection of a layer of hemocytes surrounding germinating conidia but not hyphae suggested that melanization of early fungal stages is cell-mediated while that of late stages is a humoral response dependent on TEP1 and CLIPA8. Microscopic analysis revealed specific association of TEP1 with surfaces of hyphae and the requirement of both, TEP1 and CLIPA8, for recruiting phenoloxidase to these surfaces. Finally, fungal proliferation was more rapid in TEP1 and CLIPA8 knockdown mosquitoes which exhibited increased sensitivity to natural B. bassiana infections than controls. In sum, the mosquito melanization response retards significantly B. bassiana growth and dissemination, a finding that may be exploited to design transgenic fungi with more potent bio-control activities against mosquitoes.
Osta, Mike A.
Malaria remains a major public health problem in Madagascar, as it is the first cause of morbidity in health care facilities. Its transmission remains poorly documented. An entomological study was carried out over 1 year (October 2003-September 2004) in Saharevo, a village located at an altitude of 900m on the eastern edge of the Malagasy central highlands. Mosquitoes were sampled weekly upon landing on human volunteers and in various resting-places. Out of 5515 mosquitoes collected on humans, 3219 (58.4%) were anophelines. Eleven anopheline species were represented, among which Anopheles funestus, Anopheles gambiae, Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles mascarensis. Out of 677 mosquitoes collected in bedrooms by pyrethrum spray catches and in Muirhead-Thomson pits, 656 (96.9%) were anopheline belonging to these four latter species. The proportion of mosquitoes that fed on human varied according to the resting-places and the mosquito species: 86% of An. funestus resting in bedrooms fed on humans, whereas only 16% of An. funestus and 0% of An. mascarensis resting in pits fed on humans. The proportion of anopheline mosquitoes infected with human Plasmodium was measured by circumsporozoite protein-ELISA: 10/633 An. funestus (1.58%), 1/211 An. gambiae s.l. (0.48%) and 2/268 An. mascarensis (0.75%). The annual entomological inoculation rate (number of bites of infected anophelines per adult) was estimated at 2.78. The transmission was mainly due to An. funestus and only observed in the second half of the rainy season, from February to May. These results are discussed in the context of the current malaria vector control policy in Madagascar. PMID:20804715
Andrianaivolambo, Lala; Domarle, Olivier; Randrianarivelojosia, Milijaona; Ratovonjato, Jocelyn; Le Goff, Gilbert; Talman, Arthur; Ariey, Frédéric; Robert, Vincent
Chagas disease is the most important endemic disease in Latin America, mainly transmitted by Triatoma infestans in the Southern Cone countries of South America. Dogs are one of the main domestic reservoirs of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease. The presence of dogs in rural households of endemic areas significantly increases the likelihood of the vectorial transmission of the parasite. We studied the mortality and blood intake of T. infestans exposed to dogs treated with different doses and formulations of fipronil. Two doses, two formulations, and different distances to the application point of fipronil were compared. Third instar nymphs of T. infestans were fed at different time intervals after the insecticide application up to 45 days post-application. No significant difference was found between the blood intake of nymphs fed on control and treated dogs with different doses and formulations (p > 0.05). The spray formulation showed lower effect and persistence than the spot-on formulation. The mortality rate caused by the spot-on formulation in the 26.8-mg active ingredient (a.i.)/kg dose was higher (48%) than with the 13.4-mg a.i./kg dose (25%), 24 h after the insecticide application. The effect was highly heterogeneous among replicates of the same treatment. The mortality rate of nymphs fed over the point of the insecticide application was higher than the mortality of nymphs fed over places 12 cm apart from the fipronil application point, suggesting that the distribution of fipronil over the dog body is lower than the needed one to obtain a persistent triatomicide effect. PMID:22669692
Amelotti, Ivana; Catalá, Silvia S; Gorla, David E
Background Co-occurrence of malaria and filarial worm parasites has been reported, but little is known about the interaction between filarial worm and malaria parasites with the same Anopheles vector. Herein, we present data evaluating the interaction between Wuchereria bancrofti and Anopheles punctulatus in Papua New Guinea (PNG). Our field studies in PNG demonstrated that An. punctulatus utilizes the melanization immune response as a natural mechanism of filarial worm resistance against invading W. bancrofti microfilariae. We then conducted laboratory studies utilizing the mosquitoes Armigeres subalbatus and Aedes aegypti and the parasites Brugia malayi, Brugia pahangi, Dirofilaria immitis, and Plasmodium gallinaceum to evaluate the hypothesis that immune activation and/or development by filarial worms negatively impact Plasmodium development in co-infected mosquitoes. Ar. subalbatus used in this study are natural vectors of P. gallinaceum and B. pahangi and they are naturally refractory to B. malayi (melanization-based refractoriness). Methodology/Principal Findings Mosquitoes were dissected and Plasmodium development was analyzed six days after blood feeding on either P. gallinaceum alone or after taking a bloodmeal containing both P. gallinaceum and B. malayi or a bloodmeal containing both P. gallinaceum and B. pahangi. There was a significant reduction in the prevalence and mean intensity of Plasmodium infections in two species of mosquito that had dual infections as compared to those mosquitoes that were infected with Plasmodium alone, and was independent of whether the mosquito had a melanization immune response to the filarial worm or not. However, there was no reduction in Plasmodium development when filarial worms were present in the bloodmeal (D. immitis) but midgut penetration was absent, suggesting that factors associated with penetration of the midgut by filarial worms likely are responsible for the observed reduction in malaria parasite infections. Conclusions/Significance These results could have an impact on vector infection and transmission dynamics in areas where Anopheles transmit both parasites, i.e., the elimination of filarial worms in a co-endemic locale could enhance malaria transmission.
Aliota, Matthew T.; Chen, Cheng-Chen; Dagoro, Henry; Fuchs, Jeremy F.; Christensen, Bruce M.
Cyclase-associated proteins (CAPs) are evolutionary conserved G-actin-binding proteins that regulate microfilament turnover. CAPs have a modular structure consisting of an N-terminal adenylate cyclase binding domain, a central proline-rich segment, and a C-terminal actin binding domain. Protozoan parasites of the phylum Apicomplexa, such as Cryptosporidium and the malaria parasite Plasmodium, express small CAP orthologs with homology to the C-terminal actin binding domain (C-CAP). Here, we demonstrate by reverse genetics that C-CAP is dispensable for the pathogenic Plasmodium blood stages. However, c-cap(-) parasites display a complete defect in oocyst development in the insect vector. By trans-species complementation we show that the Cryptosporidium parvum ortholog complements the Plasmodium gene functions. Purified recombinant C. parvum C-CAP protein binds actin monomers and prevents actin polymerization. The crystal structure of C. parvum C-CAP shows two monomers with a right-handed ?-helical fold intercalated at their C termini to form the putative physiological dimer. Our results reveal a specific vital role for an apicomplexan G-actin-binding protein during sporogony, the parasite replication phase that precedes formation of malaria transmission stages. This study also exemplifies how Plasmodium reverse genetics combined with biochemical and structural analyses of orthologous proteins can offer a fast track toward systematic gene characterization in apicomplexan parasites.
Hliscs, Marion; Sattler, Julia M.; Tempel, Wolfram; Artz, Jennifer D.; Dong, Aiping; Hui, Raymond; Matuschewski, Kai; Schuler, Herwig
Across the Americas and the Caribbean, nearly 561,000 slide-confirmed malaria infections were reported officially in 2008. The nine Amazonian countries accounted for 89% of these infections; Brazil and Peru alone contributed 56% and 7% of them, respectively. Local populations of the relatively neglected parasite P. vivax, which currently accounts for 77% of the regional malaria burden, are extremely diverse genetically and geographically structured. At a time when malaria elimination is placed on the public health agenda of several endemic countries, it remains unclear why malaria proved so difficult to control in areas of relatively low levels of transmission such as the Amazon Basin. We hypothesize that asymptomatic parasite carriage and massive environmental changes that affect vector abundance and behavior are major contributors to malaria transmission in epidemiologically diverse areas across the Amazon Basin. Here we review available data supporting this hypothesis and discuss their implications for current and future malaria intervention policies in the region. Given that locally generated scientific evidence is urgently required to support malaria control interventions in Amazonia, we briefly describe the aims of our current field-oriented malaria research in rural villages and gold-mining enclaves in Peru and a recently opened agricultural settlement in Brazil.
da Silva-Nunes, Monica; Moreno, Marta; Conn, Jan E.; Gamboa, Dionicia; Abeles, Shira; Vinetz, Joseph M.; Ferreira, Marcelo U.
BACKGROUND: Mosquitoes are the transmissive vectors for several infectious pathogens that affect man. However, the control of mosquitoes through insecticide and pesticide spraying has proved difficult in the past. We hypothesized that, by virtue of their reported vertical inheritance among mosquitoes, group II introns – a class of small coding ribonucleic acids (scRNAs) – may form a potential species-specific biomarker.
Wilson Byarugaba; Henry Kajumbula; Misaki Wayengera
Epizootic subtype IAB and IC Venezuelan equine encephalitis viruses (VEEV) readily infect the epizootic mosquito vector Aedes taeniorhynchus. The inability of enzootic subtype IE viruses to infect this mosquito species provides a model system for the identification of natural viral determinants of vector infectivity. To map mosquito infection determinants, reciprocal chimeric viruses generated from epizootic subtype IAB and enzootic IE
Aaron C. Brault; Ann M. Powers; Scott C. Weaver
The mosquito Anopheles balabacensis balabacensis has been identified as a natural vector of at least two species of simian malaria in the monsoon forests of the northern Malay States. This mosquito is also a serious vector of human malaria from Viet Nam to northern Malaya. This is the first report of a mosquito which transmits both human and simian malaria
W. H. Cheong; Mcwilson Warren; A. H. Omar; S. Mahadevan
Using historical data, we highlight the consequences of anthropogenic ecosystem modifications on the abundance of mosquitoes implicated as the current most important potential malaria vector, Anopheles hyrcanus, and the most important West Nile virus (WNV) vector, Culex modestus, in the Camargue region, France. From World War II to 1971, populations of these species increased as rice cultivation expanded in the region in a political context that supported agriculture. They then fell, likely because of decreased cultivation and increased pesticide use to control a rice pest. The species increased again after 2000 with the advent of more targeted pest-management strategies, mainly the results of European regulations decisions. An intertwined influence of political context, environmental constraints, technical improvements, and social factors led to changes in mosquito abundance that had potential consequences on malaria and WNV transmission. These findings suggest that anthropogenic changes should not be underestimated in vectorborne disease recrudescence.
Poncon, Nicolas; Balenghien, Thomas; Toty, Celine; Ferre, Jean Baptiste; Thomas, Cyrille; Dervieux, Alain; L'Ambert, Gregory; Schaffner, Francis; Bardin, Olivier
Background Malaria and alcohol consumption both represent major public health problems. Alcohol consumption is rising in developing countries and, as efforts to manage malaria are expanded, understanding the links between malaria and alcohol consumption becomes crucial. Our aim was to ascertain the effect of beer consumption on human attractiveness to malaria mosquitoes in semi field conditions in Burkina Faso. Methodology/Principal Findings We used a Y tube-olfactometer designed to take advantage of the whole body odour (breath and skin emanations) as a stimulus to gauge human attractiveness to Anopheles gambiae (the primary African malaria vector) before and after volunteers consumed either beer (n?=?25 volunteers and a total of 2500 mosquitoes tested) or water (n?=?18 volunteers and a total of 1800 mosquitoes). Water consumption had no effect on human attractiveness to An. gambiae mosquitoes, but beer consumption increased volunteer attractiveness. Body odours of volunteers who consumed beer increased mosquito activation (proportion of mosquitoes engaging in take-off and up-wind flight) and orientation (proportion of mosquitoes flying towards volunteers' odours). The level of exhaled carbon dioxide and body temperature had no effect on human attractiveness to mosquitoes. Despite individual volunteer variation, beer consumption consistently increased attractiveness to mosquitoes. Conclusions/Significance These results suggest that beer consumption is a risk factor for malaria and needs to be integrated into public health policies for the design of control measures.
Lefevre, Thierry; Gouagna, Louis-Clement; Dabire, Kounbobr Roch; Elguero, Eric; Fontenille, Didier; Renaud, Francois; Costantini, Carlo; Thomas, Frederic
Olfactory conditioning of mosquitoes may have important implications for vector-pathogen-host dynamics. If mosquitoes learn about specific host attributes associated with pathogen infection, it may help to explain the heterogeneity of biting and disease patterns observed in the field. Sugar-feeding is a requirement for survival in both male and female mosquitoes. It provides a starting point for learning research in mosquitoes that avoids the confounding factors associated with the observer being a potential blood-host and has the capability to address certain areas of close-range mosquito learning behavior that have not previously been described. This study was designed to investigate the ability of the southern house mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus Say to associate odor with a sugar-meal with emphasis on important experimental considerations of mosquito age (1.2 d old and 3–5 d old), sex (male and female), source (laboratory and wild), and the time between conditioning and testing (<5 min, 1 hr, 2.5 hr, 5 hr, 10 hr, and 24 hr). Mosquitoes were individually conditioned to an odor across these different experimental conditions. Details of the conditioning protocol are presented as well as the use of binary logistic regression to analyze the complex dataset generated from this experimental design. The results suggest that each of the experimental factors may be important in different ways. Both the source of the mosquitoes and sex of the mosquitoes had significant effects on conditioned responses. The largest effect on conditioning was observed in the lack of positive response following conditioning for females aged 3–5 d derived from a long established colony. Overall, this study provides a method for conditioning experiments involving individual mosquitoes at close range and provides for future discussion of the relevance and broader questions that can be asked of olfactory conditioning in mosquitoes.
Sanford, Michelle R.; Tomberlin, Jeffery K.
Background Little is known about the composition and function of the saliva in black flies such as Simulium guianense, the main vector of river blindness disease in Brazil. The complex salivary potion of hematophagous arthropods counteracts their host's hemostasis, inflammation, and immunity. Results Transcriptome analysis revealed ubiquitous salivary protein families--such as the Antigen-5, Yellow, Kunitz domain, and serine proteases--in the S. guianense sialotranscriptome. Insect-specific families were also found. About 63.4% of all secreted products revealed protein families found only in Simulium. Additionally, we found a novel peptide similar to kunitoxin with a structure distantly related to serine protease inhibitors. This study revealed a relative increase of transcripts of the SVEP protein family when compared with Simulium vittatum and S. nigrimanum sialotranscriptomes. We were able to extract coding sequences from 164 proteins associated with blood and sugar feeding, the majority of which were confirmed by proteome analysis. Conclusions Our results contribute to understanding the role of Simulium saliva in transmission of Onchocerca volvulus and evolution of salivary proteins in black flies. It also consists of a platform for mining novel anti-hemostatic compounds, vaccine candidates against filariasis, and immuno-epidemiologic markers of vector exposure.
Over the last 20 years, ecological immunology has provided much insight into how environmental factors shape host immunity and host–parasite interactions. Currently, the application of this thinking to the study of mosquito immunology has been limited. Mechanistic investigations are nearly always conducted under one set of conditions, yet vectors and parasites associate in a variable world. We highlight how environmental temperature shapes cellular and humoral immune responses (melanization, phagocytosis and transcription of immune genes) in the malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi. Nitric oxide synthase expression peaked at 30°C, cecropin expression showed no main effect of temperature and humoral melanization, and phagocytosis and defensin expression peaked around 18°C. Further, immune responses did not simply scale with temperature, but showed complex interactions between temperature, time and nature of immune challenge. Thus, immune patterns observed under one set of conditions provide little basis for predicting patterns under even marginally different conditions. These quantitative and qualitative effects of temperature have largely been overlooked in vector biology but have significant implications for extrapolating natural/transgenic resistance mechanisms from laboratory to field and for the efficacy of various vector control tools.
Murdock, C. C.; Paaijmans, Krijn P.; Bell, Andrew S.; King, Jonas G.; Hillyer, Julian F.; Read, Andrew F.; Thomas, Matthew B.
The symbiotic relationship between Asaia, an ?-proteobacterium belonging to the family Acetobacteriaceae, and mosquitoes has been studied mainly in the Asian malaria vector Anopheles stephensi. Thus, we have investigated the nature of the association between Asaia and the major Afro-tropical malaria vector Anopheles gambiae. We have isolated Asaia from different wild and laboratory reared colonies of A. gambiae, and it was detected by PCR in all the developmental stages of the mosquito and in all the specimens analyzed. Additionally, we have shown that it localizes in the midgut, salivary glands and reproductive organs. Using recombinant strains of Asaia expressing fluorescent proteins, we have demonstrated the ability of the bacterium to colonize A. gambiae mosquitoes with a pattern similar to that described for A. stephensi. Finally, fluorescent in situ hybridization on the reproductive tract of females of A. gambiae showed a concentration of Asaia at the very periphery of the eggs, suggesting that transmission of Asaia from mother to offspring is likely mediated by a mechanism of egg-smearing. We suggest that Asaia has potential for use in the paratransgenic control of malaria transmitted by A. gambiae. PMID:20571792
Damiani, Claudia; Ricci, Irene; Crotti, Elena; Rossi, Paolo; Rizzi, Aurora; Scuppa, Patrizia; Capone, Aida; Ulissi, Ulisse; Epis, Sara; Genchi, Marco; Sagnon, N'Fale; Faye, Ingrid; Kang, Angray; Chouaia, Bessem; Whitehorn, Cheryl; Moussa, Guelbeogo W; Mandrioli, Mauro; Esposito, Fulvio; Sacchi, Luciano; Bandi, Claudio; Daffonchio, Daniele; Favia, Guido
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium vivax malaria reemerged in the Republic of Korea in 1993, with more than 2,000 cases reported in the northwestern part of the country over the last 10 years. To better assess the risk of malaria transmission we conducted a surveillance study to identify and characterize the habitats that produce potential Anopheles vector mosquitoes. Immature and adult mosquito collection
Ratana Sithiprasasna; Won Ja Lee; Donald M Ugsang; Kenneth J Linthicum
SUMMARY About 1 to 2 million people die of malaria every year. Anopheline mosquitoes are the obligatory vectors of Plasmodium spp., the causative agent of malaria. For transmission to occur, the parasite has to undergo a complex developmental program in the mosquito, culminating with sporozoite invasion of the salivary glands. Strong circumstantial evidence suggests that sporozoite invasion requires specific interactions and recognition between sporozoite and salivary gland proteins. Here we review recent progress toward the elucidation of invasion mechanisms.
Ghosh, Anil Kumar; Jacobs-Lorena, Marcelo
In the last 10 years the availability of the genome sequence of Anopheles gambiae and the development of a transgenic technology for several species of Anopheles mosquitoes have, in combination, helped in enabling us to gain several insights into the biology of these mosquitoes that\\u000a is relevant to their capacity as vectors of the malaria parasite. While this information is anticipated
Tony Nolan; Philippos Papathanos; Nikolai Windbichler; Kalle Magnusson; Jason Benton; Flaminia Catteruccia; Andrea Crisanti
Dengue is the most common mosquito-borne viral disease in humans. The spread of both mosquito vectors and viruses has led to the resurgence of epidemic dengue fever (a self-limited flu-like syndrome) and the emergence of dengue hemorrhagic fever (severe dengue with bleeding abnormalities) in urban centers of the tropics. There are no animal or laboratory models of dengue disease; indirect
Raymond Cologna; Philip M. Armstrong; Rebeca Rico-Hesse
We argue that using more natural blood feeding methods to study mosquito vector competence for dengue viruses and exploring the effect of viral infection on other mosquito life-history traits that influence vectorial capacity will significantly advance our understanding of dengue epidemiology. PMID:23295765
Lambrechts, Louis; Failloux, Anna-Bella
BACKGROUND: African malaria vectors bite predominantly indoors at night so sleeping under an Insecticide-Treated Net (ITN) can greatly reduce malaria risk. Behavioural adaptation by mosquitoes to increasing ITN coverage could allow vector mosquitoes to bite outside of peak sleeping hours and undermine efficacy of this key malaria prevention measure. METHODS: High coverage with largely untreated nets has been achieved in
Gerry F Killeen; Japhet Kihonda; Edith Lyimo; Fred R Oketch; Maya E Kotas; Evan Mathenge; Joanna A Schellenberg; Christian Lengeler; Thomas A Smith; Chris J Drakeley
Understanding how mosquito vectors and malaria parasites interact is of fundamental interest, and it also offers novel perspectives for disease control. Both the genetic and environmental contexts are known to affect the ability of mosquitoes to support malaria development and transmission, i.e., vector competence. Although the role of environment has long been recognized, much work has focused on host and parasite genetic effects. However, the last few years have seen a surge of studies revealing a great diversity of ways in which non-genetic factors can interfere with mosquito-Plasmodium interactions. Here, we review the current evidence for such environmentally mediated effects, including ambient temperature, mosquito diet, microbial gut flora, and infection history, and we identify additional factors previously overlooked in mosquito-Plasmodium interactions. We also discuss epidemiological implications, and the evolutionary consequences for vector immunity and parasite transmission strategies. Finally, we propose directions for further research and argue that an improved knowledge of non-genetic influences on mosquito-Plasmodium interactions could aid in implementing conventional malaria control measures and contribute to the design of novel strategies. PMID:23818841
Lefèvre, Thierry; Vantaux, Amélie; Dabiré, Kounbobr R; Mouline, Karine; Cohuet, Anna
In Sweden, human cases of tularemia caused by Francisella tularensis holarctica are assumed to be transmitted by mosquitoes, but how mosquito vectors acquire and transmit the bacterium is not clear. To determine how transmission of this bacterium occurs, mosquito larvae were collected in an area where tularemia is endemic, brought to the laboratory, and reared to adults in their original pond water. Screening of adult mosquitoes by real-time PCR demonstrated F. tularensis lpnA sequences in 14 of the 48 mosquito pools tested; lpnA sequences were demonstrated in 6 of 9 identified mosquito species. Further analysis confirmed the presence of F. tularensis holarctica–specific 30-bp deletion region sequences (FtM19inDel) in water from breeding containers and in 3 mosquito species (Aedes sticticus, Ae. vexans, and Ae. punctor) known to take blood from humans. Our results suggest that the mosquitoes that transmit F. tularensis holarctica during tularemia outbreaks acquire the bacterium already as larvae.
Andersson, Ann-Christin; Backman, Stina; Schafer, Martina L.; Forsman, Mats; Thelaus, Johanna
During the fifties, large scale malaria vector control projects based upon house spraying were implemented in Southern and Northern parts of Cameroon in line of malaria eradication concept. In the South, the pilot zone of Yaounde gathered about 150,000 inhabitants, in the forest area. First operations started in 1953 but the programme became actually operational in 1956. It was divided in two parts: the western part was treated with DDT, while the eastern one was treated with dieldrin. At the same time, the whole forested area was also treated with dieldrin until 1960. Yaounde itself was not treated because it was free of anopheles and malaria. House spraying in the pilot area of Yaounde was a complete success and plasmodic index dropped below 1%. The same success was observed in most of the southern treated areas. Unfortunatly dieldrin resistance of An. gambiae hampered this programme which stopped in 1960. The northem pilot project dealt with some 250,000 inhabitants around Maroua, in a savanna area. To avoid dieldrin resistance observed in 1956, DDT was selected and house spraying started in 1959. From a strictly operational point of view, the campaign was considered as a success. But after two years, it was noticed that plasmodic index remained still around the same value of 35% and the programme stopped. It was thus stated that according to available techniques it was not possible to reach the ultimate goal of eradication even when chemoprophylaxis (chloroquin + pyrimethamin) was added. The comparison between south (= success) and north (= failure) was very interesting as it underlined the big differences between epidemiological faces, an unaccepted concept at that time. Now ecological and epidemiological diversity is the well acknowledged. It also underlined the need of diversity of strategies according to the epidemiology of the disease and the ecology of its vector Vector control was then stopped for a while. In the eighties, Primary Health Care was promoted and malaria control shifted from vector to parasite control, vector control remaining as a prevention method. But chemioresistance of Plasmodium falciparum appeared and. quickly spread, at different levels, across the country. A new emphasis was therefore given to vector control thank to the newly developed technique of insecticide impregnated mosquito nets. Two kinds of studies were undertaken: - what people were actually doing in term of mosquito control at family level, the main reason and the costs as well as current use of mosquito nets - the efficacy of pyrethroid treated mosquito nets (IMN) in different areas of southern forested area against different malaria vectors: An. gambiae, An. nili, An. moucheti. It thus clearly appeared that IMN were very successful in sharply reducing malaria transmission aAd morbidity. But its promotion is limited by the current poor use of mosquito nets in Yaoundé (1 mosquito net for 27 "beds") while in Douala, where IMN are largely used against the bite of the huge population of Culex. quinquefasciatus, the implementation of the first riational centre for impregnation of mosquito net was a great success, as long as it was headed by a motivated and skill manager Impregnated mosquito nets appear thus as a tool of great efficacy but their sustainability is still matter of concern and promotional campaigns must be developed involving private and public, political and scientific spheres as well as the general population who should be encouraged to become partners and even actors of vector and malaria control at their household level. PMID:16579079
Carnevale, P; Mouchet, J
In much of sub-Saharan Africa, the mosquito Anopheles gambiae is the main vector of the major human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. Convenient laboratory studies have identified mosquito genes that affect positively or negatively the developmental cycle of the model rodent parasite, P. berghei. Here, we use transcription profiling and reverse genetics to explore whether five disparate mosquito gene regulators of P. berghei development are also pertinent to A. gambiae/P. falciparum interactions in semi-natural conditions, using field isolates of this parasite and geographically related mosquitoes. We detected broadly similar albeit not identical transcriptional responses of these genes to the two parasite species. Gene silencing established that two genes affect similarly both parasites: infections are hindered by the intracellular local activator of actin cytoskeleton dynamics, WASP, but promoted by the hemolymph lipid transporter, ApoII/I. Since P. berghei is not a natural parasite of A. gambiae, these data suggest that the effects of these genes have not been drastically altered by constant interaction and co-evolution of A. gambiae and P. falciparum; this conclusion allowed us to investigate further the mode of action of these two genes in the laboratory model system using a suite of genetic tools and infection assays. We showed that both genes act at the level of midgut invasion during the parasite's developmental transition from ookinete to oocyst. ApoII/I also affects the early stages of oocyst development. These are the first mosquito genes whose significant effects on P. falciparum field isolates have been established by direct experimentation. Importantly, they validate for semi-field human malaria transmission the concept of parasite antagonists and agonists.
Cohuet, Anna; Awono-Ambene, Parfait; De Iorio, Maria; Fontenille, Didier; Morlais, Isabelle; Christophides, George K.; Kafatos, Fotis C.; Vlachou, Dina
In much of sub-Saharan Africa, the mosquito Anopheles gambiae is the main vector of the major human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. Convenient laboratory studies have identified mosquito genes that affect positively or negatively the developmental cycle of the model rodent parasite, P. berghei. Here, we use transcription profiling and reverse genetics to explore whether five disparate mosquito gene regulators of P. berghei development are also pertinent to A. gambiae/P. falciparum interactions in semi-natural conditions, using field isolates of this parasite and geographically related mosquitoes. We detected broadly similar albeit not identical transcriptional responses of these genes to the two parasite species. Gene silencing established that two genes affect similarly both parasites: infections are hindered by the intracellular local activator of actin cytoskeleton dynamics, WASP, but promoted by the hemolymph lipid transporter, ApoII/I. Since P. berghei is not a natural parasite of A. gambiae, these data suggest that the effects of these genes have not been drastically altered by constant interaction and co-evolution of A. gambiae and P. falciparum; this conclusion allowed us to investigate further the mode of action of these two genes in the laboratory model system using a suite of genetic tools and infection assays. We showed that both genes act at the level of midgut invasion during the parasite's developmental transition from ookinete to oocyst. ApoII/I also affects the early stages of oocyst development. These are the first mosquito genes whose significant effects on P. falciparum field isolates have been established by direct experimentation. Importantly, they validate for semi-field human malaria transmission the concept of parasite antagonists and agonists. PMID:18483558
Mendes, Antonio M; Schlegelmilch, Timm; Cohuet, Anna; Awono-Ambene, Parfait; De Iorio, Maria; Fontenille, Didier; Morlais, Isabelle; Christophides, George K; Kafatos, Fotis C; Vlachou, Dina
BackgroundThe mosquito Anopheles funestus is one of the major malaria vector species in sub-Saharan Africa. Olfaction is essential in guiding mosquito behaviors. Odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) are highly expressed in insect olfactory tissues and involved in the first step of odorant reception. An improved understanding of the function of malaria mosquito OBPs may contribute to identifying new attractants\\/repellents and assist in
Wei Xu; Anthony J. Cornel; Walter S. Leal; Andreas Hofmann
We have carried out extensive population genetic studies on the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, concentrating on populations from the southern U.S. The goal of the research is to define genetic-geographic groupings of this serious vector.
J. R. Powell
The aim of the present study was to compare 2 urban habitat types: pools artificially filled with water from damaged or leaking water pipes (AF) and pools naturally filled by rainwater (NF), with regard to their favorability as breeding sites for mosquitoes. Two study areas were analyzed, 1 for 5 months and the other for 9 months, covering the whole period when AF pools contained water. The AF pools held water during the entire study, and showed lower fluctuations in surface area than NF pools. The AF pools showed higher levels of total mosquitoes and of stagnant-water mosquitoes. The floodwater mosquitoes were numerically (but not significantly) more abundant in NF pools. Nine mosquito species were identified. Habitat type, temperature, and season were significant in explaining the variability in species composition according to the canonical correspondence analysis. The most abundant species were Ochlerotatus albifasciatus (= Aedes albifasciatus, predominantly in NF pools), Culex dolosus, and Cx. pipiens (mainly in AF pools). The latter 2 species differed in their temporal dynamics, with Cx. dolosus associated with lower temperatures and Cx. pipiens with higher temperatures. Overall, the results indicate that although both habitat types harbored immature mosquitoes, the AF pools were more favorable than co-occurring rain pools. Easy-to-implement management actions such as the design of adequate drainage systems and the fast repair of broken pipes will be helpful to reduce the risk of human illness associated with mosquitoes in urban green areas. PMID:23687852
Quiroga, Laura; Fischer, Sylvia; Schweigmann, Nicolás
Infection rates of Aedes aegyptus to dengue 2 viral infection following feeding on artificial bloodmeals were improved by modifying the composition of the artificial bloodmeals. Analysis of these results was improved by reducing the days of extrinsic incu...
E. J. Houk J. L. Hardy
Fallow field biotopes that develop from abandoned rice fields are man-made wetlands that provide new habitats for various aquatic animals. Although consideration of such biotopes generally focuses on their positive aspects, this study evaluated the negative aspects of establishing fallow field biotopes with regard to mosquito breeding sites. To determine whether fallow field biotopes become breeding habitats for vector mosquitoes, we evaluated mosquito fauna in fallow field biotopes and adjacent rice fields. We found larvae of Anopheles lesteri, Anopheles sinensis and Culex tritaeniorhynchus (all: Diptera: Culicidae) in the biotopes. Although abundances of mosquito larvae in the biotopes and rice fields were statistically similar, mosquito abundances in rice fields increased dramatically in August when the water level reduced after the rainy season. The abundance and variety of the mosquitoes' natural predators were greater in biotopes than in rice fields because the former are a permanent and stable aquatic environment. A generalized linear mixed model showed a negative effect of predator diversity on mosquito larvae abundance in both habitats. Although fallow field biotopes become breeding habitats for vector mosquitoes, establishing biotopes from fallow fields in order to protect various aquatic animals, including mosquito insect predators, may help to control mosquito breeding. PMID:23167444
Ohba, S Y; Matsuo, T; Takagi, M
Triatoma infestans is the main and most widespread vector of Chagas disease in South America. For the first time, a large sample of sylvatic populations of T. infestans was analyzed by ITS-2 and mtCytB sequencing. ITS-2 showed a low level of polymorphism but revealed a dichotomy between the Andean and non-Andean sylvatic populations. On the contrary, mtCytB sequences showed a high polymorphism (19 haplotypes determined by 35 variable sites) revealing a strong structuring between most of the sylvatic populations and possible ancient isolation and bottleneck in the Northern Andes. The dichotomy Andean vs. non-Andean populations was not observed with this marker. Moreover, mtCytB haplotype genealogies showed that the non-Andean haplotypes would have derived from the Andean ones, supporting somewhat an Andean origin of the species. Nevertheless, a non-Andean origin could not be discarded because a remarkable genetic diversity was found in the non-Andean sample. The comparison of the sylvatic haplotypes with the domestic ones from GenBank suggested multiple events of T. infestans domestication in Andean and non-Andean areas, instead of a major and unique domestication event in the Bolivian Andes, as previously proposed. PMID:21463708
Waleckx, Etienne; Salas, Renata; Huamán, Nerida; Buitrago, Rosio; Bosseno, Marie-France; Aliaga, Claudia; Barnabé, Christian; Rodriguez, Roberto; Zoveda, Faustine; Monje, Marcelo; Baune, Marianne; Quisberth, Sergio; Villena, Erick; Kengne, Pierre; Noireau, François; Brenière, Simone Frédérique
BackgroundThe mosquito, Aedes aegypti, is the principal vector of the Dengue and yellow fever viruses. During feeding, an adult female can take up more than its own body weight in vertebrate blood. After a blood meal females excrete large amounts of urine through their excretion system, the Malpighian tubules (MT). Diuresis starts within seconds after the mosquito starts feeding. Aquaporins
Lisa L. Drake; Dmitri Y. Boudko; Osvaldo Marinotti; Victoria K. Carpenter; Angus L. Dawe; Immo A. Hansen; Pedro Lagerblad Oliveira
This report documents the first evidence for baculovirus infections (termed CuniNPV) in adult mosquitoes of Culex nigripalpus and Culex quinquefasciatus . These mosquito species are important vectors of St. Louis Encephalitis, Eastern Equine Encephalitis and West Nile Virus in the United States. ...
Culex mosquitoes are important vectors of West Nile virus and other encephalitides in North America. Mosquitoes in this genera, however, vary in their propensity for feeding on mammalian hosts and this is reflected in the difficulty in trapping some of these species using conventional traps and lur...
Genetic modification (GM) of mosquitoes (which renders them genetically modified organisms, GMOs) offers opportunities for controlling malaria. Transgenic strains of mosquitoes have been developed and evaluation of these to 1) replace or suppress wild vector populations and 2) reduce transmission and deliver public health gains are an imminent prospect. The transition of this approach from confined laboratory settings to open
B. G. J. Knols; H. C. Bossin; W. R. Mukabana; A. S. Robinson
Wolbachia is a maternal transmitted endosymbiotic bacterium that is estimated to infect up to 65% of insect species. The ability of Wolbachia to both induce viral interference and spread into mosquito vector population makes it possible to develop Wolbachia as a biological control agent for dengue control. While Wolbachia induces resistance to dengue virus in the transinfected Aedes aegypti mosquitoes,
Peng Lu; Guowu Bian; Xiaoling Pan; Zhiyong Xi
Mosquito-transmitted diseases remain one of the most significant causes of mortality in the African continent, despite successes in controlling these diseases in other regions of the world. The disproportionate impact in areas of poverty suggests a need for control that is efficient and does not require complex technological control strategies. Focusing on the vectors of disease, the mosquito, there are
Jesse A. Hardin; Fatimah L. C. Jackson
Background: Mosquitoes’ response to artificial lights including color has been exploited in trap designs for improved sampling of mosquito vectors. Earlier studies suggest that mosquitoes are attracted to specific wavelengths of light and thus the need to refine techniques to increase mosquito captu...
The African malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto continues to play an important role in malaria transmission, which is aggravated by its high degree of anthropophily, making it among the foremost vectors of this disease. In the current study we set out to unravel the strong association between this mosquito species and human beings, as it is determined by odorant cues derived from the human skin. Microbial communities on the skin play key roles in the production of human body odour. We demonstrate that the composition of the skin microbiota affects the degree of attractiveness of human beings to this mosquito species. Bacterial plate counts and 16S rRNA sequencing revealed that individuals that are highly attractive to An. gambiae s.s. have a significantly higher abundance, but lower diversity of bacteria on their skin than individuals that are poorly attractive. Bacterial genera that are correlated with the relative degree of attractiveness to mosquitoes were identified. The discovery of the connection between skin microbial populations and attractiveness to mosquitoes may lead to the development of new mosquito attractants and personalized methods for protection against vectors of malaria and other infectious diseases.
Verhulst, Niels O.; Qiu, Yu Tong; Beijleveld, Hans; Maliepaard, Chris; Knights, Dan; Schulz, Stefan; Berg-Lyons, Donna; Lauber, Christian L.; Verduijn, Willem; Haasnoot, Geert W.; Mumm, Roland; Bouwmeester, Harro J.; Claas, Frans H. J.; Dicke, Marcel; van Loon, Joop J. A.; Takken, Willem; Knight, Rob; Smallegange, Renate C.
Satellite imagery of northern Belize is used to examine the distribution of land use and breeding habitats of the malaria vector the Anopheles mosquito. A land cover classification based on multispectral SPOT and multitemporal Radarsat images identified e...
K. Pope P. Masuoka E. Rejmankova J. Grieco S. Johnson
Malaria mosquitoes often belong to complexes of sibling species, members of which are morphologically and genetically similar to each other. However, members within these complexes can vary significantly in their ecological adaptations and abilities to transmit the malaria parasite. The high degree of genetics similarity among sibling species makes the reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships within species complexes difficult. This paper reviews studies that infer the ancestral--descendant relationships among sibling species using molecular markers and chromosomal inversions. A methodology based on analyzing breakpoints of fixed overlapping inversions is shown to be useful for rooting phylogenies in complexes of sibling species, if the chromosomal arrangements in outgroup species are known. The construction of detailed phylogenies for malaria vectors will help to identify the association of evolutionary genomic changes with the origin of human blood choice and specific ecological adaptations. PMID:23875455
Sharakhov, I V
Understanding mosquito dispersal is critically important for vector-borne disease control and prevention. Mark-release-recapture methods using various marking techniques have made substantial contributions to the study of mosquito biology. However, the ability to mark naturally breeding mosquitoes noninvasively and with life-long retention has remained problematic. Here, we describe a method to mark naturally breeding mosquitoes with stable isotopes. Culex pipiens f. molestus mosquitoes were provisioned as larvae in laboratory experiments with 15N-labeled potassium nitrate and 13C-labeled glucose. Larval enrichment was sufficient to differentiate marked adult mosquitoes from unmarked control mosquitoes and the natural source population from Chicago Illinois, using either delta 15N or delta 13C. Isotopic retention lasted for at least 55 d for adult male and females mosquitoes. There were no consistent effects of isotopic enrichment on immature mosquito survival or adult mosquito body size. We then applied this marking technique to naturally breeding Culex pipiens mosquitoes in suburban Chicago, IL, and for the first time, report successful isotopic enrichment of mosquitoes in the field. This stable isotope marking technique will facilitate studies of mosquito dispersal. PMID:22308772
Hamer, Gabriel L; Donovan, Danielle J; Hood-Nowotny, Rebecca; Kaufman, Michael G; Goldberg, Tony L; Walker, Edward D
Mosquito densoviruses (MDV) are parvoviruses that replicate in the nuclei of mosquito cells and cause the characteristic nuclear hypertrophy (densonucleosis) that gives them their name. Several MDV that differ in pathogenicity both in vitro and in vivo have been isolated. MDV have a number of features that make them potentially attractive as biological control agents for mosquito-borne disease. They are nonenveloped and relatively stable in the environment. They are highly specific for mosquitoes and they infect and kill larvae in a dose dependent manner in the aqueous larval habitat. Infected larvae that survive to become adult mosquitoes exhibit a dose-dependent shortening of lifespan and many do not survive longer than the extrinsic incubation period for arboviruses. Thus they may have a significant impact on transmission of pathogens. Infected females can transmit the virus vertically by laying infected eggs in new oviposition sites. Studies on how MDV affect populations are relatively limited. Population cage studies suggest that they will persist and spread in populations and limited field studies have shown similar preimaginal mortality in wild populations to that seen in laboratory studies. The availability of infectious clones of MDV genomes allows the development of densovirus vectors for expressing genes of interest in mosquito cells and mosquitoes. Recently short hairpin RNA expression cassettes that induce RNA interference have been inserted into densovirus genomes. These expression cassettes should be useful for both research and disease-control applications. PMID:16997017
Carlson, Jonathan; Suchman, Erica; Buchatsky, Leonid
The host-feeding patterns of mosquitoes (n = 247) collected in the Borough of Queens in New York City in July and August 2000 were investigated using an indirect ELISA and a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-heteroduplex assay. Culex pipiens L. and Cx. restuans Theobald fed primarily on birds, and their feeding habits support their implication as enzootic vectors of West Nile virus. Culex salinarius Coquillett and Coquillettidia perturbans (Walker) fed mainly on mammals, with fewer blood meals taken from birds, and these two species are potential bridge vectors of West Nile virus. Culex mosquitoes took blood meals (n = 54) from 11 different avian species. Only the northern cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis), American robin (Turdus migratorius), and Brown-headed cow bird (MolIothrus ater) were fed upon by all three Culex species. Multiple blood feedings on avian hosts were detected in Cx. pipiens and Cx. restuans. Species identifications of Culex mosquitoes made using morphological characteristics were confirmed with a PCR assay that employed species-specific primers. All Cx. pipiens (n = 20) and Cx. salinarius (n = 10) specimens were correctly identified, but three (20%) of 15 Cx. restuans were misidentified as Cx. pipiens. PMID:12349862
Apperson, Charles S; Harrison, Bruce A; Unnasch, Thomas R; Hassan, Hassan K; Irby, William S; Savage, Harry M; Aspen, Stephen E; Watson, D Wesley; Rueda, Leopoldo M; Engber, Barry R; Nasci, Roger S
Determining the dose of an arbovirus transmitted by a mosquito is important to design transmission and pathogenesis studies simulating natural infection. Several different artificial infection and transmission methods used to assess vector competence and to estimate the dose injected during mosquito feeding have not been fully evaluated to determine whether they accurately reflect natural transmission. Additionally, it is not known whether different mosquito vectors transmit similar amounts of a given virus. Therefore, we compared three traditional artificial transmission methods using Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) and Aedes albopictus and Ochlerotatus taeniorhynchus mosquitoes. Both the mosquito species and the infection route used affected the amount of virus detected in the saliva after a 10-day extrinsic incubation period. Median titers of virus detected in saliva of Ae. albopictus and Oc. taeniorhynchus mosquitoes ranged from 0.2 to 1.1 log(10) (mean 0.7-1.4 log(10)) and 0.2 to 3.2 log(10) (mean 1.0-3.6 log(10)) plaque-forming units, respectively. The results of this study will aid in the design of transmission and pathogenesis studies involving arboviruses. PMID:16014828
Smith, Darci R; Carrara, Anne-Sophie; Aguilar, Patricia V; Weaver, Scott C
The control of arthropod vectors of pathogens that affect human and animal health is important for the eradication of vector-borne\\u000a diseases. The ortholog of the tick-protective antigen, subolesin, was identified in Aedes albopictus and found to have conserved epitopes in ticks and mosquitoes. RNA interference with the tick and mosquito double-stranded\\u000a RNA in three tick species resulted in significant gene
Mario Canales; Victoria Naranjo; Consuelo Almazán; Ricardo Molina; Suzana A. Tsuruta; Matias P. J. Szabó; Raúl Manzano-Roman; José M. Pérez de la Lastra; Katherine M. Kocan; María Isabel Jiménez; Javier Lucientes; Margarita Villar; José de la Fuente
Background The risk posed to the United Kingdom by West Nile virus (WNV) has previously been considered low, due to the absence or scarcity of the main Culex sp. bridge vectors. The mosquito Culex modestus is widespread in southern Europe, where it acts as the principle bridge vector of WNV. This species was not previously thought to be present in the United Kingdom. Findings Mosquito larval surveys carried out in 2010 identified substantial populations of Cx. modestus at two sites in marshland in southeast England. Host-seeking-adult traps placed at a third site indicate that the relative seasonal abundance of Cx. modestus peaks in early August. DNA barcoding of these specimens from the United Kingdom and material from southern France confirmed the morphological identification. Conclusions Cx. modestus appears to be established in the North Kent Marshes, possibly as the result of a recent introduction. The addition of this species to the United Kingdom's mosquito fauna may increase the risk posed to the United Kingdom by WNV.
Culex pipiens, Cx. restuans, and Cx. salinarius play important and most likely different roles in transmission of West Nile virus (WNV) in the northeastern United States. While Cx. pipiens and Cx. restuans are considered the main enzootic vectors of WNV, Cx. salinarius may be involved in epizootic cycles due to its broader host preferences. Accurate morphological identification of field-collected Culex specimens may be difficult, and therefore the New York State Department of Health arbovirus surveillance program allows combined Cx. pipiens and Cx. restuans pools to be tested for WNV. We have developed a modified and improved DNA isolation protocol using proteinase K digestion without traditional mosquito trituration and nucleic acid extraction to permit high-throughput screening of a large number of Culex specimens for species identification using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). This method utilizes a 96-well-plate format and a novel 1-step crude extraction procedure using proteinase K to obtain genomic DNA template from 1 mosquito leg in sufficient quantity for at least 2 standard 50-microl PCR reactions. Proteinase K digestion of legs from individual Culex mosquitoes was performed and used for PCR amplification with previously described species-specific ribosomal DNA primers. Using these rDNA primers, our modified proteinase K method successfully identified 91% to 100% of the Culex samples. PMID:18240527
Rochlin, Ilia; Santoriello, Michael P; Mayer, Richard T; Campbell, Scott R
Mosquito-borne diseases still remain a major problem in both human and veterinary sectors. The intensity of disease transmission in an area depends on the degree of human-vector contact. Knowledge of host-feeding patterns of mosquito vectors is a prerequisite for a better understanding of the host-vector relationship and the dynamics of disease transmission and for evolving suitable control strategies. The source
V. Thenmozhi; R. Selvaraj Pandian
Background In many parts of continental Africa house construction does not appear to impede entry of malaria vectors and, given their generally late biting cycle, the great majority of transmission takes place indoors. In contrast, many houses in São Tomé, 140 km off the coast of Gabon, are raised on stilts and built of wooden planks. Building on stilts is a time-honoured, but largely untested, way of avoiding mosquito bites. Exposure may also be affected by mosquito activity times and age composition of host-seeking females. A study was therefore undertaken on the island of São Tomé to determine if exposure to Anopheles gambiae, the only vector on the island, varied with house construction or time of the night. Methods A series of all-night landing collections were undertaken out of doors at ground level, inside houses at ground level, on the verandas of, and inside houses built on stilts. The gonotrophic age of an unselected sample of insects from the first three hours of landing collection (18:00–21:00) was determined by dissection. In addition, 1,149 miniature light-trap collections were obtained from 125 houses in the study area. Numbers collected were related to house construction. Results Biting of An. gambiae took place primarily outside at ground level. Less than one third of biting occurred inside houses. Houses built on stilts had half the number of An. gambiae in them compared to those built at ground level. Conversely houses with an eaves gap had more An. gambiae in them than houses without such a gap. Gonotrophic age did not affect house entry rates in An. gambiae. House construction affected Culex quinquefasciatus less than An. gambiae. Mean density per house, derived from a series of 1,490 randomly assigned light-trap collections, was over-dispersed with 18% of houses having 70% of the vectors. Conclusion House construction plays an important role in determining exposure to malaria vectors in São Tomé. Neighbours can have very different exposure levels. Recommendations for improvement in control are given.
Charlwood, J Derek; Pinto, Joao; Ferrara, Patrica R; Sousa, Carla A; Ferreira, Conceicao; Gil, Vilfrido; do Rosario, Virgillo E
Background The global emergence of West Nile virus (WNV) has highlighted the importance of mosquito-borne viruses. These are inoculated in vector saliva into the vertebrate skin and circulatory system. Arthropod-borne (arbo)viruses such as WNV are transmitted to vertebrates as an infectious mosquito probes the skin for blood, depositing the virus and saliva into the skin and circulation. Growing evidence has demonstrated that arthropod, and recently mosquito, saliva can have a profound effect on pathogen transmission efficiency, pathogenesis, and disease course. A potentially important aspect of natural infections that has been ignored is that in nature vertebrates are typically exposed to the feeding of uninfected mosquitoes prior to the mosquito that transmits WNV. The possibility that pre-exposure to mosquito saliva might modulate WNV infection was explored. Principal Findings Here we report that sensitization to mosquito saliva exacerbates viral infection. Prior exposure of mice to mosquito feeding resulted in increased mortality following WNV infection. This aggravated disease course was associated with enhanced early viral replication, increased interleukin-10 expression, and elevated influx of WNV-susceptible cell types to the inoculation site. This exacerbated disease course was mimicked by passive transfer of mosquito-sensitized serum. Significance This is the first report that sensitization to arthropod saliva can exacerbate arthropod-borne infection, contrary to previous studies with parasite and bacteria infections. This research suggests that in addition to the seroreactivity of the host to virus, it is important to take into account the immune response to vector feeding.
Schneider, Bradley S.; McGee, Charles E.; Jordan, Jeffrey M.; Stevenson, Heather L.; Soong, Lynn; Higgs, Stephen
Characterization of the fine-scale population dynamics of the mosquito Aedes taeniorhynchus is needed to improve our understanding of its role as a disease vector in the Galapagos Islands. We used microsatellite data to assess the genetic structure of coastal and highland mosquito populations and patterns of gene flow between the two habitats through time on Santa Cruz Island. In addition, we assessed possible associations of mosquito abundance and genetic diversity with environmental variables. The coastal and highland mosquito populations were highly differentiated from each other all year round, with some gene flow detected only during periods of increased precipitation. The results support the hypothesis that selection arising from ecological differences between habitats is driving adaptation and divergence in A. taeniorhynchus, and maintaining long-term genetic differentiation of the populations against gene flow. The highland and lowland populations may constitute an example of incipient speciation in progress. Highland populations were characterized by lower observed heterozygosity and allelic richness, suggesting a founder effect and/or lower breeding site availability in the highlands. A lack of reduction in genetic diversity over time in highland populations suggests that they survive dry periods as dormant eggs. Association between mosquito abundance and precipitation was strong in the highlands, whereas tide height was the main factor affecting mosquito abundance on the coast. Our findings suggests differences in the infection dynamics of mosquito-borne parasites in the highlands compared to the coast, and a higher risk of mosquito-driven disease spread across these habitats during periods of increased precipitation. PMID:20875066
Bataille, Arnaud; Cunningham, Andrew A; Cruz, Marilyn; Cedeno, Virna; Goodman, Simon J
A good resource site from Cornell's Entomology Department covering the biology and management of mosquitoes. This site is designed primarily for homeowners but there is some good, concise information for all interested in control of mosquitoes. Sections are clearly laid out with practical advice on what works and what does not in mosquito control including control of larvae, adults and personal protection from mosquitoes. A good reference list is provided at the end for anyone wishing to read more on mosquitoes. This is an excellent general mosquito reference with good, science-based recommendations. There are a few minor typographical errors that should be corrected.
We conducted laboratory experiments to verify molecular techniques of avian malaria parasite detection distinguishing between\\u000a an infected mosquito (oocysts on midgut wall) and infective mosquito (sporozoites in salivary glands) in parallel with blood-meal\\u000a identification from individual blood-fed mosquitoes prior to application to field survey for avian malaria. Domestic fowl\\u000a infected with Plasmodium gallinaceum was exposed to a vector and non-vector
Kyeong Soon Kim; Yoshio Tsuda; Toshinori Sasaki; Mutsuo Kobayashi; Yoshikazu Hirota
Jamestown Canyon virus (JCV) (Bunyaviridae: Orthobunyavirus) is a mosquito-borne zoonosis belonging to the California serogroup. It has a wide geographic distribution, occurring throughout much of temperate North Amer- ica. White-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus are the principal amplification hosts, and boreal Aedes and Ochlero- tatus mosquitoes are the primary vectors. A 10-year study was undertaken to identify potential mosquito vectors in
Theodore G. Andreadis; John F. Anderson; Philip M. Armstrong; Andrew J. Main
Malaria, yellow fever and filariasis eradication programmes in many parts of the world have in recent years become largely dependent on the use of DDT, dieldrin, ?-BHC and organophosphorus insecticides. It is of vital importance for the success of such programmes, often costly when undertaken on a nation-wide basis, that the insecticides being used are effective against the vectors of these diseases. During 1958 and 1959, susceptibility tests carried out in Trinidad using the standard World Health Organization mosquito adult test kit revealed that Anopheles aquasalis, the main vector of malaria in the coastal districts of Trinidad, was susceptible to DDT, moderately resistant to ?-BHC, and highly resistant to dieldrin. Tests with Aëdes aegypti, the vector of yellow fever, showed that the species was highly resistant to DDT, though susceptible to dieldrin and ?-BHC. Aëdes aegypti from Kingston, Jamaica, gave similar results. Culex pipiens fatigans, the vector of filaria parasites, was found to be highly resistant to DDT, ?-BHC and dieldrin.
Omardeen, T. A.
The absence of urban yellow fever virus (YFV) in Bolivian cities has been attributed to the lack of competent urban mosquito vectors. Experiments with Aedes aegypti from Santa Cruz, Bolivia, demonstrated infection (100%), dissemination (20%), and transmission of a Bolivian YFV strain (CENETROP-322).
Mutebi, John-Paul; Gianella, Alberto; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia; Tesh, Robert B.; Barrett, Alan D. T.
Dengue viruses and malaria protozoa are of increasing global concern in public health. The diseases caused by these pathogens often show regular seasonal patterns in incidence because of the sensitivity of their mosquito vectors to climate. Between years in endemic areas, however, there can be further significant variation in case numbers for which public health systems are generally unprepared. There
Simon I. Hay; Monica F. Myers; Donald S. Burke; David W. Vaughn; Nisalak Anandai; G. Dennis Shanksi; Robert W. Snow; David J. Rogers
The nocturnal mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus,as a vector of West Nile virus is the target of many surveillance and control efforts. Surveillance of this species primarily consists of light traps baited with a variety of chemical lures. While much research has focused on optimization of the olfa...
BACKGROUND: Species of anopheline mosquitoes are largely distributed over emerged lands around the world and, within the tropics, few areas are without these insects, which are vectors of malaria parasites. Among the exceptions is the Seychelles archipelago in the western Indian Ocean. However, in the Aldabra island group, located in the extreme western portion of the archipelago, Anopheles gambiae s.l.
Vincent Robert; Gérard Rocamora; Simon Julienne; Steven M Goodman
The Systematics of Aedes Mosquito Project (SAMP), a cooperative venture between the Smithsonian Institution and the U.S. Army Medical Research and Development Command, conducts biosystematic research on mosquitoes of medical importance to the Army. SAMP f...
W. N. Mathis
The Aedes aegypti densovirus (AeDNV) has potential as a delivery vector for foreign nucleic acids into mosquito cells. In this study, we investigated the ability of plasmids containing recombinant viral transducing genome to induce RNA interference (RNAi) effects in C6\\/C36 cells. We then evaluated the efficiency of a recombinant AeDNV vector to induce RNAi in Aedes albopictus larvae. We found
Jinbao Gu; Min Liu; Yuhua Deng; Hongjuan Peng; Xiaoguang Chen
Mosquito-vectored pathogens are responsible for devastating human diseases and are (re)emerging in many urban environments. Effective mosquito control in urban landscapes relies on improved understanding of the complex interactions between the ecological and social factors that define where mosquito populations can grow. We compared the density of mosquito habitat and pupae production across economically varying neighborhoods in two temperate U.S. cities (Baltimore, MD and Washington, DC). Seven species of mosquito larvae were recorded. The invasive Aedes albopictus was the only species found in all neighborhoods. Culex pipiens, a primary vector of West Nile virus (WNV), was most abundant in Baltimore, which also had more tire habitats. Both Culex and Aedes pupae were more likely to be sampled in neighborhoods categorized as being below median income level in each city and Aedes pupae density was also greater in container habitats found in these lower income neighborhoods. We infer that lower income residents may experience greater exposure to potential disease vectors and Baltimore residents specifically, were at greater risk of exposure to the predominant WNV vector. However, we also found that resident-reported mosquito nuisance was not correlated with our measured risk index, indicating a potentially important mismatch between motivation needed to engage participation in control efforts and the relative importance of control among neighborhoods. PMID:23583963
LaDeau, Shannon L; Leisnham, Paul T; Biehler, Dawn; Bodner, Danielle
Abstract Objective To study dengue vector breeding patterns under a variety of conditions in public and private spaces; to explore the ecological, biological and social (eco-bio-social) factors involved in vector breeding and viral transmission, and to define the main implications for vector control. Methods In each of six Asian cities or periurban areas, a team randomly selected urban clusters for conducting standardized household surveys, neighbourhood background surveys and entomological surveys. They collected information on vector breeding sites, people’s knowledge, attitudes and practices surrounding dengue, and the characteristics of the study areas. All premises were inspected; larval indices were used to quantify vector breeding sites, and pupal counts were used to identify productive water container types and as a proxy measure for adult vector abundance. Findings The most productive vector breeding sites were outdoor water containers, particularly if uncovered, beneath shrubbery and unused for at least one week. Peridomestic and intradomestic areas were much more important for pupal production than commercial and public spaces other than schools and religious facilities. A complex but non-significant association was found between water supply and pupal counts, and lack of waste disposal services was associated with higher vector abundance in only one site. Greater knowledge about dengue and its transmission was associated with lower mosquito breeding and production. Vector control measures (mainly larviciding in one site) substantially reduced larval and pupal counts and “pushed” mosquito breeding to alternative containers. Conclusion Vector breeding and the production of adult Aedes aegypti are influenced by a complex interplay of factors. Thus, to achieve effective vector management, a public health response beyond routine larviciding or focal spraying is essential.
Tana, Susilowati; Espino, Fe; Kittayapong, Pattamaporn; Abeyewickreme, Wimal; Wai, Khin Thet; Tyagi, Brij Kishore; Kroeger, Axel; Sommerfeld, Johannes; Petzold, Max
Antiinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-10 (IL-10) have been used to modulate and terminate inflammation and provide neuroprotection. Recently, we reported that the modular recombinant transfection vector NLSCt is an efficient tool for transgene overexpression in vivo, which induces neuroprotection as a result of its RGD-mediated integrin-interacting capacity. We here sought to evaluate the putative synergic neuroprotective action exerted by IL-10 overexpression using NLSCt as a transfection vector after an excitotoxic injury to the postnatal rat brain. For this purpose, lesion volume, neurodegeneration, astroglial and microglial responses, neutrophil infiltration, and proinflammatory cytokine production were analyzed at several survival times after intracortical NMDA injection in postnatal day 9 rats, followed by injection of NLSCt combined with the IL-10 gene, a control transgene, or saline vehicle solution. Our results show no combined neuroprotective effect between RGD-interacting vectors and IL-10 gene therapy; instead, IL-10 overexpression using NLSCt as transfection vector increased lesion volume and neuronal degeneration at 12 hr and 3 days postlesion. In parallel, NLSCt/IL-10 treated animals displayed increased density of neutrophils and microglia/macrophages, and a reduced astroglial content of GFAP and vimentin. Moreover, NLSCt/IL-10 treated animals did not show any variation in interleukin-1? or tumor necrosis factor-? expression but a slight increase in interleukin-6 content at 7 days postlesion. In conclusion, overexpression of IL-10 by using NLSCt transfection vector did not synergistically neuroprotect the excitotoxically damaged postnatal rat brain but induced changes in the astroglial and microglial and inflammatory cell response. PMID:21922521
Gonzalez, Pau; Peluffo, Hugo; Acarin, Laia; Villaverde, Antonio; Gonzalez, Berta; Castellano, Bernardo
Background The control of most vectors of malaria is threatened by the spread of insecticide resistance. One factor that has been hitherto largely overlooked is the potential effects of insecticide resistance on the ability of mosquitoes to transmit malaria: are insecticide-resistant mosquitoes as good vectors of Plasmodium as susceptible ones? The drastic physiological changes that accompany the evolution of insecticide resistance may indeed alter the ability of vectors to transmit diseases, a possibility that, if confirmed, could have major epidemiological consequences. Methods Using a novel experimental system consisting of the avian malaria parasite (Plasmodium relictum) and its natural vector (the mosquito Culex pipiens), two of the most common mechanisms of insecticide resistance (esterase overproduction and acetylcholinesterase modification) were investigated for their effect on mosquito infection rate and parasite burden. For this purpose two types of experiments were carried out using (i) insecticide-resistant and susceptible laboratory isogenic lines of Cx. pipiens and (ii) wild Cx. pipiens collected from a population where insecticide resistant and susceptible mosquitoes coexist in sympatry. Results The isogenic line and wild-caught mosquito experiments were highly consistent in showing no effect of either esterase overproduction or of acetylcholinesterase modification on either the infection rate or on the oocyst burden of mosquitoes. The only determinant of these traits was blood meal size, which was similar across the different insecticide resistant categories in both experiments. Conclusions Insecticide resistance was found to have no effect on Plasmodium development within the mosquito. This is the first time this question has been addressed using a natural mosquito-Plasmodium combination, while taking care to standardize the genetic background against which the insecticide resistance genes operate. Infection rate and oocyst burden are but two of the factors that determine the vectorial capacity of mosquitoes. Other key determinants of parasite transmission, such as mosquito longevity and behaviour, or the parasite's incubation time, need to be investigated before concluding on whether insecticide resistance influences the ability of mosquitoes to transmit malaria.
Malaria causes more than 300 million clinical cases and 665,000 deaths each year, and the majority of the mortality and morbidity occurs in sub-Saharan Africa. Due to the lack of effective vaccines and wide-spread resistance to antimalarial drugs, mosquito control is the primary method of malaria prevention and control. Currently, malaria vector control relies on the use of insecticides, primarily pyrethroids. The extensive use of insecticides has imposed strong selection pressures for resistance in the mosquito populations. Consequently, resistance to pyrethroids in Anopheles gambiae, the main malaria vector in sub-Saharan Africa, has become a major obstacle for malaria control. A key element of resistance management is the identification of resistance mechanisms and subsequent development of reliable resistance monitoring tools. Field-derived An. gambiae from Western Kenya were phenotyped as deltamethrin-resistant or -susceptible by the standard WHO tube test, and their expression profile compared by RNA-seq. Based on the current annotation of the An. gambiae genome, a total of 1,093 transcripts were detected as significantly differentially accumulated between deltamethrin-resistant and -susceptible mosquitoes. These transcripts are distributed over the entire genome, with a large number mapping in QTLs previously linked to pyrethorid resistance, and correspond to heat-shock proteins, metabolic and transport functions, signal transduction activities, cytoskeleton and others. The detected differences in transcript accumulation levels between resistant and susceptible mosquitoes reflect transcripts directly or indirectly correlated with pyrethroid resistance. RNA-seq data also were used to perform a de-novo Cufflinks assembly of the An. gambiae genome.
Bonizzoni, Mariangela; Afrane, Yaw; Dunn, William Augustine; Atieli, Francis K.; Zhou, Goufa; Zhong, Daibin; Li, Jun; Githeko, Andrew; Yan, Guiyun
From July to September in 2005 and 2006, a survey was conducted to identify mosquito species and mosquito-borne arboviruses at elevations ranging from 900-3280 m between 24 degrees 00' N and 29 degrees 00' N latitude in the northwestern part of Yunnan Province, China. A total of 54,879 mosquitoes representing 15 species and 4 genera was collected using UV light traps at 59 sites. Culex tritaeniorhynchus and Anopheles sinensis were the most abundant species. The density of mosquitoes as well as the diversity of species decreased with increasing altitude. A total of 21,008 mosquitoes in 281 pools representing all of the 15 species was tested for the presence of viruses using cell culture. Viruses identified included Japanese encephalitis virus (13 isolates), Getah virus (five isolates), Banna virus (three isolates), Kadipiro virus (five isolates), and Densovirus (seven isolates). These isolates were obtained from Culex tritaeniorhynchus (20 isolates), Anopheles sinensis (three isolates), Armigeres subalbatus (six isolates), Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus (two isolates), and from unidentified, mixed mosquitoes (two isolates). Most of the isolates were from collections made at elevations below 2,500 m. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 0, 000-000. PMID:19196130
Sun, Xiaohong; Fu, Shihong; Gong, Zhengda; Ge, Junqi; Meng, Weishan; Feng, Yun; Wang, Jinglin; Zhai, Yougang; Wang, Huanqin; Nasci, Roger; Wang, Huanyu; Tang, Qing; Liang, Guodong
Background There is very little information about the mosquito fauna of Qom Province, central Iran. By now only three species; Anopheles claviger, An. multicolor, and An. superpictus have been reported in the province. To study mosquito fauna and providing a primary checklist, an investigation was carried out on a collection of mosquitoes in this province. Methods: To study the mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) fauna, larval collections were carried out from different habitats on 19 occasions using the standard dipping technique during spring and summer 2008 and 2009. Results: In total, 371 mosquito larvae were collected and morphologically identified including 14 species representing four genera: Anopheles claviger, An. marteri, An. turkhudi, An. superpictus, Culex arbieeni, Cx. hortensis, Cx. mimeticus, Cx. modestus, Cx. pipiens, Cx. territans, Cx. theileri, Culiseta longiareolata, Cs. subochrea, and Ochlerotatus caspius s.l. All species except for An. claviger and An. superpictus were collected for the first time in the province. All larvae were found in natural habitats. The association occasions and percentages of the mosquito larvae in Qom Province were discussed. Conclusion: There are some potential or proven vectors of different human and domesticated animal pathogens in Qom Province. The ecology of these species and the unstudied areas of Qom Province need to be investigated extensively.
Saghafipour, A; Abai, MR; Farzinnia, B; Nafar, R; Ladonni, H; Azari-Hamidian, S
Background Malaria control methods targeting indoor-biting mosquitoes have limited impact on vectors that feed and rest outdoors. Exploiting mosquito olfactory behaviour to reduce blood-feeding outdoors might be a sustainable approach to complement existing control strategies. Methodologies that can objectively quantify responses to odour under realistic field conditions and allow high-throughput screening of many compounds are required for development of effective odour-based control strategies. Methods The olfactory responses of laboratory-reared Anopheles gambiae in a semi-field tunnel and A. arabiensis females in an outdoor field setting to three stimuli, namely whole human odour, a synthetic blend of carboxylic acids plus carbon dioxide and CO2 alone at four distances up to 100 metres were measured in two experiments using three-chambered taxis boxes that allow mosquito responses to natural or experimentally-introduced odour cues to be quantified. Results Taxis box assays could detect both activation of flight and directional mosquito movement. Significantly more (6-18%) A. arabiensis mosquitoes were attracted to natural human odour in the field up to 30 metres compared to controls, and blended synthetic human odours attracted 20% more A. gambiae in the semi-field tunnel up to 70 metres. Whereas CO2 elicited no response in A. arabiensis in the open field, it was attractive to A. gambiae up to 50 metres (65% attraction compared to 36% in controls). Conclusions We have developed a simple reproducible system to allow for the comparison of compounds that are active over medium- to long-ranges in semi-field or full-field environments. Knowing the natural range of attraction of anopheline mosquitoes to potential blood sources has substantial implications for the design of malaria control strategies, and adds to the understanding of olfactory behaviour in mosquitoes. This experimental strategy could also be extended from malaria vectors to other motile arthropods of medical, veterinary and agricultural significance.
New insecticides are urgently needed because resistance to current insecticides allows resurgence of disease-transmitting mosquitoes while concerns for human toxicity from current compounds are growing. We previously reported the finding of a free cysteine (Cys) residue at the entrance of the active site of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in some insects but not in mammals, birds, and fish. These insects have two AChE genes (AP and AO), and only AP-AChE carries the Cys residue. Most of these insects are disease vectors such as the African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto) or crop pests such as aphids. Recently we reported a Cys-targeting small molecule that irreversibly inhibited all AChE activity extracted from aphids while an identical exposure caused no effect on the human AChE. Full inhibition of AChE in aphids indicates that AP-AChE contributes most of the enzymatic activity and suggests that the Cys residue might serve as a target for developing better aphicides. It is therefore worth investigating whether the Cys-targeting strategy is applicable to mosquitocides. Herein, we report that, under conditions that spare the human AChE, a methanethiosulfonate-containing molecule at 6 microM irreversibly inhibited 95% of the AChE activity extracted from An. gambiae s. str. and >80% of the activity from the yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti L.) or the northern house mosquito (Culex pipiens L.) that is a vector of St. Louis encephalitis. This type of inhibition is fast ( approximately 30 min) and due to conjugation of the inhibitor to the active-site Cys of mosquito AP-AChE, according to our observed reactivation of the methanethiosulfonate-inhibited AChE by 2-mercaptoethanol. We also note that our sulfhydryl agents partially and irreversibly inhibited the human AChE after prolonged exposure (>4 hr). This slow inhibition is due to partial enzyme denaturation by the inhibitor and/or micelles of the inhibitor, according to our studies using atomic force microscopy, circular dichroism spectroscopy, X-ray crystallography, time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy, and liquid chromatography triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. These results support our view that the mosquito-specific Cys is a viable target for developing new mosquitocides to control disease vectors and to alleviate resistance problems with reduced toxicity toward non-target species. PMID:19714254
Pang, Yuan-Ping; Ekström, Fredrik; Polsinelli, Gregory A; Gao, Yang; Rana, Sandeep; Hua, Duy H; Andersson, Björn; Andersson, Per Ola; Peng, Lei; Singh, Sanjay K; Mishra, Rajesh K; Zhu, Kun Yan; Fallon, Ann M; Ragsdale, David W; Brimijoin, Stephen
The mosquito-borne La Crosse virus (LACV; Family Bunyaviridae) may cause encephalitis, primarily in children, and is distributed throughout much of the eastern United States. No antivirals or vaccines are available for LACV, or most other mosquito-borne viruses, and prevention generally relies on mosquito control. We sought to determine whether coffee extracts could interfere with LACV replication and vector mosquito development. Both regular and decaffeinated coffee demonstrated significant reductions in LACV replication in direct antiviral assays. This activity was not due to the presence of caffeine, which did not inhibit the virus life cycle. Aedes albopictus (Skuse; Diptera: Culicidae) mosquito larvae suffered near total mortality when reared in high concentrations of regular and decaffeinated coffee and in caffeine. Following larval exposure to sublethal coffee concentrations, adult A. albopictus mosquitoes had significantly reduced whole-body LACV titers 5?days post-infection, compared to larvae reared in distilled water. These results suggest that it may be possible to both control mosquito populations and alter the vector competence of mosquitoes for arthropod-borne viruses by introducing antiviral compounds into the larval habitat.
Eastep, Nicole E.; Albert, Rachel E.; Anderson, Justin R.
Viruses are the most abundant and diverse genetic entities on Earth; however, broad surveys of viral diversity are hindered by the lack of a universal assay for viruses and the inability to sample a sufficient number of individual hosts. This study utilized vector-enabled metagenomics (VEM) to provide a snapshot of the diversity of DNA viruses present in three mosquito samples from San Diego, California. The majority of the sequences were novel, suggesting that the viral community in mosquitoes, as well as the animal and plant hosts they feed on, is highly diverse and largely uncharacterized. Each mosquito sample contained a distinct viral community. The mosquito viromes contained sequences related to a broad range of animal, plant, insect and bacterial viruses. Animal viruses identified included anelloviruses, circoviruses, herpesviruses, poxviruses, and papillomaviruses, which mosquitoes may have obtained from vertebrate hosts during blood feeding. Notably, sequences related to human papillomaviruses were identified in one of the mosquito samples. Sequences similar to plant viruses were identified in all mosquito viromes, which were potentially acquired through feeding on plant nectar. Numerous bacteriophages and insect viruses were also detected, including a novel densovirus likely infecting Culex erythrothorax. Through sampling insect vectors, VEM enables broad survey of viral diversity and has significantly increased our knowledge of the DNA viruses present in mosquitoes. PMID:21674005
Ng, Terry Fei Fan; Willner, Dana L; Lim, Yan Wei; Schmieder, Robert; Chau, Betty; Nilsson, Christina; Anthony, Simon; Ruan, Yijun; Rohwer, Forest; Breitbart, Mya
Viruses are the most abundant and diverse genetic entities on Earth; however, broad surveys of viral diversity are hindered by the lack of a universal assay for viruses and the inability to sample a sufficient number of individual hosts. This study utilized vector-enabled metagenomics (VEM) to provide a snapshot of the diversity of DNA viruses present in three mosquito samples from San Diego, California. The majority of the sequences were novel, suggesting that the viral community in mosquitoes, as well as the animal and plant hosts they feed on, is highly diverse and largely uncharacterized. Each mosquito sample contained a distinct viral community. The mosquito viromes contained sequences related to a broad range of animal, plant, insect and bacterial viruses. Animal viruses identified included anelloviruses, circoviruses, herpesviruses, poxviruses, and papillomaviruses, which mosquitoes may have obtained from vertebrate hosts during blood feeding. Notably, sequences related to human papillomaviruses were identified in one of the mosquito samples. Sequences similar to plant viruses were identified in all mosquito viromes, which were potentially acquired through feeding on plant nectar. Numerous bacteriophages and insect viruses were also detected, including a novel densovirus likely infecting Culex erythrothorax. Through sampling insect vectors, VEM enables broad survey of viral diversity and has significantly increased our knowledge of the DNA viruses present in mosquitoes.
Ng, Terry Fei Fan; Willner, Dana L.; Lim, Yan Wei; Schmieder, Robert; Chau, Betty; Nilsson, Christina; Anthony, Simon; Ruan, Yijun; Rohwer, Forest; Breitbart, Mya
Wolbachia as an endosymbiont is widespread in insects and other arthropods and is best known for reproductive manipulations of the host. Recently, it has been shown that wMelpop and wMel strains of Wolbachia inhibit the replication of several RNA viruses, including dengue virus, and other vector-borne pathogens (e.g., Plasmodium and filarial nematodes) in mosquitoes, providing an alternative approach to limit the transmission of vector-borne pathogens. In this study, we tested the effect of Wolbachia on the replication of West Nile Virus (WNV). Surprisingly, accumulation of the genomic RNA of WNV for all three strains of WNV tested (New York 99, Kunjin, and New South Wales) was enhanced in Wolbachia-infected Aedes aegypti cells (Aag2). However, the amount of secreted virus was significantly reduced in the presence of Wolbachia. Intrathoracic injections showed that replication of WNV in A. aegypti mosquitoes infected with wMel strain of Wolbachia was not inhibited, whereas wMelPop strain of Wolbachia significantly reduced the replication of WNV in mosquitoes. Further, when wMelPop mosquitoes were orally fed with WNV, virus infection, transmission, and dissemination rates were very low in Wolbachia-free mosquitoes and were completely inhibited in the presence of Wolbachia. The results suggest that (i) despite the enhancement of viral genomic RNA replication in the Wolbachia-infected cell line the production of secreted virus was significantly inhibited, (ii) the antiviral effect in intrathoracically infected mosquitoes depends on the strain of Wolbachia, and (iii) replication of the virus in orally fed mosquitoes was completely inhibited in wMelPop strain of Wolbachia.
Hussain, Mazhar; Lu, Guangjin; Torres, Shessy; Edmonds, Judith H.; Kay, Brian H.
BACKGROUND: Entomopathogenic fungi, Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana, are promising bio-pesticides for application against adult malaria mosquito vectors. An understanding of the behavioural responses of mosquitoes towards these fungi is necessary to guide development of fungi beyond the 'proof of concept' stage and to design suitable intervention tools. METHODS: Here we tested whether oil-formulations of the two fungi could be
Ladslaus L Mnyone; Constantianus JM Koenraadt; Issa N Lyimo; Monica W Mpingwa; Willem Takken; Tanya L Russell
We are developing a set of ontologies dealing with vector-borne diseases as well as the arthropod vectors that transmit them. After building ontologies for mosquito and tick anatomy we continued this project with an ontology of insecticide resistance followed by a series of ontologies that describe malaria as well as physiological processes of mosquitoes that are relevant to, and involved
Pantelis Topalis; Emmanuel Dialynas; Elvira Mitraka; Elena Deligianni; Inga Siden-Kiamos; Christos Louis
Several species of captive birds at zoological gardens of Japan were found to be infected with avian Plasmodium. However, incriminated vector mosquito species have not been identified yet. To indicate the competent vectors of avian malaria parasite, we collected mosquitoes at a zoological garden in Japan and examined for the avian malaria parasite DNA. Totally, 1,361 mosquitoes of 11 species were collected in the zoological garden of Kanagawa, the south of Tokyo in Japan in 2005. Captured mosquitoes were pooled by each species, date collected, and location and used for DNA extraction. Eight out of 169 DNA samples were positive for the nested PCR of avian Plasmodium cyt b gene. Estimated minimum infection rates of mosquitoes were 5.9 per 1,000. The PCR positive mosquito species were Culex pipiens group and Lutzia vorax. Some DNA sequences amplified from collected mosquitoes were identical to avian Plasmodium lineages detected from captive birds in the same zoological garden studied. Our results suggest that C. pipiens group and L. vorax could be incriminated vectors of avian malaria parasite transmitting in captive birds kept in the zoological garden in Japan. PMID:19352704
Ejiri, Hiroko; Sato, Yukita; Sawai, Risa; Sasaki, Emi; Matsumoto, Rei; Ueda, Miya; Higa, Yukiko; Tsuda, Yoshio; Omori, Sumie; Murata, Koichi; Yukawa, Masayoshi
The use of frogs and tadpoles for disease vector control is still largely unexplored. Frogs are an important part of the ecosystem with a role for insect and pest control including mosquitoes. Available information suggests the existence of many direct and indirect factors affecting the growth and survival of both prey and predators. Other controphic species that have influence on this relationship also show considerable effect. Still, the associations of different prey and predator relationships in the environment to assess the feasibility of use of a species as biocontrol agent for vector control and management. However, frogs cannot be used as an independent intervention for disease vector control and more research is needed to use them effectively for mosquito control. PMID:18820354
Raghavendra, K; Sharma, P; Dash, A P
Background The control of mosquitoes transmitting infectious diseases relies mainly on the use of chemical insecticides. However, mosquito control programs are now threatened by the emergence of insecticide resistance. Hitherto, most research efforts have been focused on elucidating the molecular basis of inherited resistance. Less attention has been paid to the short-term response of mosquitoes to insecticides and pollutants which could have a significant impact on insecticide efficacy. Here, a combination of LongSAGE and Solexa sequencing was used to perform a deep transcriptome analysis of larvae of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti exposed for 48 h to sub-lethal doses of three chemical insecticides and three anthropogenic pollutants. Results Thirty millions 20 bp cDNA tags were sequenced, mapped to the mosquito genome and clustered, representing 6850 known genes and 4868 additional clusters not located within predicted genes. Mosquitoes exposed to insecticides or anthropogenic pollutants showed considerable modifications of their transcriptome. Genes encoding cuticular proteins, transporters, and enzymes involved in the mitochondrial respiratory chain and detoxification processes were particularly affected. Genes and molecular mechanisms potentially involved in xenobiotic response and insecticide tolerance were identified. Conclusions The method used in the present study appears as a powerful approach for investigating fine transcriptome variations in genome-sequenced organisms and can provide useful informations for the detection of novel transcripts. At the biological level, despite low concentrations and no apparent phenotypic effects, the significant impact of these xenobiotics on mosquito transcriptomes raise important questions about the 'hidden impact' of anthropogenic pollutants on ecosystems and consequences on vector control.
Summary The resident microbiota of insect vectors can impede transmission of human pathogens. Recent studies have highlighted the capacity of endogenous bacteria to decrease viral and parasitic infections in mosquito and tsetse fly vectors by activating their immune responses or directly inhibiting pathogen development. These microbes may prove effective agents for manipulating the vector competence of malaria and other important human pathogens.
Cirimotich, Chris M.; Ramirez, Jose L.; Dimopoulos, George
Flaviviruses are a highly diverse group of RNA viruses classified within the genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae. Most flaviviruses are arthropod-borne, requiring a mosquito or tick vector. Several flaviviruses are highly pathogenic to humans; however, ...
C. A. Rossi C. D. Baldwin F. Li M. J. Turell R. J. Grant-Klein
BACKGROUND: Malaria is a tropical disease caused by protozoan parasite, Plasmodium, which is transmitted to humans by various species of female anopheline mosquitoes. Anopheles stephensi is one such major malaria vector in urban parts of the Indian subcontinent. Unlike Anopheles gambiae, an African malaria vector, transcriptome of A. stephensi midgut tissue is less explored. We have therefore carried out generation,
Deepak P Patil; Santosh Atanur; Dhiraj P Dhotre; D Anantharam; Vineet S Mahajan; Sandeep A Walujkar; Rakesh K Chandode; Girish J Kulkarni; Pankaj S Ghate; Abhishek Srivastav; Kannayakanahalli M Dayananda; Neha Gupta; Bhakti Bhagwat; Rajendra R Joshi; Devendra T Mourya; Milind S Patole; Yogesh S Shouche
The distribution of malaria vector mosquitoes, especially those belonging to species complexes that contain non-vector species, is important for strategic planning of malaria control programmes. Geographical information systems have allowed researchers to visualize distribution data on maps together with environmental parameters, such as rainfall and temperature. Here, Maureen Coetzee, Marlies Craig and David le Sueur review our current knowledge on
M. Coetzee; M. Craig; D. le Sueur
Malaria vectors which predominantly feed indoors upon humans have been locally eliminated from several settings with insecticide treated nets (ITNs), indoor residual spraying or larval source management. Recent dramatic declines of An. gambiae in east Africa with imperfect ITN coverage suggest mosquito populations can rapidly collapse when forced below realistically achievable, non-zero thresholds of density and supporting resource availability. Here we explain why insecticide-based mosquito elimination strategies are feasible, desirable and can be extended to a wider variety of species by expanding the vector control arsenal to cover a broader spectrum of the resources they need to survive. The greatest advantage of eliminating mosquitoes, rather than merely controlling them, is that this precludes local selection for behavioural or physiological resistance traits. The greatest challenges are therefore to achieve high biological coverage of targeted resources rapidly enough to prevent local emergence of resistance and to then continually exclude, monitor for and respond to re-invasion from external populations. PMID:23758937
Killeen, Gerry F; Seyoum, Aklilu; Sikaala, Chadwick; Zomboko, Amri S; Gimnig, John E; Govella, Nicodem J; White, Michael T
Background Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) can persistently infect and cause limited damage to mosquito vectors. RNA interference (RNAi) is a mosquito antiviral response important in restricting RNA virus replication and has been shown to be active against some arboviruses. The goal of this study was to use a recombinant Sindbis virus (SINV; family Togaviridae; genus Alphavirus) that expresses B2 protein of Flock House virus (FHV; family Nodaviridae; genus Alphanodavirus), a protein that inhibits RNAi, to determine the effects of linking arbovirus infection with RNAi inhibition. Results B2 protein expression from SINV (TE/3'2J) inhibited the accumulation of non-specific small RNAs in Aedes aegypti mosquito cell culture and virus-specific small RNAs both in infected cell culture and Ae. aegypti mosquitoes. More viral genomic and subgenomic RNA accumulated in cells and mosquitoes infected with TE/3'2J virus expressing B2 (TE/3'2J/B2) compared to TE/3'2J and TE/3'2J virus expressing GFP. TE/3'2J/B2 exhibited increased infection rates, dissemination rates, and infectious virus titers in mosquitoes following oral bloodmeal. Following infectious oral bloodmeal, significantly more mosquitoes died when TE/3'2J/B2 was ingested. The virus was 100% lethal following intrathoracic inoculation of multiple mosquito species and lethality was dose-dependent in Ae. aegypti. Conclusion We show that RNAi is active in Ae. aegypti cell culture and that B2 protein inhibits RNAi in mosquito cells when expressed by a recombinant SINV. Also, SINV more efficiently replicates in mosquito cells when RNAi is inhibited. Finally, TE/3'2J/B2 kills mosquitoes in a dose-dependent manner independent of infection route and mosquito species.
Cardiopulmonary dirofilariasis is a cosmopolitan disease caused by Dirofilaria immitis, which affects mainly canids and felids. Moreover, it causes zoonotic infections, producing pulmonary dirofilariasis in humans. Heartworm disease is a vector-borne transmitted disease, thus transmission depends on the presence of competent mosquito species, which is directly related to favorable climate conditions for its development and survival. Cardiopulmonary dirofilariasis is mainly located in countries with temperate and tropical climates. Europe is one of the continents where animal dirofilariasis has been studied more extensively. In this article we review the current prevalence of canine and feline cardiopulmonary dirofilariasis in the European continent, the transmission vectors, the current changes in the distribution and the possible causes, though the analysis of the epidemiological studies carried out until 2001 and between 2002 and 2011. The highest prevalences have been observed in the southern European countries, which are considered historically endemic/hyperendemic countries. Studies carried out in the last 10?years suggest an expansion of cardiopulmonary dirofilariasis in dogs toward central and northern Europe. Several factors can exert an influence on the spreading of the disease, such as movement of infected animals, the introduction of new species of mosquitoes able to act as vectors, the climate change caused by the global warming, and development of human activity in new areas. Veterinary controls to prevent the spreading of this disease, programs of control of vectors, and adequate protocols of prevention of dirofilariasis in the susceptible species should be carried out.
Morchon, Rodrigo; Carreton, E.; Gonzalez-Miguel, J.; Mellado-Hernandez, I.
Insecticide treated nets (ITNs) represent a powerful means for controlling malaria in Africa because the mosquito vectors feed primarily indoors at night. The proportion of human exposure that occurs indoors, when people are asleep and can conveniently use ITNs, is therefore very high. Recent evidence suggests behavioral changes by malaria mosquito populations to avoid contact with ITNs by feeding outdoors in the early evening. We adapt an established mathematical model of mosquito behavior and malaria transmission to illustrate how ITNs can achieve communal suppression of malaria transmission exposure, even where mosquito evade them and personal protection is modest. We also review recent reports from Tanzania to show that conventional mosquito behavior measures can underestimate the potential of ITNs because they ignore the importance of human movements.
Govella, Nicodem J.; Okumu, Fredros O.; Killeen, Gerry F.
In the wake of the development of insecticide resistance in mosquitoes, novel strategies for halting malaria transmission are being developed. These include the genetic modification (GM) of mosquitoes to become incompetent vectors. Although mosquito GM technologies are progressing rapidly, the rationale behind choosing anti-parasite molecules to be expressed by mosquitoes has received less attention. Here, questions are explored that that should be addressed during the strategic selection of these anti-Plasmodium molecules, focusing on antimicrobial peptides. Properties that will enhance the likelihood of success are discussed, and the need to plan an initial strategy to eliminate molecules that cause fitness costs to the mosquito is considered. Effector molecules with proven anti-sporogonic stage activity are reviewed, and the activity of a selection of these molecules is detailed. PMID:20800543
Carter, Victoria; Hurd, Hilary
A wide range of arthropod-borne viruses threaten both human and animal health either through their presence in Europe or through risk of introduction. Prominent among these is West Nile virus (WNV), primarily an avian virus, which has caused multiple outbreaks associated with human and equine mortality. Endemic outbreaks of West Nile fever have been reported in Italy, Greece, France, Romania, Hungary, Russia and Spain, with further spread expected. Most outbreaks in Western Europe have been due to infection with WNV Lineage 1. In Eastern Europe WNV Lineage 2 has been responsible for human and bird mortality, particularly in Greece, which has experienced extensive outbreaks over three consecutive years. Italy has experienced co-circulation with both virus lineages. The ability to manage this threat in a cost-effective way is dependent on early detection. Targeted surveillance for pathogens within mosquito populations offers the ability to detect viruses prior to their emergence in livestock, equine species or human populations. In addition, it can establish a baseline of mosquito-borne virus activity and allow monitoring of change to this over time. Early detection offers the opportunity to raise disease awareness, initiate vector control and preventative vaccination, now available for horses, and encourage personal protection against mosquito bites. This would have major benefits through financial savings and reduction in equid morbidity/mortality. However, effective surveillance that predicts virus outbreaks is challenged by a range of factors including limited resources, variation in mosquito capture rates (too few or too many), difficulties in mosquito identification, often reliant on specialist entomologists, and the sensitive, rapid detection of viruses in mosquito pools. Surveillance for WNV and other arboviruses within mosquito populations varies between European countries in the extent and focus of the surveillance. This study reviews the current status of WNV in mosquito populations across Europe and how this is informing our understanding of virus epidemiology. Key findings such as detection of virus, presence of vector species and invasive mosquito species are summarized, and some of the difficulties encountered when applying a cost-effective surveillance programme are highlighted. PMID:24157510
Engler, Olivier; Savini, Giovanni; Papa, Anna; Figuerola, Jordi; Groschup, Martin H; Kampen, Helge; Medlock, Jolyon; Vaux, Alexander; Wilson, Anthony J; Werner, Doreen; Jöst, Hanna; Goffredo, Maria; Capelli, Gioia; Federici, Valentina; Tonolla, Mauro; Patocchi, Nicola; Flacio, Eleonora; Portmann, Jasmine; Rossi-Pedruzzi, Anya; Mourelatos, Spiros; Ruiz, Santiago; Vázquez, Ana; Calzolari, Mattia; Bonilauri, Paolo; Dottori, Michele; Schaffner, Francis; Mathis, Alexander; Johnson, Nicholas
Epizootic subtype IAB and IC Venezuelan equine encephalitis viruses (VEEV) readily infect the epizootic mosquito vector Aedes taeniorhynchus. The inability of enzootic subtype IE viruses to infect this mosquito species provides a model system for the identification of natural viral determinants of vector infectivity. To map mosquito infection determinants, reciprocal chimeric viruses generated from epizootic subtype IAB and enzootic IE VEEV were tested for mosquito infectivity. Chimeras containing the IAB epizootic structural gene region and, more specifically, the IAB PE2 envelope glycoprotein E2 precursor gene demonstrated an efficient infection phenotype. Introduction of the PE2 gene from an enzootic subtype ID virus into an epizootic IAB or IC genetic backbone resulted in lower infection rates than those of the epizootic parent. The finding that the E2 envelope glycoprotein, the site of epitopes that define the enzootic and epizootic subtypes, also encodes mosquito infection determinants suggests that selection for efficient infection of epizootic mosquito vectors may mediate VEE emergence. PMID:12021373
Brault, Aaron C; Powers, Ann M; Weaver, Scott C
Epizootic subtype IAB and IC Venezuelan equine encephalitis viruses (VEEV) readily infect the epizootic mosquito vector Aedes taeniorhynchus. The inability of enzootic subtype IE viruses to infect this mosquito species provides a model system for the identification of natural viral determinants of vector infectivity. To map mosquito infection determinants, reciprocal chimeric viruses generated from epizootic subtype IAB and enzootic IE VEEV were tested for mosquito infectivity. Chimeras containing the IAB epizootic structural gene region and, more specifically, the IAB PE2 envelope glycoprotein E2 precursor gene demonstrated an efficient infection phenotype. Introduction of the PE2 gene from an enzootic subtype ID virus into an epizootic IAB or IC genetic backbone resulted in lower infection rates than those of the epizootic parent. The finding that the E2 envelope glycoprotein, the site of epitopes that define the enzootic and epizootic subtypes, also encodes mosquito infection determinants suggests that selection for efficient infection of epizootic mosquito vectors may mediate VEE emergence.
Brault, Aaron C.; Powers, Ann M.; Weaver, Scott C.
Background & objectives: Bagaza virus (BAGV), a flavivirus synonymous with Israel turkey meningoencephalitis virus, has been found to circulate in India. BAGV has recently been held responsible for inducing febrile illness in humans and causing unusually high mortality to wild birds in Spain. A study was therefore, undertaken to determine its replication kinetics in certain mosquitoes and to determine vector competence and potential of the mosquitoes to transmit BAGV experimentally. Methods: Aedes aegypti, Culex tritaeniorhynchus and Cx quinquefasciatus mosquitoes were inoculated with BAGV; samples were harvested every day and titrated in BHK-21 cell line. Vector competence and experimental transmission were determined by examining the saliva of infected mosquitoes for virus and induction of sickness in suckling mice, respectively. Results: Cx. tritaeniorhynchus and Ae. aegypti mosquitoes yielded 5 log 10 and 4.67 log 10 TCID 50 /ml of virus on day 3 post-infection (PI), respectively while Cx. quinquefasciatus yielded a titre of 4 log 10 TCID 50 /ml on day 4 PI. BAGV was detected in saliva of all the infected mosquitoes demonstrating their vector competence. Experimental transmission of BAGV to infant mice as well as transovarial transmission was demonstrated by Cx. tritaeniorhynchus but not by Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes. Interpretation & conclusions: Replication of BAGV to high titres and dissemination to saliva in three most prevalent mosquitoes in India is of immense public health importance. Though no major outbreak involving man has been reported yet, BAGV has a potential to cause outbreaks in future. PMID:24056604
Sudeep, A B; Bondre, V P; Mavale, M S; Ghodke, Y S; George, R P; Aher, R V; Gokhale, M D
Background & objectives: Bagaza virus (BAGV), a flavivirus synonymous with Israel turkey meningoencephalitis virus, has been found to circulate in India. BAGV has recently been held responsible for inducing febrile illness in humans and causing unusually high mortality to wild birds in Spain. A study was therefore, undertaken to determine its replication kinetics in certain mosquitoes and to determine vector competence and potential of the mosquitoes to transmit BAGV experimentally. Methods: Aedes aegypti, Culex tritaeniorhynchus and Cx quinquefasciatus mosquitoes were inoculated with BAGV; samples were harvested every day and titrated in BHK-21 cell line. Vector competence and experimental transmission were determined by examining the saliva of infected mosquitoes for virus and induction of sickness in suckling mice, respectively. Results: Cx. tritaeniorhynchus and Ae. aegypti mosquitoes yielded 5 log10 and 4.67 log10 TCID50/ml of virus on day 3 post-infection (PI), respectively while Cx. quinquefasciatus yielded a titre of 4 log10 TCID50/ml on day 4 PI. BAGV was detected in saliva of all the infected mosquitoes demonstrating their vector competence. Experimental transmission of BAGV to infant mice as well as transovarial transmission was demonstrated by Cx. tritaeniorhynchus but not by Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes. Interpretation & conclusions: Replication of BAGV to high titres and dissemination to saliva in three most prevalent mosquitoes in India is of immense public health importance. Though no major outbreak involving man has been reported yet, BAGV has a potential to cause outbreaks in future.
Sudeep, A.B.; Bondre, V.P.; Mavale, M.S.; Ghodke, Y.S.; George, R.P.; Aher, R.V.; Gokhale, M.D.
Mosquitoes are critical vectors in many arboviral transmission cycles. Considering the increasing incidence of arboviral infections throughout the world, monitoring of vector populations for the presence of an arbovirus could be considered an important initial step of risk assessment to humans and animals. In response to this need, increased efforts to develop rapid and reliable diagnostic techniques have been undertaken; a single-step reverse transcription-loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay was developed to detect virus in vector mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti) using the Flock House Virus (FHV) as a model. The robustness of the RT-LAMP reaction was revealed by its ability to detect FHV from an "all-in-one" template using whole mosquito bodies within 30min. Furthermore, RT-LAMP identified successfully a mosquito carrying just a single FHV particle, a level easily overlooked in conventional analysis such as plaque forming assays. These observations suggest that RT-LAMP is more reliable and useful for routine diagnosis of vector mosquitoes in regions where the prevalence of vector-borne diseases such as West Nile fever or dengue fever are common. PMID:19027038
Perera, Namal; Aonuma, Hiroka; Yoshimura, Aya; Teramoto, Tokiyasu; Iseki, Hiroshi; Nelson, Bryce; Igarashi, Ikuo; Yagi, Takeshi; Fukumoto, Shinya; Kanuka, Hirotaka
Landscape and climatic factors regulate distributions of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) over time and space. The anthropogenic control of mosquito populations is often carried out at a local administrative scale, and it is applied based on the relevant agency's experiential knowledge rather than systematic analysis of spatial and temporal data. To address this shortcoming, a spatial and temporal analysis of landscape and climatic parameters in relation to mosquito populations in Black Hawk County, IA, USA, has been carried out. Adult mosquito sampling took place using CDC light traps from May to August 2003 in representative landscapes. Mosquitoes were identified to species level with Aedes trivittatus (Coquillet) and Aedes vexans (Meigen) dominating the collection totals. The best publicly available spatial data on landscape and demographic attributes were collated and included land cover, human census, soils, floodplain, elevation, wetlands, hydrography, roads, and vegetation indices derived from satellite imagery. Spatial processing was carried out to organize landscape attributes for statistical comparison with abundance data from the potentially important West Nile virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, WNV) vector species Ae. vexans and Ae. trivittatus. Landscape parameters shown to be significantly correlated with mosquito counts included soil hydrological properties, presence in floodplain, wetland areas, and deciduous and bottomland forest cover. Data on temperature and precipitation were used to investigate the climatic influence on the temporal occurrence of mosquito population abundances. Late spring rain provided ample moisture for mosquito development, but low temperatures delayed widespread emergence of Ae. trivittatus and Ae. vexans until June 2003. Landscape and climatic impacts on adult mosquito population distributions were demonstrated, and these results could form the basis for the development of a spatiotemporal modeling framework that would inform anthropogenic mosquito control anld vector-borne disease surveillance. A qualitative discussion concerning Culex pipiens (L.) and Culex restuans Theobald is included. PMID:18047216
DeGroote, John; Mercer, David R; Fisher, Jeffrey; Sugumaran, Ramanathan
Mosquito host-seeking behavior and heterogeneity in h