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Deriving reliable fundamental parameters of pre-main-sequence-rich star clusters affected by differential reddening  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an approach that improves the search for reliable astrophysical parameters (e.g. age, mass and distance) of differentially reddened, pre-main-sequence-rich star clusters. It involves simulating conditions related to the early-cluster phases, in particular the differential and foreground reddenings, and internal age spread. Given the loose constraints imposed by these factors, the derivation of parameters based only on photometry may

C. Bonatto; E. Bica; E. F. Lima



Sharp estimates for the main parameters of the Euclid Algorithm.  

E-print Network

Sharp estimates for the main parameters of the Euclid Algorithm. Lo¨ick Lhote1 and Brigitte Vall provide sharp estimates for the probabilistic behaviour of the main parameters of the Euclid algorithm precise for the extended algorithm. We prove that the bit­complexity of the extended Euclid algorithm

Paris-Sud XI, Université de



E-print Network

GAUSSIAN LAWS FOR THE MAIN PARAMETERS OF THE EUCLID ALGORITHMS LO¨ICK LHOTE AND BRIGITTE VALL´EE Abstract. We provide sharp estimates for the probabilistic behaviour of the main parameters of the Euclid The Euclid algorithm is one of the most ancient algorithmic scheme. Designed by Euclid himself for computing

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Physical parameters affecting living cells in space.  


The question is posed: Why does a living cell react to the absence of gravity? What sensors may it have? Does it note pressure, sedimentation, convection, or other parameters? If somewhere in a liquid volume sodium ions are replaced by potassium ions, the density of the liquid changes locally: the heavier regions sink, the lighter regions rise. This may contribute to species transport, to the metabolism. Under microgravity this mechanism is strongly reduced. On the other hand, other reasons for convection like thermal and solutal interface convection are left. Do they affect species transport? Another important effect of gravity is the hydrostatic pressure. On the macroscopic side, the pressure between our head and feet changes by 0.35 atmospheres. On the microscopic level the hydrostatic pressure on the upper half of a cell membrane is lower than on the lower half. This, by affecting the ion transport through the membrane, may change the surrounding electric potential. It has been suggested to be one of the reasons for graviperception. Following the discussion of these and other effects possibly important in life sciences in space, an order of magnitude analysis of the residual accelerations tolerable during experiments in materials sciences is outlined. In the field of life sciences only rough estimates are available at present. PMID:11537842

Langbein, D



How six parameters affect BHT during circulation  

SciTech Connect

Deeper drilling and consequently hotter formations make knowledge of circulation temperature important for optimizing design of drilling fluid. The effect of six parameters that will influence the temperature has been evaluated. They are: 1. Well geometry: annulus, drill pipe, and hole size; 2. Mud pump rate; 3. Mud inlet temperature; 4. Geothermal gradient; 5. Heat transfer coefficient; 6. Depth. Computer programs were developed to solve the differential equations presented in the Holmes model. The model was used to calculate down-hole circulation temperature in an idealized well. For this analysis, the drillstring is not varied and no casing is assumed. The temperature profile of the mud in the drill pipe and in the annulus is shown. The rate of increase in the temperature decreases at about two-thirds of the total depth. This phenomenon also was demonstrated by the Crawford model. The findings regarding the various effects are given in this article.

Bizanti, M.S.; Bayyaa, S.M.



Parameters affecting greywater quality and its safety for reuse.  


Reusing greywater (GW) for on-site irrigation is becoming a common practice worldwide. Alongside its benefits, GW reuse might pose health and environmental risks. The current study assesses the risks associated with on-site GW reuse and the main factors affecting them. GW from 34 households in Israel was analyzed for physicochemical parameters, Escherichia coli (as an indicator for rotavirus), Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Each participating household filled out a questionnaire about their GW sources, treatment and usages. Quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) was performed based on the measured microbial quality, and on exposure scenarios derived from the questionnaires and literature data. The type of treatment was found to have a significant effect on the quality of the treated GW. The average E. coli counts in GW (which exclude kitchen effluent) treated by professionally-designed system resulted in acceptable risk under all exposure scenarios while the risk from inadequately-treated GW was above the accepted level as set by the WHO. In conclusion, safe GW reuse requires a suitable and well-designed treatment system. A risk-assessment approach should be used to adjust the current regulations/guidelines and to assess the performance of GW treatment and reuse systems. PMID:24751591

Maimon, Adi; Friedler, Eran; Gross, Amit



A review of the meteorological parameters which affect aerial application  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ambient wind field and temperature gradient were found to be the most important parameters. Investigation results indicated that the majority of meteorological parameters affecting dispersion were interdependent and the exact mechanism by which these factors influence the particle dispersion was largely unknown. The types and approximately ranges of instrumented capabilities for a systematic study of the significant meteorological parameters influencing aerial applications were defined. Current mathematical dispersion models were also briefly reviewed. Unfortunately, a rigorous dispersion model which could be applied to aerial application was not available.

Christensen, L. S.; Frost, W.



Key parameters of active layers affecting proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 2n full factorial design was applied to identify the key parameters of the active layer affecting the performance of a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell. Three main selected parameters were considered: carbon-type (Vulcan XC 72R and Black Pearls 2000 conducting furnace blacks, Cabot Corporation Boston, MA), Pt loading (0.1 and 0.5mg\\/cm2), and Nafion sulfonic acid fluoropolymer (Du Pont

Jarupuk Thepkaew; Apichai Therdthianwong; Supaporn Therdthianwong



A study of the main factors affecting NiMH battery activation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in capacity, plateau voltage and internal resistance during the activation process of NiMH batteries were investigated. The result shows that the amount of electrolyte, the temperature, aging time and the chargedischarge regime are the main factors affecting the activation of NiMH batteries. A method for activating NiMH batteries is suggested.

C. Z Yu; G. J Yan; W. H Lai; Q. H Dong



Parameters Affecting Ethyl Ester Production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae during Fermentation?  

PubMed Central

Volatile esters are responsible for the fruity character of fermented beverages and thus constitute a vital group of aromatic compounds in beer and wine. Many fermentation parameters are known to affect volatile ester production. In order to obtain insight into the production of ethyl esters during fermentation, we investigated the influence of several fermentation variables. A higher level of unsaturated fatty acids in the fermentation medium resulted in a general decrease in ethyl ester production. On the other hand, a higher fermentation temperature resulted in greater ethyl octanoate and decanoate production, while a higher carbon or nitrogen content of the fermentation medium resulted in only moderate changes in ethyl ester production. Analysis of the expression of the ethyl ester biosynthesis genes EEB1 and EHT1 after addition of medium-chain fatty acid precursors suggested that the expression level is not the limiting factor for ethyl ester production, as opposed to acetate ester production. Together with the previous demonstration that provision of medium-chain fatty acids, which are the substrates for ethyl ester formation, to the fermentation medium causes a strong increase in the formation of the corresponding ethyl esters, this result further supports the hypothesis that precursor availability has an important role in ethyl ester production. We concluded that, at least in our fermentation conditions and with our yeast strain, the fatty acid precursor level rather than the activity of the biosynthetic enzymes is the major limiting factor for ethyl ester production. The expression level and activity of the fatty acid biosynthetic enzymes therefore appear to be prime targets for flavor modification by alteration of process parameters or through strain selection. PMID:17993562

Saerens, S. M. G.; Delvaux, F.; Verstrepen, K. J.; Van Dijck, P.; Thevelein, J. M.; Delvaux, F. R.



Physical Parameters of Fiber Affecting Passage from the Rumen1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our objective was to review the factors that affect fiber passage from the rumen. Rumen residence time and passage from the rumen are important in control of intake, digestibility, protein metabo- lism, and protein escape. Physical fac- tors associated with particle size and particle specific gravity affect passage from the rumen. Although particles of 5 cm may pass through the

J. G. Welch



How k-Nearest Neighbor Parameters Affect its Performance  

E-print Network

the parameters employed in this evaluation, such as the inverse weighting and HVDM distance functions. In order performance. The parameters investigated are the number of nearest neighbors, distance function and weighting distance measures and three well-known weighting func- tions. Our experiments were performed over thirty

Batista, Gustavo


Implementing Affect Parameters in Personalized Web-Based Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers used to believe that emotional processes are beyond the scope of a scientific study. Recent advances in cognitive\\u000a science and artificial intelligence, however, suggest that there is nothing mystical about emotional processes. Affective\\u000a neuroscience and psychology have reported that human affect and emotional experience play a significant, and useful, role\\u000a in human learning and decision making. Emotions are considered

Zacharias Lekkas; Nikos Tsianos; Panagiotis Germanakos; Constantinos Mourlas; George Samaras



[Sizes of soil macropores and related main affecting factors on a vegetated basalt slope].  


The landslide on vegetated slopes caused by extreme weather has being increased steadily, and the preferential flow in soil macropores plays an important role in the landslide. By using water breakthrough curve and Poiseuille equation, this paper estimated the radius range, amount, and average volume of soil macropores on a vegetated basalt slope of Maka Mountain, Southwest China, and analyzed the distribution of the soil macropores and the main affecting factors. In the study area, the radius of soil macropores ranged from 0.3 to 1.8 mm, mainly between 0.5 and 1.2 mm. The large-radius macropores (1.4-1.8 mm) were lesser, while the small-radius macropores (< 1.4 mm) were more. With the development of soil profile, soil macropores were more in upper layers and lesser in deeper layers. The average volume of the macropores contributed 84.7% to the variance of steady effluent rate. Among the factors affecting the average volume of the large macropores, vegetations root mass had a linear relationship, with the correlation coefficient being 0.70, and soil organic matter content also had a linear relationship, with the correlation coefficient being 0.64. PMID:24483084

Guan, Qi; Xu, Ze-Min; Tian, Lin



Generation of Longitudinal Flux Tube Waves in Theoretical Main-Sequence Stars: Effects of Model Parameters  

E-print Network

Context. Continued investigation of the linkage between magneto-acoustic energy generation in stellar convective zones and the energy dissipation and radiative emission in outer stellar atmospheres in stars of different activity levels. Aims. We compute the wave energy fluxes carried by longitudinal tube waves along vertically oriented thin magnetic fluxes tubes embedded in the atmospheres of theoretical main-sequence stars based on stellar parameters deduced by R. L. Kurucz and D. F. Gray. Additionally, we present a fitting formula for the wave energy flux based on the governing stellar and magnetic parameters. Methods. A modified theory of turbulence generation based on the mixing-length concept is combined with the magneto-hydrodynamic equations to numerically account for the wave energies generated at the base of magnetic flux tubes. Results. The results indicate a stiff dependence of the generated wave energy on the stellar and magnetic parameters in principal agreement with previous studies. The wave en...

Fawzy, Diaa E



On-line implementation of nonlinear parameter estimation for the Space Shuttle main engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We investigate the performance of a nonlinear estimation scheme applied to the estimation of several parameters in a performance model of the Space Shuttle Main Engine. The nonlinear estimator is based upon the extended Kalman filter which has been augmented to provide estimates of several key performance variables. The estimated parameters are directly related to the efficiency of both the low pressure and high pressure fuel turbopumps. Decreases in the parameter estimates may be interpreted as degradations in turbine and/or pump efficiencies which can be useful measures for an online health monitoring algorithm. This paper extends previous work which has focused on off-line parameter estimation by investigating the filter's on-line potential from a computational standpoint. ln addition, we examine the robustness of the algorithm to unmodeled dynamics. The filter uses a reduced-order model of the engine that includes only fuel-side dynamics. The on-line results produced during this study are comparable to off-line results generated previously. The results show that the parameter estimates are sensitive to dynamics not included in the filter model. Off-line results using an extended Kalman filter with a full order engine model to address the robustness problems of the reduced-order model are also presented.

Buckland, Julia H.; Musgrave, Jeffrey L.; Walker, Bruce K.



Evaluation of parameters affecting Agrobacterium -mediated transformation of citrus  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved protocol for genetic transformation of juvenile explants of Carrizo (Citrus sinensis Osb.נPoncirus trifoliata L. Raf.), Duncan (Citrus paradisi Macf.), Hamlin (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) and Mexican Lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) cultivars using a vector containing a bifunctional egfp-nptII fusion gene is described. Several parameters were investigated to optimize genetic transformation of these four cultivars.\\u000a It was determined that

M. Dutt; J. W. Grosser



Does bleeding affect fetal Doppler parameters during genetic amniocentesis?  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between fetal Doppler parameters and bleeding at insertion points during amniocentesis. Material and Methods This prospective study was conducted between July 2010 and February 2011. A total of 215 amniocentesis procedures were performed during this period. Five patients with Down syndrome were excluded from the study. The remaining 210 patients were divided into Group 1 (bleeding at insertion site) and Group 2 as a control group. One needle type was used for all patients. Umbilical artery resistance index (UARI), umbilical artery pulsatility index (UAPI), middle cerebral artery resistance index (MCARI), middle cerebral artery pulsatility index (MCA PI), and middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity (MCAPSV) were measured immediately and before and after amniocentesis. Results Bleeding at the insertion point during amniocentesis did not significantly change the UARI (34% increase for Group 1 and 46.5% increase for Group 2, p=0.238), the MCARI (52% increase for Group 1 and 45% increase for Group 2, p=0.622), or the MCAPSV (37% increase for Group 1 and 49% increase for Group 2, p=0.199). UARI, MCARI, MCA PI, and MCAPSV were not significantly altered following amniocentesis in Groups 1 and 2. There was a significant increase in UAPI following amniocentesis only in Group 2. Conclusion Bleeding during genetic amniocentesis did not change umbilical artery and middle cerebral artery Doppler parameters. PMID:24976776

?skender, Cantekin; Tar?m, Ebru; ok, Tayfun; Kalayc?, Hakan; Parlakgm?, Ay?e; Yal?nkaya, Cem



Sensitivity analysis on parameters and processes affecting vapor intrusion risk.  


A one-dimensional numerical model was developed and used to identify the key processes controlling vapor intrusion risks by means of a sensitivity analysis. The model simulates the fate of a dissolved volatile organic compound present below the ventilated crawl space of a house. In contrast to the vast majority of previous studies, this model accounts for vertical variation of soil water saturation and includes aerobic biodegradation. The attenuation factor (ratio between concentration in the crawl space and source concentration) and the characteristic time to approach maximum concentrations were calculated and compared for a variety of scenarios. These concepts allow an understanding of controlling mechanisms and aid in the identification of critical parameters to be collected for field situations. The relative distance of the source to the nearest gas-filled pores of the unsaturated zone is the most critical parameter because diffusive contaminant transport is significantly slower in water-filled pores than in gas-filled pores. Therefore, attenuation factors decrease and characteristic times increase with increasing relative distance of the contaminant dissolved source to the nearest gas diffusion front. Aerobic biodegradation may decrease the attenuation factor by up to three orders of magnitude. Moreover, the occurrence of water table oscillations is of importance. Dynamic processes leading to a retreating water table increase the attenuation factor by two orders of magnitude because of the enhanced gas phase diffusion. PMID:22392684

Picone, Sara; Valstar, Johan; van Gaans, Pauline; Grotenhuis, Tim; Rijnaarts, Huub



[Litter decomposition and its main affecting factors in tidal marshes of Minjiang River Estuary, East China].  


By using litterbag method, this paper studied the decomposition of the leaf- and flower litters of two emergent macrophytes, native species Phragmites australis and invasive species Spartina alterniflora, and related affecting factors in the Minjiang River estuary of East China. In the decomposition process of the litters, the decay of standing litter (0-90 days) was an important period, and the loss rate of the flower- and leaf litters dry mass of P. australis and S. alterniflora was 15.0 +/- 3.5% and 13.3 +/- 1.1%, and 31.9 +/- 1.1% and 20.8 +/- 1.4%, respectively. During lodging decay period (91-210 days), the loss rate of the flower- and leaf litters dry mass of P. australis and S. alterniflora was 69.5 +/- 0.6% and 71.5 +/- 2.5%, and 76.8 +/- 1.9% and 67.5 +/- 2.1%, respectively. In standing decay period, the decomposition rate of the two plants litters was positively correlated with the litters C/N but negatively correlated to the litters N/P, and the litters P was an important factor limiting the litters decay. In lodging decay period, the effects of the litters C/N, C/P, and N/P decreased, while the environment factors (climate, soil moisture, soil acidity and salinity, and sediment properties) acted more important roles. The differences in the factors affecting the decay of the litters in different decomposition periods were mainly related to the micro-environment and tidal process for the two plant communities. PMID:23285995

Zhang, Lin-Hai; Zeng, Cong-Sheng; Zhang, Wen-Juan; Wang, Tian-E; Tong, Chuan



Affective State Influences Perception by Affecting Decision Parameters Underlying Bias and Sensitivity  

PubMed Central

Studies of the effect of affect on perception often show consistent directional effects of a persons affective state on perception. Unpleasant emotions have been associated with a locally focused style of stimulus evaluation, and positive emotions with a globally focused style. Typically, however, studies of affect and perception have not been conducted under the conditions of perceptual uncertainty and behavioral risk inherent to perceptual judgments outside the laboratory. We investigated the influence of perceivers experience affect (valence and arousal) on the utility of social threat perception by combining signal detection theory and behavioral economics. We created three perceptual decision environments that systematically differed with respect to factors that underlie uncertainty and risk: the base rate of threat, the costs of incorrect identification threat, and the perceptual similarity of threats and non-threats. We found that no single affective state yielded the best performance on the threat perception task across the three environments. Unpleasant valence promoted calibration of response bias to base rate and costs, high arousal promoted calibration of perceptual sensitivity to perceptual similarity, and low arousal was associated with an optimal adjustment of bias to sensitivity. However, the strength of these associations was conditional upon the difficulty of attaining optimal bias and high sensitivity, such that the effect of the perceivers affective state on perception differed with the cause and/or level of uncertainty and risk. PMID:22251054

Lynn, Spencer K.; Zhang, Xuan; Barrett, Lisa Feldman



Determination of the key parameters affecting historic communications satellite trends  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data representing 13 series of commercial communications satellites procured between 1968 and 1982 were analyzed to determine the factors that have contributed to the general reduction over time of the per circuit cost of communications satellites. The model by which the data were analyzed was derived from a general telecommunications application and modified to be more directly applicable for communications satellites. In this model satellite mass, bandwidth-years, and technological change were the variable parameters. A linear, least squares, multiple regression routine was used to obtain the measure of significance of the model. Correlation was measured by coefficient of determination (R super 2) and t-statistic. The results showed that no correlation could be established with satellite mass. Bandwidth-year however, did show a significant correlation. Technological change in the bandwidth-year case was a significant factor in the model. This analysis and the conclusions derived are based on mature technologies, i.e., satellite designs that are evolutions of earlier designs rather than the first of a new generation. The findings, therefore, are appropriate to future satellites only if they are a continuation of design evolution.

Namkoong, D.



Parameters Affecting Water Hammer Wave Attenuation, Shape by Anton Bergant1  

E-print Network

Parameters Affecting Water Hammer Wave Attenuation, Shape and Timing by Anton Bergant1 and This paper investigates parameters that may affect water hammer wave attenuation, shape and timing. Possible friction, cavitation, and a number of fluid-structure interaction (FSI) effects. The discrepancies

Eindhoven, Technische Universiteit


Effect of Welding Parameters on the Size of Heat Affected Zone of Submerged Arc Welding  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the effect of welding parameters on the size of the heat affected zone (HAZ) and its relative size as compared to the weld bead of submerged arc welding. It is discovered that the welding parameters influences the size of weld bead and HAZ differently which can be relate to the effect of welding parameters on the various

C. S. Lee; R. S. Chandel; H. P. Seow



Stress and fault parameters affecting fault slip magnitude and activation time during a glacial cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The growing and melting of continental ice sheets during a glacial cycle is accompanied by stress changes and reactivation of faults. To better understand the relationship between stress changes, fault activation time, fault parameters, and fault slip magnitude, a new physics-based two-dimensional numerical model is used. In this study, tectonic background stress magnitudes and fault parameters are tested as well as the angle of the fault and the fault locations relative to the ice sheet. Our results show that fault slip magnitude for all faults is mainly affected by the coefficient of friction within the crust and along the fault and also by the depth of the fault tip and angle of the fault. Within a compressional stress regime, we find that steeply dipping faults (75) can be activated after glacial unloading, and fault activity continues thereafter. Furthermore, our results indicate that low-angle faults (dipping at 30) may slip up to 63m, equivalent to an earthquake with a minimum moment magnitude of 7.0. Finally, our results imply that the crust beneath formerly glaciated regions was close to a critically stressed state, in order to enable activation of faults by small changes in stress during a glacial cycle.

Steffen, Rebekka; Steffen, Holger; Wu, Patrick; Eaton, David W.



Effect of welding parameters on the heat-affected zone of AISI409 ferritic stainless steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the main problems during the welding of ferritic stainless steels is severe grain growth within the heat-affected zone (HAZ). In the present study, the microstructural characteristics of tungsten inert gas (TIG) welded AISI409 ferritic stainless steel were investigated by electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD), and the effects of welding parameters on the grain size, local misorientation, and low-angle grain boundaries were studied. A 3-D finite element model (FEM) was developed to predict the effects of welding parameters on the holding time of the HAZ above the critical temperature of grain growth. It is found that the base metal is not fully recrystallized. During the welding, complete recrystallization is followed by severe grain growth. A decrease in the number of low-angle grain boundaries is observed within the HAZ. FEM results show that the final state of residual strains is caused by competition between welding plastic strains and their release by recrystallization. Still, the decisive factor for grain growth is heat input.

Ranjbarnodeh, Eslam; Hanke, Stefanie; Weiss, Sabine; Fischer, Alfons



Effect of physical parameters on the main phase transition of supported lipid bilayers.  


Supported lipid bilayers composed of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-phosphatidylethanolamine (POPE) and 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-phosphatidylglycerol (POPG) were assembled by the vesicle fusion technique on mica and studied by temperature-controlled atomic force microscopy. The role of different physical parameters on the main phase transition was elucidated. Both mixed (POPE/POPG 3:1) and pure POPE bilayers were studied. By increasing the ionic strength of the solution and the incubation temperature, a shift from a decoupled phase transition of the two leaflets, to a coupled transition, with domains in register, was obtained. The observed behavior points to a modulation of the substrate/bilayer and interleaflet coupling induced by the environment and preparation conditions of supported lipid bilayers. The results are discussed in view of the role of different interactions in the system. The influence of the substrate on the lipid bilayers, in terms of interleaflet coupling, can also help us in understanding the possible effect that submembrane elements like the cytoskeleton might have on the structure and dynamics of biomembranes. PMID:19686654

Seeger, H M; Marino, G; Alessandrini, A; Facci, P



Effect of Physical Parameters on the Main Phase Transition of Supported Lipid Bilayers  

PubMed Central

Abstract Supported lipid bilayers composed of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-phosphatidylethanolamine (POPE) and 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-phosphatidylglycerol (POPG) were assembled by the vesicle fusion technique on mica and studied by temperature-controlled atomic force microscopy. The role of different physical parameters on the main phase transition was elucidated. Both mixed (POPE/POPG 3:1) and pure POPE bilayers were studied. By increasing the ionic strength of the solution and the incubation temperature, a shift from a decoupled phase transition of the two leaflets, to a coupled transition, with domains in register, was obtained. The observed behavior points to a modulation of the substrate/bilayer and interleaflet coupling induced by the environment and preparation conditions of supported lipid bilayers. The results are discussed in view of the role of different interactions in the system. The influence of the substrate on the lipid bilayers, in terms of interleaflet coupling, can also help us in understanding the possible effect that submembrane elements like the cytoskeleton might have on the structure and dynamics of biomembranes. PMID:19686654

Seeger, H.M.; Marino, G.; Alessandrini, A.; Facci, P.



Skin-light interaction of three main chromofores in skin affected by Port Wine Stain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, simulation and mathematical analysis of the absorption, dispersion and dynamics of laser light generated at 690nm and its interaction with skin affected by the Port Wine Stain is presented. The absorption coefficient and penetration depth of water, hemoglobin and oxy-hemoglobin, as key chromophores are calculated. A suitable wavelength for possible treatment on Port Wine Stain located in the skin layers such as Dermis and Hypodermis is determined. The presentation will include a full fiber laser design description, detailed skin affectation explanation and preliminary results.

Mjica Ascencio, S.; Velzquez Gonzlez, J. S.; lvarez Chvez, J. A.



The Maine Question: How Is 4-Year College Enrollment Affected by Mandatory College Entrance Exams?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We use a difference-in-differences analytic approach to estimate postsecondary consequences from Maine's mandate that all public school juniors take the SAT. We find that, overall, the policy increased 4-year college-going rates by 2- to 3-percentage points and that 4-year college-going rates among induced students increased by 10-percentage

Hurwitz, Michael; Smith, Jonathan; Niu, Sunny; Howell, Jessica



Study on optimization design of the main electromagnetic parameters of permanent magnet synchronous motor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electromagnetic parameters of permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) such as the open load permanent magnet flux, d axis reactance Xd and q axis reactance Xq are most essential to the performance analysis and optimization design of the motor. Based on the numerical analysis of 3D electromagnetic field, the three electromagnetic parameters of permanent magnet synchronous motors with U form

Guangxu Zhou; Jixiang Wang; Lanjie Ren; Tingting Ding



Macroinvertebrate abundance, water chemistry, and wetland characteristics affect use of wetlands by avian species in Maine  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Our objective was to determine use by avian species (e.g., piscivores, marsh birds, waterfowl, selected passerines) of 29 wetlands in areas with low ( 5.51. All years combined use of wetlands by broods was greater on wetlands with pH 5.51 that supported 21.8% of the broods. High mean brood density was associated with mean number of Insecta per wetland. For lentic wetlands created by beaver, those habitats contained vegetative structure and nutrients necessary to provide cover to support invertebrate populations that are prey of omnivore and insectivore species. The fishless status of a few wetlands may have affected use by some waterfowl species and obligate piscivores.

Longcore, J.R.; McAuley, D.G.; Pendleton, G.W.; Bennatti, C.R.; Mingo, T.M.; Stromborg, K.L.



Summary of typical parameters that affect sound transmission through general aviation aircraft structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents results of a systematic experimental investigation of parameters which affect sound transmission through general aviation structures. Parameters studied include angle of sound incidence, panel curvature, panel stresses, and edge conditions for bare panels; pane thickness, spacing, inclination of window panes, and depressurization for dual pane windows; densities of hard foam and sound absorption materials, air gaps, and trim panel thickness for multilayered panels. Based on the study, some promising methods for reducing interior noise in general aviation airplanes are discussed.

Grosveld, F.; Navaneethan, R.; Roskam, J.



Thymoquinone, the main constituent of Nigella sativa, affects adenosine receptors in asthmatic guinea pigs  

PubMed Central

Objective(s): For determining the mechanism of anti-asthmatic effect of thymoquinone, this investigation evaluated the effect of thymoquinone in the presence of selective A2A and A2B adenosine receptor antagonists (ZM241385 and MRS1706, respectively). Materials and Methods: Seventy guinea pigs were randomly divided to 7 groups; control (C), sensitized with ovalbumin (S), sensitized groups pretreated with thymoquinone (S+TQ), ZM241385 (S+Anta A2A), MRS1706 (S+Anta A2B), thymoquinone and antagonists (S+Anta A2A+TQ and S+Anta A2B+TQ). Thymoquinone and each of these antagonists with 3 mg/kg dose were injected i.p. on 10th day of sensitization protocol. Tracheal responsiveness (TR) to methacholine and ovalbumin (OA), and total and differential cell count in lung lavage fluid (LLF) in different groups were measured. Results: Increased EC50 and LLF neutrophil count and decreased TR to methacholine and OA, LLF eosinophil and basophil counts were observed in S+TQ group compared to S group (P<0.001 to P<0.05). Significant decrease in EC50 (P<0.01), LLF neutrophil, lymphocyte and monocyte count (P<0.001 for all) and significant increase in TR to OA (P<0.01), LLF total WBC (P<0.01) and eosinophil count (P<0.001) were observed in S+A2A group compared to S+TQ group. There was significant increase in LLF eosinophil and monocyte counts in S+Anta A2B group compared with S+TQ group (P<0.001 for both). In S+TQ+Anta A2A group, there was significant increase in LLF eosinophil (P<0.001) and significant decrease in LLF neutrophil (P<0.01) and monocyte (P<0.001) counts compared with S+TQ group. Conclusion: Thymoquinone affects adenosine receptors, which suggest that some of its anti-inflammatory effects may be mediated by these receptors.

Pejman, Laleh; Omrani, Hasan; Mirzamohammadi, Zahra; Keyhanmanesh, Rana



Neck Muscle Paths and Moment Arms are Significantly Affected by Wrapping Surface Parameters  

E-print Network

Neck Muscle Paths and Moment Arms are Significantly Affected by Wrapping Surface Parameters.S.A. *Corresponding author. Email: We have studied the effects of wrapping surfaces on muscle paths and moment arms of the semispinalis capitis muscle, one of the major extensors of the neck. Sensitivities

Krishnamoorthy, Bala


Physical parameters affecting sonoluminescence: A self-consistent hydrodynamic study L. Yuan,1,2  

E-print Network

Physical parameters affecting sonoluminescence: A self-consistent hydrodynamic study L. Yuan,1,2 H in a sonoluminescing SL bubble on var- ious physical factors, which include viscosity, thermal conductivity, surface The phenomenon of sonoluminescence SL associated with the collapse of a gas bubble driven by ultrasound has

Yuan, Li


Chronic consumption of alcohol and sperm parameters: our experience and the main evidences.  


The present article describes the recent clinical experience and the main clinical and experimental evidences on this topic. In the first part, we present retrospective data collected over the last year on the semen quality and hormonal characteristics of the alcohol consumers evaluated in our centre. In the second part, we describe the mechanisms by which chronic alcohol intoxication impairs the testicular function (evidences for an ethanol-mediated effect at pre-testicular/testicular and post-testicular level). In the third part, we present data on ethanol taken a male risk factor of infertility, being present as one among other recreational drugs (also called lifestyle). Finally, is discussed the role of individual susceptibility factors and other variables. PMID:24766499

Condorelli, R A; Calogero, A E; Vicari, E; La Vignera, S



Influences of the main anodic electroplating parameters on cerium oxide films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cerium oxide thin films were fabricated onto 316 L stainless steel via a potentiostatically anodic electrodeposition approach in the solutions containing cerium(III) nitrate (0.05 M), ammonia acetate (0.1 M) and ethanol (10% V/V). The electrochemical behaviors and deposition parameters (applied potential, bath temperature, dissolving O2 and bath pH) have been investigated. Results show that, the electrochemical oxidation of Ce3+ goes through one electrochemical step, which is under charge transfer control. The optimum applied potential for film deposition is 0.8 V. Bath temperature plays a significant effect on the deposition rate, composition (different colors of the film) and surface morphology of the deposits. Due to the hydrolysis of Ce3+, cerous hydroxide is facility to form when the bath temperature is higher than 60 C. The electroplating bath pH is another key role for the anodic deposition of cerium oxide thin films, and the best bath pH is around 6.20. N2 or O2 purged into the bath will result in film porosities and O2 favors cerium oxide particles and film generation.

Yang, Yang; Yang, Yumeng; Du, Xiaoqing; Chen, Yu; Zhang, Zhao; Zhang, Jianqing



In vitro comparison of parameters affecting the fixation strength of sagittal split osteotomies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The goal of this study was to determine how different parameters affect the bending strength of human cadaver mandibles that have undergone a sagittal split osteotomy.Materials and Methods: The effects of screw material (titanium [Ti] vs polylactic acid\\/polyglycolic acid [PLA\\/PGA]), screw configuration (linear vs inverted L-shape), screw diameter (2.0 mm vs 2.7 mm), material into which screws were inserted

David H Kohn; Erik M Richmond; Edward R Dootz; Stephen E Feinberg; William S Pietrzak



Parameters affecting the life cycle performance of PV technologies and systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper assesses modeling parameters that affect the environmental performance of two state-of-the-art photovoltaic (PV) electricity generation technologies: the PVL136 thin film laminates and the KC120 multi-crystalline modules. We selected three metrics to assess the modules environmental performance, which are part of an actual 33kW installation in Ann Arbor, MI. The net energy ratio (NER), the energy pay back time

Sergio Pacca; Deepak Sivaraman; Gregory A. Keoleian



Transfecting mammalian cells: optimization of critical parameters affecting calcium-phosphate precipitate formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA-calcium phosphate co-precipitates arise spontaneously in supersaturated solutions. Highly effective precipitates for transfection purposes, however, can be generated only in a very narrow range of physico-chemical conditions that control the initiation and growth of precipitate complexes. The concentrations of calcium and phosphate are the main factors influencing characteristics of the precipitate complex, but other parameters, such as temperature, DNA concentration

Martin Jordan; Annette Schallhorn; Florian M. Wurm



The Main Issues Affecting Coasts of the Indian and Western Pacific Oceans: A Meta-analysis from Seas at the Millennium  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of the world oceans in three volumes by 365 scientists, provides scope for several `meta-analyses' of the main problems affecting over 100 areas in the year 2000. This article summarises the main issues affecting a sub-set of the reviewed areas, covering Asian, African and Arabian countries dealt with in Volume 2, which included over 50 articles. From all

Charles Sheppard



Characterization of Geotechnical Parameters Affecting Stability of Unconsolidated Materials from Electrical Measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Non-invasive geophysical techniques, which are non-invasive and cost effective, can be used to predict some useful petrophysical and engineering properties of unconsolidated geomaterials (e.g.,soils) that are known to affect their geotechnical behavior, that is, stability and strength. Knowledge of such properties are useful in the assessment of landslides and other natural hazards. We investigate the influence of petrophysical and geotechncial engineering parameters of unconsolidated near surface materials on their electrical measurements. Frequency-dependent resistivity measurements are performed at a constant effective stress level on thirty two samples of varying textures and compositions in a laboratory environment. Petrophysical and engineering parameters which affect the mechanical and strength behavior of the samples, that is, fines content, specific surface area, pore size parameter and fractal dimension of the grain size distributions are obtained from geotechnical analysis. The electrical parameters which describe the electrical response of the samples, that is, resistivity amplitude, phase shift, percent frequency effect, loss tangent and the normalized phase, are extracted from the electrical measurements. Crossplots of the electrical versus the engineering parameters provide some useful information on how the geotechnical properties influence electrical measurements. Analyses of the correlations also indicate that there exist characteristic or transitional values of the fines content (18%) and pore size(0.03mm), beyond which the phase and normalized phase values are insensitive to their respective increases. The characteristic value of 18% of fines content is close to values reported in previous studies that signifies transition in strength behavior of soils, and thus such relations could be important in non-invasive strength assessment and monitoring of soils. Normalized phase values are used to reasonably assess the relative amount of fines in the studied soils.

Boadu, F.; Owusu-Nimo, F.



Identifying Critical Road Geometry Parameters Affecting Crash Rate and Crash Type  

PubMed Central

The objective of this traffic safety investigation was to find critical road parameters affecting crash rate (CR). The study was based on crash and road maintenance data from Western Sweden. More than 3000 crashes, reported from 2000 to 2005 on median-separated roads, were collected and combined with road geometric and surface data. The statistical analysis showed variations in CR when road elements changed confirming that road characteristics affect CR. The findings indicated that large radii right-turn curves were more dangerous than left curves, in particular, during lane changing manoeuvres. However sharper curves are more dangerous in both left and right curves. Moreover, motorway carriageways with no or limited shoulders have the highest CR when compared to other carriageway widths, while one lane carriageway sections on 2+1 roads were the safest. Road surface results showed that both wheel rut depth and road roughness have negative impacts on traffic safety. PMID:20184841

Othman, Sarbaz; Thomson, Robert; Lannr, Gunnar



Variation in wind and piscivorous predator fields affecting the survival of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, in the Gulf of Maine  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Observations relevant to the North American stock complex of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., suggest that marine mortality is influenced by variation in predation pressure affecting post-smolts during the first months at sea. This hypothesis was tested for Gulf of Maine (GOM) stocks by examining wind pseudostress and the distribution of piscivorous predator fields potentially affecting post-smolts. Marine survival has declined over recent decades with a change in the direction of spring winds, which is likely extending the migration of post-smolts by favouring routes using the western GOM. In addition to changes in spring wind patterns, higher spring sea surface temperatures have been associated with shifting distributions of a range of fish species. The abundance of several pelagic piscivores, which based on their feeding habits may predate on salmon post-smolts, has increased in the areas that serve as migration corridors for post-smolts. In particular, populations of silver hake, Merluccius bilinearis (Mitchell), red hake, Urophycis chuss (Walbaum), and spiny dogfish, Squalus acanthias L., increased in size in the portion of the GOM used by post-smolts. Climate variation and shifting predator distributions in the GOM are consistent with the predator hypothesis of recruitment control suggested for the stock complex.

Friedland, K.D.; Manning, J.P.; Link, Jason S.; Gilbert, J.R.; Gilbert, A.T.; O'Connell, A.F., Jr.



Sub-clinical diseases affecting performance in Standardbred trotters: diagnostic methods and predictive parameters.  


The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of sub-clinical diseases in poorly-performing Standardbred horses, compare their physiological response to exercise with control horses, and identify predictive parameters of poor-performance. Fifty horses underwent thorough clinical and ancillary examinations, including haematological and biochemical evaluation, Doppler echocardiography, standardised exercise tests (SETs) on both treadmill and racetrack, treadmill video-endoscopy and collection of respiratory fluids. Most of the poorly-performing horses exhibited many concomitant diseases. The most frequently diagnosed problems involved the lower and upper respiratory tract and the musculoskeletal system. Poor-performers had lower speeds at a blood lactate (LA) concentration of 4mmol/L (V(LA4)) and a heart rate (HR) of 200bpm (V(200)) on treadmill and racetrack, as well as lower values for haematological parameters, plasma angiotensin-converting enzyme and antioxidants, compared to control horses. Problems of the respiratory system were the most frequently diagnosed sub-clinical diseases affecting performance. SETs, together with some blood markers, may be useful as a non-specific diagnostic tool for early detection of diseases that may affect performance. PMID:19477143

Richard, Eric A; Fortier, Guillaume D; Pitel, Pierre-Hugues; Dupuis, Marie-Capucine; Valette, Jean-Paul; Art, Tatiana; Denoix, Jean-Marie; Lekeux, Pierre M; Erck, Emmanuelle Van



Experimental Analyses of the Major Parameters Affecting the Intensity of Outbursts of Coal and Gas  

PubMed Central

With an increase in mining depth and production, the intensity and frequency of outburst of coal and gas have a tendency to increase. Estimating the intensity of outbursts of coal and gas plays an important role because of its relation with the risk value. In this paper, we described the semiquantitative relations between major parameters and intensity of outburst based on physical experiments. The results showed increment of geostress simulated by horizontal load (from 1.4, 2.4, 3.2, to 3.4?MPa) or vertical load (from 2, 3, 3.6, to 4?MPa) improved the relative intensity rate (3.7637.403% and 1.2737.99%); the increment of porosity (from 1.57, 2.51, 3, to 3.6%) improved the relative intensity rate from 3.8 to 13.8%; the increment of gas pressure (from 0, 0.5, 0.65, 0.72, 1, to 1.5?Mpa) induced the relative intensity rate to decrease from 38.22 to 0%; the increment of water content (from 0, 2, 4, to 8%) caused the relative intensity rate to drop from 5.425 to 0.5%. Furthermore, sensitivity and range analysis evaluates coupled factors affecting the relative intensity. In addition, the distinction with initiation of outburst of coal and gas affected by these parameters is discussed by the relative threshold of gas content rate. PMID:25162042

Nie, W.; Peng, S. J.; Xu, J.; Liu, L. R.; Wang, G.; Geng, J. B.



Analysis of key parameters affecting the thermal behavior and performance of quantum cascade lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present an investigation of some key parameters affecting the thermal behavior and performance of quantum cascade lasers (QCLs). We take into account the temperature dependent heat conducting parameters of the layers, including their interface thermal resistance. Our study shows that for QCL structures with a rather thick active core comprised of many heterointerfaces, the thermal boundary resistances play a crucial role. We use a finite element method to simulate the heat dissipation in QCLs with different structures and different packaging methods. These are then quantitatively compared with existing experimental data. Results show that (1) epilayer-up mounting with buried and/or thick gold plated structures is a good substitute for epilayer-down mounting, and (2) using InP cladding and plasmon layer replacing InAlAs /InGaAs further improves heat transfer characteristics. On the other hand, for reaching cw operation at room temperature, the driving current density must be optimized to a significantly lower level than what is conventionally believed. The simulations also reveal that the substantial nonuniformity of temperature distribution in the active core of QCLs should have a significant effect on the resulting laser spectra. In this paper, we also present investigations and discussions on the thermal performance of InGaAs /AlGaAsSb QCLs and its correlations to various parameters.

Zhu, Cheng; Zhang, Yong-gang; Li, Ai-zhen; Tian, Zhao-bing



Modeling of mouse eye and errors in ocular parameters affecting refractive state  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rodents eye are particularly used to study refractive error state of an eye and development of refractive eye. Genetic organization of rodents is similar to that of humans, which makes them interesting candidates to be researched upon. From rodents family mice models are encouraged over rats because of availability of genetically engineered models. Despite of extensive work that has been performed on mice and rat models, still no one is able to quantify an optical model, due to variability in the reported ocular parameters. In this Dissertation, we have extracted ocular parameters and generated schematics of eye from the raw data from School of Medicine, Detroit. In order to see how the rays would travel through an eye and the defects associated with an eye; ray tracing has been performed using ocular parameters. Finally we have systematically evaluated the contribution of various ocular parameters, such as radii of curvature of ocular surfaces, thicknesses of ocular components, and refractive indices of ocular refractive media, using variational analysis and a computational model of the rodent eye. Variational analysis revealed that variation in all the ocular parameters does affect the refractive status of the eye, but depending upon the magnitude of the impact those parameters are listed as critical or non critical. Variation in the depth of the vitreous chamber, thickness of the lens, radius of the anterior surface of the cornea, radius of the anterior surface of the lens, as well as refractive indices for the lens and vitreous, appears to have the largest impact on the refractive error and thus are categorized as critical ocular parameters. The radii of the posterior surfaces of the cornea and lens have much smaller contributions to the refractive state, while the radii of the anterior and posterior surfaces of the retina have no effect on the refractive error. These data provide the framework for further refinement of the optical models of the rat and mouse eye and suggest that extra efforts should be directed towards increasing the linear resolution of the rodent eye biometry and obtaining more accurate data for the refractive indices of the lens and vitreous.

Bawa, Gurinder


In vitro exposure to the organochlorine p,p'-DDE affects functional human sperm parameters.  


Although no information exists regarding the levels of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) on reproductive fluids of heavily exposed populations, they are possibly quite high given the serum levels reported so far. In these populations altered semen quality has been reported, although the direct effects of this DDT metabolite on crucial sperm parameters remain largely unexplored. With this in mind, a long-term in vitro incubation that better mimics the putative continuous exposure of spermatozoa to p,p'-DDE in the female reproductive tract in vivo was used. Before compromising sperm viability, continuous p,p'-DDE exposure remarkably decreased sperm motility, possibly due to the combined reduction in the proportion of sperm with high mitochondrial membrane potential and cellular ATP levels, all of which were clearly more affected at 50 and 100 ?M p,p'-DDE. Moreover, 25 ?M p,p'-DDE was also able to promote a decline in sperm with high MMP, however without significantly affecting motility. On the other hand, p,p'-DDE at the highest concentration strongly inhibited the process of capacitation following 24h of incubation. In conclusion, human sperm function is affected by continuous high p,p'-DDE exposure which may ultimately compromise male fertility. Given our previously findings that showed a non-regulated Ca(2+) entry in the presence of p,p'-DDE, we suggest that this organochlorine may promote mitochondrial Ca(2+) overload which may culminate in a general mitochondrial dysfunction and cellular ATP depletion, thus affecting sperm fertilizing potential. Our findings suggest a broader understanding of the non-genomic mechanism of p,p'-DDE action in human sperm. PMID:25240159

Tavares, Renata S; Amaral, Sandra; Paiva, Carla; Baptista, Marta; Ramalho-Santos, Joo



Random parameter sampling of a generic three-tier MAPK cascade model reveals major factors affecting its versatile dynamics.  


The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is considered to be a central block in many biological signaling networks. Despite the common core cascade structure, the activation of MAPK in different biological systems can exhibit different types of dynamic behaviors. Computer modeling may help to reveal the mechanisms underlying such variations. However, so far most computational models of the MAPK cascade have been system-specific, or to reflect a particular type among the wide spectrum of possible dynamics. To obtain a general and integrated view of the relationship between the dynamics of MAPK activation and the structures and parameters of the MAPK cascade, we constructed a generic model by comparing previous models covering different specific biological systems. We assumed that reliable qualitative results could be predicted through a qualitative model with pseudo parameters. We used randomly sampled parameters instead of a specific set of "best-fit" parameters to avoid biases towards any particular systems. A range of dynamics behaviors for MAPK activation, including ultrasensitivity, bistability, transient activation and oscillation, were successfully predicted by the generic model. The results indicated that the steady state dynamics (ultrasensitivity and bistability) was jointly determined by the three-tiered structure of the MAPK cascade and the competitive substrate binding in the dual-phosphorylation processes of the central components, while the temporal dynamics (transient activation and oscillation) was mainly affected by the upstream signaling pathway and feedbacks. Moreover, MAPK kinase (MAPKK) played more important roles than the other two components in determining the dynamics of MAPK activation. We hypothesize that this is an important and advantageous property for the regulation and for the functional diversity of MAPK pathways in real cells. Finally, to assist developing generic models for signaling motifs through model comparisons, we proposed a reaction-based database to make the model data more flexible and interoperable. PMID:23365667

Mai, Zhongxing; Liu, Haiyan



External Load Affects Ground Reaction Force Parameters Non-uniformly during Running in Weightlessness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Long-term exposure to microgravity induces detrimefits to the musculcskdetal system (Schneider et al., 1995; LeBlanc et al., 2000). Treadmill exercise is used onboard the International Space Station as an exercise countermeasure to musculoskeletal deconditioning due to spaceflight. During locomotive exercise in weightlessness (0G), crewmembers wear a harness attached to an external loading mechanism (EL). The EL pulls the crewmember toward the treadmill, and provides resistive load during the impact and propulsive phases of gait. The resulting forces may be important in stimulating bone maintenance (Turner, 1998). The EL can be applied via a bungee and carabineer clip configuration attached to the harness and can be manipulated to create varying amounts of load levels during exercise. Ground-based research performed using a vertically mounted treadmill found that peak ground reaction forces (GRF) during running at an EL of less than one body weight (BW) are less than those that occur during running in normal gravity (1G) (Davis et al., 1996). However, it is not known how the GRF are affected by the EL in a true OG environment. Locomotion while suspended may result in biomechanics that differ from free running. The purpose of this investigation was to determine how EL affects peak impact force, peak propulsive force, loading rate, and impulse of the GRF during running in 0G. It was hypothesized that increasing EL would result in increases in each GRF parameter.

DeWitt, John; Schaffner, Grant; Laughlin, Mitzi; Loehr, James; Hagan, R. Donald



Estimation of the growth kinetic parameters of Bacillus cereus spores as affected by pulsed light treatment.  


Quantitative microbial risk assessment requires the knowledge of the effect of food preservation technologies on the growth parameters of the survivors of the treatment. This is of special interest in the case of the new non-thermal technologies that are being investigated for minimal processing of foods. This is a study on the effect of pulsed light technology (PL) on the lag phase of Bacillus cereus spores surviving the treatment and the maximum growth rate (?max) of the survivors after germination. The D value was estimated as 0.35J/cm(2) and our findings showed that PL affected the kinetic parameters of the microorganism. A log linear relationship was observed between the lag phase and the intensity of the treatment. Increasing the lethality lengthened the mean lag phase and proportionally increased its variability. A polynomial regression was fitted between the ?max of the survivors and the inactivation achieved. The ?max decreased as intensity increased. From these data, and their comparison to published results on the effect of heat and e-beam irradiation on B. cereus spores, it was observed that the shelf-life of PL treated foods would be longer than those treated with heat and similar to irradiated ones. These findings offer information of interest for the implementation of PL for microbial decontamination in the food industry. PMID:25755081

Aguirre, Juan S; de Fernando, Gonzalo Garca; Hierro, Eva; Hospital, Xavier F; Ordez, Juan A; Fernndez, Manuela



Distinct isolates of uropathogenic Escherichia coli differentially affect human sperm parameters in vitro.  


Sperm motility and vitality are decreased in male genital tract infection. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) are frequently associated with sperm parameter loss, but there are no reports to date regarding the effects of different E. coli isolates on human spermatozoa. The aim of this work was to compare the effect in vitro of different E. coli isolates on human sperm parameters. Normal spermatozoa were incubated with E. coli isolated from nine men with urinary tract infection. After 1 h of incubation, sperm motility, vitality and mitochondrial membrane potential (??m) were measured. The E. coli isolates were serotyped with specific antisera. Sperm motility was decreased with five of nine E. coli isolates. Two UPEC were typed as O6 strains, and they did not decrease sperm motility in the same experimental conditions as the other five isolates, despite the described high pathogenicity of the O6 strain in urogenital infections. Neither UPEC analysed affected vitality or ??m. UPEC isolates were shown to be heterogeneous in their effects, suggesting the need to characterise the pattern defining the pathogenicity of E. coli on human spermatozoa. PMID:24079260

Boguen, R; Uribe, P; Treulen, F; Villegas, J V



Use of Artificial Neural Networks to Examine Parameters Affecting the Immobilization of Streptokinase in Chitosan  

PubMed Central

Streptokinase is a potent fibrinolytic agent which is widely used in treatment of deep vein thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism (PE) and acute myocardial infarction (MI). Major limitation of this enzyme is its short biological half-life in the blood stream. Our previous report showed that complexing streptokinase with chitosan could be a solution to overcome this limitation. The aim of this research was to establish an artificial neural networks (ANNs) model for identifying main factors influencing the loading efficiency of streptokinase, as an essential parameter determining efficacy of the enzyme. Three variables, namely, chitosan concentration, buffer pH and enzyme concentration were considered as input values and the loading efficiency was used as output. Subsequently, the experimental data were modeled and the model was validated against a set of unseen data. The developed model indicated chitosan concentration as probably the most important factor, having reverse effect on the loading efficiency. PMID:25587327

Modaresi, Seyed Mohamad Sadegh; Faramarzi, Mohammad Ali; Soltani, Arash; Baharifar, Hadi; Amani, Amir



Parameters affecting in vitro oxidation/folding of maurotoxin, a four-disulphide-bridged scorpion toxin.  

PubMed Central

Maurotoxin (MTX) is a 34-mer scorpion toxin cross-linked by four disulphide bridges that acts on various K(+) channel subtypes. MTX adopts a disulphide bridge organization of the type C1-C5, C2-C6, C3-C4 and C7-C8, and folds according to the common alpha/beta scaffold reported for other known scorpion toxins. Here we have investigated the process and kinetics of the in vitro oxidation/folding of reduced synthetic L-MTX (L-sMTX, where L-MTX contains only L-amino acid residues). During the oxidation/folding of reduced L-sMTX, the oxidation intermediates were blocked by iodoacetamide alkylation of free cysteine residues, and analysed by MS. The L-sMTX intermediates appeared sequentially over time from the least (intermediates with one disulphide bridge) to the most oxidized species (native-like, four-disulphide-bridged L-sMTX). The mathematical formulation of the diffusion-collision model being inadequate to accurately describe the kinetics of oxidation/folding of L-sMTX, we have formulated a derived mathematical description that better fits the experimental data. Using this mathematical description, we have compared for the first time the oxidation/folding of L-sMTX with that of D-sMTX, its stereoisomer that contains only D-amino acid residues. Several experimental parameters, likely to affect the oxidation/folding process, were studied further; these included temperature, pH, ionic strength, redox potential and concentration of reduced toxin. We also assessed the effects of some cellular enzymes, peptidylprolyl cis-trans isomerase (PPIase) and protein disulphide isomerase (PDI), on the folding pathways of reduced L-sMTX and D-sMTX. All the parameters tested affect the oxidative folding of sMTX, and the kinetics of this process were indistinguishable for L-sMTX and D-sMTX, except when stereospecific enzymes were used. The most efficient conditions were found to be: 50 mM Tris/HCl/1.4 mM EDTA, pH 7.5, supplemented by 0.5 mM PPIase and 50 units/ml PDI for 0.1 mM reduced compound. These data represent the first report of potent stereoselective effects of cellular enzymes on the oxidation/folding of a scorpion toxin. PMID:11535129

di Luccio, E; Azulay, D O; Regaya, I; Fajloun, Z; Sandoz, G; Mansuelle, P; Kharrat, R; Fathallah, M; Carrega, L; Estve, E; Rochat, H; De Waard, M; Sabatier, J M



Evaluation of CD52 positive sperms in subfertile human semen samples: Is there any relationship with main semen parameters?  

PubMed Central

Background: Sperm maturation and sperm membrane integration are the most important elements in male fertility. CD52 is one of the antigens. CD52 is a GPI (glycosylphosphatidylinositol) anchored that express on lymphocytes and epididymal cells. This antigen bind to sperm membrane during transition sperm from epididymal duct as well as its relationship with semenogelins in human seminal plasma. The aim of this study was to obtain any association between the percentage of CD52 positive sperms with main semen parameters such as percentage of motile sperms, percentage of sperm with normal morphology, and the presence of normal viscosity. Materials and Methods: Semen samples from subfertile men were analyzed, the samples totally were 45 that divided according to their motility into three groups, first one, more than 40%, second one 10-40%, and the third one under 10% total motility. Fifteen samples in each group were evaluated by semen analysis according to WHO 2010 guidelines for infertility laboratory. Sperms were washed by Ham's F-10 and immunostaining with the monoclonal antibody CAMPATH-1G and then analyzed by flow cytometry. We compared each of the groups based on their motility and the data were analyzed by SPSS 20. Results: Correlation between CD52 labeling and sperm motility was negatively significant, in the second group (r = 0.592, P = 0.020) and in the third group (r = 0.805, P = 0.00). Conclusion: Our results showed that the correlation between CD52 labeling and sperm motility was negatively significant, but we did not observe any relation with other semen parameters, such as sperm normal morphology, sperm concentration, and semen viscosity. PMID:24949295

Aboutorabi, Roshanak; Mazani, Fatemeh; Rafiee, Laleh



Postpartum repeated separation from pups affects the behavior and neuroendocrine parameters of mandarin vole fathers.  


Repeated separation from pups results in anxiety and depression-like behaviors in mothers. This level of attachment has also been established between fathers and pups in monogamous rodents. We hypothesized that brief and lengthy separation from their pups would affect emotion, social behavior and neuroendocrine parameters in socially monogamous male mandarin voles (Microtus mandarinus). The results indicate that brief pup separation (BPS) of 15 min/day significantly reduced the percentage of time spent in the central area, total distance and total transition in open field tests. BPS resulted in increased sniffing and self-grooming in fathers, but reduced attacking and climbing. Long pup separation (LPS) of 3h/day suppressed attacking, sniffing, no-social investigating and digging in fathers, but increased time in immobile in social interaction and forced swimming tests. LPS upregulated levels of central oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP), serum corticosterone (CORT); BPS increased central OT and serum corticosterone only. These findings show that BPS and LPS are critical stressors for fathers and alter anxiety and depression-like and social behaviors in monogamous mandarin voles. These changes in behaviors may be associated with alteration in OT, AVP and CORT. PMID:25446219

Kong, Lingzhe; Wu, Ruiyong; Wang, Lu; Feng, Weige; Cao, Yan; Tai, Fadao



Biofilm Formation by the Fish Pathogen Flavobacterium columnare: Development and Parameters Affecting Surface Attachment  

PubMed Central

Flavobacterium columnare is a bacterial fish pathogen that affects many freshwater species worldwide. The natural reservoir of this pathogen is unknown, but its resilience in closed aquaculture systems posits biofilm as the source of contagion for farmed fish. The objectives of this study were (i) to characterize the dynamics of biofilm formation and morphology under static and flow conditions and (ii) to evaluate the effects of temperature, pH, salinity, hardness, and carbohydrates on biofilm formation. Nineteen F. columnare strains, including representatives of all of the defined genetic groups (genomovars), were compared in this study. The structure of biofilm was characterized by light microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. F. columnare was able to attach to and colonize inert surfaces by producing biofilm. Surface colonization started within 6 h postinoculation, and microcolonies were observed within 24 h. Extracellular polysaccharide substances and water channels were observed in mature biofilms (24 to 48 h). A similar time course was observed when F. columnare formed biofilm in microfluidic chambers under flow conditions. The virulence potential of biofilm was confirmed by cutaneous inoculation of channel catfish fingerlings with mature biofilm. Several physicochemical parameters modulate attachment to surfaces, with the largest influence being exerted by hardness, salinity, and the presence of mannose. Maintenance of hardness and salinity values within certain ranges could prevent biofilm formation by F. columnare in aquaculture systems. PMID:23851087

Cai, Wenlong; De La Fuente, Leonardo



A study of the parameters affecting the effectiveness of Moringa oleifera in drinking water purification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The powder obtained from the seeds of the Moringa oleifera tree has been shown to be an effective primary coagulant for water treatment. When the seeds are dried, dehusked, crushed and added to water, the powder acts as a coagulant binding colloidal particles and bacteria to form agglomerated particles (flocs), which settle allowing the clarified supernatant to be poured off. Very little research has been undertaken on the parameters affecting the effectiveness of M. oleifera, especially in Malawi, for purification of drinking water and there is a great need for further testing in this area. Conclusive data needs to be compiled to demonstrate the effects of various water parameters have on the efficiency of the seeds. A parametric study was undertaken at Leeds Metropolitan University, UK, with the aim to establish the most appropriate dosing method; the optimum dosage for removal of turbidity; the influence of pH and temperature; together with the shelf life of the M. oleifera seeds. The study revealed that the most suitable dosing method was to mix the powder into a concentrated paste, hence forming a stock suspension. The optimum M. oleifera dose, for turbidity values between 40 and 200 NTU, ranged between 30 and 55 mg/l. With turbidity set at 130 NTU and a M. oleifera dose within the optimum range at 50 mg/l, pH levels were varied between 4 and 9. It was discovered that the coagulant performance was not too sensitive to pH fluctuations when conditions were within the optimum range. The most efficient coagulation, determined by the greatest reduction in turbidity, occurred at pH 6.5. Alkaline conditions were overall more favourable than acidic conditions; pH 9 had an efficiency of 65% of optimum, whilst at pH 5 the efficiency dropped to around 55%. The efficiency further dropped at pH 4, where the powder only produced results of around 10% of optimum conditions. A temperature range of 4-60 C was studied in this research. Colder waters (<15 C) were found to hinder the effectiveness of the coagulation process. The higher the temperature the more effective was the coagulation. It was also found that the age of the seeds, up to 18 months, did not have any noticeable effect on dose level and percentage reduction in turbidity, although at 18 months the seeds had a narrower dosing range to produce near-optimum reduction. Seeds aged 24 months showed a significant decline in coagulant efficiency.

Pritchard, M.; Craven, T.; Mkandawire, T.; Edmondson, A. S.; O'Neill, J. G.


Suppression of Arterial Thrombosis without Affecting Hemostatic Parameters with A Cell-Penetrating PAR1 Pepducin  

PubMed Central

Background Thrombin-dependent platelet activation is heightened in the setting of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and may cause arterial thrombosis with consequent myocardial necrosis. Given the high incidence of adverse effects in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS), there remains an unmet need for the development of new therapeutics that target platelet activation without unduly affecting hemostasis. The thrombin receptor, PAR1, has recently emerged as a promising new target for therapeutic intervention in ACS patients. Methods and Results We report the development of a first-in-class intracellular PAR1 inhibitor with optimized pharmacokinetic properties for use during PCI in ACS patients. PZ-128 is a cell-penetrating pepducin inhibitor of PAR1 which targets the receptor-G protein interface on the inside surface of platelets. The structure of PZ-128 closely resembles the predicted off-state of the corresponding juxtamembrane region of the third intracellular loop of PAR1. The onset of action of PZ-128 was rapid and suppressed PAR1 aggregation and arterial thrombosis in guinea pigs and baboons and strongly synergized with oral clopidogrel. There was full recovery of platelet function by 24 h. Importantly, PZ-128 had no effect on bleeding or coagulation parameters in primates or in blood from PCI patients. Conclusions Based on the efficacy data in non-human primates with no noted adverse effects on hemostasis, we anticipate that the rapid onset of platelet inhibition and reversible properties of PZ-128 are well suited to the acute interventional setting of PCI and may provide an alternative to long-acting small molecule inhibitors of PAR1. PMID:22705889

Zhang, Ping; Gruber, Andrs; Kasuda, Shogo; Kimmelstiel, Carey; OCallaghan, Katie; Cox, Daniel H.; Bohm, Andrew; Baleja, James D.; Covic, Lidija; Kuliopulos, Athan



Monte Carlo modeling and analyses of YALINA-booster subcritical assembly part 1: analytical models and main neutronics parameters.  

SciTech Connect

This study was carried out to model and analyze the YALINA-Booster facility, of the Joint Institute for Power and Nuclear Research of Belarus, with the long term objective of advancing the utilization of accelerator driven systems for the incineration of nuclear waste. The YALINA-Booster facility is a subcritical assembly, driven by an external neutron source, which has been constructed to study the neutron physics and to develop and refine methodologies to control the operation of accelerator driven systems. The external neutron source consists of Californium-252 spontaneous fission neutrons, 2.45 MeV neutrons from Deuterium-Deuterium reactions, or 14.1 MeV neutrons from Deuterium-Tritium reactions. In the latter two cases a deuteron beam is used to generate the neutrons. This study is a part of the collaborative activity between Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) of USA and the Joint Institute for Power and Nuclear Research of Belarus. In addition, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has a coordinated research project benchmarking and comparing the results of different numerical codes with the experimental data available from the YALINA-Booster facility and ANL has a leading role coordinating the IAEA activity. The YALINA-Booster facility has been modeled according to the benchmark specifications defined for the IAEA activity without any geometrical homogenization using the Monte Carlo codes MONK and MCNP/MCNPX/MCB. The MONK model perfectly matches the MCNP one. The computational analyses have been extended through the MCB code, which is an extension of the MCNP code with burnup capability because of its additional feature for analyzing source driven multiplying assemblies. The main neutronics parameters of the YALINA-Booster facility were calculated using these computer codes with different nuclear data libraries based on ENDF/B-VI-0, -6, JEF-2.2, and JEF-3.1.

Talamo, A.; Gohar, M. Y. A.; Nuclear Engineering Division



Mass higher educations affect the quality of higher education in China and the countermeasures of the main factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the hierarchical index system of factors for the teaching quality of high education is established. Firstly, the critical factors influencing teaching quality has been analyzed. Further, the author discusses the current situation of our higher education and points out the negative effect of enrollment expansion and shortage of teachers are the main reason-hat have caused the drop

Rong Wang



Guidebook for performance assessment parameters used in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant compliance certification application. Volume 1: Main report  

SciTech Connect

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Compliance Certification Application (CCA) Performance Assessment (PA) Parameter Database and its ties to supporting information evolved over the course of two years. When the CCA was submitted to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in October 1996, information such as identification of parameter value or distribution source was documented using processes established by Sandia National Laboratories WIPP Quality Assurance Procedures. Reviewers later requested additional supporting documentation, links to supporting information, and/or clarification for many parameters. This guidebook is designed to document a pathway through the complex parameter process and help delineate flow paths to supporting information for all WIPP CCA parameters. In addition, this report is an aid for understanding how model parameters used in the WIPP CCA were developed and qualified. To trace the source information for a particular parameter, a dual-route system was established. The first route uses information from the Parameter Records Package as it existed when the CCA calculations were run. The second route leads from the EPA Parameter Database to additional supporting information.

Howarth, S.M.; Martell, M.A.; Weiner, R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lattier, C. [GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)



Sporadic Infantile Epileptic Encephalopathy Caused by Mutations in PCDH19 Resembles Dravet Syndrome but Mainly Affects Females  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dravet syndrome (DS) is a genetically determined epileptic encephalopathy mainly caused by de novo mutations in the SCN1A gene. Since 2003, we have performed molecular analyses in a large series of patients with DS, 27% of whom were negative for mutations or rearrangements in SCN1A. In order to identify new genes responsible for the disorder in the SCN1A-negative patients, 41

Christel Depienne; Delphine Bouteiller; Boris Keren; Emmanuel Cheuret; Karine Poirier; Oriane Trouillard; Baya Benyahia; Chlo Quelin; Wassila Carpentier; Sophie Julia; Alexandra Afenjar; Agns Gautier; Franois Rivier; Sophie Meyer; Patrick Berquin; Marie Hlias; Isabelle Py; Serge Rivera; Nadia Bahi-Buisson; Isabelle Gourfinkel-An; Ccile Cazeneuve; Merle Ruberg; Alexis Brice; Rima Nabbout; Eric LeGuern




Microsoft Academic Search

Incipient condition plays a significant role in the field of sediment transport and channel stability and different parameters based upon it are used in the sediment initiation and transport formulas both for the development and application purposes. Its determination depends upon the subjective judgment of the investigator. Effects of this judgment on sediment transport and flow parameters have been investigated

Muhammad Ashiq; John C Doering


An analysis of the solar wind parameters responsible for the main phase of the super geomagnetic storm on March 31, 2001  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the solar wind parameters responsible for the main phase of the super geomagnetic storm occurred on March 31, 2001 is analyzed taking into account the delayed geomagnetic effect of solar wind at the L1 point and using the SYM-H index. The solar wind responsible for the main phase is split into two periods. The solar wind parameters in the two periods contributed differently to the main phase. A comparative study of solar wind parameters in the two periods shows the evidence that the solar wind density defines energy transfer to the magnetosphere. Analysis is also made to understand a range of key factors that may define the development of the storm's main phase, including the time integral of the southward component of interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) or the solar wind electric field, and a solar wind energy coupling function established by Akasofu (1981). Additionally, the paper discusses the assumption that a strong southward IMF and high inclination to the ecliptic plane would contribute to the occurrence of a super geomagnetic storm, and assesses the rationality behind an empirical formula relating the Dst peak value to solar wind parameters established by Wang Y M et al.(2003). The paper is concluded with a summary of the key solar wind parameters that may define the development of a storm's main phase.

Le, G.; Zheng, L.



Parameters affecting full energy peak efficiency determination during Monte Carlo simulation.  


Aim of this work is to study the effect of various simulation parameters on the calculation of the full energy peak efficiency of HPGe detectors with the Monte Carlo simulation code PENELOPE. PMID:19954990

Karfopoulos, K L; Anagnostakis, M J



Sensitivity Analysis of Parameters Affecting Protection of Water Resources at Hanford WA  

SciTech Connect

The scope of this analysis was to assess the sensitivity of contaminant fluxes from the vadose zone to the water table, to several parameters, some of which can be controlled by operational considerations.




Sensitivity analysis of modeling parameters that affect the dual peaking behaviour in coalbed methane reservoirs  

E-print Network

of the various modeling parameters on its reservoir performance. A dual porosity coalbed methane simulator is used to model primary production from a single well coal seam, for a variety of coal properties for this work. Varying different coal properties...

Okeke, Amarachukwu Ngozi



Structural parameters of normal and osteoporotic human trabecular bone are affected differently by microCT image resolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryThis study employed microCT to investigate whether image resolution affects bone structural parameters differently in healthy\\u000a normal and osteoporotic trabecular bone. With increasing image voxel size, the originally detected differences between sample\\u000a groups diminished. The results suggest that structural differences may not be reliably detected with clinical scanners.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a IntroductionStructural parameters of bone reflect its health status, but are highly dependent

H. Isaksson; J. Tyrs; M. Hakulinen; A. S. Aula; I. Tamminen; P. Julkunen; H. Krger; J. S. Jurvelin



Factors Affecting the Item Parameter Estimation and Classification Accuracy of the DINA Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To better understand the statistical properties of the deterministic inputs, noisy "and" gate cognitive diagnosis (DINA) model, the impact of several factors on the quality of the item parameter estimates and classification accuracy was investigated. Results of the simulation study indicate that the fully Bayes approach is most accurate when the

de la Torre, Jimmy; Hong, Yuan; Deng, Weiling



Acute exposure to glyphosate herbicide affects oxidative parameters in piava (Leporinus obtusidens).  


In recent years, commercial glyphosate herbicide formulations have been widely used in agriculture to control aquatic weeds. These pesticides may result in disruption of ecological balance, causing damage to nontarget organisms including fish. Teleostean fish (Leporinus obtusidens) were exposed to commercial glyphosate herbicide formulation at 0 (control), 3, 6, 10 or 20 mg L(-1) for 96 h. The effects of herbicide on plasmatic metabolic parameters, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), catalase activity, protein carbonyl, and mucus layer parameters were studied. Plasmatic glucose and lactate levels increased but protein levels showed reduction after herbicide exposure. TBARS levels in brain showed a reduction at all tested concentrations. However, liver demonstrated increased TBARS levels at all tested concentrations, whereas in white muscle TBARS production did not change after exposure to herbicide. Fish exposed to all concentrations of glyphosate showed increase in liver catalase activity and protein carbonyl. Herbicide exposure increased protein and carbohydrate levels of the mucus layer at all tested concentrations. The present results showed that, in 96 h, glyphosate changed toxicological parameters analyzed in piava. Parameters measured in this study may be useful in environmental biomonitoring. PMID:21465245

Glusczak, Lissandra; Loro, Vania Lucia; Pretto, Alexandra; Moraes, Bibiana Silveira; Raabe, Alice; Duarte, Marta Frescura; da Fonseca, Milene Braga; de Menezes, Charlene Cavalheiro; Vallado, Dnia Mendes de Sousa



A2A Adenosine Receptor Binding Parameters in Platelets from Patients Affected by Pathological Gambling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: A structural and functional interaction between A2A adenosine receptors and D2 dopamine receptors has been implicated in the pathophysiology of impulse control disorders. The aim of this study was to use platelet membranes to assess A2A adenosine receptor affinity and density in patients affected by pathological gambling (PG; which is classified as a specific impulse control disorder) with respect

Claudia Martini; Simona Daniele; Michela Picchetti; Anna Panighini; Marina Carlini; Maria Letizia Trincavelli; Daniela Cesari; Eleonora Da Pozzo; Francesca Golia; Liliana DellOsso



Experimental parameters affecting sensitivity and specificity of a yeast assay for estrogenic compounds: results of an interlaboratory validation exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

In vitro assays are considered as the first step in a tiered approach to compound screening for hormonal activity. Although\\u000a many new assays have been developed in recent years, little attention has been paid towards assay validation. Our objective\\u000a was to identify critical experimental parameters in a yeast estrogen screen (YES) that affect its sensitivity and specificity.\\u000a We investigated the

Willem Dhooge; Katrien Arijs; Isabel DHaese; Sabrina Stuyvaert; Bram Versonnen; Colin Janssen; Willy Verstraete; Frank Comhaire



Testing parameters of TMR heads affected by dynamic-tester induced EMI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A variety of expected electromagnetic interference (EMI) sources of both radiated and conducted EMI emissions produced by a dynamic tester is studied. It is determined that the power cable connector of the robot arm radiates a significant electric field (E-field) of about 197 V/m at 1 foot away and an estimated calculation of the E-field of about 212 mV/m is at the spindle motor. These fields can be attenuated by about 20-30 dB when using a copper lined Faraday's cage. Furthermore, the study has revealed that the radiated EMI plays a more significant role than the conducted EMI. In addition, it is determined that out of seven selected testing parameters, the SGAW is rather more sensitive to EMI than conventional failure parameters, especially static glitche during the write cycle.

Kruesubthaworn, A.; Sivaratana, R.; Ungvichian, V.; Siritaratiwat, A.



Cytidine 5'-Diphosphocholine Differentially Affects Hemostatic Parameters in Diverse Conditions in Rats: an Investigation via Thromboelastography.  


Cytidine 5'-diphosphocholine (CDP-choline) has several physiological and pharmacological effects on various bodily functions, including hemostasis. This study determined the impact of CDP-choline on hemostasis in a trauma-hemorrhage (T-H) model in rats or under in vitro conditions or after chronic treatment via thromboelastography. Trauma-hemorrhage resuscitation was induced, and either saline (1 mL/kg) or CDP-choline (50 mg/kg) was injected intravenously just prior to resuscitation in the T-H group and at the same time point in the sham-control group. The effects of CDP-choline on thromboelastogram parameters, coagulation markers, and platelet aggregation were investigated under in vitro conditions (1.5 mM, 30- or 3-min incubation in blood or plasma) and after chronic use (50 mg/kg, i.p., 10 days). Acute CDP-choline treatment was shown to decrease the initial and maximum clot formation time, accelerate clotting rapidity, reduce the lysis percentage, and increase the coagulation index in the T-H resuscitation group, whereas the same treatment in the sham-control rats did not alter any of the thromboelastogram parameters. However, the incubation of whole blood with CDP-choline prolonged the initial and maximum clot formation time, and CDP-choline treatment significantly decreased the slopes of the disaggregation and aggregation curves when platelets were stimulated with ADP and collagen, respectively. Interestingly, the chronic use of this drug did not influence any of these hemostatic parameters. These data implicate that acute but not chronic CDP-choline administration may differentially alter the hemostatic parameters under diverse conditions. The drug may produce a hypercoagulable state in activated situations but cause opposite effects under normal in vitro conditions. PMID:25394251

Cam, Betul; Sagdilek, Engin; Yildirim, Nalan; Savci, Vahide



Chronic Ethanol Consumption Impairs Spatial Remote Memory in Rats But Does Not Affect Cortical Cholinergic Parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have studied learning, memory and cortical cholinergic parameters after oral administration of 20% v\\/v ethanol solution to male Fisher rats for 6 months. A group of rats were trained to behave efficiently in an eight-arm radial maze and after that split into two subgroups submitted to ethanol or control treatment. Ethanol-treated rats had more difficulty in relearning the same

Silvia R. C. Pereira; Glaucia A. Menezes; Glaura C. Franco; Ana Edith B. Costa; Angela M. Ribeiro



Correlation between nitrate concentration in groundwater and parameters affecting aquifer intrinsic vulnerability  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is the result of a study which was carried out in order to verify if the traditional methods to evaluate the intrinsic\\u000a vulnerability or vulnerability related parameters, are able to clarify the problem of nitrate pollution in groundwater. In\\u000a particular, the aim was to evaluate limitations and problems connected to aquifer vulnerability methods applied to nitrate\\u000a contamination prevision

Laura Debernardi; Domenico Antonio De Luca; Manuela Lasagna



Application Parameters Affecting Field Efficacy of Beauveria bassiana Foliar Treatments against Colorado Potato Beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of various spray-application parameters on the efficacy of Beauveria bassiana foliar treatments against Leptinotarsa decemlineata larvae were evaluated during three field seasons. Treatments were applied to small plots (6 rows 712 m) using a CO2-powered backpack hydraulic sprayer with nozzles affixed to lateral drop tubes and directed upward at a 45 angle to target ventral leaf surfaces.

S. P Wraight; M. E Ramos



Parameters affecting production and character of an extrusion texturized protein product from defatted glandless cottonseed meal  

E-print Network

the desired results. The operator can exercise only partial control over the system. The lack of fine control over the conditions developed inside of the extruder barrel appears to have been the major cause for product variation within a single production.... The main components of high pressure cooking extruders are: feeder, compression screw, barrel, die and heating system. High pressure cooking and forming is characterized by sufficient work and heat being applied to the product to completely cook...

Taranto, Michael Vincent



Application of ANN to evaluate effective parameters affecting failure load and displacement of RC buildings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigated the efficiency of an artificial neural network (ANN) in predicting and determining failure load and failure displacement of multi story reinforced concrete (RC) buildings. The study modeled a RC building with four stories and three bays, with a load bearing system composed of columns and beams. Non-linear static pushover analysis of the key parameters in change defined in Turkish Earthquake Code (TEC-2007) for columns and beams was carried out and the capacity curves, failure loads and displacements were obtained. Totally 720 RC buildings were analyzed according to the change intervals of the parameters chosen. The input parameters were selected as longitudinal bar ratio (?l) of columns, transverse reinforcement ratio (Asw/sc), axial load level (N/No), column and beam cross section, strength of concrete (fc) and the compression bar ratio (?'/?) on the beam supports. Data from the nonlinear analysis were assessed with ANN in terms of failure load and failure displacement. For all outputs, ANN was trained and tested using of 11 back-propagation methods. All of the ANN models were found to perform well for both failure loads and displacements. The analyses also indicated that a considerable portion of existing RC building stock in Turkey may not meet the safety standards of the Turkish Earthquake Code (TEC-2007).

Hakan Arslan, M.



Technical parameters affecting image characteristics in in vivo MR microscopy of the mouse.  


The aim of the study was to assess the effects of changing acquisition parameters used for high-resolution in vivo magnetic resonance (MR) microscopy on image quality and scan time. The head or abdomen of 11 normal and 1 glioblastoma-bearing anesthetized BALB/c mice were imaged using a high-resolution 7.0-Tesla magnet. Scan parameters such as matrix size (MTX), slice thickness (ST), number of excitations (NEX), pulse sequence type including repetition time (TR) and echo time (TE), respiratory gating, and intraperitoneal contrast medium administration were altered to assess their actual effect on signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) as compared to calculated effects. As expected, SNR increased with increasing ST or NEX and with decreasing MTX. However, although the empirical increase in SNR was similar to that expected for increased ST, it was less than that anticipated for increasing NEX or decreasing MTX. Increasing NEX and applying respiratory gating both increased SNR and reduced the image degradation associated with respiratory motion in images of the abdomen. Intraperitoneal contrast medium administration produced a marked increase in CNR in the subject with the implanted glioblastoma, suggesting that this route is satisfactory for the enhancement of lesions disrupting the blood-brain barrier. The consequence of improving image quality in terms of spatial and contrast resolution is increased scan time. However, the actual increase in SNR when altering acquisition parameters may not be as much as predicted by theory. PMID:12502104

Yamada, Kazutaka; Wisner, Erik R; de Ropp, Jeff S; LeCouteur, Richard A; Tripp, Linda D



Coated or doped carbon nanotube network sensors as affected by environmental parameters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Methods for using modified single wall carbon nanotubes ("SWCNTs") to detect presence and/or concentration of a gas component, such as a halogen (e.g., Cl.sub.2), hydrogen halides (e.g., HCl), a hydrocarbon (e.g., C.sub.nH.sub.2n+2), an alcohol, an aldehyde or a ketone, to which an unmodified SWCNT is substantially non-reactive. In a first embodiment, a connected network of SWCNTs is coated with a selected polymer, such as chlorosulfonated polyethylene, hydroxypropyl cellulose, polystyrene and/or polyvinylalcohol, and change in an electrical parameter or response value (e.g., conductance, current, voltage difference or resistance) of the coated versus uncoated SWCNT networks is analyzed. In a second embodiment, the network is doped with a transition element, such as Pd, Pt, Rh, Ir, Ru, Os and/or Au, and change in an electrical parameter value is again analyzed. The parameter change value depends monotonically, not necessarily linearly, upon concentration of the gas component. Two general algorithms are presented for estimating concentration value(s), or upper or lower concentration bounds on such values, from measured differences of response values.

Li, Jing (Inventor)



Arterial blood gas and spirometry parameters affect the length of stay in hospitalized asthmatic patients  

PubMed Central

Background: Asthma is a common condition in general medical practice, and it accounts for about 1% of all ambulatory hospital visits. Nowadays, hospitalization rates for asthma have actually been increased in some demographic subgroups despite recent advances in treatment. Understanding the underlying factors that contribute to hospitalization and especially duration of the hospitalization of asthmatics could help elucidate the recent rise in morbidity and also reduce the high demand on health care systems of the disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate factors affecting the duration of hospitalization for Iranian patients with asthma. Methods: This study was conducted on 55 asthmatic patients (diagnosis of asthma was in accordance with the criteria of the American Thoracic Society). The study was performed on patients hospitalized in Rasoul-e-Akram hospital in Tehran, Iran during the period 2005-2006. During hospitalization, the patients most common complaints were recorded as the symptoms and signs of the medical condition, results of physical examinations, spirometry, arterial blood gas analysis (ABG), and ICU admission. Results: There were 18(32.7%) male and 37(67.3%) female patients with a mean age of 54.96 (SD=17.54) years. The mean duration of hospitalization was 8.31(SD=4.69) days that ranged between 2 and 23 days. The mean baseline arterial PH (p=0.039, RPearso = -0.362), baseline arterial [HCO3] (p=0.042, RPearson = 0.361), changes of FEV1 after bronchodilator (p=0.041, RPearson= -0.363) and patient's age (p=0.002, RPearson=0.0433) were determined as factors affecting duration of hospitalization. Conclusion: Our results showed that more attention needs to be given to the findings of arterial blood gas and spirometry which can potentially affect the duration of hospitalization of asthmatic patients. PMID:25250249

Mousavi, Seyed Ali Javad; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Khalili, Neda; Naghavi, Malihe; Yahyazadeh, Hooman



How parameters and regularization affect the PNJL model phase diagram and thermodynamic quantities  

E-print Network

We explore the phase diagram and the critical behavior of QCD thermodynamic quantities in the context of the so-called Polyakov--Nambu--Jona-Lasinio model. We show that this improved field theoretical model is a successful candidate for studying the equation of state and the critical behavior around the critical end point. We argue that a convenient choice of the model parameters is crucial to get the correct description of isentropic trajectories. The effects of the regularization procedure in several thermodynamic quantities is also analyzed. The results are compared with simple thermodynamic expectations and lattice data.

Pedro Costa; H. Hansen; M. C. Ruivo; C. A. de Sousa



Determination of mechanisms and parameters which affect radon entry into a room.  


There are practically no direct techniques for measuring radon entry rate in the rooms. The suggested technique allows estimating such parameter under real conditions. The technique for radon diagnostic procedures including radon entry rate and air change rate assessment was proposed and tested in the field under various experimental conditions. The method consists of the continuous measurement of radon concentration, temperature and pressure difference between indoor and outdoor atmosphere. It was demonstrated that the study of dependence of radon entry rate on temperature difference ?T between indoor and outdoor atmosphere allows to estimate the dominant radon entry mechanism - diffusion mechanism (absence of the dependence on ?T) or convective (radon entry rate increase at ?T increase). It was shown that simultaneous measurements of time series of radon concentration and pressure difference between building envelope and outdoor atmosphere allow assessing such room parameter as Effective Leakage Area. The approach applied in this paper to estimate the air change rate practically is not differing from tracer gas techniques when the constant gas entry rate is used. It was shown that radon could be used as kind of tracer gas to estimate the air change rate. Obtained measurement results for all buildings confirmed the seasonal variations of radon concentrations. A correlation of radon concentration and air change rate with outside temperature occurred in general. PMID:23811128

Vasilyev, A V; Zhukovsky, M V



A systematic experimental investigation of significant parameters affecting model tire hydroplaning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of a comprehensive parametric study of model and small pneumatic tires operating on a wet surface are presented. Hydroplaning inception (spin down) and rolling restoration (spin up) are discussed. Conclusions indicate that hydroplaning inception occurs at a speed significantly higher than the rolling restoration speed. Hydroplaning speed increases considerably with tread depth, surface roughness and tire inflation pressure of footprint pressure, and only moderately with increased load. Water film thickness affects spin down speed only slightly. Spin down speed varies inversely as approximately the one-sixth power of film thickness. Empirical equations relating tire inflation pressure, normal load, tire diameter and water film thickness have been generated for various tire tread and surface configurations.

Wray, G. A.; Ehrlich, I. R.



Understanding the removal mechanisms of PPCPs and the influence of main technological parameters in anaerobic UASB and aerobic CAS reactors.  


The removal of 16 Pharmaceutical and Personal Care Products (PPCPs) were studied in a conventional activated sludge (CAS) unit and an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. Special attention was paid to each biomass conformation and activity as well as to operational conditions. Biodegradation was the main PPCP removal mechanism, being higher removals achieved under aerobic conditions, except in the case of sulfamethoxazole and trimetrophim. Under anaerobic conditions, PPCP biodegradation was correlated with the methanogenic rate, while in the aerobic reactor a relationship with nitrification was found. Sorption onto sludge was influenced by biomass conformation, being only significant for musk fragrances in the UASB reactor, in which an increase of the upward velocity and hydraulic retention time improved this removal. Additionally, PPCP sorption increased with time in the UASB reactor, due to the granular biomass structure which suggests the existence of intra-molecular diffusion. PMID:25010455

Alvarino, T; Suarez, S; Lema, J M; Omil, F



"RadioAstron"-A telescope with a size of 300 000 km: Main parameters and first observational results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Russian Academy of Sciences and Federal Space Agency, together with the participation of many international organizations, worked toward the launch of the RadioAstron orbiting space observatory with its onboard 10-m reflector radio telescope from the Baikonur cosmodrome on July 18, 2011. Together with some of the largest ground-based radio telescopes and a set of stations for tracking, collecting, and reducing the data obtained, this space radio telescope forms a multi-antenna ground-space radio interferometer with extremely long baselines, making it possible for the first time to study various objects in the Universe with angular resolutions a million times better than is possible with the human eye. The project is targeted at systematic studies of compact radio-emitting sources and their dynamics. Objects to be studied include supermassive black holes, accretion disks, and relativistic jets in active galactic nuclei, stellar-mass black holes, neutron stars and hypothetical quark stars, regions of formation of stars and planetary systems in our and other galaxies, interplanetary and interstellar plasma, and the gravitational field of the Earth. The results of ground-based and inflight tests of the space radio telescope carried out in both autonomous and ground-space interferometric regimes are reported. The derived characteristics are in agreement with the main requirements of the project. The astrophysical science program has begun.

Kardashev, N. S.; Khartov, V. V.; Abramov, V. V.; Avdeev, V. Yu.; Alakoz, A. V.; Aleksandrov, Yu. A.; Ananthakrishnan, S.; Andreyanov, V. V.; Andrianov, A. S.; Antonov, N. M.; Artyukhov, M. I.; Arkhipov, M. Yu.; Baan, W.; Babakin, N. G.; Babyshkin, V. E.; Bartel', N.; Belousov, K. G.; Belyaev, A. A.; Berulis, J. J.; Burke, B. F.; Biryukov, A. V.; Bubnov, A. E.; Burgin, M. S.; Busca, G.; Bykadorov, A. A.; Bychkova, V. S.; Vasil'kov, V. I.; Wellington, K. J.; Vinogradov, I. S.; Wietfeldt, R.; Voitsik, P. A.; Gvamichava, A. S.; Girin, I. A.; Gurvits, L. I.; Dagkesamanskii, R. D.; D'Addario, L.; Giovannini, G.; Jauncey, D. L.; Dewdney, P. E.; D'yakov, A. A.; Zharov, V. E.; Zhuravlev, V. I.; Zaslavskii, G. S.; Zakhvatkin, M. V.; Zinov'ev, A. N.; Ilinen, Yu.; Ipatov, A. V.; Kanevskii, B. Z.; Knorin, I. A.; Casse, J. L.; Kellermann, K. I.; Kovalev, Yu. A.; Kovalev, Yu. Yu.; Kovalenko, A. V.; Kogan, B. L.; Komaev, R. V.; Konovalenko, A. A.; Kopelyanskii, G. D.; Korneev, Yu. A.; Kostenko, V. I.; Kotik, A. N.; Kreisman, B. B.; Kukushkin, A. Yu.; Kulishenko, V. F.; Cooper, D. N.; Kut'kin, A. M.; Cannon, W. H.; Larionov, M. G.; Lisakov, M. M.; Litvinenko, L. N.; Likhachev, S. F.; Likhacheva, L. N.; Lobanov, A. P.; Logvinenko, S. V.; Langston, G.; McCracken, K.; Medvedev, S. Yu.; Melekhin, M. V.; Menderov, A. V.; Murphy, D. W.; Mizyakina, T. A.; Mozgovoi, Yu. V.; Nikolaev, N. Ya.; Novikov, B. S.; Novikov, I. D.; Oreshko, V. V.; Pavlenko, Yu. K.; Pashchenko, I. N.; Ponomarev, Yu. N.; Popov, M. V.; Pravin-Kumar, A.; Preston, R. A.; Pyshnov, V. N.; Rakhimov, I. A.; Rozhkov, V. M.; Romney, J. D.; Rocha, P.; Rudakov, V. A.; Risnen, A.; Sazankov, S. V.; Sakharov, B. A.; Semenov, S. K.; Serebrennikov, V. A.; Schilizzi, R. T.; Skulachev, D. P.; Slysh, V. I.; Smirnov, A. I.; Smith, J. G.; Soglasnov, V. A.; Sokolovskii, K. V.; Sondaar, L. H.; Stepan'yants, V. A.; Turygin, M. S.; Turygin, S. Yu.; Tuchin, A. G.; Urpo, S.; Fedorchuk, S. D.; Finkel'shtein, A. M.; Fomalont, E. B.; Fejes, I.; Fomina, A. N.; Khapin, Yu. B.; Tsarevskii, G. S.; Zensus, J. A.; Chuprikov, A. A.; Shatskaya, M. V.; Shapirovskaya, N. Ya.; Sheikhet, A. I.; Shirshakov, A. E.; Schmidt, A.; Shnyreva, L. A.; Shpilevskii, V. V.; Ekers, R. D.; Yakimov, V. E.



Experimental and theoretical studies on physico-chemical parameters affecting the solubility of phosphogypsum.  


Phosphogypsum is a waste by-product of the phosphate fertilizer industry, which is usually disposed in the environment because of its restricted use in industrial applications. Physico-chemical conditions existing in stack fluids and leachates are of major importance and determine solubility and redox stability of phosphogypsum, as well as radionuclide release from stacks to terrestrial environments. The aim of this study is to assess the effect of key parameters (e.g. ionic strength, temperature, pH) on the solubility of phosphogypsum. Phosphogypsum sampling and in-situ measurements were carried out at a coastal stack in Cyprus, solubility experiments were performed in simulated laboratory systems and thermodynamic calculations by means of MINTEQA2, an equilibrium speciation model. Generally, increasing ionic strength and temperature leads to increased phosphogypsum solubility, with the former being much more effective. The increased solubility of phosphogypsum in saline solutions is attributed solely to ionic strength effects on the activity of ionic species in solution and no solid phase transformations could be observed. The effect of pH on phosphogypsum solubility seems to be insignificant at least in a pH range between 4 and 8. Regarding uranium levels, there is a strong correlation between salinity and uranium concentration and linear correlation between phosphogypsum solubility and uranium levels in stack solutions, indicating the incorporation of uranium into the gypsum lattice and the formation of a solid solution. PMID:19596498

Papanicolaou, Fanos; Antoniou, Stella; Pashalidis, Ioannis



Dexamethasone acutely regulates endocrine parameters in stallions and subsequently affects gene expression in testicular germ cells.  


Testicular steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis are negatively impacted by stress-related hormones such as glucocorticoids. The effects of two injections of a therapeutic dose of dexamethasone (a synthetic glucocorticoid, 0.1mg/kg; i.v.) given 24h apart to each of three stallions were investigated and compared to three saline-injected control stallions. Dexamethasone decreased circulating concentrations of cortisol by 50% at 24h after the initial injection. Serum testosterone decreased by a maximum of 94% from 4 to 20h after the initial injection of dexamethasone. Semen parameters of the dexamethasone-treated stallions were unchanged in the subsequent two weeks. Two weeks after treatment, stallions were castrated. Functional genomic analyses of the testes revealed that, of eight gene products analyzed, dexamethasone depressed concentrations of heat shock protein DNAJC4 and sperm-specific calcium channel CATSPER1 mRNAs by more than 60%. Both genes are expressed in germ cells during spermiogenesis and have been related to male fertility in other species, including humans. This is the first report of decreased DNAJC4 and CATSPER1 mRNA concentrations in testes weeks after dexamethasone treatment. Concentrations of these mRNAs in sperm may be useful as novel markers of fertility in stallions. PMID:25487569

Ing, N H; Brinsko, S P; Curley, K O; Forrest, D W; Love, C C; Hinrichs, K; Vogelsang, M M; Varner, D D; Welsh, T H



Physical parameters and morphology of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko - a main target of Rosetta space mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rosetta, a European space vehicle was head to the icy nucleus of the short period comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko on 2 March, 2004 from cosmodrome Kouru. On 20 Jan. 2014, Rosetta after 10 years of flight and 31-month sleep has been woke up succesfully and now will approche to the icy nucleus of comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko and pass away into orbit around the cometary nucleus. In November 2014 the Philae probe will be sent from Rosetta on the nucleus of comet 67P to study the relict matter of the Solar system. Comet 67P was discovered by the Kyiv astronomers Klim Churyumov and Svitlana Gerasimenko on 22 October 1969 on the five photographic plates exponed with the help of 50-cm Maksutovs reflector of the Alma-Ata Astrophysical Institute on 9, 11 and 21 Sept. 1969. First 5 exact positions of comet were sent to Dr Brian Marsden. Dr B.Marsden showed it was new comet. The comet had an apparent magnitude of 13 and a faint tail about 1 arcmin in length at position angle 280 degrees. The astronomer Nikolay Belyaev from Saint-Petersbourg calculated that the comet followed an elliptical orbit. In 1982 it had the close encounter with the Earth at 0.3910 A.U. On the basis of the observations of comet 67P obtained in Nizhny Arkhyz with the help of the 6- BTA reflector of SAO of RAS some physical parameters of its comet plasma tail (coefficients of diffusion Dp(parallel) , Ds(perpendicular) and induction of magnetic field B) were determined. Other results of exploration of comet 67P (its polarisation, spectral observations, the light curve and morphology) in different apparitions are discussed.

Churyumov, Klim; Kleshchonok, Valery; Mozgova, Alyona


Prenatal and lactational exposure to methylmercury affects select parameters of mouse cerebellar development.  


Animal studies of the neuropathological effects of prenatal methylmercury (MeHg) seldom use regimens that represent environmental exposures. While acute administration of high doses of MeHg to developing rodents can model some of the outcomes MeHg produces in the human cerebellum, their long-term relevance to cerebellar development is unknown. The present study was undertaken to determine the effect of chronic dietary exposure to MeHg. Pregnant mice were exposed throughout gestation to 0.0 or 4.0 ppm methylmercury in their drinking water. Postpartum exposure of pups and lactating dams continued to postnatal day (PND) 30. On PND7, 14, 21, and 30, several morphometric indices of cerebellar cortex development, as well as blood and brain levels of total Hg, were measured in pairs of male and female littermates. No signs of overt toxicity were observed in the dams or offspring. Blood and brain levels of total Hg were highest in the exposed PND7 offspring and fell throughout the sampling period despite continued exposure. In a region of molecular layer in the anterodorsal lobe, MeHg exposure reduced the density of migrating cells in PND7 offspring. Molecular layer widths were reduced in PND30 offspring. In a region of the inferior lobe of PND7 offspring, MeHg exposure reduced external granular layer widths and decreased the density of migrating cells in the molecular layer. However, MeHg did not affect cerebellar cortex development in the central lobe, suggesting a regional sensitivity to chronic, low-level MeHg exposure during development. PMID:9863776

Markowski, V P; Flaugher, C B; Baggs, R B; Rawleigh, R C; Cox, C; Weiss, B



Developmental Methoxychlor Exposure Affects Multiple Reproductive Parameters and Ovarian: Folliculogenesis and Gene Expression in Adult Rats  

PubMed Central

Methoxychlor (MXC) is an organochlorine pesticide with estrogenic, anti-estrogenic, and anti-androgenic properties. To investigate whether transient developmental exposure to MXC could cause adult ovarian dysfunction, we exposed Fischer rats to 20 ?g/kg/day (low dose; environmentally relevant dose) or 100 mg/kg/day (high dose) MXC between 19 days post-coitum and postnatal day 7. Multiple reproductive parameters, serum hormone levels, and ovarian morphology and molecular markers were examined from prepubertal through adult stages. High dose MXC accelerated pubertal onset and first estrus, reduced litter size, and increased irregular cyclicity (P < 0.05). MXC reduced superovulatory response to exogenous gonadotropins in prepubertal females (P < 0.05). Rats exposed to high dose MXC had increasing irregular estrous cyclicity beginning at 4 months of age, with all animals showing abnormal cycles by 6 months. High dose MXC reduced serum progesterone, but increased luteinizing hormone (LH). Follicular composition analysis revealed an increase in the percentage of preantral and early antral follicles and a reduction in the percentage of corpora lutea in high dose MXC-treated ovaries (P < 0.05). Immunohistochemical staining and quantification of the staining intensity showed that estrogen receptor ? was reduced by high dose MXC while anti-Mullerian hormone was upregulated by both low- and high dose MXC in preantral and early antral follicles (P < 0.05). High dose MXC significantly reduced LH receptor expression in large antral follicles (P < 0.01), and down-regulated cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage. These results demonstrated that developmental MXC exposure results in reduced ovulation and fertility and premature aging, possibly by altering ovarian gene expression and folliculogenesis. PMID:18848953

Armenti, AnnMarie E.; Zama, Aparna Mahakali; Passantino, Lisa; Uzumcu, Mehmet



Developmental methoxychlor exposure affects multiple reproductive parameters and ovarian folliculogenesis and gene expression in adult rats  

SciTech Connect

Methoxychlor (MXC) is an organochlorine pesticide with estrogenic, anti-estrogenic, and anti-androgenic properties. To investigate whether transient developmental exposure to MXC could cause adult ovarian dysfunction, we exposed Fischer rats to 20 {mu}g/kg/day (low dose; environmentally relevant dose) or 100 mg/kg/day (high dose) MXC between 19 days post coitum and postnatal day 7. Multiple reproductive parameters, serum hormone levels, and ovarian morphology and molecular markers were examined from prepubertal through adult stages. High dose MXC accelerated pubertal onset and first estrus, reduced litter size, and increased irregular cyclicity (P < 0.05). MXC reduced superovulatory response to exogenous gonadotropins in prepubertal females (P < 0.05). Rats exposed to high dose MXC had increasing irregular estrous cyclicity beginning at 4 months of age, with all animals showing abnormal cycles by 6 months. High dose MXC reduced serum progesterone, but increased luteinizing hormone (LH). Follicular composition analysis revealed an increase in the percentage of preantral and early antral follicles and a reduction in the percentage of corpora lutea in high dose MXC-treated ovaries (P < 0.05). Immunohistochemical staining and quantification of the staining intensity showed that estrogen receptor {beta} was reduced by high dose MXC while anti-Mullerian hormone was upregulated by both low- and high dose MXC in preantral and early antral follicles (P < 0.05). High dose MXC significantly reduced LH receptor expression in large antral follicles (P < 0.01), and down-regulated cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage. These results demonstrated that developmental MXC exposure results in reduced ovulation and fertility and premature aging, possibly by altering ovarian gene expression and folliculogenesis.

Armenti, AnnMarie E.; Zama, Aparna Mahakali; Passantino, Lisa [Department of Animal Sciences School of Environmental and Biological Sciences Rutgers, State 84 Lipman Drive University of New Jersey New Brunswick, NJ 08901-8525 (United States); Uzumcu, Mehmet [Department of Animal Sciences School of Environmental and Biological Sciences Rutgers, State 84 Lipman Drive University of New Jersey New Brunswick, NJ 08901-8525 (United States)], E-mail:



Fusion of Multi Precursors Earthquake Parameters to Estimate the Date, Magnitude and Affected Area of the Forthcoming Powerful Earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since not any individual precursor can be used as an accurate stand alone means for the earthquake prediction, it is necessary to integrate different kinds of precursors. The precursors selected for analysis in this study include electron and ion density, electron temperature, total electron content (TEC), electric and magnetic fields and land surface temperature (LST) several days before three strong earthquakes which happened in Samoa Islands, Sichuan (China) and Borujerd (Iran). The precursor's variations were monitored using data obtained from experiments onboard DEMETER (IAP, ISL, ICE and IMSC) and Aqua-MODIS satellites. Regarding the ionospheric precursors, the geomagnetic indices Dst and Kp were used to distinguish pre-earthquake disturbed states from the other anomalies related to the geomagnetic activities. The inter-quartile range of data was utilized to construct their upper and lower bound to detect disturbed states outsides the bounds which might be associated with impending earthquakes. When the disturbed state associated with impending earthquake is detected, based on the type of precursor, the number of days relative to earthquake day is estimated. Then regarding the deviation value of the precursor from the undisturbed state the magnitude of impending earthquake is estimated. The radius of the affected area is calculated using the estimated magnitude and Dobrovolsky formula. In order to assess final earthquake parameters (which are date, magnitude and radius of the affected area) for each case study, using the median and inter-quartile range of earthquake parameters obtained from different precursors, the approximate bounds of final earthquake parameters are defined. For each studied case, a good agreement was found between the estimated and registered earthquake parameters.

Akhoondzadeh, M.; Saradjian, M. R.



Commercial formulation containing 2,4-D affects biochemical parameters and morphological indices of silver catfish exposed for 90days.  


The objective of this study was to verify whether a commercial formulation of 2,4 dichlorophenoxyacetic acid [2,4-D dimethylamine salt (DMA)] affects the growth and biochemical parameters of silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) after 90days of exposure. The fish exposed to 0.5 or 2.0mg/L of DMA presented exhibited decreased growth parameters. Glucose was reduced in the mucus layer at both concentrations, and the total protein level was increased at the highest concentration tested. Fish exposed to DMA showed reduced liver and kidney glycogen at both concentrations tested, while in the muscle, glycogen was reduced only at 2.0mg/L. Glucose was increased in the liver and decreased in the muscle and kidney at both concentrations and was not altered in the plasma. Lactate was increased in all the tissues and decreased in the plasma. Protein levels were reduced in the liver and plasma at both concentrations, while in the muscle, it was decreased at a concentration of 2.0mg/L. Levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances were reduced in the liver and increased in the muscle at both concentrations and did not change in the brain. DMA increased catalase activity in the liver at both concentrations tested. The present study demonstrates the effects of long-term exposure to DMA. Some parameters could be used as toxicity indicators to identify the presence of DMA in an aquatic environment. PMID:25213788

Menezes, Charlene; Fonseca, Milene B; Leitemperger, Jossiele; Pretto, Alexandra; Moraes, Bibiana S; Murussi, Camila R; Baldisserotto, Bernardo; Loro, Vania L



Parameters analysis for assistant cables of system for transient main cable and catwalk of long-span suspension bridges at construction stages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On the basis of static, dynamic and transient analysis for the prestressing cable structures, the parameters to control the vibration of the system for transient main cables and catwalk of some long-span suspension bridge at the construction stages with the assistant cables are investigated adopting the method of the finite element considering the geometry nonlinearity. The review and prospect to control vibration with assistant cables are summarized, the finite element modeling of the system for transient main cables and catwalk is established, and the influence of the position of the assistant cables, disposed fashion and the tensile forces upon the critical frequencies of the system for transient main cables and catwalk is researched. At the same time, the effect of the damp and the tensile forces of the assistant cables on the equivalent damping ratio of the system for transient main cables and catwalk inside and outside the plane is studied and the effect to control the vibration of the system is analysed. In the end, the influence of the transformation for the tensile forces about assistant cables upon those of the transient main cables and catwalk is also investigated. Results show that, to increase the critical frequencies of the system, the assistant cables should be laid vertically with the main cables and be located in interim span or between the tower and interim span, and to increase the amount of the assistant cables can increase the critical frequencies ,and to increase the rigidities of the assistant cables can improve the ones of the transient main cables but decrease the anti-torsion ability of the catwalks, and to increase the damp of the assistant cables can improve the vibration of the transient main cables inside and outside the plane but the result is little outside the plane, and in addition the effect of the rigidities of the assistant cables is larger outside the plane but is little inside the plane. The results also show that the influence of the change of the tensile forces for the assistant cables upon those of the transient main cables and catwalk is very little.

Li, Shengli; Ou, Jinping



Parameters affecting the quality of acquired signals for the global health monitoring of mobile bridges using fiber optic polarimetric sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fiber Optic Polarimetric Sensors (FOPS) can be used for static and dynamic integrated deformation/strain measurement. It has also been shown to capture natural and excited frequency response spectra for structural health assessment. This is achieved by relating vibrational frequency changes to structural stiffness variations caused by damage. The deployment of the FOPS for this purpose is a relatively new endeavor and many factors pertaining to its use have yet to be investigated in detail -- including the parameters affecting its signal acquisition and the subsequent interpretation of acquired signals. Using a military mobile bridge as the test specimen, it is found that the FOPS yields a unique frequency spectrum containing information on damage severity and location for each specimen. The reliability of this signature frequency spectrum depends primarily on empirical parameters such as mounting location, method of bonding, type of structural supports used, strength of excitation impact and location of impact. Further, owing to the FOPS' unique global sensing nature, a new damage quantification system has to be used, which is also dependent on the consistency of the signal acquisition process for accuracy. Both finite element and experimental modal analyses were used in the development of an optimal FOPS configuration for signal reliability.

Asundi, Anand K.; Neo Tien Song, Paul



Detecting the specific parameters that affect the maturation of farmed sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) fillets stored in sunflower oil.  


In this study, it was aimed to detect the specific parameters that effect the maturation of farmed sea bass fillets stored in sunflower oil. Sea bass fillets were taken into the pickling solution (2.5% acetic acid and 11% sodium chloride) at 4C(1). Fish meat in each group was analysed for the following parameters; pH, moisture%, acetic acid% and NaCl% in the maturation pickling solution and in sunflower oil. At the end of the 90days storage, there were not any negative situations about the fish in terms of the scientific approach. It was detected that the skinless samples had the less NaCl and acidity values but scaly and scaleless samples had the higher values. Main reasons are: for the scaly and scaleless samples, the skin acted as a barrier in the pickling solution or oil and for scaly samples, scales depart from the skin and defeat the passing of NaCl and acid to the meat. When evaluating this study results, the fillet group samples which contain more salt and acetic acid are thought to be more appropriate for marinating in terms of shelf-life and quality. PMID:24876656

Baygar, Tanur; Alparslan, Yunus; Okumu?, Melis; Gler, Merve



Measurement of Hydrologic Streamflow Metrics and Estimation of Streamflow with Lumped Parameter Models in a Managed Lake System, Sebago Lake, Maine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface waters within the Sebago Lake watershed (southern Maine, USA) provide a variety of economically and intrinsically valuable recreational, commercial and environmental services. Different stakeholder groups for the 118 km2 Sebago Lake and surrounding watershed advocate for different lake and watershed management strategies, focusing on the operation of a dam at the outflow from Sebago Lake. While lake level in Sebago Lake has been monitored for over a century, limited data is available on the hydrologic processes that drive lake level and therefore impact how dam operation (and other changes to the region) will influence the hydroperiod of the lake. To fill this information gap several tasks were undertaken including: 1) deploying data logging pressure transducers to continuously monitor stream stage in nine tributaries, 2) measuring stream discharge at these sites to create rating curves for the nine tributaries, and using the resulting continuous discharge records to 3) calibrate lumped parameter computer models based on the GR4J model, modified to include a degree-day snowmelt routine. These lumped parameter models have been integrated with a simple lake water-balance model to estimate lake level and its response to different scenarios including dam management strategies. To date, about three years of stream stage data have been used to estimate stream discharge in all monitored tributaries (data collection is ongoing). Baseflow separation indices (BFI) for 2010 and 2011 using the USGS software PART and the Eckhart digital filter in WHAT range from 0.80-0.86 in the Crooked River and Richmill Outlet,followed by Northwest (0.75) and Muddy (0.53-0.56) Rivers, with the lowest BFI measured in Sticky River (0.41-0.56). The BFI values indicate most streams have significant groundwater (or other storage) inputs. The lumped parameter watershed model has been calibrated for four streams (Nash-Sutcliffe = 0.4 to 0.9), with the other major tributaries containing hydraulic structures that are not included in the lumped parameter model. Calibrated watershed models tend to substantially underestimate the highest streamflows while overestimating low flows. An early June 2012 event caused extremely high flows with discharge in the Crooked River (the most significant tributary) peaking at about 85 m3/day. The lumped parameter model dramatically underestimated this important and anomalous event, but provided a reasonable prediction of flows throughout the rest of 2012. Ongoing work includes incorporating hydraulic structures in the lumped parameter model and using the available data to drive the lake water-balance model that has been prepared.

Reeve, A. S.; Martin, D.; Smith, S. M.



Tremelimumab (anti-CTLA4) mediates immune responses mainly by direct activation of T effector cells rather than by affecting T regulatory cells.  


Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Antigen 4 (CTLA4) blockade has shown antitumor activity against common cancers. However, the exact mechanism of immune mediation by anti-CTLA4 remains to be elucidated. Further understanding of how CTLA4 blockade with tremelimumab mediates immune responses may allow a more effective selection of responsive patients. Our results show that tremelimumab enhanced the proliferative response of T effector cells (Teff) upon TCR stimulation, and abrogated Treg suppressive ability. In the presence of tremelimumab, frequencies of IL-2-secreting CD4(+) T cells and IFN-?-secreting CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells were increased in response to polyclonal activation and tumor antigens. Importantly, Treg frequency was not reduced in the presence of tremelimumab, and expanded Tregs in cancer patients treated with tremelimumab expressed FoxP3 with no IL-2 release, confirming them as bona fide Tregs. Taken together, this data indicates that tremelimumab induces immune responses mainly by direct activation of Teff rather than by affecting Tregs. PMID:21056008

Khan, Sameena; Burt, Deborah J; Ralph, Christy; Thistlethwaite, Fiona C; Hawkins, Robert E; Elkord, Eyad



Dissecting systemic RNA interference in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum: parameters affecting the efficiency of RNAi.  


The phenomenon of RNAi, in which the introduction of dsRNA into a cell triggers the destruction of the corresponding mRNA resulting in a gene silencing effect, is conserved across a wide array of plant and animal phyla. However, the mechanism by which the dsRNA enters a cell, allowing the RNAi effect to occur throughout a multicellular organism (systemic RNAi), has only been studied extensively in certain plants and the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. In recent years, RNAi has become a popular reverse genetic technique for gene silencing in many organisms. Although many RNAi techniques in non-traditional model organisms rely on the systemic nature of RNAi, little has been done to analyze the parameters required to obtain a robust systemic RNAi response. The data provided here show that the concentration and length of dsRNA have profound effects on the efficacy of the RNAi response both in regard to initial efficiency and duration of the effect in Tribolium castaneum. In addition, our analyses using a series of short dsRNAs and chimeric dsRNA provide evidence that dsRNA cellular uptake (and not the RNAi response itself) is the major step affected by dsRNA size in Tribolium. We also demonstrate that competitive inhibition of dsRNA can occur when multiple dsRNAs are injected together, influencing the effectiveness of RNAi. These data provide specific information essential to the design and implementation of RNAi based studies, and may provide insight into the molecular basis of the systemic RNAi response in insects. PMID:23133513

Miller, Sherry C; Miyata, Keita; Brown, Susan J; Tomoyasu, Yoshinori



KORTZOL SRKADYEN RTMNETKLEYEN BAZI FZKSEL VE FZYOLOJK PARAMETRELERN KARILATIRILMASI The Comparison of Some Physiological and Physical Parameters Affecting Cortisol Circadian Rhythm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction and Purpose: The purpose of the research is the comparison of some physiological and physical parameters affecting cortisol circadian rhythm on sedentary men. Ten male subjects, who are not used to medicines, are participated in the research. Material and Methods: Before the research, all subjects are tested as physiological: weight, height, skinfold (chest, abdomen, thigh, biceps, triceps, supra-iliac, sub-scapula),


Rock Mass Grouting in the Lren Tunnel: Case Study with the Main Focus on the Groutability and Feasibility of Drill Parameter Interpretation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Lren road tunnel is a part of a major project at Ring road 3 in Oslo, Norway. The rock part of the tunnel is 915 m long and has two tubes with three lanes and breakdown lanes. Strict water ingress restriction was specified and continuous rock mass grouting was, therefore, carried out for the entire tunnel, which was excavated in folded Cambro-Silurian shales intruded by numerous dykes. This paper describes the rock mass grouting that was carried out for the Lren tunnel. Particular emphasis is placed on discussing grout consumption and the challenges that were encountered when passing under a distinct rock depression. Measurement while drilling (MWD) technology was used for this project, and, in this paper, the relationships between the drill parameter interpretation (DPI) factors water and fracturing are examined in relation to grout volumes. A lowering of the groundwater table was experienced during excavation under the rock depression, but the groundwater was nearly re-established after completion of the main construction work. A planned 80-m watertight concrete lining was not required to be built due to the excellent results from grouting in the rock depression area. A relationship was found between leakages mapped in the tunnel and the DPI water factor, indicating that water is actually present where the DPI water factor shows water in the rock. It is concluded that, for the Lren tunnel, careful planning and high-quality execution of the rock mass grouting made the measured water ingress meet the restrictions. For future projects, the DPI water factor may be used to give a better understanding of the material in which the rock mass grouting is performed and may also be used to reduce the time spent and volumes used when grouting.

Hien, Are Hvard; Nilsen, Bjrn



Derivation of parameters necessary for the evaluation of performance of sites for deep geological repositories with particular reference to bedded salt, Livermore, California. Volume I. Main text  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of parameters to be considered in the evaluation of sites for deep geologic nuclear waste repositories is presented. As yet, no comprehensive site selection procedure or performance evaluation approach has been adopted. A basis is provided for the development of parameters by discussing both site selection and performance evaluation. Three major groups of parameters are considered in this

J. P. Ashby; G. E. Rawlings; C. A. Soto; D. F. Wood; D. W. Chorley



Parameters affecting protein production from brewery waste water in a multi-channel laboratory-scale activated sludge system  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the aim of studying the possible utilization of brewery waste water activated sludge for animal feeding, the influence of the solids retention time (SRT) and nitrogen supplementation were investigated, especially with respect to biomass production and biomass composition. It was found that the SRT strongly influenced both parameters. At an SRT of from 4 to 6 days excellent biomass

L. Vriens; E. Van den Eynde; H. Verachtert



The Parameters Affecting the Success of Irrigation and Debridement with Component Retention in the Treatment of Acutely Infected Total Knee Arthroplasty  

PubMed Central

Background The aims of our study were to evaluate the success rate of irrigation and debridement with component retention (IDCR) for acutely infected total knee arthroplasty (TKA) (< 4 weeks of symptom duration) and to analyze the factors affecting prognosis of IDCR. Methods We retrospectively reviewed 28 knees treated by IDCR for acutely infected TKA from 2003 to 2012. We evaluated the success rate of IDCR. All variables were compared between the success and failure groups. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was also used to examine the relative contribution of these parameters to the success of IDCR. Results Seventeen knees (60.7%) were successfully treated. Between the success and failure groups, there were significant differences in the time from primary TKA to IDCR (p = 0.021), the preoperative erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR; p = 0.021), microorganism (p = 0.006), and polyethylene liner exchange (p = 0.017). Multivariable logistic regression analysis of parameters affecting the success of IDCR demonstrated that preoperative ESR (odds ratio [OR], 1.02; p = 0.041), microorganism (OR, 12.4; p = 0.006), and polyethylene liner exchange (OR, 0.07; p = 0.021) were significant parameters. Conclusions The results show that 60.7% of the cases were successfully treated by IDCR for acutely infected TKA. The preoperative ESR, microorganism, and polyethylene liner exchange were factors that affected the success of IDCR in acutely infected TKA. PMID:25729521

Kim, Jae Gyoon; Bae, Ji Hoon; Lee, Seung Yup; Cho, Won Tae



Blastocyst culture and transfer: analysis of results and parameters affecting outcome in two in vitro fertilization programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine whether previously described advanced blastocyst development and high implantation rates are confirmed in an expanded multicenter trial.Design: Retrospective review.Setting: Two private assisted reproductive technology units.Patient(s): One hundred seventy-four patients who underwent blastocyst culture and transfer.Intervention(s): Culture of all pronucleate embryos in sequential media to the blastocyst stage (day 5) followed by ET.Main Outcome Measure(s): The number and

William B Schoolcraft; David K Gardner; Terry Schlenker; David R Meldrum



Does blood transfusion affect pituitary gonadal axis and sperm parameters in young males with sickle cell disease?  

PubMed Central

Objective: We evaluated the effect of packed red cell transfusion (PCTx) on serum concentrations of gonadotropins luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone (LH and FSH) and testosterone (T) levels and measured sperm parameters in young adults with sickle cell disease (SCD) on top-up transfusion (TTx) and those on exchange transfusion (ETx) regimen. Materials and Methods: Basal serum concentrations of FSH, LH, and T and semen parameters were evaluated before and 7 days after PCTx in 18 young adults with transfusion-dependent SCD, aged 20.7 2.88 years. They had full pubertal development (Tanner's stage 5), and capacity to ejaculate. They were regularly transfused since early childhood. Chelation therapy was started early during the first 2 years of life using desferrioxamine and was replaced by deferasirox for the last 4-5 years. Ten patients were on TTx and eight were on ETx regimen. Results: PCTx significantly increased hemoglobin (Hb) from 8.5 1.17 g/dl to 10.5 0.4 g/dl, T from 12.3 1.24 nmol/L to 14.23 1.22 nmol/L and gonadotropins concentrations. Sperm parameters improved significantly after PCTx including: total sperm count from 87.4 24.6 million/ml to 146.2 51.25 million/ml, total progressive sperm motility (TPM) from 40.8 11.1 million/ml to 93.4 38.3 million/ml, rapid progressive sperm motility (RPM) progressive motility from 29.26 8.75 million/ml to 67.4 29 million/ml. After PCTx the total sperm count, TPM and RPM were significantly better in the ETx group versus the TTx group. Before and after PCTx, T concentrations were correlated significantly with sperm total count, volume, TPM and RPM (r = 0.53, 0.55, 0.42, and 0.38, respectively, P < 0.01). Hb concentrations were correlated significantly with sperm count, TPM, RPM, and % of sperms with normal morphology (r = 0.60, 0.69, 0.66, and 0.86, respectively, P < 0.001). Conclusion: Our study suggests that in males with SCD blood transfusion is associated with significant acute enhancement of sperm parameters and with increased concentrations of serum T, LH, and FSH. Improvement of sperm parameters were significantly better in the ETx group verses the TTx group. These acute effects on spermiogenesis are reached with an unknown mechanism/s and suggest a number of pathways that need further human and/or experimental studies. PMID:24381868

Soliman, Ashraf T.; Yasin, Mohamed; El-Awwa, Ahmed; Abdelrahman, Mohamed O.; De Sanctis, Vincenzo



Does a short-term exposure to cadmium chloride affects haemocyte parameters of the marine gastropod Haliotis tuberculata?  


In this study, a model based on primary cultured haemocytes from the gastropod mollusc Haliotis tuberculata was established to investigate the effects of cadmium chloride in vitro. Cells were exposed for 24h to CdCl2 concentrations of 0, 1 and 100?gml(-1). The effects of cadmium on haemocyte parameters were investigated using morphological, spectrophotometric and flow cytometry analysis. Results showed that cadmium has no significant effects on cell viability and phagocytotic activity under the tested conditions. However, haemocytes became more rounded after cadmium exposure, which could explain the significant decrease of cell area beginning at 1?gml(-1) of CdCl2. PMID:25131679

Ladhar-Chaabouni, Rim; Machreki-Ajmi, Monia; Serpentini, Antoine; Lebel, Jean-Marc; Hamza-Chaffai, Amel



Chemometric approach to evaluate the parameters affecting the determination of reaction rate constants by ion trap mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of experimental parameters on kinetic measurements performed with an ion trap mass spectrometer have been investigated\\u000a by a chemometric approach using Experimental Design techniques. The selected experiment was the determination of the rate\\u000a constant of the reaction CH3CO++CH3COCH3?CH3CO(H)CH3\\u000a ++CH2CO. In a first step, eight variables were studied: temperature, acetone pressure, buffer gas pressure, method of ion selection,\\u000a ionization

Rosarina Carpignano; Lorenza Operti; Roberto Rabezzana; Gian Angelo Vaglio



Both aluminum and polyphenols in green tea decoction ( Camellia sinensis ) affect iron status and hematological parameters in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundGreen tea leaves naturally contain high levels of polyphenols and aluminum (Al). Polyphenols in green tea decoction are considered\\u000a to be one of the major factors responsible of low iron status. However, the effects of Al from green tea decoction on iron\\u000a status and hematological parameters remained unclear.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Aim of the studyThe objective was to investigate the Al absorption from

Neila Marouani; Adel Chahed; Abderrazek Hdhili; Mohamed Hdi Hamdaoui



The role of mechanical properties in cavitation erosion resistance. [parameters affecting metal fatigue under cavitation flow conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Methods for determining the correlations of erosion resistance and mechanical properties of materials are discussed. The most common method of testing cavitation erosion resistance of materials is the vibratory cavitation probe. The instrument and its operation are described. The use of the whirling arm device is considered as a second method. Metallographic investigations of the earliest stages of cavitation erosion damage of metallic materials was conducted. The materials show plastic deformation occurring during the incubation period and increasing until cracks form and metal fragments are lost. The parameters of the work done to cause material fractures are identified. The reactions obtained with specific materials are reported.

Gould, G. C.



The Transiting Exoplanet Host Star GJ 436: A Test of Stellar Evolution Models in the Lower Main Sequence, and Revised Planetary Parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of the stellar parameters for the parent stars of transiting exoplanets is a prerequisite for establishing the planet properties themselves, and often relies on stellar evolution models. GJ 436, which is orbited by a transiting Neptune-mass object, presents a difficult case because it is an M dwarf. Stellar models in this mass regime are not as reliable as for

Guillermo Torres



Acclimatory responses of the Daphnia pulex proteome to environmental changes. II. Chronic exposure to different temperatures (10 and 20C) mainly affects protein metabolism  

PubMed Central

Background Temperature affects essentially every aspect of the biology of poikilothermic animals including the energy and mass budgets, activity, growth, and reproduction. While thermal effects in ecologically important groups such as daphnids have been intensively studied at the ecosystem level and at least partly at the organismic level, much less is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying the acclimation to different temperatures. By using 2D gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, the present study identified the major elements of the temperature-induced subset of the proteome from differently acclimated Daphnia pulex. Results Specific sets of proteins were found to be differentially expressed in 10C or 20C acclimated D. pulex. Most cold-repressed proteins comprised secretory enzymes which are involved in protein digestion (trypsins, chymotrypsins, astacin, carboxypeptidases). The cold-induced sets of proteins included several vitellogenin and actin isoforms (cytoplasmic and muscle-specific), and an AAA+ ATPase. Carbohydrate-modifying enzymes were constitutively expressed or down-regulated in the cold. Conclusion Specific sets of cold-repressed and cold-induced proteins in D. pulex can be related to changes in the cellular demand for amino acids or to the compensatory control of physiological processes. The increase of proteolytic enzyme concentration and the decrease of vitellogenin, actin and total protein concentration between 10C and 20C acclimated animals reflect the increased amino-acids demand and the reduced protein reserves in the animal's body. Conversely, the increase of actin concentration in cold-acclimated animals may contribute to a compensatory mechanism which ensures the relative constancy of muscular performance. The sheer number of peptidase genes (serine-peptidase-like: > 200, astacin-like: 36, carboxypeptidase-like: 30) in the D. pulex genome suggests large-scaled gene family expansions that might reflect specific adaptations to the lifestyle of a planktonic filter feeder in a highly variable aquatic environment. PMID:19383147

Schwerin, Susanne; Zeis, Bettina; Lamkemeyer, Tobias; Paul, Rdiger J; Koch, Marita; Madlung, Johannes; Fladerer, Claudia; Pirow, Ralph



On the behavior of physical parameters of aqueous solutions affected by the inerton field of Teslar technology  

E-print Network

We present studies of the behavior of the permittivity of such liquid systems as pure distilled water, alcohol and 50%-aqueous solutions of alcohol as affected by the inerton field generated by a special signal generator contained within a wrist-watch or bracelet made by so-called Teslar technology. It has been found that the changes in fact are significant. The method employed has allowed us to fix the value of frequency of the field generated by the Teslar chip. The frequency has been determined to be approximately 8 Hz. The phenomenological consideration and submicroscopic foundations of a significant increase of the permittivity are studied taking into account an additional interaction, namely the mass interaction between polar water molecules, which is caused by the inerton field of the Teslar chip. This is one more proof of Krasnoholovets' concept regarding the existence of a substructure of the matter waves of moving/vibrating entities, i.e. the inerton field, which has been predicted in a series of his previous works.

V. Krasnoholovets; S. Skliarenko; O. Strokach



Critical rearing parameters of Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) as affected by host plant substrate and host-parasitoid group structure.  


In laboratory assays, we evaluated the potential impact of host plant substrate types, host-parasitoid group sizes (densities), and parasitoid-to-host ratios on select fitness parameters of the larval endoparasitoid Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), newly introduced for biological control of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), in the United States. Results from our study showed that offspring production and critical fitness parameters (body size and sex ratio) of T. planipennisi from parasitized emerald ash borer larvae are significantly influenced by host plant substrate type, host-parasitoid group size, parasitoid-to-host ratio, or a combination in the primary exposure assay. The number of both female and male T. planipennisi progeny was significantly greater when emerald ash borer larvae were inserted into tropical ash [Fraxinus uhdei (Wenz.) Lingelsh.] logs rather than green ash (Fraxinus pensylvanica Marshall). When maintained at a constant 1:1 parasitoid-to-host ratio, assays with larger host-parasitoid group sizes (3:3-12:12) produced significantly greater numbers of both male and female offspring per parental wasp compared with those with the single host-parasitoid (1:1) group treatment. As the parasitoid-to-host ratio increased from 1:1 to 8:1 in the assay, the average brood size (number of offspring per parasitized emerald ash borer larva) increased significantly, whereas the average brood sex ratio (female to male) changed from being female-biased (6:1) to male-biased (1:2); body size of female offspring as measured by the length of ovipositor and left hind tibia also was reduced significantly. Based on these findings, we suggest that the current method of rearing T. planipennisi with artificially infested-emerald ash borer larvae use the tropical ash logs for emerald ash borer insertion, a larger (> or = 3:3) host-parasitoid group size and 1:1 parasitoid-to-host ratio in the primary parasitoid exposure assays. PMID:22812114

Duan, Jian J; Oppel, Craig



IN-SYNC I: Homogeneous Stellar Parameters from High-resolution APOGEE Spectra for Thousands of Pre-main Sequence Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over two years, 8859 high-resolution H-band spectra of 3493 young (1-10 Myr) stars were gathered by the multi-object spectrograph of the APOGEE project as part of the IN-SYNC ancillary program of the SDSS-III survey. Here we present the forward modeling approach used to derive effective temperatures, surface gravities, radial velocities, rotational velocities, and H-band veiling from these near-infrared spectra. We discuss in detail the statistical and systematic uncertainties in these stellar parameters. In addition, we present accurate extinctions by measuring the E(J - H) of these young stars with respect to the single-star photometric locus in the Pleiades. Finally, we identify an intrinsic stellar radius spread of about 25% for late-type stars in IC 348 using three (nearly) independent measures of stellar radius, namely, the extinction-corrected J-band magnitude, the surface gravity, and the Rsin i from the rotational velocities and literature rotation periods. We exclude that this spread is caused by uncertainties in the stellar parameters by showing that the three estimators of stellar radius are correlated, so that brighter stars tend to have lower surface gravities and larger Rsin i than fainter stars at the same effective temperature. Tables providing the spectral and photometric parameters for the Pleiades and IC 348 have been provided online.

Cottaar, Michiel; Covey, Kevin R.; Meyer, Michael R.; Nidever, David L.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Foster, Jonathan B.; Tan, Jonathan C.; Chojnowski, S. Drew; Da Rio, Nicola; Flaherty, Kevin M.; Frinchaboy, Peter M.; Skrutskie, Michael; Majewski, Steven R.; Wilson, John C.; Zasowski, Gail



Visual display of reservoir parameters affecting enhanced oil recovery. Annual report, October 1, 1995--September 30, 1996  

SciTech Connect

The Multimedia Database Management System (MDMS) has been developed in the commercial software package Toolbook. Design and implementation, which was carried out by C. Asiala, is now essentially complete. Regional location maps of southern San Joaquin Valley oil fields, structure contour maps of the Pioneer area, core photos, core data, thin-section and SEM photomicrographs of core materials, structural cross sections through Pioneer Anticline, an atlas of photomicrographs; illustrating typical diagenetic features observed in San Joaquin Valley petroleum reservoirs, elemental and spectral data collected on Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) standards, and all quarterly and annual reports submitted to DOE for this project were scanned into the MDMS. All data and information are accessible through dropdown menus and hotlinks in a Table of Contents. A tutorial is presented up front to guide users through the MDMS and instruct them on the various ways in which data can be viewed and retrieved. Version 1.0 of the MDMS was written to CD ROM and distributed to participants in a Technology Transfer Workshop in Bakersfield, CA, in September, 1996. Version 1.1, which contains additional information and has been reorganized for easier use, is nearing completion. All measured and computed log curves (computed curves represent parameters such as porosity, water saturation, and clay content, which were calculated from the measured log traces using specially developed algorithms) for the 45+ project wells on Pioneer Anticline are now in the MDMS in LAS (log ASCII) format, and can be exported to any commercial log evaluation program for manipulation and analysis. All log curves were written to the CD ROM in digital format.

Wood, J.R.




EPA Science Inventory

AQFRS24 contains polygons of significant aquifers in Maine (glacial deposits that are a significant ground water resource) mapped at a scale 1:24,000. This statewide coverage was derived from aquifer boundaries delineated and digitized by the Maine Geological Survey from data com...



EPA Science Inventory

Hydronet_me24 and Hydropoly_me24 depict Maine's hydrography data, based on 8-digit hydrological unit codes (HUC's) at the 1:24,000 scale. Some New Hampshire and New Brunswick hydrography data are also included. The NHD hydrography data was compiled from previous ArcIn...


Maine Ingredients  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article features Maine Learning Technology Initiative (MLTI), the nation's first-ever statewide 1-to-1 laptop program which marks its seventh birthday by expanding into high schools, providing an occasion to celebrate--and to examine the components of its success. The plan to put laptops into the hands of every teacher and student in grades 7

Waters, John K.



Main Winners.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the main winners of a competition which judged the most outstanding learning environments at educational institutions nationwide. Jurors spent 2 days reviewing projects, focusing on concepts and ideas that made them exceptional. The top K-12 honor went to Century High School, Sykesville, Maryland. The higher education honor went to Wright

American School & University, 2003



Transient states of air parameters after a stoppage and re-start of the main fan / Stany przej?ciowe parametrw powietrza po postoju i za??czeniu wentylatora g?wnego  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A stoppage of the main ventilation fan constitutes a disturbance of ventilation conditions of a deepmine and its effects can cause serious hazards by generating transient states of air and gas flow. Main ventilation fans are the basic deep-mine facilities; therefore, under mining regulations it is only allowed to stop them with the consent and under the conditions specified by the mine maintenance manager. The stoppage of the main ventilation fan may be accompanied by transient air parameters, including the air pressure and flow patterns. There is even the likelihood of reversing the direction of air flow, which, in case of methane mines, can pose a major hazard, particularly in sections of the mine with fire fields or large goaf areas. At the same time, stoppages of deep-mine main ventilation fans create interesting research conditions, which if conducted under the supervision of the monitoring systems, can provide much information about the transient processes of pressure, air and gas flow in underground workings. This article is a discussion of air parameter observations in mine workings made as part of such experiments. It also presents the procedure of the experiments, conducted in three mines. They involved the observation of transient processes of mine air parameters, and most interestingly, the recording of pressure and air and gas flow in the workings of the mine ventilation networks by mine monitoring systems and using specialist recording instruments. In mining practice, both in Poland and elsewhere, software tools and computer modelling methods are used to try and reproduce the conditions prior to and during disasters based on the existing network model and monitoring system data. The use of these tools to simulate the alternatives of combating and liquidation of the gas-fire hazard after its occurrence is an important issue. Measurement data collected during the experiments provides interesting research material for the verification and validation of the software tools used for the simulation of processes occurring in deep-mine ventilation systems.

Wasilewski, Stanis?aw



Why doesn't lat/lon calculated by the GCTP projection parameters match lat/lon report in the Latitude / Longitude fields in the product? Which fields are affected by the geolocation problem?  

Atmospheric Science Data Center

... as shown in the illustration of geolocation error (PDF). This problem affects the following parameters: ... Level 2 TOA/Cloud Albedo (MIL2TCAL) AlbedoParameters_35.2_km 35.2 km Level 2 TOA/Cloud Stereo (MIL2TCST) DomainParams 70.4 km Level 2 TOA/Cloud ...



Comparison of Mathematical Models Applied to F1 Dairy Sheep Lactations in Organic Farm and Environmental Factors Affecting Lactation Curve Parameter  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to compare the goodness of fit of four lactation curve models: Woods Gamma model (WD), Wilmink (WL), and Pollotts multiplicative two (POL2) and three parameters (POL3) and to determine the environmental factors affecting the complete lactation curve of F1 dairy sheep under organic management. A total of 5,382 weekly milk yields records from 150 ewes, under organic management were used. Residual mean square (RMS), determination coefficients (R2), and correlation (r) analysis were used as an indicator of goodness of fit for each model. WL model best fitted the lactation curves as indicated by the lower RMS values (0.019), followed by WD (0.023), POL2 (0.025) and POL3 (0.029). The four models provided total milk yield (TMY) estimations that were highly correlated (0.93 to 0.97) with observed TMY (89.9 kg). The four models under estimated peak yield (PY), whereas POL2 and POL3 gave nearer peak time lactation estimations. Ewes lambing in autumn had higher TMY and showed a typical curve shape. Higher TMY were recorded in second and third lambing. Season of lambing, number of lambing and type of lambing had a great influenced over TMY shaping the complete lactation curve of F1 dairy sheep. In general terms WL model showed the best fit to the F1 dairy sheep lactation curve under organic management. PMID:25049892

Angeles-Hernandez, J. C.; Albarran-Portillo, B.; Gomez Gonzalez, A. V.; Pescador Salas, N.; Gonzalez-Ronquillo, M.



Main Report  

PubMed Central

Background: States vary widely in their use of newborn screening tests, with some mandating screening for as few as three conditions and others mandating as many as 43 conditions, including varying numbers of the 40+ conditions that can be detected by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). There has been no national guidance on the best candidate conditions for newborn screening since the National Academy of Sciences report of 19751 and the United States Congress Office of Technology Assessment report of 1988,2 despite rapid developments since then in genetics, in screening technologies, and in some treatments. Objectives: In 2002, the Maternal and Child Health Bureau (MCHB) of the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) of the United States Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) commissioned the American College of Medical Genetics (ACMG) to: Conduct an analysis of the scientific literature on the effectiveness of newborn screening.Gather expert opinion to delineate the best evidence for screening for specified conditions and develop recommendations focused on newborn screening, including but not limited to the development of a uniform condition panel.Consider other components of the newborn screening system that are critical to achieving the expected outcomes in those screened. Methods: A group of experts in various areas of subspecialty medicine and primary care, health policy, law, public health, and consumers worked with a steering committee and several expert work groups, using a two-tiered approach to assess and rank conditions. A first step was developing a set of principles to guide the analysis. This was followed by developing criteria by which conditions could be evaluated, and then identifying the conditions to be evaluated. A large and broadly representative group of experts was asked to provide their opinions on the extent to which particular conditions met the selected criteria, relying on supporting evidence and references from the scientific literature. The criteria were distributed among three main categories for each condition: The availability and characteristics of the screening test;The availability and complexity of diagnostic services; andThe availability and efficacy of treatments related to the conditions. A survey process utilizing a data collection instrument was used to gather expert opinion on the conditions in the first tier of the assessment. The data collection format and survey provided the opportunity to quantify expert opinion and to obtain the views of a diverse set of interest groups (necessary due to the subjective nature of some of the criteria). Statistical analysis of data produced a score for each condition, which determined its ranking and initial placement in one of three categories (high scoring, moderately scoring, or low scoring/absence of a newborn screening test). In the second tier of these analyses, the evidence base related to each condition was assessed in depth (e.g., via systematic reviews of reference lists including MedLine, PubMed and others; books; Internet searches; professional guidelines; clinical evidence; and cost/economic evidence and modeling). The fact sheets reflecting these analyses were evaluated by at least two acknowledged experts for each condition. These experts assessed the data and the associated references related to each criterion and provided corrections where appropriate, assigned a value to the level of evidence and the quality of the studies that established the evidence base, and determined whether there were significant variances from the survey data. Survey results were subsequently realigned with the evidence obtained from the scientific literature during the second-tier analysis for all objective criteria, based on input from at least three acknowledged experts in each condition. The information from these two tiers of assessment was then considered with regard to the overriding principles and other technology or condition-specific recommendations. On the basis of this information, conditions were assigned to one of thr



Effect of parameter choice in root water uptake models - the arrangement of root hydraulic properties within the root architecture affects dynamics and efficiency of root water uptake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detailed three-dimensional models of root water uptake have become increasingly popular for investigating the process of root water uptake. However, they suffer from a lack of information on important parameters, particularly on the spatial distribution of root axial and radial conductivities, which vary greatly along a root system. In this paper we explore how the arrangement of those root hydraulic properties and branching within the root system affects modelled uptake dynamics, xylem water potential and the efficiency of root water uptake. We first apply a simple model to illustrate the mechanisms at the scale of single roots. By using two efficiency indices based on (i) the collar xylem potential ("effort") and (ii) the integral amount of unstressed root water uptake ("water yield"), we show that an optimal root length emerges, depending on the ratio between roots axial and radial conductivity. Young roots with high capacity for radial uptake are only efficient when they are short. Branching, in combination with mature transport roots, enables soil exploration and substantially increases active young root length at low collar potentials. Second, we investigate how this shapes uptake dynamics at the plant scale using a comprehensive three-dimensional root water uptake model. Plant-scale dynamics, such as the average uptake depth of entire root systems, were only minimally influenced by the hydraulic parameterization. However, other factors such as hydraulic redistribution, collar potential, internal redistribution patterns and instantaneous uptake depth depended strongly on the arrangement on the arrangement of root hydraulic properties. Root systems were most efficient when assembled of different root types, allowing for separation of root function in uptake (numerous short apical young roots) and transport (longer mature roots). Modelling results became similar when this heterogeneity was accounted for to some degree (i.e. if the root systems contained between 40 and 80% of young uptake roots). The average collar potential was cut to half and unstressed transpiration increased by up to 25% in composed root systems, compared to homogenous ones. Also, the least efficient root system (homogenous young root system) was characterized by excessive bleeding (hydraulic lift), which seemed to be an artifact of the parameterization. We conclude that heterogeneity of root hydraulic properties is a critical component for efficient root systems that needs to be accounted for in complex three-dimensional root water uptake models.

Bechmann, M.; Schneider, C.; Carminati, A.; Vetterlein, D.; Attinger, S.; Hildebrandt, A.



Modeling runoff and microbial overland transport with KINEROS2/STWIR model: Accuracy and uncertainty as affected by source of infiltration parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Infiltration is important to modeling the overland transport of microorganisms in environmental waters. In watershed- and hillslope scale-models, infiltration is commonly described by simple equations relating infiltration rate to soil saturated conductivity and by empirical parameters defining changes in infiltration rate with soil water content. For the microbial transport model KINEROS2/STWIR used in this study, infiltration in unsaturated soil is accounted for by a net capillary drive parameter, G, in the Parlange equation. Scarce experimental data and multiple approaches for estimating parameter G introduce uncertainty, reducing reliability of overland water flow and microbial transport models. Our objectives were to evaluate reliability and robustness of three methods to estimate parameter G and associated accuracy and uncertainty in predicting runoff and fecal coliform (FC) transport. These methods include (i) KINEROS2 fitting to the experimental cumulative runoff data; (ii) estimating solely on soil texture; and (iii) estimating by individual pedotransfer functions (PTFs) and an ensemble of PTFs from basic soil properties. Results show that the most accurate prediction was obtained when the G parameter was fitted to the cumulative runoff. The KINEROS2-recommended parameter slightly overestimated the calibrated value of parameter G and yielded less accurate predictions of runoff, FC concentrations and total FC. The PTFs-estimated parameters systematically deviated from calibrated G values that caused high uncertainty in the KINEROS2/STWIR predictions. Averaging PTF estimates considerably improved model accuracy, reducing the uncertainty of runoff and FC concentration predictions. Overall, ensemble-based PTF estimation of the capillary drive can be efficient for simulations of runoff and bacteria overland transport when a single effective value is used across the study area.

Guber, A. K.; Pachepsky, Y. A.; Yakirevich, A. M.; Shelton, D. R.; Whelan, G.; Goodrich, D. C.; Unkrich, C. L.



The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey. XIX. B-type supergiants: Atmospheric parameters and nitrogen abundances to investigate the role of binarity and the width of the main sequence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. Model atmosphere analyses have been previously undertaken for both Galactic and extragalactic B-type supergiants. By contrast, little attention has been given to a comparison of the properties of single supergiants and those that are members of multiple systems. Aims: Atmospheric parameters and nitrogen abundances have been estimated for all the B-type supergiants identified in the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula survey. These include both single targets and binary candidates. The results have been analysed to investigate the role of binarity in the evolutionary history of supergiants. Methods: tlusty non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) model atmosphere calculations have been used to determine atmospheric parameters and nitrogen abundances for 34 single and 18 binary supergiants. Effective temperatures were deduced using the silicon balance technique, complemented by the helium ionisation in the hotter spectra. Surface gravities were estimated using Balmer line profiles and microturbulent velocities deduced using the silicon spectrum. Nitrogen abundances or upper limits were estimated from the N ii spectrum. The effects of a flux contribution from an unseen secondary were considered for the binary sample. Results: We present the first systematic study of the incidence of binarity for a sample of B-type supergiants across the theoretical terminal age main sequence (TAMS). To account for the distribution of effective temperatures of the B-type supergiants it may be necessary to extend the TAMS to lower temperatures. This is also consistent with the derived distribution of mass discrepancies, projected rotational velocities and nitrogen abundances, provided that stars cooler than this temperature are post-red supergiant objects. For all the supergiants in the Tarantula and in a previous FLAMES survey, the majority have small projected rotational velocities. The distribution peaks at about 50 km s-1 with 65% in the range 30 km s-1 ? vesini ? 60 km s-1. About ten per cent have larger vesini (?100 km s-1), but surprisingly these show little or no nitrogen enhancement. All the cooler supergiants have low projected rotational velocities of ?70 km s-1and high nitrogen abundance estimates, implying that either bi-stability braking or evolution on a blue loop may be important. Additionally, there is a lack of cooler binaries, possibly reflecting the small sample sizes. Single-star evolutionary models, which include rotation, can account for all of the nitrogen enhancement in both the single and binary samples. The detailed distribution of nitrogen abundances in the single and binary samples may be different, possibly reflecting differences in their evolutionary history. Conclusions: The first comparative study of single and binary B-type supergiants has revealed that the main sequence may be significantly wider than previously assumed, extending to Teff = 20 000 K. Some marginal differences in single and binary atmospheric parameters and abundances have been identified, possibly implying non-standard evolution for some of the sample. This sample as a whole has implications for several aspects of our understanding of the evolutionary status of blue supergiants. Tables 1, 4, 7 are available in electronic form at

McEvoy, C. M.; Dufton, P. L.; Evans, C. J.; Kalari, V. M.; Markova, N.; Simn-Daz, S.; Vink, J. S.; Walborn, N. R.; Crowther, P. A.; de Koter, A.; de Mink, S. E.; Dunstall, P. R.; Hnault-Brunet, V.; Herrero, A.; Langer, N.; Lennon, D. J.; Maz Apellniz, J.; Najarro, F.; Puls, J.; Sana, H.; Schneider, F. R. N.; Taylor, W. D.



Metal-poor Dwarf Galaxies in the SIGRID Galaxy Sample. II. The Electron Temperature-Abundance Calibration and the Parameters that Affect it  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we use the Mappings photoionization code to explore the physical parameters that impact on the measurement of electron temperature and abundance in H II regions. In our previous paper, we presented observations and measurements of physical properties from the spectra of 17 H II regions in 14 isolated dwarf irregular galaxies from the SIGRID sample. Here, we analyze these observations further, together with three additional published data sets. We explore the effects of optical thickness, electron density, ionization parameter, ionization source, and non-equilibrium effects on the relation between electron temperature and metallicity. We present a standard model that fits the observed data remarkably well at metallicities between one-tenth and 1 solar. We investigate the effects of optically thin H II regions, and show that they can have a considerable effect on the measured electron temperature, and that there is evidence that some of the observed objects are optically thin. We look at the role of the ionization parameter and find that lower ionization parameter values give better fits at higher oxygen abundance. We show that higher pressures combined with low optical depth, and also ? electron energy distributions at low ? values, can generate the apparent high electron temperatures in low-metallicity H II regions, and that the former provides the better fit to observations. We examine the effects of these parameters on the strong line diagnostic methods. We extend this to three-dimensional diagnostic grids to confirm how well the observations are described by the grids.

Nicholls, David C.; Dopita, Michael A.; Sutherland, Ralph S.; Jerjen, Helmut; Kewley, Lisa J.



Body mass index, calcium intake, and physical activity affect calcaneal ultrasound in healthy Greek males in an age-dependent and parameter-specific manner  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) is a peripheral bone densitometry technique that is rapidly gaining in popularity for the assessment of skeletal status. This study was carried out to examine the effect of anthropometric, dietary, physical activity, and other lifestyle factors on QUS parameters in healthy Greek males of various ages, including children (n = 192), adults (n = 106), and elderly

Eirini Babaroutsi; Faidon Magkos; Yannis Manios; Labros S. Sidossis



Variations in Mechanical Parameters of Rock Mass Affecting Shaft Lining / Zmiany Parametrw Mechanicznych Grotworu I Ich Wp?yw Na Obudow? Szybow?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents geomechanical properties of rock mass occurring in the initial section of shaft lining during its execution. The shaft being sunk is surrounded with cohesive soils, mainly clays with sand layers and silts. Such lithology causes that in various levels some parts of strata are saturated with water. This results in a considerable changeability of soil properties in time. With high water content, the soil is washed away leading to local loss of contact between shaft lining and surrounding soils. This, in turn, results in lack of proper support for curbs and shaft lining fracture in some sections. Engineering activity in such a case should embrace sealing injections in selected parts of the shaft in order to resume proper reinforcement in the lining-rock mass system. The studies of the soils surrounding shaft lining were supposed to help design curbs with increased bearing capacity. The tests of soils indicated that the angle of internal friction and cohesion do change not only at different depths but also at the same depth in different points of perimeter. It was also observed during the study that the mechanical parameters of the analyzed soils improve as the distance from the shaft lining increases, which clearly indicates change of soil properties in the direct neighborhood of the shaft. Considerable number of tests carried out in the study allowed to determine the relationship between water content and angle of internal friction or soil cohesion. The determined relationships can help to estimate change of soil properties under the influence of water with considerable precision. The reinforcement of curbs executed with the use of ground anchors allowed for further shaft sinking. The tests of concrete used in the shaft carried out in the analyzed section produced results similar to the values assumed in the project. W artykule przedstawiono charakterystyk? w?asno?ci geomechanicznych grotworu jakie wyst?puj? podczas dr??enia szybu w jego pocz?tkowej d?ugo?ci. W otoczeniu g??bionego szybu wyst?puj? grunty spoiste, g?wnie w postaci glin z przerostami piaskw oraz py?y. Taka litologia powoduje, ?e na r?nych poziomach cz??? warstw gruntu jest zawodniona. Wp?ywa to na du?? zmienno?? w?asno?ci gruntw wok? szybu oraz zmiany tych w?asno?ci w czasie. Przy du?ym zawodnieniu grunt by? wymywany zza obudowy, co prowadzi?o do lokalnej utraty kontaktu pomi?dzy obudow? a otaczaj?cym gruntem oraz braku w?a?ci- wego podparcia dla stp szybowych. Efektem tego by?o na niewielkim odcinku szybu p?kanie obudowy. Podj?te dzia?ania, ktre sprowadzi?y si? do wykonania iniekcji na pewnym odcinku szybu doprowadzi?y do przywrcenia w?a?ciwej wsp?pracy obudowa - grotwr. Przeprowadzone badania gruntu zza obudowy pos?u?y?y do podj?cia dzia?a? w celu zwi?kszenia no?no?ci stp szybowych. Badania gruntu wykaza?y, ?e k?t tarcia wewn?trznego oraz spjno?? zmieniaj? si? nie tylko na poszczeglnych g??boko?ciach, ale tak?e obserwuje si? du?e r?nice dla prbek pobranych z tej samej g??boko?ci ale z r?nych punktw na obwodzie szybu. Badania wykaza?y tak?e wzrost parametrw mechanicznych badanych gruntw wraz z oddalaniem si? od obudowy, co ?wiadczy o zmianie w?asno?ci gruntw bezpo?rednio w s?siedztwie szybu. Du?a liczba wykonanych bada? pozwoli?a na opracowanie zale?no?ci pomi?dzy wilgotno?ci? a k?tem tarcia wewn?trznego i spjno?ci?. Na podstawie uzyskanych zale?no?ci mo?na szacowa? z du?? dok?adno?ci? zmian? w?asno?ci gruntw pod wp?ywem dzia?ania wody. Zrealizowane wzmocnienia stp szybowych z wykorzystaniem kotew gruntowych pozwoli?y na podj?cie dalszego g??bienia szybu. Przeprowadzone na analizowanym odcinku badania betonu z obudowy szybu wykaza?y warto?ci zgodne z projektem.

Majcherczyk, Tadeusz; Niedbalski, Zbigniew; Wa?ach, Daniel



Prediction Impact of Vacuum Drying Parameters on Rice Taste Value with Neural Network Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Process control over rice vacuum drying directly affects the taste quality of dried rice. Drying temperature, initial rice moisture content and vacuum degree are the main parameters that affect rice-drying process. This paper makes research on the change law of taste quality of brown rice versus drying parameters during vacuum drying process through establishment of neural network model between brown

Xu Zemin; Wu Wenfu; Yin Liyan



Feed gas humidity: a vital parameter affecting a cold atmospheric-pressure plasma jet and plasma-treated human skin cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the effect of feed gas humidity on the reactive component generation of an atmospheric-pressure argon plasma jet and its effect on human skin cells are investigated. Feed gas humidity is identified as one key parameter that strongly influences stability and reproducibility of plasma medical studies. The plasma jet is investigated by absorption spectroscopy in the ultraviolet and infrared spectral region for its ozone production depending on the humidity concentration in the feed gas. By optical emission spectroscopy the dependence of present excited plasma species such as hydroxyl radicals, molecular nitrogen, argon and atomic oxygen on the feed gas humidity is investigated. As an interface layer between the plasma jet effluent and the biological cell, a buffer solution is treated and the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production is studied with two independent colorimetric assays as a function of humidity admixture to the feed gas. Ultimately, the effect of varying feed gas humidity on the cell viability of indirect plasma treated adherent HaCAT cells is investigated. The highest viability is found for the driest feed gas condition. Furthermore, this work shows answers for the relevance of unwantedor intendedfeed gas humidity in plasma medical experiments and their comparatively large relevance with respect to ambient humidity. The findings will lead to more reproducible experiments in the field of plasma medicine.

Winter, J.; Wende, K.; Masur, K.; Iseni, S.; Dnnbier, M.; Hammer, M. U.; Tresp, H.; Weltmann, K.-D.; Reuter, S.



Two-spotted spider mite reared on resistant eggplant affects consumption rate and life table parameters of its predator, Typhlodromus bagdasarjani (Acari: Phytoseiidae).  


The study of interactions between host plant cultivars and biological control agents is important in integrated pest management programs. In this study, the life table parameters and predation rate of Typhlodromus bagdasarjani Wainstein & Arutunjan were determined on two-spotted spider mites reared on a susceptible (Isfahan) or a resistant (Neishabour) eggplant cultivar. All experiments were carried out under laboratory conditions, at 251C, 605% RH and a photoperiod of 16:8 (L:D) h. A significant difference was observed between mean developmental time of immature stages of T. bagdasarjani on the two eggplant cultivars: 6.6 versus 7.5days, on the susceptible and resistant cultivar, respectively. Net reproductive rate (R 0) of T. bagdasarjani did not differ between the cultivars. Doubling time on the susceptible and resistant cultivars was 3.48 versus 5.72days, mean generation time (T) was 10.13 versus 16.08days, respectively. Total fecundity was higher on susceptible than on resistant eggplants, the intrinsic rate of population increase (r) was 0.188 versus 0.119day(-1), respectively. Daily and total prey consumption of various life stages of T. bagdasarjani on two-spotted spider mite reared on susceptible versus resistant eggplant differed; total consumption was higher on spider mites reared on the resistant cultivar. However, the lower intrinsic rate of increase and higher mortality of the predator on the resistant eggplant (Neishabour) revealed that more attention should be devoted to integrated control of spider mites using resistant cultivars and phytoseiid mites. PMID:24599555

Khanamani, Mostafa; Fathipour, Yaghoub; Hajiqanbar, Hamidreza; Sedaratian, Amin



The Influence of Process Parameters on Lactic Acid Fermentation in Laboratory Scale Fermenter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to study the influence of process parameters on the Lactic Acid Fermentation by Lactobacillus rhamnosus in laboratory scale fermenter. The experiment was designed by Taguchi Method using STATISTICA software. Three parameters have been chosen as the main parameters that affect significantly to the growth of L. rhamnosus; the agitation speed of the impeller, dissolve

Maizirwan Mel; Mohd Ismail Abdul Karim; Parveen Jamal; Mohamad Ramlan Mohamed Salleh; Ruzi Aini Zakaria



The EMMA Main Ring Lattice.  

SciTech Connect

I give a brief introduction to the purpose and goals of the EMMA experiment and describe how they will impact the design of the main EMMA ring. I then describe the mathematical model that is used to describe the EMMA lattice. Finally, I show how the different lattice configurations were obtained and list their parameters.




Anthocyanins from fruit juices improve the antioxidant status of healthy young female volunteers without affecting anti-inflammatory parameters: results from the randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over ANTHONIA (ANTHOcyanins in Nutrition Investigation Alliance) study.  


Anthocyanins (ACN) can exert beneficial health effects not only through their antioxidative potential but also through modulation of inflammatory parameters that play a major role in CVD. A randomised cross-over study was carried out to investigate the effects of ACN-rich beverage ingestion on oxidation- and inflammation-related parameters in thirty healthy female volunteers. The participants consumed 330 ml of beverages (placebo, juice and smoothie with 89 (SD 03), 9837 (SD 37) and 8409 (SD 10) mg/l ACN, respectively) over 14 d. Before and after each intervention, blood and 24 h urine samples were collected. Plasma superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activities increased significantly after ACN-rich beverage ingestion (P<0001), whereas after placebo juice ingestion no increase could be observed. Plasma glutathione peroxidase and erythrocyte SOD activities were not affected. An increase in Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity could also be observed after juice (P<0001) and smoothie (P<001) ingestion. The plasma and urinary concentrations of malondialdehyde decreased after ACN-rich beverage ingestion (P<0001), whereas those of 8-OH-2-deoxyguanosine as well as inflammation-related parameters (IL-2, -6, -8 and -10, C-reactive peptide, soluble cluster of differentiation 40 ligand, TNF-?, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and soluble cell adhesion molecules) were not affected. Thus, ingestion of ACN-rich beverages improves antioxidant enzyme activities and plasma antioxidant capacity, thus protecting the body against oxidative stress, a hallmark of ongoing atherosclerosis. PMID:25089359

Kuntz, Sabine; Kunz, Clemens; Herrmann, Johannes; Borsch, Christian H; Abel, Georg; Frhling, Bettina; Dietrich, Helmut; Rudloff, Silvia



History of Maine Fisheries Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A number of institutions have begun to expand their digital collections in order to include lesser-known subjects, and the University of Maine's Raymond H. Fogler Library continues to expand their online offerings with this intriguing collection. Drawing on the holdings of institutions like the Machias Historical Society, the Maine Maritime Museum, and the Maine State Archives, their digital collections team has created this History of Maine Fisheries database. There aren't any subject headings or sample searches on the site, but it is still quite easy to use. Visitors can use the keyword search to locate materials of interest, and they can also set date parameters to look for materials from a given time period. To get started, visitors might try typing in words like "lobster", "fleet", and "Bangor".


Parameters affecting retentive force of conus crowns.  


The aim of this study was to determine the values of the retentive forces of the telescopic crowns. At the first step of the study, the samples having different heights and angles were compared in relation to retentive force. At the second step, the samples were subjected to removal procedures having a pre-determined speed, force and number. The obtained retention values were compared. Ninety dies were prepared in order to measure the retention of the conus crowns. The removal tests were performed with the insertion/separation device. The speed of the test device was 100 cm min(-1) providing the placement of the pieces with 5 kgf in 100, 200, 300, 500, 1000, 5000 and 10 000 cycles. The mean of the retention values of the changes of the angles were found to be statistically different (P < 0.01). According to the results of the variant analysis, the differences in the changes of the height were statistically significant (P < 0.01). The differences between the changes of the number of procedures of all groups were statistically significant (P < 0.01). The number of procedures, height and angle interactions were statistically insignificant (P = 0.758). According to the results of this study, the effect of the angle and height factors in terms of retention among the groups were not independent of each other. In equal angles, as the height increased, increased retention measurements were obtained. In more acute angles, the increase in retention was more obvious. It was also found that an accessory device was necessary to maintain retention capabilities after a long-term use. PMID:15025661

Gngr, M A; Artun, C; Sonugelen, M



Parameters affecting solvent production by Clostridium pasteurianum  

SciTech Connect

The effect of pH, growth rate, phosphate and iron limitation, carbon monoxide, and carbon source on product formation by Clostridium pasteurianum was determined. Under phosphate limitation, glucose was fermented almost exclusively to acetate and butyrate independently of the pH and growth rate. Iron limitation caused lactate production (38 mol/100 mol) from glucose in batch and continuous culture. At 15% (vol/vol) carbon monoxide in the atmosphere, glucose was fermented to ethanol (24 mol/100 mol), lactate (32 mol/100 mol), and butanol (36 mol/100 mol) in addition to the usual products, acetate (38 mol/100 mol) and butyrate (17 mol/100 mol). During glycerol fermentation, a completely different product pattern was found. In continuous culture under phosphate limitation, acetate and butyrate were produced only in trace amounts, whereas ethanol (30 mol/10 mol), butanol (18 mol/100 mol), and 1,3-propanediol (18 mol/100 mol) were the major products. Under iron limitation, the ratio of these products could be changed in favor of 1,3-propanediol (34 mol/100 mol). In addition, lactate was produced in significant amounts (25 mol/100 mol). The tolerance of C. pasteurianum to glycerol was remarkably high; growth was not inhibited by glycerol concentrations up to 17% (wt/vol). Increasing glycerol concentrations favored the production of 1,3-propanediol.

Dabrock, B.; Bahl, H.; Gottschalk, G. (Georg-August-Univ. Goettingen (Germany))



Parameters affecting hydrogen chloride measurements. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The launching of solid rocket boosters releases numerous gases, including hydrogen chloride. Monitoring the concentrations of these gases and predicting their atmospheric transport is required for safety reasons and for compliance with environmental laws. Monitoring of these gases is difficult because they are hydrophilic and tend to condense on atmospheric aerosols. Once such gases are condensed in the atmospheric aerosols, they will not appear on gas-phase sensors unless provision iB made to evaporate the aerosols. Transport of the gases will also be governed by the chemistry in the aerosols and movement of the aerosols in the atmosphere, as opposed to the gas-phase chemistry alone. The objective of this project is to investigate the behavior of hydrogen chloride in the presence of atmospheric aerosols. The thermodynamics of HCl in the gas and liquid phase will be reviewed, and kinetics of mass transfer, diffusivity, and sticking coefficients on water of HCl will be measured. The evaporation of atmospheric aerosols will also be discussed. Hydrogen chloride, Aerosol, Diffusivity, Sticking, Condensation, Atmospheric chemistry, Laser fluorescence, Hydrophilic, Humid air, Water, Salt water.

Martin, L.R.; Abul-Haj, N.A.; Brenner, D.M.; Westberg, K.R.



Processing parameters affecting sorghum noodle qualities  

E-print Network

Processing variables of 100% sorghum noodles were investigated to determine effects on noodle quality. A dough was created by microwave heating a flour with 1 % salt (1 00 g): water (90 ml) mixture to 950C with a microwave. The dough was put through...

Kunetz, Christine Frances



Affective Domain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The affective domain can significantly enhance, inhibit or even prevent student learning. The affective domain includes factors such as student motivation, attitudes, perceptions and values. Teachers can increase their effectiveness by considering the affective domain in planning courses, delivering lectures and activities, and assessing student learning. This module contains information and resources for incorporating the affective domain into teaching.


The Fabled Maine Winter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

No study of Maine weather would be complete without analysis of the year of 1816 - the year with no summer in an area from western Pennsylvania and New York, up through Quebec and across to Maine and the Canadian maritimes. In this five-unit lesson, students will investigate the causes and effects of the Fabled Maine Winter by exploring a variety of data sources. They will locate, graph, and analyze meteorological and climatological data for Portland, Maine, for more recent years to try to find one that most closely resembles the fabled Maine winter of 1816.


Sickness benefit cuts mainly affect blue-collar workers.  


Aims: To analyse the impact of sick-pay cuts on the use of sickness absence by employees of different socioeconomic groups. In 2009 cuts in sick pay were implemented in reaction to an economic crisis in Estonia. Methods: Nationwide health survey data from the years 2004, 2006, 2008, and 2010 were used to evaluate sickness absence among blue-collar and white-collar workers. The dataset comprised 7,449 employees of 20-64 years of age. Difference in prevalence of absentees before and after the reform was assessed using the chi-squared test. Odds ratios (OR) for sickness absence were calculated in a multivariate logistic regression model. Results: After the reform, the proportion of blue-collar workers who had been on sick leave decreased from 51% to 40% (p<0.001) and among white-collar employees from 45% to 41% (p=0.026). This reduction had a similar pattern in all the subgroups of blue-collar employees as stratified according to gender, age, self-rated health, and presence of chronic disease, especially among those with low incomes; in white-collar employees it reached statistical significance only in those with good self-rated health (p=0.033). In a multivariate model the odds of having lower sickness absence were highly significant only in blue-collar employees (OR 0.63; 95% confidence interval 0.51-0.77, p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS THE CUTS IN SICKNESS BENEFITS HAD A MAJOR IMPACT ON THE USE OF SICKNESS ABSENCE BY BLUE-COLLAR EMPLOYEES WITH LOW SALARIES THIS INDICATES THAT LOWER INCOME WAS A MAJOR FACTOR HINDERING THE USE OF SICK LEAVE AS THESE EMPLOYEES ARE MOST VULNERABLE TO THE LOSS OF INCOME: PMID:24906554

Aaviksoo, E; Kiivet, R-A



Space Transportation Main Engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: Space Transportation Main Engine (STME) definition, design philosophy, robust design, maximum design condition, casting vs. machined and welded forgings, operability considerations, high reliability design philosophy, engine reliability enhancement, low cost design philosophy, engine systems requirements, STME schematic, fuel turbopump, liquid oxygen turbopump, main injector, and gas generator. The major engine components of the STME and the Space Shuttle Main Engine are compared.

Monk, Jan C.



Space Transportation Main Engine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: Space Transportation Main Engine (STME) definition, design philosophy, robust design, maximum design condition, casting vs. machined and welded forgings, operability considerations, high reliability design philosophy, engine reliability enhancement, low cost design philosophy, engine systems requirements, STME schematic, fuel turbopump, liquid oxygen turbopump, main injector, and gas generator. The major engine components of the STME and the Space Shuttle Main Engine are compared.

Monk, Jan C.



Gulf of Maine: Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Lessons and activities from the Gulf of Maine Research Institute (formerly Gulf of Maine Aquarium), focused on hurricanes, El Nino, fog, and volcanic eruptions. Emphasis on important hurricanes of the past. Resources include lessons, guides for simple experiments, and a student weather network. Downloadable materials and additional webpages also provided.


The Maine Event  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author describes the successful laptop program employed at Mt. Abram High School in Strong, Maine. Through the Maine Learning Technology Initiative, the school has issued laptops to all 36,000 teachers and students in grades 7-8. This program has helped level the playing field for a student population that is 50 percent to 55

McHale, Tom



on Hurricane Island, Maine  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1981, a study was initiated to measure the effects of low-level trampling (100 to 200 tramples) on selected vegetation on Hurricane Island, Maine. Low levels of trampling are representative of general recreational use patterns on most Maine islands. The study was designed to compare percent survival of common island species when subjected to low-level trampling, to observe treadway formation,

R. E. Leonard; P. W. Conkling; J. L. McMahon



EPA Science Inventory

WORM provides a generalized representation at 1:24,000 scale of commercially harvested marine worm habitat in Maine, based on Maine Department of Marine Resources data from 1970's. Original maps were created by MDMR and published by USF&WS as part of the ""&quo...


Maine Folklife Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Located at the University of Maine, the Maine Folklife Center is committed to documenting and understanding the folklore, folklife, and history of Maine and Atlantic Canada. Along with its various scholarly activities, the Center sponsors a number of festivals, lectures, and like-minded programs that encourage appreciation of the diverse cultural traditions within the region. The site will be useful to researchers with a penchant in these fields, as it contains information about the collections, including a rather extensive oral history collection (with work that documenting the cranberry culture of Massachusetts and the traditional music of Maine). There is also material on the public programs and exhibits sponsored by the center, and a set of external links that lead to other sites dealing with oral history, folklore, and Maine. While the Center's site does not have a great deal of online material for consideration, the center has transcribed the sixth volume of Northeast Folklore (originally published in 1964) and placed them online.


The Main Idea Organizer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the Main Idea Organizer (MIO) to help students who may struggle with writing, reading, and thinking--though in different ways and for different reasons. Describes many different ways the author uses the MIO. (SG)

Burke, Jim



Landmark Main Idea  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students will use key details to determine the main idea of informational text about landmarks. For the summative assessment, students will work in small groups to read an informational text about landmarks, fill out a Main Idea Pyramid Graphic Organizer, and then create a poster in the shape of the landmark they read about. Students will utilize the information on their graphic organizer when creating their poster.

Amanda Shipley



The Maine Music Box  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created through a collaboration between the University of Maine's Fogler Library and other Maine libraries, The Maine Music Box contains hundreds of digitized sheet music scores from five major collections. First-time visitors to the site will want to click on the "About Maine Music Box" project as a way of getting started. Here they can check out the "User Information" area, which contains helpful tips on viewing the music and how to best browse the entire database. Additionally, those with a penchant for technical details and information science in general can also learn in copious detail how the database was created for this project. From there, visitors can move straight away into the main collection. Visitors can browse the collection by music subject, sheet music cover art, or just type in their own keywords. One of the best ways to look over the collection is to browse around in such areas as "Instructional Violin", "Maine Collection" and "Parlor Salon Collection". It's also worth remarking that this site may inspire a sing-a-long, a campfire get-together, or a miniature Chautauqua.


Reionization history and CMB parameter estimation  

SciTech Connect

We study how uncertainty in the reionization history of the universe affects estimates of other cosmological parameters from the Cosmic Microwave Background. We analyze WMAP7 data and synthetic Planck-quality data generated using a realistic scenario for the reionization history of the universe obtained from high-resolution numerical simulation. We perform parameter estimation using a simple sudden reionization approximation, and using the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) technique proposed by Mortonson and Hu. We reach two main conclusions: (1) Adopting a simple sudden reionization model does not introduce measurable bias into values for other parameters, indicating that detailed modeling of reionization is not necessary for the purpose of parameter estimation from future CMB data sets such as Planck. (2) PCA analysis does not allow accurate reconstruction of the actual reionization history of the universe in a realistic case.

Dizgah, Azadeh Moradinezhad; Kinney, William H. [Department of Physics, University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14260-1500 (United States); Gnedin, Nickolay Y., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Particle Astrophysics Center, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States)



Alongshore transport of a toxic phytoplankton bloom in a buoyancy current: Alexandrium tamarense in the Gulf of Maine  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the mechanisms controlling blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense Lebour and the concomintant patterns of shellfish toxicity in the southwestern Gulf of Maine, USA. During a series of cruises from 1987 to 1989, hydrographic parameters were measured to elucidate the physical factors affecting the distribution and abundance of dinoflagellates along this coast. In 1988 and 1989 when

P. J. S. Franks; D. M. Anderson



The Maine Memory Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Once you have visited Maine, it is most certainly not a place that you will soon forget. This website is designed to make sure longtime residents and visitors alike will not forget this tranquil state, as it brings together a very wide range of historical documents and memories from around the state. The site itself was created by the Maine Historical Society, and is supported by monies from the Institute of Museum and Library Services and several other partners. Within the site, visitors can search for historical items and documents, view thematic online exhibits, and learn about how the site may be used effectively in classroom settings. One particularly fine exhibit is the one that offers some visual documentation of rural Aroostook County around the year 1900. In this exhibit, visitors can experience the dense forests and rugged terrain that dominate the landscape of this part of Maine.



EPA Science Inventory

SCHLIB shows point locations of libraries and educational institutions in Maine at 1:24,000 scale. Colleges, universities, technical colleges, high schools, middle schools, elementary schools, kindergarten/sub-primary and other special schools are included. The data was developed...



E-print Network

: Mr. Richard Storlie, Director, Administrative Services requested a workload measurement, validation was conducted from 15 February ­ 30 April 2007. Mr. Storlie is the process owner for the main warehouse. 2 in this report rests with the process owner, Mr. Richard Storlie, with the counsel/concurrence of Facilities

Hemmers, Oliver


Main features of meiosis  

SciTech Connect

Chapter 17, outlines the main features of meiosis, beginning with its significance and proceeding through the meiotic stages. Meiosis is the most important modification of mitosis because it is the reduction division that gives rise to the haploid generation in the life cycle. 17 refs., 6 figs.




Snow Falls - Maine  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

As the Little Androscoggin River flows through western Maine it eventually reaches Snow Falls, a 25 ft cascading waterfall in the town of West Paris. This photo was taken during a high flow event at the falls. The USGS monitors the Little Androscoggin River upstream of the falls at station 01...


Windows on Maine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created with funds provided by the Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS), Windows on Maine contains interesting and informative programs and video clips from Maine Public Broadcasting and other partners. On their homepage, visitors can use their interactive map and timeline to locate video clips of interest, and they can also search the entire collection for specific items. Visitors can also use the subject category menu to look over 25 different headings, including "earth sciences", "land disputes", and "Penobscot tribe". The map feature is a real pip, and visitors can customize their search by location and date, and it's a great way to learn about different regions, including Aroostook County (also known as "the County") and Downeast. Also, many of the videos also have additional resources attached to them, such as railroad timetables, historic photographs, and so on.


Maine Humanities Council  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Formed as a private nonprofit organization, the Maine Humanities Council (MHC) "promotes strong communities and informed citizens by providing Mainers with opportunities to explore the power and pleasure of ideas." Their work is supported by volunteer board members, and their projects include programs to promote reading and writing, guest lectures around the state, and online newsletters and discussion groups. In the "Programs" area, visitors can learn about these programs, and educators can check out the resources created especially for them. The "Connections" area contains links to their thoughtful blog, their "Humanities on Demand" podcasts, and their periodic newsletter "Synapse", which deals with medicine and literature. The podcasts are quite fun, and they include "Franco-American Women's Words in Maine" and a talk by Professor Dianne Sadoff of Rutgers University on Middlemarch, by George Eliot.


Stars main sequence  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What happens during most of a star's life? This activity page, part of an interactive laboratory series for grades 8-12, introduces students to the main sequence phase of a star's existence. This phase is where a star lives out the majority of its life. In an interactive lab activity, students predict the length of the main sequence for four different stars. The predictions can be printed for later evaluation. Students view diagrams that compare the size and color of stars to human lives, and equilibrium within a star is stressed. Finally, students choose between two hypotheses about the length of life of a star. Students write a one- to three-sentence explanation for their hypotheses. The correct answer is provided. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

University of Utah. Astrophysics Science Project Integrating Research and Education (ASPIRE)



Main graphs: Quadratic equation  

E-print Network

Main graphs: Quadratic equation: Equation A2 +B+C = 0, has solutions given by the following 'abc equations: Equation dN dt = kN has the solution: N(t) = N0ekt; N0 is an (arbitrary) initial value of N. Characteristic time of change is = 1/k. Systems of linear differential equations: For system dx dt = ax+by dy dt

Utrecht, Universiteit


Maine coast winds  

SciTech Connect

The Maine Coast Winds Project was proposed for four possible turbine locations. Significant progress has been made at the prime location, with a lease-power purchase contract for ten years for the installation of turbine equipment having been obtained. Most of the site planning and permitting have been completed. It is expect that the turbine will be installed in early May. The other three locations are less suitable for the project, and new locations are being considered.

Avery, Richard



Prognostic Accumulation Zones for Oil and Natural Gas in the Criteria for the Distribution of Petrophysical Parameters in the Main Dolomite in Gorzow-Pniewy Area / Prognostyczne Strefy Akumulacji Dla Ropy Naftowej i Gazu Ziemnego W Kryteriach ROZK?ADU PARAMETRW Petrofizycznych Dolomitu G?WNEGO W Obszarze GORZW-PNIEWY  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The carbonate reservoirs are anisotropic environments in terms of both the quantitative and qualitative evaluations of pore space. The oil-and-gas-bearing Main Dolomite horizon shows diversified lithology, facial development and thickness resulting in complicated, fluid capacity-fluid filtration system. This system influences both the evaluation and exploration perspectives in the Zechstein Main Dolomite (Ca2) from the Gorzw-Pniewy area. In order to clarify this problem and to determine the hydrocarbon accumulation perspectives, analysis of petrophysical parameters based upon the porosimetric measurements was carried on for the Main Dolomite in the study area, where oil and gas accumulations were discovered. The results of porosimetric measurements clearly indicate the heterogeneity of petrophysical parameters of the Main Dolomite referred to lithologically diversified palaeogeographic zones distinguished in the study area. Such analysis, including the hydrocarbon storage capacity of the Main Dolomite, enabled us to evaluate the possible hydrocarbon accumulation related to generation potential of this horizon. W ocenie ilo?ciowej i jako?ciowej przestrzeni porowej ?rodowiskiem anizotropowym s? w?glanowe ska?y zbiornikowe. Zr?nicowany litologiczno-facjalnie oraz mi??szo?ciowo, ropo-gazono?ny poziom dolomitu g?wnego charakteryzuje si? z?o?onym uk?adem pojemno?ciowo-filtracyjnym. Tym regu?om podporz?dkowana jest ocena i perspektywy poszukiwawcze w cechszty?skim poziomie dolomitu g?wnego (Ca2) w Polsce w rejonie Gorzw-Pniewy.W celu uprz?dkowania tego zagadnienia i prognozy perspektyw z?o?owych, w oparciu o wyniki bada? porozymetrycznych, przeprowadzono analiz? parametrw petrofizycznych dolomitu g?wnego w przedstawionym obszarze, o stwierdzonej ropo-gazono?no?ci tego poziomu. Wyniki bada? porozymetrycznych wyra?nie wskazuj? na heteregoniczno?? utworw dolomitu g?wnego w zakresie zmienno?ci parametrw petrofizycznych, odniesionych do zr?nicowanych litologicznie stref paleogeograficznych w analizowanym obszarze. Analiza ta, w odniesieniu do pojemno?ci magazynowej dolomitu g?wnego, rozwini?tego w zr?nicowanych facjach poszczeglnych stref paleogeograficznych, pozwala na ocen? mo?liwej akumulacji w?glowodorowej, w stosunku do potencja?u generacyjnego tego poziomu.

Semyrka, Roman; Maruta, Micha?; Pasternacki, Andrzej



Original article Genetic parameters for twinning  

E-print Network

Original article Genetic parameters for twinning in the Maine-Anjou breed E Manfredi JL Foulley, M) Summary - Genetic parameters and bull transmitting abilities were estimated for twinning in the Maine among Maine-Anjou bulls. cattle / twinning / genetic parameter / sire evaluation / threshold model

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Linearly Compressed Pages: A Main Memory  

E-print Network

computation? Solution: Linearly Compressed Pages (LCP): fixed-size cache line granularity compression 1 · LCP: Key Idea · LCP: Implementation · Evaluation · Conclusion and Future Work #12;Key Parameters Latency Complexity And Cost IBM MXT [IBM J.R.D. '01] Robust Main Memory Compression [ISCA'05] LCP

Mutlu, Onur


[Affective dependency].  


Affective dependency is characterized by emotional distress (insecure attachment) and dependency to another person with a low self-esteem and reassurance need. The paper proposes a reflection on the definition of emotional dependency and the confusion caused by various denominations. Overprotective and authoritarian parenting, cultural and socio-environmental factors may contribute to the development of dependent personality. Psychological epigenetic factors, such as early socio-emotional trauma could on neuronal circuits in prefronto-limbic regions that are essential for emotional behaviour.We also focus on the interrelations between dependent personality, domestic violence and addictions. The objective for the clinician is to propose a restoration of self-esteem and therapeutic strategies focused on autonomy. PMID:23888587

Scantamburlo, G; Pitchot, W; Ansseau, M



Is there an efficient trap or collection method for sampling Anopheles darlingi and other malaria vectors that can describe the essential parameters affecting transmission dynamics as effectively as human landing catches? - A Review  

PubMed Central

Distribution, abundance, feeding behaviour, host preference, parity status and human-biting and infection rates are among the medical entomological parameters evaluated when determining the vector capacity of mosquito species. To evaluate these parameters, mosquitoes must be collected using an appropriate method. Malaria is primarily transmitted by anthropophilic and synanthropic anophelines. Thus, collection methods must result in the identification of the anthropophilic species and efficiently evaluate the parameters involved in malaria transmission dynamics. Consequently, human landing catches would be the most appropriate method if not for their inherent risk. The choice of alternative anopheline collection methods, such as traps, must consider their effectiveness in reproducing the efficiency of human attraction. Collection methods lure mosquitoes by using a mixture of olfactory, visual and thermal cues. Here, we reviewed, classified and compared the efficiency of anopheline collection methods, with an emphasis on Neotropical anthropophilic species, especially Anopheles darlingi, in distinct malaria epidemiological conditions in Brazil. PMID:25185008

Lima, Jos Bento Pereira; Rosa-Freitas, Maria Goreti; Rodovalho, Cynara Melo; Santos, Ftima; Loureno-de-Oliveira, Ricardo



Drugs Modifying Nitric Oxide Metabolism Affect Plasma Cholesterol Levels, Coagulation Parameters, Blood Pressure Values and the Appearance of Plasma Myocardial Necrosis Markers in Rabbits: Opposite Effects of L-NAME and Nitroglycerine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various experiments have shown that decreased nitric oxide values alter plasma lipid levels or coagulation parameters or blood pressure values or cause myocardial necrosis phenomena, but it is not clear whether these alterations are reciprocally connected, or whether nitric oxide changes are involved in the appearance of some coronary disease risk factors (lipid, coagulation, blood pressure alterations) and myocardial necrosis.

Arnaldo Pinelli; Silvio Trivulzio; Livio Tomasoni; Boris Bertolini; Sergio Brenna; Edgardo Bonacina; Roberto Accinni



State of Maine's Environment 2009  

Microsoft Academic Search

The State of Maine's Environment is a regular series of reports written by senior environmental policy majors at Colby College in Waterville, Maine. The State of Maine's Environment 2009 is the fifth State of Maine's Environment report created by students enrolled in ES 493: Environmental Policy Practicum taught by Philip J. Nyhus, Environmental Studies Program. Topics in this report include

Philip J. Nyhus



Interior, view of main entrance hall with main entrance door, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Interior, view of main entrance hall with main entrance door, camera facing northeast - Naval Training Station, Senior Officers' Quarters District, Quarters No. 1, Naval Station Treasure Island, 1 Whiting Way, Yerba Buena Island, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA



Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey



Choosing the Best Main Idea  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this resource, students will choose the best main idea. Through teacher modeling, guided practice, and independent practice, students will choose the best main idea from two choices in each short literary passage.




Why People Vote? Rationality or Affect  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to examine whether voters mainly depend on rationality or affect to make their turnout decisions. By utilizing the data of ANES 1976, 1988 and 2008, we find that in the 1976 presidential election, it is mainly affect to have an influence on peoples decision on whether to vote. However, in the 1988 and 2008

Ching-Hsing Wang



E-print Network

of Maine waters were sounded and fished with a lampara seine, gill nets, midwater trawls, and otter trawls for Atlantic herring and to carry on research and developmental work on sardine fishing gear. Original efforts sought along the Maine coast and in the Gulf of Maine. Otter trawl surveys were made during the winters


2014 Maine Earth Science Day  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

On October 15, 2014 Maine Earth Science Day was held at the Maine State Museum in Augusta. The USGS was represented by Charlie Culbertson, left, and Nick Waldron, right. This photo was taken as the two were packing up for the day, and shows a main feature of the table, a touch screen display with th...


Risk measures The main result  

E-print Network

Outline Risk measures The main result A collection of risk measures Dual representations of risk measures Georg Ch. Pflug May 7, 2005 Georg Ch. Pflug Dual representations of risk measures #12;Outline Risk measures The main result A collection of risk measures Risk measures The main result A collection of risk

Pflug, Georg


Lyotropic main chain liquid crystal polymers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The synthesis, rheology, and spinning, as well as the mechanical and morphological properties of high-strength\\/high-modulus fibres made from lyotropic main chain liquid crystal polymers are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on those polymers that have attained (semi)-commercial status. Quantitative relations observed between the rheological and the spinning parameters, and between the structure and the mechanical properties, are extensively discussed. It is

M. G. Northolt; D. J. Sikkema


Biogeography of Nearshore Subtidal Invertebrates in the Gulf of Maine  

EPA Science Inventory

The biogeography of nearshore benthic invertebrates in the Gulf of Maine was studied to compare recent data with historical biogeographic studies, define physical-chemical factors affecting species distributions, and provide information needed to calibrate benthic indices of envi...


Modelling the effectiveness of cathodic protection in water mains  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effectiveness of cathodic protection (CP) in water mains can ultimately be expressed in terms of economic benefits obtained as a result of reduction in breakage frequency and deferral of pipe replacement. Modelling this effectiveness can be challenging because breakage frequency in water mains can be affected by several factors, both static (pipe size, material, soil type, etc.) and dynamic

Yehuda Kleiner; Balvant Rajani



EPA Science Inventory

ASDENN00 describes, at 1:24,000 scale, important Atlantic salmon habitat of the Dennys River in Maine. The coverage was developed from field surveys conducted on the Dennys River in Maine by staff of the Atlantic Salmon Authority and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. This survey wa...


Maine: Early Head Start Initiatives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maine has two initiatives that build on Early Head Start (EHS). The first initiative, Fund for a Healthy Maine, has since 2001 provided tobacco settlement money to existing Head Start and EHS programs to expand the number of children who receive full-day, full-year services. Local programs have the option of using these funds for EHS, depending on

Center for Law and Social Policy, Inc. (CLASP), 2012



Main Campus CO Cowell Hall  

E-print Network

GI Gillson Hall GL Gleeson Library HH Hayes-Healy Hall HR Harney Science Center KA Kalmanovitz Hall of Law KN Kendrick Hall ZLL Dorraine Zief Law Library Koret Health & Recreation Center KO Koret Center Academic and Enrollment Services Lone Mountain Main Admission Office Lone Mountain Main Alumni Office Lone

Galles, David


Maine Agricultural Foods. Project SEED.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes an activity-based program that teaches students in grades 4-12 about the importance of Maine agriculture in their lives. Specifically, the goal is to increase student awareness of how the foods they eat are planted, harvested, and processed. The emphasis is on crops grown in Maine such as potatoes, broccoli, peas, blueberries,

Beaulieu, Peter; Ossenfort, Pat


Maine Indians: A Brief Summary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Indians of Maine, descendants of Algonquian linguistic stock, number approximately 1800 and reside on 3 reservations totalling 22,600 acres of land. Most of the reservation land is forested, with important economic and recreational advantages in terms of timber production and hunting and fishing opportunities. In 1965, Maine became the first



Factors affecting sorghum protein digestibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the semi-arid tropics worldwide, sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is cultivated by farmers on a subsistence level and consumed as food by humans. A nutritional limitation to its use is the poor digestibility of sorghum protein when wet cooked. The factors affecting wet cooked sorghum protein digestibility may be categorised into two main groups: exogenous factors (grain organisational structure,

K. G Duodu; J. R. N Taylor; P. S Belton; B. R Hamaker



Main Propulsion Test Article (MPTA)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Scope: The Main Propulsion Test Article integrated the main propulsion subsystem with the clustered Space Shuttle Main Engines, the External Tank and associated GSE. The test program consisted of cryogenic tanking tests and short- and long duration static firings including gimbaling and throttling. The test program was conducted on the S1-C test stand (Position B-2) at the National Space Technology Laboratories (NSTL)/Stennis Space Center. 3 tanking tests and 20 hot fire tests conducted between December 21 1 1977 and December 17, 1980 Configuration: The main propulsion test article consisted of the three space shuttle main engines, flightweight external tank, flightweight aft fuselage, interface section and a boilerplate mid/fwd fuselage truss structure.

Snoddy, Cynthia




SciTech Connect

The purpose of this activity is to identify and determine potential radiation hazards in the service exhaust main due to a waste package leakage from an emplacement drift. This work supports the subsurface ventilation system design for the EDA II, which consists of an accessible service exhaust main for personnel, and an exhaust main for hot air flow. The objective is to provide the necessary radiation exposure calculations to determine if the service exhaust main is accessible following a waste package leak. This work includes the following items responsive to the stated purpose and objective: Calculate the limiting transient radiation exposure of personnel in the service exhaust main due to the passage of airborne radioactive material through the ventilation raise and connecting horizontal raise to the exhaust main in the event of a leaking waste package Calculate the potential exposures to maintenance workers in the service exhaust main from residual radioactive material deposited inside of the ventilation raise and connecting horizontal raise This calculation is limited to external radiation only, since the airborne and contamination sources will be contained in the ventilation raise and connecting horizontal raise.

S. Su



Effect of UV light on different structural and transport parameters of cellophane membranes  

SciTech Connect

A comparative study of UV light influence on structural and transport parameters of cellophane membranes was made. Changes in the chemical structure and electrical behavior of cellophane membranes were considered by determining the hydraulic permeability, salt diffusion coefficient, and resistance values, as well as some geometrical parameters, for an untreated membrane and two differently UV-treated cellophane membranes. Differences in the characteristic parameters for the three samples showed that radiation mainly affected the membrane structure, while only small changes in membrane electrical behavior were determined.

Benavente, J.; Vazquez, M.I. [Universidad De Malaga (Spain); De Abajo, J. [Instituto De Ciencia Y Tecnologia De Polimeros, Madrid (Spain)



Pre-Workout Carbohydrate Supplementation does not Affect Measures of Selfassessed Vitality and Affect in College Swimmers.  


Beneficial effects of dietary carbohydrate (CHO) on physical and psychological parameters have been demonstrated in athletes. Because affect, or mood, can predict athletic performace, the main objective of this study was to determine the effect of pre-workout CHO on affect in swimmers. College swimmers (n = 37) participated in a randomized crossover experiment of the effects of a pre-workout CHO supplement on vitality and affect. Subjects consumed a CHO supplement or placebo for two days before morning practice. After each morning practice, swimmers completed measures of affect and feelings of vitality. Pearson correlations were performed to describe relationships among variables. Differences in means between the CHO and placebo conditions were determined by paired t-tests. Independent t-tests were used to determine differences in variables between the highest and lowest tertiles of breakfast consumption frequency. All statistical analyses were performed using SAS 9.1.3 (Cary, NC) and statistical signficance was set at ? = 0.05. There were no significant differences in affect or feelings of vitality between the CHO supplement and placebo conditions (all p ? 0.15). Our results do not support a beneficial effect of CHO supplementation before morning swim practice on affect or feelings of vitality in swimmers. Key pointsPre-workout carbohydrate did not affect post-workout measures of vitality or affect in collegiate swimmers.Avoidance of feeling nauseous/ill' and 'lack of time' were the most frequent reasons reported by swimmers for forgoing breakfast before morning swim practice.A longer trial of carbohydrate supplementation is needed to verify if there is indeed no effect of pre-workout carbohydrate on post-workout measures of vitality or affect in swimmers. PMID:24150621

Hill, Kathleen M; Whitehead, James R; Goodwin, Janice K



Humboldt River main stem, Nevada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This data set contains the main stem of the Humboldt River as defined by Humboldt Project personnel of the U.S. Geological Survey Nevada District, 2001. The data set was digitized on screen using digital orthophoto quadrangles from 1994.

Warmath, Eric; Medina, Rose L.



A Literary Map of Maine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sure, you might know that Longfellow was a member of the literati who called Maine home, but did you know that Robert McCloskey was one as well? In case you might have forgotten, McCloskey was the author and illustrator of those children's classics "Make Way for Ducklings" and "Blueberries for Sal". It's easy to learn about dozens of Maine authors via this delightful website created as part of a partnership between the Maine Sunday Telegram and a number of library and humanities groups in Maine. Currently, the map features over 50 sites, and visitors can browse around at their leisure to learn about authors like Longfellow, Stephen King, and Richard Russo. Clicking on each site will pull up a brief excerpt of each author's work, along with a brief bio.


Virtual Tour of Maine Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This selection of slide shows provides a photographic tour of Maine geology. Users can choose slide shows on surficial, bedrock, and coastal geology; fossils, geologic hazards, groundwater and wells; or mineral collecting, mining, and quarrying.


LSRA with Shuttle main gear  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A space shuttle landing gear system is visible between the two main landing gear components on this NASA CV-990, modified as a Landing Systems Research Aircraft. The space shuttle landing gear test unit, operated by a high-pressure hydraulic system, allowed engineers to assess and document the performance of space shuttle main and nose landing gear systems, tires and wheel assemblies, plus braking and nose wheel steering performance.



Research on interactive influences of parameters on T-shaped cold ring rolling by 3d-FE numerical simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cold ring rolling is a much complex physical process with multi-factors. Two forming parameters, the feed rate of mandrel\\u000a and the rotational speed of main roll, affect the quality of deformed ring significantly and the feed amount per revolution\\u000a of ring in the form of their ratio. By their ratio, the interactive effects of the two forming parameters on the

Lanyun Li; He Yang; Lianggang Guo; Zhichao Sun



Effect of geometric parameters on the performance of p-type junctionless lateral gate transistors.  


This paper examines the impact of two important geometrical parameters, namely the thickness and source/drain extensions on the performance of low doped p-type double lateral gate junctionless transistors (DGJLTs). The three dimensional Technology Computer-Aided Design simulation is implemented to calculate the characteristics of the devices with different thickness and source/drain extension and based on that, the parameters such as threshold voltage, transconductance and resistance in saturation region are analyzed. In addition, simulation results provide a physical explanation for the variation of device characteristics given by the variation of geometric parameters, mainly based on investigation of the electric field components and the carries density variation. It is shown that, the variation of the carrier density is the main factor which affects the characteristics of the device when the device's thickness is varied. However, the electric field is mainly responsible for variation of the characteristics when the source/drain extension is changed. PMID:24743692

Larki, Farhad; Dehzangi, Arash; Md Ali, Sawal Hamid; Jalar, Azman; Islam, Md Shabiul; Hamidon, Mohd Nizar; Majlis, Burhanuddin Yeop



Effect of Geometric Parameters on the Performance of P-Type Junctionless Lateral Gate Transistors  

PubMed Central

This paper examines the impact of two important geometrical parameters, namely the thickness and source/drain extensions on the performance of low doped p-type double lateral gate junctionless transistors (DGJLTs). The three dimensional Technology Computer-Aided Design simulation is implemented to calculate the characteristics of the devices with different thickness and source/drain extension and based on that, the parameters such as threshold voltage, transconductance and resistance in saturation region are analyzed. In addition, simulation results provide a physical explanation for the variation of device characteristics given by the variation of geometric parameters, mainly based on investigation of the electric field components and the carries density variation. It is shown that, the variation of the carrier density is the main factor which affects the characteristics of the device when the device's thickness is varied. However, the electric field is mainly responsible for variation of the characteristics when the source/drain extension is changed. PMID:24743692

Larki, Farhad; Dehzangi, Arash; Md Ali, Sawal Hamid; Jalar, Azman; Islam, Md. Shabiul; Hamidon, Mohd Nizar; Majlis, Burhanuddin Yeop



Period Determination of Six Main Belt Asteroids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations of six main-belt asteroids (MBA) produced lightcurve parameters of: 487 Venetia, P = 13.34 0.01 h, A = 0.20 mag; 684 Hildburg, P = 15.89 0.01 h, A = 0.22 mag; 772 Tanete, P = 8.629 0.001 h, A = 0.18 mag.; 1181 Lilith, P = 15.04 0.01 h, A = 0.11 mag.; 1246 Chaka, P = 25.44 0.01 h, A = 0.25 mag.; and 2834 Christy Carol, P = 12.79 0.01 h, A = 0.39 mag.

Ferrero, Andrea



Impact of the local void on the cosmological parameters  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, I discuss the effects of a local void on the cosmological parameters. It is found that, if the supernova distance is absolutely calibrated, then the bias of all the cosmological parameters is always important, while if the supernova distance is relatively calibrated, the largest effects will appear in the dark energy equation of state. For a local void of size ? 100 Mpc, the bias effects mainly manifest in the low redshift range. Therefore, the piecewise dark energy equation of state, especially the one in the range of lowest redshift, will be more strongly affected than the constant equation of state. In order to reduce this bias in constraining the cosmological parameters, one could require the distance of all the adopted supernovas be greater than 1.2 ? 1.5 times of the radius of the local void. In this case, the residual bias can be safely ignored.

Yu, Bo, E-mail: [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China)



Remember the MaineRx.  


In 2000, Maine became the first state in the US to enact a law to establish maximum retail prices for prescription drugs for all qualified state residents-MaineRx. The purpose was to lower prescription drug prices for all eligible residents of the state. The state was to have the ability to negotiate manufacturer rebates and pharmacy discounts. Major drug manufacturers, represented by the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America, challenged MaineRx in the courts, going to the Supreme Court where it was upheld in 2003. Fifteen other states enacted, proposed, or filed price-control bills in their state legislatures. The result would have been downward pressure on prices outside of the public programs, and the first instance of state-sponsored monopsony power in the US. MaineRx is viewed as one of the proximate causes of the pharmaceutical industry's successful lobbying effort to implement Medicare Part D in 2004. Medicare Part D is administered through private Pharmacy Benefit Managers (PBMs); it made administration via state government PBMs illegal. The lower prices that could have resulted from MaineRx-type laws did not occur and the magnitude of these reductions is commented upon. PMID:24420789

Kemp, Robert



Aqueous alteration on main-belt asteroids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of aqueous alteration is particularly important for unraveling the processes occurring during the earliest times in Solar System history, as it can give information both on the thermal processes and on the localization of water sources in the asteroid belt, and for the associated astrobiological implications. The aqueous alteration process produces the low temperature (< 320 K) chemical alteration of materials by liquid water which acts as a solvent and produces materials like phyllosilicates, sulphates, oxides, carbonates, and hydroxides. This means that liquid water was present in the primordial asteroids, produced by the melting of water ice by heating sources, very probably by ^{26}Al decay. Hydrated minerals have been found mainly on Mars surface, on primitive main-belt asteroids (C, G, B, F, and P-type, following the classification scheme by Tholen, 1984) and possibly also on few transneptunian objects. Reflectance spectroscopy of aqueous altered asteroids shows absorption features in the 0.6-0.9 and 2.5-3.5-micron regions, which are diagnostic of, or associated with, hydrated minerals. In this work, we investigate the aqueous alteration process on a large sample of 600 visible spectra of C-complex asteroids available in the literature. We analyzed all these spectra in a similar way to characterize the absorption-band parameters (band center, depth, and width) and spectral slope, and to look for possible correlations between the aqueous alteration process and the asteroids taxonomic classes, orbital elements, heliocentric distances, albedo, and sizes. We find that 4.6 % of P, 7.7 % of F, 9.8 % of B, 50.5 % of C, and 100 % of the G-type asteroids have absorption bands in the visible region due to hydrated silicates. Our analysis shows that the aqueous alteration sequence starts from the P-type objects, practically unaltered, and increases through the P ? F ? B ? C ? G asteroids, these last being widely aqueously altered, strengthening thus the results previously obtained by Vilas (1994). We confirm the strong correlation between the 0.7-?m band and the 3-? m band, the deepest feature associated with hydrated minerals, as 95 % of the asteroids showing the 0.7-? m band have also the 3-? m feature. 45 % of the asteroids belonging to the C-complex (the F, B, C, and G classes) have signatures of aqueously altered materials in the visible range. It must be noted that this percentage represents a lower limit in the number of hydrated asteroids, simply because the 3-? m band, the main absorption feature produced by hydrated silicates, may be present in the spectra of primitive asteroids when no bands are detected in the visible range. All this considered, we estimate that 70 % of the C-complex asteroids might have the 3-? m signature in the IR range and thus were affected by the aqueous alteration process in the past. We find that the aqueous alteration process dominates in primitive asteroids located between 2.3 and 3.1 au, that is, at smaller heliocentric distances than previously suggested by Vilas et al. (1993). The percentage of hydrated asteroids is strongly correlated with their size (Fornasier et al. 2014). The aqueous alteration process is less effective for bodies smaller than 50 km, while it dominates in the 50-240-km sized primitive asteroids. No correlation is found between the aqueous alteration process and the asteroid albedo or orbital elements. Aqueously altered asteroids are the plausible parent bodies of CM2 meteorites. Nevertheless, we see a systematic difference in the 0.7-? m band center position, the CM2 meteorites having a band centered at longer wavelengths (0.71-0.75 ? m) compared to that of hydrated asteroids. Moreover, the hydrated asteroids are more clustered in spectral slope and band depth than the CM meteorites. All these spectral differences may be attributed to different mineral abundances (CM2 meteorites being more serpentine rich than the asteroids), and/or to grain-size effects, or simply to the fact the CM2 collected on the Earth might not be representative

Fornasier, S.; Lantz, C.; Barucci, M.; Lazzarin, M.



Main Idea: Where is Matter?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson teaches main idea and details incorporating a science lesson on matter.Teachers will utilize a KWL chart to help assess students' background knowledge, as well as what they want to learn, and what they have learned at the end of the lesson. An informational text entitled What is the World Made of? All about Solids, Liquids, and Gases will be used throughout the lesson. As a summative assessment, students will write a summary which identifies the main idea and key details from this text.

Brandi Miller



Preliminary crystallographic analysis of avian infectious bronchitis virus main protease  

PubMed Central

Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is the prototype of the genus Coronavirus. It causes a highly contagious disease which affects the respiratory, reproductive, neurological and renal systems of chickens, resulting great economic losses in the poultry industry worldwide. The coronavirus (CoV) main protease (Mpro), which plays a pivotal role in viral gene expression and replication through a highly complex cascade involving the proteolytic processing of replicase polyproteins, is an attractive target for antiviral drug design. In this study, IBV Mpro was overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Crystals suitable for X-ray crystallography have been obtained using microseeding techniques and belong to space group P6122. X-ray diffraction data were collected in-house to 2.7? resolution from a single crystal. The unit-cell parameters were a = b = 119.1, c=270.7?, ? = ? = 90, ? = 120. Three molecules were predicted to be present in the asymmetric unit from a calculated self-rotation function. PMID:17183167

Li, Jun; Shen, Wei; Liao, Ming; Bartlam, Mark



Parameters affecting retentive force of electroformed double-crown systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to determine the values of retentive forces of double crowns. The effect of the abutment height,\\u000a the material of the inner crown, and the taper were evaluated. Sixty inner crowns each were fabricated from zirconia and a\\u000a gold alloy having three different abutment heights (5, 7, and 9mm) and two different tapers (0 and

Florian Beuer; Daniel Edelhoff; Wolfgang Gernet; Michael Naumann



Study on basalt fiber parameters affecting fiber-reinforced mortar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article considers the effect of different dosages and diameters of basalt fibers on tensile strength increase during bending of fiberboard-reinforced mortar samples. The optimal dosages of fiber, providing maximum strength in bending are revealed. The durability of basalt fiber in an environment of cement, by means of microscopic analysis of samples of fibers and fiberboard-reinforced mortar long-term tests is examined. The article also compares the behavior of basalt fiber in the cement stone environment to a glass one and reveals that the basalt fiber is not subject to destruction.

Orlov, A. A.; Chernykh, T. N.; Sashina, A. V.; Bogusevich, D. V.



Parameters affecting the fate of metals in various soils  

E-print Network

of this work indicated a good correlation between the three extractants and zinc concentrations of 1. 0 to 4. 0 mg/kg. Haq and Miller (8) investigated the amounts of zinc, copper and manganese available for plant uptake using four extractants: (i) ethylenedi...: (i) deionized water, (ii) ammo- nium acetate, NH OAc, (iii) hydrogen peroxide, H 0 , and (iv) EDTA. Background levels of zinc available for plant uptake were from 2. 0 to 6. 0 mg/kg in the three Utah soils used. Concentration of metal 1n water...

Covar, Andrew Prescott



The major parameters affecting temperature inside inhalation chambers.  


Variations in inhalation chamber temperature can produce alterations in animal physiology, metabolism of foreign compounds as well as the chemical interaction of pollutant aerosols. This report presents the results of an investigation of the different mechanisms of heat transfer in a 380 L inhalation chamber and discusses the relative effectiveness of various methods that may be used to maintain a uniform chamber temperature during animal exposures. The thermal characteristics of the inhalation chamber were studied using an array of 40 thermocouples, with and without rats in the chamber and with and without 5 cm fiber glass insulation surrounding the chamber. Temperature profiles were measured with different animal loadings and intake air temperatures. An effective heat transfer coefficient of 6.6 +/- 1.8 W/m2 degrees C was determined for the stainless steel walls of the chamber. Heat balance studies with rats in this chamber have shown that with room air intake at a flow rate of 100 L/min, the stainless steel chamber walls were effective at removing approximately ninety percent of the animal heat as compared to the airstream. PMID:7395755

Bernstein, D M; Drew, R T



Parameters affecting the formation of perfluoroalkyl acids during wastewater treatment.  


This study examined the fate and behaviour of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in liquid and solid samples from five different wastewater treatment types: facultative and aerated lagoons, chemically assisted primary treatment, secondary aerobic biological treatment, and advanced biological nutrient removal treatment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest data set from a single study available in the literature to date for PFAAs monitoring study in wastewater treatment. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was the predominant PFAA in wastewater with levels from 2.2 to 150ng/L (influent) and 1.9 to 140ng/L (effluent). Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) was the predominant compound in primary sludge, waste biological sludge, and treated biosolids with concentrations from 6.4 to 2900ng/g dry weight (dw), 9.7 to 8200ng/gdw, and 2.1 to 17,000ng/gdw, respectively. PFAAs were formed during wastewater treatment and it was dependant on both process temperature and treatment type; with higher rates of formation in biological wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) operating at longer hydraulic retention times and higher temperatures. PFAA removal by sorption was influenced by different sorption tendencies; median log values of the solid-liquid distribution coefficient estimated from wastewater biological sludge and final effluent were: PFOS (3.73)>PFDA (3.68)>PFNA (3.25)>PFOA (2.49)>PFHxA (1.93). Mass balances confirmed the formation of PFAAs, low PFAA removal by sorption, and high PFAA levels in effluents. PMID:24691135

Guerra, P; Kim, M; Kinsman, L; Ng, T; Alaee, M; Smyth, S A



Parameters affecting electrostatic cooling. [high voltage convective cooling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A high voltage electrostatic field is discussed which enhances the rate of normal convective cooling. This cooling rate is a function of starting temperature and voltage applied, and an inverse function of atmospheric pressure or the heat capacity of the surrounding media. It appears that the cooling rate is also a function of current flow; however, additional work is needed to separate other variables from the effect of current flow. The maximum increase in heat loss over the normal convective cooling was approximately 0.167 C/sec (0.3 F/sec) at 316 C (600 F) and 20,000 V. From the data taken it is assumed that the addeded rate of cooling would be increased with higher temperatures and higher voltages. It appears that a high voltage field disrupts the molecular layer of air surrounding a hot body and increases the rate of convective cooling.

Demorest, K. E.; Gause, R. L.



Technology related parameters affecting quantification in positron emission tomography imaging.  


Some of the issues associated with positron emission tomography (PET) technology which still pose challenges for the recovery of quantitative images are discussed. Through these issues reference to what is today considered as the 'gold standard' in quantitative PET imaging is also presented. A brief comparison of 2-D and 3-D PET is given, together with a short discussion of combined PET/CT imaging devices. PMID:15208488

Visvikis, D; Turzo, A; Bizais, Y; Cheze-Le Rest, C



Gulf of Maine Research Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Maine's oceanic shoreline has long been one of the richest in North America, both in terms of natural resources and its importance to the local economy. One important organization that is committed to this valued ecosystem is the Gulf of Maine Research Institute. Based in Portland, the Institute is designed to educate Maine residents and visitors about Maine's fresh and saltwater resources and to "facilitate and conduct collaborative research.� Their website contains some of these resources, and first-time visitors should start their journey here at the "Science" section. As might be expected, visitors will be able to learn about some of the Institute's ongoing survey work, including their comprehensive survey of the region's shrimp stocks, the impacts of mobile fishing gear, and cod-tagging. Every good institute worth its salt has a strong education component, and this institute has got the web-browsing public's best interests in mind. In their "Education" section, they have placed a number of interactive and multimedia features, including such areas as "All About Lobsters" and "Undersea Landscapes".


Gulf of Maine Research Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Teaching about aquatic environments, serving as neutral conveners, and facilitating marine research is the mission of the Gulf of Maine Research Institute. Features hundreds of web pages with information and classroom activities covering: oceans, human impact, weather, satellite imagery, remote sensing, Antarctica, global climate change, lobsters, turtles, marine, freshwater issues and more. The project of building the new aquarium at Portland is specially considered.


Library Site Finder MAIN LIBRARY  

E-print Network

Library Site Finder MAIN LIBRARY Burlington Street Tel: 0161 275 3751 THE ALAN GILBERT LEARNING COMMONS Oxford Road Tel: 0161 306 4306 ART & ARCHAEOLOGY LIBRARY Mansfield Cooper Building Tel: 0161 275 3657 BRADDICK LIBRARY School of Physics & Astronomy Brunswick Street Tel: 0161 275 4078 EDDIE DAVIES

Sidorov, Nikita


Changes in Maine's Unemployment Rate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Changes in Maine's Unemployment Rates map was created using data and shapefiles provided by the U.S. Census Bureau and shows changes in unemployment rates within labor market areas between January 2004 and January 2005. Overall, there has been a general decrease in unemployment rates throughout the state.

William G. Stohner




EPA Science Inventory

The 'AWWA Standard for Disinfecting Water Mains' (AWWA C601-68) has fallen into disuse by a number of water utilities because of repeated bacteriological failures following initial disinfection with the recommended high-dose chlorination. Other methods of disinfection, including ...


Maine's Families: Poverty Despite Work.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children are among the poorest of Maine's residents. Nearly 1 in 5 children under the age of 18, 19.3%, lived in families below the federal poverty line in the early 1990s. Most of these poor children lived in working families. The working poor are often missing from policy debates, but their numbers are likely to increase with welfare reform

Lazere, Edward B.


[Affective disorders and personality disorders].  


Coexistence in an individual of an affective disorder and a personality disorder is very common and there is an abundant literature on it. Articles are numerous and heterogeneous ; the results are sometimes imprecise or discordant. Some data are, despite these reserves, shared by the scientific community. The main consensus is first on a bad prognosis, with a high rate of all DSM axes comorbidities, secondly on the trap of a same phenomenology for different underlying mechanisms. A review is presented. PMID:25550233

Maurel, M; Adida, M; Belzeaux, R; Cermolacce, M; Azorin, J-M



Main Features of Plasma Control  

SciTech Connect

In the recent years Plasma Control has always increased his importance in any advanced experiment. It is now clear that ITER will not be able to operate without a quite advanced and sophisticated control apparatus. Necessarily this system will have to integrate several different aspects of the Plasma behavior. One of the most important parts of a closed loop control system is the quality of the measurement of the plasma parameters that should be controlled. Eventually, this aspect involves sophisticated and complex diagnostic apparatus. This paper presents an overview of the present status, and further studies and developments needed, in the next future, for the design and realization of an integrated plasma control system aimed at both stabilizing the plasma non-axisymmetric instabilities and controlling the most important internal plasma parameters. In particular the Edge Localized Modes (ELMs), the Neo-Classical Tearing Modes (NTM), the Resistive Wall Mode (RWM) and the Plasma Profiles control system necessities will be shortly illustrated.

Crisanti, F. [Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, Frascati, C.P. 65, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Albanese, R.; Ambrosino, G. [Associazione EURATOM/ENEA/CREATE, Univ. Napoli Federico II, Via Claudio21, 80125 Napoli (Italy)



LSRA with Shuttle main gear  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A space shuttle landing gear system is visible between the two main landing gear components on this NASA CV-990, modified as a Landing Systems Research Aircraft (LSRA). The space shuttle landing gear test unit, operated by a high-pressure hydraulic system, allowed engineers to assess and document the performance of space shuttle main and nose landing gear systems, tires and wheel assemblies, plus braking and nose wheel steering performance. The series of 155 test missions for the space shuttle program, conducted at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, provided extensive data about the life and endurance of the shuttle tire systems and helped raise the shuttle crosswind landing limits at Kennedy.



Surficial Geologic Map of Maine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students become familiar with the nature and use of the Surficial Geologic Map of Maine and gain practice in using maps other than topographic maps. They will discover that surficial geology deals primarily with the geologically youthful, unconsolidated sedimentary materials that exist at, or close to the surface of a specific area and are important because the surface deposits filter and control the access of water to the water table. Students also learn that the study of surficial geology is important for siting of waste disposal facilities and for resources such as sand, gravel, and clay. Although this activity was written for a map of Maine, it will work in any state where surficial geological maps are available.


Main Results of Grossversuch IV  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main results of a randomized hail suppression experiment, Grossversuch IV, are presented in this paper. Grossversuch IV tested the `Soviet' hail prevention method during five years (1977-81). The field experiment took place in central Switzerland with the participation of research groups from France, Italy and Switzerland.A very dense hailpad network (330 hailpads over 1300 km2) and a carefully calibrated

B. Federer; A. Waldvogel; W. Schmid; H. H. Schiesser; F. Hampel; Marianne Schweingruber; W. Stahel; J. Bader; J. F. Mezeix; Nadie Doras; G. D'Aubigny; G. Dermegreditchian; D. Vento



Heavy hydrocarbon main injector technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the key components of the Advanced Launch System (ALS) is a large liquid rocket, booster engine. To keep the overall vehicle size and cost down, this engine will probably use liquid oxygen (LOX) and a heavy hydrocarbon, such as RP-1, as propellants and operate at relatively high chamber pressures to increase overall performance. A technology program (Heavy Hydrocarbon Main Injector Technology) is being studied. The main objective of this effort is to develop a logic plan and supporting experimental data base to reduce the risk of developing a large scale (approximately 750,000 lb thrust), high performance main injector system. The overall approach and program plan, from initial analyses to large scale, two dimensional combustor design and test, and the current status of the program are discussed. Progress includes performance and stability analyses, cold flow tests of injector model, design and fabrication of subscale injectors and calorimeter combustors for performance, heat transfer, and dynamic stability tests, and preparation of hot fire test plans. Related, current, high pressure, LOX/RP-1 injector technology efforts are also briefly discussed.

Fisher, S. C.; Arbit, H. A.



Estimating ice-affected streamflow by extended Kalman filtering  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An extended Kalman filter was developed to automate the real-time estimation of ice-affected streamflow on the basis of routine measurements of stream stage and air temperature and on the relation between stage and streamflow during open-water (ice-free) conditions. The filter accommodates three dynamic modes of ice effects: sudden formation/ablation, stable ice conditions, and eventual elimination. The utility of the filter was evaluated by applying it to historical data from two long-term streamflow-gauging stations, St. John River at Dickey, Maine and Platte River at North Bend, Nebr. Results indicate that the filter was stable and that parameters converged for both stations, producing streamflow estimates that are highly correlated with published values. For the Maine station, logarithms of estimated streamflows are within 8% of the logarithms of published values 87.2% of the time during periods of ice effects and within 15% 96.6% of the time. Similarly, for the Nebraska station, logarithms of estimated streamflows are within 8% of the logarithms of published values 90.7% of the time and within 15% 97.7% of the time. In addition, the correlation between temporal updates and published streamflows on days of direct measurements at the Maine station was 0.777 and 0.998 for ice-affected and open-water periods, respectively; for the Nebraska station, corresponding correlations were 0.864 and 0.997.

Holtschlag, D.J.; Grewal, M.S.



78 FR 70545 - KEI (Maine) Power Management (I) LLC, KEI (Maine) Power Management (II) LLC, KEI (Maine) Power...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...11472-060, 11132-028, 11482-030, 4202-023, 3562-024] KEI (Maine) Power Management (I) LLC, KEI (Maine) Power Management (II) LLC, KEI (Maine) Power Management (III) LLC, KEI (Maine) Power Management (IV)...



Free Parameters and Frameworks in Minimal Supersymmetry  

E-print Network

405 Appendix A Free Parameters and Frameworks in Minimal Supersymmetry It is useful to discuss what the various schemes that exist for reducing the set of free parameters to a manageable number. The information, and so is fixed by experiment. The free parameters consist mainly of the coefficients of the "soft

California at Berkeley, University of


Free Parameters and Frameworks in Minimal Supersymmetry  

E-print Network

405 Appendix A Free Parameters and Frameworks in Minimal Supersymmetry It is useful to discuss what the various schemes that exist for reducing the set of free parameters to a manageable number. The information, and so is fixed by experiment. The free parameters consist mainly of the coe#cients of the ``soft

California at Berkeley, University of


75 FR 18826 - FPL Energy Maine Hydro LLC, Madison Paper Industries, and Merimil Limited Partnership; Notice of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Project No. 2615-037] FPL Energy Maine Hydro LLC, Madison Paper Industries...31, 2010. d. Applicant: FPL Energy Maine Hydro LLC, Madison Paper Industries...on the Moose River in Somerset County, Maine. The project does not affect federal...



Mount Apatite Park, Auburn, Maine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This guide discusses the geology, mineralogy, and mineral collecting opportunities of the Mount Apatite quarries at Auburn, Maine. Topics include the history and occurrence of the granite pegmatites, which contain collectible specimens of apatite, tourmaline, lepidolite, and other minerals; the history of glaciation in the area; and the history of the mining industry in Auburn, an important producer of commercial feldspar in the early 1900s. There is also information for mineral collectors, including permission and access, directions, and information on the exposures and how to extract specimens from them. References and links to additonal information are included.


Bald Mountain, Washington Plantation, Maine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This guide provides information on the geology of Bald Mountain, an outstanding example of an unvegetated mountain summit in western Maine. Topics include the petrology of the metamorphic rocks exposed on the mountain (layered quartzite and schist), which preserve evidence of their sedimentary origin (graded bedding, cross-bedding). There is also information on the glacial history of the area, as indicated by the presence of glacial striations and erratics. For visitors, there is information on permission and access, directions, sampling information, and activities. References are included.


[Main indoor air pollutants and their health impacts].  


The quality of indoor air is a very important factor that may directly affect human health. There are many sources as well as a variety of indoor air pollutants. Therefore, the health impact is complicated, affecting different organs and systems of human being such as respiratory and immune system. The main indoor air pollutants are the combustion products from smoking, cooking and heating, the chemical pollutants from renovation materials and the biological contaminants. The kinds, sources and health impacts of these pollutants that affect the indoor air quality are reviewed in this paper. PMID:12914298

Xu, Zhen; Jin, Yinlong



Lunar spaceport launch and landing operational parameters for human-based activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Future planning for operations on the lunar surface involving humans usually falls into two main areas of study. The first area being habitation and the second being commercial or science studies. Although much attention has been given to these two areas, very little has been given to the operations of the surface transportation node upon which they will be dependent-the ``lunar spaceport'' itself. Specifically, the operational factors that must be considered for flight vehicle landing, offloading, vehicle health monitoring, vehicle repair and refurbishment, reloading, and launch from the lunar surface. The complex set of parameters affecting such operations will form not only a major aspect of lunar surface operations, but a defining and limiting set of parameters for the human lunar colony or habitation element as well. The evaluation and study of such parameters as affect the launch and landing site operational environment must be conducted if lunar operations are addressed from a total systems standpoint. .

Schuiling, Roelof L.



Enzootic Babesia microti in Maine.  


Human babesiosis in the northeastern United States caused by Babesia microti (Apicomplexa: Piroplasmida) is mainly reported from coastal New England sites, where deer ticks (Ixodes dammini) are common. However, the piroplasm has been detected in microtine rodents elsewhere in association with I. angustus or other nidicolous ticks, suggesting that the agent is widely distributed but zoonotically significant only where a human-biting "bridge" vector is present. To determine whether this piroplasm may be enzootic in areas where I. dammini is absent, we surveyed small mammals collected from 2 sites in Maine, where I. angustus or I. muris is common but I. dammini is not. Of 43 chipmunks, voles, deer mice, and shrews examined, 3 (6.9, 95% confidence interval 0 to 14.5) were parasitemic, as determined by blood smear or polymerase chain reaction targeting a piroplasm-specific portion of the 18S ribosomal DNA gene. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequenced amplification products demonstrates the presence of 2 forms of B. microti. We conclude that B. microti may be enzootic in the absence of I. dammini but that human risk relates to dense infestations of this human-biting tick. PMID:14627162

Goethert, H K; Lubelcyzk, C; LaCombe, E; Holman, M; Rand, P; Smith, R P; Telford, S R



Main sequence stars with asymmetric dark matter.  


We study the effects of feebly or nonannihilating weakly interacting dark matter (DM) particles on stars that live in DM environments denser than that of our Sun. We find that the energy transport mechanism induced by DM particles can produce unusual conditions in the cores of main sequence stars, with effects which can potentially be used to probe DM properties. We find that solar mass stars placed in DM densities of ?(?)?10(2) GeV/cm(3) are sensitive to spin-dependent scattering cross section ?(SD)?10(-37) cm(2) and a DM particle mass as low as m(?)=5 GeV, accessing a parameter range weakly constrained by current direct detection experiments. PMID:22401051

Iocco, Fabio; Taoso, Marco; Leclercq, Florent; Meynet, Georges



Dynamic Artificial Neural Networks with Affective Systems  

PubMed Central

Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are processors that are trained to perform particular tasks. We couple a computational ANN with a simulated affective system in order to explore the interaction between the two. In particular, we design a simple affective system that adjusts the threshold values in the neurons of our ANN. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate that this simple affective system can control the firing rate of the ensemble of neurons in the ANN, as well as to explore the coupling between the affective system and the processes of long term potentiation (LTP) and long term depression (LTD), and the effect of the parameters of the affective system on its performance. We apply our networks with affective systems to a simple pole balancing example and briefly discuss the effect of affective systems on network performance. PMID:24303015

Schuman, Catherine D.; Birdwell, J. Douglas



[Staging of unipolar affective illness].  


In this article, a concept of staging of unipolar affective illness (recurrent depression) is presented. In respective subchapters, three most important aspects of this issue have been discussed: 1) staging of unipolar affective illness; 2) staging of treatment-resistant depression; and 3) conversion of unipolar into bipolar affective illness. The evidence for so called neuroprogression of the illness, accumulated in recent years, has allowed for a classification of staging based on a concept of allostasis and allostatic load. In the course of illness, changes in neuroendocrine system (mainly hypothalamic pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis), immunological system, mechanisms of oxidative stress, neurotransmitters, neurotrophic factors as well as structural and functional changes of the brain occur. In their paper of 2007, Fava and Tossani elaborated a concept of staging of unipolar affective illness presenting a continuum model of five consecutive stages with specific clinical features. In the present paper, a concept of treatment-resistant depression and staging of treatment resistance is presented in the context of several models. An important determinant of treatment-resistant depression is so called subthreshold bipolarity which is connected with worse efficacy of antidepressant drugs. In the course of illness, there is a possibility of changing diagnosis from recurrent depression into bipolar affective illness. The studies on this issue show that frequency of such diagnostic conversion is 1,5% of depressed patients per year. PMID:25717483

Ferensztajn, Ewa; Remlinger-Molenda, Agnieszka; Rybakowski, Janusz



Affect Dynamics, Affective Forecasting, and Aging  

PubMed Central

Affective forecasting, experienced affect, and recalled affect were compared in younger and older adults during a task in which participants worked to win and avoid losing small monetary sums. Dynamic changes in affect were measured along valence and arousal dimensions, with probes during both anticipatory and consummatory task phases. Older and younger adults displayed distinct patterns of affect dynamics. Younger adults reported increased negative arousal during loss anticipation and positive arousal during gain anticipation. In contrast, older adults reported increased positive arousal during gain anticipation but showed no increase in negative arousal on trials involving loss anticipation. Additionally, younger adults reported large increases in valence after avoiding an anticipated loss, but older adults did not. Younger, but not older, adults exhibited forecasting errors on the arousal dimension, underestimating increases in arousal during anticipation of gains and losses and overestimating increases in arousal in response to gain outcomes. Overall, the findings are consistent with a growing literature suggesting that older people experience less negative emotion than their younger counterparts and further suggest that they may better predict dynamic changes in affect. PMID:18540748

Nielsen, Lisbeth; Knutson, Brian; Carstensen, Laura L.



Space Shuttle Main Engine performance analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For a number of years, NASA has relied primarily upon periodically updated versions of Rocketdyne's power balance model (PBM) to provide space shuttle main engine (SSME) steady-state performance prediction. A recent computational study indicated that PBM predictions do not satisfy fundamental energy conservation principles. More recently, SSME test results provided by the Technology Test Bed (TTB) program have indicated significant discrepancies between PBM flow and temperature predictions and TTB observations. Results of these investigations have diminished confidence in the predictions provided by PBM, and motivated the development of new computational tools for supporting SSME performance analysis. A multivariate least squares regression algorithm was developed and implemented during this effort in order to efficiently characterize TTB data. This procedure, called the 'gains model,' was used to approximate the variation of SSME performance parameters such as flow rate, pressure, temperature, speed, and assorted hardware characteristics in terms of six assumed independent influences. These six influences were engine power level, mixture ratio, fuel inlet pressure and temperature, and oxidizer inlet pressure and temperature. A BFGS optimization algorithm provided the base procedure for determining regression coefficients for both linear and full quadratic approximations of parameter variation. Statistical information relative to data deviation from regression derived relations was also computed. A new strategy for integrating test data with theoretical performance prediction was also investigated. The current integration procedure employed by PBM treats test data as pristine and adjusts hardware characteristics in a heuristic manner to achieve engine balance. Within PBM, this integration procedure is called 'data reduction.' By contrast, the new data integration procedure, termed 'reconciliation,' uses mathematical optimization techniques, and requires both measurement and balance uncertainty estimates. The reconciler attempts to select operational parameters that minimize the difference between theoretical prediction and observation. Selected values are further constrained to fall within measurement uncertainty limits and to satisfy fundamental physical relations (mass conservation, energy conservation, pressure drop relations, etc.) within uncertainty estimates for all SSME subsystems. The parameter selection problem described above is a traditional nonlinear programming problem. The reconciler employs a mixed penalty method to determine optimum values of SSME operating parameters associated with this problem formulation.

Santi, L. Michael



Space Shuttle Main Engine performance analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For a number of years, NASA has relied primarily upon periodically updated versions of Rocketdyne's power balance model (PBM) to provide space shuttle main engine (SSME) steady-state performance prediction. A recent computational study indicated that PBM predictions do not satisfy fundamental energy conservation principles. More recently, SSME test results provided by the Technology Test Bed (TTB) program have indicated significant discrepancies between PBM flow and temperature predictions and TTB observations. Results of these investigations have diminished confidence in the predictions provided by PBM, and motivated the development of new computational tools for supporting SSME performance analysis. A multivariate least squares regression algorithm was developed and implemented during this effort in order to efficiently characterize TTB data. This procedure, called the 'gains model,' was used to approximate the variation of SSME performance parameters such as flow rate, pressure, temperature, speed, and assorted hardware characteristics in terms of six assumed independent influences. These six influences were engine power level, mixture ratio, fuel inlet pressure and temperature, and oxidizer inlet pressure and temperature. A BFGS optimization algorithm provided the base procedure for determining regression coefficients for both linear and full quadratic approximations of parameter variation. Statistical information relative to data deviation from regression derived relations was also computed. A new strategy for integrating test data with theoretical performance prediction was also investigated. The current integration procedure employed by PBM treats test data as pristine and adjusts hardware characteristics in a heuristic manner to achieve engine balance. Within PBM, this integration procedure is called 'data reduction.' By contrast, the new data integration procedure, termed 'reconciliation,' uses mathematical optimization techniques, and requires both measurement and balance uncertainty estimates. The reconciler attempts to select operational parameters that minimize the difference between theoretical prediction and observation. Selected values are further constrained to fall within measurement uncertainty limits and to satisfy fundamental physical relations (mass conservation, energy conservation, pressure drop relations, etc.) within uncertainty estimates for all SSME subsystems. The parameter selection problem described above is a traditional nonlinear programming problem. The reconciler employs a mixed penalty method to determine optimum values of SSME operating parameters associated with this problem formulation.

Santi, L. Michael



Bedrock Geologic Map of Maine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students study a map of bedrock geology which describes the types of rocks that exist in a given area. It shows these rock units as well as their known and inferred contacts. Consideration is also given to folding, faulting, unconformities, and similar rock relationships. These features are often included in bedrock geology maps. Students study the legend and scale and become aware of the other information that is included on the map such as the stratigraphic column, list of formations, and inset map of metamorphic grade. Students then locate their city or town and draw a 40-mile diameter circle around it and identify all the symbols inside the circle and the age of the various rocks. Student question sheets are available at this site. Although this activity was written for a map of Maine, it will work in any state where geological maps are available.


Space shuttle main engine controller  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A technical description of the space shuttle main engine controller, which provides engine checkout prior to launch, engine control and monitoring during launch, and engine safety and monitoring in orbit, is presented. Each of the major controller subassemblies, the central processing unit, the computer interface electronics, the input electronics, the output electronics, and the power supplies are described and discussed in detail along with engine and orbiter interfaces and operational requirements. The controller represents a unique application of digital concepts, techniques, and technology in monitoring, managing, and controlling a high performance rocket engine propulsion system. The operational requirements placed on the controller, the extremely harsh operating environment to which it is exposed, and the reliability demanded, result in the most complex and rugged digital system ever designed, fabricated, and flown.

Mattox, R. M.; White, J. B.



Puzzling Snowballs: Main Belt Comets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Main belt comets (MBCs) are a class of newly discovered objects that exhibit comet-like appearances and yet are dynamically indistinguishable from ordinary main belt asteroids. The measured size and albedo of MBCs are similar to those of classical comets. At present, six MBCs have been discovered, namely 133P/Elst-Pizarro, 176P/LINEAR, 238P/Read, P/2008 R1, P/La Sagra and P/2006 VW139. The total number of active MBCs is estimated to be at the level of a few hundreds (Hsieh & Jewitt, 2006). Several explanations for the activity of MBCs have been suggested. These include impact ejection, sublimation and rotational instability. However, since renewed activity has been observed in 133P and 238P at successive perihelion passages, the most likely explanation may be a thermally-driven process - e.g sublimation of exposed surface ice. Although the proximity of MBCs to the Sun (r ~ 3 AU) makes the survival of surface ice improbable, thermal models have shown that water ice is thermally stable under a regolith layer a few meters thick. The study of MBCs has recently been complicated by the discoveries of two asteroid collisional events (P/2010 A2 (LINEAR) and (596) Scheila) in 2010, where comet-like dust coma/tail have been attributed to recent impacts. If MBCs are indeed icy, they represent the closest and the third established reservoir of comets (after the Oort cloud and the Kuiper belt). As such, they may have been an important source of water for the Earth's oceans. I will review the current state of MBC studies, present the latest observational results and discuss possible mechanisms that could produce the observed activity. I will also talk about current and future space missions that are dedicated or closely related to MBC studies.

Yang, Bin; Meech, Karen



Visualizing the Shields Parameter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is not so much an activity as it is a useful tool to build an activity around. I created an Excel spreadsheet that calculates the Shields parameter and the grain Reynolds number for a given set of conditions, then plots the resultant values on the Shields diagram. Thus, students can tweak the boundary shear stress value to calculate the stress required to move a given grain size in any fluid, under any gravitational conditions. It is a great way for them to understand how changes in fluid density and viscosity (water vs. air) affect initiation of motion, as well as the effects of grain size. I might use this in a lecture on initiation of motion, asking them to answer some basic questions (see attached example).

Tom Hickson


Geospatial assessments of potato production systems in Maine  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Although Maine produces high quality potatoes, the average marketable yield is substantially lower than production areas in the western USA. Potential factors affecting yield include soil-water availability (timing of water stress and stress alleviation events), pest and disease control strategies, ...


Affecting qualitative health psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The affective turn is a contemporary movement within the humanities, social science, and psychology to investigate affect, emotion, and feeling as hybrid phenomena jointly constituted from both biological and social influences. Health and illness are themselves jointly constituted in this way, and many of the topics, concerns, and methods of health psychology are strongly permeated by affective phenomena. Qualitative research

John Cromby



Affective understanding in film  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractAffective understanding of film plays an important role in sophisticated movie analysis, ranking and indexing. How- ever, due to the seemingly inscrutable nature of emotions and the broad affective gap from low-level features, this problem is seldom addressed. In this paper, we develop a systematic approach grounded upon psychology and cinematography to address several important issues in affective understanding. An

Hee Lin Wang; Loong-Fah Cheong



Affective Learning A Manifesto  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of the computer as a model, metaphor, and modelling tool has tended to privilege the 'cognitive' over the 'affective' by engendering theories in which thinking and learning are viewed as information processing and affect is ignored or marginalised. In the last decade there has been an accelerated flow of findings in multiple disciplines supporting a view of affect

R W Picard; S Papert; W Bender; B Blumberg; C Breazeal; D Cavallo; T Machover; M Resnick; D Roy; C Strohecker



Main Dangers of Our Times.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terrorism and threatening dictatorships are the main, man-made, dangers of our times. They are run by master demagogues, or, brain-washing manipulators. ----- Our next step in coping with terrorism is to counter master demagoguery. Therefore, supporting EDUCATION that would emphasize the most unifying (and the least controversial), yet, BASIC CIVIC RESPECT for lives of people in a civilian human society, is a priority everywhere on our planet. ----- At the same time we start facing mostly small, threatening, dictatorships, capable of producing weapons of mass destruction. Therefore, we have to try to contribute to developing systems of FREE ELECTIONS, controlling weapons of mass destruction, wherever such dangers exist. ----- In a foreseeable future, unfortunately, we are facing a danger even by orders of magnitude greater. We are facing a possibility of a mass-produced heavy accumulation of inter-continental nuclear missiles, on a computerized "push-button" control, by a very powerful (and, quite possibly, miscalculating, or, suicidal) dictator, dangerous to the very existence of humanity on our planet. Therefore, it is a historical urgency that such a technological power be under the control by a government of the people, by the people and for the people, based on a sufficiently reliable system of FREE ELECTIONS, wherever, on our planet, such a potential danger may originate.

Synek, Miroslav



Arsenic on Main St., Unity ME  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Class description Analytical Chemistry syllabus (Microsoft Word 2007 (.docx) 42kB Feb8 10) Timeline Spring 2010 - Analytical Chemistry students implement the pilot project after learning to use the analytical equipment in a "standard" course context. Pilot Project - As a service to Unity College employees, students will analyze water samples brought in by faculty and staff using techniques learned during the semester. Students will collaborate to draft a letter describing the water quality (in terms of the measured parameters) including an recommendation that the water be analyzed at a certified laboratory. Student assessment of the project will be used to modify the database, suggest activities for the full blown event planned for the next year. Based on this work, I will ask a local NGO to "request" a similar event be held in town. As an alternate to a final exam, students will present the results of this work at the Unity College Student Conference during Finals week. Summer 2010 - I have applied for a faculty research grant to work with a student and examine water quality "downtown" (Unity has a total population of about 1500 residents). 2010-2011 - There are at least 2 possibilities: either a lab section of General Chemistry 2 or an upper-level topics class on Arsenic (my preference) will undertake planning for the "Water Days" event during Spring 2011. Projects on which students could work will include informational brochures, posters, and K12 lessons. The Water Days event will include invitations to local analytical chemical labs and water conditioning companies to set up information displays. The data solicited from those who submit samples will include: contact information, well depth, age, existing water conditioning capability, any current complaints. Research Rationale: In 1995, Caswell, Eichler & Hill, Inc. evaluated the "current state of the groundwater resources" in the downtown Unity, ME area for the Town of Unity (1). Analysis of the data available from 76 wells and springs in 3 aquifers (esker, marine sand, and bedrock) found 11 wells with arsenic concentrations ranging from 0.001 to 0.200 mg/L. Other water quality issues, notably hardness (22 wells), elevated iron concentrations (20 wells), and bacterial contamination (8 wells) were noted. This report seems to have generated little further investigation. Leaching of arsenic in aquifers from meta-sedimentary bedrock high in sulfides is well documented in Central Maine (7), though arsenic leached from unconsolidated aquifers also exists (8, for example). Arsenic in Eastern New England groundwater has been weakly correlated to elevated pH (8), which plausibly explains dissolved As IV, but less so As III, which is often associated with highly reduced conditions. The health hazards of arsenic are now well-known. Chronic exposure to low levels of arsenic in drinking water has been shown to cause multiple cancers, as well pigment changes and thickening of the skin on hands and feet (palmoplantar hyperkeratosis) (2). Chronic ingestion has also been linked to skin lesions, liver disease, cardiovascular disease, and a decrease in production of red and white blood cells due to bone marrow depression (2). Based on personal discussions with state officials, the health hazard most of concern in Maine is bladder cancer. Arsenic in ground water is an issue of national and international concern, and of particular importance in Maine, which has naturally occurring arsenic in groundwater and well water (3, 4). Currently the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences is funding a multilevel investigation of arsenic toxicity, mobilization and mitigation, including characterization of failed arsenic treatment systems in Central Maine (5). This project seeks to answer the following questions: Does water quality on Main St in Unity depend on the aquifer in which a resident's well is completed? A statistically sufficient number of wells in each aquifer will be analyzed for "normal" water quality parameters (pH, alkalinity, hardness, phosphate, chloride for example) an

Lois Ongley


75 FR 27863 - Savings Bank of Maine, MHC and Savings Bank of Maine, Gardiner, Maine; Approval of Conversion...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision [AC-38: OTS Nos. 06947 and H 4709] Savings Bank of Maine, MHC and Savings Bank of Maine, Gardiner, Maine; Approval of Conversion Application Notice is hereby given that on May 7, 2010, the...



Magnetic interactions and covalency effects in mainly ionic compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of covalency on the magnetic interactions like exchange, superexchange and hyperfine interactions are discussed for mainly ionic compounds. Relations are derived using a nearest neighbor cluster model relating the exchange interactions and transferred hyperfine interactions to covalency parameters and to the bond angle. With the aid of some examples we show how information about the superexchange interactions can

G. A. Sawatzky; W. Geertsma; C. Haas



21 CFR 808.69 - Maine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maine. 808.69 Section 808.69 Food and Drugs...Specific State and Local Exemptions 808.69 Maine. (a) The following Maine medical device requirement is enforceable...



78 FR 34701 - Maine Disaster #ME-00036  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Disaster Declaration 13592 and 13593] Maine Disaster ME-00036 AGENCY: U.S...declaration of a disaster for the State of Maine dated 05/30/2013. Incident: Apartment...Androscoggin. Contiguous Counties: Maine: Cumberland, Franklin, Kennebec,...



78 FR 34701 - Maine Disaster #ME-00037  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Disaster Declaration 13594 and 13595] Maine Disaster ME-00037 AGENCY: U.S...declaration of a disaster for the State of Maine dated 05/30/2013. Incident: Commercial...Androscoggin. Contiguous Counties: Maine: Cumberland, Franklin, Kennebec,...



75 FR 22167 - Maine Disaster #ME-00025  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Disaster Declaration 12126 and 12127] Maine Disaster ME-00025 AGENCY: U.S...declaration of a disaster for the State of MAINE dated 04/19/2010. Incident: Severe...Counties: York. Contiguous Counties: Maine: Cumberland, Oxford. New...



Cadence Optimisation and Exoplanetary Parameter Sensitivity  

E-print Network

To achieve maximum planet yield for a given radial velocity survey, the observing strategy must be carefully considered. In particular, the adopted cadence can greatly affect the sensitivity to exoplanetary parameters such as period and eccentricity. Here we describe simulations which aim to maximise detections based upon the target parameter space of the survey.

Stephen R. Kane; Eric B. Ford; Jian Ge



Debris disks in main sequence binary systems  

E-print Network

We observed 69 A3-F8 main sequence binary star systems using the Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer onboard the Spitzer Space Telescope. We find emission significantly in excess of predicted photospheric flux levels for 9(+4/-3)% and 40(+7/-6)% of these systems at 24 and 70 microns, respectively. Twenty two systems total have excess emission, including four systems that show excess emission at both wavelengths. A very large fraction (nearly 60%) of observed binary systems with small (<3 AU) separations have excess thermal mission. We interpret the observed infrared excesses as thermal emission from dust produced by collisions in planetesimal belts. The incidence of debris disks around main sequence A3-F8 binaries is marginally higher than that for single old AFGK stars. Whatever combination of nature (birth conditions of binary systems) and nurture (interactions between the two stars) drives the evolution of debris disks in binary systems, it is clear that planetesimal formation is not inhibited to any great degree. We model these dust disks through fitting the spectral energy distributions and derive typical dust temperatures in the range 100--200 K and typical fractional luminosities around 10^-5, with both parameters similar to other Spitzer-discovered debris disks. Our calculated dust temperatures suggest that about half the excesses we observe are derived from circumbinary planetesimal belts and around one third of the excesses clearly suggest circumstellar material. Three systems with excesses have dust in dynamically unstable regions, and we discuss possible scenarios for the origin of this short-lived dust.

D. E. Trilling; J. A. Stansberry; K. R. Stapelfeldt; G. H. Rieke; K. Y. L. Su; R. O. Gray; C. J. Corbally; G. Bryden; C. H. Chen; A. Boden; C. A. Beichman



Ecological factors affecting Rainbow Smelt recruitment in the main basin of Lake Huron, 1976-2010  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Rainbow Smelt Osmerus mordax are native to northeastern Atlantic and PacificArctic drainages and have been widely introduced throughout North America. In the Great Lakes region, Rainbow Smelt are known predators and competitors of native fish and a primary prey species in pelagic food webs. Despite their widespread distribution, importance as a prey species, and potential to negatively interact with native fish species, there is limited information concerning stockrecruitment relationships for Rainbow Smelt. To better understand recruitment mechanisms, we evaluated potential ecological factors determining recruitment dynamics for Rainbow Smelt in Lake Huron using data from bottom trawl catches. We specifically evaluated influence of stock size, environmental factors (water temperature, lake levels, and precipitation), and salmonine predation on the production of age-0 recruits from 1976 to 2010. Rainbow Smelt recruitment was negatively related to stock size exceeding 10 kg/ha, indicating that compensatory, density-dependent mortality from cannibalism or intraspecific competition was an important factor related to the production of age-0 recruits. Recruitment was positively related to spring precipitation suggesting that the amount of stream-spawning habitat as determined by precipitation was important for the production of strong Rainbow Smelt recruitment. Additionally, density of age-0 Rainbow Smelt was positively related to Lake Trout Salvelinus namaycush abundance. However, spawning stock biomass of Rainbow Smelt, which declined substantially from 1989 to 2010, was negatively associated with Lake Trout catch per effort suggesting predation was an important factor related to the decline of age-2 and older Rainbow Smelt in Lake Huron. As such, we found that recruitment of Rainbow Smelt in Lake Huron was regulated by competition with or cannibalism by older conspecifics, spring precipitation influencing stream spawning habitats, and predation by Lake Trout on age-2 and older Rainbow Smelt.

O'Brien, Timothy P.; Taylor, William W.; Roseman, Edward F.; Madenjian, Charles P.; Riley, Stephen C.



Superconducting magnets for the LHC main lattice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main lattice of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) employs about 1600 main magnets and more than 4000 corrector magnets. All superconducting and working in pressurized superfluid helium bath, these impressive line of magnets fills more than 20 km of the underground tunnel. With almost 70 main dipoles already delivered and 10 main quadrupoles almost completed, we passed the 5%

Lucio Rossi



Implementation techniques for main memory database systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the availability of very large, relatively inexpensive main memories, it is becoming possible keep large databases resident in main memory In this paper we consider the changes necessary to permit a relational database system to take advantage of large amounts of main memory We evaluate AVL vs B+-tree access methods for main memory databases, hash-based query processing strategies vs

David J DeWitt; Randy H Katz; Frank Olken; Leonard D Shapiro; Michael R Stonebraker; David A. Wood



Motivation & Emotion Affective Computing  

E-print Network

such as stuffed animals often play important roles in children's games. Children treat nonliving toysMotivation & Emotion Affective Computing A Note of Paper Survey Edward Shen Student ID: R91922007 skeptic about what ideas the "Affective Computing Group" in the MIT Media Lab are really trying to deliver

Ouhyoung, Ming


Characterization of the main components of the GTCAO system: 373 actuators DM and Ocam2 camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Adaptive optics systems rely on wavefront correctors and wavefront sensors as main components. At GTC, we are integrating the adaptive optics system, which is a classic, single conjugate. However, it will employ a 373 a actuators (21x21) DM from CILAS and the camera employed at the wavefront sensor will be OCam2 a state of the art camera based on L3CCD technology. OCam2 is one of the most perfomant camera for Adaptive Optics offering at the same time very low readout noise (subelectron noise) at very high frame rate (>1Kfps). Both components have been extensively tested at our premises, and the results are presented here. A better knowledge of these components allows having a more efficient adaptive optics system. The DM is characterized by means of interferometric measurements to assess its main parameters, as inter-actuator stroke, full mechanical actuator stroke, homogeneity of the influence function, hysteresis... On the other hand, we have at our premises two Ocam2 cameras with CCD220 detector (one science, one engineering) since November 2011. Our characterization included the main parameters of the cameras, and concluded that they meet the requirements needed for GTCAO wavefront sensor. The scientific grade camera has been characterized not only to check its compliance to GTCAO requirements but also to obtain typical camera performances and understand its behavior in depth. We also benefit from this characterization phase to develop and implement an optimization process. Some unknown features which are of general interest have been reported even if they don't affect OCAM2 camera compliance with GTCAO system.

Bello, Dolores; Boucher, Luc; Rosado, Mireia; Castro Lpez, Javier; Feautrier, Philippe



33 CFR 334.30 - Gulf of Maine off Pemaquid Point, Maine; naval sonobuoy test area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gulf of Maine off Pemaquid Point, Maine; naval sonobuoy test area. 334.30 Section...RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS 334.30 Gulf of Maine off Pemaquid Point, Maine; naval sonobuoy...



4, 31133144, 2007 What affects the  

E-print Network

physical and chemical parameters in lake water and precipitation were measured: pH, conductivity (K25), Ca for the journal Hydrology and Earth System Sciences What affects the nitrogen retention in Tatra Mountains lakes-friendly Version Interactive Discussion EGU Abstract The study of acidification and recovery of two lakes situated

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Environmental Factors Affecting Preschoolers' Motor Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The process of development occurs according to the pattern established by the genetic potential and also by the influence of environmental factors. The aim of the present study was to focus on the main environmental factors affecting motor development. The review of the literature revealed that family features, such as socioeconomic status,

Venetsanou, Fotini; Kambas, Antonis



Factors Affecting Advertising Approach in Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adoption of a regional advertising strategy in the Asian market is becoming popular due to rising living standards and the growing similarity of consumer tastes in the region. The main objectives of this paper are to: (1) investigate the advertising approach adopted by the multinationals, and (2) identify the factors affecting the extent of advertising standardization in The People's

Susan H. C. Tai



Seasonal affective disorder.  


Patients with seasonal affective disorder have episodes of major depression that tend to recur during specific times of the year, usually in winter. Like major depression, seasonal affective disorder probably is underdiagnosed in primary care settings. Although several screening instruments are available, such screening is unlikely to lead to improved outcomes without personalized and detailed attention to individual symptoms. Physicians should be aware of comorbid factors that could signal a need for further assessment. Specifically, some emerging evidence suggests that seasonal affective disorder may be associated with alcoholism and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Seasonal affective disorder often can be treated with light therapy, which appears to have a low risk of adverse effects. Light therapy is more effective if administered in the morning. It remains unclear whether light is equivalent to drug therapy, whether drug therapy can augment the effects of light therapy, or whether cognitive behavior therapy is a better treatment choice. PMID:17111890

Lurie, Stephen J; Gawinski, Barbara; Pierce, Deborah; Rousseau, Sally J



Compounds affecting cholesterol absorption  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A class of novel compounds is described for use in affecting lymphatic absorption of cholesterol. Compounds of particular interest are defined by Formula I: ##STR1## or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

Hua, Duy H. (Inventor); Koo, Sung I. (Inventor); Noh, Sang K. (Inventor)



Cancers Affecting the Retina  


... Resources for Help and Information The One-Page Merck Manual of Health Medical Terms Conversion Tables Manuals available ... Retinopathy Diabetic Retinopathy Endophthalmitis Cancers Affecting the Retina Merck Manual > Patients & Caregivers > Eye Disorders > Retinal Disorders 4 Cancers ...


75 FR 17792 - Maine Disaster # ME-00024  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12091 and 12092] Maine Disaster ME-00024 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration...a major disaster for Public Assistance only for the State of Maine (FEMA-1891- DR), dated 03/25/2010. Incident:...



75 FR 39993 - MAINE Disaster #ME-00026  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12222 and 12223] MAINE Disaster ME-00026 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration...a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the State of MAINE (FEMA-- 1920--DR), dated 07/01/2010....



78 FR 20370 - Maine Disaster # ME-00035  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 13525 and 13526] Maine Disaster ME-00035 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration...a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the State of Maine (FEMA-4108- DR), dated 03/25/2013. Incident:...



76 FR 7622 - Maine Disaster # ME-00028  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12461 and 12462] Maine Disaster ME-00028 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration...a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the State of Maine (FEMA-1953- DR), dated 02/01/2011. Incident:...



Parameters Optimization for Operational Storm Surge/Tide Forecast Model using a Genetic Algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Typhoons generated in northwestern Pacific Ocean annually affect the Korean Peninsula and storm surges generated by strong low pressure and sea winds often cause serious damage to property in the coastal region. To predict storm surges, a lot of researches have been conducted by using numerical models for many years. Various parameters used for calculation of physics process are used in numerical models based on laws of physics, but they are not accurate values. Because those parameters affect to the model performance, these uncertain values can sensitively operate results of the model. Therefore, optimization of these parameters used in numerical model is essential for accurate storm surge predictions. A genetic algorithm (GA) is recently used to estimate optimized values of these parameters. The GA is a stochastic exploration modeling natural phenomenon named genetic heritance and competition for survival. To realize breeding of species and selection, the groups which may be harmed are kept and use genetic operators such as inheritance, mutation, selection and crossover. In this study, we have improved operational storm surge/tide forecast model(STORM) of NIMR/KMA (National Institute of Meteorological Research/Korea Meteorological Administration) that covers 115E - 150E, 20N - 52N based on POM (Princeton Ocean Model) with 8km horizontal resolutions using the GA. Optimized values have been estimated about main 4 parameters which are bottom drag coefficient, background horizontal diffusivity coefficient, Smagoranskis horizontal viscosity coefficient and sea level pressure scaling coefficient within STORM. These optimized parameters were estimated on typhoon MAEMI in 2003 and 9 typhoons which have affected to Korea peninsula from 2005 to 2007. The 4 estimated parameters were also used to compare one-month predictions in February and August 2008. During the 48h forecast time, the mean and median model accuracies improved by 25 and 51%, respectively.

Lee, W.; You, S.; Ryoo, S.; Global Environment System Research Laboratory



On the effects of subsurface parameters on evaporite dissolution (Switzerland).  


Uncontrolled subsurface evaporite dissolution could lead to hazards such as land subsidence. Observed subsidences in a study area of Northwestern Switzerland were mainly due to subsurface dissolution (subrosion) of evaporites such as halite and gypsum. A set of 2D density driven flow simulations were evaluated along 1000 m long and 150 m deep 2D cross sections within the study area that is characterized by tectonic horst and graben structures. The simulations were conducted to study the effect of the different subsurface parameters that could affect the dissolution process. The heterogeneity of normal faults and its impact on the dissolution of evaporites is studied by considering several permeable faults that include non-permeable areas. The mixed finite element method (MFE) is used to solve the flow equation, coupled with the multipoint flux approximation (MPFA) and the discontinuous Galerkin method (DG) to solve the diffusion and the advection parts of the transport equation. Results show that the number of faults above the lower aquifer that contains the salt layer is considered as the most important factor that affects the dissolution compared to the other investigated parameters of thickness of the zone above the halite formation, a dynamic conductivity of the lower aquifer, and varying boundary conditions in the upper aquifer. PMID:24650646

Zidane, Ali; Zechner, Eric; Huggenberger, Peter; Younes, Anis



In Maine, Postsecondary Success Starts before College  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 2008 report from the Joint Standing Committee on Education and Culture Affairs of the Maine Legislature indicates a quarter of those who enrolled at a public university in Maine required a remedial course to catch them up to the level where they should have been when they completed high school. Regardless of how hard Maine has tried and how much

LePage, Paul R.



40 CFR 81.320 - Maine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maine. 81.320 Section 81.320 Protection of Environment...Section 107 Attainment Status Designations 81.320 Maine. MaineTSP Designated areas Does not meet primary...



Maine Technical College System: "Building Bridges."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes four affordable programs in Maine's Technical College System that help bridge transition from school to work: (1) Maine Quality Centers, where workers are trained to meet specific needs of employers; (2) Maine Tech Prep, which fosters career and skills development for high school students; (3) articulation agreements that provide smooth

Fitzsimmons, John



40 CFR 81.320 - Maine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...unless otherwise specified. MainePM2.5 (Annual NAAQS) Designated area...unless otherwise noted. MainePM2.5 [24-hour NAAQS] Designated...removing the tables titled MainePM2.5 (Annual NAAQS) and...




E-print Network

AMERICAN LOBSTERS TAGGED BY MAINE COMMERCIAL FISHERMEN, 1957-59 In 1957 at the suggestion of C. Owen Smith, then editor of the "Maine Coast Fisherman," several commercial lobster fishermen volunteered to tag illegal American lobster, Homarus ameri- canus, with tags furnished by the Maine Depart



EPA Science Inventory

This document is a handout of a slide presentation that addresses improvement of water main inspection technology. The slide presentation addresses the need for improved inspection technology (e.g., 237,000 main breaks/yr); the limits on main break prevention; and, the adverse ...


Multifractal Fits to the Observed Main Belt Asteroid Distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dohnanyi's (J. W. Dohnanyi, 1969, J. Geophys. Res.74, 25312554) theory predicts that a collisional system such as the asteroidal population of the main belt should rapidly relax to a power-law stationary size distribution of the kind N(m)?m??, with ? very close to 11\\/6, provided all the collisional response parameters are independent of size. The actual asteroid belt distribution at observable

Adriano Campo Bagatin; Vicent J. Mart??nez; Silvestre Paredes



Main Parameters of Soil Quality and it's Management Under Changing Climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reviewing Paper Introduction: Malcolm summarised the topic of soil quality and it's management in a well synthetized form in 2000. So, the soils are fundamental to the well-being and productivity of agricultural and natural ecosystems. Soil quality is a concept being developed to characterize the usefulness and health of soils. Soil quality includes soil fertility, potential productivity, contaminant levels and



Determining the main thermodynamic parameters of caffeine melting by means of DSC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The temperature and enthalpy of the melting of caffeine, which are 235.5 0.1C and 19.6 0.2 kJ/mol, respectively, are determined by DSC. The melting entropy and the cryoscopic constant of caffeine are calculated.

Agafonova, E. V.; Moshchenskii, Yu. V.; Tkachenko, M. L.



Pickering emulsions: what are the main parameters determining the emulsion type and interfacial properties?  


We synthesized surface-active lipophilic core-hydrophilic shell latex particles, and we probed their efficiency as emulsion stabilizers. The relative weight percentage of the shell, RS/P, was varied to trigger the balance between lipophilicity and hydrophilicity of the particles. Particle wettability could concomitantly be tuned by the pH of the aqueous phase determining the surface charge. Emulsions covering a wide range of RS/P and pH values were fabricated, and their type, oil-in-water (O/W) or water-in-oil (W/O), and kinetic stability were systematically assessed. By adapting the particle gel trapping technique to pH-variable systems and by exploiting the limited coalescence process, we were able to determine the proportion of oil/water interfacial area, C, covered by the particles as well as their contact angle, ?. All of these data were gathered into a single generic diagram showing good correlation between the emulsion type and the particle contact angle (O/W for ? < 90 and W/O for ? > 90) in agreement with the empirical Finkle rule. Interestingly, no stable emulsion could be obtained when the wettability was nearly balanced and a "bipolar"-like behavior was observed, with the particles adopting two different contact angles whose average value was close to 90. For particles such that ? < 90, O/W emulsions were obtained, and, depending on the pH of the continuous phase, the same type of particles and the same emulsification process led to emulsions characterized either by large drops densely covered by the particles or by small droplets that were weakly covered. The two metastable states were also accessible to emulsions stabilized by particles of variable origins and morphologies, thus proving the generality of our findings. PMID:25055160

Destribats, Mathieu; Gineste, Stphane; Laurichesse, Eric; Tanner, Hugo; Leal-Calderon, Fernando; Hroguez, Valrie; Schmitt, Vronique



Mining The Sdss-moc Database For Main-belt Asteroid Solar Phase Behavior.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 4th Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Moving Object Catalog (SDSS-MOC) contains 471569 moving object detections from 519 observing runs obtained up to March 2007. Of these, 220101 observations were linked with 104449 known small bodies, with 2150 asteroids sampled at least 10 times. It is our goal to mine this database in order to extract solar phase curve information for a large number of main-belt asteroids of different dynamical and taxonomic classes. We found that a simple linear phase curve fit allowed us to reject data contaminated by intrinsic rotational lightcurves and other effects. As expected, a running mean of solar phase coefficient is strongly correlated with orbital elements, with the inner main-belt dominated by bright S-type asteroids and transitioning to darker C and D-type asteroids with steeper solar phase slopes. We shall fit the empirical H-G model to our 2150 multi-sampled asteroids and correlate these parameters with spectral type derived from the SDSS colors and position within the asteroid belt. Our data should also allow us to constrain solar phase reddening for a variety of taxonomic classes. We shall discuss errors induced by the standard "g=0.15" assumption made in absolute magnitude determination, which may slightly affect number-size distribution models.

Truong, Thien-Tin; Hicks, M. D.



On the effects of subsurface parameters on evaporite dissolution (Switzerland)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Uncontrolled subsurface evaporite dissolution could lead to hazards such as land subsidence. Observed subsidences in a study area of Northwestern Switzerland were mainly due to subsurface dissolution (subrosion) of evaporites such as halite and gypsum. A set of 2D density driven flow simulations were evaluated along 1000 m long and 150 m deep 2D cross sections within the study area that is characterized by tectonic horst and graben structures. The simulations were conducted to study the effect of the different subsurface parameters that could affect the dissolution process. The heterogeneity of normal faults and its impact on the dissolution of evaporites is studied by considering several permeable faults that include non-permeable areas. The mixed finite element method (MFE) is used to solve the flow equation, coupled with the multipoint flux approximation (MPFA) and the discontinuous Galerkin method (DG) to solve the diffusion and the advection parts of the transport equation.

Zidane, Ali; Zechner, Eric; Huggenberger, Peter; Younes, Anis



Parameters Controlling Dimensional Accuracy of Aluminum Extrusions Formed in Stretch Bending  

SciTech Connect

For stretch formed components used in the automotive industry, such as bumper beams, it is of primary importance to control parameters affecting dimensional accuracy. The variations in geometry and mechanical properties induced in extrusion and stretch forming lead to subsequent dimensional inaccuracy of the final product. In this work, tensile and compression samples were taken at three different positions along AA7108W extruded profiles in order to determine material parameters for a constitutive model particularly suited for strong texture materials. In addition, geometry were measured and analyzed statistically in order to study its impact on local cross sectional distortions (sagging) and springback in stretch bending of a bumper beam. These full scale experiments were combined with analytical and numerical simulations to quantify the impact of each basic parameter on product quality. It is concluded that this methodology provides a means to systematically control the product quality by focusing on reducing the acceptance limits of the main parameters controlling basic mechanisms in stretch forming. Despite the assumptions and simplifications made in order to make the analytical expressions solvable, the approach has proven its capability in establishing accurate closed-form expressions including the main influential parameters.

Baringbing, Henry Ako [Department of Engineering Design and Materials, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), N-7491, Trondheim (Norway); Welo, Torgeir [Department of Engineering Design and Materials, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), N-7491, Trondheim (Norway); Hydro Aluminium Structures Raufoss AS, P.O. Box 15, N-2831, Raufoss (Norway)



Effect of including torsional parameters for histidine-metal interactions in classical force fields for metalloproteins.  


Classical force-field parameters of the metal site of metalloproteins usually comprise only the partial charges of the involved atoms, as well as the bond-stretching and bending parameters of the metal-ligand interactions. Although for certain metal ligands such as histidine residues, the torsional motions at the metal site play an important role for the dynamics of the protein, no such terms have been considered to be crucial in the parametrization of the force fields, and they have therefore been omitted in the parametrization. In this work, we have optimized AMBER-compatible force-field parameters for the reduced state of the metal site of copper, zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1) and assessed the effect of including torsional parameters for the histidine-metal interactions in molecular dynamics simulations. On the basis of the obtained results, we recommend that torsion parameters of the metal site are included when processes at the metal site are investigated or when free-energy calculations are performed. As the torsion parameters mainly affect the structure of the metal site, other kinds of structural studies can be performed without considering the torsional parameters of the metal site. PMID:25410708

Mera-Adasme, Ral; Sadeghian, Keyarash; Sundholm, Dage; Ochsenfeld, Christian



Seasonal Affective Disorder  

PubMed Central

Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is a recently described mood disorder characterized by recurrent winter depressive episodes and summer remissions. The symptoms of SAD include DSM III-R criteria for recurrent major depression, but atypical depressive symptoms predominate with hypersomnia, hyperphagia and carbohydrate craving, and anergia. Seasonal affective disorder is effectively treated by exposure to bright light (phototherapy or light therapy), a novel antidepressant treatment. The authors review the syndrome of SAD, hypotheses about its pathophysiology, and the use of phototherapy to treat the disorder. PMID:21233986

Lam, Raymond W.; Fleming, Jonathan A.E.; Buchanan, Alan; Remick, Ronald A.



Adaptation of the Main Peripheral Artery and Vein to Long Term Confinement (MARS 500)  

PubMed Central

Purpose The objective was to check if 520 days in confinement (MARS 500), may affect the main peripheral arterial diameter and wall thickness and the main vein size. Method Common carotid (CC) femoral artery (FA) portal vein (PV), jugular (JG), femoral vein (FV) and tibial vein were assessed during MARS 500 by echography, performed by the subjects. A hand free volumic echographic capture method and a delayed 3D reconstruction software developed by our lab were used for collecting and measuring the vascular parameters. Results During the MARS 500 experiment the subjects performed 6 sessions among which 80% of the echographic data were of sufficient quality to be processed. No significant change was found for the Common carotid, Jugular vein, femoral artery, femoral vein, portal vein, and tibial vein diameter. CC and FA IMT (intima media thickness) were found significantly increased (14% to 28% P<0.05) in all the 6 subjects, during the confinement period and also at +2 days after the confinement period, but there was no significant difference 6 month later compare to pre MARS 500. Conclusion The experiment confirmed that even untrained to performing echography the subjects were able to capture enough echographic data to reconstruct the vessel image from which the parameters were measured. The increase in both CC and FA IMT should be in relation with the stress generated by the confined environment or absence of solar radiation, as there was no change in gravity, temperature and air in the MARS 500 module, and minor changes in physical exercise and nutrition. PMID:24475025

Arbeille, Philippe; Provost, Romain; Vincent, Nicole; Aubert, Andre



77 FR 48565 - Maine Yankee Atomic Power Company, Maine Yankee Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Nos. 50-309 and 72-30; NRC-2012-0189] Maine Yankee Atomic Power Company, Maine Yankee Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation, Exemption--Staff Evaluation 1.0 Background Maine Yankee Atomic Power Company (MY, the...



Using Literature & Poetry Affectively.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this publication is to present methods designed to develop a greater awareness of the affective domain and to examine the way children's literature and poetry is used at school and at home. The 12 articles provide information about the following topics: developing an awareness of attitudes, examining approach-avoidance behaviors in

Shapiro, Jon E., Ed.


Factors Affecting Photosynthesis!  

E-print Network

Factors Affecting Photosynthesis! Temperature Eppley (1972) Light Sverdrup's Critical Depth-493, but the general concept is still valid! ! #12;PB opt & Temperature! #12;Photosynthesis & Temperature! Remember: in the laboratory, we can measure photosynthesis versus irradiance (PvsE) and calculate Ek, Pmax, and alpha

Kudela, Raphael M.


Factors Affecting Photosynthesis!  

E-print Network

4/21/13 1 Factors Affecting Photosynthesis! Temperature Eppley (1972) Light Sverdrup Michaelis-Menten versus PE curves! Photosynthesis and nutrient kinetics curves look similar because they are governed by the same process: Initial slope is dependent on amount of pigments (light) or cell

Kudela, Raphael M.


Factors affecting soil cohesion  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soil erodibility is a measure of a soils resistance against erosive forces and is affected by both intrinsic (or inherent) soil property and the extrinsic condition at the time erodibility measurement is made. Since soil erodibility is usually calculated from results obtained from erosion experimen...


Predicting affective choice.  


Affect is increasingly recognized as central to decision making. However, it is not clear whether affect can be used to predict choice. To address this issue, we conducted 4 studies designed to create and test a model that could predict choice from affect. In Study 1, we used an image rating task to develop a model that predicted approach-avoidance motivations. This model quantified the role of two basic dimensions of affect--valence and arousal--in determining choice. We then tested the predictive power of this model for two types of decisions involving images: preference based selections (Study 2) and risk-reward trade-offs (Study 3). In both cases, the model derived in Study 1 predicted choice and outperformed competing models drawn from well-established theoretical views. Finally, we showed that this model has ecological validity: It predicted choices between news articles on the basis of headlines (Study 4). These findings have implications for diverse fields, including neuroeconomics and judgment and decision making. PMID:22924884

Suri, Gaurav; Sheppes, Gal; Gross, James J



Food Affects Human Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A conference on whether food and nutrients affect human behavior was held on November 9, 1982 at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Various research studies on this topic are reviewed, including the effects of food on brain biochemistry (particularly sleep) and effects of tryptophane as a pain reducer. (JN)

Kolata, Gina



How Fire Affects Wildlife  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is part of Planet Diary and is an online exploration on how wildfires affect animals and plants. Students each investigate one animal and one plant to see how well certain organisms have adapted to fire, and then compare survival strategies. This page is accompanied by a page of website links for further information.


What Variables Affect Solubility?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Helps middle school students understand the concept of solubility through hands-on experience with a variety of liquids and solids. As they explore factors that affect solubility and saturation, students gain content mastery and an understanding of the inquiry process. Also enables teachers to authentically assess student performance on several

Baker, William P.; Leyva, Kathryn



Parameter Sensitivity Visualization for DTI Fiber Tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractFiber tracking of Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) data offers a unique,insight into the three-dimensional organisation,of white matter structures in the living brain. However, fiber tracking algorithms require a number of user-defined input parameters that strongly affect the output results. Usually the fiber tracking parameters,are set once and are then re-used for several patient datasets. However, the stability of the chosen

Ralph Brecheisen; Anna Vilanova; Bram Platel; Bart M. Ter Haar Romeny



Distillation tray structural parameter study: Phase 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose here is to identify the structural parameters (plate thickness, liquid level, beam size, number of beams, tray diameter, etc.) that affect the structural integrity of distillation trays in distillation columns. Once the sensitivity of the trays' dynamic response to these parameters has been established, the designer will be able to use this information to prepare more accurate specifications for the construction of new trays. Information is given on both static and dynamic analysis, modal response, and tray failure details.

Winter, J. Ronald



Adding Up to the Main Idea  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students will use non-fiction books on the subject of spiders to find key details in the text that lead them to the main idea. Students will use a graphic organizer that shows the concept as a math problem in which the key details from the text are added up to find the main idea. At the end of the lesson, students will create a poster utilizing key details and main idea from a book about an arachnid.

Lori Blum



VNMR Command and Parameter  

E-print Network

VNMR Command and Parameter Reference Varian NMR Spectrometer Systems With VNMR 6.1C Software Pub. No. 01-999164-00, Rev. B0801 #12;VNMR Command and Parameter Reference Varian NMR Spectrometer Systems With VNMR 6.1C Software Pub. No. 01-999164-00, Rev. B0801 #12;VNMR Command and Parameter Reference Varian

Zhou, Pei


Pressure wave attenuating main steam line apparatus  

SciTech Connect

A main steam line apparatus of a boiling water nuclear reactor plant is claimed including piping for introducing a steam produced in a pressure vessel into a turbine, a main steam valve for rapidly stopping the steam being supplied to the turbine through the piping, and a header. The header is located in the piping between the pressure vessel and the main steam valve. The header causes the pressure wave which occurs when the main steam valve is rapidly closed to be attenuated and an increase in pressure vessel pressure to be suppressed.

Arinobu, M.; Suzuki, I.



Ventspils Radiotelescopes: History, Parameters, Possibilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After the withdrawal of the Russian army from Latvia, two fully steerable parabolic antennae of 32 m and 16 m in diameter were left near Ventspils, a port town on the shore of the Baltic sea. They have high surface accuracy and work in the centimeter and millimeter ranges. Their main mechanical and radiotechnical parameters, for example, a sensitivity of about 3--35 mJy in a wavelength range of 1--10 cm, allow their use as powerful middle class radiotelescopes for investigations of various cosmic radio sources. The antennae are open to international cooperation.

Balklavs, A.


Standard pre-main sequence models of low-mass stars  

SciTech Connect

The main characteristics of standard pre-main sequence (PMS) models are described. A discussion of the uncer-tainties affecting the current generation of PMS evolutionary tracks and isochrones is also provided. In particular, the impact of the uncertainties in the adopted equation of state, radiative opacity, nuclear cross sections, and initial chemical abundances are analysed.

Prada Moroni, P. G.; Degl'Innocenti, S. [Physics Department E. Fermi, University of Pisa, largo B. Pontecorvo 3, I-56127, Pisa, Italy and INFN, largo B. Pontecorvo 3, I-56127, Pisa (Italy); Tognelli, E. [INFN, largo B. Pontecorvo 3, I-56127, Pisa, Italy and Physics Department, University of Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133, Roma (Italy)



Maine's Employability Skills Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Practice Report describes the development and implementation of the "Maine Employability Skills Program," a model employment program developed by the Maine Division for the Blind and Visually Impaired (DBVI). The program was designed to support the efforts of the chronically unemployed or underemployed. These consumers were either

McMahon, John M.; Wolffe, Karen E.; Wolfe, Judy; Brooker, Carrie



40 CFR 81.413 - Maine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maine. 81.413 Section 81.413 Protection of Environment...Federal Areas Where Visibility Is an Important Value 81.413 Maine. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing...



The Legal Rights of Maine Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet is intended to help Maine women recognize and enforce their rights under Maine and federal law. It is not designed to be a substitute for lawyers' services, but to inform women of their legal rights so that they will know when to consult a lawyer or a governmental agency for assistance in enforcing these rights. Organized topically by

Potter, Judy R.; Marshall, Gail


Store Front Remodeling on Main Street  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1935, store front designs on Main Street have been shaped by an interplay of different design strategies and changing social, cultural, economic and technological forces. Store fronts have adopted vernacular versions of prevailing architectural styles, but more than anything else they have been remodeled to promote store identity, enhance store image and entice passers-by. In the 1930s Main Street

Richard Mattson




EPA Science Inventory

The Maine 1:24,000 Hydrology Lines SDE feature class depicts double line river features, single line streams, pond, lake and coastal outlines in Maine from USGS 1:24,000 scale quadrangles. Some New Hampshire and New Brunswick features are also included. Codes are included to sel...



EPA Science Inventory

The Maine 1:24,000 Hydrology Polygons SDE feature class depicts double line river features, single line streams, pond, lake and coastal outlines in Maine from USGS 1:24,000 scale quadrangles. Some New Hampshire and New Brunswick features are also included. Codes are included to ...


Compensating linkage for main rotor control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A compensating linkage for the rotor control system on rotary wing aircraft is described. The main rotor and transmission are isolated from the airframe structure by clastic suspension. The compensating linkage prevents unwanted signal inputs to the rotor control system caused by relative motion of the airframe structure and the main rotor and transmission.

Jeffery, P. A. E.; Huber, R. F. (inventors)



Fla. Students Turn to Maine for Diplomas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on a student option to earn a high school diploma from a Maine private school. Frustrated in their attempts to pass the state graduation test and receive high school diplomas, some Florida students are securing the prized credentials by a different route: a private school in Lewiston, Maine. For many of those students,

Cavanagh, Sean



Distribution of Endangered Turtle Species in Maine  

Microsoft Academic Search

This map shows the ranges of the three endangered terrestrial turtles in Maine: the Blanding's, Box, and the Eastern Painted Turtle. These turtles are on the endangered species list for Maine and the U.S. All suffer from territorial fragmentation which is separating turtle populations, making it hard to keep population growth sustainable. Most live in acidic wetlands or ponds in

Meghan Cornwall



Parameter sweeps for exploring GP parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes our procedure and a software application for conducting large parameter sweep experiments in genetic and evolutionary computation research. Both procedure and software allows a researcher to examine multivariate nonlinearities that are common in genetic and evolutionary computation. Experiments of this nature are well suited to distributed computing environments (such as Grids and clusters) and we present an

Michael E. Samples; Jason M. Daida; Matthew J. Byom; Matt Pizzimenti



Selection of Wire Electrical Discharge Machining Process Parameters on Stainless Steel AISI Grade-304 using Design of Experiments Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM) is a specialized thermal machining process capable of accurately machining parts of hard materials with complex shapes. Parts having sharp edges that pose difficulties to be machined by the main stream machining processes can be easily machined by WEDM process. Design of Experiments approach (DOE) has been reported in this work for stainless steel AISI grade-304 which is used in cryogenic vessels, evaporators, hospital surgical equipment, marine equipment, fasteners, nuclear vessels, feed water tubing, valves, refrigeration equipment, etc., is machined by WEDM with brass wire electrode. The DOE method is used to formulate the experimental layout, to analyze the effect of each parameter on the machining characteristics, and to predict the optimal choice for each WEDM parameter such as voltage, pulse ON, pulse OFF and wire feed. It is found that these parameters have a significant influence on machining characteristic such as metal removal rate (MRR), kerf width and surface roughness (SR). The analysis of the DOE reveals that, in general the pulse ON time significantly affects the kerf width and the wire feed rate affects SR, while, the input voltage mainly affects the MRR.

Lingadurai, K.; Nagasivamuni, B.; Muthu Kamatchi, M.; Palavesam, J.



Factors Affecting Gummy Butter.  

E-print Network

LIBRARY A. & M. COLLEGE OF TEXAS Factors Affecting Gummy Butter DIGEST Among the Southcentral States, Texas ranks next to Oklahoma and Kentucky in creamery butter production; in farm butter production Texas is third in the nation... products produce I butter having what is known as a gummy or melt-resistant body. The availability and nutritive qualities of cottonseed products make them highly desirable as dairy feeds, especially in the South. This study shows that the gummy...

Leighton, R. E. (Rudolph Elmo); Moore, A. V.



Techniques for Practical Fixed-Parameter Algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fixed-parameter approach is an algorithm design technique for solving combinatorially hard (mostly NP-hard) problems. For some of these problems, it can lead to algorithms that are both effi- cient and yet at the same time guaranteed to find optimal solutions. Focusing on their application to solving NP-hard problems in practice, we survey three main techniques to develop fixed-parameter algorithms,

Falk Hffner; Rolf Niedermeier; Sebastian Wernicke



Original article Rose flower production and quality as affected  

E-print Network

Original article Rose flower production and quality as affected by Ca concentration in the petal) Abstract The quality of cut rose flowers at the post-harvest stage is affected by the susceptibility to Botrytis flower blight. This parameter may be related to Ca concentration in the flowers. The objective

Paris-Sud XI, Universit de


Parameter uncertainty analysis of non-point source pollution from different land use types.  


Land use type is one of the most important factors that affect the uncertainty in non-point source (NPS) pollution simulation. In this study, seventeen sensitive parameters were screened from the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model for parameter uncertainty analysis for different land use types in the Daning River Watershed of the Three Gorges Reservoir area, China. First-Order Error Analysis (FOEA) method was adopted to analyze the effect of parameter uncertainty on model outputs under three types of land use, namely, plantation, forest and grassland. The model outputs selected in this study consisted of runoff, sediment yield, organic nitrogen (N), and total phosphorus (TP). The results indicated that the uncertainty conferred by the parameters differed among the three land use types. In forest and grassland, the parameter uncertainty in NPS pollution was primarily associated with runoff processes, but in plantation, the main uncertain parameters were related to runoff process and soil properties. Taken together, the study suggested that adjusting the structure of land use and controlling fertilizer use are helpful methods to control the NPS pollution in the Daning River Watershed. PMID:20035971

Shen, Zhen-yao; Hong, Qian; Yu, Hong; Niu, Jun-feng



Genetic Status of Atlantic Salmon in Maine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interim report from the National Research Council's (NRC) Committee on Atlantic Salmon in Maine is a prepublication of the March 2002 report provided by National Academy Press. The once abundant populations of Atlantic Salmon in Maine have declined in recent years, now listed as endangered. The NRC Committee believes that "understanding the genetic makeup of Maine's salmon is important for recovery efforts." This 48-page report includes information on the salmon's biology, evolution, genetics, its current state, and the committee's conclusions. It can be viewed online or downloaded for printing.

National Research Council. Committee on Atlantic Salmon in Maine.


Status of the Fermilab Main Injector  

SciTech Connect

The Fermilab Main Injector is a rapid cycling proton synchrotron. It is designed to accelerate protons and antiprotons to 150GeV. The initial commissioning phase was in the summer of 1999. Since then, Main Injector has been supporting the high energy physics program at Fermilab. Beam studies for continued improvements in machine performance are in progress, in order to support a luminosity of 8*10{sup 31} cm{sup {minus}2} sec{sup {minus}1} during Run IIa. The status of the Main Injector and beam studies results are presented.

Kiyomi Koba et al.



Maine Geological Survey: Online Educational Materials  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Maine Geological Survey (MGS) has crafted a fine set of materials for those interested in learning more about the state's natural history via virtual tours, lesson plans, and maps. First up is the Virtual Tour of Maine Geology, which includes photographs of bedrock geology, geologic hazards, mineral collecting, and surficial geology. The Lesson Plans area contains 51 lessons, including "Igneous Rock Identification" and "Composition of Topsoil." A number of MGS maps are available online in the Maps and Publications area. The site includes a Bibliography of Maine Geology, which contains over 12,000 references. Additionally, the site contains a link to the MGS publications page, which has official state of Maine wall maps available for purchase.


Teaching Case: Maine Turnpike Toll Discounts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a very short case about a coupon experiment on the Maine Turnpike that can be used very early in Micro Principles courses to motivate the introduction of demand curves, elasticity and externalities that comes later in the course.

Ann Velenchik


Maine Geological Survey: Online Educational Materials  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Maine Geological Survey (MGS) has crafted a fine set of materials for those interested in learning more about the state's natural history via virtual tours, lesson plans, and maps. First up is the Virtual Tour of Maine Geology, which includes photographs of bedrock geology, geologic hazards, mineral collecting, and surficial geology. The Lesson Plans area contains 51 lessons, including "Igneous Rock Identification" and "Composition of Topsoil." A number of MGS maps are available online in the Maps and Publications area. The site includes a Bibliography of Maine Geology, which contains over 12,000 references. Additionally, the site contains a link to the MGS publications page, which has official state of Maine wall maps available for purchase.



Shuttle Main Engine Firing in Gimbal Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A close-up view of a Space Shuttle Main Engine during a test at the John C. Stennis Space Center shows how the engine is gimballed, or rotated to evaluate the performance of its components under simulated flight conditions.



Interview at a Small Maine School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an interview with the founder and director of the Riley School in Maine in which she discusses the school's educational philosophy and practices, curriculum design, and physical plant design. (BB)

Cartwright, Sally



Space Shuttle Main Engine Test Firing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A cloud of extremely hot steam boils out of the flame deflector at the A-1 test stand during a test firing of a Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) at the John C. Stennis Space Center, Hancock County, Mississippi.



Using Pictures to Support the Main Idea  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this resource, students will identify pictures that describe what the book is mainly about. Throughout the teacher modeling section, guided practice, and independent practice, students will use books on tigers, farm animals, and whales.




Main Idea: What is the Book About?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this resource, students will identify and describe what a book is mainly about using the title, text and pictures. The two featured texts that students will use are informational texts about tigers and ladybugs.




University of Maine School of Marine Sciences  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Located in Orono, Maine, the SMS is the largest concentration of marine expertise in Maine, and offers one of the largest research and educational programs in the Northeast. Research activities of faculty and students range from aquaculture, marine biology, marine biotechnology, oceanography, and marine geology, to public policy and marine archeology. Site offers information on graduate and undergraduate programs, current research, school news, upcoming events, and outreach initiatives.


SSME main injector 4000 Hertz phenomenon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSME) have experienced very high acceleration responses measured in the main injector of the powerhead during static firings. Data from previous hot fire SSME tests relating to the 4000 hertz phenomenon were reviewed to provide a better understanding of the nature of this structural response. The objective was to technically understand the way this phenomenon works, recommend a fix and test the fix.

Johnston, G. D.



Geomagnetic main field modeling using magnetohydrodynamic constraints  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The influence of physical constraints are investigated which may be approximately satisfied by the Earth's liquid core on models of the geomagnetic main field and its secular variation. A previous report describes the methodology used to incorporate nonlinear equations of constraint into the main field model. The application of that methodology to the GSFC 12/83 field model to test the frozen-flux hypothesis and the usefulness of incorporating magnetohydrodynamic constraints for obtaining improved geomagnetic field models is described.

Estes, R. H.



Space shuttle main engine: Hydraulic system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The hydraulic actuation system of the space shuttle main engine is discussed. The system consists of five electrohydraulic actuators and a single engine filter used to control the five different propellant valves, which in turn control thrust and mixture ratio of the space shuttle main engine. The hydraulic actuation system provides this control with a precision of 98.7 percent or an error in position no greater than 1.3 percent of full scale rotational travel for critical positions.

Geller, G.; Lamb, C. D.



Ecological parameters influencing microbial diversity and stability of traditional sourdough.  


The quality of some leavened, sourdough baked goods is not always consistent, unless a well propagated sourdough starter culture is used for the dough fermentation. Among the different types of sourdough used, the traditional sourdough has attracted the interest of researchers, mainly because of its large microbial diversity, especially with respect to lactic acid bacteria. Variation in this diversity and the factors that cause it will impact on quality and is the subject of this review. Sourdough microbial diversity is mainly caused by the following factors: (i) sourdough is obtained through spontaneous, multi-step fermentation; (ii) it is propagated using flour, whose nutrient content may vary according to the batch and to the crop, and which is naturally contaminated by microorganisms; and (iii) it is propagated under peculiar technological parameters, which vary depending on the historical and cultural background and type of baked good. In the population dynamics leading from flour to mature sourdough, lactic acid bacteria (several species of Lactobacillus sp., Leuconostoc sp., and Weissella sp.) and yeasts (mainly Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida sp.) outcompete other microbial groups contaminating flour, and interact with each other at different levels. Ecological parameters qualitatively and quantitatively affecting the dominant sourdough microbiota may be classified into specific technological parameters (e.g., percentage of sourdough used as inoculum, time and temperature of fermentation) and parameters that are not fully controlled by those who manage the propagation of sourdough (e.g., chemical, enzyme and microbial composition of flour). Although some sourdoughs have been reported to harbour a persistent dominant microbiota, the stability of sourdough ecosystem during time is debated. Indeed, several factors may interfere with the persistence of species and strains associations that are typical of a given sourdough: metabolic adaptability to the stressing conditions of sourdough, nutritional and antagonistic interactions among microorganisms, intrinsic robustness of microorganisms, and existence of a stable house microbiota. Further studies have to be performed in order to highlight hidden mechanisms underlying the microbial structure and stability of sourdough. The comprehension of such mechanisms would be helpful to assess the most appropriate conditions that allow keeping a given traditional sourdough as a stable microbial ecosystem, thus preserving, during time, the typical traits of the resulting product. PMID:24355817

Minervini, Fabio; De Angelis, Maria; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Gobbetti, Marco



Weak Lensing: Prospects for Measuring Cosmological Parameters  

E-print Network

Weak lensing of galaxies by large scale structure can potentially measure cosmological quantities as accurately as the cosmic microwave background (CMB). However, the relation between observables and fundamental parameters is more complex and degenerate, especially in the full space of adiabatic cold dark matter models considered here. We introduce a Fisher matrix analysis of the information contained in weak lensing surveys to address these issues and provide a simple means of estimating how survey properties and source redshift uncertainties affect parameter measurement. We find that surveys on degree scales and above can improve the accuracy on parameters that affect the growth rate of structure by up to an order of magnitude compared to using the CMB alone even if the characteristic redshift of the sources must be determined from the data itself. Surprisingly, both sparse sampling and increasing the source redshift can weaken the cosmological constraints.

Wayne Hu; Max Tegmark



All-Stokes Parameterization of the Main Beam and First Sidelobe for the Arecibo Radio Telescope  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radio astronomical measurements of extended emission require knowledge of the beam shape and response because the measurements need correction for quantities such as beam efficiency and beamwidth. We describe a scheme that characterizes the main beam and sidelobe in all Stokes parameters employing parameters that allow reconstruction of the complete beam patterns and, also, afford an easy way to see

Carl Heiles; Phil Perillat; Michael Nolan; Duncan Lorimer; Ramesh Bhat; Tapasi Ghosh; Ellen Howell; Murray Lewis; Karen O'Neil; Chris Salter; Snezana Stanimirovic



The activity of Main Belt comets  

E-print Network

Main Belt comets represent a recently discovered class of objects. They are quite intriguing because, while having a Tisserand invariant value higher than 3, are showing cometary activity. We study the activity of the Main Belt comets making the assumption that they are icy-bodies and that the activity has been triggered by an impact. We determine the characteristics of this activity and if the nowadays impact rate in the Main Asteroid Belt is compatible with the hypothesis of an activity triggered by a recent impact. Due to the fact that the Main Belt comets can be considered as a kind of comets, we apply a thermal evolution model developed for icy bodies in order to simulate their activity. We also apply a model to derive the impact rate, with respect to the size of the impactor, in the Main Belt. We demonstrate that a stable activity can result from a recent impact, able to expose ice-rich layers, and that the impact rate in the Main Belt is compatible with this explanation.

Capria, Maria Teresa; De Sanctis, Maria Cristina; Coradini, Angioletta; Ammannito, Eleonora



The activity of main belt comets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. Main belt comets represent a recently discovered class of objects. They are quite intriguing because, while having a Tisserand invariant value higher than 3, are showing cometary activity. Aims: We study the activity of the main belt comets making the assumption that they are icy-bodies and that the activity has been triggered by an impact. We try to determine the characteristics of this activity. We also try to determine if the nowadays impact rate in the main asteroid belt is compatible with the hypothesis of an activity triggered by a recent impact. Methods: Due to the fact that the main belt comets can be considered as a kind of comets, we apply a thermal evolution model developed for icy bodies in order to simulate their activity. We also apply a model to derive the impact rate, with respect to the size of the impactor, in the main belt. Results: We demonstrate that a stable activity can result from a recent impact, able to expose ice-rich layers, and that the impact rate in the main belt is compatible with this explanation.

Capria, M. T.; Marchi, S.; de Sanctis, M. C.; Coradini, A.; Ammannito, E.



Seasonal affective disorder.  


Seasonal affective disorder is a combination of biologic and mood disturbances with a seasonal pattern, typically occurring in the autumn and winter with remission in the spring or summer. In a given year, about 5 percent of the U.S. population experiences seasonal affective disorder, with symptoms present for about 40 percent of the year. Although the condition is seasonally limited, patients may have significant impairment from the associated depressive symptoms. Treatment can improve these symptoms and also may be used as prophylaxis before the subsequent autumn and winter seasons. Light therapy is generally well tolerated, with most patients experiencing clinical improvement within one to two weeks after the start of treatment. To avoid relapse, light therapy should continue through the end of the winter season until spontaneous remission of symptoms in the spring or summer. Pharmacotherapy with antidepressants and cognitive behavior therapy are also appropriate treatment options and have been shown to be as effective as light therapy. Because of the comparable effectiveness of treatment options, first-line management should be guided by patient preference. PMID:23198671

Kurlansik, Stuart L; Ibay, Annamarie D



Space shuttle main engine fault detection using neural networks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method for on-line Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) anomaly detection and fault typing using a feedback neural network is described. The method involves the computation of features representing time-variance of SSME sensor parameters, using historical test case data. The network is trained, using backpropagation, to recognize a set of fault cases. The network is then able to diagnose new fault cases correctly. An essential element of the training technique is the inclusion of randomly generated data along with the real data, in order to span the entire input space of potential non-nominal data.

Bishop, Thomas; Greenwood, Dan; Shew, Kenneth; Stevenson, Fareed



Measuring accurate transit parameters  

E-print Network

By observing the transits of exoplanets, one may determine many fundamental system parameters. I review current techniques and results for the parameters that can be measured with the greatest precision, specifically, the transit times, the planetary mass and radius, and the projected spin-orbit angle.

Joshua N. Winn



Measuring skin reflectance parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the problem of determining skin reflectance parameters, and studies their stability and discriminating power for different individuals. Our study uses radiance data captured by a Cyberware 3030 range scanner. We analyse the data using a layered reflectance model based on the Beckmann-Kirchhoff wave scattering model. The parameters of this model are the thickness of the skin layers,

Matthew P. Dickens; William A. P. Smith; Hossein Ragheb; Edwin R. Hancock



GRCop-84 Rolling Parameter Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report is a section of the final report on the GRCop-84 task of the Constellation Program and incorporates the results obtained between October 2000 and September 2005, when the program ended. NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has developed a new copper alloy, GRCop-84 (Cu-8 at.% Cr-4 at.% Nb), for rocket engine main combustion chamber components that will improve rocket engine life and performance. This work examines the sensitivity of GRCop-84 mechanical properties to rolling parameters as a means to better define rolling parameters for commercial warm rolling. Experiment variables studied were total reduction, rolling temperature, rolling speed, and post rolling annealing heat treatment. The responses were tensile properties measured at 23 and 500 C, hardness, and creep at three stress-temperature combinations. Understanding these relationships will better define boundaries for a robust commercial warm rolling process. The four processing parameters were varied within limits consistent with typical commercial production processes. Testing revealed that the rolling-related variables selected have a minimal influence on tensile, hardness, and creep properties over the range of values tested. Annealing had the expected result of lowering room temperature hardness and strength while increasing room temperature elongations with 600 C (1112 F) having the most effect. These results indicate that the process conditions to warm roll plate and sheet for these variables can range over wide levels without negatively impacting mechanical properties. Incorporating broader process ranges in future rolling campaigns should lower commercial rolling costs through increased productivity.

Loewenthal, William S.; Ellis, David L.



Space shuttle main engine sensor modeling using radial-basis-function neural networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

An efficient method of parameter prediction is needed for sensor validation of space shuttle main-engine (SSME) parameters during real-time safety monitoring and post-test analysis. Feedforward neural networks (FFNN) have been used to model the highly nonlinear and dynamic SSME parameters during startup. Due to several problems associated with the use of feedforward networks, radial-basis-function neural networks (RBFNN) were investigated in

Kevin R. Wheeler; Atam P. Dhawan; Claudia M. Meyer



The importance of a main dish: nestling diet and foraging behaviour in Mediterranean blue tits in relation to prey phenology.  


Insectivorous birds rely on a short period of food abundance to feed their young; they must time their reproduction to match the timing of Lepidoptera larvae, their main prey. Apart from the net result (i.e. birds are timed or mistimed with respect to the food's peak), an important aspect is the possible influence of other factors, such as the seasonality of the environment or the abundance and diversity of species contributing to the caterpillar peak, on birds' phenology and their ability to cope well with unpredictable food supplies. In a 2-year study, we explored the seasonal variation of nestling diet in Mediterranean blue tits Cyanistes caeruleus and how reproductive parameters (nestling condition, provisioning rates) are affected by the phenology and composition of food. We also examined the influence of the synchrony between offspring needs and caterpillar peak in shaping the composition of the nestlings' diet. We found that the effect of synchrony on nestling condition varied between years which may be partially due to differences in food peak attributes. The adequacy of birds' timing in relation to prey phenology affected foraging decisions; those birds that were not able to correctly adjust their timing were forced to rely on less preferred prey (tortricids). In this sense, we found that relative contribution of tortricids (smaller caterpillars but easier to get) and noctuids (preferred prey but more difficult to find) to the diet influenced nestling condition and parental provisioning effort; parents performed fewer feeding events and reared heavier nestlings as the contribution of noctuids to the diet increased. The relationship between the proportion of caterpillars and nestling mass was curvilinear, whereas that parameter was negatively affected by the percentage of pupae. Our results show how changes in diet composition may contribute to explain the effect of mismatching on birds' breeding performance. PMID:21113622

Garca-Navas, Vicente; Sanz, Juan Jos



Fermilab Main Injector Beam Position Monitor Upgrade  

SciTech Connect

An upgrade of the Beam Position Monitor (BPM) signal processing and data acquisition system for the Fermilab Main Injector is described. The Main Injector is a fast cycling synchrotron that accelerates protons or antiprotons from 8 to 150 GeV. Each Main Injector cycle can have a totally different magnet ramp, RF frequency configuration, beam bunch structure, and injection/extraction pattern from the previous cycle. The new BPM system provides the capabilities and flexibility required by the dynamic and complex machine operations. The system offers measurement capability in the 2.5 MHz and 53 MHz channels to detect the range of bunch structures for protons and antiprotons in both wideband (turn-by-turn) and narrowband (closed-orbit) modes. The new BPM read-out system is based on the digital receiver concept and is highly configurable, allowing the signal processing of nearly all Main Injector beam conditions, including the detection of individual batches. An overview of the BPM system in the Main Injector operating environment, some technology details and first beam measurements are presented.

Banerjee, B.; Barker, W.; Bledsoe, S.; Boes, T.; Briegel, C.; Capista, D.; Deuerling, G.; Dysert, R.; Forster, R.; Foulkes, S.; Haynes, W.; Hendricks, B.; Kasza, T.; Kutschke, R.; Marchionni, A.; Olson, M.; Pavlicek, V.; Piccoli, L.; Prieto, P.; Rapisarda, S.; Saewert, A.; /Fermilab



Maine's College Graduates: Where They Go and Why. Finding Maine's Future Workforce (Revisited)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the knowledge-based economy of today, training and retaining a college educated workforce is crucial to the vitality of Maine. Approximately one-half of Maine's high school graduates who go on to college leave the State to do so. A previous study, "Maine's College Graduates: Where They Go and Why" (2003), looked at the factors that influenced

Silvernail, David L.; Woodard, Brianne L.



1 The Main Asteroid Belt Carolyn Crow: NASA's Dawn Mission The Main Asteroid Belt  

E-print Network

1 The Main Asteroid Belt Carolyn Crow: NASA's Dawn Mission The Main Asteroid Belt Written to the main asteroid belt to visit two of the largest protoplanets, Vesta and Ceres. Using sunlight, a mere accomplished by a spacecraft before. What compelled astronomers to send Dawn to the asteroid belt and what does

Waliser, Duane E.


Marine Occupations Conference (Southern Maine Vocational Technical Institute, South Portland, Maine, April 5, 1974). Maine Sea Grant Bulletin 9.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of speeches, presented as the 1974 Marine Occupations Conference in South Portland, Maine, provides an overview of information regarding availability and kinds of careers in, as well as the educational requirements for, marine occupations. Also reviewed are the problems of developing marine resources, such as those involving

Coggins, Phyllis, Ed.; And Others


Variables Affecting Earth's Albedo  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Earth's albedo is the fraction of incoming radiation (sunlight) that is reflected into space. The Earth has an average albedo, which describes how much sunlight is reflected on average for the whole planet and the whole year. The Earth also has a local albedo, which determines how much of the Sun's light is reflected from a particular place at a particular time. The local albedo depends on the particular local surface, which can change seasonally as vegetation changes. It also depends on more rapidly changing things such as snow and clouds. In this lesson, students will investigate one of the variables that affect the Earth's albedo. They will collect and graph data on Earth's albedo from two surface types at the same latitude over a period of two years. They will then use the data to calculate how much difference there is in Earth's albedo between the two locations and suggest reasons for the differences.


Affective disorder and hyperandrogenism.  


A 40-year-old female patient with bipolar disorder and premenstrual dysphoric disorder did not present any physical evidence of virilization, treated with quetiapine and lithium carbonate. Laboratory testing showed evidence of hyperandrogenism (Testosterone levels 88.5ng/dL). After control, testosterone levels were normal (free testosterone 0.20 pg/ml, total testosterone 27.90ng/dl), as free thyroxine levels decreased (T4 0.83ng/dl) and increased progesterone levels (progesterone 3.80ng/ml). We consider an association between increased androgenic hormone levels in women, quetiapine and lithium carbonate treatment as well as the presence of an affective disorder and premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Some relevant patents are also outlined in this review. PMID:23198704

Zerouni, Celen; Kummerow, Elaine; Martinez, Mariflor; Diaz, Ana; Ezequiel, Uribe; Wix-Ramos, Richard



Space shuttle main engine computed tomography applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For the past two years the potential applications of computed tomography to the fabrication and overhaul of the Space Shuttle Main Engine were evaluated. Application tests were performed at various government and manufacturer facilities with equipment produced by four different manufacturers. The hardware scanned varied in size and complexity from a small temperature sensor and turbine blades to an assembled heat exchanger and main injector oxidizer inlet manifold. The evaluation of capabilities included the ability to identify and locate internal flaws, measure the depth of surface cracks, measure wall thickness, compare manifold design contours to actual part contours, perform automatic dimensional inspections, generate 3D computer models of actual parts, and image the relationship of the details in a complex assembly. The capabilities evaluated, with the exception of measuring the depth of surface flaws, demonstrated the existing and potential ability to perform many beneficial Space Shuttle Main Engine applications.

Sporny, Richard F.



Main Coast Winds - Final Scientific Report  

SciTech Connect

The Maine Coast Wind Project was developed to investigate the cost-effectiveness of small, distributed wind systems on coastal sites in Maine. The restructuring of Maine's electric grid to support net metering allowed for the installation of small wind installations across the state (up to 100kW). The study performed adds insight to the difficulties of developing cost-effective distributed systems in coastal environments. The technical hurdles encountered with the chosen wind turbine, combined with the lower than expected wind speeds, did not provide a cost-effective return to make a distributed wind program economically feasible. While the turbine was accepted within the community, the low availability has been a negative.

Jason Huckaby; Harley Lee



Blue Stragglers After the Main Sequence  

E-print Network

We study the post-main sequence evolution of products of collisions between main sequence stars (blue stragglers), with particular interest paid to the horizontal branch and asymptotic giant branch phases. We found that the blue straggler progeny populate the colour-magnitude diagram slightly blueward of the red giant branch and between 0.2 and 1 magnitudes brighter than the horizontal branch. We also found that the lifetimes of collision products on the horizontal branch is consistent with the numbers of so-called "evolved blue straggler stars" (E-BSS) identified by various authors in a number of globular clusters, and is almost independent of mass or initial composition profile. The observed ratio of the number of E-BSS to blue stragglers points to a main sequence lifetime for blue stragglers of approximately 1-2 Gyr on average.

Alison Sills; Amanda Karakas; John Lattanzio



The Main Belt Distribution of Basaltic Asteroids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of this project is to constrain the Main Belt distribution of asteroids with basaltic material on their surface. Candidate basaltic asteroids are selected to have SDSS photometric colors (Ivezic, Z. et al., 2002, SPIE, 4836, 98) suggestive of a V-type taxonomy and are then prioritized based on a statistical determination of how closely their colors coincide with those of the Vestoid dynamical family. Dynamical constraints are applied to ensure that our targets are not part of this family. Preliminary results of this spectroscopic survey, suggest that 100% of our highest priority candidates are V-type. These criteria for the selection of basaltic candidates yield a distribution of objects across a range of semi-major axis. Correcting this distribution for the completeness of the SDSS as a function of semi-major axis and using the observed fraction of basaltic asteroids as determined by our survey, we calculate an unbiased distribution of basaltic asteroids throughout the Main Belt. This distribution can be compared with theory (Bottke, W.F. et al., 2006, Nature, 439, 821) to address whether partial melting and differentiation occurred within the Main Belt or whether these asteroids formed in the inner Solar System (where solid body accretion times were faster and thus greater internal temperatures were achieved) and later scatted outwards into stable Main Belt orbits. The determination of a distribution of basaltic asteroids will be an important tool for extrapolating the number of differentiated parent bodies that were once present in the Main Belt. This ultimate result will have implications for addressing the discrepancy between the large number of differentiated parent bodies represented by iron meteorites and the few known occurrences of Main Belt differentiation. This research is supported in part by NASA GSRP grant NNG04GL48G, P.I. E. Gaidos and NSF Planetary Astronomy grant AST04-07134, P.I. R. Jedicke.

Moskovitz, Nicholas; Willman, M.; Jedicke, R.; Gaidos, E.



Parameter estimating state reconstruction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Parameter estimation is considered for systems whose entire state cannot be measured. Linear observers are designed to recover the unmeasured states to a sufficient accuracy to permit the estimation process. There are three distinct dynamics that must be accommodated in the system design: the dynamics of the plant, the dynamics of the observer, and the system updating of the parameter estimation. The latter two are designed to minimize interaction of the involved systems. These techniques are extended to weakly nonlinear systems. The application to a simulation of a space shuttle POGO system test is of particular interest. A nonlinear simulation of the system is developed, observers designed, and the parameters estimated.

George, E. B.



Toxoplasma gondii: reproductive parameters in experimentally infected male rats.  


Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite that is globally widespread and infects man and animals. With the aim of studying the influence of toxoplasmosis on male reproductive parameters, we investigated sperm motility, concentration and morphology of male rats experimentally infected by T. gondii. The GT F1 strain of T. gondii tissue cysts were fed at a dose of 5 x 10(3) tissue cysts per rat by oral gavage in an experimental group of 42 healthy adult male Wistar rats, while 42 male rats were used as controls. On days 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 post-inoculation (p.i.) 7 rats from each group were anesthetized. The body weight of each animal was recorded, then epididymis and testes were immediately removed, weighed and semen evaluation was undertaken. Weight of the right epididymis was significantly decreased on day 30 p.i., sperm motility was significantly decreased on days 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 p.i. and sperm concentration was significantly decreased on days 10, 30, 40 and 60 p.i. A marked increase of sperm abnormalities was noticed on days 30 and 40 p.i. No pathological lesions were detected either in the pituitary gland or the testes. In this study it was found that toxoplasmosis can affect main reproductive parameters in male rats, which are the most predictive of their fertilizing capacity. PMID:19063884

Terpsidis, Konstantinos I; Papazahariadou, Margarita G; Taitzoglou, Ioannis A; Papaioannou, Nikolaos G; Georgiadis, Marios P; Theodoridis, Ioannis Th



Affective coding: the emotional dimension of agency  

PubMed Central

The sense of agency (SoA) (i.e., the registration that I am the initiator and controller of my actions and relevant events) is associated with several affective dimensions. This makes it surprising that the emotion factor has been largely neglected in the field of agency research. Current empirical investigations of the SoA mainly focus on sensorimotor signals (i.e., efference copy) and cognitive cues (i.e., intentions, beliefs) and on how they are integrated. Here we argue that this picture is not sufficient to explain agency experience, since agency and emotions constantly interact in our daily life by several ways. Reviewing first recent empirical evidence, we show that self-action perception is in fact modulated by the affective valence of outcomes already at the sensorimotor level. We hypothesize that the affective coding between agency and action outcomes plays an essential role in agency processing, i.e., the prospective, immediate or retrospective shaping of agency representations by affective components. This affective coding of agency be differentially altered in various neuropsychiatric diseases (e.g., schizophrenia vs. depression), thus helping to explain the dysfunctions and content of agency experiences in these diseases. PMID:25161616

Gentsch, Antje; Synofzik, Matthis



Gulf of Maine Research Institute: Atlantic Herring  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by the Gulf of Maine Research Institute, this website offers several interesting perspectives on a very important fish in the food chain -- the Atlantic Herring (_Clupea harengus_). The website organizes information about the Atlantic Herring into three main categories: Biology; Harvest and Processing; and Research. The site utilizes beautiful photos, illustrations, and maps as it briefly describes herring life cycle, distribution, spawning research, mid-water trawling, processing, and much more. The website also provides a solid collection of herring resources and references.


Transition crossing in the main injector  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the study of various longitudinal problems pertaining to the transition-energy crossing in the proposed Fermi Lab Main Injector. The theory indicates that the beam loss and bunch-area growth are mainly caused by the chromatic non-linear effect, which is enhanced by the space-charge force near transition. Computer simulation using the program TIBETAN shows that a {gamma}{sub T} jump'' of about 1.5 unit within 1 ms is adequate to achieve a clean'' crossing in the currently proposed h{equals}588 scenario. 19 refs., 4 figs.

Wei, J.



Density of states and order parameter in dirty anisotropic superconductors  

E-print Network

We analyze in detail how the scattering by nonmagnetic impurities affects the shape and amplitude of the order parameter (OF) and the density of states in anisotropic superconductors in the framework of BCS theory. Special attention is paid...

Pokrovsky, SV; Pokrovsky, Valery L.




E-print Network

We investigate how different cosmological parameters, such as those delivered by the WMAP and Planck missions, affect the nature and evolution of the dark matter halo substructure. We use a series of flat ? cold dark matter ...

Zukin, Phillip


Semenogelin, the main protein of the human semen coagulum, regulates sperm function.  


Semenogelin (Sg), the main component of the human semen coagulum, is an important and versatile protein acting on several sperm parameters, both as intact or degraded Sg. Sg originates mostly from seminal vesicle and probably is responsible for sperm immobilization in the seminal coagulum. Purified Sg can be cross-linked by transglutaminase or phosphorylated by kinases, but the actual occurrence of these reactions in reproductive physiology is not clear. Experimental evidence demonstrates that prostate-specific antigen (PSA) rapidly cleaves Sg, an event temporally associated with semen liquefaction and initiation of sperm motility. Sg and its degradation peptides participate in various processes including Zn +2 shuttling, antibacterial activity, hyaluronidase activation, and so on. Sg inhibits sperm motility at the concentration found in the coagulum, but the rapid processing by PSA allows initiation of movement. The mechanism of Sg action and its targets are not known, but improper Sg degradation decreases fertility. Sg and its degradation peptides block sperm capacitation and associated events at concentrations much lower than those of seminal plasma and could play important role in preventing premature capacitation. The effects of Sg are dependent on time and proteolysis due to PSA, and any imbalance may affect sperm physiology and fertility. PMID:17253191

de Lamirande, Eve



Booster Main Engine Selection Criteria for the Liquid Fly-Back Booster  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Liquid Fly-Back Booster (LFBB) Program seeks to enhance the Space Shuttle system safety, performance and economy of operations through the use of an advanced, liquid propellant Booster Main Engine (BME). There are several viable BME candidates that could be suitable for this application. The objective of this study was to identify the key Criteria to be applied in selecting among these BME candidates. This study involved an assessment of influences on the overall LFBB utility due to variations in the candidate rocket-engines characteristics. This includes BME impacts on vehicle system weight, performance, design approaches, abort modes, margins of safety, engine-out operations, and maintenance and support concepts. Systems engineering analyses and trade studies were performed to identify the LFBB system level sensitivities to a wide variety of BME related parameters. This presentation summarizes these trade studies and the resulting findings of the LFBB design teams regarding the BME characteristics that most significantly affect the LFBB system. The resulting BME choice should offer the best combination of reliability, performance, reusability, robustness, cost, and risk for the LFBB program.

Ryan, Richard M.; Rothschild, William J.; Christensen, David L.



Booster Main Engine Selection Criteria for the Liquid Fly-Back Booster  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Liquid Fly-Back Booster (LFBB) Program seeks to enhance the Space Shuttle system safety performance and economy of operations through the use of an advanced, liquid propellant Booster Main Engine (BME). There are several viable BME candidates that could be suitable for this application. The objective of this study was to identify the key criteria to be applied in selecting among these BME candidates. This study involved an assessment of influences on the overall LFBB utility due to variations in the candidate rocket engines' characteristics. This includes BME impacts on vehicle system weight, perfortnance,design approaches, abort modes, margins of safety, engine-out operations, and maintenance and support concepts. Systems engineering analyses and trade studies were performed to identify the LFBB system level sensitivities to a wide variety of BME related parameters. This presentation summarizes these trade studies and the resulting findings of the LFBB design teams regarding the BME characteristics that most significantly affect the LFBB system. The resulting BME choice should offer the best combination of reliability, performance, reusability, robustness, cost, and risk for the LFBB program.

Ryan, Richard M.; Rothschild, William J.; Christensen, David L.



The dynamic estimation of the mass of the main asteroid belt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Perturbations from asteroids affect significantly on the orbits of the inner planets and should be taken into account when high-accuracy planetary ephemerides are constructed. On the other hand from an analysis of the motions of the major planets by processing of precise measurements of ranging to the Viking Pathfinder Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft and planets (1961-2002) some physical parameters of the asteroids have been obtained. The masses of several the biggest asteroids (Ceres Pallas Vesta Juno) have been determined individually masses of the most relevant 296 asteroids have been derived from their latest published diameters based on IRAS data and observations of occultions of stars by minor planets making use of the corresponding densities. The total contribution of all remaining small asteroids is modeled as an acceleration caused by a solid ring in the ecliptic plane. As a sequence the total mass of the main asteroid belt was obtained: M=(14+-2)*10E-10 mass of Sun. An derived expression for estimating the total number of minor planets in any unit interval of absolute magnitude H was compared with the observed distributions of the asteroids (52224 numbered 152451 unnumbered) and distribution of the SAM model by Tedesco et al.

Pitjeva, Elena



Spontaneous air in the main pancreatic duct  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 34-year-old lady was referred to us after an episode of acute biliary pancreatitis which was diagnosed three months back, and resolved on conservative treatment. She again became symptomatic with abdominal discomfort after one month. There was no history of vomiting, dyspnea, jaundice, fever, weight loss or anorexia. Her laboratory parameters were: Hb 12 gm, leukocyte count 8600\\/cmm, S. amylase

Pankaj Tyagi; A. S. Puri; S. Sachdeva



Prevalence of retinitis pigmentosa in Maine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between 1976 and 1980, medical and social service sources were used to ascertain cases of retinitis pigmentosa in Maine (1980 population, I, 124,660). As of July 1, 1980, 241 clinically prevalent cases of retinitis pigmentosa were ascertained. Extensive pedigrees were collected for 185 of the subjects and medical records were obtained. One hundred fourteen cases were further evaluated by clinical

C H Bunker; E L Berson; W C Bromley; R P Hayes; T H Roderick



Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Maine  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Maine students had across-the-board gains. There were improvements in both reading and math at the basic, proficient and advanced levels for the subgroups large enough to count, which were white students, low income students, and boys and girls. Results on

Center on Education Policy, 2010



State Teacher Policy Yearbook, 2009. Maine  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Maine edition of the National Council on Teacher Quality's (NCTQ's) 2009 "State Teacher Policy Yearbook" is the third annual look at state policies impacting the teaching profession. It is hoped that this report will help focus attention on areas where state policymakers can make changes that will have a positive impact on teacher quality and

National Council on Teacher Quality, 2009



Human Babesiosis, Maine, USA, 19952011  

PubMed Central

We observed an increase in the ratio of pathogenic Babesia microti to B. odocoilei in adult Ixodes scapularis ticks in Maine. Risk for babesiosis was associated with adult tick abundance, Borrelia burgdorferi infection prevalence, and Lyme disease incidence. Our findings may help track risk and increase the focus on blood supply screening. PMID:25272145

Smith, Robert P.; Borelli, Timothy J.; Missaghi, Bayan; York, Brian J.; Kessler, Robert A.; Lubelczyk, Charles B.; Lacombe, Eleanor H.; Hayes, Catherine M.; Coulter, Michael S.; Rand, Peter W.



Main Entrances Free City Bus Stops  

E-print Network

The Green (student accommodation) 7 Horton Building 8 Horton Lecture Theatre (`The Barn') 9 Tasmin Little Student Central & J B Priestley Building 14 Chesham Building 15 School of Health Studies Building 16 in their car, which they can obtain from Richmond Building Reception P Main roads only shown Map not to scale

Magee, Derek


Space transportation main engine reliability and safety  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Viewgraphs are used to illustrate the reliability engineering and aerospace safety of the Space Transportation Main Engine (STME). A technology developed is called Total Quality Management (TQM). The goal is to develop a robust design. Reducing process variability produces a product with improved reliability and safety. Some engine system design characteristics are identified which improves reliability.

Monk, Jan C.



Library Locations Locations other than Main Library  

E-print Network

Library Locations Locations other than Main Library Example: Feminist Studies HQ1410 .U54 2009 University of California, Santa Barbara Library Updated 3-2014 A - B.......................................6 Central M - N..................................................Arts Library (Music Building) P


Library Locations Locations other than Main Library  

E-print Network

Library Locations Locations other than Main Library Example: Feminist Studies HQ1410 .U54 2009 Andelson Collection: 2 South, Ethnic & Gender Studies Library (EGSL) Annex: Off campus storage. See Arts Library: 1st Floor, Music Building Asian American Studies: 2 South, Ethnic & Gender Studies


Salazar, Collins: Economic Benefits for Maine  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Secretary of the Interior Ken Salazar looks at plans for $8.3 million in projects at Acadia National Park funded under President Obama's economic recovery package that will bring jobs and economic growth to Maine. Left to right are Alan Goldstein, President of the Board of Directors for Acadia Partn...


The main magnetic field of Jupiter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main magnetic field of Jupiter has been measured by the Goddard Space Flight Center flux gate magnetometer on Pioneer 11, and analysis of the data yields a more detailed model than that obtained from Pioneer 10 results. In a spherical harmonic octupole representation the dipole term (with opposite polarity to earth's) has a magnitude of 4.28 G R\\/sub j\\/

Mario H. Acuna; Norman F. Ness



Maine KIDS COUNT 2002 Data Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This KIDS COUNT data book details statewide trends in the well-being of Maine's children. Following a brief overview of the data book and a summary of indicators, state trend data are presented in the areas of: (1) poverty; (2) child and adolescent suicide; (3) public high school dropouts; (4) teen pregnancy; (5) public high school graduates

Maine Children's Alliance, Augusta.


Maine Kids Count 2003 Data Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count data book details statewide trends in the well-being of Maine's children. The statistical portrait is based on indicators in the areas of physical and mental health, including insurance enrollment, adolescent health and safety, and child welfare; social and economic status, including poverty, unemployment, and teen pregnancies; and

Jelcich, Susan, Ed.


Kennebec: A Portfolio of Maine Writing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Maine has produced some tremendous writers, and the University of Maine at Augusta has been working diligently to provide a set of online resources related to these artists and their writings. Part of this work includes the project to digitize the literary journal "Kennebec". The journal was first published in 1977 under the direction of faculty and students of the University of Maine, along with assistance and support from citizens in the Kennebec community. Interestingly enough, the first issue sets out a grand plan to move the capitol of Augusta to a type of "Brasilia" in the western hills of Maine. It's a grand start, and each issues contains poetry, non-fiction pieces, and other items. Visitors can scan through the issues as they see fit, or they can also use the index file which lists each piece of writing and its location within the pdf file. In the first issue, visitors should definitely check out "Three Immortals", which is a series of poems about the jazz greats Lester Young, Bud Powell, and Charlie Parker.


Semantic Web Research anno 2006: main streams,  

E-print Network

Semantic Web Research anno 2006: main streams, popular fallacies, current status and future. In this topical1 paper we try to give an analysis and overview of the current state of Semantic Web research. We point to different in- terpretations of the Semantic Web as the reason underlying many contro- versies

van Harmelen, Frank


Maine Kids Count 1998 Data Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count report details statewide trends in the well-being of Maine's children. The statistical portrait is based on indicators of children's well-being in four areas: (1) physical and mental health; (2) community and family environment; (3) social and economic opportunity; and (4) education and learning. The report's introduction describes

Maine Children's Alliance, Augusta.


Human babesiosis, Maine, USA, 1995-2011.  


We observed an increase in the ratio of pathogenic Babesia microti to B. odocoilei in adult Ixodes scapularis ticks in Maine. Risk for babesiosis was associated with adult tick abundance, Borrelia burgdorferi infection prevalence, and Lyme disease incidence. Our findings may help track risk and increase the focus on blood supply screening. PMID:25272145

Smith, Robert P; Elias, Susan P; Borelli, Timothy J; Missaghi, Bayan; York, Brian J; Kessler, Robert A; Lubelczyk, Charles B; Lacombe, Eleanor H; Hayes, Catherine M; Coulter, Michael S; Rand, Peter W



Eutrophication in the Gulf of Maine's waters  

EPA Science Inventory

The Gulf of Maine and its watershed encompass more than 170,000 km2 and is home to over 6.5 million Canadians and Americans. Despite its long-standing importance to fisheries and natural resources and current interest in exploration of wind and tide as renewable energy sources, ...


Harvest Efficiency of Bloodworms on Maine Mudflats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efficiency of diggers of varying experience levels in harvesting bloodworms Glycera dibranchiata was documented during multiple tides on several intertidal flats in midcoast Maine. Individually coded-wire-tagged bloodworms were seeded in 20-m plots and harvested by professional diggers after allowing ample time for bloodworms to burrow. To ensure that bloodworms reached depths similar to those of naturally occurring individuals, we measured

Eben Sypitkowski; William G. Ambrose Jr; Curtis Bohlen; Joseph Warren



Rat Skin Main Neutral Protease: Immunohistochemical Localization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Specific antiserum against the purified rat skin main neutral protease was used in double layer immunofluorescent method to localize the enzyme in normal rat skin. The specific immunofluorescence was seen in dermal cells that were identified as mast cells on basis of their metachromatic granules. Enzyme histochemical staining with naphthol AS-D chloroacetate localized to the same cells that exhibited specific

Heikki E. J. Seppa



Main Concepts of Chemical and Biological Sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Brief historic introduction precedes presentation of main types of transducers used in sensors including electrochemical, optical, mass sensitive, and thermal devices. Review of chemical sensors includes various types of gas sensitive devices, potentiometric and amperometric sensors, and quartz microbalance applications. Mechanisms of biorecognition employed in biosensors are reviewed with the method of immobilization used. Some examples of biomimetic sensors are also presented.

Trojanowicz, Marek


Semantic Web research main streams, popular falacies,  

E-print Network

Semantic Web research anno 2006: main streams, popular falacies, current status, future challenges Frank van Harmelen Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam #12;2 This is NOT a Semantic Web evangelization talk (I of the day, of temporary interest" #12;Which Semantic Web are we talking about? Semantic Web research anno

van Harmelen, Frank


Space Shuttle Main Engine Test Firing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On the 25th Anniversary of the Apollo 11 (the first moon landing mission) launch, Marshall Space & Flight Center celebrated with a test firing of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) at the Technology Test Bed (TTB). This drew a large crowd who stood in the fields around the test site and watched as plumes of white smoke verified ignition.



Eutrophication: State of the Gulf of Maine  

EPA Science Inventory

Cultural eutrophication is an ecosystem response to increases in nutrient (primarily nitrogen and phosphorus) inputs from human sources. Estuaries, bays and nearshore coastal waters in the Gulf of Maine receive nutrient inputs from land-based sources via rivers and streams, dir...


Layered Manufacturing Sara McMains  

E-print Network

Layered Manufacturing Sara McMains #12;Layered Manufacturing (LM) a.k.a. Solid Freeform Fabrication Molding Casting #12;Conventional Manufacturing Additive Combine complex sub-units E.g. Welding of a Cube solid ascii facet normal 1.000000e+00 0.000000e+00 0.000000e+00 outer loop vertex 1.000000e+00 -1

McMains, Sara



E-print Network

REPRESENTATION­DIRECTED DIAMONDS PETER DR ? AXLER 1. Introduction and Main Result Following [Ri2] a (right) module D over an associative ring A said to be a diamond provided it has a simple essential submodule and a superfluous maximal submodule. Obviously any diamond is indecomposable. If A happens

Bielefeld, University of


MONECOM: Physical Characteristics Of Main Belt Comets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of the MONECOM project is to carry out photometric observations of several Main-Belt Comets (MBCs). Observations and data reduction were performed by high-school students from three countries (Croatia, Greece and Serbia), supervised by their teachers and local astronomers. Here we present some results obtained by the Serbian group.

Bogdanovic, N.; Smolic, I.; Bogosavljevic, M.; Milic, I.



Maine KIDS COUNT 2001 Data Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This KIDS COUNT data book details statewide trends in the well-being of Maine's children. The statistical portrait is based on a variety of indicators in the areas of: (1) physical and mental health; (2) social and economic opportunity; (3) education and learning; and (4) child health care access. The data book presents state level trend data, a

Davey, Lynn


The Gulf of Maine in the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes some of the correct, missing, and alternative conceptions which students possess related to the Gulf of Maine. Students (N=226) from grades 4, 8, and 11 were interviewed on 15 major concepts involving geology, physical and chemical oceanography, natural resources, ecology, and decision-making. The mean interview scores of the

Brody, Michael J.


Salazar, Collins: Economic Benefits for Maine  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Secretary Salazar and Senator Collins visited with some of the leaders of Maine's four tribes. They met at the College of the Atlantic. From left to right: Lt. Governor Joseph Socobasin, Passamaquoddy Tribe at Indian Township, Micmac Chief Victoria Higgins, Secretary Salazar, Senator Collins, Tribal...


Revamping FCC main fractionator energy systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fluid catalytic cracker's (FCC) main fractionator heat integration with the gas plant can supply incremental energy needed to meet improved olefins requirements and improve the unit's thermal efficiency. It is important, when optimizing, to understand the fractionator energy recovery limitations, possible pumparound draw temperature options and various temperature levels of the heat sinks. On older units, recoverable energy from

S. W. Golden; A. W. Sloley; B. Fleming



Geomagnetic main field modeling with DMSP  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) launches and maintains a network of satellites to monitor the meteorological, oceanographic, and solar-terrestrial physics environments. In the past decade, geomagnetic field modelers have focused much attention on magnetic measurements from missions such as CHAMP, rsted, and SAC-C. With the completion of the CHAMP mission in 2010, there has been a multiyear gap in satellite-based vector magnetic field measurements available for main field modeling. In this study, we calibrate the special sensor magnetometer instrument on board DMSP to create a data set suitable for main field modeling. These vector field measurements are calibrated to compute instrument timing shifts, scale factors, offsets, and nonorthogonality angles of the fluxgate magnetometer cores. Euler angles are then computed to determine the orientation of the vector magnetometer with respect to a local coordinate system. We fit a degree 15 main field model to the data set and compare with the World Magnetic Model and rsted scalar measurements. We call this model DMSP-MAG-1, and its coefficients and software are available for download at Our results indicate that the DMSP data set will be a valuable source for main field modeling for the years between CHAMP and the recently launched Swarm mission.

Alken, P.; Maus, S.; Lhr, H.; Redmon, R. J.; Rich, F.; Bowman, B.; O'Malley, S. M.



Estimating cosmological parameter covariance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the bias and error in estimates of the cosmological parameter covariance matrix due to sampling or modelling the data covariance matrix, for likelihood width and peak scatter estimators. We show that these estimators do not coincide unless the data covariance is exactly known. For sampled data covariances with Gaussian-distributed data and parameters, the parameter covariance matrix estimated from the width of the likelihood has a Wishart distribution, from which we derive the mean and covariance. This mean is biased and we propose an unbiased estimator of the parameter covariance matrix. Comparing our analytic results to a numerical Wishart sampler of the data covariance matrix we find excellent agreement. An accurate ansatz for the mean parameter covariance for the peak scatter estimator is found, and we fit its covariance to our numerical analysis. The mean is again biased and we propose an unbiased estimator for the peak parameter covariance. For sampled data covariances, the width estimator is more accurate than the peak scatter estimator. We investigate modelling the data covariance, or equivalently data compression, and show that the peak scatter estimator is less sensitive to biases in the model data covariance matrix than the width estimator, but requires independent realizations of the data to reduce the statistical error. If the model bias on the peak estimator is sufficiently low, this is promising, otherwise the sampled width estimator is preferable.

Taylor, Andy; Joachimi, Benjamin



Evaluation of hydrological model parameter transferability for simulating the impact of land use on catchment hydrology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the past decades, the use of hydrological models for predicting the impact of land use on catchment hydrology increased considerably. The performance of those models is often judged by a simple split-sample test using historical discharge series. The derived parameter values are then assumed to be identical for the new land use scenario, apart from the crop and management characteristics that are adapted to the land use under study. This paper checks the validity of this assumption in an indirect way, by evaluating the transferability of the main controlling parameters of the semi-distributed SWAT model in a stepwise fashion: within the catchment, a neighbouring catchment and a catchment under a different environmental setting. The results indicate that there is a decline in model performance when parameters are transferred in time and space. Transfer within the catchment and to a neighbouring catchment gives for the case study still a reasonable performance, yet one should be careful when exchanging parameter values between regions with a different topography, soil and land use. These factors might influence the infiltration and percolation of water and so affect the associated model parameters.

Heuvelmans, Griet; Muys, Bart; Feyen, Jan


Cholesterol and Affective Morbidity  

PubMed Central

Depression and mania have been linked with low cholesterol though there has been limited prospective study of cholesterol and subsequent course of affective illness. We studied the relationship between fasting total cholesterol and subsequent depressive and manic symptoms. A total of 131 participants from a prospective cohort study were identified as having had a fasting total cholesterol evaluation at intake. Participants were predominantly inpatients at index visit and were followed for a median of 20 and up to 25 years. Cholesterol was modeled with age, gender, and index use of a mood stabilizer in linear regression to assess its influence on subsequent depressive symptom burden in participants with unipolar disorder as well as depressive and manic symptom burden in participants with bipolar disorder. Among bipolar participants (N=65), low cholesterol predicted a higher proportion of follow-up weeks with manic, but not depressive symptoms. Cholesterol did not appear to predict depressive symptom burden among participants with unipolar depression (N=66). Lower cholesterol levels may predispose individuals with bipolar disorder to a greater burden of manic symptomatology and may provide some insight into the underlying neurobiology. PMID:19969372

Fiedorowicz, Jess G.; Palagummi, Narasimha M.; Behrendtsen, Ole; Coryell, William H.



Updated Abraham solvation parameters for polychlorinated biphenyls.  


This study shows that the recently published polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) Abraham solvation parameters predict PCB air-n-hexadecane and n-octanol-water partition coefficients very poorly, especially for highly ortho-chlorinated congeners. Therefore, an updated set of PCB solvation parameters was derived from four PCB properties and associated Abraham solvation equations. Additionally, the influence of ortho-chlorination on PCB solvent accessible volume and surface area was investigated. The updated PCB solvation parameters were tested on partitioning between five other phase combinations. Compared to the original PCB solvation parameter set, the updated PCB solvation parameters resulted in substantially improved estimates from Abraham solvation equations for (subcooled) liquid vapor pressures, aqueous solubilities, HPLC capacity factors, and for coefficients of air-n-hexadecane, air-water, organic carbon-water, and n-octanol-water partitioning. For water to polydimethyl siloxane and sodium dodecylsulphate (SDS) partitioning, the updated PCB solvation parameters yielded no improvement compared to the original data set. The main difference between the updated and the original parameter set is that updated PCB McGowan specific volumes depend on the degree of ortho-chlorination, which is qualitatively confirmed by trends in the PCB solvent accessible volumes and surface areas. The use of the updated PCB solvation parameters instead of the original values is therefore recommended. PMID:20738135

van Noort, Paul C M; Haftka, Joris J H; Parsons, John R



Visualization of Parameter Space for Image Analysis  

PubMed Central

Image analysis algorithms are often highly parameterized and much human input is needed to optimize parameter settings. This incurs a time cost of up to several days. We analyze and characterize the conventional parameter optimization process for image analysis and formulate user requirements. With this as input, we propose a change in paradigm by optimizing parameters based on parameter sampling and interactive visual exploration. To save time and reduce memory load, users are only involved in the first step - initialization of sampling - and the last step - visual analysis of output. This helps users to more thoroughly explore the parameter space and produce higher quality results. We describe a custom sampling plug-in we developed for CellProfiler - a popular biomedical image analysis framework. Our main focus is the development of an interactive visualization technique that enables users to analyze the relationships between sampled input parameters and corresponding output. We implemented this in a prototype called Paramorama. It provides users with a visual overview of parameters and their sampled values. User-defined areas of interest are presented in a structured way that includes image-based output and a novel layout algorithm. To find optimal parameter settings, users can tag high- and low-quality results to refine their search. We include two case studies to illustrate the utility of this approach. PMID:22034361

Pretorius, A. Johannes; Bray, Mark-Anthony P.; Carpenter, Anne E.; Ruddle, Roy A.



Thermophysical modeling of main-belt asteroids from WISE data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We determine asteroid physical parameters such as size, surface roughness, albedo, and thermal inertia by applying the implementation of the thermophysical model (TPM) of Lagerros (1996; 1997; 1998) to the thermal data obtained by the NASA WISE satellite. We present thermophysical parameters for 150 asteroids, which gives us so far the largest sample of asteroids with determined values of thermal inertia. On several individual cases, we discuss the reliability of our determinations and limitations of the TPM method we use. As initial shapes, we adopt convex shape models from the DAMIT database (Durech et al., 2010) and present new determinations based on combined dense and sparse-in-time disk-integrated photometry and the lightcurve inversion method (Kaasalainen & Torppa 2001; Kaasalainen et al., 2001). We use thermal data from the WISE filters W3 and W4, as well as the data observed by the IRAS satellite. However, due to the intriguing accuracy of the fluxes and larger amount of measurements, the WISE data are significantly more important and dominate the modeling. The WISE data are processed the same way as in Al-Lagoa et al. (2014) for asteroid (341 843) 2008 EV_5. We show the main results of the study of derived thermophysical parameters within the whole population of MBAs and within several asteroid families with the main focus on the thermal inertia. The thermal inertia increases with decreasing size (as previously shown by Delb et al., 2007), but a large range of thermal inertia values is observed within the similar size ranges between D10-100 km. Surprisingly, we derived very low (<10 J m^{-2} s^{-1/2} K^{-1}) thermal inertias for many asteroids (20) with various sizes. The range of thermal inertia values is large even within a few asteroid families.

Hanu, J.; Delb, M.; Durech, J.; Al-Lagoa, V.



The Biological Affects: A Typology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This typology of biological affects is based on developmentalinteractionist theory of motivation, emotion, and cognition. Affectssubjectively experienced feelings and desiresinvolve interoceptive perceptual systems based on primordial molecules that characterize neurochemicals. Biological affects involve primary motivationalemotional systems (primes) associated with hierarchically organized neurochemical systems in the brain, including subcortical (reptilian) and paleocortical (limbic) brain structures. Affects fulfill individualistic (selfish) functions (arousal,

Ross Buck



A photoelectric lightcurve survey of small main belt asteroids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A survey to obtain photoelectric lightcurves of small main-belt asteroids was conducted from November 1981 to April 1982 using the 0.91- and 2.1-m telescopes at the University of Texas McDonald Observatory. A total of 18 main-belt asteroids having estimated dimaters under 30 km were observed with over half of these being smaller than 15 km. Rotational periods were determined or estimated from multiple nights of observation for nearly all of these yielding a sample of 17 small main-belt asteroids which is believed to be free of observational selection effects. All but two of these objects were investigated for very short periods in the range of 1 min to 2 hr using power spectrum analysis of a continuous set of integrations. No evidence for such short periods was seen in this sample. Rotationally averaged B(1,0) magnitudes were determined for most of the surveyed asteroids, allowing diameter estimates to be made. Imposing the suspected selection effects of photogaphic photometry on the results of this survey gives excellent agreement with the results from that technique. This shows that the inability of photographic photometry to obtain results for many asteroids is indeed due to the rotational parameter of those asteroids.

Binzel, R. P.; Mulholland, J. D.



Affect: from information to interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

While affective computing explicitly challenges the primacy of rationality in cognitivist accounts of human activity, at a deeper level it relies on and reproduces the same information-processing model of cognition. In affective computing, affect is often seen as another kind of information - discrete units or states internal to an individual that can be transmitted in a loss-free manner from

Kirsten Boehner; Rogrio DePaula; Paul Dourish; Phoebe Sengers



Parameters Describing Earth Observing Remote Sensing Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Earth science community needs to generate consistent and standard definitions for spatial, spectral, radiometric, and geometric properties describing passive electro-optical Earth observing sensors and their products. The parameters used to describe sensors and to describe their products are often confused. In some cases, parameters for a sensor and for its products are identical; in other cases, these parameters vary widely. Sensor parameters are bound by the fundamental performance of a system, while product parameters describe what is available to the end user. Products are often resampled, edge sharpened, pan-sharpened, or compressed, and can differ drastically from the intrinsic data acquired by the sensor. Because detailed sensor performance information may not be readily available to an international science community, standardization of product parameters is of primary performance. Spatial product parameters described include Modulation Transfer Function (MTF), point spread function, line spread function, edge response, stray light, edge sharpening, aliasing, ringing, and compression effects. Spectral product parameters discussed include full width half maximum, ripple, slope edge, and out-of-band rejection. Radiometric product properties discussed include relative and absolute radiometry, noise equivalent spectral radiance, noise equivalent temperature diffenence, and signal-to-noise ratio. Geometric product properties discussed include geopositional accuracy expressed as CE90, LE90, and root mean square error. Correlated properties discussed include such parameters as band-to-band registration, which is both a spectral and a spatial property. In addition, the proliferation of staring and pushbroom sensor architectures requires new parameters to describe artifacts that are different from traditional cross-track system artifacts. A better understanding of how various system parameters affect product performance is also needed to better ascertain the utility of existing datasets and products as well as to specify the performance of new sensors and products. Examples of simulations performed for the Landsat Data Continuity Mission illustrate how various parameters affect system and product performance. Specific examples include the effects of ground sample distance, MTF, and band-to-band registration on various products.

Zanoni, Vicki; Ryan, Robert E.; Pagnutti, Mary; Davis, Bruce; Markham, Brian; Storey, Jim



Icing tests of a model main rotor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A NASA-sponsored consortium conducted an experimental program to investigate the characteristics of a model rotor under icing conditions. This project resulted in the first U.S. test of a heavily instrumented model rotor conducted in the controlled environment of a refrigerated wind tunnel, the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel. The tunnel entry used a powered force model with a 1.83-m-diameter main rotor, with 0.124-m-chord main rotor blades fabricated specially for this experiment. Test conditions included a range of liquid water content and median volume droplet diameters that fell within the FAA and DOD icing envelopes. The test data show the effects of icing on rotor lift, rotor torque, blade loads, and vibration. Ice shapes and ice dimensions were taken, and molds were made of three ice shapes. High-speed movies were taken to document ice shedding. The results have been compared with analytical accretion predictions.

Bond, Thomas H.; Flemming, Robert J.; Britton, Randall K.



Main subject detection via adaptive feature refinement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Main subject detection (MSD) refers to the task of determining which spatial regions in an image correspond to the most visually relevant or scene-defining object(s) for general viewing purposes. This task, while trivial for a human, remains extremely challenging for a computer. Here, we present an algorithm for MSD which operates by adaptively refining low-level features. The algorithm computes, in a block-based fashion, five feature maps corresponding to lightness distance, color distance, contrast, local sharpness, and edge strength. These feature maps are adaptively combined and gradually refined via three stages. The final combination of the refined feature maps produces an estimate of the main subject's location. We tested the proposed algorithm on two extensive image databases. Our results show that relatively simple, low-level features, when used in an adaptive and iterative fashion, can be very effective at MSD.

Vu, Cuong; Chandler, Damon



Aftershock patterns and main shock faulting  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We have compared aftershock patterns following several moderate to large earthquakes with the corresponding distributions of coseismic slip obtained from previous analyses of the recorded strong ground motion and teleseismic waveforms. Our results are consistent with a hypothesis of aftershock occurrence that requires a secondary redistribution of stress following primary failure on the earthquake fault. Aftershocks followng earthquakes examined in this study occur mostly outside of or near the edges of the source areas indicated by the patterns of main shock slip. The spatial distribution of aftershocks reflects either a continuation of slip in the outer regions of the areas of maximum coseismic displacement or the activation of subsidiary faults within the volume surrounding the boundaries of main shock rupture. -from Authors

Mendoza, C.; Hartzell, S.H.



Early history of the Fermilab Main Ring  

SciTech Connect

This note is written in response to a request from Phil Livdahl for corrections, and additions to a TM he is writing on Staffing Levels at Fermilab during Initial Construction Years and to a note that Hank Hinterberger is preparing on milestones. In my spare time over the past few years I have taken the original files of the Main Ring Section, my own notes from that period, and various other collections of relevant paper, and arranged them in a set of 44 large loose leaf binders in chronological order. I call this set of volumes the 'Main Ring Chronological Archives'. In response to Phil's request I have recently skimmed through these records of the period and extracted a small subset of documents which relate to the specific questions that Phil is addressing: staffing. administration, and milestones.

Malamud, E.; /Fermilab



Habitable zones around main sequence stars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A mechanism for stabilizing climate on the earth and other earthlike planets is described, and the physical processes that define the inner and outer boundaries of the habitable zone (HZ) around the sun and main sequence stars are discussed. Physical constraints on the HZ obtained from Venus and Mars are taken into account. A 1D climate model is used to estimate the width of the HZ and the continuously habitable zone around the sun, and the analysis is extended to other main sequence stars. Whether other stars have planets and where such planets might be located with respect to the HZ is addressed. The implications of the findings for NASA's SETI project are considered.

Kasting, James F.; Whitmire, Daniel P.; Reynolds, Ray T.



El Paso automates main line compressor stations  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports how an El Paso natural gas company has automated 27 compressor stations on its main line gas-transmission system, ahead of its 5-year schedule begun in 1984. The project involved the total automation (unmanned operation) of one reciprocating engine-driven compressor station and 21 turbine-driven compressor facilities; the semi-automation (computer-assisted operation) of six reciprocating engine-driven compressor stations; and the addition of a central control facility located in El Paso.

Kind, R.H. (El Paso Natural Gas Co., El Paso, TX (US))



Three Main Subsystems: I. Centerpiece (Linear Actuation)  

E-print Network

Systems Two Main Subsystems: I. Solar Panels Four 100 W high efficiency solar panels were installed symmetrically atop the canopy. The panels were wired in parallel to a deep cycle solar battery. In full sunlight- Monocrystalline-Solar-Panel-4-Pack-GS-S-250- Fab5x4/202960000?N=8p9Z5yc1v Left Bottom: Wind Blue Power LLC. (2014

Provancher, William


Optimizing PT Arun LNG main heat exchanger  

SciTech Connect

The capacity of a LNG liquefaction unit has been increased by upgrading the refrigeration system, without making changes to the main heat exchanger (MHE). It is interesting, that after all modifications were completed, a higher refrigerant circulation alone could not increase LNG production. However, by optimizing the refrigerant component ratio, the UA of the MHE increased and LNG production improved. This technical evaluation will provide recommendations and show how the evaluation of the internal temperature profile helped optimize the MHE operating conditions.

Irawan, B. [PT Arun NGL Co., Sumatra (Indonesia)



Maine Geological Survey Borehole Temperature Profiles  

DOE Data Explorer

This dataset includes temperature profiles from 30 boreholes throughout Maine that were selected for their depth, location, and lithologies encountered. Depths range from about 300 feet to 2,200 feet. Most of the boreholes selected for measurement were completed in granite because this lithology can be assumed to be nearly homogeneous over the depth of the borehole. Boreholes were also selected to address gaps in existing geothermal datasets. Temperature profiles were collected in October and November, 2012.

Marvinney, Robert


Space shuttle main engine plume radiation model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The methods are described which are used in predicting the thermal radiation received by space shuttles, from the plumes of the main engines. Radiation to representative surface locations were predicted using the NASA gaseous plume radiation GASRAD program. The plume model is used with the radiative view factor (RAVFAC) program to predict sea level radiation at specified body points. The GASRAD program is described along with the predictions. The RAVFAC model is also discussed.

Reardon, J. E.; Lee, Y. C.



Chromospheric variations in main-sequence stars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fluxes in passbands 0.1 nm wide and centered on the Ca II H and K emission cores have been monitored in 111 stars of spectral type F2-M2 on or near the main sequence in a continuation of an observing program started by O. C. Wilson. Most of the measurements began in 1966, with observations scheduled monthly until 1980, when

S. L. Baliunas; R. A. Donahue; W. H. Soon; J. H. Horne; J. Frazer; L. Woodard-Eklund; M. Bradford; L. M. Rao; O. C. Wilson; Q. Zhang; W. Bennett; J. Briggs; S. M. Carroll; D. K. Duncan; D. Figueroa; H. H. Lanning; T. Misch; J. Mueller; R. W. Noyes; D. Poppe; A. C. Porter; C. R. Robinson; J. Russell; J. C. Shelton; T. Soyumer; A. H. Vaughan; J. H. Whitney



All-terrain vehicle accidents in Maine.  


All-terrain vehicles (ATV) are designed for off-road vocational or recreational use. Their popularity has increased steadily, but only recently has information accumulated concerning morbidity and mortality associated with the use of these vehicles. The 221 ATV accidents reported in Maine during 1985 are reviewed to more fully characterize the trauma associated with ATV accidents. These data are compared with reports from other geographical areas and recommendations made regarding ATV use. PMID:3351997

Margolis, J L



Maine Geological Survey Borehole Temperature Profiles  

SciTech Connect

This dataset includes temperature profiles from 30 boreholes throughout Maine that were selected for their depth, location, and lithologies encountered. Depths range from about 300 feet to 2,200 feet. Most of the boreholes selected for measurement were completed in granite because this lithology can be assumed to be nearly homogeneous over the depth of the borehole. Boreholes were also selected to address gaps in existing geothermal datasets. Temperature profiles were collected in October and November, 2012.

Marvinney, Robert



Darling Marine Center of University of Maine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Located in Walpole, Maine, the Center functions year round as a research and educational facility serving the marine interests of faculty, staff, students, and visiting investigators from around the world. Lab research interests range from microbial ecology, biogeochemistry and marine archaeology, to invertebrate taxonomy and ecology, deep-sea biology, and phytoplankton physiology. Undergraduate and K-12 opportunities are available both during the school year and summer. Species lists and downloadable data are also available.


Habitable Zones around Main Sequence Stars  

Microsoft Academic Search

A one-dimensional climate model is used to estimate the width of the habitable zone (HZ) around our Sun and around other main sequence stars. Our basic premise is that we are dealing with Earth-like planets with CO2\\/H2O\\/N2 atmospheres and that habitability requires the presence of liquid water on the planet's surface. The inner edge of the HZ is determined in

James F. Kasting; Daniel P. Whitmire; Ray T. Reynolds



State of the LHC Main Magnets.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main features of the dipole magnet design have been frozen in 1996 and important steps for the preparation of their series production are being taken in the current year. To finalize the technical specifications of the superconducting cables and other components, a number of detail variants are being validated with the construction and test of short and long magnets. Thus, beside a number of 1 m long models, four 10 m long models of the main dipoles and two 14.2 m prototypes are being assembled in industry and at CERN. The fabrication of a further set of 3 full length dipoles is also starting in industry to verify the reproducibility of production and performance. The lifetime and fatigue test of the String Test Facility, consisting of three dipoles and one quadrupole and simulating the basic periodic cell of the LHC, has been successfully concluded. The String was repetitively cycled between the injection field of 0.6 T and the operational field of 8.4 T, 24 hours per day, and has accumulated more than 2100 cycles, corresponding to about ten years of machine operation. The final design of the main quadrupoles, based on the use of the dipole coil outer layer cable, is being worked out by CEA, Saclay, and the construction of two new prototypes has been launched.

Perin, R.



Collector main replacement at Indianapolis Coke  

SciTech Connect

Indianapolis Coke is a merchant coke producer, supplying both foundry and blast furnace coke to the industry. The facility has three coke batteries: two 3 meter batteries, one Wilputte four divided and one Koppers Becker. Both batteries are underjet batteries and are producing 100% foundry coke at a net coking time of 30.6 hours. This paper deals with the No. 1 coke battery, which is a 72 oven, gun fired, 5 meter Still battery. No. 1 battery produces both foundry and blast furnace coke at a net coking rate of 25.4 hours. No. 1 battery was commissioned in 1979. The battery is equipped with a double collector main. Although many renovations have been completed to the battery, oven machinery and heating system, to date no major construction projects have taken place. Deterioration of the collector main was caused in part from elevated levels of chlorides in the flushing liquor, and temperature fluctuations within the collector main. The repair procedures are discussed.

Sickle, R.R. Van



Photogrammetric Analysis of CPAS Main Parachutes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Crew Exploration Vehicle Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) is being designed to land the Orion Crew Module (CM) at a safe rate of descent at splashdown with a cluster of two to three Main parachutes. The instantaneous rate of descent varies based on parachute fly-out angles and geometric inlet area. Parachutes in a cluster oscillate between significant fly-out angles and colliding into each other. The former presents a sub-optimal inlet area and the latter lowers the effective drag area as the parachutes interfere with each other. The fly-out angles are also important in meeting a twist torque requirement. Understanding cluster behavior necessitates measuring the Mains with photogrammetric analysis. Imagery from upward looking cameras is analyzed to determine parachute geometry. Fly-out angles are measured from each parachute vent to an axis determined from geometry. Determining the scale of the objects requires knowledge of camera and lens calibration as well as features of known size. Several points along the skirt are tracked to compute an effective circumference, diameter, and inlet area as a function of time. The effects of this geometry are clearly seen in the system drag coefficient time history. Photogrammetric analysis is key in evaluating the effects of design features such as an Over-Inflation Control Line (OICL), Main Line Length Ratio (MLLR), and geometric porosity, which are varied in an attempt to minimize cluster oscillations. The effects of these designs are evaluated through statistical analysis.

Ray, Eric; Bretz, David



Is muscle coordination affected by loading condition in ballistic movements?  


This study aimed to investigate the effect of loading on lower limb muscle coordination involved during ballistic squat jumps. Twenty athletes performed ballistic squat jumps on a force platform. Vertical force, velocity, power and electromyographic (EMG) activity of lower limb muscles were recorded during the push-off phase and compared between seven loading conditions (0-60% of the concentric-only maximal repetition). The increase in external load increased vertical force (from 1962 N to 2559 N; P=0.0001), while movement velocity decreased (from 2.5 to 1.6ms(-1); P=0.0001). EMG activity of tibialis anterior first peaked at 5% of the push-off phase, followed by gluteus maximus (35%), vastus lateralis and soleus (45%), rectus femoris (55%), gastrocnemius lateralis (65%) and semitendinosus (75%). This sequence of activation (P=0.67) and the amplitude of muscle activity (P=0.41) of each muscle were not affected by loading condition. However, a main effect of muscle was observed on these parameters (peak value: P<0.001; peak occurrence: P=0.02) illustrating the specific role of each muscle during the push-off phase. Our findings suggest that muscle coordination is not influenced by external load during a ballistic squat jump. PMID:25467546

Giroux, Caroline; Guilhem, Gal; Couturier, Antoine; Chollet, Didier; Rabita, Giuseppe



[Climatologic parameters and myocardial infarction].  


535 patients admitted to hospital with myocardium infarct which was confirmed in a determined period and within a 80 kilometers radius from a city of the East of France were compared to the meteorological parameters of the day when the infarct occurred and of the day preceding its occurrence. On one hand, climatic parameters were selected: atmospheric pressure, temperature of the air under shelter, relative humidity, wind speed and wind direction, hydrometeors and electrometeors; on the other hand, parameters of solar and planetary activity: daily flare index, AA index, Ap index or daily planetary index, phases of the moon. The analytic study concerning all acute vascular accidents (infarcts and cerebral accidents all together) enabled to us to notice a higher frequency of vascular accidents in various meteorological circumstances: atmospheric pressure lower than 990 mb, temperature lower than 12 degrees, wind of sector North to South-South West, hoar-frost with fog, rain, snow, first quarter of the moon, daily flare index lower than 530, magnetic activity lower than 6. A factorial analysis of correspondence enabled to us to understand the problem better and to determine "an infarct area" in which main meteorological factors appeared: low or decreasing atmospheric pressure, relative or increasing humidity, clear or increasing solar activity, steady magnetic activity; other factors could play an apparently less important role: low temperature, snow, decrease of wind speed, full moon, wind of sector East to North-East, South-South West. Consequently it appeared in that study that the occurrence of myocardium infarct corresponded to a climatic tendency corresponding to cold, bad or deteriorating weather. PMID:6638893

Larcan, A; Gilgenkrantz, J M; Stoltz, J F; Lambert, H; Laprevote-Heully, M C; Evrard, D; Kempf, J B; Lambert, J



Affect as a Psychological Primitive  

PubMed Central

In this article, we discuss the hypothesis that affect is a fundamental, psychologically irreducible property of the human mind. We begin by presenting historical perspectives on the nature of affect. Next, we proceed with a more contemporary discussion of core affect as a basic property of the mind that is realized within a broadly distributed neuronal workspace. We then present the affective circumplex, a mathematical formalization for representing core affective states, and show that this model can be used to represent individual differences in core affective feelings that are linked to meaningful variation in emotional experience. Finally, we conclude by suggesting that core affect has psychological consequences that reach beyond the boundaries of emotion, to influence learning and consciousness. PMID:20552040

Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Bliss-Moreau, Eliza



Absolute parameters of young stars: GG Lup and ?1 Sco  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New high-resolution spectroscopy and BVR photometry, together with literature data, on the Gould's Belt close binary systems GG Lup and ?1 Sco are presented and analysed. In the case of GG Lup, light and radial velocity curve fittings confirm a near-main-sequence picture of a pair of close stars. Absolute parameters are found, to within a few per cent, thus: M1 = 4.16 0.12, M2 = 2.64 0.12 (M?); R1 = 2.42 0.05, R2 = 1.79 0.04 (R?); T1 13 000, T2 10 600 (K); photometric distance 160 (pc). The high eccentricity and relatively short period (105 yr) of apsidal revolution may be related to an apparent `slow B-type pulsator' oscillation. Disturbances of the outer envelope of at least one of the components then compromise comparisons to standard evolutionary models, at least regarding the age of the system. A rate of apsidal advance is derived, which allows a check on the mean internal structure constant overline{k_2} = 0.0058 0.0004. This is in agreement with values recently derived for young stars of solar composition and mass 3 M?. For ?1 Sco, we agree with previous authors that the secondary component is considerably oversized for its mass, implying binary (interactive) stellar evolution, probably of the `Case A' type. The primary appears relatively little affected by this evolution, however. Its parameters show consistency with a star of its derived mass at age about 13 Myr, consistent with the star's membership of the Sco-Cen OB2 Association. The absolute parameters are as follows: M1 = 8.3 1.0, M2 = 4.6 1.0 (M?); R1 = 3.9 0.3, R2 = 4.6 0.4 (R?); T1 24 000, T2 17 000 (K); photometric distance 135 (pc).

Budding, E.; Butland, R.; Blackford, M.



Spectral Analysis of Geomagnetic Activity Indices and Solar Wind Parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar variability is widely known to affect the interplanetary space and in turn the Earth¡¯s electromagnetical environment on the basis of common periodicities in the solar and geomagnetic activity indices. The goal of this study is twofold. Firstly, we attempt to associate modes by comparing a temporal behavior of the power of geomagnetic activity parameters since it is barely sufficient searching for common peaks with a similar periodicity in order to causally correlate geomagnetic activity parameters. As a result of the wavelet transform analysis we are able to obtain information on the temporal behavior of the power in the velocity of the solar wind, the number density of protons in the solar wind, the AE index, the Dst index, the interplanetary magnetic field, B and its three components of the GSM coordinate system, BX, BY, BZ. Secondly, we also attempt to search for any signatures of influence on the space environment near the Earth by inner planets orbiting around the Sun. Our main findings are as follows: (1) Parameters we have investigated show periodicities of ~ 27 days, ~ 13.5 days, ~ 9 days. (2) The peaks in the power spectrum of BZ appear to be split due to an unknown agent. (3) For some modes powers are not present all the time and intervals showing high powers do not always coincide. (4) Noticeable peaks do not emerge at those frequencies corresponding to the synodic and/or sidereal periods of Mercury and Venus, which leads us to conclude that the Earth¡¯s space environment is not subject to the shadow of the inner planets as suggested earlier.

Kim, Jung-Hee; Chang, Heon-Young



A Review on Parameters Identification Methods for Asynchronous Motor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The decoupling of excitation current and torque current is realized by Vector control so that the speed regulating performance of asynchronous motor is comparable with that of dc motor. The control precision is directly affected by accuracy of parameter identification in asynchronous motor. In this paper, based on the existing literatures, the existed parameters identification methods both online and offline

Xing Zhan; Guohui Zeng; Jin Liu; Qingzhen Wang; Sheng Ou



Measurement of transmission line parameters from SCADA data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transmission line equivalent circuit parameters are often 25% to 30% in error compared to values measured by the SCADA system. These errors cause the economic dispatch to be wrong, and lead to increased costs or incorrect billing. The parameter errors also affect contingency analysis, short circuit analysis, distance relaying, machine stability calculations, transmission planning, and state estimator analysis. An economic

G. L. Kusic; D. L. Garrison



ETS and tidal stressing: Fault weakening after main slip pulse  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Time-varying stresses from solid Earth tides and ocean loading influence slow slip (Hawthorne and Rubin, 2010) and, consequently, the frequency of occurrence and intensity of tremor during ETS episodes (Rubinstein et al., 2008). This relationship can illuminate changes in the mechanical response of the rupture surfaces(s) during slip in ETS. I compare the influence of tidal loading when and after the propagating ETS slip front (estimated by tremor density in time) ruptures the fault at a given spot. Using estimates of slip fronts that I derived from tremor locations, I divide ETS tremor into two groups: that occurring within a day of the start of the inferred slip front and that occurring over several days thereafter. The tremor catalog used contains 50K waveform cross-correlation locations of tremor in 7 large ETS in northern Cascadia between 2005 and 2012. I calculate normal, shear and volumetric stresses due to the Earth and ocean tides at numerous locations on the inferred rupture plane of the ETS following the method of Hawthorne and Rubin (2010). The Coulomb stress increment at each tremor time and location is compared with tremor occurrence for the two groups of tremor. Unreasonable results appear if the effective frictional coefficient mu > 0.2, and results are most 'reasonable' when mu is very near or equal to zero. Following passage of the main slip pulse, tremor generation is notably more sensitive to tidal stressing. One kPa of encouraging tidal Coulomb stress boosts the occurrence of tremor after the main slip pulse by about 50% above the average value, while the same amount of discouraging stress decreases the occurrence of such tremor by a similar factor. The greater the encouraging or discouraging stress, the greater the effect. In contrast, tremor in the main slip pulse is much less affected by positive or negative tidal stresses. I interpret the greater sensitivity to tidal stressing of the tremor after the main slip pulse as a measure of the weakening of the fault plane following its initial rupture. Considering up- and down-dip sensitivities to tidal stress, tremor generation on the up-dip region is affected roughly 50% more by both positive and negative tidal stresses than tremor down-dip. Furthermore, for the down-dip tremor, there is less contrast in sensitivity to stress between the tremor at the main slip front and the later tremor, i.e., the fault downdip is both less sensitive to tidal stress and weakens less due to the rupture. These results are consistent with the timing and geometry of Rapid Tremor Reversals, which also indicate weakening of the fault after the main slip front has passed through a region (Houston et al., 2011). RTRs occur on updip parts of the fault, after the main slip front, and at times of encouraging tidal stress (Thomas et al., 2013).

Houston, H.



Sensitivity Parameter and Time Variations of Fundamental Constants  

E-print Network

The sensitivity parameter is widely used for quantifying fine tuning. However, examples show it fails to give correct results under certain circumstances. We argue that the problems of the sensitivity parameter are almost identical to the consequences we have to solved if the time-varying fine structure constant is proved to be true. The high sensitivity of the energy scale parameter (\\Lambda) to the dimensionless coupling constant plays an important role in these problems. It affects the reliability of the sensitivity parameter via mechanisms such as dynamical symmetry breaking, chiral symmetry breaking etc. The reliability of the sensitivity parameter can be improved if it is used properly.

Su Yan



Cisplatin Ototoxicity Affecting Cochlear Implant Benefit  

PubMed Central

Objective Report a case of loss of cochlear implant benefit following cisplatin therapy to treat osteosarcoma. Examine the implications for the loci of cisplatin-associated cochleotoxicity. Study Design Retrospective Case Review Setting Tertiary Referral Center Patients Single Case Study Intervention(s) None Main Outcome Measure(s) Cochlear implant programming levels Results Increase in cochlear implant programming T- and C-levels following cisplatin therapy. Conclusions Cisplatin therapy likely affects spiral ganglion cells. It appears that auditory cells other than outer hair cells in the organ of Corti are affected by cisplatin since the hearing sensitivity of this patient with non-functioning outer hair cells declined after receiving chemotherapy. Implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:21730884

Harris, Michael S.; Gilbert, Jaimie L.; Lormore, Kelly A.; Musunuru, Swapna A.; Fritsch, Michael H.



Natural interference phenomena affecting spaceborne receivers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Earth orbiting microwave receivers which are vulnerable to the interference from natural sources, mainly, the Sun and the Moon, are discussed. The irradiance from the Sun affects microwave receivers in two ways: (1) the infrared component of the irradiance causes nonuniform heating in metal structures and produces distortions that affect electrical performance; and (2) the graybody radiation component of the solar irradiance enters the collecting aperture of the antenna and the feed ports of the calibration circuits. The graybody radiation operates to degrade the signal to noise ratios and vitiate the internal calibration accuracy. The magnitudes of interference from the Sun and the Moon are analyzed and mathematical expressions are derived which serve to quantify the expected interference levels.

Stacey, J. M.



Identification of geometrical and elastostatic parameters of heavy industrial robots  

E-print Network

Identification of geometrical and elastostatic parameters of heavy industrial robots A. Klimchik, Y modeling of heavy industrial robots with gravity compensators. The main attention is paid of huge aircraft compo- nents where industrial robots successfully replace conven- tional CNC

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


78 FR 42556 - Maine Yankee Atomic Power Company; Maine Yankee Atomic Power Plant Issuance of Environmental...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...rule changes. Maine Yankee Atomic Power Company (MYAPC) is...DPR-36 for the Maine Yankee Atomic Power Plant (MY). The license, issued pursuant to the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as maintain the regulatory structure in place prior to...



Maine Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit and Department of Wildlife Ecology, University of Maine  

E-print Network

Maine Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit and Department of Wildlife Ecology, University Fisheries and Wildlife United States Geological Survey United States Fish and Wildlife Service Wildlife of this report in any way is withheld pending specific authorization from the Leader, Maine Cooperative Fish

Thomas, Andrew


Massive lower gastrointestinal haemorrhage, successfully treated with corticosteroids, as main symptom of Schnlein-Henoch purpura  

Microsoft Academic Search

Schnlein-Henoch purpura is a small vessel disease that affects mainly skin and kidney, although several gastrointestinal\\u000a symptoms may occur including abdominal pain, intussusception, perforation or bleeding. Massive lower gastrointestinal haemorrhage\\u000a is rare and even more as the main symptom of the disease. We present a case of a 2-year-old boy with Schnlein-Henoch purpura\\u000a who developed a massive lower gastrointestinal bleeding

F. lvarez-Caro; J. A. Concha-Torre; I. Garca-Hernndez; S. Menndez-Cuervo; M. los Arcos-Solas; J. Santos-Juanes; E. Ramos-Polo



Stellar Parameter Determination Using Bayesian Techniques.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spectral energy distributions of stars covering the wavelength range from far UV to far IR can be used to derive stellar atmospheric parameters (effective temperature, surface gravity and iron abundance) with a high reliability. For this purpose we are using a method based on Bayesian statistics, which make use of all available photometric data for a given star to construct stellar parameter probability distribution function (PDF) in order to determine the expectation values and their uncertainties in stellar parameters. The marginalized probabilities allow us to characterize the constraint for each parameter and estimate the influence of the quantity and quality of the photometric data on the resulting parameter values. We have obtained low resolution spectroscopy of blue horizontal branch, blue straggler and normal main sequence A, B, G and F stellar parameter standard stars using the McDonald observatory, 2.1m telescope to constrain both synthetic and empirical stellar libraries like Atlas9, MARCS, MILES and Pickles across a wide range in parameter space. This calibration process helps to evaluate the correlations between different stellar libraries and observed data especially in the UV part of the spectrum. When the calibration is complete the Bayesian analysis can be applied to large samples of data from GALEX, SDSS, 2MASS,WISE etc. We expect significant improvements to luminosity classification, distances and interstellar extinction using this technique.

Ekanayake, Gemunu B.; Wilhelm, Ronald J.



Phenological Parameters Estimation Tool  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Phenological Parameters Estimation Tool (PPET) is a set of algorithms implemented in MATLAB that estimates key vegetative phenological parameters. For a given year, the PPET software package takes in temporally processed vegetation index data (3D spatio-temporal arrays) generated by the time series product tool (TSPT) and outputs spatial grids (2D arrays) of vegetation phenological parameters. As a precursor to PPET, the TSPT uses quality information for each pixel of each date to remove bad or suspect data, and then interpolates and digitally fills data voids in the time series to produce a continuous, smoothed vegetation index product. During processing, the TSPT displays NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) time series plots and images from the temporally processed pixels. Both the TSPT and PPET currently use moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite multispectral data as a default, but each software package is modifiable and could be used with any high-temporal-rate remote sensing data collection system that is capable of producing vegetation indices. Raw MODIS data from the Aqua and Terra satellites is processed using the TSPT to generate a filtered time series data product. The PPET then uses the TSPT output to generate phenological parameters for desired locations. PPET output data tiles are mosaicked into a Conterminous United States (CONUS) data layer using ERDAS IMAGINE, or equivalent software package. Mosaics of the vegetation phenology data products are then reprojected to the desired map projection using ERDAS IMAGINE

McKellip, Rodney D.; Ross, Kenton W.; Spruce, Joseph P.; Smoot, James C.; Ryan, Robert E.; Gasser, Gerald E.; Prados, Donald L.; Vaughan, Ronald D.



Games with fuzzy parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we study the existence of equilibrium in non-cooperative game with fuzzy parameters. We generalize te results of Larbani and Kacher(2008, 2009) in infinite dimentional spaces. The proof is based on the Browder-Fan fixed point theorem.

Messaoud, Deghdak



The Main Sequence of Star Clusters  

E-print Network

A novel way of looking at the evolution of star clusters is presented. With a dynamical temperature, given by the mean kinetic energy of the cluster stars, and a dynamical luminosity, which is defined as the kinetic energy of the stars leaving the cluster in analogy to the energy of photons emitted by a star, the dissolution of star clusters is studied using a new dynamical temperature-luminosity diagram for star clusters. The investigation contains a parameter-space study of open clusters of up to N = 32768 single-mass stars with different initial density distributions, half-mass radii, tidal conditions and binary fractions. The clusters show a strong correlation between dynamical temperature and dynamical luminosity and most of the investigated cluster families share a common sequence in such a dynamical temperature-luminosity diagram. Deviations from this sequence are analyzed and discussed. After core collapse, the position of a cluster within this diagram can be defined by three parameters: the mass, the tidal conditions and the binary fraction. Due to core collapse all initial conditions are lost and the remaining stars adjust to the given tidal conditions. Binaries as internal energy sources influence this adjustment. A further finding concerns the Lagrange radii of star clusters: Throughout the investigated parameter space nearly all clusters show a constant half-mass radius for the time after core collapse until dissolution. Furthermore, the ratio of half-mass radius to tidal radius evolves onto a common sequence which only depends on the mass left in the cluster.

Andreas H. W. Kuepper; Pavel Kroupa; Holger Baumgardt



Main Chamber and Preburner Injector Technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document reports the experimental and analytical research carried out at the Penn State Propulsion Engineering Research Center in support of NASA's plan to develop advanced technologies for future single stage to orbit (SSTO) propulsion systems. The focus of the work is on understanding specific technical issues related to bi-propellant and tri-propellant thrusters. The experiments concentrate on both cold flow demonstrations and hot-fire uni-element tests to demonstrate concepts that can be incorporated into hardware design and development. The analysis is CFD-based and is intended to support the design and interpretation of the experiments and to extrapolate findings to full-scale designs. The research is divided into five main categories that impact various SSTO development scenarios. The first category focuses on RP-1/gaseous hydrogen (GH2)/gaseous oxygen (GO2) tri-propellant combustion with specific emphasis on understanding the benefits of hydrogen addition to RP-1/oxygen combustion and in developing innovative injector technology. The second category investigates liquid oxygen (LOX)/GH2 combustion at main chamber near stoichiometric conditions to improve understanding of existing LOX/GH2 rocket systems. The third and fourth categories investigate the technical issues related with oxidizer-rich and fuel-rich propulsive concepts, issues that are necessary for developing the full-flow engine cycle. Here, injector technology issues for both LOX/GH2 and LOX/RP-1 propellants are examined. The last category, also related to the full-flow engine cycle, examines injector technology needs for GO2/GH2 propellant combustion at near-stoichiometric conditions for main chamber application.

Santoro, Robert J.; Merkle, Charles L.



Coccolithophores in the Gulf of Maine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Earlier this summer, trillions of calcite (limestone) coated phytoplankton, known as coccolithophores, appeared in the waters off the coast of Maine. This true color image of the coccolithophore bloom was acquired on July 11, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The bloom is the large bluish-green patch in the center of the image in the Gulf of Maine. Unlike any other plant in the ocean, coccolithophores surround themselves with microscopic plating made of calcite. These scales, known as coccoliths, are shaped like hubcaps and are only three one-thousandths of a millimeter in diameter. What coccoliths lack in size, they make up in volume. At any one time a single coccolithophore is attached to or surrounded by at least 30 scales. Additional coccoliths are dumped into the water when the coccolithophores multiply asexually, die or simply make too many scales. In areas with trillions of coccolithophores, the waters will turn an opaque turquoise from the dense cloud of coccoliths. (Click to read more about coccolithophores.) Though there are always coccoliths in the Gulf of Maine, the area hasn't seen a bloom like this one since 1989. Currently, NASA researchers are studying the bloom aboard a ferry in the gulf in an attempt to measure the bloom's density and depth. So far the bloom appears to be about 20 to 25 meters thick and contains nearly half a million tons of calcite. Image by Jesse Allen, NASA Earth Observatory; Data courtesy MODIS Land Rapid Response Team



Slip stacking experiments at Fermilab main injector  

SciTech Connect

In order to achieve an increase in proton intensity, Fermilab Main Injector will use a stacking process called ''slip stacking''. The intensity will be doubled by injecting one train of bunches at a slightly lower energy, another at a slightly higher energy, then bringing them together for the final capture. Beam studies have started for this process and we have already verified that, at least for a low beam intensity, the stacking procedure works as expected. For high intensity operation, development work of the feedback and feedforward systems is under way.

Kiyomi Koba et al.



The BTeV main spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

BTeV is a second generation B-factory experiment that will use a double-arm, forward spectrometer in the C0 experimental hall at the Fermilab Tevatron. I will describe the motivation and design of the "main spectrometer", consisting of a ring-imaging Cherenkov system for charged particle identification, an electromagnetic calorimeter of lead-tungstate crystals, a proportional tube muon system with magnetized filtering steel, and a straw-tube and silicon strip charged particle tracking system. The vertex system and trigger, as well as the physics motivations for BTeV, are described elsewhere in these proceedings.

Sheldon, Paul D.



SSME failure detection. [Space Shuttle Main Engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During ground testing of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME), there have been twenty-six major incidents resulting in substantial hardware damage and loss. Historical characteristics, advances in detection technology, and advances in computing technology led to plans for study of an advanced real time SSME test stand failure detection system which would reduce damage and preserve evidence when a failure with major incident potential occurs. This detection system will speed recognition of dangerous engine operation, and quicken the shutdown decision. The scope of this study, SSME characteristics, SSME test history, the problem definition, and some technical issues will be addressed herein.

Cikanek, H. A., III



Gulf of Maine Marine Habitat Primer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This book provides an overview of the Gulf of Maine's coastal and offshore habitats for resource managers and other coastal decision-makers in government, Non-Government Organizations (NGOs), and the private sector. Illustrated with color photographs and drawings, the primer describes habitat characteristics, ecological functions, economic and recreational values, human impacts, and management considerations. It is intended as a tool for resource managers, planners, legislators, conservation commissioners, NGO staff members, and other people seeking a better understanding of marine habitats from Massachusetts to Nova Scotia. The book is available in six downloadable sections, or it can be ordered as a hard copy.


Space Shuttle Main Engine Public Test Firing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new NASA Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) roars to the approval of more than 2,000 people who came to John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., on July 25 for a flight-certification test of the SSME Block II configuration. The engine, a new and significantly upgraded shuttle engine, was delivered to NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida for use on future shuttle missions. Spectators were able to experience the 'shake, rattle and roar' of the engine, which ran for 520 seconds - the length of time it takes a shuttle to reach orbit.



Upgraded SCADA for Yugoslav main gas pipeline  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the configuration of a SCADA based telemetry system for the main Yugoslav gas pipeline network. A central supervising SCADA station is realized by using reliable industrial PC stations interconnected via a LAN. The key features of this SCADA are open architecture, hot stand-by, an effective MMI subsystem and an information link to the Enterprise Information System. In order to achieve better supervision and control over the gas-transport process, basic SCADA functions are supplemented with a decision support system based on trend analysis and a steady-state simulation model.

Atlagic, B.S.; Kovacevic, V.V.; Maruna, V.S.; Mihic, V.M. [Computer, Control and Measurements Inst., Novi Sad (Yugoslavia). Faculty of Technical Sciences; Adjanski, B.D. [NIS-GAS, Novi Sad (Yugoslavia)



Phytoplankton in the Gulf of Maine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Phytoplankton, microscopic floating plant-like marine organisms (plankton means wanderer) are at the bottom of the marine food chain. They perform photosynthesis using water, carbon dioxide, and sunlight to produce glucose for their own use, as well as oxygen. Humans and all land animals and sea creatures are dependent on phytoplankton. The chlorophyll in phytoplankton can be observed by remote sensing instruments and is used by scientists as a measure of phytoplankton. In this lesson, students will use satellite data to explore and determine the correlation between sea surface temperature, sunlight, and the amount of chlorophyll (phytoplankton) in the Gulf of Maine at various times of year.


The effect of shredding and test apparatus size on compressibility and strength parameters of degraded municipal solid waste.  


In many situations, MSW components are processed and shredded before use in laboratory experiments using conventional soil testing apparatus. However, shredding MSW material may affect the target property to be measured. The objective of this study is to contribute to the understanding of the effect of shredding of MSW on the measured compressibility and strength properties. It is hypothesized that measured properties can be correlated to an R-value, the ratio of waste particle size to apparatus size. Results from oedometer tests, conducted on 63.5 mm, 100 mm, 200 mm diameter apparatus, indicated the dependency of the compressibility parameters on R-value. The compressibility parameters are similar for the same R-value even though the apparatus size varies. The results using same apparatus size with variable R-values indicated that shredding of MSW mainly affects initial compression. Creep and biological strain rate of the tested MSW are not significantly affected by R-value. The shear strength is affected by shredding as the light-weight reinforcing materials are shredded into smaller pieces during specimen preparation. For example, the measured friction angles are 32 degrees and 27 degrees for maximum particle sizes of 50 mm and 25 mm, respectively. The larger MSW components in the specimen provide better reinforcing contribution. This conclusion is however dependent on comparing specimen at the same level of degradation since shear strength is also a function of extent of degradation. PMID:19395251

Hossain, M S; Gabr, M A; Asce, F



Observed and Predicted Pier Scour in Maine  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Pier-scour and related data were collected and analyzed for nine high river flows at eight bridges across Maine from 1997 through 2001. Six bridges had multiple piers. Fifteen of 23 piers where data were measured during a high flow had observed maximum scour depths ranging from 0.5 feet (ft) to 12.0 ft. No pier scour was observed at the remaining eight piers. The maximum predicted pier-scour depths associated with the 23 piers were computed using the equations in the Federal Highway Administration's Hydraulic Engineering Circular number 18 (HEC-18), with data collected for this study. The predicted HEC-18 maximum pier-scour depths were compared to the observed maximum pier-scour depths. The HEC-18 pier-scour equations are intended to be envelope equations, ideally never underpredicting scour depths and not appreciably overpredicting them. The HEC-18 pier-scour equations performed well for rivers in Maine. Twenty-two out of 23 pier-scour depths were overpredicted by 0.7 ft to 18.3 ft. One pier-scour depth was underpredicted by 4.5 ft. For one pier at each of two bridges, large amounts of debris lodged on the piers after high-flow measurements were made at those sites. The scour associated with the debris increased the maximum pier-scour depths by about 5 ft in each case.

Hodgkins, Glenn A.; Lombard, Pamela J.



Pendulum Motion in Main Parachute Clusters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The coupled dynamics of a cluster of parachutes to a payload are notoriously difficult to predict. Often the payload is designed to be insensitive to the range of attitude and rates that might occur, but spacecraft generally do not have the mass and volume budgeted for this robust of a design. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Orion Capsule Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) implements a cluster of three mains for landing. During testing of the Engineering Development Unit (EDU) design, it was discovered that with a cluster of two mains (a fault tolerance required for human rating) the capsule coupled to the parachute cluster could get into a limit cycle pendulum motion which would exceed the spacecraft landing capability. This pendulum phenomenon could not be predicted with the existing models and simulations. A three phased effort has been undertaken to understand the consequence of the pendulum motion observed, and explore potential design changes that would mitigate this phenomenon. This paper will review the early analysis that was performed of the pendulum motion observed during EDU testing, summarize the analysis ongoing to understand the root cause of the pendulum phenomenon, and discuss the modeling and testing that is being pursued to identify design changes that would mitigate the risk.

Ray, Eric S.; Machin, Ricardo A.



State of the LHC Main Magnets  

E-print Network

The main features of the dipole magnet design have been frozen in 1996 and important steps for the preparation of their series production are being taken in the current year. To finilize the technical specifications of the superconducting cables and other components, a number of detail variants are being validated with the construction and test of short and long magnets. Thus, beside a number of 1 m long models, four 10 m long models of the main dipoles and two 14.2 m prototypes are being assembled in industry and at CERN. The fabrication of a further set of 3 full length dipoles is also starting in industry to verify the reproducibility of production performance. The lifetime and fatigue test of the String Test Facility, consisting of three dipoles and one quadrupole and simulating the basic periodic cell of the LHC, has been successfully concluded. The String was repetitively cycled between the injection field of 0.6 T and the operational field of 8.4 T, 24 hours per day, and has accumulated more than 2100 ...

Perin, R



The Effect of Pre-Main Sequence Stars on Star Cluster Dynamics  

E-print Network

We investigate the effects of the addition of pre-main sequence evolution to star cluster simulations. We allowed stars to follow pre-main sequence tracks that begin at the deuterium burning birthline and end at the zero age main sequence. We compared our simulations to ones in which the stars began their lives at the zero age main sequence, and also investigated the effects of particular choices for initial binary orbital parameters. We find that the inclusion of the pre-main sequence phase results in a slightly higher core concentration, lower binary fraction, and fewer hard binary systems. In general, the global properties of star clusters remain almost unchanged, but the properties of the binary star population in the cluster can be dramatically modified by the correct treatment of the pre-main sequence stage.

Wiersma, R; Zwart, S P



The Effect of Pre-Main Sequence Stars on Star Cluster Dynamics  

E-print Network

We investigate the effects of the addition of pre-main sequence evolution to star cluster simulations. We allowed stars to follow pre-main sequence tracks that begin at the deuterium burning birthline and end at the zero age main sequence. We compared our simulations to ones in which the stars began their lives at the zero age main sequence, and also investigated the effects of particular choices for initial binary orbital parameters. We find that the inclusion of the pre-main sequence phase results in a slightly higher core concentration, lower binary fraction, and fewer hard binary systems. In general, the global properties of star clusters remain almost unchanged, but the properties of the binary star population in the cluster can be dramatically modified by the correct treatment of the pre-main sequence stage.

R. Wiersma; A. Sills; S. Portegies Zwart



Design of actively shielded main magnets: an improved functional method.  


An improved functional approach for designing MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) main magnets with active shielding is presented. By nulling one or two external moments as well as a certain series of internal moments of the magnetic field, new designs with improved shielding in combination with or without shorter magnet lengths are obtained. The improved method can be employed to design short and practical superconducting magnets at any given field strength. The resulting designs yield the desired field homogeneity inside the region of interest without using superconducting shim coils. This approach requires only a modest amount of computing power. One of the design steps, a contour plot of the continuous current solutions, can be utilized to study stretch goals for favorable design parameters. PMID:12884110

Cheng, Yu-Chung N; Eagan, Timothy P; Brown, Robert W; Shvartsman, Shmaryu M; Thompson, Michael R



Fault diagnosis for the Space Shuttle main engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A conceptual design of a model-based fault detection and diagnosis system is developed for the Space Shuttle main engine. The design approach consists of process modeling, residual generation, and fault detection and diagnosis. The engine is modeled using a discrete time, quasilinear state-space representation. Model parameters are determined by identification. Residuals generated from the model are used by a neural network to detect and diagnose engine component faults. Fault diagnosis is accomplished by training the neural network to recognize the pattern of the respective fault signatures. Preliminary results for a failed valve, generated using a full, nonlinear simulation of the engine, are presented. These results indicate that the developed approach can be used for fault detection and diagnosis. The results also show that the developed model is an accurate and reliable predictor of the highly nonlinear and very complex engine.

Duyar, Ahmet; Merrill, Walter



Constraining Orbital Parameters Through Planetary Transit Monitoring  

E-print Network

The orbital parameters of extra-solar planets have a significant impact on the probability that the planet will transit the host star. This was recently demonstrated by the transit detection of HD 17156b whose favourable eccentricity and argument of periastron dramatically increased its transit likelihood. We present a study which provides a quantitative analysis of how these two orbital parameters affect the geometric transit probability as a function of period. Further, we apply these results to known radial velocity planets and show that there are unexpectedly high transit probabilities for planets at relatively long periods. For a photometric monitoring campaign which aims to determine if the planet indeed transits, we calculate the expected transiting planet yield and the significance of a potential null result, as well as the subsequent constraints that may be applied to orbital parameters.

Stephen R. Kane; Kaspar von Braun



Technical parameters for specifying imagery requirements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Providing visual information acquired from remote events to various operators, researchers, and practitioners has become progressively more important as the application of special skills in alien or hazardous situations increases. To provide an understanding of the technical parameters required to specify imagery, we have identified, defined, and discussed seven salient characteristics of images: spatial resolution, linearity, luminance resolution, spectral discrimination, temporal discrimination, edge definition, and signal-to-noise ratio. We then describe a generalizing imaging system and identified how various parts of the system affect the image data. To emphasize the different applications of imagery, we have constrasted the common television system with the significant parameters of a televisual imaging system for technical applications. Finally, we have established a method by which the required visual information can be specified by describing certain technical parameters which are directly related to the information content of the imagery. This method requires the user to complete a form listing all pertinent data requirements for the imagery.

Coan, Paul P.; Dunnette, Sheri J.



Proline puckering parameters for collagen structure simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Collagen is made of triple helices rich in proline residues, and hence is influenced by the conformational motions of prolines. Because the backbone motions of prolines are restricted by the helical structures, the only side chain motionproline puckeringbecomes an influential factor that may affect the stability of collagen structures. In molecular simulations, a proper proline puckering population is desired so to yield valid results of the collagen properties. Here we design the proline puckering parameters in order to yield suitable proline puckering populations as demonstrated in the experimental results. We test these parameters in collagen and the proline dipeptide simulations. Compared with the results of the PDB and the quantum calculations, we propose the proline puckering parameters for the selected collagen model simulations.

Wu, Di