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Sample records for main parameters affecting

  1. Quantum parameter estimation affected by unitary disturbance

    E-print Network

    A. De Pasquale; D. Rossini; P. Facchi; V. Giovannetti

    2013-11-19

    We provide a general framework for handling the effects of a unitary disturbance on the estimation of the amplitude $\\lambda$ associated to a unitary dynamics. By computing an analytical and general expression for the quantum Fisher information, we prove that the optimal estimation precision for $\\lambda$ cannot be outperformed through the addition of such a unitary disturbance. However, if the dynamics of the system is already affected by an external field, increasing its strength does not necessary imply a loss in the optimal estimation precision.

  2. Prediction of Main Parameters of 24 Solar Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chumak, O. V.

    It is shown that there are certain rules which connect a height of previous solar activity cycle with the entropy of the next one. For even and odd cycles these rules are asymmetrical. So if it is known height of the previous cycle one can make estimation for entropy of the next one according to one of these rules. It has been shown also, that entropy (ES) of a cycle has good correlation with its height. On the other hand height of a cycle (Wmax) correlates with duration of its rise branch (Waldmeier's rule), and it allows to get the estimation of epoch of maximum (Tmax) of future cycle. Epignosis shows that the reliability of such forecasts is about 83%. Below we present the values of main parameters of future 24 cycle obtained according to these rules: Shannon's entropy ES = 5.0 ± 0.2; height of the cycle Wmax = 95± 20 (in monthly Wolf numbers); duration of arise branch Ta = 4.5 ± 0.5 years; epoch of the cycle maximum Tmax = 2012.25 ± 0.5 year. Full version of the paper is prepared to be published in Solar System Research.

  3. A review of the meteorological parameters which affect aerial application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, L. S.; Frost, W.

    1979-01-01

    The ambient wind field and temperature gradient were found to be the most important parameters. Investigation results indicated that the majority of meteorological parameters affecting dispersion were interdependent and the exact mechanism by which these factors influence the particle dispersion was largely unknown. The types and approximately ranges of instrumented capabilities for a systematic study of the significant meteorological parameters influencing aerial applications were defined. Current mathematical dispersion models were also briefly reviewed. Unfortunately, a rigorous dispersion model which could be applied to aerial application was not available.

  4. Parameters Affecting Viscosity as a Quality Control for Frozen Fish

    E-print Network

    Parameters Affecting Viscosity as a Quality Control for Frozen Fish A. J. BORDER1AS, F. JIMENEZ-COLMENERO, and M. TEJADA Introduction Several authors have reported de- creases in the viscosity ofproteins fromLl) has shown a cor- relation between the viscosity value and 'Tejada, M., A. 1. Borderfas, and F. Jimenez

  5. The main factors affecting the reproductive performance of rabbit does: a review.

    PubMed

    Castellini, Cesare; Dal Bosco, Alessandro; Arias-Álvarez, Maria; Lorenzo, Pedro L; Cardinali, Raffaella; Rebollar, Pilar Garcia

    2010-12-01

    This paper reviews the main factors affecting the reproductive performance of rabbit does. In the last 15 years the profitability of rabbit farms has increased mainly due to improvements in management and genetic selection but several problems related to animal welfare have also occurred. The replacement and the mortality rates of female per year are very high and the replaced does often show poor body condition and poor health status. The effect of kindling order, litter size, genetic strain, weaning age and reproductive rhythm on the reproductive performance and welfare of females and mechanisms implicated in these effects are discussed. The rabbit doe of modern strains produces a lot of milk with high energetic value, which leads to a mobilization of body fat resulting in a negative energy balance. In the current reproductive rhythms, there is an extensive overlap between lactation and gestation. The resulting energetic and hormonal antagonism reduces the fertility rate and lifespan of the doe. Strategies to optimize these parameters are discussed. An approach that combines various strategies seems to be required to meet these objectives. Since the factors involved in this system are predetermined (genetic strain, environment) the most powerful way to improve doe welfare is to choose a reproductive rhythm more adapted to the physiology of the does. PMID:21051160

  6. Laboratory measurements of parameters affecting wet deposition of methyl iodide

    SciTech Connect

    Maeck, W.J.; Honkus, R.J.; Keller, J.H.; Voilleque, P.G.

    1984-09-01

    The transfer of gaseous methyl iodide (CH/sub 3/I) to raindrops and the initial retention by vegetation of CH/sub 3/I in raindrops have been studied in a laboratory experimental program. The measured air-to-drop transfer parameters and initial retention factors both affect the wet deposition of methyl iodide onto vegetation. No large effects on the air-to-drop transfer due to methyl iodide concentration, temperature, acidity, or rain type were observed. Differences between laboratory measurements and theoretical values of the mass transfer coefficient were found. Pasture grass, lettuce, and alfalfa were used to study the initial retention of methyl iodide by vegetation. Only a small fraction of the incident CH/sub 3/I in raindrops was held by any of the three vegetation types.

  7. DO BEHAVIORAL RESPONSES TO PESTICIDE EXPOSURE AFFECT WILDLIFE POPULATION PARAMETERS?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Avian behavioral responses to exposure to agricultural pesticides are reviewed in relation to ultimate effects on survival and reproduction. Pesticide-induced changes in foraging behaviors may lead to the formation of conditioned aversions that affect subsequent dietary exposure ...

  8. Importance and sensitivity of parameters affecting the Zion Seismic Risk

    SciTech Connect

    George, L.L.; O'Connell, W.J.

    1985-06-01

    This report presents the results of a study on the importance and sensitivity of structures, systems, equipment, components and design parameters used in the Zion Seismic Risk Calculations. This study is part of the Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP) supported by the NRC Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. The objective of this study is to provide the NRC with results on the importance and sensitivity of parameters used to evaluate seismic risk. These results can assist the NRC in making decisions dealing with the allocation of research resources on seismic issues. This study uses marginal analysis in addition to importance and sensitivity analysis to identify subject areas (input parameter areas) for improvements that reduce risk, estimate how much the improvement dfforts reduce risk, and rank the subject areas for improvements. Importance analysis identifies the systems, components, and parameters that are important to risk. Sensitivity analysis estimates the change in risk per unit improvement. Marginal analysis indicates the reduction in risk or uncertainty for improvement effort made in each subject area. The results described in this study were generated using the SEISIM (Systematic Evaluation of Important Safety Improvement Measures) and CHAIN computer codes. Part 1 of the SEISIM computer code generated the failure probabilities and risk values. Part 2 of SEISIM, along with the CHAIN computer code, generated the importance and sensitivity measures.

  9. [Sizes of soil macropores and related main affecting factors on a vegetated basalt slope].

    PubMed

    Guan, Qi; Xu, Ze-Min; Tian, Lin

    2013-10-01

    The landslide on vegetated slopes caused by extreme weather has being increased steadily, and the preferential flow in soil macropores plays an important role in the landslide. By using water breakthrough curve and Poiseuille equation, this paper estimated the radius range, amount, and average volume of soil macropores on a vegetated basalt slope of Maka Mountain, Southwest China, and analyzed the distribution of the soil macropores and the main affecting factors. In the study area, the radius of soil macropores ranged from 0.3 to 1.8 mm, mainly between 0.5 and 1.2 mm. The large-radius macropores (1.4-1.8 mm) were lesser, while the small-radius macropores (< 1.4 mm) were more. With the development of soil profile, soil macropores were more in upper layers and lesser in deeper layers. The average volume of the macropores contributed 84.7% to the variance of steady effluent rate. Among the factors affecting the average volume of the large macropores, vegetations root mass had a linear relationship, with the correlation coefficient being 0.70, and soil organic matter content also had a linear relationship, with the correlation coefficient being 0.64. PMID:24483084

  10. Parameters affecting microwave-assisted extraction of withanolides.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, B; Christen, P; Veuthey, J L

    2001-01-01

    Focused microwave-assisted extraction was applied to the extraction of three main withanolides from airdried leaves of Iochroma gesnerioides, namely, withaferin A, iochromolide and withacnistin. Six extraction variables, i.e. nature and volume of extracting solvent, sample moisture, extraction time, power of irradiation and particle size, were investigated with respect to the recovery of withanolides. The most favourable conditions were obtained by using powdered plant material (< 220 microns), previously impregnated with water for 15 min, and extracted with methanol for 40 s at 25 W. The results obtained using the optimised method were compared to those achievable with Soxhlet extraction. PMID:11705260

  11. Visual display of reservoir parameters affecting enhanced oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, J.R.

    1996-04-30

    This project consists of two parts. In Part 1, well logs, other well data, drilling, and production data for the Pioneer Field in the southern San Joaquin Valley of California were obtained, assembled, and input to a commercial relational database manager. These data are being used in PC-based geologic mapping, evaluation, and visualization software programs to produce 2-D and 3-D representations of the reservoir geometry, facies and subfacies, stratigraphy, porosity, oil saturation, and other measured and model parameters. Petrographic and petrophysical measurements made on samples from Pioneer Field, including core, cuttings and liquids, are being used to calibrate the log suite. In Part 2, these data sets are being used to develop algorithms to correlate log response to geologic and engineering measurements. Rock alteration due to interactions with hot fluids are being quantitatively modeled and used to predict the reservoir response if the rock were subjected to thermally enhanced oil recovery (TEOR).

  12. Parameters affecting of Akkuyu's safety assessment for severe core damages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavun, Yusuf; Karasulu, Muzaffer

    2015-07-01

    We have looked at all past core meltdowns (Three Mile Island, Chernobyl and Fukushima incidents) and postulated the fourth one might be taking place in the future most probably in a newly built reactors anywhere of the earth in any type of NPP. The probability of this observation is high considering the nature of the machine and human interaction. Operation experience is a very significant parameter as well as the safety culture of the host nation. The concerns is not just a lack of experience with industry with the new comers, but also the infrastructure and established institutions who will be dealing with the Emergencies. Lack of trained and educated Emergency Response Organizations (ERO) is a major concern. The culture on simple fire drills even makes the difference when a severe condition occurs in the industry. The study assumes the fourth event will be taking place at the Akkuyu NGS and works backwards as required by the "what went wrong " scenarios and comes up with interesting results. The differences studied in depth to determine the impact to the severe accidents. The all four design have now core catchers. We have looked at the operator errors'like in TMI); Operator errors combined with design deficiencies(like in Chernobyl) and natural disasters( like in Fukushima) and found operator errors to be more probable event on the Akkuyu's postulated next incident. With respect to experiences of the operators we do not have any data except for long and successful operating history of the Soviet design reactors up until the Chernobyl incident. Since the Akkuyu will be built, own and operated by the Russians we have found no alarming concerns at the moment. At the moment, there is no body be able to operate those units in Turkey. Turkey is planning to build the required manpower during the transition period. The resolution of the observed parameters lies to work and educate, train of the host nation and exercise together.

  13. Regression analysis of technical parameters affecting nuclear power plant performances

    SciTech Connect

    Ghazy, R.; Ricotti, M. E.; Trueco, P.

    2012-07-01

    Since the 80's many studies have been conducted in order to explicate good and bad performances of commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs), but yet no defined correlation has been found out to be totally representative of plant operational experience. In early works, data availability and the number of operating power stations were both limited; therefore, results showed that specific technical characteristics of NPPs were supposed to be the main causal factors for successful plant operation. Although these aspects keep on assuming a significant role, later studies and observations showed that other factors concerning management and organization of the plant could instead be predominant comparing utilities operational and economic results. Utility quality, in a word, can be used to summarize all the managerial and operational aspects that seem to be effective in determining plant performance. In this paper operational data of a consistent sample of commercial nuclear power stations, out of the total 433 operating NPPs, are analyzed, mainly focusing on the last decade operational experience. The sample consists of PWR and BWR technology, operated by utilities located in different countries, including U.S. (Japan)) (France)) (Germany)) and Finland. Multivariate regression is performed using Unit Capability Factor (UCF) as the dependent variable; this factor reflects indeed the effectiveness of plant programs and practices in maximizing the available electrical generation and consequently provides an overall indication of how well plants are operated and maintained. Aspects that may not be real causal factors but which can have a consistent impact on the UCF, as technology design, supplier, size and age, are included in the analysis as independent variables. (authors)

  14. Affective state influences perception by affecting decision parameters underlying bias and sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Lynn, Spencer K; Zhang, Xuan; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2012-08-01

    Studies of the effect of affect on perception often show consistent directional effects of a person's affective state on perception. Unpleasant emotions have been associated with a "locally focused" style of stimulus evaluation, and positive emotions with a "globally focused" style. Typically, however, studies of affect and perception have not been conducted under the conditions of perceptual uncertainty and behavioral risk inherent to perceptual judgments outside the laboratory. We investigated the influence of perceivers' experienced affect (valence and arousal) on the utility of social threat perception by combining signal detection theory and behavioral economics. We compared 3 perceptual decision environments that systematically differed with respect to factors that underlie uncertainty and risk: the base rate of threat, the costs of incorrect identification threat, and the perceptual similarity of threats and nonthreats. We found that no single affective state yielded the best performance on the threat perception task across the 3 environments. Unpleasant valence promoted calibration of response bias to base rate and costs, high arousal promoted calibration of perceptual sensitivity to perceptual similarity, and low arousal was associated with an optimal adjustment of bias to sensitivity. However, the strength of these associations was conditional upon the difficulty of attaining optimal bias and high sensitivity, such that the effect of the perceiver's affective state on perception differed with the cause and/or level of uncertainty and risk. PMID:22251054

  15. Age-density relation of Main galaxies at fixed parameters or for different galaxy families

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Xin-Fa; Song, Jun; Chen, Yi-Qing; Jiang, Peng; Ding, Ying-Ping

    2015-09-01

    Using two volume-limited Main galaxy samples of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 10 (SDSS DR10), we examine the environmental dependence of galaxy age at fixed parameters or for different galaxy families. Statistical results show that the environmental dependence of galaxy age is stronger for late type galaxies, but can be still observed for the early types: the age of galaxies in the densest regime is preferentially older than that in the lowest density regime with the same morphological type. We also find that the environmental dependence of galaxy age for red galaxies and Low Stellar Mass (LSM) galaxies is stronger, while the one for blue galaxies and High Stellar Mass ( HSM ) galaxies is very weak.

  16. Climate Change-Related Hydrologic Variation Affects Dissolved Organic Carbon Export to the Gulf of Maine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huntington, T. G.; Balch, W. M.; Aiken, G.; Butler, K. D.; Billmire, M.; Roesler, C. S.; Camill, P.; Bourakovsky, A.

    2014-12-01

    Ongoing climate change is affecting the timing and amount of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) exported to the Gulf of Maine (GoM) through effects on hydrologic conditions. Climate warming in the northeast United States has resulted in decreases in snowfall amount and increases in the proportion of annual precipitation that falls as rain compared with snow. Warming has resulted in an increase in runoff during winter and earlier snowmelt and associated high spring flow. Increases in annual precipitation have resulted in increases in annual runoff. Increases in flashiness in some rivers have resulted in higher variability in daily runoff. DOC fluxes were estimated for water years 1950 through 2012 in eight rivers draining to the GoM that had long-term discharge data and data for DOC during all months of the year. These estimates used LOADEST to fit a seasonally-adjusted concentration - discharge relation. The adjusted maximum likelihood estimation (AMLE) method was used to estimate loads. One of several predefined regression models evaluated in LOADEST was selected based on the Akaike information criterion (AIC) for each river. This analysis assumed stationarity in the concentration - discharge relations. The proportion of total annual DOC exported during winter has increased. The proportion of DOC exported during March and April has also increased and the proportion exported during May has decreased in association with earlier snowmelt runoff and earlier recession to summer low flow. The total annual DOC exported by these rivers increased significantly from 1950 to 2012. The increase in flashiness has increased daily variability in DOC export in some rivers. Changes in the timing and amount of DOC exported to the near coastal ocean may influence marine biogeochemistry including the development of nuisance and harmful algal blooms, carbon sequestration, and the interpretation of satellite-derived ocean color. Terrestrially derived DOC exported to the marine environment could decrease phytoplankton productivity through light attenuation.

  17. Effect of welding parameters on the heat-affected zone of AISI409 ferritic stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjbarnodeh, Eslam; Hanke, Stefanie; Weiss, Sabine; Fischer, Alfons

    2012-10-01

    One of the main problems during the welding of ferritic stainless steels is severe grain growth within the heat-affected zone (HAZ). In the present study, the microstructural characteristics of tungsten inert gas (TIG) welded AISI409 ferritic stainless steel were investigated by electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD), and the effects of welding parameters on the grain size, local misorientation, and low-angle grain boundaries were studied. A 3-D finite element model (FEM) was developed to predict the effects of welding parameters on the holding time of the HAZ above the critical temperature of grain growth. It is found that the base metal is not fully recrystallized. During the welding, complete recrystallization is followed by severe grain growth. A decrease in the number of low-angle grain boundaries is observed within the HAZ. FEM results show that the final state of residual strains is caused by competition between welding plastic strains and their release by recrystallization. Still, the decisive factor for grain growth is heat input.

  18. Analysis of main parameters affecting substrate/mortar contact area through tridimensional laser scanner.

    PubMed

    Stolz, Carina M; Masuero, Angela B

    2015-10-01

    This study assesses the influence of the granulometric composition of sand, application energy and the superficial tension of substrates on the contact area of rendering mortars. Three substrates with distinct wetting behaviors were selected and mortars were prepared with different sand compositions. Characterization tests were performed on fresh and hardened mortars, as well as the rheological characterization. Mortars were applied to substrates with two different energies. The interfacial area was then digitized with 3D scanner. Results show that variables are all of influence on the interfacial contact in the development area. Furthermore, 3D laser scanning proved to be a good method to contact area measurement. PMID:26046982

  19. The Maine Question: How Is 4-Year College Enrollment Affected by Mandatory College Entrance Exams?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurwitz, Michael; Smith, Jonathan; Niu, Sunny; Howell, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    We use a difference-in-differences analytic approach to estimate postsecondary consequences from Maine's mandate that all public school juniors take the SAT®. We find that, overall, the policy increased 4-year college-going rates by 2- to 3-percentage points and that 4-year college-going rates among induced students increased by 10-percentage…

  20. JOURNAL OF THE EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF BEHAVIOR SOME PARAMETERS AFFECTING THE DISTRIBUTIONAL

    E-print Network

    Premack, David

    JOURNAL OF THE EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF BEHAVIOR SOME PARAMETERS AFFECTING THE DISTRIBUTIONAL-running. Operations included limited access to wheel, food deprivation, and protracted maintenance on a 24-hr feeding schedule. A distributional analysis of response duration, burst duration, and inter-burst interval showed

  1. Neck Muscle Paths and Moment Arms are Significantly Affected by Wrapping Surface Parameters

    E-print Network

    Krishnamoorthy, Bala

    Neck Muscle Paths and Moment Arms are Significantly Affected by Wrapping Surface Parameters.S.A. *Corresponding author. Email: vasavada@wsu.edu We have studied the effects of wrapping surfaces on muscle paths and moment arms of the semispinalis capitis muscle, one of the major extensors of the neck. Sensitivities

  2. [Research on the performance comparing and building of affective computing database based on physiological parameters].

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Du, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Yunpeng; Ying, Lijuan; Li, Changwuz

    2014-08-01

    The validity and reasonableness of emotional data are the key issues in the cognitive affective computing research. Effects of the emotion recognition are decided by the quality of selected data directly. Therefore, it is an important part of affective computing research to build affective computing database with good performance, so that it is the hot spot of research in this field. In this paper, the performance of two classical cognitive affective computing databases, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) cognitive affective computing database and Germany Augsburg University emotion recognition database were compared, their data structure and data types were compared respectively, and emotional recognition effect based on the data were studied comparatively. The results indicated that the analysis based on the physical parameters could get the effective emotional recognition, and would be a feasible method of pressure emotional evaluation. Because of the lack of stress emotional evaluation data based on the physiological parameters domestically, there is not a public stress emotional database. We hereby built a dataset for the stress evaluation towards the high stress group in colleges, candidates of postgraduates of Ph. D and master as the subjects. We then acquired their physiological parameters, and performed the pressure analysis based on this database. The results indicated that this dataset had a certain reference value for the stress evaluation, and we hope this research can provide a reference and support for emotion evaluation and analysis. PMID:25464787

  3. [Research on the performance comparing and building of affective computing database based on physiological parameters].

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Du, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Yunpeng; Ying, Lijuan; Li, Changwuz

    2014-08-01

    The validity and reasonableness of emotional data are the key issues in the cognitive affective computing research. Effects of the emotion recognition are decided by the quality of selected data directly. Therefore, it is an important part of affective computing research to build affective computing database with good performance, so that it is the hot spot of research in this field. In this paper, the performance of two classical cognitive affective computing databases, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) cognitive affective computing database and Germany Augsburg University emotion recognition database were compared, their data structure and data types were compared respectively, and emotional recognition effect based on the data were studied comparatively. The results indicated that the analysis based on the physical parameters could get the effective emotional recognition, and would be a feasible method of pressure emotional evaluation. Because of the lack of stress emotional evaluation data based on the physiological parameters domestically, there is not a public stress emotional database. We hereby built a dataset for the stress evaluation towards the high stress group in colleges, candidates of postgraduates of Ph. D and master as the subjects. We then acquired their physiological parameters, and performed the pressure analysis based on this database. The results indicated that this dataset had a certain reference value for the stress evaluation, and we hope this research can provide a reference and support for emotion evaluation and analysis. PMID:25508418

  4. The modern instrumentation used for monitoring and controlling the main parameters of the regenerative electro-mechano-hydraulic drive systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristescu, Corneliu; Drumea, Petrin; Krevey, Petrica

    2009-01-01

    In this work is presented the modern instrumentation used for monitoring and controlling the main parameters for one regenerative drive system, used to recovering the kinetic energy of motor vehicles, lost in the braking phase, storing and using this energy in the starting or accelerating phases. Is presented a Romanian technical solution for a regenerative driving system, based on a hybrid solution containing a hydro-mechanic module and an existing thermal motor drive, all conceived as a mechatronics system. In order to monitoring and controlling the evolution of the main parameters, the system contains a series of sensors and transducers that provide the moment, rotation, temperature, flow and pressure values. The main sensors and transducers of the regenerative drive system, their principal features and tehnical conecting solutions are presented in this paper, both with the menaging electronic and informational subsystems.

  5. Optimization of parameters affecting signal intensity in an LTQ-orbitrap in negative ion mode: A design of experiments approach.

    PubMed

    Lemonakis, Nikolaos; Skaltsounis, Alexios-Leandros; Tsarbopoulos, Anthony; Gikas, Evagelos

    2016-01-15

    A multistage optimization of all the parameters affecting detection/response in an LTQ-orbitrap analyzer was performed, using a design of experiments methodology. The signal intensity, a critical issue for mass analysis, was investigated and the optimization process was completed in three successive steps, taking into account the three main regions of an orbitrap, the ion generation, the ion transmission and the ion detection regions. Oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol were selected as the model compounds. Overall, applying this methodology the sensitivity was increased more than 24%, the resolution more than 6.5%, whereas the elapsed scan time was reduced nearly to its half. A high-resolution LTQ Orbitrap Discovery mass spectrometer was used for the determination of the analytes of interest. Thus, oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol were infused via the instruments syringe pump and they were analyzed employing electrospray ionization (ESI) in the negative high-resolution full-scan ion mode. The parameters of the three main regions of the LTQ-orbitrap were independently optimized in terms of maximum sensitivity. In this context, factorial design, response surface model and Plackett-Burman experiments were performed and analysis of variance was carried out to evaluate the validity of the statistical model and to determine the most significant parameters for signal intensity. The optimum MS conditions for each analyte were summarized and the method optimum condition was achieved by maximizing the desirability function. Our observation showed good agreement between the predicted optimum response and the responses collected at the predicted optimum conditions. PMID:26592625

  6. LARGE SCALE DISTRIBUTED PARAMETER MODEL OF MAIN MAGNET SYSTEM AND FREQUENCY DECOMPOSITION ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    ZHANG,W.; MARNERIS, I.; SANDBERG, J.

    2007-06-25

    Large accelerator main magnet system consists of hundreds, even thousands, of dipole magnets. They are linked together under selected configurations to provide highly uniform dipole fields when powered. Distributed capacitance, insulation resistance, coil resistance, magnet inductance, and coupling inductance of upper and lower pancakes make each magnet a complex network. When all dipole magnets are chained together in a circle, they become a coupled pair of very high order complex ladder networks. In this study, a network of more than thousand inductive, capacitive or resistive elements are used to model an actual system. The circuit is a large-scale network. Its equivalent polynomial form has several hundred degrees. Analysis of this high order circuit and simulation of the response of any or all components is often computationally infeasible. We present methods to use frequency decomposition approach to effectively simulate and analyze magnet configuration and power supply topologies.

  7. Some relevant parameters affecting the glass transition of supported ultra-thin polymer films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grohens, Y.; Hamon, L.; Reiter, G.; Soldera, A.; Holl, Y.

    2002-05-01

    We have measured, the thickness dependence of the glass transition temperature T_g(h), using ellipsometry at variable temperature, for poly(methyl-methacrylate) (PMMA) of various tacticity in confined geometry. We report that several factors significantly affect T_g(h): i) polymer microstructure (stereoregularity of PMMA) related to local dynamics; ii) interfacial interactions; iii) conformation of the polymer chains. These results raise many fundamental questions on the origin of the thickness-dependent glass transition. Why and how do the interactions with the substrate significantly affect T_g(h)? Does T_g(h) depend on the modifications of conformational parameters of the chains (their entropy)? What is the correlation between local dynamics and T_g(h) in thin films? The aim of this paper is to summarise these open questions, which should stimulate further investigations in the thin polymer film scientific community.

  8. Main Parameters of Soil Quality and it's Management Under Changing Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    László Phd, M., ,, Dr.

    2009-04-01

    Reviewing Paper Introduction: Malcolm summarised the topic of soil quality and it's management in a well synthetized form in 2000. So, the soils are fundamental to the well-being and productivity of agricultural and natural ecosystems. Soil quality is a concept being developed to characterize the usefulness and health of soils. Soil quality includes soil fertility, potential productivity, contaminant levels and their effects, resource sustainability and environmental quality. A general definition of soil quality is the degree of fitness of a soil for a specific use. The existence of multiple definitions suggests that the soil quality concept continues to evolve (Kádár, 1992; Várallyay, 1992, 1994, 2005; Németh, 1996; Malcolm, 2000; Márton, 2005; Márton et al. 2007). Recent attention has focused on the sustainability of human uses of soil, based on concerns that soil quality may be declining (Boehn and Anderson, 1997). We use sustainable to mean that a use or management of soil will sustain human well-being over time. Lal (1995) described the land resources of the world (of which soil is one component) as "finite, fragile, and nonrenewable," and reported that only about 22% (3.26 billion ha) of the total land area on the globe is suitable for cultivation and at present, only about 3% (450 million ha) has a high agricultural production capacity. Because soil is in large but finite supply, and some soil components cannot be renewed within a human time frame, the condition of soils in agriculture and the environment is an issue of global concern (Howard, 1993; FAO, 1997). Concerns include soil losses from erosion, maintaining agricultural productivity and system sustainability, protecting natural areas, and adverse effects of soil contamination on human health (Haberern, 1992; Howard, 1993; Sims et al., 1997). Parr et al. (1992) state, "...soil degradation is the single most destructive force diminishing the world's soil resource base." Soil quality guidelines are intended to protect the ability of ecosystems to function properly (Kádár, 1992; Várallyay, 1992, 1994, 2005; Cook and Hendershot, 1996; Németh, 1996; Malcolm, 2000; Márton, 2005; Márton et al. 2007). The Hungarian Ministry of Environment and Water (HMEW, 2004) suggests that the Hungarian Regions should adopt a national policy "...that seeks to conserve and enhance soil quality...". Useful evaluation of soil quality requires agreement about why soil quality is important, how it is defined, how it should be measured, and how to respond to measurements with management, restoration, or conservation practices. Because determining soil quality requires one or more value judgments and because we have much to learn about soil, these issues are not easily addressed (Várallyay, 1992, 1994, 2005; Cook and Hendershot, 1996; Németh, 1996; Malcolm, 2000). Definitions of soil quality have been based both on human uses of soil and on the functions of soil within natural and agricultural ecosystems. For purposes of this work, we are showing soil quality within the context of managed agricultural ecosystems. To many in agriculture and agricultural research, productivity is analogous to soil quality. Maintaining soil quality is also a human health concern because air, groundwater and surface water consumed by humans can be adversely affected by mismanaged and contaminated soils, and because humans may be exposed to contaminated soils in residential areas (Kádár, 1992; Várallyay, 2005; Cook and Hendershot, 1996; Németh, 1996; Malcolm, 2000; Márton et al. 2007). Contamination may include heavy metals, toxic elements, excess nutrients, volatile and nonvolatile organics, explosives, radioactive isotopes and inhalable fibers (Sheppard et al., 1992; Cook and Hendershot, 1996). Soil quality is not determined by any single conserving or degrading process or property, and soil has both dynamic and relatively static properties that also vary spatially (Carter et al., 1997). Gregorich et al. (1994) state that "soil quality is a composite me

  9. A study of factors affecting highway accident rates using the random-parameters tobit model.

    PubMed

    Anastasopoulos, Panagiotis Ch; Mannering, Fred L; Shankar, Venky N; Haddock, John E

    2012-03-01

    A large body of previous literature has used a variety of count-data modeling techniques to study factors that affect the frequency of highway accidents over some time period on roadway segments of a specified length. An alternative approach to this problem views vehicle accident rates (accidents per mile driven) directly instead of their frequencies. Viewing the problem as continuous data instead of count data creates a problem in that roadway segments that do not have any observed accidents over the identified time period create continuous data that are left-censored at zero. Past research has appropriately applied a tobit regression model to address this censoring problem, but this research has been limited in accounting for unobserved heterogeneity because it has been assumed that the parameter estimates are fixed over roadway-segment observations. Using 9-year data from urban interstates in Indiana, this paper employs a random-parameters tobit regression to account for unobserved heterogeneity in the study of motor-vehicle accident rates. The empirical results show that the random-parameters tobit model outperforms its fixed-parameters counterpart and has the potential to provide a fuller understanding of the factors determining accident rates on specific roadway segments. PMID:22269550

  10. Experimental Analyses of the Major Parameters Affecting the Intensity of Outbursts of Coal and Gas

    PubMed Central

    Nie, W.; Peng, S. J.; Xu, J.; Liu, L. R.; Wang, G.; Geng, J. B.

    2014-01-01

    With an increase in mining depth and production, the intensity and frequency of outburst of coal and gas have a tendency to increase. Estimating the intensity of outbursts of coal and gas plays an important role because of its relation with the risk value. In this paper, we described the semiquantitative relations between major parameters and intensity of outburst based on physical experiments. The results showed increment of geostress simulated by horizontal load (from 1.4, 2.4, 3.2, to 3.4?MPa) or vertical load (from 2, 3, 3.6, to 4?MPa) improved the relative intensity rate (3.763–7.403% and 1.273–7.99%); the increment of porosity (from 1.57, 2.51, 3, to 3.6%) improved the relative intensity rate from 3.8 to 13.8%; the increment of gas pressure (from 0, 0.5, 0.65, 0.72, 1, to 1.5?Mpa) induced the relative intensity rate to decrease from 38.22 to 0%; the increment of water content (from 0, 2, 4, to 8%) caused the relative intensity rate to drop from 5.425 to 0.5%. Furthermore, sensitivity and range analysis evaluates coupled factors affecting the relative intensity. In addition, the distinction with initiation of outburst of coal and gas affected by these parameters is discussed by the relative threshold of gas content rate. PMID:25162042

  11. Nuclear repository performance assessment: Insights into critical models and parameters affecting projected future doses

    SciTech Connect

    McGuire, R.K.; Vlasity, J.A.; Kessler, J.H.

    1997-12-31

    The Phase 3 Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) has led to new insights into critical models and parameters affecting estimated doses to humans from a potential repository of high-level radioactive wastes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The Phase 3 model has been extended to encompass time-varying climate and infiltration, detailed modeling of the source term and hydrology, and detailed specification of possible interaction between percolating ground water and waste containers. The model estimates doses to a time of one million years. The three key radionuclides contributing to estimated total doses are Tc-99, I-129, and Np-237. Five other nuclides contributing to dose in lesser amounts are U-233, Th-229, Pa-231, Ac-227, and Se-79. From sensitivity studies, the most critical models and parameters are as follows. Infiltration and percolation assumptions, including the amount of lateral diversion of infiltration water, are important and need verification with site data and/or more detailed modeling. Parameters of the unsaturated zone (UZ) and saturated zone (SZ) determine dilution and delay of concentrations and peak doses downstream. The fraction of containers that become wet are not critical in the model, but this lack of sensitivity reflects the coupling of the fraction with a model of focused flow past the containers; a different model might indicate higher sensitivity. Also, the degree of coupling between fracture and matrix flow is important in affecting the times of peak doses but not their magnitudes. Other critical design assumptions that could lead to reduced and/or delayed doses are a more robust container design, a capillary barrier around each container, the dilution during hydrologic transport from the repository to a potential agricultural community downstream, and the characteristics of an average individual in that community who might receive a dose.

  12. Variation in wind and piscivorous predator fields affecting the survival of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, in the Gulf of Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedland, K.D.; Manning, J.P.; Link, Jason S.; Gilbert, J.R.; Gilbert, A.T.; O'Connell, A.F., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Observations relevant to the North American stock complex of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., suggest that marine mortality is influenced by variation in predation pressure affecting post-smolts during the first months at sea. This hypothesis was tested for Gulf of Maine (GOM) stocks by examining wind pseudostress and the distribution of piscivorous predator fields potentially affecting post-smolts. Marine survival has declined over recent decades with a change in the direction of spring winds, which is likely extending the migration of post-smolts by favouring routes using the western GOM. In addition to changes in spring wind patterns, higher spring sea surface temperatures have been associated with shifting distributions of a range of fish species. The abundance of several pelagic piscivores, which based on their feeding habits may predate on salmon post-smolts, has increased in the areas that serve as migration corridors for post-smolts. In particular, populations of silver hake, Merluccius bilinearis (Mitchell), red hake, Urophycis chuss (Walbaum), and spiny dogfish, Squalus acanthias L., increased in size in the portion of the GOM used by post-smolts. Climate variation and shifting predator distributions in the GOM are consistent with the predator hypothesis of recruitment control suggested for the stock complex.

  13. Modeling of mouse eye and errors in ocular parameters affecting refractive state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bawa, Gurinder

    Rodents eye are particularly used to study refractive error state of an eye and development of refractive eye. Genetic organization of rodents is similar to that of humans, which makes them interesting candidates to be researched upon. From rodents family mice models are encouraged over rats because of availability of genetically engineered models. Despite of extensive work that has been performed on mice and rat models, still no one is able to quantify an optical model, due to variability in the reported ocular parameters. In this Dissertation, we have extracted ocular parameters and generated schematics of eye from the raw data from School of Medicine, Detroit. In order to see how the rays would travel through an eye and the defects associated with an eye; ray tracing has been performed using ocular parameters. Finally we have systematically evaluated the contribution of various ocular parameters, such as radii of curvature of ocular surfaces, thicknesses of ocular components, and refractive indices of ocular refractive media, using variational analysis and a computational model of the rodent eye. Variational analysis revealed that variation in all the ocular parameters does affect the refractive status of the eye, but depending upon the magnitude of the impact those parameters are listed as critical or non critical. Variation in the depth of the vitreous chamber, thickness of the lens, radius of the anterior surface of the cornea, radius of the anterior surface of the lens, as well as refractive indices for the lens and vitreous, appears to have the largest impact on the refractive error and thus are categorized as critical ocular parameters. The radii of the posterior surfaces of the cornea and lens have much smaller contributions to the refractive state, while the radii of the anterior and posterior surfaces of the retina have no effect on the refractive error. These data provide the framework for further refinement of the optical models of the rat and mouse eye and suggest that extra efforts should be directed towards increasing the linear resolution of the rodent eye biometry and obtaining more accurate data for the refractive indices of the lens and vitreous.

  14. Analysis of the main factors affecting the evaluation of the radon dose in workplaces: the case of tourist caves.

    PubMed

    Sainz, Carlos; Quindós, Luis Santiago; Fuente, Ismael; Nicolás, Jorge; Quindós, Luis

    2007-07-16

    High concentrations of radon exist in several workplaces like tourist caves mainly because of the low ventilation rates existing at these enclosures. In this sense, in its 1990 publication, the ICRP recommended that high exposures of radon in workplaces should be considered as occupational exposure. In developed caves in which guides provide tours for the general public great care is needed for taking remedial actions concerning radon, because in some circumstances forced ventilation may alter the humidity inside the cave affecting some of the formations or paintings that attract tourists. Tourist guides can work about 1900 h per year, so the only option to protect them and other cave workers from radon exposure is to apply an appropriate system of radiation protection mainly based on limitation of exposure by restricting the amount of time spent in the cave. Because of the typical environmental conditions inside the caves, the application of these protecting actions requires to know some indoor air characteristics like particle concentration, as well as radon progeny behaviour in order to get more realistic effective dose values In this work the results of the first two set of radon measurements program carried out in 10 caves located in the region of Cantabria (Spain) are presented. PMID:17184916

  15. Parameters affecting temporal resolution of Time Resolved Integrative Optical Neutron Detector (TRION)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mor, I.; Vartsky, D.; Dangendorf, V.; Bar, D.; Feldman, G.; Goldberg, M. B.; Tittelmeier, K.; Bromberger, B.; Brandis, M.; Weierganz, M.

    2013-11-01

    The Time-Resolved Integrative Optical Neutron (TRION) detector was developed for Fast Neutron Resonance Radiography (FNRR), a fast-neutron transmission imaging method that exploits characteristic energy-variations of the total scattering cross-section in the En = 1-10 MeV range to detect specific elements within a radiographed object. As opposed to classical event-counting time of flight (ECTOF), it integrates the detector signal during a well-defined neutron Time of Flight window corresponding to a pre-selected energy bin, e.g., the energy-interval spanning a cross-section resonance of an element such as C, O and N. The integrative characteristic of the detector permits loss-free operation at very intense, pulsed neutron fluxes, at a cost however, of recorded temporal resolution degradation This work presents a theoretical and experimental evaluation of detector related parameters which affect temporal resolution of the TRION system.

  16. Linear polarization of the radiation from active galactic nuclei and the redshift dependence of their main parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silant'ev, N. A.; Piotrovich, M. Yu.; Gnedin, Yu. N.; Natsvlishvili, T. M.

    2010-11-01

    We consider the observed continuum linear polarization of extragalactic objects with various redshifts z, most of which have degrees of polarization p ? 10%. We propose that this polarization is due to multiple scattering of the radiation in magnetized accretion disks around the Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN; the Milne problem in an optically thick atmosphere). The structure of the accretion disks and the polarization of the emergent radiation depend on the main parameters of the AGN—the mass of the central body M BH , accretion rate dot M , magnetic field at the black-hole event horizon B H , angular momentum a *, and the explicit form of the magnetic-field distribution in the accretion disk. Theoretical expressions for the degree of polarization are averaged over all angles of the disks to the line of sight, and the resulting formula compared with the mean observed polarizations in redshift intervals ? z = 0.25. The dependence of the observed degree of polarization and the main parameters on the redshift z is derived. The degrees of polarization of 305 objects from the catalog of Hutsemekers et al. with redshifts from zero to z = 2.25 are used for the analysis.

  17. Relative importance of parameters affecting wind speed prediction using artificial neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghorbani, M. A.; Khatibi, R.; Hosseini, B.; Bilgili, M.

    2013-10-01

    In traditional artificial neural networks (ANN) models, the relative importance of the individual meteorological input variables is often overlooked. A case study is presented in this paper to model monthly wind speed values using meteorological data (air pressure, air temperature, relative humidity, and precipitation), where the study also includes an estimate of the relative importance of these variables. Recorded monthly mean data are available at a gauging site in Tabriz, Azerbaijan, Iran, for the period from 2000 to 2005, gauged in the city at the outskirt of alluvial funneling mountains with an established microclimatic conditions and a diurnal wind regime. This provides a sufficiently severe test for the ANN model with a good predictive capability of 1 year of lead time but without any direct approach to refer the predicted results to local microclimatic conditions. A method is used in this paper to calculate the relative importance of each meteorological input parameters affecting wind speed, showing that air pressure and precipitation are the most and least influential parameters with approximate values of 40 and 10 %, respectively. This gained knowledge corresponds to the local knowledge of the microclimatic and geomorphologic conditions surrounding Tabriz.

  18. Parameters affecting nitrogen oxides in a Coal-Fired Flow Facility system

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Xiaoliang

    1996-03-01

    The unusually high temperature in the primary combustor of the Coal-Fired Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) power generation system causes much higher nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) to be produced than in a conventional coal fired generation system. In order to lower the NO{sub x} concentration to an acceptable level, it is important to know how parameters of the MM power generation system affect the NO{sub x} concentration. This thesis investigates those effects in the Coal-Fired Flow Facility (CFFF) at the University of Tennessee Space Institute under the contract of US Department Of Energy (DOE). With thermodynamic and kinetic computer codes, the theoretical studies were carried out on the parameters of the CFFF system. The results gathered from the computer codes were analyzed and compared with the experimental data collected during the LMF5J test. The thermodynamic and kinetic codes together modeled the NO.{sub x} behavior with reasonable accuracy while some inconsistencies happened at the secondary combustor inlet.

  19. Estimation of the growth kinetic parameters of Bacillus cereus spores as affected by pulsed light treatment.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, Juan S; de Fernando, Gonzalo García; Hierro, Eva; Hospital, Xavier F; Ordóñez, Juan A; Fernández, Manuela

    2015-06-01

    Quantitative microbial risk assessment requires the knowledge of the effect of food preservation technologies on the growth parameters of the survivors of the treatment. This is of special interest in the case of the new non-thermal technologies that are being investigated for minimal processing of foods. This is a study on the effect of pulsed light technology (PL) on the lag phase of Bacillus cereus spores surviving the treatment and the maximum growth rate (?max) of the survivors after germination. The D value was estimated as 0.35 J/cm(2) and our findings showed that PL affected the kinetic parameters of the microorganism. A log linear relationship was observed between the lag phase and the intensity of the treatment. Increasing the lethality lengthened the mean lag phase and proportionally increased its variability. A polynomial regression was fitted between the ?max of the survivors and the inactivation achieved. The ?max decreased as intensity increased. From these data, and their comparison to published results on the effect of heat and e-beam irradiation on B. cereus spores, it was observed that the shelf-life of PL treated foods would be longer than those treated with heat and similar to irradiated ones. These findings offer information of interest for the implementation of PL for microbial decontamination in the food industry. PMID:25755081

  20. Atmospheric parameters affecting sea ice losses in the context of gravity desalination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ying; Gu, Wei; Chao, Jinlong; Li, Lantao; Liu, Chengyu; Xu, Yinjun; Chang, Zhiyun; Wu, Linhong; Chen, Jie

    2015-08-01

    Gravity desalination is an important method for obtaining fresh water from sea ice; however, the large amount of ice that is exposed to air for long periods of time sublimates and evaporates, which results in a reduction of the freshwater resource. This paper describes a study of sea ice sublimation and evaporation performed during the winter of 2013 at the western shore of Bohai Bay, China, to determine the relationship between the amount of sublimation and evaporation and the atmospheric parameters. Substantial amounts of the Bohai sea ice sublimated and evaporated, ranging from 15 to 35 % of the total. The sublimation and evaporation amount was significantly different between the day and night and was greater in the daytime because of the relative humidity difference. Sublimation and evaporation is primarily affected by atmospheric parameters, and the amount of sublimation and evaporation exhibits a good linear relationship with the relative humidity and the wind speed; a comprehensive parameters formula was determined for the Bohai Rim in China. A 10 % increase of daily relative humidity will reduce approximately 1.5 kg/m2/day of the sublimation and evaporation, and the amount of sublimation and evaporation increases by 1.76 kg/m2/day when the daily wind speed increases by 1 m/s. To reduce the sublimation and evaporation and maximize the amount of this freshwater resource, gravity desalination sites should be selected where the wind speed is low and the relative humidity is high, i.e., the sea ice should be configured to reduce the adverse effects of sunlight, low humidity, and air turbulence.

  1. CONTINUOSLY STIRRED TANK REACTOR PARAMETERS THAT AFFECT SLUDGE BATCH 6 SIMULANT PROPERTIES

    SciTech Connect

    Newell, J.; Lambert, D.; Stone, M.; Fernandez, A.

    2010-05-28

    The High Level Radioactive Waste (HLW) Sludge in Savannah River Site (SRS) waste tanks was produced over a period of over 60 years by neutralizing the acidic waste produced in the F and H Separations Canyons with sodium hydroxide. The HLW slurries have been stored at free hydroxide concentrations above 1 M to minimize the corrosion of the carbon steel waste tanks. Sodium nitrite is periodically added as a corrosion inhibitor. The resulting waste has been subjected to supernate evaporation to minimize the volume of the stored waste. In addition, some of the waste tanks experienced high temperatures so some of the waste has been at elevated temperatures. Because the waste is radioactive, the waste is transforming through the decay of shorter lived radioactive species and the radiation damage that the decay releases. The goal of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) simulant development program is to develop a method to produce a sludge simulant that matches both the chemical and physical characteristics of the HLW without the time, temperature profile, chemical or radiation exposure of that of the real waste. Several different approaches have been taken historically toward preparing simulated waste slurries. All of the approaches used in the past dozen years involve some precipitation of the species using similar chemistry to that which formed the radioactive waste solids in the tank farm. All of the approaches add certain chemical species as commercially available insoluble solid compounds. The number of species introduced in this manner, however, has varied widely. All of the simulant preparation approaches make the simulated aqueous phase by adding the appropriate ratios of various sodium salts. The simulant preparation sequence generally starts with an acidic pH and ends up with a caustic pH (typically in the 10-12 range). The current method for making sludge simulant involves the use of a temperature controlled continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR). Precipitated MnO{sub 2} is combined with metal nitrates and fed into the CSTR. The metals are precipitated by a caustic NaOH stream. The rates at which these streams are added allows for pH adjustment of the mixture. A graphical representation of this process is given in Figure 1. In using the CSTR method for developing simulant, there are various parameters that can be adjusted in order to effectuate a physical change in the resulting simulant: pH, temperature, mixing speed, and flow rate. How will changing these parameters affect the physical properties of the sludge simulant? The ability to determine which parameter affects a particular property could allow one to develop a simulant that would better match the physical characteristics of HLW sludge.

  2. Acute exposure to the biopesticide azadirachtin affects parameters in the gills of common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Murussi, Camila R; Costa, Maiara D; Leitemperger, Jossiele W; Flores-Lopes, Fábio; Menezes, Charlene C; Loebens, Luisa; de Avila, Luis Antonio; Rizzetti, Tiele M; Adaime, Martha B; Zanella, Renato; Loro, Vania L

    2016-02-01

    The biopesticide, azadirachtin (Aza) is less hazardous to the environment, but may cause several toxic effects in aquatic organisms. The Cyprinus carpio (n=12, for all concentrations) after 10days of acclimation under controlled conditions, were exposed at 20, 40, and 60?L/L of Aza during 96h. After this period, fish were anesthetized and euthanized then mucus layer and gills collected. In this study, the effects of exposure to different Aza concentrations were analysed through a set of biomarkers: Na(+)/K(+-)ATPase, lipid peroxidation (TBARS), protein carbonyl (PC), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), non-protein thiols (NPSH), ascorbic acid (AsA) and histological parameters and, yet, protein and glucose concentration in the surface area of mucous layer. Na(+)K(+-)ATPase was inhibited at 40 and 60?L/L compared to control. TBARS decreased at 40?L/L compared to control. PC, SOD and GST increased at 60?L/L in comparison to control. CAT increased at 20 and 60?L/L, and GPx increased in all Aza concentrations compared to control. NPSH decreased and AsA increased in all concentrations in comparison to control. Histological analyses demonstrated an increase in the intensity of the damage with increasing Aza concentration. Alterations in histological examination were elevation and hypertrophy of the epithelial cells of the secondary filament, hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the mucous and chlorate cells and lamellar aneurism. Glucose and protein concentrations in mucus layer increased at 60?L/L compared to control. In general, we suggest that 60?L/L Aza concentration affected several parameters causing disruptions carp metabolism. PMID:26689640

  3. Long and Short Term Variability of the Main Physical Parameters in the Coastal Area of the SE Baltic Proper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mingelaite, Toma; Rukseniene, Viktorija; Dailidiene, Inga

    2015-04-01

    Keywords: SE Baltic Sea, coastal upwelling, IR Remote Sensing The memory of the ocean and seas of atmospheric forcing events contributes to the long-term climate change. Intensifying climate change processes in the North Atlantic region including Baltic Sea has drawn widespread interest, as a changing water temperature has ecological, economic and social impact in coastal areas of the Europe seas. In this work we analyse long and short term variability of the main physical parameters in the coastal area of the South Eastern Baltic Sea Proper. The analysis of long term variability is based on monitoring data measured in the South Eastern Baltic Sea for the last 50 years. The main focus of the long term variability is changes of hydro meteorological parameters relevant to the observed changes in the climate.The water salinity variations in the Baltic Sea near the Lithuanian coast and in the Curonian Lagoon, a shallow and enclosed sub-basin of the Baltic Sea, were analysed along with the time series of some related hydroclimatic factors. The short term water temperature and salinity variations were analysed with a strong focus on coastal upwelling events. Combining both remote sensing and in situ monitoring data physical parameters such as vertical salinity variations during upwelling events was analysed. The coastal upwelling in the SE Baltic Sea coast, depending on its scale and intensity, may lead to an intrusion of colder and saltier marine waters to the Curonian Lagoon resulting in hydrodynamic changes and pronounced temperature drop extending for 30-40 km further down the Lagoon. The study results show that increasing trends of water level, air and water temperature, and decreasing ice cover duration are related to the changes in meso-scale atmospheric circulation, and more specifically, to the changes in regional and local wind regime climate. That is in a good agreement with the increasing trends in local higher intensity of westerly winds, and with the winter NAO index that indicates the change and variations of the atmospheric circulation in the North Atlantic region, including the Baltic Sea area. This work is supported by "Lithuanian Maritime Sectors' Technologies and Environmental Research Development" project Nr. VP1-3.1-ŠMM-08-K-01-019 funded by the European Social Fund Agency.

  4. Study of parameters affecting the correlation of engine and chassis dynamometers emission tests

    SciTech Connect

    Salem, M.I.; Bata, R.M.

    1996-12-31

    The inventory of exhaust gas emissions data of mobile sources is currently based on vehicle tailpipe testing techniques. However, heavy duty engines are used in numerous applications such as vehicles, boats, power generation units, ... etc. Consequently, engine emissions data based on vehicle tailpipe testing for a given engine is different for non-vehicle applications of that same engine. For this reason Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) engine certification standards are based on engine tests. Finding a correlation between the emissions of engine tests and the emissions of engine in vehicle chassis tests is the subject of this study. Efforts have been underway to study possible parameters affecting this cumbersome correlation of a particular power train configuration. Literature has been surveyed on related topics such as simulating road loads, power train components, and effects of engine accessories. This has been done as an initial step toward developing a correlation between the exhaust gas emission results of Chassis Dynamometer (CD) and Engine Dynamometer (ED) tests for a specific vehicle. This study could be conducted on a specific power train system, using specific testing cycles that will make this correlation possible.

  5. Annual change in spirometric parameters among patients affected in Bhopal gas disaster: A retrospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    De, Sajal

    2013-01-01

    Background: The involvement of respiratory system due to inhalation of methyl isocyanate (MIC) during Bhopal gas disaster was particularly severe. We retrospectively evaluated the annual changes in spirometric parameters among those who were affected in this disaster (exposed survivors) and had respiratory symptoms. Materials and Methods: Spirometry reports of exposed survivors that were carried out in our institution were retrospectively reviewed and we identified 252 subjects who had performed spirometry at least twice with interval of more than one year. The annual changes in spirometric indices of them were calculated. Results: The average age of study population was 55.7 years and 72% were male. Annual decline of FEV1 ? 40 ml/yr was observed among 48% exposed survivors. The mean annual decline of FEV1 among symptomatic exposed survivors with initial normal spirometry was 91 ml (95% CI: 52 ml to 130 ml) and this was more than the patients with initial obstructive pattern. Among fifty four patients with initial normal spirometry, ten patients (18.5%) developed obstructive and two patients (5%) developed restrictive lung function abnormalities during follow up spirometry. Conclusion: The exposed survivors with chronic respiratory symptoms had accelerated decline in lung function and they are at higher risk of developing obstructive lung function. PMID:23741089

  6. Postpartum repeated separation from pups affects the behavior and neuroendocrine parameters of mandarin vole fathers.

    PubMed

    Kong, Lingzhe; Wu, Ruiyong; Wang, Lu; Feng, Weige; Cao, Yan; Tai, Fadao

    2015-02-01

    Repeated separation from pups results in anxiety and depression-like behaviors in mothers. This level of attachment has also been established between fathers and pups in monogamous rodents. We hypothesized that brief and lengthy separation from their pups would affect emotion, social behavior and neuroendocrine parameters in socially monogamous male mandarin voles (Microtus mandarinus). The results indicate that brief pup separation (BPS) of 15 min/day significantly reduced the percentage of time spent in the central area, total distance and total transition in open field tests. BPS resulted in increased sniffing and self-grooming in fathers, but reduced attacking and climbing. Long pup separation (LPS) of 3h/day suppressed attacking, sniffing, no-social investigating and digging in fathers, but increased time in immobile in social interaction and forced swimming tests. LPS upregulated levels of central oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP), serum corticosterone (CORT); BPS increased central OT and serum corticosterone only. These findings show that BPS and LPS are critical stressors for fathers and alter anxiety and depression-like and social behaviors in monogamous mandarin voles. These changes in behaviors may be associated with alteration in OT, AVP and CORT. PMID:25446219

  7. Multivariate analysis of respiratory problems and their connection with meteorological parameters and the main biological and chemical air pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matyasovszky, István; Makra, László; Bálint, Beatrix; Guba, Zoltán; Sümeghy, Zoltán

    2011-08-01

    The aim of the study is to analyse the joint effect of biological (pollen) and chemical air pollutants, as well as meteorological variables, on the hospital admissions of respiratory problems for the Szeged region in Southern Hungary. The data set used covers a nine-year period (1999-2007) and is unique in the sense that it includes—besides the daily number of respiratory hospital admissions—not just the hourly mean concentrations of CO, PM 10, NO, NO 2, O 3 and SO 2 with meteorological variables (temperature, global solar flux, relative humidity, air pressure and wind speed), but two pollen variables ( Ambrosia and total pollen excluding Ambrosia) as well. The analysis was performed using three age categories for the pollen season of Ambrosia and the pollen-free season. Meteorological elements and air pollutants are clustered in order to define optimum environmental conditions of high patient numbers. ANOVA was then used to determine whether cluster-related mean patient numbers differ significantly. Furthermore, two novel procedures are applied here: factor analysis including a special transformation and a time-varying multivariate linear regression that makes it possible to determine the rank of importance of the influencing variables in respiratory hospital admissions, and also compute the relative importance of the parameters affecting respiratory disorders. Both techniques revealed that Ambrosia pollen is an important variable that influences hospital admissions (an increase of 10 pollen grains m -3 can imply an increase of around 24% in patient numbers). The role of chemical and meteorological parameters is also significant, but their weights vary according to the seasons and the methods. Clearer results are obtained for the pollination season of Ambrosia. Here, a 10 ?g m -3 increase in O 3 implies a patient number response from -17% to +11%. Wind speed is a surprisingly important variable, where a 1 m s -1 rise may result in a hospital admission reduction of up to 42-45%.

  8. A study of the parameters affecting the effectiveness of Moringa oleifera in drinking water purification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pritchard, M.; Craven, T.; Mkandawire, T.; Edmondson, A. S.; O'Neill, J. G.

    The powder obtained from the seeds of the Moringa oleifera tree has been shown to be an effective primary coagulant for water treatment. When the seeds are dried, dehusked, crushed and added to water, the powder acts as a coagulant binding colloidal particles and bacteria to form agglomerated particles (flocs), which settle allowing the clarified supernatant to be poured off. Very little research has been undertaken on the parameters affecting the effectiveness of M. oleifera, especially in Malawi, for purification of drinking water and there is a great need for further testing in this area. Conclusive data needs to be compiled to demonstrate the effects of various water parameters have on the efficiency of the seeds. A parametric study was undertaken at Leeds Metropolitan University, UK, with the aim to establish the most appropriate dosing method; the optimum dosage for removal of turbidity; the influence of pH and temperature; together with the shelf life of the M. oleifera seeds. The study revealed that the most suitable dosing method was to mix the powder into a concentrated paste, hence forming a stock suspension. The optimum M. oleifera dose, for turbidity values between 40 and 200 NTU, ranged between 30 and 55 mg/l. With turbidity set at 130 NTU and a M. oleifera dose within the optimum range at 50 mg/l, pH levels were varied between 4 and 9. It was discovered that the coagulant performance was not too sensitive to pH fluctuations when conditions were within the optimum range. The most efficient coagulation, determined by the greatest reduction in turbidity, occurred at pH 6.5. Alkaline conditions were overall more favourable than acidic conditions; pH 9 had an efficiency of 65% of optimum, whilst at pH 5 the efficiency dropped to around 55%. The efficiency further dropped at pH 4, where the powder only produced results of around 10% of optimum conditions. A temperature range of 4-60 °C was studied in this research. Colder waters (<15 °C) were found to hinder the effectiveness of the coagulation process. The higher the temperature the more effective was the coagulation. It was also found that the age of the seeds, up to 18 months, did not have any noticeable effect on dose level and percentage reduction in turbidity, although at 18 months the seeds had a narrower dosing range to produce near-optimum reduction. Seeds aged 24 months showed a significant decline in coagulant efficiency.

  9. [ORP in the Main Anoxic Stage as the Control Parameter for Nitrogen and Phosphorus Removal in the Single Sludge System with a Continuous Flow].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-ling; Song, Tie-hong; Yin, Bao-yong; Li Jing-wen; Li, Zi-qi; Yu, Yong

    2015-07-01

    To optimize the performance of nitrogen and phosphorus removal, based on test results and mass balance, the feasibility of control for nitrogen and phosphorus removal in the single sludge system with a continuous flow using ORP in the main anoxic stage (ORPm) was investigated, meanwhile, the objective laws of conversion for nitrogen and phosphorus under different ORPm were expounded. During the experiments, nitration liquid internal circulation flow rate was controlled as the variable. The OPRm was controlled by PLC automatically, and the other operation parameters remained unchanged. The experiments tested six different ORPs in main anoxic stage affecting nitrogen and phosphorus removal, i.e., -143, -123, -105, -95, -72, and -57 mV. The ammonia concentration changed a little in effluent under the condition of different ORP.s, however, the TN and TP concentrations changed obviously. When the ORPm was controlled as -95 mV, the active sludge reached the maximal nitrogen and phosphorus removal with the continuous flow. According to mass balance calculation, when ORPm increased from -143 mV to -57 mV, (1) In the main anoxic stage, nitrate nitrogen reaction rates were 214. 40, 235. 16, 241. 16, 244. 02, 240. 90 and 233. 65 mg.h-1, respectively; the amount of total nitrogen conversions were 244. 92, 255. 85, 328. 04, 347. 45, 336. 42 and 320. 60 mg.h-1, respectively; both reaction rates reached the peak at the ORPm of -95 mV; (2)Phosphorus release rates in anaerobic stage were -214. 12, -228. 64, -259. 26, -264.54, -256.92 and -252.84 mg.h-1, respectively; total phosphorus absorption rates were 252. 15, 275.85, 332. 25, 338. 10, 336. 15 and 324. 30 mg.h-1, respectively, and phosphorus absorption rates were 30. 27, 62. 14, 124. 58, 154. 41, 150. 41 and 138. 30 mg.h-1, respectively, in the main anoxic stage; phosphorus absorption rates reached the peak when ORPm was -95 mV. The experiments revealed that ORPm could be used as the control parameter of nitrogen and phosphorus removal in single sludge system with a continuous flow. PMID:26489333

  10. Soil moisture affects fatty acids and oil quality parameters in peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drought affects yield of peanut, but its effect on oleic and linoleic acids that influence its oil quality of peanut genotypes with different levels of drought resistance has not been clearly investigated. Therefore, the aims of this research were to determine whether soil water levels could affect...

  11. Monte Carlo modeling and analyses of YALINA-booster subcritical assembly part 1: analytical models and main neutronics parameters.

    SciTech Connect

    Talamo, A.; Gohar, M. Y. A.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2008-09-11

    This study was carried out to model and analyze the YALINA-Booster facility, of the Joint Institute for Power and Nuclear Research of Belarus, with the long term objective of advancing the utilization of accelerator driven systems for the incineration of nuclear waste. The YALINA-Booster facility is a subcritical assembly, driven by an external neutron source, which has been constructed to study the neutron physics and to develop and refine methodologies to control the operation of accelerator driven systems. The external neutron source consists of Californium-252 spontaneous fission neutrons, 2.45 MeV neutrons from Deuterium-Deuterium reactions, or 14.1 MeV neutrons from Deuterium-Tritium reactions. In the latter two cases a deuteron beam is used to generate the neutrons. This study is a part of the collaborative activity between Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) of USA and the Joint Institute for Power and Nuclear Research of Belarus. In addition, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has a coordinated research project benchmarking and comparing the results of different numerical codes with the experimental data available from the YALINA-Booster facility and ANL has a leading role coordinating the IAEA activity. The YALINA-Booster facility has been modeled according to the benchmark specifications defined for the IAEA activity without any geometrical homogenization using the Monte Carlo codes MONK and MCNP/MCNPX/MCB. The MONK model perfectly matches the MCNP one. The computational analyses have been extended through the MCB code, which is an extension of the MCNP code with burnup capability because of its additional feature for analyzing source driven multiplying assemblies. The main neutronics parameters of the YALINA-Booster facility were calculated using these computer codes with different nuclear data libraries based on ENDF/B-VI-0, -6, JEF-2.2, and JEF-3.1.

  12. Sensitivity Analysis of Parameters Affecting Protection of Water Resources at Hanford WA

    SciTech Connect

    DAVIS, J.D.

    2002-02-08

    The scope of this analysis was to assess the sensitivity of contaminant fluxes from the vadose zone to the water table, to several parameters, some of which can be controlled by operational considerations.

  13. How do the structure and the parameters of Gaussian tree models affect structure learning?

    E-print Network

    Tan, Vincent Yan Fu

    The problem of learning tree-structured Gaussian graphical models from i.i.d. samples is considered. The influence of the tree structure and the parameters of the Gaussian distribution on the learning rate as the number ...

  14. Sensitivity analysis of modeling parameters that affect the dual peaking behaviour in coalbed methane reservoirs 

    E-print Network

    Okeke, Amarachukwu Ngozi

    2006-10-30

    of the various modeling parameters on its reservoir performance. A dual porosity coalbed methane simulator is used to model primary production from a single well coal seam, for a variety of coal properties for this work. Varying different coal properties...

  15. Exploration of parameters affecting jet injection using a high-speed X-ray imaging system

    E-print Network

    Park, Gee Hoon

    2015-01-01

    This thesis explores the effects of two parameters, contact force and jet shape, on jet injection using a high-speed X-ray imaging system. The scope of the thesis is twofold. The first part describes the process of ...

  16. Factors Affecting the Item Parameter Estimation and Classification Accuracy of the DINA Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de la Torre, Jimmy; Hong, Yuan; Deng, Weiling

    2010-01-01

    To better understand the statistical properties of the deterministic inputs, noisy "and" gate cognitive diagnosis (DINA) model, the impact of several factors on the quality of the item parameter estimates and classification accuracy was investigated. Results of the simulation study indicate that the fully Bayes approach is most accurate when the…

  17. Investigation of parameters affecting treatment time in MRI-guided transurethral ultrasound therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    N'Djin, W. A.; Burtnyk, M.; Chopra, R.; Bronskill, M. J.

    2010-03-01

    MRI-guided transurethral ultrasound therapy shows promise for minimally invasive treatment of localized prostate cancer. Real-time MR temperature feedback enables the 3D control of thermal therapy to define an accurate region within the prostate. Previous in-vivo canine studies showed the feasibility of this method using transurethral planar transducers. The aim of this simulation study was to reduce the procedure time, while maintaining treatment accuracy by investigating new combinations of treatment parameters. A numerical model was used to simulate a multi-element heating applicator rotating inside the urethra in 10 human prostates. Acoustic power and rotation rate were varied based on the feedback of the temperature in the prostate. Several parameters were investigated for improving the treatment time. Maximum acoustic power and rotation rate were optimized interdependently as a function of prostate radius and transducer operating frequency, while avoiding temperatures >90° C in the prostate. Other trials were performed on each parameter separately, with the other parameter fixed. The concept of using dual-frequency transducers was studied, using the fundamental frequency or the 3rd harmonic component depending on the prostate radius. The maximum acoustic power which could be used decreased as a function of the prostate radius and the frequency. Decreasing the frequency (9.7-3.0 MHz) or increasing the power (10-20 W.cm-2) led to treatment times shorter by up to 50% under appropriate conditions. Dual-frequency configurations, while helpful, tended to have less impact on treatment times. Treatment accuracy was maintained and critical adjacent tissues like the rectal wall remained protected. The interdependence between power and frequency may require integrating multi-parametric functions inside the controller for future optimizations. As a first approach, however, even slight modifications of key parameters can be sufficient to reduce treatment time.

  18. Parameters affecting the photocatalytic degradation of dyes using TiO2-based photocatalysts: a review.

    PubMed

    Akpan, U G; Hameed, B H

    2009-10-30

    This paper presents the review of the effects of operating parameters on the photocatalytic degradation of textile dyes using TiO2-based photocatalysts. It further examines various methods used in the preparations of the considered photocatalysts. The findings revealed that various parameters, such as the initial pH of the solution to be degraded, oxidizing agents, temperature at which the catalysts must be calcined, dopant(s) content and catalyst loading exert their individual influence on the photocatalytic degradation of any dye in wastewaters. It was also found out that sol-gel method is widely used in the production of TiO2-based photocatalysts because of the advantage derived from its ability to synthesize nanosized crystallized powder of the photocatalysts of high purity at relatively low temperature. PMID:19505759

  19. Testing parameters of TMR heads affected by dynamic-tester induced EMI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruesubthaworn, A.; Sivaratana, R.; Ungvichian, V.; Siritaratiwat, A.

    2007-09-01

    A variety of expected electromagnetic interference (EMI) sources of both radiated and conducted EMI emissions produced by a dynamic tester is studied. It is determined that the power cable connector of the robot arm radiates a significant electric field (E-field) of about 197 V/m at 1 foot away and an estimated calculation of the E-field of about 212 mV/m is at the spindle motor. These fields can be attenuated by about 20-30 dB when using a copper lined Faraday's cage. Furthermore, the study has revealed that the radiated EMI plays a more significant role than the conducted EMI. In addition, it is determined that out of seven selected testing parameters, the SGAW is rather more sensitive to EMI than conventional failure parameters, especially static glitche during the write cycle.

  20. Application of ANN to evaluate effective parameters affecting failure load and displacement of RC buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakan Arslan, M.

    2009-06-01

    This study investigated the efficiency of an artificial neural network (ANN) in predicting and determining failure load and failure displacement of multi story reinforced concrete (RC) buildings. The study modeled a RC building with four stories and three bays, with a load bearing system composed of columns and beams. Non-linear static pushover analysis of the key parameters in change defined in Turkish Earthquake Code (TEC-2007) for columns and beams was carried out and the capacity curves, failure loads and displacements were obtained. Totally 720 RC buildings were analyzed according to the change intervals of the parameters chosen. The input parameters were selected as longitudinal bar ratio (?l) of columns, transverse reinforcement ratio (Asw/sc), axial load level (N/No), column and beam cross section, strength of concrete (fc) and the compression bar ratio (?'/?) on the beam supports. Data from the nonlinear analysis were assessed with ANN in terms of failure load and failure displacement. For all outputs, ANN was trained and tested using of 11 back-propagation methods. All of the ANN models were found to perform well for both failure loads and displacements. The analyses also indicated that a considerable portion of existing RC building stock in Turkey may not meet the safety standards of the Turkish Earthquake Code (TEC-2007).

  1. Coated or doped carbon nanotube network sensors as affected by environmental parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Jing (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Methods for using modified single wall carbon nanotubes ("SWCNTs") to detect presence and/or concentration of a gas component, such as a halogen (e.g., Cl.sub.2), hydrogen halides (e.g., HCl), a hydrocarbon (e.g., C.sub.nH.sub.2n+2), an alcohol, an aldehyde or a ketone, to which an unmodified SWCNT is substantially non-reactive. In a first embodiment, a connected network of SWCNTs is coated with a selected polymer, such as chlorosulfonated polyethylene, hydroxypropyl cellulose, polystyrene and/or polyvinylalcohol, and change in an electrical parameter or response value (e.g., conductance, current, voltage difference or resistance) of the coated versus uncoated SWCNT networks is analyzed. In a second embodiment, the network is doped with a transition element, such as Pd, Pt, Rh, Ir, Ru, Os and/or Au, and change in an electrical parameter value is again analyzed. The parameter change value depends monotonically, not necessarily linearly, upon concentration of the gas component. Two general algorithms are presented for estimating concentration value(s), or upper or lower concentration bounds on such values, from measured differences of response values.

  2. Parameters Affecting Image-guided, Hydrodynamic Gene Delivery to Swine Liver

    PubMed Central

    Kamimura, Kenya; Suda, Takeshi; Zhang, Guisheng; Aoyagi, Yutaka; Liu, Dexi

    2013-01-01

    Development of a safe and effective method for gene delivery to hepatocytes is a critical step toward gene therapy for liver diseases. Here, we assessed the parameters for gene delivery to the livers of large animals (pigs, 40–65?kg) using an image-guided hydrodynamics-based procedure that involves image-guided catheter insertion into the lobular hepatic vein and hydrodynamic injection of reporter plasmids using a computer-controlled injector. We demonstrated that injection parameters (relative position of the catheter in the hepatic vasculature, intravascular pressure upon injection, and injection volume) are directly related to the safety and efficiency of the procedure. By optimizing these parameters, we explored for the first time, the advantage of the procedure for sequential injections to multiple lobes in human-sized pigs. The optimized procedure resulted in sustained expression of the human ?-1 antitrypsin gene in livers for more than 2 months after gene delivery. In addition, repeated hydrodynamic gene delivery was safely conducted and no adverse events were seen in the entire period of the study. Our results support the clinical applicability of the image-guided hydrodynamic gene delivery method for the treatment of liver diseases. PMID:24129227

  3. VIGILANCE POISON: Illegal poisoning and lead intoxication are the main factors affecting avian scavenger survival in the Pyrenees (France).

    PubMed

    Berny, Philippe; Vilagines, Lydia; Cugnasse, Jean-Marc; Mastain, Olivier; Chollet, Jean-Yves; Joncour, Guy; Razin, Martine

    2015-08-01

    A specific surveillance program has been set up to monitor avian scavenger populations in the French Pyrenean Mountains, hosting a high proportion of the French populations. The two main purposes of the study were to identify all causes of death and to investigate poisoning cases. All 170 birds found dead during the 7-year program were submitted to full necropsy, X-Ray, parasitological investigations and consistent analytical toxicology screenings (Cholinesterase inhibitors, anticoagulant rodenticides, organochlorine insecticides, Pb, Cd). Over the study period, 8 Bearded Vultures, 120 Griffon Vultures, 8 Egyptian Vultures and 34 Red kites were eventually collected. Mortality events were often multifactorial, but poisoning was by far the most common cause of death (24.1%), followed by trauma/fall (12%), bacterial diseases and starvation (8%) and electrocution (6%). Illicit use of banned pesticides was identified as a common cause of poisoning (53% of all poisoning cases) and lead poisoning was also identified as a significant toxicant issue (17% of all poisoning cases). Lead isotopic signature could be associated primarily with ammunition. Last, a positive association between trauma and lead contamination was detected, indicating that lead could be a significant contributor to different causes of death. These results urge for severe restrictions on the use of lead ammunition to prevent scavengers from detrimental exposure. PMID:25913360

  4. Parameter sensitivities affecting the flutter speed of a MW-sized blade.

    SciTech Connect

    Lobitz, Donald Wayne, Jr.

    2004-10-01

    With the current trend toward larger and larger horizontal axis wind turbines, classical flutter is becoming a more critical issue. Recent studies have indicated that for a single blade turning in still air the flutter speed for a modern 35 m blade occurs at approximately twice its operating speed (2 per rev), whereas for smaller blades (5-9 m), both modern and early designs, the flutter speeds are in the range of 3.5-6 per rev. Scaling studies demonstrate that the per rev flutter speed should not change with scale. Thus, design requirements that change with increasing blade size are producing the concurrent reduction in per rev flutter speeds. In comparison with an early small blade design (5 m blade), flutter computations indicate that the non rotating modes which combine to create the flutter mode change as the blade becomes larger (i.e., for the larger blade the second flapwise mode, as opposed to the first flapwise mode for the smaller blade, combines with the first torsional mode to produce the flutter mode). For the more modern smaller blade design (9 m blade), results show that the non rotating modes that couple are similar to those of the larger blade. For the wings of fixed-wing aircraft, it is common knowledge that judicious selection of certain design parameters can increase the airspeed associated with the onset of flutter. Two parameters, the chordwise location of the center of mass and the ratio of the flapwise natural frequency to the torsional natural frequency, are especially significant. In this paper studies are performed to determine the sensitivity of the per rev flutter speed to these parameters for a 35 m wind turbine blade. Additional studies are performed to determine which structural characteristics of the blade are most significant in explaining the previously mentioned per rev flutter speed differences. As a point of interest, flutter results are also reported for two recently designed 9 m twist/coupled blades.

  5. Parameter sensitivities affecting the flutter speed of a MW-sized blade.

    SciTech Connect

    Lobitz, Donald Wayne, Jr.

    2005-08-01

    With the current trend toward larger and larger horizontal axis wind turbines, classical flutter is becoming a more critical issue. Recent studies have indicated that for a single blade turning in still air the flutter speed for a modern 35 m blade occurs at approximately twice its operating speed (2 per rev), whereas for smaller blades (5-9 m), both modern and early designs, the flutter speeds are in the range of 3.5-6 per rev. Scaling studies demonstrate that the per rev flutter speed should not change with scale. Thus, design requirements that change with increasing blade size are producing the concurrent reduction in per rev flutter speeds. In comparison with an early small blade design (5 m blade), flutter computations indicate that the non rotating modes which combine to create the flutter mode change as the blade becomes larger (i.e., for the larger blade the second flapwise mode, as opposed to the first flapwise mode for the smaller blade, combines with the first torsional mode to produce the flutter mode). For the more modern smaller blade design (9 m blade), results show that the non rotating modes that couple are similar to those of the larger blade. For the wings of fixed-wing aircraft, it is common knowledge that judicious selection of certain design parameters can increase the airspeed associated with the onset of flutter. Two parameters, the chordwise location of the center of mass and the ratio of the flapwise natural frequency to the torsional natural frequency, are especially significant. In this paper studies are performed to determine the sensitivity of the per rev flutter speed to these parameters for a 35 m wind turbine blade. Additional studies are performed to determine which structural characteristics of the blade are most significant in explaining the previously mentioned per rev flutter speed differences. As a point of interest, flutter results are also reported for two recently designed 9 m twist/coupled blades.

  6. The main results of the long-term measurements of the neutral atmosphere parameters by the artificial periodic irregularities techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolmacheva, Ariadna V.; Bakhmetieva, Nataliya V.; Grigoriev, Gennady I.; Kalinina, Elena E.

    2015-09-01

    The results of the atmospheric parameter determination by the method of artificial periodic irregularities (the API techniques) at the E-region heights obtained during many years of the observation are presented. The features of the obtaining data, their processing and the determination of the atmospheric parameters are given in details. A lot of information about dynamical phenomena in the lower thermosphere has been obtained. There are often height profiles of the atmospheric parameters with the wave-like variations and with the vertical scale of about 4-6 km. The temporal variations of the atmospheric parameters take place with the periods from 15 min to some hours. Such variations could be caused by the passage of the internal gravity waves (IGWs) and the tide waves. The temperature minima were observed as 100-140 K above 100 km in the equinoctial periods. The instability growth is also observed in the number of cases. The dependence of the neutral temperature and the density on solar and geomagnetic activity is not found.

  7. Temporal variations in gaseous elemental mercury concentrations at a contaminated site: Main factors affecting nocturnal maxima in daily cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esbrí, José M.; Martínez-Coronado, Alba; Higueras, Pablo L.

    2016-01-01

    Mercury is considered to be a global pollutant and it has been globally transported as gaseous elemental mercury (GEM). International networks for the continuous monitoring of mercury, all of which are based on background sites, study the dispersion pattern of this metal and trends in its evolution in time and space. However, information about seasonal and daily cycling of polluted sites is scarce. The aim of the work described here was to cover this gap in knowledge. For this purpose, continuous (GEM) measurements were carried out in Almadén town from November 2011 to September 2013. Meteorological data were also collected during this time. GEM data show an average concentration during the sampling period (2011-2013) of 27.4 ng m-3, with a range of 0.8-686.9 ng m-3. The results highlighted seasonal and daily cycles of GEM in Almadén town, with seasonally higher levels in summer (686.9 ng m-3) and significantly daily higher levels during the night. A multiple linear regression model has established wind speed as the best GEM predictor in all seasons during the night, while the best predictor in winter is relative humidity, temperature in spring, solar radiation in summer and wind speed in autumn during the day. These results provide evidence that, in mining polluted sites like Almadén, photochemical reactions have a negligible impact on GEM levels during the daytime and that meteorological parameters are more relevant. Further studies on diurnal GEM cycling in polluted sites must be carried out to obtain a realistic local risk assessment, taking into account night GEM levels and their importance in each case study.

  8. Determination of mechanisms and parameters which affect radon entry into a room.

    PubMed

    Vasilyev, A V; Zhukovsky, M V

    2013-10-01

    There are practically no direct techniques for measuring radon entry rate in the rooms. The suggested technique allows estimating such parameter under real conditions. The technique for radon diagnostic procedures including radon entry rate and air change rate assessment was proposed and tested in the field under various experimental conditions. The method consists of the continuous measurement of radon concentration, temperature and pressure difference between indoor and outdoor atmosphere. It was demonstrated that the study of dependence of radon entry rate on temperature difference ?T between indoor and outdoor atmosphere allows to estimate the dominant radon entry mechanism - diffusion mechanism (absence of the dependence on ?T) or convective (radon entry rate increase at ?T increase). It was shown that simultaneous measurements of time series of radon concentration and pressure difference between building envelope and outdoor atmosphere allow assessing such room parameter as Effective Leakage Area. The approach applied in this paper to estimate the air change rate practically is not differing from tracer gas techniques when the constant gas entry rate is used. It was shown that radon could be used as kind of tracer gas to estimate the air change rate. Obtained measurement results for all buildings confirmed the seasonal variations of radon concentrations. A correlation of radon concentration and air change rate with outside temperature occurred in general. PMID:23811128

  9. A systematic experimental investigation of significant parameters affecting model tire hydroplaning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wray, G. A.; Ehrlich, I. R.

    1973-01-01

    The results of a comprehensive parametric study of model and small pneumatic tires operating on a wet surface are presented. Hydroplaning inception (spin down) and rolling restoration (spin up) are discussed. Conclusions indicate that hydroplaning inception occurs at a speed significantly higher than the rolling restoration speed. Hydroplaning speed increases considerably with tread depth, surface roughness and tire inflation pressure of footprint pressure, and only moderately with increased load. Water film thickness affects spin down speed only slightly. Spin down speed varies inversely as approximately the one-sixth power of film thickness. Empirical equations relating tire inflation pressure, normal load, tire diameter and water film thickness have been generated for various tire tread and surface configurations.

  10. Antimicrobial resistances do not affect colonization parameters of intestinal E. coli in a small piglet group

    PubMed Central

    Schierack, Peter; Kadlec, Kristina; Guenther, Sebastian; Filter, Matthias; Schwarz, Stefan; Ewers, Christa; Wieler, Lothar H

    2009-01-01

    Background Although antimicrobial resistance and persistence of resistant bacteria in humans and animals are major health concerns worldwide, the impact of antimicrobial resistance on bacterial intestinal colonization in healthy domestic animals has only been rarely studied. We carried out a retrospective analysis of the antimicrobial susceptibility status and the presence of resistance genes in intestinal commensal E. coli clones from clinically healthy pigs from one production unit with particular focus on effects of pheno- and/or genotypic resistance on different nominal and numerical intestinal colonization parameters. In addition, we compared the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance phenotypes and genotypes with the occurrence of virulence associated genes typical for extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli. Results In general, up to 72.1% of all E. coli clones were resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, kanamycin, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole or tetracycline with a variety of different resistance genes involved. There was no significant correlation between one of the nominal or numerical colonization parameters and the absence or presence of antimicrobial resistance properties or resistance genes. However, there were several statistically significant associations between the occurrence of single resistance genes and single virulence associated genes. Conclusion The demonstrated resistance to the tested antibiotics might not play a dominant role for an intestinal colonization success in pigs in the absence of antimicrobial drugs, or cross-selection of other colonization factors e.g. virulence associated genes might compensate "the cost of antibiotic resistance". Nevertheless, resistant strains are not outcompeted by susceptible bacteria in the porcine intestine. Trial Registration The study was approved by the local animal welfare committee of the "Landesamt für Arbeitsschutz, Gesundheitsschutz und technische Sicherheit" Berlin, Germany (No. G0037/02). PMID:19814790

  11. Sample Size Calculation: Inaccurate A Priori Assumptions for Nuisance Parameters Can Greatly Affect the Power of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Tavernier, Elsa; Giraudeau, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to examine the extent to which inaccurate assumptions for nuisance parameters used to calculate sample size can affect the power of a randomized controlled trial (RCT). In a simulation study, we separately considered an RCT with continuous, dichotomous or time-to-event outcomes, with associated nuisance parameters of standard deviation, success rate in the control group and survival rate in the control group at some time point, respectively. For each type of outcome, we calculated a required sample size N for a hypothesized treatment effect, an assumed nuisance parameter and a nominal power of 80%. We then assumed a nuisance parameter associated with a relative error at the design stage. For each type of outcome, we randomly drew 10,000 relative errors of the associated nuisance parameter (from empirical distributions derived from a previously published review). Then, retro-fitting the sample size formula, we derived, for the pre-calculated sample size N, the real power of the RCT, taking into account the relative error for the nuisance parameter. In total, 23%, 0% and 18% of RCTs with continuous, binary and time-to-event outcomes, respectively, were underpowered (i.e., the real power was < 60%, as compared with the 80% nominal power); 41%, 16% and 6%, respectively, were overpowered (i.e., with real power > 90%). Even with proper calculation of sample size, a substantial number of trials are underpowered or overpowered because of imprecise knowledge of nuisance parameters. Such findings raise questions about how sample size for RCTs should be determined. PMID:26173007

  12. Study of parameters affecting the performance of solar desiccant cooling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Pesaran, A.A.; Hoo, E.A.

    1993-01-01

    The performance of a solar desiccant cooling system depends on the performance of its components, particularly the desiccant dehumidifier and solar collectors. The desiccant dehumidifier performance is affected by the properties of the desiccant, particularly the shape of the isotherm and the regeneration temperature. The performance of a solar collector, as one would expect, depends on its operating temperature, which is very close to the desiccant regeneration temperature. The purpose of this study was to identify the desiccant isotherm shape (characterized by separation factor) that would result in the optimum performance - based on thermal coefficient of performance and cooling capacity - of a desiccant cooling cycle operating in ventilation mode. Different regeneration temperatures ranging from 65{degree}C to 160{degree}C were investigated to identify the corresponding optimum isotherm shape at each. Thermal COP dictates the required area of the solar collectors, and the cooling capacity is an indication of the size and cost of the cooling equipment. Staged and no-staged regeneration methods were studied.

  13. Study of parameters affecting the performance of solar desiccant cooling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Pesaran, A.A.; Hoo, E.A.

    1993-01-01

    The performance of a solar desiccant cooling system depends on the performance of its components, particularly the desiccant dehumidifier and solar collectors. The desiccant dehumidifier performance is affected by the properties of the desiccant, particularly the shape of the isotherm and the regeneration temperature. The performance of a solar collector, as one would expect, depends on its operating temperature, which is very close to the desiccant regeneration temperature. The purpose of this study was to identify the desiccant isotherm shape (characterized by separation factor) that would result in the optimum performance - based on thermal coefficient of performance and cooling capacity - of a desiccant cooling cycle operating in ventilation mode. Different regeneration temperatures ranging from 65[degree]C to 160[degree]C were investigated to identify the corresponding optimum isotherm shape at each. Thermal COP dictates the required area of the solar collectors, and the cooling capacity is an indication of the size and cost of the cooling equipment. Staged and no-staged regeneration methods were studied.

  14. Dexamethasone acutely regulates endocrine parameters in stallions and subsequently affects gene expression in testicular germ cells.

    PubMed

    Ing, N H; Brinsko, S P; Curley, K O; Forrest, D W; Love, C C; Hinrichs, K; Vogelsang, M M; Varner, D D; Welsh, T H

    2015-01-01

    Testicular steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis are negatively impacted by stress-related hormones such as glucocorticoids. The effects of two injections of a therapeutic dose of dexamethasone (a synthetic glucocorticoid, 0.1mg/kg; i.v.) given 24h apart to each of three stallions were investigated and compared to three saline-injected control stallions. Dexamethasone decreased circulating concentrations of cortisol by 50% at 24h after the initial injection. Serum testosterone decreased by a maximum of 94% from 4 to 20h after the initial injection of dexamethasone. Semen parameters of the dexamethasone-treated stallions were unchanged in the subsequent two weeks. Two weeks after treatment, stallions were castrated. Functional genomic analyses of the testes revealed that, of eight gene products analyzed, dexamethasone depressed concentrations of heat shock protein DNAJC4 and sperm-specific calcium channel CATSPER1 mRNAs by more than 60%. Both genes are expressed in germ cells during spermiogenesis and have been related to male fertility in other species, including humans. This is the first report of decreased DNAJC4 and CATSPER1 mRNA concentrations in testes weeks after dexamethasone treatment. Concentrations of these mRNAs in sperm may be useful as novel markers of fertility in stallions. PMID:25487569

  15. Dermal nanocrystals from medium soluble actives - physical stability and stability affecting parameters.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Xuezhen; Lademann, Jürgen; Keck, Cornelia M; Müller, Rainer H

    2014-09-01

    Nanocrystals are meanwhile applied to increase the dermal penetration of drugs, but were applied by now only to poorly soluble drugs (e.g. 1-10 ?g/ml). As a new concept nanocrystals from medium soluble actives were produced, using caffeine as model compound (solubility 16 mg/ml at 20 °C). Penetration should be increased by (a) further increase in solubility and (b) mainly by increased hair follicle targeting of nanocrystals compared to pure solution. Caffeine nanocrystal production in water lead to pronounced crystal growth. Therefore the stability of nanocrystals in water-ethanol (1:9) and ethanol-propylene glycol (3:7) mixtures with lower dielectric constant D was investigated, using various stabilizers. Both mixtures in combination with Carbopol 981 (non-neutralized) yielded stable nanosuspensions over 2 months at 4 °C and room temperature. Storage at 40 °C lead to crystal growth, attributed to too strong solubility increase, supersaturation and Ostwald ripening effects. Stability of caffeine nanocrystals at lower temperatures could not only be attributed to lower solubility, because the solubilities of caffeine in mixtures and in water are not that much different. Other effects such as quantified by reduced dielectric constant D, and specific interactions between dispersion medium and crystal surface seem to play a role. With the 2 mixtures and Carbopol 981, a basic formulation composition for this type of nanocrystals has been established, to be used in the in vivo proof of principle of the new concept. PMID:25016978

  16. Theoretical, numerical and experimental study of geometrical parameters that affect anisotropy measurements in polarization-resolved SHG microscopy.

    PubMed

    Teulon, Claire; Gusachenko, Ivan; Latour, Gaël; Schanne-Klein, Marie-Claire

    2015-04-01

    Polarization-resolved second harmonic generation (P-SHG) microscopy is an efficient imaging modality for in situ observation of biopolymers structure in tissues, providing information about their mean in-plane orientation and their molecular structure and 3D distribution. Nevertheless, P-SHG signal build-up in a strongly focused regime is not throroughly understood yet, preventing reliable and reproducible measurements. In this study, theoretical analysis, vectorial numerical simulations and experiments are performed to understand how geometrical parameters, such as excitation and collection numerical apertures and detection direction, affect P-SHG imaging in homogeneous collagen tissues. A good agreement is obtained in tendon and cornea, showing that detection geometry significantly affects the SHG anisotropy measurements, but not the measurements of collagen in-plane orientation. PMID:25968762

  17. Uncertainty analysis of sensor performance parameters in the shortwave infrared spectral range based on nightglow as the main lightsource

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svensson, Thomas; Bergström, David

    2014-05-01

    Images collected in the shortwave infrared (SWIR) spectral range, 1-2.5 ?m, are similar to visual (VIS) images and are easier to interpret for a human operator than images collected in the thermal infrared range, >3 ?m. The ability of SWIR radiation to penetrate ordinary glass also means that conventional lens materials can be used. The night vision capability of a SWIR camera is however dependent on external light sources. At moonless conditions the dominant natural light source is nightglow, but the intensity is varying, both locally and temporally. These fluctuations are added to variations in other parameters and therefore the real performance of a SWIR camera at moonless conditions can be quite different compared with the expected performance. Collected measured data from the literature on the temporal and local variations of nightglow are presented and the variations of the nightglow intensity and other measured parameters are quantified by computing standard and combined standard uncertainties. The analysis shows that the uncertainty contributions from the nightglow variations are significant. However, nightglow is also found to be a potentially adequate light source for SWIR applications.

  18. Do fattening process and biological parameters affect the accumulation of metals in Atlantic bluefin tuna?

    PubMed

    Milatou, Niki; Dassenakis, Manos; Megalofonou, Persefoni

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the current levels of heavy metals and trace elements in Atlantic bluefin tuna muscle tissues and how they are influenced by the fattening process and various life history parameters to ascertain whether the concentrations in muscle tissue exceed the maximum levels defined by the European Commission Decision and to evaluate the health risk posed by fish consumption. A total of 20 bluefin tuna reared in sea cages, ranging from 160 to 295 cm in length and from 80 to 540 kg in weight, were sampled from a bluefin tuna farm in the Ionian Sea. The condition factor K of each specimen was calculated and their age was estimated. Heavy metal and trace element (Hg, Zn, Fe and Cu) contents were determined in muscle tissue using cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry and flame and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The total Hg concentrations ranged from 0.28 to 1.28 mg kg(-1) w/w, Zn from 5.81 to 76.37 mg kg(-1) w/w, Fe from 12.14 to 39.58 mg kg(-1) w/w, and Cu from 0.36 to 0.94 mg kg(-1) w/w. Only 5% of the muscle samples of tuna contained Hg above the maximum level laid down by the European Commission Decision. Moreover, 15% of the muscle samples contained Zn above the maximum level, while Fe and Cu concentrations were within the acceptable tolerable guideline values. The reared bluefin tuna had lower concentrations of Hg than the wild ones from the Mediterranean Sea. Hg and Fe concentrations showed a positive relationship with size and age of bluefin tuna, whereas negative relationships were found for the concentrations of Zn and Cu. The estimated dietary intake values of the analysed metals were mostly below the derived guidelines. PMID:25906290

  19. Developmental methoxychlor exposure affects multiple reproductive parameters and ovarian folliculogenesis and gene expression in adult rats

    SciTech Connect

    Armenti, AnnMarie E.; Zama, Aparna Mahakali; Passantino, Lisa; Uzumcu, Mehmet

    2008-12-01

    Methoxychlor (MXC) is an organochlorine pesticide with estrogenic, anti-estrogenic, and anti-androgenic properties. To investigate whether transient developmental exposure to MXC could cause adult ovarian dysfunction, we exposed Fischer rats to 20 {mu}g/kg/day (low dose; environmentally relevant dose) or 100 mg/kg/day (high dose) MXC between 19 days post coitum and postnatal day 7. Multiple reproductive parameters, serum hormone levels, and ovarian morphology and molecular markers were examined from prepubertal through adult stages. High dose MXC accelerated pubertal onset and first estrus, reduced litter size, and increased irregular cyclicity (P < 0.05). MXC reduced superovulatory response to exogenous gonadotropins in prepubertal females (P < 0.05). Rats exposed to high dose MXC had increasing irregular estrous cyclicity beginning at 4 months of age, with all animals showing abnormal cycles by 6 months. High dose MXC reduced serum progesterone, but increased luteinizing hormone (LH). Follicular composition analysis revealed an increase in the percentage of preantral and early antral follicles and a reduction in the percentage of corpora lutea in high dose MXC-treated ovaries (P < 0.05). Immunohistochemical staining and quantification of the staining intensity showed that estrogen receptor {beta} was reduced by high dose MXC while anti-Mullerian hormone was upregulated by both low- and high dose MXC in preantral and early antral follicles (P < 0.05). High dose MXC significantly reduced LH receptor expression in large antral follicles (P < 0.01), and down-regulated cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage. These results demonstrated that developmental MXC exposure results in reduced ovulation and fertility and premature aging, possibly by altering ovarian gene expression and folliculogenesis.

  20. How Different Genetically Manipulated Brassica Genotypes Affect Life Table Parameters of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    PubMed

    Nikooei, Mehrnoosh; Fathipour, Yaghoub; Jalali Javaran, Mokhtar; Soufbaf, Mahmoud

    2015-04-01

    The fitness of Plutella xylostella L. on different genetically manipulated Brassica plants, including canola's progenitor (Brassica rapa L.), two cultivated canola cultivars (Opera and RGS003), one hybrid (Hyula401), one gamma-ray mutant-RGS003, and one transgenic (PF) genotype was compared using two-sex and female-based life table parameters. All experiments were conducted in a growth chamber at 25±1°C, 65±5% relative humidity, and a photoperiod of 16:8 (L:D) h. There were significant differences in duration of different life stages of P. xylostella on different plant genotypes. The shortest (13.92?d) and longest (24.61?d) total developmental time were on Opera and PF, respectively. The intrinsic rate of increase of P. xylostella ranged between 0.236 (Opera) and 0.071 day(-1) (PF). The highest (60.79 offspring) and lowest (7.88 offspring) net reproductive rates were observed on Opera and PF, respectively. Comparison of intrinsic rate of increase, net reproductive rates, finite rate of increase, mean generation time, fecundity, and survivorship of P. xylostella on the plant genotypes suggested that this pest performed well on cultivars (RGS003 and Opera) and performed poorly on the other manipulated genotypes especially on mutant-RGS003 and PF. Glucosinolate levels were significantly higher in damaged plants than undamaged ones and the lowest and highest concentrations of glucosinolates were found in transgenic genotype and canola's progenitor, respectively. Interestingly, our results showed that performance and fitness of this pest was better on canola's progenitor and cultivated plants, which had high levels of glucosinolate. PMID:26470162

  1. Fusion of Multi Precursors Earthquake Parameters to Estimate the Date, Magnitude and Affected Area of the Forthcoming Powerful Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhoondzadeh, M.; Saradjian, M. R.

    2012-07-01

    Since not any individual precursor can be used as an accurate stand alone means for the earthquake prediction, it is necessary to integrate different kinds of precursors. The precursors selected for analysis in this study include electron and ion density, electron temperature, total electron content (TEC), electric and magnetic fields and land surface temperature (LST) several days before three strong earthquakes which happened in Samoa Islands, Sichuan (China) and Borujerd (Iran). The precursor's variations were monitored using data obtained from experiments onboard DEMETER (IAP, ISL, ICE and IMSC) and Aqua-MODIS satellites. Regarding the ionospheric precursors, the geomagnetic indices Dst and Kp were used to distinguish pre-earthquake disturbed states from the other anomalies related to the geomagnetic activities. The inter-quartile range of data was utilized to construct their upper and lower bound to detect disturbed states outsides the bounds which might be associated with impending earthquakes. When the disturbed state associated with impending earthquake is detected, based on the type of precursor, the number of days relative to earthquake day is estimated. Then regarding the deviation value of the precursor from the undisturbed state the magnitude of impending earthquake is estimated. The radius of the affected area is calculated using the estimated magnitude and Dobrovolsky formula. In order to assess final earthquake parameters (which are date, magnitude and radius of the affected area) for each case study, using the median and inter-quartile range of earthquake parameters obtained from different precursors, the approximate bounds of final earthquake parameters are defined. For each studied case, a good agreement was found between the estimated and registered earthquake parameters.

  2. Understanding the removal mechanisms of PPCPs and the influence of main technological parameters in anaerobic UASB and aerobic CAS reactors.

    PubMed

    Alvarino, T; Suarez, S; Lema, J M; Omil, F

    2014-08-15

    The removal of 16 Pharmaceutical and Personal Care Products (PPCPs) were studied in a conventional activated sludge (CAS) unit and an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. Special attention was paid to each biomass conformation and activity as well as to operational conditions. Biodegradation was the main PPCP removal mechanism, being higher removals achieved under aerobic conditions, except in the case of sulfamethoxazole and trimetrophim. Under anaerobic conditions, PPCP biodegradation was correlated with the methanogenic rate, while in the aerobic reactor a relationship with nitrification was found. Sorption onto sludge was influenced by biomass conformation, being only significant for musk fragrances in the UASB reactor, in which an increase of the upward velocity and hydraulic retention time improved this removal. Additionally, PPCP sorption increased with time in the UASB reactor, due to the granular biomass structure which suggests the existence of intra-molecular diffusion. PMID:25010455

  3. Altered membrane lipid composition and functional parameters of circulating cells in cockles (Cerastoderma edule) affected by disseminated neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Le Grand, Fabienne; Soudant, Philippe; Marty, Yanic; Le Goïc, Nelly; Kraffe, Edouard

    2013-01-01

    Membrane lipid composition and morpho-functional parameters were investigated in circulating cells of the edible cockle (Cerastoderma edule) affected by disseminated neoplasia (neoplastic cells) and compared to those from healthy cockles (hemocytes). Membrane sterol levels, phospholipid (PL) class and subclass proportions and their respective fatty acid (FA) compositions were determined. Morpho-functional parameters were evaluated through total hemocyte count (THC), mortality rate, phagocytosis ability and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Both morpho-functional parameters and lipid composition were profoundly affected in neoplastic cells. These dedifferentiated cells displayed higher THC (5×), mortality rate (3×) and ROS production with addition of carbonyl cyanide m-chloro phenylhydrazone (1.7×) but lower phagocytosis ability (½×), than unaffected hemocytes. Total PL amounts were higher in neoplastic cells than in hemocytes (12.3 and 5.1 nmol×10(-6) cells, respectively). However, sterols and a particular subclass of PL (plasmalogens; 1-alkenyl-2-acyl PL) were present in similar amounts in both cell type membranes. This led to a two times lower proportion of these membrane lipid constituents in neoplastic cells when compared to hemocytes (20.5% vs. 42.1% of sterols in total membrane lipids and 21.7% vs. 44.2% of plasmalogens among total PL, respectively). Proportions of non-methylene interrupted FA- and 20:1n-11-plasmalogen molecular species were the most impacted in neoplastic cells when compared to hemocytes (?× and ¼×, respectively). These changes in response to this leukemia-like disease in bivalves highlight the specific imbalance of plasmalogens and sterols in neoplastic cells, in comparison to the greater stability of other membrane lipid components. PMID:23333874

  4. Photometric analysis for the spin and shape parameters of the C-type main-belt asteroids (171) Ophelia and (360) Carlova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaobin; Muinonen, Karri; Wang, Yibo; Behrend, Raoul; Goncalves, Rui; Oey, Julian; Antonini, Pierre; Demeautis, Christophe; Manzini, Federico; Damerdji, Jacques; Montier, Jacques; Klotz, Alain; Leroy, Arnaud; Ganand, Giller

    2015-09-01

    Aims: Two C-type main-belt asteroids (171) Ophelia and (360) Carlova are studied for their spin parameters and shapes in the present paper. Although it was suspected that Ophelia was a binary system owing to the eclipse features in the light curve obtained in 1977, no direct evidence has been obtained to confirm the binarity. To verify the previous findings, the spin parameters and shape of Ophelia are derived by analyzing the photometric data. To understand the dispersion in the previous determination of Carlova's spin parameters, new observational data and existing photometric data are reanalyzed to find a homogenous solution for its spin parameters and shape. Methods: The spin parameters and shapes of two asteroids were determined from photometric data using the convex inversion technique. The simplified virtual-observation Markov chain Monte Carlo method was applied to estimate the uncertainties of the spin parameters and to understand the divergence of derived shapes. Results: A pair of possible poles for Ophelia are derived, the spin periods corresponding to the two poles are nearly the same. The convex shape of Ophelia shows binary characteristics. For Carlova, a unique pole solution and its convex shape are ascertained together with the occultation observations. The convex shape of Carlova shows that it is a rough ellipsoid.

  5. Development of an auditory emotion recognition function using psychoacoustic parameters based on the International Affective Digitized Sounds.

    PubMed

    Choi, Youngimm; Lee, Sungjun; Jung, SungSoo; Choi, In-Mook; Park, Yon-Kyu; Kim, Chobok

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an auditory emotion recognition function that could determine the emotion caused by sounds coming from the environment in our daily life. For this purpose, sound stimuli from the International Affective Digitized Sounds (IADS-2), a standardized database of sounds intended to evoke emotion, were selected, and four psychoacoustic parameters (i.e., loudness, sharpness, roughness, and fluctuation strength) were extracted from the sounds. Also, by using an emotion adjective scale, 140 college students were tested to measure three basic emotions (happiness, sadness, and negativity). From this discriminant analysis to predict basic emotions from the psychoacoustic parameters of sound, a discriminant function with overall discriminant accuracy of 88.9 % was produced from training data. In order to validate the discriminant function, the same four psychoacoustic parameters were extracted from 46 sound stimuli collected from another database and substituted into the discriminant function. The results showed that an overall discriminant accuracy of 63.04 % was confirmed. Our findings provide the possibility that daily-life sounds, beyond voice and music, can be used in a human-machine interface. PMID:25319038

  6. Environmental dependence of the stellar velocity dispersion at fixed parameters or for different galaxy families in the main galaxy sample of SDSS DR10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Xinfa; Jiang, Peng; Zhong, Shuangying; Ding, Yingping

    2015-01-01

    Using the apparent magnitude-limited Main Galaxy Sample of Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 10 (SDSS DR10), we examine the environmental dependence of the stellar velocity dispersion at fixed parameters or for different galaxy families. Limiting or fixing certain parameters exerts substantial influence on the environmental dependence of the stellar velocity dispersion of the galaxies which suggests that much of the stellar velocity dispersion-density relation is likely attributable to the relations between other galaxy parameters and density. The environmental dependence of the stellar velocity dispersion for red galaxies is very strong in certain redshift bins. This dependence can still be observed in some redshift bins for late-type galaxies, HSM galaxies, and LSM galaxies but is fairly weak in all redshift bins for early-type galaxies and blue galaxies.

  7. Environmentally realistic concentrations of the antibiotic Trimethoprim affect haemocyte parameters but not antioxidant enzyme activities in the clam Ruditapes philippinarum.

    PubMed

    Matozzo, Valerio; De Notaris, Chiara; Finos, Livio; Filippini, Raffaella; Piovan, Anna

    2015-11-01

    Several biomarkers were measured to evaluate the effects of Trimethoprim (TMP; 300, 600 and 900 ng/L) in the clam Ruditapes philippinarum after exposure for 1, 3 and 7 days. The actual TMP concentrations were also measured in the experimental tanks. The total haemocyte count significantly increased in 7 day-exposed clams, whereas alterations in haemocyte volume were observed after 1 and 3 days of exposure. Haemocyte proliferation was increased significantly in animals exposed for 1 and 7 days, whereas haemocyte lysate lysozyme activity decreased significantly after 1 and 3 days. In addition, TMP significantly increased haemolymph lactate dehydrogenase activity after 3 and 7 days. Regarding antioxidant enzymes, only a significant time-dependent effect on CAT activity was recorded. This study demonstrated that environmentally realistic concentrations of TMP affect haemocyte parameters in clams, suggesting that haemocytes are a useful cellular model for the assessment of the impact of TMP on bivalves. PMID:26301695

  8. Improvement of Oxidative and Metabolic Parameters by Cellfood Administration in Patients Affected by Neurodegenerative Diseases on Chelation Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Fulgenzi, Alessandro; Giuseppe, Rachele De; Bamonti, Fabrizia; Ferrero, Maria Elena

    2014-01-01

    Objective. This prospective pilot study aimed at evaluating the effects of therapy with antioxidant compounds (Cellfood, and other antioxidants) on patients affected by neurodegenerative diseases (ND), who displayed toxic metal burden and were subjected to chelation treatment with the chelating agent calcium disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (CaNa2EDTA or EDTA). Methods. Two groups of subjects were studied: (a) 39 patients affected by ND and (b) 11 subjects unaffected by ND (controls). The following blood parameters were analyzed before and after three months' treatment with chelation + Cellfood or chelation + other antioxidants: oxidative status (reactive oxygen species, ROS; total antioxidant capacity, TAC; oxidized LDL, oxLDL; glutathione), homocysteine, vitamin B12, and folate. Results. After 3-months' chelation + Cellfood administration oxLDL decreased, ROS levels were significantly lower, and TAC and glutathione levels were significantly higher than after chelation + other antioxidants treatment, both in ND patients and in controls. Moreover, homocysteine metabolism had also improved in both groups. Conclusions. Chelation + Cellfood treatment was more efficient than chelation + other antioxidants improving oxidative status and homocysteine metabolism significantly in ND patients and controls. Although limited to a small number of cases, this study showed how helpful antioxidant treatment with Cellfood was in improving the subjects' metabolic conditions. PMID:25114898

  9. Detecting the specific parameters that affect the maturation of farmed sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) fillets stored in sunflower oil.

    PubMed

    Baygar, Taçnur; Alparslan, Yunus; Okumu?, Melis; Güler, Merve

    2014-06-01

    In this study, it was aimed to detect the specific parameters that effect the maturation of farmed sea bass fillets stored in sunflower oil. Sea bass fillets were taken into the pickling solution (2.5% acetic acid and 11% sodium chloride) at 4 °C(±1). Fish meat in each group was analysed for the following parameters; pH, moisture%, acetic acid% and NaCl% in the maturation pickling solution and in sunflower oil. At the end of the 90 days storage, there were not any negative situations about the fish in terms of the scientific approach. It was detected that the skinless samples had the less NaCl and acidity values but scaly and scaleless samples had the higher values. Main reasons are: for the scaly and scaleless samples, the skin acted as a barrier in the pickling solution or oil and for scaly samples, scales depart from the skin and defeat the passing of NaCl and acid to the meat. When evaluating this study results, the fillet group samples which contain more salt and acetic acid are thought to be more appropriate for marinating in terms of shelf-life and quality. PMID:24876656

  10. Parameters analysis for assistant cables of system for transient main cable and catwalk of long-span suspension bridges at construction stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shengli; Ou, Jinping

    2009-03-01

    On the basis of static, dynamic and transient analysis for the prestressing cable structures, the parameters to control the vibration of the system for transient main cables and catwalk of some long-span suspension bridge at the construction stages with the assistant cables are investigated adopting the method of the finite element considering the geometry nonlinearity. The review and prospect to control vibration with assistant cables are summarized, the finite element modeling of the system for transient main cables and catwalk is established, and the influence of the position of the assistant cables, disposed fashion and the tensile forces upon the critical frequencies of the system for transient main cables and catwalk is researched. At the same time, the effect of the damp and the tensile forces of the assistant cables on the equivalent damping ratio of the system for transient main cables and catwalk inside and outside the plane is studied and the effect to control the vibration of the system is analysed. In the end, the influence of the transformation for the tensile forces about assistant cables upon those of the transient main cables and catwalk is also investigated. Results show that, to increase the critical frequencies of the system, the assistant cables should be laid vertically with the main cables and be located in interim span or between the tower and interim span, and to increase the amount of the assistant cables can increase the critical frequencies ,and to increase the rigidities of the assistant cables can improve the ones of the transient main cables but decrease the anti-torsion ability of the catwalks, and to increase the damp of the assistant cables can improve the vibration of the transient main cables inside and outside the plane but the result is little outside the plane, and in addition the effect of the rigidities of the assistant cables is larger outside the plane but is little inside the plane. The results also show that the influence of the change of the tensile forces for the assistant cables upon those of the transient main cables and catwalk is very little.

  11. In vitro acute exposure to DEHP affects oocyte meiotic maturation, energy and oxidative stress parameters in a large animal model.

    PubMed

    Ambruosi, Barbara; Uranio, Manuel Filioli; Sardanelli, Anna Maria; Pocar, Paola; Martino, Nicola Antonio; Paternoster, Maria Stefania; Amati, Francesca; Dell'Aquila, Maria Elena

    2011-01-01

    Phthalates are ubiquitous environmental contaminants because of their use in plastics and other common consumer products. Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is the most abundant phthalate and it impairs fertility by acting as an endocrine disruptor. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effects of in vitro acute exposure to DEHP on oocyte maturation, energy and oxidative status in the horse, a large animal model. Cumulus cell (CC) apoptosis and oxidative status were also investigated. Cumulus-oocyte complexes from the ovaries of slaughtered mares were cultured in vitro in presence of 0.12, 12 and 1200 µM DEHP. After in vitro maturation (IVM), CCs were removed and evaluated for apoptosis (cytological assessment and TUNEL) and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Oocytes were evaluated for nuclear chromatin configuration. Matured (Metaphase II stage; MII) oocytes were further evaluated for cytoplasmic energy and oxidative parameters. DEHP significantly inhibited oocyte maturation when added at low doses (0.12 µM; P<0.05). This effect was related to increased CC apoptosis (P<0.001) and reduced ROS levels (P<0.0001). At higher doses (12 and 1200 µM), DEHP induced apoptosis (P<0.0001) and ROS increase (P<0.0001) in CCs without affecting oocyte maturation. In DEHP-exposed MII oocytes, mitochondrial distribution patterns, apparent energy status (MitoTracker fluorescence intensity), intracellular ROS localization and levels, mt/ROS colocalization and total SOD activity did not vary, whereas increased ATP content (P<0.05), possibly of glycolytic origin, was found. Co-treatment with N-Acetyl-Cysteine reversed apoptosis and efficiently scavenged excessive ROS in DEHP-treated CCs without enhancing oocyte maturation. In conclusion, acute in vitro exposure to DEHP inhibits equine oocyte maturation without altering ooplasmic energy and oxidative stress parameters in matured oocytes which retain the potential to be fertilized and develop into embryos even though further studies are necessary to confirm this possibility. PMID:22076161

  12. In Vitro Acute Exposure to DEHP Affects Oocyte Meiotic Maturation, Energy and Oxidative Stress Parameters in a Large Animal Model

    PubMed Central

    Sardanelli, Anna Maria; Pocar, Paola; Martino, Nicola Antonio; Paternoster, Maria Stefania; Amati, Francesca; Dell'Aquila, Maria Elena

    2011-01-01

    Phthalates are ubiquitous environmental contaminants because of their use in plastics and other common consumer products. Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is the most abundant phthalate and it impairs fertility by acting as an endocrine disruptor. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effects of in vitro acute exposure to DEHP on oocyte maturation, energy and oxidative status in the horse, a large animal model. Cumulus cell (CC) apoptosis and oxidative status were also investigated. Cumulus-oocyte complexes from the ovaries of slaughtered mares were cultured in vitro in presence of 0.12, 12 and 1200 µM DEHP. After in vitro maturation (IVM), CCs were removed and evaluated for apoptosis (cytological assessment and TUNEL) and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Oocytes were evaluated for nuclear chromatin configuration. Matured (Metaphase II stage; MII) oocytes were further evaluated for cytoplasmic energy and oxidative parameters. DEHP significantly inhibited oocyte maturation when added at low doses (0.12 µM; P<0.05). This effect was related to increased CC apoptosis (P<0.001) and reduced ROS levels (P<0.0001). At higher doses (12 and 1200 µM), DEHP induced apoptosis (P<0.0001) and ROS increase (P<0.0001) in CCs without affecting oocyte maturation. In DEHP-exposed MII oocytes, mitochondrial distribution patterns, apparent energy status (MitoTracker fluorescence intensity), intracellular ROS localization and levels, mt/ROS colocalization and total SOD activity did not vary, whereas increased ATP content (P<0.05), possibly of glycolytic origin, was found. Co-treatment with N-Acetyl-Cysteine reversed apoptosis and efficiently scavenged excessive ROS in DEHP-treated CCs without enhancing oocyte maturation. In conclusion, acute in vitro exposure to DEHP inhibits equine oocyte maturation without altering ooplasmic energy and oxidative stress parameters in matured oocytes which retain the potential to be fertilized and develop into embryos even though further studies are necessary to confirm this possibility. PMID:22076161

  13. Rock Mass Grouting in the Løren Tunnel: Case Study with the Main Focus on the Groutability and Feasibility of Drill Parameter Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Høien, Are Håvard; Nilsen, Bjørn

    2014-05-01

    The Løren road tunnel is a part of a major project at Ring road 3 in Oslo, Norway. The rock part of the tunnel is 915 m long and has two tubes with three lanes and breakdown lanes. Strict water ingress restriction was specified and continuous rock mass grouting was, therefore, carried out for the entire tunnel, which was excavated in folded Cambro-Silurian shales intruded by numerous dykes. This paper describes the rock mass grouting that was carried out for the Løren tunnel. Particular emphasis is placed on discussing grout consumption and the challenges that were encountered when passing under a distinct rock depression. Measurement while drilling (MWD) technology was used for this project, and, in this paper, the relationships between the drill parameter interpretation (DPI) factors water and fracturing are examined in relation to grout volumes. A lowering of the groundwater table was experienced during excavation under the rock depression, but the groundwater was nearly re-established after completion of the main construction work. A planned 80-m watertight concrete lining was not required to be built due to the excellent results from grouting in the rock depression area. A relationship was found between leakages mapped in the tunnel and the DPI water factor, indicating that water is actually present where the DPI water factor shows water in the rock. It is concluded that, for the Løren tunnel, careful planning and high-quality execution of the rock mass grouting made the measured water ingress meet the restrictions. For future projects, the DPI water factor may be used to give a better understanding of the material in which the rock mass grouting is performed and may also be used to reduce the time spent and volumes used when grouting.

  14. Nanoparticles affect PCR primarily via surface interactions with PCR components: using amino-modified silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles as a main model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nanomaterials have been widely reported to affect the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). However, many studies in which these effects were observed were not comprehensive, and many of the proposed mechanisms have been primarily speculative. In this work, we used amino-modified silica-coated magnetic n...

  15. The Parameters Affecting the Success of Irrigation and Debridement with Component Retention in the Treatment of Acutely Infected Total Knee Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae Gyoon; Bae, Ji Hoon; Lee, Seung Yup; Cho, Won Tae

    2015-01-01

    Background The aims of our study were to evaluate the success rate of irrigation and debridement with component retention (IDCR) for acutely infected total knee arthroplasty (TKA) (< 4 weeks of symptom duration) and to analyze the factors affecting prognosis of IDCR. Methods We retrospectively reviewed 28 knees treated by IDCR for acutely infected TKA from 2003 to 2012. We evaluated the success rate of IDCR. All variables were compared between the success and failure groups. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was also used to examine the relative contribution of these parameters to the success of IDCR. Results Seventeen knees (60.7%) were successfully treated. Between the success and failure groups, there were significant differences in the time from primary TKA to IDCR (p = 0.021), the preoperative erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR; p = 0.021), microorganism (p = 0.006), and polyethylene liner exchange (p = 0.017). Multivariable logistic regression analysis of parameters affecting the success of IDCR demonstrated that preoperative ESR (odds ratio [OR], 1.02; p = 0.041), microorganism (OR, 12.4; p = 0.006), and polyethylene liner exchange (OR, 0.07; p = 0.021) were significant parameters. Conclusions The results show that 60.7% of the cases were successfully treated by IDCR for acutely infected TKA. The preoperative ESR, microorganism, and polyethylene liner exchange were factors that affected the success of IDCR in acutely infected TKA. PMID:25729521

  16. The role of mechanical properties in cavitation erosion resistance. [parameters affecting metal fatigue under cavitation flow conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gould, G. C.

    1974-01-01

    Methods for determining the correlations of erosion resistance and mechanical properties of materials are discussed. The most common method of testing cavitation erosion resistance of materials is the vibratory cavitation probe. The instrument and its operation are described. The use of the whirling arm device is considered as a second method. Metallographic investigations of the earliest stages of cavitation erosion damage of metallic materials was conducted. The materials show plastic deformation occurring during the incubation period and increasing until cracks form and metal fragments are lost. The parameters of the work done to cause material fractures are identified. The reactions obtained with specific materials are reported.

  17. How parameters and regularization affect the Polyakov-Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model phase diagram and thermodynamic quantities

    SciTech Connect

    Costa, P.; Hansen, H.

    2010-01-01

    We explore the phase diagram and the critical behavior of QCD thermodynamic quantities in the context of the so-called Polyakov-Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. We show that this improved field theoretical model is a successful candidate for studying the equation of state and the critical behavior around the critical endpoint. We argue that a convenient choice of the model parameters is crucial to get the correct description of isentropic trajectories. The effects of the regularization procedure in several thermodynamic quantities is also analyzed. The results are compared with simple thermodynamic expectations and lattice data.

  18. Does a short-term exposure to cadmium chloride affects haemocyte parameters of the marine gastropod Haliotis tuberculata?

    PubMed

    Ladhar-Chaabouni, Rim; Machreki-Ajmi, Monia; Serpentini, Antoine; Lebel, Jean-Marc; Hamza-Chaffai, Amel

    2015-11-01

    In this study, a model based on primary cultured haemocytes from the gastropod mollusc Haliotis tuberculata was established to investigate the effects of cadmium chloride in vitro. Cells were exposed for 24 h to CdCl2 concentrations of 0, 1 and 100 ?g ml(-1). The effects of cadmium on haemocyte parameters were investigated using morphological, spectrophotometric and flow cytometry analysis. Results showed that cadmium has no significant effects on cell viability and phagocytotic activity under the tested conditions. However, haemocytes became more rounded after cadmium exposure, which could explain the significant decrease of cell area beginning at 1 ?g ml(-1) of CdCl2. PMID:25131679

  19. Nitrogen in Hydroponic Growing Medium of Tomato Affects the Demographic Parameters of Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae).

    PubMed

    Hosseini, R S; Madadi, H; Hosseini, M; Delshad, M; Dashti, F

    2015-12-01

    We evaluated the effects of different nitrogen levels (380, 310, 240, and 174 ppm) on the life history parameters of Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on hydroponically cultured tomato plants. Our data show that there is a positive correlation between the nitrogen content and the demographic parameters, as the intrinsic rate of increase of T. vaporariorum was the lowest (0.059?±?0.007 day(-1)) at 174 ppm and the highest (0.088?±?0.005 day(-1)) at 380 ppm of nitrogen. The net reproduction rate (R 0), finite rate of increase (?), and mean developmental time (T) were significantly influenced by the nitrogen levels. The mean longevity of males and females showed a positive relationship with the nitrogen level, ranging from 64.8?±?3.96 to 76.3?±?2.44 for males and 61.6?±?5.35 to 71.2?±?2.44 for females, observed in the lowest and highest nitrogen levels, respectively. The relationship between nitrogen fertilization and T. vaporariorum management on tomato crops is discussed. PMID:26385237

  20. Photosynthetic and Ultrastructure Parameters of Maize Plants are Affected During the Phyto-Rhizoremediation Process of Degraded Metal Working Fluids.

    PubMed

    Grijalbo, Lucía; Gutierrez Mañero, Francisco Javier; Fernandez-Pascual, Mercedes; Lucas, Jose Antonio

    2015-12-01

    A phyto-rhizoremediation system using corn and esparto fiber as rooting support to remediate degraded metal working fluids (dMWFs) has been developed in the present study. In order to improve the process, plants were inoculated at the root level with bacteria either individually, and with a consortium of strains. All strains used were able to grow with MWFs. The results show that this system significantly lowers the Chemical Oxygen Demand below legal limits within 5 days. However, results were only improved with the bacterial consortium. Despite the effectiveness of the phyto-rhizoremediation process, plants are damaged at the photosynthetic level according to the photosynthetic parameters measured, as well as at the ultrastructure of the vascular cylinder and the Bundle Sheath Cells. Interestingly, the bacterial inoculation protects against this damage. Therefore, it seems that that the inoculation with bacteria can protect the plants against these harmful effects. PMID:26090801

  1. Genotyping-by-sequencing approach indicates geographic distance as the main factor affecting genetic structure and gene flow in Brazilian populations of Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Silva-Brandão, Karina Lucas; Silva, Oscar Arnaldo Batista Neto E; Brandão, Marcelo Mendes; Omoto, Celso; Sperling, Felix A H

    2015-06-01

    The oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta is one of the major pests of stone and pome fruit species in Brazil. Here, we applied 1226 SNPs obtained by genotyping-by-sequencing to test whether host species associations or other factors such as geographic distance structured populations of this pest. Populations from the main areas of occurrence of G. molesta were sampled principally from peach and apple orchards. Three main clusters were recovered by neighbor-joining analysis, all defined by geographic proximity between sampling localities. Overall genetic structure inferred by a nonhierarchical amova resulted in a significant ?ST value = 0.19109. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that SNPs gathered by genotyping-by-sequencing can be used to infer genetic structure of a pest insect in Brazil; moreover, our results indicate that those markers are very informative even over a restricted geographic scale. We also demonstrate that host plant association has little effect on genetic structure among Brazilian populations of G. molesta; on the other hand, reduced gene flow promoted by geographic isolation has a stronger impact on population differentiation. PMID:26029261

  2. Genotyping-by-sequencing approach indicates geographic distance as the main factor affecting genetic structure and gene flow in Brazilian populations of Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae)

    PubMed Central

    Silva-Brandão, Karina Lucas; Silva, Oscar Arnaldo Batista Neto e; Brandão, Marcelo Mendes; Omoto, Celso; Sperling, Felix A H

    2015-01-01

    The oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta is one of the major pests of stone and pome fruit species in Brazil. Here, we applied 1226 SNPs obtained by genotyping-by-sequencing to test whether host species associations or other factors such as geographic distance structured populations of this pest. Populations from the main areas of occurrence of G. molesta were sampled principally from peach and apple orchards. Three main clusters were recovered by neighbor-joining analysis, all defined by geographic proximity between sampling localities. Overall genetic structure inferred by a nonhierarchical amova resulted in a significant ?ST value = 0.19109. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that SNPs gathered by genotyping-by-sequencing can be used to infer genetic structure of a pest insect in Brazil; moreover, our results indicate that those markers are very informative even over a restricted geographic scale. We also demonstrate that host plant association has little effect on genetic structure among Brazilian populations of G. molesta; on the other hand, reduced gene flow promoted by geographic isolation has a stronger impact on population differentiation. PMID:26029261

  3. Critical rearing parameters of Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) as affected by host plant substrate and host-parasitoid group structure.

    PubMed

    Duan, Jian J; Oppel, Craig

    2012-06-01

    In laboratory assays, we evaluated the potential impact of host plant substrate types, host-parasitoid group sizes (densities), and parasitoid-to-host ratios on select fitness parameters of the larval endoparasitoid Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), newly introduced for biological control of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), in the United States. Results from our study showed that offspring production and critical fitness parameters (body size and sex ratio) of T. planipennisi from parasitized emerald ash borer larvae are significantly influenced by host plant substrate type, host-parasitoid group size, parasitoid-to-host ratio, or a combination in the primary exposure assay. The number of both female and male T. planipennisi progeny was significantly greater when emerald ash borer larvae were inserted into tropical ash [Fraxinus uhdei (Wenz.) Lingelsh.] logs rather than green ash (Fraxinus pensylvanica Marshall). When maintained at a constant 1:1 parasitoid-to-host ratio, assays with larger host-parasitoid group sizes (3:3-12:12) produced significantly greater numbers of both male and female offspring per parental wasp compared with those with the single host-parasitoid (1:1) group treatment. As the parasitoid-to-host ratio increased from 1:1 to 8:1 in the assay, the average brood size (number of offspring per parasitized emerald ash borer larva) increased significantly, whereas the average brood sex ratio (female to male) changed from being female-biased (6:1) to male-biased (1:2); body size of female offspring as measured by the length of ovipositor and left hind tibia also was reduced significantly. Based on these findings, we suggest that the current method of rearing T. planipennisi with artificially infested-emerald ash borer larvae use the tropical ash logs for emerald ash borer insertion, a larger (> or = 3:3) host-parasitoid group size and 1:1 parasitoid-to-host ratio in the primary parasitoid exposure assays. PMID:22812114

  4. Factors affecting the relation between stretching frequencies and bond lengths. Diatomic and polyatomic species without adjustable fitting parameters.

    PubMed

    Zavitsas, Andreas A

    2015-12-01

    In 76 sets of similar type bonds in species A2, AB, AB2, AB3, and AB4 the stretching frequency, ?, is related to the bond length, r, by ?=a/(r?(1/2))-b, where ? is the reduced mass. The sets treated include all ground states for which spectroscopic date were found for stable molecules, free radicals, carbenes and other species with unsatisfied valences, both ionic and covalent. The linear correlation coefficients of each set are always greater than 0.998. The slopes a and intercepts b are defined by the data of each set and vary widely. They become congruent, but not exactly identical, when a is multiplied by the square root of the mean value of the number of electrons in the valence shell of the two bonded atoms, the electrons that become joined in the molecular orbitals formed upon bonding. No adjustable parameters are used. The number of bonds treated, over 300, is not as important as the fact that all species found were treated. The aim is not to add yet another parametric correlation to the many extant, but to better understand the relation between these two fundamental properties of chemical bonds. PMID:26162344

  5. Visible Persistence of Single-Transient Random Dot Patterns: Spatial Parameters Affect the Duration of Fading Percepts

    PubMed Central

    Bruchmann, Maximilian; Thaler, Kathrin; Vorberg, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Visible persistence refers to the continuation of visual perception after the physical termination of a stimulus. We studied an extreme case of visible persistence by presenting two matrices of randomly distributed black and white pixels in succession. On the transition from one matrix to the second, the luminance polarity of all pixels within a disk- or annulus-shaped area reversed, physically creating a single second-order transient signal. This transient signal produces the percept of a disk or an annulus with an abrupt onset and a gradual offset. To study the nature of this fading percept we varied spatial parameters, such as the inner and the outer diameter of annuli (Experiment I) and the radius and eccentricity of disks (Experiment III), and measured the duration of visible persistence by having subjects adjust the synchrony of the onset of a reference stimulus with the onset or the offset of the fading percept. We validated this method by comparing two modalities of the reference stimuli (Experiment I) and by comparing the judgments of fading percepts with the judgments of stimuli that actually fade in luminance contrast (Experiment II). The results show that (i) irrespective of the reference modality, participants are able to precisely judge the on- and the offsets of the fading percepts, (ii) auditory reference stimuli lead to higher visible persistence durations than visual ones, (iii) visible persistence duration increases with the thickness of annuli and the diameter of disks, but decreases with the diameter of annuli, irrespective of stimulus eccentricity. These effects cannot be explained by stimulus energy, which suggests that more complex processing mechanisms are involved. Seemingly contradictory effects of disk and annulus diameter can be unified by assuming an abstract filling-in mechanism that speeds up with the strength of the edge signal and takes more time the larger the stimulus area is. PMID:26348616

  6. Visible Persistence of Single-Transient Random Dot Patterns: Spatial Parameters Affect the Duration of Fading Percepts.

    PubMed

    Bruchmann, Maximilian; Thaler, Kathrin; Vorberg, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Visible persistence refers to the continuation of visual perception after the physical termination of a stimulus. We studied an extreme case of visible persistence by presenting two matrices of randomly distributed black and white pixels in succession. On the transition from one matrix to the second, the luminance polarity of all pixels within a disk- or annulus-shaped area reversed, physically creating a single second-order transient signal. This transient signal produces the percept of a disk or an annulus with an abrupt onset and a gradual offset. To study the nature of this fading percept we varied spatial parameters, such as the inner and the outer diameter of annuli (Experiment I) and the radius and eccentricity of disks (Experiment III), and measured the duration of visible persistence by having subjects adjust the synchrony of the onset of a reference stimulus with the onset or the offset of the fading percept. We validated this method by comparing two modalities of the reference stimuli (Experiment I) and by comparing the judgments of fading percepts with the judgments of stimuli that actually fade in luminance contrast (Experiment II). The results show that (i) irrespective of the reference modality, participants are able to precisely judge the on- and the offsets of the fading percepts, (ii) auditory reference stimuli lead to higher visible persistence durations than visual ones, (iii) visible persistence duration increases with the thickness of annuli and the diameter of disks, but decreases with the diameter of annuli, irrespective of stimulus eccentricity. These effects cannot be explained by stimulus energy, which suggests that more complex processing mechanisms are involved. Seemingly contradictory effects of disk and annulus diameter can be unified by assuming an abstract filling-in mechanism that speeds up with the strength of the edge signal and takes more time the larger the stimulus area is. PMID:26348616

  7. IN-SYNC I: Homogeneous stellar parameters from high-resolution apogee spectra for thousands of pre-main sequence stars

    SciTech Connect

    Cottaar, Michiel; Meyer, Michael R.; Covey, Kevin R.; Nidever, David L.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Foster, Jonathan B.; Tan, Jonathan C.; Da Rio, Nicola; Chojnowski, S. Drew; Skrutskie, Michael; Majewski, Steven R.; Wilson, John C.; Zasowski, Gail; Flaherty, Kevin M.; Frinchaboy, Peter M.

    2014-10-20

    Over two years, 8859 high-resolution H-band spectra of 3493 young (1-10 Myr) stars were gathered by the multi-object spectrograph of the APOGEE project as part of the IN-SYNC ancillary program of the SDSS-III survey. Here we present the forward modeling approach used to derive effective temperatures, surface gravities, radial velocities, rotational velocities, and H-band veiling from these near-infrared spectra. We discuss in detail the statistical and systematic uncertainties in these stellar parameters. In addition, we present accurate extinctions by measuring the E(J – H) of these young stars with respect to the single-star photometric locus in the Pleiades. Finally, we identify an intrinsic stellar radius spread of about 25% for late-type stars in IC 348 using three (nearly) independent measures of stellar radius, namely, the extinction-corrected J-band magnitude, the surface gravity, and the Rsin i from the rotational velocities and literature rotation periods. We exclude that this spread is caused by uncertainties in the stellar parameters by showing that the three estimators of stellar radius are correlated, so that brighter stars tend to have lower surface gravities and larger Rsin i than fainter stars at the same effective temperature. Tables providing the spectral and photometric parameters for the Pleiades and IC 348 have been provided online.

  8. MAINE POPULATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    MEPOP250 depicts Maine's 1950-1990 population data by town or Census in unorganized territories. Populations were compiled from US Census Bureau data where available or from Maine Municipal Information (mainly for older records). Unorganized towns with very low or zero pop...

  9. Type of Renal Replacement Therapy (Hemodialysis versus Peritoneal Dialysis) Does Not Affect Cytokine Gene Expression or Clinical Parameters of Renal Transplant Candidates

    PubMed Central

    Kami?ska, Dorota; Ko?cielska-Kasprzak, Katarzyna; Chudoba, Pawe?; Mazanowska, Oktawia; Banasik, Miros?aw; ?abinska, Marcelina; Boraty?ska, Maria; Lepiesza, Agnieszka; Korta, Krzysztof; Gomó?kiewicz, Agnieszka; Dzi?giel, Piotr; Klinger, Marian

    2015-01-01

    Patients with renal failure suffer from immune disturbances, caused by uremic toxins and influenced by dialysis treatment. The aim of the present study was to reveal whether type of dialysis modality (hemodialysis, HD, versus peritoneal dialysis, PD) differentially affects the immunocompetence, particularly the expression of genes involved in the immune response. Material. 87 renal transplant candidates (66 HD, 21 PD) were included in the study. Methods. The peripheral blood RNA samples were obtained with the PAXgene Blood system just before transplantation. The gene expression of CASP3, FAS, TP53, FOXP3, IFNG, IL2, IL6, IL8, IL10, IL17, IL18, LCN2, TGFB1, and TNF was assessed with real-time PCR on custom-designed low density arrays (TaqMan). Gene expression data were analyzed in relation to pretransplant clinical parameters. Results. The mean expression of examined genes showed no significant differences between PD and HD with the exception of FAS, expression of which was 30% higher in PD patients compared to the HD group. There was nonsignificantly higher expression of proinflammatory cytokines in the PD group. The clinical inflammatory parameters (CRP, albumin, cholesterol, and hemoglobin levels) did not differ between the groups. Conclusion. Type of renal replacement therapy exerts no differential effect on cytokine gene expression or inflammatory clinical parameters. PMID:26236736

  10. MAINE AQUIFERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    AQFRS24 contains polygons of significant aquifers in Maine (glacial deposits that are a significant ground water resource) mapped at a scale 1:24,000. This statewide coverage was derived from aquifer boundaries delineated and digitized by the Maine Geological Survey from data com...

  11. Investigating how fundamental parameters of XRF sample preparation and analysis affect the observed elemental concentration: an experiment using fluvial sediment from Sabah, Borneo.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higton, Sam; Walsh, Rory

    2015-04-01

    X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) is an important technique for measuring the concentrations of geochemical elements and inorganic contaminants adsorbed to sediments as an input to sediment tracing methods used to evaluate sediment transport dynamics in river catchments. In addition to traditional laboratory-based XRF instruments, the advent of increasingly advanced portable handheld XRF devices now mean that samples of fluvial sediment can be analysed in the field or in the laboratory following appropriate sample preparation procedures. There are limitations and sources of error associated with XRF sample preparation and analysis, however. It is therefore important to understand how fundamental parameters involved in sample preparation and analysis, such as sample compression and measurement exposure duration, affect observed variability in measurement results. Such considerations become important if the resulting measurement variability is high relative to the natural variability in element concentrations at a sample site. This paper deployed a simple experimental design to assess the impacts of varying a number of sample preparation and XRF analysis parameters on recorded measurements of elemental concentrations of the fine fraction (<63um) of bed-sediment samples. Specifically the study compared observed elemental concentrations measured using a Rigaku NEX-CG laboratory machine versus a handheld Niton XL3t-900 XRF elemental analyser. Helium purging was used on both machines to enable measurement of lighter geochemical elements. Sediment sub-samples were taken from a larger homogenised sample from a sediment core taken from an in-channel lateral bench deposit of the Brantian river in Sabah, Borneo; the core site is being used for research into multi-proxy sediment fingerprinting as part of the Stability of Altered Forest Ecosystems (SAFE) project. Some fundamental sample preparation procedures consistent with US EPA Method 6200 were applied to all sediment samples in order to explore key variables of interest. All sediment samples were air-dried to constant weight and sample quantity was sufficient to satisfy the assumption of 'infinite thickness' of sample. Standard plastic sample cups were used for both the Rigaku laboratory machine and the Niton portable XRF machine. A computer-controlled desktop laboratory stand was used in conjunction with the Niton handheld XRF analyser to ensure consistent repeated measurements. Parameters investigated related to sample preparation included consistent mechanical compression of samples within the sample cup and film thickness. Parameters investigated related to XRF analysis included the XRF machine selected and measurement exposure duration. As XRF is a non-destructive technique, wherever possible the same sample material was used to test different parameters, so as to reduce variations due to the heterogeneous nature of sediment. Observed XRF measurements demonstrate how the precision and relative accuracy of elemental concentrations of sediment can be affected by the XRF analyser selected as well as fundamental parameters of sample preparation and analysis procedure. This has implications for studies where comparability and repeatability of measurements is important. Furthermore, the heterogeneous nature of sediments over small spatial scales means that it is important to understand the levels of variability in elemental concentrations resulting from variations in sample preparation and analysis procedures.

  12. Do organic solvents affect the catalytic properties of lipase? Intrinsic kinetic parameters of lipases in ester hydrolysis and formation in various organic solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Tol, J.B.A. van; Stevens, R.M.M.; Veldhuizen, W.J.; Jongejan, J.A.; Duine, J.A.

    1995-07-05

    When it is assumed that organic solvents do not interfere with the binding process nor with the catalytic mechanism, the contribution of substrate-solvent interactions to enzyme kinetics can be accounted for by just replacing substrate concentrations in the equations by thermodynamic activities. It appears from the transformation that only the affinity parameters (K{sub m},k{sub sp}) are affected by this. Thus, in theory, the values of these corrected, intrinsic parameters (K{sub m}{sup int}, k{sub sp}{sup int}) and the maximal rate (V{sub 1}) should be equal for all media. This was tested for hydrolysis, transesterification, and esterification reactions catalyzed by pig pancreas lipase and Pseudomonas cepacia lipase in various organic solvents. Correction was carried out via experimentally determined activity coefficients for the substrates in these solvents or, if not feasible, from values in data bases. However, although the kinetic performances of each enzyme in the solvents became much more similar after correction, differences still remained. Analysis of the enzyme suspensions revealed massive particles, which explains the low activity of enzymes in organic solvents. However, no correlation was found between estimates of the amount of catalytically available enzyme (present at the surface of suspended particles or immobilized on beads) and the maximal rates observed. Moreover, the solvents had similar effects on the intrinsic parameters of suspended and immobilized enzyme. The possible causes for the effects of the solvents on the catalytic performance of the enzymes, remaining after correction for solvent-substrate interactions and the amount of participating enzyme, are discussed with respect to the premises on which the correction method is based.

  13. MAINE WOODLOTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    MEOWN250 describes industrial, non-industrial, and public woodlot ownership in Maine at 1:250,000 scale. Industrial owners are those having at least one primary wood processing facility. Non-industrial owners are those with no primary wood processing facility. Public ownership...

  14. MAINE HYDROGRAPHY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydronet_me24 and Hydropoly_me24 depict Maine's hydrography data, based on 8-digit hydrological unit codes (HUC's) at the 1:24,000 scale. Some New Hampshire and New Brunswick hydrography data are also included. The NHD hydrography data was compiled from previous ArcIn...

  15. The Assessment of Parameters Affecting the Quality of Cord Blood by the Appliance of the Annexin V Staining Method and Correlation with CFU Assays

    PubMed Central

    Radke, Teja Falk; Barbosa, David; Duggleby, Richard Charles; Saccardi, Riccardo; Querol, Sergio; Kögler, Gesine

    2013-01-01

    The assessment of nonviable haematopoietic cells by Annexin V staining method in flow cytometry has recently been published by Duggleby et al. Resulting in a better correlation with the observed colony formation in methylcellulose assays than the standard ISHAGE protocol, it presents a promising method to predict cord blood potency. Herein, we applied this method for examining the parameters during processing which potentially could affect cord blood viability. We could verify that the current standards regarding time and temperature are sufficient, since no significant difference was observed within 48 hours or in storage at 4°C up to 26°C. However, the addition of DMSO for cryopreservation alone leads to an inevitable increase in nonviable haematopoietic stem cells from initially 14.8% ± 4.3% to at least 30.6% ± 5.5%. Furthermore, CFU-assays with varied seeding density were performed in order to evaluate the applicability as a quantitative method. The results revealed that only in a narrow range reproducible clonogenic efficiency (ClonE) could be assessed, giving at least a semiquantitative estimation. We conclude that both Annexin V staining method and CFU-assays with defined seeding density are reliable means leading to a better prediction of the final potency. Especially Annexin V, due to its fast readout, is a practical tool for examining and optimising specific steps in processing, while CFU-assays add a functional confirmation. PMID:23533443

  16. Parameters affecting the occurrence of quicksand and the drying up of large diameter wells that gain water from the bottom: a case study from Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kompani-Zare, Mazda; Samani, Nozar; Behrooz-Koohenjani, Siavash

    2009-07-01

    Large diameter fully cased wells that gain water from the bottom are often dug in sandy and collapsible aquifers. They have cylindrical vertical walls lined with brick or concrete. The well bottom is partially filled with aquifer material through which the flow is vertically upward. When the vertical hydraulic gradient reaches a critical value, quicksand occurs and the well structure can be destroyed. Another difficulty encountered is drawdown in the wellbore and the drying up of the well. To overcome these problems, the flow around and beneath these wells is numerically simulated. The simulation results are used to investigate the effect of well and aquifer parameters on quicksand and drawdown. For practical purposes, the dimensionless drawdown-time and dimensionless vertical gradient-time curves are developed. It was found that the ratio of filling material thickness to well radius affects the shape of these type curves. The type curves may be used to predict the time after pumping commences when quicksand occurs and the well dries up. They are also useful to design the safe pumping rate and duration as well as the optimum well radius. These are demonstrated by analyzing the pumping test data from a case study in the arid Chah Kutah region, southern Iran.

  17. Dietary peppermint (Mentha piperita) extracts promote growth performance and increase the main humoral immune parameters (both at mucosal and systemic level) of Caspian brown trout (Salmo trutta caspius Kessler, 1877).

    PubMed

    Adel, Milad; Safari, Reza; Pourgholam, Reza; Zorriehzahra, Jalil; Esteban, Maria Ángeles

    2015-11-01

    The effects of dietary administration of peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) on Caspian brown trout fish (Salmo trutta caspius) were studied. Fish were divided into 4 groups before being fed diets supplemented with 0% (control), 1%, 2% and 3% of peppermint extracts for 8 weeks. Dose-dependent increases in growth, immune (both in skin mucus and blood serum) and hematological parameters (number of white cells, hematocrit and hemoglobin content), as well as in amylase activity and in the number of lactic acid bacteria on intestine were recorded in fish fed supplemented diets compared to control fish. However, the dietary peppermint supplements have different effects on the number of blood leucocytes depending on the leukocyte cell type. While no significant differences were observed in the number of blood monocytes and eosinophils, the number of lymphocytes was decreased, respectively, on fish fed peppermint enriched diets, respect to the values found in control fish. Furthermore, dietary peppermint supplements have no significant effect on blood biochemical parameters, enzymatic activities of liver determined in serum and total viable aerobic bacterial count on intestine of Caspian brown trout. Present results support that dietary administration of peppermint promotes growth performance and increases the main humoral immune parameters (both at mucosal and systemic level) and the number of the endogenous lactic acid bacteria of Caspian brown trout. This study underlying several positive effects of dietary administration of peppermint to farmed fish. PMID:26455650

  18. Effect of parameter choice in root water uptake models - the arrangement of root hydraulic properties within the root architecture affects dynamics and efficiency of root water uptake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechmann, M.; Schneider, C.; Carminati, A.; Vetterlein, D.; Attinger, S.; Hildebrandt, A.

    2014-10-01

    Detailed three-dimensional models of root water uptake have become increasingly popular for investigating the process of root water uptake. However, they suffer from a lack of information on important parameters, particularly on the spatial distribution of root axial and radial conductivities, which vary greatly along a root system. In this paper we explore how the arrangement of those root hydraulic properties and branching within the root system affects modelled uptake dynamics, xylem water potential and the efficiency of root water uptake. We first apply a simple model to illustrate the mechanisms at the scale of single roots. By using two efficiency indices based on (i) the collar xylem potential ("effort") and (ii) the integral amount of unstressed root water uptake ("water yield"), we show that an optimal root length emerges, depending on the ratio between roots axial and radial conductivity. Young roots with high capacity for radial uptake are only efficient when they are short. Branching, in combination with mature transport roots, enables soil exploration and substantially increases active young root length at low collar potentials. Second, we investigate how this shapes uptake dynamics at the plant scale using a comprehensive three-dimensional root water uptake model. Plant-scale dynamics, such as the average uptake depth of entire root systems, were only minimally influenced by the hydraulic parameterization. However, other factors such as hydraulic redistribution, collar potential, internal redistribution patterns and instantaneous uptake depth depended strongly on the arrangement on the arrangement of root hydraulic properties. Root systems were most efficient when assembled of different root types, allowing for separation of root function in uptake (numerous short apical young roots) and transport (longer mature roots). Modelling results became similar when this heterogeneity was accounted for to some degree (i.e. if the root systems contained between 40 and 80% of young uptake roots). The average collar potential was cut to half and unstressed transpiration increased by up to 25% in composed root systems, compared to homogenous ones. Also, the least efficient root system (homogenous young root system) was characterized by excessive bleeding (hydraulic lift), which seemed to be an artifact of the parameterization. We conclude that heterogeneity of root hydraulic properties is a critical component for efficient root systems that needs to be accounted for in complex three-dimensional root water uptake models.

  19. Main Report

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Background: States vary widely in their use of newborn screening tests, with some mandating screening for as few as three conditions and others mandating as many as 43 conditions, including varying numbers of the 40+ conditions that can be detected by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). There has been no national guidance on the best candidate conditions for newborn screening since the National Academy of Sciences report of 19751 and the United States Congress Office of Technology Assessment report of 1988,2 despite rapid developments since then in genetics, in screening technologies, and in some treatments. Objectives: In 2002, the Maternal and Child Health Bureau (MCHB) of the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) of the United States Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) commissioned the American College of Medical Genetics (ACMG) to: Conduct an analysis of the scientific literature on the effectiveness of newborn screening.Gather expert opinion to delineate the best evidence for screening for specified conditions and develop recommendations focused on newborn screening, including but not limited to the development of a uniform condition panel.Consider other components of the newborn screening system that are critical to achieving the expected outcomes in those screened. Methods: A group of experts in various areas of subspecialty medicine and primary care, health policy, law, public health, and consumers worked with a steering committee and several expert work groups, using a two-tiered approach to assess and rank conditions. A first step was developing a set of principles to guide the analysis. This was followed by developing criteria by which conditions could be evaluated, and then identifying the conditions to be evaluated. A large and broadly representative group of experts was asked to provide their opinions on the extent to which particular conditions met the selected criteria, relying on supporting evidence and references from the scientific literature. The criteria were distributed among three main categories for each condition: The availability and characteristics of the screening test;The availability and complexity of diagnostic services; andThe availability and efficacy of treatments related to the conditions. A survey process utilizing a data collection instrument was used to gather expert opinion on the conditions in the first tier of the assessment. The data collection format and survey provided the opportunity to quantify expert opinion and to obtain the views of a diverse set of interest groups (necessary due to the subjective nature of some of the criteria). Statistical analysis of data produced a score for each condition, which determined its ranking and initial placement in one of three categories (high scoring, moderately scoring, or low scoring/absence of a newborn screening test). In the second tier of these analyses, the evidence base related to each condition was assessed in depth (e.g., via systematic reviews of reference lists including MedLine, PubMed and others; books; Internet searches; professional guidelines; clinical evidence; and cost/economic evidence and modeling). The fact sheets reflecting these analyses were evaluated by at least two acknowledged experts for each condition. These experts assessed the data and the associated references related to each criterion and provided corrections where appropriate, assigned a value to the level of evidence and the quality of the studies that established the evidence base, and determined whether there were significant variances from the survey data. Survey results were subsequently realigned with the evidence obtained from the scientific literature during the second-tier analysis for all objective criteria, based on input from at least three acknowledged experts in each condition. The information from these two tiers of assessment was then considered with regard to the overriding principles and other technology or condition-specific recommendations. On the basis of this information, conditions were assigned to one of thr

  20. Metal-poor dwarf galaxies in the SIGRID galaxy sample. II. The electron temperature-abundance calibration and the parameters that affect it

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholls, David C.; Dopita, Michael A.; Sutherland, Ralph S.; Jerjen, Helmut; Kewley, Lisa J.

    2014-07-20

    In this paper, we use the Mappings photoionization code to explore the physical parameters that impact on the measurement of electron temperature and abundance in H II regions. In our previous paper, we presented observations and measurements of physical properties from the spectra of 17 H II regions in 14 isolated dwarf irregular galaxies from the SIGRID sample. Here, we analyze these observations further, together with three additional published data sets. We explore the effects of optical thickness, electron density, ionization parameter, ionization source, and non-equilibrium effects on the relation between electron temperature and metallicity. We present a standard model that fits the observed data remarkably well at metallicities between one-tenth and 1 solar. We investigate the effects of optically thin H II regions, and show that they can have a considerable effect on the measured electron temperature, and that there is evidence that some of the observed objects are optically thin. We look at the role of the ionization parameter and find that lower ionization parameter values give better fits at higher oxygen abundance. We show that higher pressures combined with low optical depth, and also ? electron energy distributions at low ? values, can generate the apparent high electron temperatures in low-metallicity H II regions, and that the former provides the better fit to observations. We examine the effects of these parameters on the strong line diagnostic methods. We extend this to three-dimensional diagnostic grids to confirm how well the observations are described by the grids.

  1. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey. XIX. B-type supergiants: Atmospheric parameters and nitrogen abundances to investigate the role of binarity and the width of the main sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEvoy, C. M.; Dufton, P. L.; Evans, C. J.; Kalari, V. M.; Markova, N.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Vink, J. S.; Walborn, N. R.; Crowther, P. A.; de Koter, A.; de Mink, S. E.; Dunstall, P. R.; Hénault-Brunet, V.; Herrero, A.; Langer, N.; Lennon, D. J.; Maíz Apellániz, J.; Najarro, F.; Puls, J.; Sana, H.; Schneider, F. R. N.; Taylor, W. D.

    2015-03-01

    Context. Model atmosphere analyses have been previously undertaken for both Galactic and extragalactic B-type supergiants. By contrast, little attention has been given to a comparison of the properties of single supergiants and those that are members of multiple systems. Aims: Atmospheric parameters and nitrogen abundances have been estimated for all the B-type supergiants identified in the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula survey. These include both single targets and binary candidates. The results have been analysed to investigate the role of binarity in the evolutionary history of supergiants. Methods: tlusty non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) model atmosphere calculations have been used to determine atmospheric parameters and nitrogen abundances for 34 single and 18 binary supergiants. Effective temperatures were deduced using the silicon balance technique, complemented by the helium ionisation in the hotter spectra. Surface gravities were estimated using Balmer line profiles and microturbulent velocities deduced using the silicon spectrum. Nitrogen abundances or upper limits were estimated from the N ii spectrum. The effects of a flux contribution from an unseen secondary were considered for the binary sample. Results: We present the first systematic study of the incidence of binarity for a sample of B-type supergiants across the theoretical terminal age main sequence (TAMS). To account for the distribution of effective temperatures of the B-type supergiants it may be necessary to extend the TAMS to lower temperatures. This is also consistent with the derived distribution of mass discrepancies, projected rotational velocities and nitrogen abundances, provided that stars cooler than this temperature are post-red supergiant objects. For all the supergiants in the Tarantula and in a previous FLAMES survey, the majority have small projected rotational velocities. The distribution peaks at about 50 km s-1 with 65% in the range 30 km s-1 ? vesini ? 60 km s-1. About ten per cent have larger vesini (?100 km s-1), but surprisingly these show little or no nitrogen enhancement. All the cooler supergiants have low projected rotational velocities of ?70 km s-1and high nitrogen abundance estimates, implying that either bi-stability braking or evolution on a blue loop may be important. Additionally, there is a lack of cooler binaries, possibly reflecting the small sample sizes. Single-star evolutionary models, which include rotation, can account for all of the nitrogen enhancement in both the single and binary samples. The detailed distribution of nitrogen abundances in the single and binary samples may be different, possibly reflecting differences in their evolutionary history. Conclusions: The first comparative study of single and binary B-type supergiants has revealed that the main sequence may be significantly wider than previously assumed, extending to Teff = 20 000 K. Some marginal differences in single and binary atmospheric parameters and abundances have been identified, possibly implying non-standard evolution for some of the sample. This sample as a whole has implications for several aspects of our understanding of the evolutionary status of blue supergiants. Tables 1, 4, 7 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  2. Critical rearing parameters of Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) as affected by host-plant substrate and host-parasitoid group structure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Laboratory studies were conducted to evaluate the potential impact of host-plant substrate types, host-parasitoid group size and host to parasitoid ratios on select fitness parameters of the larval parasitoid Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang, newly introduced for biological control of the invasive eme...

  3. Pb-free solders are used as interconnects in various levels of micro-electronic packaging. Reliability of these interconnects is very critical for the performance of the package. One of the main factors affecting the

    E-print Network

    Pb-free solders are used as interconnects in various levels of micro-electronic packaging factors affecting the reliability of solder joints is the presence of porosity which is introduced during four different solder joints with varying degrees of porosity are modeled using the validated FE model

  4. Tamoxifen affects glucose and lipid metabolism parameters, causes browning of subcutaneous adipose tissue and transient body composition changes in C57BL/6NTac mice.

    PubMed

    Hesselbarth, Nico; Pettinelli, Chiara; Gericke, Martin; Berger, Claudia; Kunath, Anne; Stumvoll, Michael; Blüher, Matthias; Klöting, Nora

    2015-08-28

    Tamoxifen is a selective estrogen receptor (ER) modulator which is widely used to generate inducible conditional transgenic mouse models. Activation of ER signaling plays an important role in the regulation of adipose tissue (AT) metabolism. We therefore tested the hypothesis that tamoxifen administration causes changes in AT biology in vivo. 12 weeks old male C57BL/6NTac mice were treated with either tamoxifen (n = 18) or vehicle (n = 18) for 5 consecutive days. Tamoxifen treatment effects on body composition, energy homeostasis, parameters of AT biology, glucose and lipid metabolism were investigated up to an age of 18 weeks. We found that tamoxifen treatment causes: I) significantly increased HbA1c, triglyceride and free fatty acid serum concentrations (p < 0.01), II) browning of subcutaneous AT and increased UCP-1 expression, III) increased AT proliferation marker Ki67 mRNA expression, IV) changes in adipocyte size distribution, and V) transient body composition changes. Tamoxifen may induce changes in body composition, whole body glucose and lipid metabolism and has significant effects on AT biology, which need to be considered when using Tamoxifen as a tool to induce conditional transgenic mouse models. Our data further suggest that tamoxifen-treated wildtype mice should be characterized in parallel to experimental transgenic models to control for tamoxifen administration effects. PMID:26164229

  5. Parameters affecting the stability of the digestate from a two-stage anaerobic process treating the organic fraction of municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Trzcinski, Antoine P.; Stuckey, David C.

    2011-07-15

    This paper focused on the factors affecting the respiration rate of the digestate taken from a continuous anaerobic two-stage process treating the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW). The process involved a hydrolytic reactor (HR) that produced a leachate fed to a submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor (SAMBR). It was found that a volatile solids (VS) removal in the range 40-75% and an operating temperature in the HR between 21 and 35 {sup o}C resulted in digestates with similar respiration rates, with all digestates requiring 17 days of aeration before satisfying the British Standard Institution stability threshold of 16 mg CO{sub 2} g VS{sup -1} day{sup -1}. Sanitization of the digestate at 65 {sup o}C for 7 days allowed a mature digestate to be obtained. At 4 g VS L{sup -1} d{sup -1} and Solid Retention Times (SRT) greater than 70 days, all the digestates emitted CO{sub 2} at a rate lower than 25 mg CO{sub 2} g VS{sup -1} d{sup -1} after 3 days of aeration, while at SRT lower than 20 days all the digestates displayed a respiration rate greater than 25 mg CO{sub 2} g VS{sup -1} d{sup -1}. The compliance criteria for Class I digestate set by the European Commission (EC) and British Standard Institution (BSI) could not be met because of nickel and chromium contamination, which was probably due to attrition of the stainless steel stirrer in the HR.

  6. Two-spotted spider mite reared on resistant eggplant affects consumption rate and life table parameters of its predator, Typhlodromus bagdasarjani (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    PubMed

    Khanamani, Mostafa; Fathipour, Yaghoub; Hajiqanbar, Hamidreza; Sedaratian, Amin

    2014-06-01

    The study of interactions between host plant cultivars and biological control agents is important in integrated pest management programs. In this study, the life table parameters and predation rate of Typhlodromus bagdasarjani Wainstein & Arutunjan were determined on two-spotted spider mites reared on a susceptible (Isfahan) or a resistant (Neishabour) eggplant cultivar. All experiments were carried out under laboratory conditions, at 25 ± 1 °C, 60 ± 5 % RH and a photoperiod of 16:8 (L:D) h. A significant difference was observed between mean developmental time of immature stages of T. bagdasarjani on the two eggplant cultivars: 6.6 versus 7.5 days, on the susceptible and resistant cultivar, respectively. Net reproductive rate (R 0) of T. bagdasarjani did not differ between the cultivars. Doubling time on the susceptible and resistant cultivars was 3.48 versus 5.72 days, mean generation time (T) was 10.13 versus 16.08 days, respectively. Total fecundity was higher on susceptible than on resistant eggplants, the intrinsic rate of population increase (r) was 0.188 versus 0.119 day(-1), respectively. Daily and total prey consumption of various life stages of T. bagdasarjani on two-spotted spider mite reared on susceptible versus resistant eggplant differed; total consumption was higher on spider mites reared on the resistant cultivar. However, the lower intrinsic rate of increase and higher mortality of the predator on the resistant eggplant (Neishabour) revealed that more attention should be devoted to integrated control of spider mites using resistant cultivars and phytoseiid mites. PMID:24599555

  7. Measurements of IL-6, soluble IL-6 receptor and soluble gp130 in sera of B-cell lymphoma patients. Does viscum album treatment affect these parameters?

    PubMed

    Kovacs, E; Kuehn, J J

    2002-05-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) can be involved in several diseases including lymphoid malignancies. This cytokine binds to soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R) circulating in blood, leading to signal transduction via gp130. Soluble IL-6R shows agonistic activity for IL-6, and the soluble form of gp130 (sgp130) an antagonistic effect against the complex IL-6/sIL-6R. Viscum album extract (Iscador) as an immunomodulator is used in the treatment of malignant disorders. In this study we investigated the effect of this treatment on the serum levels of IL-6, sIL-6R and sgp130 in B-cell lymphoma patients (n = 27), in comparison to healthy controls (n = 28). Twenty-one of 27 patients had been treated previously with chemo/radiotherapy. The patients were divided into two groups; those with short-term (investigated before and during treatment) or those with long-term Viscum album (VA) therapy (investigated during therapy). The serum levels of the three parameters were determined by ELISA. In patients having short-term treatment IL-6 values were similar to those of controls. During long-term therapy the values were significantly lower (P<0.05). The values of sIL-6R were elevated only in long-term treated patients (P<0.05), the values of sgp130 in both short-term (P<0.05) and in long-term treated patients (P=0.001). There is a significant correlation (P<0.05) between levels of sIL-6R and sgp130 in both therapy groups at 24 hours after injection. This indicates that the potent effect of sIL-6R on the biological activity of IL-6 could be inhibited by sgp130 as antagonist. Clinical data show that half of the patients (6/12) with long-term treatment had a continuous complete remission, whereas only 2/15 patients with short-term treatment had a complete remission. PMID:12046687

  8. Jupiter's Main Ring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    A mosaic of four images taken through the clear filter (610 nanometers) of the solid state imaging (CCD) system aboard NASA's Galileo spacecraft on November 8, 1996, at a resolution of approximately 46 kilometers (km) per picture element (pixel) along the rings; however, because the spacecraft was only about 0.5 degrees above the ring plane, the image is highly foreshortened in the vertical direction. The images were obtained when Galileo was in Jupiter's shadow peering back toward the Sun; the ring was approximately 2,300,000 kilometers (km) away. The arc on the far right of the image is produced by sunlight scattered by small particles comprising Jupiter's upper atmospheric haze. The ring also efficiently scatters light, indicating that much of its brightness is due to particles that are microns or less in diameter. Such small particles are believed to have human-scale lifetimes, i.e., very brief compared to the solar system's age.

    Jupiter's ring system is composed of three parts -- a flat main ring, a lenticular halo interior to the main ring, and the gossamer ring, which lies exterior to the main ring. The near and far arms of Jupiter's main ring extend horizontally across the mosaic, joining together at the ring's ansa, on the far left side of the figure. The near arm of the ring appears to be abruptly truncated close to the planet, at the point where it passes into Jupiter's shadow. Some radial structure is barely visible across the ring's ansa. A faint mist of particles can be seen above and below the main rings; this vertically extended 'halo' is unusual in planetary rings, and is probably caused by electromagnetic forces pushing the smallest grains out of the ring plane. Because of shadowing, the halo is not visible close to Jupiter in the lower right part of the mosaic.

    Jupiter's main ring is a thin strand of material encircling the planet. The diffuse innermost boundary begins at approximately 123,000 km. The main ring's outer radius is found to be at 128,940 +/-50 km, slightly less than the Voyager value of 129,130 +/-100 km, but very close to the orbit of the satellite Adrastea (128,980 km). The main ring exhibits a marked drop in brightness at 127,849 +/-50 km, lying almost atop the orbit of the Jovian moon Metis at 127,978 km. Satellites seem to affect the structure of even tenuous rings like that found at Jupiter.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at: http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at: http:/ /www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo.

  9. Parameters affecting solvent production by Clostridium pasteurianum

    SciTech Connect

    Dabrock, B.; Bahl, H.; Gottschalk, G. )

    1992-04-01

    The effect of pH, growth rate, phosphate and iron limitation, carbon monoxide, and carbon source on product formation by Clostridium pasteurianum was determined. Under phosphate limitation, glucose was fermented almost exclusively to acetate and butyrate independently of the pH and growth rate. Iron limitation caused lactate production (38 mol/100 mol) from glucose in batch and continuous culture. At 15% (vol/vol) carbon monoxide in the atmosphere, glucose was fermented to ethanol (24 mol/100 mol), lactate (32 mol/100 mol), and butanol (36 mol/100 mol) in addition to the usual products, acetate (38 mol/100 mol) and butyrate (17 mol/100 mol). During glycerol fermentation, a completely different product pattern was found. In continuous culture under phosphate limitation, acetate and butyrate were produced only in trace amounts, whereas ethanol (30 mol/10 mol), butanol (18 mol/100 mol), and 1,3-propanediol (18 mol/100 mol) were the major products. Under iron limitation, the ratio of these products could be changed in favor of 1,3-propanediol (34 mol/100 mol). In addition, lactate was produced in significant amounts (25 mol/100 mol). The tolerance of C. pasteurianum to glycerol was remarkably high; growth was not inhibited by glycerol concentrations up to 17% (wt/vol). Increasing glycerol concentrations favored the production of 1,3-propanediol.

  10. Parameters affecting sag resistance in spring steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assefpour-Dezfuly, M.; Brownrigg, A.

    1989-10-01

    Recent trends toward reducing the weight of automobile suspension springs have led to the development of a number of microalloyed steels and a variety of processing treatments which have claimed to improve the sag resistance of springs while increasing their operating stresses. More often than not, however, the subtle effects of varying levels of hardness and prior austenite grain size, as well as small but significant differences in critical elements such as Si, are over-looked in comparing these new steels with the conventional grades. Hysteresis loops measured in tension (related to the Bauschinger effect) were used to determine the relaxation behavior of a number of microalloyed and standard grade spring steels. The effects of hardness level, austenitizing temperature, prior austenite grain size, and warm prestressing on the Bauschinger hysteresis loops were also established. Silicon was found to be the most important factor influencing the size of the hysteresis loops; the greater the Si content of the steel (up to 2.2 pct), the larger the loops at a given strength level and the greater the expected relaxation resistance of the spring. The standard AISI 9261 steel containing 2.2 pct Si showed the same Bauschinger loops as the microalloyed grades containing Nb and V at the same hardness of 50 HRC.

  11. Processing parameters affecting sorghum noodle qualities 

    E-print Network

    Kunetz, Christine Frances

    1997-01-01

    and appeared to be strong enough to resist fracturing during packaging and shipping. The noodle maintained its firmness after cooking. Three varieties of white food sorghum (ATx631*Tx436, ATxARG1*ATx631, and SC283-14) were decorticated and milled into flour...

  12. The Fermilab Main Injector

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, C.S.

    1992-11-01

    The Fermilab Main Injector is a new 150 GeV proton synchrotron, designed to replace the Main Ring and improve the high energy physics potential of Fermilab. The status of the Fermilab accelerator complex upgrade will be discussed.

  13. Reionization history and CMB parameter estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Dizgah, Azadeh Moradinezhad; Kinney, William H.; Gnedin, Nickolay Y. E-mail: gnedin@fnal.edu

    2013-05-01

    We study how uncertainty in the reionization history of the universe affects estimates of other cosmological parameters from the Cosmic Microwave Background. We analyze WMAP7 data and synthetic Planck-quality data generated using a realistic scenario for the reionization history of the universe obtained from high-resolution numerical simulation. We perform parameter estimation using a simple sudden reionization approximation, and using the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) technique proposed by Mortonson and Hu. We reach two main conclusions: (1) Adopting a simple sudden reionization model does not introduce measurable bias into values for other parameters, indicating that detailed modeling of reionization is not necessary for the purpose of parameter estimation from future CMB data sets such as Planck. (2) PCA analysis does not allow accurate reconstruction of the actual reionization history of the universe in a realistic case.

  14. Childhood Injuries in Maine: A Status Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiCara, Cheryl; And Others

    Purposes of this report are to: (1) describe the extent of the childhood injury problem relative to diseases and other conditions affecting children in Maine who are 1 to 19 years of age; (2) give an overview of what is known about the incidence of childhood injuries in Maine; and (3) offer recommendations to improve the state's ability to control…

  15. Teaching Main Idea Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumann, James F., Ed.

    Intended to help classroom teachers, curriculum developers, and researchers, this book provides current information on theoretical and instructional aspects of main idea comprehension. Titles and authors are as follows: "The Confused World of Main Idea" (James W. Cunningham and David W. Moore); "The Comprehension of Important Information in…

  16. MAINE MARINE WORM HABITAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    WORM provides a generalized representation at 1:24,000 scale of commercially harvested marine worm habitat in Maine, based on Maine Department of Marine Resources data from 1970's. Original maps were created by MDMR and published by USF&WS as part of the ""&quo...

  17. Elements affecting runway traction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horne, W. B.

    1974-01-01

    The five basic elements affecting runway traction for jet transport aircraft operation are identified and described in terms of pilot, aircraft system, atmospheric, tire, and pavement performance factors or parameters. Where possible, research results are summarized, and means for restoring or improving runway traction for these different conditions are discussed.

  18. MAINE WEIRS 1990

    EPA Science Inventory

    WEIR90 shows point locations of herring weirs in Maine based on 1990 overflight by MDMR Marine Patrol, mapped at an approximate scale of 1:100,000. Data were screen digitized from paper maps used during the overflight.

  19. MAIN DISTRIBUTION FACILITY (MDF)

    E-print Network

    Matrajt, Graciela

    MAIN DISTRIBUTION FACILITY (MDF) ELECTRICAL ENTRANCE FACILITY (EF) INTERMEDIATE DISTRIBUTION FACILITY (IDF) INTERMEDIATE DISTRIBUTION FACILITY (IDF) INTERMEDIATE DISTRIBUTION FACILITY (IDF) GROUNDING TMGB TGB TGB TGB primary cable protection EGC EGC = Equipment Grounding Connector Panel Board Typical

  20. Ladybugs of Maine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Color images are presented for the 57 species of Coccinellidae, commonly known as ladybugs, that are documented from Maine. Images are displayed in taxonomic order. Information on each species includes its genus-species name, length, and an actual-size silhouette beside a grid matched to the scale...

  1. Educational Television in Maine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Bennett

    Maine has had educational television (ETV) for about 12 years. ETV has been successful in putting on public service programming, despite the legislature's suspicions of this type of programming. The fact that ETV has not had more widespread success in instructional television for the state's classrooms may partly depend on the state legislature's…

  2. James Kidder Main Library

    E-print Network

    Pennycook, Steve

    . V., Watson, D. B., & Kostka, J. E. (2008). Functional diversity and electron donor dependenceJames Kidder Main Library Box 2008 Bldg. 4500N MS-6191 865-576-0535 kidderjh@ornl.gov Biological Press, Washington, DE, USA; Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Gilichinsky, D., Vishnivetskaya, T

  3. James Kidder Main Library

    E-print Network

    ., Chin, K. J., Kusel, K., Palumbo, A. V., Watson, D. B., & Kostka, J. E. (2008). Functional diversityJames Kidder Main Library Box 2008 Bldg. 4500N MS-6191 865-576-0535 kidderjh@ornl.gov Environmental Measurements for Forest Carbon Monitoring (pp. 91-101). Heidelberg: Springer. Gilichinsky, D., Vishnivetskaya

  4. Oliver Kullmann Main results

    E-print Network

    Kullmann, Oliver

    Oliver Kullmann Main results Complement invariance Lean clause-sets Minimal unsatisfiability SAT and Outlook SAT and the Polya Permanent Problem Oliver Kullmann Computer Science Department Swansea University SAT 2007, Lisbon, May 30, 2007 SAT: Connecting combinatorics and linear algebra #12;Oliver Kullmann

  5. Heat Shield's Main Piece

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity caught this view of the main piece of the spacecraft's heat shield during the rover's 328th martian day, or sol (Dec. 25, 2004). A separation spring can be seen on the ground to the lower left side of the heat shield.

  6. Main Parachute Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Shown is the testing of the Main Parachute for the Ares/CLV first stage in support of the Ares/Constellation program at the Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona. This image is extracted from high definition video and is the highest resolution available.

  7. MAINE SCHOOLS AND LIBRARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    SCHLIB shows point locations of libraries and educational institutions in Maine at 1:24,000 scale. Colleges, universities, technical colleges, high schools, middle schools, elementary schools, kindergarten/sub-primary and other special schools are included. The data was developed...

  8. Main features of meiosis

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 17, outlines the main features of meiosis, beginning with its significance and proceeding through the meiotic stages. Meiosis is the most important modification of mitosis because it is the reduction division that gives rise to the haploid generation in the life cycle. 17 refs., 6 figs.

  9. Snow Falls - Maine

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    As the Little Androscoggin River flows through western Maine it eventually reaches Snow Falls, a 25 ft cascading waterfall in the town of West Paris.  This photo was taken during a high flow event at the falls. The USGS monitors the Little Androscoggin River upstream of the falls at station 01...

  10. Sensitivity analysis of an Ocean Carbon Cycle Model in the North Atlantic: an investigation of parameters affecting the air-sea CO2 flux, primary production and export of detritus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, V.; Kettle, H.; Merchant, C. J.

    2010-12-01

    The sensitivity of the biological parameters in a nutrient-phytoplankton-zooplankton-detritus (NPZD) model in the calculation of the air-sea CO2 flux, primary production and detrital export is analysed. The NPZD model is the Hadley Centre Ocean Carbon Cycle model (HadOCC) from the UK Met Office, used in the Hadley Centre Coupled Model 3 (HadCM3) and FAst Met Office and Universities Simulator (FAMOUS) GCMs. Here, HadOCC is coupled to the 1-D General Ocean Turbulence Model (GOTM) and forced with European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasting meteorology to undertake a sensitivity analysis of its twenty biological parameters. Analyses are performed at three sites in the EuroSITES European Ocean Observatory Network: the Central Irminger Sea (60° N 40° W), the Porcupine Abyssal Plain (49° N 16° W) and the European Station for Time series in the Ocean Canary Islands (29° N 15° W) to assess variability in parameter sensitivities at different locations in the North Atlantic Ocean. Reasonable changes to the values of key parameters are shown to have a large effect on the calculation of the air-sea CO2 flux, primary production, and export of biological detritus to the deep ocean. Changes in the values of key parameters have a greater effect in more productive regions than in less productive areas. We perform the analysis using one-at-a-time perturbations and using a statistical emulator, and compare results. The most sensitive parameters are generic to many NPZD ocean ecosystem models. The air-sea CO2 flux is most influenced by variation in the parameters that control phytoplankton growth, detrital sinking and carbonate production by phytoplankton (the rain ratio). Primary production is most sensitive to the parameters that define the shape of the photosythesis-irradiance curve. Export production is most sensitive to the parameters that control the rate of detrital sinking and the remineralisation of detritus.

  11. Maine coast winds

    SciTech Connect

    Avery, Richard

    2000-01-28

    The Maine Coast Winds Project was proposed for four possible turbine locations. Significant progress has been made at the prime location, with a lease-power purchase contract for ten years for the installation of turbine equipment having been obtained. Most of the site planning and permitting have been completed. It is expect that the turbine will be installed in early May. The other three locations are less suitable for the project, and new locations are being considered.

  12. Is there an efficient trap or collection method for sampling Anopheles darlingi and other malaria vectors that can describe the essential parameters affecting transmission dynamics as effectively as human landing catches? - A Review

    PubMed Central

    Lima, José Bento Pereira; Rosa-Freitas, Maria Goreti; Rodovalho, Cynara Melo; Santos, Fátima; Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    Distribution, abundance, feeding behaviour, host preference, parity status and human-biting and infection rates are among the medical entomological parameters evaluated when determining the vector capacity of mosquito species. To evaluate these parameters, mosquitoes must be collected using an appropriate method. Malaria is primarily transmitted by anthropophilic and synanthropic anophelines. Thus, collection methods must result in the identification of the anthropophilic species and efficiently evaluate the parameters involved in malaria transmission dynamics. Consequently, human landing catches would be the most appropriate method if not for their inherent risk. The choice of alternative anopheline collection methods, such as traps, must consider their effectiveness in reproducing the efficiency of human attraction. Collection methods lure mosquitoes by using a mixture of olfactory, visual and thermal cues. Here, we reviewed, classified and compared the efficiency of anopheline collection methods, with an emphasis on Neotropical anthropophilic species, especially Anopheles darlingi, in distinct malaria epidemiological conditions in Brazil. PMID:25185008

  13. Main Oxidizer Valve Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Addona, Brad; Eddleman, David

    2015-01-01

    A developmental Main Oxidizer Valve (MOV) was designed by NASA-MSFC using additive manufacturing processes. The MOV is a pneumatically actuated poppet valve to control the flow of liquid oxygen to an engine's injector. A compression spring is used to return the valve to the closed state when pneumatic pressure is removed from the valve. The valve internal parts are cylindrical in shape, which lends itself to traditional lathe and milling operations. However, the valve body represents a complicated shape and contains the majority of the mass of the valve. Additive manufacturing techniques were used to produce a part that optimized mass and allowed for design features not practical with traditional machining processes.

  14. (Mainly) axion dark matter

    E-print Network

    Baer, Howard

    2015-01-01

    The strong CP problem of QCD is at heart a problem of naturalness: why is the F\\tilde{F} term highly suppressed in the QCD Lagrangian when it seems necessary to explain why there are three and not four light pions? The most elegant solution posits a spontaneously broken Peccei-Quinn (PQ) symmetry which requires the existence of the axion field a. The axion field settles to the minimum of its potential thus removing the offensive term but giving rise to the physical axion whose coherent oscillations can make up the cold dark matter. Only now are experiments such as ADMX beginning to explore QCD axion parameter space. Since a bonafide scalar particle-- the Higgs boson-- has been discovered, one might expect its mass to reside at the axion scale f_a~ 10^{11} GeV. The Higgs mass is elegantly stabilized by supersymmetry: in this case the axion is accompanied by its axino and saxion superpartners. Requiring naturalness also in the electroweak sector implies higgsino-like WIMPs so then we expect mixed axion-WIMP dar...

  15. March 29, 2008 Operating Systems: Main Memory 1 Main Memory

    E-print Network

    Adam, Salah

    March 29, 2008 Operating Systems: Main Memory 1 Main Memory Chapter 8 #12;March 29, 2008 Operating Systems: Main Memory 2 Chapter Outline Background Contiguous Memory Allocation Paging Structure of the Page Table Segmentation #12;March 29, 2008 Operating Systems: Main Memory 3 Objectives To provide

  16. How does nature of rain affect micro-physical parameters of surface rain? A study on vertical profile and surface rain micro-structure over eastern Himalaya in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Soumendra; Chatterjee, Abhijit; Ghosh, Sanjay; Raha, Sibaji; Mitra, Amitabha

    A study has been made on the effect of nature of the rain (convective, stratiform and mixed) on the various micro-physical properties like drop-size distributions (DSD), fall velocity and rain rate of surface rain over Darjeeling (27.01 (°) N, 88.15 (°) E), a high altitude (2200 m asl) station at eastern Himalaya in India. A vertical looking Micro Rain Radar (MRR) was used for the vertical profile of micro-physical parameters of rain along with the rain height derived from the bright band structure of melting layer of radar reflectivity profile. The micro-physical parameters of surface rain was obtained using a ground based Disdrometer. Data has been collected and analysed for all the rain events during monsoon (June-September), 2013. All the rain events over the entire study period were classified as convective, stratiform and mixed type based on the bright band structure. DSD, fall velocity of rain drops and rain rate obtained from Disdrometer were correlated with the types of rain obtained from MRR. Our results showed that the average height of bright band of melting layer was 2.5 km and 4 km for convective and stratiform type of rain respectively. For mixed type of rain radar reflectivity shows two peaks with the bright band heights ranging from 2 - 5 km. Convective rain events showed higher rain rate at the ground with the range of 30-40 mm hr (-1) . Instantaneous rain rate of convective rain events sometimes reached more than 100 mm hr (-1) . DSD at the surface showed that number of bigger drops (> 0.5 mm) increases significantly compared to smaller drops (< 0.5 mm) along with higher fall velocities. The drop diameter for this type of rain reached 5 mm for most of the cases. For stratiform type of rain, surface rain rate was found to be comparatively much lower remaining around 5 mm hr (-1) . The number of bigger drops was much lower associated to stratiform type of rain. The drop diameter remained within 2 mm for most of the cases. Several events were observed where all types of rains occurred with convective rains appeared at the initial phase of rain followed by mixed type and both of them lasted for low duration. Stratiform rains which appeared after the mixed type lasted for longer duration till the end of the events. The individual characteristics for each type of rains were distinctly observed for the events where all these three types were present. These distinctly different features of different rain types could significantly impact on the washing or scavenging air pollutants below the cloud with different potentials.

  17. Optimization of the operating parameters of a grass trimming machine.

    PubMed

    Mallick, Zulquernain

    2010-03-01

    Hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS) is very common among the workers operating power tools and doing similar nature of work for long hours. Grass trimming is one of the operations that involves use of vibrating cutter, and results in hand-arm vibration among workers. In this study, the influence of several operating parameters (length of nylon cutting thread, engine speed and handle material) is investigated in terms of HAV. Data are analyzed via orthogonal array, main effect, signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio, and analysis of variance to determine the appropriate operating parameter levels to minimize HAV. Operating parameters under investigation are found to be influential in controlling HAV generation during grass trimming operation. Experiments are carried out for measuring hand-arm vibration using tri-axial accelerometer conforming the effectiveness of this approach. Results show that 100mm length of nylon thread, 3000+/-400rpm of engine speed and ABS handle material combination results in minimum HAV (HARM) of magnitude 2.76m/s(2). Through this study not only the optimal operating parameter levels for GTM are obtained, but also the main process parameters that affect the HAV are determined. The optimum HAV obtained through appropriate level selection of operating parameters, significantly reduces the occurrence of HAVS among the grass trimmers. PMID:19762006

  18. Preliminary crystallographic analysis of avian infectious bronchitis virus main protease

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jun; Shen, Wei; Liao, Ming; Bartlam, Mark

    2007-01-01

    The avian infectious bronchitis virus main protease has been crystallized; crystals diffract to 2.7 Å resolution. Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is the prototype of the genus Coronavirus. It causes a highly contagious disease which affects the respiratory, reproductive, neurological and renal systems of chickens, resulting great economic losses in the poultry industry worldwide. The coronavirus (CoV) main protease (M{sup pro}), which plays a pivotal role in viral gene expression and replication through a highly complex cascade involving the proteolytic processing of replicase polyproteins, is an attractive target for antiviral drug design. In this study, IBV M{sup pro} was overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Crystals suitable for X-ray crystallography have been obtained using microseeding techniques and belong to space group P6{sub 1}22. X-ray diffraction data were collected in-house to 2.7 Å resolution from a single crystal. The unit-cell parameters were a = b = 119.1, c = 270.7 Å, ? = ? = 90, ? = 120°. Three molecules were predicted to be present in the asymmetric unit from a calculated self-rotation function.

  19. Antiproton accumulator in the Main Injector era

    SciTech Connect

    Visnjic, V.

    1992-09-01

    I propose a new lattice for Fermilab Antiproton Accumulator. The lattice is designed with the aim of implementing higher bandwidth stochastic cooling systems, thus enabling the Accumulator to handle antiproton beam intensities expected in the Main Injector era. The design proposed here satisfies very well all the requirements for the new Accumulator concerning the lattice functions, stochastic cooling parameters, and the tunability of the machine.

  20. MAINE MUSSEL SEED CONSERVATION AREAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    SEED shows point locations of Maine mussel seed conservation areas at 1:24,000 scale. Data for this coverage were screen digitized on a 1:24000 scale base using descriptions contained in Maine Department of Marine Resources (MDMR) rules. Coastal arcs from Maine Office of GIS 1:24...

  1. 2014 Maine Earth Science Day

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    On October 15, 2014 Maine Earth Science Day was held at the Maine State Museum in Augusta. The USGS was represented by Charlie Culbertson, left, and Nick Waldron, right. This photo was taken as the two were packing up for the day, and shows a main feature of the table, a touch screen display with th...

  2. Biogeography of Nearshore Subtidal Invertebrates in the Gulf of Maine

    EPA Science Inventory

    The biogeography of nearshore benthic invertebrates in the Gulf of Maine was studied to compare recent data with historical biogeographic studies, define physical-chemical factors affecting species distributions, and provide information needed to calibrate benthic indices of envi...

  3. Effect of geometric parameters on the performance of p-type junctionless lateral gate transistors.

    PubMed

    Larki, Farhad; Dehzangi, Arash; Md Ali, Sawal Hamid; Jalar, Azman; Islam, Md Shabiul; Hamidon, Mohd Nizar; Majlis, Burhanuddin Yeop

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of two important geometrical parameters, namely the thickness and source/drain extensions on the performance of low doped p-type double lateral gate junctionless transistors (DGJLTs). The three dimensional Technology Computer-Aided Design simulation is implemented to calculate the characteristics of the devices with different thickness and source/drain extension and based on that, the parameters such as threshold voltage, transconductance and resistance in saturation region are analyzed. In addition, simulation results provide a physical explanation for the variation of device characteristics given by the variation of geometric parameters, mainly based on investigation of the electric field components and the carries density variation. It is shown that, the variation of the carrier density is the main factor which affects the characteristics of the device when the device's thickness is varied. However, the electric field is mainly responsible for variation of the characteristics when the source/drain extension is changed. PMID:24743692

  4. View of the main interior space facing east. The main ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the main interior space facing east. The main entry is on the left hand side at the rear. The exit to the deck is to the right. - San Luis Yacht Club, Avila Pier, South of Front Street, Avila Beach, San Luis Obispo County, CA

  5. 12. Main cabin, interior view of living room with main ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Main cabin, interior view of living room with main cross beams, purlins and decking, fireplace in rear. Note twisted pine light fixture in center of photograph; view to southeast. - M.T. & Jennie H. Deaton Property, Big Springs Summer Home Area, Lot 2, Block N, Island Park, Fremont County, ID

  6. Landscape parameters driving aquatic pesticide exposure and effects.

    PubMed

    Bunzel, Katja; Liess, Matthias; Kattwinkel, Mira

    2014-03-01

    Pesticide contamination is considered one of the reasons streams fail to achieve good ecological and chemical status, the main objectives of the Water Framework Directive. However, little is known on the interaction of different pesticide sources and landscape parameters and the resulting impairment of macroinvertebrate communities. We evaluated the potential effects of diffuse and point sources of pesticides using macroinvertebrate monitoring data from 663 sites in central Germany. Additionally, we investigated forested upstream reaches and structural quality as landscape parameters potentially mitigating or amplifying the effects of pesticides. Diffuse pesticide pollution and forested upstream reaches were the most important parameters affecting macroinvertebrate communities (pesticide-specific indicator SPEARpesticides). Our results indicate that forested upstream reaches and riparian buffer strips at least 5 m in width can mitigate the effects and exposure of pesticides. In addition, we developed a screening approach that allows an initial, cost-effective identification of sites of concern. PMID:24365537

  7. MAIN CHAMBER NEUTRAL PRESSURE IN

    E-print Network

    Pitcher, C. S.

    .g. PDX, ASDEX (more speculative) · main chamber gas arises from, 1. main chamber ion recycling opacity is low · main chamber recycling has recently been demonstrated on C-Mod [LaBombard et al, NF 40 (scatter is large, stronger dependence in some C-Mod data sets) 10-5 10-4 10-3 10-2 10-110-2 10-1 10-3 10

  8. World Energy Projection System Plus Model Documentation: Main Model

    EIA Publications

    2011-01-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the World Energy Projection System Plus (WEPS ) Main Model. It also catalogues and describes critical assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and model source code.

  9. Maine Agricultural Foods. Project SEED.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaulieu, Peter; Ossenfort, Pat

    This paper describes an activity-based program that teaches students in grades 4-12 about the importance of Maine agriculture in their lives. Specifically, the goal is to increase student awareness of how the foods they eat are planted, harvested, and processed. The emphasis is on crops grown in Maine such as potatoes, broccoli, peas, blueberries,…

  10. MAINE LANDS OVER 2700 FEET

    EPA Science Inventory

    MECON2700 contains areas in Maine with elevations greater than 2700 feet, generated from USGS 1:250,000 DEMs. Areas above 2700 feet are regulated by the Maine Land Use Regulation Commission (MELURC). Areas were generated from USGS 1:250,000 scale digital elevation models using A...

  11. MAINE ATLANTIC SALMON HABITAT - GENERAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    ASDENN00 describes, at 1:24,000 scale, important Atlantic salmon habitat of the Dennys River in Maine. The coverage was developed from field surveys conducted on the Dennys River in Maine by staff of the Atlantic Salmon Authority and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. This survey wa...

  12. Maine: Early Head Start Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Law and Social Policy, Inc. (CLASP), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Maine has two initiatives that build on Early Head Start (EHS). The first initiative, Fund for a Healthy Maine, has since 2001 provided tobacco settlement money to existing Head Start and EHS programs to expand the number of children who receive full-day, full-year services. Local programs have the option of using these funds for EHS, depending on…

  13. Main Campus CO Cowell Hall

    E-print Network

    /Administration LV Loyola Village ST Studio Theater TC Tennis Courts UN Underhill Building ROTC/Upward Bound School Enrollment and Financial Services Lone Mountain Main, 250 Nursing and Health Professions, School of Cowell, 1st Floor Public Safety University Center, 5th Floor Registrar's Office Lone Mountain Main, 250

  14. Space Shuttle Main Engine Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A workman reams holes to the proper size and aligment in the Space Shuttle Main Engine's main injector body, through which propellants will pass through on their way into the engine's combustion chamber. Rockwell International's Rocketdyne Division plant produced the engines under contract to the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  15. Changing Medicine and Building Community: Maine’s Adverse Childhood Experiences Momentum

    PubMed Central

    Forstadt, Leslie; Cooper, Sally; Andrews, Sue Mackey

    2015-01-01

    Physicians are instrumental in community education, prevention, and intervention for adverse childhood experiences. In Maine, a statewide effort is focusing on education about adverse childhood experiences and ways that communities and physicians can approach childhood adversity. This article describes how education about adversity and resilience can positively change the practice of medicine and related fields. The Maine Resilience Building Network brings together ongoing programs, supports new ventures, and builds on existing resources to increase its impact. It exemplifies the collective impact model by increasing community knowledge, affecting medical practice, and improving lives. PMID:25902346

  16. Main Propulsion Test Article (MPTA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snoddy, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    Scope: The Main Propulsion Test Article integrated the main propulsion subsystem with the clustered Space Shuttle Main Engines, the External Tank and associated GSE. The test program consisted of cryogenic tanking tests and short- and long duration static firings including gimbaling and throttling. The test program was conducted on the S1-C test stand (Position B-2) at the National Space Technology Laboratories (NSTL)/Stennis Space Center. 3 tanking tests and 20 hot fire tests conducted between December 21 1 1977 and December 17, 1980 Configuration: The main propulsion test article consisted of the three space shuttle main engines, flightweight external tank, flightweight aft fuselage, interface section and a boilerplate mid/fwd fuselage truss structure.

  17. How radial clearance affects gas turbine plant parameter ratios

    SciTech Connect

    Sarantsev, K.B.; Korenevskii, L.G.; Shevtsov, Yu.A.; Temirov, A.M.

    1983-01-01

    Accuracy in determining performance characteristics of gas turbine plants depends more than anything else on the stability of the geometric and thermodynamic variables over the engine flow passages in different operating modes. Results of theoretical investigations have shown that changes in the radial clearances (brought about in turn by changes in the thermal stress state of turbine parts) have a lot to say in divergences of engine characteristics. The authors carried out studies on a GTT-12 model equipment in order to find experimental verification for the procedure followed in calculating radial clearances in response to changes in the operating conditions of the turbine plant. Radial clearances in the high-pressure turbine (TVD) were calculated for different sets of operating conditions, starting from the instant of startup cold till the machine took on full load. Then experimental investigations were staged with the test bed of the Khabarovsk power machinery factory (KhZEM) to measure radial clearances under operating conditions corresponding to calculations.

  18. Parameters affecting flow accelerated erosion and erosion-corrosion

    SciTech Connect

    McLaury, B.A.; Shirazi, S.A.; Shadley, J.R.; Rybicki, E.F.

    1995-10-01

    Sand erosion can remove protective corrosion scales on pipe walls and cause severe erosion corrosion damage. Many factors influence erosion-corrosion. The goal of this work is to obtain an understanding of how these factors work together to cause severe erosion-corrosion damage. To reach this goal, a combination of erosion testing and flow modeling, including sand erosion, is used. This approach includes the effects of pipe geometry, size, and pipe wall material; flow velocity, fluid density and viscosity; sand size, shape, density, and sand production rate on the loss of wall thickness due to sand erosion and erosion-corrosion. Progress has been made to the extent that a procedure for prediction erosion penetration rate is presented. The procedure is a generalization of several earlier empirical methods for specific sand erosion conditions reported in the literature. Results from the erosion prediction model are compared to experimental data presented in the literature.

  19. Parameters affecting the formation of perfluoroalkyl acids during wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Guerra, P; Kim, M; Kinsman, L; Ng, T; Alaee, M; Smyth, S A

    2014-05-15

    This study examined the fate and behaviour of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in liquid and solid samples from five different wastewater treatment types: facultative and aerated lagoons, chemically assisted primary treatment, secondary aerobic biological treatment, and advanced biological nutrient removal treatment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest data set from a single study available in the literature to date for PFAAs monitoring study in wastewater treatment. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was the predominant PFAA in wastewater with levels from 2.2 to 150ng/L (influent) and 1.9 to 140ng/L (effluent). Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) was the predominant compound in primary sludge, waste biological sludge, and treated biosolids with concentrations from 6.4 to 2900ng/g dry weight (dw), 9.7 to 8200ng/gdw, and 2.1 to 17,000ng/gdw, respectively. PFAAs were formed during wastewater treatment and it was dependant on both process temperature and treatment type; with higher rates of formation in biological wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) operating at longer hydraulic retention times and higher temperatures. PFAA removal by sorption was influenced by different sorption tendencies; median log values of the solid-liquid distribution coefficient estimated from wastewater biological sludge and final effluent were: PFOS (3.73)>PFDA (3.68)>PFNA (3.25)>PFOA (2.49)>PFHxA (1.93). Mass balances confirmed the formation of PFAAs, low PFAA removal by sorption, and high PFAA levels in effluents. PMID:24691135

  20. Parameters affecting retentive force of electroformed double-crown systems.

    PubMed

    Beuer, Florian; Edelhoff, Daniel; Gernet, Wolfgang; Naumann, Michael

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the values of retentive forces of double crowns. The effect of the abutment height, the material of the inner crown, and the taper were evaluated. Sixty inner crowns each were fabricated from zirconia and a gold alloy having three different abutment heights (5, 7, and 9 mm) and two different tapers (0 degrees and 2 degrees ). All outer crowns were made with an electroforming system. The removal test was performed by a standardized setup using a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1,000 mm min(-1). Ten separation cycles were performed of each specimen, and the mean was imported into a statistical program. The retention forces were in the range of 0.37 and 2.65 N. The abutment height (p < 0.001), the material of the inner crown (p = 0.035), and the taper (p < 0.001) showed statistical influence on the retention force in the two-way ANOVA. Zirconia primary crowns performed better than gold alloy in the 0 degrees group, especially with short abutments. However, a taper of 0 degrees and short abutments have clinical drawbacks that were not evaluated in this study. In situations with long abutment teeth and a 2 degrees taper zirconia is an alternative to gold alloy primary crowns. PMID:19343381

  1. Peat resources of Maine. Volume 4. Southern and western Maine

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron, C.C.; Mullen, M.K.; Lepage, C.A.; Anderson, W.A.

    1984-01-01

    In July 1979, the Maine Office of Energy Resources, in conjunction with the Maine Geological Survey, began the Maine Peat Resource Evaluation Program. The Program, which was funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE), was undertaken to determine the amount and location of fuel-grade peat in Maine. Two hundred thirty-three areas containing peat deposits were evaluated under the Program. A total of 46 deposits covering 11,853 acres and containing 21,930,200 short tone (dry weight) of peat in southern and western Maine have been evaluated under the Main Peat Resource Evaluation Program. These deposits range in size from 55 to 732 acres and in estimated resources from 55,000 to 1,864,000 short tons. Maps of individual deposits showing the distribution and depth of peat, core sites, and the surficial geology of the area adjacent to the deposits are shown in Figures 4 to 49. Cores showing the vertical distribution of peat and sediment as well as sample locations, and the results of laboratory analyses are also included. 22 references, 45 figures, 3 tables.

  2. Dynamical parameters of spacecraft motion near small celestial body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pol', V. G.

    2011-12-01

    The paper considers how a spacecraft can be put into orbit around a small asteroid to function as its artificial moon. We study the general behavior of perturbations that affect the current coordinates of an orbiting spacecraft and estimate the perturbations caused by the main perturbing factors, i.e., (1) the irregular shape of an asteroid and (2) celestial bodies of the Solar System. With specific orbital parameters, a long-term targeted operation of a spacecraft can be actualized in a mission to the asteroid Apophis where the spacecraft will carry a radio beacon transponder.

  3. Period Determination of Six Main Belt Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrero, Andrea

    2014-07-01

    Observations of six main-belt asteroids (MBA) produced lightcurve parameters of: 487 Venetia, P = 13.34 ± 0.01 h, A = 0.20 mag; 684 Hildburg, P = 15.89 ± 0.01 h, A = 0.22 mag; 772 Tanete, P = 8.629 ± 0.001 h, A = 0.18 mag.; 1181 Lilith, P = 15.04 ± 0.01 h, A = 0.11 mag.; 1246 Chaka, P = 25.44 ± 0.01 h, A = 0.25 mag.; and 2834 Christy Carol, P = 12.79 ± 0.01 h, A = 0.39 mag.

  4. Humboldt River main stem, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warmath, Eric; Medina, Rose L.

    2001-01-01

    This data set contains the main stem of the Humboldt River as defined by Humboldt Project personnel of the U.S. Geological Survey Nevada District, 2001. The data set was digitized on screen using digital orthophoto quadrangles from 1994.

  5. Left main percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Teirstein, Paul S; Price, Matthew J

    2012-10-23

    The introduction of drug-eluting stents and advances in catheter techniques have led to increasing acceptance of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) as a viable alternative to coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) for unprotected left main disease. Current guidelines state that it is reasonable to consider unprotected left main PCI in patients with low to intermediate anatomic complexity who are at increased surgical risk. Data from randomized trials involving patients who are candidates for either treatment strategy provide novel insight into the relative safety and efficacy of PCI for this lesion subset. Herein, we review the current data comparing PCI with CABG for left main disease, summarize recent guideline recommendations, and provide an update on technical considerations that may optimize clinical outcomes in left main PCI. PMID:23021329

  6. LSRA with Shuttle main gear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    A space shuttle landing gear system is visible between the two main landing gear components on this NASA CV-990, modified as a Landing Systems Research Aircraft. The space shuttle landing gear test unit, operated by a high-pressure hydraulic system, allowed engineers to assess and document the performance of space shuttle main and nose landing gear systems, tires and wheel assemblies, plus braking and nose wheel steering performance.

  7. Free Parameters and Frameworks in Minimal Supersymmetry

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    405 Appendix A Free Parameters and Frameworks in Minimal Supersymmetry It is useful to discuss what the various schemes that exist for reducing the set of free parameters to a manageable number. The information, and so is fixed by experiment. The free parameters consist mainly of the coefficients of the "soft

  8. Free Parameters and Frameworks in Minimal Supersymmetry

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    405 Appendix A Free Parameters and Frameworks in Minimal Supersymmetry It is useful to discuss what the various schemes that exist for reducing the set of free parameters to a manageable number. The information, and so is fixed by experiment. The free parameters consist mainly of the coe#cients of the ``soft

  9. Estimating ice-affected streamflow by extended Kalman filtering

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holtschlag, D.J.; Grewal, M.S.

    1998-01-01

    An extended Kalman filter was developed to automate the real-time estimation of ice-affected streamflow on the basis of routine measurements of stream stage and air temperature and on the relation between stage and streamflow during open-water (ice-free) conditions. The filter accommodates three dynamic modes of ice effects: sudden formation/ablation, stable ice conditions, and eventual elimination. The utility of the filter was evaluated by applying it to historical data from two long-term streamflow-gauging stations, St. John River at Dickey, Maine and Platte River at North Bend, Nebr. Results indicate that the filter was stable and that parameters converged for both stations, producing streamflow estimates that are highly correlated with published values. For the Maine station, logarithms of estimated streamflows are within 8% of the logarithms of published values 87.2% of the time during periods of ice effects and within 15% 96.6% of the time. Similarly, for the Nebraska station, logarithms of estimated streamflows are within 8% of the logarithms of published values 90.7% of the time and within 15% 97.7% of the time. In addition, the correlation between temporal updates and published streamflows on days of direct measurements at the Maine station was 0.777 and 0.998 for ice-affected and open-water periods, respectively; for the Nebraska station, corresponding correlations were 0.864 and 0.997.

  10. Aqueous alteration on main-belt asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fornasier, S.; Lantz, C.; Barucci, M.; Lazzarin, M.

    2014-07-01

    The study of aqueous alteration is particularly important for unraveling the processes occurring during the earliest times in Solar System history, as it can give information both on the thermal processes and on the localization of water sources in the asteroid belt, and for the associated astrobiological implications. The aqueous alteration process produces the low temperature (< 320 K) chemical alteration of materials by liquid water which acts as a solvent and produces materials like phyllosilicates, sulphates, oxides, carbonates, and hydroxides. This means that liquid water was present in the primordial asteroids, produced by the melting of water ice by heating sources, very probably by ^{26}Al decay. Hydrated minerals have been found mainly on Mars surface, on primitive main-belt asteroids (C, G, B, F, and P-type, following the classification scheme by Tholen, 1984) and possibly also on few transneptunian objects. Reflectance spectroscopy of aqueous altered asteroids shows absorption features in the 0.6-0.9 and 2.5-3.5-micron regions, which are diagnostic of, or associated with, hydrated minerals. In this work, we investigate the aqueous alteration process on a large sample of 600 visible spectra of C-complex asteroids available in the literature. We analyzed all these spectra in a similar way to characterize the absorption-band parameters (band center, depth, and width) and spectral slope, and to look for possible correlations between the aqueous alteration process and the asteroids taxonomic classes, orbital elements, heliocentric distances, albedo, and sizes. We find that 4.6 % of P, 7.7 % of F, 9.8 % of B, 50.5 % of C, and 100 % of the G-type asteroids have absorption bands in the visible region due to hydrated silicates. Our analysis shows that the aqueous alteration sequence starts from the P-type objects, practically unaltered, and increases through the P ? F ? B ? C ? G asteroids, these last being widely aqueously altered, strengthening thus the results previously obtained by Vilas (1994). We confirm the strong correlation between the 0.7-?m band and the 3-? m band, the deepest feature associated with hydrated minerals, as 95 % of the asteroids showing the 0.7-? m band have also the 3-? m feature. 45 % of the asteroids belonging to the C-complex (the F, B, C, and G classes) have signatures of aqueously altered materials in the visible range. It must be noted that this percentage represents a lower limit in the number of hydrated asteroids, simply because the 3-? m band, the main absorption feature produced by hydrated silicates, may be present in the spectra of primitive asteroids when no bands are detected in the visible range. All this considered, we estimate that 70 % of the C-complex asteroids might have the 3-? m signature in the IR range and thus were affected by the aqueous alteration process in the past. We find that the aqueous alteration process dominates in primitive asteroids located between 2.3 and 3.1 au, that is, at smaller heliocentric distances than previously suggested by Vilas et al. (1993). The percentage of hydrated asteroids is strongly correlated with their size (Fornasier et al. 2014). The aqueous alteration process is less effective for bodies smaller than 50 km, while it dominates in the 50-240-km sized primitive asteroids. No correlation is found between the aqueous alteration process and the asteroid albedo or orbital elements. Aqueously altered asteroids are the plausible parent bodies of CM2 meteorites. Nevertheless, we see a systematic difference in the 0.7-? m band center position, the CM2 meteorites having a band centered at longer wavelengths (0.71-0.75 ? m) compared to that of hydrated asteroids. Moreover, the hydrated asteroids are more clustered in spectral slope and band depth than the CM meteorites. All these spectral differences may be attributed to different mineral abundances (CM2 meteorites being more serpentine rich than the asteroids), and/or to grain-size effects, or simply to the fact the CM2 collected on the Earth might not be representative

  11. Community structure affects behavior.

    PubMed

    Jaenson, C

    1991-06-01

    AID's prevention efforts can benefit from taking into account 5 main aspects (KEPRA) of community structure identified by anthropologists: 1) kinship patterns, 2) economics, 3) politics, 4) religion, and 5) associations. For example, in Uganda among the Basoga and paternal aunt or senga is responsible for female sex education. Such culturally determined patterns need to be targeted in order to enhance education and effectiveness. Economics can reflect differing systems of family support through sexual means. The example given involves a poor family with a teenager in Thailand who exchanges a water buffalo or basic necessity for this daughter's prostitution. Politics must be considered because every society identifies people who have the power to persuade, influence, exchange resources, coerce, or in some way get people to do what is wanted. Utilizing these resources whether its ministers of health, factory owners, or peers is exemplified in the Monterey, Mexico factor floor supervisor and canteen worker introducing to workers the hows and whys of a new AID's education program. His peer status will command more respect than the director with direct authority. Religious beliefs have explanations for causes of sickness or disease, or provide instruction in sex practices. The example given is of a health workers in Uganda discussing AIDS with rural women by saying that we all know that disease and deaths are caused by spells. "But not AIDS - slim. AIDS is different." Associations can help provide educational, economic, and emotional assistance to the AID's effort or families affected. PMID:12316890

  12. Maine's Families: Poverty Despite Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazere, Edward B.

    Children are among the poorest of Maine's residents. Nearly 1 in 5 children under the age of 18, 19.3%, lived in families below the federal poverty line in the early 1990s. Most of these poor children lived in working families. The working poor are often missing from policy debates, but their numbers are likely to increase with welfare reform…

  13. MAINE CONTOUR LINES 500 FEET

    EPA Science Inventory

    MECON500 contains 500 foot contour intervals for Maine, generated from USGS 1:250,000 DEMs. Arcs are coded by elevation. Due to the nature of the source data, the positional accuracy of these contour lines varies from good to poor. Use of these data at scales of greater then 1:2...

  14. MAINE CONTOUR LINES 60 FEET

    EPA Science Inventory

    MECON60 contains contours at 60 foot intervals for the entire state of Maine as generated from USGS 1:250,000 scale digital elevation models using ARC/INFO software. Arcs are coded by elevation. Due to the nature of the source data, the positional accuracy of these contour line...

  15. LSRA with Shuttle main gear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    A space shuttle landing gear system is visible between the two main landing gear components on this NASA CV-990, modified as a Landing Systems Research Aircraft (LSRA). The space shuttle landing gear test unit, operated by a high-pressure hydraulic system, allowed engineers to assess and document the performance of space shuttle main and nose landing gear systems, tires and wheel assemblies, plus braking and nose wheel steering performance. The series of 155 test missions for the space shuttle program, conducted at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, provided extensive data about the life and endurance of the shuttle tire systems and helped raise the shuttle crosswind landing limits at Kennedy.

  16. Effect of Different Psychoactive Substances on Serum Biochemical Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Sanli, Dilek Beker; Bilici, Rabia; Suner, Ozgur; Citak, Serhat; Kartkaya, Kazim; Mutlu, Fezan Sahin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Psychoactive substances affect mainly central nervous system and brain function causing changes in behavior. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of different psychoactive substances on serum biochemical parameters. Patients and Methods: The study included 324 drug dependents, and 69 controls. The patient group was determined according to DSM-IV (The diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fourth edition) criteria. All patients and control subjects were tested for routine biochemical parameters and urine toxicology parameters for psychoactive substance use. Cases and controls with accompanying diseases like diabetes, cancer, metabolic disorders etc. are excluded from the study. Moreover, an association between urine toxicology results and changes in biochemical parameters was evaluated for statistical significance. Results: There was a statistically significant difference in the Gamma-Glutamyl Transferase (GGT), uric acid, creatinine, urea, albumin, Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST) medians between the dependent and control groups (P < 0.05). We found a statistically significant difference in sodium and albumin levels between the opium-dependent and control groups (P < 0.05). In the benzodiazepin dependent group, we found a significant difference in GGT, urea, glucose, sodium, T protein, and AST levels (P < 0.05). Moreover, a statistically significant difference was observed in triglyceride and GGT levels between the ethyl glucuronide and control groups (P < 0.05). Conclusions: In psychoactive substance dependents, serum routine biochemistry parameters can be used to predict the need for intensive monitoring and treatment programs. PMID:26405680

  17. Space Weather Parameters Capable of Influencing Health of a Human Being

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samsonov, S. N.; Manykina, V. I.

    Space weather is a state of Earth-orbital space. The Sun and cosmic rays of high energy affect this state. As the main contribution to a space weather state is made exactly by the Sun then changes of solar activity parameters, and also the changes of geophysical parameters caused by such influence have been considered in this study. A condition of cardiovascular system of a person of volunteer groups has been considered as a condition of health of a human being. An experiment has been carried out within the framework of Russian-Ukrainian project "Geliomed" (http://geliomed. immsp.kiev.ua). It has been found both the immediate influence of electromagnetic solar radiation and the influence of parameters of solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field on a condition of cardiovascular system of a human being mediated through geophysical parameters.

  18. Jupiter's Main Ring/Ring Halo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    A mosaic of four images taken through the clear filter (610 nanometers) of the solid state imaging (CCD) system aboard NASA's Galileo spacecraft on November 8, 1996, at a resolution of approximately 46 kilometers (28.5 miles) per picture element (pixel) along Jupiter's rings. Because the spacecraft was only about 0.5 degrees above the ring plane, the image is highly foreshortened in the vertical direction. The images were obtained when Galileo was in Jupiter's shadow, peering back toward the Sun; the ring was approximately 2.3 million kilometers (1.4 million miles) away. The arc on the far right of the image is produced when sunlight is scattered by small particles comprising Jupiter's upper atmospheric haze. The ring also efficiently scatters light, indicating that much of its brightness is due to particles that are microns or less in diameter. Such small particles are believed to have human-scale lifetimes, i.e., very brief compared to the solar system's age.

    Jupiter's ring system is composed of three parts - - a flat main ring, a lenticular halo interior to the main ring, and the gossamer ring, outside the main ring. The near and far arms of Jupiter's main ring extend horizontally across the mosaic, joining together at the ring's ansa, on the figure's far left side. The near arm of the ring appears to be abruptly truncated close to the planet, at the point where it passes into Jupiter's shadow. Some radial structure is barely visible across the ring's ansa (top image). A faint mist of particles can be seen above and below the main rings. This vertically extended 'halo' is unusual in planetary rings, and is probably caused by electromagnetic forces pushing the smallest grains out of the ring plane. Because of shadowing, the halo is not visible close to Jupiter in the lower right part of the mosaic. To accentuate faint features in the bottom image of the ring halo, different brightnesses are shown through color. Brightest features are white or yellow and the faintest are purple.

    Jupiter's main ring is a thin strand of material encircling the planet. The diffuse innermost boundary begins at approximately 123,000 kilometers (76,429 miles). The main ring's outer radius is found to be at 128,940 kilometers (80,119 miles) +/-50 kilometers (31 miles), slightly less than the Voyager value of 129,130 kilometers (80,237 miles) +/-100 kilometers (62 miles), but very close to the orbit of the satellite Adrastea (128,980 kilometers or 80,144 miles). The main ring exhibits a marked drop in brightness at 127,849 kilometers (79,441 miles) +/-50 kilometers (31 miles), lying almost atop the orbit of the Jovian moon Metis at 127,978 kilometers (79,521 miles). Satellites seem to affect the structure of even tenuous rings like those found at Jupiter.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  19. Geospatial assessments of potato production systems in Maine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although Maine produces high quality potatoes, the average marketable yield is substantially lower than production areas in the western USA. Potential factors affecting yield include soil-water availability (timing of water stress and stress alleviation events), pest and disease control strategies, ...

  20. Infrared Drying Parameter Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Matthew R.

    In recent years, much research has been done to explore direct printing methods, such as screen and inkjet printing, as alternatives to the traditional lithographic process. The primary motivation is reduction of the material costs associated with producing common electronic devices. Much of this research has focused on developing inkjet or screen paste formulations that can be printed on a variety of substrates, and which have similar conductivity performance to the materials currently used in the manufacturing of circuit boards and other electronic devices. Very little research has been done to develop a process that would use direct printing methods to manufacture electronic devices in high volumes. This study focuses on developing and optimizing a drying process for conductive copper ink in a high volume manufacturing setting. Using an infrared (IR) dryer, it was determined that conductive copper prints could be dried in seconds or minutes as opposed to tens of minutes or hours that it would take with other drying devices, such as a vacuum oven. In addition, this study also identifies significant parameters that can affect the conductivity of IR dried prints. Using designed experiments and statistical analysis; the dryer parameters were optimized to produce the best conductivity performance for a specific ink formulation and substrate combination. It was determined that for an ethylene glycol, butanol, 1-methoxy 2- propanol ink formulation printed on Kapton, the optimal drying parameters consisted of a dryer height of 4 inches, a temperature setting between 190 - 200°C, and a dry time of 50-65 seconds depending on the printed film thickness as determined by the number of print passes. It is important to note that these parameters are optimized specifically for the ink formulation and substrate used in this study. There is still much research that needs to be done into optimizing the IR dryer for different ink substrate combinations, as well as developing a control system to ensure that prints continuously dry the same way. In addition to the repeatability study, experimenting with the feasibility of using single pass prints with repeatable performance would also be a worthwhile study. A single print pass will reduce cycle time, and will reduce ink consumption when compared with double pass prints.

  1. The Main Aeromonas Pathogenic Factors

    PubMed Central

    Tomás, J. M.

    2012-01-01

    The members of the Aeromonas genus are ubiquitous, water-borne bacteria. They have been isolated from marine waters, rivers, lakes, swamps, sediments, chlorine water, water distribution systems, drinking water and residual waters; different types of food, such as meat, fish, seafood, vegetables, and processed foods. Aeromonas strains are predominantly pathogenic to poikilothermic animals, and the mesophilic strains are emerging as important pathogens in humans, causing a variety of extraintestinal and systemic infections as well as gastrointestinal infections. The most commonly described disease caused by Aeromonas is the gastroenteritis; however, no adequate animal model is available to reproduce this illness caused by Aeromonas. The main pathogenic factors associated with Aeromonas are: surface polysaccharides (capsule, lipopolysaccharide, and glucan), S-layers, iron-binding systems, exotoxins and extracellular enzymes, secretion systems, fimbriae and other nonfilamentous adhesins, motility and flagella. PMID:23724321

  2. Toward Computer-Aided Affective Learning Systems: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moridis, C. N.; Economides, A. A.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this survey is to provide an overview of the various components of "computer aided affective learning systems." The research is classified into 3 main scientific areas that are integral parts of the development of these kinds of systems. The three main scientific areas are: i) emotions and their connection to learning; ii) affect

  3. Photometric parameters Photometric evolution

    E-print Network

    Kruit, Piet van der

    Outline Photometric parameters Photometric evolution Population synthesis STRUCTURE OF GALAXIES 4. Photometric parameters and evolution Piet van der Kruit Kapteyn Astronomical Institute University of Groningen and evolution #12;Outline Photometric parameters Photometric evolution Population synthesis Outline Photometric

  4. Antiproton Accumulator in the Main Injector era (2)

    SciTech Connect

    Visnjic, V.

    1992-12-01

    By adding a single quadrupole per sextant in the Antiproton Accumulator it is possible to obtain a lattice well suited for higher bandwidth stochastic cooling systems such as those anticipated for the Main Injector era. The lattice proposed here has excellent properties concerning both the lattice functions and the stochastic cooling parameters.

  5. Affective Involvement Instrument.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemlech, Johanna K.

    1970-01-01

    The Affective Involvement Instrument (AII) describes and classifies affective involvement in the process of decision-making as it occurs during classroom activities such as role-playing or group discussions. The thirty-celled instrument behaviorizes the six processes involved in decision-making and combines them with the taxonomic levels of the…

  6. Maine CITE: Technology Collaboration through Distance Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockford, David Noble; And Others

    This paper describes the Maine Consumer Information and Technology Training Exchange (Maine CITE) project designed to increase the availability and use of assistive-technology to Maine people with disabilities. Maine CITE is a 3-year project supported by the Maine Department of Education, Division of Special Education, with a grant from the…

  7. Catalogue of HI PArameters (CHIPA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saponara, J.; Benaglia, P.; Koribalski, B.; Andruchow, I.

    2015-08-01

    The catalogue of HI parameters of galaxies HI (CHIPA) is the natural continuation of the compilation by M.C. Martin in 1998. CHIPA provides the most important parameters of nearby galaxies derived from observations of the neutral Hydrogen line. The catalogue contains information of 1400 galaxies across the sky and different morphological types. Parameters like the optical diameter of the galaxy, the blue magnitude, the distance, morphological type, HI extension are listed among others. Maps of the HI distribution, velocity and velocity dispersion can also be display for some cases. The main objective of this catalogue is to facilitate the bibliographic queries, through searching in a database accessible from the internet that will be available in 2015 (the website is under construction). The database was built using the open source `` mysql (SQL, Structured Query Language, management system relational database) '', while the website was built with ''HTML (Hypertext Markup Language)'' and ''PHP (Hypertext Preprocessor)''.

  8. STATISTICAL METHOD TO IDENTIFY KEY ANTHROPOMETRIC PARAMETERS IN HRTF INDIVIDUALIZATION

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Wen

    STATISTICAL METHOD TO IDENTIFY KEY ANTHROPOMETRIC PARAMETERS IN HRTF INDIVIDUALIZATION M. Zhang, R, Australia ABSTRACT This paper identifies the main anthropometric parameters which strongly influence measured data. Principle component analysis is separately performed on the head-related impulse responses

  9. Efficient representation of bidirectional reflectance distribution functions for metallic paints considering manufacturing parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kook Seo, Myoung; Yeon Kim, Kang; Bong Kim, Duck; Lee, Kwan H.

    2011-01-01

    Metallic paint has been widely used to provide for special visual appearance to various products so that photorealistic rendering of this material has been an important issue in the development of new products. We introduce a new approach that predicts the reflectance of metallic paint while considering manufacturing parameters. Our main idea is to simulate the appearance of various metallic paints having different composition of constituent materials by combination of measured bidirectional reflectance distribution functions and thereby to find a paint that provides optimal appearance of a product with appropriate composition of constituent materials. We mainly focused on two paint parameters, average size and density of aluminum flakes, because they significantly affect the appearance of metallic paint. We also present a compact representation to approximate a large size of measured data using a few curve functions. We demonstrate the efficiency and usability of our reflectance estimation method using some examples.

  10. Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect or not? Detecting the main foreground effect of most galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Weike; Chen, Chen; Zhang, Bin; Wu, Yongfeng; Dai, Mi

    2013-05-01

    Galaxy clusters are the most massive objects in the Universe and comprise a high-temperature intracluster medium of about 107 K, believed to offer a main foreground effect for cosmic microwave background (CMB) data in the form of the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect. This assumption has been confirmed by SZ signal detection in hundreds of clusters but, in comparison with the huge numbers of clusters within optically selected samples from Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data, this only accounts for a few per cent of clusters. Here we introduce a model-independent new method to confirm the assumption that most galaxy clusters can offer the thermal SZ signal as their main foreground effect. For the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) seven-year data (and a given galaxy cluster sample), we introduced a parameter d1 as the nearest-neighbour cluster angular distance of each pixel, then we classified data pixels as `to be' (d1 ? 0 case) or `not to be' (d1 large enough) affected by the sample clusters. By comparing the statistical results of these two kinds of pixels, we can see how the sample clusters affect the CMB data directly. We find that the Planck Early Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (ESZ) sample and X-ray samples (˜102 clusters) can lead to obvious temperature depression in the WMAP seven-year data, which confirms the SZ effect prediction. However, each optically selected sample (>104 clusters) shows an opposite result: the mean temperature rises to about 10 ?K. This unexpected qualitative scenario implies that the main foreground effect of most clusters is not always the expected SZ effect. This may be the reason why the SZ signal detection result is lower than expected from the model.

  11. Ecological factors affecting Rainbow Smelt recruitment in the main basin of Lake Huron, 1976-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Brien, Timothy P.; Taylor, William W.; Roseman, Edward F.; Madenjian, Charles P.; Riley, Stephen C.

    2014-01-01

    Rainbow Smelt Osmerus mordax are native to northeastern Atlantic and Pacific–Arctic drainages and have been widely introduced throughout North America. In the Great Lakes region, Rainbow Smelt are known predators and competitors of native fish and a primary prey species in pelagic food webs. Despite their widespread distribution, importance as a prey species, and potential to negatively interact with native fish species, there is limited information concerning stock–recruitment relationships for Rainbow Smelt. To better understand recruitment mechanisms, we evaluated potential ecological factors determining recruitment dynamics for Rainbow Smelt in Lake Huron using data from bottom trawl catches. We specifically evaluated influence of stock size, environmental factors (water temperature, lake levels, and precipitation), and salmonine predation on the production of age-0 recruits from 1976 to 2010. Rainbow Smelt recruitment was negatively related to stock size exceeding 10 kg/ha, indicating that compensatory, density-dependent mortality from cannibalism or intraspecific competition was an important factor related to the production of age-0 recruits. Recruitment was positively related to spring precipitation suggesting that the amount of stream-spawning habitat as determined by precipitation was important for the production of strong Rainbow Smelt recruitment. Additionally, density of age-0 Rainbow Smelt was positively related to Lake Trout Salvelinus namaycush abundance. However, spawning stock biomass of Rainbow Smelt, which declined substantially from 1989 to 2010, was negatively associated with Lake Trout catch per effort suggesting predation was an important factor related to the decline of age-2 and older Rainbow Smelt in Lake Huron. As such, we found that recruitment of Rainbow Smelt in Lake Huron was regulated by competition with or cannibalism by older conspecifics, spring precipitation influencing stream spawning habitats, and predation by Lake Trout on age-2 and older Rainbow Smelt.

  12. Booster parameter list

    SciTech Connect

    Parsa, Z.

    1986-10-01

    The AGS Booster is designed to be an intermediate synchrotron injector for the AGS, capable of accelerating protons from 200 MeV to 1.5 GeV. The parameters listed include beam and operational parameters and lattice parameters, as well as parameters pertaining to the accelerator's magnets, vacuum system, radio frequency acceleration system, and the tunnel. 60 refs., 41 figs. (LEW)

  13. Environmental Factors Affecting Preschoolers' Motor Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venetsanou, Fotini; Kambas, Antonis

    2010-01-01

    The process of development occurs according to the pattern established by the genetic potential and also by the influence of environmental factors. The aim of the present study was to focus on the main environmental factors affecting motor development. The review of the literature revealed that family features, such as socioeconomic status,…

  14. Alexithymia and Affect Intensity of Fine Artists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botella, Marion; Zenasni, Franck; Lubart, Todd

    2015-01-01

    Research on creative artists has examined mainly their personality traits or cognitive abilities. However, it seems important to explore also their emotional traits to complete the profile. This study examines two emotional characteristics: alexithymia and affect intensity. Even if most research suggests that artists are less alexithymic and…

  15. A comparative study of seed yield parameters in Arabidopsis thaliana mutants and transgenics.

    PubMed

    Van Daele, Inge; Gonzalez, Nathalie; Vercauteren, Ilse; de Smet, Lien; Inzé, Dirk; Roldán-Ruiz, Isabel; Vuylsteke, Marnik

    2012-05-01

    Because seed yield is the major factor determining the commercial success of grain crop cultivars, there is a large interest to obtain more understanding of the genetic factors underlying this trait. Despite many studies, mainly in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, have reported transgenes and mutants with effects on seed number and/or seed size, knowledge about seed yield parameters remains fragmented. This study investigated the effect of 46 genes, either in gain- and/or loss-of-function situations, with a total of 64 Arabidopsis lines being examined for seed phenotypes such as seed size, seed number per silique, number of inflorescences, number of branches on the main inflorescence and number of siliques. Sixteen of the 46 genes, examined in 14 Arabidopsis lines, were reported earlier to directly affect in seed size and/or seed number or to indirectly affect seed yield by their involvement in biomass production. Other genes involved in vegetative growth, flower or inflorescence development or cell division were hypothesized to potentially affect the final seed size and seed number. Analysis of this comprehensive data set shows that of the 14 lines previously described to be affected in seed size or seed number, only nine showed a comparable effect. Overall, this study provides the community with a useful resource for identifying genes with effects on seed yield and candidate genes underlying seed QTL. In addition, this study highlights the need for more thorough analysis of genes affecting seed yield. PMID:22332878

  16. Affective forecasting under uncertainty 

    E-print Network

    Li, Yu-Mei

    2012-11-28

    Affective forecasting denotes the ability to predict one’s own future emotions. Past research indicates that the predictions are generally not precise and people either overestimate or underestimate their emotions. People ...

  17. Compounds affecting cholesterol absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hua, Duy H. (Inventor); Koo, Sung I. (Inventor); Noh, Sang K. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A class of novel compounds is described for use in affecting lymphatic absorption of cholesterol. Compounds of particular interest are defined by Formula I: ##STR1## or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

  18. On the effects of subsurface parameters on evaporite dissolution (Switzerland).

    PubMed

    Zidane, Ali; Zechner, Eric; Huggenberger, Peter; Younes, Anis

    2014-05-01

    Uncontrolled subsurface evaporite dissolution could lead to hazards such as land subsidence. Observed subsidences in a study area of Northwestern Switzerland were mainly due to subsurface dissolution (subrosion) of evaporites such as halite and gypsum. A set of 2D density driven flow simulations were evaluated along 1000 m long and 150 m deep 2D cross sections within the study area that is characterized by tectonic horst and graben structures. The simulations were conducted to study the effect of the different subsurface parameters that could affect the dissolution process. The heterogeneity of normal faults and its impact on the dissolution of evaporites is studied by considering several permeable faults that include non-permeable areas. The mixed finite element method (MFE) is used to solve the flow equation, coupled with the multipoint flux approximation (MPFA) and the discontinuous Galerkin method (DG) to solve the diffusion and the advection parts of the transport equation. Results show that the number of faults above the lower aquifer that contains the salt layer is considered as the most important factor that affects the dissolution compared to the other investigated parameters of thickness of the zone above the halite formation, a dynamic conductivity of the lower aquifer, and varying boundary conditions in the upper aquifer. PMID:24650646

  19. Volcano Deformation in the Main Ethiopian Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biggs, J.; Bastow, I.; Keir, D.; Hutchison, W.

    2012-04-01

    Magmatism strongly influences continental rift development yet the mechanism, distribution and timescales on which melt is emplaced and erupted through the shallow crust are not well characterized. The Main Ethiopian Rift (MER) has experienced significant volcanism and the mantle beneath is characterized by high temperatures and partial melt. Despite its magma-rich geological record, only one eruption has been historically recorded and no dedicated monitoring networks exist. Consequently, the present-day magmatic processes in the region remain poorly documented, and the associated hazard neglected. We use satellite-based InSAR observations to demonstrate that significant deformation has occurring at 4 volcanic edifices in the MER (Alutu, Corbetti, Bora and Haledebi) from 1993-2010. This raises the number of volcanoes known to be deforming in East Africa beyond 12, comparable to many subduction arcs despite the smaller number of recorded eruptions. The largest displacements are at Alutu volcano, the site of a geothermal plant, which showed two pulses of rapid inflation (10-15 cm) in 2004 and 2008 separated by gradual subsidence. Our observations indicate a shallow (<10 km), frequently replenished zone of magma storage associated with volcanic edifices and add to the growing body of observations that indicate shallow magmatic processes operating on a decadal timescale are ubiquitous throughout the East African Rift. In the absence of detailed historical records of volcanic activity, satellite-based observations of monitoring parameters, such as deformation, could play an important role in assessing volcanic hazard.

  20. Debris disks in main sequence binary systems

    E-print Network

    D. E. Trilling; J. A. Stansberry; K. R. Stapelfeldt; G. H. Rieke; K. Y. L. Su; R. O. Gray; C. J. Corbally; G. Bryden; C. H. Chen; A. Boden; C. A. Beichman

    2006-12-01

    We observed 69 A3-F8 main sequence binary star systems using the Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer onboard the Spitzer Space Telescope. We find emission significantly in excess of predicted photospheric flux levels for 9(+4/-3)% and 40(+7/-6)% of these systems at 24 and 70 microns, respectively. Twenty two systems total have excess emission, including four systems that show excess emission at both wavelengths. A very large fraction (nearly 60%) of observed binary systems with small (nature (birth conditions of binary systems) and nurture (interactions between the two stars) drives the evolution of debris disks in binary systems, it is clear that planetesimal formation is not inhibited to any great degree. We model these dust disks through fitting the spectral energy distributions and derive typical dust temperatures in the range 100--200 K and typical fractional luminosities around 10^-5, with both parameters similar to other Spitzer-discovered debris disks. Our calculated dust temperatures suggest that about half the excesses we observe are derived from circumbinary planetesimal belts and around one third of the excesses clearly suggest circumstellar material. Three systems with excesses have dust in dynamically unstable regions, and we discuss possible scenarios for the origin of this short-lived dust.

  1. Redefining solubility parameters: the partial solvation parameters.

    PubMed

    Panayiotou, Costas

    2012-03-21

    The present work reconsiders a classical and universally accepted concept of physical chemistry, the solubility parameter. Based on the insight derived from modern quantum chemical calculations, a new definition of solubility parameter is proposed, which overcomes some of the inherent restrictions of the original definition and expands its range of applications. The original single solubility parameter is replaced by four partial solvation parameters reflecting the dispersion, the polar, the acidic and the basic character of the chemical compounds as expressed either in their pure state or in mixtures. Simple rules are adopted for the definition and calculation of these four parameters and their values are tabulated for a variety of common substances. In contrast, however, to the well known Hansen solubility parameters, their design and evaluation does not rely exclusively on the basic rule of "similarity matching" for solubility but it makes also use of the other basic rule of compatibility, namely, the rule of "complementarity matching". This complementarity matching becomes particularly operational with the sound definition of the acidic and basic components of the solvation parameter based on the third ?-moments of the screening charge distributions of the quantum mechanics-based COSMO-RS theory. The new definitions are made in a simple and straightforward manner, thus, preserving the strength and appeal of solubility parameter stemming from its simplicity. The new predictive method has been applied to a variety of solubility data for systems of pharmaceuticals and polymers. The results from quantum mechanics calculations are critically compared with the results from Abraham's acid/base descriptors. PMID:22327537

  2. Effect of including torsional parameters for histidine-metal interactions in classical force fields for metalloproteins.

    PubMed

    Mera-Adasme, Raúl; Sadeghian, Keyarash; Sundholm, Dage; Ochsenfeld, Christian

    2014-11-20

    Classical force-field parameters of the metal site of metalloproteins usually comprise only the partial charges of the involved atoms, as well as the bond-stretching and bending parameters of the metal-ligand interactions. Although for certain metal ligands such as histidine residues, the torsional motions at the metal site play an important role for the dynamics of the protein, no such terms have been considered to be crucial in the parametrization of the force fields, and they have therefore been omitted in the parametrization. In this work, we have optimized AMBER-compatible force-field parameters for the reduced state of the metal site of copper, zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1) and assessed the effect of including torsional parameters for the histidine-metal interactions in molecular dynamics simulations. On the basis of the obtained results, we recommend that torsion parameters of the metal site are included when processes at the metal site are investigated or when free-energy calculations are performed. As the torsion parameters mainly affect the structure of the metal site, other kinds of structural studies can be performed without considering the torsional parameters of the metal site. PMID:25410708

  3. Structural dynamic analysis of the Space Shuttle Main Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, L. P.; Jamison, G. T.; Mccutcheon, W. A.; Price, J. M.

    1981-01-01

    This structural dynamic analysis supports development of the SSME by evaluating components subjected to critical dynamic loads, identifying significant parameters, and evaluating solution methods. Engine operating parameters at both rated and full power levels are considered. Detailed structural dynamic analyses of operationally critical and life limited components support the assessment of engine design modifications and environmental changes. Engine system test results are utilized to verify analytic model simulations. The SSME main chamber injector assembly is an assembly of 600 injector elements which are called LOX posts. The overall LOX post analysis procedure is shown.

  4. Psychophysiological Signals Associated with Affective States

    PubMed Central

    Mauri, M; Magagnin, V; Cipresso, P; Mainardi, L; Brown, EN; Cerutti, S; Villamira, M; Barbieri, R

    2010-01-01

    We present a preliminary quantitative study aimed at developing an optimal standard protocol for automatic classification of specific affective states as related to human- computer interactions. This goal is mainly achieved by comparing standard psychological test-reports to quantitative measures derived from simultaneous non-invasive acquisition of psychophysiological signals of interest, namely respiration, galvanic skin response, blood volume pulse, electrocardiogram and electroencephalogram. Forty-three healthy students were exposed to computer-mediated stimuli, while wearable non-invasive sensors were applied in order to collect the physiological data. The stimuli were designed to elicit three distinct affective states: relaxation, engagement and stress. In this work we report how our quantitative analysis has helped in redefining important aspects of the protocol, and we show preliminary findings related to the specific psychophysiological patterns correlating with the three target affective states. Results further suggest that some of the quantitative measures might be useful in characterizing specific affective states. PMID:21096828

  5. Metasurfaces: Simultaneous Stokes parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepetit, Thomas; Kanté, Boubacar

    2015-11-01

    Techniques for determining Stokes parameters, which fully define the polarization state of a wave, require multiple measurements, thus potentially leading to inaccuracies. Researchers now show how to simultaneously determine the parameters for visible light using periodic metal structures.

  6. Dynamic Synchronization of Teacher-Students Affection in Affective Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Wenhai; Lu, Jiamei

    2011-01-01

    Based on Bower's affective network theory, the article links the dynamic analysis of affective factors in affective instruction, and presents affective instruction strategic of dynamic synchronization between teacher and students to implement the best ideal mood that promotes students' cognition and affection together. In the process of teaching,…

  7. Distillation tray structural parameter study: Phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winter, J. Ronald

    1991-01-01

    The purpose here is to identify the structural parameters (plate thickness, liquid level, beam size, number of beams, tray diameter, etc.) that affect the structural integrity of distillation trays in distillation columns. Once the sensitivity of the trays' dynamic response to these parameters has been established, the designer will be able to use this information to prepare more accurate specifications for the construction of new trays. Information is given on both static and dynamic analysis, modal response, and tray failure details.

  8. Determining the main thermodynamic parameters of caffeine melting by means of DSC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agafonova, E. V.; Moshchenskii, Yu. V.; Tkachenko, M. L.

    2012-06-01

    The temperature and enthalpy of the melting of caffeine, which are 235.5 ± 0.1°C and 19.6 ± 0.2 kJ/mol, respectively, are determined by DSC. The melting entropy and the cryoscopic constant of caffeine are calculated.

  9. Effective Temperatures of Selected Main-Sequence Stars with the Most Accurate Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soydugan, F.; Eker, Z.; Soydugan, E.; Bilir, S.; Gökçe, E. Y.; Steer, I.; Tüysüz, M.; Šenyüz, T.; Demircan, O.

    2015-07-01

    In this study we investigate the distributions of the properties of detached double-lined binaries (DBs) in the mass-luminosity, mass-radius, and mass-effective temperature diagrams. We have improved the classical mass-luminosity relation based on the database of DBs by Eker et al. (2014a). Based on the accurate observational data available to us we propose a method for improving the effective temperatures of eclipsing binaries with accurate mass and radius determinations.

  10. Main results of atmospheric fine structure parameter observation in the lower thermosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sidorov, V. V.; Fakhrutdinova, A. N.; Ganin, V. A.

    1987-01-01

    The capabilities of the radiometeor method of wind measurement increase with the increase of the transmitted power of radar stations fitted with goniometric systems which enables the observation of shower meteors along with sporadic background. In shower observations the meteor zone reflecting area narrows to the echo surface which is perpendicular to the flux radiant. Favorable conditions are created for singling out atmospheric disturbances in which the wave front is parallel to the echo surface which plays, in this case, the role of a frequency filter. For the first time this technique allowed wave disturbances with periods of approx. greater than 4 min. to be measured, with about a 99 percent probability of exceeding the level of the turbulence noise, during the Geminid and Perseid showers. Maximum values of such wave disturbance amplitudes were about 15 to 20 m/s, with lifetimes up to 2 hrs.

  11. Pickering emulsions: what are the main parameters determining the emulsion type and interfacial properties?

    PubMed

    Destribats, Mathieu; Gineste, Stéphane; Laurichesse, Eric; Tanner, Hugo; Leal-Calderon, Fernando; Héroguez, Valérie; Schmitt, Véronique

    2014-08-12

    We synthesized surface-active lipophilic core-hydrophilic shell latex particles, and we probed their efficiency as emulsion stabilizers. The relative weight percentage of the shell, RS/P, was varied to trigger the balance between lipophilicity and hydrophilicity of the particles. Particle wettability could concomitantly be tuned by the pH of the aqueous phase determining the surface charge. Emulsions covering a wide range of RS/P and pH values were fabricated, and their type, oil-in-water (O/W) or water-in-oil (W/O), and kinetic stability were systematically assessed. By adapting the particle gel trapping technique to pH-variable systems and by exploiting the limited coalescence process, we were able to determine the proportion of oil/water interfacial area, C, covered by the particles as well as their contact angle, ?. All of these data were gathered into a single generic diagram showing good correlation between the emulsion type and the particle contact angle (O/W for ? < 90° and W/O for ? > 90°) in agreement with the empirical Finkle rule. Interestingly, no stable emulsion could be obtained when the wettability was nearly balanced and a "bipolar"-like behavior was observed, with the particles adopting two different contact angles whose average value was close to 90°. For particles such that ? < 90°, O/W emulsions were obtained, and, depending on the pH of the continuous phase, the same type of particles and the same emulsification process led to emulsions characterized either by large drops densely covered by the particles or by small droplets that were weakly covered. The two metastable states were also accessible to emulsions stabilized by particles of variable origins and morphologies, thus proving the generality of our findings. PMID:25055160

  12. Future Trends Affecting Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Good, Dixie Griffin

    This paper examines various trends and explores how they may affect education. Six specific trends are explored: (1) education trends, in which competition among schools for students, educators, and funds is increasing, calls for education accountability are increasing at all levels, and the demand for education professionals is rising; (2)…

  13. Predicting affective choice.

    PubMed

    Suri, Gaurav; Sheppes, Gal; Gross, James J

    2013-08-01

    Affect is increasingly recognized as central to decision making. However, it is not clear whether affect can be used to predict choice. To address this issue, we conducted 4 studies designed to create and test a model that could predict choice from affect. In Study 1, we used an image rating task to develop a model that predicted approach-avoidance motivations. This model quantified the role of two basic dimensions of affect--valence and arousal--in determining choice. We then tested the predictive power of this model for two types of decisions involving images: preference based selections (Study 2) and risk-reward trade-offs (Study 3). In both cases, the model derived in Study 1 predicted choice and outperformed competing models drawn from well-established theoretical views. Finally, we showed that this model has ecological validity: It predicted choices between news articles on the basis of headlines (Study 4). These findings have implications for diverse fields, including neuroeconomics and judgment and decision making. PMID:22924884

  14. Media and Affective Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Henry

    1972-01-01

    Teaching strategies intended to foster imagination and affective learning are discussed including sensitizing children to linguistic imagery, involving students in the learning experience, using visual arts like sculpture and painting to stimulate creative thinking, and stimulating appreciation of nonverbal expression through color and light…

  15. Factors affecting soil cohesion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil erodibility is a measure of a soil’s resistance against erosive forces and is affected by both intrinsic (or inherent) soil property and the extrinsic condition at the time erodibility measurement is made. Since soil erodibility is usually calculated from results obtained from erosion experimen...

  16. Main-sequence mass loss and the lithium dip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schramm, David N.; Steigman, Gary; Dearborn, David S. P.

    1990-01-01

    The significant dip in observed lithium abundances for Population I stars near M about 1.3 solar mass is discussed. It is noted that this dip occurs near where the instability strip crosses the main sequence on the lower edge of the Delta Scuti stars and that stellar pulsations are expected to give rise to mass loss. A total mass loss of 0.05 solar mass over the main-sequence lifetime of these stars would be sufficient to explain the observations of lithium depletion. The absence of a dip in the Pleiades and of significant depletion of beryllium in the Hyades places tight constraints on the rate of mass loss. These constraints make unlikely the high main-sequence mass-loss rates which would significantly affect globular cluster ages.

  17. Hot subdwarfs in (eclipsing) binaries with brown dwarf or low-mass main-sequence companions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaffenroth, Veronika; Geier, Stephan; Heber, Uli

    2014-09-01

    The formation of hot subdwarf stars (sdBs), which are core helium-burning stars located on the extended horizontal branch, is not yet understood. Many of the known hot subdwarf stars reside in close binary systems with short orbital periods of between a few hours and a few days, with either M-star or white-dwarf companions. Common-envelope ejection is the most probable formation channel. Among these, eclipsing systems are of special importance because it is possible to constrain the parameters of both components tightly by combining spectroscopic and light-curve analyses. They are called HW Virginis systems. Soker (1998) proposed that planetary or brown-dwarf companions could cause the mass loss necessary to form an sdB. Substellar objects with masses greater than >10 M_J were predicted to survive the common-envelope phase and end up in a close orbit around the stellar remnant, while planets with lower masses would entirely evaporate. This raises the question if planets can affect stellar evolution. Here we report on newly discovered eclipsing or not eclipsing hot subdwarf binaries with brown-dwarf or low-mass main-sequence companions and their spectral and photometric analysis to determine the fundamental parameters of both components.

  18. AMERICAN LOBSTERS TAGGED BY MAINE COMMERCIAL FISHERMEN,

    E-print Network

    AMERICAN LOBSTERS TAGGED BY MAINE COMMERCIAL FISHERMEN, 1957-59 In 1957 at the suggestion of C. Owen Smith, then editor of the "Maine Coast Fisherman," several commercial lobster fishermen volunteered to tag illegal American lobster, Homarus ameri- canus, with tags furnished by the Maine Depart

  19. TRANSPORT PATHWAYS OF THE MAINE COASTAL CURRENT

    E-print Network

    TRANSPORT PATHWAYS OF THE MAINE COASTAL CURRENT Monica J. Holboke and Daniel R. Lynch September 1996 Abstract The Maine Coastal Current(MCC) is initiated off the eastern coast of Maine and circuits, that is saline and warm. The coastal waters are dominated by local river runoff. In an attempt to understand how

  20. jafari.Main original image panel

    E-print Network

    Dahlquist, Kam D.

    jafari.Main original image panel naive panel GridBagLayout panel public void start() public voidLocation() Jafari public static void main(String[]) jafari.swing.BasePanel main homePage browser downloadComponents() private void startListeningToUI() event handlers (Action, Item) jafari.swing.NaivePanel jafari.swing.GridBagLayoutPanel

  1. In Maine, Postsecondary Success Starts before College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LePage, Paul R.

    2011-01-01

    A 2008 report from the Joint Standing Committee on Education and Culture Affairs of the Maine Legislature indicates a quarter of those who enrolled at a public university in Maine required a remedial course to catch them up to the level where they should have been when they completed high school. Regardless of how hard Maine has tried and how much…

  2. MAINE BEDROCK SOURCE WATER PROTECTION AREAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bedrocksqpa_region_pws is a REGIONS SDE layer of bedrock source water protection areas in Maine with a high, moderate, or low probability of contributing water to community public water supplies. The Maine Drinking Water Program (MEDWP), in cooperation with the Maine Geological S...

  3. 40 CFR 81.320 - Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Maine. 81.320 Section 81.320 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section 107 Attainment Status Designations § 81.320 Maine. Maine—TSP Designated areas Does not meet...

  4. 40 CFR 81.320 - Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maine. 81.320 Section 81.320 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section 107 Attainment Status Designations § 81.320 Maine. Maine—TSP Designated areas Does not meet...

  5. IMPROVEMENT OF WATER MAIN INSPECTION TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document is a handout of a slide presentation that addresses improvement of water main inspection technology. The slide presentation addresses the need for improved inspection technology (e.g., 237,000 main breaks/yr); the limits on main break prevention; and, the adverse ...

  6. Selection of Wire Electrical Discharge Machining Process Parameters on Stainless Steel AISI Grade-304 using Design of Experiments Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lingadurai, K.; Nagasivamuni, B.; Muthu Kamatchi, M.; Palavesam, J.

    2012-06-01

    Wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM) is a specialized thermal machining process capable of accurately machining parts of hard materials with complex shapes. Parts having sharp edges that pose difficulties to be machined by the main stream machining processes can be easily machined by WEDM process. Design of Experiments approach (DOE) has been reported in this work for stainless steel AISI grade-304 which is used in cryogenic vessels, evaporators, hospital surgical equipment, marine equipment, fasteners, nuclear vessels, feed water tubing, valves, refrigeration equipment, etc., is machined by WEDM with brass wire electrode. The DOE method is used to formulate the experimental layout, to analyze the effect of each parameter on the machining characteristics, and to predict the optimal choice for each WEDM parameter such as voltage, pulse ON, pulse OFF and wire feed. It is found that these parameters have a significant influence on machining characteristic such as metal removal rate (MRR), kerf width and surface roughness (SR). The analysis of the DOE reveals that, in general the pulse ON time significantly affects the kerf width and the wire feed rate affects SR, while, the input voltage mainly affects the MRR.

  7. Affective computing and autism.

    PubMed

    el Kaliouby, Rana; Picard, Rosalind; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2006-12-01

    This article highlights the overlapping and converging goals and challenges of autism research and affective computing. We propose that a collaboration between autism research and affective computing could lead to several mutually beneficial outcomes--from developing new tools to assist people with autism in understanding and operating in the socioemotional world around them, to developing new computational models and theories that will enable technology to be modified to provide an overall better socioemotional experience to all people who use it. This article describes work toward this convergence at the MIT Media Lab, and anticipates new research that might arise from the interaction between research into autism, technology, and human socioemotional intelligence. PMID:17312261

  8. Factors Affecting Gummy Butter. 

    E-print Network

    Leighton, R. E. (Rudolph Elmo); Moore, A. V.

    1952-01-01

    Factors Affecting Gummy Butter DIGEST Among the Southcentral States, Texas ranks next to Oklahoma and Kentucky in creamery butter production; in farm butter production Texas is third in the nation-following Alabama and North Carolina. Second only... as a gummy or melt-resistant body. The availability and nutritive qualities of cottonseed products make them highly desirable as dairy feeds, especially in the South. This study shows that the gummy character of butter 1 body may be accounted...

  9. SYNCHRONIZATION EFFECTS ON PARAMETERS FOR DAYS OPEN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this research was to determine if synchronization affects parameters related to days open. If synchronization alters genetic or error variances, for example, adjustments could be made to the daughter pregnancy rate evaluations to account for these effects. Synchronization information ...

  10. Affective Processes and Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feshbach, Norma Deitch; Feshbach, Seymour

    1987-01-01

    Data indicate that for girls, affective dispositional factors (empathy, depressive affectivity, aggression, and self-concept) are intimately linked to cognitive development and academic achievement. (PCB)

  11. Affective Neuroscience of Aging The Affective Neuroscience of Aging

    E-print Network

    Mather, Mara

    Affective Neuroscience of Aging - 1 - The Affective Neuroscience of Aging Mara Mather University running title: Affective Neuroscience of Aging #12;Affective Neuroscience of Aging - 2 - Contents INTRODUCTION THE FATE OF EMOTION-RELATED BRAIN REGIONS AND MONOAMINERGIC NEUROTRANSMITTER SYSTEMS IN AGING

  12. Toward Affective Education: A Guide to Developing Affective Learning Objectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forsyth, Alfred S., Jr.; Gammel, J. D.

    This guide was designed to assist the educator in designing and implementing a program in affective education by introducing him to affective education, attempting to make him feel comfortable with it, and enabling him to improve his skills in the affective domain. The first chapter introduces the affective domain, discusses its importance, and…

  13. Managing Affect in Learners' Questions in Undergraduate Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedrosa-de-Jesus, Helena; Watts, Mike

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to position students' classroom questioning within the literature surrounding affect and its impact on learning. The article consists of two main sections. First, the act of questioning is discussed in order to highlight how affect shapes the process of questioning, and a four-part genesis to question-asking that we call…

  14. 77 FR 12909 - Eastern Maine Railway Company-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-Montreal, Maine & Atlantic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-02

    ...Transportation Board [Docket No. FD 35588] Eastern Maine Railway Company--Acquisition and Operation Exemption--Montreal, Maine & Atlantic Railway, Ltd. Eastern Maine Railway Company (EMR), a Class III rail carrier,...

  15. Performance parameters in the design of flight motion simulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Robert W.

    2012-06-01

    The desired test performance parameters influence the design of a Flight Motion Simulator (FMS) and affect its size, weight, power, electro-magnetic interference, noise, and vibration. A common desire is to specify requirements beyond the immediate need for future test programs. This may directly affect cost and schedule. Critical parameters that affect the FMS design are larger payload sizes, higher accuracies, and higher dynamic requirements. This paper provides a checklist of parameters and specification tradeoffs to be considered for the overall system performance requirements.

  16. Distinguishing affective and non-affective reactions to daily events.

    PubMed

    Nezlek, John B

    2005-12-01

    The study of daily events has been dominated by a focus on affective reactions to daily events. Although informative, this research needs to be complemented by research on non-affective and cognitive reactions to events. Although daily events are certainly related to how people feel, they are also related to how people think, particularly about themselves. The present article presents the results of a series of studies examining relationships between daily events and both affective and non-affective states. These results suggest that although affective and non-affective reactions to daily events may covary (e.g., when people feel badly, they may think more poorly about themselves and vice versa), this covariation is not perfect. Non-affective states covary with daily events above and beyond the covariation between events and affect, and affective states covary with events above and beyond the covariation between events and non-affective states. PMID:16274445

  17. Ecological parameters influencing microbial diversity and stability of traditional sourdough.

    PubMed

    Minervini, Fabio; De Angelis, Maria; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Gobbetti, Marco

    2014-02-01

    The quality of some leavened, sourdough baked goods is not always consistent, unless a well propagated sourdough starter culture is used for the dough fermentation. Among the different types of sourdough used, the traditional sourdough has attracted the interest of researchers, mainly because of its large microbial diversity, especially with respect to lactic acid bacteria. Variation in this diversity and the factors that cause it will impact on quality and is the subject of this review. Sourdough microbial diversity is mainly caused by the following factors: (i) sourdough is obtained through spontaneous, multi-step fermentation; (ii) it is propagated using flour, whose nutrient content may vary according to the batch and to the crop, and which is naturally contaminated by microorganisms; and (iii) it is propagated under peculiar technological parameters, which vary depending on the historical and cultural background and type of baked good. In the population dynamics leading from flour to mature sourdough, lactic acid bacteria (several species of Lactobacillus sp., Leuconostoc sp., and Weissella sp.) and yeasts (mainly Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida sp.) outcompete other microbial groups contaminating flour, and interact with each other at different levels. Ecological parameters qualitatively and quantitatively affecting the dominant sourdough microbiota may be classified into specific technological parameters (e.g., percentage of sourdough used as inoculum, time and temperature of fermentation) and parameters that are not fully controlled by those who manage the propagation of sourdough (e.g., chemical, enzyme and microbial composition of flour). Although some sourdoughs have been reported to harbour a persistent dominant microbiota, the stability of sourdough ecosystem during time is debated. Indeed, several factors may interfere with the persistence of species and strains associations that are typical of a given sourdough: metabolic adaptability to the stressing conditions of sourdough, nutritional and antagonistic interactions among microorganisms, intrinsic robustness of microorganisms, and existence of a stable house microbiota. Further studies have to be performed in order to highlight hidden mechanisms underlying the microbial structure and stability of sourdough. The comprehension of such mechanisms would be helpful to assess the most appropriate conditions that allow keeping a given traditional sourdough as a stable microbial ecosystem, thus preserving, during time, the typical traits of the resulting product. PMID:24355817

  18. Flood of April 1987 in Maine, Massachusetts, and New Hampshire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fontaine, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    Widespread flooding ocurred through a large part of New England in early to mid-April 1987. The States affected most by these floods were Maine, Massachusetts, and New Hampshire. The flooding was the result of two distinct storms-one that brought heavy rains to the area from March 30 to April 2 and the other that brought additional precipitation from April 4 through April 8. Fortunately for the residents of Maine, Massachusetts, and New Hampshire, the two storms developed their greatest intensity and dropped the most precipitation over different parts of the three-State area. The first storm combined with meltwater from the snowpack to produce major flooding primarily in the western and south-central parts of Maine. The second storm produced flooding primarily in southern New Hampshire and northeastern and northwestern Massachusetts. Many streams in the affected area produced peaks that exceeded previously known flood heights and discharges, and the recurrence interval of many peak discharges exceeded 100 years. (USGS)

  19. Measuring accurate transit parameters

    E-print Network

    Joshua N. Winn

    2008-08-15

    By observing the transits of exoplanets, one may determine many fundamental system parameters. I review current techniques and results for the parameters that can be measured with the greatest precision, specifically, the transit times, the planetary mass and radius, and the projected spin-orbit angle.

  20. Parameters of Technological Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, Chauncey; Rudman, Richard

    1973-01-01

    Examines the factors involved in technological growth and identifies the key parameters as societal resources and societal expectations. Concludes that quality of life can only be maintained by reducing population growth, since this parameter is the product of material levels, overcrowding, food, and pollution. (JR)

  1. Standard pre-main sequence models of low-mass stars

    SciTech Connect

    Prada Moroni, P. G.; Degl'Innocenti, S.; Tognelli, E.

    2014-05-09

    The main characteristics of standard pre-main sequence (PMS) models are described. A discussion of the uncer-tainties affecting the current generation of PMS evolutionary tracks and isochrones is also provided. In particular, the impact of the uncertainties in the adopted equation of state, radiative opacity, nuclear cross sections, and initial chemical abundances are analysed.

  2. GRCop-84 Rolling Parameter Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewenthal, William S.; Ellis, David L.

    2008-01-01

    This report is a section of the final report on the GRCop-84 task of the Constellation Program and incorporates the results obtained between October 2000 and September 2005, when the program ended. NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has developed a new copper alloy, GRCop-84 (Cu-8 at.% Cr-4 at.% Nb), for rocket engine main combustion chamber components that will improve rocket engine life and performance. This work examines the sensitivity of GRCop-84 mechanical properties to rolling parameters as a means to better define rolling parameters for commercial warm rolling. Experiment variables studied were total reduction, rolling temperature, rolling speed, and post rolling annealing heat treatment. The responses were tensile properties measured at 23 and 500 C, hardness, and creep at three stress-temperature combinations. Understanding these relationships will better define boundaries for a robust commercial warm rolling process. The four processing parameters were varied within limits consistent with typical commercial production processes. Testing revealed that the rolling-related variables selected have a minimal influence on tensile, hardness, and creep properties over the range of values tested. Annealing had the expected result of lowering room temperature hardness and strength while increasing room temperature elongations with 600 C (1112 F) having the most effect. These results indicate that the process conditions to warm roll plate and sheet for these variables can range over wide levels without negatively impacting mechanical properties. Incorporating broader process ranges in future rolling campaigns should lower commercial rolling costs through increased productivity.

  3. MODELING PHYSICAL HABITAT PARAMETERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Salmonid populations can be affected by alterations in stream physical habitat. Fish productivity is determined by the stream's physical habitat structure ( channel form, substrate distribution, riparian vegetation), water quality, flow regime and inputs from the watershed (sedim...

  4. Filtering and parameter estimation for electricity

    E-print Network

    Fournier, John J.F.

    Filtering and parameter estimation for electricity markets by Alberto Molina-Escobar B to be particularly difficult for electricity, where markets are complex, and ex- hibit a number of unique features, mainly due to the problems involved in storing electricity. In this thesis we propose three models

  5. Maine KIDS COUNT 2000 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine Children's Alliance, Augusta.

    This KIDS COUNT Report details statewide trends in the well-being of Maine's children. The statistical portrait is based on a variety of indicators in the areas of: (1) physical and mental health; (2) social and economic opportunity; (3) education and learning; and (4) child health care access. The report contains a special section on Maine

  6. Maine Educational Assessment School Report, Grade 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine Department of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The Maine Educational Assessment (MEA) is the state's measure of student progress in achieving the challenging academic expectations, known as "Learning Results," adopted by the Maine Legislature in 1997. This report of student performance in writing, reading, mathematics, and science and technology provides a status report of student performance…

  7. Maine Adult Education Director's Handbook, 2004.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine Department of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The Maine Adult Education Directors' Handbook offers a basic overview of the Adult and Community Education system in Maine. The information is general and intended to provide a background to the person initially becoming involved in adult education--director, teacher, school board member, advisory council member or superintendent. The Handbook is…

  8. TRS-80 at the Maine State Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wismer, Donald

    This report describes the applications and work flow of a TRS-80 microcomputer at the Maine State Library, and provides sample computer-generated records and programs used with the TRS-80. The machine was chosen for its price, availability, and compatibility with machines already in Maine's schools. It is used for mailing list management (with…

  9. The Maine Coastal Current: Spring Climatological Circulation

    E-print Network

    on the Coastal Current. The nested calculations also expose finer structure due to river sources, heat fluxThe Maine Coastal Current: Spring Climatological Circulation Daniel R. Lynch, Monica J. Holboke in the Gulf of Maine, with special emphasis on its coastal current in the periods March­April and May

  10. Maine's Employability Skills Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, John M.; Wolffe, Karen E.; Wolfe, Judy; Brooker, Carrie

    2013-01-01

    This Practice Report describes the development and implementation of the "Maine Employability Skills Program," a model employment program developed by the Maine Division for the Blind and Visually Impaired (DBVI). The program was designed to support the efforts of the chronically unemployed or underemployed. These consumers were either…

  11. MAINE 1:24,000 HYDROLOGY POLYGONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Maine 1:24,000 Hydrology Polygons SDE feature class depicts double line river features, single line streams, pond, lake and coastal outlines in Maine from USGS 1:24,000 scale quadrangles. Some New Hampshire and New Brunswick features are also included. Codes are included to ...

  12. MAINE 1:24,000 HYDROLOGY LINES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Maine 1:24,000 Hydrology Lines SDE feature class depicts double line river features, single line streams, pond, lake and coastal outlines in Maine from USGS 1:24,000 scale quadrangles. Some New Hampshire and New Brunswick features are also included. Codes are included to sel...

  13. WATER MAIN EVALUATION FOR REHABILITATION/REPLACEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes a series of studies that identified the factors that contribute to water main failures and developed decision strategies on main rehabilitation, replacement and preventative maintenance. The objective of the report is to provide the water utility industry wit...

  14. 33 CFR 334.30 - Gulf of Maine off Pemaquid Point, Maine; naval sonobuoy test area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Gulf of Maine off Pemaquid Point, Maine; naval sonobuoy test area. 334.30 Section...AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.30 Gulf of Maine off Pemaquid Point, Maine; naval sonobuoy...

  15. 33 CFR 334.30 - Gulf of Maine off Pemaquid Point, Maine; naval sonobuoy test area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Gulf of Maine off Pemaquid Point, Maine; naval sonobuoy test area. 334.30 Section...AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.30 Gulf of Maine off Pemaquid Point, Maine; naval sonobuoy...

  16. 33 CFR 334.30 - Gulf of Maine off Pemaquid Point, Maine; naval sonobuoy test area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Gulf of Maine off Pemaquid Point, Maine; naval sonobuoy test area. 334.30 Section...AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.30 Gulf of Maine off Pemaquid Point, Maine; naval sonobuoy...

  17. 33 CFR 334.30 - Gulf of Maine off Pemaquid Point, Maine; naval sonobuoy test area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Gulf of Maine off Pemaquid Point, Maine; naval sonobuoy test area. 334.30 Section...AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.30 Gulf of Maine off Pemaquid Point, Maine; naval sonobuoy...

  18. How feeling betrayed affects cooperation.

    PubMed

    Ramazi, Pouria; Hessel, Jop; Cao, Ming

    2015-01-01

    For a population of interacting self-interested agents, we study how the average cooperation level is affected by some individuals' feelings of being betrayed and guilt. We quantify these feelings as adjusted payoffs in asymmetric games, where for different emotions, the payoff matrix takes the structure of that of either a prisoner's dilemma or a snowdrift game. Then we analyze the evolution of cooperation in a well-mixed population of agents, each of whom is associated with such a payoff matrix. At each time-step, an agent is randomly chosen from the population to update her strategy based on the myopic best-response update rule. According to the simulations, decreasing the feeling of being betrayed in a portion of agents does not necessarily increase the level of cooperation in the population. However, this resistance of the population against low-betrayal-level agents is effective only up to some extend that is explicitly determined by the payoff matrices and the number of agents associated with these matrices. Two other models are also considered where the betrayal factor of an agent fluctuates as a function of the number of cooperators and defectors that she encounters. Unstable behaviors are observed for the level of cooperation in these cases; however, we show that one can tune the parameters in the function to make the whole population become cooperative or defective. PMID:25922933

  19. How Feeling Betrayed Affects Cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Ramazi, Pouria; Hessel, Jop; Cao, Ming

    2015-01-01

    For a population of interacting self-interested agents, we study how the average cooperation level is affected by some individuals' feelings of being betrayed and guilt. We quantify these feelings as adjusted payoffs in asymmetric games, where for different emotions, the payoff matrix takes the structure of that of either a prisoner's dilemma or a snowdrift game. Then we analyze the evolution of cooperation in a well-mixed population of agents, each of whom is associated with such a payoff matrix. At each time-step, an agent is randomly chosen from the population to update her strategy based on the myopic best-response update rule. According to the simulations, decreasing the feeling of being betrayed in a portion of agents does not necessarily increase the level of cooperation in the population. However, this resistance of the population against low-betrayal-level agents is effective only up to some extend that is explicitly determined by the payoff matrices and the number of agents associated with these matrices. Two other models are also considered where the betrayal factor of an agent fluctuates as a function of the number of cooperators and defectors that she encounters. Unstable behaviors are observed for the level of cooperation in these cases; however, we show that one can tune the parameters in the function to make the whole population become cooperative or defective. PMID:25922933

  20. Parameter estimating state reconstruction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, E. B.

    1976-01-01

    Parameter estimation is considered for systems whose entire state cannot be measured. Linear observers are designed to recover the unmeasured states to a sufficient accuracy to permit the estimation process. There are three distinct dynamics that must be accommodated in the system design: the dynamics of the plant, the dynamics of the observer, and the system updating of the parameter estimation. The latter two are designed to minimize interaction of the involved systems. These techniques are extended to weakly nonlinear systems. The application to a simulation of a space shuttle POGO system test is of particular interest. A nonlinear simulation of the system is developed, observers designed, and the parameters estimated.

  1. Quantum Walks on the Line with Phase Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villagra, Marcos; Nakanishi, Masaki; Yamashita, Shigeru; Nakashima, Yasuhiko

    In this paper, a study on discrete-time coined quantum walks on the line is presented. Clear mathematical foundations are still lacking for this quantum walk model. As a step toward this objective, the following question is being addressed: Given a graph, what is the probability that a quantum walk arrives at a given vertex after some number of steps? This is a very natural question, and for random walks it can be answered by several different combinatorial arguments. For quantum walks this is a highly non-trivial task. Furthermore, this was only achieved before for one specific coin operator (Hadamard operator) for walks on the line. Even considering only walks on lines, generalizing these computations to a general SU(2) coin operator is a complex task. The main contribution is a closed-form formula for the amplitudes of the state of the walk (which includes the question above) for a general symmetric SU(2) operator for walks on the line. To this end, a coin operator with parameters that alters the phase of the state of the walk is defined. Then, closed-form solutions are computed by means of Fourier analysis and asymptotic approximation methods. We also present some basic properties of the walk which can be deducted using weak convergence theorems for quantum walks. In particular, the support of the induced probability distribution of the walk is calculated. Then, it is shown how changing the parameters in the coin operator affects the resulting probability distribution.

  2. Active Estimation of Object Dynamics Parameters with Tactile Sensors 

    E-print Network

    Saal, Hannes; Ting, Jo-Anne; Vijayakumar, Sethu

    2010-01-01

    The estimation of parameters that affect the dynamics of objects—such as viscosity or internal degrees of freedom—is an important step in autonomous and dexterous robotic manipulation of objects. However, accurate and ...

  3. [Medical simulation as a professional tool which affect the safety of the patient used in the learning process].

    PubMed

    Czekajlo, Michael; D?browski, Marek; D?browska, Agata; Torres, Kamil; Torres, Anna; Witt, Magdalena; G?siorowski, ?ukasz; Szuka?a, Magdalena

    2015-06-01

    Simulation is the methodology of teaching, learning process using educational equipment from simple simulators, designed to study individual tasks, through advanced mannequins called human patient stimulators faithfully mimic the human and its parameters. The medical simulation's main task is education and improvement patients' safety. Advanced human simulators can realistically cough, vomit with artificial chyme and bleed with artificial blood causing a real stress of medical personnel and the need for immediate action. Medical simulation gives the opportunity to prepare medical personnel to the profession more effectively, in less time than traditional education and also clearly affects the patients' safety. PMID:26098659

  4. Immunological Parameters Associated With Vitiligo Treatments: A Literature Review Based on Clinical Studies

    PubMed Central

    Abreu, Ana Cláudia Guimarães; Duarte, Gabriela Guy; Miranda, Juliana Yasmin Pains; Ramos, Daniel Gontijo; Ramos, Camila Gontijo; Ramos, Mariana Gontijo

    2015-01-01

    Vitiligo, a depigmentary disorder, caused by the loss of melanocytes, affects approximately 1% of the world population, irrespective of skin type, with a serious psychological impact on the patient quality of life. So far, the origin of vitiligo has not been traced and the pathogenesis is complex, involving the interplay of a multitude of variables. Although there is no treatment that ensures the complete cure of the disorder, there are some pharmacological, phototherapy, and surgical therapies available. A series of variables can affect treatment outcome, such as individual characteristics, emotional issues, type of vitiligo, stability of the lesions, and immunological status. The present literature review identified the main immunological parameters associated with treatments for vitiligo. Cytotoxic CD8+ T lymphocytes are the main cell type involved in treatment success, as fewer cells in skin lesions are associated with better results. Other parameters such as cytokines and regulatory T cells may also be involved. Further clinical scientific studies are needed to elucidate the complex mechanisms underlying vitiligo and its treatments, in order to expand the range of therapeutic approaches for each individual case. PMID:26457199

  5. Affective Incoherence: When Affective Concepts and Embodied Reactions Clash

    PubMed Central

    Centerbar, David B.; Clore, Gerald L.; Schnall, Simone; Garvin, Erika

    2008-01-01

    In five studies, we examined the effects on cognitive performance of coherence and incoherence between conceptual and experiential sources of affective information. The studies crossed the priming of happy and sad concepts with affective experiences. In different experiments, these included: approach or avoidance actions, happy or sad feelings, and happy or sad expressive behaviors. In all studies, coherence between affective concepts and affective experiences led to better recall of a story than affective incoherence. We suggested that the experience of such experiential affective cues serves as evidence of the appropriateness of affective concepts that come to mind. The results suggest that affective coherence has epistemic benefits, and that incoherence is costly, for cognitive performance. PMID:18361672

  6. Visualization of Parameter Space for Image Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pretorius, A. Johannes; Bray, Mark-Anthony P.; Carpenter, Anne E.; Ruddle, Roy A.

    2013-01-01

    Image analysis algorithms are often highly parameterized and much human input is needed to optimize parameter settings. This incurs a time cost of up to several days. We analyze and characterize the conventional parameter optimization process for image analysis and formulate user requirements. With this as input, we propose a change in paradigm by optimizing parameters based on parameter sampling and interactive visual exploration. To save time and reduce memory load, users are only involved in the first step - initialization of sampling - and the last step - visual analysis of output. This helps users to more thoroughly explore the parameter space and produce higher quality results. We describe a custom sampling plug-in we developed for CellProfiler - a popular biomedical image analysis framework. Our main focus is the development of an interactive visualization technique that enables users to analyze the relationships between sampled input parameters and corresponding output. We implemented this in a prototype called Paramorama. It provides users with a visual overview of parameters and their sampled values. User-defined areas of interest are presented in a structured way that includes image-based output and a novel layout algorithm. To find optimal parameter settings, users can tag high- and low-quality results to refine their search. We include two case studies to illustrate the utility of this approach. PMID:22034361

  7. Space shuttle main engine fault detection using neural networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Thomas; Greenwood, Dan; Shew, Kenneth; Stevenson, Fareed

    1991-01-01

    A method for on-line Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) anomaly detection and fault typing using a feedback neural network is described. The method involves the computation of features representing time-variance of SSME sensor parameters, using historical test case data. The network is trained, using backpropagation, to recognize a set of fault cases. The network is then able to diagnose new fault cases correctly. An essential element of the training technique is the inclusion of randomly generated data along with the real data, in order to span the entire input space of potential non-nominal data.

  8. Space Shuttle Main Engine Test Firing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    A cloud of extremely hot steam boils out of the flame deflector at the A-1 test stand during a test firing of a Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) at the John C. Stennis Space Center, Hancock County, Mississippi.

  9. Main ring lattice and beam dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Guignard, G.

    1989-01-01

    The main-ring lattice considered in this note is based on previous studies made for high-energy rings of the TRIUMF Kaon Factory as well as for the main ring and second-generation storage ring proposed for an advanced hadron facility at Los Alamos. The reason for further study of the design concepts is mainly to increase the dynamic aperture for coupled motion in the presence of the sextupoles used for chromaticity adjustment and magnet imperfection compensation. At the same time, it was interesting to include the features required for slow extraction and direct H/sup /minus// injection and obtain a complete layout of the ring as close as possible to a realistic structure for estimating the stability limit. The basic ideas retained for the design of the main ring lattice are briefly recalled here. 10 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Beam dynamics at the main LEBT of RAON accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Hyunchang; Jang, Ji-Ho

    2015-10-01

    The high-intensity rare isotope accelerator (RAON) of the Rare Isotope Science Project (RISP) in Daejeon, Korea, has been designed to accelerate multiple-charge-state beams. The ion beams, which are generated by using an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECR-IS), will be transported through the main low energy beam transport (LEBT) system to the radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ). While passing the beams through the LEBT, we should keep the transverse beam size and longitudinal emittance small. Furthermore, the matching of required twiss parameter at the RFQ entrance will be performed by using electro-static quadrupoles at the main LEBT matching section which is from the multi-harmonic buncher (MHB) to the entrance of the RFQ. We will briefly review the new aspects of the main LEBT lattice, and the beam matching at the main LEBT matching section will be presented. In addition, the effects of various errors on the beam orbit and the correction of a distorted orbit will be discussed.

  11. Geomagnetic main field modeling using magnetohydrodynamic constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, R. H.

    1985-01-01

    The influence of physical constraints are investigated which may be approximately satisfied by the Earth's liquid core on models of the geomagnetic main field and its secular variation. A previous report describes the methodology used to incorporate nonlinear equations of constraint into the main field model. The application of that methodology to the GSFC 12/83 field model to test the frozen-flux hypothesis and the usefulness of incorporating magnetohydrodynamic constraints for obtaining improved geomagnetic field models is described.

  12. Main group catalysed reduction of unsaturated bonds.

    PubMed

    Revunova, K; Nikonov, G I

    2015-01-21

    This Perspective highlights the recent developments in the reduction of unsaturated substrates catalysed by main group element compounds. Various activation modes are discussed and comparison with relevant examples from transition metal systems is made when possible. Main group element catalysis offers significant advantages through its lower cost and more benign environmental impact and has now reached the point where it can successfully compete with the more common catalysis based on precious transition metals. PMID:25384615

  13. Implications of the carbon cycle steady state assumption for biogeochemical modeling performance and inverse parameter retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalhais, Nuno; Reichstein, Markus; Seixas, Júlia; Collatz, G. James; Pereira, JoãO. Santos; Berbigier, Paul; Carrara, Arnaud; Granier, André; Montagnani, Leonardo; Papale, Dario; Rambal, Serge; Sanz, MaríA. José; Valentini, Riccardo

    2008-06-01

    We analyze the impacts of the steady state assumption on inverse model parameter retrieval from biogeochemical models. An inverse model parameterization study using eddy covariance CO2 flux data was performed with the Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach (CASA) model under conditions of strict and relaxed carbon cycle steady state assumption (CCSSA) in order to evaluate both the robustness of the model's structure for the simulation of net ecosystem carbon fluxes and the assessment of the CCSSA effects on simulations and parameter estimation. Net ecosystem production (NEP) measurements from several eddy covariance sites were compared with NEP estimates from the CASA model driven by local weather station climate inputs as well as by remotely sensed fraction of photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by vegetation and leaf area index. The parameters considered for optimization are directly related to aboveground and belowground modeled responses to temperature and water availability, as well as a parameter (?) that relaxed the CCSSA in the model, allowing for site level simulations to be initialized either as net sinks or sources. A robust relationship was observed between NEP observations and predictions for most of the sites through the range of temporal scales considered (daily, weekly, biweekly, and monthly), supporting the conclusion that the model structure is able to capture the main processes explaining NEP variability. Overall, relaxing CCSSA increased model efficiency (21%) and decreased normalized average error (-92%). Intersite variability was a major source of variance in model performance differences between fixed (CCSSAf) and relaxed (CCSSAr) CCSSA conditions. These differences were correlated with mean annual NEP observations, where an average increase in modeling efficiency of 0.06 per 100 g C m-2 a-1 (where a is years) of NEP is observed (? < 0.003). The parameter ? was found to be a key parameter in the optimization exercise, generating significant model efficiency losses when removed from the initial parameter set and parameter uncertainties were significantly lower under CCSSAr. Moreover, modeled soil carbon stocks were generally closer to observations once the steady state assumption was relaxed. Finally, we also show that estimates of individual parameters are affected by the steady state assumption. For example, estimates of radiation-use efficiency were strongly affected by the CCSSAf indicating compensation effects for the inadequate steady state assumption, leading to effective and thus biased parameters. Overall, the importance of model structural evaluation in data assimilation approaches is thus emphasized.

  14. Affective Monitoring: A Generic Mechanism for Affect Elicitation

    PubMed Central

    Phaf, R. Hans; Rotteveel, Mark

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we sketch a new framework for affect elicitation, which is based on previous evolutionary and connectionist modeling and experimental work from our group. Affective monitoring is considered a local match–mismatch process within a module of the neural network. Negative affect is raised instantly by mismatches, incongruency, disfluency, novelty, incoherence, and dissonance, whereas positive affect follows from matches, congruency, fluency, familiarity, coherence, and resonance, at least when an initial mismatch can be solved quickly. Affective monitoring is considered an evolutionary-early conflict and change detection process operating at the same level as, for instance, attentional selection. It runs in parallel and imparts affective flavor to emotional behavior systems, which involve evolutionary-prepared stimuli and action tendencies related to for instance defensive, exploratory, attachment, or appetitive behavior. Positive affect is represented in the networks by high-frequency oscillations, presumably in the gamma band. Negative affect corresponds to more incoherent lower-frequency oscillations, presumably in the theta band. For affect to become conscious, large-scale synchronization of the oscillations over the network and the construction of emotional experiences are required. These constructions involve perceptions of bodily states and action tendencies, but also appraisals as well as efforts to regulate the emotion. Importantly, affective monitoring accompanies every kind of information processing, but conscious emotions, which result from the later integration of affect in a cognitive context, are much rarer events. PMID:22403557

  15. Parameter Estimation Through Ignorance

    E-print Network

    Du, Hailiang

    2015-01-01

    Dynamical modelling lies at the heart of our understanding of physical systems. Its role in science is deeper than mere operational forecasting, in that it allows us to evaluate the adequacy of the mathematical structure of our models. Despite the importance of model parameters, there is no general method of parameter estimation outside linear systems. A new relatively simple method of parameter estimation for nonlinear systems is presented, based on variations in the accuracy of probability forecasts. It is illustrated on the Logistic Map, the Henon Map and the 12-D Lorenz96 flow, and its ability to outperform linear least squares in these systems is explored at various noise levels and sampling rates. As expected, it is more effective when the forecast error distributions are non-Gaussian. The new method selects parameter values by minimizing a proper, local skill score for continuous probability forecasts as a function of the parameter values. This new approach is easier to implement in practice than alter...

  16. Parameters Describing Earth Observing Remote Sensing Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zanoni, Vicki; Ryan, Robert E.; Pagnutti, Mary; Davis, Bruce; Markham, Brian; Storey, Jim

    2003-01-01

    The Earth science community needs to generate consistent and standard definitions for spatial, spectral, radiometric, and geometric properties describing passive electro-optical Earth observing sensors and their products. The parameters used to describe sensors and to describe their products are often confused. In some cases, parameters for a sensor and for its products are identical; in other cases, these parameters vary widely. Sensor parameters are bound by the fundamental performance of a system, while product parameters describe what is available to the end user. Products are often resampled, edge sharpened, pan-sharpened, or compressed, and can differ drastically from the intrinsic data acquired by the sensor. Because detailed sensor performance information may not be readily available to an international science community, standardization of product parameters is of primary performance. Spatial product parameters described include Modulation Transfer Function (MTF), point spread function, line spread function, edge response, stray light, edge sharpening, aliasing, ringing, and compression effects. Spectral product parameters discussed include full width half maximum, ripple, slope edge, and out-of-band rejection. Radiometric product properties discussed include relative and absolute radiometry, noise equivalent spectral radiance, noise equivalent temperature diffenence, and signal-to-noise ratio. Geometric product properties discussed include geopositional accuracy expressed as CE90, LE90, and root mean square error. Correlated properties discussed include such parameters as band-to-band registration, which is both a spectral and a spatial property. In addition, the proliferation of staring and pushbroom sensor architectures requires new parameters to describe artifacts that are different from traditional cross-track system artifacts. A better understanding of how various system parameters affect product performance is also needed to better ascertain the utility of existing datasets and products as well as to specify the performance of new sensors and products. Examples of simulations performed for the Landsat Data Continuity Mission illustrate how various parameters affect system and product performance. Specific examples include the effects of ground sample distance, MTF, and band-to-band registration on various products.

  17. [Accidents affecting potato harvesters].

    PubMed

    Hansen, J U

    1993-09-27

    During industrialization in agriculture, many farming machines have been introduced. It is well-known that farming is a dangerous workplace and that farm machinery cause many serious accidents every year. Four cases of accidents with potato harvesters are discussed. In three of four cases the farmers were injured while cleaning the machine without stopping it, which probably was the main cause of the accidents. Farmers are in general not careful enough when using farm machinery. Every year, farmers in Denmark are severely invalided in accidents with potato harvesters. A strategy to lower the accidents is proposed: 1. Information of farmers, farmer schools, machine constructors and importers about mechanisms of injury. 2. A better education of farmers in using potato harvesters (and other farming machines). 3. Better fencing of the potato harvesters. 4. If possibly constructional changes in the potato harvesters so things will not get stuck, or so that the machine will stop if things stuck. 5. Installation of switches on potato harvesters, which can be reached from all positions, stopping the machines immediately, or a remote switch control carried by the farmer. PMID:8212405

  18. Affective Productions of Mathematical Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walshaw, Margaret; Brown, Tony

    2012-01-01

    In underscoring the affective elements of mathematics experience, we work with contemporary readings of the work of Spinoza on the politics of affect, to understand what is included in the cognitive repertoire of the Subject. We draw on those resources to tell a pedagogical tale about the relation between cognition and affect in settings of…

  19. MEDICANES: database and environmental parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tous, Maria; Romero, Romu; Ramis, Climent

    2010-05-01

    Tropical-like cyclones occasionally develop over the Mediterranean Sea, sometimes attaining hurricane intensity and threatening the islands and coastal regions. These storms, recently called medicanes (MEDIterranean HurriCANES), operate on the thermodynamic disequilibrium between the sea and the atmosphere and in this respect, as well as in their visual appearance in satellite images, are much like tropical cyclones. As meteorological observations in maritime areas are scarce, satellite images become a crucial source of information to attempt, for the first time, to build a systematic database of events. In this work, cases were selected from historical IR image data (1982-2005) of Meteosat satellite. Two lists were created based on different criteria: a first list including any candidate storm, and a second one by narrowing the list down to most evident events. Main selection criteria are cyclone size, cyclone eye clarity and system lifetime. This identification was done subjectively. By analyzing both lists of events it was possible to derive characteristic spatial and time distributions. Most of the medicanes evolved on western and central part of the Mediterranean Sea and occurred in autumn and early winter. Another objective of the study is the identification of thermodynamical parameters associated with medicanes development. For that purpose, meteorological conditions existing on the genesis areas of medicanes have been compared against the bulk of ordinary (i.e baroclinic) Mediterranean cyclonic environments. These conditions have been described in terms of thermodynamic indices highlighted in previous studies on hurricanes. Among these, mid-tropospheric relative humidity, an empirically-derived genesis index for the tropical regions and the diabatic contribution to surface-level equivalent potential temperature local tendency are revealed as appropriate discriminative parameters. Finally, mesoscale numerical simulations of our second list medicane events have been designed to test the ability of MM5 model to simulate these extreme, small-scale storms. If these experiments get successful results, the model itself becomes an useful tool to examine additional medicane-prone environmental parameters.

  20. [Climatologic parameters and myocardial infarction].

    PubMed

    Larcan, A; Gilgenkrantz, J M; Stoltz, J F; Lambert, H; Laprevote-Heully, M C; Evrard, D; Kempf, J B; Lambert, J

    1983-01-01

    535 patients admitted to hospital with myocardium infarct which was confirmed in a determined period and within a 80 kilometers radius from a city of the East of France were compared to the meteorological parameters of the day when the infarct occurred and of the day preceding its occurrence. On one hand, climatic parameters were selected: atmospheric pressure, temperature of the air under shelter, relative humidity, wind speed and wind direction, hydrometeors and electrometeors; on the other hand, parameters of solar and planetary activity: daily flare index, AA index, Ap index or daily planetary index, phases of the moon. The analytic study concerning all acute vascular accidents (infarcts and cerebral accidents all together) enabled to us to notice a higher frequency of vascular accidents in various meteorological circumstances: atmospheric pressure lower than 990 mb, temperature lower than 12 degrees, wind of sector North to South-South West, hoar-frost with fog, rain, snow, first quarter of the moon, daily flare index lower than 530, magnetic activity lower than 6. A factorial analysis of correspondence enabled to us to understand the problem better and to determine "an infarct area" in which main meteorological factors appeared: low or decreasing atmospheric pressure, relative or increasing humidity, clear or increasing solar activity, steady magnetic activity; other factors could play an apparently less important role: low temperature, snow, decrease of wind speed, full moon, wind of sector East to North-East, South-South West. Consequently it appeared in that study that the occurrence of myocardium infarct corresponded to a climatic tendency corresponding to cold, bad or deteriorating weather. PMID:6638893

  1. Band parameters of phosphorene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voon, L. C. Lew Yan; Wang, J.; Zhang, Y.; Willatzen, M.

    2015-09-01

    Phosphorene is a two-dimensional nanomaterial with a direct band-gap at the Brillouin zone center. In this paper, we present a recently derived effective-mass theory of the band structure in the presence of strain and electric field, based upon group theory. Band parameters for this theory are computed using a first-principles theory based upon the generalized-gradient approximation to the density-functional theory. These parameters and Hamiltonian will be useful for modeling physical properties of phosphorene.

  2. Booster Main Engine Selection Criteria for the Liquid Fly-Back Booster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Richard M.; Rothschild, William J.; Christensen, David L.

    1998-01-01

    The Liquid Fly-Back Booster (LFBB) Program seeks to enhance the Space Shuttle system safety, performance and economy of operations through the use of an advanced, liquid propellant Booster Main Engine (BME). There are several viable BME candidates that could be suitable for this application. The objective of this study was to identify the key Criteria to be applied in selecting among these BME candidates. This study involved an assessment of influences on the overall LFBB utility due to variations in the candidate rocket-engines characteristics. This includes BME impacts on vehicle system weight, performance, design approaches, abort modes, margins of safety, engine-out operations, and maintenance and support concepts. Systems engineering analyses and trade studies were performed to identify the LFBB system level sensitivities to a wide variety of BME related parameters. This presentation summarizes these trade studies and the resulting findings of the LFBB design teams regarding the BME characteristics that most significantly affect the LFBB system. The resulting BME choice should offer the best combination of reliability, performance, reusability, robustness, cost, and risk for the LFBB program.

  3. [Soil infiltration characteristics under main vegetation types in Anji County of Zhejiang Province].

    PubMed

    Liu, Dao-Ping; Chen, San-Xiong; Zhang, Jin-Chi; Xie, Li; Jiang, Jiang

    2007-03-01

    The study on the soil infiltration under different main vegetation types in Anji County of Zhejiang Province showed that the characteristics of soil infiltration differed significantly with land use type, and the test eight vegetation types could be classified into four groups, based on soil infiltration capability. The first group, deciduous broadleaved forest, had the strongest soil infiltration capability, and the second group with a stronger soil infiltration capability was composed of grass, pine forest, shrub community and tea bush. Bamboo and evergreen broadleaved forest were classified into the third group with a relatively strong soil infiltration capability, while bare land belonged to the fourth group because of the bad soil structure and poorest soil infiltration capability. The comprehensive parameters of soil infiltration (alpha) and root (beta) were obtained by principal component analysis, and the regression model of alpha and beta could be described as alpha = 0. 1708ebeta -0. 3122. Soil infiltration capability was greatly affected by soil physical and chemical characteristics and root system. Fine roots (< or = 1 mm in diameter) played effective roles on the improvement of soil physical and chemical properties, and the increase of soil infiltration capability was closely related to the amount of the fine roots. PMID:17552181

  4. Absolute parameters of young stars: GG Lup and ?1 Sco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budding, E.; Butland, R.; Blackford, M.

    2015-04-01

    New high-resolution spectroscopy and BVR photometry, together with literature data, on the Gould's Belt close binary systems GG Lup and ?1 Sco are presented and analysed. In the case of GG Lup, light and radial velocity curve fittings confirm a near-main-sequence picture of a pair of close stars. Absolute parameters are found, to within a few per cent, thus: M1 = 4.16 ± 0.12, M2 = 2.64 ± 0.12 (M?); R1 = 2.42 ± 0.05, R2 = 1.79 ± 0.04 (R?); T1 ˜ 13 000, T2 ˜ 10 600 (K); photometric distance ˜160 (pc). The high eccentricity and relatively short period (105 yr) of apsidal revolution may be related to an apparent `slow B-type pulsator' oscillation. Disturbances of the outer envelope of at least one of the components then compromise comparisons to standard evolutionary models, at least regarding the age of the system. A rate of apsidal advance is derived, which allows a check on the mean internal structure constant overline{k_2} = 0.0058 ± 0.0004. This is in agreement with values recently derived for young stars of solar composition and mass ˜3 M?. For ?1 Sco, we agree with previous authors that the secondary component is considerably oversized for its mass, implying binary (interactive) stellar evolution, probably of the `Case A' type. The primary appears relatively little affected by this evolution, however. Its parameters show consistency with a star of its derived mass at age about 13 Myr, consistent with the star's membership of the Sco-Cen OB2 Association. The absolute parameters are as follows: M1 = 8.3 ± 1.0, M2 = 4.6 ± 1.0 (M?); R1 = 3.9 ± 0.3, R2 = 4.6 ± 0.4 (R?); T1 ˜ 24 000, T2 ˜ 17 000 (K); photometric distance ˜135 (pc).

  5. Spectral Analysis of Geomagnetic Activity Indices and Solar Wind Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jung-Hee; Chang, Heon-Young

    2014-06-01

    Solar variability is widely known to affect the interplanetary space and in turn the Earth¡¯s electromagnetical environment on the basis of common periodicities in the solar and geomagnetic activity indices. The goal of this study is twofold. Firstly, we attempt to associate modes by comparing a temporal behavior of the power of geomagnetic activity parameters since it is barely sufficient searching for common peaks with a similar periodicity in order to causally correlate geomagnetic activity parameters. As a result of the wavelet transform analysis we are able to obtain information on the temporal behavior of the power in the velocity of the solar wind, the number density of protons in the solar wind, the AE index, the Dst index, the interplanetary magnetic field, B and its three components of the GSM coordinate system, BX, BY, BZ. Secondly, we also attempt to search for any signatures of influence on the space environment near the Earth by inner planets orbiting around the Sun. Our main findings are as follows: (1) Parameters we have investigated show periodicities of ~ 27 days, ~ 13.5 days, ~ 9 days. (2) The peaks in the power spectrum of BZ appear to be split due to an unknown agent. (3) For some modes powers are not present all the time and intervals showing high powers do not always coincide. (4) Noticeable peaks do not emerge at those frequencies corresponding to the synodic and/or sidereal periods of Mercury and Venus, which leads us to conclude that the Earth¡¯s space environment is not subject to the shadow of the inner planets as suggested earlier.

  6. Factors affecting intraocular light scattering from different color straylight sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikaunieks, Gatis; Ozolinsh, Maris

    2008-09-01

    Important optical parameter of the eye is intraocular light scattering. Straylight can reduce visual acuity, contrast sensitivity. It is one of the main factors for glare, especially for drivers at night, when there is light source some distance away from the fixation point. There are many factors, which can affect amount of light scattering in the eye. To assess the effect of the color of the straylight source on retinal image quality at different light scattering levels, retinal straylight was measured with and without light scattering occluder. Red, green and blue colors were choosed for straylight source. Psychophysical and electrophysiological methods were used to evaluate light scattering effect on perception on different color stimuli. Results show that straylight values are the greatest for blue color with and without light scattering occluder. In measurements without light scattering occluder ratio of straylight values for red and green color are different between subjects. Using light scattering occluder straylight values for green color are greater than for red color. Optical and anatomical factors which can induce these spectral variations are discussed. Psychophysical and electrophysiological methods showed the similar changes in results with straylight values when light scattering were increased.

  7. Marine Occupations Conference (Southern Maine Vocational Technical Institute, South Portland, Maine, April 5, 1974). Maine Sea Grant Bulletin 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coggins, Phyllis, Ed.; And Others

    This collection of speeches, presented as the 1974 Marine Occupations Conference in South Portland, Maine, provides an overview of information regarding availability and kinds of careers in, as well as the educational requirements for, marine occupations. Also reviewed are the problems of developing marine resources, such as those involving…

  8. Beyond the Main Sequence: Testing the Accuracy of Stellar Masses Predicted by the PARSEC Evolutionary Tracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghezzi, Luan; Johnson, John Asher

    2015-10-01

    Characterizing the physical properties of exoplanets and understanding their formation and orbital evolution requires precise and accurate knowledge of their host stars. Accurately measuring stellar masses is particularly important because they likely influence planet occurrence and the architectures of planetary systems. Single main-sequence stars typically have masses estimated from evolutionary tracks, which generally provide accurate results due to their extensive empirical calibration. However, the validity of this method for subgiants and giants has been called into question by recent studies, with suggestions that the masses of these evolved stars could have been overestimated. We investigate these concerns using a sample of 59 benchmark evolved stars with model-independent masses (from binary systems or asteroseismology) obtained from the literature. We find very good agreement between these benchmark masses and the ones estimated using evolutionary tracks. The average fractional difference in the mass interval ˜0.7-4.5 M? is consistent with zero (-1.30 ± 2.42%), with no significant trends in the residuals relative to the input parameters. A good agreement between model-dependent and -independent radii (-4.81 ± 1.32%) and surface gravities (0.71 ± 0.51%) is also found. The consistency between independently determined ages for members of binary systems adds further support for the accuracy of the method employed to derive the stellar masses. Taken together, our results indicate that determination of masses of evolved stars using grids of evolutionary tracks is not significantly affected by systematic errors, and is thus valid for estimating the masses of isolated stars beyond the main sequence.

  9. Affect as a Psychological Primitive

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Bliss-Moreau, Eliza

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we discuss the hypothesis that affect is a fundamental, psychologically irreducible property of the human mind. We begin by presenting historical perspectives on the nature of affect. Next, we proceed with a more contemporary discussion of core affect as a basic property of the mind that is realized within a broadly distributed neuronal workspace. We then present the affective circumplex, a mathematical formalization for representing core affective states, and show that this model can be used to represent individual differences in core affective feelings that are linked to meaningful variation in emotional experience. Finally, we conclude by suggesting that core affect has psychological consequences that reach beyond the boundaries of emotion, to influence learning and consciousness. PMID:20552040

  10. Main Coast Winds - Final Scientific Report

    SciTech Connect

    Jason Huckaby; Harley Lee

    2006-03-15

    The Maine Coast Wind Project was developed to investigate the cost-effectiveness of small, distributed wind systems on coastal sites in Maine. The restructuring of Maine's electric grid to support net metering allowed for the installation of small wind installations across the state (up to 100kW). The study performed adds insight to the difficulties of developing cost-effective distributed systems in coastal environments. The technical hurdles encountered with the chosen wind turbine, combined with the lower than expected wind speeds, did not provide a cost-effective return to make a distributed wind program economically feasible. While the turbine was accepted within the community, the low availability has been a negative.

  11. Factors affecting sonolytic degradation of sulfamethazine in water.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yu-qiong; Gao, Nai-yun; Deng, Yang; Gu, Jin-shan; Gu, Yu-liang; Zhang, Dong

    2013-11-01

    In this study, the major factors affecting sonolytic degradation of sulfamethazine (SMT), a typical pharmaceutically active compound, in water were evaluated. The factors tested included two operational parameters (i.e. initial SMT concentration and ultrasonic power), three dissolved gases (i.e. Ar, O2 and N2), five most frequently found anions in water (NO3(-),Cl(-),SO4(2-),HCO3(-)andBr(-)), ferrous ion (Fe(2+)), and four alcohols (methanol, ethanol, isopropyl alcohol, tert-butyl alcohol). Typically, the degradation rate was increased with the increasing initial SMT concentration and power. The degradation rate was accelerated in the presence of argon or oxygen, but inhibited by nitrogen. Effects of anions on the ultrasonic treatment were species-dependent. The SMT degradation rate was slightly inhibited by NO3(-),Cl(-),and,SO4(2-) but significantly improved by HCO3(-)andBr(-). The negative effects of alcohols acted as hydroxyl radicals scavengers with the following order: tert-butyl alcohol>isopropyl alcohol>ethanol>methanol. The synergetic effect of ferrous ion was mainly due to production of additional hydroxyl radicals (·OH) through Fenton chemistry. LC/MS/MS analysis indicated that the degradation of SMT by ultrasonic irradiation is mainly ascribed to ·OH oxidation. Of interest, although the SMT could be rapidly degraded by ultrasonic irradiation, the degradation products were rarely mineralized. For example, ~100% of 180 ?M SMT was decomposed, but only 8.31% TOC was reduced, within 2h at an irradiation frequency of 800 kHz and a power of 100 W. However, the products became much biodegradable (BOD5/COD was increased from 0.04 to 0.45). Therefore, an aerobic biological treatment may be an appropriate post-treatment to further decompose the SMT degradation products. PMID:23711347

  12. Pavement Thickness Design Parameter

    E-print Network

    Pavement Thickness Design Parameter Impacts 2012 Municipal Streets Seminar November 14, 2012 Paul D. Wiegand, P.E. #12;Pavement Thickness Design · How do cities decide how thick to build their pavements;Pavement Thickness Design · Correct answer ­ A data-based analysis! · Doesn't have to be difficult and time

  13. Phenological Parameters Estimation Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKellip, Rodney D.; Ross, Kenton W.; Spruce, Joseph P.; Smoot, James C.; Ryan, Robert E.; Gasser, Gerald E.; Prados, Donald L.; Vaughan, Ronald D.

    2010-01-01

    The Phenological Parameters Estimation Tool (PPET) is a set of algorithms implemented in MATLAB that estimates key vegetative phenological parameters. For a given year, the PPET software package takes in temporally processed vegetation index data (3D spatio-temporal arrays) generated by the time series product tool (TSPT) and outputs spatial grids (2D arrays) of vegetation phenological parameters. As a precursor to PPET, the TSPT uses quality information for each pixel of each date to remove bad or suspect data, and then interpolates and digitally fills data voids in the time series to produce a continuous, smoothed vegetation index product. During processing, the TSPT displays NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) time series plots and images from the temporally processed pixels. Both the TSPT and PPET currently use moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite multispectral data as a default, but each software package is modifiable and could be used with any high-temporal-rate remote sensing data collection system that is capable of producing vegetation indices. Raw MODIS data from the Aqua and Terra satellites is processed using the TSPT to generate a filtered time series data product. The PPET then uses the TSPT output to generate phenological parameters for desired locations. PPET output data tiles are mosaicked into a Conterminous United States (CONUS) data layer using ERDAS IMAGINE, or equivalent software package. Mosaics of the vegetation phenology data products are then reprojected to the desired map projection using ERDAS IMAGINE

  14. Stellar Parameter Determination Using Bayesian Techniques.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekanayake, Gemunu B.; Wilhelm, Ronald J.

    2015-01-01

    Spectral energy distributions of stars covering the wavelength range from far UV to far IR can be used to derive stellar atmospheric parameters (effective temperature, surface gravity and iron abundance) with a high reliability. For this purpose we are using a method based on Bayesian statistics, which make use of all available photometric data for a given star to construct stellar parameter probability distribution function (PDF) in order to determine the expectation values and their uncertainties in stellar parameters. The marginalized probabilities allow us to characterize the constraint for each parameter and estimate the influence of the quantity and quality of the photometric data on the resulting parameter values. We have obtained low resolution spectroscopy of blue horizontal branch, blue straggler and normal main sequence A, B, G and F stellar parameter standard stars using the McDonald observatory, 2.1m telescope to constrain both synthetic and empirical stellar libraries like Atlas9, MARCS, MILES and Pickles across a wide range in parameter space. This calibration process helps to evaluate the correlations between different stellar libraries and observed data especially in the UV part of the spectrum. When the calibration is complete the Bayesian analysis can be applied to large samples of data from GALEX, SDSS, 2MASS,WISE etc. We expect significant improvements to luminosity classification, distances and interstellar extinction using this technique.

  15. Sleep deprivation affects multiple distinct cognitive processes.

    PubMed

    Ratcliff, Roger; Van Dongen, Hans P A

    2009-08-01

    Sleep deprivation adversely affects the ability to perform cognitive tasks, but theories range from predicting an overall decline in cognitive functioning (because of reduced stability in attentional networks) to claiming specific deficits in executive functions. In the present study, we measured the effects of sleep deprivation on a two-choice numerosity discrimination task. A diffusion model was used to decompose accuracy and response time distributions in order to produce estimates of distinct components of cognitive processing. The model assumes that, over time, noisy evidence from the task stimulus is accumulated to one of two decision criteria and that parameters governing this process can be extracted and interpreted in terms of distinct cognitive processes. The results showed that sleep deprivation affects multiple components of cognitive processing, ranging from stimulus processing to peripheral nondecision processes. Thus, sleep deprivation appears to have wide-ranging effects: Reduced attentional arousal and impaired central processing combine to produce an overall decline in cognitive functioning. PMID:19648462

  16. [Bipolar and monopolar affective disorders of juvenile age].

    PubMed

    Kope?ko, G I

    2011-01-01

    Results of clinico-psychopathological and clinico-catamnestic studies are presented based on the examination of 174 patients with affective disorders that manifested themselves at the age of 15-25 years. The main psychopathological features of juvenile phase-affective conditions are described (subtle vital manifestations of the thymic component, polymodality of the affect with simultaneous presentation of two varieties of affective disorders, instability of the affect changing within a single phase, high occurrence of overvalued ideas reflecting specific emotions of the juvenile age with concomitant manifestations of pubertal psychological crisis underlain by common pathogenetic mechanisms). High frequency of mixed affective conditions and the predominance of the bipolar type of the disease are emphasized, clinical features of mono- and bipolar pathology are described. It is concluded that a special algorithm of psychopharmacological and psychotherapeutic therapy adapted to the juvenile age is needed for the treatment of the above disorders. PMID:21678576

  17. [Affective disorders: endocrine and metabolic comorbidities].

    PubMed

    Cermolacce, M; Belzeaux, R; Adida, M; Azorin, J-M

    2014-12-01

    Links between affective and endocrine-metabolic disorders are numerous and complex. In this review, we explore most frequent endocrine-metabolic comorbidities. On the one hand, these comorbidities imply numerous iatrogenic effects from antipsychotics (metabolic side-effects) or from lithium (endocrine side-effects). On the other hand, these comorbidities are also associated with affective disorders independently from medication. We will successively examine metabolic syndrome, glycemic disturbances, obesity and thyroid disorders among patients with affective disorders. Endocrinemetabolic comorbidities can be individually encountered, but can also be associated. Therefore, they substantially impact morbidity and mortality by increasing cardiovascular risk factors. Two distinct approaches give an account of processes involved in these comorbidities: common environmental factors (iatrogenic effects, lifestyle), and/or shared physiological vulnerabilities. In conclusion, we provide a synthesis of important results and recommendations related to endocrine-metabolic comorbidities in affective disorders : heavy influence on morbidity and mortality, undertreatment of somatic diseases, importance of endocrine and metabolic side effects from main mood stabilizers, impact from sex and age on the prevalence of comorbidities, influence from previous depressive episodes in bipolar disorders, and relevance of systematic screening for subclinical (biological) disturbances. PMID:25550238

  18. Neutrino oscillation parameter sampling with MonteCUBES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blennow, Mattias; Fernandez-Martinez, Enrique

    2010-01-01

    We present MonteCUBES ("Monte Carlo Utility Based Experiment Simulator"), a software package designed to sample the neutrino oscillation parameter space through Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithms. MonteCUBES makes use of the GLoBES software so that the existing experiment definitions for GLoBES, describing long baseline and reactor experiments, can be used with MonteCUBES. MonteCUBES consists of two main parts: The first is a C library, written as a plug-in for GLoBES, implementing the Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm to sample the parameter space. The second part is a user-friendly graphical Matlab interface to easily read, analyze, plot and export the results of the parameter space sampling. Program summaryProgram title: MonteCUBES (Monte Carlo Utility Based Experiment Simulator) Catalogue identifier: AEFJ_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEFJ_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU General Public Licence No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 69 634 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 3 980 776 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C Computer: MonteCUBES builds and installs on 32 bit and 64 bit Linux systems where GLoBES is installed Operating system: 32 bit and 64 bit Linux RAM: Typically a few MBs Classification: 11.1 External routines: GLoBES [1,2] and routines/libraries used by GLoBES Subprograms used:Cat Id ADZI_v1_0, Title GLoBES, Reference CPC 177 (2007) 439 Nature of problem: Since neutrino masses do not appear in the standard model of particle physics, many models of neutrino masses also induce other types of new physics, which could affect the outcome of neutrino oscillation experiments. In general, these new physics imply high-dimensional parameter spaces that are difficult to explore using classical methods such as multi-dimensional projections and minimizations, such as those used in GLoBES [1,2]. Solution method: MonteCUBES is written as a plug-in to the GLoBES software [1,2] and provides the necessary methods to perform Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling of the parameter space. This allows an efficient sampling of the parameter space and has a complexity which does not grow exponentially with the parameter space dimension. The integration of the MonteCUBES package with the GLoBES software makes sure that the experimental definitions already in use by the community can also be used with MonteCUBES, while also lowering the learning threshold for users who already know GLoBES. Additional comments: A Matlab GUI for interpretation of results is included in the distribution. Running time: The typical running time varies depending on the dimensionality of the parameter space, the complexity of the experiment, and how well the parameter space should be sampled. The running time for our simulations [3] with 15 free parameters at a Neutrino Factory with O(10) samples varied from a few hours to tens of hours. References:P. Huber, M. Lindner, W. Winter, Comput. Phys. Comm. 167 (2005) 195, hep-ph/0407333. P. Huber, J. Kopp, M. Lindner, M. Rolinec, W. Winter, Comput. Phys. Comm. 177 (2007) 432, hep-ph/0701187. S. Antusch, M. Blennow, E. Fernandez-Martinez, J. Lopez-Pavon, arXiv:0903.3986 [hep-ph].

  19. A Novel Statistical Model to Estimate Host Genetic Effects Affecting Disease Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Anacleto, Osvaldo; Garcia-Cortés, Luis Alberto; Lipschutz-Powell, Debby; Woolliams, John A.; Doeschl-Wilson, Andrea B.

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing recognition that genetic diversity can affect the spread of diseases, potentially affecting plant and livestock disease control as well as the emergence of human disease outbreaks. Nevertheless, even though computational tools can guide the control of infectious diseases, few epidemiological models can simultaneously accommodate the inherent individual heterogeneity in multiple infectious disease traits influencing disease transmission, such as the frequently modeled propensity to become infected and infectivity, which describes the host ability to transmit the infection to susceptible individuals. Furthermore, current quantitative genetic models fail to fully capture the heritable variation in host infectivity, mainly because they cannot accommodate the nonlinear infection dynamics underlying epidemiological data. We present in this article a novel statistical model and an inference method to estimate genetic parameters associated with both host susceptibility and infectivity. Our methodology combines quantitative genetic models of social interactions with stochastic processes to model the random, nonlinear, and dynamic nature of infections and uses adaptive Bayesian computational techniques to estimate the model parameters. Results using simulated epidemic data show that our model can accurately estimate heritabilities and genetic risks not only of susceptibility but also of infectivity, therefore exploring a trait whose heritable variation is currently ignored in disease genetics and can greatly influence the spread of infectious diseases. Our proposed methodology offers potential impacts in areas such as livestock disease control through selective breeding and also in predicting and controlling the emergence of disease outbreaks in human populations. PMID:26405030

  20. Thermophysical modeling of main-belt asteroids from WISE data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanuš, J.; Delbó, M.; Durech, J.; Alí-Lagoa, V.

    2014-07-01

    We determine asteroid physical parameters such as size, surface roughness, albedo, and thermal inertia by applying the implementation of the thermophysical model (TPM) of Lagerros (1996; 1997; 1998) to the thermal data obtained by the NASA WISE satellite. We present thermophysical parameters for ˜150 asteroids, which gives us so far the largest sample of asteroids with determined values of thermal inertia. On several individual cases, we discuss the reliability of our determinations and limitations of the TPM method we use. As initial shapes, we adopt convex shape models from the DAMIT database (Durech et al., 2010) and present new determinations based on combined dense and sparse-in-time disk-integrated photometry and the lightcurve inversion method (Kaasalainen & Torppa 2001; Kaasalainen et al., 2001). We use thermal data from the WISE filters W3 and W4, as well as the data observed by the IRAS satellite. However, due to the intriguing accuracy of the fluxes and larger amount of measurements, the WISE data are significantly more important and dominate the modeling. The WISE data are processed the same way as in Alí-Lagoa et al. (2014) for asteroid (341 843) 2008 EV_5. We show the main results of the study of derived thermophysical parameters within the whole population of MBAs and within several asteroid families with the main focus on the thermal inertia. The thermal inertia increases with decreasing size (as previously shown by Delbó et al., 2007), but a large range of thermal inertia values is observed within the similar size ranges between D˜10-100 km. Surprisingly, we derived very low (<10 J m^{-2} s^{-1/2} K^{-1}) thermal inertias for many asteroids (˜20) with various sizes. The range of thermal inertia values is large even within a few asteroid families.

  1. High Moisture Corn Evaluated for Northern Maine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Profitable rotation crops that can grow in cool, northern Maine climates are needed to sustain the diversity of potato systems. A field experiment was conducted to determine whether three high moisture corn hybrids were suitable for harvest as a short season rotation crop. Yield and grain moisture...

  2. THE UNIVERSITY OF MAINE 2013 CLERY REPORT

    E-print Network

    Thomas, Andrew

    . Fire Statistics Reporting Table for 2012 Residential Facility # of fire per Fire Cause Injuries/Deaths Clery Fire Safety Report MR16002, 09/30/14 Rev 1 1. Fire Statistics Report for 2013. The log for the current year is available at the University of Maine Police Department. Fire Statistics Reporting Table

  3. Maine Kids Count 2003 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jelcich, Susan, Ed.

    This Kids Count data book details statewide trends in the well-being of Maine's children. The statistical portrait is based on indicators in the areas of physical and mental health, including insurance enrollment, adolescent health and safety, and child welfare; social and economic status, including poverty, unemployment, and teen pregnancies; and…

  4. Salazar, Collins: Economic Benefits for Maine

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Secretary Salazar and Senator Collins visited with some of the leaders of Maine's four tribes. They met at the College of the Atlantic. From left to right: Lt. Governor Joseph Socobasin, Passamaquoddy Tribe at Indian Township, Micmac Chief Victoria Higgins, Secretary Salazar, Senator Collins, Tribal...

  5. Human Babesiosis, Maine, USA, 1995–2011

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Robert P.; Borelli, Timothy J.; Missaghi, Bayan; York, Brian J.; Kessler, Robert A.; Lubelczyk, Charles B.; Lacombe, Eleanor H.; Hayes, Catherine M.; Coulter, Michael S.; Rand, Peter W.

    2014-01-01

    We observed an increase in the ratio of pathogenic Babesia microti to B. odocoilei in adult Ixodes scapularis ticks in Maine. Risk for babesiosis was associated with adult tick abundance, Borrelia burgdorferi infection prevalence, and Lyme disease incidence. Our findings may help track risk and increase the focus on blood supply screening. PMID:25272145

  6. Maine Kids Count 1999 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine Children's Alliance, Augusta.

    This Kids Count Report details statewide trends in the well-being of Maine's children, with particular focus on child health care access. The statistical portrait is based on a variety of indicators in five areas: (1) child health care access; (2) physical and mental health; (3) community and family environment; (4) social and economic…

  7. Maine Indians: A Brief Summary. December 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine State Dept. of Indian Affairs, Augusta.

    Divided into five major sections, this revised summary of the socioeconomic development of Maine American Indians presents the following: (1) General Information (prehistoric development of these Algonquian-speaking Indians including the most recently accepted tribal and band subdivisions; their cultural and historical development; and their…

  8. Maine's Balance of Representation: Information and Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine Department of Education, 2003

    2003-01-01

    This document, a companion to the "LAS Guide Principles and Criteria for the Adoption of Local Assessment Systems," [ED484135] presents results that are intended to provide Maine's school administrative units with an option for selecting sample performance indicators to be assessed through the Local Assessment System to meet the requirements for…

  9. Maine Technical College System Annual Report, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzsimmons, John

    Focusing on the 1995-96 academic year, this report discusses programs and outcomes for the seven colleges in the Maine Technical College System (MTCS). Following a message from the System President, general outcomes for the MTCS are described. This section indicates that systemwide enrollment in fall 1995 was 4,475, representing a 24% increase…

  10. Eutrophication in the Gulf of Maine's waters

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Gulf of Maine and its watershed encompass more than 170,000 km2 and is home to over 6.5 million Canadians and Americans. Despite its long-standing importance to fisheries and natural resources and current interest in exploration of wind and tide as renewable energy sources, ...

  11. Maine KIDS COUNT 2001 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davey, Lynn

    This KIDS COUNT data book details statewide trends in the well-being of Maine's children. The statistical portrait is based on a variety of indicators in the areas of: (1) physical and mental health; (2) social and economic opportunity; (3) education and learning; and (4) child health care access. The data book presents state level trend data, a…

  12. The Gulf of Maine in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Michael J.

    This paper describes some of the correct, missing, and alternative conceptions which students possess related to the Gulf of Maine. Students (N=226) from grades 4, 8, and 11 were interviewed on 15 major concepts involving geology, physical and chemical oceanography, natural resources, ecology, and decision-making. The mean interview scores of the…

  13. [Main Military Medical Headquarters is two centuries].

    PubMed

    Bykov, I Iu; Lar'kov, A A; Budko, A A; Galin, L L

    2005-08-01

    Basing on the wide spectrum of sources the authors describe the history of creation, formation and functioning of the military medicine central headquarters in Russia, i.e. the Main Military Medical Headquarters. Control of military and civil medicine in Russia had a rich history. In XVI-XVII centuries there was a Pharmaceutical order in the system of State apparatus which served as the highest headquarters of health service in the country till 1707. Subsequently the problems of military and civil medicine were in charge of Pharmaceutical office (since 1707), Medical board (since 1721), Medical office (since 1725), Doctors' assembly (since 1730), Medical office (since 1732), Medical board (since 1763) and the 3rd expedition of Ministry of Home Affairs (1803-1805). In XIX the Medical expedition solved all the problems connected with control of military medical service. Later on this work was conducted by the Medical department of Military Ministry and since 1867 it was in charge of the Main Military Medical Headquarters. The experience of wars and armed conflicts confirms the necessity of strategic planning and development of modern military health service which is successfully coordinated by the main headquarters of Russian Armed Forces medical service during two centuries. Today the RF MD Main Military Medical Headquarters is the central organ in the system of RF Ministry of Defense, which heads the whole medical service of the Armed Forces of our country. PMID:16259294

  14. IIT Main Campus OTS Computer Labs

    E-print Network

    Heller, Barbara

    the option of printing from a lab computer or directly from your personal computer. To print from your personal computer you need to download the Remote Printing Package. For information about Remote PrintingIIT Main Campus New Student Computing Guide OTS Computer Labs There are Computer Labs located

  15. Maine Kids Count 1998 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine Children's Alliance, Augusta.

    This Kids Count report details statewide trends in the well-being of Maine's children. The statistical portrait is based on indicators of children's well-being in four areas: (1) physical and mental health; (2) community and family environment; (3) social and economic opportunity; and (4) education and learning. The report's introduction describes…

  16. Maine KIDS COUNT 2002 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine Children's Alliance, Augusta.

    This KIDS COUNT data book details statewide trends in the well-being of Maine's children. Following a brief overview of the data book and a summary of indicators, state trend data are presented in the areas of: (1) poverty; (2) child and adolescent suicide; (3) public high school dropouts; (4) teen pregnancy; (5) public high school graduates…

  17. Semantic Web Research anno 2006: main streams,

    E-print Network

    van Harmelen, Frank

    Semantic Web Research anno 2006: main streams, popular fallacies, current status and future. In this topical1 paper we try to give an analysis and overview of the current state of Semantic Web research. We point to different in- terpretations of the Semantic Web as the reason underlying many contro- versies

  18. Total main rotor isolation system analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halwes, D. R.

    1981-01-01

    The requirements for a preliminary design study and verification procedure for a total main rotor isolation system at n/rev are established. The system is developed and analyzed, and predesign drawings are created for an isolation system that achieves over 95 percent isolation of all six degrees of freedom.

  19. Salazar, Collins: Economic Benefits for Maine

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Secretary of the Interior Ken Salazar looks at plans for $8.3 million in projects at Acadia National Park funded under President Obama's economic recovery package that will bring jobs and economic growth to Maine. Left to right are Alan Goldstein, President of the Board of Directors for Acadia Partn...

  20. Eutrophication: State of the Gulf of Maine

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cultural eutrophication is an ecosystem response to increases in nutrient (primarily nitrogen and phosphorus) inputs from human sources. Estuaries, bays and nearshore coastal waters in the Gulf of Maine receive nutrient inputs from land-based sources via rivers and streams, dir...

  1. Space transportation main engine reliability and safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monk, Jan C.

    1991-01-01

    Viewgraphs are used to illustrate the reliability engineering and aerospace safety of the Space Transportation Main Engine (STME). A technology developed is called Total Quality Management (TQM). The goal is to develop a robust design. Reducing process variability produces a product with improved reliability and safety. Some engine system design characteristics are identified which improves reliability.

  2. Layered Manufacturing Sara McMains

    E-print Network

    McMains, Sara

    Grossman) #12;LM vs. Conventional Manufacturing · Subtractive · Net shape · Additive #12;Conventional · Molding · Casting #12;Conventional Manufacturing · Additive ­ Combine complex sub-units ­ E.g. · WeldingLayered Manufacturing Sara McMains #12;Layered Manufacturing (LM) a.k.a. Solid Freeform Fabrication

  3. MONECOM: Physical Characteristics Of Main Belt Comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdanovic, N.; Smolic, I.; Bogosavljevic, M.; Milic, I.

    2013-05-01

    The aim of the MONECOM project is to carry out photometric observations of several Main-Belt Comets (MBCs). Observations and data reduction were performed by high-school students from three countries (Croatia, Greece and Serbia), supervised by their teachers and local astronomers. Here we present some results obtained by the Serbian group.

  4. State Teacher Policy Yearbook, 2009. Maine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council on Teacher Quality, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This Maine edition of the National Council on Teacher Quality's (NCTQ's) 2009 "State Teacher Policy Yearbook" is the third annual look at state policies impacting the teaching profession. It is hoped that this report will help focus attention on areas where state policymakers can make changes that will have a positive impact on teacher quality and…

  5. 40 CFR 81.320 - Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Aroostook Intrastate Unclassifiable/Attainment Aroostook County (part) see 40 CFR 81.179 AQCR 109 Down East Intrastate Unclassifiable/Attainment Penobscot County (part), as described under 40 CFR 81.181 Piscataquis County (part) see 40 CFR 81.181 Washington County AQCR 111 Northwest Maine Intrastate (Remainder...

  6. 40 CFR 81.320 - Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Aroostook Intrastate Unclassifiable/Attainment Aroostook County (part) see 40 CFR 81.179 AQCR 109 Down East Intrastate Unclassifiable/Attainment Penobscot County (part), as described under 40 CFR 81.181 Piscataquis County (part) see 40 CFR 81.181 Washington County AQCR 111 Northwest Maine Intrastate (Remainder...

  7. 40 CFR 81.320 - Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Aroostook Intrastate Unclassifiable/Attainment Aroostook County (part) see 40 CFR 81.179 AQCR 109 Down East Intrastate Unclassifiable/Attainment Penobscot County (part), as described under 40 CFR 81.181 Piscataquis County (part) see 40 CFR 81.181 Washington County AQCR 111 Northwest Maine Intrastate (Remainder...

  8. Main Hospital Car Park 7 (staff only)

    E-print Network

    Qu, Rong

    Pedestrian Underpass Children's Hospital Main Hospital Car Park 7 (staff only) Opening Spring 2009 Entrance to Hospital Site Entrance to Building Bike Rack No Entry KEY TO SYMBOLS HOSPITAL SITE MAP `BIG YELLOW BUS' Patient Transport On-site Pick-up & Drop-off point Bus route Hospital Link Bus Stop Patient

  9. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Maine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Maine students had across-the-board gains. There were improvements in both reading and math at the basic, proficient and advanced levels for the subgroups large enough to count, which were white students, low income students, and boys and girls. Results on…

  10. Hydrologic modeling with uncertain input parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousseau, M.; Cerdan, O.; Ern, A.; Le Maître, O.; Sochala, P.

    2012-04-01

    Erosion risk is recognized as a major threat whose consequences affect urbanized and agricultural areas. Recent assessments of the predictive abilities of erosion models show the difficulty to correctly predict the spatial patterns of erosion and deposition. This is due to the high sensibility of the model to input parameters that contain large spatial and temporal variability. Many studies concluded that model outputs are very sensitive to input hydrological parameters, especially to the saturated hydraulic conductivity. Here, we use an erosion model coupling the Shallow Water equations with the Hairsine-Rose soil erosion which can integrate different sediment size classes. As the scale of modeling is different from the scale of observed or measured data, we use a stochastic distribution of relevant input parameters to represent the micro-scale. A first part of the study concerns the rainfall/runoff model in which the saturated hydraulic conductivity is considered as an uncertain input parameter. A second part is dedicated to the influence of soil parameters in the erosion model. For each part, we evaluate how uncertainties on the inputs impact the surface runoff or the erosion model outputs during various types of rainfall events. We test different stochastic tools to quantify the propagation of uncertainties (Monte Carlo method, Karhunen-Loève expansion…) and we use numerical test cases representing fields or hillslope to assess the methodology in the context of runoff and soil erosion modeling. Simulation results allow us to know where effort should be concentrated when collecting input parameters and limit output error.

  11. A photoelectric lightcurve survey of small main belt asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Binzel, R. P.; Mulholland, J. D.

    1983-01-01

    A survey to obtain photoelectric lightcurves of small main-belt asteroids was conducted from November 1981 to April 1982 using the 0.91- and 2.1-m telescopes at the University of Texas McDonald Observatory. A total of 18 main-belt asteroids having estimated dimaters under 30 km were observed with over half of these being smaller than 15 km. Rotational periods were determined or estimated from multiple nights of observation for nearly all of these yielding a sample of 17 small main-belt asteroids which is believed to be free of observational selection effects. All but two of these objects were investigated for very short periods in the range of 1 min to 2 hr using power spectrum analysis of a continuous set of integrations. No evidence for such short periods was seen in this sample. Rotationally averaged B(1,0) magnitudes were determined for most of the surveyed asteroids, allowing diameter estimates to be made. Imposing the suspected selection effects of photogaphic photometry on the results of this survey gives excellent agreement with the results from that technique. This shows that the inability of photographic photometry to obtain results for many asteroids is indeed due to the rotational parameter of those asteroids.

  12. Constraining Orbital Parameters Through Planetary Transit Monitoring

    E-print Network

    Stephen R. Kane; Kaspar von Braun

    2008-08-13

    The orbital parameters of extra-solar planets have a significant impact on the probability that the planet will transit the host star. This was recently demonstrated by the transit detection of HD 17156b whose favourable eccentricity and argument of periastron dramatically increased its transit likelihood. We present a study which provides a quantitative analysis of how these two orbital parameters affect the geometric transit probability as a function of period. Further, we apply these results to known radial velocity planets and show that there are unexpectedly high transit probabilities for planets at relatively long periods. For a photometric monitoring campaign which aims to determine if the planet indeed transits, we calculate the expected transiting planet yield and the significance of a potential null result, as well as the subsequent constraints that may be applied to orbital parameters.

  13. Technical parameters for specifying imagery requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coan, Paul P.; Dunnette, Sheri J.

    1994-01-01

    Providing visual information acquired from remote events to various operators, researchers, and practitioners has become progressively more important as the application of special skills in alien or hazardous situations increases. To provide an understanding of the technical parameters required to specify imagery, we have identified, defined, and discussed seven salient characteristics of images: spatial resolution, linearity, luminance resolution, spectral discrimination, temporal discrimination, edge definition, and signal-to-noise ratio. We then describe a generalizing imaging system and identified how various parts of the system affect the image data. To emphasize the different applications of imagery, we have constrasted the common television system with the significant parameters of a televisual imaging system for technical applications. Finally, we have established a method by which the required visual information can be specified by describing certain technical parameters which are directly related to the information content of the imagery. This method requires the user to complete a form listing all pertinent data requirements for the imagery.

  14. Geoengineering design parameters workshop

    SciTech Connect

    St. John, C.M. and Associates, Grand Junction, CO ); Kim, Kunsoo . Rockwell Hanford Operations)

    1985-12-12

    A one-day workshop on the subject of the geotechnical design parameters, in situ stress and rock mass strength, for a nuclear waste repository in basalt was held in Rapid City, South Dakota, on June 25, 1989. A panel comprised of five widely recognized experts in the field of rock mechanics, met to discuss the state of stress at the Hanford Site and the strength of a basalt rock mass. This report summarizes the discussions that took place and presents a set of final position statements developed collaboratively by the panel and the workshop moderator. The report concludes with a set of specific recommendations for future actions considered necessary to adequately define the in situ stress and the rock mass strength at the Hanford Site and to document the position of the Basalt Waste Isolation Project in respect to these two critical design parameters.

  15. Parameterizing the Deceleration Parameter

    E-print Network

    Diego Pavón; Ivan Duran; Sergio del Campo; Ramón Herrera

    2012-12-31

    We propose and constrain with the latest observational data three parameterizations of the deceleration parameter, valid from the matter era to the far future. They are well behaved and do not diverge at any redshift. On the other hand, they are model independent in the sense that in constructing them the only assumption made was that the Universe is homogeneous and isotropic at large scales.

  16. Man-induced activities modify demographic parameters in a long-lived species: effects of poisoning and health policies.

    PubMed

    Margalida, Antoni; Colomer, Ma Angels; Oro, Daniel

    2014-04-01

    Recent changes in sanitary policies within the European Union (EU) concerning disposal of carcasses of domestic animals and the increase of non-natural mortality factors, such as illegal poisoning, are threatening European vultures. However, the effects of anthropogenic activities on demographic parameters are poorly studied. Using a long-term study (1994-2011) of the threatened Pyrenean Bearded Vulture Gypaetus barbatus population, we assess the variation in the proportion of breeding pairs, egg-laying dates, clutch size, breeding success, and survival following a sharp reduction in food availability in 2005 due to the application of restrictive sanitary policies decreasing livestock carcass availability. We found a delay in laying dates and a regressive trend in clutch size, breeding success, and survival following policy change. The maintenance of specific supplementary feeding stations for Bearded Vultures probably reduced the negative effects of illegal poisoning and food shortages, which mainly affected subadult survival. A drop in food availability may have produced changes in demographic parameters and an increase in mortality due to an increased exposure to contaminated food. As a result, supplementary feeding as a precautionary measure can be a useful tool to reduce illegal poisoning and declines in demographic parameters until previous food availability scenarios are achieved. This study shows how anthropogenic activities through human health regulations that affect habitat quality can suddenly modify demographic parameters in long-lived species, including those, such as survival, with high sensitivity to population growth rate. PMID:24834731

  17. Hardness of SIS and LWE with Small Parameters Daniele Micciancio

    E-print Network

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    Hardness of SIS and LWE with Small Parameters Daniele Micciancio Chris Peikert February 13, 2013 for countless applications in lattice-based cryptography, and are provably as hard as approximate lattice small their parameters can be made, while preserving their hardness. We prove two main results on SIS

  18. Orthogonal experiment and analysis on process parameters of bowl feed polishing (BFP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Kai; Wan, Yongjian; Xu, Qinglan; Yang, Yang

    2013-08-01

    With the development of science and technology, the demand for high-precision product is increasing continuously. Ultra-smooth surface with sub-nanometer roughness has extensive applications in the field of soft X-ray optics, high power laser and laser gyro. Bowl feed polishing (BFP) technology is an effective ultra-smooth surface processing method, but the polishing process of BFP which is affected by a lot of factors is extremely complex and difficult to control. It is important to understand the effect of the process variables such as abrasive particle size, concentration of abrasive particle, speed of polishing pad, acidity and polishing time in the process of BFP. They are very important parameters that must be carefully formulated to achieve desired material removal rates and surface roughness. Using a design of experiment (DOE) approach, this study was performed investigating the main effect of the each parameter during K9 BFP. A better understanding of the interaction behavior between the various parameters and the effect on removal rate and surface roughness is achieved by using the statistical analysis techniques. In the experimental tests, the optimized parameters combination for BFP which were derived from the statistical analysis could be found for material removal rate and better surface roughness through the above experiment results.

  19. Characterization of the Local Structure in Liquid Water by Various Order Parameters.

    PubMed

    Duboué-Dijon, Elise; Laage, Damien

    2015-07-01

    A wide range of geometric order parameters have been suggested to characterize the local structure of liquid water and its tetrahedral arrangement, but their respective merits have remained elusive. Here, we consider a series of popular order parameters and analyze molecular dynamics simulations of water, in the bulk and in the hydration shell of a hydrophobic solute, at 298 and 260 K. We show that these parameters are weakly correlated and probe different distortions, for example the angular versus radial disorders. We first combine these complementary descriptions to analyze the structural rearrangements leading to the density maximum in liquid water. Our results reveal no sign of a heterogeneous mixture and show that the density maximum arises from the depletion in interstitial water molecules upon cooling. In the hydration shell of the hydrophobic moiety of propanol, the order parameters suggest that the water local structure is similar to that in the bulk, with only a very weak depletion in ordered configurations, thus confirming the absence of any iceberg-type structure. Finally, we show that the main structural fluctuations that affect water reorientation dynamics in the bulk are angular distortions, which we explain by the jump hydrogen-bond exchange mechanism. PMID:26054933

  20. The effect of a temperature-dependent contact parameter on Mars cloud formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atsuki Urata, Richard; Hollingsworth, Jeffery; Kahre, Melinda

    2015-11-01

    Modeling the current water cycle on Mars is a complex problem that at present remains a scientific challenge. The water cycle is highly coupled to atmospheric temperature, dust, surface ice temperature, atmospheric transport and mixing (i.e. planetary boundary layer (PBL) processes, and radiation, just to name a few. One of the main features of Mars' water cycle is the formation of the aphelion cloud belt. Clouds are formed at altitude (10-40 km) within the subtropics during the aphelion season (Ls=60°-120°). In general the aphelion cloud belt forms at higher altitudes compared to the polar and high-latitude clouds, and therefore at colder temperatures (180 K and below). Laboratory experiments of nucleation under cold temperatures indicate that nucleation becomes more difficult at and below 180 K than expected. This can be modeled by using a temperature-dependent contact parameter, m(T). In this study we use the NASA Ames Mars Global Circulation Model (Mars GCM) to compare the constant contact parameter with the temperature-dependent contact parameterization described by Iraci et al. (2010). The simulations demonstrate that the contact parameter has a significant affect on the opacity of the aphelion clouds, as well as the clouds that form at the edge of the seasonal CO2 ice caps. Both types of clouds tend to form near 180 K, supporting the importance of a temperature-dependent contact parameter.

  1. Characterization of the Local Structure in Liquid Water by Various Order Parameters

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A wide range of geometric order parameters have been suggested to characterize the local structure of liquid water and its tetrahedral arrangement, but their respective merits have remained elusive. Here, we consider a series of popular order parameters and analyze molecular dynamics simulations of water, in the bulk and in the hydration shell of a hydrophobic solute, at 298 and 260 K. We show that these parameters are weakly correlated and probe different distortions, for example the angular versus radial disorders. We first combine these complementary descriptions to analyze the structural rearrangements leading to the density maximum in liquid water. Our results reveal no sign of a heterogeneous mixture and show that the density maximum arises from the depletion in interstitial water molecules upon cooling. In the hydration shell of the hydrophobic moiety of propanol, the order parameters suggest that the water local structure is similar to that in the bulk, with only a very weak depletion in ordered configurations, thus confirming the absence of any iceberg-type structure. Finally, we show that the main structural fluctuations that affect water reorientation dynamics in the bulk are angular distortions, which we explain by the jump hydrogen-bond exchange mechanism. PMID:26054933

  2. Telemetry methods for monitoring physiological parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fryer, T. B.; Sandler, H.

    1982-01-01

    The use of telemetry to monitor various physiological functions is discussed. The advantages of the technique and the parameters that it can monitor are assessed, and the main telemetry systems, including pressure telemetry, flow telemetry, and multichannel telemetry, are detailed. Human applications of implanted flow transducers, total implant versus backpack telemetry, the use of power sources and integrated circuits in telemetry, and the future prospects of the technique in hypertension treatment and research are discussed.

  3. Atmospheric neutrinos in ice and measurement of neutrino oscillation parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez-Martinez, Enrique; Giordano, Gerardo; Mocioiu, Irina; Mena, Olga

    2010-11-01

    The main goal of the IceCube Deep Core array is to search for neutrinos of astrophysical origins. Atmospheric neutrinos are commonly considered as a background for these searches. We show that the very high statistics atmospheric neutrino data can be used to obtain precise measurements of the main oscillation parameters.

  4. ATLAS parameter study

    SciTech Connect

    Adler, R.J.

    1994-09-03

    The purpose of this study is to make an independent assessment on the parameters chosen for the ATLAS capacitor bank at LANL. The contractor will perform a study of the basic pulsed power parameters of the ATLAS device with baseline functional parameters of >25 MA implosion current and <2.5 microsecond current risetime. Nominal circuit parameters held fixed will be the 14 nH from the vacuum interface to the load, and the nominal load impedances of 1 milliohm for slow loads and 10 milliohms for fast loads. Single Ended designs, as opposed to bipolar designs, will be studied in detail. The ATLAS pulsed power design problem is about inductance. The reason that a 36 MJ bank is required is that such a bank has enough individual capacitors so that the parallel inductance is acceptably low. Since about half the inductance is in the bank, and the inductance and time constant of the submodules is fixed, the variation of output with a given parameter will generally be a weak one. In general, the dl/dt calculation demonstrates that for the real system inductances, 700 kV is the optimum voltage for the bank to drive X-ray loads. The optimum is broad, and there is little reduction in performance at voltages as low as 450 kV. The direct drive velocity analysis also shows that the optimum velocity is between 480 and 800 kV for a variety of assumptions, and that there is less than a 10% variation in velocity over this range. Voltages in the 120 kV--600 kV range are desirable for driving heavy liners. A compromise optimum operating point might be 480 kV, at which all X-ray operation scenarios are within 10% of their velocity optimum, and heavy liners can be configured to be near optimum if small enough. Based on very preliminary studies the author believes that the choice of a single operating voltage point (say, 480 kV) is unnecessary, and that a bank engineered for dual operation at 480 and 240 kV will be the best solution to the ATLAS problem.

  5. Outward transport and capture of main-belt asteroids by Jupiter and Saturn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higuchi, A.; Ida, S.

    2014-07-01

    We have investigated the possibility of irregular satellites having their origin in the asteroid belt. The irregular satellites may not have been formed by accretion in a circumplanetary disk, as in the case of the regular satellites. The inclination distribution and large semimajor axes of the irregular satellites tell us that they must have formed elsewhere and later been captured into their current orbits around their host planets. Nesvorny et al. (2007, 2014) examined the possibility that irregular satellites were captured from the outer planetesimal disk during the early solar system instability when encounters between the outer planets occurred. In contrast, we calculate the orbital evolution of particles in the main asteroid belt due to gravitational scattering by Jupiter and Saturn for 20 Myrs or longer and investigate the possibility that the origin of the irregular satellites is in the main asteroid belt. The initial orbital elements of the particles are chose uniformly on the semimajor axis - Tisserand parameter plane. The range of Tisserand parameter with respect to Jupiter is around 3. During the calculation, we count the number of particles being the candidates for the irregular satellites of Jupiter and Saturn. We define that a particle staying within 3 Hill radius of the planet for time longer than the Kepler period of the host planet is a candidate for the irregular satellite. The orbits of the planets are given using the solution for the secular evolution obtained by a modified Fourier analysis in Laskar (1988). The values in Tables 6--13 in Laskar (1988) are used to calculate the orbits. The gravitational effects of the planets not included in the calculation are indirectly reflected in the orbital evolutions of Jupiter and Saturn. For example, the eccentricities and inclinations of Jupiter and Saturn oscillate with periods near 50 000 years. We compare the results with our previous study that we calculated with circular restricted 4-body problem and show how the secular changes of orbital elements of the planets affect on the capture process and the lifetime of the irregular satellites.

  6. Habitable zones around main sequence stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasting, James F.; Whitmire, Daniel P.; Reynolds, Ray T.

    1993-01-01

    A mechanism for stabilizing climate on the earth and other earthlike planets is described, and the physical processes that define the inner and outer boundaries of the habitable zone (HZ) around the sun and main sequence stars are discussed. Physical constraints on the HZ obtained from Venus and Mars are taken into account. A 1D climate model is used to estimate the width of the HZ and the continuously habitable zone around the sun, and the analysis is extended to other main sequence stars. Whether other stars have planets and where such planets might be located with respect to the HZ is addressed. The implications of the findings for NASA's SETI project are considered.

  7. Aftershock patterns and main shock faulting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mendoza, C.; Hartzell, S.H.

    1988-01-01

    We have compared aftershock patterns following several moderate to large earthquakes with the corresponding distributions of coseismic slip obtained from previous analyses of the recorded strong ground motion and teleseismic waveforms. Our results are consistent with a hypothesis of aftershock occurrence that requires a secondary redistribution of stress following primary failure on the earthquake fault. Aftershocks followng earthquakes examined in this study occur mostly outside of or near the edges of the source areas indicated by the patterns of main shock slip. The spatial distribution of aftershocks reflects either a continuation of slip in the outer regions of the areas of maximum coseismic displacement or the activation of subsidiary faults within the volume surrounding the boundaries of main shock rupture. -from Authors

  8. Minerals yearbook, 1991: Maine. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, D.K.; Anderson, W.; Foley, M.E.

    1993-07-01

    The report has been prepared under a Memorandum of Understanding between the U.S. Bureau of Mines, U.S. Department of the Interior, and the Maine Geological Survey for collecting information on all nonfuel minerals. The value of Maine's nonfuel mineral production in 1991 was $41.3 million, a $21.2 million decrease compared with that of 1990. Decreases in output and value were reported for most of the nonfuel minerals produced. The largest decreases in both production and value were for construction sand and gravel and dimension stone. Smaller decreases were estimated for both masonry and portland cement. Other mineral commodities produced in the State included common clay, gemstones, and peat. Perlite was shipped in from out-of-State and expanded at one plant in the State.

  9. Early history of the Fermilab Main Ring

    SciTech Connect

    Malamud, E.; /Fermilab

    1983-10-01

    This note is written in response to a request from Phil Livdahl for corrections, and additions to a TM he is writing on Staffing Levels at Fermilab during Initial Construction Years and to a note that Hank Hinterberger is preparing on milestones. In my spare time over the past few years I have taken the original files of the Main Ring Section, my own notes from that period, and various other collections of relevant paper, and arranged them in a set of 44 large loose leaf binders in chronological order. I call this set of volumes the 'Main Ring Chronological Archives'. In response to Phil's request I have recently skimmed through these records of the period and extracted a small subset of documents which relate to the specific questions that Phil is addressing: staffing. administration, and milestones.

  10. Acadian dextral transpression in western Maine

    SciTech Connect

    Pollock, S.G. ); Marvinney, R.G. )

    1993-03-01

    Two groups of faults characterize the Acadian tectonic regime of northwestern Maine. The first group is largely dextral and reverse in nature and is represented by the Deep Pond (DPF) and Thrasher Peaks (TPF) faults in the Jackman area. The second is reverse in nature, and is represented by three faults in the Caucomgomoc Lake area. Taken together this fault system represents an Acadian dextral transpressive regime. Part of this regime includes an 11 km wide by 17 km long horst of Cambrian( ), Ordovician( ) and Late Silurian rocks in the Caucomgomoc Lake area. This horst is a part of a restraining bend. Associated with this bend is a deflection and rotation of the regional fault, fold axis and cleavage pattern. Orientations of these structures generally change from NE-SW in the Jackman area to N-S in the Caucomgomoc area. In westernmost Maine, the DPF and TPF both strike NE-SW, but the strikes rotate to ENE-WSW farther to the east in the Jackman area. The NW-dipping DPF separates Silurian rocks of the Frontenac Fm on the north from Devonian rocks of the Seboomook Group on the south. Foliation associated with Acadian folding dips moderately (30--50 degrees) near the DPF and major folds are overturned and verge toward the SE along its entire length in Maine. This contrasts sharply with the dominant upright, NW-verging folds and sleep foliation which characterizes the Acadian throughout northwestern Maine. The NW-dipping TPF separates Devonian rocks of the Seboomook Group on the north from Precambrian and Ordovician rocks of the Chain Lakes massif and Attean pluton, respectively, on the south. Along the TPF and DPF are kinematic indicators which suggest reverse and dextral components to movement.

  11. Maine Geological Survey Borehole Temperature Profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Marvinney, Robert

    2013-11-06

    This dataset includes temperature profiles from 30 boreholes throughout Maine that were selected for their depth, location, and lithologies encountered. Depths range from about 300 feet to 2,200 feet. Most of the boreholes selected for measurement were completed in granite because this lithology can be assumed to be nearly homogeneous over the depth of the borehole. Boreholes were also selected to address gaps in existing geothermal datasets. Temperature profiles were collected in October and November, 2012.

  12. The Advanced Photon Source main control room

    SciTech Connect

    Pasky, S.

    1998-07-01

    The Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory is a third-generation light source built in the 1990s. Like the machine itself, the Main Control Room (MCR) employs design concepts based on today`s requirements. The discussion will center on ideas used in the design of the MCR, the comfort of personnel using the design, and safety concerns integrated into the control room layout.

  13. Dark current model for ILC main linac

    SciTech Connect

    Solyak, N.; Romanov, G.; Mokhov, N.V.; Eidelman, Y.; Tam, Wai-Ming; /Indiana U.

    2008-06-01

    In the ILC Main Linac, the dark current electrons, generated in SRF cavity can be accelerated to hundreds of MeV before being kicked out by quadrupoles and thus will originate electromagnetic cascade showers in the surrounding materials. Some of the shower secondaries can return back into vacuum and be re-accelerated again. The preliminary results of simulation of the dark current generation in ILC cavity, its dynamics in linac are discussing in this paper.

  14. Space shuttle main engine vibration data base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewallen, Pat

    1986-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Main Engine Vibration Data Base is described. Included is a detailed description of the data base components, the data acquisition process, the more sophisticated software routines, and the future data acquisition methods. Several figures and plots are provided to illustrate the various output formats accessible to the user. The numerous vibration data recall and analysis capabilities available through automated data base techniques are revealed.

  15. E St Entrance & Exit Main Entrance

    E-print Network

    Larsen, Mike

    student space B-142-B B-142 -C B-144C Security Security Stairs to 1st Floor Restrooms #12;100 ArmandE St Entrance & Exit Main Entrance B-163 studio 15-A B-162 studio 15-B B-158 studio 15-C B-157 studio 15-D B-156 photography suite B-155 vestibule B-153 A B B-152 photography suiteB-154 photography

  16. Three Main Subsystems: I. Centerpiece (Linear Actuation)

    E-print Network

    van den Berg, Jur

    Systems Two Main Subsystems: I. Solar Panels Four 100 W high efficiency solar panels were installed- Monocrystalline-Solar-Panel-4-Pack-GS-S-250- Fab5x4/202960000?N=8p9Z5yc1v Left Bottom: Wind Blue Power LLC. (2014 was designed to create an interesting, symmetric path. The linear actuator utilizes an internal power screw. II

  17. Space shuttle main engine plume radiation model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reardon, J. E.; Lee, Y. C.

    1978-01-01

    The methods are described which are used in predicting the thermal radiation received by space shuttles, from the plumes of the main engines. Radiation to representative surface locations were predicted using the NASA gaseous plume radiation GASRAD program. The plume model is used with the radiative view factor (RAVFAC) program to predict sea level radiation at specified body points. The GASRAD program is described along with the predictions. The RAVFAC model is also discussed.

  18. Timing of Acadian deformation in northeastern Maine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubacher, F. A.; Lux, D. R.

    1987-01-01

    40Ar/39Ar ages determined for 24 mineral separates from the Pleasant Lake, Hunt Ridge, and Cochrane Lake plutons bear on the timing of the main phase of the Acadian orogeny in northern Maine. Six hornblende samples and one clinopyroxene sample have only minor disturbances in their release spectra. The increments with concordant ages form overlapping plateaus at 403 ± 4 Ma. Many of the biotite samples have discordant release spectra. The average of their total gas ages is 400 ± 6 Ma. Calculated closure temperatures for the hornblendes and biotites are 550 °C and approximately 350 °C, respectively. The difference between closure temperatures and concordancy in ages demonstrates that the plutons cooled very rapidly upon emplacement. Therefore, the 40Ar/39Ar ages date both the time of argon retention in the minerals and the time of emplacement of the plutons. The best estimate for their time of emplacement is the average of the combined ages of the micas, hornblendes, and clinopyroxene, 402 ± 6 Ma. The plutons are undeformed and crosscut upright, open, Acadian folds in the Carys Mills, Smyrna Mills, and Madrid(?) Formations. The age of the Pleasant Lake, Hunt Ridge, and Cochrane Lake plutons therefore places a lower limit of 402 ± 6 Ma on the time of Acadian folding in northern Maine.

  19. Collector main replacement at Indianapolis Coke

    SciTech Connect

    Sickle, R.R. Van

    1997-12-31

    Indianapolis Coke is a merchant coke producer, supplying both foundry and blast furnace coke to the industry. The facility has three coke batteries: two 3 meter batteries, one Wilputte four divided and one Koppers Becker. Both batteries are underjet batteries and are producing 100% foundry coke at a net coking time of 30.6 hours. This paper deals with the No. 1 coke battery, which is a 72 oven, gun fired, 5 meter Still battery. No. 1 battery produces both foundry and blast furnace coke at a net coking rate of 25.4 hours. No. 1 battery was commissioned in 1979. The battery is equipped with a double collector main. Although many renovations have been completed to the battery, oven machinery and heating system, to date no major construction projects have taken place. Deterioration of the collector main was caused in part from elevated levels of chlorides in the flushing liquor, and temperature fluctuations within the collector main. The repair procedures are discussed.

  20. Effect of Adjusting Pseudo-Guessing Parameter Estimates on Test Scaling When Item Parameter Drift Is Present

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Kyung T.; Wells, Craig S.; Hambleton, Ronald K.

    2015-01-01

    In item response theory test scaling/equating with the three-parameter model, the scaling coefficients A and B have no impact on the c-parameter estimates of the test items since the cparameter estimates are not adjusted in the scaling/equating procedure. The main research question in this study concerned how serious the consequences would be if…

  1. Schizo-Affective Psychoses in Childhood: A Follow-Up Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggers, Christian

    1989-01-01

    The follow-up study examined 16 schizo-affective children after a mean of 16 years. In comparison to purely schizophrenic controls, subjects showed an increased incidence of affective psychoses, suicide in the ancestry, and more pre-morbidly well-adjusted personalities. The schizo-affective psychoses had mainly an acute-recurrent character.…

  2. Replay of conditioned stimuli during late REM and stage N2 sleep influences affective tone rather than emotional memory strength.

    PubMed

    Rihm, Julia S; Rasch, Björn

    2015-07-01

    Emotional memories are reprocessed during sleep, and it is widely assumed that this reprocessing occurs mainly during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. In support for this notion, vivid emotional dreams occur mainly during REM sleep, and several studies have reported emotional memory enhancement to be associated with REM sleep or REM sleep-related parameters. However, it is still unknown whether reactivation of emotional memories during REM sleep strengthens emotional memories. Here, we tested whether re-presentation of emotionally learned stimuli during REM sleep enhances emotional memory. In a split-night design, participants underwent Pavlovian conditioning after the first half of the night. Neutral sounds served as conditioned stimuli (CS) and were either paired with a negative odor (CS+) or an odorless vehicle (CS-). During sound replay in subsequent late REM or N2 sleep, half of the CS+ and half of the CS- were presented again. In contrast to our hypothesis, replay during sleep did not affect emotional memory as measured by the differentiation between CS+ and CS- in expectancy, arousal and valence ratings. However, replay unspecifically decreased subjective arousal ratings of both emotional and neutral sounds and increased positive valence ratings also for both CS+ and CS- sounds, respectively. These effects were slightly more pronounced for replay during REM sleep. Our results suggest that re-exposure to previously conditioned stimuli during late sleep does not affect emotional memory strength, but rather influences the affective tone of both emotional and neutral memories. PMID:25933506

  3. Glacioisostasy and Lake-Level Change at Moosehead Lake, Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Balco, G.; Belknap, D.F.; Kelley, J.T.

    1998-01-01

    Reconstructions of glacioisostatic rebound based on relative sea level in Maine and adjacent Canada do not agree well with existing geophysical models. In order to understand these discrepancies better, we investigated the lake-level history of 40-km-long Moosehead Lake in northwestern Maine. Glacioisostasy has affected the level of Moosehead Lake since deglaciation ca. 12,500 14C yr B.P. Lowstand features at the southeastern end and an abandoned outlet at the northwestern end of the lake indicate that the lake basin was tilted down to the northwest, toward the retreating ice sheet, by 0.7 m/km at 10,000 14C yr B.P. Water level then rose rapidly in the southeastern end of the lake, and the northwestern outlet was abandoned, indicating rapid relaxation of landscape tilt. Lowstand features at the northwestern end of the lake suggest that the lake basin was tilted to the southeast at ca. 8750 14C yr B.P., possibly as the result of a migrating isostatic forebulge. After 8000 14C yr B.P., water level at the southeastern end was again below present lake level and rose gradually thereafter. We found no evidence suggesting that postglacial climate change significantly affected lake level. The rebound history inferred from lake-level data is consistent with previous interpretations of nearby relative sealevel data, which indicate a significantly steeper and faster-moving ice-proximal depression and ice-distal forebulge than geophysical models predict. ?? 1998 University of Washington.

  4. PROTECTING PERSONS AFFECTED BY NATURAL

    E-print Network

    Spirtes, Peter

    PROTECTING PERSONS AFFECTED BY NATURAL DISASTERS IASC Operational Guidelines on Human Rights and Natural Disasters IASC Inter-Agency Standing Committee #12;Published by: Brookings-Bern Project-Agency Standing Committee PROTECTING PERSONS AFFECTED BY NATURAL DISASTERS IASC Operational Guidelines on Human

  5. Factors Affecting Willingness to Mentor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghislieri, Chiara; Gatti, Paola; Quaglino, Gian Piero

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents a survey among 300 employees in Northern Italy to assess the willingness to mentor and identify the factors that affect it. Men and respondents with previous mentoring experience indicate a higher willingness to be a mentor. Willingness is affected by personal characteristics that are perceived as necessary for a mentor and the…

  6. Infant Affect and Home Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luster, Tom; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examined data from National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to investigate relationship between infant affect and quality of home environment. Found that infant irritability was negatively correlated with quality of home environment in both low-risk and high-risk families. Infant positive affect was more strongly related to quality of care in…

  7. [Emotions and affect in psychoanalysisis].

    PubMed

    Carton, Solange; Widlöcher, Daniel

    2012-06-01

    The goal of this paper is to give some indications on the concept of affect in psychoanalysis. There is no single theory of affect, and Freud gave successive definitions, which continue to be deepened in contemporary psychoanalysis. We review some steps of Freud works on affect, then we look into some present major questions, such as its relationship to soma, the nature of unconscious affects and the repression of affect, which is particularly developed in the field of psychoanalytic psychosomatic. From Freud's definitions of affect as one of the drive representative and as a limit-concept between the somatic and the psychic, we develop some major theoretical perspectives, which give a central place to soma and drive impulses, and which agree on the major idea that affect is the result of a process. We then note some parallelism between psychoanalysis of affect and psychology and neurosciences of emotion, and underline the gaps and conditions of comparison between these different epistemological approaches. PMID:22713847

  8. Parameters of technological growth.

    PubMed

    Starr, C; Rudman, R

    1973-10-26

    The key parameters to technological growth have been identified as societal resources and societal expectations. Both of these are evident functions of technology, and their combined effects can be expected to continue technology's historical exponential growth. This growth pattern would be substantially altered only if we assume that knowledge is bounded or if society makes a conscious decision to stop the flow of resources into the production of new technological options. Although such conscious selection among individual technical fields is to be expected, it is very unlikely to apply to the totality of technology since, as society grows more complex it continuously creates new needs (priority factor), which in turn provide new opportunities for the application of technological options (payoff factor). The analysis also clearly emphasizes the important role which awareness of new technologies plays in forming societal expectations. These considerations indicate that the technological component of the world simulation model proposed by Meadows et al. (1) and Forrester (2) is best represented by an exponential growth function. The importance of this has been shown by Boyd (3) (Fig. 1), whose "technological optimist" curve has slightly less than exponential growth. Private comnmunication with Boyd indicates that an exponential assumption would reduce the time for equilibrium by several decades. Boyd also indicated that in his modification of the world dynamics model, an exponential technological growth would eventually dominate all other parameters in determining the long-term approach to a steady state. It is evident that the behavior of any world system model is very sensitive to the growth and interaction assumptions for its principal parameters. Thus, model studies should not be easily presumed to represent reality. The one conclusion that appears to be valid regardless of approach is the evident merit of reducing population growth. The parameter for quality of life shown in Fig. 1, parts 2 and 5, is the product of material levels, overcrowding, food, and pollution. The one factor that a "technological optimist" cannot expect to substantially alter in this model is the effect of overcrowding (Fig. 1, parts 3 and 6). Certainly, the many clear values of reducing population growth and improving the environment do not appear to require the justification of a world system analysis. In like manner, it seems appropriate to encourage the "technological optimist" to provide future options for societal choice, even though there may be present philosophical uncertainties as to their eventual merits. Unlike resources found in nature, technology is a manmade resource whose abundance can be continuously increased, and whose importance in determining the world's future is also increasing. PMID:17841308

  9. Intuition, Affect, and Peculiar Beliefs

    PubMed Central

    Boden, Matthew Tyler; Berenbaum, Howard; Topper, Maurice

    2012-01-01

    Research with college students has found that intuitive thinking (e.g., using hunches to ascribe meaning to experiences) and positive affect interactively predict ideas of reference and odd/magical beliefs. We investigated whether these results would generalize to a diverse community sample of adults that included individuals with elevated levels of peculiar perceptions and beliefs. We measured positive and negative affect and intuitive thinking through questionnaires, and peculiar beliefs (i.e., ideas of reference and odd/magical beliefs) through structured clinical interviews. We found that peculiar beliefs were associated with intuitive thinking and negative affect, but not positive affect. Furthermore, in no instance did the interaction of affect and intuitive thinking predict peculiar beliefs. These results suggest that there are important differences in the factors that contribute to peculiar beliefs between college students and clinically meaningful samples. PMID:22707815

  10. Flow, affect and visual creativity.

    PubMed

    Cseh, Genevieve M; Phillips, Louise H; Pearson, David G

    2015-01-01

    Flow (being in the zone) is purported to have positive consequences in terms of affect and performance; however, there is no empirical evidence about these links in visual creativity. Positive affect often--but inconsistently--facilitates creativity, and both may be linked to experiencing flow. This study aimed to determine relationships between these variables within visual creativity. Participants performed the creative mental synthesis task to simulate the creative process. Affect change (pre- vs. post-task) and flow were measured via questionnaires. The creativity of synthesis drawings was rated objectively and subjectively by judges. Findings empirically demonstrate that flow is related to affect improvement during visual creativity. Affect change was linked to productivity and self-rated creativity, but no other objective or subjective performance measures. Flow was unrelated to all external performance measures but was highly correlated with self-rated creativity; flow may therefore motivate perseverance towards eventual excellence rather than provide direct cognitive enhancement. PMID:24820517

  11. 78 FR 42556 - Maine Yankee Atomic Power Company; Maine Yankee Atomic Power Plant Issuance of Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-16

    ...rule changes. Maine Yankee Atomic Power Company (MYAPC) is...DPR-36 for the Maine Yankee Atomic Power Plant (MY). The license, issued pursuant to the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended...to maintain the regulatory structure in place prior to...

  12. Castration Depression: Affect, Signal Affect, and/or Depressive Illness?

    PubMed

    Fleischer, Les M

    2015-04-01

    The value of Charles Brenner's ideas regarding depression is assessed, focusing on the significance of castration depressive affect. His discussion of whether depression is an affect, a signal affect, or an illness is examined, with special emphasis on his failure to sufficiently address depression as an illness or disorder as defined by psychiatry. Clinical material from the analysis of a man who suffers from severe depression suggests that incorporating psychiatric concepts (biological and pharmacological) with modern conflict theory can be a useful way to understand and treat some patients with depression. Theoretical and clinical controversies associated with combining psychiatric/biological and psychoanalytic views of depression are examined. PMID:25922375

  13. The Main Sequence of Star Clusters

    E-print Network

    Andreas H. W. Kuepper; Pavel Kroupa; Holger Baumgardt

    2008-06-24

    A novel way of looking at the evolution of star clusters is presented. With a dynamical temperature, given by the mean kinetic energy of the cluster stars, and a dynamical luminosity, which is defined as the kinetic energy of the stars leaving the cluster in analogy to the energy of photons emitted by a star, the dissolution of star clusters is studied using a new dynamical temperature-luminosity diagram for star clusters. The investigation contains a parameter-space study of open clusters of up to N = 32768 single-mass stars with different initial density distributions, half-mass radii, tidal conditions and binary fractions. The clusters show a strong correlation between dynamical temperature and dynamical luminosity and most of the investigated cluster families share a common sequence in such a dynamical temperature-luminosity diagram. Deviations from this sequence are analyzed and discussed. After core collapse, the position of a cluster within this diagram can be defined by three parameters: the mass, the tidal conditions and the binary fraction. Due to core collapse all initial conditions are lost and the remaining stars adjust to the given tidal conditions. Binaries as internal energy sources influence this adjustment. A further finding concerns the Lagrange radii of star clusters: Throughout the investigated parameter space nearly all clusters show a constant half-mass radius for the time after core collapse until dissolution. Furthermore, the ratio of half-mass radius to tidal radius evolves onto a common sequence which only depends on the mass left in the cluster.

  14. Cosmological parameter estimation: impact of CMB aberration

    SciTech Connect

    Catena, Riccardo; Notari, Alessio E-mail: notari@ffn.ub.es

    2013-04-01

    The peculiar motion of an observer with respect to the CMB rest frame induces an apparent deflection of the observed CMB photons, i.e. aberration, and a shift in their frequency, i.e. Doppler effect. Both effects distort the temperature multipoles a{sub lm}'s via a mixing matrix at any l. The common lore when performing a CMB based cosmological parameter estimation is to consider that Doppler affects only the l = 1 multipole, and neglect any other corrections. In this paper we reconsider the validity of this assumption, showing that it is actually not robust when sky cuts are included to model CMB foreground contaminations. Assuming a simple fiducial cosmological model with five parameters, we simulated CMB temperature maps of the sky in a WMAP-like and in a Planck-like experiment and added aberration and Doppler effects to the maps. We then analyzed with a MCMC in a Bayesian framework the maps with and without aberration and Doppler effects in order to assess the ability of reconstructing the parameters of the fiducial model. We find that, depending on the specific realization of the simulated data, the parameters can be biased up to one standard deviation for WMAP and almost two standard deviations for Planck. Therefore we conclude that in general it is not a solid assumption to neglect aberration in a CMB based cosmological parameter estimation.

  15. Super-solar metallicity in G0-G3 main sequence stars with V$<$15

    E-print Network

    López-Valdivia, R; Chávez, M; Tapia-Schiavon, C; Hernández-Águila, J B; Valdés, J R; Chavushyan, V

    2014-01-01

    The basic stellar atmospheric parameters (effective temperature, surface gravity and global metallicity) were simultaneously determined for a sample of 233 stars, limited in magnitude ($VG3 and luminosity class V (main sequence). The analysis was based on spectroscopic observations collected at the Observatorio Astrof\\'isico Guillermo Haro and using a set of Lick-like indices defined in the spectral range of 3800-4800 \\AA. An extensive set of indices computed in a grid of theoretical spectra was used as a comparison tool in order to determine the photospheric parameters. The method was validated by matching the results from spectra of the asteroids Vesta and Ceres with the Sun parameters. The main results were: i) the photospheric parameters were determined for the first time for 213 objects in our sample; ii) a sample of 20 new super metal-rich stars candidates was found.

  16. Supersolar metallicity in G0-G3 main-sequence stars with V < 15

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Valdivia, R.; Bertone, E.; Chávez, M.; Tapia-Schiavon, C.; Hernández-Águila, J. B.; Valdés, J. R.; Chavushyan, V.

    2014-11-01

    The basic stellar atmospheric parameters (effective temperature, surface gravity and global metallicity) were determined simultaneously for a sample of 233 stars, limited in magnitude (V < 15), with spectral types between G0 and G3 and luminosity class V (main sequence). The analysis was based on spectroscopic observations collected at the Observatorio Astrofísico Guillermo Haro and using a set of Lick-like indices defined in the spectral range 3800-4800 Å. An extensive set of indices computed in a grid of theoretical spectra was used as a comparison tool in order to determine the photospheric parameters. The method was validated by matching the results from spectra of the asteroids Vesta and Ceres with the Sun parameters. The main results were as follows: (i) the photospheric parameters were determined for the first time for 213 objects in our sample and (ii) a sample of 20 new super-metal-rich star candidates was found.

  17. Coccolithophores in the Gulf of Maine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Earlier this summer, trillions of calcite (limestone) coated phytoplankton, known as coccolithophores, appeared in the waters off the coast of Maine. This true color image of the coccolithophore bloom was acquired on July 11, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The bloom is the large bluish-green patch in the center of the image in the Gulf of Maine. Unlike any other plant in the ocean, coccolithophores surround themselves with microscopic plating made of calcite. These scales, known as coccoliths, are shaped like hubcaps and are only three one-thousandths of a millimeter in diameter. What coccoliths lack in size, they make up in volume. At any one time a single coccolithophore is attached to or surrounded by at least 30 scales. Additional coccoliths are dumped into the water when the coccolithophores multiply asexually, die or simply make too many scales. In areas with trillions of coccolithophores, the waters will turn an opaque turquoise from the dense cloud of coccoliths. (Click to read more about coccolithophores.) Though there are always coccoliths in the Gulf of Maine, the area hasn't seen a bloom like this one since 1989. Currently, NASA researchers are studying the bloom aboard a ferry in the gulf in an attempt to measure the bloom's density and depth. So far the bloom appears to be about 20 to 25 meters thick and contains nearly half a million tons of calcite. Image by Jesse Allen, NASA Earth Observatory; Data courtesy MODIS Land Rapid Response Team

  18. Late Holocene relative sea level: Maine coast

    SciTech Connect

    Belknap, D.F.; Shipp, R.C.; Stuckenrath, R.

    1985-01-01

    More than 50 new radiocarbon dates from 5 primary sites along the Maine coast define local relative sea-level curves far different from those previously published, with similar shapes at each site. Salt marsh peats were collected from 7 cm diameter vibracores, allowing relatively precise depth control and large sample volume. Environments of deposition were interpreted from sediment texture, structures and macrofossil remains. Samples for dating were treated with hot NaOH to remove humic acids. Both soluble and insoluble fractions were analyzed in 25% of the samples; the remainder were treated but only the insoluble fraction was dated. Stable carbon isotope ratios were measured to further identify environments and to correct the C-14 data for fractionation. Humic acids were a significant contaminant in the most basal peats, which also showed more terrestrial C-13/12 ratios. Previous studies have used radiocarbon dates, precision releveling, tide gauge data, Quaternary geologic information and archaeologic and historic patterns to suggest an along-coast downwarping to the northeast, with Eastport, Maine presently subsiding at a rate of up to 9 mm/years relative to Bangor. The five localities studied to date suggest no more than 0.3 mm/years long-term differential subsidence within the central and western parts of Maine. In particular, the long-studied Addison marsh was re-examined and the rapid 10 mm/years rates of rise were not found. Sea level rose 1.2 +/- 0.3 mm/years from 4000 years B.P. to 1500 years B.P. and ca. 0.3 mm/years from 1500 years B.P. to present. Sampling and dating at Eastport is presently underway.

  19. Main Chamber and Preburner Injector Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santoro, Robert J.; Merkle, Charles L.

    1999-01-01

    This document reports the experimental and analytical research carried out at the Penn State Propulsion Engineering Research Center in support of NASA's plan to develop advanced technologies for future single stage to orbit (SSTO) propulsion systems. The focus of the work is on understanding specific technical issues related to bi-propellant and tri-propellant thrusters. The experiments concentrate on both cold flow demonstrations and hot-fire uni-element tests to demonstrate concepts that can be incorporated into hardware design and development. The analysis is CFD-based and is intended to support the design and interpretation of the experiments and to extrapolate findings to full-scale designs. The research is divided into five main categories that impact various SSTO development scenarios. The first category focuses on RP-1/gaseous hydrogen (GH2)/gaseous oxygen (GO2) tri-propellant combustion with specific emphasis on understanding the benefits of hydrogen addition to RP-1/oxygen combustion and in developing innovative injector technology. The second category investigates liquid oxygen (LOX)/GH2 combustion at main chamber near stoichiometric conditions to improve understanding of existing LOX/GH2 rocket systems. The third and fourth categories investigate the technical issues related with oxidizer-rich and fuel-rich propulsive concepts, issues that are necessary for developing the full-flow engine cycle. Here, injector technology issues for both LOX/GH2 and LOX/RP-1 propellants are examined. The last category, also related to the full-flow engine cycle, examines injector technology needs for GO2/GH2 propellant combustion at near-stoichiometric conditions for main chamber application.

  20. History and previous results Main result

    E-print Network

    Basu, Saugata

    on a variety #12;History and previous results Main result Future work vet R e rel losed (eldF vet & R[X1 Q(x) = Hg; nd we suppose the rel dimension of V in Rk is kH kF vet & R[X1;:::;Xk] e (nite set Future work vet R e rel losed (eldF vet & R[X1;:::;Xk] e (nite set of polynomils with deg Q d0D Q P F

  1. Maine PACE Program Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, Dana; Adamson, Joy M

    2015-01-30

    The ARRA EECBG BetterBuilding helped augment the existing Home Energy Savings Programs (HESP) and incentives with financing through a subordinate lien PACE and HUD PowerSaver programs. The program was designed to document innovative techniques to dramatically increase the number of homes participating in weatherization programs in participating towns. Maine will support new energy efficiency retrofit pilots throughout the state, designed to motivate a large number of homeowners to invest in comprehensive home energy efficiency upgrades to bring real solutions to market.

  2. Additively Manufactured Main Fuel Valve Housing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eddleman, David; Richard, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Selective Laser Melting (SLM) was utilized to fabricate a liquid hydrogen valve housing typical of those found in rocket engines and main propulsion systems. The SLM process allowed for a valve geometry that would be difficult, if not impossible to fabricate by traditional means. Several valve bodies were built by different SLM suppliers and assembled with valve internals. The assemblies were then tested with liquid nitrogen and operated as desired. One unit was also burst tested and sectioned for materials analysis. The design, test results, and planned testing are presented herein.

  3. Adolescent with occluded left main coronary artery

    PubMed Central

    Wieman, R.; Beelen, D.; van der Zwaan, C.; Lahpor, J.; de Vos, A.M.; Doevendans, P.A.

    2005-01-01

    Here we report unexpected findings in a 17-year-old female patient referred for coronary angiography and percutaneous intervention. During the angiography we observed a complete occlusion of the left main coronary artery (LMCA). The occurrence of coronary abnormalities at this age is extremely rare and mostly caused by congenital abnormalities. The diagnosis of premature atherosclerosis at this age is unlikely unless the patient suffers from severe lipoprotein disease. Here we describe a rare case of LMCA occlusion, the most likely cause of the disease and the potential implications for therapy. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3 PMID:25696498

  4. Skipped Stage Modeling and Testing of the CPAS Main Parachutes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varela, Jose G.; Ray, Eric S.

    2013-01-01

    The Capsule Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) has undergone the transition from modeling a skipped stage event using a simulation that treats a cluster of parachutes as a single composite canopy to the capability of simulating each parachute individually. This capability along with data obtained from skipped stage flight tests has been crucial in modeling the behavior of a skipping canopy as well as the crowding effect on non-skipping ("lagging") neighbors. For the finite mass inflation of CPAS Main parachutes, the cluster is assumed to inflate nominally through the nominal fill time, at which point the skipping parachute continues inflating. This sub-phase modeling method was used to reconstruct three flight tests involving skipped stages. Best fit inflation parameters were determined for both the skipping and lagging canopies.

  5. Maine Tidal Power Initiative: Environmental Impact Protocols For Tidal Power

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Michael Leroy; Zydlewski, Gayle Barbin; Xue, Huijie; Johnson, Teresa R.

    2014-02-02

    The Maine Tidal Power Initiative (MTPI), an interdisciplinary group of engineers, biologists, oceanographers, and social scientists, has been conducting research to evaluate tidal energy resources and better understand the potential effects and impacts of marine hydro-kinetic (MHK) development on the environment and local community. Project efforts include: 1) resource assessment, 2) development of initial device design parameters using scale model tests, 3) baseline environmental studies and monitoring, and 4) human and community responses. This work included in-situ measurement of the environmental and social response to the pre-commercial Turbine Generator Unit (TGU®) developed by Ocean Renewable Power Company (ORPC) as well as considering the path forward for smaller community scale projects.

  6. Rainfall-Runoff Parameters Uncertainity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidari, A.; Saghafian, B.; Maknoon, R.

    2003-04-01

    Karkheh river basin, located in southwest of Iran, drains an area of over 40000 km2 and is considered a flood active basin. A flood forecasting system is under development for the basin, which consists of a rainfall-runoff model, a river routing model, a reservior simulation model, and a real time data gathering and processing module. SCS, Clark synthetic unit hydrograph, and Modclark methods are the main subbasin rainfall-runoff transformation options included in the rainfall-runoff model. Infiltration schemes, such as exponentioal and SCS-CN methods, account for infiltration losses. Simulation of snow melt is based on degree day approach. River flood routing is performed by FLDWAV model based on one-dimensional full dynamic equation. Calibration and validation of the rainfall-runoff model on Karkheh subbasins are ongoing while the river routing model awaits cross section surveys.Real time hydrometeological data are collected by a telemetry network. The telemetry network is equipped with automatic sensors and INMARSAT-C comunication system. A geographic information system (GIS) stores and manages the spatial data while a database holds the hydroclimatological historical and updated time series. Rainfall runoff parameters uncertainty is analyzed by Monte Carlo and GLUE approaches.

  7. PARAMETERS FOR QUANTIFYING BEAM HALO

    SciTech Connect

    C.K. ALLEN; T.P. WANGLER

    2001-06-01

    Two different parameters for the quantitative description of beam halo are introduced, both based on moments of the particle distribution. One parameter is a measure of spatial halo formation and has been defined previously by Wangler and Crandall [3], termed the profile parameter. The second parameter relies on kinematic invariants to quantify halo formation in phase space; we call it the halo parameter. The profile parameter can be computed from experimental beam profile data. The halo parameter provides a theoretically more complete description of halo in phase space, but is difficult to obtain experimentally.

  8. Affective incoherence: When affective concepts and embodied reactions clash

    E-print Network

    Centerbar, David; Schnall, Simone; Clore, Gerald L.; Garvin, Erica

    2008-01-01

    feelings induced by listening to happy or sad music. In Studies 4 and 5, the embodied reactions involved engaging the muscles involved in smiling or frowning. Affective coherence then depended on the compatibility of the primed af- fective concepts... their nondominant arm. The cover story (adapted from Friedman & Fo¨rster, 2000) suggested that the arm positions were related to differential brain hemispheric activation. The experimenter demonstrated the correct 563AFFECTIVE INCOHERENCE arm position for both arm...

  9. Cultivar and Year Rather than Agricultural Practices Affect Primary and Secondary Metabolites in Apple Fruit

    PubMed Central

    Renard, Catherine M. G. C.; Plenet, Daniel; Gautier, Hélène; Touloumet, Line; Girard, Thierry; Simon, Sylvaine

    2015-01-01

    Many biotic and abiotic parameters affect the metabolites involved in the organoleptic and health value of fruits. It is therefore important to understand how the growers' decisions for cultivar and orchard management can affect the fruit composition. Practices, cultivars and/or year all might participate to determine fruit composition. To hierarchize these factors, fruit weight, dry matter, soluble solids contents, titratable acidity, individual sugars and organics acids, and phenolics were measured in three apple cultivars (‘Ariane’, ‘Melrose’ and ‘Smoothee’) managed under organic, low-input and conventional management. Apples were harvested at commercial maturity in the orchards of the cropping system experiment BioREco at INRA Gotheron (Drôme, 26) over the course of three years (2011, 2012 and 2013). The main factors affecting primary and secondary metabolites, in both apple skin and flesh, were by far the cultivar and the yearly conditions, while the management system had a very limited effect. When considering the three cultivars and the year 2011 to investigate the effect of the management system per se, only few compounds differed significantly between the three systems and in particular the total phenolic content did not differ significantly between systems. Finally, when considering orchards grown in the same pedoclimatic conditions and of the same age, instead of the usual organic vs. conventional comparison, the effect of the management system on the apple fruit quality (Fruit weight, dry matter, soluble solids content, titratable acidity, individual sugars, organic acids, and phenolics) was very limited to non-significant. The main factors of variation were the cultivar and the year of cropping rather than the cropping system. More generally, as each management system (e.g. conventional, organic…) encompasses a great variability of practices, this highlights the importance of accurately documenting orchard practices and design beside the generic type of management in such studies. PMID:26618711

  10. Classification of design and technological parameters of tire assembling machines

    SciTech Connect

    Rasulbekov, R.I.; Medvedev, B.V.; Petrov, B.M.; Zvorykin, N.M.

    1983-01-01

    This article discusses the statistical classification and the design and technological parameters of assembling machines for pneumatic tires, based on correlation analysis of the parameters and on the method of correlation pleiads. Design parameters include the characteristic dimensions of its main parts, units, and of the machine as a whole. Technological parameters of the assembling machine are determined by the parameters of the casings which can be assembled on it (minimum and maximum parameters of the raw casings and the range of these parameters, i.e., the difference between the maximum and minimum values). Concludes that the existence of a close correlation between the technological and design parameters of the machines indicates the equal value of these groups of parameters (from the standpoint of information carried); the revealed structure of the interrelations between the parameters allows us to follow the influence of some parameters on the others; and there is a close correlation between most design and technological parameters of the machines, which allows us to isolate the most meaningful parameters when constructing the mathematical models for the optimization of parametric series, the automation of designing, of forecasting, the development of standards (specifications), etc.

  11. Pendulum Motion in Main Parachute Clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Eric S.; Machin, Ricardo A.

    2015-01-01

    The coupled dynamics of a cluster of parachutes to a payload are notoriously difficult to predict. Often the payload is designed to be insensitive to the range of attitude and rates that might occur, but spacecraft generally do not have the mass and volume budgeted for this robust of a design. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Orion Capsule Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) implements a cluster of three mains for landing. During testing of the Engineering Development Unit (EDU) design, it was discovered that with a cluster of two mains (a fault tolerance required for human rating) the capsule coupled to the parachute cluster could get into a limit cycle pendulum motion which would exceed the spacecraft landing capability. This pendulum phenomenon could not be predicted with the existing models and simulations. A three phased effort has been undertaken to understand the consequence of the pendulum motion observed, and explore potential design changes that would mitigate this phenomenon. This paper will review the early analysis that was performed of the pendulum motion observed during EDU testing, summarize the analysis ongoing to understand the root cause of the pendulum phenomenon, and discuss the modeling and testing that is being pursued to identify design changes that would mitigate the risk.

  12. Estimation of genetic parameters for reproductive traits in alpacas.

    PubMed

    Cruz, A; Cervantes, I; Burgos, A; Morante, R; Gutiérrez, J P

    2015-12-01

    One of the main deficiencies affecting animal breeding programs in Peruvian alpacas is the low reproductive performance leading to low number of animals available to select from, decreasing strongly the selection intensity. Some reproductive traits could be improved by artificial selection, but very few information about genetic parameters exists for these traits in this specie. The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for six reproductive traits in alpacas both in Suri (SU) and Huacaya (HU) ecotypes, as well as their genetic relationship with fiber and morphological traits. Dataset belonging to Pacomarca experimental farm collected between 2000 and 2014 was used. Number of records for age at first service (AFS), age at first calving (AFC), copulation time (CT), pregnancy diagnosis (PD), gestation length (GL), and calving interval (CI) were, respectively, 1704, 854, 19,770, 5874, 4290 and 934. Pedigree consisted of 7742 animals. Regarding reproductive traits, model of analysis included additive and residual random effects for all traits, and also permanent environmental effect for CT, PD, GL and CI traits, with color and year of recording as fixed effects for all the reproductive traits and also age at mating and sex of calf for GL trait. Estimated heritabilities, respectively for HU and SU were 0.19 and 0.09 for AFS, 0.45 and 0.59 for AFC, 0.04 and 0.05 for CT, 0.07 and 0.05 for PD, 0.12 and 0.20 for GL, and 0.14 and 0.09 for CI. Genetic correlations between them ranged from -0.96 to 0.70. No important genetic correlations were found between reproductive traits and fiber or morphological traits in HU. However, some moderate favorable genetic correlations were found between reproductive and either fiber and morphological traits in SU. According to estimated genetic correlations, some reproductive traits might be included as additional selection criteria in HU. PMID:26490188

  13. Precision cosmological parameter estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fendt, William Ashton, Jr.

    2009-09-01

    Experimental efforts of the last few decades have brought. a golden age to mankind's endeavor to understand tine physical properties of the Universe throughout its history. Recent measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) provide strong confirmation of the standard big bang paradigm, as well as introducing new mysteries, to unexplained by current physical models. In the following decades. even more ambitious scientific endeavours will begin to shed light on the new physics by looking at the detailed structure of the Universe both at very early and recent times. Modern data has allowed us to begins to test inflationary models of the early Universe, and the near future will bring higher precision data and much stronger tests. Cracking the codes hidden in these cosmological observables is a difficult and computationally intensive problem. The challenges will continue to increase as future experiments bring larger and more precise data sets. Because of the complexity of the problem, we are forced to use approximate techniques and make simplifying assumptions to ease the computational workload. While this has been reasonably sufficient until now, hints of the limitations of our techniques have begun to come to light. For example, the likelihood approximation used for analysis of CMB data from the Wilkinson Microwave Anistropy Probe (WMAP) satellite was shown to have short falls, leading to pre-emptive conclusions drawn about current cosmological theories. Also it can he shown that an approximate method used by all current analysis codes to describe the recombination history of the Universe will not be sufficiently accurate for future experiments. With a new CMB satellite scheduled for launch in the coming months, it is vital that we develop techniques to improve the analysis of cosmological data. This work develops a novel technique of both avoiding the use of approximate computational codes as well as allowing the application of new, more precise analysis methods. These techniques will help in the understanding of new physics contained in current and future data sets as well as benefit the research efforts of the cosmology community. Our idea is to shift the computationally intensive pieces of the parameter estimation framework to a parallel training step. We then provide a machine learning code that uses this training set to learn the relationship between the underlying cosmological parameters and the function we wish to compute. This code is very accurate and simple to evaluate. It can provide incredible speed- ups of parameter estimation codes. For some applications this provides the convenience of obtaining results faster, while in other cases this allows the use of codes that would be impossible to apply in the brute force setting. In this thesis we provide several examples where our method allows more accurate computation of functions important for data analysis than is currently possible. As the techniques developed in this work are very general, there are no doubt a wide array of applications both inside and outside of cosmology. We have already seen this interest as other scientists have presented ideas for using our algorithm to improve their computational work, indicating its importance as modern experiments push forward. In fact, our algorithm will play an important role in the parameter analysis of Planck, the next generation CMB space mission.

  14. Loss parameter calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, J.M.

    1995-07-01

    Sands and Rees propose an electronic bench measurement of the impulse energy loss of a stored particle bunch to vacuum-chamber components. The components act as the outer conductor of a coaxial line with a thin wire as center conductor. Short pulses are then transmitted through this coaxial system to simulate relativistic particle bunches. Their proposal has since been implemented by several investigators and has become a well-known technique. They derive a first-order approximation to the loss parameter {kappa} for use in these measurements. The purpose of this note is to point out that exact expression for {kappa} is as simple as its first-order approximation and to recommend its use even when {kappa} is small.

  15. What is the main mechanism of tramadol?

    PubMed

    Minami, Kouichiro; Ogata, Junichi; Uezono, Yasuhito

    2015-10-01

    Tramadol is an analgesic that is used worldwide for pain, but its mechanisms of action have not been fully elucidated. The majority of studies to date have focused on activation of the ?-opioid receptor (?OR) and inhibition of monoamine reuptake as mechanisms of tramadol. Although it has been speculated that tramadol acts primarily through activation of the ?OR, no evidence has revealed whether tramadol directly activates the ?OR. During the past decade, major advances have been made in our understanding of the physiology and pharmacology of ion channels and G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling. Several studies have shown that GPCRs and ion channels are targets for tramadol. In particular, tramadol has been shown to affect GPCRs. Here, the effects of tramadol on GPCRs, monoamine transporters, and ion channels are presented with a discussion of recent research on the mechanisms of tramadol. PMID:26292636

  16. Automatic Sleep Stage Determination by Multi-Valued Decision Making Based on Conditional Probability with Optimal Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bei; Sugi, Takenao; Wang, Xingyu; Nakamura, Masatoshi

    Data for human sleep study may be affected by internal and external influences. The recorded sleep data contains complex and stochastic factors, which increase the difficulties for the computerized sleep stage determination techniques to be applied for clinical practice. The aim of this study is to develop an automatic sleep stage determination system which is optimized for variable sleep data. The main methodology includes two modules: expert knowledge database construction and automatic sleep stage determination. Visual inspection by a qualified clinician is utilized to obtain the probability density function of parameters during the learning process of expert knowledge database construction. Parameter selection is introduced in order to make the algorithm flexible. Automatic sleep stage determination is manipulated based on conditional probability. The result showed close agreement comparing with the visual inspection by clinician. The developed system can meet the customized requirements in hospitals and institutions.

  17. Reconstruction of Twist Torque in Main Parachute Risers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Day, Joshua D.

    2015-01-01

    The reconstruction of twist torque in the Main Parachute Risers of the Capsule Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) has been successfully used to validate CPAS Model Memo conservative twist torque equations. Reconstruction of basic, one degree of freedom drop tests was used to create a functional process for the evaluation of more complex, rigid body simulation. The roll, pitch, and yaw of the body, the fly-out angles of the parachutes, and the relative location of the parachutes to the body are inputs to the torque simulation. The data collected by the Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) was used to calculate the true torque. The simulation then used photogrammetric and IMU data as inputs into the Model Memo equations. The results were then compared to the true torque results to validate the Model Memo equations. The Model Memo parameters were based off of steel risers and the parameters will need to be re-evaluated for different materials. Photogrammetric data was found to be more accurate than the inertial data in accounting for the relative rotation between payload and cluster. The Model Memo equations were generally a good match and when not matching were generally conservative.

  18. Tutorial on underwater electrical discharges: main features and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasik, Yakov

    2013-09-01

    Main features of underwater electrical discharge with short description of models (``bubble'', ``explosive emission'', ``ionization'' and ``thermal''), parameters of the discharge (threshold electric field versus polarity, time duration, frequency, pressure, interelectrode gap and area of electrodes, velocity of streamer propagation and density and temperature of the plasma, strong shock waves) and different electrical and optical diagnostics which were used in this research will be shortly reviewed. Such main applications of underwater electrical discharge as electro-hydraulic forming, destruction of rocks, low-inductance water spark gap switches, treatment of pollutants in water and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy will be discussed. Finally, results of application of underwater electrical explosion of single wires in nanosecond - microsecond timescales for research related to Equation of State of different materials at extreme conditions and underwater electrical explosion of wire arrays in cylindrical and spherical configurations for generation of converging strong shock waves using moderate high-power generators for research of compressed water at extreme conditions will be presented.

  19. Are We Neglecting Affective Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleck, Henrietta

    1975-01-01

    It is essential that teachers review their emphasis on affective education. In this chaotic world, man's very survival may depend upon the quality of his own life and his human relationships with others. (Author)

  20. Political affections: a theological enquiry 

    E-print Network

    Hordern, Joshua

    2010-01-01

    The thesis is a theological enquiry into the nature of human affections (or ‘emotions’), their role in morality and their significance for political relations. The argument builds critically on the work of cognitivist ...

  1. How intimacy affects resource conceptualization 

    E-print Network

    Dunn, Allison L

    2001-01-01

    the actors affects resource conceptualization, (3) if increasing intimacy between the actors causes them not to want to participate in resource reciprocity, and (4) if increased intimacy between the actors causes less variance in their responses. The results...

  2. How Are Diet & Exercise Affected?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Post-Surgery Diet Post-Surgery Exercise How are diet & exercise affected? It is very difficult for pancreatic ... fatigued. Pancan.org has published a very informative Diet and Nutrition booklet. You can review this booklet ...

  3. 33 CFR 334.20 - Gulf of Maine off Cape Small, Maine; naval aircraft practice mining range area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Gulf of Maine off Cape Small, Maine; naval aircraft practice mining range area...AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.20 Gulf of Maine off Cape Small, Maine; naval aircraft...

  4. 33 CFR 334.20 - Gulf of Maine off Cape Small, Maine; naval aircraft practice mining range area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Gulf of Maine off Cape Small, Maine; naval aircraft practice mining range area...AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.20 Gulf of Maine off Cape Small, Maine; naval aircraft...

  5. 33 CFR 334.20 - Gulf of Maine off Cape Small, Maine; naval aircraft practice mining range area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Gulf of Maine off Cape Small, Maine; naval aircraft practice mining range area...AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.20 Gulf of Maine off Cape Small, Maine; naval aircraft...

  6. 33 CFR 334.20 - Gulf of Maine off Cape Small, Maine; naval aircraft practice mining range area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Gulf of Maine off Cape Small, Maine; naval aircraft practice mining range area...AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.20 Gulf of Maine off Cape Small, Maine; naval aircraft...

  7. 33 CFR 334.20 - Gulf of Maine off Cape Small, Maine; naval aircraft practice mining range area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gulf of Maine off Cape Small, Maine; naval aircraft practice mining range area...AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.20 Gulf of Maine off Cape Small, Maine; naval aircraft...

  8. A computational model of affects

    E-print Network

    Turkia, Mika

    2008-01-01

    This article provides a simple logical structure, in which affective concepts (i.e. concepts related to emotions and feelings) can be defined. The set of affects defined is similar to the set of emotions covered in the OCC model (Ortony A., Collins A., and Clore G. L.: The Cognitive Structure of Emotions. Cambridge University Press, 1988), but the model presented in this article is fully computationally defined.

  9. On Patterns in Affective Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ADAMATZKY, ANDREW

    In computational experiments with cellular automaton models of affective solutions, where chemical species represent happiness, anger, fear, confusion and sadness, we study phenomena of space time dynamic of emotions. We demonstrate feasibility of the affective solution paradigm in example of emotional abuse therapy. Results outlined in the present paper offer unconventional but promising technique to design, analyze and interpret spatio-temporal dynamic of mass moods in crowds.

  10. Theoretical mass loss rates of cool main-sequence stars

    E-print Network

    V. Holzwarth; M. Jardine

    2006-11-14

    We develop a model for the wind properties of cool main-sequence stars, which comprises their wind ram pressures, mass fluxes, and terminal wind velocities. The wind properties are determined through a polytropic magnetised wind model, assuming power laws for the dependence of the thermal and magnetic wind parameters on the stellar rotation rate. We use empirical data to constrain theoretical wind scenarios, which are characterised by different rates of increase of the wind temperature, wind density, and magnetic field strength. Scenarios based on moderate rates of increase yield wind ram pressures in agreement with most empirical constraints, but cannot account for some moderately rotating targets, whose high apparent mass loss rates are inconsistent with observed coronal X-ray and magnetic properties. For fast magnetic rotators, the magneto-centrifugal driving of the outflow can produce terminal wind velocities far in excess of the surface escape velocity. Disregarding this aspect in the analyses of wind ram pressures leads to overestimations of stellar mass loss rates. The predicted mass loss rates of cool main-sequence stars do not exceed about ten times the solar value. Our results are in contrast with previous investigations, which found a strong increase of the stellar mass loss rates with the coronal X-ray flux. Owing to the weaker dependence, we expect the impact of stellar winds on planetary atmospheres to be less severe and the detectability of magnetospheric radio emission to be lower then previously suggested. Considering the rotational evolution of a one solar-mass star, the mass loss rates and the wind ram pressures are highest during the pre-main sequence phase.

  11. Sensitivity of water stress in a two-layered sandy grassland soil to variations in groundwater depth and soil hydraulic parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaei, M.; Seuntjens, P.; Joris, I.; Boënne, W.; Van Hoey, S.; Campling, P.; Cornelis, W. M.

    2015-07-01

    Monitoring and modeling tools may improve irrigation strategies in precision agriculture. We used non-invasive soil moisture monitoring, a crop growth and a soil hydrological model to predict soil-water content fluctuations and crop yield in a heterogeneous sandy grassland soil under supplementary irrigation. The sensitivity of the model to hydraulic parameters, water stress, crop yield and lower boundary conditions was assessed. Free drainage and incremental constant head conditions was implemented in a lower boundary sensitivity analysis. A time-dependent sensitivity analysis showed that changes in soil water content are mainly affected by the soil saturated hydraulic conductivity Ks and the Mualem-van Genuchten retention curve shape parameters n and ?. Results further showed that different parameter optimization strategies (two-, three-, four- or six-parameter optimizations) did not affect the calculated water stress and water content as significantly as does the bottom boundary. For this case, a two-parameter scenario, where Ks was optimized for each layer under the condition of a constant groundwater depth at 135-140 cm, performed best. A larger yield reduction, and a larger number and longer duration of stress conditions occurred in the free drainage condition as compared to constant boundary conditions. Numerical results showed that optimal irrigation scheduling using the aforementioned water stress calculations can save up to 12-22 % irrigation water as compared to the current irrigation regime. This resulted in a yield increase of 4.5-6.5 %, simulated by crop growth model.

  12. Main challenges for ITER optical diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Vukolov, K. Yu.; Orlovskiy, I. I.; Alekseev, A. G.; Borisov, A. A.; Andreenko, E. N.; Kukushkin, A. B.; Lisitsa, V. S.; Neverov, V. S.

    2014-08-21

    The review is made of the problems of ITER optical diagnostics. Most of these problems will be related to the intensive neutron radiation from hot plasma. At a high level of radiation loads the most types of materials gradually change their properties. This effect is most critical for optical diagnostics because of degradation of optical glasses and mirrors. The degradation of mirrors, that collect the light from plasma, basically will be induced by impurity deposition and (or) sputtering by charge exchange atoms. Main attention is paid to the search of glasses for vacuum windows and achromatic lens which are stable under ITER irradiation conditions. The last results of irradiation tests in nuclear reactor of candidate silica glasses KU-1, KS-4V and TF 200 are presented. An additional problem is discussed that deals with the stray light produced by multiple reflections from the first wall of the intense light emitted in the divertor plasma.

  13. Heavy hydrocarbon main injector technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arbit, H. A.; Tuegel, L. M.; Dodd, F. E.

    1991-01-01

    The Heavy Hydrocarbon Main Injector Program was an analytical, design, and test program to demonstrate an injection concept applicable to an Isolated Combustion Compartment of a full-scale, high pressure, LOX/RP-1 engine. Several injector patterns were tested in a 3.4-in. combustor. Based on these results, features of the most promising injector design were incorporated into a 5.7-in. injector which was then hot-fire tested. In turn, a preliminary design of a 5-compartment 2D combustor was based on this pattern. Also the additional subscale injector testing and analysis was performed with an emphasis on improving analytical techniques and acoustic cavity design methodology. Several of the existing 3.5-in. diameter injectors were hot-fire tested with and without acoustic cavities for spontaneous and dynamic stability characteristics.

  14. Floods in Maine, April-May 1979

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fontaine, Richard A.; Haskell, C. Richard

    1981-01-01

    Heavy rainfall during April 27-30, 1979, resulted in moderate to record flooding in much of northern and western Maine. During this period, rainfall totals of as much as 6 inches were measured. This period was preceded by up to 10 days of seasonally warm temperatures and snowmelt, which helped create conditions favorable to flooding later in the month. Flood peaks having recurrence intervals greater than 30 years were recorded at several sites, and a few sites experienced maximum recorded flood peaks with recurrence intervals in excess of 50 years. There was no loss of life, but local damage to homes and commercial and industrial establishments was significant. This report describes the flooding. A tabulation of peak gage heights and discharges is included for 42 sites. Daily and storm precipitation values are tabulated for 58 sites. (USGS)

  15. Debiasing the Main-Belt Asteroid Population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spahr, Timothy Bruce

    1998-12-01

    We present here two general techniques to remove observational selection effects from asteroid surveys. When applied to two specific asteroid surveys, these methods have allowed the first computation of the debiased distribution of asteroidal orbital elements and sizes for the first time. The first survey was conducted in 1960. Advances in computing have allowed the data to be re-analyzed using an existing computer program and given a much more rigorous statistical treatment. The survey was confined to the near-ecliptic at opposition, therefore its usefulness is limited with regard to highly inclined orbits. To compensate for this limitation, we conducted our own survey aimed specifically at high-inclination objects. Since these orbits are, in general, distributed differently than lower-inclination orbits, removing observational selection effects required creating a statistical technique using Monte-Carlo type simulations. The results of this work show no evidence for differing slopes of the size-frequency distribution throughout the asteroid belt, from the highly inclined Hungaria-type asteroids in the inner edge of the belt (1.8-2.0 AU), to the outer belt (3-3.5 AU). The slopes of the absolute-magnitude frequency distributions, being less than 0.5, show that the asteroidal size distribution is somewhat shallower than what would be predicted assuming the asteroids to be a collisionally evolved population of bodies with size-independent impact strengths. Also determined are rough numbers of asteroids in the main dynamical families of Eos, Maria, Themis, and Koronis, which comprise a significant fraction of the total number of objects in the main belt. This work has also resulted in the discovery of a new asteroid dynamical family, and possibly two new asteroid groups.

  16. Cosmological parameter estimation using particle swarm optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, Jayanti; Souradeep, Tarun

    2012-06-01

    Constraining theoretical models, which are represented by a set of parameters, using observational data is an important exercise in cosmology. In Bayesian framework this is done by finding the probability distribution of parameters which best fits to the observational data using sampling based methods like Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC). It has been argued that MCMC may not be the best option in certain problems in which the target function (likelihood) poses local maxima or have very high dimensionality. Apart from this, there may be examples in which we are mainly interested to find the point in the parameter space at which the probability distribution has the largest value. In this situation the problem of parameter estimation becomes an optimization problem. In the present work we show that particle swarm optimization (PSO), which is an artificial intelligence inspired population based search procedure, can also be used for cosmological parameter estimation. Using PSO we were able to recover the best-fit ? cold dark matter (LCDM) model parameters from the WMAP seven year data without using any prior guess value or any other property of the probability distribution of parameters like standard deviation, as is common in MCMC. We also report the results of an exercise in which we consider a binned primordial power spectrum (to increase the dimensionality of problem) and find that a power spectrum with features gives lower chi square than the standard power law. Since PSO does not sample the likelihood surface in a fair way, we follow a fitting procedure to find the spread of likelihood function around the best-fit point.

  17. A study of parameter identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herget, C. J.; Patterson, R. E., III

    1978-01-01

    A set of definitions for deterministic parameter identification ability were proposed. Deterministic parameter identificability properties are presented based on four system characteristics: direct parameter recoverability, properties of the system transfer function, properties of output distinguishability, and uniqueness properties of a quadratic cost functional. Stochastic parameter identifiability was defined in terms of the existence of an estimation sequence for the unknown parameters which is consistent in probability. Stochastic parameter identifiability properties are presented based on the following characteristics: convergence properties of the maximum likelihood estimate, properties of the joint probability density functions of the observations, and properties of the information matrix.

  18. Guidelines in the Choice of Parameters for Hybrid Laser Arc Welding with Fiber Lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriksson, I.; Powell, J.; Kaplan, A.

    Laser arc hybrid welding has been a promising technology for three decades and laser welding in combination with gas metal arc welding (GMAW) has shown that it is an extremely promising technique. On the other hand the process is often considered complicated and difficult to set up correctly. An important factor in setting up the hybrid welding process is an understanding of the GMAW process. It is especially important to understand how the wire feed rate and the arc voltage (the two main parameters) affect the process. In this paper the authors show that laser hybrid welding with a 1 ?m laser is similar to ordinary GMAW, and several guidelines are therefore inherited by the laser hybrid process.

  19. Acoustic parameters of infant-directed singing in mothers with depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    de l'Etoile, Shannon K; Leider, Colby N

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between mothers' depressive symptoms and the acoustic parameters of infant-directed (ID) singing. Participants included 80 mothers and their 3- to 9-month-old infants. A digital recording was made of each mother's voice while singing to her infant. Extraction and analyses of vocal data revealed a main effect of tempo, meaning that as mothers reported more depressive symptoms, they tended to sing faster to their infants. Additionally, an interaction effect indicated that mothers with depressive symptoms were more likely to sing with tonal key clarity to their male infants. These findings suggest that as mothers experience depressive symptoms, their ID singing may lack the sensitivity and emotional expression that infants need for affect regulation. An intervention that combines interaction coaching and ID singing may help mothers with depressive symptoms to engage in sensitive and emotionally synchronized interactions with their infants. PMID:21255845

  20. Parameter dependence of magnetized CMB observables

    SciTech Connect

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2009-05-15

    Predecoupling magnetic fields affect the scalar modes of the geometry and produce observable effects which can be constrained also through the use of current (as opposed to forthcoming) data stemming from the cosmic microwave nackground observations. The dependence of the temperature and polarization angular power spectra upon the parameters of an ambient magnetic field is encoded in the scaling properties of a set of basic integrals whose derivation is simplified in the limit of small angular scales. The magnetically-induced distortions patterns of the relevant observables can be computed analytically by employing scaling considerations which are corroborated by numerical results. The parameter space of the magnetized cosmic microwave background anisotropies is also discussed in the light of the obtained analytical results.

  1. Quantum parameter space of dissipative directed transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermann, Leonardo; Carlo, Gabriel G.

    2015-01-01

    Quantum manifestations of isoperiodic stable structures (QISSs) have a crucial role in the current behavior of quantum dissipative ratchets. In this context, the simple shape of the ISSs has been conjectured to be an almost exclusive feature of the classical system. This has drastic consequences for many properties of the directed currents, the most important one being that it imposes a significant reduction in their maximum values, thus affecting the attainable efficiency at the quantum level. In this work we prove this conjecture by means of comprehensive numerical explorations and statistical analysis of the quantum states. We are able to describe the quantum parameter space of a paradigmatic system for different values of ?eff in great detail. Moreover, thanks to this we provide evidence on a mechanism that we call parametric tunneling by which the sharp classical borders of the regions in parameter space become blurred in the quantum counterpart. We expect this to be a common property of generic dissipative quantum systems.

  2. Development of Lymantria dispar affected by manganese in food.

    PubMed

    Kula, Emanuel; Martinek, Petr; Chromcová, Lucie; Hedbávný, Josef

    2014-10-01

    We studied the response of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae)) to the content of manganese in food in the laboratory breeding of caterpillars. The food of the caterpillars {Betula pendula Roth (Fagales: Betulaceae) leaves} was contaminated by dipping in the solution of MnCl2 · 4H2O with manganese concentrations of 0, 0.5, 5 and 10 mg ml(-1), by which differentiated manganese contents (307; 632; 4,087 and 8,124 mg kg(-1)) were reached. Parameters recorded during the rearing were as follows: effect of manganese on food consumption, mortality and length of the development of caterpillars, pupation and hatching of imagoes. At the same time, manganese concentrations were determined in the offered and unconsumed food, excrements, and exuviae of the caterpillars, pupal cases and imagoes by using the AAS method. As compared with the control, high manganese contents in the food of gypsy moth caterpillars affected the process of development particularly by increased mortality of the first instar caterpillars (8 % mortality for caterpillars with no Mn contamination (T0) and 62 % mortality for subjects with the highest contamination by manganese (T3)), by prolonged development of the first-third instar (18.7 days (T0) and 27.8 days (T3)) and by increased food consumption of the first-third instar {0.185 g of leaf dry matter (T0) and 0.483 g of leaf dry matter (T3)}. The main defence strategy of the caterpillars to prevent contamination by the increased manganese content in food is the translocation of manganese into frass and exuviae castoff in the process of ecdysis. In the process of development, the content of manganese was reduced by excretion in imagoes to 0.5 % of the intake level even at its maximum inputs in food. PMID:25028315

  3. Design of experiments reveals critical parameters for pilot-scale freeze-and-thaw processing of L-lactic dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Roessl, Ulrich; Humi, Sebastian; Leitgeb, Stefan; Nidetzky, Bernd

    2015-09-01

    Freezing constitutes an important unit operation of biotechnological protein production. Effects of freeze-and-thaw (F/T) process parameters on stability and other quality attributes of the protein product are usually not well understood. Here a design of experiments (DoE) approach was used to characterize the F/T behavior of L-lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) in a 700-mL pilot-scale freeze container equipped with internal temperature and pH probes. In 24-hour experiments, target temperature between -10 and -38°C most strongly affected LDH stability whereby enzyme activity was retained best at the highest temperature of -10°C. Cooling profile and liquid fill volume also had significant effects on LDH stability and affected the protein aggregation significantly. Parameters of the thawing phase had a comparably small effect on LDH stability. Experiments in which the standard sodium phosphate buffer was exchanged by Tris-HCl and the non-ionic surfactant Tween 80 was added to the protein solution showed that pH shift during freezing and protein surface exposure were the main factors responsible for LDH instability at the lower freeze temperatures. Collectively, evidence is presented that supports the use of DoE-based systematic analysis at pilot scale in the identification of F/T process parameters critical for protein stability and in the development of suitable process control strategies. PMID:25820483

  4. Acceptable Tolerances for Matching Icing Similarity Parameters in Scaling Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, David N.

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews past work and presents new data to evaluate how changes in similarity parameters affect ice shapes and how closely scale values of the parameters should match reference values. Experimental ice shapes presented are from tests by various researchers in the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel. The parameters reviewed are the modified inertia parameter (which determines the stagnation collection efficiency), accumulation parameter, freezing fraction, Reynolds number, and Weber number. It was demonstrated that a good match of scale and reference ice shapes could sometimes be achieved even when values of the modified inertia parameter did not match precisely. Consequently, there can be some flexibility in setting scale droplet size, which is the test condition determined from the modified inertia parameter. A recommended guideline is that the modified inertia parameter be chosen so that the scale stagnation collection efficiency is within 10 percent of the reference value. The scale accumulation parameter and freezing fraction should also be within 10 percent of their reference values. The Weber number based on droplet size and water properties appears to be a more important scaling parameter than one based on model size and air properties. Scale values of both the Reynolds and Weber numbers need to be in the range of 60 to 160 percent of the corresponding reference values. The effects of variations in other similarity parameters have yet to be established.

  5. Hydrocarbon Reservoir Parameter Estimation Using

    E-print Network

    van Vliet, Lucas J.

    Hydrocarbon Reservoir Parameter Estimation Using Production Data and Time-Lapse Seismic #12;#12;Hydrocarbon Reservoir Parameter Estimation Using Production Data and Time-Lapse Seismic PROEFSCHRIFT ter

  6. Phase behaviour of inverse patchy colloids: effect of the model parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noya, Eva G.; Bianchi, Emanuela

    2015-06-01

    The phase behaviour of inverse patchy colloid systems composed of spherical particles with two oppositely charged patches at the poles is investigated by simulation-based thermodynamic integration schemes. The interaction between the particles is derived via a coarse-grained model characterized by three system parameters: the charge imbalance between the bare colloid and the patches, the patch surface extension and the particle interaction range. Starting from a set of parameters for which a stacking of parallel layers is thermodynamically stable, the effect of each of these three parameters on the phase diagram is studied. Our results show that the region of stability of the layered solid phase can be expanded by increasing the charge imbalance and/or by reducing the interaction range. A larger patch size, on the other hand, stabilizes the layered structure with respect to the competing face centered cubic solid at high pressures but destabilizes it with respect to the fluid phase at low pressures. The location of the liquid-vapour critical point in the temperature versus density plane is also investigated: while the charge imbalance and the patch size affect mainly the critical density, a change of the interaction range has a substantial impact also on the critical temperature.

  7. Quantifying Differential Rotation Across the Main Sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ule, Nicholas M.

    We have constructed a sample of eight stars from the Kepler field covering a broad range of spectral types, from F7 to K3. These stars have well defined rotation rates and show evidence of differential rotation in their lightcurves. In order to robustly determine differential rotation the inclination of a star must first be known. Thus, we have obtained moderate resolution spectra of these targets and obtained their radial velocities (v sin i), which is then used to determine inclinations. The photometric variations often seen in stars are created by star spots which we model in order to determine differential rotation. We have adapted the starspotz model developed by Croll (2006) with an asexual genetic algorithm to measure the strength of differential rotation (described with the parameter k). The photometric data was broken into 167 segments which were modeled for 6--8 values of k, with each model producing 50,000+ solutions. The value of k with a solution which produced the closest fit to the data was determined to be the most correct value of k for that lightcurve segment. With this data we also performed signal analysis which indicated the presence of long lived, latitudinally dependant active regions on stars. For our eight targets we successfully determined differential rotation rates and evaluated those values in relation to stellar temperature and rotational period. Coupled with previously published values for nine additional targets we find no temperature relation with differential rotation, but we do find a strong trend with rotation rates.

  8. Basaltic asteroids in the main belt: Spectral and mineralogical characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Sanctis, M.; Migliorini, A.; Lazzaro, D.; Ammannito, E.

    2014-07-01

    Most of the basaltic asteroids are thought to be fragments of Vesta, forming its dynamical family, but few others do not appear to have a clear dynamical link, suggesting, thus, the existence of other basaltic parent bodies. Excluding Vesta and its family, the lack of intact differentiated asteroids introduces a strong constraint to the formation scenario of basaltic material. The spectral investigation of the basaltic asteroids in the main belt can help in understanding if there are V-type asteroids that show a differing mineralogy with respect to Vesta and its family members. We present new NIR reflectance spectra of V-type candidate asteroids obtained at the 3.6-m Telescopio Nazionale Galileo covering the spectral range 0.7 to 2.5 microns. The observed objects were selected from diverse datasets of putative V-type asteroids in order to characterize them, and hence better understand their relationship with Vesta. All the spectra of the asteroids here reported show two prominent absorption features at 1 and 2 microns that are typical of V-class objects, indicating that the methods based on the photometric surveys to infer the basaltic asteroid distribution are quite robust. The spectra of these asteroids are examined and compared to those of Vesta and the HED meteorites, for which Vesta is believed to be the parent body, and other V-type asteroids previously observed. To enlarge the data set and increase the statistical significance of the analysis, we included the data presented in our previous articles (De Sanctis et al., 2011ab). It is important to note that all these objects have been observed at the same telescope with the same instrumental set up. We derive spectral parameters from the NIR spectra to infer mineralogical information on the observed asteroids. The V-type asteroids here examined show a large variability of band parameters. These parameters have been compared with those of the HED meteorites and with the parameters derived for Vesta using the Dawn VIR spectral observations (De Sanctis et al., 2012, 2013; Ammannito et al., 2013). The V-type asteroids band centers here reported are mostly compatible with the HED meteorites and with Vesta derived values.

  9. MEGARA main optics opto-mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo-Domínguez, E.; Avilés, J. L.; Carrasco, E.; Maldonado, M.; Gil de Paz, Armando; Gallego, J.; Cedazo, R.; Iglesias, J.

    2014-08-01

    MEGARA is the future integral-field and multi-object spectrograph for the GTC 10.4m telescope located in the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos in La Palma. INAOE is a member of the MEGARA Consortium and it is in charge of the Optics Manufacturing work package. In addition to the manufacturing of 73 elements, the work package includes the opto-mechanics i.e. the opto-mechanical design, manufacture, tests and integration of the complete assembly of the main optics composed by the collimator and camera subsystems. MEGARA passed the Optics Detailed Design Review in May 2013 and will have the Detailed Design Review of the complete instrument early 2014. Here we describe the detailed design of the collimator and camera barrels. We also present the finite elements models developed to simulate the behavior of the barrel, sub-cells and other mechanical elements. These models verify that the expected stress fields and the gravitational displacements on the lenses are compatible with the optical quality tolerances. The design is finished and ready for fabrication.

  10. Flood inundation map library, Fort Kent, Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lombard, Pamela J.

    2012-01-01

    Severe flooding occurred in northern Maine from April 28 to May 1, 2008, and damage was extensive in the town of Fort Kent (Lombard, 2010). Aroostook County was declared a Federal disaster area on May 9, 2008. The extent of flooding on both the Fish and St. John Rivers during this event showed that the current Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Flood Insurance Study (FIS) and Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM) (Federal Emergency Management Agency, 1979) were out of date. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a study to develop a flood inundation map library showing the areas and depths for a range of flood stages from bankfull to the flood of record for Fort Kent to complement an updated FIS (Federal Emergency Management Agency, in press). Hydrologic analyses that support the maps include computer models with and without the levee and with various depths of backwater on the Fish River. This fact sheet describes the methods used to develop the maps and describes how the maps can be accessed.

  11. Detecting Mass Loss in Main Belt Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandberg, Erik; Rajagopal, Jayadev; Ridgway, Susan E.; Kotulla, Ralf C.; Valdes, Francisco; Allen, Lori

    2016-01-01

    Sandberg, E., Rajagopal, J., Ridgway, S.E, Kotulla, R., Valdes, F., Allen, L.The Dark Energy Camera (DECam) on the 4m Blanco telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) is being used for a survey of Near Earth Objects (NEOs). Here we attempt to identify mass loss in main belt asteroids (MBAs) from these data. A primary motivation is to understand the role that asteroids may play in supplying dust and gas for debris disks. This work focuses on finding methods to automatically pick out asteroids that have qualities indicating possible mass loss. Two methods were chosen: looking for flux above a certain threshold in the asteroid's radial profile, and comparing its PSF to that of a point source. After sifting through 490 asteroids, several have passed these tests and should be followed up with a more rigorous analysis.Sandberg was supported by the NOAO/KPNO Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) Program which is funded by the National Science Foundation Research Experiences for Undergraduates Program (AST-1262829)

  12. Chemical quality of precipitation at Greenville, Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smath, J.A.; Potter, T.L.

    1987-01-01

    Weekly composite precipitation samples were collected at a rural site located in Greenville, Maine for analysis of trace metals and organic compounds. Samples collected during February 1982, through May 1984, were analyzed for cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, and zinc and during February 1982, through March 1983, for chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides, pthalate ester plasticizers, and polychlorinated biphenyls. Deposition rates were computed. Data reported by the NADP (National Atmospheric Deposition Program) was used to evaluate the general chemical quality of the precipitation. The precipitation had relatively high concentrations of hydrogen ions, sulfate, and nitrate, compared to other constituents. Of the trace metals included for analysis, only copper, lead, and zinc were consistently detected. Lead concentrations exceeded the U.S. EPA recommended limit for domestic water supply in three samples. High deposition rates for some of the metals were episodic. Alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane was the only organic compound that was consistently detected (maximum 120 nanograms/L). None of the other organic compounds were detected in any of the samples. (Author 's abstract)

  13. Mercury concentrations in Maine sport fishes

    SciTech Connect

    Stafford, C.P.; Haines, T.A.

    1997-01-01

    To assess mercury contamination of fish in Maine, fish were collected from 120 randomly selected lakes. The collection goal for each lake was five fish of the single most common sport fish species within the size range commonly harvested by anglers. Skinless, boneless fillets of fish from each lake were composited, homogenized, and analyzed for total mercury. The two most abundant species, brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis and smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu, were also analyzed individually. The composite fish analyses indicate high concentrations of mercury, particularly in large and long-lived nonsalmonid species. Chain pickerel Esox niger, smallmouth bass, largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides, and white perch Morone americana had the highest average mercury concentrations, and brook trout and yellow perch Perca flavescens had the lowest. The mean species composite mercury concentration was positively correlated with a factor incorporating the average size and age of the fish. Lakes containing fish with high mercury concentrations were not clustered near known industrial or population centers but were commonest in the area within 150 km of the seacoast, reflecting the geographical distribution of species that contained higher mercury concentrations. Stocked and wild brook trout were not different in length or weight, but wild fish were older and had higher mercury concentrations. Fish populations maintained by frequent introductions of hatchery-produced fish and subject to high angler exploitation rates may consist of younger fish with lower exposure to environmental mercury and thus contain lower concentrations than wild populations.

  14. Main sources of lead and cadmium

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-03-01

    Lead-acid batteries used in cars accounted for 65% of the lead in MSW in 1986, and rechargeable nickel-cadmium batteries contributed 52% of the cadmium discarded in the U.S. since 1980. According to an EPA draft report, other major sources of lead are consumer electronics 27%; glass and ceramics, 4%; and such plastic items as PVC resins. Other less significant sources of lead are soldered cans, pigments, brass and bronze products, light bulbs, rubber products, used oil, and lead foil wine bottle wrappers. Cadmium comes from other sources in addition to nickel-cadmium batteries. Plastics using cadmium as stabilizer (mainly PVC) or in pigments contribute 28% of the total amount entering the waste stream. Consumer electronics account for 9% (including cadmium-plated steel chassis on old TV sets and radios); appliances which used to be built with cadmium-plated parts to resist corrosion, 5% pigments, particularly those used in non-newspaper printing inks, textile dyes and paints, 4%; and glass and ceramics, 1.6% of the total.

  15. The main auxin biosynthesis pathway in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Mashiguchi, Kiyoshi; Tanaka, Keita; Sakai, Tatsuya; Sugawara, Satoko; Kawaide, Hiroshi; Natsume, Masahiro; Hanada, Atsushi; Yaeno, Takashi; Shirasu, Ken; Yao, Hong; McSteen, Paula; Zhao, Yunde; Hayashi, Ken-ichiro; Kamiya, Yuji; Kasahara, Hiroyuki

    2011-11-01

    The phytohormone auxin plays critical roles in the regulation of plant growth and development. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) has been recognized as the major auxin for more than 70 y. Although several pathways have been proposed, how auxin is synthesized in plants is still unclear. Previous genetic and enzymatic studies demonstrated that both TRYPTOPHAN AMINOTRANSFERASE OF ARABIDOPSIS (TAA) and YUCCA (YUC) flavin monooxygenase-like proteins are required for biosynthesis of IAA during plant development, but these enzymes were placed in two independent pathways. In this article, we demonstrate that the TAA family produces indole-3-pyruvic acid (IPA) and the YUC family functions in the conversion of IPA to IAA in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) by a quantification method of IPA using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem MS. We further show that YUC protein expressed in Escherichia coli directly converts IPA to IAA. Indole-3-acetaldehyde is probably not a precursor of IAA in the IPA pathway. Our results indicate that YUC proteins catalyze a rate-limiting step of the IPA pathway, which is the main IAA biosynthesis pathway in Arabidopsis. PMID:22025724

  16. Chromospheric variations in main-sequence stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baliunas, S. L.; Donahue, R. A.; Soon, J. H.; Horne, J. H.; Frazer, J.; Woodard-Eklund, L.; Bradford, M.; Rao, L. M.; Wilson, O. C.; Zhang, Q.

    1995-01-01

    The fluxes in passbands 0.1 nm wide and centered on the Ca II H and K emission cores have been monitored in 111 stars of spectral type F2-M2 on or near the main sequence in a continuation of an observing program started by O. C. Wilson. Most of the measurements began in 1966, with observations scheduled monthly until 1980, when observations were schedueld sevral times per week. The records, with a long-term precision of about 1.5%, display fluctuations that can be idntified with variations on timescales similar to the 11 yr cycle of solar activity as well as axial rotation, and the growth and decay of emitting regions. We present the records of chromospheric emission and general conclusions about variations in surface magnetic activity on timescales greater than 1 yr but less than a few decades. The results for stars of spectral type G0-K5 V indicate a pattern of change in rotation and chromospheric activity on an evolutionary timescale, in which (1) young stars exhibit high average levels of activity, rapid rotation rates, no Maunder minimum phase and rarely display a smooth, cyclic variation; (2) stars of intermediate age (approximately 1-2 Gyr for 1 solar mass) have moderate levels of activity and rotation rates, and occasional smooth cycles; and (3) stars as old as the Sun and older have slower rotation rates, lower activity levels and smooth cycles with occasional Maunder minimum-phases.

  17. The main magnetic field of Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acuna, M. H.; Ness, N. F.

    1976-01-01

    The main magnetic field of Jupiter has been measured by the Goddard Space Flight Center flux gate magnetometer on Pioneer 11. Analysis of the data yields a more detailed model than that obtained from Pioneer 10 results. In a spherical harmonic octupole representation the dipole term (with opposite polarity to earth's) has a magnitude of 4.28 G times the radial distance cubed at a tilt angle of 9.6 deg and a system 111 longitude of 232 deg. The quadrupole and octupole moments are 24% and 21% of the dipole, respectively. This leads to a significant deviation of the planetary magnetic field from a simple offset dipole topology at distances of less than three times the radial distance. The north polar field strength is 14 G, and in the Northern Hemisphere the 'footprint' of the Io associated flux tube traverses the magnetic polar region. Associated L shell splitting in the radiation belts, warping of the charged particle equatorial planes, and enhanced absorption effects due to the satellites Amalthea and Io are expected as a result of the field complexity.

  18. VINCI / VLTI observations of Main Sequence stars

    E-print Network

    P. Kervella; F. Thevenin; P. Morel; J. Provost; G. Berthomieu; D. Segransan; D. Queloz; P. Borde; E. Di Folco; T. Forveille

    2003-09-29

    Main Sequence (MS) stars are by far the most numerous class in the Universe. They are often somewhat neglected as they are relatively quiet objects (but exceptions exist), though they bear testimony of the past and future of our Sun. An important characteristic of the MS stars, particularly the solar-type ones, is that they host the large majority of the known extrasolar planets. Moreover, at the bottom of the MS, the red M dwarfs pave the way to understanding the physics of brown dwarfs and giant planets. We have measured very precise angular diameters from recent VINCI/VLTI interferometric observations of a number of MS stars in the K band, with spectral types between A1V and M5.5V. They already cover a wide range of effective temperatures and radii. Combined with precise Hipparcos parallaxes, photometry, spectroscopy as well as the asteroseismic information available for some of these stars, the angular diameters put strong constraints on the detailed models of these stars, and therefore on the physical processes at play.

  19. GAS MAIN SENSOR AND COMMUNICATIONS NETWORK SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Hagen Schempf, Ph.D.

    2003-02-27

    Automatika, Inc. was contracted by the Department of Energy (DOE) and with co-funding from the New York Gas Group (NYGAS), to develop an in-pipe natural gas prototype measurement and wireless communications system for assessing and monitoring distribution networks. A prototype system was built for low-pressure cast-iron mains and tested in a spider- and serial-network configuration in a live network in Long Island with the support of Keyspan Energy, Inc. The prototype unit combined sensors capable of monitoring pressure, flow, humidity, temperature and vibration, which were sampled and combined in data-packages in an in-pipe master-slave architecture to collect data from a distributed spider-arrangement, and in a master-repeater-slave configuration in serial or ladder-network arrangements. It was found that the system was capable of performing all data-sampling and collection as expected, yielding interesting results as to flow-dynamics and vibration-detection. Wireless in-pipe communications were shown to be feasible and valuable data was collected in order to determine how to improve on range and data-quality in the future.

  20. Alpha-canonical form representation of the open loop dynamics of the Space Shuttle main engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duyar, Almet; Eldem, Vasfi; Merrill, Walter C.; Guo, Ten-Huei

    1991-01-01

    A parameter and structure estimation technique for multivariable systems is used to obtain a state space representation of open loop dynamics of the space shuttle main engine in alpha-canonical form. The parameterization being used is both minimal and unique. The simplified linear model may be used for fault detection studies and control system design and development.

  1. State space representation of the open-loop dynamics of the Space Shuttle Main Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duyar, Ahmet; Eldem, Vasfi; Merrill, Walter C.; Guo, Ten-Huei

    1991-01-01

    A parameter and structure estimation technique for multivariable systems is used to obtain state space representation of open loop dynamics of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME). The parameterization being used is both minimal and unique. The simplified linear models may be used for fault detection studies and control system design and development.

  2. Investigation of factors affecting asphalt pavement recycling and asphalt compatibility

    SciTech Connect

    Venable, R.L.; Petersen, J.C.; Robertson, R.E.; Plancher, H.

    1983-03-01

    Both economic and environmental factors dictate that asphalt pavement be recycled. Many recycling projects have been completed using a variety of recycling additives, but little work has been done on the physiochemical aspects of pavement recycling. The present exploratory study was undertaken to better define the physiochemical variables of recycling. Objectives of the present study include: (1) to determine if molecular structuring in the asphalt binder could be observed in oxidized (air-aged) asphalt-aggregate briquets, and if so, how was structuring affected during briquits, and if so, how was structuring affected during briquet recycling and (2) to determine if recycling agents penetrate the strongly adsorbed asphalt layer on the aggregate surface. Differences were seen in asphalt component compatibility as judged by the state of peptization parameters. In extreme cases the values of the parameters correlated with properties of asphalts of known compatibility; however, a relationship between the parameters determined on a series of asphalts in pavements was not established. The parameters might be useful in evaluating additives for pavement recycling; however, more systems need to be studied to fully assess their potential usefulness. Finally, the parameters need to be correlated with performance-related measurements such as asphalt rheological and mix properties. Examination of the parameters and their changes on asphalt oxidative aging may also be informative with regard to asphalt durability inasmuch as oxidation-induced changes are a major cause of asphalt pavement failure.

  3. LUNAR SOIL SIMULATION TRAFFICABILITY PARAMETERS

    E-print Network

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    LUNAR SOIL SIMULATION and TRAFFICABILITY PARAMETERS by W. David Carrier, III Lunar Geotechnical.0 RECOMMENDED LUNAR SOIL TRAFFICABILITY PARAMETERS Table 9.14 in the Lunar Sourcebook (Carrier et al. 1991, p. 529) lists the current recommended lunar soil trafficability parameters: bc = 0.017 N/cm2 bN = 35° K

  4. Parameter Sensitivity in Multivariate Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Bert F., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Interpretation of multivariate models requires knowing how much the fit of the model is impaired by changes in the parameters. The relation of parameter change to loss of goodness of fit can be called parameter sensitivity. Formulas are presented for assessing the sensitivity of multiple regression and principal component weights. (Author/JKS)

  5. Bibliography for aircraft parameter estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iliff, Kenneth W.; Maine, Richard E.

    1986-01-01

    An extensive bibliography in the field of aircraft parameter estimation has been compiled. This list contains definitive works related to most aircraft parameter estimation approaches. Theoretical studies as well as practical applications are included. Many of these publications are pertinent to subjects peripherally related to parameter estimation, such as aircraft maneuver design or instrumentation considerations.

  6. Investigations of ice formation in the Space Shuttle Main Engine 0209 main injector coolant cavity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, D. R.; Charklwick, D. M.

    1991-01-01

    Severe main combustion chamber wall and main injector baffle element deterioration occurred during tests of Space Shuttle Main Engine 0209. One of the possible causes considered is ice formation and blockage of coolant to these components, resulting from the mixing of leaking hot turbine exhaust gas (hydrogen rich steam) and hydrogen coolant in the injector coolant cavity. The plausibility of ice blockage is investigated through simple mixing calculations for hot gas and hydrogen, investigation of condensation and water droplet formation, calculation of the freezing times for droplets, and the prediction of ice layer thicknesses. It is concluded that condensation and droplet formation can occur, and small water droplets that form can freeze very quickly when in contact with the cold coolant cavity surfaces. Copnservative analysis predicts, however, that the maximum thickness of the ice layers formed is too small to result in significant blockage of the coolant flow.

  7. Design of a prototype Advanced Main Combustion Chamber for the Space Shuttle Main Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lackey, J. D.; Myers, W. N.

    1992-01-01

    Development of a prototype advanced main combustion chamber is underway at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The Advanced Main Combustion Chamber (AMCC) project is being approached utilizing a 'concurrent engineering' concept where groups from materials, manufacturing, stress, quality, and design are involved from the initiation of the project. The AMCC design has been tailored to be compatible with the investment casting process. Jacket, inlet/outlet manifolds, inlet/outlet neck coolant flow splitters, support ribs, actuator lugs, and engine controller mounting bracket will all be a part of the one-piece AMCC casting. Casting of the AMCC in a one-piece configuration necessitated a method of forming a liner in its structural jacket. A method of vacuum plasma spraying the liner is being developed. In 1994, the AMCC will be hot-fired on the Technology Test Bed Space Shuttle Main Engine.

  8. Affect Dynamics, Affective Forecasting, and Aging Lisbeth Nielsen

    E-print Network

    Knutson, Brian

    of these decisions can have life-or-death consequences, the validity of such assumptions is of crucial importance affective responses to decision outcomes, resulting in inaccurate inputs to decision-making pro- cesses over the life span may have important implications for understanding decision making at different life

  9. Main features of anthropogenic inner-urban soils in Szeged, Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puskás, Irén.; Farsang, Andrea

    2010-05-01

    At the beginning of the 21st century, due to the intensive urbanization it is necessary to gather more and more information on altered physical, chemical and biological parameters of urban soils in order to ensure their suitable management and protection for appropriate living conditions. Nowadays, these measures are very relevant since negative environmental effects can modify the soil forming factors in cities. Szeged, the 4th largest city of Hungary, proved to be an ideal sampling area for the research of urban soils since its original surface has been altered by intensive anthropogenic activities. The main objectives of my research are the investigation, description and evaluation of the altered soils in Szeged. For the physical and chemical analysis (humus, nitrogen, carbonate content, heavy metals, pH, artefacts etc.) of soils 124 samples were taken from the horizons of 25 profiles in Szeged and its peripherals (as control samples). The profiles were sampled at sites affected by different extent of artificial infill according to infill maps (1. profiles fully made up of infill; 2. so-called mixed profiles consisting of considerable amount of infill material and buried soil horizons; 3. natural profiles located in the peripherals of the city). With the help of the above-mentioned parameters, the studied soils of Szeged were assigned into the classification system of WRB(2006), which classifies the soils of urban and industrial areas as an individual soil group (under the term Technosols) for the first time. In accordance with the WRB(2006) nomenclature three main soil types can be identified in Szeged with respect to the degree of human influence: profiles slightly influenced, strongly modified, completely altered by human activities. During this poster, we present the peculiarities of typical urban profiles strongly and completely altered by human influence. Most profiles were placed into the group of Technosols due to the considerable transformation of their diagnostic properties (e.g. coverage by artificial objects, intensive compaction, horizontal and vertical variability, abrupt colour and textural changes usually high amount of artefacts, irregular fluctuation of diagnostic properties along the profiles, anthropogenic parent material, high pH and carbonate content, poor humus quality, mainly sand, sandy loam texture etc.). Transformations were best reflected by suffixes such as Ekranic, Urbic, Linic. Among the suffix qualifiers Calcaric, Ruptic, Densic and Arenic were used the most frequently. Furthermore, we found that some of the studied profiles were not situated in the city centre. Consequently, the location of these profiles in the city centre is not necessary since local influences can overwhelm the effect of artificial infill. Considering all the profiles, two of them in city centre can be consider to be the most anthropogenic: profile No. 11 [Ekranic Technosol (Ruptic, Toxic, Endoclayic)] and profile No. 22 [Urbic Technosol (Calcaric, Ruptic, Densic, Arenic)]. It can be claimed that profile No. 11 with "technic hard rock" has the least chance to experience pedogenetic processes since the horizons are covered by thick, surface artificial object, and isolated from the outside world. However, in case of profile No. 22 with dense vegetation and without surface artificial object, the high amount of artefact inhibits pedogenesis.

  10. Subsurface Geotechnical Parameters Report

    SciTech Connect

    D. Rigby; M. Mrugala; G. Shideler; T. Davidsavor; J. Leem; D. Buesch; Y. Sun; D. Potyondy; M. Christianson

    2003-12-17

    The Yucca Mountain Project is entering a the license application (LA) stage in its mission to develop the nation's first underground nuclear waste repository. After a number of years of gathering data related to site characterization, including activities ranging from laboratory and site investigations, to numerical modeling of processes associated with conditions to be encountered in the future repository, the Project is realigning its activities towards the License Application preparation. At the current stage, the major efforts are directed at translating the results of scientific investigations into sets of data needed to support the design, and to fulfill the licensing requirements and the repository design activities. This document addresses the program need to address specific technical questions so that an assessment can be made about the suitability and adequacy of data to license and construct a repository at the Yucca Mountain Site. In July 2002, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) published an Integrated Issue Resolution Status Report (NRC 2002). Included in this report were the Repository Design and Thermal-Mechanical Effects (RDTME) Key Technical Issues (KTI). Geotechnical agreements were formulated to resolve a number of KTI subissues, in particular, RDTME KTIs 3.04, 3.05, 3.07, and 3.19 relate to the physical, thermal and mechanical properties of the host rock (NRC 2002, pp. 2.1.1-28, 2.1.7-10 to 2.1.7-21, A-17, A-18, and A-20). The purpose of the Subsurface Geotechnical Parameters Report is to present an accounting of current geotechnical information that will help resolve KTI subissues and some other project needs. The report analyzes and summarizes available qualified geotechnical data. It evaluates the sufficiency and quality of existing data to support engineering design and performance assessment. In addition, the corroborative data obtained from tests performed by a number of research organizations is presented to reinforce conclusions derived from the pool of data gathered within a full QA-controlled domain. An evaluation of the completeness of the current data is provided with respect to the requirements for geotechnical data to support design and performance assessment.

  11. Environmental radon and cancer correlations in Maine.

    PubMed

    Hess, C T; Weiffenbach, C V; Norton, S A

    1983-08-01

    The distribution of 222Rn has been measured in the sixteen counties of Maine, U.S.A. by liquid scintillation counting of water samples from more than two thousand public and private wells. Three hundred and fifty of these wells have been characterized for geology and hydrology. Airborne radon has been measured in seventy houses with grab samples and in eighteen houses for 5-7 days each with continuously recording diffusion-electrostatic radon detectors. Concentrations of radon in water ranged from 20 to 180,000 pCi/l. Granite areas yielded the highest average levels (mean = 22,100 pCi/l.; n = 136), with considerable intra-granite variation. Metasedimentary rocks yielded levels characteristic of the lithology for metamorphic grades ranging from chlorite to andalusite. Sillimanite and higher-grade rocks yielded higher 222Rn levels, probably due to the intrusion of uranium-bearing pegmatites in these terranes. Airborne 222Rn in homes ranged from 0.05 to 210 pCi/l. At the high end of this range, doses will exceed recommended industrial limits. In some homes only a small fraction of the airborne 222Rn was due to the water supply. Average 222Rn levels in domestic water supplies for each of the 16 counties, calculated by areally averaging rock types and their associated 222Rn levels, were found to be significantly correlated with rates for all cancers combined and rates for lung and reproductive cancers in the counties. Although numerous factors other than cancer induction by indoor daughter exposures may be responsible for the observed correlations, these have not been investigated in detail. PMID:6885433

  12. GAS MAIN SENSOR AND COMMUNICATIONS NETWORK SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Hagen Schempf

    2004-09-30

    Automatika, Inc. was contracted by the Department of Energy (DOE) and with co-funding from the New York Gas Group (NYGAS), to develop an in-pipe natural gas prototype measurement and wireless communications system for assessing and monitoring distribution networks. In Phase II of this three-phase program, an improved prototype system was built for low-pressure cast-iron and high-pressure steel (including a no-blow installation system) mains and tested in a serial-network configuration in a live network in Long Island with the support of Keyspan Energy, Inc. The experiment was carried out in several open-hole excavations over a multi-day period. The prototype units (3 total) combined sensors capable of monitoring pressure, flow, humidity, temperature and vibration, which were sampled and combined in data-packages in an in-pipe master-repeater-slave configuration in serial or ladder-network arrangements. It was verified that the system was capable of performing all data-sampling, data-storage and collection as expected, yielding interesting results as to flow-dynamics and vibration-detection. Wireless in-pipe communications were shown to be feasible and the system was demonstrated to run off in-ground battery- and above-ground solar power. The remote datalogger access and storage-card features were demonstrated and used to log and post-process system data. Real-time data-display on an updated Phase-I GUI was used for in-field demonstration and troubleshooting.

  13. Gas Main Sensor and Communications Network System

    SciTech Connect

    Hagen Schempf

    2006-05-31

    Automatika, Inc. was contracted by the Department of Energy (DOE) and with co-funding from the Northeast Gas Association (NGA), to develop an in-pipe natural gas prototype measurement and wireless communications system for assessing and monitoring distribution networks. This projected was completed in April 2006, and culminated in the installation of more than 2 dozen GasNet nodes in both low- and high-pressure cast-iron and steel mains owned by multiple utilities in the northeastern US. Utilities are currently logging data (off-line) and monitoring data in real time from single and multiple networked sensors over cellular networks and collecting data using wireless bluetooth PDA systems. The system was designed to be modular, using in-pipe sensor-wands capable of measuring, flow, pressure, temperature, water-content and vibration. Internal antennae allowed for the use of the pipe-internals as a waveguide for setting up a sensor network to collect data from multiple nodes simultaneously. Sensor nodes were designed to be installed with low- and no-blow techniques and tools. Using a multi-drop bus technique with a custom protocol, all electronics were designed to be buriable and allow for on-board data-collection (SD-card), wireless relaying and cellular network forwarding. Installation options afforded by the design included direct-burial and external polemounted variants. Power was provided by one or more batteries, direct AC-power (Class I Div.2) and solar-array. The utilities are currently in a data-collection phase and intend to use the collected (and processed) data to make capital improvement decisions, compare it to Stoner model predictions and evaluate the use of such a system for future expansion, technology-improvement and commercialization starting later in 2006.

  14. A Full 24-Parameter MSSM Exploration

    SciTech Connect

    AbdusSalam, Shehu S.

    2008-11-23

    Up until now a complete scan in all phenomenologically relevant directions of the MSSM at the TeV scale for performing global fit has not been done. Given the imminent start of operation of the LHC, this is a major gap on our quest to discovering and understanding the physical implications of low energy supersymmetry. The main reason for this is the large number of parameters involved that makes it computationally extremely expensive using the traditional methods. In this talk I demonstrate that with advanced Bayesian sampling techniques the problem is solvable. The results from the explored 24-parameter TeV scale MSSM (phenoMSSM) are remarkably distinct from previous studies and are independent of models for supersymmetry breaking and mediation mechanisms. Hence they are a more robust guide to searches for supersymmetry.

  15. The ecloud measurement setup in the Main Injector

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, C.Y.; Backfish, M.; Zwaska, R.; /Fermilab

    2010-12-01

    Ecloud has been observed in many high intensity accelerators which can limit the amount of current that can be stored in them. In particular, for ProjectX, the amount of beam current that will be stored in the MI (Main Injector) will be {approx}160 x 10{sup 12} protons while the present maximum intensity is {approx}45 x 10{sup 12} protons which is about 3.5x less beam. Although ecloud has been observed in the MI, it has not caused instabilities at the present running conditions. However, there is no guarantee that instabilities caused by ecloud will not be a problem at ProjectX intensities. Therefore, a program has been started to study the ecloud effects with both computer simulations and experiments. In this paper, we will be focusing our attention on how coatings can affect the production of secondary electrons. We have installed an ecloud measurement setup in a straight section of MI which consists of one coated and one uncoated beam pipe with the same physical dimensions and at the same location, together with four retarding field analyzers (RFAs) and three sets of beam position monitors (BPMs) which can be used for the microwave measurements. An ecloud measurement setup was installed in a straight section of the Main Injector in 2009. The goal of the setup was to compare the characteristics of different beam pipe coatings when subjected to proton beam. The setup consists of one coated and one uncoated beam pipe with the same physical dimensions installed at the same location. Four RFAs (retarding field analyzers) and three BPMs (beam position monitors) used for microwave measurements have been used to measure the ecloud densities. The RFAs have performed very well and have collected both the time evolution and energy distribution of the ecloud for bare and two types of beam pipe coatings.

  16. RECENT ELECTRON-CLOUD SIMULATION RESULTS FOR THE MAIN DAMPING RINGS OF THE NLC AND TESLA LINEAR COLLIDERS

    E-print Network

    Furman, Miguel

    RECENT ELECTRON-CLOUD SIMULATION RESULTS FOR THE MAIN DAMPING RINGS OF THE NLC AND TESLA LINEAR for the TESLA main damping rings, obtained with the code POSINST that has been developed at LBNL, and lately for the NLC and TESLA positron damping rings. Parameter Symbol NLC TESLA Beam energy E, GeV 1.98 5.0 Bunch

  17. Factors affecting dwell times on digital displaying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, A. J.; Harris, R. L., Sr.

    1985-01-01

    A series of exploratory tests were conducted to investigate the effects of advanced display formats and display media on pilot scanning behavior using Langley's oculometer, a desktop flight simulator, a conventional electro-mechanical meter, and various digital displays. The primary task was for the test subject to maintain level flight, on a specific course heading, during moderate turbulence. A secondary task of manually controlling the readout of a display was used to examine the effects of the display format on a subject's scan behavior. Secondary task scan parameters that were evaluated were average dwell time, dwell time histograms, and number of dwells per meter change. The round dial meter demonstrated shorter dwell times and fewer dwells per meter change than the digital displays. The following factors affected digital display scanning behavior: (1) the number of digits; (2) the update rate of the digits; (3) the display media; and (4) the character font. The size of the digits used in these tests (0.28 to 0.50 inches) did not affect scan behavior measures.

  18. WIPP Compliance Certification Application calculations parameters. Part 1: Parameter development

    SciTech Connect

    Howarth, S.M.

    1997-11-14

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeast New Mexico has been studied as a transuranic waste repository for the past 23 years. During this time, an extensive site characterization, design, construction, and experimental program was completed, which provided in-depth understanding of the dominant processes that are most likely to influence the containment of radionuclides for 10,000 years. Nearly 1,500 parameters were developed using information gathered from this program; the parameters were input to numerical models for WIPP Compliance Certification Application (CCA) Performance Assessment (PA) calculations. The CCA probabilistic codes frequently require input values that define a statistical distribution for each parameter. Developing parameter distributions begins with the assignment of an appropriate distribution type, which is dependent on the type, magnitude, and volume of data or information available. The development of the parameter distribution values may require interpretation or statistical analysis of raw data, combining raw data with literature values, scaling of lab or field data to fit code grid mesh sizes, or other transformation. Parameter development and documentation of the development process were very complicated, especially for those parameters based on empirical data; they required the integration of information from Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) code sponsors, parameter task leaders (PTLs), performance assessment analysts (PAAs), and experimental principal investigators (PIs). This paper, Part 1 of two parts, contains a discussion of the parameter development process, roles and responsibilities, and lessons learned. Part 2 will discuss parameter documentation, traceability and retrievability, and lessons learned from related audits and reviews.

  19. To what extent does urbanisation affect fragmented grassland functioning?

    PubMed

    van der Walt, L; Cilliers, S S; Kellner, K; Du Toit, M J; Tongway, D

    2015-03-15

    Urbanisation creates altered environments characterised by increased human habitation, impermeable surfaces, artificial structures, landscape fragmentation, habitat loss, resulting in different resource loss pathways. The vulnerable Rand Highveld Grassland vegetation unit in the Tlokwe Municipal area, South Africa, has been extensively affected and transformed by urbanisation, agriculture, and mining. Grassland fragments in urban areas are often considered to be less species rich and less functional than in the more untransformed or "natural" exurban environments, and are therefore seldom a priority for conservation. Furthermore, urban grassland fragments are often being more intensely managed than exurban areas, such as consistent mowing in open urban areas. Four urbanisation measures acting as indicators for patterns and processes associated with urban areas were calculated for matrix areas surrounding each selected grassland fragment to quantify the position of each grassland remnant along an urbanisation gradient. The grassland fragments were objectively classified into two classes of urbanisation, namely "exurban" and "urban" based on the urbanisation measure values. Grazing was recorded in some exurban grasslands and mowing in some urban grassland fragments. Unmanaged grassland fragments were present in both urban and exurban areas. Fine-scale biophysical landscape function was determined by executing the Landscape Function Analysis (LFA) method. LFA assesses fine-scale landscape patchiness (entailing resource conserving potential and erosion resistance) and 11 soil surface indicators to produce three main LFA parameters (stability, infiltration, and nutrient cycling), which indicates how well a system is functioning in terms of fine-scale biophysical soil processes and characteristics. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of urbanisation and associated management practices on fine-scale biophysical landscape function of urban and exurban grassland fragments, as well as to determine the potential for the use of LFA in decision-making involving the conservation of grassland fragments. The results indicated that the occurrence, size and characteristics of vegetated patches, and especially the presence of litter abundances, were the main factors determining differences in the LFA indices. Furthermore, mowing resulted in the overall fine-scale biophysical indices being higher for some of the urban grassland fragments. This implied that it is not necessarily the influence of urbanisation entailing high or low resource conserving patchiness and patch quality, but rather the management practices associated with urban and exurban areas. Therefore, from a conservation point of view, the grassland fragments in the City of Potchefstroom are just as conservable (on a biophysical function level involving soil processes) than the more "natural" exurban grassland fragments. PMID:25616514

  20. 146 Kepler-Lamost targets fundamental parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yaqian

    2015-08-01

    Accurate stellar fundamental parameters with high precision are important for distinguishing stellar populationand star study.Turn-off stars are in the relatively vital stellar evolution state. Studying turn-off stars can help us to have a more comprehensive understand of the stellar physics.With the help of observation provided by Lamost project, we obtain atmospheric parameters of 146 turn-off stars from LSP3 pipeline. Combined with stellar pulsation data from Kepler, we can get asteroseismic characteristic of stars,such as ?? and ?max.In this paper,we constructed a grid of evolutionary models, with the mass range from 0.8 to 2.5 M? and metallicities Zini = 0.0085, 0.0105, 0.0130, 0.0165, 0.0200, 0.0250, 0.0300, 0.0400 (i.e.[Fe/H] from -0.3 to 0.4dex).All evolutionary tracks were started in the pre-main sequence birth line and ended at the base of Red Giant Branch.Based on the stellar model grid we constructed,as well as Kepler-Lamost observations, we obtained fundamental parameters of 146 around turn-off stars, and found that 112 targets lied in turn-off state or in the Main Sequence,15 targets are subgiant stars and 7 targets have evolved to the red giants stage.Then we use pulsation code(JIG) of Guenther to extract theorical individual frequencies and calculate theorical ??.Meanwhile we obtained more precise fundamental parameters of these stars.

  1. Contributions of archaeology to the study of erosion along the rocky Maine coast

    SciTech Connect

    Kellogg, D.C. . Dept. of Anthropology)

    1992-01-01

    The study of coastal erosion is a geological concern: however, erosion is a serious problem for the study of Maine's prehistory. Over 3,000 shell midden sites occur along maine's coast and virtually all of them are subject to coastal erosion despite the fact that the majority of the coast is steep and rocky. Geological literature on coastal erosion has focused on cliffed and unconsolidated coasts with little attention to convoluted rocky coasts. Archaeology has contributed to the study of coastal erosion in Maine in three important ways. The first is by calling attention to the problem. Prior to 1982 coastal erosion was seen as a geological hazard affecting only limited areas of the coast where thick glaciomarine sediments are subject to landslides. Archaeological research showed that significant erosion is common and wide spread. The second contribution is a focus on the much smaller scale of erosion affecting most areas. The scale of erosion affecting archaeological sites is the same as that which affects individual coastal property owners. The third contribution is in directly providing data on the rate of coastal erosion. The rate of erosion can be measured against historically documented dimensions of particular archaeological sites and by statistical studies of region site distributions. Interaction between archaeologists and geologists has brought different perspectives to the problem of coastal erosion resulting in valuable insights and understanding.

  2. 14 CFR 27.547 - Main rotor structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Main rotor structure. 27.547 Section 27.547 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... § 27.547 Main rotor structure. (a) Each main...

  3. 40 CFR 282.69 - Maine State-Administered Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Federal Register . (d) Maine has final approval for the following...elements submitted to EPA in Maine's program application for...Underground Storage Tank Program, Maine Department of Environmental...Building, Hospital Street, Augusta, ME 04333. The elements...

  4. 40 CFR 282.69 - Maine State-Administered Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Federal Register . (d) Maine has final approval for the following...elements submitted to EPA in Maine's program application for...Underground Storage Tank Program, Maine Department of Environmental...Building, Hospital Street, Augusta, ME 04333. The elements...

  5. 40 CFR 282.69 - Maine State-Administered Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...the Federal Register. (d) Maine has final approval for the following...elements submitted to EPA in Maine's program application for...Underground Storage Tank Program, Maine Department of Environmental...Building, Hospital Street, Augusta, ME 04333. The elements...

  6. 49 CFR 229.51 - Aluminum main reservoirs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Aluminum main reservoirs. 229.51 Section 229.51 Transportation... Brake System § 229.51 Aluminum main reservoirs. (a) Aluminum main reservoirs used on locomotives shall be designed...

  7. 49 CFR 229.51 - Aluminum main reservoirs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Aluminum main reservoirs. 229.51 Section 229.51 Transportation... Brake System § 229.51 Aluminum main reservoirs. (a) Aluminum main reservoirs used on locomotives shall be designed...

  8. 49 CFR 229.51 - Aluminum main reservoirs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Aluminum main reservoirs. 229.51 Section 229.51 Transportation... Brake System § 229.51 Aluminum main reservoirs. (a) Aluminum main reservoirs used on locomotives shall be designed...

  9. 46 CFR 58.01-35 - Main propulsion auxiliary machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Main propulsion auxiliary machinery. 58.01-35...Requirements § 58.01-35 Main propulsion auxiliary machinery. Auxiliary machinery vital to the main propulsion system must be provided in...

  10. 46 CFR 58.01-35 - Main propulsion auxiliary machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Main propulsion auxiliary machinery. 58.01-35...Requirements § 58.01-35 Main propulsion auxiliary machinery. Auxiliary machinery vital to the main propulsion system must be provided in...

  11. MAIN-SEQUENCE STAR POPULATIONS IN THE VIRGO OVERDENSITY REGION

    SciTech Connect

    Jerjen, H.; Da Costa, G. S.; Tisserand, P.; Willman, B.; Arimoto, N.; Okamoto, S.; Mateo, M.; Saviane, I.; Walsh, S.; Geha, M.; Jordan, A.; Zoccali, M.; Olszewski, E.; Walker, M.; Kroupa, P.

    2013-05-20

    We present deep color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) for two Subaru Suprime-Cam fields in the Virgo Stellar Stream (VSS)/Virgo Overdensity (VOD) and compare them to a field centered on the highest concentration of Sagittarius (Sgr) Tidal Stream stars in the leading arm, Branch A of the bifurcation. A prominent population of main-sequence stars is detected in all three fields and can be traced as faint as g Almost-Equal-To 24 mag. Using theoretical isochrone fitting, we derive an age of 9.1{sup +1.0}{sub -1.1} Gyr, a median abundance of [Fe/H] = -0.70{sup +0.15}{sub -0.20} dex, and a heliocentric distance of 30.9 {+-} 3.0 kpc for the main sequence of the Sgr Stream Branch A. The dominant main-sequence populations in the two VSS/VOD fields ({Lambda}{sub Sun} Almost-Equal-To 265 Degree-Sign , B{sub Sun} Almost-Equal-To 13 Degree-Sign ) are located at a mean distance of 23.3 {+-} 1.6 kpc and have an age of {approx}8.2 Gyr, and an abundance of [Fe/H] = -0.67{sup +0.16}{sub -0.12} dex, similar to the Sgr Stream stars. These statistically robust parameters, derived from the photometry of 260 main-sequence stars, are also in good agreement with the age of the main population in the Sgr dwarf galaxy (8.0 {+-} 1.5 Gyr). They also agree with the peak in the metallicity distribution of 2-3 Gyr old M giants, [Fe/H] Almost-Equal-To -0.6 dex, in the Sgr north leading arm. We then compare the results from the VSS/VOD fields with the Sgr Tidal Stream model by Law and Majewski based on a triaxial Galactic halo shape that is empirically calibrated with Sloan Digital Sky Survey Sgr A-branch and Two Micron All Sky Survey M-giant stars. We find that the most prominent feature in the CMDs, the main-sequence population at 23 kpc, is not explained by the model. Instead the model predicts in these directions a low-density filamentary structure of Sgr debris stars at {approx}9 kpc and a slightly higher concentration of Sgr stars spread over a heliocentric distance range of 42-53 kpc. At best there is only marginal evidence for the presence of these populations in our data. Our findings then suggest that while there are probably some Sgr debris stars present, the dominant stellar population in the VOD originates from a different halo structure that has an almost identical age and metallicity as some sections of the Sgr tidal stream.

  12. Accessing the Gulf of Maine’s Climate Change Data Through Webtools

    EPA Science Inventory

    Climate variables have been measured in the Gulf of Maine and its watersheds for over one hundred years and long-standing time series are available at many different institutes. However, today’s managers looking for a quick answer to scientific questions rarely have the tim...

  13. Digitization of a geologic map for the Quebec-Maine-Gulf of Maine global geoscience transect

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, Bruce E.; Stewart, David B.

    1990-01-01

    The Bedrock Geologic Map of Maine was digitized and combined with digital geologic data for Quebec and the Gulf of Maine for the Quebec-Maine-Gulf of Maine Geologic Transect Project. This map is being combined with digital geophysical data to produce three-dimensional depictions of the subsurface geology and to produce cross sections of the Earth's crust. It is an essential component of a transect that stretches from the craton near Quebec City, Quebec, to the Atlantic Ocean Basin south of Georges Bank. The transect is part of the Global Geosciences Transect Project of the International Lithosphere Program. The Digital Line Graph format is used for storage of the digitized data. A coding scheme similar to that used for base category planimetric data was developed to assign numeric codes to the digitized geologic data. These codes were used to assign attributes to polygon and line features to describe rock type, age, name, tectonic setting of original deposition, mineralogy, and composition of igneous plutonic rocks, as well as faults and other linear features. The digital geologic data can be readily edited, rescaled, and reprojected. The attribute codes allow generalization and selective retrieval of the geologic features. The codes allow assignment of map colors based on age, lithology, or other attribute. The Digital Line Graph format is a general transfer format that is supported by many software vendors and is easily transferred between systems.

  14. Factors affecting the retrieval of famous names.

    PubMed

    Martins, Isabel Pavão; Loureiro, Clara; Rodrigues, Susana; Dias, Beatriz; Slade, Peter

    2010-06-01

    Tests of famous faces are used to study language and memory. Yet, the effect of stimulus properties on performance has not been fully investigated. To identify factors influencing proper name retrieval and to probe stimulus-specific parameters within proper name lexicon, we analysed the results obtained by 300 healthy participants on a test of famous faces that includes 74 personalities. A factor analysis yielded five main factors that were characterized by language (national or foreign names), epoch of peak popularity (current, recent or past) and occupation (politicians, entertainment and sports) of the personalities. Multiple regression analysis showed that participants' education, age and gender accounted for 10-32% of the variance in factor scores. These results indicate that there are variables of the stimulus and participants' that must be taken into account in proper name testing and in designing tests aimed to differentiate age-associated difficulties from cognitive decline. PMID:19904486

  15. The Bear Brook Watershed, Maine (BBWM), USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Norton, S.; Kahl, J.; Fernandez, I.; Haines, T.; Rustad, L.; Nodvin, S.; Scofield, J.; Strickland, T.; Erickson, H.; Wigington, P., Jr.; Lee, J.

    1999-01-01

    The Bear Brook Watershed Manipulation project in Maine is a paired calibrated watershed study funded by the U.S. EPA. The research program is evaluating whole ecosystem response to elevated inputs of acidifying chemicals. The consists of a 2.5 year calibration period (1987-1989), nine years of chemical additions of (NH4)2SO4 (15N- and 34S-enriched for several years) to West Bear watershed (1989-1998), followed by a recovery period. The other watershed, East Bear, serves as a reference. Dosing is in six equal treatments/yr of 1800 eq SO4 and NH4/ha/yr, a 200% increase over 1988 loading (wet plus dry) for SO4 300% for N (wet NO3 + NH4). The experimental and reference watersheds are forested with mixed hard- and softwoods, and have thin acidic soils, areas of 10.2 and 10.7 ha and relief of 210 m. Thin till of variable composition is underlain by metasedimentary pelitic rocks and calc-silicate gneiss intruded by granite dikes and sills. For the period 1987-1995, precipitation averaged 1.4 m/yr, had a mean pH of 4.5, with SO4, NO3, and NH4 concentrations of 26, 14, and 7 ??eq/L, respectively. The nearly perrenial streams draining each watershed have discharges ranging from 0 (East Bear stops flowing for one to two months per year) to 150 L/sec. Prior to manipulation, East Bear and West Bear had a volume weighted annual mean pH of approximately 5.4, alkalinity = 0 to 4 ??eq/L, total base cations = 184 ??eq/L (sea-salt corrected = 118 ??eq/L), and SO4 = 100 to 111 ??eq/L. Nitrate ranged from 0 to 30 ??eq/L with an annual mean of 6 to 25 ??eq/L; dissolved organic carbon (DOC) ranged from 1 to 7 mg/L but was typically less than 3. Episodic acidification occurred at high discharge and was caused by dilution of cations, slightly increased DOC, significantly higher NO3, and the sea-salt effect. Depressions in pH were accompanied by increases in inorganic Al. The West Bear catchment responded to the chemical additions with increased export of base cations, Al, SO4, NO3, and decreased pH, ANC, and DOC. Silica remained relatively constant. Neutralization of the acidifying chemicals occurred dominantly by cation desorption and mobilization of Al.

  16. Jupiter's Main Ring and 2 Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Jupiter's main ring is a narrow structure about 6,000 kilometers (about 3,700 miles) in width and about 100,000 times fainter than the planet it encircles. These are the first pictures that NASA's Cassini spacecraft has taken of the ring, a portion of which appears in each frame as an arc opening toward the right.

    Image processing helped make the ring easier to see in these frames taken with Cassini's narrow-angle camera during a 39.5-hour period beginning Dec. 11, 2000. The distance between the spacecraft and Jupiter narrowed during those hours, from 20.3 million kilometers (12.6 million miles) to 19 million kilometers (11.8 million miles). Also, Cassini's movement took it from 3.3 degrees above the plane of the rings to 2.98 degrees above the plane. The frames are in sequence from upper left to lower right. The image of the ring's arc grows longer, as the spacecraft approaches the planet.

    Resolution is about 230 kilometers (143 miles) per pixel. The 10 frames shown here are each a small section of several separate narrow-angle images taken through the camera's clear filter and spanning the entire 39.5 hour period. The scattered light background has been removed, and the images have been contrast-stretched to enhance the ring. The contours in the image, as well as the small variations in brightness of the ring from one frame to the next, are a result of the image processing and background removal.

    This image sequence also shows the motions of two satellites embedded in Jupiter's ring. The moon Adrastea is the fainter of the two, and Metis the brighter. Images such as these will be used to refine the orbits of the two bodies. This image sequence also shows the motions of two satellites embedded in Jupiter's ring. The moon Adrastea is the fainter of the two, and Metis the brighter. Images such as these will be used to refine the orbits of the two bodies.

    Cassini is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Cassini mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C.

  17. EVALUATION OF PARAMETERS AFFECTING DETECTION OF ESCHERICHIA COLI 0157 IN ENRICHED WATER SAMPLES USING IMMUNOMAGNETIC ELECTROCHEMILUMINESCENCE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report here on the use of immunomagnetic (IM) electrochemiluminescence (ECL) for quantitative detection of E. coli O157:H7 in water samples following enrichment using a minimal lactose broth (MLB). In-house IM beads, prepared using four commercial anti-O157 monoclonal antibodies, were compared f...

  18. Visual display of reservoir parameters affecting enhanced oil recovery. Quarterly report, July 1995--September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, J.R.

    1995-10-01

    Research continued on reservoir characterization. An atlas of thin section petrology of reservoir samples from the Southern San Joaquin Basin was acquired. One-dimensional modeling activities were initiated. Results of a modeling study of Elk Hills is described.

  19. Upper Middle Mainstem Columbia River Subbasin Water Quality Parameters Affected by Hydropower Production

    E-print Network

    periods of high runoff and spill at hydropower projects and can be harmful to fish. Supersaturation occurs when gases, entrained by water passing over spill gates, are carried to depth by the plunging action of the spill and forced into solution by increased hydrostatic pressure (Perleberg and McDonald 2000). Fish

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: SPATIAL HETEROGENEITY OF GEOCHEMICAL AND HYDROLOGIC PARAMETERS AFFECTING METAL TRANSPORT IN GROUND WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reliable assessment of the hazards or risks arising from groundwater contamination and the design of effective means of rehabilitation of contaminated sites requires the capability to predict the movement and fate of dissolved solutes in groundwater. The modeling of metal transp...