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1

Deriving reliable fundamental parameters of pre-main-sequence-rich star clusters affected by differential reddening  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an approach that improves the search for reliable astrophysical parameters (e.g. age, mass and distance) of differentially reddened, pre-main-sequence-rich star clusters. It involves simulating conditions related to the early-cluster phases, in particular the differential and foreground reddenings, and internal age spread. Given the loose constraints imposed by these factors, the derivation of parameters based only on photometry may be uncertain, especially for the poorly populated clusters. We consider a wide range of cluster (i) mass and (ii) age, and different values of (iii) distance modulus, (iv) differential and (v) foreground reddenings. Photometric errors and their relation with magnitude are also taken into account. We also investigate how the presence of unresolved binaries affect the derived parameters. For each set of (i)-(v) we build the corresponding model Hess diagram, and compute the root mean squared residual with respect to the observed Hess diagram. The parameters that produce the minimum residuals between model and observed Hess diagrams are searched by exploring the full parameter space of (i)-(v) by means of brute force, which may be time consuming but efficient. Control tests show that an adequate convergence is achieved allowing for solutions with residuals 10 per cent higher than the absolute minimum. Compared to a colour-magnitude diagram containing only single stars, the presence of 100 per cent of unresolved binaries has little effect on cluster age, foreground and differential reddenings; significant differences show up in the cluster mass and distance from the Sun. Our approach proves to be successful in minimizing the subjectiveness when deriving fundamental parameters of young star clusters.

Bonatto, C.; Bica, E.; Lima, E. F.

2012-02-01

2

Factors Affecting the Comprehension of Global and Local Main Idea  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated factors that would affect a reader's understanding of the main idea at the global level and explicit and implicit main ideas at the local level. Fifty-seven first-year university students taking a college reading course took a comprehension test on an expository text. Statistical analyses revealed that text structure had a…

Wang, Danhua

2009-01-01

3

How six parameters affect BHT during circulation  

SciTech Connect

Deeper drilling and consequently hotter formations make knowledge of circulation temperature important for optimizing design of drilling fluid. The effect of six parameters that will influence the temperature has been evaluated. They are: 1. Well geometry: annulus, drill pipe, and hole size; 2. Mud pump rate; 3. Mud inlet temperature; 4. Geothermal gradient; 5. Heat transfer coefficient; 6. Depth. Computer programs were developed to solve the differential equations presented in the Holmes model. The model was used to calculate down-hole circulation temperature in an idealized well. For this analysis, the drillstring is not varied and no casing is assumed. The temperature profile of the mud in the drill pipe and in the annulus is shown. The rate of increase in the temperature decreases at about two-thirds of the total depth. This phenomenon also was demonstrated by the Crawford model. The findings regarding the various effects are given in this article.

Bizanti, M.S.; Bayyaa, S.M.

1988-02-22

4

Parameters affecting greywater quality and its safety for reuse.  

PubMed

Reusing greywater (GW) for on-site irrigation is becoming a common practice worldwide. Alongside its benefits, GW reuse might pose health and environmental risks. The current study assesses the risks associated with on-site GW reuse and the main factors affecting them. GW from 34 households in Israel was analyzed for physicochemical parameters, Escherichia coli (as an indicator for rotavirus), Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Each participating household filled out a questionnaire about their GW sources, treatment and usages. Quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) was performed based on the measured microbial quality, and on exposure scenarios derived from the questionnaires and literature data. The type of treatment was found to have a significant effect on the quality of the treated GW. The average E. coli counts in GW (which exclude kitchen effluent) treated by professionally-designed system resulted in acceptable risk under all exposure scenarios while the risk from inadequately-treated GW was above the accepted level as set by the WHO. In conclusion, safe GW reuse requires a suitable and well-designed treatment system. A risk-assessment approach should be used to adjust the current regulations/guidelines and to assess the performance of GW treatment and reuse systems. PMID:24751591

Maimon, Adi; Friedler, Eran; Gross, Amit

2014-07-15

5

A review of the meteorological parameters which affect aerial application  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ambient wind field and temperature gradient were found to be the most important parameters. Investigation results indicated that the majority of meteorological parameters affecting dispersion were interdependent and the exact mechanism by which these factors influence the particle dispersion was largely unknown. The types and approximately ranges of instrumented capabilities for a systematic study of the significant meteorological parameters influencing aerial applications were defined. Current mathematical dispersion models were also briefly reviewed. Unfortunately, a rigorous dispersion model which could be applied to aerial application was not available.

Christensen, L. S.; Frost, W.

1979-01-01

6

Assessment of the main engineering parameters controlling the electrodialytic recovery of sodium propionate from aqueous solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main engineering parameters (i.e. ion transport numbers in solution and electro-membranes; effective solute and water transport numbers; effective membrane surface area, membrane surface resistances, limiting current intensity and mass transfer coefficient) controlling the recovery of sodium propionate from model solutions by electrodialysis were determined in accordance with a sequential experimental procedure. Such parameters allowed a satisfactorily simulation of training

Marcello Fidaleo; Mauro Moresi

2006-01-01

7

Methodology for measuring fundamental parameters and associated uncertainties for middle and cool main-sequence stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have performed a study of a representative group of main-sequence stars in the temperature range 5000-10000 K in order to test our methodology for determining fundamental parameters and for the assesment of associated uncertainties. The stars selected have reasonably well-established parameters. This paper presents all the steps of our method, from the selection of spectral intervals and atomic/molecular data, to the determination of effective temperatures, surface gravities and metallicities.

Piskunov, N.; Ryabchikova, T.; Titarenko, A.; Pakhomov, Yu. V.; Nizamov, B.

2014-11-01

8

[Environmental and sociocultural parameters affecting nutrition in Third World countries].  

PubMed

The thrust of this paper is an analysis of the environmental and sociocultural parameters affecting dietary patterns in Third World countries. The author utilizes data from several studies to emphasize her thesis that malnutrition in developing societies is not an entity caused simply by income constraints, or food availability, but rather that malnutrition constitutes a critical entity resulting from a constellation of problems, ranging from environmental stresses, to social inequities to cultural factors. Special discussion is given to the variables of income distribution, social stratification and food beliefs as major contributing influences of malnutrition in Third World countries. The problems facing newly migrating urban squatters--or what is known as "societies in transition" in the context of high unemployment and new demands for food--are also dealt with in the Latin American setting. The author discusses the importance to recognize that since the etiology of malnutrition is ecologically-based; therefore, the approaches to solve this problem should--also by definition--be of an ecological nature. The need to further develop meaningful conceptual models--in contrast to utilizing "imported" ones--in order to study and understand the nature and magnitude of malnutrition problems in Third World countries is also stressed. PMID:6793003

Sanjur, D

1980-12-01

9

Numerical study of parameters affecting broken heating curve  

Microsoft Academic Search

A thermo-rheological (TR) model based on dynamic rheological data was used to study numerically broken heating curve during natural convection heating of a 3.5% starch dispersion (STD) in a can. Heat penetration parameters were found to be associated with the TR behavior. The heat penetration parameters obtained at low retort temperatures (101 °C and 111 °C) were influenced mostly by

W. H. Yang; M. A. Rao

1998-01-01

10

DO BEHAVIORAL RESPONSES TO PESTICIDE EXPOSURE AFFECT WILDLIFE POPULATION PARAMETERS?  

EPA Science Inventory

Avian behavioral responses to exposure to agricultural pesticides are reviewed in relation to ultimate effects on survival and reproduction. Pesticide-induced changes in foraging behaviors may lead to the formation of conditioned aversions that affect subsequent dietary exposure ...

11

On-line implementation of nonlinear parameter estimation for the Space Shuttle main engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We investigate the performance of a nonlinear estimation scheme applied to the estimation of several parameters in a performance model of the Space Shuttle Main Engine. The nonlinear estimator is based upon the extended Kalman filter which has been augmented to provide estimates of several key performance variables. The estimated parameters are directly related to the efficiency of both the low pressure and high pressure fuel turbopumps. Decreases in the parameter estimates may be interpreted as degradations in turbine and/or pump efficiencies which can be useful measures for an online health monitoring algorithm. This paper extends previous work which has focused on off-line parameter estimation by investigating the filter's on-line potential from a computational standpoint. ln addition, we examine the robustness of the algorithm to unmodeled dynamics. The filter uses a reduced-order model of the engine that includes only fuel-side dynamics. The on-line results produced during this study are comparable to off-line results generated previously. The results show that the parameter estimates are sensitive to dynamics not included in the filter model. Off-line results using an extended Kalman filter with a full order engine model to address the robustness problems of the reduced-order model are also presented.

Buckland, Julia H.; Musgrave, Jeffrey L.; Walker, Bruce K.

1992-01-01

12

Implementing Affect Parameters in Personalized Web-Based Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers used to believe that emotional processes are beyond the scope of a scientific study. Recent advances in cognitive\\u000a science and artificial intelligence, however, suggest that there is nothing mystical about emotional processes. Affective\\u000a neuroscience and psychology have reported that human affect and emotional experience play a significant, and useful, role\\u000a in human learning and decision making. Emotions are considered

Zacharias Lekkas; Nikos Tsianos; Panagiotis Germanakos; Constantinos Mourlas; George Samaras

2009-01-01

13

Parameters Affecting Water Hammer Wave Attenuation, Shape by Anton Bergant1  

E-print Network

Parameters Affecting Water Hammer Wave Attenuation, Shape and Timing by Anton Bergant1 and Arris.s.tijsseling@TUE.nl This paper investigates parameters that may affect water hammer wave attenuation, shape and timing. Possible sources that may affect the waveform predicted by the classical water hammer theory include unsteady

Eindhoven, Technische Universiteit

14

Parameters affecting genome simulation for evaluating genomic selection method.  

PubMed

The present study investigated the parameter settings for obtaining a simulated genome at steady state of allele frequency (mutation-drift equilibrium) and linkage disequilibrium (LD), and evaluated the impact of whether or not the simulated genome reached steady state of allele frequency and LD on the accuracy of genomic estimated breeding values (GEBVs). After 500 to 50?000 historical generations, the base population and subsequent seven generations were generated as recent populations. The allele frequency distribution of the last generations of the historical population and LD in the base population were calculated when varying the values of five parameters: initial minor allele frequency, mutation rate, effective population size, number of markers and chromosome length. The accuracies of GEBVs in the last generation of the recent population were calculated by genomic best linear unbiased prediction. The number of historical generations required to reach mutation-drift equilibrium depended on the initial allele frequency and mutation rate. Regardless of the parameters, LD reached a steady state before allele frequency distribution reached mutation-drift equilibrium. The accuracies of GEBVs largely reflect the extent of linkage disequilibrium with the exception of varying chromosome length, although there were no associations between the accuracies of GEBVs and allele frequency distribution. PMID:24841444

Nishio, Motohide; Satoh, Masahiro

2014-10-01

15

Spectral Parameters Following Gaffey Method Of Near-earth Asteroids And Main Belt Objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have computed the Band Area Ratio (BAR) and Band I Center parameters, following the method by Cloutis et al. (1986) and Gaffey et al. (1993) for all the existent visible and near-infrared spectra of near-Earth asteroids (NEAs), main belt asteroids (MBs) and meteorites (Duffard et al.2005). For the NEAs we have grouped observations from NEOSS (de León et al. 2007), SINEO (Lazzarin et al. 2005) and SMASS (Bus & Binzel, 2002b ; http://smass.mit.edu/minus.html) databases, with a total of 76 objects. In the case of MBs, we have joined visible spectra from SMASS database with near-infrared spectra from 52-color database when available, using also MB objects observed during the runs of the NEOSS. A total of 71 complete spectra of main belt asteroids have been studied. Errors were also computed for both parameters. From a first comparison of both plots, there seems to be a lack of NEAs through the diagonal of the graph (from bottom-left to upper-right), while this region is quite well filled in the case of MB objects. Besides, there are much more objects located near the olivine-rich region in the case of MB asteroids than for NEAs. Those regions in the plot were defined based on meteorite samples, so if meteorites come directly from the NEAs, then the two poupulations must be compatible. We will show that this is the case. We will discuss these and other differences between the distribution of both populations in the spectral parameters space, considering questions as the size of the bodies or the completeness of the different databases available, as well as the mineralogical implications that could be driven from this kind of plots.

de León, Julia; Licandro, J. L.; Pinilla-Alonso, N.; Lazzaro, D.

2007-10-01

16

Visual display of reservoir parameters affecting enhanced oil recovery  

SciTech Connect

This project consists of two parts. In Part 1, well logs, other well data, drilling, and production data for the Pioneer Field in the southern San Joaquin Valley of California were obtained, assembled, and input to a commercial relational database manager. These data are being used in PC-based geologic mapping, evaluation, and visualization software programs to produce 2-D and 3-D representations of the reservoir geometry, facies and subfacies, stratigraphy, porosity, oil saturation, and other measured and model parameters. Petrographic and petrophysical measurements made on samples from Pioneer Field, including core, cuttings and liquids, are being used to calibrate the log suite. In Part 2, these data sets are being used to develop algorithms to correlate log response to geologic and engineering measurements. Rock alteration due to interactions with hot fluids are being quantitatively modeled and used to predict the reservoir response if the rock were subjected to thermally enhanced oil recovery (TEOR).

Wood, J.R.

1996-04-30

17

Regression analysis of technical parameters affecting nuclear power plant performances  

SciTech Connect

Since the 80's many studies have been conducted in order to explicate good and bad performances of commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs), but yet no defined correlation has been found out to be totally representative of plant operational experience. In early works, data availability and the number of operating power stations were both limited; therefore, results showed that specific technical characteristics of NPPs were supposed to be the main causal factors for successful plant operation. Although these aspects keep on assuming a significant role, later studies and observations showed that other factors concerning management and organization of the plant could instead be predominant comparing utilities operational and economic results. Utility quality, in a word, can be used to summarize all the managerial and operational aspects that seem to be effective in determining plant performance. In this paper operational data of a consistent sample of commercial nuclear power stations, out of the total 433 operating NPPs, are analyzed, mainly focusing on the last decade operational experience. The sample consists of PWR and BWR technology, operated by utilities located in different countries, including U.S. (Japan)) (France)) (Germany)) and Finland. Multivariate regression is performed using Unit Capability Factor (UCF) as the dependent variable; this factor reflects indeed the effectiveness of plant programs and practices in maximizing the available electrical generation and consequently provides an overall indication of how well plants are operated and maintained. Aspects that may not be real causal factors but which can have a consistent impact on the UCF, as technology design, supplier, size and age, are included in the analysis as independent variables. (authors)

Ghazy, R.; Ricotti, M. E.; Trueco, P. [Politecnico di Milano, Via La Masa, 34, 20156 Milano (Italy)

2012-07-01

18

Evaluating Parameters Affecting the Georeferencing Accuracy of Terrestrial Laser Scanners  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Today laser scanning is used as a powerful technology in measuring various simple and complex objects in cultural heritage applications. Depending on the size and the complexity of the objects, these measurements are usually made from several stations. Similar to all other surveying techniques, the coordinate systems of such measurements need to be registered. For this, a number of retro-reflective targets visible from different stations are used. In practice, the target centres are entered in the computations. The accuracy of the target centres, therefore, need to be high or the final object coordinates might not be of sufficient accuracy. A number of factors including the distance between a target and the laser scanner, the direction of the target surface with respect to the laser scanner beams, the intensity and the number of reflected laser beams affect the accuracy of target centres. In this paper, various tests are carried out to examine the effect of such factors on the accuracy of coordinates obtained for the target centres. The results show that the distance to the laser scanner and the angle between a target surface and the corresponding laser beams have considerable effects on the locational accuracy of the targets.

Miri, M.; Varshosaz, M.

2011-09-01

19

Basic parameters affecting nanoparticle self-assembly: An experimental approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the basic parameters that govern the nanoparticle self-assembly process is important for high-quality monolayer formation and technological advances. A complete theory that explains nanoparticle self assembly, in the bulk and at the liquid-air interface, is lacking. In this paper, dodecanethiolated gold nanoparticles were used as a model system for studying the forces that govern self assembly. These nanoparticles are known to make compact and highly-ordered monolayers at the liquid-air interface via a mechanism that is analogous to epitaxial growth of atomic layers. Epitaxial theory was used as a starting point to study the nanoparticle self-assembly at the liquid-air interface. Experimental measurements were successfully interpreted using an epitaxy-based analysis, including flux of nanoparticles onto the liquid air-interface, decay rate of the island density, and the dependence of critical nucleus size on nanoparticle diameter. Furthermore, anomalous diffusion was observed as was a remarkable ordering of islands at the liquid-air interface. This ordering was determined to be due to a long-range repulsive force between islands.

Joshi, Chakra; Kryukov, Yevgen; Amar, Jacques; Bigioni, Terry

2012-02-01

20

Affective State Influences Perception by Affecting Decision Parameters Underlying Bias and Sensitivity  

PubMed Central

Studies of the effect of affect on perception often show consistent directional effects of a person’s affective state on perception. Unpleasant emotions have been associated with a “locally focused” style of stimulus evaluation, and positive emotions with a “globally focused” style. Typically, however, studies of affect and perception have not been conducted under the conditions of perceptual uncertainty and behavioral risk inherent to perceptual judgments outside the laboratory. We investigated the influence of perceivers’ experience affect (valence and arousal) on the utility of social threat perception by combining signal detection theory and behavioral economics. We created three perceptual decision environments that systematically differed with respect to factors that underlie uncertainty and risk: the base rate of threat, the costs of incorrect identification threat, and the perceptual similarity of threats and non-threats. We found that no single affective state yielded the best performance on the threat perception task across the three environments. Unpleasant valence promoted calibration of response bias to base rate and costs, high arousal promoted calibration of perceptual sensitivity to perceptual similarity, and low arousal was associated with an optimal adjustment of bias to sensitivity. However, the strength of these associations was conditional upon the difficulty of attaining optimal bias and high sensitivity, such that the effect of the perceiver’s affective state on perception differed with the cause and/or level of uncertainty and risk. PMID:22251054

Lynn, Spencer K.; Zhang, Xuan; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

2012-01-01

21

High precision determination of the atmospheric parameters and abundances of the COROT main targets  

E-print Network

One of the main goals of the COROT mission is to get precise photometric observations of selected bright stars in order to allow the modelling of their interior through asteroseismology. However, in order to interpret the asteroseismological data, the effective temperature, surface gravity, and chemical composition of the stars must be known with sufficient accuracy. To carry out this task, we have developed a spectroscopic method called APASS (Atmospheric Parameters and Abundances from Synthetic Spectra) which allows precise analysis of stars with a moderate to high rotational velocity, which is the case for most primary COROT targets. Our method is based on synthetic spectra and works differentially with respect to the Sun. Using high signal-to-noise spectra and the APASS method, we determined the atmospheric parameters and chemical abundances of 13 primary COROT targets. Our results agree well with those obtained by Bruntt using his software VWA and with those obtained with the software TEMPLOGG. However, in both cases, our error bars are significantly smaller than those of other methods. Our effective temperatures are also in excellent agreement with those obtained with the IR photometry method. For five stars with relatively low rotational velocity, we also performed an analysis with a classical equivalent-width method to test agreement with APASS results. We show that equivalent-width measurements by Gaussian or Voigt profile-fitting are sensitive to the rotational broadening, leading to systematic errors whenever the projected rotation velocity is non-negligible. The APASS method appears superior in all cases and should thus be preferred.

M. Gillon; P. Magain

2005-11-03

22

FURTHER INVESTIGATION OF PARAMETERS AFFECTING WATER HAMMER WAVE ATTENUATION, SHAPE AND TIMING  

E-print Network

FURTHER INVESTIGATION OF PARAMETERS AFFECTING WATER HAMMER WAVE ATTENUATION, SHAPE AND TIMING PART that may affect water hammer wave attenuation, shape and timing (Bergant and Tijsseling 2001). New sources that may affect the waveform predicted by classical water hammer theory include viscoelastic behaviour

Eindhoven, Technische Universiteit

23

Effect of Physical Parameters on the Main Phase Transition of Supported Lipid Bilayers  

PubMed Central

Abstract Supported lipid bilayers composed of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-phosphatidylethanolamine (POPE) and 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-phosphatidylglycerol (POPG) were assembled by the vesicle fusion technique on mica and studied by temperature-controlled atomic force microscopy. The role of different physical parameters on the main phase transition was elucidated. Both mixed (POPE/POPG 3:1) and pure POPE bilayers were studied. By increasing the ionic strength of the solution and the incubation temperature, a shift from a decoupled phase transition of the two leaflets, to a coupled transition, with domains in register, was obtained. The observed behavior points to a modulation of the substrate/bilayer and interleaflet coupling induced by the environment and preparation conditions of supported lipid bilayers. The results are discussed in view of the role of different interactions in the system. The influence of the substrate on the lipid bilayers, in terms of interleaflet coupling, can also help us in understanding the possible effect that submembrane elements like the cytoskeleton might have on the structure and dynamics of biomembranes. PMID:19686654

Seeger, H.M.; Marino, G.; Alessandrini, A.; Facci, P.

2009-01-01

24

Skin-light interaction of three main chromofores in skin affected by Port Wine Stain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, simulation and mathematical analysis of the absorption, dispersion and dynamics of laser light generated at 690nm and its interaction with skin affected by the Port Wine Stain is presented. The absorption coefficient and penetration depth of water, hemoglobin and oxy-hemoglobin, as key chromophores are calculated. A suitable wavelength for possible treatment on Port Wine Stain located in the skin layers such as Dermis and Hypodermis is determined. The presentation will include a full fiber laser design description, detailed skin affectation explanation and preliminary results.

Mújica Ascencio, S.; Velázquez González, J. S.; Álvarez Chávez, J. A.

2013-11-01

25

Parameters affecting water-hammer wave attenuation, shape and timing—Part 1: Mathematical tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

This two-part paper investigates key parameters that may affect the pressurewaveform predicted by the classical theory ofwater-hammer. Shortcomings in the prediction of pressure wave attenuation, shape and timing originate from violation of assumptions made in the derivation of the classical waterhammer equations. Possible mechanisms that may significantly affect pressure waveforms include unsteady friction, cavitation (including column separation and trapped air

Anton Bergant; Arris S. Tijsseling; John P. Vítkovský; Dídia I. C. Covas; Angus R. Simpson; Martin F. Lambert

2008-01-01

26

Macroinvertebrate abundance, water chemistry, and wetland characteristics affect use of wetlands by avian species in Maine  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Our objective was to determine use by avian species (e.g., piscivores, marsh birds, waterfowl, selected passerines) of 29 wetlands in areas with low ( 5.51. All years combined use of wetlands by broods was greater on wetlands with pH 5.51 that supported 21.8% of the broods. High mean brood density was associated with mean number of Insecta per wetland. For lentic wetlands created by beaver, those habitats contained vegetative structure and nutrients necessary to provide cover to support invertebrate populations that are prey of omnivore and insectivore species. The fishless status of a few wetlands may have affected use by some waterfowl species and obligate piscivores.

Longcore, J.R.; McAuley, D.G.; Pendleton, G.W.; Bennatti, C.R.; Mingo, T.M.; Stromborg, K.L.

2006-01-01

27

The Variation in Molecular Gas Depletion Time among Nearby Galaxies: What are the Main Parameter Dependencies?  

E-print Network

We re-analyze correlations between global molecular gas depletion time (Tdep) and galaxy parameters including stellar mass, specific star formation rate (sSFR), stellar mass surface density and concentration index. The analysis is based on the COLD GASS survey, which includes galaxies with stellar mass in the range 10^10 - 10^11.5 Msun with molecular gas mass estimates derived from CO(1-0) line measurements. We improve on previous work by Saintonge et al. (2011b) by estimating SFRs using the combination of GALEX FUV and WISE 22 micron data and by deriving Tdep within a fixed aperture set by the IRAM beam size. In our new study we find correlations with much smaller scatter. Dependences of the Tdep on galaxy structural parameters such as stellar mass surface density and concentration index are now weak or absent. Differences with previous work arise because dust extinction correlates strongly with galaxy structural parameters. We further demonstrate that the 'primary' global parameter correlation is between Td...

Huang, Mei-Ling

2014-01-01

28

Parameters affecting water-hammer wave attenuation, shape and timing—Part 2: Case studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This two-part paper investigates parameters that may significantly affect water-hammer wave attenuation, shape and timing. Possible sources that may affect the waveform predicted by classical water-hammer theory include unsteady friction, cavitation (including column separation and trapped air pockets), a number of fluid–structure interaction effects, viscoelastic behaviour of the pipe-wall material, leakages and blockages. Part 1 of this two-part paper presents

Anton Bergant; Arris S. Tijsseling; John P. Vítkovský; Dídia I. C. Covas; Angus R. Simpson; Martin F. Lambert

2008-01-01

29

The modern instrumentation used for monitoring and controlling the main parameters of the regenerative electro-mechano-hydraulic drive systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work is presented the modern instrumentation used for monitoring and controlling the main parameters for one regenerative drive system, used to recovering the kinetic energy of motor vehicles, lost in the braking phase, storing and using this energy in the starting or accelerating phases. Is presented a Romanian technical solution for a regenerative driving system, based on a hybrid solution containing a hydro-mechanic module and an existing thermal motor drive, all conceived as a mechatronics system. In order to monitoring and controlling the evolution of the main parameters, the system contains a series of sensors and transducers that provide the moment, rotation, temperature, flow and pressure values. The main sensors and transducers of the regenerative drive system, their principal features and tehnical conecting solutions are presented in this paper, both with the menaging electronic and informational subsystems.

Cristescu, Corneliu; Drumea, Petrin; Krevey, Petrica

2009-01-01

30

LARGE SCALE DISTRIBUTED PARAMETER MODEL OF MAIN MAGNET SYSTEM AND FREQUENCY DECOMPOSITION ANALYSIS  

SciTech Connect

Large accelerator main magnet system consists of hundreds, even thousands, of dipole magnets. They are linked together under selected configurations to provide highly uniform dipole fields when powered. Distributed capacitance, insulation resistance, coil resistance, magnet inductance, and coupling inductance of upper and lower pancakes make each magnet a complex network. When all dipole magnets are chained together in a circle, they become a coupled pair of very high order complex ladder networks. In this study, a network of more than thousand inductive, capacitive or resistive elements are used to model an actual system. The circuit is a large-scale network. Its equivalent polynomial form has several hundred degrees. Analysis of this high order circuit and simulation of the response of any or all components is often computationally infeasible. We present methods to use frequency decomposition approach to effectively simulate and analyze magnet configuration and power supply topologies.

ZHANG,W.; MARNERIS, I.; SANDBERG, J.

2007-06-25

31

How does the host population's network structure affect the estimation accuracy of epidemic parameters?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When an Infectious disease where to prevail throughout the population, epidemic parameters such as the basic reproduction ratio, initial point of infection etc. are estimated from the time series data of infected population. However, it is unclear how does the structure of host population affects this estimation accuracy. In other words, what kind of city is difficult to estimate its epidemic parameters? To answer this question, epidemic data are simulated by constructing a commuting network with different network structure and running the infection process over this network. From the given time series data for each network structure, we would like to analyzed estimation accuracy of epidemic parameters.

Yashima, Kenta; Ito, Kana; Nakamura, Kazuyuki

2013-03-01

32

Fundamental thermal emission parameters of main-belt asteroids derived from ISO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In support for the ISO Mission it has been necessary to establish a set of asteroids as photometric standards for the photometric calibration of the instruments ( te{Mueller:98a}). The new standards are described as rotating ellipsoids. Illumination geometry, heat transfer due to non-zero thermal inertia and surface structure/porosity are taken into account. The characteristic properties of this new thermophysical model (TPM) can be found in te*{Lagerros:96a,Lagerros:97a,Lagerros:97b}. Here we apply the TPM to a set of ISO observations on (1) Ceres to derive its thermophysical properties. We determine the thermal inertia, the beaming function, caused by surface roughness and porosity, and the wavelength dependent emissivity. Since we are able to model the full thermal emission over the wavelengths range from 5 to 200 ?m, we believe that our findings represent fundamental thermal emission properties not only of (1) Ceres, but also of other Main-Belt asteroids.

Muller, T. G.; Lagerros, J. S. V.; Burgdorf, M.; Lim, T.; Morris, P. W.; Salama, A.; Schulz, B.; Vandenbussche, B.

1999-03-01

33

Main Parameters of Soil Quality and it's Management Under Changing Climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reviewing Paper Introduction: Malcolm summarised the topic of soil quality and it's management in a well synthetized form in 2000. So, the soils are fundamental to the well-being and productivity of agricultural and natural ecosystems. Soil quality is a concept being developed to characterize the usefulness and health of soils. Soil quality includes soil fertility, potential productivity, contaminant levels and their effects, resource sustainability and environmental quality. A general definition of soil quality is the degree of fitness of a soil for a specific use. The existence of multiple definitions suggests that the soil quality concept continues to evolve (Kádár, 1992; Várallyay, 1992, 1994, 2005; Németh, 1996; Malcolm, 2000; Márton, 2005; Márton et al. 2007). Recent attention has focused on the sustainability of human uses of soil, based on concerns that soil quality may be declining (Boehn and Anderson, 1997). We use sustainable to mean that a use or management of soil will sustain human well-being over time. Lal (1995) described the land resources of the world (of which soil is one component) as "finite, fragile, and nonrenewable," and reported that only about 22% (3.26 billion ha) of the total land area on the globe is suitable for cultivation and at present, only about 3% (450 million ha) has a high agricultural production capacity. Because soil is in large but finite supply, and some soil components cannot be renewed within a human time frame, the condition of soils in agriculture and the environment is an issue of global concern (Howard, 1993; FAO, 1997). Concerns include soil losses from erosion, maintaining agricultural productivity and system sustainability, protecting natural areas, and adverse effects of soil contamination on human health (Haberern, 1992; Howard, 1993; Sims et al., 1997). Parr et al. (1992) state, "...soil degradation is the single most destructive force diminishing the world's soil resource base." Soil quality guidelines are intended to protect the ability of ecosystems to function properly (Kádár, 1992; Várallyay, 1992, 1994, 2005; Cook and Hendershot, 1996; Németh, 1996; Malcolm, 2000; Márton, 2005; Márton et al. 2007). The Hungarian Ministry of Environment and Water (HMEW, 2004) suggests that the Hungarian Regions should adopt a national policy "...that seeks to conserve and enhance soil quality...". Useful evaluation of soil quality requires agreement about why soil quality is important, how it is defined, how it should be measured, and how to respond to measurements with management, restoration, or conservation practices. Because determining soil quality requires one or more value judgments and because we have much to learn about soil, these issues are not easily addressed (Várallyay, 1992, 1994, 2005; Cook and Hendershot, 1996; Németh, 1996; Malcolm, 2000). Definitions of soil quality have been based both on human uses of soil and on the functions of soil within natural and agricultural ecosystems. For purposes of this work, we are showing soil quality within the context of managed agricultural ecosystems. To many in agriculture and agricultural research, productivity is analogous to soil quality. Maintaining soil quality is also a human health concern because air, groundwater and surface water consumed by humans can be adversely affected by mismanaged and contaminated soils, and because humans may be exposed to contaminated soils in residential areas (Kádár, 1992; Várallyay, 2005; Cook and Hendershot, 1996; Németh, 1996; Malcolm, 2000; Márton et al. 2007). Contamination may include heavy metals, toxic elements, excess nutrients, volatile and nonvolatile organics, explosives, radioactive isotopes and inhalable fibers (Sheppard et al., 1992; Cook and Hendershot, 1996). Soil quality is not determined by any single conserving or degrading process or property, and soil has both dynamic and relatively static properties that also vary spatially (Carter et al., 1997). Gregorich et al. (1994) state that "soil quality is a composite me

László Phd, M., ,, Dr.

2009-04-01

34

Correlations between morphometric parameters and catchment wide denudation rates in catchments affected by crustal bending  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyzed the morphological parameters of catchments incising the Bolivian Altiplano and the Eastern Cordillera. The correlation of mean slopes and mean relief in the subbasins and their respective erosion rates are not instantly recognizable. However, there is a trend that the subbasins with high erosion rates are located close to the Cordillera, whereas subbasins with low erosion rates are located in immediate vicinity of the Altiplano. This observation led us to a more detailed analysis of the subbasins and their river networks in order to investigate the feedback mechanism between erosion rates and a surface morphology possibly affected by crustal response. Our test area, the La Paz drainage system is sourced on the very low relief Altiplano and links this region with the Subandean zone by cutting across the eastern high Cordillera. The catchment, with a total drainage area of 4850 km2, is shaped by a combination of feedback mechanisms involving erosion and crustal bending. Cross-cutting relationships between dated strata and incised valleys indicate that incision in the Rio La Paz headwaters postdates 2.8 Ma. The volume of about 3950 km3, which has been evacuated since then by the Rio La Paz drainage system to the Rio Beni relates to an average erosion rate of 290 mm/ky. This is in a similar range as the catchment-wide erosion rates determined by using terrestrial cosmogenic nuclides (TCN) derived from sediments being currently exported from the Rio La Paz basin. The method integrates for a timescales ranging from 1-10ky. Our results show an erosion rate of 230 mm/ky for the entire Rio La Paz basin (sample from basin outlet) and erosion rates from ca. 100 up to 600 mm/ky in the subbasins. In contrast, on the Altiplano west of the Rio La Paz drainage divide, erosion rates are one to two orders of magnitude lower than in the Rio La Paz catchment. We observed that the higher erosion rates correlate unexpectedly with a lower hypsometric integral for the subbasins in the Rio La Paz catchment. Further analysis concentrates on parameters derived from the channel network. Particularly parameters like Stream-gradient index (SL), Steepness index (ks) and Specific Stream Power (SSP) reveal the focus of erosion within the studied catchments. These spots of enhanced erosion coincide in general with the parts of the rivers, where mixed channel or bedrock incision is observed, and mainly where the channel length profiles show knickpoints. A spatial analysis of the geological properties detects those knickpoints induced by structures (faults and folds) and changes in lithology. We will demonstrate that the TCN results from the interior parts of the Rio La Paz catchments correlate only to certain extend with the surface morphology within the catchment. However, including the erosion rates and morphometric parameters from the catchments on the Altiplano, the correlation spanning data from both landscapes is obvious. This implies that the effects of feedback mechanisms between erosion and lithospheric deformation are substantial at the scale of individual structures, where flexural feedback mechanisms between erosion and rock uplift influences the morphometry of catchments and channel morphologies. When the dominant type of erosion processes (e.g. headwater expansion by landsliding and / or fluvial incision) is possibly influenced by tectonics then it can also cause the spatially variable erosion rates and different surface morphologies and consequently the partly inconclusive correlations.

Zeilinger, Gerold; Kober, Florian; Hippe, Kristina

2010-05-01

35

Parameters affecting light-induced excess conductivity in amorphous silicon doping-modulated multilayers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phenomenon of light-induced excess conductivity (LEC) which occurs in a-Si:H npnp doping-modulated multilayers is found experimentally to be dependent on several different factors. The concentrations of the dopants in n-type and p-type layers affect the Fermi level position, the height of the barriers, and also the density of defects. These parameters are altered by different choices of inert gas

F. C. Su; S. Levine; P. E. Vanier

1986-01-01

36

Structural parameters determining the strength of the porcine vertebral body affected by tumours.  

PubMed

Spinal metastatic disease could lead to catastrophic consequences for the patient. However, the structural parameters that explain the weakening of vertebrae affected by tumours are not fully understood. In this study, we developed a specimen-specific finite element model to predict the strength of the porcine vertebra with simulated tumours and used it to find the structural parameters determining the strength. We validated our model with mechanical testing and then we analysed the compressive strength of intact vertebrae and seven defects with different size and shape. The results showed that the minimum bone mineral mass of the cross section and areal defect fraction were the best predictors of the normalized strength. We also found that areal parameters appeared to be better predictors than the volumetric ones. In conclusion, reduction in bone strength for vertebrae weakened by metastatic tumours is mostly associated with decrease in the mechanical properties of the cross section. PMID:24460089

Sahli, Francisco; Cuellar, Jorge; Pérez, Alfonso; Fields, Aaron J; Campos, Mauricio; Ramos-Grez, Jorge

2015-06-01

37

Transfecting mammalian cells: optimization of critical parameters affecting calcium-phosphate precipitate formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA-calcium phosphate co-precipitates arise spontaneously in supersaturated solutions. Highly effective precipitates for transfection purposes, however, can be generated only in a very narrow range of physico-chemical conditions that control the initiation and growth of precipitate complexes. The concentrations of calcium and phosphate are the main factors influencing characteristics of the precipitate complex, but other parameters, such as temperature, DNA concentration

Martin Jordan; Annette Schallhorn; Florian M. Wurm

1996-01-01

38

Parameters Affecting the Early Seedling Development of Four Neotropical Trees under Oxygen Deprivation Stress  

PubMed Central

Some of the parameters that determine flooding resistance—and consequently habitat zonation—were investigated in four neotropical trees (Schizolobium parahyba, Sebastiania commersoniana, Erythrina speciosa and Sesbania virgata). The constitutive parameters of seeds (size, nature and amount of reserves) only partly influenced resistance to flooding, mainly through a high carbohydrate : size ratio. Parameters describing metabolic efficiency under stress conditions were more important. Among them, fermentation capacity and levels of ATP and of total adenylates played a key role. The highest resistance to anoxia was associated with increased availability of free sugars, elevated alcohol dehydrogenase activity and corresponding mRNA levels, more efficient removal of ethanol and lactate, and higher adenylate levels. Finally, as a lethal consequence of energy shortage, free fatty acids were released on a massive scale in the flooding?sensitive species Schizolobium parahyba, whereas lipid hydrolysis did not occur in the most resistant species Sesbania virgata. PMID:12099528

KOLB, ROSANA MARTA; RAWYLER, ANDRÉ; BRAENDLE, ROLAND

2002-01-01

39

Factors Affecting the Motor Evoked Potential Responsiveness and Parameters in Patients With Supratentorial Stroke  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the factors which affect the motor evoked potential (MEP) responsiveness and parameters and to find the correlation between the function of the upper extremities and the combined study of MEP with a diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) in patients with stroke. Methods A retrospective study design was used by analyzing medical records and neuroimaging data of 70 stroke patients who underwent a MEP test between June 2011 and March 2013. MEP parameters which were recorded from the abductor pollicis brevis muscle were the resting motor threshold, latency, amplitude, and their ratios. Functional variables, Brunnstrom stage of hand, upper extremity subscore of Fugl-Meyer assessment, Manual Function Test, and the Korean version of Modified Barthel Index (K-MBI) were collected together with the biographical and neurological data. The DTT parameters were fiber number, fractional anisotropy value and their ratios of affected corticospinal tract. The data were compared between two groups, built up according to the presence (MEP-P) or absence (MEP-N) of MEP on the affected hand. Results Functional and DTT variables were significantly different between MEP-P and MEP-N groups (p<0.001). Among the MEP-P group, the amplitude ratio (unaffected/affected) was significantly correlated with the Brunnstrom stage of hand (r=-0.427, p=0.013), K-MBI (r=-0.380, p=0.029) and the time post-onset (r=-0.401, p=0.021). The functional scores were significantly better when both MEP response and DTT were present and decreased if one or both of the two studies were absent. Conclusion This study indicates MEP responsiveness and amplitude ratio are significantly associated with the upper extremity function and the activities of daily living performance, and the combined study of MEP and DTT provides useful information. PMID:24639922

Choi, Tae Woong; Jang, Seung Gul; Yang, Seung Nam

2014-01-01

40

Identifying Critical Road Geometry Parameters Affecting Crash Rate and Crash Type  

PubMed Central

The objective of this traffic safety investigation was to find critical road parameters affecting crash rate (CR). The study was based on crash and road maintenance data from Western Sweden. More than 3000 crashes, reported from 2000 to 2005 on median-separated roads, were collected and combined with road geometric and surface data. The statistical analysis showed variations in CR when road elements changed confirming that road characteristics affect CR. The findings indicated that large radii right-turn curves were more dangerous than left curves, in particular, during lane changing manoeuvres. However sharper curves are more dangerous in both left and right curves. Moreover, motorway carriageways with no or limited shoulders have the highest CR when compared to other carriageway widths, while one lane carriageway sections on 2+1 roads were the safest. Road surface results showed that both wheel rut depth and road roughness have negative impacts on traffic safety. PMID:20184841

Othman, Sarbaz; Thomson, Robert; Lanner, Gunnar

2009-01-01

41

Chemical and physical parameters affecting the performance of the Os-191/Ir-191m generator  

SciTech Connect

The development of an Os-191/Ir-191m generator suitable for radionuclide angiography in humans has elicited much interest. This generator employs (OsO/sub 2/Cl/sub 4/)/sup 2 -/ on AG MP-1 anion exchange resin with a Dowex-2 scavenger column and is elute with normal saline at pH 1. The parent Os species is, however, neither well-defined nor homogeneous leading to less than optimal breakthrough of Os-191 (5 x 10/sup -3/%) and modest Ir-191m yield (10-15%). The effect of a range of parameters on generator performance has been evaluated as has been the way in which the assembly and loading process affects generator performance. In addition, a number of potential alternative generator systems have been evaluated. 11 references, 2 figures, 8 tables.

Packard, A.B.; Treves, S.; O'Brien, G.M.; Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Butler, T.A.

1984-01-01

42

Parameters affecting temporal resolution of Time Resolved Integrative Optical Neutron Detector (TRION)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Time-Resolved Integrative Optical Neutron (TRION) detector was developed for Fast Neutron Resonance Radiography (FNRR), a fast-neutron transmission imaging method that exploits characteristic energy-variations of the total scattering cross-section in the En = 1-10 MeV range to detect specific elements within a radiographed object. As opposed to classical event-counting time of flight (ECTOF), it integrates the detector signal during a well-defined neutron Time of Flight window corresponding to a pre-selected energy bin, e.g., the energy-interval spanning a cross-section resonance of an element such as C, O and N. The integrative characteristic of the detector permits loss-free operation at very intense, pulsed neutron fluxes, at a cost however, of recorded temporal resolution degradation This work presents a theoretical and experimental evaluation of detector related parameters which affect temporal resolution of the TRION system.

Mor, I.; Vartsky, D.; Dangendorf, V.; Bar, D.; Feldman, G.; Goldberg, M. B.; Tittelmeier, K.; Bromberger, B.; Brandis, M.; Weierganz, M.

2013-11-01

43

Multivariate analysis of respiratory problems and their connection with meteorological parameters and the main biological and chemical air pollutants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of the study is to analyse the joint effect of biological (pollen) and chemical air pollutants, as well as meteorological variables, on the hospital admissions of respiratory problems for the Szeged region in Southern Hungary. The data set used covers a nine-year period (1999-2007) and is unique in the sense that it includes—besides the daily number of respiratory hospital admissions—not just the hourly mean concentrations of CO, PM 10, NO, NO 2, O 3 and SO 2 with meteorological variables (temperature, global solar flux, relative humidity, air pressure and wind speed), but two pollen variables ( Ambrosia and total pollen excluding Ambrosia) as well. The analysis was performed using three age categories for the pollen season of Ambrosia and the pollen-free season. Meteorological elements and air pollutants are clustered in order to define optimum environmental conditions of high patient numbers. ANOVA was then used to determine whether cluster-related mean patient numbers differ significantly. Furthermore, two novel procedures are applied here: factor analysis including a special transformation and a time-varying multivariate linear regression that makes it possible to determine the rank of importance of the influencing variables in respiratory hospital admissions, and also compute the relative importance of the parameters affecting respiratory disorders. Both techniques revealed that Ambrosia pollen is an important variable that influences hospital admissions (an increase of 10 pollen grains m -3 can imply an increase of around 24% in patient numbers). The role of chemical and meteorological parameters is also significant, but their weights vary according to the seasons and the methods. Clearer results are obtained for the pollination season of Ambrosia. Here, a 10 ?g m -3 increase in O 3 implies a patient number response from -17% to +11%. Wind speed is a surprisingly important variable, where a 1 m s -1 rise may result in a hospital admission reduction of up to 42-45%.

Matyasovszky, István; Makra, László; Bálint, Beatrix; Guba, Zoltán; Sümeghy, Zoltán

2011-08-01

44

Random Parameter Sampling of a Generic Three-Tier MAPK Cascade Model Reveals Major Factors Affecting Its Versatile Dynamics  

PubMed Central

The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is considered to be a central block in many biological signaling networks. Despite the common core cascade structure, the activation of MAPK in different biological systems can exhibit different types of dynamic behaviors. Computer modeling may help to reveal the mechanisms underlying such variations. However, so far most computational models of the MAPK cascade have been system-specific, or to reflect a particular type among the wide spectrum of possible dynamics. To obtain a general and integrated view of the relationship between the dynamics of MAPK activation and the structures and parameters of the MAPK cascade, we constructed a generic model by comparing previous models covering different specific biological systems. We assumed that reliable qualitative results could be predicted through a qualitative model with pseudo parameters. We used randomly sampled parameters instead of a specific set of “best-fit” parameters to avoid biases towards any particular systems. A range of dynamics behaviors for MAPK activation, including ultrasensitivity, bistability, transient activation and oscillation, were successfully predicted by the generic model. The results indicated that the steady state dynamics (ultrasensitivity and bistability) was jointly determined by the three-tiered structure of the MAPK cascade and the competitive substrate binding in the dual-phosphorylation processes of the central components, while the temporal dynamics (transient activation and oscillation) was mainly affected by the upstream signaling pathway and feedbacks. Moreover, MAPK kinase (MAPKK) played more important roles than the other two components in determining the dynamics of MAPK activation. We hypothesize that this is an important and advantageous property for the regulation and for the functional diversity of MAPK pathways in real cells. Finally, to assist developing generic models for signaling motifs through model comparisons, we proposed a reaction-based database to make the model data more flexible and interoperable. PMID:23365667

Mai, Zhongxing; Liu, Haiyan

2013-01-01

45

Evaluation of CD52 positive sperms in subfertile human semen samples: Is there any relationship with main semen parameters?  

PubMed Central

Background: Sperm maturation and sperm membrane integration are the most important elements in male fertility. CD52 is one of the antigens. CD52 is a GPI (glycosylphosphatidylinositol) anchored that express on lymphocytes and epididymal cells. This antigen bind to sperm membrane during transition sperm from epididymal duct as well as its relationship with semenogelins in human seminal plasma. The aim of this study was to obtain any association between the percentage of CD52 positive sperms with main semen parameters such as percentage of motile sperms, percentage of sperm with normal morphology, and the presence of normal viscosity. Materials and Methods: Semen samples from subfertile men were analyzed, the samples totally were 45 that divided according to their motility into three groups, first one, more than 40%, second one 10-40%, and the third one under 10% total motility. Fifteen samples in each group were evaluated by semen analysis according to WHO 2010 guidelines for infertility laboratory. Sperms were washed by Ham's F-10 and immunostaining with the monoclonal antibody CAMPATH-1G and then analyzed by flow cytometry. We compared each of the groups based on their motility and the data were analyzed by SPSS 20. Results: Correlation between CD52 labeling and sperm motility was negatively significant, in the second group (r = –0.592, P = 0.020) and in the third group (r = –0.805, P = 0.00). Conclusion: Our results showed that the correlation between CD52 labeling and sperm motility was negatively significant, but we did not observe any relation with other semen parameters, such as sperm normal morphology, sperm concentration, and semen viscosity. PMID:24949295

Aboutorabi, Roshanak; Mazani, Fatemeh; Rafiee, Laleh

2014-01-01

46

Ibuprofen reduces zebrafish PGE(2) levels but steroid hormone levels and reproductive parameters are not affected.  

PubMed

Prostaglandins are important regulators of reproductive function in fish. Analgesics like aspirin and ibuprofen are prostaglandin inhibitors and have been detected in freshwater systems at ng/L-?g/L levels. We investigated whether ibuprofen would affect prostaglandin and sex steroid hormone levels in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) and if expression levels of genes involved in steroidogenesis and prostaglandin synthesis were affected. Zebrafish were exposed to moderate concentrations of ibuprofen (21, 201 or 506 ?g/L) for 7 days in a semi-static test system. Ibuprofen concentrations were close to nominal levels and decreased by a maximum of 12-13% over 24 h. Prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) levels in whole body homogenates of males and ovaries of females decreased in a monotonic dose-response relationship whereas male 11-ketotestosterone levels and ovarian 17?-estradiol levels remained unchanged. Ibuprofen did not have an influence on vitellogenin levels, female gonadosomatic index or cumulative egg production and no dose-response relationship in ovarian and testicular expression levels of the investigated genes was observed. This study shows that ibuprofen reduces PGE(2) levels in male and female zebrafish but has no consistent effects on other investigated reproductive parameters. PMID:23247296

Morthorst, Jane E; Lister, Andrea; Bjerregaard, Poul; Van Der Kraak, Glen

2013-03-01

47

Parameters affecting resin-anchored cable bolt performance: Results of in situ evaluations  

SciTech Connect

Cable bolt support techniques, including hardware and anchorage systems, continue to evolve to meet US mining requirements. For cable support systems to be successfully implemented into new ground control areas, the mechanics of this support and the potential range of performance need to be better understood. To contribute to this understanding, a series of 36 pull tests were performed on 10 ft long cable bolts using various combinations of hole diameters, resin formulations, anchor types, and with and without resin dams. These test provided insight as to the influence of these four parameters on cable system performance. Performance was assessed in terms of support capacity (maximum load attained in a pull test), system stiffness (assessed from two intervals of load-deformation), and from the general load-deformation response. Three characteristic load-deformation responses were observed. An Analysis of Variance identified a number of main effects and interactions of significance to support capacity and stiffness. The factorial experiment performed in this study provides insight to the effects of several design parameters associated with resin-anchored cable bolts.

Zelanko, J.C.; Mucho, T.P.; Compton, C.S. [Bureau of Mines, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Pittsburgh Research Center; Long, L.E. [Dywidag Systems International, USA, Inc., Avon Lake, OH (United States); Bailey, P.E. [Sandvik Rocktools, Inc., Bristol, VA (United States). Chemical Division

1995-11-01

48

Monte Carlo modeling and analyses of YALINA-booster subcritical assembly part 1: analytical models and main neutronics parameters.  

SciTech Connect

This study was carried out to model and analyze the YALINA-Booster facility, of the Joint Institute for Power and Nuclear Research of Belarus, with the long term objective of advancing the utilization of accelerator driven systems for the incineration of nuclear waste. The YALINA-Booster facility is a subcritical assembly, driven by an external neutron source, which has been constructed to study the neutron physics and to develop and refine methodologies to control the operation of accelerator driven systems. The external neutron source consists of Californium-252 spontaneous fission neutrons, 2.45 MeV neutrons from Deuterium-Deuterium reactions, or 14.1 MeV neutrons from Deuterium-Tritium reactions. In the latter two cases a deuteron beam is used to generate the neutrons. This study is a part of the collaborative activity between Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) of USA and the Joint Institute for Power and Nuclear Research of Belarus. In addition, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has a coordinated research project benchmarking and comparing the results of different numerical codes with the experimental data available from the YALINA-Booster facility and ANL has a leading role coordinating the IAEA activity. The YALINA-Booster facility has been modeled according to the benchmark specifications defined for the IAEA activity without any geometrical homogenization using the Monte Carlo codes MONK and MCNP/MCNPX/MCB. The MONK model perfectly matches the MCNP one. The computational analyses have been extended through the MCB code, which is an extension of the MCNP code with burnup capability because of its additional feature for analyzing source driven multiplying assemblies. The main neutronics parameters of the YALINA-Booster facility were calculated using these computer codes with different nuclear data libraries based on ENDF/B-VI-0, -6, JEF-2.2, and JEF-3.1.

Talamo, A.; Gohar, M. Y. A.; Nuclear Engineering Division

2008-09-11

49

Important parameters affecting the cell voltage of aqueous electrical double-layer capacitors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study discusses and demonstrates how the open-circuit potential and charges stored in the working potential window on positive and negative electrodes affect the cell voltage of carbon-based electrical double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) in aqueous electrolytes. An EDLC consisting of two activated carbon electrodes is employed as the model system for identifying these key parameters although the potential window of water decomposition can be simply determined by voltammetric methods. First, the capacitive performances of an EDLC with the same charge on positive and negative electrodes are evaluated by cyclic voltammetric, charge-discharge, electrochemical impedance spectroscopic (EIS) analyses, and inductance-capacitance-resistance meter (LCR meter). The principles for obtaining the highest acceptable cell voltage of such symmetric ECs with excellent reversibility and capacitor-like behaviour are proposed. Aqueous charge-balanced EDLCs can be operated as high as 2.0 V with high energy efficiency (about 90%) and only 4% capacitance loss after the 600-cycle stability checking. The necessity of charge balance (but not capacitance balance) for positive and negative electrodes is substantiated from the lower acceptable cell voltage of charge-unbalanced EDLCs.

Wu, Tzu-Ho; Hsu, Chun-Tsung; Hu, Chi-Chang; Hardwick, Laurence J.

2013-11-01

50

Guidebook for performance assessment parameters used in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant compliance certification application. Volume 1: Main report  

SciTech Connect

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Compliance Certification Application (CCA) Performance Assessment (PA) Parameter Database and its ties to supporting information evolved over the course of two years. When the CCA was submitted to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in October 1996, information such as identification of parameter value or distribution source was documented using processes established by Sandia National Laboratories WIPP Quality Assurance Procedures. Reviewers later requested additional supporting documentation, links to supporting information, and/or clarification for many parameters. This guidebook is designed to document a pathway through the complex parameter process and help delineate flow paths to supporting information for all WIPP CCA parameters. In addition, this report is an aid for understanding how model parameters used in the WIPP CCA were developed and qualified. To trace the source information for a particular parameter, a dual-route system was established. The first route uses information from the Parameter Records Package as it existed when the CCA calculations were run. The second route leads from the EPA Parameter Database to additional supporting information.

Howarth, S.M.; Martell, M.A.; Weiner, R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lattier, C. [GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1998-06-01

51

Dietary methionine availability affects the main factors involved in muscle protein turnover in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).  

PubMed

Methionine is a limiting essential amino acid in most plant-based ingredients of fish feed. In the present study, we aimed to determine the effect of dietary methionine concentrations on several main factors involved in the regulation of mRNA translation and the two major proteolytic pathways (ubiquitin-proteasome and autophagy-lysosomal) in the white muscle of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The fish were fed for 6 weeks one of the three isonitrogenous diets providing three different methionine concentrations (deficient (DEF), adequate (ADQ) and excess (EXC)). At the end of the experiment, the fish fed the DEF diet had a significantly lower body weight and feed efficiency compared with those fed the EXC and ADQ diets. This reduction in the growth of fish fed the DEF diet was accompanied by a decrease in the activation of the translation initiation factors ribosomal protein S6 and eIF2?. The levels of the main autophagy-related markers (LC3-II and beclin 1) as well as the expression of several autophagy genes (atg4b, atg12 l, Uvrag, SQSTM1, Mul1 and Bnip3) were higher in the white muscle of fish fed the DEF diet. Similarly, the mRNA levels of several proteasome-related genes (Fbx32, MuRF2, MuRF3, ZNF216 and Trim32) were significantly up-regulated by methionine limitation. Together, these results extend our understanding of mechanisms regulating the reduction of muscle growth induced by dietary methionine deficiency, providing valuable information on the biomarkers of the effects of low-fishmeal diets. PMID:24877663

Belghit, Ikram; Skiba-Cassy, Sandrine; Geurden, Inge; Dias, Karine; Surget, Anne; Kaushik, Sadasivam; Panserat, Stéphane; Seiliez, Iban

2014-08-28

52

Analysis of Parameters Affecting Impact Force Attenuation during Landing in Human Vertical Free Fall  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characteristics of impact forces on the legs during vertical landing of human vertical free fall in different falling conditions were studied to reveal the parameters which take part in the attenuation of these impact forces. The following parameters were investigated: body position during landing, range of flexion of the joints of the legs at impact, usage of ground-roll immediately

J Mizrahi; Z Susak

1982-01-01

53

Influence of pre-injection control parameters on main-injection fuel quantity for an electronically controlled double-valve fuel injection system of diesel engine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simulation model of an electronically controlled two solenoid valve fuel injection system for a diesel engine is established in the AMESim environment. The accuracy of the model is validated through comparison with experimental data. The influence of pre-injection control parameters on main-injection quantity under different control modes is analyzed. In the spill control valve mode, main-injection fuel quantity decreases gradually and then reaches a stable level because of the increase in multi-injection dwell time. In the needle control valve mode, main-injection fuel quantity increases with rising multi-injection dwell time; this effect becomes more obvious at high-speed revolutions and large main-injection pulse widths. Pre-injection pulse width has no obvious influence on main-injection quantity under the two control modes; the variation in main-injection quantity is in the range of 1 mm3.

Song, Enzhe; Fan, Liyun; Chen, Chao; Dong, Quan; Ma, Xiuzhen; Bai, Yun

2013-09-01

54

Stability of Intercelular Exchange of Biochemical Substances Affected by Variability of Environmental Parameters  

E-print Network

Communication between cells is realized by exchange of biochemical substances. Due to internal organization of living systems and variability of external parameters, the exchange is heavily influenced by perturbations of various parameters at almost all stages of the process. Since communication is one of essential processes for functioning of living systems it is of interest to investigate conditions for its stability. Using previously developed simplified model of bacterial communication in a form of coupled difference logistic equations we investigate stability of exchange of signaling molecules under variability of internal and external parameters.

Dragutin T. Mihailovic; Igor Balaz

2010-08-17

55

How do the structure and the parameters of Gaussian tree models affect structure learning?  

E-print Network

The problem of learning tree-structured Gaussian graphical models from i.i.d. samples is considered. The influence of the tree structure and the parameters of the Gaussian distribution on the learning rate as the number ...

Tan, Vincent Yan Fu

56

Sensitivity analysis of modeling parameters that affect the dual peaking behaviour in coalbed methane reservoirs  

E-print Network

gas reservoirs, one of which is in its modeling. This thesis includes a sensitivity study that provides a fuller understanding of the parameters involved in coalbed methane production, how coalbed methane reservoirs are modeled and the effects...

Okeke, Amarachukwu Ngozi

2006-10-30

57

Sensitivity Analysis of Parameters Affecting Protection of Water Resources at Hanford WA  

SciTech Connect

The scope of this analysis was to assess the sensitivity of contaminant fluxes from the vadose zone to the water table, to several parameters, some of which can be controlled by operational considerations.

DAVIS, J.D.

2002-02-08

58

Abra segmentum (Mollusca: Pelecypoda) of the Lesina Lagoon (Southern Adriatic coast, Italy): Observations on variations in the population in relation to the main environmental parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of the main chemical and physical environmental 1 - parameters on the dynamics of the population of A. segmentum living in the Lesina Lagoon, as a part of a wider study aimed at characterizing all the phases of the species' reproduction cycle in relation to the specific environmental conditions of

Adele Fabbrocini; Ombretta Di Matteo; Raffaele D'Adamo

59

Rheological behavior and parameters of the in vitro model of lung surfactant systems: the role of the main phospholipid component.  

PubMed

The proposed in vitro model for studying the alveolar surface layer of the lungs enables one to investigate the surface intermolecular forces which influence the stability of the alveolus. The general role for the stability of the alveolus belongs to the phospholipids in the alveolar surfactant and predominantly to their main component dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC). The aim of the study was to investigate the rheological behavior of DPPC and exogenous surfactant preparations used in neonatal clinical practice. Data for the rheological behavior of the solutions of the commercially available surfactants, Infasurf, Exosurf and Survanta, as well as of DPPC (their main phospholipid component) at shear rates from 0.024 to 94.5 s(-1) under steady and transient flow conditions at 23 degrees C were obtained. Infasurf and Exosurf showed Newtonian rheological behavior, while Survanta revealed the shear-thinning behavior of a non-Newtonian pseudoplastic fluid. The rheological properties of aqueous solutions of DPPC containing 0.14 M NaCl at concentrations from 100 and 630 microg/ml of phospholipid (chosen from the dependence of the probability for bilayer film formation) were studied. Differences observed in the rheological properties of the exogenous surfactants were interpreted on the basis of their composition, the presence of other phospholipid components, certain additives and surfactant proteins, as well as the bulk structures formed from them. The relevance of the results for the delivery of exogenous surfactants and their spreading in replacement therapy is discussed. PMID:12897419

Antonova, Nadia; Todorov, Roumen; Exerowa, Dotchi

2003-01-01

60

Analysis of Process Parameters Affecting Spray-Dried Oily Core Nanocapsules Using Factorial Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this work was to optimize the process parameters required for the production of spray-dried oily core nanocapsules\\u000a (NCs) with targeted size and drug yield using a two-level four-factor fractional factorial experimental design (FFED). The\\u000a coded process parameters chosen were inlet temperature (X\\u000a 1), feed flow rate (X\\u000a 2), atomizing air flow (X\\u000a 3), and aspiration rate (X

Tao Zhang; Bi-Botti C. Youan

2010-01-01

61

A study of factors affecting highway accident rates using the random-parameters tobit model  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large body of previous literature has used a variety of count-data modeling techniques to study factors that affect the frequency of highway accidents over some time period on roadway segments of a specified length. An alternative approach to this problem views vehicle accident rates (accidents per mile driven) directly instead of their frequencies. Viewing the problem as continuous data

Panagiotis Ch. Anastasopoulos; Fred L. Mannering; Venky N. Shankar; John E. Haddock

62

Factors Affecting the Item Parameter Estimation and Classification Accuracy of the DINA Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To better understand the statistical properties of the deterministic inputs, noisy "and" gate cognitive diagnosis (DINA) model, the impact of several factors on the quality of the item parameter estimates and classification accuracy was investigated. Results of the simulation study indicate that the fully Bayes approach is most accurate when the…

de la Torre, Jimmy; Hong, Yuan; Deng, Weiling

2010-01-01

63

Parameters affecting ultrafast laser microsurgery of subepithelial voids for scar treatment in vocal folds.  

PubMed

Toward developing a new method for restoring tissue viscoelasticity in scarred vocal folds, we previously proposed a method to localize biomaterials within subepithelial voids ablated using ultrafast laser pulses. The clinical implementation of this method necessitates the quantification of the laser parameters for ablating scarred tissue. Here, we present a comprehensive study of these parameters including ablation threshold and bubble lifetime in healthy and scarred tissues. We also present a new method for extracting tissue-specific ablation threshold and scattering lengths of different tissue layers. This method involves finding the ablation threshold at multiple depths and solving the equations based on Beer's law of light attenuation for each depth to estimate the unknown parameters. Measured threshold fluences were 1.75 J/cm2 for vocal folds and 0.5 J/cm2 for cheek pouches for 3-ps, 776-nm laser pulses. Scarred pouches exhibited 30% lower threshold than healthy pouches, possibly due to the degraded mechanical properties of scarred collagen during wound healing. The analysis of tissue architecture indicated a direct correlation between the ablation threshold and tissue tensile strength and that the bubble lifetime is inversely related to tissue stiffness. Overall, this study sheds light on the required laser parameters for successful implementation of ultrafast laser ablation for phonosurgery. PMID:24193950

Yildirim, Murat; Ferhanoglu, Onur; Kobler, James; Zeitels, Steven M; Ben-Yakar, Adela

2013-11-01

64

Photoperiod and Temperature Interact to Affect Immune Parameters in Adult Male Deer Mice  

E-print Network

(Peromyscus manicuiatus) Gregory E. Demas1 and Randy J. Nelson Department of Psychology, Behavioral manipulated in the present study to assess their effects on immune parameters in male deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus). Animals in short days regressed their reproductive systems and also displayed significantly

Demas, Greg

65

Sensitivity studies on parameters affecting gas release from an underground rock cavern  

SciTech Connect

A series of numerical simulation experiments is performed to quantify the effects of the release and migration of non-condensible gas in water-saturated fractured rock formations. The relative importance of multiphase parameters such as relative permeability, capillary pressure, intrinsic permeability, and porosity on system behavior is studied. 10 refs., 28 figs., 5 tabs.

Schlueter, E.; Pruess, K.

1990-01-01

66

Understanding the removal mechanisms of PPCPs and the influence of main technological parameters in anaerobic UASB and aerobic CAS reactors.  

PubMed

The removal of 16 Pharmaceutical and Personal Care Products (PPCPs) were studied in a conventional activated sludge (CAS) unit and an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. Special attention was paid to each biomass conformation and activity as well as to operational conditions. Biodegradation was the main PPCP removal mechanism, being higher removals achieved under aerobic conditions, except in the case of sulfamethoxazole and trimetrophim. Under anaerobic conditions, PPCP biodegradation was correlated with the methanogenic rate, while in the aerobic reactor a relationship with nitrification was found. Sorption onto sludge was influenced by biomass conformation, being only significant for musk fragrances in the UASB reactor, in which an increase of the upward velocity and hydraulic retention time improved this removal. Additionally, PPCP sorption increased with time in the UASB reactor, due to the granular biomass structure which suggests the existence of intra-molecular diffusion. PMID:25010455

Alvarino, T; Suarez, S; Lema, J M; Omil, F

2014-08-15

67

Soil compaction and root distribution for okra as affected by tillage and vehicle parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many soil physical properties and crop yield are affected by compaction and tillage systems. The effect of three different factors, i.e. tillage treatments (no-tillage, chisel plowing, and moldboard plowing), axle load (6 and 16t\\/axle vehicle), and tire inflation pressure (120 and 350kPa inflation pressures) on okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) root density and soil physical properties (bulk density and cone penetration resistance)

Nidal H Abu-Hamdeh

2003-01-01

68

Parameters of the periodic response of a system with friction-affected constraints and harmonic excitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The periodic response of a single-freedom multi-body system with friction-affected constraints acted upon by a harmonic excitation is determined by numerical simulation. The contribution of the constraints to the generalized friction force, the influence of gravity and zero-gravity environment, and the consequences, when several constraints are considered without friction, are investigated. The effects of a small “artificial” damping on the

Horst J. Klepp

1992-01-01

69

Parameters of the periodic response of a system with friction-affected constraints and harmonic excitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The periodic response of a single-freedom multi-body system with friction-affected constraints acted upon by a harmonic excitation is determined by numerical simulation. The contribution of the constraints to the generalized friction force, the influence of gravity and zero-gravity environment, and the consequences, when several constraints are considered without friction, are investigated. The effects of a small 'artificial' damping on the

Horst J. Klepp

1992-01-01

70

IN-SYNC I: Homogeneous Stellar Parameters from High Resolution APOGEE Spectra for Thousands of Pre-main Sequence Star  

E-print Network

Over two years 8,859 high-resolution H-band spectra of 3,493 young (1 - 10 Myr) stars were gathered by the multi-object spectrograph of the APOGEE project as part of the IN-SYNC ancillary program of that SDSS-III survey. Here we present the forward modeling approach used to derive effective temperatures, surface gravities, radial velocities, rotational velocities, and H-band veiling from these near-infrared spectra. We discuss in detail the statistical and systematic uncertainties in these stellar parameters. In addition we present accurate extinctions by measuring the E(J-H) of these young stars with respect to the single-star photometric locus in the Pleiades. Finally we identify an intrinsic stellar radius spread of about 25% for late-type stars in IC 348 using three (nearly) independent measures of stellar radius, namely the extinction-corrected J-band magnitude, the surface gravity and the $R \\sin i$ from the rotational velocities and literature rotation periods. We exclude that this spread is caused by ...

Cottaar, Michiel; Meyer, Michael R; Nidever, David L; Stassun, Keivan G; Foster, Jonathan B; Tan, Jonathan C; Chojnowski, S Drew; da Rio, Nicola; Flaherty, Kevin M; Frinchaboy, Peter M; Skrutskie, Michael; Majewski, Steven R; Wilson, John C; Zasowski, Gail

2014-01-01

71

Systematic investigation of parameters affecting the performance of an agitated filter-dryer.  

PubMed

A systematic experimental investigation of contact drying operation was carried out in an agitated Charles Thompson filter-dryer. In this study, the effect of process parameters (wall temperature, impeller speed, fill level) on the drying performance in the filter-dryer is quantified as a function of bed temperature and solvent concentration. In addition, the impact of drying conditions on the particle size distribution was also examined. It was found that in the range of parameters investigated, drying rate increased with wall temperature and reduced bed depth. The effect of impeller speed was variable where favorable drying conditions were strongly dependent on the particle properties. Moreover, decrease in the particle size was evident with an increase in impeller speed and decrease in the bed depth due to increased collision frequency and reduction in the fill volume both leading to particle attrition respectively. Besides, the average wall to solid heat transfer coefficient is also estimated for variable operating conditions. PMID:23650096

Sahni, Ekneet Kaur; Bogner, Robin H; Chaudhuri, Bodhisattwa

2013-07-01

72

STUDY OF PHYSICOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS AFFECTING THE RELEASE OF DICLOFENAC SODIUM FROM LIPOPHILIC MATRIX TABLETS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present work different parameters, which influence the release of diclofenac sodium (2-((2,6-dichlorophenyl)amino)benzeneacetic acid mono sodium salt) from lipophilic matrix prolonged release tablets, were investigated. Solubility characteristics of diclofenac sodium in aqueous media with various ionic strengths, ionic compositions and pH in the range of 1 to 10 were determined. According to the obtained results different experimental conditions of

Maja Kincl; Marija Meleh; Marjan Veber

73

How do population genetic parameters affect germination of the heterocarpic species Atriplex tatarica (Amaranthaceae)?  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The heterocarpic species Atriplex tatarica produces two types of seeds. In this study, how basic population genetic parameters correlate with seed germinability under various experimental conditions was tested. Methods Population genetic diversity was ascertained in eight populations of A. tatarica by assessing patterns of variation at nine allozyme loci. Germinability of both seed types from all sampled populations was determined by a common laboratory experiment under different salinity levels. Basic population genetic parameters, i.e. percentage of polymorphic loci, average number of alleles per locus and observed heterozygosity were correlated with observed population germination characteristics. Key Results Atriplex tatarica possesses a remarkable heterocarpy, i.e. one type of seed is non-dormant and the other shows different dormancy levels in relation to experimental conditions. Significant negative correlations have been detected between germination of both seed types and the coefficient of inbreeding, and a significant negative correlation between germination of dormant seeds and other population genetic parameters, i.e. percentage of polymorphic loci and average number of alleles per polymorphic locus. Moreover, populations from the region characterized by a shorter growing season manifested higher germinability, i.e. had lower dormancy, than those from the lower-latitude one. Conclusions In general, germination of non-dormant seeds is probably not under strong genetic control. Hence, they germinate as soon as conditions are favourable, thus ensuring survival in the short term, but populations risk local extinction if conditions become adverse (i.e. a high-risk strategy). In contrast, germination of the dormant type of seeds is under stronger genetic control and is significantly correlated with basic population genetic parameters. These seeds ensure long-term reproduction and survival in the field by protracted germination, albeit in low quantities (i.e. A. tatarica also adopts a low-risk strategy). PMID:19339299

Kochankova, Jana; Mandak, Bohumil

2009-01-01

74

Coated or doped carbon nanotube network sensors as affected by environmental parameters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Methods for using modified single wall carbon nanotubes ("SWCNTs") to detect presence and/or concentration of a gas component, such as a halogen (e.g., Cl.sub.2), hydrogen halides (e.g., HCl), a hydrocarbon (e.g., C.sub.nH.sub.2n+2), an alcohol, an aldehyde or a ketone, to which an unmodified SWCNT is substantially non-reactive. In a first embodiment, a connected network of SWCNTs is coated with a selected polymer, such as chlorosulfonated polyethylene, hydroxypropyl cellulose, polystyrene and/or polyvinylalcohol, and change in an electrical parameter or response value (e.g., conductance, current, voltage difference or resistance) of the coated versus uncoated SWCNT networks is analyzed. In a second embodiment, the network is doped with a transition element, such as Pd, Pt, Rh, Ir, Ru, Os and/or Au, and change in an electrical parameter value is again analyzed. The parameter change value depends monotonically, not necessarily linearly, upon concentration of the gas component. Two general algorithms are presented for estimating concentration value(s), or upper or lower concentration bounds on such values, from measured differences of response values.

Li, Jing (Inventor)

2011-01-01

75

Parameters affecting drug release from inert matrices. 1: Monte Carlo simulation.  

PubMed

This study investigates the use of Monte Carlo simulation for the determination of release properties from cubic inert matrices. Specifically, the study has focused on factors including porosity, surface area and tortuosity. The release platform was formed by simulating matrices with different ratios of drug and excipient, which undergo drug release in a uni-directional (two-face) or omni-directional (six-face) process. Upon completion of each simulation the matrix 'carcass' was examined and porosity and tortuosity of the medium evaluated. The tortuosity of the medium was evaluated directly by a blind random walk algorithm. These parameters as well as the release profile were then studied with respect to common mathematical models describing drug diffusion (the square-root, power and Weibull models). It was found that, depending on their composition, the matrices systems were either homogeneous or heterogeneous in nature. Furthermore, it was found that the physical parameters could be successfully fitted to the a and b constants of the Weibull model. This approach allows the prediction of drug release from an inert matrix system with the knowledge of a few physical parameters. PMID:21214424

Villalobos, Rafael; Viquez, Hugo; Hernández, Beatriz; Ganem, Adriana; Melgoza, Luz María; Young, Paul M

2012-01-01

76

Physical parameters and morphology of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko - a main target of Rosetta space mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rosetta, a European space vehicle was head to the icy nucleus of the short period comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko on 2 March, 2004 from cosmodrome Kouru. On 20 Jan. 2014, Rosetta after 10 years of flight and 31-month sleep has been woke up succesfully and now will approche to the icy nucleus of comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko and pass away into orbit around the cometary nucleus. In November 2014 the Philae probe will be sent from Rosetta on the nucleus of comet 67P to study the relict matter of the Solar system. Comet 67P was discovered by the Kyiv astronomers Klim Churyumov and Svitlana Gerasimenko on 22 October 1969 on the five photographic plates exponed with the help of 50-cm Maksutov’s reflector of the Alma-Ata Astrophysical Institute on 9, 11 and 21 Sept. 1969. First 5 exact positions of comet were sent to Dr Brian Marsden. Dr B.Marsden showed it was new comet. The comet had an apparent magnitude of 13 and a faint tail about 1 arcmin in length at position angle 280 degrees. The astronomer Nikolay Belyaev from Saint-Petersbourg calculated that the comet followed an elliptical orbit. In 1982 it had the close encounter with the Earth at 0.3910 A.U. On the basis of the observations of comet 67P obtained in Nizhny Arkhyz with the help of the 6- BTA reflector of SAO of RAS some physical parameters of its comet plasma tail (coefficients of diffusion Dp(parallel) , Ds(perpendicular) and induction of magnetic field B) were determined. Other results of exploration of comet 67P (its polarisation, spectral observations, the light curve and morphology) in different apparitions are discussed.

Churyumov, Klim; Kleshchonok, Valery; Mozgova, Alyona

77

Arterial blood gas and spirometry parameters affect the length of stay in hospitalized asthmatic patients  

PubMed Central

Background: Asthma is a common condition in general medical practice, and it accounts for about 1% of all ambulatory hospital visits. Nowadays, hospitalization rates for asthma have actually been increased in some demographic subgroups despite recent advances in treatment. Understanding the underlying factors that contribute to hospitalization and especially duration of the hospitalization of asthmatics could help elucidate the recent rise in morbidity and also reduce the high demand on health care systems of the disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate factors affecting the duration of hospitalization for Iranian patients with asthma. Methods: This study was conducted on 55 asthmatic patients (diagnosis of asthma was in accordance with the criteria of the American Thoracic Society). The study was performed on patients hospitalized in Rasoul-e-Akram hospital in Tehran, Iran during the period 2005-2006. During hospitalization, the patients’ most common complaints were recorded as the symptoms and signs of the medical condition, results of physical examinations, spirometry, arterial blood gas analysis (ABG), and ICU admission. Results: There were 18(32.7%) male and 37(67.3%) female patients with a mean age of 54.96 (SD=17.54) years. The mean duration of hospitalization was 8.31(SD=4.69) days that ranged between 2 and 23 days. The mean baseline arterial PH (p=0.039, RPearso = -0.362), baseline arterial [HCO3] (p=0.042, RPearson = 0.361), changes of FEV1 after bronchodilator (p=0.041, RPearson= -0.363) and patient's age (p=0.002, RPearson=0.0433) were determined as factors affecting duration of hospitalization. Conclusion: Our results showed that more attention needs to be given to the findings of arterial blood gas and spirometry which can potentially affect the duration of hospitalization of asthmatic patients.

Mousavi, Seyed Ali Javad; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Khalili, Neda; Naghavi, Malihe; Yahyazadeh, Hooman

2014-01-01

78

Dependence of radial thermal diffusivity on parameters of toroidal plasma affected by resonant magnetic perturbations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate how the neoclassical thermal diffusivity of an axisymmetric toroidal plasma is modified by the effect of resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs), using a drift-kinetic simulation code for calculating the radial thermal diffusivity of ion in the perturbed region under an assumption of zero electric field. Here, the perturbed region is assumed to be generated on and near the resonance surfaces, and is wedged in between the regular closed magnetic surfaces. We find that the dependence of the radial thermal diffusivity on parameters of the toroidal plasma is represented as \\chi_r=\\chi_r^{(0)} \\{1+ c_0\\,(\\omega_b/\

Kanno, Ryutaro; Nunami, Masanori; Satake, Shinsuke; Takamaru, Hisanori; Okamoto, Masao

2013-06-01

79

Treatment parameters affecting the response of normal brain to photodynamic therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Different aspects of photodynamic therapy in normal rat brain tissue have been studied, in an effort to understand and improve the dosimetry of this new modality in treatment of brain tumors. dosimetry parameters, including light energy dose, fluence rate and beam size, and drug dosage were studied. PDT induced lesion depth in brain was measured as a biological endpoint. Effective attenuation depth and absolute light fluence rate distribution under superficial irradiation were measured using invasive optical probes. Photosensitizer uptake was quantified using HPLC analysis. The results indicate that normal brain have a high intrinsic sensitivity to PDT treatment, based on the estimated photodynamic threshold.

Chen, Qun; Chopp, Michael; Dereski, Mary O.; Wilson, Brian C.; Patterson, Michael S.; Kessel, David; Heads, Larry; Hetzel, Fred W.

1993-06-01

80

Parameters affecting the occurrence and removal of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in twenty Canadian wastewater treatment plants.  

PubMed

This study determined PBDE levels in influent, primary effluent, and final effluent collected from diverse treatment processes including four aerated lagoons, two facultative lagoons, four primary treatments, eight secondary biological treatments and two advanced treatments. Parameters examined for correlation included seasonal temperature, community sizes, industrial inputs, and operational conditions. PBDE levels in influent were 21-1000 ng/L (median 190 ng/L). Higher concentrations in influent samples were found during summer, and in WWTPs which treated leachate and higher proportions of industrial wastewater vs. residential wastewater. Final effluent levels ranged between 3 and 270 ng/L (median 12 ng/L). Among all congeners, the sum of BDE-209, -47 and -99 accounted for 79 and 71% of total PBDEs in influent and final effluent, respectively, with BDE-209 having the highest proportion. Median removal efficiencies for all process types exceeded 90% except primary treatment at 70%. PBDE levels and removals were correlated to the levels and removals of conventional parameters that represent wastewater strength, such as chemical oxygen demand and total suspended solids. The role of the primary clarifier was significant (?82% removal) and removal was associated with hydraulic retention time (HRT) and surface loading rate. Best removal of PBDEs was achieved at greater than 2000 mg/L mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS), longer than 10 h of HRT, and 9 days of solids retention time. PMID:23466032

Kim, M; Guerra, P; Theocharides, M; Barclay, K; Smyth, S A; Alaee, M

2013-05-01

81

The nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, ibuprofen, affects the immune parameters in the clam Ruditapes philippinarum.  

PubMed

The effects of ibuprofen (IBU) on the immune parameters of the clam Ruditapes philippinarum were investigated after a 7-day exposure to sublethal IBU concentrations (0, 0 + ethanol, 100, 500, and 1000 ?g/L). Total haemocyte count (THC), haemocyte diameter and volume, haemocyte proliferation and uptake of the vital dye Neutral Red (NR) were measured. The cytotoxicity (assessed by the lactate dehydrogenase assay, LDH) and the capability of IBU to induce DNA fragmentation (indicative of apoptosis) were also investigated. The exposure of clams to the highest IBU concentration significantly reduced their THC, whereas no significant changes were observed in either the diameter or volume of haemocytes. Significant increases in haemocyte proliferation were recorded in clams that were exposed to the two highest tested concentrations of IBU. Exposure of clams to 1000 ?g IBU/L significantly reduced NR uptake and increased haemolymph LDH activity. Conversely, IBU did not induce DNA fragmentation in haemocytes. Although the IBU concentrations tested in this study were higher than those generally recorded in aquatic environments, results obtained indicate that exposure of clams to IBU induces significant alterations in the immune parameters and suggest potential immunosuppression in treated clams. PMID:22727203

Matozzo, Valerio; Rova, Silvia; Marin, Maria Gabriella

2012-08-01

82

Antimicrobial resistances do not affect colonization parameters of intestinal E. coli in a small piglet group  

PubMed Central

Background Although antimicrobial resistance and persistence of resistant bacteria in humans and animals are major health concerns worldwide, the impact of antimicrobial resistance on bacterial intestinal colonization in healthy domestic animals has only been rarely studied. We carried out a retrospective analysis of the antimicrobial susceptibility status and the presence of resistance genes in intestinal commensal E. coli clones from clinically healthy pigs from one production unit with particular focus on effects of pheno- and/or genotypic resistance on different nominal and numerical intestinal colonization parameters. In addition, we compared the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance phenotypes and genotypes with the occurrence of virulence associated genes typical for extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli. Results In general, up to 72.1% of all E. coli clones were resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, kanamycin, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole or tetracycline with a variety of different resistance genes involved. There was no significant correlation between one of the nominal or numerical colonization parameters and the absence or presence of antimicrobial resistance properties or resistance genes. However, there were several statistically significant associations between the occurrence of single resistance genes and single virulence associated genes. Conclusion The demonstrated resistance to the tested antibiotics might not play a dominant role for an intestinal colonization success in pigs in the absence of antimicrobial drugs, or cross-selection of other colonization factors e.g. virulence associated genes might compensate "the cost of antibiotic resistance". Nevertheless, resistant strains are not outcompeted by susceptible bacteria in the porcine intestine. Trial Registration The study was approved by the local animal welfare committee of the "Landesamt für Arbeitsschutz, Gesundheitsschutz und technische Sicherheit" Berlin, Germany (No. G0037/02). PMID:19814790

Schierack, Peter; Kadlec, Kristina; Guenther, Sebastian; Filter, Matthias; Schwarz, Stefan; Ewers, Christa; Wieler, Lothar H

2009-01-01

83

Potato Production as Affected by Crop Parameters and Meteoro Logical Elements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Meteorological elements directly influence crop potential productivity, regulating its transpiration, photosynthesis, and respiration processes in such a way as to control the growth and development of the plants throughout their physiological mechanisms at a given site. The interaction of the meteorological factors with crop responses is complex and has been the target of attention of many researchers from all over the world. There is currently a great deal of interest in estimating crop productivity as a function of climate by means of different crop weather models in order to help growers choose planting locations and timing to produce high yields with good tuber quality under site-specific atmospheric conditions. In this manuscript an agrometeorological model based on maximum carbon dioxide assimilation rates for C3 plants, fraction of photosynthetically active radiation, air temperature, photoperiod duration, and crop parameters is assessed as to its performance under tropical conditions. Crop parameters include leaf areaand harvest indexes, dry matter content of potato tubers, and crop cycles to estimate potato potential yields. Productivity obtained with the cultivar Itararé, grown with adequate soil water supply conditions at four different sites in the State of São Paulo (Itararé, Piracicaba, TatuÍ, and São Manuel), Brazil, were used to test the model. The results showed thatthe agrometeorological model tested under the climatic conditions of the State of São Paulo in general underestimated irrigated potato yield by less than 10%.This justifies the recommendation to test the performance of the model in study in other climaticregions for different crops and genotypes under optimal irrigationconditions in further scientific investigations. We reached the conclusion that the agrometeorological model taking into account information on leaf area index, photoperiod duration, photosynthetically active radiation and air temperature is feasible to estimate potential tuber yield at a commercial scale. The performance test shows that it can then be used to forecast harvest time, and also as an effective tool to predict the suitability of potential regions to the cultivation of potato crop, cultivar Itararé, at the State of São Paulo, Brazil.

Pereira, André B.; Villa Nova, Nilson A.; Pereira, Antonio R.

84

Dermal nanocrystals from medium soluble actives - Physical stability and stability affecting parameters.  

PubMed

Nanocrystals are meanwhile applied to increase the dermal penetration of drugs, but were applied by now only to poorly soluble drugs (e.g. 1-10?g/ml). As a new concept nanocrystals from medium soluble actives were produced, using caffeine as model compound (solubility 16mg/ml at 20°C). Penetration should be increased by (a) further increase in solubility and (b) mainly by increased hair follicle targeting of nanocrystals compared to pure solution. Caffeine nanocrystal production in water lead to pronounced crystal growth. Therefore the stability of nanocrystals in water-ethanol (1:9) and ethanol-propylene glycol (3:7) mixtures with lower dielectric constant D was investigated, using various stabilizers. Both mixtures in combination with Carbopol® 981 (non-neutralized) yielded stable nanosuspensions over 2months at 4°C and room temperature. Storage at 40°C lead to crystal growth, attributed to too strong solubility increase, supersaturation and Ostwald ripening effects. Stability of caffeine nanocrystals at lower temperatures could not only be attributed to lower solubility, because the solubilities of caffeine in mixtures and in water are not that much different. Other effects such as quantified by reduced dielectric constant D, and specific interactions between dispersion medium and crystal surface seem to play a role. With the 2 mixtures and Carbopol® 981, a basic formulation composition for this type of nanocrystals has been established, to be used in the in vivo proof of principle of the new concept. PMID:25016978

Zhai, Xuezhen; Lademann, Jürgen; Keck, Cornelia M; Müller, Rainer H

2014-09-01

85

Developmental methoxychlor exposure affects multiple reproductive parameters and ovarian folliculogenesis and gene expression in adult rats  

SciTech Connect

Methoxychlor (MXC) is an organochlorine pesticide with estrogenic, anti-estrogenic, and anti-androgenic properties. To investigate whether transient developmental exposure to MXC could cause adult ovarian dysfunction, we exposed Fischer rats to 20 {mu}g/kg/day (low dose; environmentally relevant dose) or 100 mg/kg/day (high dose) MXC between 19 days post coitum and postnatal day 7. Multiple reproductive parameters, serum hormone levels, and ovarian morphology and molecular markers were examined from prepubertal through adult stages. High dose MXC accelerated pubertal onset and first estrus, reduced litter size, and increased irregular cyclicity (P < 0.05). MXC reduced superovulatory response to exogenous gonadotropins in prepubertal females (P < 0.05). Rats exposed to high dose MXC had increasing irregular estrous cyclicity beginning at 4 months of age, with all animals showing abnormal cycles by 6 months. High dose MXC reduced serum progesterone, but increased luteinizing hormone (LH). Follicular composition analysis revealed an increase in the percentage of preantral and early antral follicles and a reduction in the percentage of corpora lutea in high dose MXC-treated ovaries (P < 0.05). Immunohistochemical staining and quantification of the staining intensity showed that estrogen receptor {beta} was reduced by high dose MXC while anti-Mullerian hormone was upregulated by both low- and high dose MXC in preantral and early antral follicles (P < 0.05). High dose MXC significantly reduced LH receptor expression in large antral follicles (P < 0.01), and down-regulated cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage. These results demonstrated that developmental MXC exposure results in reduced ovulation and fertility and premature aging, possibly by altering ovarian gene expression and folliculogenesis.

Armenti, AnnMarie E.; Zama, Aparna Mahakali; Passantino, Lisa [Department of Animal Sciences School of Environmental and Biological Sciences Rutgers, State 84 Lipman Drive University of New Jersey New Brunswick, NJ 08901-8525 (United States); Uzumcu, Mehmet [Department of Animal Sciences School of Environmental and Biological Sciences Rutgers, State 84 Lipman Drive University of New Jersey New Brunswick, NJ 08901-8525 (United States)], E-mail: uzumcu@aesop.rutgers.edu

2008-12-01

86

Metabolic Parameters and Emotionality Are Little Affected in G-Protein Coupled Receptor 12 (Gpr12) Mutant Mice  

PubMed Central

Background G-protein coupled receptors (GPR) bear the potential to serve as yet unidentified drug targets for psychiatric and metabolic disorders. GPR12 is of major interest given its putative role in metabolic function and its unique brain distribution, which suggests a role in emotionality and affect. We tested Gpr12 deficient mice in a series of metabolic and behavioural tests and subjected them to a well-established high-fat diet feeding protocol. Methodology/Principal Findings Comparing the mutant mice with wild type littermates, no significant differences were seen in body weight, fatness or weight gain induced by a high-fat diet. The Gpr12 mutant mice displayed a modest but significant lowering of energy expenditure and a trend to lower food intake on a chow diet, but no other metabolic parameters, including respiratory rate, were altered. No emotionality-related behaviours (assessed by light-dark box, tail suspension, and open field tests) were affected by the Gpr12 gene mutation. Conclusions/Significance Studying metabolic and emotionality parameters in Gpr12 mutant mice did not reveal a major phenotypic impact of the gene mutation. Compared to previous results showing a metabolic phenotype in Gpr12 mice with a mixed 129 and C57Bl6 background, we suggest that a more pure C57Bl/6 background due to further backcrossing might have reduced the phenotypic penetrance. PMID:22879962

Frank, Elisabeth; Wu, Yizhen; Piyaratna, Naomi; Body, William James; Snikeris, Peta; South, Timothy; Gerdin, Anna-Karin; Bjursell, Mikael; Bohlooly-Y, Mohammad; Storlien, Leonard; Huang, Xu-Feng

2012-01-01

87

Insertion depth of oral stomach tubes may affect the fermentation parameters of ruminal fluid collected in dairy cows.  

PubMed

Six rumen-fistulated dairy cows were used in 2 trials to validate the technique for the collection of ruminal fluid by an oral stomach tube (OST). Trial 1 was conducted to compare the differences of ruminal fermentation parameters among rumen sites (cranial dorsal, cranial ventral, central, ventral, caudal dorsal, and caudal ventral). The ruminal fluid was collected once per day for 3 consecutive days through rumen cannula (RC). The samples were analyzed for pH, volatile fatty acids (VFA), ammonia N, sodium, potassium, calcium, chloride, and phosphorus concentrations. The ruminal fermentation parameters varied significantly among rumen sites. Compared with the central or ventral rumen, the cranial dorsal rumen had significantly higher pH, ammonia, and sodium concentrations and lower acetate, propionate, and butyrate concentrations, indicating that the sampling site may be one of the main factors contributing to the difference in ruminal fermentation parameters between the samples collected via the OST and RC. In trial 2, the fermentation parameters of ruminal fluid collected via OST at 2 insertion depths (180 or 200 cm) were compared with those of ruminal fluid collected via RC (ventral sac). Ruminal fluid was collected once per week at 5 to 6h after morning feeding. When the OST was inserted to a depth of 180 cm, the OST head was located in the cranial dorsal (atrium) of the rumen. The ruminal fluid collected via the OST had higher pH and sodium concentrations but lower VFA, potassium, calcium, and phosphorus concentrations than that collected via RC. However, when the OST was inserted to a depth of 200 cm, the OST head could pass through the front rumen pillar and reach the central rumen for sampling. No differences were found in pH, VFA, ammonia N, and ion concentrations between the samples collected via the 2 sampling methods. These results indicated that the OST should be inserted to reach the central rumen to obtain representative rumen fluid samples. PMID:22921624

Shen, J S; Chai, Z; Song, L J; Liu, J X; Wu, Y M

2012-10-01

88

Improvement of Oxidative and Metabolic Parameters by Cellfood Administration in Patients Affected by Neurodegenerative Diseases on Chelation Treatment  

PubMed Central

Objective. This prospective pilot study aimed at evaluating the effects of therapy with antioxidant compounds (Cellfood, and other antioxidants) on patients affected by neurodegenerative diseases (ND), who displayed toxic metal burden and were subjected to chelation treatment with the chelating agent calcium disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (CaNa2EDTA or EDTA). Methods. Two groups of subjects were studied: (a) 39 patients affected by ND and (b) 11 subjects unaffected by ND (controls). The following blood parameters were analyzed before and after three months' treatment with chelation + Cellfood or chelation + other antioxidants: oxidative status (reactive oxygen species, ROS; total antioxidant capacity, TAC; oxidized LDL, oxLDL; glutathione), homocysteine, vitamin B12, and folate. Results. After 3-months' chelation + Cellfood administration oxLDL decreased, ROS levels were significantly lower, and TAC and glutathione levels were significantly higher than after chelation + other antioxidants treatment, both in ND patients and in controls. Moreover, homocysteine metabolism had also improved in both groups. Conclusions. Chelation + Cellfood treatment was more efficient than chelation + other antioxidants improving oxidative status and homocysteine metabolism significantly in ND patients and controls. Although limited to a small number of cases, this study showed how helpful antioxidant treatment with Cellfood was in improving the subjects' metabolic conditions. PMID:25114898

Fulgenzi, Alessandro; Giuseppe, Rachele De; Bamonti, Fabrizia; Ferrero, Maria Elena

2014-01-01

89

Parameters affecting water-hammer wave attenuation, shape and timing—Part 1: Mathematical tools Paramètres affectant l'atténuation, la forme et le retard du coup de bélier—Partie 1: Modèles mathématiques  

Microsoft Academic Search

This two-part paper investigates key parameters that may affect the pressure waveform predicted by the classical theory of water-hammer. Shortcomings in the prediction of pressure wave attenuation, shape and timing originate from violation of assumptions made in the derivation of the classical water- hammer equations. Possible mechanisms that may significantly affect pressure waveforms include unsteady friction, cavitation (including column separation

ANTON BERGANT; ARRIS S. TIJSSELING; JOHN P. VÍTKOVSKÝ; ANGUS R. SIMPSON; MARTIN F. LAMBERT

90

POPULATION PARAMETERS OF INTERMEDIATE-AGE STAR CLUSTERS IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD. II. NEW INSIGHTS FROM EXTENDED MAIN-SEQUENCE TURNOFFS IN SEVEN STAR CLUSTERS  

SciTech Connect

We discuss new photometry from high-resolution images of seven intermediate-age (1-2 Gyr) star clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud taken with the Advanced Camera for Surveys on board the Hubble Space Telescope. We fit color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) with several different sets of theoretical isochrones and determine systematic uncertainties for population parameters when derived using any one set of isochrones. The cluster CMDs show several interesting features, including extended main-sequence turnoff (MSTO) regions, narrow red giant branches, and clear sequences of unresolved binary stars. We show that the extended MSTOs are not caused by photometric uncertainties, contamination by field stars, or the presence of binary stars. Enhanced helium abundances in a fraction of cluster stars are also ruled out as the reason for the extended MSTOs. Quantitative comparisons with simulations indicate that the MSTO regions are better described by a spread in ages than by a bimodal age distribution, although we cannot formally rule out the latter for the three lowest-mass clusters in our sample (which have masses lower than {approx}3 x 10{sup 4} M{sub sun}). This conclusion differs from that of some previous works which suggested that the age distribution in massive clusters in our sample is bimodal. This suggests that any secondary star formation occurred in an extended fashion rather than through short bursts. We discuss these results in the context of the nature of multiple stellar populations in star clusters.

Goudfrooij, Paul; Kozhurina-Platais, Vera [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Puzia, Thomas H. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Av. Vicuna Mackenna 4860, Macul 7820436, Santiago (Chile); Chandar, Rupali, E-mail: goudfroo@stsci.edu, E-mail: verap@stsci.edu, E-mail: tpuzia@gmail.com, E-mail: rupali.chandar@utoledo.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, 2801 West Bancroft Street, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States)

2011-08-10

91

Dissecting systemic RNA interference in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum: parameters affecting the efficiency of RNAi.  

PubMed

The phenomenon of RNAi, in which the introduction of dsRNA into a cell triggers the destruction of the corresponding mRNA resulting in a gene silencing effect, is conserved across a wide array of plant and animal phyla. However, the mechanism by which the dsRNA enters a cell, allowing the RNAi effect to occur throughout a multicellular organism (systemic RNAi), has only been studied extensively in certain plants and the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. In recent years, RNAi has become a popular reverse genetic technique for gene silencing in many organisms. Although many RNAi techniques in non-traditional model organisms rely on the systemic nature of RNAi, little has been done to analyze the parameters required to obtain a robust systemic RNAi response. The data provided here show that the concentration and length of dsRNA have profound effects on the efficacy of the RNAi response both in regard to initial efficiency and duration of the effect in Tribolium castaneum. In addition, our analyses using a series of short dsRNAs and chimeric dsRNA provide evidence that dsRNA cellular uptake (and not the RNAi response itself) is the major step affected by dsRNA size in Tribolium. We also demonstrate that competitive inhibition of dsRNA can occur when multiple dsRNAs are injected together, influencing the effectiveness of RNAi. These data provide specific information essential to the design and implementation of RNAi based studies, and may provide insight into the molecular basis of the systemic RNAi response in insects. PMID:23133513

Miller, Sherry C; Miyata, Keita; Brown, Susan J; Tomoyasu, Yoshinori

2012-01-01

92

Parameters affecting water-hammer wave attenuation, shape and timing—Part 2: Case studies Paramètres affectant l'atténuation, la forme et le retard du coup de bélier—Partie 2: Cas d'étude  

Microsoft Academic Search

This two-part paper investigates parameters that may significantly affect water-hammer wave attenuation, shape and timing. Possible sources that may affect the waveform predicted by classical water-hammer theory include unsteady friction, cavitation (including column separation and trapped air pockets), a number of fluid-structure interaction effects, viscoelastic behaviour of the pipe-wall material, leakages and blockages. Part 1 of this two-part paper presents

ANTON BERGANT; ARRIS S. TIJSSELING; I. C. COVAS; ANGUS R. SIMPSON; MARTIN F. LAMBERT

93

Population Parameters of Intermediate-Age Star Clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud. I. NGC 1846 and its Wide Main-Sequence Turnoff  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Advanced Camera for Surveys onboard the Hubble Space Telescope has been used to obtain deep, high-resolution images of the intermediate-age star cluster NGC 1846 in the Large Magellanic Cloud. We present new color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) based on F435W, F555W, and F814W imaging. We test the previously observed broad main-sequence turnoff (MSTO) region for "contamination" by field stars and (evolved) binary star systems. We find that while these impact the number of objects in this region, none can fully account for the large color spread. Our results therefore solidify the recent finding that stars in the MSTO region of this cluster have a large spread in color which is unrelated to measurement errors or contamination by field stars, and likely due to a ~ 300 Myr range in the ages of cluster stars. An unbiased estimate of the stellar density distribution across the MSTO region shows that the spread is fairly continuous rather than strongly bimodal, as suggested previously. We fit the CMDs with several different sets of theoretical isochrones, and determine systematic uncertainties for population parameters when derived using any one set of isochrones. We note a degeneracy between age and [?/Fe], which can be lifted by matching the shape (curvature) of the full red giant branch (RGB) in the CMD. We find that stars in the upper part of the MSTO region are more centrally concentrated than those in any other region, including more massive RGB and asymptotic giant branch stars. We consider several possible formation scenarios which account for the unusual features observed in the CMD of NGC 1846. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

Goudfrooij, Paul; Puzia, Thomas H.; Kozhurina-Platais, Vera; Chandar, Rupali

2009-06-01

94

Rock Mass Grouting in the Løren Tunnel: Case Study with the Main Focus on the Groutability and Feasibility of Drill Parameter Interpretation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Løren road tunnel is a part of a major project at Ring road 3 in Oslo, Norway. The rock part of the tunnel is 915 m long and has two tubes with three lanes and breakdown lanes. Strict water ingress restriction was specified and continuous rock mass grouting was, therefore, carried out for the entire tunnel, which was excavated in folded Cambro-Silurian shales intruded by numerous dykes. This paper describes the rock mass grouting that was carried out for the Løren tunnel. Particular emphasis is placed on discussing grout consumption and the challenges that were encountered when passing under a distinct rock depression. Measurement while drilling (MWD) technology was used for this project, and, in this paper, the relationships between the drill parameter interpretation (DPI) factors water and fracturing are examined in relation to grout volumes. A lowering of the groundwater table was experienced during excavation under the rock depression, but the groundwater was nearly re-established after completion of the main construction work. A planned 80-m watertight concrete lining was not required to be built due to the excellent results from grouting in the rock depression area. A relationship was found between leakages mapped in the tunnel and the DPI water factor, indicating that water is actually present where the DPI water factor shows water in the rock. It is concluded that, for the Løren tunnel, careful planning and high-quality execution of the rock mass grouting made the measured water ingress meet the restrictions. For future projects, the DPI water factor may be used to give a better understanding of the material in which the rock mass grouting is performed and may also be used to reduce the time spent and volumes used when grouting.

Høien, Are Håvard; Nilsen, Bjørn

2014-05-01

95

Flu vaccination with a virosomal vaccine does not affect clinical course and immunological parameters in scleroderma patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Safety and efficacy of adjuvanted vaccines in autoimmune individuals raises growing clinical and scientific interest. Protection from influenza would bring particular benefits in these patients with common cardiac and respiratory impairment. This study evaluates efficacy, clinical safety and immune effects of the administration of a single dose of a virosomal flu vaccine in 46 scleroderma patients. The following parameters were

Maurizio Setti; Daniela Fenoglio; Filippo Ansaldi; Gilberto Filaci; Sabrina Bacilieri; Laura Sticchi; Alessandra Ferrera; Francesco Indiveri; Massimo Ghio

2009-01-01

96

The Transiting Exoplanet Host Star GJ 436: A Test of Stellar Evolution Models in the Lower Main Sequence, and Revised Planetary Parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of the stellar parameters for the parent stars of transiting exoplanets is a prerequisite for establishing the planet properties themselves, and often relies on stellar evolution models. GJ 436, which is orbited by a transiting Neptune-mass object, presents a difficult case because it is an M dwarf. Stellar models in this mass regime are not as reliable as for

Guillermo Torres

2007-01-01

97

Study of some parameters which affect xylanase production: Strain selection, enzyme extraction optimization, and influence of drying conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Xylanases are glycosidases mainly responsible for the hydrolysis of ?-1,4 linkages in xylan. Xylanase was produced in this\\u000a work by solid-state fermentation using agro industrial residues with Aspergillus niger strain, which was screened through qualitative and quantitative methods. Extraction processes with different solvents were\\u000a evaluated. Solvent volume, time, and agitation speed (shaker) were optimized using statistical designs. Drying studies of

Giselle Maria Maciel; Luciana Porto de Souza Vandenberghe; Ricardo Cancio Fendrich; Bianca Eli Della Bianca; Charles Windson Isidoro Haminiuk; Carlos Ricardo Soccol

2009-01-01

98

IN-SYNC I: Homogeneous Stellar Parameters from High-resolution APOGEE Spectra for Thousands of Pre-main Sequence Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over two years, 8859 high-resolution H-band spectra of 3493 young (1-10 Myr) stars were gathered by the multi-object spectrograph of the APOGEE project as part of the IN-SYNC ancillary program of the SDSS-III survey. Here we present the forward modeling approach used to derive effective temperatures, surface gravities, radial velocities, rotational velocities, and H-band veiling from these near-infrared spectra. We discuss in detail the statistical and systematic uncertainties in these stellar parameters. In addition, we present accurate extinctions by measuring the E(J – H) of these young stars with respect to the single-star photometric locus in the Pleiades. Finally, we identify an intrinsic stellar radius spread of about 25% for late-type stars in IC 348 using three (nearly) independent measures of stellar radius, namely, the extinction-corrected J-band magnitude, the surface gravity, and the Rsin i from the rotational velocities and literature rotation periods. We exclude that this spread is caused by uncertainties in the stellar parameters by showing that the three estimators of stellar radius are correlated, so that brighter stars tend to have lower surface gravities and larger Rsin i than fainter stars at the same effective temperature. Tables providing the spectral and photometric parameters for the Pleiades and IC 348 have been provided online.

Cottaar, Michiel; Covey, Kevin R.; Meyer, Michael R.; Nidever, David L.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Foster, Jonathan B.; Tan, Jonathan C.; Chojnowski, S. Drew; da Rio, Nicola; Flaherty, Kevin M.; Frinchaboy, Peter M.; Skrutskie, Michael; Majewski, Steven R.; Wilson, John C.; Zasowski, Gail

2014-10-01

99

Acclimatory responses of the Daphnia pulex proteome to environmental changes. II. Chronic exposure to different temperatures (10 and 20?C) mainly affects protein metabolism  

PubMed Central

Background Temperature affects essentially every aspect of the biology of poikilothermic animals including the energy and mass budgets, activity, growth, and reproduction. While thermal effects in ecologically important groups such as daphnids have been intensively studied at the ecosystem level and at least partly at the organismic level, much less is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying the acclimation to different temperatures. By using 2D gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, the present study identified the major elements of the temperature-induced subset of the proteome from differently acclimated Daphnia pulex. Results Specific sets of proteins were found to be differentially expressed in 10°C or 20°C acclimated D. pulex. Most cold-repressed proteins comprised secretory enzymes which are involved in protein digestion (trypsins, chymotrypsins, astacin, carboxypeptidases). The cold-induced sets of proteins included several vitellogenin and actin isoforms (cytoplasmic and muscle-specific), and an AAA+ ATPase. Carbohydrate-modifying enzymes were constitutively expressed or down-regulated in the cold. Conclusion Specific sets of cold-repressed and cold-induced proteins in D. pulex can be related to changes in the cellular demand for amino acids or to the compensatory control of physiological processes. The increase of proteolytic enzyme concentration and the decrease of vitellogenin, actin and total protein concentration between 10°C and 20°C acclimated animals reflect the increased amino-acids demand and the reduced protein reserves in the animal's body. Conversely, the increase of actin concentration in cold-acclimated animals may contribute to a compensatory mechanism which ensures the relative constancy of muscular performance. The sheer number of peptidase genes (serine-peptidase-like: > 200, astacin-like: 36, carboxypeptidase-like: 30) in the D. pulex genome suggests large-scaled gene family expansions that might reflect specific adaptations to the lifestyle of a planktonic filter feeder in a highly variable aquatic environment. PMID:19383147

Schwerin, Susanne; Zeis, Bettina; Lamkemeyer, Tobias; Paul, Rudiger J; Koch, Marita; Madlung, Johannes; Fladerer, Claudia; Pirow, Ralph

2009-01-01

100

Population Parameters of Intermediate-Age Star Clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud. I. NGC 1846 and its Wide Main Sequence Turnoff  

E-print Network

The Advanced Camera for Surveys on board the Hubble Space Telescope has been used to obtain deep, high-resolution images of the intermediate-age star cluster NGC 1846 in the Large Magellanic Cloud. We present new color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) based on F435W, F555W, and F814W imaging. We test the previously observed broad main sequence turnoff region for "contamination" by field stars and (evolved) binary star systems. We find that while these impact the number of objects in this region, none can fully account for the large color spread. Our results therefore solidify the recent finding that stars in the main sequence turnoff region of this cluster have a large spread in color which is unrelated to measurement errors or contamination by field stars, and likely due to a ~300 Myr range in the ages of cluster stars. An unbiased estimate of the stellar density distribution across the main sequence turnoff region shows that the spread is fairly continuous rather than strongly bimodal as suggested previously. We f...

Goudfrooij, Paul; Kozhurina-Platais, Vera; Chandar, Rupali

2009-01-01

101

The role of mechanical properties in cavitation erosion resistance. [parameters affecting metal fatigue under cavitation flow conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Methods for determining the correlations of erosion resistance and mechanical properties of materials are discussed. The most common method of testing cavitation erosion resistance of materials is the vibratory cavitation probe. The instrument and its operation are described. The use of the whirling arm device is considered as a second method. Metallographic investigations of the earliest stages of cavitation erosion damage of metallic materials was conducted. The materials show plastic deformation occurring during the incubation period and increasing until cracks form and metal fragments are lost. The parameters of the work done to cause material fractures are identified. The reactions obtained with specific materials are reported.

Gould, G. C.

1974-01-01

102

Investigation of Parameters that Affect the Success Rate of Microarray-Based Allele-Specific Hybridization Assays  

PubMed Central

Background The development of microarray-based genetic tests for diseases that are caused by known mutations is becoming increasingly important. The key obstacle to developing functional genotyping assays is that such mutations need to be genotyped regardless of their location in genomic regions. These regions include large variations in G+C content, and structural features like hairpins. Methods/Findings We describe a rational, stable method for screening and combining assay conditions for the genetic analysis of 42 Phenylketonuria-associated mutations in the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene. The mutations are located in regions with large variations in G+C content (20–75%). Custom-made microarrays with different lengths of complementary probe sequences and spacers were hybridized with pooled PCR products of 12 exons from each of 38 individual patient DNA samples. The arrays were washed with eight buffers with different stringencies in a custom-made microfluidic system. The data were used to assess which parameters play significant roles in assay development. Conclusions Several assay development methods found suitable probes and assay conditions for a functional test for all investigated mutation sites. Probe length, probe spacer length, and assay stringency sufficed as variable parameters in the search for a functional multiplex assay. We discuss the optimal assay development methods for several different scenarios. PMID:21445337

Poulsen, Lena; S?e, Martin Jensen; M?ller, Lisbeth Birk; Dufva, Martin

2011-01-01

103

MAINE AQUIFERS  

EPA Science Inventory

AQFRS24 contains polygons of significant aquifers in Maine (glacial deposits that are a significant ground water resource) mapped at a scale 1:24,000. This statewide coverage was derived from aquifer boundaries delineated and digitized by the Maine Geological Survey from data com...

104

Individual match playing time during the season affects fitness-related parameters of male professional soccer players.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of an entire season on physical fitness parameters (PFPs) in male professional soccer players (N = 18). Performance in 5- and 30-m sprint (T5 and T30), countermovement jump (CMJ), agility (T-test), knee extensor (KE) and knee flexor (KF) isokinetic strength, hamstrings/quadriceps strength ratio (H/Q) and bilateral differences (BDs), and Yo-Yo intermittent endurance test 2 (YYIE2) was evaluated in 4 moments (E1-E4) throughout the season. Individual match playing time was quantified. Significant improvements in CMJ and YYIE2 from E1 to E2 were observed (p < 0.05-0.01). The T30 improved from E2 to E3 (p < 0.01). The CMJ decreased from E2 to E3 and E4, and YYIE2 from E2 to E4 (p < 0.05). There were increments in the H/Q ratio and Agility from E1 and E2 to E3 and E4 (p < 0.05-0.01). Significant correlations were found in all evaluation points between different PFPs and between changes in strength parameters and agility, T5 and T30, CMJ, and YYIE2 (p < 0.05-0.001). Influence of individual match playing time was correlated to changes in T5 (E1 to E3; r = -0.705), KE nondominant leg (KEND; E2 to E3; r = 0.786), and KF (E3 to E4; r = 0.575-0.590). The interrelationship between muscle strength (e.g., KE), sprint (e.g., T5), and jump abilities (CMJ) suggests the importance of muscle strength and power training for soccer. This study suggests that the systematic participation of the players in soccer matches favors the increase and maintenance of soccer players KE and KF muscle strength and sprint ability (T5). Thus, given the unique demands of actual match play, coaches should try to incorporate a competitive friendly match in the weekly training cycle of nonstarter players. PMID:21912284

Silva, João R; Magalhães, José F; Ascensão, António A; Oliveira, Eduardo M; Seabra, André F; Rebelo, António N

2011-10-01

105

Visual display of reservoir parameters affecting enhanced oil recovery. Annual report, October 1, 1995--September 30, 1996  

SciTech Connect

The Multimedia Database Management System (MDMS) has been developed in the commercial software package Toolbook. Design and implementation, which was carried out by C. Asiala, is now essentially complete. Regional location maps of southern San Joaquin Valley oil fields, structure contour maps of the Pioneer area, core photos, core data, thin-section and SEM photomicrographs of core materials, structural cross sections through Pioneer Anticline, an atlas of photomicrographs; illustrating typical diagenetic features observed in San Joaquin Valley petroleum reservoirs, elemental and spectral data collected on Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) standards, and all quarterly and annual reports submitted to DOE for this project were scanned into the MDMS. All data and information are accessible through dropdown menus and hotlinks in a Table of Contents. A tutorial is presented up front to guide users through the MDMS and instruct them on the various ways in which data can be viewed and retrieved. Version 1.0 of the MDMS was written to CD ROM and distributed to participants in a Technology Transfer Workshop in Bakersfield, CA, in September, 1996. Version 1.1, which contains additional information and has been reorganized for easier use, is nearing completion. All measured and computed log curves (computed curves represent parameters such as porosity, water saturation, and clay content, which were calculated from the measured log traces using specially developed algorithms) for the 45+ project wells on Pioneer Anticline are now in the MDMS in LAS (log ASCII) format, and can be exported to any commercial log evaluation program for manipulation and analysis. All log curves were written to the CD ROM in digital format.

Wood, J.R.

1997-04-01

106

MAINE WOODLOTS  

EPA Science Inventory

MEOWN250 describes industrial, non-industrial, and public woodlot ownership in Maine at 1:250,000 scale. Industrial owners are those having at least one primary wood processing facility. Non-industrial owners are those with no primary wood processing facility. Public ownership...

107

The main cubioid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The connectedness locus in the parameter space of quadratic polynomials is called the Mandelbrot set. A good combinatorial model of this set is due to Thurston. By definition, the principal hyperbolic domain of the Mandelbrot set consists of parameter values, for which the corresponding quadratic polynomials have an attracting fixed point. The closure of the principal hyperbolic domain of the Mandelbrot set is called the main cardioid. Its topology is completely described by Thurston's model. Less is known about the connectedness locus in the parameter space of cubic polynomials. In this paper, we discuss cubic analogues of the main cardioid and establish relationships between them.

Blokh, Alexander; Oversteegen, Lex; Ptacek, Ross; Timorin, Vladlen

2014-08-01

108

The Assessment of Parameters Affecting the Quality of Cord Blood by the Appliance of the Annexin V Staining Method and Correlation with CFU Assays  

PubMed Central

The assessment of nonviable haematopoietic cells by Annexin V staining method in flow cytometry has recently been published by Duggleby et al. Resulting in a better correlation with the observed colony formation in methylcellulose assays than the standard ISHAGE protocol, it presents a promising method to predict cord blood potency. Herein, we applied this method for examining the parameters during processing which potentially could affect cord blood viability. We could verify that the current standards regarding time and temperature are sufficient, since no significant difference was observed within 48 hours or in storage at 4°C up to 26°C. However, the addition of DMSO for cryopreservation alone leads to an inevitable increase in nonviable haematopoietic stem cells from initially 14.8% ± 4.3% to at least 30.6% ± 5.5%. Furthermore, CFU-assays with varied seeding density were performed in order to evaluate the applicability as a quantitative method. The results revealed that only in a narrow range reproducible clonogenic efficiency (ClonE) could be assessed, giving at least a semiquantitative estimation. We conclude that both Annexin V staining method and CFU-assays with defined seeding density are reliable means leading to a better prediction of the final potency. Especially Annexin V, due to its fast readout, is a practical tool for examining and optimising specific steps in processing, while CFU-assays add a functional confirmation. PMID:23533443

Radke, Teja Falk; Barbosa, David; Duggleby, Richard Charles; Saccardi, Riccardo; Querol, Sergio; Kogler, Gesine

2013-01-01

109

Comparison of Mathematical Models Applied to F1 Dairy Sheep Lactations in Organic Farm and Environmental Factors Affecting Lactation Curve Parameter  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to compare the goodness of fit of four lactation curve models: Wood’s Gamma model (WD), Wilmink (WL), and Pollott’s multiplicative two (POL2) and three parameters (POL3) and to determine the environmental factors affecting the complete lactation curve of F1 dairy sheep under organic management. A total of 5,382 weekly milk yields records from 150 ewes, under organic management were used. Residual mean square (RMS), determination coefficients (R2), and correlation (r) analysis were used as an indicator of goodness of fit for each model. WL model best fitted the lactation curves as indicated by the lower RMS values (0.019), followed by WD (0.023), POL2 (0.025) and POL3 (0.029). The four models provided total milk yield (TMY) estimations that were highly correlated (0.93 to 0.97) with observed TMY (89.9 kg). The four models under estimated peak yield (PY), whereas POL2 and POL3 gave nearer peak time lactation estimations. Ewes lambing in autumn had higher TMY and showed a typical curve shape. Higher TMY were recorded in second and third lambing. Season of lambing, number of lambing and type of lambing had a great influenced over TMY shaping the complete lactation curve of F1 dairy sheep. In general terms WL model showed the best fit to the F1 dairy sheep lactation curve under organic management. PMID:25049892

Angeles-Hernandez, J. C.; Albarran-Portillo, B.; Gomez Gonzalez, A. V.; Pescador Salas, N.; Gonzalez-Ronquillo, M.

2013-01-01

110

Parameters affecting the occurrence of quicksand and the drying up of large diameter wells that gain water from the bottom: a case study from Iran  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large diameter fully cased wells that gain water from the bottom are often dug in sandy and collapsible aquifers. They have cylindrical vertical walls lined with brick or concrete. The well bottom is partially filled with aquifer material through which the flow is vertically upward. When the vertical hydraulic gradient reaches a critical value, quicksand occurs and the well structure can be destroyed. Another difficulty encountered is drawdown in the wellbore and the drying up of the well. To overcome these problems, the flow around and beneath these wells is numerically simulated. The simulation results are used to investigate the effect of well and aquifer parameters on quicksand and drawdown. For practical purposes, the dimensionless drawdown-time and dimensionless vertical gradient-time curves are developed. It was found that the ratio of filling material thickness to well radius affects the shape of these type curves. The type curves may be used to predict the time after pumping commences when quicksand occurs and the well dries up. They are also useful to design the safe pumping rate and duration as well as the optimum well radius. These are demonstrated by analyzing the pumping test data from a case study in the arid Chah Kutah region, southern Iran.

Kompani-Zare, Mazda; Samani, Nozar; Behrooz-Koohenjani, Siavash

2009-07-01

111

Effect of parameter choice in root water uptake models - the arrangement of root hydraulic properties within the root architecture affects dynamics and efficiency of root water uptake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detailed three-dimensional models of root water uptake have become increasingly popular for investigating the process of root water uptake. However, they suffer from a lack of information on important parameters, particularly on the spatial distribution of root axial and radial conductivities, which vary greatly along a root system. In this paper we explore how the arrangement of those root hydraulic properties and branching within the root system affects modelled uptake dynamics, xylem water potential and the efficiency of root water uptake. We first apply a simple model to illustrate the mechanisms at the scale of single roots. By using two efficiency indices based on (i) the collar xylem potential ("effort") and (ii) the integral amount of unstressed root water uptake ("water yield"), we show that an optimal root length emerges, depending on the ratio between roots axial and radial conductivity. Young roots with high capacity for radial uptake are only efficient when they are short. Branching, in combination with mature transport roots, enables soil exploration and substantially increases active young root length at low collar potentials. Second, we investigate how this shapes uptake dynamics at the plant scale using a comprehensive three-dimensional root water uptake model. Plant-scale dynamics, such as the average uptake depth of entire root systems, were only minimally influenced by the hydraulic parameterization. However, other factors such as hydraulic redistribution, collar potential, internal redistribution patterns and instantaneous uptake depth depended strongly on the arrangement on the arrangement of root hydraulic properties. Root systems were most efficient when assembled of different root types, allowing for separation of root function in uptake (numerous short apical young roots) and transport (longer mature roots). Modelling results became similar when this heterogeneity was accounted for to some degree (i.e. if the root systems contained between 40 and 80% of young uptake roots). The average collar potential was cut to half and unstressed transpiration increased by up to 25% in composed root systems, compared to homogenous ones. Also, the least efficient root system (homogenous young root system) was characterized by excessive bleeding (hydraulic lift), which seemed to be an artifact of the parameterization. We conclude that heterogeneity of root hydraulic properties is a critical component for efficient root systems that needs to be accounted for in complex three-dimensional root water uptake models.

Bechmann, M.; Schneider, C.; Carminati, A.; Vetterlein, D.; Attinger, S.; Hildebrandt, A.

2014-10-01

112

Modeling runoff and microbial overland transport with KINEROS2/STWIR model: Accuracy and uncertainty as affected by source of infiltration parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Infiltration is important to modeling the overland transport of microorganisms in environmental waters. In watershed- and hillslope scale-models, infiltration is commonly described by simple equations relating infiltration rate to soil saturated conductivity and by empirical parameters defining changes in infiltration rate with soil water content. For the microbial transport model KINEROS2/STWIR used in this study, infiltration in unsaturated soil is accounted for by a net capillary drive parameter, G, in the Parlange equation. Scarce experimental data and multiple approaches for estimating parameter G introduce uncertainty, reducing reliability of overland water flow and microbial transport models. Our objectives were to evaluate reliability and robustness of three methods to estimate parameter G and associated accuracy and uncertainty in predicting runoff and fecal coliform (FC) transport. These methods include (i) KINEROS2 fitting to the experimental cumulative runoff data; (ii) estimating solely on soil texture; and (iii) estimating by individual pedotransfer functions (PTFs) and an ensemble of PTFs from basic soil properties. Results show that the most accurate prediction was obtained when the G parameter was fitted to the cumulative runoff. The KINEROS2-recommended parameter slightly overestimated the calibrated value of parameter G and yielded less accurate predictions of runoff, FC concentrations and total FC. The PTFs-estimated parameters systematically deviated from calibrated G values that caused high uncertainty in the KINEROS2/STWIR predictions. Averaging PTF estimates considerably improved model accuracy, reducing the uncertainty of runoff and FC concentration predictions. Overall, ensemble-based PTF estimation of the capillary drive can be efficient for simulations of runoff and bacteria overland transport when a single effective value is used across the study area.

Guber, A. K.; Pachepsky, Y. A.; Yakirevich, A. M.; Shelton, D. R.; Whelan, G.; Goodrich, D. C.; Unkrich, C. L.

2014-11-01

113

Metal-poor Dwarf Galaxies in the SIGRID Galaxy Sample. II. The Electron Temperature-Abundance Calibration and the Parameters that Affect it  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we use the Mappings photoionization code to explore the physical parameters that impact on the measurement of electron temperature and abundance in H II regions. In our previous paper, we presented observations and measurements of physical properties from the spectra of 17 H II regions in 14 isolated dwarf irregular galaxies from the SIGRID sample. Here, we analyze these observations further, together with three additional published data sets. We explore the effects of optical thickness, electron density, ionization parameter, ionization source, and non-equilibrium effects on the relation between electron temperature and metallicity. We present a standard model that fits the observed data remarkably well at metallicities between one-tenth and 1 solar. We investigate the effects of optically thin H II regions, and show that they can have a considerable effect on the measured electron temperature, and that there is evidence that some of the observed objects are optically thin. We look at the role of the ionization parameter and find that lower ionization parameter values give better fits at higher oxygen abundance. We show that higher pressures combined with low optical depth, and also ? electron energy distributions at low ? values, can generate the apparent high electron temperatures in low-metallicity H II regions, and that the former provides the better fit to observations. We examine the effects of these parameters on the strong line diagnostic methods. We extend this to three-dimensional diagnostic grids to confirm how well the observations are described by the grids.

Nicholls, David C.; Dopita, Michael A.; Sutherland, Ralph S.; Jerjen, Helmut; Kewley, Lisa J.

2014-07-01

114

Metal-poor dwarf galaxies in the SIGRID galaxy sample. II. The electron temperature-abundance calibration and the parameters that affect it  

E-print Network

In this paper, we use the Mappings photoionization code to explore the physical parameters that impact on the measurement of electron temperature and abundance in HII regions. In the previous paper we presented observations and measurements of physical properties from the spectra of seventeen HII regions in fourteen isolated dwarf irregular galaxies from the SIGRID sample. Here, we analyze these observations further, together with three additional published data sets. We explore the effects of optical thickness, electron density, ionization parameter, ionization source, and non-equilibrium effects on the relation between electron temperature and metallicity. We present a standard model that fits the observed data remarkably well at metallicities between 1/10 and 1 solar. We investigate the effects of optically thin HII regions, and show that they can have a considerable effect on the measured electron temperature, and that there is evidence that some of the observed objects are optically thin. We look at the ...

Nicholls, David C; Sutherland, Ralph S; Jerjen, Helmut; Kewley, Lisa J; Basurah, Hassan

2014-01-01

115

Are the parameters of V O 2 , heart rate and muscle deoxygenation kinetics affected by serial moderate-intensity exercise transitions in a single day?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compared the parameter estimates of pulmonary oxygen uptake (VO2p), heart rate (HR) and muscle deoxygenation (?[HHb]) kinetics when several moderate-intensity exercise transitions (MODs)\\u000a were performed during a single visit versus several MODs performed during separate visits. Nine subjects (24 ± 5 years, mean ± SD)\\u000a each completed two successive cycling MODs on six occasions (1-6A and 1-6B) from 20 W to a work rate

Matthew D. Spencer; Juan M. Murias; Heather P. Lamb; John M. Kowalchuk; Donald H. Paterson

2011-01-01

116

Relationship between blood concentrations of heavy metals and cytogenetic and endocrine parameters among subjects involved in cleaning coastal areas affected by the 'Prestige' tanker oil spill.  

PubMed

The sinking of the 'Prestige' oil tanker in front of the Galician coast (NW of Spain) in November 2002 offered a unique opportunity to analyze intermediate cytogenetic and endocrine effects among people exposed to the complex mixture of substances that oil constitutes, including several toxic heavy metals. In this work we evaluated the relationship between exposure to heavy metals (blood concentrations of aluminium, cadmium, nickel, lead and zinc) and genotoxic parameters (sister chromatid exchanges, micronucleus test and comet assay) or endocrine parameters (plasmatic concentrations of prolactin and cortisol) in subjects exposed to 'Prestige' oil during cleaning tasks developed after the spillage. Concentrations of lead were significantly related to the comet assay even after adjusting by age, sex and smoking. Cortisol concentrations were significantly influenced by aluminium, nickel (both, inversely) and cadmium (positively). Women had clearly higher concentrations of prolactin and cortisol, even when adjusting by age, smoking, cadmium, aluminium or nickel. Plasmatic cortisol was jointly influenced by gender, smoking and aluminium or nickel (all p<0.05). In women there was a strong relationship between concentrations of cadmium and prolactin (beta=0.37, p=0.031). When the effects of cadmium, aluminium and nickel on cortisol were simultaneously assessed, only the latter two metals remained statistically significant. Among parameters analysed, cortisol appeared to be the most sensitive to the effects of metal exposure. Plasma levels of cortisol deserve further evaluation as a potentially relevant biomarker to assess the effects of exposure to heavy metals. PMID:18221981

Pérez-Cadahía, Beatriz; Laffon, Blanca; Porta, Miquel; Lafuente, Anunciación; Cabaleiro, Teresa; López, Tomàs; Caride, Ana; Pumarega, José; Romero, Alejandro; Pásaro, Eduardo; Méndez, Josefina

2008-03-01

117

Red band needle blight is an economically important disease affecting a number of coniferous trees, in particular pines. The disease has a world-wide distribution but until recently it was mainly of concern in the southern  

E-print Network

Red band needle blight is an economically important disease affecting a number of coniferous trees septosporum. Red band needle blight causes premature needle defoliation which results in the loss of timber susceptible species in future rotations. Red band needle blight of conifers in Britain Research Note Anna

118

Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in Maine. Preliminary background report  

SciTech Connect

The Maine Supreme Court holds that the regulation of the operations of public utilities is an exercise of the police powers of the state. The legislature has delegated such regulatory authority to the Maine Public Utilities Commission (PUC). The statutes provide no role for local government in the regulation of public utilities. The PUC consists of three full time members, appointed by the Governor subject to review by the Joint Standing Committee on Public Utilities and to confirmation by the Legislature. They each serve seven year terms. One member is designated by the Governor as chairman. The Commission appoints a secretary, assistant secretary, director of transportation, and, with the approval of the Attorney General, a general counsel. A member of the PUC cannot have any official or professional connection or relation with or hold any stock or securities in any public utility. Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES.

Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.; Gallagher, K.C.; Hejna, D.; Rielley, K.J.

1980-01-01

119

Blood parameters and corneal-reflex of finishing pigs with and without lung affections observed post mortem in two abattoirs stunning with CO?.  

PubMed

In two pig abattoirs of different slaughter capacities, the stunning efficacy of CO2 on finishing pigs with and without pneumonic lesions (observed post mortem) was reflected against the corneal-reflex and blood parameters (blood pH, pCO2 and pO2) from individual finishers. Stunning duration was 120 s (abattoir A) and 90 s (abattoir B), respectively. Pneumonia in finisher pigs is frequently observed during post mortem inspection, which may raise concerns about a delay of unconsciousness because of hampered gas exchange in the lungs. The aim of this study was to examine possible pneumonia consequences for stunning efficacy under commercial conditions. For that, corneal reflex, O2 and CO2 partial pressure in the blood as well as blood pH were measured in 2650 finishers from abattoir A and 2100 from abattoir B. The partial pressure of O2 after stunning accounted to about 3 kPa, the partial pressure of CO2 was found at levels of about 24 kPa in abattoir A (after 120 s CO2 exposure) and 17.5 kPa in abattoir B (after 90 s CO2 exposure). In abattoir A, the blood pH was at 6.9, and at 7.0 in abattoir B. The corneal reflex was observed in 6.2% of pigs in abattoir A and 17.1% of pigs in abattoir B. A correlation between pneumonic lesions and blood status was not observed. However, for some individual farms, a significant correlation between pneumonia and corneal reflex was observed. PMID:22898535

Fries, R; Rindermann, G; Siegling-Vlitakis, C; Bandick, N; Bräutigam, L; Buschulte, A; Irsigler, H; Wolf, K; Hartmann, H

2013-02-01

120

Selection of Initial Quantisation Parameter for Rate Controlled 1.264 video coding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rate control (RC) is one of the most important mechanisms affecting digital video quality in networked environments. One of the main parameters for RC in the context of the H.264 video coding standard is the quantisation parameter (QP), which jointly affects quality and rate on a frame by frame basis. In this paper, a scheme is proposed for achieving more

A. Armstrong; S. Beesley; C. Grecos

2006-01-01

121

Main University Entrance Main University Reception  

E-print Network

Economics Research Group School of Arts (taught programmes) Marie Jahoda School of Social Sciences (UG, PG Athletics Centre Eastern Gateway Main Reception Beldam Gallery Brunel Business School Lancaster Suite Conference Office Mary Seacole Health and Social Care (enquiries) Sports Centre St Johns Information Systems

Martin, Ralph R.

122

Wildlife Habitat of Maine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Wildlife Habitat of Maine map was created using data from the Maine Office of GIS and the United States National Atlas. The map shows the land cover characteristics of Maine, including human development and major roads. The most suitable wildlife habitat can be attributed to the areas with the most suitable land cover and the least human development. An

Wendy Sicard

2005-01-01

123

Parameters affecting sag resistance in spring steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent trends toward reducing the weight of automobile suspension springs have led to the development of a number of microalloyed steels and a variety of processing treatments which have claimed to improve the sag resistance of springs while increasing their operating stresses. More often than not, however, the subtle effects of varying levels of hardness and prior austenite grain size, as well as small but significant differences in critical elements such as Si, are over-looked in comparing these new steels with the conventional grades. Hysteresis loops measured in tension (related to the Bauschinger effect) were used to determine the relaxation behavior of a number of microalloyed and standard grade spring steels. The effects of hardness level, austenitizing temperature, prior austenite grain size, and warm prestressing on the Bauschinger hysteresis loops were also established. Silicon was found to be the most important factor influencing the size of the hysteresis loops; the greater the Si content of the steel (up to 2.2 pct), the larger the loops at a given strength level and the greater the expected relaxation resistance of the spring. The standard AISI 9261 steel containing 2.2 pct Si showed the same Bauschinger loops as the microalloyed grades containing Nb and V at the same hardness of 50 HRC.

Assefpour-Dezfuly, M.; Brownrigg, A.

1989-10-01

124

Processing parameters affecting sorghum noodle qualities  

E-print Network

Processing variables of 100% sorghum noodles were investigated to determine effects on noodle quality. A dough was created by microwave heating a flour with 1 % salt (1 00 g): water (90 ml) mixture to 950C with a microwave. The dough was put through...

Kunetz, Christine Frances

2012-06-07

125

Major parameters affecting temperature inside inhalation chambers  

Microsoft Academic Search

These studies showed that stainless steel chamber walls were very effective at removing heat from an (380 l) inhalation chamber. Cooling the incoming air was not as effective in cooling the stainless steel chamber, because most of the heat transfer from the animals in the chamber was by thermal radiation and the cooled intake air was rapidly heated through the

D. M. Bernstein; R. T. Drew

1978-01-01

126

Introduction Climate change is likely to affect the main  

E-print Network

is to quantify future coastal change at mid-latitudes under global warming, with an emphasis on dune erosion. We are interested in the slow steady effect of sea level rise relative to the damaging coastal impact that changes Storms and Coastal evolution under AccelerATEd sea level rise Methodology Our work is based on a model

Vries, Hans de

127

MAINE MARINE WORM HABITAT  

EPA Science Inventory

WORM provides a generalized representation at 1:24,000 scale of commercially harvested marine worm habitat in Maine, based on Maine Department of Marine Resources data from 1970's. Original maps were created by MDMR and published by USF&WS as part of the ""&quo...

128

Exploring Main Belt Asteroids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Terrestrial planet formation in the main asteroid belt was interrupted when growing protoplanets became sufficiently massive to gravitationally perturb the local population, causing bodies to collide with increased energy, thus ending accretion and commencing fragmentation and disruption. Few of these protoplanets are thought to have survived unshattered (e.g., Ceres, Vesta, Pallas), leaving a main belt population dominated by fragments of

M. V. Sykes; S. M. Larson; R. Whiteley; U. Fink; R. Jedicke; J. Emery; R. Fevig; M. Kelley; A. W. Harris; S. Ostro; K. Reed; R. P. Binzel; A. Rivkin; C. Magri; W. Bottke; D. Durda; R. Walker; D. Davis; W. K. Hartmann; D. Sears; H. Yano; J. Granahan; A. Storrs; S. J. Bus; J. F. Bell; D. Tholen; A. Cellino

2001-01-01

129

Affective Domain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The affective domain can significantly enhance, inhibit or even prevent student learning. The affective domain includes factors such as student motivation, attitudes, perceptions and values. Teachers can increase their effectiveness by considering the affective domain in planning courses, delivering lectures and activities, and assessing student learning. This module contains information and resources for incorporating the affective domain into teaching.

130

The Maine Music Box  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created through a collaboration between the University of Maine's Fogler Library and other Maine libraries, The Maine Music Box contains hundreds of digitized sheet music scores from five major collections. First-time visitors to the site will want to click on the "About Maine Music Box" project as a way of getting started. Here they can check out the "User Information" area, which contains helpful tips on viewing the music and how to best browse the entire database. Additionally, those with a penchant for technical details and information science in general can also learn in copious detail how the database was created for this project. From there, visitors can move straight away into the main collection. Visitors can browse the collection by music subject, sheet music cover art, or just type in their own keywords. One of the best ways to look over the collection is to browse around in such areas as "Instructional Violin", "Maine Collection" and "Parlor Salon Collection". It's also worth remarking that this site may inspire a sing-a-long, a campfire get-together, or a miniature Chautauqua.

131

Analysis of factors affecting color distribution of white LEDs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The color uniformity is a critical index in the evaluation of high quality white light emitting diodes (LEDs). The main factor affecting the color distribution is the state of the phosphor. The secondary factor is the optical structure. This paper analyzes two parameters of the phosphor layer (thickness and concentration) and six optical structures. Results indicate that the structures with

Zongyuan Liu; Sheng Liu; Kai Wang; Xiaobing Luo

2008-01-01

132

Determination of the main parameters influencing forest fuel combustion dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work aims to characterize pine needles as a fuel for a better understanding of the behaviour of forest fuels in wildland fires. It does this in two ways: classify vegetation as a fuel for forest fires and understand the role of transport mechanisms in fuel beds. For this purpose, the physical and chemical characteristics of each fuel are taken

P. Bartoli; A. Simeoni; H. Biteau; J. L. Torero; P. A. Santoni

2011-01-01

133

MAINE SCHOOLS AND LIBRARIES  

EPA Science Inventory

SCHLIB shows point locations of libraries and educational institutions in Maine at 1:24,000 scale. Colleges, universities, technical colleges, high schools, middle schools, elementary schools, kindergarten/sub-primary and other special schools are included. The data was developed...

134

Maine Dance Curriculum Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide is designed to support those in Maine who wish to establish or enhance dance education in any educational areas and at elementary or secondary levels. A preface describes the state's dance heritage. An introduction argues for the importance of dance education. The next section addresses pedagogy and explains how to create and…

Grindel, Susan; And Others

135

COLDSPRINGCREEK MAIN STREET WEST  

E-print Network

.................................... 43 David Braley Athletic Centre.... 54 Divinity College............................ 17 Dramatic Arts MAIN STREET WEST COLLEGE CRESCENT COOTESDRIVE WESTAWAY ROAD SCHOLAR'S ROAD STEARN DRIVE Entrance Pay Stations Short Term Parking - Pay and Display Campus Shuttle Bus Service Go Bus Stop A-Q CAMPUS

Thompson, Michael

136

COLDSPRINGCREEK MAIN STREET WEST  

E-print Network

....................................43 David Braley Athletic Centre ....54 Divinity College............................17 Dramatic Arts 37 MAIN STREET WEST COLLEGE CRESCENT COOTESDRIVE WESTAWAY ROAD SCHOLAR'S ROAD STEARN DRIVE EntranceCampus LEGEND McMaster University Entrance Security and Parking Services Parking Lot Location Pay Stations Short

Haykin, Simon

137

Main Course Beef Lasagne  

E-print Network

with lemon and free range egg mayonnaise Mediterranean Quorn and Garlic Pie A ragu of roasted Mediterranean vegetables and Quorn topped with garlic bread slices Served with Sautéed New Potatoes or Penne Pasta Sweet Corn & Garlic Bread Salad Bar Should you wish to have salad as your main meal please see the choice

Bristol, University of

138

Maine Humanities Council  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Formed as a private nonprofit organization, the Maine Humanities Council (MHC) "promotes strong communities and informed citizens by providing Mainers with opportunities to explore the power and pleasure of ideas." Their work is supported by volunteer board members, and their projects include programs to promote reading and writing, guest lectures around the state, and online newsletters and discussion groups. In the "Programs" area, visitors can learn about these programs, and educators can check out the resources created especially for them. The "Connections" area contains links to their thoughtful blog, their "Humanities on Demand" podcasts, and their periodic newsletter "Synapse", which deals with medicine and literature. The podcasts are quite fun, and they include "Franco-American Women's Words in Maine" and a talk by Professor Dianne Sadoff of Rutgers University on Middlemarch, by George Eliot.

139

Stars main sequence  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What happens during most of a star's life? This activity page, part of an interactive laboratory series for grades 8-12, introduces students to the main sequence phase of a star's existence. This phase is where a star lives out the majority of its life. In an interactive lab activity, students predict the length of the main sequence for four different stars. The predictions can be printed for later evaluation. Students view diagrams that compare the size and color of stars to human lives, and equilibrium within a star is stressed. Finally, students choose between two hypotheses about the length of life of a star. Students write a one- to three-sentence explanation for their hypotheses. The correct answer is provided. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

University of Utah. Astrophysics Science Project Integrating Research and Education (ASPIRE)

2003-01-01

140

COBRA Main Engine Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The COBRA (CO-Optimized Booster for Reusable Applications) project include the following: 1. COBRA main engine project team. 2. COBRA and RLX cycles selected. 3. COBRA proto-type engine approach enables mission success. 4. COBRA provides quick, low cost demo of cycle and technologies. 5. COBRA cycle I risk reduction supports. 6. Achieving engine safety. 6. RLX cycle I risk reduction supports. 7. Flight qualification. 9. Life extension engine testing.

Snoddy, Jim; Sides, Steve; Lyles, Garry M. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

141

Economic parameters of deforestation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent debate about how timber prices affect deforestation has focused mainly on how log export bans (imposed in many developing countries to protect domestic timber processing) affect deforestation. One side argues that the lower domestic timber prices that result from banning log exports increase deforestation by making forestry less profitable than competing land uses, such as agriculture. The other argues

Joachim von Amsberg

1994-01-01

142

Elements affecting runway traction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The five basic elements affecting runway traction for jet transport aircraft operation are identified and described in terms of pilot, aircraft system, atmospheric, tire, and pavement performance factors or parameters. Where possible, research results are summarized, and means for restoring or improving runway traction for these different conditions are discussed.

Horne, W. B.

1974-01-01

143

The CLIC Main Linac Bunch Compressor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The latest version of the CLIC parameters implies the acceleration in the main linac of a train of bunches with a very short bunch length, around 50 m rms and an uncorrelated fractional energy spread at injection of about 1%. On the other hand, the damping ring design imposes a starting bunch length of 3 mm and a fractional energy

T. E. d'Amico; Gilbert Guignard; T O Raubenheimer

1998-01-01

144

March 29, 2008 Operating Systems: Main Memory 1 Main Memory  

E-print Network

March 29, 2008 Operating Systems: Main Memory 1 Main Memory Chapter 8 #12;March 29, 2008 Operating Systems: Main Memory 2 Chapter Outline Background Contiguous Memory Allocation Paging Structure of the Page Table Segmentation #12;March 29, 2008 Operating Systems: Main Memory 3 Objectives To provide

Adam, Salah

145

State of Maine's Environment 2010  

Microsoft Academic Search

The State of Maine's Environment is a regular series of reports written by senior environmental policy majors at Colby College in Waterville, Maine. The State of Maine's Environment 2010 is the sixth State of Maine's Environment report created by students enrolled in ES 493: Environmental Policy Practicum taught by Philip J. Nyhus, Environmental Studies Program. Topics in this report include

Philip J. Nyhus

2010-01-01

146

Is there an efficient trap or collection method for sampling Anopheles darlingi and other malaria vectors that can describe the essential parameters affecting transmission dynamics as effectively as human landing catches? - A Review.  

PubMed

Distribution, abundance, feeding behaviour, host preference, parity status and human-biting and infection rates are among the medical entomological parameters evaluated when determining the vector capacity of mosquito species. To evaluate these parameters, mosquitoes must be collected using an appropriate method. Malaria is primarily transmitted by anthropophilic and synanthropic anophelines. Thus, collection methods must result in the identification of the anthropophilic species and efficiently evaluate the parameters involved in malaria transmission dynamics. Consequently, human landing catches would be the most appropriate method if not for their inherent risk. The choice of alternative anopheline collection methods, such as traps, must consider their effectiveness in reproducing the efficiency of human attraction. Collection methods lure mosquitoes by using a mixture of olfactory, visual and thermal cues. Here, we reviewed, classified and compared the efficiency of anopheline collection methods, with an emphasis on Neotropical anthropophilic species, especially Anopheles darlingi, in distinct malaria epidemiological conditions in Brazil. PMID:25185008

Lima, José Bento Pereira; Rosa-Freitas, Maria Goreti; Rodovalho, Cynara Melo; Santos, Fátima; Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Ricardo

2014-08-01

147

37. Fore and main masts, and main boom lying in ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

37. Fore and main masts, and main boom lying in storage yard. Stern of Museum Ship Wavetreet to left in photograph. - Schooner "Lettie G. Howard", South Street Seaport Museum, New York, New York County, NY

148

Uncertainties on elastic parameters and occupancy factors: how do they affect the accuracy of the calculated Gibbs energy of minerals at ( P , T ) conditions? The case of 3 T - versus 2 M 1 -phengite  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper reports a study about how the uncertainties on some fundamental thermodynamic and structural quantities\\u000a (formation enthalpy, specific heat, thermo-elastic properties, occupancy factors) propagate and affect the Gibbs energy calculated\\u000a at given pressure and temperature conditions [G(P,T)] for mineral phases. A particular attention is paid to the role played by the uncertainties on the bulk modulus, its first

Alessandro Pavese; Valeria Diella

2007-01-01

149

EXPLORATORY FISHING FOR MAINE HERRING  

E-print Network

of Maine waters were sounded and fished with a lampara seine, gill nets, midwater trawls, and otter trawls for Atlantic herring and to carry on research and developmental work on sardine fishing gear. Original efforts sought along the Maine coast and in the Gulf of Maine. Otter trawl surveys were made during the winters

150

Cosmological Models (mainly relativistic Cosmology)  

E-print Network

COSMOLOGY Cosmological Models (mainly relativistic Cosmology) [References] c 2009, F. Jegerlehner R Lect. 5 R 301 #12;COSMOLOGY Cosmological Models (mainly relativistic Cosmology) [References] Objects our local experience. c 2009, F. Jegerlehner R Lect. 5 R 301 #12;COSMOLOGY Cosmological Models (mainly

Peters, Achim

151

Oblique view, looking eastsoutheast, of main gatehouse, main entrance, and ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Oblique view, looking east-southeast, of main gatehouse, main entrance, and battery storage house. East side of canal wall in foreground - Grand Valley Diversion Dam, Half a mile north of intersection of I-70 & Colorado State Route 65, Cameo, Mesa County, CO

152

View of the main interior space facing east. The main ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of the main interior space facing east. The main entry is on the left hand side at the rear. The exit to the deck is to the right. - San Luis Yacht Club, Avila Pier, South of Front Street, Avila Beach, San Luis Obispo County, CA

153

Maine: Early Head Start Initiatives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maine has two initiatives that build on Early Head Start (EHS). The first initiative, Fund for a Healthy Maine, has since 2001 provided tobacco settlement money to existing Head Start and EHS programs to expand the number of children who receive full-day, full-year services. Local programs have the option of using these funds for EHS, depending on…

Center for Law and Social Policy, Inc. (CLASP), 2012

2012-01-01

154

How does nature of rain affect micro-physical parameters of surface rain? A study on vertical profile and surface rain micro-structure over eastern Himalaya in India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study has been made on the effect of nature of the rain (convective, stratiform and mixed) on the various micro-physical properties like drop-size distributions (DSD), fall velocity and rain rate of surface rain over Darjeeling (27.01 (°) N, 88.15 (°) E), a high altitude (2200 m asl) station at eastern Himalaya in India. A vertical looking Micro Rain Radar (MRR) was used for the vertical profile of micro-physical parameters of rain along with the rain height derived from the bright band structure of melting layer of radar reflectivity profile. The micro-physical parameters of surface rain was obtained using a ground based Disdrometer. Data has been collected and analysed for all the rain events during monsoon (June-September), 2013. All the rain events over the entire study period were classified as convective, stratiform and mixed type based on the bright band structure. DSD, fall velocity of rain drops and rain rate obtained from Disdrometer were correlated with the types of rain obtained from MRR. Our results showed that the average height of bright band of melting layer was 2.5 km and 4 km for convective and stratiform type of rain respectively. For mixed type of rain radar reflectivity shows two peaks with the bright band heights ranging from 2 - 5 km. Convective rain events showed higher rain rate at the ground with the range of 30-40 mm hr (-1) . Instantaneous rain rate of convective rain events sometimes reached more than 100 mm hr (-1) . DSD at the surface showed that number of bigger drops (> 0.5 mm) increases significantly compared to smaller drops (< 0.5 mm) along with higher fall velocities. The drop diameter for this type of rain reached 5 mm for most of the cases. For stratiform type of rain, surface rain rate was found to be comparatively much lower remaining around 5 mm hr (-1) . The number of bigger drops was much lower associated to stratiform type of rain. The drop diameter remained within 2 mm for most of the cases. Several events were observed where all types of rains occurred with convective rains appeared at the initial phase of rain followed by mixed type and both of them lasted for low duration. Stratiform rains which appeared after the mixed type lasted for longer duration till the end of the events. The individual characteristics for each type of rains were distinctly observed for the events where all these three types were present. These distinctly different features of different rain types could significantly impact on the washing or scavenging air pollutants below the cloud with different potentials.

Singh, Soumendra; Chatterjee, Abhijit; Ghosh, Sanjay; Raha, Sibaji; Mitra, Amitabha

155

Biogeography of Nearshore Subtidal Invertebrates in the Gulf of Maine  

EPA Science Inventory

The biogeography of nearshore benthic invertebrates in the Gulf of Maine was studied to compare recent data with historical biogeographic studies, define physical-chemical factors affecting species distributions, and provide information needed to calibrate benthic indices of envi...

156

Humboldt River main stem, Nevada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This data set contains the main stem of the Humboldt River as defined by Humboldt Project personnel of the U.S. Geological Survey Nevada District, 2001. The data set was digitized on screen using digital orthophoto quadrangles from 1994.

Warmath, Eric; Medina, Rose L.

2001-01-01

157

UNIVERSITY OF MAINE STUDENT LIFE  

E-print Network

UNIVERSITY OF MAINE STUDENT LIFE CAMPUS RECREATION RELEASE AND ASSUMPTION OF RISK *** PLEASE PRINT:______________________________________________________), of : (________________________________________________________________________), Street Address City State Zip (Email: ______________________________________), (Phone force and effect. I declare that I completely understand and have fully informed myself of the terms

Thomas, Andrew

158

Virtual Tour of Maine Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This selection of slide shows provides a photographic tour of Maine geology. Users can choose slide shows on surficial, bedrock, and coastal geology; fossils, geologic hazards, groundwater and wells; or mineral collecting, mining, and quarrying.

159

Space Shuttle Era: Main Engines  

NASA Video Gallery

Producing 500,000 pounds of thrust from a package weighing only 7,500 pounds, the Space Shuttle Main Engines are one of the shining accomplishments of the shuttle program. The success did not come ...

160

ANALYSIS AND SIMULATION OF MAIN MAGNET TRANSMISSION LINE EFFECT  

SciTech Connect

A main magnet chain forms a pair of transmission lines. Pulse-reflection-caused voltage and current differentiation throughout the magnet chain can have adverse effect on main magnet field quality. This effect is associated with magnet system configuration, coupling efficiency, and parasitic parameters. A better understanding of this phenomenon will help us in new design and existing system upgrade. In this paper, we exam the transmission line effect due to different input functions as well as configuration, coupling, and other parameters.

ZHANG,W.; MARNERIS, I.; SANDBERG, J.

2007-06-25

161

Optimization of the operating parameters of a grass trimming machine.  

PubMed

Hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS) is very common among the workers operating power tools and doing similar nature of work for long hours. Grass trimming is one of the operations that involves use of vibrating cutter, and results in hand-arm vibration among workers. In this study, the influence of several operating parameters (length of nylon cutting thread, engine speed and handle material) is investigated in terms of HAV. Data are analyzed via orthogonal array, main effect, signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio, and analysis of variance to determine the appropriate operating parameter levels to minimize HAV. Operating parameters under investigation are found to be influential in controlling HAV generation during grass trimming operation. Experiments are carried out for measuring hand-arm vibration using tri-axial accelerometer conforming the effectiveness of this approach. Results show that 100mm length of nylon thread, 3000+/-400rpm of engine speed and ABS handle material combination results in minimum HAV (HARM) of magnitude 2.76m/s(2). Through this study not only the optimal operating parameter levels for GTM are obtained, but also the main process parameters that affect the HAV are determined. The optimum HAV obtained through appropriate level selection of operating parameters, significantly reduces the occurrence of HAVS among the grass trimmers. PMID:19762006

Mallick, Zulquernain

2010-03-01

162

South Columbia Street (Main Hospital)  

E-print Network

W est N ew Mason Farm R oad di M anning Drive Drive Deck Cardinal Hospital NC Neuro- Infirmary NC 2 East Wing Patient Support Wing Parking Dogwood Deck UNC HOSPITALS Children's NC Memorial NC Women's cal South Columbia Street wood Dri Pit D rive Drive West ve (Main Hospital) Old Tarrson Brauer Dental

Whitton, Mary C.

163

South Columbia Street (Main Hospital)  

E-print Network

W est N ew Mason Farm R oad di M anning Drive Drive Deck Cardinal Hospital NC Neuro- Infirmary NC 2 Wing Patient Support Wing Parking Dogwood Deck UNC HOSPITALS Children's NC Memorial NC Women's cal South Columbia Street wood Dri Pit D rive Drive West ve (Main Hospital) Old Brauer Tarrson Koury Oral

Doyle, Martin

164

South Columbia Street (Main Hospital)  

E-print Network

W est New Mason Farm Road M anning Drive Drive Deck Cardinal Hospital NC Neuro- Infirmary NC 2nd Wing Patient Support Wing Parking Dogwood Deck UNC HOSPITALS Children's NC Memorial NC Women's cal South Columbia Street wood Dri P Drive Drive West ve (Main Hospital) Old Tarrson Brauer Dental Research

Whitton, Mary C.

165

UC Santa Cruz Main Entrance  

E-print Network

UC Santa Cruz West Entrance Em pire Grade Main Entrance HagarDrive Coolid geDrive P H ellerSt. Mission St. Bay St. Bay St. WesternDr. University of California Santa Cruz campus GlennCoolidgeDr. Water meters are posted regarding hours of enforcement. S T Campus shuttle stop Santa Cruz Metro bus stop

Wilmers, Chris

166

MAIN THEOREM OF COMPLEX MULTIPLICATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

In [S, Ch. IV, ?18] the Main Theorem of complex multiplication is proved in a manner that uses some adelic formalism. However, [S] uses a framework for algebraic geometry that has long been abandoned, so many of the beautiful ideas there are somewhat shrouded in mystery for the reader who is unfamiliar with the pre-Grothendieck approaches to algebraic geometry and

BRIAN CONRAD

167

Main tank injection pressurization program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computer program predicts performance of fluorine-hydrogen main tank injection pressurization system for full range of liquid-hydrogen-fueled space vehicles. Analytical model includes provisions for heat transfer, injectant jet penetration, and ullage gas mixing. Analysis predicts GF2 usage, ullage gas and tank wall temperatures, and LH2 evaporation.

Cady, E. C.; Kendle, D. W.

1972-01-01

168

MAIN STREET WEST COLLEGE CRESCENT  

E-print Network

.................................... 43 David Braley Athletic Centre.... 54 Divinity College............................ 17 Dramatic Arts 11 MAIN STREET WEST COLLEGE CRESCENT COOTESDRIVE WESTAWAY ROAD SCHOLAR'S ROAD STEARN DRIVE EntranceCampus LEGEND McMaster University Entrance Security and Parking Services Parking Lot Location Pay Stations Short

Thompson, Michael

169

Strategic petroleum reserves in Maine  

Microsoft Academic Search

An evaluation was made to determine if the State of Maine should develop a State petroleum storage reserve to protect its economic and social vitality against future petroleum shortages. The requirements for residual oil are delineated and alternate storage options are described. The adequacy of the National Strategic Petroleum Reserve Program (S.P.R.) as a tool for alleviating shortfalls of residual

Tibbetts

1977-01-01

170

UC Santa Cruz Main Entrance  

E-print Network

COFFEE SHOP PAGE SMITH LIBRARY RR RR RR RR COWELL/STEVENSON MAIN ENTRANCE COLLEGE OFFICE DINING COMMONS The Eloise Pickard Smith Gallery is located in Cowell College, in the southeast corner of the campus coreLaughlin Drive, turn left at the second opportunity, following the sign for Cowell College. There are several

Wilmers, Chris

171

Main Title Details Author ISBN  

E-print Network

Main Title Details Author ISBN Price to Bookstore Price to Students Pub Date Silberschatz Price to Price to Savings to Student ISBN Bookstore Students $$ % Binder Ready Version (BRV 9781118063330 $132.00 $169.95 12/11/2012 Wiley Flex OPTIONS E-Textbooks Price to Savings to Student ISBN Status

Newhall, Tia

172

Library Site Finder MAIN LIBRARY  

E-print Network

Library Site Finder MAIN LIBRARY Burlington Street Tel: 0161 275 3751 THE ALAN GILBERT LEARNING COMMONS Oxford Road Tel: 0161 306 4306 ART & ARCHAEOLOGY LIBRARY Mansfield Cooper Building Tel: 0161 275 3657 BRADDICK LIBRARY School of Physics & Astronomy Brunswick Street Tel: 0161 275 4078 EDDIE DAVIES

Sidorov, Nikita

173

EFL teachers' factors and students' affect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individual learners' affective factors are very important for foreign language learning. In China foreign language learning mainly happens in classroom. Foreign language teachers are the organizers and carriers of language classes, and thus they inevitably influence the students ' affection. This study explores how EFL teachers influence students ' affect, what the teachers should do to develop and make good

QIN Lei

2007-01-01

174

Deformation parameters influencing prepreg tack  

SciTech Connect

A compression to tension apparatus and a methodology capable of measuring prepreg tack have been analyzed in detail in order to establish fundamental material and operating characteristics. Both intrinsic and extrinsic parameters influencing prepreg tack were identified and analyzed using commercially available carbon fiber/epoxy prepregs and mechanical testing equipment. Two different factors, (1) contact (or wetting) area of adjacent prepreg plies and (2) viscoelastic properties of the prepreg, were found to control prepreg tack. At low temperatures, contact area was the main deformation controlling step, while at high temperatures, the viscoelastic property of the prepreg was found to be dominant. Both interlaminar and intralaminar deformations were observed depending on the prepreg systems examined as well as the operating conditions of the test. In addition, hold time, hold pressure, loading rate, resin content, and out-time were also found to affect prepreg tack. Energy of separation, which may be viewed as a descriptor of prepreg tack, was observed to increase with increasing hold time, hold pressure, and loading rate. Energy of separation also showed a maximum value at a specific resin content for a specific prepreg system, while it decreased with increasing prepreg out-time due to prepreg surface characteristic change rather than bulk physical aging. Conclusively, it was observed that prepreg tack must be viewed as an extrinsic, bulk, but surface-sensitive, viscoelastic property which depends on material as well as operating conditions.

Ahn, K.J.; Seferis, J.C. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle (United States)); Pelton, T.; Wilhelm, M. (Boeing Commercial Airplanes, Seattle, WA (United States))

1992-01-01

175

Main Features of Plasma Control  

SciTech Connect

In the recent years Plasma Control has always increased his importance in any advanced experiment. It is now clear that ITER will not be able to operate without a quite advanced and sophisticated control apparatus. Necessarily this system will have to integrate several different aspects of the Plasma behavior. One of the most important parts of a closed loop control system is the quality of the measurement of the plasma parameters that should be controlled. Eventually, this aspect involves sophisticated and complex diagnostic apparatus. This paper presents an overview of the present status, and further studies and developments needed, in the next future, for the design and realization of an integrated plasma control system aimed at both stabilizing the plasma non-axisymmetric instabilities and controlling the most important internal plasma parameters. In particular the Edge Localized Modes (ELMs), the Neo-Classical Tearing Modes (NTM), the Resistive Wall Mode (RWM) and the Plasma Profiles control system necessities will be shortly illustrated.

Crisanti, F. [Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, Frascati, C.P. 65, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Albanese, R.; Ambrosino, G. [Associazione EURATOM/ENEA/CREATE, Univ. Napoli Federico II, Via Claudio21, 80125 Napoli (Italy)

2008-03-12

176

Overview: Main Fundamentals for Steganography  

E-print Network

The rapid development of multimedia and internet allows for wide distribution of digital media data. It becomes much easier to edit, modify and duplicate digital information .Besides that, digital documents are also easy to copy and distribute, therefore it will be faced by many threats. It is a big security and privacy issue, it become necessary to find appropriate protection because of the significance, accuracy and sensitivity of the information. Steganography considers one of the techniques which used to protect the important information. The main goals for this paper, to recognize the researchers for the main fundamentals of steganography. In this paper provides a general overview of the following subject areas: Steganography types, General Steganography system, Characterization of Steganography Systems and Classification of Steganography Techniques.

AL-Ani, Zaidoon Kh; Zaidan, B B; Alanazi, Hamdan O

2010-01-01

177

Heavy hydrocarbon main injector technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the key components of the Advanced Launch System (ALS) is a large liquid rocket, booster engine. To keep the overall vehicle size and cost down, this engine will probably use liquid oxygen (LOX) and a heavy hydrocarbon, such as RP-1, as propellants and operate at relatively high chamber pressures to increase overall performance. A technology program (Heavy Hydrocarbon Main Injector Technology) is being studied. The main objective of this effort is to develop a logic plan and supporting experimental data base to reduce the risk of developing a large scale (approximately 750,000 lb thrust), high performance main injector system. The overall approach and program plan, from initial analyses to large scale, two dimensional combustor design and test, and the current status of the program are discussed. Progress includes performance and stability analyses, cold flow tests of injector model, design and fabrication of subscale injectors and calorimeter combustors for performance, heat transfer, and dynamic stability tests, and preparation of hot fire test plans. Related, current, high pressure, LOX/RP-1 injector technology efforts are also briefly discussed.

Fisher, S. C.; Arbit, H. A.

1988-01-01

178

Parameters affecting the formation of perfluoroalkyl acids during wastewater treatment.  

PubMed

This study examined the fate and behaviour of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in liquid and solid samples from five different wastewater treatment types: facultative and aerated lagoons, chemically assisted primary treatment, secondary aerobic biological treatment, and advanced biological nutrient removal treatment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest data set from a single study available in the literature to date for PFAAs monitoring study in wastewater treatment. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was the predominant PFAA in wastewater with levels from 2.2 to 150ng/L (influent) and 1.9 to 140ng/L (effluent). Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) was the predominant compound in primary sludge, waste biological sludge, and treated biosolids with concentrations from 6.4 to 2900ng/g dry weight (dw), 9.7 to 8200ng/gdw, and 2.1 to 17,000ng/gdw, respectively. PFAAs were formed during wastewater treatment and it was dependant on both process temperature and treatment type; with higher rates of formation in biological wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) operating at longer hydraulic retention times and higher temperatures. PFAA removal by sorption was influenced by different sorption tendencies; median log values of the solid-liquid distribution coefficient estimated from wastewater biological sludge and final effluent were: PFOS (3.73)>PFDA (3.68)>PFNA (3.25)>PFOA (2.49)>PFHxA (1.93). Mass balances confirmed the formation of PFAAs, low PFAA removal by sorption, and high PFAA levels in effluents. PMID:24691135

Guerra, P; Kim, M; Kinsman, L; Ng, T; Alaee, M; Smyth, S A

2014-05-15

179

Parameters affecting the fate of metals in various soils  

E-print Network

possible to completely remove d1ssolved metals. An ion exchange procedure using Kenzelite and Zepholite has been used to remove lead, zinc, and copper ( 1). Land disposal of wastewaters containing metals is an alternative to these more expens1ve methods... possible to completely remove d1ssolved metals. An ion exchange procedure using Kenzelite and Zepholite has been used to remove lead, zinc, and copper ( 1). Land disposal of wastewaters containing metals is an alternative to these more expens1ve methods...

Covar, Andrew Prescott

2012-06-07

180

The major parameters affecting temperature inside inhalation chambers.  

PubMed

Variations in inhalation chamber temperature can produce alterations in animal physiology, metabolism of foreign compounds as well as the chemical interaction of pollutant aerosols. This report presents the results of an investigation of the different mechanisms of heat transfer in a 380 L inhalation chamber and discusses the relative effectiveness of various methods that may be used to maintain a uniform chamber temperature during animal exposures. The thermal characteristics of the inhalation chamber were studied using an array of 40 thermocouples, with and without rats in the chamber and with and without 5 cm fiber glass insulation surrounding the chamber. Temperature profiles were measured with different animal loadings and intake air temperatures. An effective heat transfer coefficient of 6.6 +/- 1.8 W/m2 degrees C was determined for the stainless steel walls of the chamber. Heat balance studies with rats in this chamber have shown that with room air intake at a flow rate of 100 L/min, the stainless steel chamber walls were effective at removing approximately ninety percent of the animal heat as compared to the airstream. PMID:7395755

Bernstein, D M; Drew, R T

1980-06-01

181

The major parameters affecting temperature inside inhalation chambers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variations in inhalation chamber temperature can produce alterations in animal physiology, metabolism of foreign compounds as well as the chemical interaction of pollutant aerosols. This report presents the results of an investigation of the different mechanisms of heat transfer in a 380?L inhalation chamber and discusses the relative effectiveness of various methods that may be used to maintain a uniform

DAVID M. BERNSTEIN; ROBERT T. DREW

1980-01-01

182

How radial clearance affects gas turbine plant parameter ratios  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accuracy in determining performance characteristics of gas turbine plants depends more than anything else on the stability of the geometric and thermodynamic variables over the engine flow passages in different operating modes. Results of theoretical investigations have shown that changes in the radial clearances (brought about in turn by changes in the thermal stress state of turbine parts) have a

K. B. Sarantsev; L. G. Korenevskii; Yu. A. Shevtsov; A. M. Temirov

1983-01-01

183

Parameters affecting retentive force of electroformed double-crown systems.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the values of retentive forces of double crowns. The effect of the abutment height, the material of the inner crown, and the taper were evaluated. Sixty inner crowns each were fabricated from zirconia and a gold alloy having three different abutment heights (5, 7, and 9 mm) and two different tapers (0 degrees and 2 degrees ). All outer crowns were made with an electroforming system. The removal test was performed by a standardized setup using a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1,000 mm min(-1). Ten separation cycles were performed of each specimen, and the mean was imported into a statistical program. The retention forces were in the range of 0.37 and 2.65 N. The abutment height (p < 0.001), the material of the inner crown (p = 0.035), and the taper (p < 0.001) showed statistical influence on the retention force in the two-way ANOVA. Zirconia primary crowns performed better than gold alloy in the 0 degrees group, especially with short abutments. However, a taper of 0 degrees and short abutments have clinical drawbacks that were not evaluated in this study. In situations with long abutment teeth and a 2 degrees taper zirconia is an alternative to gold alloy primary crowns. PMID:19343381

Beuer, Florian; Edelhoff, Daniel; Gernet, Wolfgang; Naumann, Michael

2010-04-01

184

Immune parameters affecting the efficacy of chemotherapeutic regimens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The outcome of chemotherapy can be influenced by the host immune system at multiple levels. Chemotherapy can kill cancer cells by causing them to elicit an immune response or alternatively, by increasing their susceptibility to immune attack. In addition, chemotherapy can stimulate anticancer immune effectors either in a direct fashion or by subverting immunosuppressive mechanisms. Beyond cancer-cell-intrinsic factors that determine

Laurence Zitvogel; Oliver Kepp; Guido Kroemer

2011-01-01

185

Parameters affecting retentive force of electroformed double-crown systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to determine the values of retentive forces of double crowns. The effect of the abutment height,\\u000a the material of the inner crown, and the taper were evaluated. Sixty inner crowns each were fabricated from zirconia and a\\u000a gold alloy having three different abutment heights (5, 7, and 9 mm) and two different tapers (0° and

Florian Beuer; Daniel Edelhoff; Wolfgang Gernet; Michael Naumann

2010-01-01

186

Mount Apatite Park, Auburn, Maine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This guide discusses the geology, mineralogy, and mineral collecting opportunities of the Mount Apatite quarries at Auburn, Maine. Topics include the history and occurrence of the granite pegmatites, which contain collectible specimens of apatite, tourmaline, lepidolite, and other minerals; the history of glaciation in the area; and the history of the mining industry in Auburn, an important producer of commercial feldspar in the early 1900s. There is also information for mineral collectors, including permission and access, directions, and information on the exposures and how to extract specimens from them. References and links to additonal information are included.

187

Bald Mountain, Washington Plantation, Maine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This guide provides information on the geology of Bald Mountain, an outstanding example of an unvegetated mountain summit in western Maine. Topics include the petrology of the metamorphic rocks exposed on the mountain (layered quartzite and schist), which preserve evidence of their sedimentary origin (graded bedding, cross-bedding). There is also information on the glacial history of the area, as indicated by the presence of glacial striations and erratics. For visitors, there is information on permission and access, directions, sampling information, and activities. References are included.

188

Space shuttle main engine controller  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A technical description of the space shuttle main engine controller, which provides engine checkout prior to launch, engine control and monitoring during launch, and engine safety and monitoring in orbit, is presented. Each of the major controller subassemblies, the central processing unit, the computer interface electronics, the input electronics, the output electronics, and the power supplies are described and discussed in detail along with engine and orbiter interfaces and operational requirements. The controller represents a unique application of digital concepts, techniques, and technology in monitoring, managing, and controlling a high performance rocket engine propulsion system. The operational requirements placed on the controller, the extremely harsh operating environment to which it is exposed, and the reliability demanded, result in the most complex and rugged digital system ever designed, fabricated, and flown.

Mattox, R. M.; White, J. B.

1981-01-01

189

The Main Aeromonas Pathogenic Factors  

PubMed Central

The members of the Aeromonas genus are ubiquitous, water-borne bacteria. They have been isolated from marine waters, rivers, lakes, swamps, sediments, chlorine water, water distribution systems, drinking water and residual waters; different types of food, such as meat, fish, seafood, vegetables, and processed foods. Aeromonas strains are predominantly pathogenic to poikilothermic animals, and the mesophilic strains are emerging as important pathogens in humans, causing a variety of extraintestinal and systemic infections as well as gastrointestinal infections. The most commonly described disease caused by Aeromonas is the gastroenteritis; however, no adequate animal model is available to reproduce this illness caused by Aeromonas. The main pathogenic factors associated with Aeromonas are: surface polysaccharides (capsule, lipopolysaccharide, and glucan), S-layers, iron-binding systems, exotoxins and extracellular enzymes, secretion systems, fimbriae and other nonfilamentous adhesins, motility and flagella. PMID:23724321

Tomas, J. M.

2012-01-01

190

75 FR 27863 - Savings Bank of Maine, MHC and Savings Bank of Maine, Gardiner, Maine; Approval of Conversion...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AC-38: OTS Nos. 06947 and H 4709] Savings Bank of Maine, MHC and Savings Bank of Maine, Gardiner, Maine; Approval of Conversion...Supervision approved the application of Savings Bank of Maine, MHC and Savings Bank of Maine, Gardiner, Maine, to convert...

2010-05-18

191

Main memory unit. [hybrid computers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of a main memory unit (MMU) for the space ultrareliable module computer (SUMC) model HTC is discussed. The design, fabrication, and test of basic memory modules (BMM) which were to be used in the design and construction of the MMU are described. The BMM was designed from state-of-the-art technologies which included large scale integration devices mounted and interconnected on a substrate to form a functional module to be utilized in the MMU development. A SUMC memory system design study is discussed which addressed itself to the BMM design and analysis to be conducted to determine the most efficient organization of the BMM in order to establish such modularity features as: word length expandability without redesign, high reliability, and fault tolerance. One MMU was designed, fabricated, tested, and delivered which will be electrical and mechanically compatible with the hybrid technology computer (HTC) model of the SUMC family of computers. The MMU will contain a storage capacity of 8196 36 bit words which includes a parity bit for each 8 bit byte of data.

1975-01-01

192

Free Parameters and Frameworks in Minimal Supersymmetry  

E-print Network

405 Appendix A Free Parameters and Frameworks in Minimal Supersymmetry It is useful to discuss what the various schemes that exist for reducing the set of free parameters to a manageable number. The information, and so is fixed by experiment. The free parameters consist mainly of the coe#cients of the ``soft

California at Berkeley, University of

193

Free Parameters and Frameworks in Minimal Supersymmetry  

E-print Network

405 Appendix A Free Parameters and Frameworks in Minimal Supersymmetry It is useful to discuss what the various schemes that exist for reducing the set of free parameters to a manageable number. The information, and so is fixed by experiment. The free parameters consist mainly of the coefficients of the "soft

California at Berkeley, University of

194

Visualizing the Shields Parameter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is not so much an activity as it is a useful tool to build an activity around. I created an Excel spreadsheet that calculates the Shields parameter and the grain Reynolds number for a given set of conditions, then plots the resultant values on the Shields diagram. Thus, students can tweak the boundary shear stress value to calculate the stress required to move a given grain size in any fluid, under any gravitational conditions. It is a great way for them to understand how changes in fluid density and viscosity (water vs. air) affect initiation of motion, as well as the effects of grain size. I might use this in a lecture on initiation of motion, asking them to answer some basic questions (see attached example).

Hickson, Tom

195

EFL Teachers' Factors and Students' Affect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Individual learners' affective factors are very important for foreign language learning. In China foreign language learning mainly happens in the classroom. Foreign language teachers are the organizers and carriers of language classes, and thus they inevitably influence the students' affection. This study explores how EFL teachers influence…

Qin, Lei

2007-01-01

196

Performance Directed Energy Management for Main Memory and Disks  

E-print Network

Performance Directed Energy Management for Main Memory and Disks Xiaodong Li, Zhenmin Li, Francis) To improve on PD, we propose a simple, optimization-based, threshold-free control algorithm, Performance in the design of computing systems. For battery-operated mobile devices, energy consumption directly affects

Zhou, Yuanyuan

197

Affective Style and Affective Disorders: Perspectives from Affective Neuroscience  

E-print Network

, in press) and vulnerability to psychopathology (Meehl, 1975). More- over, such differences are not a unique the relation between such individual differences and psychopathology. It is our intuition that some for assessment, treatment and plasticity. II. THE CONSTITUENTS OF AFFECTIVE STYLE Many phenomena are subsumed

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

198

Space Shuttle Main Engine real time stability analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) is a reusable, high performance, liquid rocket engine with variable thrust. The engine control system continuously monitors the engine parameters and issues propellant valve control signals in accordance with the thrust and mixture ratio commands. A real time engine simulation lab was installed at MSFC to verify flight software and to perform engine dynamic

F. Y. Kuo

1993-01-01

199

The Role of the Public Library in Maine: Consumer Needs and Attitudes Towards Public Libraries in Maine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To assist the Governor's Task Force to study library services in Maine, Arthur D. Little, Inc. was retained to identify the attitudes of the general public toward libraries and how these attitudes affect library use. A series of four panel discussions was conducted; a survey of the general public was made; data was orally presented; and a workshop…

Little (Arthur D.), Inc., Cambridge, MA.

200

Arsenic on Main St., Unity ME  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Class description Analytical Chemistry syllabus (Microsoft Word 2007 (.docx) 42kB Feb8 10) Timeline Spring 2010 - Analytical Chemistry students implement the pilot project after learning to use the analytical equipment in a "standard" course context. Pilot Project - As a service to Unity College employees, students will analyze water samples brought in by faculty and staff using techniques learned during the semester. Students will collaborate to draft a letter describing the water quality (in terms of the measured parameters) including an recommendation that the water be analyzed at a certified laboratory. Student assessment of the project will be used to modify the database, suggest activities for the full blown event planned for the next year. Based on this work, I will ask a local NGO to "request" a similar event be held in town. As an alternate to a final exam, students will present the results of this work at the Unity College Student Conference during Finals week. Summer 2010 - I have applied for a faculty research grant to work with a student and examine water quality "downtown" (Unity has a total population of about 1500 residents). 2010-2011 - There are at least 2 possibilities: either a lab section of General Chemistry 2 or an upper-level topics class on Arsenic (my preference) will undertake planning for the "Water Days" event during Spring 2011. Projects on which students could work will include informational brochures, posters, and K12 lessons. The Water Days event will include invitations to local analytical chemical labs and water conditioning companies to set up information displays. The data solicited from those who submit samples will include: contact information, well depth, age, existing water conditioning capability, any current complaints. Research Rationale: In 1995, Caswell, Eichler & Hill, Inc. evaluated the "current state of the groundwater resources" in the downtown Unity, ME area for the Town of Unity (1). Analysis of the data available from 76 wells and springs in 3 aquifers (esker, marine sand, and bedrock) found 11 wells with arsenic concentrations ranging from 0.001 to 0.200 mg/L. Other water quality issues, notably hardness (22 wells), elevated iron concentrations (20 wells), and bacterial contamination (8 wells) were noted. This report seems to have generated little further investigation. Leaching of arsenic in aquifers from meta-sedimentary bedrock high in sulfides is well documented in Central Maine (7), though arsenic leached from unconsolidated aquifers also exists (8, for example). Arsenic in Eastern New England groundwater has been weakly correlated to elevated pH (8), which plausibly explains dissolved As IV, but less so As III, which is often associated with highly reduced conditions. The health hazards of arsenic are now well-known. Chronic exposure to low levels of arsenic in drinking water has been shown to cause multiple cancers, as well pigment changes and thickening of the skin on hands and feet (palmoplantar hyperkeratosis) (2). Chronic ingestion has also been linked to skin lesions, liver disease, cardiovascular disease, and a decrease in production of red and white blood cells due to bone marrow depression (2). Based on personal discussions with state officials, the health hazard most of concern in Maine is bladder cancer. Arsenic in ground water is an issue of national and international concern, and of particular importance in Maine, which has naturally occurring arsenic in groundwater and well water (3, 4). Currently the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences is funding a multilevel investigation of arsenic toxicity, mobilization and mitigation, including characterization of failed arsenic treatment systems in Central Maine (5). This project seeks to answer the following questions: Does water quality on Main St in Unity depend on the aquifer in which a resident's well is completed? A statistically sufficient number of wells in each aquifer will be analyzed for "normal" water quality parameters (pH, alkalinity, hardness, phosphate, chloride for example) and for arsenic. While this project does not focus on the health effects of arsenic, those are important considerations in the motivation of undergraduate students. The immediacy of working on the drinking water many students consume will also motivate undergraduate researchers as well as educate students and other residents about home water treatment systems. Caswell, Eichler, & Hill, 1995. The Current State of Groundwater Resources, Unity, ME. Report to the Town of Unity. The Department of Health and Human Services: Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry has a Arsenic Toxicological Profile Maine Geological Survey, 2005 Weldon, J.M. and MacRae, J. D. 2006, Correlations between arsenic in Maine groundwater and microbial populations as determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Chemosphere, Vol 63, N 3, 440-448 National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) Superfund basic research program. Dahr et al., 2004, A rapid colorimetric method for measuring arsenic concentrations in ground water, Analytica Chimica Acta, 526, 203-209. Welch, A.H., Westjohn, D.B., Helsel, D.R., and Wanty, R.B., 2000, Arsenic in ground water of the United States-- occurrence and geochemistry: Ground Water v.38 no.4, p.589-604. Ayotte, J. D., Montgomery, D. L., Flanagan, S. M., and Robinson, K. W. 2003. Arsenic in groundwater in Eastern New England: occurrence, controls, and human health implications. Eviron. Sci. Technol. Vol 37: 2075-2083.

Ongley, Lois

201

Ecological factors affecting Rainbow Smelt recruitment in the main basin of Lake Huron, 1976-2010  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Rainbow Smelt Osmerus mordax are native to northeastern Atlantic and Pacific–Arctic drainages and have been widely introduced throughout North America. In the Great Lakes region, Rainbow Smelt are known predators and competitors of native fish and a primary prey species in pelagic food webs. Despite their widespread distribution, importance as a prey species, and potential to negatively interact with native fish species, there is limited information concerning stock–recruitment relationships for Rainbow Smelt. To better understand recruitment mechanisms, we evaluated potential ecological factors determining recruitment dynamics for Rainbow Smelt in Lake Huron using data from bottom trawl catches. We specifically evaluated influence of stock size, environmental factors (water temperature, lake levels, and precipitation), and salmonine predation on the production of age-0 recruits from 1976 to 2010. Rainbow Smelt recruitment was negatively related to stock size exceeding 10 kg/ha, indicating that compensatory, density-dependent mortality from cannibalism or intraspecific competition was an important factor related to the production of age-0 recruits. Recruitment was positively related to spring precipitation suggesting that the amount of stream-spawning habitat as determined by precipitation was important for the production of strong Rainbow Smelt recruitment. Additionally, density of age-0 Rainbow Smelt was positively related to Lake Trout Salvelinus namaycush abundance. However, spawning stock biomass of Rainbow Smelt, which declined substantially from 1989 to 2010, was negatively associated with Lake Trout catch per effort suggesting predation was an important factor related to the decline of age-2 and older Rainbow Smelt in Lake Huron. As such, we found that recruitment of Rainbow Smelt in Lake Huron was regulated by competition with or cannibalism by older conspecifics, spring precipitation influencing stream spawning habitats, and predation by Lake Trout on age-2 and older Rainbow Smelt.

O'Brien, Timothy P.; Taylor, William W.; Roseman, Edward F.; Madenjian, Charles P.; Riley, Stephen C.

2014-01-01

202

The Maillard reaction in the human body. The main discoveries and factors that affect glycation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ever since the discovery of the Maillard reaction in 1912 and the discovery of the interaction between advanced glycation end-products and cellular receptors, impressive progress has been made in the knowledge of nonenzymatic browning of proteins in vivo. This reaction which leads to the accumulation of random damage in extracellular proteins is known to have deleterious effects on biological function,

F. J. Tessier

2010-01-01

203

Patients with uncomplicated coronary artery disease have reduced heart rate variability mainly affecting vagal tone  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIMTo investigate whether uncomplicated chronic coronary artery disease causes changes in heart rate variability and if so, whether the heart rate variability pattern is different from that described in patients with acute myocardial infarction.METHODSHeart rate variability was studied in 65 patients with angina who had no previous myocardial infarcts, no other diseases, and were on no drug that could influence

B Wennerblom; L Lurje; H Tygesen; R Vahisalo; ? Hjalmarson

2000-01-01

204

Motivation & Emotion Affective Computing  

E-print Network

for me to clarify how the affective computing group specifies their goals. Common to most people, toys skeptic about what ideas the "Affective Computing Group" in the MIT Media Lab are really trying to deliver: first, I will introduce what the term "Affective computing" is about, how has this research developed

Ouhyoung, Ming

205

The affect structure revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract In affective psychology, there is a persistent controversy about the number, the nature and the definition of the ,affect structure dimensions. Responding ,to the ,methodological ,criticisms addressed to the preceding studies, we conciliated the principal theories regarding the affect structure with the same experimental setting. In particular, using the semantic items all around the circumplex ,we found ,three bipolar

Véronique Elefant-Yanni; Maria-Pia Victoria-Feser

206

Photometric parameters Photometric evolution  

E-print Network

Outline Photometric parameters Photometric evolution Population synthesis STRUCTURE OF GALAXIES 4. Photometric parameters and evolution Piet van der Kruit Kapteyn Astronomical Institute University of Groningen and evolution #12;Outline Photometric parameters Photometric evolution Population synthesis Outline Photometric

Kruit, Piet van der

207

The Evolution of the Main belt and NEA size Distributions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The size distribution of the main belt is governed by collisional evolution as well as by the non-collisional removal of bodies due to the combination of radition forces and resonances. The NEA size distribution is governed in part by the size distribution of the main belt, its primary source, but differs somewhat from it due to the size dependent processes which deliver asteroids from the main belt to near earth space. These two size distributions provide a powerful constraint on any model of asteroid collisional evolution and NEA delivery. Additional constraints are provided by the cratering records on observed asteroids, such as Gaspra and Ida, and by the cosmic ray exposure (CRE) ages of meteorites, which indicate that meter-sized bodies have collisional lifetimes on the order of 10 Myr or more in the main belt. A collisional evolution model for the main belt which incorporates non-collisional removal processes can fit all of these constraints with reasonable parameter choices. The main parameters in our model are the strength vs. size scaling law and the removal rate of bodies from the main belt as a function of size. With removal rates consistent with the estimates of Bottke et al. (2002) and reasonable strength scaling laws, we are able to match the main belt size distributions observed by either the Sloan Digital Sky Survey or the Spacewatch Survey. The NEA population produced in our model is consistent with the observed NEA population, as determined by Rabinowitz (2000). In addition, lifetimes for meter-sized bodies are consistent with meteorite CRE ages. The inferred population of bodies from 1 m to 1 km is consistent with the cratering records on Gaspra and Ida. Asteroids larger than 10 km have mean collisional lifetimes > 4.5 Byr.

O'Brien, D. P.; Greenberg, R.

2002-09-01

208

Space Weather Parameters Capable of Influencing Health of a Human Being  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space weather is a state of Earth-orbital space. The Sun and cosmic rays of high energy affect this state. As the main contribution to a space weather state is made exactly by the Sun then changes of solar activity parameters, and also the changes of geophysical parameters caused by such influence have been considered in this study. A condition of cardiovascular system of a person of volunteer groups has been considered as a condition of health of a human being. An experiment has been carried out within the framework of Russian-Ukrainian project "Geliomed" (http://geliomed. immsp.kiev.ua). It has been found both the immediate influence of electromagnetic solar radiation and the influence of parameters of solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field on a condition of cardiovascular system of a human being mediated through geophysical parameters.

Samsonov, S. N.; Manykina, V. I.

209

Structural dynamic analysis of the Space Shuttle Main Engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This structural dynamic analysis supports development of the SSME by evaluating components subjected to critical dynamic loads, identifying significant parameters, and evaluating solution methods. Engine operating parameters at both rated and full power levels are considered. Detailed structural dynamic analyses of operationally critical and life limited components support the assessment of engine design modifications and environmental changes. Engine system test results are utilized to verify analytic model simulations. The SSME main chamber injector assembly is an assembly of 600 injector elements which are called LOX posts. The overall LOX post analysis procedure is shown.

Scott, L. P.; Jamison, G. T.; Mccutcheon, W. A.; Price, J. M.

1981-01-01

210

Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect or not? Detecting the main foreground effect of most galaxy clusters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Galaxy clusters are the most massive objects in the Universe and comprise a high-temperature intracluster medium of about 107 K, believed to offer a main foreground effect for cosmic microwave background (CMB) data in the form of the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect. This assumption has been confirmed by SZ signal detection in hundreds of clusters but, in comparison with the huge numbers of clusters within optically selected samples from Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data, this only accounts for a few per cent of clusters. Here we introduce a model-independent new method to confirm the assumption that most galaxy clusters can offer the thermal SZ signal as their main foreground effect. For the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) seven-year data (and a given galaxy cluster sample), we introduced a parameter d1 as the nearest-neighbour cluster angular distance of each pixel, then we classified data pixels as `to be' (d1 ? 0 case) or `not to be' (d1 large enough) affected by the sample clusters. By comparing the statistical results of these two kinds of pixels, we can see how the sample clusters affect the CMB data directly. We find that the Planck Early Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (ESZ) sample and X-ray samples (˜102 clusters) can lead to obvious temperature depression in the WMAP seven-year data, which confirms the SZ effect prediction. However, each optically selected sample (>104 clusters) shows an opposite result: the mean temperature rises to about 10 ?K. This unexpected qualitative scenario implies that the main foreground effect of most clusters is not always the expected SZ effect. This may be the reason why the SZ signal detection result is lower than expected from the model.

Xiao, Weike; Chen, Chen; Zhang, Bin; Wu, Yongfeng; Dai, Mi

2013-05-01

211

40 CFR 81.320 - Maine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...east to Dudley Street, Dudley Street south to Cedar Street, Cedar Street west to Main Street, Main Street south to Kennedy Brook, Kennedy Brook northwest crossing Presque Isle Stream to Coburn Street, Coburn Street northwest to Mechanic...

2011-07-01

212

40 CFR 81.320 - Maine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...east to Dudley Street, Dudley Street south to Cedar Street, Cedar Street west to Main Street, Main Street south to Kennedy Brook, Kennedy Brook northwest crossing Presque Isle Stream to Coburn Street, Coburn Street northwest to Mechanic...

2012-07-01

213

Small Main-Belt Asteroid Lightcurve Survey  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Small Main-Belt Asteroid Lightcurve Survey is the first to measure main-belt asteroid lightcurve properties for bodies with diameters smaller than 5 km. Attention is given to CCD lightcurves for 32 small main-belt asteroids. The objects of this sample have a mean rotational frequency which is faster than that of larger main-belt asteroids. All lightcurves were investigated for nonperiodic variations ascribable to free precession; no conclusive detection of this phenomenon has been made, however.

Binzel, Richard P.; Xu, Shui; Bus, Schelte J.; Bowell, Edward

1992-01-01

214

Qualitative Parameters of Practice during University Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, relevance of practice during university studies is highlighted, as well as the main stages of its organisation, qualitative parameters, as well as criteria and indicators that validate them are defined. Discussion on the idea that taking into consideration qualitative parameters of organising practice as a component of studies…

Stasiunaitiene, Egle; Norkute, Odeta

2011-01-01

215

Main Parameters of Soil Quality and it's Management Under Changing Climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reviewing Paper Introduction: Malcolm summarised the topic of soil quality and it's management in a well synthetized form in 2000. So, the soils are fundamental to the well-being and productivity of agricultural and natural ecosystems. Soil quality is a concept being developed to characterize the usefulness and health of soils. Soil quality includes soil fertility, potential productivity, contaminant levels and

2009-01-01

216

Effective Temperatures of Selected Main-sequence Stars with Most Accurate Parameters  

E-print Network

In this study, the distributions of the double-lined detached binaries (DBs) on the planes of mass-luminosity, mass radius and mass-effective temperature have been studied. We improved the classical mass-luminosity relation based on the database of DBs by Eker et al. (2004a). With accurate observational data available to us, a method for improving effective temperatures for eclipsing binaries with accurate masses and radii were suggested.

Soydugan, F; Soydugan, E; Bilir, S; Gökçe, E Yaz; Steer, I; Tüysüz, M; ?enyüz, T; Demircan, O

2014-01-01

217

Determining the main thermodynamic parameters of caffeine melting by means of DSC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The temperature and enthalpy of the melting of caffeine, which are 235.5 ± 0.1°C and 19.6 ± 0.2 kJ/mol, respectively, are determined by DSC. The melting entropy and the cryoscopic constant of caffeine are calculated.

Agafonova, E. V.; Moshchenskii, Yu. V.; Tkachenko, M. L.

2012-06-01

218

Recovery of proteins from wastewater of tannery beamhouse operations: influence on the main pollution parameters.  

PubMed

The recovery of proteins from effluents of beamhouse operations in a hair-pulping process of hides is proposed. Precipitation with sulphuric acid at the isoelectric pH was chosen for protein recovery. The precipitates were characterized in order to study their potential uses. Apart from the protein nitrogen, the precipitate also contained a considerable content of fats resulting from the co-precipitation of natural fat of the hide in the wastewaters. The precipitation of the protein fraction resulted in a reduction of 80-85% of COD, whereas the protein content decreased 68-78%. This diminution of the contamination load led to a notable reduction of the tax on wastewater. The content of protein material in the precipitate varied from 15 to 44%. As expected, the protein in the precipitate did not result from the collagen decomposition of the hide but from soluble proteins such as albumin and globulin and remains of keratin. The precipitates obtained met the maximum limits of heavy metals according to legislation on organic fertilizers. The potential uses of the protein fraction recovered from tannery wastewaters are currently being investigated. PMID:20706013

Marsal, A; Hernández, E; Cuadros, S; Puig, R; Bautista, E; Font, J

2010-01-01

219

In Maine, Postsecondary Success Starts before College  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 2008 report from the Joint Standing Committee on Education and Culture Affairs of the Maine Legislature indicates a quarter of those who enrolled at a public university in Maine required a remedial course to catch them up to the level where they should have been when they completed high school. Regardless of how hard Maine has tried and how much…

LePage, Paul R.

2011-01-01

220

Main Entrances Free City Bus Stops  

E-print Network

647 EASBY ROAD A647 A647 25 26 27 B Main Entrances Free City Bus Stops Controlled parking areas Information B Bus Stops B Main Entrances Free City Bus Stops Controlled parking areas (permit holders only B Main Entrances Free City Bus Stops Controlled parking areas (permit holders only)P Visitor car

Magee, Derek

221

New England: 1. Cod Gulf of Maine  

E-print Network

New England: 1. Cod ­ Gulf of Maine 2. Cod ­ Georges Bank 3. Haddock ­ Gulf of Maine 4. Haddock New England/Middle Atlantic 8. Yellowtail flounder ­ Cape Cod/Gulf of Maine 9. White Hake 10. Windowpane Flounder ­ Southern New England/Middle Atlantic 11. Winter Flounder ­ Southern New England

222

New England: 1. Cod Gulf of Maine  

E-print Network

New England: 1. Cod ­ Gulf of Maine 2. Cod ­ Georges Bank 3. Yellowtail flounder ­ Southern New ­ Georges Bank 7. Winter Flounder ­ Southern New England/Middle Atlantic 8. Pollock - Gulf of Maine / Georges Bank 9. Windowpane - Gulf of Maine / Georges Bank 10. Windowpane - Southern New England / Mid

223

Healing of Bone Affections and Gangrene with Low-Intensity Laser Irradiation in Diabetic Patients Suffering from Foot Infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Objective: Evalution of low-intensity laser irradiation on the healing of bone affections and gangrene in patients suffering from diabetic microangiopathy. Design: Case-report study. Patients: Two consecutive diabetic male patients with gangrene, osteomyelitis, and bone fractures. Intervention: Helium-neon laser irradiation (36 J\\/cm2 ) 50 min\\/day. Main Outcome Parameter: Healing of gangrene and corticalis lesion as well as remineralisation of bone

M. Schindl; A. Schindl; D. Pölzleitner; L. Schindl

1998-01-01

224

Relativistic parameters of senescence.  

PubMed

The laws of biochemistry and biology are governed by parameters whose description in mathematical formulas is based on the three-dimensional space. It is a fact, however, that the life span of a cell and its specific functions, though limited, can be extended or diminished depending on the genetic code but also, on the natural pressure of the environment. The plasticity exhibited by a cellular system has been attributed to the change of the three-dimensional structure of the cell, with time being a simple measure of this change. The model of biological relativity proposed here, considers time as a flexible fourth dimension that corresponds directly to the inertial status of the cells. Two types of clocks are defined: the relativistic biological clock (RBC) and the mechanical clock (MC). In contrast to the MCs that show the astrological reference time, the time shown by the RBCs delay because it depends on cellular activity. The maximum and the expected life span of the cells and/or the organisms can be therefore relied on time transformation. One of the most important factors that can affect time flow is the energy that is produced during metabolic work. Based on this observation, RBCs can be constructed following series of theoretical experiments in order to assess biological time and life span changes. PMID:15780508

Stathatos, Marios A

2005-01-01

225

Booster parameter list  

SciTech Connect

The AGS Booster is designed to be an intermediate synchrotron injector for the AGS, capable of accelerating protons from 200 MeV to 1.5 GeV. The parameters listed include beam and operational parameters and lattice parameters, as well as parameters pertaining to the accelerator's magnets, vacuum system, radio frequency acceleration system, and the tunnel. 60 refs., 41 figs. (LEW)

Parsa, Z.

1986-10-01

226

[Affect and mimetic behavior].  

PubMed

The relationship between facial expression and experienced affect presents many problems. The two diametrically opposed positions proposing solutions to this problem are exemplified using the conceptions of Mandler u. Izard. The underlying premises of both conceptions still prevail in various forms. The authors reject the concepts according to which facial expression is merely correlated to the affects (see Mandler 1975) as well as the view that facial expression controls the affects (see Izard 1977). The relationship between affect and facial expression is reexamined, subjecting it to a semiotic, essentially semantic analysis similar to the Ogden and Richards' language and meaning approach. This analysis involves a critical discussion of Scherer's attempt of a purely communicational interpretation using Bühler's organon model. In the author's approach, facial expression is seen not simply as a system of signals, but as a system of representative signs which signify the affects and refer to the emotive meaning of things for the subject. The authors develop the thesis that human beings are not born simply with the ability to speak, but also with the abstract possibility of performing facial expressions. This ability develops by way of coordinating patterns of expressions, which are presumably phylogenetically determined, with affects that take on a socially determined individual form, similar to language acquisition during socialisation. The authors discuss the methodological implications arising for studies investigating the affective meaning of facial expressions. PMID:9632951

Zepf, S; Ullrich, B; Hartmann, S

1998-05-01

227

Acute left main coronary artery occlusion  

PubMed Central

The treatment of an acute left main coronary artery occlusion still poses a challenge. In this case report we present a 50-year-old patient with an acute occlusion of the left main artery. After a successful angioplasty without “stenting” due to the complexity of the stenosis the patient underwent a successful bypass surgery. We discuss the therapeutic options of acute left main occlusion regarding medical, interventional and surgical options. PMID:24353543

Burgazli, K. Mehmet; Bilgin, Mehmet; Soydan, Nedim; Chasan, Ridvan; Erdogan, Ali

2013-01-01

228

Parameter estimation of power law process  

SciTech Connect

Power law process is an important model in reliability analysis of engineering systems experiencing reliability growth or decay. Existing articles mainly deal with the estimation of the shape parameter. The estimation of the scale parameter is either ignored or dealt with very inefficiently. In this article, we are going to explain why those methods can estimate the shape parameter well, but fail to estimate the scale parameter effectively. It is still open problem if we can obtain an estimate to the scale parameter as good as the one to the shape parameter. We try to explore a new way to improve the estimate of the scale parameter. which will be proven better than the existing methods in theory and practice.

Qiao, H. [Fort Valley State Univ., Fort Valley, GA (United States); Tsokos, C.P. [Univ. of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States)

1994-12-31

229

Constructing transmitting interface of running parameters of small-scaled wind-power electricity generator with WSN modules  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main purpose of this paper was to explore strategies of how to design the interface with brand-new techniques for collecting running parameters of small-scaled wind-power electricity generators as well as its monitoring and controlling Graphic Interface System software. Affected by shortage of oil energy, the whole world was positively developing renewable energy such as solar, wind-power, biologic, tide etc.

Chun-Liang Hsu

2010-01-01

230

Compounds affecting cholesterol absorption  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A class of novel compounds is described for use in affecting lymphatic absorption of cholesterol. Compounds of particular interest are defined by Formula I: ##STR1## or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

Hua, Duy H. (Inventor); Koo, Sung I. (Inventor); Noh, Sang K. (Inventor)

2004-01-01

231

Hot subdwarfs in (eclipsing) binaries with brown dwarf or low-mass main-sequence companions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The formation of hot subdwarf stars (sdBs), which are core helium-burning stars located on the extended horizontal branch, is not yet understood. Many of the known hot subdwarf stars reside in close binary systems with short orbital periods of between a few hours and a few days, with either M-star or white-dwarf companions. Common-envelope ejection is the most probable formation channel. Among these, eclipsing systems are of special importance because it is possible to constrain the parameters of both components tightly by combining spectroscopic and light-curve analyses. They are called HW Virginis systems. Soker (1998) proposed that planetary or brown-dwarf companions could cause the mass loss necessary to form an sdB. Substellar objects with masses greater than >10 M_J were predicted to survive the common-envelope phase and end up in a close orbit around the stellar remnant, while planets with lower masses would entirely evaporate. This raises the question if planets can affect stellar evolution. Here we report on newly discovered eclipsing or not eclipsing hot subdwarf binaries with brown-dwarf or low-mass main-sequence companions and their spectral and photometric analysis to determine the fundamental parameters of both components.

Schaffenroth, Veronika; Geier, Stephan; Heber, Uli

2014-09-01

232

Fuzzy Modal Parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to identify modal parameters with uncertain experimental data, a non-deterministic identification method based on fuzzy formalism is proposed. The aim is to provide a degree of confidence in the modal parameters identified.

PLESSIS, G.; LALLEMAND, B.; TISON, T.; LEVEL, P.

2000-06-01

233

Relations between Affect and Personality: Support for the Affect-Level and Affective-Reactivity Views  

Microsoft Academic Search

A consensus has emerged that neuroticism is associated with negative affect and extraversion is associated with positive affect. However; it is unclear whether these personality traits are associated with magnitude of affective reactions (Affective-Reactivity view), with levels of tonic affect (Affect-Level view), or with both. To assess these views, affective state was manipulated using film clips, measured at multiple time

James J. Gross; Steven K. Sutton; Timothy Ketelaar

1998-01-01

234

Assessment of Affect Integration: Validation of the Affect Consciousness Construct  

Microsoft Academic Search

Affect integration, or the capacity to utilize the motivational and signal properties of affect for personal adjustment, is assumed to be an important aspect of psychological health and functioning. Affect integration has been operationalized through the affect consciousness (AC) construct as degrees of awareness, tolerance, nonverbal expression, and conceptual expression of nine discrete affects. A semistructured Affect Consciousness Interview (ACI)

Ole André Solbakken; Roger Sandvik Hansen; Odd E. Havik; Jon T. Monsen

2011-01-01

235

Maine KIDS COUNT 2000 Data Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This KIDS COUNT Report details statewide trends in the well-being of Maine's children. The statistical portrait is based on a variety of indicators in the areas of: (1) physical and mental health; (2) social and economic opportunity; (3) education and learning; and (4) child health care access. The report contains a special section on Maine

Maine Children's Alliance, Augusta.

236

Distribution of Endangered Turtle Species in Maine  

Microsoft Academic Search

This map shows the ranges of the three endangered terrestrial turtles in Maine: the Blanding's, Box, and the Eastern Painted Turtle. These turtles are on the endangered species list for Maine and the U.S. All suffer from territorial fragmentation which is separating turtle populations, making it hard to keep population growth sustainable. Most live in acidic wetlands or ponds in

Meghan Cornwall

2009-01-01

237

TRS-80 at the Maine State Library.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes the applications and work flow of a TRS-80 microcomputer at the Maine State Library, and provides sample computer-generated records and programs used with the TRS-80. The machine was chosen for its price, availability, and compatibility with machines already in Maine's schools. It is used for mailing list management (with…

Wismer, Donald

238

New England: 1. Cod Gulf of Maine  

E-print Network

New England: 1. Cod ­ Gulf of Maine 2. Cod ­ Georges Bank 3. Yellowtail flounder ­ Georges Bank 4. Yellowtail flounder ­ Southern New England/Middle Atlantic 5. Yellowtail flounder ­ Cape Cod/Gulf of Maine 6. White Hake 7. Winter Flounder ­ Georges Bank 8. Winter Flounder ­ Southern New England/Middle Atlantic 9

239

New England: 1. Cod Gulf of Maine  

E-print Network

New England: 1. Cod ­ Gulf of Maine 2. Cod ­ Georges Bank 3. Yellowtail flounder ­ Georges Bank 4. Yellowtail flounder ­ Southern New England/Middle Atlantic 5. Yellowtail flounder ­ Cape Cod/Gulf of Maine 6. White Hake 7. Winter Flounder ­ Georges Bank 8. Winter Flounder ­ Southern New England/Middle Atlantic

240

New England: 1. Cod Gulf of Maine  

E-print Network

New England: 1. Cod ­ Gulf of Maine 2. Cod ­ Georges Bank 3. Yellowtail flounder ­ Southern New ­ Georges Bank 7. Winter Flounder ­ Southern New England/Middle Atlantic 8. Windowpane - Gulf of Maine / Georges Bank 9. Windowpane - Southern New England / Mid-Atlantic 10. Witch Flounder - Northwestern

241

Compensating linkage for main rotor control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A compensating linkage for the rotor control system on rotary wing aircraft is described. The main rotor and transmission are isolated from the airframe structure by clastic suspension. The compensating linkage prevents unwanted signal inputs to the rotor control system caused by relative motion of the airframe structure and the main rotor and transmission.

Jeffery, P. A. E.; Huber, R. F. (inventors)

1981-01-01

242

As the nation goes, so goes Maine?  

PubMed

Historically, Maine has been a state with generous safety net programs and a track record of innovative efforts in health system reform, developed under the leadership of Democratic administrations and with frequent support from moderate Republicans. But the 2010 elections in Maine dramatically changed the political balance of power, anointing both a governor and a legislature ideologically at odds with the state's recent political past. Maine has become a bastion of resistance to the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, with a reduced Medicaid program, defunded state access initiative, and no state exchange. In addition, the state has adopted a laissez-faire approach to insurance market dysfunction. Using Maine as a case study of the shifts in national political mood, this article describes in broad brushstrokes Maine's history of health reform efforts and recent shift in political direction, and discusses some of the factors that contributed to the change. PMID:24603087

Kilbreth, Elizabeth

2014-06-01

243

On the effects of subsurface parameters on evaporite dissolution (Switzerland).  

PubMed

Uncontrolled subsurface evaporite dissolution could lead to hazards such as land subsidence. Observed subsidences in a study area of Northwestern Switzerland were mainly due to subsurface dissolution (subrosion) of evaporites such as halite and gypsum. A set of 2D density driven flow simulations were evaluated along 1000 m long and 150 m deep 2D cross sections within the study area that is characterized by tectonic horst and graben structures. The simulations were conducted to study the effect of the different subsurface parameters that could affect the dissolution process. The heterogeneity of normal faults and its impact on the dissolution of evaporites is studied by considering several permeable faults that include non-permeable areas. The mixed finite element method (MFE) is used to solve the flow equation, coupled with the multipoint flux approximation (MPFA) and the discontinuous Galerkin method (DG) to solve the diffusion and the advection parts of the transport equation. Results show that the number of faults above the lower aquifer that contains the salt layer is considered as the most important factor that affects the dissolution compared to the other investigated parameters of thickness of the zone above the halite formation, a dynamic conductivity of the lower aquifer, and varying boundary conditions in the upper aquifer. PMID:24650646

Zidane, Ali; Zechner, Eric; Huggenberger, Peter; Younes, Anis

2014-05-01

244

Oscillation mode linewidths and heights of 23 main-sequence stars observed by Kepler  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. Solar-like oscillations have been observed by Kepler and CoRoT in many solar-type stars, thereby providing a way to probe the stars using asteroseismology. Aims: We provide the mode linewidths and mode heights of the oscillations of various stars as a function of frequency and of effective temperature. Methods: We used a time series of nearly two years of data for each star. The 23 stars observed belong to the simple or F-like category. The power spectra of the 23 main-sequence stars were analysed using both maximum likelihood estimators and Bayesian estimators, providing individual mode characteristics such as frequencies, linewidths, and mode heights. We study the source of systematic errors in the mode linewidths and mode heights, and we present a way to correct these errors with respect to a common reference fit. Results: Using the correction, we can explain all sources of systematic errors, which could be reduced to less than ±15% for mode linewidths and heights, and less than ±5% for amplitude, when compared to the reference fit. The effect of a different estimated stellar background and a different estimated splitting will provide frequency-dependent systematic errors that might affect the comparison with theoretical mode linewidth and mode height, therefore affecting the understanding of the physical nature of these parameters. All other sources of relative systematic errors are less dependent upon frequency. We also provide the dependence of the so-called linewidth dip in the middle of the observed frequency range as a function of effective temperature. We show that the depth of the dip decreases with increasing effective temperature. The dependence of the dip on effective temperature may imply that the mixing length parameter ? or the convective flux may increase with effective temperature. Tables 4-27 and Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

Appourchaux, T.; Antia, H. M.; Benomar, O.; Campante, T. L.; Davies, G. R.; Handberg, R.; Howe, R.; Régulo, C.; Belkacem, K.; Houdek, G.; García, R. A.; Chaplin, W. J.

2014-06-01

245

Solar astrophysical fundamental parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The accurate determination of the solar photospheric radius has been an important problem in astronomy for many centuries. From the measurements made by the PICARD spacecraft during the transit of Venus in 2012, we obtained a solar radius of 696,156±145 kilometres. This value is consistent with recent measurements carried out atmosphere. This observation leads us to propose a change of the canonical value obtained by Arthur Auwers in 1891. An accurate value for total solar irradiance (TSI) is crucial for the Sun-Earth connection, and represents another solar astrophysical fundamental parameter. Based on measurements collected from different space instruments over the past 35 years, the absolute value of the TSI, representative of a quiet Sun, has gradually decreased from 1,371W.m-2 in 1978 to around 1,362W.m-2 in 2013, mainly due to the radiometers calibration differences. Based on the PICARD data and in agreement with Total Irradiance Monitor measurements, we predicted the TSI input at the top of the Earth's atmosphere at a distance of one astronomical unit (149,597,870 kilometres) from the Sun to be 1,362±2.4W.m-2, which may be proposed as a reference value. To conclude, from the measurements made by the PICARD spacecraft, we obtained a solar photospheric equator-to-pole radius difference value of 5.9±0.5 kilometres. This value is consistent with measurements made by different space instruments, and can be given as a reference value.

Meftah, M.; Irbah, A.; Hauchecorne, A.

2014-08-01

246

Toward a Minimal Representation of Affective Gestures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a framework for analysis of affective behavior starting with a reduced amount of visual information related to human upper-body movements. The main goal is to individuate a minimal representation of emotional displays based on nonverbal gesture features. The GEMEP (Geneva multimodal emotion portrayals) corpus was used to validate this framework. Twelve emotions expressed by 10 actors form

Donald Glowinski; Nele Dael; Antonio Camurri; Gualtiero Volpe; Marcello Mortillaro; Klaus Scherer

2011-01-01

247

Affective textile and costume museum website design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to identify and investigate the main factors involved in the affective design of textile and costume museum websites. The research was focused upon on the issues of visual assessment and the reasons why people visit and stay on a museum website. The study was carried out to develop an understanding of the factors that

Fang Suey Lin; Tom Cassidy

2008-01-01

248

Environmental Factors Affecting Preschoolers' Motor Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The process of development occurs according to the pattern established by the genetic potential and also by the influence of environmental factors. The aim of the present study was to focus on the main environmental factors affecting motor development. The review of the literature revealed that family features, such as socioeconomic status,…

Venetsanou, Fotini; Kambas, Antonis

2010-01-01

249

Adaptation of the Main Peripheral Artery and Vein to Long Term Confinement (MARS 500)  

PubMed Central

Purpose The objective was to check if 520 days in confinement (MARS 500), may affect the main peripheral arterial diameter and wall thickness and the main vein size. Method Common carotid (CC) femoral artery (FA) portal vein (PV), jugular (JG), femoral vein (FV) and tibial vein were assessed during MARS 500 by echography, performed by the subjects. A hand free volumic echographic capture method and a delayed 3D reconstruction software developed by our lab were used for collecting and measuring the vascular parameters. Results During the MARS 500 experiment the subjects performed 6 sessions among which 80% of the echographic data were of sufficient quality to be processed. No significant change was found for the Common carotid, Jugular vein, femoral artery, femoral vein, portal vein, and tibial vein diameter. CC and FA IMT (intima media thickness) were found significantly increased (14% to 28% P<0.05) in all the 6 subjects, during the confinement period and also at +2 days after the confinement period, but there was no significant difference 6 month later compare to pre MARS 500. Conclusion The experiment confirmed that even untrained to performing echography the subjects were able to capture enough echographic data to reconstruct the vessel image from which the parameters were measured. The increase in both CC and FA IMT should be in relation with the stress generated by the confined environment or absence of solar radiation, as there was no change in gravity, temperature and air in the MARS 500 module, and minor changes in physical exercise and nutrition. PMID:24475025

Arbeille, Philippe; Provost, Romain; Vincent, Nicole; Aubert, Andre

2014-01-01

250

Parameter Estimation Using VLA Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main objective of this dissertation is to extract parameters from multiple wavelength images, on a pixel-to-pixel basis, when the images are corrupted with noise and a point spread function. The data used are from the field of radio astronomy. The very large array (VLA) at Socorro in New Mexico was used to observe planetary nebula NGC 7027 at three different wavelengths, 2 cm, 6 cm and 20 cm. A temperature model, describing the temperature variation in the nebula as a function of optical depth, is postulated. Mathematical expressions for the brightness distribution (flux density) of the nebula, at the three observed wavelengths, are obtained. Using these three equations and the three data values available, one from the observed flux density map at each wavelength, it is possible to solve for two temperature parameters and one optical depth parameter at each pixel location. Due to the fact that the number of unknowns equal the number of equations available, estimation theory cannot be used to smooth any noise present in the data values. It was found that a direct solution of the three highly nonlinear flux density equations is very sensitive to noise in the data. Results obtained from solving for the three unknown parameters directly, as discussed above, were not physical realizable. This was partly due to the effect of incomplete sampling at the time when the data were gathered and to noise in the system. The application of rigorous digital parameter estimation techniques result in estimated parameters that are also not physically realizable. The estimated values for the temperature parameters are for example either too high or negative, which is not physically possible. Simulation studies have shown that a "double smoothing" technique improves the results by a large margin. This technique consists of two parts: in the first part the original observed data are smoothed using a running window and in the second part a similar smoothing of the estimated parameters are done. This method provides an improvement over the previous method of directly solving the three nonlinear flux density equations when no adjacent pixel information was taken into account. When using the double smoothing technique, results were obtained that were not only physical realizable, but also compared well with previous results obtained from a two dimensional solution of the problem, assuming a constant temperature along the line of sight. To conclude the investigation, an approximate solution was found for the same temperature and optical depth parameters. This solution takes into account approximations that can be made as a result of the physical characteristics of the nebula as well as the results obtained from the previous 2-D study.

Venter, Willem C.

251

Distillation tray structural parameter study: Phase 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose here is to identify the structural parameters (plate thickness, liquid level, beam size, number of beams, tray diameter, etc.) that affect the structural integrity of distillation trays in distillation columns. Once the sensitivity of the trays' dynamic response to these parameters has been established, the designer will be able to use this information to prepare more accurate specifications for the construction of new trays. Information is given on both static and dynamic analysis, modal response, and tray failure details.

Winter, J. Ronald

1991-01-01

252

The ages of globular cluster stars - Effects of rotation on pre-main-sequence, main-sequence, and turnoff evolution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Evolutionary sequences for low-metallicity stars (Z ranging from 0.001 to 0.0001) to study the effects of internal stellar rotation on the evolutionary time scales in the pre-main sequence, the main sequence (MS), and around the MS turnoff. Although a substantial amount of angular momentum remains in the interior, rotation is only a minor perturbation on the structure and ages of globular cluster stars. Even models with large initial angular momenta have MS lifetimes that are within 1 percent of those of standard models of the same mass and composition. Therefore, rotation does not affect age estimates of globular clusters from isochrone fitting. Furthermore, the models suggest that because rotation is not likely to affect horizontal-branch (HB) morphology, it does not affect significantly age estimates from the Delta-V method. Nevertheless, the internal angular momentum in the models is consistent with observations of surface rotational velocities on the HB, which require the preservation of a large reservoir of internal angular momentum.

Deliyannis, Constantine P.; Demarque, Pierre; Pinsonneault, Marc H.

1989-01-01

253

Teaching Case: Maine Turnpike Toll Discounts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a very short case about a coupon experiment on the Maine Turnpike that can be used very early in Micro Principles courses to motivate the introduction of demand curves, elasticity and externalities that comes later in the course.

Velenchik, Ann

254

Using Pictures to Support the Main Idea  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this resource, students will identify pictures that describe what the book is mainly about. Throughout the teacher modeling section, guided practice, and independent practice, students will use books on tigers, farm animals, and whales.

Readworks

2012-03-26

255

50 CFR 32.38 - Maine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM HUNTING AND FISHING Refuge-Specific Regulations for Hunting and Fishing § 32.38 Maine. The following refuge units have been opened to hunting and/or fishing, and are listed in...

2011-10-01

256

50 CFR 32.38 - Maine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM HUNTING AND FISHING Refuge-Specific Regulations for Hunting and Fishing § 32.38 Maine. The following refuge units have been opened to hunting and/or fishing, and are listed in...

2013-10-01

257

50 CFR 32.38 - Maine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM HUNTING AND FISHING Refuge-Specific Regulations for Hunting and Fishing § 32.38 Maine. The following refuge units have been opened to hunting and/or fishing, and are listed in...

2012-10-01

258

30 CFR 57.6160 - Main facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...At least 50 feet from electric substations; (6) A safe distance from trolley wires; and (7) At least 25 feet from detonator storage facilities. (b) Main facilities used to store explosive material underground shall be— (1) Posted...

2010-07-01

259

Estimating Phenomenological Parameters in Multi-Assets Markets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Financial correlations exhibit a non-trivial dynamic behavior. This is reproduced by a simple phenomenological model of a multi-asset financial market, which takes into account the impact of portfolio investment on price dynamics. This captures the fact that correlations determine the optimal portfolio but are affected by investment based on it. Such a feedback on correlations gives rise to an instability when the volume of investment exceeds a critical value. Close to the critical point the model exhibits dynamical correlations very similar to those observed in real markets. We discuss how the model's parameter can be estimated in real market data with a maximum likelihood principle. This confirms the main conclusion that real markets operate close to a dynamically unstable point.

Raffaelli, Giacomo; Marsili, Matteo

260

On the effects of subsurface parameters on evaporite dissolution (Switzerland)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Uncontrolled subsurface evaporite dissolution could lead to hazards such as land subsidence. Observed subsidences in a study area of Northwestern Switzerland were mainly due to subsurface dissolution (subrosion) of evaporites such as halite and gypsum. A set of 2D density driven flow simulations were evaluated along 1000 m long and 150 m deep 2D cross sections within the study area that is characterized by tectonic horst and graben structures. The simulations were conducted to study the effect of the different subsurface parameters that could affect the dissolution process. The heterogeneity of normal faults and its impact on the dissolution of evaporites is studied by considering several permeable faults that include non-permeable areas. The mixed finite element method (MFE) is used to solve the flow equation, coupled with the multipoint flux approximation (MPFA) and the discontinuous Galerkin method (DG) to solve the diffusion and the advection parts of the transport equation.

Zidane, Ali; Zechner, Eric; Huggenberger, Peter; Younes, Anis

2014-05-01

261

Space shuttle main engine: Hydraulic system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The hydraulic actuation system of the space shuttle main engine is discussed. The system consists of five electrohydraulic actuators and a single engine filter used to control the five different propellant valves, which in turn control thrust and mixture ratio of the space shuttle main engine. The hydraulic actuation system provides this control with a precision of 98.7 percent or an error in position no greater than 1.3 percent of full scale rotational travel for critical positions.

Geller, G.; Lamb, C. D.

1981-01-01

262

Disney World: Main Street Railroad Station  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opened on October 1, 1971, this 1.5 mile railroad used to have three stops spread around the Magic Kingdom park. These stops included the main station on Main Street, the station in Frontierland, and the station in Mickey’s Toontown Fair. The station in Mickey’s Toontown Fair was closed in 2011 due to the expansion of Fantasyland. You could have boarded

Chet Smolski

1978-01-01

263

Food Habits of Bald Eagles in Maine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: Food remains,were,collected at 78 different bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) breeding and wintering areas in Maine during 1976-80. Nearly 1,400 prey individuals were identified. Fish com- prised 79% of the food items collected in interior Maine. Three species, brown bullhead (Ictalurus neb- ulosus),white sucker (Catostomus commersoni), and chain pickerel (Esox niger), were favored foods in freshwater habitats. Birds, primarily gulls

C. S. Todd; L. S. Young; R. B. Owen; F. J. Gramlich

2008-01-01

264

Factors Affecting Photosynthesis!  

E-print Network

Factors Affecting Photosynthesis! Temperature Eppley (1972) Light Sverdrup's Critical Depth-493, but the general concept is still valid! ! #12;PB opt & Temperature! #12;Photosynthesis & Temperature! Remember: in the laboratory, we can measure photosynthesis versus irradiance (PvsE) and calculate Ek, Pmax, and alpha

Kudela, Raphael M.

265

Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience  

E-print Network

Depression is often characterized by attentional biases toward negative items and away from positive items, which likely affects reward and punishment processing. Recent work has reported that training attention-reported depressive symptoms received attention training toward positive stimuli prior to performing the decision

Maddox, W. Todd

266

The Affective Side.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of the affective development of gifted students who are underachieving considers external stresses including a feeling of invisibility and mixed messages from the environment, internal stresses such as self-image, unrealistic self-expectations, and the possible co-existence of a learning disability. (DB)

Strop, Jean

2001-01-01

267

Does Motivation Affect Exercise?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the state of Indiana, 20-29 percent of residents are obese. Being obese may impact social experiences and health conditions. This research seeks to investigate whether motivation affects an individual’s ability to engage in an exercise program. This research will utilize a convenience sample of 10 overweight, sedentary individuals living in northwest Indiana. Each of these 10 individuals will be

Angelica Brown

2012-01-01

268

Individual Differences in Affect.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper argues that infants' affect patterns are innate and are meaningful indicators of individual differences in internal state. Videotapes of seven infants' faces were coded using an ethogram; the movement of the eyebrow, eye direction, eye openness, mouth shape, mouth position, lip position, and tongue protrusion were assessed…

Haviland, Jeannette

269

Personalized affective music player  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce and test an affective music player (AMP) that selects music for mood enhancement. Through a concise overview of content, construct, and ecological validity, we elaborate five considerations that form the foundation of the AMP. Based on these considerations, computational models are developed, using regression and kernel density estimation. We show how these models can be used for music

Joris H. Janssen; Egon L. van den Broek; Joyce H. D. M. Westerink; J. Cohn; Anton Nijholt; M. Pantic

2009-01-01

270

Factors Affecting Photosynthesis!  

E-print Network

4/21/13 1 Factors Affecting Photosynthesis! Temperature Eppley (1972) Light Sverdrup transporters (nutrients) It slows down (curves) because the dark reactions can't process fast enough Light controlled by light and is linear Critical Depth! Given the previous assumptions, the Critical Depth (Zcr

Kudela, Raphael M.

271

Food Affects Human Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A conference on whether food and nutrients affect human behavior was held on November 9, 1982 at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Various research studies on this topic are reviewed, including the effects of food on brain biochemistry (particularly sleep) and effects of tryptophane as a pain reducer. (JN)

Kolata, Gina

1982-01-01

272

How Fire Affects Wildlife  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is part of Planet Diary and is an online exploration on how wildfires affect animals and plants. Students each investigate one animal and one plant to see how well certain organisms have adapted to fire, and then compare survival strategies. This page is accompanied by a page of website links for further information.

273

What Variables Affect Solubility?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Helps middle school students understand the concept of solubility through hands-on experience with a variety of liquids and solids. As they explore factors that affect solubility and saturation, students gain content mastery and an understanding of the inquiry process. Also enables teachers to authentically assess student performance on several…

Baker, William P.; Leyva, Kathryn

2003-01-01

274

Affective Factors: Anxiety  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Affective factors seem to play a crucial role in success or failure in second language acquisition. Negative attitudes can reduce learners' motivation and harm language learning, while positive attitudes can do the reverse. Discovering students' attitudes about language will help both teacher and student in teaching learning process. Anxiety is…

Tasnimi, Mahshad

2009-01-01

275

An affective model of artificial psychology [computational affection model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computational approaches to affection are an important content of artificial psychology. In this paper, we present a new computational affection model for improving the interaction ability of a virtual agent with its environment. Our affection model consisted of emotion space, mood, biorhythm and personality. With the affection model, our interactive agent can generate plenty of affective behavior autonomously.

Wang Guojiang; Wang Zhiliang; Li Longxing

2005-01-01

276

Psychophysiological signals associated with affective states.  

PubMed

We present a preliminary quantitative study aimed at developing an optimal standard protocol for automatic classification of specific affective states as related to human- computer interactions. This goal is mainly achieved by comparing standard psychological test-reports to quantitative measures derived from simultaneous non-invasive acquisition of psychophysiological signals of interest, namely respiration, galvanic skin response, blood volume pulse, electrocardiogram and electroencephalogram. Forty-three healthy students were exposed to computer-mediated stimuli, while wearable non-invasive sensors were applied in order to collect the physiological data. The stimuli were designed to elicit three distinct affective states: relaxation, engagement and stress. In this work we report how our quantitative analysis has helped in redefining important aspects of the protocol, and we show preliminary findings related to the specific psychophysiological patterns correlating with the three target affective states. Results further suggest that some of the quantitative measures might be useful in characterizing specific affective states. PMID:21096828

Mauri, Maurizio; Magagnin, Valentina; Cipresso, Pietro; Mainardi, Luca; Brown, Emery N; Cerutti, Sergio; Villamira, Marco; Barbieri, Riccardo

2010-01-01

277

Space shuttle main engine fault detection using neural networks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method for on-line Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) anomaly detection and fault typing using a feedback neural network is described. The method involves the computation of features representing time-variance of SSME sensor parameters, using historical test case data. The network is trained, using backpropagation, to recognize a set of fault cases. The network is then able to diagnose new fault cases correctly. An essential element of the training technique is the inclusion of randomly generated data along with the real data, in order to span the entire input space of potential non-nominal data.

Bishop, Thomas; Greenwood, Dan; Shew, Kenneth; Stevenson, Fareed

1991-01-01

278

Standard pre-main sequence models of low-mass stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main characteristics of standard pre-main sequence (PMS) models are described. A discussion of the uncer-tainties affecting the current generation of PMS evolutionary tracks and isochrones is also provided. In particular, the impact of the uncertainties in the adopted equation of state, radiative opacity, nuclear cross sections, and initial chemical abundances are analysed.

Prada Moroni, P. G.; Tognelli, E.; Degl'Innocenti, S.

2014-05-01

279

Jump to main content Jump to navigation  

E-print Network

form a tethered morphology, which reduces diffusion between the leading edge and the cell body. Image, altering cell morphology might perturb diffusion and thereby affect polarity. But when Houk et al. induced to the cell body. When the researchers simulated the response of three published diffusion-based inhibition

Weiner, Orion

280

Integrated LPV control for underactuated ship linear track keeping and main diesel engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on integrated control for underactuated ship linear track keeping and main diesel engine, A new integrated control arithmetic designed by the linear parameter varying (LPV) system control theory and the closed system poles assigned via state feedback is proposed. The ship motion equations of the MMG model is translated into LPV systems with ship speed as the scheduling parameter.

Yu Liu; Chen Guo; Shichun Yuan

2008-01-01

281

Main Coast Winds - Final Scientific Report  

SciTech Connect

The Maine Coast Wind Project was developed to investigate the cost-effectiveness of small, distributed wind systems on coastal sites in Maine. The restructuring of Maine's electric grid to support net metering allowed for the installation of small wind installations across the state (up to 100kW). The study performed adds insight to the difficulties of developing cost-effective distributed systems in coastal environments. The technical hurdles encountered with the chosen wind turbine, combined with the lower than expected wind speeds, did not provide a cost-effective return to make a distributed wind program economically feasible. While the turbine was accepted within the community, the low availability has been a negative.

Jason Huckaby; Harley Lee

2006-03-15

282

Space shuttle main engine computed tomography applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For the past two years the potential applications of computed tomography to the fabrication and overhaul of the Space Shuttle Main Engine were evaluated. Application tests were performed at various government and manufacturer facilities with equipment produced by four different manufacturers. The hardware scanned varied in size and complexity from a small temperature sensor and turbine blades to an assembled heat exchanger and main injector oxidizer inlet manifold. The evaluation of capabilities included the ability to identify and locate internal flaws, measure the depth of surface cracks, measure wall thickness, compare manifold design contours to actual part contours, perform automatic dimensional inspections, generate 3D computer models of actual parts, and image the relationship of the details in a complex assembly. The capabilities evaluated, with the exception of measuring the depth of surface flaws, demonstrated the existing and potential ability to perform many beneficial Space Shuttle Main Engine applications.

Sporny, Richard F.

1990-01-01

283

Blue Stragglers After the Main Sequence  

E-print Network

We study the post-main sequence evolution of products of collisions between main sequence stars (blue stragglers), with particular interest paid to the horizontal branch and asymptotic giant branch phases. We found that the blue straggler progeny populate the colour-magnitude diagram slightly blueward of the red giant branch and between 0.2 and 1 magnitudes brighter than the horizontal branch. We also found that the lifetimes of collision products on the horizontal branch is consistent with the numbers of so-called "evolved blue straggler stars" (E-BSS) identified by various authors in a number of globular clusters, and is almost independent of mass or initial composition profile. The observed ratio of the number of E-BSS to blue stragglers points to a main sequence lifetime for blue stragglers of approximately 1-2 Gyr on average.

Alison Sills; Amanda Karakas; John Lattanzio

2008-11-18

284

Conditions affecting the foreskin.  

PubMed

This article aims to provide an update on the anatomy of, and some of the conditions affecting, the foreskin. The cultural and religious significance of the foreskin will be explored, as well as nursing care and health promotion needs of men. The possible link between circumcision status and human immunodeficiency virus will be briefly discussed. Maintaining cleanliness of the genitals is advocated to reduce the incidence of inflammatory conditions. PMID:22787889

Hunter, David

285

Comprehensive affected environment  

SciTech Connect

Energy Vision 2020 evaluates the affected environment to help provide a baseline for measuring the environmental consequences of alternative energy strategies. Because this report is also an environmental impact statement, special emphasis is given to the environment. This regional perspective takes in both natural conditions and those resulting from human development. It considers socioeconomic, air, water, and land resources. This section of the Energy Vision 2020 draft report provides the overview for the environmental assessment.

NONE

1995-10-01

286

Parameters of Technological Growth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the factors involved in technological growth and identifies the key parameters as societal resources and societal expectations. Concludes that quality of life can only be maintained by reducing population growth, since this parameter is the product of material levels, overcrowding, food, and pollution. (JR)

Starr, Chauncey; Rudman, Richard

1973-01-01

287

1 The Main Asteroid Belt Carolyn Crow: NASA's Dawn Mission The Main Asteroid Belt  

E-print Network

1 The Main Asteroid Belt Carolyn Crow: NASA's Dawn Mission The Main Asteroid Belt Written to the main asteroid belt to visit two of the largest protoplanets, Vesta and Ceres. Using sunlight, a mere accomplished by a spacecraft before. What compelled astronomers to send Dawn to the asteroid belt and what does

Waliser, Duane E.

288

Gulf of Maine Research Institute: Atlantic Herring  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by the Gulf of Maine Research Institute, this website offers several interesting perspectives on a very important fish in the food chain -- the Atlantic Herring (_Clupea harengus_). The website organizes information about the Atlantic Herring into three main categories: Biology; Harvest and Processing; and Research. The site utilizes beautiful photos, illustrations, and maps as it briefly describes herring life cycle, distribution, spawning research, mid-water trawling, processing, and much more. The website also provides a solid collection of herring resources and references.

289

Unprotected left main PCI: status report 2013.  

PubMed

Unprotected left main coronary artery (ULMCA) disease is seen in 4% of patients who undergo angiography. Though coronary artery bypass graft surgery has traditionally been the preferred approach to revascularization, recent major society guidelines support the use of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in properly selected patients. This article provides an overview of recent studies evaluating the efficacy of ULMCA PCI and looking at contemporary approaches to the evaluation and percutaneous treatment of ULMCA disease. The ongoing EXCEL trial will help elucidate the role of ULMCA PCI in the treatment of left main disease compared with coronary artery bypass graft surgery. PMID:23995725

Oyama, Jared; Lee, Michael S

2013-09-01

290

The double main sequence of Omega Centauri  

E-print Network

Recent, high precision photometry of Omega Centauri, the biggest Galactic globular cluster, has been obtained with Hubble Space Telescope. The color magnitude diagram reveals an unexpected bifurcation of colors in the main sequence (MS). The newly found double MS, the multiple turnoffs and subgiant branches, and other sequences discovered in the past along the red giant branch of this cluster add up to a fascinating but frustrating puzzle. Among the possible explanations for the blue main sequence an anomalous overabundance of helium is suggested. The hypothesis will be tested with a set of FLAMES@VLT data we have recently obtained (ESO DDT program), and with forthcoming ACS@HST images.

L. R. Bedin; G. Piotto; J. Anderson; I. R. King; S. Cassisi; Y. Momany; .

2004-06-03

291

Naturally occurring compounds affect glutamatergic neurotransmission in rat brain.  

PubMed

Natural products, including those derived from plants, have largely contributed to the development of therapeutic drugs. Glutamate is the main excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system and it is also considered a nociceptive neurotransmitter, by acting on peripheral nervous system. For this reason, in this study we investigated the effects of the hydroalcoholic extracts from Drymis winteri (polygodial and drimanial), Phyllanthus (rutin and quercetine), Jathopha elliptica (jatrophone), Hedyosmum brasiliense (13HDS), Ocotea suaveolens (Tormentic acid), Protium kleinii (alphabeta-amyrin), Citrus paradise (naringin), soybean (genistein) and Crataeva nurvala (lupeol), described as having antinociceptive effects, on glutamatergic transmission parameters, such as [(3)H]glutamate binding, [(3)H]glutamate uptake by synaptic vesicles and astrocyte cultures, and synaptosomal [(3)H]glutamate release. All the glutamatergic parameters were affected by one or more of these compounds. Specifically, drimanial and polygodial presented more broad and profound effects, requiring more investigation on their mechanisms. The putative central side effects of these compounds, via the glutamatergic system, are discussed. PMID:17577666

Martini, Lucia Helena; Jung, Fernanda; Soares, Felix Antunes; Rotta, Liane Nanci; Vendite, Deusa Aparecida; Frizzo, Marcos Emilio dos Santos; Yunes, Rosendo A; Calixto, João Batista; Wofchuk, Susana; Souza, Diogo O

2007-11-01

292

Adolescent Varicocele: Association with Somatometric Parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: The developmental changes that occur as a result of puberty have been hypothesized to be important causes of varicocele. Various somatometric parameters were known to affect the occurrence of varicocele during the growth period. We conducted this study in order to examine these relationships and to determine the incidence of varicocele in adolescent males. Patients and Methods: We evaluated

Sushil Prabakaran; Philip Kumanov; Analia Tomova; Stanislav Hubaveshki; Ashok Agarwal

2006-01-01

293

Dilemma games: game parameters and matching protocols  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the impact of changes in pecuniary payoffs and the linkages between players in the game environment on strategy choice in repeated PD games. Rates of cooperation are found to be correlated with variations in game parameters related to concepts of Fear, Greed, and Cooperators’ Gain. In addition, rates of cooperation are affected by the information that subjects

David Schmidt; Robert Shupp; James Walker; T. K. Ahn; Elinor Ostrom

2001-01-01

294

Object-oriented simulation research on components of inner fuel main pipe in aero-engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to find the control characteristics of fuel flow rate of inner fuel main pipe in aero-engines, the influences of parameters on the flow rate need to be studied systematically. This paper uses object-oriented AMESim to investigate modelling and simulation of the main control components. Modeling methods of components such as electrohydraulic servo valve, pressure difference valve and flow

Wang Bin; Zhou Lifeng; Yang Jinli; Ye Zhifeng

2010-01-01

295

Total main rotor isolation system analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The requirements for a preliminary design study and verification procedure for a total main rotor isolation system at n/rev are established. The system is developed and analyzed, and predesign drawings are created for an isolation system that achieves over 95 percent isolation of all six degrees of freedom.

Halwes, D. R.

1981-01-01

296

Maine-Niles Association of Special Recreation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented are duplications of the responses given by Maine-Niles Association of Special Recreation (Skokie, Illinois) as part of a project to collect, share, and compile information about, and techniques in the operation of 18 community action models for recreation services to the disabled. Model programs are categorized as consumer, client…

Iowa Univ., Iowa City. Recreation Education Program.

297

Maine Kids Count 1997 Data Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count report details statewide trends in the well-being of Maine's children. The statistical portrait is based on indictors children's well-being in four areas: (1) physical and mental health; (2) social and economic opportunity; (3) community and family environment; and (4) education and learning. The report's introduction describes…

Maine Children's Alliance, Augusta.

298

Semantic Web Research anno 2006: main streams,  

E-print Network

Semantic Web Research anno 2006: main streams, popular fallacies, current status and future. In this topical1 paper we try to give an analysis and overview of the current state of Semantic Web research. We point to different in- terpretations of the Semantic Web as the reason underlying many contro- versies

van Harmelen, Frank

299

Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Maine  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Maine students had across-the-board gains. There were improvements in both reading and math at the basic, proficient and advanced levels for the subgroups large enough to count, which were white students, low income students, and boys and girls. Results on…

Center on Education Policy, 2010

2010-01-01

300

Human babesiosis, maine, USA, 1995-2011.  

PubMed

We observed an increase in the ratio of pathogenic Babesia microti to B. odocoilei in adult Ixodes scapularis ticks in Maine. Risk for babesiosis was associated with adult tick abundance, Borrelia burgdorferi infection prevalence, and Lyme disease incidence. Our findings may help track risk and increase the focus on blood supply screening. PMID:25272145

Smith, Robert P; Elias, Susan P; Borelli, Timothy J; Missaghi, Bayan; York, Brian J; Kessler, Robert A; Lubelczyk, Charles B; Lacombe, Eleanor H; Hayes, Catherine M; Coulter, Michael S; Rand, Peter W

2014-10-01

301

Human Babesiosis, Maine, USA, 1995-2011  

PubMed Central

We observed an increase in the ratio of pathogenic Babesia microti to B. odocoilei in adult Ixodes scapularis ticks in Maine. Risk for babesiosis was associated with adult tick abundance, Borrelia burgdorferi infection prevalence, and Lyme disease incidence. Our findings may help track risk and increase the focus on blood supply screening.

Smith, Robert P.; Borelli, Timothy J.; Missaghi, Bayan; York, Brian J.; Kessler, Robert A.; Lubelczyk, Charles B.; Lacombe, Eleanor H.; Hayes, Catherine M.; Coulter, Michael S.; Rand, Peter W.

2014-01-01

302

State Teacher Policy Yearbook, 2009. Maine  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Maine edition of the National Council on Teacher Quality's (NCTQ's) 2009 "State Teacher Policy Yearbook" is the third annual look at state policies impacting the teaching profession. It is hoped that this report will help focus attention on areas where state policymakers can make changes that will have a positive impact on teacher quality and…

National Council on Teacher Quality, 2009

2009-01-01

303

The main magnetic field of Jupiter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main magnetic field of Jupiter has been measured by the Goddard Space Flight Center flux gate magnetometer on Pioneer 11, and analysis of the data yields a more detailed model than that obtained from Pioneer 10 results. In a spherical harmonic octupole representation the dipole term (with opposite polarity to earth's) has a magnitude of 4.28 G R\\/sub j\\/

Mario H. Acuna; Norman F. Ness

1976-01-01

304

The Main Phase of Great Magnetic Storms  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown that the main phase of great magnetic storms is composed of two pars, most clesxly characterized by their decay rate: one decays much more rapidly than the other. It is suggested that extraordinarily intense storms are largely due to an abnormal growth of the rapidly decaying part. Because of its rapid decay, the combination with the slow

S.-I. Akasofu; S. Chapman; B. Venkatesan

1963-01-01

305

Maine KIDS COUNT 2001 Data Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This KIDS COUNT data book details statewide trends in the well-being of Maine's children. The statistical portrait is based on a variety of indicators in the areas of: (1) physical and mental health; (2) social and economic opportunity; (3) education and learning; and (4) child health care access. The data book presents state level trend data, a…

Davey, Lynn

306

Maine Kids Count 1999 Data Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count Report details statewide trends in the well-being of Maine's children, with particular focus on child health care access. The statistical portrait is based on a variety of indicators in five areas: (1) child health care access; (2) physical and mental health; (3) community and family environment; (4) social and economic…

Maine Children's Alliance, Augusta.

307

Semantic Web research main streams, popular falacies,  

E-print Network

;10 Which Semantic Web? Version 2: "Enrichment of the current Web" recipe: Annotate, classify, index metaSemantic Web research anno 2006: main streams, popular falacies, current status, future challenges Frank van Harmelen Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam #12;2 This is NOT a Semantic Web evangelization talk (I

van Harmelen, Frank

308

Eutrophication: State of the Gulf of Maine  

EPA Science Inventory

Cultural eutrophication is an ecosystem response to increases in nutrient (primarily nitrogen and phosphorus) inputs from human sources. Estuaries, bays and nearshore coastal waters in the Gulf of Maine receive nutrient inputs from land-based sources via rivers and streams, dir...

309

The main magnetic field of Jupiter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main magnetic field of Jupiter has been measured by the Goddard Space Flight Center flux gate magnetometer on Pioneer 11. Analysis of the data yields a more detailed model than that obtained from Pioneer 10 results. In a spherical harmonic octupole representation the dipole term (with opposite polarity to earth's) has a magnitude of 4.28 G times the radial

M. H. Acuna; N. F. Ness

1976-01-01

310

Library Locations Locations other than Main Library  

E-print Network

Library Locations Locations other than Main Library Example: Feminist Studies HQ1410 .U54 2009 University of California, Santa Barbara Library www.library.ucsb.edu Updated 3-2014 A - B.......................................6 Central M - N..................................................Arts Library (Music Building) P

311

Maine Project against Bullying. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Noting that bullying among primary school-age children has become recognized as an antecedent to more violent behavior in later grades, the 3-year Maine Project Against Bullying examined currently available research on bullying and evaluated books, curricula, media materials, and programs to identify resources and strategies which can be applied…

Saufler, Chuck; Gagne, Cyndi

312

Maine Kids Count 1998 Data Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count report details statewide trends in the well-being of Maine's children. The statistical portrait is based on indicators of children's well-being in four areas: (1) physical and mental health; (2) community and family environment; (3) social and economic opportunity; and (4) education and learning. The report's introduction describes…

Maine Children's Alliance, Augusta.

313

Maine KIDS COUNT 2002 Data Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This KIDS COUNT data book details statewide trends in the well-being of Maine's children. Following a brief overview of the data book and a summary of indicators, state trend data are presented in the areas of: (1) poverty; (2) child and adolescent suicide; (3) public high school dropouts; (4) teen pregnancy; (5) public high school graduates…

Maine Children's Alliance, Augusta.

314

Guide to Coeus Icons Main Menu Toolbar  

E-print Network

Guide to Coeus Icons 1 Main Menu Toolbar Maintain Inbox Maintain Proposal Development Maintain for proposal Medusa Print "generic" proposal forms Save proposal data Close proposal #12;Guide to Coeus Icons 2 vertically Layer windows (default) Exit Coeus Search Results Toolbar Create a new Proposal, Rolodex ID, etc

Weber, David J.

315

The Maine Coastal Current: Spring Climatological Circulation  

E-print Network

The Maine Coastal Current: Spring Climatological Circulation Daniel R. Lynch, Monica J. Holboke for Continental Shelf Research Abstract Computational results are presented for the climatological circulation­wide simulations establishes the spring conditions within the annual climatological cycle. The distinctive Gulf

316

Linearized elastic parameter sections  

SciTech Connect

Contrasts in elastic parameters can be estimated directly from seismic data using offset-dependent information in the PP reflection coefficient. A linear approximation to the PP reflection coefficient including three coefficients is fitted to the data, and relative contrasts in various elastic parameters are obtained from linear combinations of the estimated coefficients. Linearized elastic parameter sections for the contrasts in P-wave impedance, P-wave velocity, density, plane-wave modulus, and the change in bulk modulus and shear modulus normalized with the plane-wave modulus are estimated. If the average P- to S-wave velocity ratio is known, linearized parameter sections including the contrast in the average P- to S-wave velocity ratio and a fluid factor section can be computed. Applied to synthetic data, visual comparison of the estimated and true elastic parameter sections agree qualitatively, and the results are confirmed by an analysis of the standard deviation of the estimated parameters. The parameter sections obtained by inversion of a shallow seismic anomaly in the Barents Sea are promising, but the reliability is uncertain because neither well data nor regional trends are available.

Ursin, B.; Tjaaland, E. [Univ. of Trondheim (Norway); Ekren, B.O. [Statoil Research Center, Trondheim (Norway)

1996-05-01

317

Parameter uncertainty analysis of non-point source pollution from different land use types.  

PubMed

Land use type is one of the most important factors that affect the uncertainty in non-point source (NPS) pollution simulation. In this study, seventeen sensitive parameters were screened from the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model for parameter uncertainty analysis for different land use types in the Daning River Watershed of the Three Gorges Reservoir area, China. First-Order Error Analysis (FOEA) method was adopted to analyze the effect of parameter uncertainty on model outputs under three types of land use, namely, plantation, forest and grassland. The model outputs selected in this study consisted of runoff, sediment yield, organic nitrogen (N), and total phosphorus (TP). The results indicated that the uncertainty conferred by the parameters differed among the three land use types. In forest and grassland, the parameter uncertainty in NPS pollution was primarily associated with runoff processes, but in plantation, the main uncertain parameters were related to runoff process and soil properties. Taken together, the study suggested that adjusting the structure of land use and controlling fertilizer use are helpful methods to control the NPS pollution in the Daning River Watershed. PMID:20035971

Shen, Zhen-yao; Hong, Qian; Yu, Hong; Niu, Jun-feng

2010-03-15

318

RESRAD parameter sensitivity analysis  

SciTech Connect

Three methods were used to perform a sensitivity analysis of RESRAD code input parameters -- enhancement of RESRAD by the Gradient Enhanced Software System (GRESS) package, direct parameter perturbation, and graphic comparison. Evaluation of these methods indicated that (1) the enhancement of RESRAD by GRESS has limitations and should be used cautiously, (2) direct parameter perturbation is tedious to implement, and (3) the graphics capability of RESRAD 4.0 is the most direct and convenient method for performing sensitivity analyses. This report describes procedures for implementing these methods and presents a comparison of results. 3 refs., 9 figs., 8 tabs.

Cheng, J.J.; Yu, C.; Zielen, A.J.

1991-08-01

319

Parameter estimating state reconstruction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Parameter estimation is considered for systems whose entire state cannot be measured. Linear observers are designed to recover the unmeasured states to a sufficient accuracy to permit the estimation process. There are three distinct dynamics that must be accommodated in the system design: the dynamics of the plant, the dynamics of the observer, and the system updating of the parameter estimation. The latter two are designed to minimize interaction of the involved systems. These techniques are extended to weakly nonlinear systems. The application to a simulation of a space shuttle POGO system test is of particular interest. A nonlinear simulation of the system is developed, observers designed, and the parameters estimated.

George, E. B.

1976-01-01

320

DC Circuit Parameters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Defines and discusses characteristics of current, electromotive force, and resistance. Lists five common sources of electromotive force and demonstrates each. Discusses and demonstrates factors affecting the resistance of a wire conductor.

1994-01-01

321

The Spin Vector Distribution of Main Belt Asteroids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The large main belt asteroids have been formed during an accretion process where their original physical properties (e.g. spin state) depended on the medium they formed from and the details of the growth mechanism. In this context the spin vector of an asteroid is an important property since it is closely linked to the general evolution of the main belt. New photometric observations have been acquired for 42 main belt asteroids in order to determine a substantial data set of reliable spin vectors. In combination with already existing lightcurves, the observational data yielded models of the spin vectors for 46 asteroids using standard computing procedures. Together with previously published models the new data set consists of spin vector parameters for 73 main belt asteroids. Compared to previous studies, this data set represents a doubling of asteroids with known spin vectors and is close of being complete for the largest objects (D>200 km). The spin vector distribution has following basic properties: There exists a significant dominance of asteroids with a prograde sense of rotation and with their spin vectors concentrated towards the north ecliptic pole. A comparison of the spin vector distribution between asteroids with different diameters reveals three specific zones. The large asteroids (D>200 km) for which the spin vectors are moderately anisotropic. An intermediate size range (D 70-150 km) including objects with the strongest spin vector concentration toward the north ecliptic pole and the smaller asteroids with a completely isotropic distribution. There exists a strong correlation between the spin vector distribution and the orbital inclination of the studied asteroids. Variations in the spin vector distribution are present between asteroids of different taxonomic types. The above results will be interpreted in an evolutionary scenario for the main belt population.

Erikson, A.

1999-09-01

322

Crowdsourcing Techniques for Affective Computing (Handbook of Affective Computing chapter)  

E-print Network

illustrate how these practices have been applied to affective computing, surveying recent research of crowdsourcing and we discuss how new developments in the field might benefit affective computing. GLOSSARY TERMSCrowdsourcing Techniques for Affective Computing (Handbook of Affective Computing chapter) Robert R

323

Focus cues affect perceived depth  

PubMed Central

Depth information from focus cues—accommodation and the gradient of retinal blur—is typically incorrect in three-dimensional (3-D) displays because the light comes from a planar display surface. If the visual system incorporates information from focus cues into its calculation of 3-D scene parameters, this could cause distortions in perceived depth even when the 2-D retinal images are geometrically correct. In Experiment 1 we measured the direct contribution of focus cues to perceived slant by varying independently the physical slant of the display surface and the slant of a simulated surface specified by binocular disparity (binocular viewing) or perspective/texture (monocular viewing). In the binocular condition, slant estimates were unaffected by display slant. In the monocular condition, display slant had a systematic effect on slant estimates. Estimates were consistent with a weighted average of slant from focus cues and slant from disparity/texture, where the cue weights are determined by the reliability of each cue. In Experiment 2, we examined whether focus cues also have an indirect effect on perceived slant via the distance estimate used in disparity scaling. We varied independently the simulated distance and the focal distance to a disparity-defined 3-D stimulus. Perceived slant was systematically affected by changes in focal distance. Accordingly, depth constancy (with respect to simulated distance) was significantly reduced when focal distance was held constant compared to when it varied appropriately with the simulated distance to the stimulus. The results of both experiments show that focus cues can contribute to estimates of 3-D scene parameters. Inappropriate focus cues in typical 3-D displays may therefore contribute to distortions in perceived space. PMID:16441189

Watt, Simon J.; Akeley, Kurt; Ernst, Marc O.; Banks, Martin S.

2007-01-01

324

Minerals yearbook, 1991: Maine. Annual report  

SciTech Connect

The report has been prepared under a Memorandum of Understanding between the U.S. Bureau of Mines, U.S. Department of the Interior, and the Maine Geological Survey for collecting information on all nonfuel minerals. The value of Maine's nonfuel mineral production in 1991 was $41.3 million, a $21.2 million decrease compared with that of 1990. Decreases in output and value were reported for most of the nonfuel minerals produced. The largest decreases in both production and value were for construction sand and gravel and dimension stone. Smaller decreases were estimated for both masonry and portland cement. Other mineral commodities produced in the State included common clay, gemstones, and peat. Perlite was shipped in from out-of-State and expanded at one plant in the State.

Harrison, D.K.; Anderson, W.; Foley, M.E.

1993-07-01

325

Aftershock patterns and main shock faulting  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We have compared aftershock patterns following several moderate to large earthquakes with the corresponding distributions of coseismic slip obtained from previous analyses of the recorded strong ground motion and teleseismic waveforms. Our results are consistent with a hypothesis of aftershock occurrence that requires a secondary redistribution of stress following primary failure on the earthquake fault. Aftershocks followng earthquakes examined in this study occur mostly outside of or near the edges of the source areas indicated by the patterns of main shock slip. The spatial distribution of aftershocks reflects either a continuation of slip in the outer regions of the areas of maximum coseismic displacement or the activation of subsidiary faults within the volume surrounding the boundaries of main shock rupture. -from Authors

Mendoza, C.; Hartzell, S. H.

1988-01-01

326

Identification of Kinetic Parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter provides a general introduction to the identification of mathematical models and to the methods for estimating\\u000a the relevant adjustable parameters. First, the Bayesian approach is briefly discussed as compared to Popper’s falsificationism.\\u000a Then, the maximum likelihood and weighted least squares criteria are derived from the concept of conditioned probability.\\u000a The different optimization techniques for parameter estimation are reviewed,

Fabrizio Caccavale; Mario Iamarino; Francesco Pierri; Vincenzo Tufano

327

Carbonate stress corrosion of the mains  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown that carbonates and bicarbonates are responsible for the major part of events of corrosion cracking in the mains\\u000a with cathodic protection caused by local damages to protective coatings (and, possibly, for the events of fracture without\\u000a cathodic protection). Carbonate cracking is initiated in the course of the active-passive transition and is accompanied by\\u000a a sharply localized reaction

A. I. Balitskii; R. K. Melekhov; S. G. Polyakov

1997-01-01

328

Space shuttle main engine plume radiation model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The methods are described which are used in predicting the thermal radiation received by space shuttles, from the plumes of the main engines. Radiation to representative surface locations were predicted using the NASA gaseous plume radiation GASRAD program. The plume model is used with the radiative view factor (RAVFAC) program to predict sea level radiation at specified body points. The GASRAD program is described along with the predictions. The RAVFAC model is also discussed.

Reardon, J. E.; Lee, Y. C.

1978-01-01

329

Three Main Subsystems: I. Centerpiece (Linear Actuation)  

E-print Network

Systems Two Main Subsystems: I. Solar Panels Four 100 W high efficiency solar panels were installed symmetrically atop the canopy. The panels were wired in parallel to a deep cycle solar battery. In full sunlight- Monocrystalline-Solar-Panel-4-Pack-GS-S-250- Fab5x4/202960000?N=8p9Z5yc1v Left Bottom: Wind Blue Power LLC. (2014

Provancher, William

330

Optimizing PT Arun LNG main heat exchanger  

SciTech Connect

The capacity of a LNG liquefaction unit has been increased by upgrading the refrigeration system, without making changes to the main heat exchanger (MHE). It is interesting, that after all modifications were completed, a higher refrigerant circulation alone could not increase LNG production. However, by optimizing the refrigerant component ratio, the UA of the MHE increased and LNG production improved. This technical evaluation will provide recommendations and show how the evaluation of the internal temperature profile helped optimize the MHE operating conditions.

Irawan, B. [PT Arun NGL Co., Sumatra (Indonesia)

1995-12-01

331

Left main aneurysm and what's next?  

PubMed Central

The purpose of the case report is to present a case of a 65-year-old male, referred for coronary angiography because of a typical chest pain. The coronary angiography showed an aneurysm of the left main coronary artery. Despite the absence of obvious ischemic symptoms and because of the potential complications of the aneurysm with a width of 15 mm, the patient underwent surgery. PMID:24799932

Sciborski, Krzysztof; Drozdz, Donald; Negrusz-Kawecka, Marta; Mysiak, Andrzej

2014-01-01

332

Main Memory Database Systems: An Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract-Memory resident database systems (MMDB’s) store their data,in main physical memory and provide very high-speed access. Conventional database systems are optimized for the particular,characteristics,of disk,storage,mechanisms.,Memory resident systems, on the other hand, use different optimizations to structure and organize data, as well as to make it reliable. This paper,surveys,the major memory residence optimizations and briefly discusses some of the memory resident

Hector Garcia-molina; Kenneth Salem

1992-01-01

333

Darling Marine Center of University of Maine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Located in Walpole, Maine, the Center functions year round as a research and educational facility serving the marine interests of faculty, staff, students, and visiting investigators from around the world. Lab research interests range from microbial ecology, biogeochemistry and marine archaeology, to invertebrate taxonomy and ecology, deep-sea biology, and phytoplankton physiology. Undergraduate and K-12 opportunities are available both during the school year and summer. Species lists and downloadable data are also available.

334

Maine Geological Survey Borehole Temperature Profiles  

SciTech Connect

This dataset includes temperature profiles from 30 boreholes throughout Maine that were selected for their depth, location, and lithologies encountered. Depths range from about 300 feet to 2,200 feet. Most of the boreholes selected for measurement were completed in granite because this lithology can be assumed to be nearly homogeneous over the depth of the borehole. Boreholes were also selected to address gaps in existing geothermal datasets. Temperature profiles were collected in October and November, 2012.

Robert Marvinney

2013-11-06

335

Neurological disorders presenting mainly in adolescence  

PubMed Central

The aim of this review is to discuss some of the neurological diseases that present mainly in the adolescent period. The article focuses on the usual presentation and course of the more common, and some uncommon, epilepsies, neuromuscular disorders, neurodegenerative disorders, inflammatory disorders of the central nervous system and some other, miscellaneous conditions. The article ends with a very brief and general discussion about management issues in this age group. PMID:17264287

Macleod, S; Appleton, R E

2007-01-01

336

76 FR 59177 - Maine Disaster #ME-00029  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the State of Maine (FEMA-4032- DR), dated 09/13/2011. Incident: Tropical Storm Irene. Incident Period: 08/27/2011 through 08/29/2011. Effective Date: 09/13/2011. Physical Loan Application Deadline Date: 11/14/2011. Economic Injury (EIDL) Loan Application Deadline Date:...

2011-09-23

337

Apollo 15 mission main parachute failure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The failure of one of the three main parachutes of the Apollo 15 spacecraft was investigated by studying malfunctions in the forward heat shield, broken riser, and firing the fuel expelled from the command module reaction control system. It is concluded that the most probable cause was the burning of raw fuel being expelled during the latter portion of depletion firing. Recommended corrective actions are included.

1971-01-01

338

Radiation shielding of the main injector  

SciTech Connect

The radiation shielding in the Fermilab Main Injector (FMI) complex has been carried out by adopting a number of prescribed stringent guidelines established by a previous safety analysis. Determination of the required amount of radiation shielding at various locations of the FMI has been done using Monte Carlo computations. A three dimensional ray tracing code as well as a code based upon empirical observations have been employed in certain cases.

Bhat, C.M.; Martin, P.S.

1995-05-01

339

Photogrammetric Analysis of CPAS Main Parachutes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Crew Exploration Vehicle Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) is being designed to land the Orion Crew Module (CM) at a safe rate of descent at splashdown with a cluster of two to three Main parachutes. The instantaneous rate of descent varies based on parachute fly-out angles and geometric inlet area. Parachutes in a cluster oscillate between significant fly-out angles and colliding into each other. The former presents a sub-optimal inlet area and the latter lowers the effective drag area as the parachutes interfere with each other. The fly-out angles are also important in meeting a twist torque requirement. Understanding cluster behavior necessitates measuring the Mains with photogrammetric analysis. Imagery from upward looking cameras is analyzed to determine parachute geometry. Fly-out angles are measured from each parachute vent to an axis determined from geometry. Determining the scale of the objects requires knowledge of camera and lens calibration as well as features of known size. Several points along the skirt are tracked to compute an effective circumference, diameter, and inlet area as a function of time. The effects of this geometry are clearly seen in the system drag coefficient time history. Photogrammetric analysis is key in evaluating the effects of design features such as an Over-Inflation Control Line (OICL), Main Line Length Ratio (MLLR), and geometric porosity, which are varied in an attempt to minimize cluster oscillations. The effects of these designs are evaluated through statistical analysis.

Ray, Eric; Bretz, David

2011-01-01

340

A photoelectric lightcurve survey of small main belt asteroids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A survey to obtain photoelectric lightcurves of small main-belt asteroids was conducted from November 1981 to April 1982 using the 0.91- and 2.1-m telescopes at the University of Texas McDonald Observatory. A total of 18 main-belt asteroids having estimated dimaters under 30 km were observed with over half of these being smaller than 15 km. Rotational periods were determined or estimated from multiple nights of observation for nearly all of these yielding a sample of 17 small main-belt asteroids which is believed to be free of observational selection effects. All but two of these objects were investigated for very short periods in the range of 1 min to 2 hr using power spectrum analysis of a continuous set of integrations. No evidence for such short periods was seen in this sample. Rotationally averaged B(1,0) magnitudes were determined for most of the surveyed asteroids, allowing diameter estimates to be made. Imposing the suspected selection effects of photogaphic photometry on the results of this survey gives excellent agreement with the results from that technique. This shows that the inability of photographic photometry to obtain results for many asteroids is indeed due to the rotational parameter of those asteroids.

Binzel, R. P.; Mulholland, J. D.

1983-01-01

341

Environmental Factors Affecting Preschoolers’ Motor Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process of development occurs according to the pattern established by the genetic potential and also by the influence\\u000a of environmental factors. The aim of the present study was to focus on the main environmental factors affecting motor development.\\u000a The review of the literature revealed that family features, such as socioeconomic status, mother’s educational level, and\\u000a the existence of siblings

Fotini Venetsanou; Antonis Kambas

2010-01-01

342

Classroom Management and Affect Expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The organization of classroom behavior is complex. Positive affect and negative affect are independent of each other, and management of student behavior is distinctly different from management of learning activities and thinking. Measures recognizing these distinctions document that: (a) positive affect is unrelated to achievement, but negative affect is negatively related; (b) close control of student behavior is associated with

Robert S. Soar; Ruth M. Soar

1987-01-01

343

A computational model of affects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotions and feelings (i.e. affects) are a central fea- ture of human behavior. Due to complexity and interdisciplinarity of affective phenomena, attempts to define them have often be en unsatisfactory. This article provides a simple logical str ucture, in which affective concepts can be defined. The set of affects de fined is similar to the set of emotions covered in

Mika Turkia

2008-01-01

344

Thinking versus feeling: Differentiating between cognitive and affective components of perceived cancer risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the increased recognition of affect in guiding probability estimates, perceived risk has been mainly operationalised in a cognitive way and the differentiation between rational and intuitive judgements is largely unexplored. This study investigated the validity of a measurement instrument differentiating cognitive and affective probability beliefs and examined whether behavioural decision making is mainly guided by cognition or affect. Data

Eva Janssen; Liesbeth van Osch; Lilian Lechner; Math Candel; Hein de Vries

2011-01-01

345

Thinking versus feeling: Differentiating between cognitive and affective components of perceived cancer risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the increased recognition of affect in guiding probability estimates, perceived risk has been mainly operationalised in a cognitive way and the differentiation between rational and intuitive judgements is largely unexplored. This study investigated the validity of a measurement instrument differentiating cognitive and affective probability beliefs and examined whether behavioural decision making is mainly guided by cognition or affect. Data

Eva Janssen; Liesbeth van Osch; Lilian Lechner; Math Candel; Hein de Vries

2012-01-01

346

Variables Affecting Earth's Albedo  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Earth's albedo is the fraction of incoming radiation (sunlight) that is reflected into space. The Earth has an average albedo, which describes how much sunlight is reflected on average for the whole planet and the whole year. The Earth also has a local albedo, which determines how much of the Sun's light is reflected from a particular place at a particular time. The local albedo depends on the particular local surface, which can change seasonally as vegetation changes. It also depends on more rapidly changing things such as snow and clouds. In this lesson, students will investigate one of the variables that affect the Earth's albedo. They will collect and graph data on Earth's albedo from two surface types at the same latitude over a period of two years. They will then use the data to calculate how much difference there is in Earth's albedo between the two locations and suggest reasons for the differences.

347

Ecological analysis of the association between high-risk population parameters and HIV prevalence among pregnant women enrolled in sentinel surveillance in four southern India states  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe HIV epidemic is very heterogeneous at the district level in the four Southern states of India most affected by the epidemic and where transmission is mainly heterosexual. The authors carried out an ecological study of the relationship between high-risk population parameters and HIV prevalence among pregnant women (ANC HIV prevalence).MethodsThe data used in this study included: ANC HIV prevalence

Michel Alary; A A Jayachandran; Catherine M Lowndes; Jan Bradley; Eric Demers; Rajatashuvra Adhikary; Mandar K Mainkar

2010-01-01

348

Convection in the atmospheres and envelopes of Pre-Main Sequence stars  

E-print Network

The Teff location of Pre-Main Sequence (PMS) evolutionary tracks depends on the treatment of over-adiabaticity. Since the convection penetrates into the stellar atmosphere, also the treatment of convection in the modeling of stellar atmospheres will affect the location of the Hayashi tracks. We present new non-grey PMS tracks for Teff>4000 K. We compute several grids of evolutionary tracks varying: 1. the treatment of convection: either the Mixing Length Theory (MLT) or Canuto et al. (1996, CGM) treatment; 2.the atmospheric boundary conditions: we use the new Vienna grids of ATLAS9 atmospheres (Heiter et al. 2002a), which were computed using either MLT (with alpha=Lambda/Hp=0.5) or CGM treatments. We compute as well grids of models with the NextGen (Allard & Hauschildt 1997) atmosphere models, and a 1 Msun grey MLT evolutionary track using the alpha calibration based on 2D-hydrodynamical models (Ludwig et al. 1999)}. These different grids of models allow us to analyze the effects of convection modeling on the non--grey PMS evolutionary tracks. We conclude that: 1. In spite of the solar calibration, if MLT convection is adopted a large uncertainty results in the shape and location of PMS tracks. 2. As long as the model of convection is not the same in the interior and in the atmosphere the optical depth at which we take the boundary conditions is an additional parameter of the models. 3. The comparison between NextGen and ATLAS9 based models shows that, in the Teff domain they have in common (4000--10000K), the PMS location is mainly determined by the treatment of the over-adiabatic convection. 4. Comparison with observations indicates that, for any convection model and for any of the atmosphere grids, convection in the PMS phase appears to be less efficient than what is necessary in order to fit the Sun.

J. Montalban; F. D'Antona; F. Kupka; U. Heiter

2003-10-23

349

Coccolithophores in the Gulf of Maine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Earlier this summer, trillions of calcite (limestone) coated phytoplankton, known as coccolithophores, appeared in the waters off the coast of Maine. This true color image of the coccolithophore bloom was acquired on July 11, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The bloom is the large bluish-green patch in the center of the image in the Gulf of Maine. Unlike any other plant in the ocean, coccolithophores surround themselves with microscopic plating made of calcite. These scales, known as coccoliths, are shaped like hubcaps and are only three one-thousandths of a millimeter in diameter. What coccoliths lack in size, they make up in volume. At any one time a single coccolithophore is attached to or surrounded by at least 30 scales. Additional coccoliths are dumped into the water when the coccolithophores multiply asexually, die or simply make too many scales. In areas with trillions of coccolithophores, the waters will turn an opaque turquoise from the dense cloud of coccoliths. (Click to read more about coccolithophores.) Though there are always coccoliths in the Gulf of Maine, the area hasn't seen a bloom like this one since 1989. Currently, NASA researchers are studying the bloom aboard a ferry in the gulf in an attempt to measure the bloom's density and depth. So far the bloom appears to be about 20 to 25 meters thick and contains nearly half a million tons of calcite. Image by Jesse Allen, NASA Earth Observatory; Data courtesy MODIS Land Rapid Response Team

2002-01-01

350

Main Chamber and Preburner Injector Technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document reports the experimental and analytical research carried out at the Penn State Propulsion Engineering Research Center in support of NASA's plan to develop advanced technologies for future single stage to orbit (SSTO) propulsion systems. The focus of the work is on understanding specific technical issues related to bi-propellant and tri-propellant thrusters. The experiments concentrate on both cold flow demonstrations and hot-fire uni-element tests to demonstrate concepts that can be incorporated into hardware design and development. The analysis is CFD-based and is intended to support the design and interpretation of the experiments and to extrapolate findings to full-scale designs. The research is divided into five main categories that impact various SSTO development scenarios. The first category focuses on RP-1/gaseous hydrogen (GH2)/gaseous oxygen (GO2) tri-propellant combustion with specific emphasis on understanding the benefits of hydrogen addition to RP-1/oxygen combustion and in developing innovative injector technology. The second category investigates liquid oxygen (LOX)/GH2 combustion at main chamber near stoichiometric conditions to improve understanding of existing LOX/GH2 rocket systems. The third and fourth categories investigate the technical issues related with oxidizer-rich and fuel-rich propulsive concepts, issues that are necessary for developing the full-flow engine cycle. Here, injector technology issues for both LOX/GH2 and LOX/RP-1 propellants are examined. The last category, also related to the full-flow engine cycle, examines injector technology needs for GO2/GH2 propellant combustion at near-stoichiometric conditions for main chamber application.

Santoro, Robert J.; Merkle, Charles L.

1999-01-01

351

Parameter estimation through ignorance.  

PubMed

Dynamical modeling lies at the heart of our understanding of physical systems. Its role in science is deeper than mere operational forecasting, in that it allows us to evaluate the adequacy of the mathematical structure of our models. Despite the importance of model parameters, there is no general method of parameter estimation outside linear systems. A relatively simple method of parameter estimation for nonlinear systems is introduced, based on variations in the accuracy of probability forecasts. It is illustrated on the logistic map, the Henon map, and the 12-dimensional Lorenz96 flow, and its ability to outperform linear least squares in these systems is explored at various noise levels and sampling rates. As expected, it is more effective when the forecast error distributions are non-Gaussian. The method selects parameter values by minimizing a proper, local skill score for continuous probability forecasts as a function of the parameter values. This approach is easier to implement in practice than alternative nonlinear methods based on the geometry of attractors or the ability of the model to shadow the observations. Direct measures of inadequacy in the model, the "implied ignorance," and the information deficit are introduced. PMID:23005513

Du, Hailiang; Smith, Leonard A

2012-07-01

352

Parameter Estimation Through Ignorance  

E-print Network

Dynamical modelling lies at the heart of our understanding of physical systems. Its role in science is deeper than mere operational forecasting, in that it allows us to evaluate the adequacy of the mathematical structure of our models. Despite the importance of model parameters, there is no general method of parameter estimation outside linear systems. A new relatively simple method of parameter estimation for nonlinear systems is presented, based on variations in the accuracy of probability forecasts. It is illustrated on the Logistic Map, the Henon Map and the 12-D Lorenz96 flow, and its ability to outperform linear least squares in these systems is explored at various noise levels and sampling rates. As expected, it is more effective when the forecast error distributions are non-Gaussian. The new method selects parameter values by minimizing a proper, local skill score for continuous probability forecasts as a function of the parameter values. This new approach is easier to implement in practice than alternative nonlinear methods based on the geometry of attractors or the ability of the model to shadow the observations. New direct measures of inadequacy in the model, the "Implied Ignorance" and the information deficit are introduced.

Hailiang Du; Leonard A. Smith

2012-06-06

353

TNG main axes motion control progress report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The TNG is an Italian 3.6 m Alt-Az telescope installed in La Palma, Canary Island. The drive and control system of the main axes is working since October, 1997. It has been used for some months to support the installation of optics and other mechanical subsystems. Since June, 1998 the control system is integrate in the overall TNG informatic environment. In 1998 TNG has seen its first light. After the installation of the rotator drive system and of the Nasmyth 'A' focus instrumentation, the TNG telescope project is in advanced optimization phase. This paper reports the recent updates in TNG axes motion control and the last most significant results.

Mancini, Dario; Schipani, Pietro

1999-09-01

354

Phytoplankton in the Gulf of Maine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Phytoplankton, microscopic floating plant-like marine organisms (plankton means wanderer) are at the bottom of the marine food chain. They perform photosynthesis using water, carbon dioxide, and sunlight to produce glucose for their own use, as well as oxygen. Humans and all land animals and sea creatures are dependent on phytoplankton. The chlorophyll in phytoplankton can be observed by remote sensing instruments and is used by scientists as a measure of phytoplankton. In this lesson, students will use satellite data to explore and determine the correlation between sea surface temperature, sunlight, and the amount of chlorophyll (phytoplankton) in the Gulf of Maine at various times of year.

355

Gulf of Maine Marine Habitat Primer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This book provides an overview of the Gulf of Maine's coastal and offshore habitats for resource managers and other coastal decision-makers in government, Non-Government Organizations (NGOs), and the private sector. Illustrated with color photographs and drawings, the primer describes habitat characteristics, ecological functions, economic and recreational values, human impacts, and management considerations. It is intended as a tool for resource managers, planners, legislators, conservation commissioners, NGO staff members, and other people seeking a better understanding of marine habitats from Massachusetts to Nova Scotia. The book is available in six downloadable sections, or it can be ordered as a hard copy.

356

Kaon physics at Fermilab Main Injector  

SciTech Connect

For high precision and high sensitivity studies of the physics of kaon physics of kaon decays, the important characteristics of the new Main Injector at Fermilab are its high energy (relative to other factories'') and its high intensity. Experiments of this kind are becoming increasingly important in the study of CP violation and for searches for new interactions. An extracted beam of 120 GeV will produce a source of high energy kaons (10--50 GeV) that will not be surpassed in intensity by any facility new under consideration world-wide.

Hsiung, Y.

1992-03-01

357

Kaon physics at Fermilab Main Injector  

SciTech Connect

For high precision and high sensitivity studies of the physics of kaon physics of kaon decays, the important characteristics of the new Main Injector at Fermilab are its high energy (relative to other ``factories``) and its high intensity. Experiments of this kind are becoming increasingly important in the study of CP violation and for searches for new interactions. An extracted beam of 120 GeV will produce a source of high energy kaons (10--50 GeV) that will not be surpassed in intensity by any facility new under consideration world-wide.

Hsiung, Y.

1992-03-01

358

SSME failure detection. [Space Shuttle Main Engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During ground testing of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME), there have been twenty-six major incidents resulting in substantial hardware damage and loss. Historical characteristics, advances in detection technology, and advances in computing technology led to plans for study of an advanced real time SSME test stand failure detection system which would reduce damage and preserve evidence when a failure with major incident potential occurs. This detection system will speed recognition of dangerous engine operation, and quicken the shutdown decision. The scope of this study, SSME characteristics, SSME test history, the problem definition, and some technical issues will be addressed herein.

Cikanek, H. A., III

1985-01-01

359

Maine Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit and Department of Wildlife Ecology, University of Maine  

E-print Network

Maine Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit and Department of Wildlife Ecology, University Fisheries and Wildlife United States Geological Survey United States Fish and Wildlife Service Wildlife of this report in any way is withheld pending specific authorization from the Leader, Maine Cooperative Fish

Thomas, Andrew

360

Design of a prototype Advanced Main Combustion Chamber for the Space Shuttle Main Engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of a prototype advanced main combustion chamber is underway at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The Advanced Main Combustion Chamber (AMCC) project is being approached utilizing a 'concurrent engineering' concept where groups from materials, manufacturing, stress, quality, and design are involved from the initiation of the project. The AMCC design has been tailored to be compatible with the investment

J. D. Lackey; W. N. Myers

1992-01-01

361

Influence of operating parameters on the arsenic removal by nanofiltration.  

PubMed

Arsenic contamination of surface and groundwater is a worldwide problem in a large number of Countries (Bangladesh, Argentina, Italy, USA, New Zealand, etc.). In many contaminated areas a continuous investigation of the available arsenic removal technologies is essential to develop economical and effective methods for removing arsenic in order to meet the new Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) standard (10microg/l) recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). In this work the removal of pentavalent arsenic from synthetic water was studied on laboratory scale by using two commercial nanofiltration (NF) spiral-wound membrane modules (N30F by Microdyn-Nadir and NF90 by Dow Chemical). The influence of main operating parameters such as feed concentration, pH, pressure and temperature on the As rejection and permeate flux of both membranes, was investigated. An increase of pH and a decrease of operating temperature and As feed concentration led to higher As removal for both membranes, whereas higher transmembrane pressure (TMP) values slightly reduced the removal achievable with the N30F membrane. In both cases, the permeate flux increased with temperature and pressure and reached its maximum value at a pH of around 8. Among the parameters affecting the As rejection, feed concentration plays a key role for the production of a permeate stream respecting the limits imposed by WHO. PMID:19781734

Figoli, Alberto; Cassano, Alfredo; Criscuoli, Alessandra; Mozumder, M Salatul Islam; Uddin, M Tamez; Islam, M Akhtarul; Drioli, Enrico

2010-01-01

362

Variations on tremor parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes our analysis procedure for long-term tremor EMG recordings, as well as three examples of applications. The description of the method focuses on how characteristics of the tremor (e.g. frequency, intensity, agonist-antagonist interaction) can be defined and calculated based on surface EMG data. The resulting quantitative characteristics are called ``tremor parameters.'' We discuss sinusoidally modulated, band-limited white noise as a model for pathological tremor-EMG, and show how the basic parameters can be extracted from this class of signals. The method is then applied to (1) estimate tremor severity in clinical studies, (2) quantify agonist-antagonist interaction, and (3) investigate the variations of the tremor parameters using simple methods from time-series analysis.

Boose, A.; Jentgens, Ch.; Spieker, S.; Dichgans, J.

1995-03-01

363

Aircraft parameter estimation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The aircraft parameter estimation problem is used to illustrate the utility of parameter estimation, which applies to many engineering and scientific fields. Maximum likelihood estimation has been used to extract stability and control derivatives from flight data for many years. This paper presents some of the basic concepts of aircraft parameter estimation and briefly surveys the literature in the field. The maximum likelihood estimator is discussed, and the basic concepts of minimization and estimation are examined for a simple simulated aircraft example. The cost functions that are to be minimized during estimation are defined and discussed. Graphic representations of the cost functions are given to illustrate the minimization process. Finally, the basic concepts are generalized, and estimation from flight data is discussed. Some of the major conclusions for the simulated example are also developed for the analysis of flight data from the F-14, highly maneuverable aircraft technology (HiMAT), and space shuttle vehicles.

Iliff, Kenneth W.

1987-01-01

364

[Metabolism and main effects of vitamin D].  

PubMed

Vitamin D is not a vitamin stricto sensu as its main source does not come from diet. Vitamin D should rather be considered as a prohormone. To become fully active, vitamin D must be hydroxylated into 25(OH)D in the liver and then into 1,25(OH)2D (also called calcitriol) in the kidney, but also in many other tissues. The main classical effects of vitamin D concern bone and calcium/phosphorus metabolism. Many non-classical effects of vitamin D are suggested by the quasi-ubiquitous presence of the vitamin D receptor and by myriads of studies showing an association between vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency and an increased incidence or a poor prognostic of many diseases. The 25(OH)D serum concentration is the biological index that defines vitamin D status. There is currently no absolute consensus on the definition of vitamin D deficiency. Many experts consider that a 25(OH)D level less than 50 nmol/L corresponds to vitamin D deficiency whereas a concentration between 50 and 75 nmol/L corresponds to vitamin D insufficiency. These definitions are mostly based on the musculoskeletal effects of vitamin D. PMID:24051166

Souberbielle, Jean-Claude; Maruani, Gérard; Courbebaisse, Marie

2013-10-01

365

Analysis of the affect measurement conundrum in exercise psychology: IV. A conceptual case for the affect circumplex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and purpose: In previous articles in this 4-part series, we presented an analysis of some of the main problems surrounding the measurement of affect in exercise psychology. The purpose of the present paper is to integrate this experience into a proposed solution by presenting arguments in support of the circumplex model of affect.Methods: The circumplex model is considered a

Panteleimon Ekkekakis; Steven J. Petruzzello

2002-01-01

366

APS: Active Parameter Searching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

APS finds Frequentist confidence limits on high-dimensional parameter spaces by using Gaussian Process interpolation to identify regions of parameter space for which chisquared is less than or equal to some specified limit. The code is written in C++, is robust against multi-modal chisquared functions and converges comparably fast to Monte Carlo methods. Code is also provided to draw Bayesian credible limits using the outputs of APS, though this code does not converge as well. APS requires the linear algebra libraries LAPACK, BLAS, and ARPACK (ascl:1311.010) to run.

Daniel, Scott F.; Connolly, Andrew J.; Schneider, Jeff

2014-08-01

367

Affective Incoherence: When Affective Concepts and Embodied Reactions Clash  

PubMed Central

In five studies, we examined the effects on cognitive performance of coherence and incoherence between conceptual and experiential sources of affective information. The studies crossed the priming of happy and sad concepts with affective experiences. In different experiments, these included: approach or avoidance actions, happy or sad feelings, and happy or sad expressive behaviors. In all studies, coherence between affective concepts and affective experiences led to better recall of a story than affective incoherence. We suggested that the experience of such experiential affective cues serves as evidence of the appropriateness of affective concepts that come to mind. The results suggest that affective coherence has epistemic benefits, and that incoherence is costly, for cognitive performance. PMID:18361672

Centerbar, David B.; Clore, Gerald L.; Schnall, Simone; Garvin, Erika

2008-01-01

368

Affect sensitivity and affect regulation in dealing with positive and negative affect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interactions between two types of affect sensitivity and two types of affect regulation were tested: low sensitivity to positive affect and high sensitivity to negative affect were expected to become maladaptive when self-motivation and self-relaxation are low, respectively. Consistent with expectations, specific Sensitivity×Regulation interactions emerged: low sensitivity to positive affect (i.e., independent, schizoid-like personality) was only associated with reduced emotional

Nicola Baumann; Reiner Kaschel; Julius Kuhl

2007-01-01

369

ETS and tidal stressing: Fault weakening after main slip pulse  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Time-varying stresses from solid Earth tides and ocean loading influence slow slip (Hawthorne and Rubin, 2010) and, consequently, the frequency of occurrence and intensity of tremor during ETS episodes (Rubinstein et al., 2008). This relationship can illuminate changes in the mechanical response of the rupture surfaces(s) during slip in ETS. I compare the influence of tidal loading when and after the propagating ETS slip front (estimated by tremor density in time) ruptures the fault at a given spot. Using estimates of slip fronts that I derived from tremor locations, I divide ETS tremor into two groups: that occurring within a day of the start of the inferred slip front and that occurring over several days thereafter. The tremor catalog used contains 50K waveform cross-correlation locations of tremor in 7 large ETS in northern Cascadia between 2005 and 2012. I calculate normal, shear and volumetric stresses due to the Earth and ocean tides at numerous locations on the inferred rupture plane of the ETS following the method of Hawthorne and Rubin (2010). The Coulomb stress increment at each tremor time and location is compared with tremor occurrence for the two groups of tremor. Unreasonable results appear if the effective frictional coefficient mu > 0.2, and results are most 'reasonable' when mu is very near or equal to zero. Following passage of the main slip pulse, tremor generation is notably more sensitive to tidal stressing. One kPa of encouraging tidal Coulomb stress boosts the occurrence of tremor after the main slip pulse by about 50% above the average value, while the same amount of discouraging stress decreases the occurrence of such tremor by a similar factor. The greater the encouraging or discouraging stress, the greater the effect. In contrast, tremor in the main slip pulse is much less affected by positive or negative tidal stresses. I interpret the greater sensitivity to tidal stressing of the tremor after the main slip pulse as a measure of the weakening of the fault plane following its initial rupture. Considering up- and down-dip sensitivities to tidal stress, tremor generation on the up-dip region is affected roughly 50% more by both positive and negative tidal stresses than tremor down-dip. Furthermore, for the down-dip tremor, there is less contrast in sensitivity to stress between the tremor at the main slip front and the later tremor, i.e., the fault downdip is both less sensitive to tidal stress and weakens less due to the rupture. These results are consistent with the timing and geometry of Rapid Tremor Reversals, which also indicate weakening of the fault after the main slip front has passed through a region (Houston et al., 2011). RTRs occur on updip parts of the fault, after the main slip front, and at times of encouraging tidal stress (Thomas et al., 2013).

Houston, H.

2013-12-01

370

Parameters Describing Earth Observing Remote Sensing Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Earth science community needs to generate consistent and standard definitions for spatial, spectral, radiometric, and geometric properties describing passive electro-optical Earth observing sensors and their products. The parameters used to describe sensors and to describe their products are often confused. In some cases, parameters for a sensor and for its products are identical; in other cases, these parameters vary widely. Sensor parameters are bound by the fundamental performance of a system, while product parameters describe what is available to the end user. Products are often resampled, edge sharpened, pan-sharpened, or compressed, and can differ drastically from the intrinsic data acquired by the sensor. Because detailed sensor performance information may not be readily available to an international science community, standardization of product parameters is of primary performance. Spatial product parameters described include Modulation Transfer Function (MTF), point spread function, line spread function, edge response, stray light, edge sharpening, aliasing, ringing, and compression effects. Spectral product parameters discussed include full width half maximum, ripple, slope edge, and out-of-band rejection. Radiometric product properties discussed include relative and absolute radiometry, noise equivalent spectral radiance, noise equivalent temperature diffenence, and signal-to-noise ratio. Geometric product properties discussed include geopositional accuracy expressed as CE90, LE90, and root mean square error. Correlated properties discussed include such parameters as band-to-band registration, which is both a spectral and a spatial property. In addition, the proliferation of staring and pushbroom sensor architectures requires new parameters to describe artifacts that are different from traditional cross-track system artifacts. A better understanding of how various system parameters affect product performance is also needed to better ascertain the utility of existing datasets and products as well as to specify the performance of new sensors and products. Examples of simulations performed for the Landsat Data Continuity Mission illustrate how various parameters affect system and product performance. Specific examples include the effects of ground sample distance, MTF, and band-to-band registration on various products.

Zanoni, Vicki; Ryan, Robert E.; Pagnutti, Mary; Davis, Bruce; Markham, Brian; Storey, Jim

2003-01-01

371

[Climatologic parameters and myocardial infarction].  

PubMed

535 patients admitted to hospital with myocardium infarct which was confirmed in a determined period and within a 80 kilometers radius from a city of the East of France were compared to the meteorological parameters of the day when the infarct occurred and of the day preceding its occurrence. On one hand, climatic parameters were selected: atmospheric pressure, temperature of the air under shelter, relative humidity, wind speed and wind direction, hydrometeors and electrometeors; on the other hand, parameters of solar and planetary activity: daily flare index, AA index, Ap index or daily planetary index, phases of the moon. The analytic study concerning all acute vascular accidents (infarcts and cerebral accidents all together) enabled to us to notice a higher frequency of vascular accidents in various meteorological circumstances: atmospheric pressure lower than 990 mb, temperature lower than 12 degrees, wind of sector North to South-South West, hoar-frost with fog, rain, snow, first quarter of the moon, daily flare index lower than 530, magnetic activity lower than 6. A factorial analysis of correspondence enabled to us to understand the problem better and to determine "an infarct area" in which main meteorological factors appeared: low or decreasing atmospheric pressure, relative or increasing humidity, clear or increasing solar activity, steady magnetic activity; other factors could play an apparently less important role: low temperature, snow, decrease of wind speed, full moon, wind of sector East to North-East, South-South West. Consequently it appeared in that study that the occurrence of myocardium infarct corresponded to a climatic tendency corresponding to cold, bad or deteriorating weather. PMID:6638893

Larcan, A; Gilgenkrantz, J M; Stoltz, J F; Lambert, H; Laprevote-Heully, M C; Evrard, D; Kempf, J B; Lambert, J

1983-01-01

372

The Parameters of Postmodernism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hypothesizing that the tendency to define postmodern culture negatively derives from overliteral and undercritical responses to European theorists, this book of essays identifies the wide parameters of postmodernism. The book demonstrates that the literary and artistic temper of the postmodern condition in Europe and America cannot adequately be…

Zurbrugg, Nicholas

373

Pavement Thickness Design Parameter  

E-print Network

Pavement Thickness Design Parameter Impacts 2012 Municipal Streets Seminar November 14, 2012 Paul D Thickness Design · Design Traffic ­ Average daily traffic volume ­ Percent trucks on the street · Usually 2RoadXpress (Asphalt Institute) ­ American Concrete Paving Association · StreetPave ­ AASHTO 1993 Pavement Design Guide

374

Maine Department of Conservation: Wetlands Activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This four-week unit contains activities in which students investigate the natural history of a wetland, identify its boundaries, and study how it functions in the environment. They will investigate the formation of wetlands in Maine; prepare a series of map overlays researching wetland conditions for a site they have chosen in the community; learn how to recognize a wetland by hydrology, vegetation, and soil type; inventory the functions of the wetland site; and write an evaluation for it. To conclude the unit, the students will hold a mock town meeting in which they discuss the views of the various interested parties in preserving or destroying the wetland and debate the merits of the proposed changes to federal wetlands regulations.

2005-10-06

375

Space Station Freedom main truss thermal analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The main truss structure of the Permanently Manned Capability configuration of the Space Station Freedom is analyzed in order to evaluate orbital heating loads and determine the temperature distributions and temperature gradients in the structure. The results are to be utilized in a thermal/structure analysis in the determination of thermal stresses and deflections in the truss members caused by solar heating loads and by shadowing of the truss members by other segments of the Space Station as it moves around the orbit. A SINDA thermal finite different model and a TRASYS radiation interchange model of the truss were generated automatically from a NASTRAN finite element structural model. The analysis yielded transient temperature distribution in the truss structure around the orbit, indicating large temperature gradients in the structure.

Warren, Andrew H.; Arelt, Joseph E.

1992-01-01

376

Main geothermal features of northwest African countries  

SciTech Connect

The Maghrebian zone of North-West Africa is one of the poorest regions in water resources in all of Africa. Given the limited rainfall, underground water constitutes an important resource in this region and its study may help to assess the geothermal potential in this area. Research is based on geothermal signatures in available inventory data (thermal springs, hydro-geologic and petroleum wells). Underground temperature has been measured in petroleum exploration wells and can be estimated by chemical geothermometers. Heat flow density ranges from 60 to 120 mWm{sup -2} and geothermal gradient varies from 25 to 52{degrees}C/km. These variations as well as the thermal springs location seem to be related to the main tectonic features.

Mimi, A.L.; Dhia, H.B.; Bouri, S.

1997-12-31

377

[The hand: embryology and main malformative mechanisms].  

PubMed

Upper limb bud appears in the cervical region of the embryo during the fifth week of development. It is made of epithelia and underlying mesenchyme. Diffusible growth factors, expressed by the apical ectodermal ridge, direct the proximal-distal growth. Other factors are expressed by zone of polarizing activity and ectoderm. They induce together anterior-posterior growth and dorsal-ventral polarity of the limb bud. The development of axial skeleton pattern is controlled by transcription factors from the HOX family, which are expressed in a stripe along the proximal and distal edges of the limb bud. Embryologic mechanisms of the main hand malformations are described, as well as their known genetic or mechanical aetiologies. PMID:18838286

Perrin, J; Geoffroy-Siraudin, C; Metzler-Guillemain, C

2008-12-01

378

Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) Operational Capability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Through the years of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) program the engine has evolved and operational capabilities have been demonstrated beyond the original Shuttle requirements. In an effort to enhance flight safety and demonstrate safety features and margins, engines have been analyzed and tested at many different operating points. Various studies through the years evaluating the SSME for different applications both as a boost stage and upper stage have also added insight into the overall operational characteristics of the engine and have further defined safety margins for the Shuttle application. This paper will summarize the operational characteristics of the SSME from the original design requirements to the expanded capabilities demonstrated through analysis, lab testing and especially "off-nominal" engine testing leading to an increased understanding of the engine operational characteristics and safety margins. Basic engine characteristics such as thrust, mixture ratio, propellant inlet conditions, system redundancy, etc. will be examined.

Benefield, Philip; Bradley, Doug

2010-01-01

379

Space shuttle main engine digital controller  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The controller provides responsive control of engine thrust and mixture ratio through the digital computer in the controller, updating the instructions to the engine control elements 50 times per second (every 20 milliseconds). Additionally, precise engine performance is achieved through closed loop control, utilizing 16 bit computation, 10 bit input/output resolution, and self calibrating analog-to-digital conversion. Engine reliability is enhanced by a dual redundant control system that allows normal operation after the first failure and a fail-safe shutdown after a second failure. The digital computer is programmable, allowing modification of engine control equations and constants by change of the stored program (software). The controller is packaged in a sealed, pressurized chassis with cooling provided by convection heat transfer through pin fins as part of the main chassis. The electronics are distributed on functional modules having special provisions for thermal and vibrational protection.

Mitchell, W. T.

1980-01-01

380

The shuttle main engine: A first look  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Anyone entering the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) team attends a two week course to become familiar with the design and workings of the engine. This course provides intensive coverage of the individual hardware items and their functions. Some individuals, particularly those involved with software maintenance and development, have felt overwhelmed by this volume of material and their lack of a logical framework in which to place it. To provide this logical framework, it was decided that a brief self-taught introduction to the overall operation of the SSME should be designed. To aid the people or new team members with an interest in the software, this new course should also explain the structure and functioning of the controller and its software. This paper presents a description of this presentation.

Schreur, Barbara

1996-01-01

381

Characteristics of Space Shuttle Main Engine failures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During development and operation of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME), 27 ground test failures of sufficient severity to be termed 'major incident' have occurred. Resourecs including NASA Failure Investigation Board reports, contractor failure reports, originally recorded data, along with engineering notes, data bases, and presentations connected with the failures were available for compilation into the engine failure review presented in this paper. Most SSME failures were a result of design deficiencies stemming from inadequate definition of dynamic loads. High cycle fatigue was the most frequent mechanism leading to failure. Eighteen of the 27 failures occurred during constant power level operation. Formal board reports were not available for all failures. Therefore, the failure history presented in this paper is not complete or of uniform quality.

Cikanek, Harry A., III

1987-01-01

382

Apollo 15 main-parachute failure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the investigation of the failure of one of the three main parachutes of the Apollo 15 spacecraft, which collapsed at approximately 1825 meters after operating properly from deployment at 3050 meters, three conditions considered to be possible causes of the failure were produced. The suspect conditions were the proximity of the forward heat shield that passed the spacecraft at approximately 1825 meters, the dumping of the reaction control system hypergolic propellants at approximately 1825 meters, and the failing of a riser link found on a recovered parachute. (The failed parachute was not recovered). The remaining two parachutes functioned as planned and averted a catastrophic failure. The conclusions concerning the cause of the failure are discussed.

Arabian, D. D.; Mechelay, J. E.

1972-01-01

383

Main challenges for ITER optical diagnostics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The review is made of the problems of ITER optical diagnostics. Most of these problems will be related to the intensive neutron radiation from hot plasma. At a high level of radiation loads the most types of materials gradually change their properties. This effect is most critical for optical diagnostics because of degradation of optical glasses and mirrors. The degradation of mirrors, that collect the light from plasma, basically will be induced by impurity deposition and (or) sputtering by charge exchange atoms. Main attention is paid to the search of glasses for vacuum windows and achromatic lens which are stable under ITER irradiation conditions. The last results of irradiation tests in nuclear reactor of candidate silica glasses KU-1, KS-4V and TF 200 are presented. An additional problem is discussed that deals with the stray light produced by multiple reflections from the first wall of the intense light emitted in the divertor plasma.

Vukolov, K. Yu.; Orlovskiy, I. I.; Alekseev, A. G.; Borisov, A. A.; Andreenko, E. N.; Kukushkin, A. B.; Lisitsa, V. S.; Neverov, V. S.

2014-08-01

384

[Accidents affecting potato harvesters].  

PubMed

During industrialization in agriculture, many farming machines have been introduced. It is well-known that farming is a dangerous workplace and that farm machinery cause many serious accidents every year. Four cases of accidents with potato harvesters are discussed. In three of four cases the farmers were injured while cleaning the machine without stopping it, which probably was the main cause of the accidents. Farmers are in general not careful enough when using farm machinery. Every year, farmers in Denmark are severely invalided in accidents with potato harvesters. A strategy to lower the accidents is proposed: 1. Information of farmers, farmer schools, machine constructors and importers about mechanisms of injury. 2. A better education of farmers in using potato harvesters (and other farming machines). 3. Better fencing of the potato harvesters. 4. If possibly constructional changes in the potato harvesters so things will not get stuck, or so that the machine will stop if things stuck. 5. Installation of switches on potato harvesters, which can be reached from all positions, stopping the machines immediately, or a remote switch control carried by the farmer. PMID:8212405

Hansen, J U

1993-09-27

385

Multifractal fits to the observed main belt asteroid distribution  

E-print Network

Dohnanyi's (1969) theory predicts that a collisional system such as the asteroidal population of the main belt should rapidly relax to a power-law stationary size distribution of the kind $N(m)\\propto m^{-\\alpha}$, with $\\alpha$ very close to 11/6, provided all the collisional response parameters are independent on size. The actual asteroid belt distribution at observable sizes, instead, does not exhibit such a simple fractal size distribution. We investigate in this work the possibility that the corresponding cumulative distribution may be instead fairly fitted by multifractal distributions. This multifractal behavior, in contrast with the Dohnany fractal distribution, is related to the release of his hypothesis of self-similarity.

Adriano Campo Bagatin; Vicent J. Martinez; Silvestre Paredes

2002-03-21

386

Skipped Stage Modeling and Testing of the CPAS Main Parachutes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Capsule Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) has undergone the transition from modeling a skipped stage event using a simulation that treats a cluster of parachutes as a single composite canopy to the capability of simulating each parachute individually. This capability along with data obtained from skipped stage flight tests has been crucial in modeling the behavior of a skipping canopy as well as the crowding effect on non-skipping ("lagging") neighbors. For the finite mass inflation of CPAS Main parachutes, the cluster is assumed to inflate nominally through the nominal fill time, at which point the skipping parachute continues inflating. This sub-phase modeling method was used to reconstruct three flight tests involving skipped stages. Best fit inflation parameters were determined for both the skipping and lagging canopies.

Varela, Jose G.; Ray, Eric S.

2013-01-01

387

The Gaia Parameter Database  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The parallel development of many aspects of a complex mission like Gaia, which includes numerous participants in ESA, industrial companies, and a large and active scientific collaboration throughout Europe, makes keeping track of the many design changes, instrument and operational complexities, and numerical values for the data analysis a very challenging problem. A comprehensive, easily-accessible, up-to-date, and definitive compilation of a large range of numerical quantities is required, and the Gaia parameter database has been established to satisfy these needs. The database is a centralised repository containing, besides mathematical, physical, and astronomical constants, many satellite and subsystem design parameters. At the end of 2004, more than 1600 parameters had been included. Version control has been implemented, providing, next to a `live' version with the most recent parameters, well-defined reference versions of the full database contents. The database can be queried or browsed using a regular Web browser (http://www.rssd.esa.int/Gaia/paramdb). Query results are formated by default in HTML. Data can also be retrieved as Fortran-77, Fortran-90, Java, ANSIC, C++, or XML structures for direct inclusion into software codes in these languages. The idea is that all collaborating scientists can use the database parameters and values, once retrieved, directly linked to computational routines. An off-line access mode is also available, enabling users to automatically download the contents of the database. The database will be maintained actively, and significant extensions of the contents are planned. Consistent use in the future of the database by the Gaia community at large, including all industrial teams, will ensure correct numerical values throughout the complex software systems being built up as details of the Gaia design develop. The database is already being used for the telemetry simulation chain in ESTEC, and in the data simulations for GDAAS2.

de Bruijne, J. H. J.; Lammers, U.; Perryman, M. A. C.

2005-01-01

388

Analysis of Earthquake Clustering in Parameter Space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The seismic event is described by a number of parameters whose values determine its location in a multidimensional parameter space. Studies of earthquake clustering involve an analysis of distances between the events. When such studies are to be done in the space constructed by any selected set of parameters they meet the essential problem of different scales of the parameters. To solve this problem with the measure of distance we make use of the property of probability distributions of random variables that the cumulative distribution function transforms the random variable of any distribution into the random variable of uniform distribution in [0,1] interval. The cumulative distribution functions of all parameters under study are estimated from parameter values of a set of earthquake by means of the non-parametric, kernel estimator. This transformation of values of parameters of events into values of their respective cumulative distributions equalizes all dimensions is such a way that the distance between points is Euclidean. The data for reconstructing the cumulative distributions can be any relevant for the investigated problem, i.e. a long event series that includes subseries under study, a series preceding the studied subseries, a background seismicity data etc. We apply this approach to analyze seismicity preceding Mw6.5 Kozani-Grevena (Greece) earthquake from 13/05/1995. The considered parameterizations are the interevent time, interevent distance, epicentral distance to the main shock and magnitude. The analysis in moving time windows reveals appearance of anomalous patterns of smaller events in the time - distance subspaces. Some four years before the main shock a simultaneous shortening of the interevent time and interevent distance becomes distinct. The anomalous patterns are less visible when magnitude complements the parameter space. This work was prepared within the framework of the research project No. PBS-Grecja/10/2007, financed by the Ministry of Education and Science of Poland during the period 2007 to 2009.

Lasocki, S.; Karakostas, V. G.

2008-12-01

389

Modeling the impact of drought on canopy carbon and water fluxes through parameter optimization using an ensemble Kalman filter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil and atmospheric water deficits have significant influences on CO2 and energy exchanges between the atmosphere and terrestrial ecosystems. Model parameterization significantly affects the ability of a model to simulate carbon, water, and energy fluxes. In this study, an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) and observations of gross primary productivity (GPP) and latent heat (LE) fluxes were used to optimize model parameters significantly affecting the calculation of these fluxes for a subtropical coniferous plantation in southeastern China. The optimized parameters include the maximum carboxylation rate (Vcmax), the Ball-Berry coefficient (m) and the coefficient determining the sensitivity of stomatal conductance to atmospheric water vapor deficit D0). Optimized Vcmax and m showed larger seasonal and interannual variations than D0. Seasonal variations of Vcmax and m are more pronounced than the interannual variations. Vcmax and m are associated with soil water content (SWC). During dry periods, SWC at the 20 cm depth can explain 61% and 64% of variations of Vcmax and m, respectively. EnKF parameter optimization improves the simulations of GPP, LE and sensible heat (SH), mainly during dry periods. After parameter optimization using EnKF, the variations of GPP, LE and SH explained by the model increased by 1% to 4% at half-hourly steps and by 3% to 5% at daily time steps. Efforts are needed to develop algorithms that can properly describe the variations of these parameters under different environmental conditions.

Ju, W.; Wang, S.; Yu, G.; Zhou, Y.; Wang, H.

2009-08-01

390

Does methamphetamine affect bone metabolism?  

PubMed

There is a close relationship between the central nervous system activity and bone metabolism. Therefore, methamphetamine (METH), which stimulates the central nervous system, is expected to affect bone turnover. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of METH in bone metabolism. Mice were divided into 3 groups, the control group receiving saline injections, and the 5 and 10mg/kg METH groups (n=6 in each group). All groups received an injection of saline or METH every other day for 8 weeks. Bone mineral density (BMD) was assessed by X-ray computed tomography. We examined biochemical markers and histomorphometric changes in the second cancellous bone of the left femoral distal end. The animals that were administered 5mg/kg METH showed an increased locomotor activity, whereas those receiving 10mg/kg displayed an abnormal and stereotyped behavior. Serum calcium and phosphorus concentrations were normal compared to the controls, whereas the serum protein concentration was lower in the METH groups. BMD was unchanged in all groups. Bone formation markers such as alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin significantly increased in the 5mg/kg METH group, but not in the 10mg/kg METH group. In contrast, bone resorption markers such as C-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b did not change in any of the METH groups. Histomorphometric analyses were consistent with the biochemical markers data. A significant increase in osteoblasts, especially in type III osteoblasts, was observed in the 5mg/kg METH group, whereas other parameters of bone resorption and mineralization remained unchanged. These results indicate that bone remodeling in this group was unbalanced. In contrast, in the 10mg/kg METH group, some parameters of bone formation were significantly or slightly decreased, suggesting a low turnover metabolism. Taken together, our results suggest that METH had distinct dose-dependent effects on bone turnover and that METH might induce adverse effects, leading to osteoporosis. PMID:24582730

Tomita, Masafumi; Katsuyama, Hironobu; Watanabe, Yoko; Okuyama, Toshiko; Fushimi, Shigeko; Ishikawa, Takaki; Nata, Masayuki; Miyamoto, Osamu

2014-05-01

391

The Nature of Transverse Beam Instabilities at Injection in the Fermilab Main Ring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transverse beam instabilities have been observed in the Fermilab Main Ring since 1972. It was well controlled by two active feedback systems until the last fix target run in 1991. The current upgrade of accelerator facilities, where the replacement of the Main Ring by the Main Injector will allow acceleration of higher proton intensities, makes the importance of this issue surface again. Experimental studies were conducted to understand the nature and the cause of these transverse beam instabilities. The interplay between accelerator parameters and the growth rate of transverse beam oscillations is investigated. Some previously puzzling behavior of the Main Ring is now understood because of the knowledge gained from these studies. Experimental techniques were implemented to measure some important parameters of the Main Ring, such as the vertical impedance, bunch form factor, and the wake function. Empirical theory is devised to understand the coupled bunch instability with many distributed gaps, and a satisfactory agreement is obtained between the analysis and the measured data. The cause of the transverse beam instabilities is identified to be the resistive wall impedance. Anomalous behavior in the frequency dependence of the impedance bellow the MHz range suggests that impedance sources other than the resistive wall also exist in the Main Ring. The performance of two active feedback systems is found to be inadequate to meet the goal of the Main Injector accelerator upgrade. Suggestions for hardware improvements and the choice of accelerator parameters are given.

Chou, Ping Jung

392

Identifying Occupationally Specific Affective Behaviors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data from two groups of cosmetology instructors (n=15) and two groups of machinist instructors (n=17) validated the Occupational Affective Behavior Analysis instrument as capable of identifying affective behaviors viewed as important to success in a given occupation. (SK)

Pucel, David J.

1993-01-01

393

Affective Monitoring: A Generic Mechanism for Affect Elicitation  

PubMed Central

In this paper we sketch a new framework for affect elicitation, which is based on previous evolutionary and connectionist modeling and experimental work from our group. Affective monitoring is considered a local match–mismatch process within a module of the neural network. Negative affect is raised instantly by mismatches, incongruency, disfluency, novelty, incoherence, and dissonance, whereas positive affect follows from matches, congruency, fluency, familiarity, coherence, and resonance, at least when an initial mismatch can be solved quickly. Affective monitoring is considered an evolutionary-early conflict and change detection process operating at the same level as, for instance, attentional selection. It runs in parallel and imparts affective flavor to emotional behavior systems, which involve evolutionary-prepared stimuli and action tendencies related to for instance defensive, exploratory, attachment, or appetitive behavior. Positive affect is represented in the networks by high-frequency oscillations, presumably in the gamma band. Negative affect corresponds to more incoherent lower-frequency oscillations, presumably in the theta band. For affect to become conscious, large-scale synchronization of the oscillations over the network and the construction of emotional experiences are required. These constructions involve perceptions of bodily states and action tendencies, but also appraisals as well as efforts to regulate the emotion. Importantly, affective monitoring accompanies every kind of information processing, but conscious emotions, which result from the later integration of affect in a cognitive context, are much rarer events. PMID:22403557

Phaf, R. Hans; Rotteveel, Mark

2012-01-01

394

[Human ecology. Which is the main challenge to Russia?].  

PubMed

The main direction in the study of human ecology in Russia today is to provide evidence for how to maintain environmental balance in the biosphere of the Earth, though the above factor also exerts a constantly growing negative impact on the health and life quality of the population. During the years of the reforms in the country, all the principal medical and demographic indices have undergone negative changes. To overcome the medicodemographic crisis should be now a priority problem to be solved in human ecology in Russia. The crisis was mainly caused by the "shock" strategy of the reforms. To eliminate the negative medicodemographic consequences, a strong working motivation should be firstly created for the population, that is to create such conditions that allow people to earn well-deserved living by honest work. All this requires the development of small business, democratization of private property forms of private property, and changes in the Government's policy concerning work payment. Medical scientists should clarify how biological mechanisms, that is negative social, economic and psychological factors, cause a drastic increase in mortality, particularly in the able-bodied population. This process is likely to involve three regulation levels; the central nervous system (dynamic stereotype break, as called by I. P. Pavlov), the neuroendocrine system (great stress, as described by G. Selye), molecular-cellular free radical processes (phenoptosis, as outlined by V. P. Skulachev). Five factors that most negatively affect human health and demographic processes were identified. PMID:12380277

Velichkovski?, B T

2002-01-01

395

Individual Difference Variables, Affective Differentiation, and the Structures of Affect  

PubMed Central

Methodological arguments are usually invoked to explain variations in the structure of affect. Using self-rated affect from Italian samples (N = 600), we show that individual difference variables related to affective differentiation can moderate the observed structure. Indices of circumplexity (Browne, 1992) and congruence coefficients to the hypothesized target were used to quantify the observed structures. Results did not support the circumplex model as a universal structure. A circular structure with axes of activation and valence was approximated only among more affectively differentiated groups: students and respondents with high scores on Openness to Feelings and measures of negative emotionality. A different structure, with unipolar Positive Affect and Negative Affect factors, was observed among adults and respondents with low Openness to Feelings and negative emotionality. The observed structure of affect will depend in part on the nature of the sample studied. PMID:12932207

Terracciano, Antonio; McCrae, Robert R.; Hagemann, Dirk; Costa, Paul T.

2008-01-01

396

The Biological Affects: A Typology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This typology of biological affects is based on developmental–interactionist theory of motivation, emotion, and cognition. Affects—subjectively experienced feelings and desires—involve interoceptive perceptual systems based on primordial molecules that characterize neurochemicals. Biological affects involve primary motivational–emotional systems (primes) associated with hierarchically organized neurochemical systems in the brain, including subcortical (reptilian) and paleocortical (limbic) brain structures. Affects fulfill individualistic (selfish) functions (arousal,

Ross Buck

1999-01-01

397

Remote sensing of environmental factors affecting health  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this paper is to present the results of research to identify, by satellite imagery, parameters of the environment affecting health on Earth. Thus, we suggest expanding the application of space technology to preventive medicine, as a new field in the peaceful uses of outer space. The scope of the study includes all parts of the environment, natural and man-made, and all kinds of protection of life: human, animal and vegetation health. The general objective is to consider and classify those factors, detectable from space, that affect or are relevant to health and may be found in the air, water, sea, soil, land, vegetation, as well as those linked to climate, industry, energy production, development works, irrigation systems, and human settlements. The special objective is the classification of environmental factors detectable from space, that are linked to communicable or chronic endemic diseases or health problems. The method of identifying the factors affecting health was the parallel study of environmental epidemiological and biological parameters. The role of environmental factors common to both human and animal populations is discussed. Conclusive findings are formulated and possible applications, both scientific and practical, in other sectors are also discussed.

Jovanovic, Petar

398

Affect and Creativity at Work  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explored how affect relates to creativity at work. Using both quantitative and qualitative longitudinal data from the daily diaries of 222 employees in seven companies, we examined the nature, form, and temporal dynamics of the affect-creativity relationship. The results indicate that positive affect relates positively to creativity in organizations and that the relationship is a simple linear one.

Teresa M. Amabile; Sigal G. Barsade; Jennifer S. Mueller; Barry M. Staw

2005-01-01

399

Schizophrenia - a parameters' game?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Schizophrenia is a severe, currently incurable, relatively common mental\\u000acondition. Its symptoms are complex and widespread. It structurally and\\u000afunctionally affects cortical and subcortical regions involved in cognitive,\\u000aemotional and motivational aspects of behavior. Its cause is unknown, its\\u000adiagnosis is based on statistical behavior and its treatment is elusive.\\u000a Our paradigm addresses the complexity of schizophrenic symptoms. Building\\u000aupon

Anca R. Radulescu

2007-01-01

400

New schools design: Acoustics as main target  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of poor intelligibility and high background noise levels on the cognitive development of school children and on the dissatisfaction of teachers has been largely investigated. National standards have been implemented and attempts to harmonize these standards in international guidelines are ongoing. All these activities have led to the awareness that design of new schools must be centered on the achievement of a good acoustic environment. At this point a strong research effort to study and implement best solutions must be conducted, in collaboration, by architects, acousticians, pedagogues, psychologists, builders and acoustic materials producers. Recently an international competition for the planning of new primary schools in Rome, Italy has been announced. The aim of the competition is to study new architectural and running features of primary schools to obtain, among other parameters such as lighting, low cost energy solutions and air quality, the control of reverberation time, sound insulation and mechanical equipments noise. In these school buildings, as innovative requirement, children must be also able to elaborate interpretative hypothesis of physical phenomena such as sound emission and perception and be aware of their influence on these phenomena. Different possible solutions are presented.

Maffei, Luigi; Lembo, Paola

2005-04-01

401

Geoengineering design parameters workshop  

SciTech Connect

A one-day workshop on the subject of the geotechnical design parameters, in situ stress and rock mass strength, for a nuclear waste repository in basalt was held in Rapid City, South Dakota, on June 25, 1989. A panel comprised of five widely recognized experts in the field of rock mechanics, met to discuss the state of stress at the Hanford Site and the strength of a basalt rock mass. This report summarizes the discussions that took place and presents a set of final position statements developed collaboratively by the panel and the workshop moderator. The report concludes with a set of specific recommendations for future actions considered necessary to adequately define the in situ stress and the rock mass strength at the Hanford Site and to document the position of the Basalt Waste Isolation Project in respect to these two critical design parameters.

St. John, C.M. (Agapito (J.F.T.) and Associates, Grand Junction, CO (USA)); Kim, Kunsoo (Rockwell International Corp., Richland, WA (USA). Rockwell Hanford Operations)

1985-12-12

402

Practice parameter: Screening and diagnosis of autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Article abstract—Autism is a common disorder of childhood, affecting 1 in 500 children. Yet, it often remains unrecognized and,undiagnosed,until or after late preschool,age because,appropriate,tools for routine developmental screening and screening specifically for autism have not been available. Early identification of children with autism and intensive, early intervention,during,the toddler and,preschool,years improves,outcome,for most young children with autism. This practice parameter,reviews,the available empirical

P. a. Filipek; P. j. Accardo; S. Ashwal; G. t. Baranek; Otrl E. h. Cook; G. Dawson; B. Gordon; J. s. Gravel; C. p. Johnson; R. j. Kallen; S. e. Levy; N. j. Minshew; S. Ozonoff; B. m. Prizant; Ccc-slp I. Rapin; S. j. Rogers; W. l. Stone; S. w. Teplin; R. f. Tuchman; F. r. Volkmar

403

Supersolar metallicity in G0-G3 main-sequence stars with V < 15  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The basic stellar atmospheric parameters (effective temperature, surface gravity and global metallicity) were determined simultaneously for a sample of 233 stars, limited in magnitude (V < 15), with spectral types between G0 and G3 and luminosity class V (main sequence). The analysis was based on spectroscopic observations collected at the Observatorio Astrofísico Guillermo Haro and using a set of Lick-like indices defined in the spectral range 3800-4800 Å. An extensive set of indices computed in a grid of theoretical spectra was used as a comparison tool in order to determine the photospheric parameters. The method was validated by matching the results from spectra of the asteroids Vesta and Ceres with the Sun parameters. The main results were as follows: (i) the photospheric parameters were determined for the first time for 213 objects in our sample and (ii) a sample of 20 new super-metal-rich star candidates was found.

López-Valdivia, R.; Bertone, E.; Chávez, M.; Tapia-Schiavon, C.; Hernández-Águila, J. B.; Valdés, J. R.; Chavushyan, V.

2014-11-01

404

Primary Productivity in Meduxnekeag River, Maine, 2005  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During August and September 2005, dissolved oxygen, temperature, pH, specific conductance, streamflow, and light intensity (LI) were determined continuously at six sites defining five reaches on Meduxnekeag River above and below Houlton, Maine. These data were collected as input for a dual-station whole-stream metabolism model to evaluate primary productivity in the river above and below Houlton. The river receives nutrients and organic matter from tributaries and the Houlton wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Model output estimated gross and net primary productivity for each reach. Gross primary productivity (GPP) varied in each reach but was similar and positive among the reaches. GPP was correlated to LI in the four reaches above the WWTP but not in the reach below. Net primary productivity (NPP) decreased in each successive downstream reach and was negative in the lowest two reaches. NPP was weakly related to LI in the upper two reaches and either not correlated or negatively correlated in the lower three reaches. Relations among GPP, NPP, and LI indicate that the system is heterotrophic in the downstream reaches. The almost linear decrease in NPP (the increase in metabolism and respiration) indicates a cumulative effect of inputs of nutrients and organic matter from tributaries that drain agricultural land, the town of Houlton, and the discharges from the WWTP.

Goldstein, Robert M.; Schalk, Charles W.; Kempf, Joshua P.

2009-01-01

405

MEGARA main optics opto-mechanics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MEGARA is the future integral-field and multi-object spectrograph for the GTC 10.4m telescope located in the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos in La Palma. INAOE is a member of the MEGARA Consortium and it is in charge of the Optics Manufacturing work package. In addition to the manufacturing of 73 elements, the work package includes the opto-mechanics i.e. the opto-mechanical design, manufacture, tests and integration of the complete assembly of the main optics composed by the collimator and camera subsystems. MEGARA passed the Optics Detailed Design Review in May 2013 and will have the Detailed Design Review of the complete instrument early 2014. Here we describe the detailed design of the collimator and camera barrels. We also present the finite elements models developed to simulate the behavior of the barrel, sub-cells and other mechanical elements. These models verify that the expected stress fields and the gravitational displacements on the lenses are compatible with the optical quality tolerances. The design is finished and ready for fabrication.

Castillo-Domínguez, E.; Avilés, J. L.; Carrasco, E.; Maldonado, M.; Gil de Paz, Armando; Gallego, J.; Cedazo, R.; Iglesias, J.

2014-08-01

406

Military display performance parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The military display market is analyzed in terms of four of its segments: avionics, vetronics, dismounted soldier, and command and control. Requirements are summarized for a number of technology-driving parameters, to include luminance, night vision imaging system compatibility, gray levels, resolution, dimming range, viewing angle, video capability, altitude, temperature, shock and vibration, etc., for direct-view and virtual-view displays in cockpits and crew stations. Technical specifications are discussed for selected programs.

Desjardins, Daniel D.; Meyer, Frederick

2012-06-01

407

On Estimating Monotone Parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suppose for each $i = 1,2, \\\\cdots, k$ the random variable $X_i$ has density function $f(x; \\\\theta_i)$ where each of the parameters $\\\\theta_1, \\\\theta_2, \\\\cdots, \\\\theta_k$ is known to belong to some connected set $\\\\Theta$ of real numbers. Independent random samples are taken from the distributions of $X_1, X_2, \\\\cdots, X_k$ and we wish to find estimates $\\\\hat{\\\\theta}_1, \\\\hat{\\\\theta}_2, \\\\cdots,

Tim Robertson; Paul Waltman

1968-01-01

408

Prediction of psychoacoustic parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Noise is defined as an audible sound which either disturbs the silence, or an intentional sound that listening to leads to annoyance. Thus, it is clearly defined that the assignment of noise cannot be reduced to simple determining objective parameters like the A-weighted SPL. The question whether a sound is judged as noise can only be answered after the transformation from the sound event into an hearing event has been accomplished. The evaluation of noise depends on the physical characteristics of the sound event, on the psychoacoustical features of the human ear as well as on the psychological aspects of men. The subjectively felt noise quality depends not only on the A-weighted sound-pressure level, but also on other psychoacoustical parameters such as loudness, roughness, sharpness, etc. The known methods for the prediction of the spatial A-weighted SPL distribution in dependence on the propagation are not suitable to predict psychoacoustic parameters in an adequate way. Especially, the roughness provoked by modulation or the sharpness generated by an accumulation of high, frequent sound energy cannot offhandedly be predicted as distance dependent.

Genuit, Klaus; Fiebig, Andre

2005-09-01

409

Affect as a Psychological Primitive  

PubMed Central

In this article, we discuss the hypothesis that affect is a fundamental, psychologically irreducible property of the human mind. We begin by presenting historical perspectives on the nature of affect. Next, we proceed with a more contemporary discussion of core affect as a basic property of the mind that is realized within a broadly distributed neuronal workspace. We then present the affective circumplex, a mathematical formalization for representing core affective states, and show that this model can be used to represent individual differences in core affective feelings that are linked to meaningful variation in emotional experience. Finally, we conclude by suggesting that core affect has psychological consequences that reach beyond the boundaries of emotion, to influence learning and consciousness. PMID:20552040

Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Bliss-Moreau, Eliza

2009-01-01

410

Non-thermic skin affections.  

PubMed

The Centre for Burns can help by its means (material, technical and personal) in the treatment of burns with extensive and deep losses of the skin cover and other tissue structures and in some affections with a different etiology (non-thermic affections). Indicated for admission are, in particular, extensive exfoliative affections--Stevens-Johnson's syndrome (SJS), Lyell's syndrome--toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) and staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS), deep skin and tissue affections associated with fulminant purpura (PF), possibly other affections (epidermolysis bullosa, posttraumatic avulsions etc.). The similarity with burn injuries with loss of the skin cover grade II is typical, in particular in exfoliative affections with a need for adequate fluid replacement in the acute stage and aseptic surgical treatment of the affected area from the onset of the disease. In conditions leading to full thickness skin loss, in addition to general treatment rapid plastic surgical interventions dominate. PMID:11191420

Broz, L; Kripner, J

2000-01-01

411

Affective Experience in Adulthood and Old Age: The Role of Affective Arousal and Perceived Affect Regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to investigate age-related differences in self-reported affect in adulthood. Measurement of affect encompassed high- and low-arousal positive and negative affect. The sample consisted of 277 participants who were between 20 and 80 years old. Older participants showed a higher level of low-arousal positive affect and did not significantly differ from the two younger

Eva-Marie Kessler; Ursula M. Staudinger

2009-01-01

412

Main points for 1991 family planning work.  

PubMed

The main points for 1991 Family Planning (FP) Work in China are discussed as follows: 1) strengthen leadership, 2) strengthen grass roots buildup, 3 intensify population plan management and improve the responsibility system, 4) strengthen publicity and promote population and FP education in rural areas, 5) strengthen and establish the legal system for FP management, 6) provide excellent contraceptive and birth control services, 7 perform inservice training conscientiously and technical secondary education earnestly, and 8) coordinate efforts among related departments. Leadership changes involve the 2 top leaders of the Communist Party Committees and governments at each level taking personal responsibility for the implementation of their local population plans and FP work. FP work must have a prominent place on all agendas. The FP service network needs to be accelerated in countries, townships, and villages and grass roots units strengthened in urban areas. Provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities must work out their local population plans for 1991-95 and 1991-99 according to the national population target. Rational apportionment needs to be considered for prefectures and counties. The emphasis should be on timely and accurate feedback and statistical supervision. The 1990 national population census data should be used to inform everyone about the current population situation. Legal needs entail standardizing documentation and developing local laws and regulations within a comprehensive system. Improvements are needed in such areas as rules and regulations pertaining to the administration of charges for unplanned births, identification of disabled children and approval of the birth quota. Abortion and unplanned births are to be averted through prepregnancy management. The emphasis is on voluntary use of contraception by couples of childbearing age. Inservice training should improve the political, ideological, professional proficiency, and ability to function. Certification will eventually be provided. Provision for FP insurance needs to be encouraged through civil affairs departments, banks, and insurance companies. PMID:12343642

1991-06-01

413

Nonlinear active disturbance rejection controller research of main engine for ship  

Microsoft Academic Search

Applying mathematics model of nonlinear ship main engine control and the wave disturbances to the design of electronic governor, and considering the uncertainty of model parameters and the characteristics of servo-system makes the model have the unmatched uncertainty correspondingly. In order to solve the difficulty,an active disturbance rejection nonlinear control strategy is proposed,and a ship main engine ADRC controller is

Weigang Pan; Hairong Xiao; Yaozhen Han; Changshun Wang; Guiyong Yang

2010-01-01

414

Investigations of ice formation in the Space Shuttle Main Engine 0209 main injector coolant cavity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Severe main combustion chamber wall and main injector baffle element deterioration occurred during tests of Space Shuttle Main Engine 0209. One of the possible causes considered is ice formation and blockage of coolant to these components, resulting from the mixing of leaking hot turbine exhaust gas (hydrogen rich steam) and hydrogen coolant in the injector coolant cavity. The plausibility of ice blockage is investigated through simple mixing calculations for hot gas and hydrogen, investigation of condensation and water droplet formation, calculation of the freezing times for droplets, and the prediction of ice layer thicknesses. It is concluded that condensation and droplet formation can occur, and small water droplets that form can freeze very quickly when in contact with the cold coolant cavity surfaces. Copnservative analysis predicts, however, that the maximum thickness of the ice layers formed is too small to result in significant blockage of the coolant flow.

Richards, D. R.; Charklwick, D. M.

1991-01-01

415

Factors affecting intraocular light scattering from different color straylight sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Important optical parameter of the eye is intraocular light scattering. Straylight can reduce visual acuity, contrast sensitivity. It is one of the main factors for glare, especially for drivers at night, when there is light source some distance away from the fixation point. There are many factors, which can affect amount of light scattering in the eye. To assess the effect of the color of the straylight source on retinal image quality at different light scattering levels, retinal straylight was measured with and without light scattering occluder. Red, green and blue colors were choosed for straylight source. Psychophysical and electrophysiological methods were used to evaluate light scattering effect on perception on different color stimuli. Results show that straylight values are the greatest for blue color with and without light scattering occluder. In measurements without light scattering occluder ratio of straylight values for red and green color are different between subjects. Using light scattering occluder straylight values for green color are greater than for red color. Optical and anatomical factors which can induce these spectral variations are discussed. Psychophysical and electrophysiological methods showed the similar changes in results with straylight values when light scattering were increased.

Ikaunieks, Gatis; Ozolinsh, Maris

2008-09-01

416

Enhanced sampling simulations of DNA step parameters.  

PubMed

A novel approach for the selection of step parameters as reaction coordinates in enhanced sampling simulations of DNA is presented. The method uses three atoms per base and does not require coordinate overlays or idealized base pairs. This allowed for a highly efficient implementation of the calculation of all step parameters and their Cartesian derivatives in molecular dynamics simulations. Good correlation between the calculated and actual twist, roll, tilt, shift, and slide parameters is obtained, while the correlation with rise is modest. The method is illustrated by its application to the methylated and unmethylated 5'-CATGTGACGTCACATG-3' double stranded DNA sequence. One-dimensional umbrella simulations indicate that the flexibility of the central CG step is only marginally affected by methylation. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25303338

Karolak, Aleksandra; van der Vaart, Arjan

2014-12-15

417

Constraining Orbital Parameters Through Planetary Transit Monitoring  

E-print Network

The orbital parameters of extra-solar planets have a significant impact on the probability that the planet will transit the host star. This was recently demonstrated by the transit detection of HD 17156b whose favourable eccentricity and argument of periastron dramatically increased its transit likelihood. We present a study which provides a quantitative analysis of how these two orbital parameters affect the geometric transit probability as a function of period. Further, we apply these results to known radial velocity planets and show that there are unexpectedly high transit probabilities for planets at relatively long periods. For a photometric monitoring campaign which aims to determine if the planet indeed transits, we calculate the expected transiting planet yield and the significance of a potential null result, as well as the subsequent constraints that may be applied to orbital parameters.

Stephen R. Kane; Kaspar von Braun

2008-08-13

418

Testing the Grandchildren's Received Affection Scale using Affection Exchange Theory.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to test the Grandchildren's Received Affection Scale (GRAS) using Affection Exchange Theory (Floyd, 2006). In accordance with Affection Exchange Theory, it was hypothesized that grandchildren's scores on the Trait Affection Received Scale (i.e., the extent to which individuals by nature receive affection) would be related significantly and positively to their reports of received affection from their grandparents (i.e., their scores on the GRAS). Additionally, a research question was asked to explore if grandchildren's received affection from their grandparents is dependent on their grandparent's biological sex or lineage (i.e., maternal vs paternal). Thus, young adult grandchildren (N = 422) completed the GRAS and the Trait Affection Received Scale. The results of zero-order Pearson correlational analyses provided support for the hypothesis, whereas the results of MANOVAs tests only partially support extant grandparent-grandchild theory and research. These findings broaden the scope of Affection Exchange Theory and also bolster the GRAS's utility in future grandparent-grandchild affectionate communication research. PMID:23833883

Mansson, Daniel H

2013-04-01

419

The Bear Brook Watershed, Maine (BBWM), USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Bear Brook Watershed Manipulation project in Maine is a paired calibrated watershed study funded by the U.S. EPA. The research program is evaluating whole ecosystem response to elevated inputs of acidifying chemicals. The consists of a 2.5 year calibration period (1987-1989), nine years of chemical additions of (NH4)2SO4 (15N- and 34S-enriched for several years) to West Bear watershed (1989-1998), followed by a recovery period. The other watershed, East Bear, serves as a reference. Dosing is in six equal treatments/yr of 1800 eq SO4 and NH4/ha/yr, a 200% increase over 1988 loading (wet plus dry) for SO4 300% for N (wet NO3 + NH4). The experimental and reference watersheds are forested with mixed hard- and softwoods, and have thin acidic soils, areas of 10.2 and 10.7 ha and relief of 210 m. Thin till of variable composition is underlain by metasedimentary pelitic rocks and calc-silicate gneiss intruded by granite dikes and sills. For the period 1987-1995, precipitation averaged 1.4 m/yr, had a mean pH of 4.5, with SO4, NO3, and NH4 concentrations of 26, 14, and 7 ??eq/L, respectively. The nearly perrenial streams draining each watershed have discharges ranging from 0 (East Bear stops flowing for one to two months per year) to 150 L/sec. Prior to manipulation, East Bear and West Bear had a volume weighted annual mean pH of approximately 5.4, alkalinity = 0 to 4 ??eq/L, total base cations = 184 ??eq/L (sea-salt corrected = 118 ??eq/L), and SO4 = 100 to 111 ??eq/L. Nitrate ranged from 0 to 30 ??eq/L with an annual mean of 6 to 25 ??eq/L; dissolved organic carbon (DOC) ranged from 1 to 7 mg/L but was typically less than 3. Episodic acidification occurred at high discharge and was caused by dilution of cations, slightly increased DOC, significantly higher NO3, and the sea-salt effect. Depressions in pH were accompanied by increases in inorganic Al. The West Bear catchment responded to the chemical additions with increased export of base cations, Al, SO4, NO3, and decreased pH, ANC, and DOC. Silica remained relatively constant. Neutralization of the acidifying chemicals occurred dominantly by cation desorption and mobilization of Al.

Norton, S.; Kahl, J.; Fernandez, I.; Haines, T.; Rustad, L.; Nodvin, S.; Scofield, J.; Strickland, T.; Erickson, H.; Wigington, P., Jr.; Lee, J.

1999-01-01

420

Jupiter's Main Ring and 2 Satellites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Jupiter's main ring is a narrow structure about 6,000 kilometers (about 3,700 miles) in width and about 100,000 times fainter than the planet it encircles. These are the first pictures that NASA's Cassini spacecraft has taken of the ring, a portion of which appears in each frame as an arc opening toward the right.

Image processing helped make the ring easier to see in these frames taken with Cassini's narrow-angle camera during a 39.5-hour period beginning Dec. 11, 2000. The distance between the spacecraft and Jupiter narrowed during those hours, from 20.3 million kilometers (12.6 million miles) to 19 million kilometers (11.8 million miles). Also, Cassini's movement took it from 3.3 degrees above the plane of the rings to 2.98 degrees above the plane. The frames are in sequence from upper left to lower right. The image of the ring's arc grows longer, as the spacecraft approaches the planet.

Resolution is about 230 kilometers (143 miles) per pixel. The 10 frames shown here are each a small section of several separate narrow-angle images taken through the camera's clear filter and spanning the entire 39.5 hour period. The scattered light background has been removed, and the images have been contrast-stretched to enhance the ring. The contours in the image, as well as the small variations in brightness of the ring from one frame to the next, are a result of the image processing and background removal.

This image sequence also shows the motions of two satellites embedded in Jupiter's ring. The moon Adrastea is the fainter of the two, and Metis the brighter. Images such as these will be used to refine the orbits of the two bodies. This image sequence also shows the motions of two satellites embedded in Jupiter's ring. The moon Adrastea is the fainter of the two, and Metis the brighter. Images such as these will be used to refine the orbits of the two bodies.

Cassini is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Cassini mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C.

2000-01-01

421

Apparent Brecciation Gradient, Mount Desert Island, Maine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mount Desert Island, Maine, comprises a shallow level, Siluro-Devonian igneous complex surrounded by a distinctive breccia zone ("shatter zone" of Gilman and Chapman, 1988). The zone is very well exposed on the southern and eastern shores of the island and provides a unique opportunity to examine subvolcanic processes. The breccia of the Shatter Zone shows wide variation in percent matrix and clast, and may represent a spatial and temporal gradient in breccia formation due to a single eruptive or other catastrophic volcanic event. The shatter zone was divided into five developmental stages based on the extent of brecciation: Bar Harbor Formation, Sols Cliffs breccia, Seeley Road breccia, Dubois breccia, and Great Head breccia. A digital camera was employed to capture scale images of representative outcrops using a 0.5 m square Plexiglas frame. Individual images were joined in Adobe Photoshop to create a composite image of each outcrop. The composite photo was then exported to Adobe Illustrator, which was used to outline the clasts and produce a digital map of the outcrop for analysis. The fractal dimension (Fd) of each clast was calculated using NIH Image and a Euclidean distance mapping method described by Bérubé and Jébrak (1999) to quantify the morphology of the fragments, or the complexity of the outline. The more complex the fragment outline, the higher the fractal dimension, indicating that the fragment is less "mature" or has had less exposure to erosional processes, such as the injection of an igneous matrix. Sols Cliffs breccia has an average Fd of 1.125, whereas Great Head breccia has an average Fd of 1.040, with the stages between having intermediate values. The more complex clasts of the Sols Cliffs breccia with a small amount (26.38%) of matrix material suggests that it is the first stage in a sequence of brecciation ending at the more mature, matrix-supported (71.37%) breccia of Great Head. The results of this study will be used to guide isotopic and geochemical analysis of the matrix igneous material in the attempt to better understand the dynamic processes that occur in subvolcanic environments and the mechanisms involved in breccia formation.

Hawkins, A. T.; Johnson, S. E.

2004-05-01

422

Pleiades System Architecture and Main Performances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

France, under the leadership of the French Space Agency (CNES), has set up a cooperative program with Austria, Belgium, Spain, Sweden, in order to develop a space Earth Observation system called PLEIADES. PLEIADES is a dual system, this means that it is intended to fulfill an extended panel of both civilian and Defense user's needs.. This paper reports the status of the satellite after its launch and the in orbit commissioning, the PLEIADES satellite first model has been launched at the end of year 2011, the second model will be launched about 12 months later. It describes the main mission characteristics and performances status. It exposes how the system, satellite and ground segment have been designed in order to be compliant with a dual exploitation between civilian and defense partners. The system is based on the use of a set of newly European developed technologies to feature the satellite. In order to maximize the agility of the satellite, weight and inertia have been reduced using a compact hexagonal shape for the satellite bus. The optical mission consists in Earth optical observation composed of 0.7 m nadir resolution for the panchromatic band and 2.8 m nadir resolution for the four multi-spectral bands. The image swath is about 20 km. PLEIADES delivers optical high resolution products consisting in a Panchromatic image, into which is merged a four multispectral bands image, orthorectified on a Digital Terrain Model (DTM). Thanks to the huge satellite agility obtained with control momentum gyros as actuators, the optical system delivers as well instantaneous stereo images, under different stereoscopic conditions and mosaic images, issued from along the track thus enlarging the field of view. The ground segment is composed of a dual ground center located in CNES Toulouse premises in charge of preparing the dual mission command plan and of the real time contacts with the satellite through a control center. The dual ground center interfaces with several mission centers : one center is built for each Defense partner (France, Spain …), one center is set up for the Civilian Operator. Each mission center is in charge of managing the programming requests, then, receiving the mission telemetry, processing the data to feed a catalog and an archive, to generate the system products and distribute them to the final user. System reactivity has been optimized with a chronology based on three mission planning activations per day. The mission plan is uploaded to the satellite just before flyby over East Asia , Europe and North America. In addition a Direct Tasking mode is available for commercial Image Receiving Stations.

Gleyzes, M. A.; Perret, L.; Kubik, P.

2012-07-01

423

CELSS engineering parameters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The most important Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) engineering parameters are, in order of decreasing importance, manpower, mass, and energy. The plant component is a significant contributor to the total system equivalent mass. In this report, a generic plant component is described and the relative equivalent mass and productivity are derived for a number of instances taken from the KSC CELSS Breadboard Project data and literature. Typical specific productivities (edible biomass produced over 10 years divided by system equivalent mass) for closed systems are of the order of 0.2.

Drysdale, Alan; Sager, John; Wheeler, Ray; Fortson, Russ; Chetirkin, Peter

1993-01-01

424

Measurement of ocular parameters under various directions of gaze  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lid angles and aperture size are important factors for fitting and on-eye performance of contact lenses. In particular, toric and translating bifocal lenses rely on predictable interaction with the eyelid for successful positioning and orientation. Traditionally, lid assessment and fitting evaluation is performed under slit lamp observation. Observations are limited to primary gaze and nasal or temporal directions. Quantification of lid parameters and lens positioning is subjective and depended on the skill of the practitioner. No commercial instrument is available off the shelf, which would be suitable to measure objectively ocular parameters and/or contact lens positioning under different directions of gaze. This is the likely reason why only one study has been published in which ocular characteristics for different gaze angles were obtained [1]. However, only a limited number of parameters and gaze directions were investigated. Almost all contact lenses are designed for and assessed under primary gaze. Considering that patients constantly change their gaze while wearing contact lenses, the quantification of contact lens movement and changes in ocular parameters with eye movement can contribute substantially to the understanding of lens performance and thereby lead to improved lens designs. This is of particular importance for toric and translating bifocal lenses. Their complex optical and topographical design requires precise positioning, orientation and movement with changes in gaze direction in order to provide adequate vision. Baron [2] suggested that the lower eyelid is the most important factor for lens movement of translating bifocal lenses, but questions still remained on the complete dynamics of on eye behaviour. For toric contact lenses, the rotational orientation is more important than vertical translation to obtain optimum visual correction. Most toric lenses feature a prism ballast design. Blinking movements, mainly of the upper eyelid, interact with the wedge like shape and squeeze the thick part downwards. It has been observed that the upper eyelid does not move in a straight downward movement, but also twists slightly to close the temporal side first [3]. Precise quantification of this motion and how it affects the contact lens movement have not been reported. A new instrument was designed and constructed to provide objective measurements of ocular parameters.

Ehrmann, Klaus; Conrad, Fabian; Papas, Eric B.; Ho, Arthur

2006-02-01

425

Control and stabilization of distributed parameter systems in structural dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main purpose of this research is to develop a rigorous mathematical framework for the design of control laws for feedback stabilization and for controllability of the transient behavior of flexible structures based on distributed parameter models of such structures. This work has entailed deriving accurate distributed parameter models for elastic structures and understanding the implications of the various models

John E. Lagnese

1991-01-01

426

Ris Energy Report 6 Summary, main conclusions and recommendations 2 Summary, main conclusions  

E-print Network

include the development of a hydrogen economy, and economical electrical cars with long oper- ating ranges-through. They will be used in three main applications: stationary power generation, transport, and portable equipment. Solar growth of more than 40%. Polymer solar cells are a promising new technology. The falling cost of PV sys

427

Accessing the Gulf of Maine’s Climate Change Data Through Webtools  

EPA Science Inventory

Climate variables have been measured in the Gulf of Maine and its watersheds for over one hundred years and long-standing time series are available at many different institutes. However, today’s managers looking for a quick answer to scientific questions rarely have the tim...

428

Does customer aggression more strongly affect happy employees? The moderating role of positive affectivity and extraversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Customer abusive behavior has been found to be a major source of stress for service workers. The main purpose of the present\\u000a research was to investigate the moderating role of positive affectivity (PA) on the relationship between customer verbal aggression\\u000a and organizational outcomes. Three studies, based on three separate samples of service employees (Study 1: N = 187; Study 2: N = 422, Study

Ruhama Goussinsky

2011-01-01

429

Ability to perform activities of daily living is the main factor affecting quality of life in patients with dementia  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Dementia is a chronic illness associated with a progressive loss of cognitive and intellectual abilities, such as memory, judgment and abstract thinking. The objective of this study was to assess the health utilities of patients with dementia in Europe and identify the key factors influencing their Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQol). METHODS: This study used cross-sectional data from the

Christian K Andersen; Kim U Wittrup-Jensen; Anette Lolk; Kjeld Andersen; Per Kragh-Sørensen

2004-01-01

430

Post-Main-Sequence Evolution 16 November 2011  

E-print Network

Post-Main-Sequence Evolution 16 November 2011 Goals · Review the post-main-sequence evolution of a 1 M star · Review the Chandrasehkar mass Post-Main-Sequence Evolution 1. We're going to do the same on the Main Sequence? (d) Draw the path of the post-main-sequence evolution. (e) Label the Red Giant Branch

Militzer, Burkhard

431

Fine-Scale Road Stretch Forecasting along Main Danish Roads  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The DMI has in collaboration with the Danish Road Directorate (DRD) for almost two decades used a Road Condition Model (RCM) system (based on a dense road observations network and the numerical weather prediction model - HIgh Resolution Limited Area Model, HIRLAM) to provide operational forecasts of main road conditions at selected road stations of the Danish road network. As of Jan 2009, there are 357 road stations (equipped in total with 456 sensors), where measurements and forecasts of road surface temperature, air and dew point temperatures are conducted. Forecasts of other important meteorological parameters such as cloud cover and precipitations as well as radar and satellite images are also distributed to the users through the web-based interface vejvejr.dk and through DMI and DRD web-pages. For icing conditions, new technology has made it easy to vary the dose of spreaded salt, making it possible to use salt only on the parts of the road network where it is really needed. In our study measurements of road surface temperature from road stations and salt spreaders have additionally been used to examine both road stations and road stretches forecasts along the main roads of the Danish Road Network (accounting almost 23 thousand points located at distances of 250 m). These results showed critical importance of availability of detailed characteristics of the roads surroundings. To make local forecasts in a specific point all possible local detailed information is needed. Since high resolution models running at faster supercomputers as well as detailed physiographic datasets now are available, it is possible to improve the modelling and parameterization of significant physical processes influencing the formation of the slippery road conditions. First of all, it is based on a new dataset available from Kort og Matrikel styrelsen, the so-called Danish Height Model (Danmarks Højdemodel) which is a very detailed set of data with horizontal resolution of a few meters and fine height accuracy. The main aim of this study is to research, analyze, develop, and improve the quality of the road condition forecasts by refining, detalization, setting up, and running the fine-scale resolution numerical weather prediction (NWP) model with integration (from high resolution databases) of characteristics and derived parameters of surrounding roads the land-use, terrain, positioning and road properties at road stations/ stretches. The objectives include, at first, research and development of the existing road model based on input from a fine-scale NWP modelling. At second, it is analysis and integration of detailed data and derived parameters at road stations/stretches into the RCM based on available detailed Danish datasets on terrain, GPS positioning, land-use, and road properties. And at third, it is elaboration, testing, evaluation, and implementation of the methods and approaches suitable for forecasting and verification of the RCM performance for fine-scales. The results of this study are applicable for improvement of quality of detailed forecasts at road stretches. This will facilitate the use of data from the road stretch forecasting to automatic adjustment of control of the dosage spread by salting spreaders (i.e. for optimization of the salt amount spreaded in order to prevent the icing/freezing and better timing of salting schedule). It will lead to improvement of the overall safety of the winter road traffic. It will contribute to further development and improvement of the visualization tools for the road stretches forecasting. And it may reduce the environmental impact in the road surroundings due to an optimized spreading of the salt.

Mahura, A.; Petersen, C.; Sattler, K.; Sass, B.

2009-09-01

432

The 1755 Lisbon tsunami; evaluation of the tsunami parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tsunami generated by the 1755.01.11 earthquake affected mainly the coasts of the Iberian Peninsula and Northwest Morocco and was observed all over the North Atlantic coasts. The catastrophic dimensions of that phenomenon had a tremendous impact on the city of Lisbon and on several villages along the south coast of Portugal. The earthquake was felt all over Europe and the seismic intensity was estimated as X-XI (Mercalli Intensity Scale) at Lisbon and Southwest Portugal (Cape S. Vicente). The most destructive waves were observed along the coast of Portugal, specially in Lisbon, in the area of the S. Vicente Cape, along the Gulf of Cadiz and Northwest Morocco. Throughout historic times, earthquakes have periodically affected the city of Lisbon causing severe damage and casualties. In spite of that, the city kept growing, so the extension of damage and the loss of human lives in 1755, was quite impressive. The down town of Lisbon was flooded by the rising of the waters of the river Tagus and most historical documents reported waves of 6 m height. At Cape S. Vicente (Southwest Portugal) the run-up height, evaluated from historical data, is greater than 15 m. The eye witness accounts from Spain and Morocco reported wave heights greater than 10 m and large flooded areas along the Gulf of Cadiz and in several harbours in Morocco, e.g. Safi and Agadir. In the city of Lisbon, the number of casualties due exclusively to the tsunami, is estimate around 900, and the penetration of the waters is evaluated to be 250 m. Most of the available literature concerning the 1755 earthquake is based on the compilation of Pereira de Sousa (1919) and, sometimes, incorporates both well established historical records and non reliable information. As the 1755 event evaluation is crucial to a quantitative approach of the tsunami hazard and risk assessment in Portugal, a new examination of the historical records was needed before the establishment of reliable tsunami parameters that can be used both in numerical models of tsunami propagation and in geodynamic studies. In this paper, we present a new compilation of almost all the available historical data from the countries affected by the tsunami. In the analysis of these records, the following tsunami parameters are inferred: travel time, polarity of the first movement, maximum run-up height, period, number of waves, duration of the sea disturbance and extent of flooding.

Baptista, M. A.; Heitor, S.; Miranda, J. M.; Miranda, P.; Victor, L. Mendes

1998-01-01

433

MAIN-SEQUENCE STAR POPULATIONS IN THE VIRGO OVERDENSITY REGION  

SciTech Connect

We present deep color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) for two Subaru Suprime-Cam fields in the Virgo Stellar Stream (VSS)/Virgo Overdensity (VOD) and compare them to a field centered on the highest concentration of Sagittarius (Sgr) Tidal Stream stars in the leading arm, Branch A of the bifurcation. A prominent population of main-sequence stars is detected in all three fields and can be traced as faint as g Almost-Equal-To 24 mag. Using theoretical isochrone fitting, we derive an age of 9.1{sup +1.0}{sub -1.1} Gyr, a median abundance of [Fe/H] = -0.70{sup +0.15}{sub -0.20} dex, and a heliocentric distance of 30.9 {+-} 3.0 kpc for the main sequence of the Sgr Stream Branch A. The dominant main-sequence populations in the two VSS/VOD fields ({Lambda}{sub Sun} Almost-Equal-To 265 Degree-Sign , B{sub Sun} Almost-Equal-To 13 Degree-Sign ) are located at a mean distance of 23.3 {+-} 1.6 kpc and have an age of {approx}8.2 Gyr, and an abundance of [Fe/H] = -0.67{sup +0.16}{sub -0.12} dex, similar to the Sgr Stream stars. These statistically robust parameters, derived from the photometry of 260 main-sequence stars, are also in good agreement with the age of the main population in the Sgr dwarf galaxy (8.0 {+-} 1.5 Gyr). They also agree with the peak in the metallicity distribution of 2-3 Gyr old M giants, [Fe/H] Almost-Equal-To -0.6 dex, in the Sgr north leading arm. We then compare the results from the VSS/VOD fields with the Sgr Tidal Stream model by Law and Majewski based on a triaxial Galactic halo shape that is empirically calibrated with Sloan Digital Sky Survey Sgr A-branch and Two Micron All Sky Survey M-giant stars. We find that the most prominent feature in the CMDs, the main-sequence population at 23 kpc, is not explained by the model. Instead the model predicts in these directions a low-density filamentary structure of Sgr debris stars at {approx}9 kpc and a slightly higher concentration of Sgr stars spread over a heliocentric distance range of 42-53 kpc. At best there is only marginal evidence for the presence of these populations in our data. Our findings then suggest that while there are probably some Sgr debris stars present, the dominant stellar population in the VOD originates from a different halo structure that has an almost identical age and metallicity as some sections of the Sgr tidal stream.

Jerjen, H.; Da Costa, G. S.; Tisserand, P. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Mt Stromlo Observatory, via Cotter Road, Weston, ACT 2611 (Australia); Willman, B. [Haverford College, Department of Astronomy, 370 Lancaster Avenue, Haverford, PA 19041 (United States); Arimoto, N. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Subaru Telescope, 650 North A'ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Okamoto, S. [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Mateo, M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Saviane, I. [European Southern Observatory, Casilla 19001, Santiago 19 (Chile); Walsh, S. [Australian Astronomical Observatory, PO Box 915, North Ryde, NSW 1670 (Australia); Geha, M. [Astronomy Department, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Jordan, A.; Zoccali, M. [Departamento de Astronomia y Astrofisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, 7820436 Macul, Santiago (Chile); Olszewski, E. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Walker, M. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Kroupa, P. [Argelander Institute for Astronomy, University of Bonn, Auf dem Huegel 71, D-53121 Bonn (Germany)

2013-05-20

434

The ecloud measurement setup in the Main Injector  

SciTech Connect

Ecloud has been observed in many high intensity accelerators which can limit the amount of current that can be stored in them. In particular, for ProjectX, the amount of beam current that will be stored in the MI (Main Injector) will be {approx}160 x 10{sup 12} protons while the present maximum intensity is {approx}45 x 10{sup 12} protons which is about 3.5x less beam. Although ecloud has been observed in the MI, it has not caused instabilities at the present running conditions. However, there is no guarantee that instabilities caused by ecloud will not be a problem at ProjectX intensities. Therefore, a program has been started to study the ecloud effects with both computer simulations and experiments. In this paper, we will be focusing our attention on how coatings can affect the production of secondary electrons. We have installed an ecloud measurement setup in a straight section of MI which consists of one coated and one uncoated beam pipe with the same physical dimensions and at the same location, together with four retarding field analyzers (RFAs) and three sets of beam position monitors (BPMs) which can be used for the microwave measurements. An ecloud measurement setup was installed in a straight section of the Main Injector in 2009. The goal of the setup was to compare the characteristics of different beam pipe coatings when subjected to proton beam. The setup consists of one coated and one uncoated beam pipe with the same physical dimensions installed at the same location. Four RFAs (retarding field analyzers) and three BPMs (beam position monitors) used for microwave measurements have been used to measure the ecloud densities. The RFAs have performed very well and have collected both the time evolution and energy distribution of the ecloud for bare and two types of beam pipe coatings.

Tan, C.Y.; Backfish, M.; Zwaska, R.; /Fermilab

2010-12-01

435

Orthogonal experiment and analysis on process parameters of bowl feed polishing (BFP)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the development of science and technology, the demand for high-precision product is increasing continuously. Ultra-smooth surface with sub-nanometer roughness has extensive applications in the field of soft X-ray optics, high power laser and laser gyro. Bowl feed polishing (BFP) technology is an effective ultra-smooth surface processing method, but the polishing process of BFP which is affected by a lot of factors is extremely complex and difficult to control. It is important to understand the effect of the process variables such as abrasive particle size, concentration of abrasive particle, speed of polishing pad, acidity and polishing time in the process of BFP. They are very important parameters that must be carefully formulated to achieve desired material removal rates and surface roughness. Using a design of experiment (DOE) approach, this study was performed investigating the main effect of the each parameter during K9 BFP. A better understanding of the interaction behavior between the various parameters and the effect on removal rate and surface roughness is achieved by using the statistical analysis techniques. In the experimental tests, the optimized parameters combination for BFP which were derived from the statistical analysis could be found for material removal rate and better surface roughness through the above experiment results.

Meng, Kai; Wan, Yongjian; Xu, Qinglan; Yang, Yang

2013-08-01

436

Impact of biased and randomly corrupted inputs on the efficiency and the parameters of watershed models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we use a sample of 12 US watersheds with various characteristics to investigate the influence of both random and systematic errors in input data (rainfall and potential evapotranspiration—PE) on the performance and parameter values of rainfall-runoff models. Two different rainfall-runoff model structures were tested to get a more general overview on this issue. A dynamic sensitivity analysis approach was adopted (i.e. with re-calibration of model parameters). Results indicate that watershed models use their different functions (and corresponding parameters) to absorb input errors and muffle their impact on streamflow simulations. The main conclusions are: (1) models are almost insensitive to random errors in PE series, which comes from the inherent low pass filter properties of rainfall-runoff models; (2) random errors in rainfall series significantly affect model performances and parameter values; (3) systematic errors in PE series have a greater impact than random errors, but they are partly buffered by Soil Moisture Accounting (SMA) stores; (4) systematic errors in rainfall time series, when large enough, can be very detrimental to model performances but their impact can be reduced if the model structure includes a procedure other than evapotranspiration to adapt water balance.

Oudin, Ludovic; Perrin, Charles; Mathevet, Thibault; Andréassian, Vazken; Michel, Claude

2006-03-01

437

Parameter selection and numerical approximation properties of Fourier extensions from fixed data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fourier extensions have been shown to be an effective means for the approximation of smooth, nonperiodic functions on bounded intervals given their values on an equispaced, or in general, scattered grid. Related to this method are two parameters. These are the extension parameter T (the ratio of the size of the extended domain to the physical domain) and the oversampling ratio ? (the number of sampling nodes per Fourier mode). The purpose of this paper is to investigate how the choice of these parameters affects the accuracy and stability of the approximation. Our main contribution is to document the following interesting phenomenon: namely, if the desired condition number of the algorithm is fixed in advance, then the particular choice of such parameters makes little difference to the algorithm's accuracy. As a result, one is free to choose T without concern that it is suboptimal. In particular, one may use the value T=2 - which corresponds to the case where the extended domain is precisely twice the size of the physical domain - for which there is known to be a fast algorithm for computing the approximation. In addition, we determine the resolution power (points-per-wavelength) of the approximation to be equal to T?, and address the trade-off between resolution power and stability.

Adcock, Ben; Ruan, Joseph

2014-09-01

438

An Immunological Basis of Schizophrenia and Affective Disorders?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 48 patients with schizophrenia and 32 patients with affective disorders, different immune parameters were tested. Compared to blood-donors, IgG and IgM serum concentrations were increased in both the schizophrenic and affective disorders. However, these abnormalities did not differ from hospital control populations. The patients failed to show an association of antibodies considered to be characteristic of autoimmune diseases. In

A. Fontana; U. Storck; J. Angst; R. Dubs; A. Abegg; P. J. Grob

1980-01-01

439

14 CFR 29.547 - Main and tail rotor structure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Requirements Main Component Requirements § 29.547 Main and tail rotor structure. ...the rotor hub, blades, blade dampers... (ii) For the main rotor, the limit engine...distributed to the rotor blades. (Secs....

2010-01-01

440

14 CFR 27.547 - Main rotor structure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements Main Component Requirements § 27.547 Main rotor structure. (a) Each main rotor assembly (including rotor hubs and blades) must be designed as prescribed in this section. (b) [Reserved]...

2012-01-01

441

14 CFR 27.547 - Main rotor structure.  

...ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements Main Component Requirements § 27.547 Main rotor structure. (a) Each main rotor assembly (including rotor hubs and blades) must be designed as prescribed in this section. (b) [Reserved]...

2014-01-01

442

14 CFR 29.547 - Main and tail rotor structure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Requirements Main Component Requirements § 29.547 Main and tail rotor structure. ...the rotor hub, blades, blade dampers... (ii) For the main rotor, the limit engine...distributed to the rotor blades. (Secs....

2013-01-01

443

14 CFR 27.547 - Main rotor structure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements Main Component Requirements § 27.547 Main rotor structure. (a) Each main rotor assembly (including rotor hubs and blades) must be designed as prescribed in this section. (b) [Reserved]...

2011-01-01

444

14 CFR 27.547 - Main rotor structure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements Main Component Requirements § 27.547 Main rotor structure. (a) Each main rotor assembly (including rotor hubs and blades) must be designed as prescribed in this section. (b) [Reserved]...

2010-01-01

445

14 CFR 29.547 - Main and tail rotor structure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Requirements Main Component Requirements § 29.547 Main and tail rotor structure. ...the rotor hub, blades, blade dampers... (ii) For the main rotor, the limit engine...distributed to the rotor blades. (Secs....

2012-01-01

446

14 CFR 29.547 - Main and tail rotor structure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Requirements Main Component Requirements § 29.547 Main and tail rotor structure. ...the rotor hub, blades, blade dampers... (ii) For the main rotor, the limit engine...distributed to the rotor blades. (Secs....

2011-01-01

447

14 CFR 29.547 - Main and tail rotor structure.  

...Requirements Main Component Requirements § 29.547 Main and tail rotor structure. ...the rotor hub, blades, blade dampers... (ii) For the main rotor, the limit engine...distributed to the rotor blades. (Secs....

2014-01-01

448

14 CFR 27.547 - Main rotor structure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements Main Component Requirements § 27.547 Main rotor structure. (a) Each main rotor assembly (including rotor hubs and blades) must be designed as prescribed in this section. (b) [Reserved]...

2013-01-01

449

49 CFR 229.51 - Aluminum main reservoirs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Aluminum main reservoirs. 229.51 Section 229...Safety Requirements Brake System § 229.51 Aluminum main reservoirs. (a) Aluminum main reservoirs used on locomotives shall...

2012-10-01

450

9. SOUTH MAIN ST., LOT NO. 24 (COMMERCIAL BUILDING), WEST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. SOUTH MAIN ST., LOT NO. 24 (COMMERCIAL BUILDING), WEST FRONT, DETAIL OF CAPITALS AND ORNAMENTATION - South Main Street, Block 43 (Commercial Buildings), South Main & Washington Streets, South Norwalk, Fairfield County, CT

451

11. SOUTH MAIN ST., LOT NO. 22, (COMMERCIAL BUILDING), WEST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. SOUTH MAIN ST., LOT NO. 22, (COMMERCIAL BUILDING), WEST FRONT, DETAIL OF UPPER STORIES - South Main Street, Block 43 (Commercial Buildings), South Main & Washington Streets, South Norwalk, Fairfield County, CT

452

8. SOUTH MAIN ST., LOT NO. 24, (COMMERCIAL BUILDING). WEST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. SOUTH MAIN ST., LOT NO. 24, (COMMERCIAL BUILDING). WEST FRONT, DETAIL OF UPPER STORIES - South Main Street, Block 43 (Commercial Buildings), South Main & Washington Streets, South Norwalk, Fairfield County, CT

453

14 CFR 23.753 - Main float design.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Main float design. 23.753 Section 23...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS...COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Floats and Hulls § 23.753 Main float design. Each seaplane main...

2013-01-01

454

14 CFR 23.753 - Main float design.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Main float design. 23.753 Section 23...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS...COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Floats and Hulls § 23.753 Main float design. Each seaplane main...

2012-01-01

455

14 CFR 23.753 - Main float design.  

...2014-01-01 false Main float design. 23.753 Section 23...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS...COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Floats and Hulls § 23.753 Main float design. Each seaplane main...

2014-01-01

456

14 CFR 23.753 - Main float design.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Main float design. 23.753 Section 23...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS...COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Floats and Hulls § 23.753 Main float design. Each seaplane main...

2011-01-01

457

14 CFR 25.753 - Main float design.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Main float design. 25.753 Section 25...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Floats and Hulls § 25.753 Main float design. Each main float must...

2011-01-01

458

14 CFR 25.753 - Main float design.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Main float design. 25.753 Section 25...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Floats and Hulls § 25.753 Main float design. Each main float must...

2010-01-01

459

14 CFR 25.753 - Main float design.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Main float design. 25.753 Section 25...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Floats and Hulls § 25.753 Main float design. Each main float must...

2013-01-01

460

14 CFR 23.753 - Main float design.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Main float design. 23.753 Section 23...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS...COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Floats and Hulls § 23.753 Main float design. Each seaplane main...

2010-01-01

461

14 CFR 25.753 - Main float design.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Main float design. 25.753 Section 25...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Floats and Hulls § 25.753 Main float design. Each main float must...

2012-01-01

462

14 CFR 25.753 - Main float design.  

...2014-01-01 false Main float design. 25.753 Section 25...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Floats and Hulls § 25.753 Main float design. Each main float must...

2014-01-01

463

Dynamic Light Scattering Based Microelectrophoresis: Main Prospects and Limitations  

PubMed Central

Microelectrophoresis based on the dynamic light scattering (DLS) effect has been a major tool for assessing and controlling the conditions for stability of colloidal systems. However, both the DLS methods for characterization of the hydrodynamic size of dispersed submicron particles and the theory behind the electrokinetic phenomena are associated with fundamental and practical approximations that limit their sensitivity and information output. Some of these fundamental limitations, including the spherical approximation of DLS measurements and an inability of microelectrophoretic analyses of colloidal systems to detect discrete charges and differ between differently charged particle surfaces due to rotational diffusion and particle orientation averaging, are revisited in this work. Along with that, the main prospects of these two analytical methods are mentioned. A detailed review of the role of zeta potential in processes of biochemical nature is given too. It is argued that although zeta potential has been used as one of the main parameters in controlling the stability of colloidal dispersions, its application potentials are much broader. Manipulating surface charges of interacting species in designing complex soft matter morphologies using the concept of zeta potential, intensively investigated recently, is given as one of the examples. Branching out from the field of colloid chemistry, DLS and zeta potential analyses are now increasingly finding application in drug delivery, biotechnologies, physical chemistry of nanoscale phenomena and other research fields that stand on the frontier of the contemporary science. Coupling the DLS-based microelectrophoretic systems with complementary characterization methods is mentioned as one of the prosperous paths for increasing the information output of these two analytical techniques. PMID:23904690

Uskokovic, Vuk

2013-01-01

464