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Sample records for main parameters affecting

  1. Factors Affecting the Comprehension of Global and Local Main Idea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Danhua

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated factors that would affect a reader's understanding of the main idea at the global level and explicit and implicit main ideas at the local level. Fifty-seven first-year university students taking a college reading course took a comprehension test on an expository text. Statistical analyses revealed that text structure had a…

  2. Parameters affecting seat belt use in Greece.

    PubMed

    Yannis, G; Laiou, A; Vardaki, S; Papadimitriou, E; Dragomanovits, A; Kanellaidis, G

    2011-09-01

    The objective of this research is the exploration of seat belt use in Greece and particularly the identification of the parameters affecting seat belt use in Greece. A national field survey was conducted for the analytical recording of seat belt use. A binary logistic regression model was developed, and the impact of each parameter on seat belt use in Greece was quantified. Parameters included in the model concern characteristics of car occupants (gender, age and position in the car), the type of the car and the type of the road network. The data collection revealed that in Greece, the non-use of seat belt on the urban road network was higher than on the national and rural road network and young and older men use seat belts the least. The developed model showed that travelling on a national road is negative for not wearing the seat belt. Finally, the variable with the highest impact on not wearing a seat belt is being a passenger on the back seats. PMID:21452095

  3. Physical parameters affecting living cells in space.

    PubMed

    Langbein, D

    1986-01-01

    The question is posed: Why does a living cell react to the absence of gravity? What sensors may it have? Does it note pressure, sedimentation, convection, or other parameters? If somewhere in a liquid volume sodium ions are replaced by potassium ions, the density of the liquid changes locally: the heavier regions sink, the lighter regions rise. This may contribute to species transport, to the metabolism. Under microgravity this mechanism is strongly reduced. On the other hand, other reasons for convection like thermal and solutal interface convection are left. Do they affect species transport? Another important effect of gravity is the hydrostatic pressure. On the macroscopic side, the pressure between our head and feet changes by 0.35 atmospheres. On the microscopic level the hydrostatic pressure on the upper half of a cell membrane is lower than on the lower half. This, by affecting the ion transport through the membrane, may change the surrounding electric potential. It has been suggested to be one of the reasons for graviperception. Following the discussion of these and other effects possibly important in life sciences in space, an order of magnitude analysis of the residual accelerations tolerable during experiments in materials sciences is outlined. In the field of life sciences only rough estimates are available at present. PMID:11537842

  4. Accidental release of toxic chemicals: influence of the main input parameters on consequence calculation.

    PubMed

    Bubbico, Roberto; Mazzarotta, Barbara

    2008-03-01

    In the present paper the accidental release of toxic chemicals has been taken into consideration, and a sensitivity analysis study of the corresponding consequences calculation has been carried out. Four different toxic chemicals have been chosen for the simulations, and the effect of the variability of the main input parameters on the extension of the impact areas has been assessed. The results show that the influence of these parameters depends on the physical properties of the released substance and that not always the widely known rules of thumb, such as the positive influence of the wind velocity on gas dispersion, apply. In particular, the boiling temperature of the chemical has revealed to be the main parameter affecting the type of dependence of the impact distances on the input variables. PMID:17630190

  5. Parameters affecting greywater quality and its safety for reuse.

    PubMed

    Maimon, Adi; Friedler, Eran; Gross, Amit

    2014-07-15

    Reusing greywater (GW) for on-site irrigation is becoming a common practice worldwide. Alongside its benefits, GW reuse might pose health and environmental risks. The current study assesses the risks associated with on-site GW reuse and the main factors affecting them. GW from 34 households in Israel was analyzed for physicochemical parameters, Escherichia coli (as an indicator for rotavirus), Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Each participating household filled out a questionnaire about their GW sources, treatment and usages. Quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) was performed based on the measured microbial quality, and on exposure scenarios derived from the questionnaires and literature data. The type of treatment was found to have a significant effect on the quality of the treated GW. The average E. coli counts in GW (which exclude kitchen effluent) treated by professionally-designed system resulted in acceptable risk under all exposure scenarios while the risk from inadequately-treated GW was above the accepted level as set by the WHO. In conclusion, safe GW reuse requires a suitable and well-designed treatment system. A risk-assessment approach should be used to adjust the current regulations/guidelines and to assess the performance of GW treatment and reuse systems. PMID:24751591

  6. A review of the meteorological parameters which affect aerial application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, L. S.; Frost, W.

    1979-01-01

    The ambient wind field and temperature gradient were found to be the most important parameters. Investigation results indicated that the majority of meteorological parameters affecting dispersion were interdependent and the exact mechanism by which these factors influence the particle dispersion was largely unknown. The types and approximately ranges of instrumented capabilities for a systematic study of the significant meteorological parameters influencing aerial applications were defined. Current mathematical dispersion models were also briefly reviewed. Unfortunately, a rigorous dispersion model which could be applied to aerial application was not available.

  7. Laboratory measurements of parameters affecting wet deposition of methyl iodide

    SciTech Connect

    Maeck, W.J.; Honkus, R.J.; Keller, J.H.; Voilleque, P.G.

    1984-09-01

    The transfer of gaseous methyl iodide (CH/sub 3/I) to raindrops and the initial retention by vegetation of CH/sub 3/I in raindrops have been studied in a laboratory experimental program. The measured air-to-drop transfer parameters and initial retention factors both affect the wet deposition of methyl iodide onto vegetation. No large effects on the air-to-drop transfer due to methyl iodide concentration, temperature, acidity, or rain type were observed. Differences between laboratory measurements and theoretical values of the mass transfer coefficient were found. Pasture grass, lettuce, and alfalfa were used to study the initial retention of methyl iodide by vegetation. Only a small fraction of the incident CH/sub 3/I in raindrops was held by any of the three vegetation types.

  8. A New Statistical Parameter for Identifying the Main Transition Velocities in Bubble Columns*

    PubMed Central

    Nedeltchev, Stoyan; Rabha, Swapna; Hampel, Uwe; Schubert, Markus

    2015-01-01

    The identification of the main flow regime boundaries in bubble columns is essential since the degrees of mixing and mass and heat transfer vary with the flow regime. In this work, a new statistical parameter was extracted from the time series of the cross-sectional averaged gas holdup. The measurements were performed in bubble columns by means of conductivity wire-mesh sensors at very high sampling frequency. The columns were operated with an air/deionized water system under ambient conditions. As a flow regime indicator, a new dimensionless statistical parameter called “relative maximum number of visits in a region” was introduced. This new parameter is a function of the difference between the maximum numbers of visits in a region, calculated from two different division schemes of the signal range. PMID:27570374

  9. Predicting engine parameters using the optic spectrum of the space shuttle main engine exhaust plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Ashok N.; Buntine, Wray

    The Optical Plume Anomaly Detection (OPAD) system is under development to predict engine anomalies and engine parameters of the Space Shuttle's Main Engine (SSME). The anomaly detection is based on abnormal metal concentrations in the optical spectrum of the rocket plume. Such abnormalities could be indicative of engine corrosion or other malfunctions. Here, we focus on the second task of the OPAD system, namely the prediction of engine parameters such as rated power level (RPL) and mixture ratio (MR). Because of the high dimensionality of the spectrum, we developed a linear algorithm to resolve the optical spectrum of the exhaust plume into a number of separate components, each with a different physical interpretation. These components are used to predict the metal concentrations and engine parameters for online support of ground-level testing of the SSME. Currently, these predictions are labor intensive and cannot be done online. We predict RPL using neural networks and give preliminary results.

  10. Assessment, modeling and optimization of parameters affecting the formation of disinfection by-products in water.

    PubMed

    Gougoutsa, Chrysa; Christophoridis, Christophoros; Zacharis, Constantinos K; Fytianos, Konstantinos

    2016-08-01

    This study focused on (a) the development of a screening methodology, in order to determine the main experimental variables affecting chlorinated and brominated disinfection by-product (DBP) formation in water during chlorination experiments and (b) the application of a central composite design (CCD) using response surface methodology (RSM) for the mathematical description and optimization of DBP formation. Chlorine dose and total organic carbon (TOC) were proven to be the main factors affecting the formation of total chlorinated DBPs, while chlorine dose and bromide concentration were the main parameters affecting the total brominated THMs. Longer contact time promoted a rise in chlorinated DBPs' concentration even in the presence of a minimal amount of organic matter. A maximum production of chlorinated DBPs was observed under a medium TOC value and it reduced at high TOC concentrations, possibly due to the competitive production of brominated THMs. The highest concentrations of chlorinated THMs were observed at chlorine dose 10 mg L(-1) and TOC 5.5 mg L(-1). The formation of brominated DBPs is possible even with a minimum amount of NaOCl in the presence of high concentration of bromide ions. Brominated DBPs were observed in maximum concentrations using 8 mg L(-1) of chlorine in the presence of 300 μg L(-1) bromides. PMID:27178297

  11. Importance and sensitivity of parameters affecting the Zion Seismic Risk

    SciTech Connect

    George, L.L.; O'Connell, W.J.

    1985-06-01

    This report presents the results of a study on the importance and sensitivity of structures, systems, equipment, components and design parameters used in the Zion Seismic Risk Calculations. This study is part of the Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP) supported by the NRC Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. The objective of this study is to provide the NRC with results on the importance and sensitivity of parameters used to evaluate seismic risk. These results can assist the NRC in making decisions dealing with the allocation of research resources on seismic issues. This study uses marginal analysis in addition to importance and sensitivity analysis to identify subject areas (input parameter areas) for improvements that reduce risk, estimate how much the improvement dfforts reduce risk, and rank the subject areas for improvements. Importance analysis identifies the systems, components, and parameters that are important to risk. Sensitivity analysis estimates the change in risk per unit improvement. Marginal analysis indicates the reduction in risk or uncertainty for improvement effort made in each subject area. The results described in this study were generated using the SEISIM (Systematic Evaluation of Important Safety Improvement Measures) and CHAIN computer codes. Part 1 of the SEISIM computer code generated the failure probabilities and risk values. Part 2 of SEISIM, along with the CHAIN computer code, generated the importance and sensitivity measures.

  12. Age-density relation of Main galaxies at fixed parameters or for different galaxy families

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Xin-Fa; Song, Jun; Chen, Yi-Qing; Jiang, Peng; Ding, Ying-Ping

    2015-09-01

    Using two volume-limited Main galaxy samples of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 10 (SDSS DR10), we examine the environmental dependence of galaxy age at fixed parameters or for different galaxy families. Statistical results show that the environmental dependence of galaxy age is stronger for late type galaxies, but can be still observed for the early types: the age of galaxies in the densest regime is preferentially older than that in the lowest density regime with the same morphological type. We also find that the environmental dependence of galaxy age for red galaxies and Low Stellar Mass (LSM) galaxies is stronger, while the one for blue galaxies and High Stellar Mass ( HSM ) galaxies is very weak.

  13. How Does Calibration Timing and Seasonality Affect Item Parameter Estimates?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyse, Adam E.; Babcock, Ben

    2016-01-01

    Continuously administered examination programs, particularly credentialing programs that require graduation from educational programs, often experience seasonality where distributions of examine ability may differ over time. Such seasonality may affect the quality of important statistical processes, such as item response theory (IRT) item…

  14. Effects of the main extraction parameters on chemical and microbial characteristics of compost tea.

    PubMed

    Islam, M K; Yaseen, T; Traversa, A; Ben Kheder, M; Brunetti, G; Cocozza, C

    2016-06-01

    The rising popularity of compost tea as fertilizer or foliar spray against pathogens has encouraged many researchers to evaluate its performance without standardizing its quality, so obtaining inconsistent and controversial results. The fertilizing and pesticide-like effects of compost tea are due to its chemical and microbiological properties. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the best combination of the compost tea extraction parameters for exalting both chemical and microbiological features. A factorial design was adopted to evaluate the effects of compost/water ratio, extraction time, storage duration and storage temperature in different combination on physical, chemical and microbiological characteristics of compost tea, and the results were elaborated through different statistical analyses. Compost tea nutrients and microorganisms were influenced by compost/water ratio and extraction time. In addition, the storage duration affected the microbial populations, whereas the storage temperature influenced only the fungal population of compost tea. Results suggested that the best combination of the studied parameters was: 1:2.5 compost/water ratio, 2days of extraction time and the compost tea should be utilized immediately after the extraction, since the storage reduced the microbial populations. PMID:27040088

  15. How SN Ia host-galaxy properties affect cosmological parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, H.; Fraser, M.; Gilmore, G.

    2016-04-01

    We present a systematic study of the relationship between Type Ia Supernova (SN Ia) properties, and the characteristics of their host galaxies, using a sample of 581 SNe Ia from the full Sloan Digital Sky Survey II (SDSS-II) SN Survey. We also investigate the effects of this on the cosmological constraints derived from SNe Ia. Compared to previous studies, our sample is larger by a factor of >4, and covers a substantially larger redshift range (up to z ˜ 0.5), which is directly applicable to the volume of cosmological interest. We measure a significant correlation (>5σ) between the host-galaxy stellar-mass and the SN Ia Hubble Residuals (HR). We find a weak correlation (1.4σ) between the host-galaxy metallicity as measured from emission lines in the spectra, and the SN Ia HR. We also find evidence that the slope of the correlation between host-galaxy mass and HR is -0.11 mag/log(Mhost/M⊙) steeper in lower metallicity galaxies. We test the effects on a cosmological analysis using both the derived best-fitting correlations between host parameters and HR, and by allowing an additional free parameter in the fit to account for host properties which we then marginalize over when determining cosmological parameters. We see a shift towards more negative values of the equation-of-state parameter w, along with a shift to lower values of Ωm after applying mass or metallicity corrections. The shift in cosmological parameters with host-galaxy stellar-mass correction is consistent with previous studies. We find a best-fitting cosmology of Ω m =0.266_{-0.016}^{+0.016}, Ω _{Λ }=0.740_{-0.018}^{+0.018} and w=-1.151_{-0.121}^{+0.123} (statistical errors only).

  16. Can a Short Term of Repeated Ejaculations Affect Seminal Parameters?

    PubMed Central

    Mayorga-Torres, Jose Manuel; Agarwal, Ashok; Roychoudhury, Shubhadeep; Cadavid, Angela; Cardona-Maya, Walter Dario

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of the study was to assess the effect of four repeated ejaculations on the same day at two-hour intervals on conventional and functional semen parameters. Methods: Three healthy men (32±3.6 years) donated the first semen samples after 3–4 days of sexual abstinence followed by three subsequent samples on the same day at two-hour interval each. Semen samples were processed and analyzed according to the World Health Organization (WHO) 2010 guidelines. Furthermore, intracellular reactive oxygen (ROS) production, sperm DNA fragmentation and mitochondrial function were evaluated by flow cytometry. Results: An overall decreasing trend was noted in the conventional semen parameters at second, third and fourth evaluations after two hours of abstinence in comparison to first evaluation after 3–4 days of abstinence. The statistical comparison of the conventional semen parameters at fourth evaluation after 2 hr of abstinence revealed significant reduction (p<0.05) in the parameters of concentration, total sperm count and total motile sperm count at fourth evaluation. The functional parameter of intracellular ROS production showed a decreasing trend with each subsequent evaluation, the difference being significant (p<0.05) at fourth evaluation in comparison to first evaluation. An increasing trend was noted for DNA fragmentation index (DFI), although it remained within acceptable levels (<29%). The ΔΨm high permatozoa and the integrity of the plasma membrane remained stable throughout the evaluations. Conclusion: The findings of the present study indicate the potential use of additional semen samples with repeated ejaculations at short abstinence times in assisted reproduction procedures particularly from severe oligospermic men. PMID:27478772

  17. Altered expression of KLC3 may affect semen parameters

    PubMed Central

    Kargar- Dastjerdy, Pegah; Tavalaee, Marziyeh; Salehi, Mansoor; Falahati, Mojtaba; Izadi, Tayebeh; Nasr Esfahani, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Background: KLC3 protein as a member of the kinesin light-chain protein family plays an important role in spermatogenesis, during formation of mitochondrial sheath in the mid piece of the sperm tail. Objective: This study for the first time aims to compare the expression of the KLC3 gene between fertile and infertile individuals. Materials and Methods: Semen samples were collected from 19 fertile individuals who were selected from embryo-donor volunteers and 57 infertile individuals who had abnormal sperm parameters according to world health organization criteria. Sperm parameters using computer assisted sperm analysis and the quantitative KLC3-gene expression using the real-time PCR method were measured. Results: Our results revealed a significant correlations between sperm concentration with relative expression of KLC3 only in infertile groups (r=0.45, p=0.00). A significant correlation was not found between KLC3 expression and sperm motility; however, the relative expression of KLC3 was significantly higher in asthenozoospermic compared to non-asthenozoospermic individuals. Conclusion: Low expression of KLC3 may result in improper function of midpiece, which has important function in sperm motility. The results of this study show that aberrant expression of KLC3 might be associated with phenomena like oligozoospermia and asthenozoospermia. This article is extracted from student’s thesis. PMID:27141544

  18. Accuracy of theoretical calculations of the main parameters of the F2-layer of the daytime ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlov, A. V.; Sitnov, Iu. S.

    1985-10-01

    Pavlov's (1984) method is used to determine the relative errors (due to errors in measuring the input parameters of the model) in theoretical calculations of the main parameters of the daytime F2-layer under quiet conditions. The parameters calculated are the height of the F2-layer maximum and the electron density.

  19. Does Methylphenidate Affect Cystometric Parameters in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats?

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Khae Hawn; Jung, Ha Bum; Choi, Don Kyoung; Park, Geun Ho; Cho, Sung Tae

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Methylphenidate (MPH) is one of the most commonly prescribed psychostimulants for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, there is limited research on its effects on lower urinary tract function. This study investigated changes in cystometric parameters after intragastric administration of MPH in conscious spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs), an animal model of ADHD. Methods: Fourteen- to 16-week-old male SHRs (n=10), weighing between 280 and 315 g, were used. Three micturition cycles were recorded before administering MPH. One hour after each intragastric MPH injection, three cycles of cystometrogram were obtained in the awake condition. Various cystometric parameters were evaluated, including basal pressure (BP), maximal pressure (MP), threshold pressure (TP), bladder capacity (BC), micturition volume (MV), micturition interval (MI), and residual volume (RV). The data were analyzed using paired Student t-tests. Results: Five SHRs were each administered a dose of 3-mg/kg MPH, and the other five received a dose of 6-mg/kg MPH. BP and MP increased significantly in the rats that received the 3-mg/kg MPH injection, but not in those that received the 6-mg/kg injection. BC, MV, and MI significantly increased in the rats that received the 6-mg/kg MPH injection, but not in those that received the 3-mg/kg injection. There were no significant changes in TP after either injection. Conclusions: Significant increases in BC, MV, and MI after the 6-mg/kg MPH injection suggest that the peripheral and the central nervous systems may play important roles in bladder function in those receiving MPH for ADHD. PMID:26126435

  20. Parameters affecting of Akkuyu's safety assessment for severe core damages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavun, Yusuf; Karasulu, Muzaffer

    2015-07-01

    We have looked at all past core meltdowns (Three Mile Island, Chernobyl and Fukushima incidents) and postulated the fourth one might be taking place in the future most probably in a newly built reactors anywhere of the earth in any type of NPP. The probability of this observation is high considering the nature of the machine and human interaction. Operation experience is a very significant parameter as well as the safety culture of the host nation. The concerns is not just a lack of experience with industry with the new comers, but also the infrastructure and established institutions who will be dealing with the Emergencies. Lack of trained and educated Emergency Response Organizations (ERO) is a major concern. The culture on simple fire drills even makes the difference when a severe condition occurs in the industry. The study assumes the fourth event will be taking place at the Akkuyu NGS and works backwards as required by the "what went wrong " scenarios and comes up with interesting results. The differences studied in depth to determine the impact to the severe accidents. The all four design have now core catchers. We have looked at the operator errors'like in TMI); Operator errors combined with design deficiencies(like in Chernobyl) and natural disasters( like in Fukushima) and found operator errors to be more probable event on the Akkuyu's postulated next incident. With respect to experiences of the operators we do not have any data except for long and successful operating history of the Soviet design reactors up until the Chernobyl incident. Since the Akkuyu will be built, own and operated by the Russians we have found no alarming concerns at the moment. At the moment, there is no body be able to operate those units in Turkey. Turkey is planning to build the required manpower during the transition period. The resolution of the observed parameters lies to work and educate, train of the host nation and exercise together.

  1. Regression analysis of technical parameters affecting nuclear power plant performances

    SciTech Connect

    Ghazy, R.; Ricotti, M. E.; Trueco, P.

    2012-07-01

    Since the 80's many studies have been conducted in order to explicate good and bad performances of commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs), but yet no defined correlation has been found out to be totally representative of plant operational experience. In early works, data availability and the number of operating power stations were both limited; therefore, results showed that specific technical characteristics of NPPs were supposed to be the main causal factors for successful plant operation. Although these aspects keep on assuming a significant role, later studies and observations showed that other factors concerning management and organization of the plant could instead be predominant comparing utilities operational and economic results. Utility quality, in a word, can be used to summarize all the managerial and operational aspects that seem to be effective in determining plant performance. In this paper operational data of a consistent sample of commercial nuclear power stations, out of the total 433 operating NPPs, are analyzed, mainly focusing on the last decade operational experience. The sample consists of PWR and BWR technology, operated by utilities located in different countries, including U.S. (Japan)) (France)) (Germany)) and Finland. Multivariate regression is performed using Unit Capability Factor (UCF) as the dependent variable; this factor reflects indeed the effectiveness of plant programs and practices in maximizing the available electrical generation and consequently provides an overall indication of how well plants are operated and maintained. Aspects that may not be real causal factors but which can have a consistent impact on the UCF, as technology design, supplier, size and age, are included in the analysis as independent variables. (authors)

  2. Determination of the key parameters affecting historic communications satellite trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Namkoong, D.

    1984-01-01

    Data representing 13 series of commercial communications satellites procured between 1968 and 1982 were analyzed to determine the factors that have contributed to the general reduction over time of the per circuit cost of communications satellites. The model by which the data were analyzed was derived from a general telecommunications application and modified to be more directly applicable for communications satellites. In this model satellite mass, bandwidth-years, and technological change were the variable parameters. A linear, least squares, multiple regression routine was used to obtain the measure of significance of the model. Correlation was measured by coefficient of determination (R super 2) and t-statistic. The results showed that no correlation could be established with satellite mass. Bandwidth-year however, did show a significant correlation. Technological change in the bandwidth-year case was a significant factor in the model. This analysis and the conclusions derived are based on mature technologies, i.e., satellite designs that are evolutions of earlier designs rather than the first of a new generation. The findings, therefore, are appropriate to future satellites only if they are a continuation of design evolution.

  3. Cell surface lectin array: parameters affecting cell glycan signature.

    PubMed

    Landemarre, Ludovic; Cancellieri, Perrine; Duverger, Eric

    2013-04-01

    Among the "omics", glycomics is one of the most complex fields and needs complementary strategies of analysis to decipher the "glycan dictionary". As an alternative method, which has developed since the beginning of the 21st century, lectin array technology could generate relevant information related to glycan motifs, accessibility and a number of other valuable insights from molecules (purified and non-purified) or cells. Based on a cell line model, this study deals with the key parameters that influence the whole cell surface glycan interaction with lectin arrays and the consequences on the interpretation and reliability of the results. The comparison between the adherent and suspension forms of Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells, showed respective glycan signatures, which could be inhibited specifically by neoglycoproteins. The modifications of the respective glycan signatures were also revealed according to the detachment modes and cell growth conditions. Finally the power of lectin array technology was highlighted by the possibility of selecting and characterizing a specific clone from the mother cell line, based on the slight difference determination in the respective glycan signatures. PMID:22899543

  4. [Litter decomposition and its main affecting factors in tidal marshes of Minjiang River Estuary, East China].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin-Hai; Zeng, Cong-Sheng; Zhang, Wen-Juan; Wang, Tian-E; Tong, Chuan

    2012-09-01

    By using litterbag method, this paper studied the decomposition of the leaf- and flower litters of two emergent macrophytes, native species Phragmites australis and invasive species Spartina alterniflora, and related affecting factors in the Minjiang River estuary of East China. In the decomposition process of the litters, the decay of standing litter (0-90 days) was an important period, and the loss rate of the flower- and leaf litters dry mass of P. australis and S. alterniflora was 15.0 +/- 3.5% and 13.3 +/- 1.1%, and 31.9 +/- 1.1% and 20.8 +/- 1.4%, respectively. During lodging decay period (91-210 days), the loss rate of the flower- and leaf litters dry mass of P. australis and S. alterniflora was 69.5 +/- 0.6% and 71.5 +/- 2.5%, and 76.8 +/- 1.9% and 67.5 +/- 2.1%, respectively. In standing decay period, the decomposition rate of the two plants litters was positively correlated with the litters C/N but negatively correlated to the litters N/P, and the litters P was an important factor limiting the litters decay. In lodging decay period, the effects of the litters C/N, C/P, and N/P decreased, while the environment factors (climate, soil moisture, soil acidity and salinity, and sediment properties) acted more important roles. The differences in the factors affecting the decay of the litters in different decomposition periods were mainly related to the micro-environment and tidal process for the two plant communities. PMID:23285995

  5. Parameters affecting extraction of selected fungicides from vineyard soils.

    PubMed

    Rial-Otero, Raquel; González-Rodríguez, Rosa María; Cancho-Grande, Beatriz; Simal-Gándara, Jesús

    2004-12-01

    This paper describes a sensitive method for the simultaneous quantification of eight commonly used grapevine fungicides in vineyard soils: cyprodinil, fludioxonil, metalaxyl, penconazole, pyrimethanil, procymidone, tebuconazole, and vinclozolin. The fungicides are extracted from the soil sample by sonication with water followed by shaking with ethyl acetate and are quantified by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry. Average extraction efficiencies in a sample of seven spiked, previously fungicide-free soils were > or =79% for all of the analytes, method precisions were > or =17%, and quantification limits were < or =50 microg/kg. However, because recoveries varied considerably from soil to soil, there is a need to control for soil matrix differences (mainly soil pH and exchangeable calcium content); as a consequence, soil fungicide contents must be quantified by the standard additions method. When the method was applied in this way to soil samples from vineyards belonging to the specified wine-growing region of Rias Baixas (Galicia, northwestern Spain) taken at the beginning of October (1 month after the crop's final treatment), levels of fludioxonil as high as 991 microg/kg were found, but at the start of the season (9 months after the previous crop's final treatment) only fludioxonil was detected at levels higher than its limit of quantification (45 and 52 microg/kg). PMID:15563199

  6. Exposure to Sevoflurane Affects the Development of Parvalbumin Interneurons in the Main Olfactory Bulb in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jing; Chen, Jing; Cai, Guohong; Lu, Rui; Sun, Tingting; Luo, Tingting; Wu, Shengxi; Ling, Shucai

    2016-01-01

    Sevoflurane is widely used in adult and pediatric patients during clinical surgeries. Although studies have shown that exposure to sevoflurane impairs solfactory memory after an operation, the neuropathological changes underlying this effect are not clear. This study detected the effect of sevoflurane exposure on the development of calcium-binding proteins-expressing interneurons in the main olfactory bulb (MOB). We exposed neonatal mice to 2% sevoflurane at two different developmental time points and found that exposing mice to sevoflurane at postnatal day (PD) 7 significantly decreased the expression of GAD67 and parvalbumin (PV) in the olfactory bulb (OB) but did not alter the expression of calretinin (CR) or calbindin D28k (CB). The number and dendritic morphology of PV-expressing interneurons in the MOB were impaired by exposure to sevoflurane at PD7. However, exposure to sevoflurane at PD10 had no effect on calcium-binding protein expression or the number and dendritic morphology of PV-expressing interneurons in the MOB. These results suggest that exposing neonatal mice to sevoflurane during a critical period of olfactory development affects the development of PV-expressing interneurons in the MOB. PMID:27445710

  7. Analysis of main parameters affecting substrate/mortar contact area through tridimensional laser scanner.

    PubMed

    Stolz, Carina M; Masuero, Angela B

    2015-10-01

    This study assesses the influence of the granulometric composition of sand, application energy and the superficial tension of substrates on the contact area of rendering mortars. Three substrates with distinct wetting behaviors were selected and mortars were prepared with different sand compositions. Characterization tests were performed on fresh and hardened mortars, as well as the rheological characterization. Mortars were applied to substrates with two different energies. The interfacial area was then digitized with 3D scanner. Results show that variables are all of influence on the interfacial contact in the development area. Furthermore, 3D laser scanning proved to be a good method to contact area measurement. PMID:26046982

  8. Affective State Influences Perception by Affecting Decision Parameters Underlying Bias and Sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Lynn, Spencer K.; Zhang, Xuan; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2012-01-01

    Studies of the effect of affect on perception often show consistent directional effects of a person’s affective state on perception. Unpleasant emotions have been associated with a “locally focused” style of stimulus evaluation, and positive emotions with a “globally focused” style. Typically, however, studies of affect and perception have not been conducted under the conditions of perceptual uncertainty and behavioral risk inherent to perceptual judgments outside the laboratory. We investigated the influence of perceivers’ experience affect (valence and arousal) on the utility of social threat perception by combining signal detection theory and behavioral economics. We created three perceptual decision environments that systematically differed with respect to factors that underlie uncertainty and risk: the base rate of threat, the costs of incorrect identification threat, and the perceptual similarity of threats and non-threats. We found that no single affective state yielded the best performance on the threat perception task across the three environments. Unpleasant valence promoted calibration of response bias to base rate and costs, high arousal promoted calibration of perceptual sensitivity to perceptual similarity, and low arousal was associated with an optimal adjustment of bias to sensitivity. However, the strength of these associations was conditional upon the difficulty of attaining optimal bias and high sensitivity, such that the effect of the perceiver’s affective state on perception differed with the cause and/or level of uncertainty and risk. PMID:22251054

  9. Main Parameters of Soil Quality and it's Management Under Changing Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    László Phd, M., ,, Dr.

    2009-04-01

    0-5 cm zone, penetration resistance of 0 to 20 and 20 to 40 cm zones and topsoil thickness as physical determinants of soil quality. Letey (1994) suggests that structure, texture, bulk density, and profile characteristics affect management practices in agriculture but are not directly related to plant productivity. He proposes that water potential, oxygen diffusion rate, temperature, and mechanical resistance directly affect plant growth, and thus are the best indicators of the physical quality of a soil for production. Soil tilth, a poorly defined term that describes the physical condition of soil, also may be an indicator of a soil's ability to support crops. Farmers may assess soil tilth by kicking a soil clod. More formal measurements to describe soil ti]th include bulk density, porosity, structure, roughness and aggregate characteristics (Karlen et al., 1992). Many of the processes that contribute to soil structure, aggregate stability, bulk density and porosity are not well understood, making soil tilth a difficult parameter to quantify. Soil depth is an easily measured and independent property that provides direct information about a soil's ability to support plants. Effective soil depth is the depth available for roots to explore for water and nutrients. Layers that restrict root growth or water movement include hard rock, naturally dense soil layers such as fragipans, petrocalcic and, petroferric horizons, duripans, and human-induced layers of high bulk density such as plow pans and traffic pans. Effective soil depth is a problem for agricultural use of over 50% of soils in Africa (Eswaran et al., 1997). Soil depth requirements vary with crop or species. Many vegetable crops, for example, are notably shallow rooted while grain crops and some legumes like alfalfa are deep rooted. Variation will be even greater in unmanaged, natural systems. Wheat yield in Colorado was shown to decrease from 2,700 to 1,150 kg ha' over a 60-yr period of cultivation primarily

  10. Effect of welding parameters on the heat-affected zone of AISI409 ferritic stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjbarnodeh, Eslam; Hanke, Stefanie; Weiss, Sabine; Fischer, Alfons

    2012-10-01

    One of the main problems during the welding of ferritic stainless steels is severe grain growth within the heat-affected zone (HAZ). In the present study, the microstructural characteristics of tungsten inert gas (TIG) welded AISI409 ferritic stainless steel were investigated by electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD), and the effects of welding parameters on the grain size, local misorientation, and low-angle grain boundaries were studied. A 3-D finite element model (FEM) was developed to predict the effects of welding parameters on the holding time of the HAZ above the critical temperature of grain growth. It is found that the base metal is not fully recrystallized. During the welding, complete recrystallization is followed by severe grain growth. A decrease in the number of low-angle grain boundaries is observed within the HAZ. FEM results show that the final state of residual strains is caused by competition between welding plastic strains and their release by recrystallization. Still, the decisive factor for grain growth is heat input.

  11. Skin-light interaction of three main chromofores in skin affected by Port Wine Stain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mújica Ascencio, S.; Velázquez González, J. S.; Álvarez Chávez, J. A.

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, simulation and mathematical analysis of the absorption, dispersion and dynamics of laser light generated at 690nm and its interaction with skin affected by the Port Wine Stain is presented. The absorption coefficient and penetration depth of water, hemoglobin and oxy-hemoglobin, as key chromophores are calculated. A suitable wavelength for possible treatment on Port Wine Stain located in the skin layers such as Dermis and Hypodermis is determined. The presentation will include a full fiber laser design description, detailed skin affectation explanation and preliminary results.

  12. The variation in molecular gas depletion time among nearby galaxies: what are the main parameter dependences?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Mei-Ling; Kauffmann, Guinevere

    2014-09-01

    We re-analyse correlations between global molecular gas depletion time (tdep) and galaxy parameters for nearby galaxies from the COLD GASS survey. We improve on previous work of Saintonge et al. by estimating star formation rates using the combination of Galaxy Evolution Explorer far-ultraviolet and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer 22 μm data and by deriving tdep within a fixed aperture set by the beam size of gas observation. In our new study, we find correlations with much smaller scatter. Dependences of the depletion time on galaxy structural parameters such as stellar surface density and concentration index are now weak or absent. We demonstrate that the primary global parameter correlation is between tdep and specific star formation rate (sSFR); all other remaining correlations can be shown to be induced by this primary dependence. This implies that galaxies with high current-to-past-averaged star formation activity, will drain their molecular gas reservoir sooner. We then analyse tdep on 1 kpc scales in galactic discs using data from the HERA CO-Line Extragalactic Survey survey. There is remarkably good agreement between the global tdep-sSFR relation for the COLD GASS galaxies and that derived for 1 kpc scale grids in discs. This leads to the conclusion that the local molecular gas depletion time in galactic discs is dependent on the local fraction of young-to-old stars.

  13. The Maine Question: How Is 4-Year College Enrollment Affected by Mandatory College Entrance Exams?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurwitz, Michael; Smith, Jonathan; Niu, Sunny; Howell, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    We use a difference-in-differences analytic approach to estimate postsecondary consequences from Maine's mandate that all public school juniors take the SAT®. We find that, overall, the policy increased 4-year college-going rates by 2- to 3-percentage points and that 4-year college-going rates among induced students increased by 10-percentage…

  14. Chronic consumption of alcohol and sperm parameters: our experience and the main evidences.

    PubMed

    Condorelli, R A; Calogero, A E; Vicari, E; La Vignera, S

    2015-05-01

    The present article describes the recent clinical experience and the main clinical and experimental evidences on this topic. In the first part, we present retrospective data collected over the last year on the semen quality and hormonal characteristics of the alcohol consumers evaluated in our centre. In the second part, we describe the mechanisms by which chronic alcohol intoxication impairs the testicular function (evidences for an ethanol-mediated effect at pre-testicular/testicular and post-testicular level). In the third part, we present data on ethanol taken a male risk factor of infertility, being present as one among other recreational drugs (also called lifestyle). Finally, is discussed the role of individual susceptibility factors and other variables. PMID:24766499

  15. The modern instrumentation used for monitoring and controlling the main parameters of the regenerative electro-mechano-hydraulic drive systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristescu, Corneliu; Drumea, Petrin; Krevey, Petrica

    2009-01-01

    In this work is presented the modern instrumentation used for monitoring and controlling the main parameters for one regenerative drive system, used to recovering the kinetic energy of motor vehicles, lost in the braking phase, storing and using this energy in the starting or accelerating phases. Is presented a Romanian technical solution for a regenerative driving system, based on a hybrid solution containing a hydro-mechanic module and an existing thermal motor drive, all conceived as a mechatronics system. In order to monitoring and controlling the evolution of the main parameters, the system contains a series of sensors and transducers that provide the moment, rotation, temperature, flow and pressure values. The main sensors and transducers of the regenerative drive system, their principal features and tehnical conecting solutions are presented in this paper, both with the menaging electronic and informational subsystems.

  16. Influences of the main anodic electroplating parameters on cerium oxide films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yang; Yang, Yumeng; Du, Xiaoqing; Chen, Yu; Zhang, Zhao; Zhang, Jianqing

    2014-06-01

    Cerium oxide thin films were fabricated onto 316 L stainless steel via a potentiostatically anodic electrodeposition approach in the solutions containing cerium(III) nitrate (0.05 M), ammonia acetate (0.1 M) and ethanol (10% V/V). The electrochemical behaviors and deposition parameters (applied potential, bath temperature, dissolving O2 and bath pH) have been investigated. Results show that, the electrochemical oxidation of Ce3+ goes through one electrochemical step, which is under charge transfer control. The optimum applied potential for film deposition is 0.8 V. Bath temperature plays a significant effect on the deposition rate, composition (different colors of the film) and surface morphology of the deposits. Due to the hydrolysis of Ce3+, cerous hydroxide is facility to form when the bath temperature is higher than 60 °C. The electroplating bath pH is another key role for the anodic deposition of cerium oxide thin films, and the best bath pH is around 6.20. N2 or O2 purged into the bath will result in film porosities and O2 favors cerium oxide particles and film generation.

  17. Macroinvertebrate abundance, water chemistry, and wetland characteristics affect use of wetlands by avian species in Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Longcore, J.R.; McAuley, D.G.; Pendleton, G.W.; Bennatti, C.R.; Mingo, T.M.; Stromborg, K.L.

    2006-01-01

    Our objective was to determine use by avian species (e.g., piscivores, marsh birds, waterfowl, selected passerines) of 29 wetlands in areas with low ( 5.51. All years combined use of wetlands by broods was greater on wetlands with pH 5.51 that supported 21.8% of the broods. High mean brood density was associated with mean number of Insecta per wetland. For lentic wetlands created by beaver, those habitats contained vegetative structure and nutrients necessary to provide cover to support invertebrate populations that are prey of omnivore and insectivore species. The fishless status of a few wetlands may have affected use by some waterfowl species and obligate piscivores.

  18. Macroinvertebrate abundance, water chemistry, and wetland characteristics affect use of wetlands by avian species in Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Longcore, J.R.; McAuley, D.G.; Pendelton, G.W.; Bennatti, C.R.; Mingo, T.M.; Stromborg, K.L.

    2006-01-01

    Our objective was to determine use by avian species (e.g., piscivores, marsh birds, waterfowl, selected passerines) of 29 wetlands in areas with low ( 5.51. All years combined use of wetlands by broods was greater on wetlands with pH ??? 5.51 (77.4%) in contract to wetlands with pH > 5.51 that supported 21.8% of the broods. High mean brood density was associated with mean number of Insecta per wetland. For lentic wetlands created by beaver, those habitats contained vegetative structure and nutrients necessary to provide cover to support invertebrate populations that are prey of omnivore and insectivore species. The fishless status of a few wetlands may have affected use by some waterfowl species and obligate piscivores. ?? Springer 2006.

  19. What Gives a Wine Its Strong Red Color? Main Correlations Affecting Copigmentation.

    PubMed

    Heras-Roger, Jesus; Díaz-Romero, Carlos; Darias-Martín, Jacinto

    2016-08-31

    Copigmentation and enological parameters were studied in a collection of 250 red wines. Although several copigmentation studies have been performed with model solutions, little is known about the actual consequences directly in wine of anthocyanin interactions. To date, some studies have considered relationships between copigmentation and natural wine constituents, but none correlates copigmentation measurements with the real wide concentration in wine. In this work, published hypotheses based on model solutions such as phenolic acid copigmentation ability or the influence of copigmentation factors such as flavonols are empirically evaluated in a large sample of wines for the first time. The study confirms previous results obtained from solutions, whereas other factors suggested as being relevant seem to be unrelated to the studied effect at the concentration range naturally occurring in the wines studied. For instance, the important role of flavonols and hydroxycinnamic acids has been ratified, whereas ethanol, gallic acid, and some metals show significant inverse correlations with copigmentation. Unexpectedly, magnesium content in wine correlates with color, whereas the concentration of traditional copigments, such as quercetin, does not show any correlation with copigmentation. PMID:27523569

  20. Evaluation of the influence of the main plasma density parameters on antenna coupling and radio frequency potentials with TOPICA code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milanesio, D.; Maggiora, R.

    2013-04-01

    The successful design of an ion cyclotron antenna mainly relies on the capability of accurately predicting its behavior both in terms of input parameters, and therefore power coupled to plasma, and radiated fields. All these features essentially depend on the antenna itself (its geometry, the matching and tuning systems) and, obviously, on the faced loading. In this paper a number of plasma profiles is analysed with the help of the TOPICA code, a predictive tool for the design and optimization of radio frequency (RF) launchers in front of a plasma, in order to understand which plasma parameters have the most significant influence on the coupling performances of a typical IC antenna.

  1. Main Parameters of Soil Quality and it's Management Under Changing Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    László Phd, M., ,, Dr.

    2009-04-01

    are intended to protect the ability of ecosystems to function properly (Kádár, 1992; Várallyay, 1992, 1994, 2005; Cook and Hendershot, 1996; Németh, 1996; Malcolm, 2000; Márton, 2005; Márton et al. 2007). The Hungarian Ministry of Environment and Water (HMEW, 2004) suggests that the Hungarian Regions should adopt a national policy "...that seeks to conserve and enhance soil quality...". Useful evaluation of soil quality requires agreement about why soil quality is important, how it is defined, how it should be measured, and how to respond to measurements with management, restoration, or conservation practices. Because determining soil quality requires one or more value judgments and because we have much to learn about soil, these issues are not easily addressed (Várallyay, 1992, 1994, 2005; Cook and Hendershot, 1996; Németh, 1996; Malcolm, 2000). Definitions of soil quality have been based both on human uses of soil and on the functions of soil within natural and agricultural ecosystems. For purposes of this work, we are showing soil quality within the context of managed agricultural ecosystems. To many in agriculture and agricultural research, productivity is analogous to soil quality. Maintaining soil quality is also a human health concern because air, groundwater and surface water consumed by humans can be adversely affected by mismanaged and contaminated soils, and because humans may be exposed to contaminated soils in residential areas (Kádár, 1992; Várallyay, 2005; Cook and Hendershot, 1996; Németh, 1996; Malcolm, 2000; Márton et al. 2007). Contamination may include heavy metals, toxic elements, excess nutrients, volatile and nonvolatile organics, explosives, radioactive isotopes and inhalable fibers (Sheppard et al., 1992; Cook and Hendershot, 1996). Soil quality is not determined by any single conserving or degrading process or property, and soil has both dynamic and relatively static properties that also vary spatially (Carter et al., 1997

  2. Measures of GCM Performance as Functions of Model Parameters Affecting Clouds and Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, C.; Mu, Q.; Sen, M.; Stoffa, P.

    2002-05-01

    This abstract is one of three related presentations at this meeting dealing with several issues surrounding optimal parameter and uncertainty estimation of model predictions of climate. Uncertainty in model predictions of climate depends in part on the uncertainty produced by model approximations or parameterizations of unresolved physics. Evaluating these uncertainties is computationally expensive because one needs to evaluate how arbitrary choices for any given combination of model parameters affects model performance. Because the computational effort grows exponentially with the number of parameters being investigated, it is important to choose parameters carefully. Evaluating whether a parameter is worth investigating depends on two considerations: 1) does reasonable choices of parameter values produce a large range in model response relative to observational uncertainty? and 2) does the model response depend non-linearly on various combinations of model parameters? We have decided to narrow our attention to selecting parameters that affect clouds and radiation, as it is likely that these parameters will dominate uncertainties in model predictions of future climate. We present preliminary results of ~20 to 30 AMIPII style climate model integrations using NCAR's CCM3.10 that show model performance as functions of individual parameters controlling 1) critical relative humidity for cloud formation (RHMIN), and 2) boundary layer critical Richardson number (RICR). We also explore various definitions of model performance that include some or all observational data sources (surface air temperature and pressure, meridional and zonal winds, clouds, long and short-wave cloud forcings, etc...) and evaluate in a few select cases whether the model's response depends non-linearly on the parameter values we have selected.

  3. Students' Perspective (Age Wise, Gender Wise and Year Wise) of Parameters Affecting the Undergraduate Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumari, Neeraj

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study is to examine the students' perspective (age wise, gender wise and year wise) of parameters affecting the undergraduate engineering education system present in a private technical institution in NCR [National Capital Region], Haryana. It is a descriptive type of research in nature. The data has been collected with the…

  4. A Case Study Showing Parameters Affecting the Quality of Education: Faculty Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumari, Neeraj

    2014-01-01

    The study aims to examine the faculty members' perspective (age Wise, Gender Wise and Work Experience wise) of parameters affecting the quality of education in an affiliated Undergraduate Engineering Institution in Haryana. It is a descriptive type of research. The data has been collected with the help of 'Questionnaire Based Survey'. The sample…

  5. Oxidative Stress Implications in the Affective Disorders: Main Biomarkers, Animal Models Relevance, Genetic Perspectives, and Antioxidant Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Balmus, Ioana Miruna; Dobrin, Romeo; Timofte, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The correlation between the affective disorders and the almost ubiquitous pathological oxidative stress can be described in a multifactorial way, as an important mechanism of central nervous system impairment. Whether the obvious changes which occur in oxidative balance of the affective disorders are a part of the constitutive mechanism or a collateral effect yet remains as an interesting question. However it is now clear that oxidative stress is a component of these disorders, being characterized by different aspects in a disease-dependent manner. Still, there are a lot of controversies regarding the relevance of the oxidative stress status in most of the affective disorders and despite the fact that most of the studies are showing that the affective disorders development can be correlated to increased oxidative levels, there are various studies stating that oxidative stress is not linked with the mood changing tendencies. Thus, in this minireview we decided to describe the way in which oxidative stress is involved in the affective disorders development, by focusing on the main oxidative stress markers that could be used mechanistically and therapeutically in these deficiencies, the genetic perspectives, some antioxidant approaches, and the relevance of some animal models studies in this context. PMID:27563374

  6. Oxidative Stress Implications in the Affective Disorders: Main Biomarkers, Animal Models Relevance, Genetic Perspectives, and Antioxidant Approaches.

    PubMed

    Balmus, Ioana Miruna; Ciobica, Alin; Antioch, Iulia; Dobrin, Romeo; Timofte, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The correlation between the affective disorders and the almost ubiquitous pathological oxidative stress can be described in a multifactorial way, as an important mechanism of central nervous system impairment. Whether the obvious changes which occur in oxidative balance of the affective disorders are a part of the constitutive mechanism or a collateral effect yet remains as an interesting question. However it is now clear that oxidative stress is a component of these disorders, being characterized by different aspects in a disease-dependent manner. Still, there are a lot of controversies regarding the relevance of the oxidative stress status in most of the affective disorders and despite the fact that most of the studies are showing that the affective disorders development can be correlated to increased oxidative levels, there are various studies stating that oxidative stress is not linked with the mood changing tendencies. Thus, in this minireview we decided to describe the way in which oxidative stress is involved in the affective disorders development, by focusing on the main oxidative stress markers that could be used mechanistically and therapeutically in these deficiencies, the genetic perspectives, some antioxidant approaches, and the relevance of some animal models studies in this context. PMID:27563374

  7. Optimization of parameters affecting signal intensity in an LTQ-orbitrap in negative ion mode: A design of experiments approach.

    PubMed

    Lemonakis, Nikolaos; Skaltsounis, Alexios-Leandros; Tsarbopoulos, Anthony; Gikas, Evagelos

    2016-01-15

    A multistage optimization of all the parameters affecting detection/response in an LTQ-orbitrap analyzer was performed, using a design of experiments methodology. The signal intensity, a critical issue for mass analysis, was investigated and the optimization process was completed in three successive steps, taking into account the three main regions of an orbitrap, the ion generation, the ion transmission and the ion detection regions. Oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol were selected as the model compounds. Overall, applying this methodology the sensitivity was increased more than 24%, the resolution more than 6.5%, whereas the elapsed scan time was reduced nearly to its half. A high-resolution LTQ Orbitrap Discovery mass spectrometer was used for the determination of the analytes of interest. Thus, oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol were infused via the instruments syringe pump and they were analyzed employing electrospray ionization (ESI) in the negative high-resolution full-scan ion mode. The parameters of the three main regions of the LTQ-orbitrap were independently optimized in terms of maximum sensitivity. In this context, factorial design, response surface model and Plackett-Burman experiments were performed and analysis of variance was carried out to evaluate the validity of the statistical model and to determine the most significant parameters for signal intensity. The optimum MS conditions for each analyte were summarized and the method optimum condition was achieved by maximizing the desirability function. Our observation showed good agreement between the predicted optimum response and the responses collected at the predicted optimum conditions. PMID:26592625

  8. Determination of the main parameters of the cyclone separator of the flue gas produced during the smelting of secondary aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matusov, Jozef; Gavlas, Stanislav

    2016-06-01

    One way how is possible to separate the solid particulate pollutants from the flue gas is use the cyclone separators. The cyclone separators are very frequently used separators due to the simplicity of their design and their low operating costs. Separation of pollutants in the form of solids is carried out using three types of forces: inertia force, centrifugal force, gravity force. The main advantage is that cyclone consist of the parts which are resistant to wear and have long life time, e.g. various rotating and sliding parts. Mostly are used as pre-separators, because they have low efficiency in the separation of small particles. Their function is to separate larger particles from the flue gases which are subsequently cleaned in the other device which is capable of removing particles smaller than 1 µm, which is limiting size of particle separation. The article will deal with the issue of calculating the basic dimensions and main parameters of the cyclone separator from flue gas produced during the smelting of secondary aluminum.

  9. Correlation Between the Clinical Parameters and Tissue Phenotype in Patients Affected by Deep-Infiltrating Endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Vinci, Giovanna; Arkwright, Sylviane; Audebourg, Anne; Radenen, Brigitte; Chapron, Charles; Borghese, Bruno; Dousset, Bertrand; Mehats, Celine; Vaiman, Daniel; Vacher-Lavenu, Marie-Cécile; Gogusev, Jean

    2016-09-01

    The current study aimed to identify and validate an applicable immunohistochemistry panel including Ki-67, c-MYC, estrogen receptor-α (ER-α), and progesterone receptor isoforms A/B (PR-A/B) in correlation with clinicopathological parameters in patients affected by deep infiltrating endometriosis. Tissue microarrays were prepared from a cohort of 113 patients. Phenotypic profile of the panel molecules was evaluated in glands and stroma in parallel with microvessels and stroma density measurements. Principal component analysis was performed on 8 immunohistochemical variables, 2 histological variables, and 8 subgroups of clinical parameters. The immunohistochemical profiling showed consistent Ki-67 immunostaining in 17.9% of the samples and c-MYC in 83.1%, while intense ER-α immunoreactivity was detected in 84% of the samples and PR-A/B isoforms in 24.1% of them. The combination of clinical parameters and tissue phenotype allowed a stratification of endometriosis-affected patients. Such novel phenotypical and clinical correlation could be helpful in the future studies for a better stratification of the disease aiming at a personalized patient care. PMID:26994067

  10. Long and Short Term Variability of the Main Physical Parameters in the Coastal Area of the SE Baltic Proper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mingelaite, Toma; Rukseniene, Viktorija; Dailidiene, Inga

    2015-04-01

    Keywords: SE Baltic Sea, coastal upwelling, IR Remote Sensing The memory of the ocean and seas of atmospheric forcing events contributes to the long-term climate change. Intensifying climate change processes in the North Atlantic region including Baltic Sea has drawn widespread interest, as a changing water temperature has ecological, economic and social impact in coastal areas of the Europe seas. In this work we analyse long and short term variability of the main physical parameters in the coastal area of the South Eastern Baltic Sea Proper. The analysis of long term variability is based on monitoring data measured in the South Eastern Baltic Sea for the last 50 years. The main focus of the long term variability is changes of hydro meteorological parameters relevant to the observed changes in the climate.The water salinity variations in the Baltic Sea near the Lithuanian coast and in the Curonian Lagoon, a shallow and enclosed sub-basin of the Baltic Sea, were analysed along with the time series of some related hydroclimatic factors. The short term water temperature and salinity variations were analysed with a strong focus on coastal upwelling events. Combining both remote sensing and in situ monitoring data physical parameters such as vertical salinity variations during upwelling events was analysed. The coastal upwelling in the SE Baltic Sea coast, depending on its scale and intensity, may lead to an intrusion of colder and saltier marine waters to the Curonian Lagoon resulting in hydrodynamic changes and pronounced temperature drop extending for 30-40 km further down the Lagoon. The study results show that increasing trends of water level, air and water temperature, and decreasing ice cover duration are related to the changes in meso-scale atmospheric circulation, and more specifically, to the changes in regional and local wind regime climate. That is in a good agreement with the increasing trends in local higher intensity of westerly winds, and with the winter

  11. Dam operations affect route-specific passage and survival of juvenile Chinook salmon at a main-stem diversion dam

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, Russell W.; Kock, Tobias J.; Couter, Ian I; Garrison, Thomas M; Hubble, Joel D; Child, David B

    2016-01-01

    Diversion dams can negatively affect emigrating juvenile salmon populations because fish must pass through the impounded river created by the dam, negotiate a passage route at the dam and then emigrate through a riverine reach that has been affected by reduced river discharge. To quantify the effects of a main-stem diversion dam on juvenile Chinook salmon in the Yakima River, Washington, USA, we used radio telemetry to understand how dam operations and river discharge in the 18-km reach downstream of the dam affected route-specific passage and survival. We found evidence of direct mortality associated with dam passage and indirect mortality associated with migration through the reach below the dam. Survival of fish passing over a surface spill gate (the west gate) was positively related to river discharge, and survival was similar for fish released below the dam, suggesting that passage via this route caused little additional mortality. However, survival of fish that passed under a sub-surface spill gate (the east gate) was considerably lower than survival of fish released downstream of the dam, with the difference in survival decreasing as river discharge increased. The probability of fish passing the dam via three available routes was strongly influenced by dam operations, with passage through the juvenile fish bypass and the east gate increasing with discharge through those routes. By simulating daily passage and route-specific survival, we show that variation in total survival is driven by river discharge and moderated by the proportion of fish passing through low-survival or high-survival passage routes.

  12. Study of design parameters affecting the motion of DNA for nanoinjection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, Regis A.; Jensen, Brian D.; Black, Justin L.; Burnett, Sandra H.; Howell, Larry L.

    2012-05-01

    This paper reports the effects of various parameters on the attraction and repulsion of DNA to and from a silicon lance. An understanding of DNA motion is crucial for a new approach to insert DNA, or other foreign microscopic matter, into a living cell. The approach, called nanoinjection, uses electrical forces to attract and repel the desired substance to a micromachined lance designed to pierce the cell membranes. We have developed mathematical models to predict the trajectory of DNA. The mathematical model allows investigation of the attraction/repulsion process by varying specific parameters. We find that the ground electrode placement, lance orientation and lance penetration significantly affect attraction or repulsion efficiency, while the gap, lance direction, lance tip width, lance tip half-angle and lance tip height do not.

  13. Identifying Critical Road Geometry Parameters Affecting Crash Rate and Crash Type

    PubMed Central

    Othman, Sarbaz; Thomson, Robert; Lannér, Gunnar

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this traffic safety investigation was to find critical road parameters affecting crash rate (CR). The study was based on crash and road maintenance data from Western Sweden. More than 3000 crashes, reported from 2000 to 2005 on median-separated roads, were collected and combined with road geometric and surface data. The statistical analysis showed variations in CR when road elements changed confirming that road characteristics affect CR. The findings indicated that large radii right-turn curves were more dangerous than left curves, in particular, during lane changing manoeuvres. However sharper curves are more dangerous in both left and right curves. Moreover, motorway carriageways with no or limited shoulders have the highest CR when compared to other carriageway widths, while one lane carriageway sections on 2+1 roads were the safest. Road surface results showed that both wheel rut depth and road roughness have negative impacts on traffic safety. PMID:20184841

  14. Multivariate analysis of respiratory problems and their connection with meteorological parameters and the main biological and chemical air pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matyasovszky, István; Makra, László; Bálint, Beatrix; Guba, Zoltán; Sümeghy, Zoltán

    2011-08-01

    The aim of the study is to analyse the joint effect of biological (pollen) and chemical air pollutants, as well as meteorological variables, on the hospital admissions of respiratory problems for the Szeged region in Southern Hungary. The data set used covers a nine-year period (1999-2007) and is unique in the sense that it includes—besides the daily number of respiratory hospital admissions—not just the hourly mean concentrations of CO, PM 10, NO, NO 2, O 3 and SO 2 with meteorological variables (temperature, global solar flux, relative humidity, air pressure and wind speed), but two pollen variables ( Ambrosia and total pollen excluding Ambrosia) as well. The analysis was performed using three age categories for the pollen season of Ambrosia and the pollen-free season. Meteorological elements and air pollutants are clustered in order to define optimum environmental conditions of high patient numbers. ANOVA was then used to determine whether cluster-related mean patient numbers differ significantly. Furthermore, two novel procedures are applied here: factor analysis including a special transformation and a time-varying multivariate linear regression that makes it possible to determine the rank of importance of the influencing variables in respiratory hospital admissions, and also compute the relative importance of the parameters affecting respiratory disorders. Both techniques revealed that Ambrosia pollen is an important variable that influences hospital admissions (an increase of 10 pollen grains m -3 can imply an increase of around 24% in patient numbers). The role of chemical and meteorological parameters is also significant, but their weights vary according to the seasons and the methods. Clearer results are obtained for the pollination season of Ambrosia. Here, a 10 μg m -3 increase in O 3 implies a patient number response from -17% to +11%. Wind speed is a surprisingly important variable, where a 1 m s -1 rise may result in a hospital admission

  15. Main parameters of meteoroid motion during the fall of the Chelyabinsk meteorite shower on February 15, 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golubaev, A. V.

    2015-05-01

    A rapid method is proposed for determining a meteoroid's trajectory in the Earth's atmosphere and its height and velocity at individual points. The method is designed for use with video material (regardless of the motion speed of the video recorder) for daytime bolide events. Kinematic parameters are obtained for the superbolide event followed by the Chelyabinsk meteorite shower on February 15, 2013. The (geodetic) azimuth of the meteoroid's trajectory in the Earth's atmosphere is 283.39° ± 1.7° (or 101.09° ± 1.7° toward the radiant). The radiant altitude over the site with observations of the end of the first fragmentation phase is 20.5°. The geodetic coordinates of the beginning of the bolide phenomenon and the point of suspension of the radiating material at the end of the first fragmentation phase are (64°00'02.74″ ± 2.1' east longitude; 54°30'54.66″ ± 3.0' north latitude) and (61°11'01.88″ ± 1.6' east longitude; 54°52'06.68″ ± 3.1' north latitude), respectively. The atmospheric entry velocity is 19.29 ± 0.89 km s-1. The height of the start of the light emission is 102.4 km; those of the main fragmentation phases are 28.0 and 24.4 km. The calculated elements for the heliocentric orbit of the Chelyabinsk meteoroid are: Q = 2.66 ± 1.20 AU, q = 0.73 ± 0.01 AU, a = 1.67 ± 0.10 AU, e = 0.57 ± 0.03, i = 7.07° ± 0.54°, Ω = 326.42°, and ω = 106.28° ± 2.54°. These parameters are compared with the results obtained by other authors.

  16. Experimental Analyses of the Major Parameters Affecting the Intensity of Outbursts of Coal and Gas

    PubMed Central

    Nie, W.; Peng, S. J.; Xu, J.; Liu, L. R.; Wang, G.; Geng, J. B.

    2014-01-01

    With an increase in mining depth and production, the intensity and frequency of outburst of coal and gas have a tendency to increase. Estimating the intensity of outbursts of coal and gas plays an important role because of its relation with the risk value. In this paper, we described the semiquantitative relations between major parameters and intensity of outburst based on physical experiments. The results showed increment of geostress simulated by horizontal load (from 1.4, 2.4, 3.2, to 3.4 MPa) or vertical load (from 2, 3, 3.6, to 4 MPa) improved the relative intensity rate (3.763–7.403% and 1.273–7.99%); the increment of porosity (from 1.57, 2.51, 3, to 3.6%) improved the relative intensity rate from 3.8 to 13.8%; the increment of gas pressure (from 0, 0.5, 0.65, 0.72, 1, to 1.5 Mpa) induced the relative intensity rate to decrease from 38.22 to 0%; the increment of water content (from 0, 2, 4, to 8%) caused the relative intensity rate to drop from 5.425 to 0.5%. Furthermore, sensitivity and range analysis evaluates coupled factors affecting the relative intensity. In addition, the distinction with initiation of outburst of coal and gas affected by these parameters is discussed by the relative threshold of gas content rate. PMID:25162042

  17. Modeling of mouse eye and errors in ocular parameters affecting refractive state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bawa, Gurinder

    Rodents eye are particularly used to study refractive error state of an eye and development of refractive eye. Genetic organization of rodents is similar to that of humans, which makes them interesting candidates to be researched upon. From rodents family mice models are encouraged over rats because of availability of genetically engineered models. Despite of extensive work that has been performed on mice and rat models, still no one is able to quantify an optical model, due to variability in the reported ocular parameters. In this Dissertation, we have extracted ocular parameters and generated schematics of eye from the raw data from School of Medicine, Detroit. In order to see how the rays would travel through an eye and the defects associated with an eye; ray tracing has been performed using ocular parameters. Finally we have systematically evaluated the contribution of various ocular parameters, such as radii of curvature of ocular surfaces, thicknesses of ocular components, and refractive indices of ocular refractive media, using variational analysis and a computational model of the rodent eye. Variational analysis revealed that variation in all the ocular parameters does affect the refractive status of the eye, but depending upon the magnitude of the impact those parameters are listed as critical or non critical. Variation in the depth of the vitreous chamber, thickness of the lens, radius of the anterior surface of the cornea, radius of the anterior surface of the lens, as well as refractive indices for the lens and vitreous, appears to have the largest impact on the refractive error and thus are categorized as critical ocular parameters. The radii of the posterior surfaces of the cornea and lens have much smaller contributions to the refractive state, while the radii of the anterior and posterior surfaces of the retina have no effect on the refractive error. These data provide the framework for further refinement of the optical models of the rat and mouse

  18. Pre-Analytical Parameters Affecting Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Measurement in Plasma: Identifying Confounders

    PubMed Central

    Walz, Johanna M.; Boehringer, Daniel; Deissler, Heidrun L.; Faerber, Lothar; Goepfert, Jens C.; Heiduschka, Peter; Kleeberger, Susannah M.; Klettner, Alexa; Krohne, Tim U.; Schneiderhan-Marra, Nicole; Ziemssen, Focke; Stahl, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Background Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) is intensively investigated in various medical fields. However, comparing VEGF-A measurements is difficult because sample acquisition and pre-analytic procedures differ between studies. We therefore investigated which variables act as confounders of VEGF-A measurements. Methods Following a standardized protocol, blood was taken at three clinical sites from six healthy participants (one male and one female participant at each center) twice one week apart. The following pre-analytical parameters were varied in order to analyze their impact on VEGF-A measurements: analyzing center, anticoagulant (EDTA vs. PECT / CTAD), cannula (butterfly vs. neonatal), type of centrifuge (swing-out vs. fixed-angle), time before and after centrifugation, filling level (completely filled vs. half-filled tubes) and analyzing method (ELISA vs. multiplex bead array). Additionally, intrapersonal variations over time and sex differences were explored. Statistical analysis was performed using a linear regression model. Results The following parameters were identified as statistically significant independent confounders of VEGF-A measurements: analyzing center, anticoagulant, centrifuge, analyzing method and sex of the proband. The following parameters were no significant confounders in our data set: intrapersonal variation over one week, cannula, time before and after centrifugation and filling level of collection tubes. Conclusion VEGF-A measurement results can be affected significantly by the identified pre-analytical parameters. We recommend the use of CTAD anticoagulant, a standardized type of centrifuge and one central laboratory using the same analyzing method for all samples. PMID:26730574

  19. Selection of meteorological parameters affecting rainfall estimation using neuro-fuzzy computing methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashim, Roslan; Roy, Chandrabhushan; Motamedi, Shervin; Shamshirband, Shahaboddin; Petković, Dalibor; Gocic, Milan; Lee, Siew Cheng

    2016-05-01

    Rainfall is a complex atmospheric process that varies over time and space. Researchers have used various empirical and numerical methods to enhance estimation of rainfall intensity. We developed a novel prediction model in this study, with the emphasis on accuracy to identify the most significant meteorological parameters having effect on rainfall. For this, we used five input parameters: wet day frequency (dwet), vapor pressure (e̅a), and maximum and minimum air temperatures (Tmax and Tmin) as well as cloud cover (cc). The data were obtained from the Indian Meteorological Department for the Patna city, Bihar, India. Further, a type of soft-computing method, known as the adaptive-neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS), was applied to the available data. In this respect, the observation data from 1901 to 2000 were employed for testing, validating, and estimating monthly rainfall via the simulated model. In addition, the ANFIS process for variable selection was implemented to detect the predominant variables affecting the rainfall prediction. Finally, the performance of the model was compared to other soft-computing approaches, including the artificial neural network (ANN), support vector machine (SVM), extreme learning machine (ELM), and genetic programming (GP). The results revealed that ANN, ELM, ANFIS, SVM, and GP had R2 of 0.9531, 0.9572, 0.9764, 0.9525, and 0.9526, respectively. Therefore, we conclude that the ANFIS is the best method among all to predict monthly rainfall. Moreover, dwet was found to be the most influential parameter for rainfall prediction, and the best predictor of accuracy. This study also identified sets of two and three meteorological parameters that show the best predictions.

  20. Monte Carlo modeling and analyses of YALINA-booster subcritical assembly part 1: analytical models and main neutronics parameters.

    SciTech Connect

    Talamo, A.; Gohar, M. Y. A.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2008-09-11

    This study was carried out to model and analyze the YALINA-Booster facility, of the Joint Institute for Power and Nuclear Research of Belarus, with the long term objective of advancing the utilization of accelerator driven systems for the incineration of nuclear waste. The YALINA-Booster facility is a subcritical assembly, driven by an external neutron source, which has been constructed to study the neutron physics and to develop and refine methodologies to control the operation of accelerator driven systems. The external neutron source consists of Californium-252 spontaneous fission neutrons, 2.45 MeV neutrons from Deuterium-Deuterium reactions, or 14.1 MeV neutrons from Deuterium-Tritium reactions. In the latter two cases a deuteron beam is used to generate the neutrons. This study is a part of the collaborative activity between Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) of USA and the Joint Institute for Power and Nuclear Research of Belarus. In addition, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has a coordinated research project benchmarking and comparing the results of different numerical codes with the experimental data available from the YALINA-Booster facility and ANL has a leading role coordinating the IAEA activity. The YALINA-Booster facility has been modeled according to the benchmark specifications defined for the IAEA activity without any geometrical homogenization using the Monte Carlo codes MONK and MCNP/MCNPX/MCB. The MONK model perfectly matches the MCNP one. The computational analyses have been extended through the MCB code, which is an extension of the MCNP code with burnup capability because of its additional feature for analyzing source driven multiplying assemblies. The main neutronics parameters of the YALINA-Booster facility were calculated using these computer codes with different nuclear data libraries based on ENDF/B-VI-0, -6, JEF-2.2, and JEF-3.1.

  1. Key Parameters Affecting Quantitative Analysis of STEM-EDS Spectrum Images

    SciTech Connect

    Brewer, Luke; Parish, Chad M

    2010-06-01

    In this article, we use simulated and experimental data to explore how three operator-controllable parameters - (1) signal level, (2) detector resolution, and (3) number of factors chosen for analysis - affect quantitative analyses of scanning transmission electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy spectrum images processed by principal component analysis (PCA). We find that improvements in both signal level and detector resolution improve the precision of quantitative analyses, but that signal level is the most important. We also find that if the rank of the PCA solution is not chosen properly, it may be possible to improperly fit the underlying data and degrade the accuracy of results. Additionally, precision is degraded in the case when too many factors are included in the model.

  2. Parameters affecting image quality with Time-Resolved Optical Integrative Neutron (TRION) detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mor, I.; Vartsky, D.; Feldman, G.; Dangendorf, V.; Bar, D.; Goldberg, M. B.; Tittelmeier, K.; Bromberger, B.; Weierganz, M.; Brandis, M.

    2011-06-01

    We have investigated by simulations and experimentally the parameters that affect image quality (contrast and spatial-resolution) of the fast neutron TRION detector. A scintillating fiber screen with 0.5×0.5 mm 2 square fibers, few centimeters thick, provides superior spatial-resolution to that of a slab scintillator of the same thickness. A detailed calculation of the neutron interaction processes that influence the point-spread function (PSF) in the scintillating screen has been performed using the GEANT 3.21 code. The calculations showed that neutron scattering within the screen accounts for a significant loss of image contrast. The factors that limit the spatial-resolution of the image are the cross-sectional scintillating-fiber dimensions within the screen and the spatial response of the image-intensifier. A deconvolution method has been applied for restoring the contrast and the spatial-resolution of the fast neutron image.

  3. Parameters affecting temporal resolution of Time Resolved Integrative Optical Neutron Detector (TRION)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mor, I.; Vartsky, D.; Dangendorf, V.; Bar, D.; Feldman, G.; Goldberg, M. B.; Tittelmeier, K.; Bromberger, B.; Brandis, M.; Weierganz, M.

    2013-11-01

    The Time-Resolved Integrative Optical Neutron (TRION) detector was developed for Fast Neutron Resonance Radiography (FNRR), a fast-neutron transmission imaging method that exploits characteristic energy-variations of the total scattering cross-section in the En = 1-10 MeV range to detect specific elements within a radiographed object. As opposed to classical event-counting time of flight (ECTOF), it integrates the detector signal during a well-defined neutron Time of Flight window corresponding to a pre-selected energy bin, e.g., the energy-interval spanning a cross-section resonance of an element such as C, O and N. The integrative characteristic of the detector permits loss-free operation at very intense, pulsed neutron fluxes, at a cost however, of recorded temporal resolution degradation This work presents a theoretical and experimental evaluation of detector related parameters which affect temporal resolution of the TRION system.

  4. Use of Artificial Neural Networks to Examine Parameters Affecting the Immobilization of Streptokinase in Chitosan

    PubMed Central

    Modaresi, Seyed Mohamad Sadegh; Faramarzi, Mohammad Ali; Soltani, Arash; Baharifar, Hadi; Amani, Amir

    2014-01-01

    Streptokinase is a potent fibrinolytic agent which is widely used in treatment of deep vein thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism (PE) and acute myocardial infarction (MI). Major limitation of this enzyme is its short biological half-life in the blood stream. Our previous report showed that complexing streptokinase with chitosan could be a solution to overcome this limitation. The aim of this research was to establish an artificial neural networks (ANNs) model for identifying main factors influencing the loading efficiency of streptokinase, as an essential parameter determining efficacy of the enzyme. Three variables, namely, chitosan concentration, buffer pH and enzyme concentration were considered as input values and the loading efficiency was used as output. Subsequently, the experimental data were modeled and the model was validated against a set of unseen data. The developed model indicated chitosan concentration as probably the most important factor, having reverse effect on the loading efficiency. PMID:25587327

  5. Use of artificial neural networks to examine parameters affecting the immobilization of streptokinase in chitosan.

    PubMed

    Modaresi, Seyed Mohamad Sadegh; Faramarzi, Mohammad Ali; Soltani, Arash; Baharifar, Hadi; Amani, Amir

    2014-01-01

    Streptokinase is a potent fibrinolytic agent which is widely used in treatment of deep vein thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism (PE) and acute myocardial infarction (MI). Major limitation of this enzyme is its short biological half-life in the blood stream. Our previous report showed that complexing streptokinase with chitosan could be a solution to overcome this limitation. The aim of this research was to establish an artificial neural networks (ANNs) model for identifying main factors influencing the loading efficiency of streptokinase, as an essential parameter determining efficacy of the enzyme. Three variables, namely, chitosan concentration, buffer pH and enzyme concentration were considered as input values and the loading efficiency was used as output. Subsequently, the experimental data were modeled and the model was validated against a set of unseen data. The developed model indicated chitosan concentration as probably the most important factor, having reverse effect on the loading efficiency. PMID:25587327

  6. Factors affecting the distribution of hydrocarbon contaminants and hydrogeochemical parameters in a shallow sand aquifer.

    PubMed

    Lee, J Y; Cheon, J Y; Lee, K K; Lee, S Y; Lee, M H

    2001-07-01

    The distributions of hydrocarbon contaminants and hydrogeochemical parameters were investigated in a shallow sand aquifer highly contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons leaked from solvent storage tanks. For these purposes, a variety of field investigations and studies were performed, which included installation of over 100 groundwater monitoring wells and piezometers at various depths, soil logging and analyses during well and piezometer installation, chemical analysis of groundwater, pump tests, and slug tests. Continuous water level monitoring at three selected wells using automatic data-logger and manual measuring at other wells were also conducted. Based on analyses of the various investigations and tests, a number of factors were identified to explain the distribution of the hydrocarbon contaminants and hydrogeochemical parameters. These factors include indigenous biodegradation, hydrostratigraphy, preliminary pump-and-treat remedy, recharge by rainfall, and subsequent water level fluctuation. The permeable sandy layer, in which the mean water table elevation is maintained, provided a dominant pathway for contaminant transport. The preliminary pump-and-treat action accelerated the movement of the hydrocarbon contaminants and affected the redox evolution pattern. Seasonal recharge by rain, together with indigenous biodegradation, played an important role in the natural attenuation of the petroleum hydrocarbons via mixing/dilution and biodegradation. The water level fluctuations redistributed the hydrocarbon contaminants by partitioning them into the soil and groundwater. The identified factors are not independent but closely inter-correlated. PMID:11475158

  7. External Load Affects Ground Reaction Force Parameters Non-uniformly during Running in Weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeWitt, John; Schaffner, Grant; Laughlin, Mitzi; Loehr, James; Hagan, R. Donald

    2004-01-01

    Long-term exposure to microgravity induces detrimefits to the musculcskdetal system (Schneider et al., 1995; LeBlanc et al., 2000). Treadmill exercise is used onboard the International Space Station as an exercise countermeasure to musculoskeletal deconditioning due to spaceflight. During locomotive exercise in weightlessness (0G), crewmembers wear a harness attached to an external loading mechanism (EL). The EL pulls the crewmember toward the treadmill, and provides resistive load during the impact and propulsive phases of gait. The resulting forces may be important in stimulating bone maintenance (Turner, 1998). The EL can be applied via a bungee and carabineer clip configuration attached to the harness and can be manipulated to create varying amounts of load levels during exercise. Ground-based research performed using a vertically mounted treadmill found that peak ground reaction forces (GRF) during running at an EL of less than one body weight (BW) are less than those that occur during running in normal gravity (1G) (Davis et al., 1996). However, it is not known how the GRF are affected by the EL in a true OG environment. Locomotion while suspended may result in biomechanics that differ from free running. The purpose of this investigation was to determine how EL affects peak impact force, peak propulsive force, loading rate, and impulse of the GRF during running in 0G. It was hypothesized that increasing EL would result in increases in each GRF parameter.

  8. Atmospheric parameters affecting sea ice losses in the context of gravity desalination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ying; Gu, Wei; Chao, Jinlong; Li, Lantao; Liu, Chengyu; Xu, Yinjun; Chang, Zhiyun; Wu, Linhong; Chen, Jie

    2015-08-01

    Gravity desalination is an important method for obtaining fresh water from sea ice; however, the large amount of ice that is exposed to air for long periods of time sublimates and evaporates, which results in a reduction of the freshwater resource. This paper describes a study of sea ice sublimation and evaporation performed during the winter of 2013 at the western shore of Bohai Bay, China, to determine the relationship between the amount of sublimation and evaporation and the atmospheric parameters. Substantial amounts of the Bohai sea ice sublimated and evaporated, ranging from 15 to 35 % of the total. The sublimation and evaporation amount was significantly different between the day and night and was greater in the daytime because of the relative humidity difference. Sublimation and evaporation is primarily affected by atmospheric parameters, and the amount of sublimation and evaporation exhibits a good linear relationship with the relative humidity and the wind speed; a comprehensive parameters formula was determined for the Bohai Rim in China. A 10 % increase of daily relative humidity will reduce approximately 1.5 kg/m2/day of the sublimation and evaporation, and the amount of sublimation and evaporation increases by 1.76 kg/m2/day when the daily wind speed increases by 1 m/s. To reduce the sublimation and evaporation and maximize the amount of this freshwater resource, gravity desalination sites should be selected where the wind speed is low and the relative humidity is high, i.e., the sea ice should be configured to reduce the adverse effects of sunlight, low humidity, and air turbulence.

  9. [ORP in the Main Anoxic Stage as the Control Parameter for Nitrogen and Phosphorus Removal in the Single Sludge System with a Continuous Flow].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-ling; Song, Tie-hong; Yin, Bao-yong; Li Jing-wen; Li, Zi-qi; Yu, Yong

    2015-07-01

    To optimize the performance of nitrogen and phosphorus removal, based on test results and mass balance, the feasibility of control for nitrogen and phosphorus removal in the single sludge system with a continuous flow using ORP in the main anoxic stage (ORPm) was investigated, meanwhile, the objective laws of conversion for nitrogen and phosphorus under different ORPm were expounded. During the experiments, nitration liquid internal circulation flow rate was controlled as the variable. The OPRm was controlled by PLC automatically, and the other operation parameters remained unchanged. The experiments tested six different ORPs in main anoxic stage affecting nitrogen and phosphorus removal, i.e., -143, -123, -105, -95, -72, and -57 mV. The ammonia concentration changed a little in effluent under the condition of different ORP.s, however, the TN and TP concentrations changed obviously. When the ORPm was controlled as -95 mV, the active sludge reached the maximal nitrogen and phosphorus removal with the continuous flow. According to mass balance calculation, when ORPm increased from -143 mV to -57 mV, (1) In the main anoxic stage, nitrate nitrogen reaction rates were 214. 40, 235. 16, 241. 16, 244. 02, 240. 90 and 233. 65 mg.h-1, respectively; the amount of total nitrogen conversions were 244. 92, 255. 85, 328. 04, 347. 45, 336. 42 and 320. 60 mg.h-1, respectively; both reaction rates reached the peak at the ORPm of -95 mV; (2)Phosphorus release rates in anaerobic stage were -214. 12, -228. 64, -259. 26, -264.54, -256.92 and -252.84 mg.h-1, respectively; total phosphorus absorption rates were 252. 15, 275.85, 332. 25, 338. 10, 336. 15 and 324. 30 mg.h-1, respectively, and phosphorus absorption rates were 30. 27, 62. 14, 124. 58, 154. 41, 150. 41 and 138. 30 mg.h-1, respectively, in the main anoxic stage; phosphorus absorption rates reached the peak when ORPm was -95 mV. The experiments revealed that ORPm could be used as the control parameter of nitrogen and phosphorus

  10. Parameters affecting resin-anchored cable bolt performance: Results of in situ evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Zelanko, J.C.; Mucho, T.P.; Compton, C.S.; Long, L.E.; Bailey, P.E.

    1995-11-01

    Cable bolt support techniques, including hardware and anchorage systems, continue to evolve to meet US mining requirements. For cable support systems to be successfully implemented into new ground control areas, the mechanics of this support and the potential range of performance need to be better understood. To contribute to this understanding, a series of 36 pull tests were performed on 10 ft long cable bolts using various combinations of hole diameters, resin formulations, anchor types, and with and without resin dams. These test provided insight as to the influence of these four parameters on cable system performance. Performance was assessed in terms of support capacity (maximum load attained in a pull test), system stiffness (assessed from two intervals of load-deformation), and from the general load-deformation response. Three characteristic load-deformation responses were observed. An Analysis of Variance identified a number of main effects and interactions of significance to support capacity and stiffness. The factorial experiment performed in this study provides insight to the effects of several design parameters associated with resin-anchored cable bolts.

  11. CONTINUOSLY STIRRED TANK REACTOR PARAMETERS THAT AFFECT SLUDGE BATCH 6 SIMULANT PROPERTIES

    SciTech Connect

    Newell, J.; Lambert, D.; Stone, M.; Fernandez, A.

    2010-05-28

    ). Precipitated MnO{sub 2} is combined with metal nitrates and fed into the CSTR. The metals are precipitated by a caustic NaOH stream. The rates at which these streams are added allows for pH adjustment of the mixture. A graphical representation of this process is given in Figure 1. In using the CSTR method for developing simulant, there are various parameters that can be adjusted in order to effectuate a physical change in the resulting simulant: pH, temperature, mixing speed, and flow rate. How will changing these parameters affect the physical properties of the sludge simulant? The ability to determine which parameter affects a particular property could allow one to develop a simulant that would better match the physical characteristics of HLW sludge.

  12. Guidebook for performance assessment parameters used in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant compliance certification application. Volume 1: Main report

    SciTech Connect

    Howarth, S.M.; Martell, M.A.; Weiner, R.; Lattier, C.

    1998-06-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Compliance Certification Application (CCA) Performance Assessment (PA) Parameter Database and its ties to supporting information evolved over the course of two years. When the CCA was submitted to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in October 1996, information such as identification of parameter value or distribution source was documented using processes established by Sandia National Laboratories WIPP Quality Assurance Procedures. Reviewers later requested additional supporting documentation, links to supporting information, and/or clarification for many parameters. This guidebook is designed to document a pathway through the complex parameter process and help delineate flow paths to supporting information for all WIPP CCA parameters. In addition, this report is an aid for understanding how model parameters used in the WIPP CCA were developed and qualified. To trace the source information for a particular parameter, a dual-route system was established. The first route uses information from the Parameter Records Package as it existed when the CCA calculations were run. The second route leads from the EPA Parameter Database to additional supporting information.

  13. Parameters affecting in vitro oxidation/folding of maurotoxin, a four-disulphide-bridged scorpion toxin.

    PubMed Central

    di Luccio, E; Azulay, D O; Regaya, I; Fajloun, Z; Sandoz, G; Mansuelle, P; Kharrat, R; Fathallah, M; Carrega, L; Estève, E; Rochat, H; De Waard, M; Sabatier, J M

    2001-01-01

    Maurotoxin (MTX) is a 34-mer scorpion toxin cross-linked by four disulphide bridges that acts on various K(+) channel subtypes. MTX adopts a disulphide bridge organization of the type C1-C5, C2-C6, C3-C4 and C7-C8, and folds according to the common alpha/beta scaffold reported for other known scorpion toxins. Here we have investigated the process and kinetics of the in vitro oxidation/folding of reduced synthetic L-MTX (L-sMTX, where L-MTX contains only L-amino acid residues). During the oxidation/folding of reduced L-sMTX, the oxidation intermediates were blocked by iodoacetamide alkylation of free cysteine residues, and analysed by MS. The L-sMTX intermediates appeared sequentially over time from the least (intermediates with one disulphide bridge) to the most oxidized species (native-like, four-disulphide-bridged L-sMTX). The mathematical formulation of the diffusion-collision model being inadequate to accurately describe the kinetics of oxidation/folding of L-sMTX, we have formulated a derived mathematical description that better fits the experimental data. Using this mathematical description, we have compared for the first time the oxidation/folding of L-sMTX with that of D-sMTX, its stereoisomer that contains only D-amino acid residues. Several experimental parameters, likely to affect the oxidation/folding process, were studied further; these included temperature, pH, ionic strength, redox potential and concentration of reduced toxin. We also assessed the effects of some cellular enzymes, peptidylprolyl cis-trans isomerase (PPIase) and protein disulphide isomerase (PDI), on the folding pathways of reduced L-sMTX and D-sMTX. All the parameters tested affect the oxidative folding of sMTX, and the kinetics of this process were indistinguishable for L-sMTX and D-sMTX, except when stereospecific enzymes were used. The most efficient conditions were found to be: 50 mM Tris/HCl/1.4 mM EDTA, pH 7.5, supplemented by 0.5 mM PPIase and 50 units/ml PDI for 0.1 m

  14. Acute exposure to the biopesticide azadirachtin affects parameters in the gills of common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Murussi, Camila R; Costa, Maiara D; Leitemperger, Jossiele W; Flores-Lopes, Fábio; Menezes, Charlene C; Loebens, Luisa; de Avila, Luis Antonio; Rizzetti, Tiele M; Adaime, Martha B; Zanella, Renato; Loro, Vania L

    2016-02-01

    The biopesticide, azadirachtin (Aza) is less hazardous to the environment, but may cause several toxic effects in aquatic organisms. The Cyprinus carpio (n=12, for all concentrations) after 10days of acclimation under controlled conditions, were exposed at 20, 40, and 60μL/L of Aza during 96h. After this period, fish were anesthetized and euthanized then mucus layer and gills collected. In this study, the effects of exposure to different Aza concentrations were analysed through a set of biomarkers: Na(+)/K(+-)ATPase, lipid peroxidation (TBARS), protein carbonyl (PC), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), non-protein thiols (NPSH), ascorbic acid (AsA) and histological parameters and, yet, protein and glucose concentration in the surface area of mucous layer. Na(+)K(+-)ATPase was inhibited at 40 and 60μL/L compared to control. TBARS decreased at 40μL/L compared to control. PC, SOD and GST increased at 60μL/L in comparison to control. CAT increased at 20 and 60μL/L, and GPx increased in all Aza concentrations compared to control. NPSH decreased and AsA increased in all concentrations in comparison to control. Histological analyses demonstrated an increase in the intensity of the damage with increasing Aza concentration. Alterations in histological examination were elevation and hypertrophy of the epithelial cells of the secondary filament, hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the mucous and chlorate cells and lamellar aneurism. Glucose and protein concentrations in mucus layer increased at 60μL/L compared to control. In general, we suggest that 60μL/L Aza concentration affected several parameters causing disruptions carp metabolism. PMID:26689640

  15. Annual change in spirometric parameters among patients affected in Bhopal gas disaster: A retrospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    De, Sajal

    2013-01-01

    Background: The involvement of respiratory system due to inhalation of methyl isocyanate (MIC) during Bhopal gas disaster was particularly severe. We retrospectively evaluated the annual changes in spirometric parameters among those who were affected in this disaster (exposed survivors) and had respiratory symptoms. Materials and Methods: Spirometry reports of exposed survivors that were carried out in our institution were retrospectively reviewed and we identified 252 subjects who had performed spirometry at least twice with interval of more than one year. The annual changes in spirometric indices of them were calculated. Results: The average age of study population was 55.7 years and 72% were male. Annual decline of FEV1 ≥ 40 ml/yr was observed among 48% exposed survivors. The mean annual decline of FEV1 among symptomatic exposed survivors with initial normal spirometry was 91 ml (95% CI: 52 ml to 130 ml) and this was more than the patients with initial obstructive pattern. Among fifty four patients with initial normal spirometry, ten patients (18.5%) developed obstructive and two patients (5%) developed restrictive lung function abnormalities during follow up spirometry. Conclusion: The exposed survivors with chronic respiratory symptoms had accelerated decline in lung function and they are at higher risk of developing obstructive lung function. PMID:23741089

  16. Biofilm Formation by the Fish Pathogen Flavobacterium columnare: Development and Parameters Affecting Surface Attachment

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Wenlong; De La Fuente, Leonardo

    2013-01-01

    Flavobacterium columnare is a bacterial fish pathogen that affects many freshwater species worldwide. The natural reservoir of this pathogen is unknown, but its resilience in closed aquaculture systems posits biofilm as the source of contagion for farmed fish. The objectives of this study were (i) to characterize the dynamics of biofilm formation and morphology under static and flow conditions and (ii) to evaluate the effects of temperature, pH, salinity, hardness, and carbohydrates on biofilm formation. Nineteen F. columnare strains, including representatives of all of the defined genetic groups (genomovars), were compared in this study. The structure of biofilm was characterized by light microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. F. columnare was able to attach to and colonize inert surfaces by producing biofilm. Surface colonization started within 6 h postinoculation, and microcolonies were observed within 24 h. Extracellular polysaccharide substances and water channels were observed in mature biofilms (24 to 48 h). A similar time course was observed when F. columnare formed biofilm in microfluidic chambers under flow conditions. The virulence potential of biofilm was confirmed by cutaneous inoculation of channel catfish fingerlings with mature biofilm. Several physicochemical parameters modulate attachment to surfaces, with the largest influence being exerted by hardness, salinity, and the presence of mannose. Maintenance of hardness and salinity values within certain ranges could prevent biofilm formation by F. columnare in aquaculture systems. PMID:23851087

  17. Parameters affecting the photocatalytic degradation of dyes using TiO2: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reza, Khan Mamun; Kurny, ASW; Gulshan, Fahmida

    2015-12-01

    Traditional chemical, physical and biological processes for treating wastewater containing textile dye have such disadvantages as high cost, high energy requirement and generation of secondary pollution during treatment process. The advanced oxidation processes technology has been attracting growing attention for the decomposition of organic dyes. Such processes are based on the light-enhanced generation of highly reactive hydroxyl radicals, which oxidize the organic matter in solution and convert it completely into water, CO2 and inorganic compounds. In this presentation, the photocatalytic degradation of dyes in aqueous solution using TiO2 as photocatalyst under solar and UV irradiation has been reviewed. It is observed that the degradation of dyes depends on several parameters such as pH, catalyst concentration, substrate concentration and the presence of oxidants. Reaction temperature and the intensity of light also affect the degradation of dyes. Particle size, BET-surface area and different mineral forms of TiO2 also have influence on the degradation rate.

  18. The main results of the long-term measurements of the neutral atmosphere parameters by the artificial periodic irregularities techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolmacheva, Ariadna V.; Bakhmetieva, Nataliya V.; Grigoriev, Gennady I.; Kalinina, Elena E.

    2015-09-01

    The results of the atmospheric parameter determination by the method of artificial periodic irregularities (the API techniques) at the E-region heights obtained during many years of the observation are presented. The features of the obtaining data, their processing and the determination of the atmospheric parameters are given in details. A lot of information about dynamical phenomena in the lower thermosphere has been obtained. There are often height profiles of the atmospheric parameters with the wave-like variations and with the vertical scale of about 4-6 km. The temporal variations of the atmospheric parameters take place with the periods from 15 min to some hours. Such variations could be caused by the passage of the internal gravity waves (IGWs) and the tide waves. The temperature minima were observed as 100-140 K above 100 km in the equinoctial periods. The instability growth is also observed in the number of cases. The dependence of the neutral temperature and the density on solar and geomagnetic activity is not found.

  19. A study of the parameters affecting the effectiveness of Moringa oleifera in drinking water purification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pritchard, M.; Craven, T.; Mkandawire, T.; Edmondson, A. S.; O'Neill, J. G.

    The powder obtained from the seeds of the Moringa oleifera tree has been shown to be an effective primary coagulant for water treatment. When the seeds are dried, dehusked, crushed and added to water, the powder acts as a coagulant binding colloidal particles and bacteria to form agglomerated particles (flocs), which settle allowing the clarified supernatant to be poured off. Very little research has been undertaken on the parameters affecting the effectiveness of M. oleifera, especially in Malawi, for purification of drinking water and there is a great need for further testing in this area. Conclusive data needs to be compiled to demonstrate the effects of various water parameters have on the efficiency of the seeds. A parametric study was undertaken at Leeds Metropolitan University, UK, with the aim to establish the most appropriate dosing method; the optimum dosage for removal of turbidity; the influence of pH and temperature; together with the shelf life of the M. oleifera seeds. The study revealed that the most suitable dosing method was to mix the powder into a concentrated paste, hence forming a stock suspension. The optimum M. oleifera dose, for turbidity values between 40 and 200 NTU, ranged between 30 and 55 mg/l. With turbidity set at 130 NTU and a M. oleifera dose within the optimum range at 50 mg/l, pH levels were varied between 4 and 9. It was discovered that the coagulant performance was not too sensitive to pH fluctuations when conditions were within the optimum range. The most efficient coagulation, determined by the greatest reduction in turbidity, occurred at pH 6.5. Alkaline conditions were overall more favourable than acidic conditions; pH 9 had an efficiency of 65% of optimum, whilst at pH 5 the efficiency dropped to around 55%. The efficiency further dropped at pH 4, where the powder only produced results of around 10% of optimum conditions. A temperature range of 4-60 °C was studied in this research. Colder waters (<15 °C) were found to

  20. Sensitivity analysis of hydrogeological parameters affecting groundwater storage change caused by sea level rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, J.; Kim, K.-H.; Lee, K.-K.

    2012-04-01

    Sea level rise, which is one of the representative phenomena of climate changes caused by global warming, can affect groundwater system. The rising trend of the sea level caused by the global warming is reported to be about 3 mm/year for the most recent 10 year average (IPCC, 2007). The rate of sea level rise around the Korean peninsula is reported to be 2.30±2.22 mm/yr during the 1960-1999 period (Cho, 2002) and 2.16±1.77 mm/yr (Kim et al., 2009) during the 1968-2007 period. Both of these rates are faster than the 1.8±0.5 mm/yr global average for the similar 1961-2003 period (IPCC, 2007). In this study, we analyzed changes in the groundwater environment affected by the sea level rise by using an analytical methodology. We tried to find the most effective parameters of groundwater amount change in order to estimate the change in fresh water amount in coastal groundwater. A hypothetical island model of a cylindrical shape in considered. The groundwater storage change is bi-directional as the sea level rises according to the natural and hydrogeological conditions. Analysis of the computation results shows that topographic slope and hydraulic conductivity are the most sensitive factors. The contributions of the groundwater recharge rate and the thickness of aquifer below sea level are relatively less effective. In the island with steep seashore slopes larger than 1~2 degrees or so, the storage amount of fresh water in a coastal area increases as sea level rises. On the other hand, when sea level drops, the storage amount decreases. This is because the groundwater level also rises with the rising sea level in steep seashores. For relatively flat seashores, where the slope is smaller than around 1-2 degrees, the storage amount of coastal fresh water decreases when the sea level rises because the area flooded by the rising sea water is increased. The volume of aquifer fresh water in this circumstance is greatly reduced in proportion to the flooded area with the sea

  1. Genetically Determined Dosage of Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) Affects Male Reproductive Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Grigorova, Marina; Punab, Margus; Ẑilaitienė, Birutė; Erenpreiss, Juris; Ausmees, Kristo; Matuleviĉius, Valentinas; Tsarev, Igor; Jørgensen, Niels

    2011-01-01

    Context: The detailed role of FSH in contributing to male testicular function and fertility has been debated. We have previously identified the association between the T-allele of the FSHB promoter polymorphism (rs10835638; G/T, −211 bp from the mRNA start) and significantly reduced male serum FSH. Objective: In the current study, the T-allele carriers of the FSHB −211 G/T single nucleotide polymorphism represented a natural model for documenting downstream phenotypic consequences of insufficient FSH action. Design and Subjects: We genotyped rs10835638 in the population-based Baltic cohort of young men (n = 1054; GG carriers, n = 796; GT carriers, n = 244; TT carriers, n = 14) recruited by Andrology Centres in Tartu, Estonia; Riga, Latvia; and Kaunas, Lithuania. Marker-trait association testing was performed using linear regression (additive, recessive models) adjusted by age, body mass index, smoking, and recruitment center. Results: Serum hormones directly correlated with the T-allele dosage of rs10835638 included FSH (additive model, P = 1.11 × 10−6; T-allele effect, −0.41 IU/liter), inhibin-B (P = 2.16 × 10−3; T-allele effect, −14.67 pg/ml), and total testosterone (P = 9.30 × 10−3; T-allele effect, −1.46 nmol/liter). Parameters altered only among TT homozygotes were reduced testicular volume (recessive model, P = 1.19 × 10−4; TT genotype effect, −9.47 ml) and increased serum LH (P = 2.25 × 10−2; TT genotype effect, 1.07 IU/liter). The carrier status of rs10835638 alternative genotypes did not affect sperm motility and morphology, calculated free testosterone, serum SHBG, and estradiol concentrations. Conclusion: We showed for the first time that genetically determined low FSH may have wider downstream effects on the male reproductive system, including impaired testes development, altered testicular hormone levels (inhibin-B, total testosterone, LH), and affected male reproductive potential. PMID:21733993

  2. Sperm treatment affects capacitation parameters and penetration ability of ejaculated and epididymal boar spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Matás, C; Sansegundo, M; Ruiz, S; García-Vázquez, F A; Gadea, J; Romar, R; Coy, P

    2010-11-01

    This work was designed to study how this ability is affected by different sperm treatments routinely used for in vitro fertilization (IVF) assay. In this study, boar sperm samples from epididymal or ejaculated origin were processed by three different methods: left unwashed (NW group), washed in Dulbecco's phosphate-buffered saline supplemented with 0.1% BSA (BSA group), and washed on a Percoll(®) gradient (PERCOLL group). After preparation of semen samples, changes in motility patterns were studied by CASA, calcium uptake by spectrofluorimetry, and ROS generation, spontaneous acrosome reaction, and lipid disorder by means of flow cytometry. Finally IVF assays were also performed with the different semen samples and penetrability results evaluated at 2 and 4 h post insemination (hpi). Independently of the sperm treatment, epididymal spermatozoa showed higher values of progressive motility, percentage of live cells with low lipid disorder, and penetration ability at 4 hpi than the corresponding ejaculated spermatozoa. Ejaculated spermatozoa showed higher levels of calcium uptake, ROS generation and percentage of spontaneous acrosome reaction than epididymal sperm. Regarding sperm treatments, PERCOLL group showed the highest values for some motility parameters (linearity of the curvilinear trajectory, straightness, and average path velocity/curvilinear velocity), ROS generation and penetration ability at 2 and 4 hpi; however this same group showed the lowest values for sperm curvilinear velocity and lateral head displacement. From all experimental groups, ejaculated-PERCOLL-treated spermatozoa showed the highest fertilization ability after 2 hpi. Results suggest that capacitation pathways can be regulated by suitable treatments making the ejaculated sperm able to reach capacitation and fertilize oocytes in similar levels than epididymal spermatozoa, although most of the studied capacitation-associated changes do not correlate with this ability. PMID:20688369

  3. Parameters Affecting Spore Recovery from Wipes Used in Biological Surface Sampling ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Da Silva, Sandra M.; Filliben, James J.; Morrow, Jayne B.

    2011-01-01

    The need for the precise and reliable collection of potential biothreat contaminants has motivated research in developing a better understanding of the variability in biological surface sampling methods. In this context, the objective of this work was to determine parameters affecting the efficiency of extracting Bacillus anthracis Sterne spores from commonly used wipe sampling materials and to describe performance using the interfacial energy concept. In addition, surface thermodynamics was applied to understand and predict surface sampling performance. Wipe materials were directly inoculated with known concentrations of B. anthracis spores and placed into extraction solutions, followed by sonication or vortexing. Experimental factors investigated included wipe material (polyester, cotton, and polyester-rayon), extraction solution (sterile deionized water [H2O], deionized water with 0.04% Tween 80 [H2O-T], phosphate-buffered saline [PBS], and PBS with 0.04% Tween 80 [PBST]), and physical dissociation method (vortexing or sonication). The most efficient extraction from wipes was observed for solutions containing the nonionic surfactant Tween 80. The increase in extraction efficiency due to surfactant addition was attributed to an attractive interfacial energy between Tween 80 and the centrifuge tube wall, which prevented spore adhesion. Extraction solution significantly impacted the extraction efficiency, as determined by statistical analysis (P < 0.05). Moreover, the extraction solution was the most important factor in extraction performance, followed by the wipe material. Polyester-rayon was the most efficient wipe material for releasing spores into solution by rank; however, no statistically significant difference between polyester-rayon and cotton was observed (P > 0.05). Vortexing provided higher spore recovery in H2O and H2O-T than sonication, when all three wipe materials and the reference control were considered (P < 0.05). PMID:21296945

  4. Emissions from Electronic Cigarettes: Key Parameters Affecting the Release of Harmful Chemicals.

    PubMed

    Sleiman, Mohamad; Logue, Jennifer M; Montesinos, V Nahuel; Russell, Marion L; Litter, Marta I; Gundel, Lara A; Destaillats, Hugo

    2016-09-01

    Use of electronic cigarettes has grown exponentially over the past few years, raising concerns about harmful emissions. This study quantified potentially toxic compounds in the vapor and identified key parameters affecting emissions. Six principal constituents in three different refill "e-liquids" were propylene glycol (PG), glycerin, nicotine, ethanol, acetol, and propylene oxide. The latter, with mass concentrations of 0.4-0.6%, is a possible carcinogen and respiratory irritant. Aerosols generated with vaporizers contained up to 31 compounds, including nicotine, nicotyrine, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, glycidol, acrolein, acetol, and diacetyl. Glycidol is a probable carcinogen not previously identified in the vapor, and acrolein is a powerful irritant. Emission rates ranged from tens to thousands of nanograms of toxicants per milligram of e-liquid vaporized, and they were significantly higher for a single-coil vs a double-coil vaporizer (by up to an order of magnitude for aldehydes). By increasing the voltage applied to a single-coil device from 3.3 to 4.8 V, the mass of e-liquid consumed doubled from 3.7 to 7.5 mg puff(-1) and the total aldehyde emission rates tripled from 53 to 165 μg puff(-1), with acrolein rates growing by a factor of 10. Aldehyde emissions increased by more than 60% after the device was reused several times, likely due to the buildup of polymerization byproducts that degraded upon heating. These findings suggest that thermal degradation byproducts are formed during vapor generation. Glycidol and acrolein were primarily produced by glycerin degradation. Acetol and 2-propen-1-ol were produced mostly from PG, while other compounds (e.g., formaldehyde) originated from both. Because emissions originate from reaction of the most common e-liquid constituents (solvents), harmful emissions are expected to be ubiquitous when e-cigarette vapor is present. PMID:27461870

  5. Sensorless Control of Synchronous Reluctance Motors Using an On-Line Parameter Identification Method not Affected by Position Estimation Accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwata, Akitoshi; Ichikawa, Shinji; Tomita, Mutuwo; Doki, Shinji; Okuma, Shigeru

    This paper presents a novel on-line parameter identification method for sensorless control of Synchronous Reluctance Motors (SynRMs). Although conventional sensorless control methods based on mathematical models usually need some complex measurements of motor parameters in advance, the proposed identification method does not require them and can be realized on-line. The proposed method identifies motor parameters under sensorless control, so rotor position and velocity can not be used to identify these parameters. However, the proposed method does not need rotor position and veocity, identified parameters are not affected by these estimation errors. The sensorless control using identified motor parameters is realized, and effective of the proposed method is verified by experimental results.

  6. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Physical parameters of pre-main sequence stars in open clusters.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado, A. J.; Alfaro, E. J.; Yun, J. L.

    Photometric colors in the UBVRI system for 27040 stars, in the fields of 11 Young Open Clusters. The membership and physical parameters are listed. For MS and post MS candidate members, only the mass value is listed. It is calculated from comparison to ZAMS and isochrones by Girardi et al. (2002A&A...391..195G). For PMS candidate members, the age, mass, luminosity, and effective temperature are listed as obtained from comparison to four PMS model isochrones: D'Antona and Mazzitelli (1997MmSAI..68..807D), Palla and Stahler (1999ApJ...525..772P), Siess et al. (2000A&A...358..593S), and Yi et al. (2001ApJS..136..417Y). (2 data files).

  7. Soil moisture affects fatty acids and oil quality parameters in peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drought affects yield of peanut, but its effect on oleic and linoleic acids that influence its oil quality of peanut genotypes with different levels of drought resistance has not been clearly investigated. Therefore, the aims of this research were to determine whether soil water levels could affect...

  8. Stability of Intercellular Exchange of Biochemical Substances Affected by Variability of Environmental Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihailović, Dragutin T.; Budinčević, Mirko; Balaž, Igor; Mihailović, Anja

    Communication between cells is realized by exchange of biochemical substances. Due to internal organization of living systems and variability of external parameters, the exchange is heavily influenced by perturbations of various parameters at almost all stages of the process. Since communication is one of essential processes for functioning of living systems it is of interest to investigate conditions for its stability. Using previously developed simplified model of bacterial communication in a form of coupled difference logistic equations we investigate stability of exchange of signaling molecules under variability of internal and external parameters.

  9. Dietary methionine availability affects the main factors involved in muscle protein turnover in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Belghit, Ikram; Skiba-Cassy, Sandrine; Geurden, Inge; Dias, Karine; Surget, Anne; Kaushik, Sadasivam; Panserat, Stéphane; Seiliez, Iban

    2014-08-28

    Methionine is a limiting essential amino acid in most plant-based ingredients of fish feed. In the present study, we aimed to determine the effect of dietary methionine concentrations on several main factors involved in the regulation of mRNA translation and the two major proteolytic pathways (ubiquitin-proteasome and autophagy-lysosomal) in the white muscle of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The fish were fed for 6 weeks one of the three isonitrogenous diets providing three different methionine concentrations (deficient (DEF), adequate (ADQ) and excess (EXC)). At the end of the experiment, the fish fed the DEF diet had a significantly lower body weight and feed efficiency compared with those fed the EXC and ADQ diets. This reduction in the growth of fish fed the DEF diet was accompanied by a decrease in the activation of the translation initiation factors ribosomal protein S6 and eIF2α. The levels of the main autophagy-related markers (LC3-II and beclin 1) as well as the expression of several autophagy genes (atg4b, atg12 l, Uvrag, SQSTM1, Mul1 and Bnip3) were higher in the white muscle of fish fed the DEF diet. Similarly, the mRNA levels of several proteasome-related genes (Fbx32, MuRF2, MuRF3, ZNF216 and Trim32) were significantly up-regulated by methionine limitation. Together, these results extend our understanding of mechanisms regulating the reduction of muscle growth induced by dietary methionine deficiency, providing valuable information on the biomarkers of the effects of low-fishmeal diets. PMID:24877663

  10. Physical parameters and morphology of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko - a main target of Rosetta space mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Churyumov, Klim; Kleshchonok, Valery; Mozgova, Alyona

    Rosetta, a European space vehicle was head to the icy nucleus of the short period comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko on 2 March, 2004 from cosmodrome Kouru. On 20 Jan. 2014, Rosetta after 10 years of flight and 31-month sleep has been woke up succesfully and now will approche to the icy nucleus of comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko and pass away into orbit around the cometary nucleus. In November 2014 the Philae probe will be sent from Rosetta on the nucleus of comet 67P to study the relict matter of the Solar system. Comet 67P was discovered by the Kyiv astronomers Klim Churyumov and Svitlana Gerasimenko on 22 October 1969 on the five photographic plates exponed with the help of 50-cm Maksutov’s reflector of the Alma-Ata Astrophysical Institute on 9, 11 and 21 Sept. 1969. First 5 exact positions of comet were sent to Dr Brian Marsden. Dr B.Marsden showed it was new comet. The comet had an apparent magnitude of 13 and a faint tail about 1 arcmin in length at position angle 280 degrees. The astronomer Nikolay Belyaev from Saint-Petersbourg calculated that the comet followed an elliptical orbit. In 1982 it had the close encounter with the Earth at 0.3910 A.U. On the basis of the observations of comet 67P obtained in Nizhny Arkhyz with the help of the 6- BTA reflector of SAO of RAS some physical parameters of its comet plasma tail (coefficients of diffusion Dp(parallel) , Ds(perpendicular) and induction of magnetic field B) were determined. Other results of exploration of comet 67P (its polarisation, spectral observations, the light curve and morphology) in different apparitions are discussed.

  11. Sensitivity Analysis of Parameters Affecting Protection of Water Resources at Hanford WA

    SciTech Connect

    DAVIS, J.D.

    2002-02-08

    The scope of this analysis was to assess the sensitivity of contaminant fluxes from the vadose zone to the water table, to several parameters, some of which can be controlled by operational considerations.

  12. Detecting fiducials affected by trombone delay in ARC and the main laser alignment at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awwal, Abdul A. S.; Bliss, Erlan S.; Miller Kamm, Victoria; Leach, Richard R.; Roberts, Randy; Rushford, Michael C.; Lowe-Webb, Roger; Wilhelmsen, Karl

    2015-09-01

    Four of the 192 beams of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) are currently being diverted into the Advanced Radiographic Capability (ARC) system to generate a sequence of short (1-50 picoseconds) 1053 nm laser pulses. When focused onto high Z wires in vacuum, these pulses create high energy x-ray pulses capable of penetrating the dense, imploding fusion fuel plasma during ignition scale experiments. The transmitted x-rays imaged with x-ray diagnostics can create movie radiographs that are expected to provide unprecedented insight into the implosion dynamics. The resulting images will serve as a diagnostic for tuning the experimental parameters towards successful fusion reactions. Beam delays introduced into the ARC pulses via independent, free-space optical trombones create the desired x-ray image sequence, or movie. However, these beam delays cause optical distortion of various alignment fiducials viewed by alignment sensors in the NIF and ARC beamlines. This work describes how the position of circular alignment fiducials is estimated in the presence of distortion.

  13. VIGILANCE POISON: Illegal poisoning and lead intoxication are the main factors affecting avian scavenger survival in the Pyrenees (France).

    PubMed

    Berny, Philippe; Vilagines, Lydia; Cugnasse, Jean-Marc; Mastain, Olivier; Chollet, Jean-Yves; Joncour, Guy; Razin, Martine

    2015-08-01

    A specific surveillance program has been set up to monitor avian scavenger populations in the French Pyrenean Mountains, hosting a high proportion of the French populations. The two main purposes of the study were to identify all causes of death and to investigate poisoning cases. All 170 birds found dead during the 7-year program were submitted to full necropsy, X-Ray, parasitological investigations and consistent analytical toxicology screenings (Cholinesterase inhibitors, anticoagulant rodenticides, organochlorine insecticides, Pb, Cd). Over the study period, 8 Bearded Vultures, 120 Griffon Vultures, 8 Egyptian Vultures and 34 Red kites were eventually collected. Mortality events were often multifactorial, but poisoning was by far the most common cause of death (24.1%), followed by trauma/fall (12%), bacterial diseases and starvation (8%) and electrocution (6%). Illicit use of banned pesticides was identified as a common cause of poisoning (53% of all poisoning cases) and lead poisoning was also identified as a significant toxicant issue (17% of all poisoning cases). Lead isotopic signature could be associated primarily with ammunition. Last, a positive association between trauma and lead contamination was detected, indicating that lead could be a significant contributor to different causes of death. These results urge for severe restrictions on the use of lead ammunition to prevent scavengers from detrimental exposure. PMID:25913360

  14. Temporal variations in gaseous elemental mercury concentrations at a contaminated site: Main factors affecting nocturnal maxima in daily cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esbrí, José M.; Martínez-Coronado, Alba; Higueras, Pablo L.

    2016-01-01

    Mercury is considered to be a global pollutant and it has been globally transported as gaseous elemental mercury (GEM). International networks for the continuous monitoring of mercury, all of which are based on background sites, study the dispersion pattern of this metal and trends in its evolution in time and space. However, information about seasonal and daily cycling of polluted sites is scarce. The aim of the work described here was to cover this gap in knowledge. For this purpose, continuous (GEM) measurements were carried out in Almadén town from November 2011 to September 2013. Meteorological data were also collected during this time. GEM data show an average concentration during the sampling period (2011-2013) of 27.4 ng m-3, with a range of 0.8-686.9 ng m-3. The results highlighted seasonal and daily cycles of GEM in Almadén town, with seasonally higher levels in summer (686.9 ng m-3) and significantly daily higher levels during the night. A multiple linear regression model has established wind speed as the best GEM predictor in all seasons during the night, while the best predictor in winter is relative humidity, temperature in spring, solar radiation in summer and wind speed in autumn during the day. These results provide evidence that, in mining polluted sites like Almadén, photochemical reactions have a negligible impact on GEM levels during the daytime and that meteorological parameters are more relevant. Further studies on diurnal GEM cycling in polluted sites must be carried out to obtain a realistic local risk assessment, taking into account night GEM levels and their importance in each case study.

  15. Do malignant diseases affect semen quality? Sperm parameters of men with cancers.

    PubMed

    Caponecchia, L; Cimino, G; Sacchetto, R; Fiori, C; Sebastianelli, A; Salacone, P; Marcucci, I; Tomassini, S; Rago, R

    2016-04-01

    The advent of modern treatments together with the improvement of the surgical techniques has significantly increased 5-year survival rates of young patients with cancer. Although the deleterious effects of chemotherapy and radiation are well documented, controversies exist about the effect of cancer itself on semen parameters before treatment. We collected data on 236 patients representative of different types of cancers reoffered at our institution for sperm cryopreservation with the aim to correlate the pre-freeze semen parameters with type of cancer, disease stage and with semen quality of 102 fertile and healthy men. The median baseline semen parameters of all our patients with cancer are placed above the 5th percentile of the World Health Organization reference value, but the type of cancer may impact the sperm parameters. In testicular tumours and in Hodgkin lymphoma, we show a semen concentration statistically lower than in the fertile population, while in patients with other cancers, there is no difference with the healthy men. We found no correlation between semen quality and disease stage. Eighty-six per cent of our patients do not have children at the time of semen cryopreservation, and the only established clinical option for preserving fertility of these men is cryopreservation of spermatozoa. PMID:26173956

  16. Factors Affecting the Item Parameter Estimation and Classification Accuracy of the DINA Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de la Torre, Jimmy; Hong, Yuan; Deng, Weiling

    2010-01-01

    To better understand the statistical properties of the deterministic inputs, noisy "and" gate cognitive diagnosis (DINA) model, the impact of several factors on the quality of the item parameter estimates and classification accuracy was investigated. Results of the simulation study indicate that the fully Bayes approach is most accurate when the…

  17. Plunger Kinematic Parameters Affecting Quality of High-Pressure Die-Cast Aluminum Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorese, Elena; Bonollo, Franco

    2016-07-01

    The selection of the optimal process parameters in high-pressure die casting has been long recognized as a complex problem due to the involvement of a large number of interconnected variables. Among these variables, the effect of the plunger motion has been proved to play a prominent role, even if a thorough and exhaustive study is still missing in the literature. To overcome this gap, this work aims at identifying the most relevant plunger kinematic parameters and estimates their correlation with the casting quality, by means of a statistically significant sample manufactured with different plunger motion profiles. In particular, slow and fast shot velocities and switching position between two stages have been varied randomly in accordance with design of experiment methodology. The quality has been assessed through the static mechanical properties and porosity percentage. As a further proof, the percentage of oxides has been estimated on the fracture surfaces. These measurements have been correlated to novel parameters, representing the mechanical energy and the inertial force related to the plunger motion, that have been extracted from the time-history of the displacement curves. The application of statistical methods demonstrates that these novel parameters accurately explain and predict the overall quality of castings.

  18. Plunger Kinematic Parameters Affecting Quality of High-Pressure Die-Cast Aluminum Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorese, Elena; Bonollo, Franco

    2016-04-01

    The selection of the optimal process parameters in high-pressure die casting has been long recognized as a complex problem due to the involvement of a large number of interconnected variables. Among these variables, the effect of the plunger motion has been proved to play a prominent role, even if a thorough and exhaustive study is still missing in the literature. To overcome this gap, this work aims at identifying the most relevant plunger kinematic parameters and estimates their correlation with the casting quality, by means of a statistically significant sample manufactured with different plunger motion profiles. In particular, slow and fast shot velocities and switching position between two stages have been varied randomly in accordance with design of experiment methodology. The quality has been assessed through the static mechanical properties and porosity percentage. As a further proof, the percentage of oxides has been estimated on the fracture surfaces. These measurements have been correlated to novel parameters, representing the mechanical energy and the inertial force related to the plunger motion, that have been extracted from the time-history of the displacement curves. The application of statistical methods demonstrates that these novel parameters accurately explain and predict the overall quality of castings.

  19. Study on dipolar orientation and relaxation characteristics of guest-host polymers affected by corona poling parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Binfeng; Hu, Guohua; Lu, Changgui; Cui, Yiping

    2009-05-01

    The dipolar orientation and relaxation characteristics of guest-host polymers poled by corona poling have been studied in detail. The mechanisms of dipolar orientation affected by poling parameters (voltage, temperature, time and cooling velocity) in polymers have been analyzed by UV-Vis absorption spectra and microscope. The results show that with increasing poling voltage, the orientation order parameter increases to maximum and then drops. Also the same trend of orientation order parameter has been obtained with increasing poling temperature. While the orientation order parameter increases to saturation with increasing poling time. With the biexponential model analyzing, it is shown that the relaxation of dipolar orientation can be slowed by slowing the cooling velocity during the poling process.

  20. Investigation of parameters affecting treatment time in MRI-guided transurethral ultrasound therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    N'Djin, W. A.; Burtnyk, M.; Chopra, R.; Bronskill, M. J.

    2010-03-01

    MRI-guided transurethral ultrasound therapy shows promise for minimally invasive treatment of localized prostate cancer. Real-time MR temperature feedback enables the 3D control of thermal therapy to define an accurate region within the prostate. Previous in-vivo canine studies showed the feasibility of this method using transurethral planar transducers. The aim of this simulation study was to reduce the procedure time, while maintaining treatment accuracy by investigating new combinations of treatment parameters. A numerical model was used to simulate a multi-element heating applicator rotating inside the urethra in 10 human prostates. Acoustic power and rotation rate were varied based on the feedback of the temperature in the prostate. Several parameters were investigated for improving the treatment time. Maximum acoustic power and rotation rate were optimized interdependently as a function of prostate radius and transducer operating frequency, while avoiding temperatures >90° C in the prostate. Other trials were performed on each parameter separately, with the other parameter fixed. The concept of using dual-frequency transducers was studied, using the fundamental frequency or the 3rd harmonic component depending on the prostate radius. The maximum acoustic power which could be used decreased as a function of the prostate radius and the frequency. Decreasing the frequency (9.7-3.0 MHz) or increasing the power (10-20 W.cm-2) led to treatment times shorter by up to 50% under appropriate conditions. Dual-frequency configurations, while helpful, tended to have less impact on treatment times. Treatment accuracy was maintained and critical adjacent tissues like the rectal wall remained protected. The interdependence between power and frequency may require integrating multi-parametric functions inside the controller for future optimizations. As a first approach, however, even slight modifications of key parameters can be sufficient to reduce treatment time.

  1. Environmental dependence of the stellar velocity dispersion at fixed parameters or for different galaxy families in the main galaxy sample of SDSS DR10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Xinfa; Jiang, Peng; Zhong, Shuangying; Ding, Yingping

    2015-01-01

    Using the apparent magnitude-limited Main Galaxy Sample of Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 10 (SDSS DR10), we examine the environmental dependence of the stellar velocity dispersion at fixed parameters or for different galaxy families. Limiting or fixing certain parameters exerts substantial influence on the environmental dependence of the stellar velocity dispersion of the galaxies which suggests that much of the stellar velocity dispersion-density relation is likely attributable to the relations between other galaxy parameters and density. The environmental dependence of the stellar velocity dispersion for red galaxies is very strong in certain redshift bins. This dependence can still be observed in some redshift bins for late-type galaxies, HSM galaxies, and LSM galaxies but is fairly weak in all redshift bins for early-type galaxies and blue galaxies.

  2. Cytidine 5'-diphosphocholine differentially affects hemostatic parameters in diverse conditions in rats: an investigation via thromboelastography.

    PubMed

    Cam, Betul; Sagdilek, Engin; Yildirim, Nalan; Savci, Vahide

    2015-04-01

    Cytidine 5'-diphosphocholine (CDP-choline) has several physiological and pharmacological effects on various bodily functions, including hemostasis. This study determined the impact of CDP-choline on hemostasis in a trauma-hemorrhage (T-H) model in rats or under in vitro conditions or after chronic treatment via thromboelastography. Trauma-hemorrhage resuscitation was induced, and either saline (1 mL/kg) or CDP-choline (50 mg/kg) was injected intravenously just prior to resuscitation in the T-H group and at the same time point in the sham-control group. The effects of CDP-choline on thromboelastogram parameters, coagulation markers, and platelet aggregation were investigated under in vitro conditions (1.5 mM, 30- or 3-min incubation in blood or plasma) and after chronic use (50 mg/kg, i.p., 10 days). Acute CDP-choline treatment was shown to decrease the initial and maximum clot formation time, accelerate clotting rapidity, reduce the lysis percentage, and increase the coagulation index in the T-H resuscitation group, whereas the same treatment in the sham-control rats did not alter any of the thromboelastogram parameters. However, the incubation of whole blood with CDP-choline prolonged the initial and maximum clot formation time, and CDP-choline treatment significantly decreased the slopes of the disaggregation and aggregation curves when platelets were stimulated with ADP and collagen, respectively. Interestingly, the chronic use of this drug did not influence any of these hemostatic parameters. These data implicate that acute but not chronic CDP-choline administration may differentially alter the hemostatic parameters under diverse conditions. The drug may produce a hypercoagulable state in activated situations but cause opposite effects under normal in vitro conditions. PMID:25394251

  3. Experimental Parameters Affecting Stripping of Rare Earth Elements from Loaded Sorptive Media in Simulated Geothermal Brines

    DOE Data Explorer

    Dean Stull

    2016-05-24

    Experimental results from several studies exploring the impact of pH and acid volume on the stripping of rare earth elements (REEs) loaded onto ligand-based media via an active column. The REEs in this experiment were loaded onto the media through exposure to a simulated geothermal brine with known mineral concentrations. The data include the experiment results, rare earth element concentrations, and the experimental parameters varied.

  4. Application of ANN to evaluate effective parameters affecting failure load and displacement of RC buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakan Arslan, M.

    2009-06-01

    This study investigated the efficiency of an artificial neural network (ANN) in predicting and determining failure load and failure displacement of multi story reinforced concrete (RC) buildings. The study modeled a RC building with four stories and three bays, with a load bearing system composed of columns and beams. Non-linear static pushover analysis of the key parameters in change defined in Turkish Earthquake Code (TEC-2007) for columns and beams was carried out and the capacity curves, failure loads and displacements were obtained. Totally 720 RC buildings were analyzed according to the change intervals of the parameters chosen. The input parameters were selected as longitudinal bar ratio (ρl) of columns, transverse reinforcement ratio (Asw/sc), axial load level (N/No), column and beam cross section, strength of concrete (fc) and the compression bar ratio (ρ'/ρ) on the beam supports. Data from the nonlinear analysis were assessed with ANN in terms of failure load and failure displacement. For all outputs, ANN was trained and tested using of 11 back-propagation methods. All of the ANN models were found to perform well for both failure loads and displacements. The analyses also indicated that a considerable portion of existing RC building stock in Turkey may not meet the safety standards of the Turkish Earthquake Code (TEC-2007).

  5. Coated or doped carbon nanotube network sensors as affected by environmental parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Jing (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Methods for using modified single wall carbon nanotubes ("SWCNTs") to detect presence and/or concentration of a gas component, such as a halogen (e.g., Cl.sub.2), hydrogen halides (e.g., HCl), a hydrocarbon (e.g., C.sub.nH.sub.2n+2), an alcohol, an aldehyde or a ketone, to which an unmodified SWCNT is substantially non-reactive. In a first embodiment, a connected network of SWCNTs is coated with a selected polymer, such as chlorosulfonated polyethylene, hydroxypropyl cellulose, polystyrene and/or polyvinylalcohol, and change in an electrical parameter or response value (e.g., conductance, current, voltage difference or resistance) of the coated versus uncoated SWCNT networks is analyzed. In a second embodiment, the network is doped with a transition element, such as Pd, Pt, Rh, Ir, Ru, Os and/or Au, and change in an electrical parameter value is again analyzed. The parameter change value depends monotonically, not necessarily linearly, upon concentration of the gas component. Two general algorithms are presented for estimating concentration value(s), or upper or lower concentration bounds on such values, from measured differences of response values.

  6. Cryopreservation affects bovine sperm intracellular parameters associated with capacitation and acrosome exocytosis.

    PubMed

    Pons-Rejraji, Hanae; Bailey, Janice L; Leclerc, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    Although semen cryopreservation is widely and commonly used in the bovine breeding industry, half the spermatozoa do not survive and most of those that do survive undergo numerous physiological changes that affect their fertilising ability. The aim of the present study was to determine how cryopreservation affects the intracellular events involved in sperm capacitation and acrosome reaction. Immediately after thawing and washing, almost 50% of spermatozoa were capacitated and more than 20% had lost their acrosome. The sperm cAMP concentration was lower than that in freshly ejaculated spermatozoa, but the cytosolic pH (pHcyt) was in the expected range. The free cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]cyt) was higher than in fresh spermatozoa and cryopreserved spermatozoa had internally stored Ca2+. Phenylarsine oxide increased pHcyt and both cytosolic and stored Ca2+ concentrations, whereas orthovanadate enhanced acrosome loss and protein tyrosine phosphorylation (P-Tyr). Heparin increased the percentage of spermatozoa expressing the B (capacitated) chlortetracycline binding pattern, pHcyt, P-Tyr and Ca2+ storage. Moreover, positive correlations exist between capacitation, cAMP, P-Tyr and stored Ca2+, whereas the acrosome reaction is positively correlated with pHcyt and [Ca2+]cyt. These results demonstrate that sperm regulatory mechanisms may be affected by the cryopreservation procedure, but frozen-thawed sperm can still regulate their capacitation and acrosome reaction signalling pathways. PMID:19383259

  7. Parameter sensitivities affecting the flutter speed of a MW-sized blade.

    SciTech Connect

    Lobitz, Donald Wayne, Jr.

    2004-10-01

    With the current trend toward larger and larger horizontal axis wind turbines, classical flutter is becoming a more critical issue. Recent studies have indicated that for a single blade turning in still air the flutter speed for a modern 35 m blade occurs at approximately twice its operating speed (2 per rev), whereas for smaller blades (5-9 m), both modern and early designs, the flutter speeds are in the range of 3.5-6 per rev. Scaling studies demonstrate that the per rev flutter speed should not change with scale. Thus, design requirements that change with increasing blade size are producing the concurrent reduction in per rev flutter speeds. In comparison with an early small blade design (5 m blade), flutter computations indicate that the non rotating modes which combine to create the flutter mode change as the blade becomes larger (i.e., for the larger blade the second flapwise mode, as opposed to the first flapwise mode for the smaller blade, combines with the first torsional mode to produce the flutter mode). For the more modern smaller blade design (9 m blade), results show that the non rotating modes that couple are similar to those of the larger blade. For the wings of fixed-wing aircraft, it is common knowledge that judicious selection of certain design parameters can increase the airspeed associated with the onset of flutter. Two parameters, the chordwise location of the center of mass and the ratio of the flapwise natural frequency to the torsional natural frequency, are especially significant. In this paper studies are performed to determine the sensitivity of the per rev flutter speed to these parameters for a 35 m wind turbine blade. Additional studies are performed to determine which structural characteristics of the blade are most significant in explaining the previously mentioned per rev flutter speed differences. As a point of interest, flutter results are also reported for two recently designed 9 m twist/coupled blades.

  8. Parameter sensitivities affecting the flutter speed of a MW-sized blade.

    SciTech Connect

    Lobitz, Donald Wayne, Jr.

    2005-08-01

    With the current trend toward larger and larger horizontal axis wind turbines, classical flutter is becoming a more critical issue. Recent studies have indicated that for a single blade turning in still air the flutter speed for a modern 35 m blade occurs at approximately twice its operating speed (2 per rev), whereas for smaller blades (5-9 m), both modern and early designs, the flutter speeds are in the range of 3.5-6 per rev. Scaling studies demonstrate that the per rev flutter speed should not change with scale. Thus, design requirements that change with increasing blade size are producing the concurrent reduction in per rev flutter speeds. In comparison with an early small blade design (5 m blade), flutter computations indicate that the non rotating modes which combine to create the flutter mode change as the blade becomes larger (i.e., for the larger blade the second flapwise mode, as opposed to the first flapwise mode for the smaller blade, combines with the first torsional mode to produce the flutter mode). For the more modern smaller blade design (9 m blade), results show that the non rotating modes that couple are similar to those of the larger blade. For the wings of fixed-wing aircraft, it is common knowledge that judicious selection of certain design parameters can increase the airspeed associated with the onset of flutter. Two parameters, the chordwise location of the center of mass and the ratio of the flapwise natural frequency to the torsional natural frequency, are especially significant. In this paper studies are performed to determine the sensitivity of the per rev flutter speed to these parameters for a 35 m wind turbine blade. Additional studies are performed to determine which structural characteristics of the blade are most significant in explaining the previously mentioned per rev flutter speed differences. As a point of interest, flutter results are also reported for two recently designed 9 m twist/coupled blades.

  9. Parameters affecting the occurrence and removal of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in twenty Canadian wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Kim, M; Guerra, P; Theocharides, M; Barclay, K; Smyth, S A; Alaee, M

    2013-05-01

    This study determined PBDE levels in influent, primary effluent, and final effluent collected from diverse treatment processes including four aerated lagoons, two facultative lagoons, four primary treatments, eight secondary biological treatments and two advanced treatments. Parameters examined for correlation included seasonal temperature, community sizes, industrial inputs, and operational conditions. PBDE levels in influent were 21-1000 ng/L (median 190 ng/L). Higher concentrations in influent samples were found during summer, and in WWTPs which treated leachate and higher proportions of industrial wastewater vs. residential wastewater. Final effluent levels ranged between 3 and 270 ng/L (median 12 ng/L). Among all congeners, the sum of BDE-209, -47 and -99 accounted for 79 and 71% of total PBDEs in influent and final effluent, respectively, with BDE-209 having the highest proportion. Median removal efficiencies for all process types exceeded 90% except primary treatment at 70%. PBDE levels and removals were correlated to the levels and removals of conventional parameters that represent wastewater strength, such as chemical oxygen demand and total suspended solids. The role of the primary clarifier was significant (∼82% removal) and removal was associated with hydraulic retention time (HRT) and surface loading rate. Best removal of PBDEs was achieved at greater than 2000 mg/L mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS), longer than 10 h of HRT, and 9 days of solids retention time. PMID:23466032

  10. Does Body Mass Index in Pregnant Women Affect Laboratory Parameters in the Newborn?

    PubMed Central

    Raguž, Marjana Jerković; Brzica, Jerko

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to determine the effect of body mass index (BMI) during pregnancy in laboratory parameters in the serum of the three groups of pregnant women and in their newborns. Methods This prospective study is comparison between the three groups of pregnant women and their newborns categorized according to their BMI. The study included 128 pregnant women and their newborns. In this study, the concentration of blood count, iron, ferritin, and bilirubin were analyzed in the subjects. Results The pregnant women in the three groups significantly differ in the values of blood count (p < 0.001). Statistically significant difference in iron and ferritin was not found between individual three studied groups of pregnant women (p = 0.947). The newborn of the first group of pregnant women had significantly lower values of ferritin (p < 0.001), leucocytes (p < 0.001), and bilirubin (p < 0.001). Significant positive correlation between BMI of pregnant women and leucocytes, ferritin, and bilirubin of the newborn was found (p < 0.001). Conclusion In this study, the tested pregnant women do not have biochemical signs of anemia, neither do their newborns. It was noted that there was no negative correlation between individual tested biochemical parameters for anemia in pregnant women and their newborns. PMID:27119047

  11. Chronic ethanol consumption impairs spatial remote memory in rats but does not affect cortical cholinergic parameters.

    PubMed

    Pereira, S R; Menezes, G A; Franco, G C; Costa, A E; Ribeiro, A M

    1998-06-01

    We have studied learning, memory and cortical cholinergic parameters after oral administration of 20% v/v ethanol solution to male Fisher rats for 6 months. A group of rats were trained to behave efficiently in an eight-arm radial maze and after that split into two subgroups submitted to ethanol or control treatment. Ethanol-treated rats had more difficulty in relearning the same task 1 year later, compared to ethanol-untreated rats (control). Differences in working memory performance were found, but only in the first 10 training sessions. Another group of rats, which had not been pretrained, was also split into two subgroups submitted to ethanol or control treatment. After that, these rats were trained in the radial maze task for the first time. No significant difference was found between the reference memory performance of the untreated subgroup and the treated one. These two subgroups did not significantly differ in their working memory performance either. Moreover, there were no significant differences between treated and control subjects in the following biochemical brain cortical parameters: in vitro acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, and stimulated acetylcholine (ACh) release. This work presents an experimental design that allows assessment of remote memory performance after ethanol chronic consumption and shows that the experimental subject is able to retain the behaviors learned 1 year before. It was concluded that chronic ethanol treatment may cause retrograde amnesia, which does not seem to be linked with a cortical cholinergic deficit. PMID:9632211

  12. An empirical model for parameters affecting energy consumption in boron removal from boron-containing wastewaters by electrocoagulation.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, A Erdem; Boncukcuoğlu, Recep; Kocakerim, M Muhtar

    2007-06-01

    In this study, it was investigated parameters affecting energy consumption in boron removal from boron containing wastewaters prepared synthetically, via electrocoagulation method. The solution pH, initial boron concentration, dose of supporting electrolyte, current density and temperature of solution were selected as experimental parameters affecting energy consumption. The obtained experimental results showed that boron removal efficiency reached up to 99% under optimum conditions, in which solution pH was 8.0, current density 6.0 mA/cm(2), initial boron concentration 100mg/L and solution temperature 293 K. The current density was an important parameter affecting energy consumption too. High current density applied to electrocoagulation cell increased energy consumption. Increasing solution temperature caused to decrease energy consumption that high temperature decreased potential applied under constant current density. That increasing initial boron concentration and dose of supporting electrolyte caused to increase specific conductivity of solution decreased energy consumption. As a result, it was seen that energy consumption for boron removal via electrocoagulation method could be minimized at optimum conditions. An empirical model was predicted by statistically. Experimentally obtained values were fitted with values predicted from empirical model being as following; [formula in text]. Unfortunately, the conditions obtained for optimum boron removal were not the conditions obtained for minimum energy consumption. It was determined that support electrolyte must be used for increase boron removal and decrease electrical energy consumption. PMID:17084968

  13. Quality parameters for alpaca (Vicugna pacos) semen are affected by semen collection procedure.

    PubMed

    Morton, K M; Thomson, P C; Bailey, K; Evans, G; Maxwell, W M C

    2010-08-01

    Artificial insemination (AI) is poorly developed in camelids owing to the difficulty in collecting high quality semen and the highly viscous nature of the semen. Semen collected by artificial vagina (AV) is often of low quality and must be improved before any further development of AI technology can occur. The present study investigated the effects of adding a cervix-like stricture to the AV, presence of females, collecting semen into Androhep, skim-milk or Tris diluents, and catalase supplementation (0, 100, 200 or 600 units/ml) of Tris diluent on alpaca semen quality parameters. The addition of a cervix-like stricture increased mating length (p < 0.05), whilst the presence of females during semen collection did not improve semen quality parameters (p > 0.05). Collection of semen into Tris diluent improved sperm motility (58.0 +/- 11.9%) compared with the control (34.0 +/- 10.8%; p < 0.05), Androhep (33.5 +/- 10.7%) and skim-milk diluents (28.2 +/- 10.4%). Semen viscosity was reduced by collection into Androhep (4.6 +/- 1.7 mm) and skim-milk diluents (3.6 +/- 1.3 mm) compared with Tris diluent (5.7 +/- 2.1 mm) and no collection medium (9.3 +/- 3.5 mm; p < 0.05). Tris diluent supplemented with 100, 200 or 600 units/ml catalase increased semen viscosity (5.0 +/- 3.2 and 4.9 +/- 3.2 mm). Collection of alpaca semen by AV into Tris diluent increased semen quality facilitating further development of AI technology in alpacas. PMID:19144029

  14. Ageing/Menopausal Status in Healthy Women and Ageing in Healthy Men Differently Affect Cardiometabolic Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Campesi, Ilaria; Occhioni, Stefano; Tonolo, Giancarlo; Cherchi, Sara; Basili, Stefania; Carru, Ciriaco; Zinellu, Angelo; Franconi, Flavia

    2016-01-01

    Background: Gender medicine requires a global analysis of an individual's life. Menopause and ageing induce variations of some cardiometabolic parameters, but, it is unknown if this occurs in a sex-specific manner. Here, some markers of oxidative stress, systemic inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction are analysed in men younger and older than 45 years and in pre- and postmenopausal women. Methods: Serum and plasma sample were assayed for TNF-α and IL-6, malondialdehyde and protein carbonyls and for methylated arginines using ELISA kits, colorimetric methods and capillary electrophoresis. Results: Before body weight correction, men overall had higher creatinine, red blood cells and haemoglobin and lower triglycerides than women. Men younger than 45 years had lower levels of TNF-α and malondialdehyde and higher levels of arginine than age-matched women, while postmenopausal women had higher IL-6 concentrations than men, and higher total cholesterol, triglycerides, creatinine and IL-6 levels than younger women. Men younger than 45 years had lower total cholesterol and malondialdehyde than older men. After correction, some differences remained, others were amplified, others disappeared and some new differences emerged. Moreover, some parameters showed a correlation with age, and some of them correlated with each other as functions of ageing and ageing/menopausal status. Conclusions: Ageing/menopausal status increased many more cardiovascular risk factors in women than ageing in men, confirming that postmenopausal women had increased vascular vulnerability and indicating the need of early cardiovascular prevention in women. Sex-gender differences are also influenced by body weight, indicating as a matter of debate whether body weight should be seen as a true confounder or as part of the causal pathway. PMID:26941571

  15. A systematic experimental investigation of significant parameters affecting model tire hydroplaning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wray, G. A.; Ehrlich, I. R.

    1973-01-01

    The results of a comprehensive parametric study of model and small pneumatic tires operating on a wet surface are presented. Hydroplaning inception (spin down) and rolling restoration (spin up) are discussed. Conclusions indicate that hydroplaning inception occurs at a speed significantly higher than the rolling restoration speed. Hydroplaning speed increases considerably with tread depth, surface roughness and tire inflation pressure of footprint pressure, and only moderately with increased load. Water film thickness affects spin down speed only slightly. Spin down speed varies inversely as approximately the one-sixth power of film thickness. Empirical equations relating tire inflation pressure, normal load, tire diameter and water film thickness have been generated for various tire tread and surface configurations.

  16. Potato Production as Affected by Crop Parameters and Meteoro Logical Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, André B.; Villa Nova, Nilson A.; Pereira, Antonio R.

    Meteorological elements directly influence crop potential productivity, regulating its transpiration, photosynthesis, and respiration processes in such a way as to control the growth and development of the plants throughout their physiological mechanisms at a given site. The interaction of the meteorological factors with crop responses is complex and has been the target of attention of many researchers from all over the world. There is currently a great deal of interest in estimating crop productivity as a function of climate by means of different crop weather models in order to help growers choose planting locations and timing to produce high yields with good tuber quality under site-specific atmospheric conditions. In this manuscript an agrometeorological model based on maximum carbon dioxide assimilation rates for C3 plants, fraction of photosynthetically active radiation, air temperature, photoperiod duration, and crop parameters is assessed as to its performance under tropical conditions. Crop parameters include leaf areaand harvest indexes, dry matter content of potato tubers, and crop cycles to estimate potato potential yields. Productivity obtained with the cultivar Itararé, grown with adequate soil water supply conditions at four different sites in the State of São Paulo (Itararé, Piracicaba, TatuÍ, and São Manuel), Brazil, were used to test the model. The results showed thatthe agrometeorological model tested under the climatic conditions of the State of São Paulo in general underestimated irrigated potato yield by less than 10%.This justifies the recommendation to test the performance of the model in study in other climaticregions for different crops and genotypes under optimal irrigationconditions in further scientific investigations. We reached the conclusion that the agrometeorological model taking into account information on leaf area index, photoperiod duration, photosynthetically active radiation and air temperature is feasible to estimate

  17. Predictive Blood Chemistry Parameters for Pansteatitis-Affected Mozambique Tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus)

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Robert W.; Somerville, Stephen E.; Guillette, Matthew P.; Botha, Hannes; Hoffman, Andre; Luus-Powell, Wilmien J.; Smit, Willem J.; Lebepe, Jeffrey; Myburgh, Jan; Govender, Danny; Tucker, Jonathan; Boggs, Ashley S. P.

    2016-01-01

    One of the largest river systems in South Africa, the Olifants River, has experienced significant changes in water quality due to anthropogenic activities. Since 2005, there have been various “outbreaks” of the inflammatory disease pansteatitis in several vertebrate species. Large-scale pansteatitis-related mortality events have decimated the crocodile population at Lake Loskop and decreased the population at Kruger National Park. Most pansteatitis-related diagnoses within the region are conducted post-mortem by either gross pathology or histology. The application of a non-lethal approach to assess the prevalence and pervasiveness of pansteatitis in the Olifants River region would be of great importance for the development of a management plan for this disease. In this study, several plasma-based biomarkers accurately classified pansteatitis in Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) collected from Lake Loskop using a commercially available benchtop blood chemistry analyzer combined with data interpretation via artificial neural network analysis. According to the model, four blood chemistry parameters (calcium, sodium, total protein and albumin), in combination with total length, diagnose pansteatitis to a predictive accuracy of 92 percent. In addition, several morphometric traits (total length, age, weight) were also associated with pansteatitis. On-going research will focus on further evaluating the use of blood chemistry to classify pansteatitis across different species, trophic levels, and within different sites along the Olifants River. PMID:27115488

  18. Parameters affecting enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction of extruded sunflower meal.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Kerry A; Vaca-Medina, Guadalupe; Glatz, Charles E; Pontalier, Pierre-Yves

    2016-10-01

    Microscopic observation of sunflower meal before and after extraction indicated that extensive cellular disruption was achieved by extrusion, but that unextracted oil remained sequestered as coalesced oil within the void spaces of disrupted cotyledon cells. A full factorial design experiment was defined to develop aqueous extraction processing (AEP) with and without enzymes to improve vegetable oil extraction yields of extruded sunflower meal. This experimental design studied the influence of four parameters, agitation, liquid/solid (L/S) ratio, and cellulase and protease addition, on extraction yield of lipid and protein. Agitation and addition of cellulases increased oil extraction yield, indicating that emulsification of oil and alteration of the geometry of the confining cellular matrix were important mechanisms for improving yields. Protease and liquid-solid ratio of the extraction mixture did not have significant effects, indicating key differences with previously established soy oil extraction mechanisms. Maximum yields attained for oil and protein extraction were 39% and 90%, respectively, with the aid of a surfactant. PMID:27132846

  19. Dexamethasone acutely regulates endocrine parameters in stallions and subsequently affects gene expression in testicular germ cells.

    PubMed

    Ing, N H; Brinsko, S P; Curley, K O; Forrest, D W; Love, C C; Hinrichs, K; Vogelsang, M M; Varner, D D; Welsh, T H

    2015-01-01

    Testicular steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis are negatively impacted by stress-related hormones such as glucocorticoids. The effects of two injections of a therapeutic dose of dexamethasone (a synthetic glucocorticoid, 0.1mg/kg; i.v.) given 24h apart to each of three stallions were investigated and compared to three saline-injected control stallions. Dexamethasone decreased circulating concentrations of cortisol by 50% at 24h after the initial injection. Serum testosterone decreased by a maximum of 94% from 4 to 20h after the initial injection of dexamethasone. Semen parameters of the dexamethasone-treated stallions were unchanged in the subsequent two weeks. Two weeks after treatment, stallions were castrated. Functional genomic analyses of the testes revealed that, of eight gene products analyzed, dexamethasone depressed concentrations of heat shock protein DNAJC4 and sperm-specific calcium channel CATSPER1 mRNAs by more than 60%. Both genes are expressed in germ cells during spermiogenesis and have been related to male fertility in other species, including humans. This is the first report of decreased DNAJC4 and CATSPER1 mRNA concentrations in testes weeks after dexamethasone treatment. Concentrations of these mRNAs in sperm may be useful as novel markers of fertility in stallions. PMID:25487569

  20. Critical parameters of a noise model that affect fault tolerant quantum computation on a single qubit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iyer, Pavithran; da Silva, Marcus P.; Poulin, David

    In this work, we aim to determine the parameters of a single qubit channel that can tightly bound the logical error rate of the Steane code. We do not assume any a priori structure for the quantum channel, except that it is a CPTP map and we use a concatenated Steane code to encode a single qubit. Unlike the standard Monte Carlo technique that requires many iterations to estimate the logical error rate with sufficient accuracy, we use techniques to compute the complete effect of a physical CPTP map, at the logical level. Using this, we have studied the predictive power of several physical noise metrics on the logical error rate, and show, through numerical simulations with random quantum channels, that, on their own, none of the natural physical metrics lead to accurate predictions about the logical error rate. We then show how machine learning techniques help us to explore which features of a random quantum channel are important in predicting its logical error rate.

  1. Surgical procedure affects physiological parameters in rat myocardial ischemia: need for mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Horstick, G; Berg, O; Heimann, A; Darius, H; Lehr, H A; Bhakdi, S; Kempski, O; Meyer, J

    1999-02-01

    Several surgical approaches are being used to induce myocardial ischemia in rats. The present study investigated two different operative procedures in spontaneously breathing and mechanically ventilated rats under sham conditions. A snare around the left coronary artery (LCA) was achieved without occlusion. Left lateral thoracotomy was performed in spontaneously breathing and mechanically ventilated rats (tidal volume 8 ml/kg) with a respiratory rate of 90 strokes/min at different levels of O2 supplementation (room air and 30, 40, and 90% O2). All animals were observed for 60 min after thoracotomy. Rats operated with exteriorization of the heart through left lateral thoracotomy while breathing spontaneously developed severe hypoxia and hypercapnia despite an intrathoracic operation time of <1 min. Arterial O2 content decreased from 18.7 +/- 0.5 to 3.3 +/- 0.9 vol%. Lactate increased from 1.2 +/- 0.1 to 5.2 +/- 0.3 mmol/l. Significant signs of ischemia were seen in the electrocardiogram up to 60 min. Mechanically ventilated animals exhibited a spectrum ranging from hypoxia (room air) to hyperoxia (90% O2). In order not to jeopardize findings in experimental myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury models, stable physiological parameters can be achieved in mechanically ventilated rats at an O2 application of 30-40% at 90 strokes/min. PMID:9950847

  2. Predictive Blood Chemistry Parameters for Pansteatitis-Affected Mozambique Tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus).

    PubMed

    Bowden, John A; Cantu, Theresa M; Chapman, Robert W; Somerville, Stephen E; Guillette, Matthew P; Botha, Hannes; Hoffman, Andre; Luus-Powell, Wilmien J; Smit, Willem J; Lebepe, Jeffrey; Myburgh, Jan; Govender, Danny; Tucker, Jonathan; Boggs, Ashley S P; Guillette, Louis J

    2016-01-01

    One of the largest river systems in South Africa, the Olifants River, has experienced significant changes in water quality due to anthropogenic activities. Since 2005, there have been various "outbreaks" of the inflammatory disease pansteatitis in several vertebrate species. Large-scale pansteatitis-related mortality events have decimated the crocodile population at Lake Loskop and decreased the population at Kruger National Park. Most pansteatitis-related diagnoses within the region are conducted post-mortem by either gross pathology or histology. The application of a non-lethal approach to assess the prevalence and pervasiveness of pansteatitis in the Olifants River region would be of great importance for the development of a management plan for this disease. In this study, several plasma-based biomarkers accurately classified pansteatitis in Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) collected from Lake Loskop using a commercially available benchtop blood chemistry analyzer combined with data interpretation via artificial neural network analysis. According to the model, four blood chemistry parameters (calcium, sodium, total protein and albumin), in combination with total length, diagnose pansteatitis to a predictive accuracy of 92 percent. In addition, several morphometric traits (total length, age, weight) were also associated with pansteatitis. On-going research will focus on further evaluating the use of blood chemistry to classify pansteatitis across different species, trophic levels, and within different sites along the Olifants River. PMID:27115488

  3. Does aerobic exercise intensity affect health-related parameters in overweight women?

    PubMed

    Botero, João P; Prado, Wagner L; Guerra, Ricardo L F; Speretta, Guilherme F F; Leite, Richard D; Prestes, Jonato; Sanz, Adrián V; Lyons, Scott; de Azevedo, Paulo H S M; Baldissera, Vilmar; Perez, Sergio E A; Dâmaso, Ana; da Silva, Rozinaldo G

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of a cycling training programme performed at intensity corresponding to the lowest value of the respiratory quotient (RQ) versus at intensity corresponding to the ventilatory threshold (VT), on body composition and health-related parameters in overweight women. Thirty-two sedentary obese women (27-42 years old) were studied in a randomized trial of either RQ (n = 17) or VT (n = 15). RQ and VT training sessions were equalized by time (60 min) and performed in a cycloergometer. Anthropometry, body composition, lipid profile, glucose, basal metabolic rate (BMR) and fitness (maximal oxygen uptake) were evaluated before and after 12 weeks of intervention. Body weight, body mass index, fatness and fitness were improved in both groups (P<0·001). Triglycerides (TG) levels decreased only in response to RQ (P<0·001) and fat-free mass (FFM) to VT (P = 0·002). No differences were observed between groups. Both exercise intensities seem to be effective for improving health in overweight women. However, low-intensity compared with the high-intensity exercise training appears to have additional benefits on TG levels and to maintenance of FFM. PMID:23898989

  4. A study of the parameters affecting the accuracy of the total pore blocking method.

    PubMed

    Liekens, Anuschka; Cabooter, Deirdre; Denayer, Joeri; Desmet, Gert

    2010-10-22

    We report on a study wherein we investigate the different factors affecting the accuracy of the total pore blocking method to determine the interstitial volume of reversed-phase packed bed columns. Octane, nonane, decane and dodecane were all found to be suitable blocking agents, whereas heptane already dissolves too well in the applied fully aqueous buffers. The method of moments needs to be used to accurately determine the elution times, and a proper correction for the frit volume is needed. Failing to do so can lead to errors on the observed interstitial volume of the order of 2% or more. It has also been shown that the application of a high flow rate or a high pressure does not force the blocking agent out of the mesopores of the particles. The only potential source of loss of blocking agent is dissolution into the mobile phase (even though this is a buffered fully aqueous solution). This effect however only becomes significant after the elution of 400 geometrical column volumes, i.e., orders more than needed for a regular total pore blocking experiment. PMID:20580009

  5. Study of parameters affecting the performance of solar desiccant cooling systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesaran, A. A.; Hoo, E. A.

    1993-01-01

    The performance of a solar desiccant cooling system depends on the performance of its components, particularly the desiccant dehumidifier and solar collectors. The desiccant dehumidifier performance is affected by the properties of the desiccant, particularly the shape of the isotherm and the regeneration temperature. The performance of a solar collector, as one would expect, depends on its operating temperature, which is very close to the desiccant regeneration temperature. The purpose of this study was to identify the desiccant isotherm shape (characterized by separation factor) that would result in the optimum performance - based on thermal coefficient of performance and cooling capacity - of a desiccant cooling cycle operating in ventilation mode. Different regeneration temperatures ranging from 65 to 160 C were investigated to identify the corresponding optimum isotherm shape at each. Thermal COP dictates the required area of the solar collectors, and the cooling capacity is an indication of the size and cost of the cooling equipment. Staged and no-staged regeneration methods were studied.

  6. Parameters affecting the fusion of unilamellar phospholipid vesicles with planar bilayer membranes.

    PubMed

    Cohen, F S; Akabas, M H; Zimmerberg, J; Finkelstein, A

    1984-03-01

    It was previously shown (Cohen, F. S., J. Zimmerberg, and A. Finkelstein, 1980, J. Gen. Physiol., 75:251-270) that multilamellar phospholipid vesicles can fuse with decane-containing phospholipid bilayer membranes. An essential requirement for fusion was an osmotic gradient across the planar membrane, with the vesicle-containing (cis) side hyperosmotic with respect to the opposite (trans) side. We now report that unilamellar vesicles will fuse with "hydrocarbon-free" membranes subject to these same osmotic conditions. Thus the same conditions that apply to fusion of multilamellar vesicles with planar bilayer membranes also apply to fusion of unilamellar vesicles with these membranes, and hydrocarbon is not required for the fusion process. If the vesicles and/or planar membrane contain negatively charged lipids, divalent cation (approximately 15 mM Ca++) is required in the cis compartment (in addition to the osmotic gradient across the membrane) to obtain substantial fusion rates. On the other hand, vesicles made from uncharged lipids readily fuse with planar phosphatidylethanolamine planar membranes in the near absence of divalent cation with just an osmotic gradient. Vesicles fuse much more readily with phosphatidylethanolamine-containing than with phosphatidylcholine-containing planar membranes. Although hydrocarbon (decane) is not required in the planar membrane for fusion, it does affect the rate of fusion and causes the fusion process to be dependent on stirring in the cis compartment. PMID:6699081

  7. Dermal nanocrystals from medium soluble actives - physical stability and stability affecting parameters.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Xuezhen; Lademann, Jürgen; Keck, Cornelia M; Müller, Rainer H

    2014-09-01

    Nanocrystals are meanwhile applied to increase the dermal penetration of drugs, but were applied by now only to poorly soluble drugs (e.g. 1-10 μg/ml). As a new concept nanocrystals from medium soluble actives were produced, using caffeine as model compound (solubility 16 mg/ml at 20 °C). Penetration should be increased by (a) further increase in solubility and (b) mainly by increased hair follicle targeting of nanocrystals compared to pure solution. Caffeine nanocrystal production in water lead to pronounced crystal growth. Therefore the stability of nanocrystals in water-ethanol (1:9) and ethanol-propylene glycol (3:7) mixtures with lower dielectric constant D was investigated, using various stabilizers. Both mixtures in combination with Carbopol 981 (non-neutralized) yielded stable nanosuspensions over 2 months at 4 °C and room temperature. Storage at 40 °C lead to crystal growth, attributed to too strong solubility increase, supersaturation and Ostwald ripening effects. Stability of caffeine nanocrystals at lower temperatures could not only be attributed to lower solubility, because the solubilities of caffeine in mixtures and in water are not that much different. Other effects such as quantified by reduced dielectric constant D, and specific interactions between dispersion medium and crystal surface seem to play a role. With the 2 mixtures and Carbopol 981, a basic formulation composition for this type of nanocrystals has been established, to be used in the in vivo proof of principle of the new concept. PMID:25016978

  8. Developmental methoxychlor exposure affects multiple reproductive parameters and ovarian folliculogenesis and gene expression in adult rats

    SciTech Connect

    Armenti, AnnMarie E.; Zama, Aparna Mahakali; Passantino, Lisa; Uzumcu, Mehmet

    2008-12-01

    Methoxychlor (MXC) is an organochlorine pesticide with estrogenic, anti-estrogenic, and anti-androgenic properties. To investigate whether transient developmental exposure to MXC could cause adult ovarian dysfunction, we exposed Fischer rats to 20 {mu}g/kg/day (low dose; environmentally relevant dose) or 100 mg/kg/day (high dose) MXC between 19 days post coitum and postnatal day 7. Multiple reproductive parameters, serum hormone levels, and ovarian morphology and molecular markers were examined from prepubertal through adult stages. High dose MXC accelerated pubertal onset and first estrus, reduced litter size, and increased irregular cyclicity (P < 0.05). MXC reduced superovulatory response to exogenous gonadotropins in prepubertal females (P < 0.05). Rats exposed to high dose MXC had increasing irregular estrous cyclicity beginning at 4 months of age, with all animals showing abnormal cycles by 6 months. High dose MXC reduced serum progesterone, but increased luteinizing hormone (LH). Follicular composition analysis revealed an increase in the percentage of preantral and early antral follicles and a reduction in the percentage of corpora lutea in high dose MXC-treated ovaries (P < 0.05). Immunohistochemical staining and quantification of the staining intensity showed that estrogen receptor {beta} was reduced by high dose MXC while anti-Mullerian hormone was upregulated by both low- and high dose MXC in preantral and early antral follicles (P < 0.05). High dose MXC significantly reduced LH receptor expression in large antral follicles (P < 0.01), and down-regulated cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage. These results demonstrated that developmental MXC exposure results in reduced ovulation and fertility and premature aging, possibly by altering ovarian gene expression and folliculogenesis.

  9. How Different Genetically Manipulated Brassica Genotypes Affect Life Table Parameters of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    PubMed

    Nikooei, Mehrnoosh; Fathipour, Yaghoub; Jalali Javaran, Mokhtar; Soufbaf, Mahmoud

    2015-04-01

    The fitness of Plutella xylostella L. on different genetically manipulated Brassica plants, including canola's progenitor (Brassica rapa L.), two cultivated canola cultivars (Opera and RGS003), one hybrid (Hyula401), one gamma-ray mutant-RGS003, and one transgenic (PF) genotype was compared using two-sex and female-based life table parameters. All experiments were conducted in a growth chamber at 25±1°C, 65±5% relative humidity, and a photoperiod of 16:8 (L:D) h. There were significant differences in duration of different life stages of P. xylostella on different plant genotypes. The shortest (13.92 d) and longest (24.61 d) total developmental time were on Opera and PF, respectively. The intrinsic rate of increase of P. xylostella ranged between 0.236 (Opera) and 0.071 day(-1) (PF). The highest (60.79 offspring) and lowest (7.88 offspring) net reproductive rates were observed on Opera and PF, respectively. Comparison of intrinsic rate of increase, net reproductive rates, finite rate of increase, mean generation time, fecundity, and survivorship of P. xylostella on the plant genotypes suggested that this pest performed well on cultivars (RGS003 and Opera) and performed poorly on the other manipulated genotypes especially on mutant-RGS003 and PF. Glucosinolate levels were significantly higher in damaged plants than undamaged ones and the lowest and highest concentrations of glucosinolates were found in transgenic genotype and canola's progenitor, respectively. Interestingly, our results showed that performance and fitness of this pest was better on canola's progenitor and cultivated plants, which had high levels of glucosinolate. PMID:26470162

  10. Developmental Methoxychlor Exposure Affects Multiple Reproductive Parameters and Ovarian: Folliculogenesis and Gene Expression in Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Armenti, AnnMarie E.; Zama, Aparna Mahakali; Passantino, Lisa; Uzumcu, Mehmet

    2008-01-01

    Methoxychlor (MXC) is an organochlorine pesticide with estrogenic, anti-estrogenic, and anti-androgenic properties. To investigate whether transient developmental exposure to MXC could cause adult ovarian dysfunction, we exposed Fischer rats to 20 μg/kg/day (low dose; environmentally relevant dose) or 100 mg/kg/day (high dose) MXC between 19 days post-coitum and postnatal day 7. Multiple reproductive parameters, serum hormone levels, and ovarian morphology and molecular markers were examined from prepubertal through adult stages. High dose MXC accelerated pubertal onset and first estrus, reduced litter size, and increased irregular cyclicity (P < 0.05). MXC reduced superovulatory response to exogenous gonadotropins in prepubertal females (P < 0.05). Rats exposed to high dose MXC had increasing irregular estrous cyclicity beginning at 4 months of age, with all animals showing abnormal cycles by 6 months. High dose MXC reduced serum progesterone, but increased luteinizing hormone (LH). Follicular composition analysis revealed an increase in the percentage of preantral and early antral follicles and a reduction in the percentage of corpora lutea in high dose MXC-treated ovaries (P < 0.05). Immunohistochemical staining and quantification of the staining intensity showed that estrogen receptor β was reduced by high dose MXC while anti-Mullerian hormone was upregulated by both low- and high dose MXC in preantral and early antral follicles (P < 0.05). High dose MXC significantly reduced LH receptor expression in large antral follicles (P < 0.01), and down-regulated cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage. These results demonstrated that developmental MXC exposure results in reduced ovulation and fertility and premature aging, possibly by altering ovarian gene expression and folliculogenesis. PMID:18848953

  11. Do fattening process and biological parameters affect the accumulation of metals in Atlantic bluefin tuna?

    PubMed

    Milatou, Niki; Dassenakis, Manos; Megalofonou, Persefoni

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the current levels of heavy metals and trace elements in Atlantic bluefin tuna muscle tissues and how they are influenced by the fattening process and various life history parameters to ascertain whether the concentrations in muscle tissue exceed the maximum levels defined by the European Commission Decision and to evaluate the health risk posed by fish consumption. A total of 20 bluefin tuna reared in sea cages, ranging from 160 to 295 cm in length and from 80 to 540 kg in weight, were sampled from a bluefin tuna farm in the Ionian Sea. The condition factor K of each specimen was calculated and their age was estimated. Heavy metal and trace element (Hg, Zn, Fe and Cu) contents were determined in muscle tissue using cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry and flame and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The total Hg concentrations ranged from 0.28 to 1.28 mg kg(-1) w/w, Zn from 5.81 to 76.37 mg kg(-1) w/w, Fe from 12.14 to 39.58 mg kg(-1) w/w, and Cu from 0.36 to 0.94 mg kg(-1) w/w. Only 5% of the muscle samples of tuna contained Hg above the maximum level laid down by the European Commission Decision. Moreover, 15% of the muscle samples contained Zn above the maximum level, while Fe and Cu concentrations were within the acceptable tolerable guideline values. The reared bluefin tuna had lower concentrations of Hg than the wild ones from the Mediterranean Sea. Hg and Fe concentrations showed a positive relationship with size and age of bluefin tuna, whereas negative relationships were found for the concentrations of Zn and Cu. The estimated dietary intake values of the analysed metals were mostly below the derived guidelines. PMID:25906290

  12. Sample Size Calculation: Inaccurate A Priori Assumptions for Nuisance Parameters Can Greatly Affect the Power of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Tavernier, Elsa; Giraudeau, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to examine the extent to which inaccurate assumptions for nuisance parameters used to calculate sample size can affect the power of a randomized controlled trial (RCT). In a simulation study, we separately considered an RCT with continuous, dichotomous or time-to-event outcomes, with associated nuisance parameters of standard deviation, success rate in the control group and survival rate in the control group at some time point, respectively. For each type of outcome, we calculated a required sample size N for a hypothesized treatment effect, an assumed nuisance parameter and a nominal power of 80%. We then assumed a nuisance parameter associated with a relative error at the design stage. For each type of outcome, we randomly drew 10,000 relative errors of the associated nuisance parameter (from empirical distributions derived from a previously published review). Then, retro-fitting the sample size formula, we derived, for the pre-calculated sample size N, the real power of the RCT, taking into account the relative error for the nuisance parameter. In total, 23%, 0% and 18% of RCTs with continuous, binary and time-to-event outcomes, respectively, were underpowered (i.e., the real power was < 60%, as compared with the 80% nominal power); 41%, 16% and 6%, respectively, were overpowered (i.e., with real power > 90%). Even with proper calculation of sample size, a substantial number of trials are underpowered or overpowered because of imprecise knowledge of nuisance parameters. Such findings raise questions about how sample size for RCTs should be determined. PMID:26173007

  13. Theoretical, numerical and experimental study of geometrical parameters that affect anisotropy measurements in polarization-resolved SHG microscopy.

    PubMed

    Teulon, Claire; Gusachenko, Ivan; Latour, Gaël; Schanne-Klein, Marie-Claire

    2015-04-01

    Polarization-resolved second harmonic generation (P-SHG) microscopy is an efficient imaging modality for in situ observation of biopolymers structure in tissues, providing information about their mean in-plane orientation and their molecular structure and 3D distribution. Nevertheless, P-SHG signal build-up in a strongly focused regime is not throroughly understood yet, preventing reliable and reproducible measurements. In this study, theoretical analysis, vectorial numerical simulations and experiments are performed to understand how geometrical parameters, such as excitation and collection numerical apertures and detection direction, affect P-SHG imaging in homogeneous collagen tissues. A good agreement is obtained in tendon and cornea, showing that detection geometry significantly affects the SHG anisotropy measurements, but not the measurements of collagen in-plane orientation. PMID:25968762

  14. The main issues affecting coasts of the Indian and western Pacific Oceans: a meta-analysis from Seas at the Millennium.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, C

    2001-12-01

    A review of the world oceans in three volumes by 365 scientists, provides scope for several 'meta-analyses' of the main problems affecting over 100 areas in the year 2000. This article summarises the main issues affecting a sub-set of the reviewed areas, covering Asian, African and Arabian countries dealt with in Volume 2, which included over 50 articles. From all issues raised, assessment is made of the nature of the major ones, including evaluation of reasons why so many of them remain important issues after so much attention to them. These include long standing problems, several problems more newly flagged as becoming particularly important, the issue of global warming and no less than three related issues connected with fishing and over exploitation. One or two issues such as industrial pollution and sewage, previously considered of almost universal concern, almost traditional pollution issues even, continue to feature strongly for some countries, but while these were almost always referred to in Seas chapters, by and large these categories appear not to be the most pressing of issues today, except in localized areas (albeit areas where huge numbers of people live). Perhaps other issues have simply taken over. They are excluded from this article. PMID:11827106

  15. Measurement of Hydrologic Streamflow Metrics and Estimation of Streamflow with Lumped Parameter Models in a Managed Lake System, Sebago Lake, Maine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeve, A. S.; Martin, D.; Smith, S. M.

    2013-12-01

    Surface waters within the Sebago Lake watershed (southern Maine, USA) provide a variety of economically and intrinsically valuable recreational, commercial and environmental services. Different stakeholder groups for the 118 km2 Sebago Lake and surrounding watershed advocate for different lake and watershed management strategies, focusing on the operation of a dam at the outflow from Sebago Lake. While lake level in Sebago Lake has been monitored for over a century, limited data is available on the hydrologic processes that drive lake level and therefore impact how dam operation (and other changes to the region) will influence the hydroperiod of the lake. To fill this information gap several tasks were undertaken including: 1) deploying data logging pressure transducers to continuously monitor stream stage in nine tributaries, 2) measuring stream discharge at these sites to create rating curves for the nine tributaries, and using the resulting continuous discharge records to 3) calibrate lumped parameter computer models based on the GR4J model, modified to include a degree-day snowmelt routine. These lumped parameter models have been integrated with a simple lake water-balance model to estimate lake level and its response to different scenarios including dam management strategies. To date, about three years of stream stage data have been used to estimate stream discharge in all monitored tributaries (data collection is ongoing). Baseflow separation indices (BFI) for 2010 and 2011 using the USGS software PART and the Eckhart digital filter in WHAT range from 0.80-0.86 in the Crooked River and Richmill Outlet,followed by Northwest (0.75) and Muddy (0.53-0.56) Rivers, with the lowest BFI measured in Sticky River (0.41-0.56). The BFI values indicate most streams have significant groundwater (or other storage) inputs. The lumped parameter watershed model has been calibrated for four streams (Nash-Sutcliffe = 0.4 to 0.9), with the other major tributaries containing

  16. The multi-parameter borehole system and high resolution seismic studies in the western part of the main Marmara Fault in the frame of MARSITE Project.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozel, Oguz; Guralp, Cansun; Tunc, Suleyman; Yalcinkaya, Esref

    2016-04-01

    The main objective of this study is to install a multi-parameter borehole system and surface array as close to the main Marmara Fault (MMF) in the western Marmara Sea as possible, and measure continuously the evolution of the state of the fault zone surrounding the MMF and to detect any anomaly or change, which may occur before earthquakes by making use of the data from the arrays already running in the eastern part of the Marmara Sea. The multi-parameter borehole system is composed of very wide dynamic range and stable borehole (VBB) broad band seismic sensor, and incorporate strain meter, tilt meter, and temperature and local hydrostatic pressure measuring devices. The borehole seismic station uses the latest update technologies and design ideas to record "Earth tides" signals to the smallest magnitude -3 events. Additionally, a surface microearthquake observation array, consisting of 8-10 seismometers around the borehole is established to obtain continuous high resolution locations of micro-seismicity and to better understand the existing seismically active structures and their roles in local tectonic settings.Bringing face to face the seismograms of microearthquakes recorded by borehole and surface instruments portrays quite different contents. The shorter recording duration and nearly flat frequency spectrum up to the Nyquist frequencies of borehole records are faced with longer recording duration and rapid decay of spectral amplitudes at higher frequencies of a surface seismogram. The main causative of the observed differences are near surface geology effects that mask most of the source related information the seismograms include, and that give rise to scattering, generating longer duration seismograms. In view of these circumstances, studies on microearthquakes employing surface seismograms may bring on misleading results. Particularly, the works on earthquake physics and nucleation process of earthquakes requires elaborate analysis of tiny events. It is

  17. Altered membrane lipid composition and functional parameters of circulating cells in cockles (Cerastoderma edule) affected by disseminated neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Le Grand, Fabienne; Soudant, Philippe; Marty, Yanic; Le Goïc, Nelly; Kraffe, Edouard

    2013-01-01

    Membrane lipid composition and morpho-functional parameters were investigated in circulating cells of the edible cockle (Cerastoderma edule) affected by disseminated neoplasia (neoplastic cells) and compared to those from healthy cockles (hemocytes). Membrane sterol levels, phospholipid (PL) class and subclass proportions and their respective fatty acid (FA) compositions were determined. Morpho-functional parameters were evaluated through total hemocyte count (THC), mortality rate, phagocytosis ability and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Both morpho-functional parameters and lipid composition were profoundly affected in neoplastic cells. These dedifferentiated cells displayed higher THC (5×), mortality rate (3×) and ROS production with addition of carbonyl cyanide m-chloro phenylhydrazone (1.7×) but lower phagocytosis ability (½×), than unaffected hemocytes. Total PL amounts were higher in neoplastic cells than in hemocytes (12.3 and 5.1 nmol×10(-6) cells, respectively). However, sterols and a particular subclass of PL (plasmalogens; 1-alkenyl-2-acyl PL) were present in similar amounts in both cell type membranes. This led to a two times lower proportion of these membrane lipid constituents in neoplastic cells when compared to hemocytes (20.5% vs. 42.1% of sterols in total membrane lipids and 21.7% vs. 44.2% of plasmalogens among total PL, respectively). Proportions of non-methylene interrupted FA- and 20:1n-11-plasmalogen molecular species were the most impacted in neoplastic cells when compared to hemocytes (⅓× and ¼×, respectively). These changes in response to this leukemia-like disease in bivalves highlight the specific imbalance of plasmalogens and sterols in neoplastic cells, in comparison to the greater stability of other membrane lipid components. PMID:23333874

  18. Development of an auditory emotion recognition function using psychoacoustic parameters based on the International Affective Digitized Sounds.

    PubMed

    Choi, Youngimm; Lee, Sungjun; Jung, SungSoo; Choi, In-Mook; Park, Yon-Kyu; Kim, Chobok

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an auditory emotion recognition function that could determine the emotion caused by sounds coming from the environment in our daily life. For this purpose, sound stimuli from the International Affective Digitized Sounds (IADS-2), a standardized database of sounds intended to evoke emotion, were selected, and four psychoacoustic parameters (i.e., loudness, sharpness, roughness, and fluctuation strength) were extracted from the sounds. Also, by using an emotion adjective scale, 140 college students were tested to measure three basic emotions (happiness, sadness, and negativity). From this discriminant analysis to predict basic emotions from the psychoacoustic parameters of sound, a discriminant function with overall discriminant accuracy of 88.9% was produced from training data. In order to validate the discriminant function, the same four psychoacoustic parameters were extracted from 46 sound stimuli collected from another database and substituted into the discriminant function. The results showed that an overall discriminant accuracy of 63.04% was confirmed. Our findings provide the possibility that daily-life sounds, beyond voice and music, can be used in a human-machine interface. PMID:25319038

  19. Genetic selection to increase bone strength affects prevalence of keel bone damage and egg parameters in commercially housed laying hens.

    PubMed

    Stratmann, A; Fröhlich, E K F; Gebhardt-Henrich, S G; Harlander-Matauschek, A; Würbel, H; Toscano, M J

    2016-05-01

    The prevalence of keel bone damage as well as external egg parameters of 2 pure lines divergently selected for high (H) and low (L) bone strength were investigated in 2 aviary systems under commercial conditions. A standard LSL hybrid was used as a reference group. Birds were kept mixed per genetic line (77 hens of the H and L line and 201 or 206 hens of the LSL line, respectively, per pen) in 8 pens of 2 aviary systems differing in design. Keel bone status and body mass of 20 focal hens per line and pen were assessed at 17, 18, 23, 30, 36, 43, 52, and 63 wk of age. External egg parameters (i.e., egg mass, eggshell breaking strength, thickness, and mass) were measured using 10 eggs per line at both 38 and 57 wk of age. Body parameters (i.e. tarsus and third primary wing feather length to calculate index of wing loading) were recorded at 38 wk of age and mortality per genetic line throughout the laying cycle. Bone mineral density (BMD) of 15 keel bones per genetic line was measured after slaughter to confirm assignment of the experimental lines. We found a greater BMD in the H compared with the L and LSL lines. Fewer keel bone fractures and deviations, a poorer external egg quality, as well as a lower index of wing loading were found in the H compared with the L line. Mortality was lower and production parameters (e.g., laying performance) were higher in the LSL line compared with the 2 experimental lines. Aviary design affected prevalence of keel bone damage, body mass, and mortality. We conclude that selection of specific bone traits associated with bone strength as well as the related differences in body morphology (i.e., lower index of wing loading) have potential to reduce keel bone damage in commercial settings. Also, the housing environment (i.e., aviary design) may have additive effects. PMID:26944960

  20. Dynamic Testing of a Pre-stretched Flexible Tube for Identifying the Factors Affecting Modal Parameter Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unnikrishnan, Madhusudanan; Rajan, Akash; Basanthvihar Raghunathan, Binulal; Kochupillai, Jayaraj

    2016-06-01

    Experimental modal analysis is the primary tool for obtaining the fundamental dynamic characteristics like natural frequency, mode shape and modal damping ratio that determine the behaviour of any structure under dynamic loading conditions. This paper discusses about a carefully designed experimental method for calculating the dynamic characteristics of a pre-stretched horizontal flexible tube made of polyurethane material. The factors that affect the modal parameter estimation like the application time of shaker excitation, pause time between successive excitation cycles, averaging and windowing of measured signal, as well as the precautions to be taken during the experiment are explained in detail. The modal parameter estimation is done using MEscopeVESTM software. A finite element based pre-stressed modal analysis of the flexible tube is also done using ANSYS ver.14.0 software. The experimental and analytical results agreed well. The proposed experimental methodology may be extended for carrying out the modal analysis of many flexible structures like inflatables, tires and membranes.

  1. Setting accelerated dissolution test for PLGA microspheres containing peptide, investigation of critical parameters affecting drug release rate and mechanism.

    PubMed

    Tomic, I; Vidis-Millward, A; Mueller-Zsigmondy, M; Cardot, J-M

    2016-05-30

    The objective of this study was development of accelerated in vitro release method for peptide loaded PLGA microspheres using flow-through apparatus and assessment of the effect of dissolution parameters (pH, temperature, medium composition) on drug release rate and mechanism. Accelerated release conditions were set as pH 2 and 45°C, in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) 0.02M. When the pH was changed from 2 to 4, diffusion controlled phases (burst and lag) were not affected, while release rate during erosion phase decreased two-fold due to slower ester bonds hydrolyses. Decreasing temperature from 45°C to 40°C, release rate showed three-fold deceleration without significant change in release mechanism. Effect of medium composition on drug release was tested in PBS 0.01M (200 mOsm/kg) and PBS 0.01M with glucose (380 mOsm/kg). Buffer concentration significantly affected drug release rate and mechanism due to the change in osmotic pressure, while ionic strength did not have any effect on peptide release. Furthermore, dialysis sac and sample-and-separate techniques were used, in order to evaluate significance of dissolution technique choice on the release process. After fitting obtained data to different mathematical models, flow-through method was confirmed as the most appropriate for accelerated in vitro dissolution testing for a given formulation. PMID:27025293

  2. How do alternative root water uptake models affect the inverse estimation of soil hydraulic parameters and the prediction of evapotranspiration?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gayler, Sebastian; Salima-Sultana, Daisy; Selle, Benny; Ingwersen, Joachim; Wizemann, Hans-Dieter; Högy, Petra; Streck, Thilo

    2016-04-01

    Soil water extraction by roots affects the dynamics and distribution of soil moisture and controls transpiration, which influences soil-vegetation-atmosphere feedback processes. Consequently, root water uptake requires close attention when predicting water fluxes across the land surface, e.g., in agricultural crop models or in land surface schemes of weather and climate models. The key parameters for a successful simultaneous simulation of soil moisture dynamics and evapotranspiration in Richards equation-based models are the soil hydraulic parameters, which describe the shapes of the soil water retention curve and the soil hydraulic conductivity curve. As measurements of these parameters are expensive and their estimation from basic soil data via pedotransfer functions is rather inaccurate, the values of the soil hydraulic parameters are frequently inversely estimated by fitting the model to measured time series of soil water content and evapotranspiration. It is common to simulate root water uptake and transpiration by simple stress functions, which describe from which soil layer water is absorbed by roots and predict when total crop transpiration is decreased in case of soil water limitations. As for most of the biogeophysical processes simulated in crop and land surface models, there exist several alternative functional relationships for simulating root water uptake and there is no clear reason for preferring one process representation over another. The error associated with alternative representations of root water uptake, however, contributes to structural model uncertainty and the choice of the root water uptake model may have a significant impact on the values of the soil hydraulic parameters estimated inversely. In this study, we use the agroecosystem model system Expert-N to simulate soil moisture dynamics and evapotranspiration at three agricultural field sites located in two contrasting regions in Southwest Germany (Kraichgau, Swabian Alb). The Richards

  3. Detecting the specific parameters that affect the maturation of farmed sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) fillets stored in sunflower oil.

    PubMed

    Baygar, Taçnur; Alparslan, Yunus; Okumuş, Melis; Güler, Merve

    2014-06-01

    In this study, it was aimed to detect the specific parameters that effect the maturation of farmed sea bass fillets stored in sunflower oil. Sea bass fillets were taken into the pickling solution (2.5% acetic acid and 11% sodium chloride) at 4 °C(±1). Fish meat in each group was analysed for the following parameters; pH, moisture%, acetic acid% and NaCl% in the maturation pickling solution and in sunflower oil. At the end of the 90 days storage, there were not any negative situations about the fish in terms of the scientific approach. It was detected that the skinless samples had the less NaCl and acidity values but scaly and scaleless samples had the higher values. Main reasons are: for the scaly and scaleless samples, the skin acted as a barrier in the pickling solution or oil and for scaly samples, scales depart from the skin and defeat the passing of NaCl and acid to the meat. When evaluating this study results, the fillet group samples which contain more salt and acetic acid are thought to be more appropriate for marinating in terms of shelf-life and quality. PMID:24876656

  4. TH-C-18A-09: Exam and Patient Parameters Affecting the DNA Damage Response Following CT Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Elgart, S; Adibi, A; Bostani, M; Ruehm, S; Enzmann, D; McNitt-Gray, M; Iwamoto, K

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To identify exam and patient parameters affecting the biological response to CT studies using in vivo and ex vivo blood samples. Methods: Blood samples were collected under IRB approval from 16 patients undergoing clinically-indicated CT exams. Blood was procured prior to, immediately after and 30minutes following irradiation. A sample of preexam blood was placed on the patient within the exam region for ex vivo analysis. Whole blood samples were fixed immediately following collection and stained for γH2AX to assess DNA damage response (DDR). Median fluorescence of treated samples was compared to non-irradiated control samples for each patient. Patients were characterized by observed biological kinetic response: (a) fast — phosphorylation increased by 2minutes and fell by 30minutes, (b) slow — phosphorylation continued to increase to 30minutes and (c) none — little change was observed or irradiated samples fell below controls. Total dose values were normalized to exam time for an averaged dose-rate in dose/sec for each exam. Relationships between patient biological responses and patient and exam parameters were investigated. Results: A clearer dose response at 30minutes is observed for young patients (<61yoa; R2>0.5) compared to old patients (>61yoa; R{sup 2}<0.11). Fast responding patients were significantly younger than slow responding patients (p<0.05). Unlike in vivo samples, age did not significantly affect the patient response ex vivo. Additionally, fast responding patients received exams with significantly smaller dose-rate than slow responding patients (p<0.05). Conclusion: Age is a significant factor in the biological response suggesting that DDR may be more rapid in a younger population and slower as the population ages. Lack of an agerelated response ex vivo suggests a systemic response to radiation not present when irradiated outside the body. Dose-rate affects the biological response suggesting that patient response may be related to

  5. Tremelimumab (anti-CTLA4) mediates immune responses mainly by direct activation of T effector cells rather than by affecting T regulatory cells.

    PubMed

    Khan, Sameena; Burt, Deborah J; Ralph, Christy; Thistlethwaite, Fiona C; Hawkins, Robert E; Elkord, Eyad

    2011-01-01

    Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Antigen 4 (CTLA4) blockade has shown antitumor activity against common cancers. However, the exact mechanism of immune mediation by anti-CTLA4 remains to be elucidated. Further understanding of how CTLA4 blockade with tremelimumab mediates immune responses may allow a more effective selection of responsive patients. Our results show that tremelimumab enhanced the proliferative response of T effector cells (Teff) upon TCR stimulation, and abrogated Treg suppressive ability. In the presence of tremelimumab, frequencies of IL-2-secreting CD4(+) T cells and IFN-γ-secreting CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells were increased in response to polyclonal activation and tumor antigens. Importantly, Treg frequency was not reduced in the presence of tremelimumab, and expanded Tregs in cancer patients treated with tremelimumab expressed FoxP3 with no IL-2 release, confirming them as bona fide Tregs. Taken together, this data indicates that tremelimumab induces immune responses mainly by direct activation of Teff rather than by affecting Tregs. PMID:21056008

  6. Solidifying agent and processing of blood used for the larval diet affect screwworm (Diptera: Calliphoridae) life-history parameters.

    PubMed

    Chaudhury, M F; Skoda, S R; Sagel, A

    2011-06-01

    Spray-dried whole bovine blood and a sodium polyacrylate polymer gel as a bulking and solidifying agent are among the constituents of the current larval diet for mass rearing screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae). Locally available, inexpensive dietary materials could reduce rearing cost and address an uncertain commercial supply of spray-dried blood. We compared efficacy of diet prepared from fresh bovine blood after decoagulation with sodium citrate or ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) or after mechanical defibrination, with the diet containing spray-dried blood using either gel or cellulose fiber as the bulking and solidifying agent. Several life-history parameters were compared among insects reared on each of the blood and bulking agent diets combination. Diets containing citrated blood yielded the lightest larval and pupal weights and fewest pupae. EDTA-treated blood with the gel also caused reductions. EDTA-treated blood with fiber yielded screwworms that were heavier and more numerous than those from the diet with citrated blood but lighter than those from the control diet using spray-dried blood. A reduction in percentage of adults emerging from pupae occurred from diets with both bulking agents using citrated blood and the diet using EDTA mixed with the gel bulking agent. As a group, the cellulose-fiber diets performed better than the gel diets. Larval diet did not affect adult longevity, weight of the eggs deposited by the females that emerged or subsequent egg hatch. Parameter measurements of insects from both defibrinated blood diets were similar to those from the spray-dried blood diets, indicating that fresh, defibrinated bovine blood can successfully replace the dry blood in the screwworm rearing medium. PMID:21735935

  7. Rock Mass Grouting in the Løren Tunnel: Case Study with the Main Focus on the Groutability and Feasibility of Drill Parameter Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Høien, Are Håvard; Nilsen, Bjørn

    2014-05-01

    The Løren road tunnel is a part of a major project at Ring road 3 in Oslo, Norway. The rock part of the tunnel is 915 m long and has two tubes with three lanes and breakdown lanes. Strict water ingress restriction was specified and continuous rock mass grouting was, therefore, carried out for the entire tunnel, which was excavated in folded Cambro-Silurian shales intruded by numerous dykes. This paper describes the rock mass grouting that was carried out for the Løren tunnel. Particular emphasis is placed on discussing grout consumption and the challenges that were encountered when passing under a distinct rock depression. Measurement while drilling (MWD) technology was used for this project, and, in this paper, the relationships between the drill parameter interpretation (DPI) factors water and fracturing are examined in relation to grout volumes. A lowering of the groundwater table was experienced during excavation under the rock depression, but the groundwater was nearly re-established after completion of the main construction work. A planned 80-m watertight concrete lining was not required to be built due to the excellent results from grouting in the rock depression area. A relationship was found between leakages mapped in the tunnel and the DPI water factor, indicating that water is actually present where the DPI water factor shows water in the rock. It is concluded that, for the Løren tunnel, careful planning and high-quality execution of the rock mass grouting made the measured water ingress meet the restrictions. For future projects, the DPI water factor may be used to give a better understanding of the material in which the rock mass grouting is performed and may also be used to reduce the time spent and volumes used when grouting.

  8. Finite elements/Taguchi method based procedure for the identification of the geometrical parameters significantly affecting the biomechanical behavior of a lumbar disc.

    PubMed

    Cappetti, N; Naddeo, A; Naddeo, F; Solitro, G F

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this work is to show a quick and simple procedure able to identify the geometrical parameters of the intervertebral disc that strongly affect the behavior of the FEM model. First, we allocated a selection criterion for the minimum number of geometrical parameters that describe, with a good degree of approximation, a healthy human vertebra. Next, we carried out a sensitivity analysis using the 'Taguchi orthogonal array' to arrive at a quick identification of the parameters that strongly affect the behavior of the Fem model. PMID:26693883

  9. In Vitro Acute Exposure to DEHP Affects Oocyte Meiotic Maturation, Energy and Oxidative Stress Parameters in a Large Animal Model

    PubMed Central

    Sardanelli, Anna Maria; Pocar, Paola; Martino, Nicola Antonio; Paternoster, Maria Stefania; Amati, Francesca; Dell'Aquila, Maria Elena

    2011-01-01

    Phthalates are ubiquitous environmental contaminants because of their use in plastics and other common consumer products. Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is the most abundant phthalate and it impairs fertility by acting as an endocrine disruptor. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effects of in vitro acute exposure to DEHP on oocyte maturation, energy and oxidative status in the horse, a large animal model. Cumulus cell (CC) apoptosis and oxidative status were also investigated. Cumulus-oocyte complexes from the ovaries of slaughtered mares were cultured in vitro in presence of 0.12, 12 and 1200 µM DEHP. After in vitro maturation (IVM), CCs were removed and evaluated for apoptosis (cytological assessment and TUNEL) and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Oocytes were evaluated for nuclear chromatin configuration. Matured (Metaphase II stage; MII) oocytes were further evaluated for cytoplasmic energy and oxidative parameters. DEHP significantly inhibited oocyte maturation when added at low doses (0.12 µM; P<0.05). This effect was related to increased CC apoptosis (P<0.001) and reduced ROS levels (P<0.0001). At higher doses (12 and 1200 µM), DEHP induced apoptosis (P<0.0001) and ROS increase (P<0.0001) in CCs without affecting oocyte maturation. In DEHP-exposed MII oocytes, mitochondrial distribution patterns, apparent energy status (MitoTracker fluorescence intensity), intracellular ROS localization and levels, mt/ROS colocalization and total SOD activity did not vary, whereas increased ATP content (P<0.05), possibly of glycolytic origin, was found. Co-treatment with N-Acetyl-Cysteine reversed apoptosis and efficiently scavenged excessive ROS in DEHP-treated CCs without enhancing oocyte maturation. In conclusion, acute in vitro exposure to DEHP inhibits equine oocyte maturation without altering ooplasmic energy and oxidative stress parameters in matured oocytes which retain the potential to be fertilized and develop into embryos

  10. An investigation of the optimization of parameters affecting the implementation of fourier transform spectroscopy at 20-500 micron from the C-141 airborne infrared observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, R. I.; Erickson, E. F.

    1976-01-01

    A program for 20-500 micron spectroscopy from the NASA flying C141 infrared observatory is being carried out with a Michelson interferometer. The parameters affecting the performance of the instrument are studied and an optimal configuration for high performance on the C-141 aircraft is recommended. As each parameter is discussed the relative merits of the two modes of mirror motion (rapid scan or step and integrate) are presented.

  11. Nanoparticles affect PCR primarily via surface interactions with PCR components: using amino-modified silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles as a main model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nanomaterials have been widely reported to affect the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). However, many studies in which these effects were observed were not comprehensive, and many of the proposed mechanisms have been primarily speculative. In this work, we used amino-modified silica-coated magnetic n...

  12. IN-SYNC I: Homogeneous stellar parameters from high-resolution apogee spectra for thousands of pre-main sequence stars

    SciTech Connect

    Cottaar, Michiel; Meyer, Michael R.; Covey, Kevin R.; Nidever, David L.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Foster, Jonathan B.; Tan, Jonathan C.; Da Rio, Nicola; Chojnowski, S. Drew; Skrutskie, Michael; Majewski, Steven R.; Wilson, John C.; Zasowski, Gail; Flaherty, Kevin M.; Frinchaboy, Peter M.

    2014-10-20

    Over two years, 8859 high-resolution H-band spectra of 3493 young (1-10 Myr) stars were gathered by the multi-object spectrograph of the APOGEE project as part of the IN-SYNC ancillary program of the SDSS-III survey. Here we present the forward modeling approach used to derive effective temperatures, surface gravities, radial velocities, rotational velocities, and H-band veiling from these near-infrared spectra. We discuss in detail the statistical and systematic uncertainties in these stellar parameters. In addition, we present accurate extinctions by measuring the E(J – H) of these young stars with respect to the single-star photometric locus in the Pleiades. Finally, we identify an intrinsic stellar radius spread of about 25% for late-type stars in IC 348 using three (nearly) independent measures of stellar radius, namely, the extinction-corrected J-band magnitude, the surface gravity, and the Rsin i from the rotational velocities and literature rotation periods. We exclude that this spread is caused by uncertainties in the stellar parameters by showing that the three estimators of stellar radius are correlated, so that brighter stars tend to have lower surface gravities and larger Rsin i than fainter stars at the same effective temperature. Tables providing the spectral and photometric parameters for the Pleiades and IC 348 have been provided online.

  13. MAINE POPULATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    MEPOP250 depicts Maine's 1950-1990 population data by town or Census in unorganized territories. Populations were compiled from US Census Bureau data where available or from Maine Municipal Information (mainly for older records). Unorganized towns with very low or zero pop...

  14. Effects of a joint supplement whose main components are resveratrol and hyaluronic acid on some biochemical parameters in aged lame horses.

    PubMed

    Ememe, Mary U; Abdullahi, Usman S; Sackey, Anthony K B; Ayo, Joseph O; Mshelia, Wayuta P; Edeh, Richard E

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of a supplement that contains resveratrol and hyaluronic acid (RH supplement) in aged lame horses. A total of 16 horses of both sexes, aged between 15 and 22 years, weighing between 350-450 kg and showing lameness due to arthritis of the knee, hock, stifle, and fetlock joints and stiffness owing to ageing were used for the study. They comprised eight horses that were administered the RH supplement for three weeks and eight others that served as controls and were given only a Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strain used as carrier in the supplement. Blood samples were collected from each horse before supplementation (week 0) and at weekly intervals for the three weeks of the experiment. Biochemical parameters including creatine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase, urea, glucose, total cholesterol, sodium, potassium, chloride, and calcium were measured by standard methods. There was a significant (P˂0.05) reduction in values of creatine kinase and glucose in the horses administered the RH supplement. It was concluded that the RH supplement may reduce the level of these biochemical parameters and their deleterious effects especially during ageing in horses. PMID:27073333

  15. Effects of a joint supplement whose main components are resveratrol and hyaluronic acid on some biochemical parameters in aged lame horses

    PubMed Central

    EMEME, Mary U.; ABDULLAHI, Usman S.; SACKEY, Anthony K. B.; AYO, Joseph O.; MSHELIA, Wayuta P.; EDEH, Richard E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the effects of a supplement that contains resveratrol and hyaluronic acid (RH supplement) in aged lame horses. A total of 16 horses of both sexes, aged between 15 and 22 years, weighing between 350–450 kg and showing lameness due to arthritis of the knee, hock, stifle, and fetlock joints and stiffness owing to ageing were used for the study. They comprised eight horses that were administered the RH supplement for three weeks and eight others that served as controls and were given only a Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strain used as carrier in the supplement. Blood samples were collected from each horse before supplementation (week 0) and at weekly intervals for the three weeks of the experiment. Biochemical parameters including creatine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase, urea, glucose, total cholesterol, sodium, potassium, chloride, and calcium were measured by standard methods. There was a significant (P˂0.05) reduction in values of creatine kinase and glucose in the horses administered the RH supplement. It was concluded that the RH supplement may reduce the level of these biochemical parameters and their deleterious effects especially during ageing in horses. PMID:27073333

  16. Nanoparticles Affect PCR Primarily via Surface Interactions with PCR Components: Using Amino-Modified Silica-Coated Magnetic Nanoparticles as a Main Model.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yalong; Cui, Yan; Paoli, George C; Shi, Chunlei; Wang, Dapeng; Shi, Xianming

    2015-06-24

    Nanomaterials have been widely reported to affect the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). However, many studies in which these effects were observed were not comprehensive, and many of the proposed mechanisms have been primarily speculative. In this work, we used amino-modified silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles (ASMNPs, which can be collected very easily using an external magnetic field) as a model and compared them with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs, which have been studied extensively) to reveal the mechanisms by which nanoparticles affect PCR. We found that nanoparticles affect PCR primarily by binding to PCR components: (1) inhibition, (2) specifity, and (3) efficiency and yield of PCR are impacted. (1) Excess nanomaterials inhibit PCR by adsorbing to DNA polymerase, Mg(2+), oligonucleotide primers, or DNA templates. Nanoparticle surface-active groups are particularly important to this effect. (2, a) Nanomaterials do not inhibit nonspecific amplification products caused by false priming as previously surmised. It was shown that relatively low concentrations of nanoparticles inhibited the amplification of long amplicons, and increasing the amount of nanoparticles inhibited the amplification of short amplicons. This concentration phenomenon appears to be the result of the formation of "joints" upon the adsorption of ASMNPs to DNA templates. (b) Nanomaterials are able to inhibit nonspecific amplification products due to incomplete amplification by preferably adsorbing single-stranded incomplete amplification products. (3) Some types of nanomaterials, such as AuNPs, enhance the efficiency and yield of PCR because these types of nanoparticles can adsorb to single-stranded DNA more strongly than to double-stranded DNA. This behavior assists in the rapid and thorough denaturation of double-stranded DNA templates. Therefore, the interaction between the surface of nanoparticles and PCR components is sufficient to explain most of the effects of nanoparticles on PCR. PMID

  17. Genotyping-by-sequencing approach indicates geographic distance as the main factor affecting genetic structure and gene flow in Brazilian populations of Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Silva-Brandão, Karina Lucas; Silva, Oscar Arnaldo Batista Neto E; Brandão, Marcelo Mendes; Omoto, Celso; Sperling, Felix A H

    2015-06-01

    The oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta is one of the major pests of stone and pome fruit species in Brazil. Here, we applied 1226 SNPs obtained by genotyping-by-sequencing to test whether host species associations or other factors such as geographic distance structured populations of this pest. Populations from the main areas of occurrence of G. molesta were sampled principally from peach and apple orchards. Three main clusters were recovered by neighbor-joining analysis, all defined by geographic proximity between sampling localities. Overall genetic structure inferred by a nonhierarchical amova resulted in a significant ΦST value = 0.19109. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that SNPs gathered by genotyping-by-sequencing can be used to infer genetic structure of a pest insect in Brazil; moreover, our results indicate that those markers are very informative even over a restricted geographic scale. We also demonstrate that host plant association has little effect on genetic structure among Brazilian populations of G. molesta; on the other hand, reduced gene flow promoted by geographic isolation has a stronger impact on population differentiation. PMID:26029261

  18. Genotyping-by-sequencing approach indicates geographic distance as the main factor affecting genetic structure and gene flow in Brazilian populations of Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae)

    PubMed Central

    Silva-Brandão, Karina Lucas; Silva, Oscar Arnaldo Batista Neto e; Brandão, Marcelo Mendes; Omoto, Celso; Sperling, Felix A H

    2015-01-01

    The oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta is one of the major pests of stone and pome fruit species in Brazil. Here, we applied 1226 SNPs obtained by genotyping-by-sequencing to test whether host species associations or other factors such as geographic distance structured populations of this pest. Populations from the main areas of occurrence of G. molesta were sampled principally from peach and apple orchards. Three main clusters were recovered by neighbor-joining analysis, all defined by geographic proximity between sampling localities. Overall genetic structure inferred by a nonhierarchical amova resulted in a significant ΦST value = 0.19109. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that SNPs gathered by genotyping-by-sequencing can be used to infer genetic structure of a pest insect in Brazil; moreover, our results indicate that those markers are very informative even over a restricted geographic scale. We also demonstrate that host plant association has little effect on genetic structure among Brazilian populations of G. molesta; on the other hand, reduced gene flow promoted by geographic isolation has a stronger impact on population differentiation. PMID:26029261

  19. MAINE AQUIFERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    AQFRS24 contains polygons of significant aquifers in Maine (glacial deposits that are a significant ground water resource) mapped at a scale 1:24,000. This statewide coverage was derived from aquifer boundaries delineated and digitized by the Maine Geological Survey from data com...

  20. Phagocytosis Is the Main CR3-Mediated Function Affected by the Lupus-Associated Variant of CD11b in Human Myeloid Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cortini, Andrea; Szajna, Marta; Malik, Talat H.; McDonald, Jacqueline U.; Pickering, Matthew C.; Cook, H. Terence; Taylor, Philip R.; Botto, Marina

    2013-01-01

    The CD11b/CD18 integrin (complement receptor 3, CR3) is a surface receptor on monocytes, neutrophils, macrophages and dendritic cells that plays a crucial role in several immunological processes including leukocyte extravasation and phagocytosis. The minor allele of a non-synonymous CR3 polymorphism (rs1143679, conversation of arginine to histidine at position 77: R77H) represents one of the strongest genetic risk factor in human systemic lupus erythematosus, with heterozygosity (77R/H) being the most common disease associated genotype. Homozygosity for the 77H allele has been reported to reduce adhesion and phagocytosis in human monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages, respectively, without affecting surface expression of CD11b. Herein we comprehensively assessed the influence of R77H on different CR3-mediated activities in monocytes, neutrophils, macrophages and dendritic cells. R77H did not alter surface expression of CD11b including its active form in any of these cell types. Using two different iC3b-coated targets we found that the uptake by heterozygous 77R/H macrophages, monocytes and neutrophils was significantly reduced compared to 77R/R cells. Allele-specific transduced immortalized macrophage cell lines demonstrated that the minor allele, 77H, was responsible for the impaired phagocytosis. R77H did not affect neutrophil adhesion, neutrophil transmigration in vivo or Toll-like receptor 7/8-mediated cytokine release by monocytes or dendritic cells with or without CR3 pre-engagement by iC3b-coated targets. Our findings demonstrate that the reduction in CR3-mediated phagocytosis associated with the 77H CD11b variant is not macrophage-restricted but demonstrable in other CR3-expressing professional phagocytic cells. The association between 77H and susceptibility to systemic lupus erythematosus most likely relates to impaired waste disposal, a key component of lupus pathogenesis. PMID:23451151

  1. The use of sub-critical water hydrolysis for the recovery of peptides and free amino acids from food processing wastes. Review of sources and main parameters.

    PubMed

    Marcet, Ismael; Álvarez, Carlos; Paredes, Benjamín; Díaz, Mario

    2016-03-01

    Food industry processing wastes are produced in enormous amounts every year, such wastes are usually disposed with the corresponding economical cost it implies, in the best scenario they can be used for pet food or composting. However new promising technologies and tools have been developed in the last years aimed at recovering valuable compounds from this type of materials. In particular, sub-critical water hydrolysis (SWH) has been revealed as an interesting way for recovering high added-value molecules, and its applications have been broadly referred in the bibliography. Special interest has been focused on recovering protein hydrolysates in form of peptides or amino acids, from both animal and vegetable wastes, by means of SWH. These recovered biomolecules have a capital importance in fields such as biotechnology research, nutraceuticals, and above all in food industry, where such products can be applied with very different objectives. Present work reviews the current state of art of using sub-critical water hydrolysis for protein recovering from food industry wastes. Key parameters as reaction time, temperature, amino acid degradation and kinetic constants have been discussed. Besides, the characteristics of the raw material and the type of products that can be obtained depending on the substrate have been reviewed. Finally, the application of these hydrolysates based on their functional properties and antioxidant activity is described. PMID:26831563

  2. Defining Optimal Aerobic Exercise Parameters to Affect Complex Motor and Cognitive Outcomes after Stroke: A Systematic Review and Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, S. M. Mahmudul; Rancourt, Samantha N.; Austin, Mark W.; Ploughman, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Although poststroke aerobic exercise (AE) increases markers of neuroplasticity and protects perilesional tissue, the degree to which it enhances complex motor or cognitive outcomes is unknown. Previous research suggests that timing and dosage of exercise may be important. We synthesized data from clinical and animal studies in order to determine optimal AE training parameters and recovery outcomes for future research. Using predefined criteria, we included clinical trials of stroke of any type or duration and animal studies employing any established models of stroke. Of the 5,259 titles returned, 52 articles met our criteria, measuring the effects of AE on balance, lower extremity coordination, upper limb motor skills, learning, processing speed, memory, and executive function. We found that early-initiated low-to-moderate intensity AE improved locomotor coordination in rodents. In clinical trials, AE improved balance and lower limb coordination irrespective of intervention modality or parameter. In contrast, fine upper limb recovery was relatively resistant to AE. In terms of cognitive outcomes, poststroke AE in animals improved memory and learning, except when training was too intense. However, in clinical trials, combined training protocols more consistently improved cognition. We noted a paucity of studies examining the benefits of AE on recovery beyond cessation of the intervention. PMID:26881101

  3. Defining Optimal Aerobic Exercise Parameters to Affect Complex Motor and Cognitive Outcomes after Stroke: A Systematic Review and Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Hasan, S M Mahmudul; Rancourt, Samantha N; Austin, Mark W; Ploughman, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Although poststroke aerobic exercise (AE) increases markers of neuroplasticity and protects perilesional tissue, the degree to which it enhances complex motor or cognitive outcomes is unknown. Previous research suggests that timing and dosage of exercise may be important. We synthesized data from clinical and animal studies in order to determine optimal AE training parameters and recovery outcomes for future research. Using predefined criteria, we included clinical trials of stroke of any type or duration and animal studies employing any established models of stroke. Of the 5,259 titles returned, 52 articles met our criteria, measuring the effects of AE on balance, lower extremity coordination, upper limb motor skills, learning, processing speed, memory, and executive function. We found that early-initiated low-to-moderate intensity AE improved locomotor coordination in rodents. In clinical trials, AE improved balance and lower limb coordination irrespective of intervention modality or parameter. In contrast, fine upper limb recovery was relatively resistant to AE. In terms of cognitive outcomes, poststroke AE in animals improved memory and learning, except when training was too intense. However, in clinical trials, combined training protocols more consistently improved cognition. We noted a paucity of studies examining the benefits of AE on recovery beyond cessation of the intervention. PMID:26881101

  4. The Parameters Affecting the Success of Irrigation and Debridement with Component Retention in the Treatment of Acutely Infected Total Knee Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae Gyoon; Bae, Ji Hoon; Lee, Seung Yup; Cho, Won Tae

    2015-01-01

    Background The aims of our study were to evaluate the success rate of irrigation and debridement with component retention (IDCR) for acutely infected total knee arthroplasty (TKA) (< 4 weeks of symptom duration) and to analyze the factors affecting prognosis of IDCR. Methods We retrospectively reviewed 28 knees treated by IDCR for acutely infected TKA from 2003 to 2012. We evaluated the success rate of IDCR. All variables were compared between the success and failure groups. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was also used to examine the relative contribution of these parameters to the success of IDCR. Results Seventeen knees (60.7%) were successfully treated. Between the success and failure groups, there were significant differences in the time from primary TKA to IDCR (p = 0.021), the preoperative erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR; p = 0.021), microorganism (p = 0.006), and polyethylene liner exchange (p = 0.017). Multivariable logistic regression analysis of parameters affecting the success of IDCR demonstrated that preoperative ESR (odds ratio [OR], 1.02; p = 0.041), microorganism (OR, 12.4; p = 0.006), and polyethylene liner exchange (OR, 0.07; p = 0.021) were significant parameters. Conclusions The results show that 60.7% of the cases were successfully treated by IDCR for acutely infected TKA. The preoperative ESR, microorganism, and polyethylene liner exchange were factors that affected the success of IDCR in acutely infected TKA. PMID:25729521

  5. A weak pulsed magnetic field affects adenine nucleotide oscillations, and related parameters in aggregating Dictyostelium discoideum amoebae.

    PubMed

    Davies, E; Olliff, C; Wright, I; Woodward, A; Kell, D

    1999-02-01

    A model eukaryotic cell system was used to explore the effect of a weak pulsed magnetic field (PMF) on time-varying physiological parameters. Dictyostelium discoideum cells (V12 strain) were exposed to a pulsed magnetic field (PMF) of flux density 0.4 mT, generated via air-cored coils in trains of 2 ms pulses gated at 20 ms. This signal is similar to those used to treat non-uniting fractures. Samples were taken over periods of 20 min from harvested suspensions of amoebae during early aggregation phase, extracted and derivatised for HPLC fluorescent assay of adenine nucleotides. Analysis of variance showed a significant athermal damping effect (P < 0.002, n = 22) of the PMF on natural adenine nucleotide oscillations and some consistent changes in phase relationships. The technique of nonlinear dielectric spectroscopy (NLDS) revealed a distinctive effect of PMF, caffeine and EGTA in modulating the cellular harmonic response to an applied weak signal. Light scattering studies also showed altered frequency response of cells to PMF, EGTA and caffeine. PMF caused a significant reduction of caffeine induced cell contraction (P < 0.0006, n = 19 by paired t-test) as shown by Malvern particle size analyser, suggesting that intracellular calcium may be involved in mediating the effect of the PMF. PMID:10228582

  6. On the Behavior of Physical Parameters of Aqueous Solutions Affected by the Inerton Field of TESLAR® Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnoholovets, Volodymyr; Skliarenko, Sergiy; Strokach, Olexander

    We present studies of the behavior of the permittivity of such liquid systems as pure distilled water, alcohol and 50%-aqueous solutions of alcohol as affected by the inerton field generated by a special signal generator contained within a wrist-watch or bracelet made by so-called Teslar® technology. It has been found that the changes are in fact significant. The method employed has allowed us to fix the value of frequency of the field generated by the Teslar® chip. The frequency has been determined to be approximately 8 Hz. The phenomenological consideration and submicroscopic foundations of a significant increase of the permittivity are studied, taking into account an additional interaction, namely, the mass interaction between polar water molecules, which is caused by the inerton field of the Teslar® chip. This is one more proof of Krasnoholovets' concept regarding the existence of a substructure of the matter waves of moving/vibrating entities, i.e. the inerton field, which has been predicted in a series of his previous works.

  7. Willingness to Use Microbicides Is Affected by the Importance of Product Characteristics, Use Parameters, and Protective Properties

    PubMed Central

    Morrow, Kathleen M.; Fava, Joseph L.; Rosen, Rochelle K.; Vargas, Sara; Barroso, Candelaria; Christensen, Anna L.; Woodsong, Cynthia; Severy, Lawrence

    2008-01-01

    Background Along with efficacy, a microbicide’s acceptability will be integral to its impact on the pandemic. Understanding Product Characteristics that users find most acceptable and determining who will use which type of product are key to optimizing use effectiveness. Objectives To evaluate psychometrically the Important Microbicide Characteristics (IMC) instrument and examine its relationship to willingness to use microbicides. Results Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed 2 IMC subscales (Cronbach’s coefficient α: Product Characteristics subscale (α = 0.84) and Protective Properties subscale (α = 0.89)). Significant differences on Product Characteristics subscale scores were found for history of douching (P = 0.002) and employment status (P = 0.001). Whether a woman used a method to prevent pregnancy or sexually transmitted disease (STD) in the last 3 months (P < 0.001) and whether she used a condom during the last vaginal sex episode (P < 0.001) were significantly related to her rating of the importance of microbicides being contraceptive. Product Characteristics (r = 0.21) and Protective Properties (r = 0.27) subscale scores and whether a microbicide had contraceptive properties (r = 0.24) were all significantly associated (P < 0.001) with willingness to use microbicides. Conclusions Formulation and use characteristics and product function(s) affect willingness to use microbicides and should continue to be addressed in product development. The IMC instrument serves as a template for future studies of candidate microbicides. PMID:17325607

  8. How deposition parameters affect corrosion behavior of TiO2-Al2O3 nanocomposite coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niazi, H.; Yari, S.; Golestani-Fard, F.; Shahmiri, M.; Wang, W.; Alfantazi, A.; Bayati, R.

    2015-10-01

    Titania-Alumina coatings were grown on titanium substrates by Eectrophoretic Enhanced Micro Arc Oxidation (EEMAO) technique in electrolytes containing various concentrations of alumina nanoparticles. The effect of concentration of alumina on surface morphology, phase composition, microhardness, and corrosion behavior was investigated at different voltages. It was found that the impact of alumina concentration on microstructure actually depends on the voltage and its effects gets more conspicuous at intermediate and high voltages. A finer morphology was obtained at higher concentrations of alumina at a constant voltage. The coatings mainly consisted of anatase and rutile. Tialite was observed at 450 V and 3 g l-1 alumina. The formation kinetics and thermodynamics of the tialite phase was studied. In all voltages, samples prepared in an alumina-rich electrolyte showed a higher surface hardness. The nanocomposite coatings exhibited an enhanced corrosion resistance compared to the titanium substrates where the effect of alumina concentration became more tangible when the voltage exceeded a critical value (350 V). At 450 V, the polarization resistance of the sample prepared in alumina-rich electrolytes was higher by 3 orders of magnitude compared to the coating prepared in the electrolyte containing 1 g l-1 alumina. A processing-microstructure-properties correlation is established.

  9. MAINE HYDROGRAPHY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydronet_me24 and Hydropoly_me24 depict Maine's hydrography data, based on 8-digit hydrological unit codes (HUC's) at the 1:24,000 scale. Some New Hampshire and New Brunswick hydrography data are also included. The NHD hydrography data was compiled from previous ArcIn...

  10. MAINE WOODLOTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    MEOWN250 describes industrial, non-industrial, and public woodlot ownership in Maine at 1:250,000 scale. Industrial owners are those having at least one primary wood processing facility. Non-industrial owners are those with no primary wood processing facility. Public ownership...

  11. Maine Ingredients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, John K.

    2009-01-01

    This article features Maine Learning Technology Initiative (MLTI), the nation's first-ever statewide 1-to-1 laptop program which marks its seventh birthday by expanding into high schools, providing an occasion to celebrate--and to examine the components of its success. The plan to put laptops into the hands of every teacher and student in grades 7…

  12. Visible Persistence of Single-Transient Random Dot Patterns: Spatial Parameters Affect the Duration of Fading Percepts.

    PubMed

    Bruchmann, Maximilian; Thaler, Kathrin; Vorberg, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Visible persistence refers to the continuation of visual perception after the physical termination of a stimulus. We studied an extreme case of visible persistence by presenting two matrices of randomly distributed black and white pixels in succession. On the transition from one matrix to the second, the luminance polarity of all pixels within a disk- or annulus-shaped area reversed, physically creating a single second-order transient signal. This transient signal produces the percept of a disk or an annulus with an abrupt onset and a gradual offset. To study the nature of this fading percept we varied spatial parameters, such as the inner and the outer diameter of annuli (Experiment I) and the radius and eccentricity of disks (Experiment III), and measured the duration of visible persistence by having subjects adjust the synchrony of the onset of a reference stimulus with the onset or the offset of the fading percept. We validated this method by comparing two modalities of the reference stimuli (Experiment I) and by comparing the judgments of fading percepts with the judgments of stimuli that actually fade in luminance contrast (Experiment II). The results show that (i) irrespective of the reference modality, participants are able to precisely judge the on- and the offsets of the fading percepts, (ii) auditory reference stimuli lead to higher visible persistence durations than visual ones, (iii) visible persistence duration increases with the thickness of annuli and the diameter of disks, but decreases with the diameter of annuli, irrespective of stimulus eccentricity. These effects cannot be explained by stimulus energy, which suggests that more complex processing mechanisms are involved. Seemingly contradictory effects of disk and annulus diameter can be unified by assuming an abstract filling-in mechanism that speeds up with the strength of the edge signal and takes more time the larger the stimulus area is. PMID:26348616

  13. Visible Persistence of Single-Transient Random Dot Patterns: Spatial Parameters Affect the Duration of Fading Percepts

    PubMed Central

    Bruchmann, Maximilian; Thaler, Kathrin; Vorberg, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Visible persistence refers to the continuation of visual perception after the physical termination of a stimulus. We studied an extreme case of visible persistence by presenting two matrices of randomly distributed black and white pixels in succession. On the transition from one matrix to the second, the luminance polarity of all pixels within a disk- or annulus-shaped area reversed, physically creating a single second-order transient signal. This transient signal produces the percept of a disk or an annulus with an abrupt onset and a gradual offset. To study the nature of this fading percept we varied spatial parameters, such as the inner and the outer diameter of annuli (Experiment I) and the radius and eccentricity of disks (Experiment III), and measured the duration of visible persistence by having subjects adjust the synchrony of the onset of a reference stimulus with the onset or the offset of the fading percept. We validated this method by comparing two modalities of the reference stimuli (Experiment I) and by comparing the judgments of fading percepts with the judgments of stimuli that actually fade in luminance contrast (Experiment II). The results show that (i) irrespective of the reference modality, participants are able to precisely judge the on- and the offsets of the fading percepts, (ii) auditory reference stimuli lead to higher visible persistence durations than visual ones, (iii) visible persistence duration increases with the thickness of annuli and the diameter of disks, but decreases with the diameter of annuli, irrespective of stimulus eccentricity. These effects cannot be explained by stimulus energy, which suggests that more complex processing mechanisms are involved. Seemingly contradictory effects of disk and annulus diameter can be unified by assuming an abstract filling-in mechanism that speeds up with the strength of the edge signal and takes more time the larger the stimulus area is. PMID:26348616

  14. The main cubioid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blokh, Alexander; Oversteegen, Lex; Ptacek, Ross; Timorin, Vladlen

    2014-08-01

    The connectedness locus in the parameter space of quadratic polynomials is called the Mandelbrot set. A good combinatorial model of this set is due to Thurston. By definition, the principal hyperbolic domain of the Mandelbrot set consists of parameter values, for which the corresponding quadratic polynomials have an attracting fixed point. The closure of the principal hyperbolic domain of the Mandelbrot set is called the main cardioid. Its topology is completely described by Thurston's model. Less is known about the connectedness locus in the parameter space of cubic polynomials. In this paper, we discuss cubic analogues of the main cardioid and establish relationships between them.

  15. Generation of 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone from rhamnose as affected by reaction parameters: experimental design approach.

    PubMed

    Illmann, Silke; Davidek, Tomas; Gouézec, Elisabeth; Rytz, Andreas; Schuchmann, Heike P; Blank, Imre

    2009-04-01

    The formation of 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (HDMF) was studied in aqueous model systems containing L-rhamnose and L-lysine. The approach consisted in systematically varying four reaction parameters (rhamnose concentration, rhamnose to lysine ratio, pH, and phosphate concentration) at 3 levels. A fractional factorial design was used to reduce the number of trials. The degradation of rhamnose was followed by high performance anion exchange chromatography and the formation of HDMF by solid phase extraction in combination with GC/MS. The study permitted the identification of critical reaction parameters that affect the formation of HDMF from rhamnose in aqueous systems. Although all studied parameters have some impact on the HDMF formation and rhamnose degradation kinetics, the effect of phosphate is by far the most important, followed by concentration of precursors and pH. The experimental design approach permitted us, with a limited number of experiments, to accurately model the effects of the four investigated reaction parameters on the kinetics of rhamnose degradation and HDMF formation (R(2)>0.93). Overall, the results indicate that rhamnose can be an excellent precursor of HDMF (yield >40 mol%), if the reaction conditions are well mastered. PMID:19256512

  16. Transient states of air parameters after a stoppage and re-start of the main fan / Stany przejściowe parametrów powietrza po postoju i załączeniu wentylatora głównego

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasilewski, Stanisław

    2012-12-01

    A stoppage of the main ventilation fan constitutes a disturbance of ventilation conditions of a deepmine and its effects can cause serious hazards by generating transient states of air and gas flow. Main ventilation fans are the basic deep-mine facilities; therefore, under mining regulations it is only allowed to stop them with the consent and under the conditions specified by the mine maintenance manager. The stoppage of the main ventilation fan may be accompanied by transient air parameters, including the air pressure and flow patterns. There is even the likelihood of reversing the direction of air flow, which, in case of methane mines, can pose a major hazard, particularly in sections of the mine with fire fields or large goaf areas. At the same time, stoppages of deep-mine main ventilation fans create interesting research conditions, which if conducted under the supervision of the monitoring systems, can provide much information about the transient processes of pressure, air and gas flow in underground workings. This article is a discussion of air parameter observations in mine workings made as part of such experiments. It also presents the procedure of the experiments, conducted in three mines. They involved the observation of transient processes of mine air parameters, and most interestingly, the recording of pressure and air and gas flow in the workings of the mine ventilation networks by mine monitoring systems and using specialist recording instruments. In mining practice, both in Poland and elsewhere, software tools and computer modelling methods are used to try and reproduce the conditions prior to and during disasters based on the existing network model and monitoring system data. The use of these tools to simulate the alternatives of combating and liquidation of the gas-fire hazard after its occurrence is an important issue. Measurement data collected during the experiments provides interesting research material for the verification and validation of

  17. Dietary peppermint (Mentha piperita) extracts promote growth performance and increase the main humoral immune parameters (both at mucosal and systemic level) of Caspian brown trout (Salmo trutta caspius Kessler, 1877).

    PubMed

    Adel, Milad; Safari, Reza; Pourgholam, Reza; Zorriehzahra, Jalil; Esteban, Maria Ángeles

    2015-11-01

    The effects of dietary administration of peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) on Caspian brown trout fish (Salmo trutta caspius) were studied. Fish were divided into 4 groups before being fed diets supplemented with 0% (control), 1%, 2% and 3% of peppermint extracts for 8 weeks. Dose-dependent increases in growth, immune (both in skin mucus and blood serum) and hematological parameters (number of white cells, hematocrit and hemoglobin content), as well as in amylase activity and in the number of lactic acid bacteria on intestine were recorded in fish fed supplemented diets compared to control fish. However, the dietary peppermint supplements have different effects on the number of blood leucocytes depending on the leukocyte cell type. While no significant differences were observed in the number of blood monocytes and eosinophils, the number of lymphocytes was decreased, respectively, on fish fed peppermint enriched diets, respect to the values found in control fish. Furthermore, dietary peppermint supplements have no significant effect on blood biochemical parameters, enzymatic activities of liver determined in serum and total viable aerobic bacterial count on intestine of Caspian brown trout. Present results support that dietary administration of peppermint promotes growth performance and increases the main humoral immune parameters (both at mucosal and systemic level) and the number of the endogenous lactic acid bacteria of Caspian brown trout. This study underlying several positive effects of dietary administration of peppermint to farmed fish. PMID:26455650

  18. Main Report

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    scientific literature. The criteria were distributed among three main categories for each condition: The availability and characteristics of the screening test;The availability and complexity of diagnostic services; andThe availability and efficacy of treatments related to the conditions. A survey process utilizing a data collection instrument was used to gather expert opinion on the conditions in the first tier of the assessment. The data collection format and survey provided the opportunity to quantify expert opinion and to obtain the views of a diverse set of interest groups (necessary due to the subjective nature of some of the criteria). Statistical analysis of data produced a score for each condition, which determined its ranking and initial placement in one of three categories (high scoring, moderately scoring, or low scoring/absence of a newborn screening test). In the second tier of these analyses, the evidence base related to each condition was assessed in depth (e.g., via systematic reviews of reference lists including MedLine, PubMed and others; books; Internet searches; professional guidelines; clinical evidence; and cost/economic evidence and modeling). The fact sheets reflecting these analyses were evaluated by at least two acknowledged experts for each condition. These experts assessed the data and the associated references related to each criterion and provided corrections where appropriate, assigned a value to the level of evidence and the quality of the studies that established the evidence base, and determined whether there were significant variances from the survey data. Survey results were subsequently realigned with the evidence obtained from the scientific literature during the second-tier analysis for all objective criteria, based on input from at least three acknowledged experts in each condition. The information from these two tiers of assessment was then considered with regard to the overriding principles and other technology or condition

  19. Investigating how fundamental parameters of XRF sample preparation and analysis affect the observed elemental concentration: an experiment using fluvial sediment from Sabah, Borneo.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higton, Sam; Walsh, Rory

    2015-04-01

    X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) is an important technique for measuring the concentrations of geochemical elements and inorganic contaminants adsorbed to sediments as an input to sediment tracing methods used to evaluate sediment transport dynamics in river catchments. In addition to traditional laboratory-based XRF instruments, the advent of increasingly advanced portable handheld XRF devices now mean that samples of fluvial sediment can be analysed in the field or in the laboratory following appropriate sample preparation procedures. There are limitations and sources of error associated with XRF sample preparation and analysis, however. It is therefore important to understand how fundamental parameters involved in sample preparation and analysis, such as sample compression and measurement exposure duration, affect observed variability in measurement results. Such considerations become important if the resulting measurement variability is high relative to the natural variability in element concentrations at a sample site. This paper deployed a simple experimental design to assess the impacts of varying a number of sample preparation and XRF analysis parameters on recorded measurements of elemental concentrations of the fine fraction (<63um) of bed-sediment samples. Specifically the study compared observed elemental concentrations measured using a Rigaku NEX-CG laboratory machine versus a handheld Niton XL3t-900 XRF elemental analyser. Helium purging was used on both machines to enable measurement of lighter geochemical elements. Sediment sub-samples were taken from a larger homogenised sample from a sediment core taken from an in-channel lateral bench deposit of the Brantian river in Sabah, Borneo; the core site is being used for research into multi-proxy sediment fingerprinting as part of the Stability of Altered Forest Ecosystems (SAFE) project. Some fundamental sample preparation procedures consistent with US EPA Method 6200 were applied to all sediment samples in

  20. Does the antibiotic amoxicillin affect haemocyte parameters in non-target aquatic invertebrates? The clam Ruditapes philippinarum and the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis as model organisms.

    PubMed

    Matozzo, Valerio; Bertin, Valeria; Battistara, Margherita; Guidolin, Angelica; Masiero, Luciano; Marisa, Ilaria; Orsetti, Alessandro

    2016-08-01

    Amoxicillin (AMX) is one of the most widely used antibiotics worldwide, and its levels in aquatic ecosystems are expected to be detectable. At present, information concerning the toxic effects of AMX on non-target aquatic organisms, such as bivalves, is scarce. Consequently, in this study, we investigated for the first time the effects of AMX on the haemocyte parameters of two bivalve species, the clam Ruditapes philippinarum and the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, which share the same habitat in the Lagoon of Venice, in order to compare the relative sensitivity of the two species. The bivalves were exposed to 100, 200 and 400 μg AMX/L for 1, 3 and 7 days, and the effects on the total haemocyte count (THC), the diameter and volume of the haemocytes, haemocyte proliferation, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in cell-free haemolymph, the haemolymph pH, and the formation of micronuclei were evaluated. The actual concentrations of AMX in the seawater samples from the experimental tanks were also measured. Overall, the obtained results demonstrated that AMX affected slightly the haemocyte parameters of bivalves. In addition, no clear differences in terms of sensitivity to AMX exposure were recorded between the two bivalve species. PMID:27219711

  1. Comparison of Mathematical Models Applied to F1 Dairy Sheep Lactations in Organic Farm and Environmental Factors Affecting Lactation Curve Parameter

    PubMed Central

    Angeles-Hernandez, J. C.; Albarran-Portillo, B.; Gomez Gonzalez, A. V.; Pescador Salas, N.; Gonzalez-Ronquillo, M.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the goodness of fit of four lactation curve models: Wood’s Gamma model (WD), Wilmink (WL), and Pollott’s multiplicative two (POL2) and three parameters (POL3) and to determine the environmental factors affecting the complete lactation curve of F1 dairy sheep under organic management. A total of 5,382 weekly milk yields records from 150 ewes, under organic management were used. Residual mean square (RMS), determination coefficients (R2), and correlation (r) analysis were used as an indicator of goodness of fit for each model. WL model best fitted the lactation curves as indicated by the lower RMS values (0.019), followed by WD (0.023), POL2 (0.025) and POL3 (0.029). The four models provided total milk yield (TMY) estimations that were highly correlated (0.93 to 0.97) with observed TMY (89.9 kg). The four models under estimated peak yield (PY), whereas POL2 and POL3 gave nearer peak time lactation estimations. Ewes lambing in autumn had higher TMY and showed a typical curve shape. Higher TMY were recorded in second and third lambing. Season of lambing, number of lambing and type of lambing had a great influenced over TMY shaping the complete lactation curve of F1 dairy sheep. In general terms WL model showed the best fit to the F1 dairy sheep lactation curve under organic management. PMID:25049892

  2. Egg storage duration and hatch window affect gene expression of nutrient transporters and intestine morphological parameters of early hatched broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Yalcin, S; Gursel, I; Bilgen, G; Izzetoglu, G T; Horuluoglu, B H; Gucluer, G

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, researchers have given emphasis on the differences in physiological parameters between early and late hatched chicks within a hatch window. Considering the importance of intestine development in newly hatched chicks, however, changes in gene expression of nutrient transporters in the jejunum of early hatched chicks within a hatch window have not been studied yet. This study was conducted to determine the effects of egg storage duration before incubation and hatch window on intestinal development and expression of PepT1 (H+-dependent peptide transporter) and SGLT1 (sodium-glucose co-transporter) genes in the jejunum of early hatched broiler chicks within a 30 h of hatch window. A total of 1218 eggs obtained from 38-week-old Ross 308 broiler breeder flocks were stored for 3 (ES3) or 14 days (ES14) and incubated at the same conditions. Eggs were checked between 475 and 480 h of incubation and 40 chicks from each egg storage duration were weighed; chick length and rectal temperature were measured. The chicks were sampled to evaluate morphological parameters and PepT1 and SGLT1 expression. The remaining chicks that hatched between 475 and 480 h were placed back in the incubator and the same measurements were conducted with those chicks at the end of hatch window at 510 h of incubation. Chick length, chick dry matter content, rectal temperature and weight of small intestine segments increased, whereas chick weight decreased during the hatch window. The increase in the jejunum length and villus width and area during the hatch window were higher for ES3 than ES14 chicks. PepT1 expression was higher for ES3 chicks compared with ES14. There was a 10.2 and 17.6-fold increase in PepT1 and SGLT1 expression of ES3 chicks at the end of hatch window, whereas it was only 2.3 and 3.3-fold, respectively, for ES14 chicks. These results suggested that egg storage duration affected development of early hatched chicks during 30 h of hatch window. It can be concluded that

  3. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey. XIX. B-type supergiants: Atmospheric parameters and nitrogen abundances to investigate the role of binarity and the width of the main sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEvoy, C. M.; Dufton, P. L.; Evans, C. J.; Kalari, V. M.; Markova, N.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Vink, J. S.; Walborn, N. R.; Crowther, P. A.; de Koter, A.; de Mink, S. E.; Dunstall, P. R.; Hénault-Brunet, V.; Herrero, A.; Langer, N.; Lennon, D. J.; Maíz Apellániz, J.; Najarro, F.; Puls, J.; Sana, H.; Schneider, F. R. N.; Taylor, W. D.

    2015-03-01

    Context. Model atmosphere analyses have been previously undertaken for both Galactic and extragalactic B-type supergiants. By contrast, little attention has been given to a comparison of the properties of single supergiants and those that are members of multiple systems. Aims: Atmospheric parameters and nitrogen abundances have been estimated for all the B-type supergiants identified in the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula survey. These include both single targets and binary candidates. The results have been analysed to investigate the role of binarity in the evolutionary history of supergiants. Methods: tlusty non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) model atmosphere calculations have been used to determine atmospheric parameters and nitrogen abundances for 34 single and 18 binary supergiants. Effective temperatures were deduced using the silicon balance technique, complemented by the helium ionisation in the hotter spectra. Surface gravities were estimated using Balmer line profiles and microturbulent velocities deduced using the silicon spectrum. Nitrogen abundances or upper limits were estimated from the N ii spectrum. The effects of a flux contribution from an unseen secondary were considered for the binary sample. Results: We present the first systematic study of the incidence of binarity for a sample of B-type supergiants across the theoretical terminal age main sequence (TAMS). To account for the distribution of effective temperatures of the B-type supergiants it may be necessary to extend the TAMS to lower temperatures. This is also consistent with the derived distribution of mass discrepancies, projected rotational velocities and nitrogen abundances, provided that stars cooler than this temperature are post-red supergiant objects. For all the supergiants in the Tarantula and in a previous FLAMES survey, the majority have small projected rotational velocities. The distribution peaks at about 50 km s-1 with 65% in the range 30 km s-1 ≤ vesini ≤ 60 km s-1. About

  4. The Bacterial and Fungal Diversity of an Aged PAH- and Heavy Metal-Contaminated Soil is Affected by Plant Cover and Edaphic Parameters.

    PubMed

    Bourceret, Amélia; Cébron, Aurélie; Tisserant, Emilie; Poupin, Pascal; Bauda, Pascale; Beguiristain, Thierry; Leyval, Corinne

    2016-04-01

    Industrial wasteland soils with aged PAH and heavy metal contaminations are environments where pollutant toxicity has been maintained for decades. Although the communities may be well adapted to the presence of stressors, knowledge about microbial diversity in such soils is scarce. Soil microbial community dynamics can be driven by the presence of plants, but the impact of plant development on selection or diversification of microorganisms in these soils has not been established yet. To test these hypotheses, aged-contaminated soil samples from a field trial were collected. Plots planted with alfalfa were compared to bare soil plots, and bacterial and fungal diversity and abundance were assessed after 2 and 6 years. Using pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene and ITS amplicons, we showed that the bacterial community was dominated by Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes and was characterized by low Acidobacteria abundance, while the fungal community was mainly represented by members of the Ascomycota. The short-term toxic impact of pollutants usually reduces the microbial diversity, yet in our samples bacterial and fungal species richness and diversity was high suggesting that the community structure and diversity adapted to the contaminated soil over decades. The presence of plants induced higher bacterial and fungal diversity than in bare soil. It also increased the relative abundance of bacterial members of the Actinomycetales, Rhizobiales, and Xanthomonadales orders and of most fungal orders. Multivariate analysis showed correlations between microbial community structure and heavy metal and PAH concentrations over time, but also with edaphic parameters (C/N, pH, phosphorus, and nitrogen concentrations). PMID:26440298

  5. Effect of parameter choice in root water uptake models - the arrangement of root hydraulic properties within the root architecture affects dynamics and efficiency of root water uptake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechmann, M.; Schneider, C.; Carminati, A.; Vetterlein, D.; Attinger, S.; Hildebrandt, A.

    2014-10-01

    Detailed three-dimensional models of root water uptake have become increasingly popular for investigating the process of root water uptake. However, they suffer from a lack of information on important parameters, particularly on the spatial distribution of root axial and radial conductivities, which vary greatly along a root system. In this paper we explore how the arrangement of those root hydraulic properties and branching within the root system affects modelled uptake dynamics, xylem water potential and the efficiency of root water uptake. We first apply a simple model to illustrate the mechanisms at the scale of single roots. By using two efficiency indices based on (i) the collar xylem potential ("effort") and (ii) the integral amount of unstressed root water uptake ("water yield"), we show that an optimal root length emerges, depending on the ratio between roots axial and radial conductivity. Young roots with high capacity for radial uptake are only efficient when they are short. Branching, in combination with mature transport roots, enables soil exploration and substantially increases active young root length at low collar potentials. Second, we investigate how this shapes uptake dynamics at the plant scale using a comprehensive three-dimensional root water uptake model. Plant-scale dynamics, such as the average uptake depth of entire root systems, were only minimally influenced by the hydraulic parameterization. However, other factors such as hydraulic redistribution, collar potential, internal redistribution patterns and instantaneous uptake depth depended strongly on the arrangement on the arrangement of root hydraulic properties. Root systems were most efficient when assembled of different root types, allowing for separation of root function in uptake (numerous short apical young roots) and transport (longer mature roots). Modelling results became similar when this heterogeneity was accounted for to some degree (i.e. if the root systems contained between

  6. Modeling runoff and microbial overland transport with KINEROS2/STWIR model: Accuracy and uncertainty as affected by source of infiltration parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guber, A. K.; Pachepsky, Y. A.; Yakirevich, A. M.; Shelton, D. R.; Whelan, G.; Goodrich, D. C.; Unkrich, C. L.

    2014-11-01

    Infiltration is important to modeling the overland transport of microorganisms in environmental waters. In watershed- and hillslope scale-models, infiltration is commonly described by simple equations relating infiltration rate to soil saturated conductivity and by empirical parameters defining changes in infiltration rate with soil water content. For the microbial transport model KINEROS2/STWIR used in this study, infiltration in unsaturated soil is accounted for by a net capillary drive parameter, G, in the Parlange equation. Scarce experimental data and multiple approaches for estimating parameter G introduce uncertainty, reducing reliability of overland water flow and microbial transport models. Our objectives were to evaluate reliability and robustness of three methods to estimate parameter G and associated accuracy and uncertainty in predicting runoff and fecal coliform (FC) transport. These methods include (i) KINEROS2 fitting to the experimental cumulative runoff data; (ii) estimating solely on soil texture; and (iii) estimating by individual pedotransfer functions (PTFs) and an ensemble of PTFs from basic soil properties. Results show that the most accurate prediction was obtained when the G parameter was fitted to the cumulative runoff. The KINEROS2-recommended parameter slightly overestimated the calibrated value of parameter G and yielded less accurate predictions of runoff, FC concentrations and total FC. The PTFs-estimated parameters systematically deviated from calibrated G values that caused high uncertainty in the KINEROS2/STWIR predictions. Averaging PTF estimates considerably improved model accuracy, reducing the uncertainty of runoff and FC concentration predictions. Overall, ensemble-based PTF estimation of the capillary drive can be efficient for simulations of runoff and bacteria overland transport when a single effective value is used across the study area.

  7. Critical rearing parameters of Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) as affected by host-plant substrate and host-parasitoid group structure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Laboratory studies were conducted to evaluate the potential impact of host-plant substrate types, host-parasitoid group size and host to parasitoid ratios on select fitness parameters of the larval parasitoid Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang, newly introduced for biological control of the invasive eme...

  8. Aquarius main structure configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eremenko, A.

    The Aquarius/SAC-D Observatory is a joint US-Argentine mission to map the salinity at the ocean surface. This information is critical to improving our understanding of two major components of Earth's climate system - the water cycle and ocean circulation. By measuring ocean salinity from space, the Aquarius/SAC-D Mission will provide new insights into how the massive natural exchange of freshwater between the ocean, atmosphere and sea ice influences ocean circulation, weather and climate. Aquarius is the primary instrument on the SAC-D spacecraft. It consists of a Passive Microwave Radiometer to detect the surface emission that is used to obtain salinity and an Active Scatterometer to measure the ocean waves that affect the precision of the salinity measurement. The Aquarius Primary Structure houses instrument electronics, feed assemblies, and supports a deployable boom with a 2.5 m Reflector, and provides the structural interface to the SAC-D Spacecraft. The key challenge for the Aquarius main structure configuration is to satisfy the needs of component accommodations, ensuring that the instrument can meet all operational, pointing, environmental, and launch vehicle requirements. This paper describes the evolution of the Aquarius main structure configuration, the challenges of balancing the conflicting requirements, and the major configuration driving decisions and compromises.

  9. The EMMA Main Ring Lattice.

    SciTech Connect

    Berg,J.S.

    2008-02-21

    I give a brief introduction to the purpose and goals of the EMMA experiment and describe how they will impact the design of the main EMMA ring. I then describe the mathematical model that is used to describe the EMMA lattice. Finally, I show how the different lattice configurations were obtained and list their parameters.

  10. POPULATION PARAMETERS OF INTERMEDIATE-AGE STAR CLUSTERS IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD. III. DYNAMICAL EVIDENCE FOR A RANGE OF AGES BEING RESPONSIBLE FOR EXTENDED MAIN-SEQUENCE TURNOFFS

    SciTech Connect

    Goudfrooij, Paul; Kozhurina-Platais, Vera; Puzia, Thomas H.; Chandar, Rupali E-mail: verap@stsci.edu E-mail: rupali.chandar@utoledo.edu

    2011-08-10

    We present a new analysis of 11 intermediate-age (1-2 Gyr) star clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud based on Hubble Space Telescope imaging data. Seven of the clusters feature main-sequence turnoff (MSTO) regions that are wider than can be accounted for by a simple stellar population, whereas their red giant branches (RGBs) indicate a single value of [Fe/H]. The star clusters cover a range in present-day mass from about 1 x 10{sup 4} M{sub sun} to 2 x 10{sup 5} M{sub sun}. We compare radial distributions of stars in the upper and lower parts of the MSTO region, and calculate cluster masses and escape velocities from the present time back to a cluster age of 10 Myr. Our main result is that for all clusters in our sample with estimated escape velocities v{sub esc} {approx}> 15 km s{sup -1} at an age of 10 Myr, the stars in the brightest half of the MSTO region are significantly more centrally concentrated than the stars in the faintest half and more massive RGB and asymptotic giant branch stars. This is not the case for clusters with v{sub esc} {approx}< 10 km s{sup -1} at an age of 10 Myr. We argue that the wide MSTO region of such clusters is caused mainly by a {approx}200-500 Myr range in the ages of cluster stars due to extended star formation within the cluster from material shed by first-generation stars featuring slow stellar winds. Dilution of this enriched material by accretion of ambient interstellar matter is deemed plausible if the spread of [Fe/H] in this ambient gas was very small when the second-generation stars were formed in the cluster.

  11. Parameters affecting the stability of the digestate from a two-stage anaerobic process treating the organic fraction of municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Trzcinski, Antoine P; Stuckey, David C

    2011-07-01

    This paper focused on the factors affecting the respiration rate of the digestate taken from a continuous anaerobic two-stage process treating the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW). The process involved a hydrolytic reactor (HR) that produced a leachate fed to a submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor (SAMBR). It was found that a volatile solids (VS) removal in the range 40-75% and an operating temperature in the HR between 21 and 35 °C resulted in digestates with similar respiration rates, with all digestates requiring 17 days of aeration before satisfying the British Standard Institution stability threshold of 16 mg CO(2) g VS(-1) day(-1). Sanitization of the digestate at 65 °C for 7 days allowed a mature digestate to be obtained. At 4 g VS L(-1) d(-1) and Solid Retention Times (SRT) greater than 70 days, all the digestates emitted CO(2) at a rate lower than 25 mg CO(2) g VS(-1) d(-1) after 3 days of aeration, while at SRT lower than 20 days all the digestates displayed a respiration rate greater than 25 mg CO(2) g VS(-1) d(-1). The compliance criteria for Class I digestate set by the European Commission (EC) and British Standard Institution (BSI) could not be met because of nickel and chromium contamination, which was probably due to attrition of the stainless steel stirrer in the HR. PMID:21419612

  12. Tamoxifen affects glucose and lipid metabolism parameters, causes browning of subcutaneous adipose tissue and transient body composition changes in C57BL/6NTac mice

    SciTech Connect

    Hesselbarth, Nico; Pettinelli, Chiara; Gericke, Martin; Berger, Claudia; Kunath, Anne; Stumvoll, Michael; Blüher, Matthias; Klöting, Nora

    2015-08-28

    Tamoxifen is a selective estrogen receptor (ER) modulator which is widely used to generate inducible conditional transgenic mouse models. Activation of ER signaling plays an important role in the regulation of adipose tissue (AT) metabolism. We therefore tested the hypothesis that tamoxifen administration causes changes in AT biology in vivo. 12 weeks old male C57BL/6NTac mice were treated with either tamoxifen (n = 18) or vehicle (n = 18) for 5 consecutive days. Tamoxifen treatment effects on body composition, energy homeostasis, parameters of AT biology, glucose and lipid metabolism were investigated up to an age of 18 weeks. We found that tamoxifen treatment causes: I) significantly increased HbA{sub 1c}, triglyceride and free fatty acid serum concentrations (p < 0.01), II) browning of subcutaneous AT and increased UCP-1 expression, III) increased AT proliferation marker Ki67 mRNA expression, IV) changes in adipocyte size distribution, and V) transient body composition changes. Tamoxifen may induce changes in body composition, whole body glucose and lipid metabolism and has significant effects on AT biology, which need to be considered when using Tamoxifen as a tool to induce conditional transgenic mouse models. Our data further suggest that tamoxifen-treated wildtype mice should be characterized in parallel to experimental transgenic models to control for tamoxifen administration effects. - Highlights: • Tamoxifen treatment causes significantly increased HbA{sub 1c}, triglyceride and free fatty acid serum concentrations. • Tamoxifen induces browning of subcutaneous AT and increased UCP-1 expression. • Tamoxifen changes adipocyte size distribution, and transient body composition.

  13. Parameters affecting the stability of the digestate from a two-stage anaerobic process treating the organic fraction of municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Trzcinski, Antoine P.; Stuckey, David C.

    2011-07-15

    This paper focused on the factors affecting the respiration rate of the digestate taken from a continuous anaerobic two-stage process treating the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW). The process involved a hydrolytic reactor (HR) that produced a leachate fed to a submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor (SAMBR). It was found that a volatile solids (VS) removal in the range 40-75% and an operating temperature in the HR between 21 and 35 {sup o}C resulted in digestates with similar respiration rates, with all digestates requiring 17 days of aeration before satisfying the British Standard Institution stability threshold of 16 mg CO{sub 2} g VS{sup -1} day{sup -1}. Sanitization of the digestate at 65 {sup o}C for 7 days allowed a mature digestate to be obtained. At 4 g VS L{sup -1} d{sup -1} and Solid Retention Times (SRT) greater than 70 days, all the digestates emitted CO{sub 2} at a rate lower than 25 mg CO{sub 2} g VS{sup -1} d{sup -1} after 3 days of aeration, while at SRT lower than 20 days all the digestates displayed a respiration rate greater than 25 mg CO{sub 2} g VS{sup -1} d{sup -1}. The compliance criteria for Class I digestate set by the European Commission (EC) and British Standard Institution (BSI) could not be met because of nickel and chromium contamination, which was probably due to attrition of the stainless steel stirrer in the HR.

  14. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in Maine. Preliminary background report

    SciTech Connect

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L; Gallagher, K C; Hejna, D; Rielley, K J

    1980-01-01

    The Maine Supreme Court holds that the regulation of the operations of public utilities is an exercise of the police powers of the state. The legislature has delegated such regulatory authority to the Maine Public Utilities Commission (PUC). The statutes provide no role for local government in the regulation of public utilities. The PUC consists of three full time members, appointed by the Governor subject to review by the Joint Standing Committee on Public Utilities and to confirmation by the Legislature. They each serve seven year terms. One member is designated by the Governor as chairman. The Commission appoints a secretary, assistant secretary, director of transportation, and, with the approval of the Attorney General, a general counsel. A member of the PUC cannot have any official or professional connection or relation with or hold any stock or securities in any public utility. Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES.

  15. Study of various clinical and laboratory parameters among 178 patients affected by hooch tragedy in Ahmedabad, Gujarat (India): A single center experience

    PubMed Central

    Jarwani, Bhavesh S; Motiani, Puja D; Sachdev, Sachin

    2013-01-01

    Introduction/Purpose: The outbreak of methanol poisoning described in this paper occurred in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India in July 2009. Our intention is to share the experience of clinical features, laboratory investigations and their relation during this tragedy. Materials and Methods: Single center, retrospective study of clinical features and laboratory parameters of 178 cases of methanol toxicity treated at tertiary care hospital in Ahmedabad, Gujarat. Results: Maximum patients (39.8%, n = 45) were received in 48 h; Mean age of presentation was 41.9 ± 10.2 years. Most of them were men (175 out of 178). On presentation, 83% patients had gastro-intestinal symptoms, 46% had neurological symptoms, 73% had visual symptoms and 32% had dyspnoea. 62% had blurred vision, 10.5% had blindness. Patients with visual symptoms had high mean level of methanol (120.12 ± 23.12 vs. 55.43 ± 29.24, P = 0.014). On fundus examination 52.8% (n = 62) had bilateral hyperaemia of discs, 8.4% (n = 12) had bilateral disc pallor and 4.5% had papilledema (n = 5). Patients with hyperaemia of discs, discs pallor or papilledema, had higher mean methanol level (121.1 ± 32.2 mg% v/s 70.1 ± 23.2 mg%, P = 0.032). Mean of pH values was 7.17 ± 0.22 and bicarbonate was 12.3 ± 7.3 mmol/L. Both pH and bicarbonate levels correlated well with mortality and serum methanol level. Mean serum methanol level was 87.1 mg/dL, and correlated significantly with the mortality (53.1 ± 41 mg/dL v/s 121 ± 92 mg/dL, P value < 0.05). Conclusion: GI symptoms, neurological symptoms and breathlessness are important clue to ED physician for diagnose methanol poisoning. Visual symptoms and fundus findings correlate well with the methanol level. Arterial Blood Gas derived pH and bicarbonate levels correlate significantly with the methanol level and mortality. PMID:23723613

  16. Measurements of IL-6, soluble IL-6 receptor and soluble gp130 in sera of B-cell lymphoma patients. Does viscum album treatment affect these parameters?

    PubMed

    Kovacs, E; Kuehn, J J

    2002-05-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) can be involved in several diseases including lymphoid malignancies. This cytokine binds to soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R) circulating in blood, leading to signal transduction via gp130. Soluble IL-6R shows agonistic activity for IL-6, and the soluble form of gp130 (sgp130) an antagonistic effect against the complex IL-6/sIL-6R. Viscum album extract (Iscador) as an immunomodulator is used in the treatment of malignant disorders. In this study we investigated the effect of this treatment on the serum levels of IL-6, sIL-6R and sgp130 in B-cell lymphoma patients (n = 27), in comparison to healthy controls (n = 28). Twenty-one of 27 patients had been treated previously with chemo/radiotherapy. The patients were divided into two groups; those with short-term (investigated before and during treatment) or those with long-term Viscum album (VA) therapy (investigated during therapy). The serum levels of the three parameters were determined by ELISA. In patients having short-term treatment IL-6 values were similar to those of controls. During long-term therapy the values were significantly lower (P<0.05). The values of sIL-6R were elevated only in long-term treated patients (P<0.05), the values of sgp130 in both short-term (P<0.05) and in long-term treated patients (P=0.001). There is a significant correlation (P<0.05) between levels of sIL-6R and sgp130 in both therapy groups at 24 hours after injection. This indicates that the potent effect of sIL-6R on the biological activity of IL-6 could be inhibited by sgp130 as antagonist. Clinical data show that half of the patients (6/12) with long-term treatment had a continuous complete remission, whereas only 2/15 patients with short-term treatment had a complete remission. PMID:12046687

  17. Parameters affecting downhole pH

    SciTech Connect

    Garber, J.D.; Jangama, V.R.; Willmon, J.

    1997-09-01

    The presence of acetic and formic acids in the produced water of gas condensate wells has been known for some time by the industry. In traditional water analysis, it has been titrated and reported as alkalinity. The calculation of accurate downhole pH values requires that these ions be analyzed separately in the water and that an organic acid material balance be performed on all three phases in the separator. In this manner, it is then possible to use phase distribution coefficients involving ionic equilibrium to determine how these acids distribute themselves between phases as the pH calculation proceeds downhole. In this paper, the above method of calculation of pH and {Delta}pH is used to examine the effect that various concentrations of these acids have on the downhole pH. Various concentrations of acids are examined, and two cases are calculated in which the effect of condensate on the pH is examined.

  18. Parameters Affecting Solvent Production by Clostridium pasteurianum

    PubMed Central

    Dabrock, Birgit; Bahl, Hubert; Gottschalk, Gerhard

    1992-01-01

    The effect of pH, growth rate, phosphate and iron limitation, carbon monoxide, and carbon source on product formation by Clostridium pasteurianum was determined. Under phosphate limitation, glucose was fermented almost exclusively to acetate and butyrate independently of the pH and growth rate. Iron limitation caused lactate production (38 mol/100 mol) from glucose in batch and continuous culture. At 15% (vol/vol) carbon monoxide in the atmosphere, glucose was fermented to ethanol (24 mol/100 mol), lactate (32 mol/100 mol), and butanol (36 mol/100 mol) in addition to the usual products, acetate (38 mol/100 mol) and butyrate (17 mol/100 mol). During glycerol fermentation, a completely different product pattern was found. In continuous culture under phosphate limitation, acetate and butyrate were produced only in trace amounts, whereas ethanol (30 mol/100 mol), butanol (18 mol/100 mol), and 1,3-propanediol (18 mol/100 mol) were the major products. Under iron limitation, the ratio of these products could be changed in favor of 1,3-propanediol (34 mol/100 mol). In addition, lactate was produced in significant amounts (25 mol/100 mol). The tolerance of C. pasteurianum to glycerol was remarkably high; growth was not inhibited by glycerol concentrations up to 17% (wt/vol). Increasing glycerol concentrations favored the production of 1,3-propanediol. PMID:16348691

  19. Space Transportation Main Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monk, Jan C.

    1992-01-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: Space Transportation Main Engine (STME) definition, design philosophy, robust design, maximum design condition, casting vs. machined and welded forgings, operability considerations, high reliability design philosophy, engine reliability enhancement, low cost design philosophy, engine systems requirements, STME schematic, fuel turbopump, liquid oxygen turbopump, main injector, and gas generator. The major engine components of the STME and the Space Shuttle Main Engine are compared.

  20. Teaching Main Idea Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumann, James F., Ed.

    Intended to help classroom teachers, curriculum developers, and researchers, this book provides current information on theoretical and instructional aspects of main idea comprehension. Titles and authors are as follows: "The Confused World of Main Idea" (James W. Cunningham and David W. Moore); "The Comprehension of Important Information in…

  1. The Maine Event

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McHale, Tom

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the successful laptop program employed at Mt. Abram High School in Strong, Maine. Through the Maine Learning Technology Initiative, the school has issued laptops to all 36,000 teachers and students in grades 7-8. This program has helped level the playing field for a student population that is 50 percent to 55…

  2. MAINE MARINE WORM HABITAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    WORM provides a generalized representation at 1:24,000 scale of commercially harvested marine worm habitat in Maine, based on Maine Department of Marine Resources data from 1970's. Original maps were created by MDMR and published by USF&WS as part of the ""&quo...

  3. The Main Idea Organizer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Jim

    2003-01-01

    Presents the Main Idea Organizer (MIO) to help students who may struggle with writing, reading, and thinking--though in different ways and for different reasons. Describes many different ways the author uses the MIO. (SG)

  4. MAINE WEIRS 1990

    EPA Science Inventory

    WEIR90 shows point locations of herring weirs in Maine based on 1990 overflight by MDMR Marine Patrol, mapped at an approximate scale of 1:100,000. Data were screen digitized from paper maps used during the overflight.

  5. FCC main fractionator revamps

    SciTech Connect

    Golden, S.W.; Martin, G.R.; Sloley, A.W. )

    1993-03-01

    Structured packing use in fluid catalytic cracker (FCC) main fractionators significantly impacts unit pressure profile. Unit pressure balance links the FCC main fractionator, reactor, regenerator, air compressor and wet gas compressor. Unit pressure balance should be viewed as a design variable when evaluating FCC unit revamps. Depending upon limitations of the particular FCC unit, capacity increases of 12.5% to 22.5% have been achieved without modifications to major rotating equipment, by revamping FCC main fractionators with structured packing. An examination of three FCC main fractionator revamps show improvements to pressure profiles and unit capacity. The three revamps described included a wet gas compressor volume limit; an air blower limitation; and a wet gas compressor motor limitation.

  6. Space Shuttle Main Engine. Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Eugene D.

    An overview of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) is presented. The Space Shuttle propulsion system consists of two large solid booster motors, three SSME's, two orbital maneuvering system engines, and 44 reaction control system thrusters. The three SSME's burn liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen from the external tank and are sequentially started at launch. Engine thrust is throttleable. The major components and some of their key features and operational parameters are outlined. The life and reliability being achieved by the SSME are presented.

  7. Ladybugs of Maine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Color images are presented for the 57 species of Coccinellidae, commonly known as ladybugs, that are documented from Maine. Images are displayed in taxonomic order. Information on each species includes its genus-species name, length, and an actual-size silhouette beside a grid matched to the scale...

  8. 1 Main Street, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Located outside StenniSphere, the visitor center at John C. Stennis Space Center, 1 Main Street Mars is a model of how a habitat on Mars might look. Complete with thermometers, scales and clocks set to Martian equivalents, this exhibit shows how very different life on Mars can be.

  9. Indians of Maine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine State Dept. of Health and Welfare, Augusta.

    The relationships between the Penobscot and Passamaquoddy Indian Tribes and the State of Maine began in the 1820's. Treaties have left the Penobscot tribe with ownership of 146 islands in the Penobscot River while the Passamaquoddy tribe lives on land owned by the State. Both tribes presently have trust funds derived from the sale of land, and use…

  10. Main features of meiosis

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 17, outlines the main features of meiosis, beginning with its significance and proceeding through the meiotic stages. Meiosis is the most important modification of mitosis because it is the reduction division that gives rise to the haploid generation in the life cycle. 17 refs., 6 figs.

  11. MAINE SCHOOLS AND LIBRARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    SCHLIB shows point locations of libraries and educational institutions in Maine at 1:24,000 scale. Colleges, universities, technical colleges, high schools, middle schools, elementary schools, kindergarten/sub-primary and other special schools are included. The data was developed...

  12. Main Parachute Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Shown is the testing of the Main Parachute for the Ares/CLV first stage in support of the Ares/Constellation program at the Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona. This image is extracted from high definition video and is the highest resolution available.

  13. BIOFILM IMAGE RECONSTRUCTION FOR ASSESSING STRUCTURAL PARAMETERS

    PubMed Central

    Renslow, Ryan; Lewandowski, Zbigniew; Beyenal, Haluk

    2011-01-01

    The structure of biofilms can be numerically quantified from microscopy images using structural parameters. These parameters are used in biofilm image analysis to compare biofilms, to monitor temporal variation in biofilm structure, to quantify the effects of antibiotics on biofilm structure and to determine the effects of environmental conditions on biofilm structure. It is often hypothesized that biofilms with similar structural parameter values will have similar structures; however, this hypothesis has never been tested. The main goal was to test the hypothesis that the commonly used structural parameters can characterize the differences or similarities between biofilm structures. To achieve this goal 1) biofilm image reconstruction was developed as a new tool for assessing structural parameters, 2) independent reconstructions using the same starting structural parameters were tested to see how they differed from each other, 3) the effect of the original image parameter values on reconstruction success was evaluated and 4) the effect of the number and type of the parameters on reconstruction success was evaluated. It was found that two biofilms characterized by identical commonly used structural parameter values may look different, that the number and size of clusters in the original biofilm image affect image reconstruction success and that, in general, a small set of arbitrarily selected parameters may not reveal relevant differences between biofilm structures. PMID:21280029

  14. Childhood Injuries in Maine: A Status Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiCara, Cheryl; And Others

    Purposes of this report are to: (1) describe the extent of the childhood injury problem relative to diseases and other conditions affecting children in Maine who are 1 to 19 years of age; (2) give an overview of what is known about the incidence of childhood injuries in Maine; and (3) offer recommendations to improve the state's ability to control…

  15. Main roads to melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Palmieri, Giuseppe; Capone, Mariaelena; Ascierto, Maria Libera; Gentilcore, Giusy; Stroncek, David F; Casula, Milena; Sini, Maria Cristina; Palla, Marco; Mozzillo, Nicola; Ascierto, Paolo A

    2009-01-01

    The characterization of the molecular mechanisms involved in development and progression of melanoma could be helpful to identify the molecular profiles underlying aggressiveness, clinical behavior, and response to therapy as well as to better classify the subsets of melanoma patients with different prognosis and/or clinical outcome. Actually, some aspects regarding the main molecular changes responsible for the onset as well as the progression of melanoma toward a more aggressive phenotype have been described. Genes and molecules which control either cell proliferation, apoptosis, or cell senescence have been implicated. Here we provided an overview of the main molecular changes underlying the pathogenesis of melanoma. All evidence clearly indicates the existence of a complex molecular machinery that provides checks and balances in normal melanocytes. Progression from normal melanocytes to malignant metastatic cells in melanoma patients is the result of a combination of down- or up-regulation of various effectors acting on different molecular pathways. PMID:19828018

  16. Main roads to melanoma.

    PubMed

    Palmieri, Giuseppe; Capone, Mariaelena; Ascierto, Maria Libera; Gentilcore, Giusy; Stroncek, David F; Casula, Milena; Sini, Maria Cristina; Palla, Marco; Mozzillo, Nicola; Ascierto, Paolo A

    2009-01-01

    The characterization of the molecular mechanisms involved in development and progression of melanoma could be helpful to identify the molecular profiles underlying aggressiveness, clinical behavior, and response to therapy as well as to better classify the subsets of melanoma patients with different prognosis and/or clinical outcome. Actually, some aspects regarding the main molecular changes responsible for the onset as well as the progression of melanoma toward a more aggressive phenotype have been described. Genes and molecules which control either cell proliferation, apoptosis, or cell senescence have been implicated. Here we provided an overview of the main molecular changes underlying the pathogenesis of melanoma. All evidence clearly indicates the existence of a complex molecular machinery that provides checks and balances in normal melanocytes. Progression from normal melanocytes to malignant metastatic cells in melanoma patients is the result of a combination of down- or up-regulation of various effectors acting on different molecular pathways. PMID:19828018

  17. COBRA Main Engine Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snoddy, Jim; Sides, Steve; Lyles, Garry M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The COBRA (CO-Optimized Booster for Reusable Applications) project include the following: 1. COBRA main engine project team. 2. COBRA and RLX cycles selected. 3. COBRA proto-type engine approach enables mission success. 4. COBRA provides quick, low cost demo of cycle and technologies. 5. COBRA cycle I risk reduction supports. 6. Achieving engine safety. 6. RLX cycle I risk reduction supports. 7. Flight qualification. 9. Life extension engine testing.

  18. Maine coast winds

    SciTech Connect

    Avery, Richard

    2000-01-28

    The Maine Coast Winds Project was proposed for four possible turbine locations. Significant progress has been made at the prime location, with a lease-power purchase contract for ten years for the installation of turbine equipment having been obtained. Most of the site planning and permitting have been completed. It is expect that the turbine will be installed in early May. The other three locations are less suitable for the project, and new locations are being considered.

  19. Reionization history and CMB parameter estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Dizgah, Azadeh Moradinezhad; Kinney, William H.; Gnedin, Nickolay Y. E-mail: gnedin@fnal.edu

    2013-05-01

    We study how uncertainty in the reionization history of the universe affects estimates of other cosmological parameters from the Cosmic Microwave Background. We analyze WMAP7 data and synthetic Planck-quality data generated using a realistic scenario for the reionization history of the universe obtained from high-resolution numerical simulation. We perform parameter estimation using a simple sudden reionization approximation, and using the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) technique proposed by Mortonson and Hu. We reach two main conclusions: (1) Adopting a simple sudden reionization model does not introduce measurable bias into values for other parameters, indicating that detailed modeling of reionization is not necessary for the purpose of parameter estimation from future CMB data sets such as Planck. (2) PCA analysis does not allow accurate reconstruction of the actual reionization history of the universe in a realistic case.

  20. Component temperature versus laser-welding parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, W.H.

    1983-01-01

    Applications have arisen in which the component temperature near a laser weld is critical because of possible damage to the explosive powder adjacent to the member being welded. To evaluate the thermal excursion experienced at the powder cavity wall, a study was conducted using assemblies that had been equipped with 0.05 mm diameter thermocouple wires. The main goal of the study was to determine how changes in the laser welding parameters owuld affect the powder cavity wall temperature. The objective lens-to-work distance, pulse rate, and beam power parameters were varied. The peak temperature varied from 117/sup 0/C to 311/sup 0/C in response to welding parameter changes. The study concluded that by utilizing a selected set of welding parameters, the design requirement of a 160/sup 0/C maximum powder cavity wall temperature could easily be satisfied.

  1. Main Oxidizer Valve Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Addona, Brad; Eddleman, David

    2015-01-01

    A developmental Main Oxidizer Valve (MOV) was designed by NASA-MSFC using additive manufacturing processes. The MOV is a pneumatically actuated poppet valve to control the flow of liquid oxygen to an engine's injector. A compression spring is used to return the valve to the closed state when pneumatic pressure is removed from the valve. The valve internal parts are cylindrical in shape, which lends itself to traditional lathe and milling operations. However, the valve body represents a complicated shape and contains the majority of the mass of the valve. Additive manufacturing techniques were used to produce a part that optimized mass and allowed for design features not practical with traditional machining processes.

  2. Milk skimming, heating, acidification, lysozyme, and rennet affect the pattern, repeatability, and predictability of milk coagulation properties and of curd-firming model parameters: A case study of Grana Padano.

    PubMed

    Stocco, G; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Cecchinato, A; Calamari, L; Bittante, G

    2015-08-01

    Milk coagulation properties are used to evaluate the cheesemaking aptitude of milk samples. No international standard procedure exists, although laboratories often mimic the production of a full-fat fresh cheese for milk coagulation properties. Questions have arisen about the predictability of such a procedure for different types of cheese production. The aim of this study was to establish a procedure mimicking the production conditions of a long-ripened hard cheese, taking Protected Designation of Origin Grana Padano as a case study. With respect to the traditional conditions (standard procedure; SP), the Grana Padano procedure (GP) modifications were the use of standardized milk, coagulation lower temperature, previous milk acidification, lysozyme addition, and rennet type. Each modification was tested in turn versus the SP and also all together in the GP. Another 3 tests were carried out: SP on naturally creamed milk, SP with double the quantity of rennet, and a simplified GP on a full-fat milk sample. The 10 procedures were tested on 2 subsamples with 2 replicates each and were repeated using individual milk samples from 15 dual-purpose Simmental cows in 4 sessions for a total of 600 tests. Two Formagraph instruments (Foss Electric A/S, Hillerød, Denmark) measuring curd firmness every 15 s were used, prolonging test duration to 60min to obtain 5 traditional single-point milk coagulation properties and 3 parameters of the curd firming model using all 240 points recorded for each replicate. The 8 traits of each replicate were analyzed according to a mixed model with fixed effects of 4 sessions, 10 treatments, 2 instruments, and 16microvats, and random effects of 15 animals and 300 subsamples. Compared with the SP, the coagulation and curd firming was slowed by low temperature and was accelerated by acidification and by adding a double amount of rennet; natural creaming, fat standardization, and rennet with 5% pepsin affected only some traits, whereas lysozyme

  3. (Mainly) axion dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baer, Howard

    2016-06-01

    The strong CP problem of QCD is at heart a problem of naturalness: why is the FF ˜ term highly suppressed in the QCD Lagrangian when it seems necessary to explain why there are three and not four light pions? The most elegant solution posits a spontaneously broken Peccei-Quinn (PQ) symmetry which requires the existence of the axion field a. The axion field settles to the minimum of its potential thus removing the offensive term but giving rise to the physical axion whose coherent oscillations can make up the cold dark matter. Only now are experiments such as ADMX beginning to explore QCD axion parameter space. Since a bonafide scalar particle- the Higgs boson- has been discovered, one might expect its mass to reside at the axion scale fa ˜ 1011 GeV. The Higgs mass is elegantly stabilized by supersymmetry: in this case the axion is accompanied by its axino and saxion superpartners. Requiring naturalness also in the electroweak sector implies higgsino-like WIMPs so then we expect mixed axion-WIMP dark matter. Ultimately we would expect detection of both an axion and a WIMP while signals for light higgsinos may show up at LHC and must show up at ILC.

  4. 22. View showing main anchor arm, as viewed from main ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. View showing main anchor arm, as viewed from main cantilever arm looking south. Note upper chord eyebar arrangement. - Williamstown-Marietta Bridge, Spanning Ohio River between Williamstown & Marietta, Williamstown, Wood County, WV

  5. 29. MAIN CONTROL ROOM, PANELS WEST OF MAIN CONTROL AREA, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. MAIN CONTROL ROOM, PANELS WEST OF MAIN CONTROL AREA, LOOKING SOUTH (LOCATION Q) - Shippingport Atomic Power Station, On Ohio River, 25 miles Northwest of Pittsburgh, Shippingport, Beaver County, PA

  6. 28. MAIN CONTROL ROOM, PANELS WEST OF MAIN CONTROL AREA, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. MAIN CONTROL ROOM, PANELS WEST OF MAIN CONTROL AREA, LOOKING NORTH (LOCATION Q) - Shippingport Atomic Power Station, On Ohio River, 25 miles Northwest of Pittsburgh, Shippingport, Beaver County, PA

  7. Is there an efficient trap or collection method for sampling Anopheles darlingi and other malaria vectors that can describe the essential parameters affecting transmission dynamics as effectively as human landing catches? - A Review

    PubMed Central

    Lima, José Bento Pereira; Rosa-Freitas, Maria Goreti; Rodovalho, Cynara Melo; Santos, Fátima; Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    Distribution, abundance, feeding behaviour, host preference, parity status and human-biting and infection rates are among the medical entomological parameters evaluated when determining the vector capacity of mosquito species. To evaluate these parameters, mosquitoes must be collected using an appropriate method. Malaria is primarily transmitted by anthropophilic and synanthropic anophelines. Thus, collection methods must result in the identification of the anthropophilic species and efficiently evaluate the parameters involved in malaria transmission dynamics. Consequently, human landing catches would be the most appropriate method if not for their inherent risk. The choice of alternative anopheline collection methods, such as traps, must consider their effectiveness in reproducing the efficiency of human attraction. Collection methods lure mosquitoes by using a mixture of olfactory, visual and thermal cues. Here, we reviewed, classified and compared the efficiency of anopheline collection methods, with an emphasis on Neotropical anthropophilic species, especially Anopheles darlingi, in distinct malaria epidemiological conditions in Brazil. PMID:25185008

  8. MAINE MUSSEL SEED CONSERVATION AREAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    SEED shows point locations of Maine mussel seed conservation areas at 1:24,000 scale. Data for this coverage were screen digitized on a 1:24000 scale base using descriptions contained in Maine Department of Marine Resources (MDMR) rules. Coastal arcs from Maine Office of GIS 1:24...

  9. Correlations between clinical activity, endoscopic severity, and biological parameters in colonic or ileocolonic Crohn's disease. A prospective multicentre study of 121 cases. The Groupe d'Etudes Thérapeutiques des Affections Inflammatoires Digestives.

    PubMed Central

    Cellier, C; Sahmoud, T; Froguel, E; Adenis, A; Belaiche, J; Bretagne, J F; Florent, C; Bouvry, M; Mary, J Y; Modigliani, R

    1994-01-01

    The relationships between clinical activity, endoscopic severity, and biological parameters in Crohn's disease have not been thoroughly investigated and a link was therefore sought between these three elements. The following parameters were determined simultaneously in 121 consecutive patients with colonic or ileocolonic Crohn's disease: Crohn's disease activity index, Crohn's disease endoscopic index of severity, and serum albumin, alpha 2-globulin, alpha 1-antitrypsin, orosomucoid, C reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, platelets, lymphocyte and polymorphonuclear cell counts, haematocrit, and faecal alpha 1-antitrypsin concentration. The distribution of these parameters was studied and transformation was used so that data matched the normal distribution closely. A weak but significant correlation (r = 0.32; p < 0.001) was found between clinical and endoscopic indices in the whole group of patients and this correlation seemed to be homogenous in various patient subgroups (clinically quiescent or active disease, pure colonic disease, untreated patients). Endoscopic or clinical indices were also found to be weakly linked with biological parameters (r < 0.50). Stepwise linear regression identified C reactive protein as predictive of the clinical index, and, successively, alpha 2-globulin, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, faecal alpha 1-antitrypsin, serum orosomucoid, and alpha 1-antitrypsin as predictive of the endoscopic index. Both predictions were poor--the biological variables accounting for only 22 and 44% respectively of the clinical and endoscopic index variations. In conclusion, Crohn's disease clinical activity seems to be virtually independent of the severity of the mucosal lesions and biological activity. PMID:7508411

  10. Affective responses to dance.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Julia F; Pollick, Frank E; Lambrechts, Anna; Gomila, Antoni

    2016-07-01

    The objective of the present work was the characterization of mechanisms by which affective experiences are elicited in observers when watching dance movements. A total of 203 dance stimuli from a normed stimuli library were used in a series of independent experiments. The following measures were obtained: (i) subjective measures of 97 dance-naïve participants' affective responses (Likert scale ratings, interviews); and (ii) objective measures of the physical parameters of the stimuli (motion energy, luminance), and of the movements represented in the stimuli (roundedness, impressiveness). Results showed that (i) participants' ratings of felt and perceived affect differed, (ii) felt and perceived valence but not arousal ratings correlated with physical parameters of the stimuli (motion energy and luminance), (iii) roundedness in posture shape was related to the experience of more positive emotion than edgy shapes (1 of 3 assessed rounded shapes showed a clear effect on positiveness ratings while a second reached trend level significance), (iv) more impressive movements resulted in more positive affective responses, (v) dance triggered affective experiences through the imagery and autobiographical memories it elicited in some people, and (vi) the physical parameters of the video stimuli correlated only weakly and negatively with the aesthetics ratings of beauty, liking and interest. The novelty of the present approach was twofold; (i) the assessment of multiple affect-inducing mechanisms, and (ii) the use of one single normed stimulus set. The results from this approach lend support to both previous and present findings. Results are discussed with regards to current literature in the field of empirical aesthetics and affective neuroscience. PMID:27235953

  11. Variations in Mechanical Parameters of Rock Mass Affecting Shaft Lining / Zmiany Parametrów Mechanicznych Górotworu I Ich Wpływ Na Obudowę Szybową

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majcherczyk, Tadeusz; Niedbalski, Zbigniew; Wałach, Daniel

    2013-09-01

    The paper presents geomechanical properties of rock mass occurring in the initial section of shaft lining during its execution. The shaft being sunk is surrounded with cohesive soils, mainly clays with sand layers and silts. Such lithology causes that in various levels some parts of strata are saturated with water. This results in a considerable changeability of soil properties in time. With high water content, the soil is washed away leading to local loss of contact between shaft lining and surrounding soils. This, in turn, results in lack of proper support for curbs and shaft lining fracture in some sections. Engineering activity in such a case should embrace sealing injections in selected parts of the shaft in order to resume proper reinforcement in the lining-rock mass system. The studies of the soils surrounding shaft lining were supposed to help design curbs with increased bearing capacity. The tests of soils indicated that the angle of internal friction and cohesion do change not only at different depths but also at the same depth in different points of perimeter. It was also observed during the study that the mechanical parameters of the analyzed soils improve as the distance from the shaft lining increases, which clearly indicates change of soil properties in the direct neighborhood of the shaft. Considerable number of tests carried out in the study allowed to determine the relationship between water content and angle of internal friction or soil cohesion. The determined relationships can help to estimate change of soil properties under the influence of water with considerable precision. The reinforcement of curbs executed with the use of ground anchors allowed for further shaft sinking. The tests of concrete used in the shaft carried out in the analyzed section produced results similar to the values assumed in the project. W artykule przedstawiono charakterystykę własności geomechanicznych górotworu jakie występują podczas drążenia szybu w jego

  12. Affective Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Charles T.

    This paper addresses itself to the question, "What does feeling have to do with knowing?" Two movements in affective education are discussed which have come into focus in recent years and which attempt to define the relationship between knowing and feeling. The first, a conscious application of the role of arousal in learning, emphasizes arousal…

  13. Post-main-sequence planetary system evolution

    PubMed Central

    Veras, Dimitri

    2016-01-01

    The fates of planetary systems provide unassailable insights into their formation and represent rich cross-disciplinary dynamical laboratories. Mounting observations of post-main-sequence planetary systems necessitate a complementary level of theoretical scrutiny. Here, I review the diverse dynamical processes which affect planets, asteroids, comets and pebbles as their parent stars evolve into giant branch, white dwarf and neutron stars. This reference provides a foundation for the interpretation and modelling of currently known systems and upcoming discoveries. PMID:26998326

  14. Post-main-sequence planetary system evolution.

    PubMed

    Veras, Dimitri

    2016-02-01

    The fates of planetary systems provide unassailable insights into their formation and represent rich cross-disciplinary dynamical laboratories. Mounting observations of post-main-sequence planetary systems necessitate a complementary level of theoretical scrutiny. Here, I review the diverse dynamical processes which affect planets, asteroids, comets and pebbles as their parent stars evolve into giant branch, white dwarf and neutron stars. This reference provides a foundation for the interpretation and modelling of currently known systems and upcoming discoveries. PMID:26998326

  15. Post-main-sequence planetary system evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veras, Dimitri

    2016-02-01

    The fates of planetary systems provide unassailable insights into their formation and represent rich cross-disciplinary dynamical laboratories. Mounting observations of post-main-sequence planetary systems necessitate a complementary level of theoretical scrutiny. Here, I review the diverse dynamical processes which affect planets, asteroids, comets and pebbles as their parent stars evolve into giant branch, white dwarf and neutron stars. This reference provides a foundation for the interpretation and modelling of currently known systems and upcoming discoveries.

  16. View of the main interior space facing east. The main ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the main interior space facing east. The main entry is on the left hand side at the rear. The exit to the deck is to the right. - San Luis Yacht Club, Avila Pier, South of Front Street, Avila Beach, San Luis Obispo County, CA

  17. 18. MAIN FLOOR HOLDING TANKS Main floor, looking at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. MAIN FLOOR - HOLDING TANKS Main floor, looking at holding tanks against the west wall, from which sluice gates are seen protruding. Right foreground-wooden holding tanks. Note narrow wooden flumes through which fish were sluiced into holding and brining tanks. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  18. Maine Agricultural Foods. Project SEED.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaulieu, Peter; Ossenfort, Pat

    This paper describes an activity-based program that teaches students in grades 4-12 about the importance of Maine agriculture in their lives. Specifically, the goal is to increase student awareness of how the foods they eat are planted, harvested, and processed. The emphasis is on crops grown in Maine such as potatoes, broccoli, peas, blueberries,…

  19. MAINE LANDS OVER 2700 FEET

    EPA Science Inventory

    MECON2700 contains areas in Maine with elevations greater than 2700 feet, generated from USGS 1:250,000 DEMs. Areas above 2700 feet are regulated by the Maine Land Use Regulation Commission (MELURC). Areas were generated from USGS 1:250,000 scale digital elevation models using A...

  20. MAINE ATLANTIC SALMON HABITAT - GENERAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    ASDENN00 describes, at 1:24,000 scale, important Atlantic salmon habitat of the Dennys River in Maine. The coverage was developed from field surveys conducted on the Dennys River in Maine by staff of the Atlantic Salmon Authority and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. This survey wa...

  1. Maine Indians: A Brief Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1971

    The Indians of Maine, descendants of Algonquian linguistic stock, number approximately 1800 and reside on 3 reservations totalling 22,600 acres of land. Most of the reservation land is forested, with important economic and recreational advantages in terms of timber production and hunting and fishing opportunities. In 1965, Maine became the first…

  2. Supergranular Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udayashankar, Paniveni

    2016-07-01

    I study the complexity of supergranular cells using intensity patterns from Kodaikanal solar observatory. The chaotic and turbulent aspect of the solar supergranulation can be studied by examining the interrelationships amongst the parameters characterizing supergranular cells namely size, horizontal flow field, lifetime and physical dimensions of the cells and the fractal dimension deduced from the size data. The findings are supportive of Kolmogorov's theory of turbulence. The Data consists of visually identified supergranular cells, from which a fractal dimension 'D' for supergranulation is obtained according to the relation P α AD/2 where 'A' is the area and 'P' is the perimeter of the supergranular cells. I find a fractal dimension close to about 1.3 which is consistent with that for isobars and suggests a possible turbulent origin. The cell circularity shows a dependence on the perimeter with a peak around (1.1-1.2) x 105 m. The findings are supportive of Kolmogorov's theory of turbulence.

  3. Main Propulsion Test Article (MPTA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snoddy, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    Scope: The Main Propulsion Test Article integrated the main propulsion subsystem with the clustered Space Shuttle Main Engines, the External Tank and associated GSE. The test program consisted of cryogenic tanking tests and short- and long duration static firings including gimbaling and throttling. The test program was conducted on the S1-C test stand (Position B-2) at the National Space Technology Laboratories (NSTL)/Stennis Space Center. 3 tanking tests and 20 hot fire tests conducted between December 21 1 1977 and December 17, 1980 Configuration: The main propulsion test article consisted of the three space shuttle main engines, flightweight external tank, flightweight aft fuselage, interface section and a boilerplate mid/fwd fuselage truss structure.

  4. Preliminary crystallographic analysis of avian infectious bronchitis virus main protease

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jun; Shen, Wei; Liao, Ming; Bartlam, Mark

    2007-01-01

    The avian infectious bronchitis virus main protease has been crystallized; crystals diffract to 2.7 Å resolution. Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is the prototype of the genus Coronavirus. It causes a highly contagious disease which affects the respiratory, reproductive, neurological and renal systems of chickens, resulting great economic losses in the poultry industry worldwide. The coronavirus (CoV) main protease (M{sup pro}), which plays a pivotal role in viral gene expression and replication through a highly complex cascade involving the proteolytic processing of replicase polyproteins, is an attractive target for antiviral drug design. In this study, IBV M{sup pro} was overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Crystals suitable for X-ray crystallography have been obtained using microseeding techniques and belong to space group P6{sub 1}22. X-ray diffraction data were collected in-house to 2.7 Å resolution from a single crystal. The unit-cell parameters were a = b = 119.1, c = 270.7 Å, α = β = 90, γ = 120°. Three molecules were predicted to be present in the asymmetric unit from a calculated self-rotation function.

  5. Humboldt River main stem, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warmath, Eric; Medina, Rose L.

    2001-01-01

    This data set contains the main stem of the Humboldt River as defined by Humboldt Project personnel of the U.S. Geological Survey Nevada District, 2001. The data set was digitized on screen using digital orthophoto quadrangles from 1994.

  6. Space Shuttle Era: Main Engines

    NASA Video Gallery

    Producing 500,000 pounds of thrust from a package weighing only 7,500 pounds, the Space Shuttle Main Engines are one of the shining accomplishments of the shuttle program. The success did not come ...

  7. [Affective dependency].

    PubMed

    Scantamburlo, G; Pitchot, W; Ansseau, M

    2013-01-01

    Affective dependency is characterized by emotional distress (insecure attachment) and dependency to another person with a low self-esteem and reassurance need. The paper proposes a reflection on the definition of emotional dependency and the confusion caused by various denominations. Overprotective and authoritarian parenting, cultural and socio-environmental factors may contribute to the development of dependent personality. Psychological epigenetic factors, such as early socio-emotional trauma could on neuronal circuits in prefronto-limbic regions that are essential for emotional behaviour.We also focus on the interrelations between dependent personality, domestic violence and addictions. The objective for the clinician is to propose a restoration of self-esteem and therapeutic strategies focused on autonomy. PMID:23888587

  8. World Energy Projection System Plus Model Documentation: Main Model

    EIA Publications

    2011-01-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the World Energy Projection System Plus (WEPS ) Main Model. It also catalogues and describes critical assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and model source code.

  9. Biogeography of Nearshore Subtidal Invertebrates in the Gulf of Maine

    EPA Science Inventory

    The biogeography of nearshore benthic invertebrates in the Gulf of Maine was studied to compare recent data with historical biogeographic studies, define physical-chemical factors affecting species distributions, and provide information needed to calibrate benthic indices of envi...

  10. ANALYSIS AND SIMULATION OF MAIN MAGNET TRANSMISSION LINE EFFECT

    SciTech Connect

    ZHANG,W.; MARNERIS, I.; SANDBERG, J.

    2007-06-25

    A main magnet chain forms a pair of transmission lines. Pulse-reflection-caused voltage and current differentiation throughout the magnet chain can have adverse effect on main magnet field quality. This effect is associated with magnet system configuration, coupling efficiency, and parasitic parameters. A better understanding of this phenomenon will help us in new design and existing system upgrade. In this paper, we exam the transmission line effect due to different input functions as well as configuration, coupling, and other parameters.

  11. Period Determination of Six Main Belt Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrero, Andrea

    2014-07-01

    Observations of six main-belt asteroids (MBA) produced lightcurve parameters of: 487 Venetia, P = 13.34 ± 0.01 h, A = 0.20 mag; 684 Hildburg, P = 15.89 ± 0.01 h, A = 0.22 mag; 772 Tanete, P = 8.629 ± 0.001 h, A = 0.18 mag.; 1181 Lilith, P = 15.04 ± 0.01 h, A = 0.11 mag.; 1246 Chaka, P = 25.44 ± 0.01 h, A = 0.25 mag.; and 2834 Christy Carol, P = 12.79 ± 0.01 h, A = 0.39 mag.

  12. ORFEUS-SPAS MAIN TELESCOPE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    In the Multi-Payload Processing Facility (MPPF) at KSC, technicians hoist the orbiting and Retrievable Far and Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrograph-Shuttle Pallet Satellite (ORFEUS-SPAS) II main telescope to a vertical position prior to installing it atop the Astronomy Shuttle Pallet Satellite (ASTRO-SPAS) platform. Two spectrographs share the main telescope: the Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrograph (EUV) provided by the University of California at Berkeley, and the Far Ultraviolet Spectrograph (FUV) designed by German institutions the University of Tubingen and Landessternwarte Heidelberg and built by German company Kayser-Threde. The main telescope has a primary mirror approximately one yard (one meter) in diameter, coated with iridium to improve its light-gathering power in the ultraviolet. During the flight of ORFEUS-SPAS II on Space Shuttle Mission STS- 80, these two spectrographs -- along with a third installed separately on the ASTRO-SPAS -- will gather data about the life cycle of stars.

  13. Deformation parameters influencing prepreg tack

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, K.J.; Seferis, J.C. ); Pelton, T.; Wilhelm, M. )

    1992-01-01

    A compression to tension apparatus and a methodology capable of measuring prepreg tack have been analyzed in detail in order to establish fundamental material and operating characteristics. Both intrinsic and extrinsic parameters influencing prepreg tack were identified and analyzed using commercially available carbon fiber/epoxy prepregs and mechanical testing equipment. Two different factors, (1) contact (or wetting) area of adjacent prepreg plies and (2) viscoelastic properties of the prepreg, were found to control prepreg tack. At low temperatures, contact area was the main deformation controlling step, while at high temperatures, the viscoelastic property of the prepreg was found to be dominant. Both interlaminar and intralaminar deformations were observed depending on the prepreg systems examined as well as the operating conditions of the test. In addition, hold time, hold pressure, loading rate, resin content, and out-time were also found to affect prepreg tack. Energy of separation, which may be viewed as a descriptor of prepreg tack, was observed to increase with increasing hold time, hold pressure, and loading rate. Energy of separation also showed a maximum value at a specific resin content for a specific prepreg system, while it decreased with increasing prepreg out-time due to prepreg surface characteristic change rather than bulk physical aging. Conclusively, it was observed that prepreg tack must be viewed as an extrinsic, bulk, but surface-sensitive, viscoelastic property which depends on material as well as operating conditions.

  14. Main Street in Iowa History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruth, Amy, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    This theme issue of "The Goldfinch" focuses on the main streets in Iowa's past. Residential and business patterns are discussed with an analysis of successes and failures. Efforts of young Iowans involved in preservation of a historic town square in their community are described. Activities, fiction selections, and nonfictional accounts of present…

  15. Left Main Coronary Artery Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Doustkami, Hossein; Maleki, Nasrollah; Tavosi, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Aneurysms of the left main coronary artery are exceedingly rare clinical entities, encountered incidentally in approximately 0.1% of patients who undergo routine angiography. The most common cause of coronary artery aneurysms is atherosclerosis. Angiography is the gold standard for diagnosis and treatment. Depending on the severity of the coexisting coronary stenosis, patients with left main coronary artery aneurysms can be effectively managed either surgically or pharmacologically. We herein report a case of left main coronary artery aneurysm in a 72-year-old man with a prior history of hypertension presenting to our hospital because of unstable angina. The electrocardiogram showed ST-segment depression and T-wave inversion in the precordial leads. All the data of blood chemistry were normal. Echocardiography showed akinetic anterior wall, septum, and apex, mild mitral regurgitation and ejection fraction of 45%. Coronary angiography revealed a saccular aneurysm of the left main coronary artery with significant stenosis in the left anterior descending, left circumflex, and right coronary artery. The patient immediately underwent coronary artery bypass grafting and ligation of the aneurysm. At six months’ follow-up, he remained asymptomatic. PMID:27403190

  16. MAINE CONTOUR LINES 500 FEET

    EPA Science Inventory

    MECON500 contains 500 foot contour intervals for Maine, generated from USGS 1:250,000 DEMs. Arcs are coded by elevation. Due to the nature of the source data, the positional accuracy of these contour lines varies from good to poor. Use of these data at scales of greater then 1:2...

  17. MAINE CONTOUR LINES 60 FEET

    EPA Science Inventory

    MECON60 contains contours at 60 foot intervals for the entire state of Maine as generated from USGS 1:250,000 scale digital elevation models using ARC/INFO software. Arcs are coded by elevation. Due to the nature of the source data, the positional accuracy of these contour line...

  18. DISINFECTION OF NEW WATER MAINS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 'AWWA Standard for Disinfecting Water Mains' (AWWA C601-68) has fallen into disuse by a number of water utilities because of repeated bacteriological failures following initial disinfection with the recommended high-dose chlorination. Other methods of disinfection, including ...

  19. Maine's Families: Poverty Despite Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazere, Edward B.

    Children are among the poorest of Maine's residents. Nearly 1 in 5 children under the age of 18, 19.3%, lived in families below the federal poverty line in the early 1990s. Most of these poor children lived in working families. The working poor are often missing from policy debates, but their numbers are likely to increase with welfare reform…

  20. [Outcome parameters for use in psoriatic arthritis].

    PubMed

    Braun, J; Wassenberg, S

    2006-03-01

    The most important and most commonly occurring form of psoriasis is psoriasis vulgaris. In the specialism of rheumatology palmoplantar pustulosis is also important. The outcome is influenced mainly by how severe and how widespread the manifestations affecting the skin and nails are. All manifestations affecting the joints and occurring in association with psoriasis are subsumed under the term 'psoriatic arthritis' (PsA). Asymmetric oligoarthritis, enthesitis and inflammatory spinal manifestations are especially frequent. PsA is a rheumatic illness with widely varying clinical pictures, most patients having signs and symptoms resembling those of spondyloarthritides (SpA) and other features of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and/or of arthrosis/osteoarthritis (OA). Clinical features that are particularly typical of PsA are ray-wise joint involvement, dactylitis and osteodestructive and osteoproliferative joint destruction. Dactylitis, asymmetric joint involvement and enthesitis also occur in other SpA. It is becoming increasingly important to define outcome parameters for use in PsA against the backdrop of new forms of treatment. In the case of clinical outcome basic distinctions must be made between clinical signs and symptoms, function and structure. In PsA the sometimes significant manifestations affecting skin and nails must also be considered. The outcome parameters used thus far have varied very widely. The extent and intensity of involvement of the peripheral joints and insertions of tendons and of spinal involvement are particularly important in PsA. In addition, functional impairments, quality of life and parameters concerned with work must be considered. There are hardly any measuring instruments specific to PsA; many have been developed and used primarily for SpA or RA. PMID:16501924

  1. Main Features of Plasma Control

    SciTech Connect

    Crisanti, F.; Albanese, R.; Ambrosino, G.

    2008-03-12

    In the recent years Plasma Control has always increased his importance in any advanced experiment. It is now clear that ITER will not be able to operate without a quite advanced and sophisticated control apparatus. Necessarily this system will have to integrate several different aspects of the Plasma behavior. One of the most important parts of a closed loop control system is the quality of the measurement of the plasma parameters that should be controlled. Eventually, this aspect involves sophisticated and complex diagnostic apparatus. This paper presents an overview of the present status, and further studies and developments needed, in the next future, for the design and realization of an integrated plasma control system aimed at both stabilizing the plasma non-axisymmetric instabilities and controlling the most important internal plasma parameters. In particular the Edge Localized Modes (ELMs), the Neo-Classical Tearing Modes (NTM), the Resistive Wall Mode (RWM) and the Plasma Profiles control system necessities will be shortly illustrated.

  2. Electromagnetic emissions and fine structures observed near main ionospheric trough during geomagnetic storms and their interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Przepiórka, Dorota; Marek, Michał; Matyjasiak, Barbara; Rothkaehl, Hanna

    2016-04-01

    Geomagnetic conditions triggered by the solar activity affect the ionosphere, its fine and global structures. Very intense magnetic storms substantially change the plasma density, concentration and circulation. Especially sensitive region is located near auroral oval, where most energy is deposited during geomagnetic storms. In this region and just below it, where the main ionospheric trough is located, we observe enhanced electromagnetic emissions in different frequency ranges. In particular the AKR-like (Auroral Kilometric Radiation) emissions are seen at frequencies of the order of hundreds of kHz in the ionosphere, just below the auroral oval. Analyzing spectrograms from DEMETER mission and comparing them with electron density measurements from DEMETER, we found that AKR-like emissions are seen near poleward wall of the main ionospheric trough, during geomagnetic storms. Main ionospheric trough is known as a turbulent region which properties change as the geomagnetic storm evolves. This work is an attempt to determine how the presence of the different emissions affect main ionospheric trough parameters such as location, width and depth. Data used in this study come from DEMETER and RELEC missions. This work was partly supported by NCN grant Rezonans 2012/07/B/ST9/04414.

  3. Ephemerides of the main Uranian satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emelyanov, N. V.; Nikonchuk, D. V.

    2013-12-01

    A new model of motions of the five main Uranian satellites is developed. The model is based on all published observations made since the dates of the satellites' discoveries until 2008. The corresponding periods are 220 yr for Titania and Oberon, 160 yr for Ariel and Umbriel and 60 yr for Miranda. To fit the parameters of the satellites' motion, 30 139 observations were used, including those made by the Voyager 2 spacecraft as well as astrometric results of the photometric observations of mutual occultations and eclipses of the main Uranian satellites in 2007-2008. The model is elaborated by the numerical integration of equations of motions of the satellites where all necessary perturbating factors were taken into consideration. Basing on the model, new ephemerides of the main Uranian satellites were generated for the period from 1787 to 2031. The ephemerides are put to the MULTI-SAT ephemeris server. The root-mean-square residual of observed topocentric positions of the satellites and their ephemeris positions is 0.43 arcsec. Taking into account the weighting factors of the observations, this value is 0.12 arcsec. An attempt is also made to define from observations the parameters of the mechanical energy dissipation of the satellites' motion. The dissipation can be caused by both tides in the planet and by the tides in the satellites' bodies. Approximate values of the quadratic terms in the orbital longitudes are obtained. These values are equal to -(0.64 ± 0.11) × 10-11 d-2 for Ariel, -(0.08 ± 0.24) × 10-11 d-2 for Umbriel, -(0.29 ± 0.09) × 10-11 d-2 for Titania, -(0.32 ± 0.07) × 10-11 d-2 for Oberon and -(7.56 ± 1.15) × 10-11 d-2 for Miranda. The obtained parameters reveal deceleration in the orbital motion of the satellites, which results from the influence of the tides raised on the interior of Uranus that is rotating faster than the satellites.

  4. A conceptual design of main components sizing for UMT PHEV powertrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haezah, M. N.; Norbakyah, J. S.; Atiq, W. H.; Salisa, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents a conceptual design of main components sizing for Universiti Malaysia Terengganu plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (UMT PHEV) powertrain. In the design of hybrid vehicles, it is important to identify a proper component sizes. Component sizing significantly affects vehicle performance, fuel economy and emissions. The proposed UMT PHEV has only one electric machine (EM) which functions as either a motor or generator at a time and using batteries and ultracapacitors as an energy storage system (ESS). In this work, firstly, energy and power requirements based on parameters, specifications and performance requirements of vehicle are calculated. Then, the parameters for internal combustion engine, EM and ESS are selected based on the developed Kuala Terengganu drive cycle. The results obtained from this analysis are within reasonable range and satisfactory.

  5. Effect of UV light on different structural and transport parameters of cellophane membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Benavente, J.; Vazquez, M.I.; De Abajo, J.

    1996-01-01

    A comparative study of UV light influence on structural and transport parameters of cellophane membranes was made. Changes in the chemical structure and electrical behavior of cellophane membranes were considered by determining the hydraulic permeability, salt diffusion coefficient, and resistance values, as well as some geometrical parameters, for an untreated membrane and two differently UV-treated cellophane membranes. Differences in the characteristic parameters for the three samples showed that radiation mainly affected the membrane structure, while only small changes in membrane electrical behavior were determined.

  6. Cotton physiological parameters affected by episodic irrigation interruption

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improving cotton irrigation management practices in West Texas is important for increasing farmers’ profits and for sustainability of the Ogallala aquifer. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects in field controlled episodic drought conditions on cotton gas exchange. Irrigated cotton ...

  7. Study on basalt fiber parameters affecting fiber-reinforced mortar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlov, A. A.; Chernykh, T. N.; Sashina, A. V.; Bogusevich, D. V.

    2015-01-01

    This article considers the effect of different dosages and diameters of basalt fibers on tensile strength increase during bending of fiberboard-reinforced mortar samples. The optimal dosages of fiber, providing maximum strength in bending are revealed. The durability of basalt fiber in an environment of cement, by means of microscopic analysis of samples of fibers and fiberboard-reinforced mortar long-term tests is examined. The article also compares the behavior of basalt fiber in the cement stone environment to a glass one and reveals that the basalt fiber is not subject to destruction.

  8. Space shuttle main engine controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattox, R. M.; White, J. B.

    1981-01-01

    A technical description of the space shuttle main engine controller, which provides engine checkout prior to launch, engine control and monitoring during launch, and engine safety and monitoring in orbit, is presented. Each of the major controller subassemblies, the central processing unit, the computer interface electronics, the input electronics, the output electronics, and the power supplies are described and discussed in detail along with engine and orbiter interfaces and operational requirements. The controller represents a unique application of digital concepts, techniques, and technology in monitoring, managing, and controlling a high performance rocket engine propulsion system. The operational requirements placed on the controller, the extremely harsh operating environment to which it is exposed, and the reliability demanded, result in the most complex and rugged digital system ever designed, fabricated, and flown.

  9. The main Aeromonas pathogenic factors.

    PubMed

    Tomás, J M

    2012-01-01

    The members of the Aeromonas genus are ubiquitous, water-borne bacteria. They have been isolated from marine waters, rivers, lakes, swamps, sediments, chlorine water, water distribution systems, drinking water and residual waters; different types of food, such as meat, fish, seafood, vegetables, and processed foods. Aeromonas strains are predominantly pathogenic to poikilothermic animals, and the mesophilic strains are emerging as important pathogens in humans, causing a variety of extraintestinal and systemic infections as well as gastrointestinal infections. The most commonly described disease caused by Aeromonas is the gastroenteritis; however, no adequate animal model is available to reproduce this illness caused by Aeromonas. The main pathogenic factors associated with Aeromonas are: surface polysaccharides (capsule, lipopolysaccharide, and glucan), S-layers, iron-binding systems, exotoxins and extracellular enzymes, secretion systems, fimbriae and other nonfilamentous adhesins, motility and flagella. PMID:23724321

  10. Puzzling Snowballs: Main Belt Comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Bin; Meech, Karen

    2015-03-01

    Main belt comets (MBCs) are a class of newly discovered objects that exhibit comet-like appearances and yet are dynamically indistinguishable from ordinary main belt asteroids. The measured size and albedo of MBCs are similar to those of classical comets. At present, six MBCs have been discovered, namely 133P/Elst-Pizarro, 176P/LINEAR, 238P/Read, P/2008 R1, P/La Sagra and P/2006 VW139. The total number of active MBCs is estimated to be at the level of a few hundreds (Hsieh & Jewitt, 2006). Several explanations for the activity of MBCs have been suggested. These include impact ejection, sublimation and rotational instability. However, since renewed activity has been observed in 133P and 238P at successive perihelion passages, the most likely explanation may be a thermally-driven process - e.g sublimation of exposed surface ice. Although the proximity of MBCs to the Sun (r ~ 3 AU) makes the survival of surface ice improbable, thermal models have shown that water ice is thermally stable under a regolith layer a few meters thick. The study of MBCs has recently been complicated by the discoveries of two asteroid collisional events (P/2010 A2 (LINEAR) and (596) Scheila) in 2010, where comet-like dust coma/tail have been attributed to recent impacts. If MBCs are indeed icy, they represent the closest and the third established reservoir of comets (after the Oort cloud and the Kuiper belt). As such, they may have been an important source of water for the Earth's oceans. I will review the current state of MBC studies, present the latest observational results and discuss possible mechanisms that could produce the observed activity. I will also talk about current and future space missions that are dedicated or closely related to MBC studies.

  11. Effect of Geometric Parameters on the Performance of P-Type Junctionless Lateral Gate Transistors

    PubMed Central

    Larki, Farhad; Dehzangi, Arash; Md Ali, Sawal Hamid; Jalar, Azman; Islam, Md. Shabiul; Hamidon, Mohd Nizar; Majlis, Burhanuddin Yeop

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of two important geometrical parameters, namely the thickness and source/drain extensions on the performance of low doped p-type double lateral gate junctionless transistors (DGJLTs). The three dimensional Technology Computer-Aided Design simulation is implemented to calculate the characteristics of the devices with different thickness and source/drain extension and based on that, the parameters such as threshold voltage, transconductance and resistance in saturation region are analyzed. In addition, simulation results provide a physical explanation for the variation of device characteristics given by the variation of geometric parameters, mainly based on investigation of the electric field components and the carries density variation. It is shown that, the variation of the carrier density is the main factor which affects the characteristics of the device when the device's thickness is varied. However, the electric field is mainly responsible for variation of the characteristics when the source/drain extension is changed. PMID:24743692

  12. Space transportation main engine cycle assessment process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcconnaughey, H. V.; Lyles, G. M.

    1991-01-01

    The Advanced Launch System (ALS) program selection process for a space transportation main engine (STME) power cycle is described in terms of the methodology employed. Low cost, robustness, and high reliability are the primary parameters for engine choice, suggesting simplicity of design and efficient fabrication methods as the crucial characteristics. An evaluation methodology is developed based on the Pugh (1981) process and the King (1989) matrices. The cycle configurations considered are the gas generator (GG), the closed expander, and the open expander. The cycle assessment team determined that the GG cycle is favored by most cycle discriminators, based on an assessment of the characteristics in terms of ALS goals. The lower development risk of the GG-cycle STME is consistent with the goals of the ALS program in terms of reliability and cost efficiency.

  13. 75 FR 27863 - Savings Bank of Maine, MHC and Savings Bank of Maine, Gardiner, Maine; Approval of Conversion...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-18

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Savings Bank of Maine, MHC and Savings Bank of Maine, Gardiner, Maine... Supervision approved the application of Savings Bank of Maine, MHC and Savings Bank of Maine, Gardiner, Maine...: May 11, 2010. By the Office of Thrift Supervision. Sandra E. Evans, Federal Register Liaison....

  14. E-ELT telescope main structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orden Martínez, Alfredo; Dilla Martínez, Angel; Ballesteros Pérez, Noelia; Alcantud Abellán, Manuel

    2012-09-01

    The European Extra Large Telescope is ESO's biggest astronomical telescope project. The E-ELT is an active and adaptive telescope. It has an astigmatic optical solution (five mirrors, including two flat ones). The telescope structure is of alt-azimuth type able to support a primary mirror with an equivalent diameter of 40 m. The telescope will be installed in a high-seismicity zone, in Cerro Armazones, Antofagasta Region, Chile, at an altitude of 3046 metres above sea level. This has significantly affected the boundary conditions and safety aspects considered during the project. The scope of the paper describes the Telescope Main Structure configuration developed by Empresarios Agrupados (Spain) during the FEED Studies performed from June 2009 to July 2011 in the frame of ESO Contracts. Most of the solutions implemented were extrapolated from existing installations in which Empresarios Agrupados has participated, adjusting for the extra large size of this new telescope.

  15. Space Shuttle Main Engine performance analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santi, L. Michael

    1993-01-01

    For a number of years, NASA has relied primarily upon periodically updated versions of Rocketdyne's power balance model (PBM) to provide space shuttle main engine (SSME) steady-state performance prediction. A recent computational study indicated that PBM predictions do not satisfy fundamental energy conservation principles. More recently, SSME test results provided by the Technology Test Bed (TTB) program have indicated significant discrepancies between PBM flow and temperature predictions and TTB observations. Results of these investigations have diminished confidence in the predictions provided by PBM, and motivated the development of new computational tools for supporting SSME performance analysis. A multivariate least squares regression algorithm was developed and implemented during this effort in order to efficiently characterize TTB data. This procedure, called the 'gains model,' was used to approximate the variation of SSME performance parameters such as flow rate, pressure, temperature, speed, and assorted hardware characteristics in terms of six assumed independent influences. These six influences were engine power level, mixture ratio, fuel inlet pressure and temperature, and oxidizer inlet pressure and temperature. A BFGS optimization algorithm provided the base procedure for determining regression coefficients for both linear and full quadratic approximations of parameter variation. Statistical information relative to data deviation from regression derived relations was also computed. A new strategy for integrating test data with theoretical performance prediction was also investigated. The current integration procedure employed by PBM treats test data as pristine and adjusts hardware characteristics in a heuristic manner to achieve engine balance. Within PBM, this integration procedure is called 'data reduction.' By contrast, the new data integration procedure, termed 'reconciliation,' uses mathematical optimization techniques, and requires both

  16. Space Shuttle Main Engine performance analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santi, L. Michael

    1993-11-01

    For a number of years, NASA has relied primarily upon periodically updated versions of Rocketdyne's power balance model (PBM) to provide space shuttle main engine (SSME) steady-state performance prediction. A recent computational study indicated that PBM predictions do not satisfy fundamental energy conservation principles. More recently, SSME test results provided by the Technology Test Bed (TTB) program have indicated significant discrepancies between PBM flow and temperature predictions and TTB observations. Results of these investigations have diminished confidence in the predictions provided by PBM, and motivated the development of new computational tools for supporting SSME performance analysis. A multivariate least squares regression algorithm was developed and implemented during this effort in order to efficiently characterize TTB data. This procedure, called the 'gains model,' was used to approximate the variation of SSME performance parameters such as flow rate, pressure, temperature, speed, and assorted hardware characteristics in terms of six assumed independent influences. These six influences were engine power level, mixture ratio, fuel inlet pressure and temperature, and oxidizer inlet pressure and temperature. A BFGS optimization algorithm provided the base procedure for determining regression coefficients for both linear and full quadratic approximations of parameter variation. Statistical information relative to data deviation from regression derived relations was also computed. A new strategy for integrating test data with theoretical performance prediction was also investigated. The current integration procedure employed by PBM treats test data as pristine and adjusts hardware characteristics in a heuristic manner to achieve engine balance. Within PBM, this integration procedure is called 'data reduction.' By contrast, the new data integration procedure, termed 'reconciliation,' uses mathematical optimization techniques, and requires both

  17. Main Dangers of Our Times.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Synek, Miroslav

    2003-03-01

    Terrorism and threatening dictatorships are the main, man-made, dangers of our times. They are run by master demagogues, or, brain-washing manipulators. ----- Our next step in coping with terrorism is to counter master demagoguery. Therefore, supporting EDUCATION that would emphasize the most unifying (and the least controversial), yet, BASIC CIVIC RESPECT for lives of people in a civilian human society, is a priority everywhere on our planet. ----- At the same time we start facing mostly small, threatening, dictatorships, capable of producing weapons of mass destruction. Therefore, we have to try to contribute to developing systems of FREE ELECTIONS, controlling weapons of mass destruction, wherever such dangers exist. ----- In a foreseeable future, unfortunately, we are facing a danger even by orders of magnitude greater. We are facing a possibility of a mass-produced heavy accumulation of inter-continental nuclear missiles, on a computerized "push-button" control, by a very powerful (and, quite possibly, miscalculating, or, suicidal) dictator, dangerous to the very existence of humanity on our planet. Therefore, it is a historical urgency that such a technological power be under the control by a government of the people, by the people and for the people, based on a sufficiently reliable system of FREE ELECTIONS, wherever, on our planet, such a potential danger may originate.

  18. Main memory unit. [hybrid computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The development of a main memory unit (MMU) for the space ultrareliable module computer (SUMC) model HTC is discussed. The design, fabrication, and test of basic memory modules (BMM) which were to be used in the design and construction of the MMU are described. The BMM was designed from state-of-the-art technologies which included large scale integration devices mounted and interconnected on a substrate to form a functional module to be utilized in the MMU development. A SUMC memory system design study is discussed which addressed itself to the BMM design and analysis to be conducted to determine the most efficient organization of the BMM in order to establish such modularity features as: word length expandability without redesign, high reliability, and fault tolerance. One MMU was designed, fabricated, tested, and delivered which will be electrical and mechanically compatible with the hybrid technology computer (HTC) model of the SUMC family of computers. The MMU will contain a storage capacity of 8196 36 bit words which includes a parity bit for each 8 bit byte of data.

  19. Jupiter's Main Ring/Ring Halo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    faintest are purple.

    Jupiter's main ring is a thin strand of material encircling the planet. The diffuse innermost boundary begins at approximately 123,000 kilometers (76,429 miles). The main ring's outer radius is found to be at 128,940 kilometers (80,119 miles) +/-50 kilometers (31 miles), slightly less than the Voyager value of 129,130 kilometers (80,237 miles) +/-100 kilometers (62 miles), but very close to the orbit of the satellite Adrastea (128,980 kilometers or 80,144 miles). The main ring exhibits a marked drop in brightness at 127,849 kilometers (79,441 miles) +/-50 kilometers (31 miles), lying almost atop the orbit of the Jovian moon Metis at 127,978 kilometers (79,521 miles). Satellites seem to affect the structure of even tenuous rings like those found at Jupiter.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  20. Governmental Policies Affecting Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Arthur M.

    This document traces the influence of governmental policies on American community colleges, focusing on how different levels of government have affected the colleges at various stages of their development with respect to college organization and governance, finance, enrollment, and curriculum. The community college's main contribution has been to…

  1. Inner main belt asteroids in Slivan states?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vraštil, J.; Vokrouhlický, D.

    2015-07-01

    Context. The spin state of ten asteroids in the Koronis family has previously been determined. Surprisingly, all four asteroids with prograde rotation were shown to have spin axes nearly parallel in the inertial space. All asteroids with retrograde rotation had large obliquities and rotation periods that were either short or long. The Yarkovsky-O'Keefe-Radzievskii-Paddack (YORP) effect has been demonstrated to be able to explain all these peculiar facts. In particular, the effect causes the spin axes of the prograde rotators to be captured in a secular spin-orbit resonance known as Cassini state 2, a configuration dubbed "Slivan state". Aims: It has been proposed based on an analysis of a sample of asteroids in the Flora family that Slivan states might also exist in this region of the main belt. This is surprising because convergence of the proper frequency s and the planetary frequency s6 was assumed to prevent Slivan states in this zone. We therefore investigated the possibility of a long-term stable capture in the Slivan state in the inner part of the main belt and among the asteroids previously observed. Methods: We used the swift integrator to determine the orbital evolution of selected asteroids in the inner part of the main belt. We also implemented our own secular spin propagator into the swift code to efficiently analyze their spin evolution. Results: Our experiments show that the previously suggested Slivan states of the Flora-region asteroids are marginally stable for only a small range of the flattening parameter Δ. Either the observed spins are close to the Slivan state by chance, or additional dynamical effects that were so far not taken into account change their evolution. We find that only the asteroids with very low-inclination orbits (lower than ≃4°, for instance) could follow a similar evolution path as the Koronis members and be captured in their spin state into the Slivan state. A greater number of asteroids in the inner main-belt Massalia

  2. Main individual and product characteristics influencing in-mouth flavour release during eating masticated food products with different textures: mechanistic modelling and experimental validation.

    PubMed

    Doyennette, M; Déléris, I; Féron, G; Guichard, E; Souchon, I; Trelea, I C

    2014-01-01

    A mechanistic model predicting flavour release during oral processing of masticated foods was developed. The description of main physiological steps (product mastication and swallowing) and physical mechanisms (mass transfer, product breakdown and dissolution) occurring while eating allowed satisfactory simulation of in vivo release profiles of ethyl propanoate and 2-nonanone, measured by Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry on ten representative subjects during the consumption of four cheeses with different textures. Model sensitivity analysis showed that the main parameters affecting release intensity were the product dissolution rate in the mouth, the mass transfer coefficient in the bolus, the air-bolus contact area in the mouth and the respiratory frequency. Parameters furthermore affecting release dynamics were the mastication phase duration, the velopharynx opening and the rate of saliva incorporation into the bolus. Specific retention of 2-nonanone on mucosa was assumed to explain aroma release kinetics and confirmed when gaseous samples were consumed. PMID:24045155

  3. Linking Item Response Model Parameters.

    PubMed

    van der Linden, Wim J; Barrett, Michelle D

    2016-09-01

    With a few exceptions, the problem of linking item response model parameters from different item calibrations has been conceptualized as an instance of the problem of test equating scores on different test forms. This paper argues, however, that the use of item response models does not require any test score equating. Instead, it involves the necessity of parameter linking due to a fundamental problem inherent in the formal nature of these models-their general lack of identifiability. More specifically, item response model parameters need to be linked to adjust for the different effects of the identifiability restrictions used in separate item calibrations. Our main theorems characterize the formal nature of these linking functions for monotone, continuous response models, derive their specific shapes for different parameterizations of the 3PL model, and show how to identify them from the parameter values of the common items or persons in different linking designs. PMID:26155754

  4. Infrared Drying Parameter Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Matthew R.

    In recent years, much research has been done to explore direct printing methods, such as screen and inkjet printing, as alternatives to the traditional lithographic process. The primary motivation is reduction of the material costs associated with producing common electronic devices. Much of this research has focused on developing inkjet or screen paste formulations that can be printed on a variety of substrates, and which have similar conductivity performance to the materials currently used in the manufacturing of circuit boards and other electronic devices. Very little research has been done to develop a process that would use direct printing methods to manufacture electronic devices in high volumes. This study focuses on developing and optimizing a drying process for conductive copper ink in a high volume manufacturing setting. Using an infrared (IR) dryer, it was determined that conductive copper prints could be dried in seconds or minutes as opposed to tens of minutes or hours that it would take with other drying devices, such as a vacuum oven. In addition, this study also identifies significant parameters that can affect the conductivity of IR dried prints. Using designed experiments and statistical analysis; the dryer parameters were optimized to produce the best conductivity performance for a specific ink formulation and substrate combination. It was determined that for an ethylene glycol, butanol, 1-methoxy 2- propanol ink formulation printed on Kapton, the optimal drying parameters consisted of a dryer height of 4 inches, a temperature setting between 190 - 200°C, and a dry time of 50-65 seconds depending on the printed film thickness as determined by the number of print passes. It is important to note that these parameters are optimized specifically for the ink formulation and substrate used in this study. There is still much research that needs to be done into optimizing the IR dryer for different ink substrate combinations, as well as developing a

  5. Antiproton Accumulator in the Main Injector era (2)

    SciTech Connect

    Visnjic, V.

    1992-12-01

    By adding a single quadrupole per sextant in the Antiproton Accumulator it is possible to obtain a lattice well suited for higher bandwidth stochastic cooling systems such as those anticipated for the Main Injector era. The lattice proposed here has excellent properties concerning both the lattice functions and the stochastic cooling parameters.

  6. 78 FR 70545 - KEI (Maine) Power Management (I) LLC, KEI (Maine) Power Management (II) LLC, KEI (Maine) Power...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission KEI (Maine) Power Management (I) LLC, KEI (Maine) Power Management (II) LLC, KEI (Maine) Power Management (III) LLC, KEI (Maine) Power Management (IV) LLC; Notice of Application for Amendment of Licenses and...

  7. 30 CFR 57.8518 - Main and booster fans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., or adjustments. (b) In the event of main or booster fan failure due to a malfunction, accident, power failure, or other such unplanned or unscheduled event: (1) The air quality in the affected active workings shall be tested at least within 2-hours of the discovery of the fan failure, and at least every...

  8. Pre-Workout Carbohydrate Supplementation does not Affect Measures of Selfassessed Vitality and Affect in College Swimmers.

    PubMed

    Hill, Kathleen M; Whitehead, James R; Goodwin, Janice K

    2011-01-01

    Beneficial effects of dietary carbohydrate (CHO) on physical and psychological parameters have been demonstrated in athletes. Because affect, or mood, can predict athletic performace, the main objective of this study was to determine the effect of pre-workout CHO on affect in swimmers. College swimmers (n = 37) participated in a randomized crossover experiment of the effects of a pre-workout CHO supplement on vitality and affect. Subjects consumed a CHO supplement or placebo for two days before morning practice. After each morning practice, swimmers completed measures of affect and feelings of vitality. Pearson correlations were performed to describe relationships among variables. Differences in means between the CHO and placebo conditions were determined by paired t-tests. Independent t-tests were used to determine differences in variables between the highest and lowest tertiles of breakfast consumption frequency. All statistical analyses were performed using SAS 9.1.3 (Cary, NC) and statistical signficance was set at α = 0.05. There were no significant differences in affect or feelings of vitality between the CHO supplement and placebo conditions (all p ≥ 0.15). Our results do not support a beneficial effect of CHO supplementation before morning swim practice on affect or feelings of vitality in swimmers. Key pointsPre-workout carbohydrate did not affect post-workout measures of vitality or affect in collegiate swimmers.Avoidance of feeling nauseous/ill' and 'lack of time' were the most frequent reasons reported by swimmers for forgoing breakfast before morning swim practice.A longer trial of carbohydrate supplementation is needed to verify if there is indeed no effect of pre-workout carbohydrate on post-workout measures of vitality or affect in swimmers. PMID:24150621

  9. Interseismic coupling on the main Himalayan thrust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, V. L.; Avouac, J. P.

    2015-07-01

    We determine the slip rate and pattern of interseismic coupling on the Main Himalayan Thrust along the entire Himalayan arc based on a compilation of geodetic, interferometric synthetic aperture radar, and microseismicity data. We show that convergence is perpendicular to the arc and increases eastwards from 13.3 ± 1.7 mm/yr to 21.2 ± 2.0 mm/yr. These rates are comparable to geological and geomorphic estimates, indicating an essentially elastic geodetic surface strain. The interseismic uplift rate predicted from the coupling model closely mimics the topography, suggesting that a small percentage of the interseismic strain is permanent. We find that the fault is fully locked along its complete length over about 100 km width. We don't find any resolvable aseismic barrier that could affect the seismic segmentation of the arc and limit the along-strike propagation of seismic ruptures. The moment deficit builds up at a rate of 15.1 ± 1 × 1019 N m/yr for the entire length of the Himalaya.

  10. Effect of Different Psychoactive Substances on Serum Biochemical Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Sanli, Dilek Beker; Bilici, Rabia; Suner, Ozgur; Citak, Serhat; Kartkaya, Kazim; Mutlu, Fezan Sahin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Psychoactive substances affect mainly central nervous system and brain function causing changes in behavior. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of different psychoactive substances on serum biochemical parameters. Patients and Methods: The study included 324 drug dependents, and 69 controls. The patient group was determined according to DSM-IV (The diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fourth edition) criteria. All patients and control subjects were tested for routine biochemical parameters and urine toxicology parameters for psychoactive substance use. Cases and controls with accompanying diseases like diabetes, cancer, metabolic disorders etc. are excluded from the study. Moreover, an association between urine toxicology results and changes in biochemical parameters was evaluated for statistical significance. Results: There was a statistically significant difference in the Gamma-Glutamyl Transferase (GGT), uric acid, creatinine, urea, albumin, Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST) medians between the dependent and control groups (P < 0.05). We found a statistically significant difference in sodium and albumin levels between the opium-dependent and control groups (P < 0.05). In the benzodiazepin dependent group, we found a significant difference in GGT, urea, glucose, sodium, T protein, and AST levels (P < 0.05). Moreover, a statistically significant difference was observed in triglyceride and GGT levels between the ethyl glucuronide and control groups (P < 0.05). Conclusions: In psychoactive substance dependents, serum routine biochemistry parameters can be used to predict the need for intensive monitoring and treatment programs. PMID:26405680

  11. Universal Parameter Optimization of Density Gradient Ultracentrifugation Using CdSe Nanoparticles as Tracing Agents.

    PubMed

    Li, Pengsong; Huang, Jinyang; Luo, Liang; Kuang, Yun; Sun, Xiaoming

    2016-09-01

    Density gradient ultracentrifugation (DGUC) has recently emerged as an effective nanoseparation method to sort polydispersed colloidal NPs mainly according to their size differences to reach monodispersed fractions (NPs), but its separation modeling is still lack and the separation parameters' optimization mainly based on experience of operators. In this paper, we gave mathematical descriptions on the DGUC separation, which suggested the best separation parameters for a given system. The separation parameters, including media density, centrifuge speed and time, which affected the separation efficiency, were discussed in details. Further mathematical optimization model was established to calculate and yield the "best" (optimized) linear gradient for a colloidal system with given size and density. The practical experiment results matched well with theoretical prediction, demonstrating the DGUC method, an efficient, practical, and predictable separation technique with universal utilization for colloid sorting. PMID:27457445

  12. Analysis of flares in the chromosphere and corona of main- and pre-main-sequence M-type stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crespo-Chacón, I.

    2015-11-01

    This Ph.D. Thesis revolves around flares on main- and pre-main-sequence M-type stars. We use observations in different wavelength ranges with the aim of analysing the effects of flares at different layers of stellar atmospheres. In particular, optical and X-ray observations are used so that we can study how flares affect, respectively, the chromosphere and the corona of stars. In the optical range we carry out a high temporal resolution spectroscopic monitoring of UV Ceti-type stars aimed at detecting non-white-light flares (the most typical kind of solar flares) in stars other than the Sun. With these data we confirm that non-white-light flares are a frequent phenomenon in UV Ceti-type stars, as observed in the Sun. We study and interpret the behaviour of different chromospheric lines during the flares detected on AD Leo. By using a simplified slab model of flares (Jevremović et al. 1998), we are able to determine the physical parameters of the chromospheric flaring plasma (electron density and electron temperature), the temperature of the underlying source, and the surface area covered by the flaring plasma. We also search for possible relationships between the physical parameters of the flaring plasma and other properties such as the flare duration, area, maximum flux and released energy. This work considerably extends the existing sample of stellar flares analysed with good quality spectroscopy in the optical range. In X-rays we take advantage of the great sensitivity, wide energy range, high energy resolution, and continuous time coverage of the EPIC detectors - on-board the XMMNewton satellite - in order to perform time-resolved spectral analysis of coronal flares. In particular, in the UV Ceti-type star CC Eri we study two flares that are weaker than those typically reported in the literature (allowing us to speculate about the role of flares as heating agents of stellar atmospheres); while in the pre-main-sequence M-type star TWA 11B (with no signatures of

  13. Determining the main thermodynamic parameters of caffeine melting by means of DSC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agafonova, E. V.; Moshchenskii, Yu. V.; Tkachenko, M. L.

    2012-06-01

    The temperature and enthalpy of the melting of caffeine, which are 235.5 ± 0.1°C and 19.6 ± 0.2 kJ/mol, respectively, are determined by DSC. The melting entropy and the cryoscopic constant of caffeine are calculated.

  14. Recovery of proteins from wastewater of tannery beamhouse operations: influence on the main pollution parameters.

    PubMed

    Marsal, A; Hernández, E; Cuadros, S; Puig, R; Bautista, E; Font, J

    2010-01-01

    The recovery of proteins from effluents of beamhouse operations in a hair-pulping process of hides is proposed. Precipitation with sulphuric acid at the isoelectric pH was chosen for protein recovery. The precipitates were characterized in order to study their potential uses. Apart from the protein nitrogen, the precipitate also contained a considerable content of fats resulting from the co-precipitation of natural fat of the hide in the wastewaters. The precipitation of the protein fraction resulted in a reduction of 80-85% of COD, whereas the protein content decreased 68-78%. This diminution of the contamination load led to a notable reduction of the tax on wastewater. The content of protein material in the precipitate varied from 15 to 44%. As expected, the protein in the precipitate did not result from the collagen decomposition of the hide but from soluble proteins such as albumin and globulin and remains of keratin. The precipitates obtained met the maximum limits of heavy metals according to legislation on organic fertilizers. The potential uses of the protein fraction recovered from tannery wastewaters are currently being investigated. PMID:20706013

  15. Catalogue of HI PArameters (CHIPA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saponara, J.; Benaglia, P.; Koribalski, B.; Andruchow, I.

    2015-08-01

    The catalogue of HI parameters of galaxies HI (CHIPA) is the natural continuation of the compilation by M.C. Martin in 1998. CHIPA provides the most important parameters of nearby galaxies derived from observations of the neutral Hydrogen line. The catalogue contains information of 1400 galaxies across the sky and different morphological types. Parameters like the optical diameter of the galaxy, the blue magnitude, the distance, morphological type, HI extension are listed among others. Maps of the HI distribution, velocity and velocity dispersion can also be display for some cases. The main objective of this catalogue is to facilitate the bibliographic queries, through searching in a database accessible from the internet that will be available in 2015 (the website is under construction). The database was built using the open source `` mysql (SQL, Structured Query Language, management system relational database) '', while the website was built with ''HTML (Hypertext Markup Language)'' and ''PHP (Hypertext Preprocessor)''.

  16. Redefining solubility parameters: the partial solvation parameters.

    PubMed

    Panayiotou, Costas

    2012-03-21

    The present work reconsiders a classical and universally accepted concept of physical chemistry, the solubility parameter. Based on the insight derived from modern quantum chemical calculations, a new definition of solubility parameter is proposed, which overcomes some of the inherent restrictions of the original definition and expands its range of applications. The original single solubility parameter is replaced by four partial solvation parameters reflecting the dispersion, the polar, the acidic and the basic character of the chemical compounds as expressed either in their pure state or in mixtures. Simple rules are adopted for the definition and calculation of these four parameters and their values are tabulated for a variety of common substances. In contrast, however, to the well known Hansen solubility parameters, their design and evaluation does not rely exclusively on the basic rule of "similarity matching" for solubility but it makes also use of the other basic rule of compatibility, namely, the rule of "complementarity matching". This complementarity matching becomes particularly operational with the sound definition of the acidic and basic components of the solvation parameter based on the third σ-moments of the screening charge distributions of the quantum mechanics-based COSMO-RS theory. The new definitions are made in a simple and straightforward manner, thus, preserving the strength and appeal of solubility parameter stemming from its simplicity. The new predictive method has been applied to a variety of solubility data for systems of pharmaceuticals and polymers. The results from quantum mechanics calculations are critically compared with the results from Abraham's acid/base descriptors. PMID:22327537

  17. Light intensity is the main factor affecting fresh market spinach tolerance for Phenmedipham

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The few available herbicides for fresh market spinach do not provide adequate weed control, and there is need for additional herbicide tools. Phenmedipham is registered for use in processing spinach but not in fresh spinach due to its crop injury potential and short time window from application to h...

  18. Ecological factors affecting Rainbow Smelt recruitment in the main basin of Lake Huron, 1976-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Brien, Timothy P.; Taylor, William W.; Roseman, Edward F.; Madenjian, Charles P.; Riley, Stephen C.

    2014-01-01

    Rainbow Smelt Osmerus mordax are native to northeastern Atlantic and Pacific–Arctic drainages and have been widely introduced throughout North America. In the Great Lakes region, Rainbow Smelt are known predators and competitors of native fish and a primary prey species in pelagic food webs. Despite their widespread distribution, importance as a prey species, and potential to negatively interact with native fish species, there is limited information concerning stock–recruitment relationships for Rainbow Smelt. To better understand recruitment mechanisms, we evaluated potential ecological factors determining recruitment dynamics for Rainbow Smelt in Lake Huron using data from bottom trawl catches. We specifically evaluated influence of stock size, environmental factors (water temperature, lake levels, and precipitation), and salmonine predation on the production of age-0 recruits from 1976 to 2010. Rainbow Smelt recruitment was negatively related to stock size exceeding 10 kg/ha, indicating that compensatory, density-dependent mortality from cannibalism or intraspecific competition was an important factor related to the production of age-0 recruits. Recruitment was positively related to spring precipitation suggesting that the amount of stream-spawning habitat as determined by precipitation was important for the production of strong Rainbow Smelt recruitment. Additionally, density of age-0 Rainbow Smelt was positively related to Lake Trout Salvelinus namaycush abundance. However, spawning stock biomass of Rainbow Smelt, which declined substantially from 1989 to 2010, was negatively associated with Lake Trout catch per effort suggesting predation was an important factor related to the decline of age-2 and older Rainbow Smelt in Lake Huron. As such, we found that recruitment of Rainbow Smelt in Lake Huron was regulated by competition with or cannibalism by older conspecifics, spring precipitation influencing stream spawning habitats, and predation by Lake Trout on age-2 and older Rainbow Smelt.

  19. Main Sequence Evolution with Layered Semiconvection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Kevin; Garaud, Pascale

    2016-01-01

    Semiconvection is a form of mixing in thermally unstable regions that are partially stabilized by composition gradients. It has the greatest potential impact on the evolution of the cores of main sequence stars in the mass range 1.2 {M}⊙ -1.7 {M}⊙ . We present the first stellar evolution calculations using the new prescription for semiconvective mixing proposed by Wood et al. Semiconvection in stars is predominately layered semiconvection. In our model, the layer height is an adjustable parameter analogous to the mixing length in convection. The rate of mixing inside semiconvective regions is sensitively dependent on the layer height. We find a critical layer height that separates weak semiconvective mixing (where stellar evolution is well-approximated by ignoring semiconvection entirely and using the Ledoux criterion for convection) from strong semiconvective mixing (where all composition gradients are rapidly mixed, so stellar evolution is well-approximated by ignoring them altogether and using the Schwarzschild criterion for convection instead). This critical layer height is much smaller than the minimum layer height derived from simulations so we predict that stellar evolution is nearly the same as in models ran with the Schwarzschild criterion. We also investigate the effects of composition gradient smoothing, finding that it causes convective cores to artificially shrink in the absence of additional mixing beyond the convective boundary. Layered semiconvection with realistic layer heights provides enough such mixing to avoid this problem. Finally, we discuss the potential of detecting layered semiconvection and its implication on convective core sizes in solar-like oscillators.

  20. [Analysis of factors affecting anaerobic threshold in healthy subjects].

    PubMed

    Nitta, Y; Nagatsuka, K; Inage, T; Yokoi, H; Inaoka, Y; Kawanishi, K; Sakamoto, S; Ishikawa, K

    1992-03-01

    The anaerobic threshold (AT) is used to determine the exercise capacity in patients with heart failure and healthy subjects. To determine the factors affecting AT, we determined the AT in healthy subjects, and examined the factors that determine AT in healthy subjects. One hundred and sixteen healthy subjects (79 men and 37 women) performed on a bicycle a stepwise increasing submaximal exercise. During the work test the parameters usually used in the detection of AT (Vo2, Vco2, VE), blood pressure, heart rate and oxygen saturation were recorded by a computerized system every minute. AT was determined from changes in ventilation and gas-exchange. The fat index was calculated from height and body weight measured at the beginning of the ventilatory function test. A significant correlation was obtained between AT and age, AT and fat index, AT and %VC, AT and maximum heart rate during exercise, AT and recovery rate of heart rate after exercise, and AT and Vo2 at rest. In addition, we examined the relationship among the parameters in 4 groups according to sex and age (30-49; younger, 50-69; older), because sex and age affected most parameters. We found a significant correlation between AT and fat index (older men and women), AT and %VC (younger and older women), AT and Vo2 at rest (younger and older men). We considered that the main factors that determined AT in healthy subjects were age, sex, fat index, %VC and Vo2 at rest. PMID:1518183

  1. Structural dynamic analysis of the Space Shuttle Main Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, L. P.; Jamison, G. T.; Mccutcheon, W. A.; Price, J. M.

    1981-01-01

    This structural dynamic analysis supports development of the SSME by evaluating components subjected to critical dynamic loads, identifying significant parameters, and evaluating solution methods. Engine operating parameters at both rated and full power levels are considered. Detailed structural dynamic analyses of operationally critical and life limited components support the assessment of engine design modifications and environmental changes. Engine system test results are utilized to verify analytic model simulations. The SSME main chamber injector assembly is an assembly of 600 injector elements which are called LOX posts. The overall LOX post analysis procedure is shown.

  2. Affective processing requires awareness.

    PubMed

    Lähteenmäki, Mikko; Hyönä, Jukka; Koivisto, Mika; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2015-04-01

    Studies using backward masked emotional stimuli suggest that affective processing may occur outside visual awareness and imply primacy of affective over semantic processing, yet these experiments have not strictly controlled for the participants' awareness of the stimuli. Here we directly compared the primacy of affective versus semantic categorization of biologically relevant stimuli in 5 experiments (n = 178) using explicit (semantic and affective discrimination; Experiments 1-3) and implicit (semantic and affective priming; Experiments 4-5) measures. The same stimuli were used in semantic and affective tasks. Visual awareness was manipulated by varying exposure duration of the masked stimuli, and subjective level of stimulus awareness was measured after each trial using a 4-point perceptual awareness scale. When participants reported no awareness of the stimuli, semantic and affective categorization were at chance level and priming scores did not differ from zero. When participants were even partially aware of the stimuli, (a) both semantic and affective categorization could be performed above chance level with equal accuracy, (b) semantic categorization was faster than affective categorization, and (c) both semantic and affective priming were observed. Affective categorization speed was linearly dependent on semantic categorization speed, suggesting dependence of affective processing on semantic recognition. Manipulations of affective and semantic categorization tasks revealed a hierarchy of categorization operations beginning with basic-level semantic categorization and ending with superordinate level affective categorization. We conclude that both implicit and explicit affective and semantic categorization is dependent on visual awareness, and that affective recognition follows semantic categorization. PMID:25559654

  3. Definition of main pollen season using a logistic model.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Helena; Cunha, Mário; Abreu, Ilda

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes a method to unify the definition of the main pollen season based on statistical analysis. For this, an aerobiological study was carried out in Porto region (Portugal), from 2003-2005 using a 7-day Hirst-type volumetric spore trap. To define the main pollen season, a non-linear logistic regression model was fitted to the values of the accumulated sum of the daily airborne pollen concentration from several allergological species. An important feature of this method is that the main pollen season will be characterized by the model parameters calculated. These parameters are identifiable aspects of the flowering phenology, and determine not only the beginning and end of the main pollen season, but are also influenced by the meteorological conditions. The results obtained with the proposed methodology were also compared with two of the most used percentage methods. The logistic model fitted well with the sum of accumulated pollen. The explained variance was always higher than 97%, and the exponential part of the predicted curve was well adjusted to the time when higher atmospheric pollen concentration was sampled. The comparison between the different methods tested showed large divergence in the duration and end dates of the main pollen season of the studied species. PMID:18247462

  4. MAINE BEDROCK SOURCE WATER PROTECTION AREAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bedrocksqpa_region_pws is a REGIONS SDE layer of bedrock source water protection areas in Maine with a high, moderate, or low probability of contributing water to community public water supplies. The Maine Drinking Water Program (MEDWP), in cooperation with the Maine Geological S...

  5. IMPROVEMENT OF WATER MAIN INSPECTION TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document is a handout of a slide presentation that addresses improvement of water main inspection technology. The slide presentation addresses the need for improved inspection technology (e.g., 237,000 main breaks/yr); the limits on main break prevention; and, the adverse ...

  6. In Maine, Postsecondary Success Starts before College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LePage, Paul R.

    2011-01-01

    A 2008 report from the Joint Standing Committee on Education and Culture Affairs of the Maine Legislature indicates a quarter of those who enrolled at a public university in Maine required a remedial course to catch them up to the level where they should have been when they completed high school. Regardless of how hard Maine has tried and how much…

  7. A Systematic Procedure for Teaching Main Idea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dishner, Ernest K.; Readence, John E.

    This paper suggests a sequence of requisite skills for the identification of main ideas including identifying the key words or topic of a sentence, identifying the key words or topic of a paragraph, identifying the topic sentence of a paragraph, recognizing an explicitly stated main idea of a paragraph, recalling an explicitly stated main idea,…

  8. Estimating ice-affected streamflow by extended Kalman filtering

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holtschlag, D.J.; Grewal, M.S.

    1998-01-01

    An extended Kalman filter was developed to automate the real-time estimation of ice-affected streamflow on the basis of routine measurements of stream stage and air temperature and on the relation between stage and streamflow during open-water (ice-free) conditions. The filter accommodates three dynamic modes of ice effects: sudden formation/ablation, stable ice conditions, and eventual elimination. The utility of the filter was evaluated by applying it to historical data from two long-term streamflow-gauging stations, St. John River at Dickey, Maine and Platte River at North Bend, Nebr. Results indicate that the filter was stable and that parameters converged for both stations, producing streamflow estimates that are highly correlated with published values. For the Maine station, logarithms of estimated streamflows are within 8% of the logarithms of published values 87.2% of the time during periods of ice effects and within 15% 96.6% of the time. Similarly, for the Nebraska station, logarithms of estimated streamflows are within 8% of the logarithms of published values 90.7% of the time and within 15% 97.7% of the time. In addition, the correlation between temporal updates and published streamflows on days of direct measurements at the Maine station was 0.777 and 0.998 for ice-affected and open-water periods, respectively; for the Nebraska station, corresponding correlations were 0.864 and 0.997.

  9. Pteridines and affective disorders.

    PubMed

    Hoekstra, R; Fekkes, D

    2002-06-01

    The pteridine tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is an essential cofactor in the biosynthesis of dopamine, (nor)epinephrine, serotonin and nitric oxide (NO). Furthermore, BH4 has a direct influence on release mechanisms of these neurotransmitters and on serotonin receptor binding activity immunology. The synthesis of BH4 is stimulated by interferon-gamma and hence there is a close relationship with the immune system HPA-axis. In animal experiments it was also found that the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis influences the pteridine metabolism. In clinical studies, so far, no evidence has been found for this relationship diseases. A congenital biopterin deficiency results in atypical phenylketonuria with severe neuropsychiatric symptoms. In several neurological diseases, such as Parkinson's disease, decreased levels of BH4 are found depression. Since 1984 there have been reports on decreased biopterin and increased neopterin levels in urine and plasma of depressed patients. Conflicting results have also been found, however, due probably to methodological problems therapy. Until now, oral administration of BH4 to depressed patients has been performed by two investigators, which resulted in mainly temporal clinical improvement discussion. Understanding of biochemical mechanisms in which pteridines are involved may contribute to our knowledge of the pathogenesis and treatment of affective disorders. This paper aims to provide an overview of the relevant literature and warrant for further research on this intriguing compound. PMID:26984153

  10. Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect or not? Detecting the main foreground effect of most galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Weike; Chen, Chen; Zhang, Bin; Wu, Yongfeng; Dai, Mi

    2013-05-01

    Galaxy clusters are the most massive objects in the Universe and comprise a high-temperature intracluster medium of about 107 K, believed to offer a main foreground effect for cosmic microwave background (CMB) data in the form of the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect. This assumption has been confirmed by SZ signal detection in hundreds of clusters but, in comparison with the huge numbers of clusters within optically selected samples from Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data, this only accounts for a few per cent of clusters. Here we introduce a model-independent new method to confirm the assumption that most galaxy clusters can offer the thermal SZ signal as their main foreground effect. For the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) seven-year data (and a given galaxy cluster sample), we introduced a parameter d1 as the nearest-neighbour cluster angular distance of each pixel, then we classified data pixels as `to be' (d1 → 0 case) or `not to be' (d1 large enough) affected by the sample clusters. By comparing the statistical results of these two kinds of pixels, we can see how the sample clusters affect the CMB data directly. We find that the Planck Early Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (ESZ) sample and X-ray samples (˜102 clusters) can lead to obvious temperature depression in the WMAP seven-year data, which confirms the SZ effect prediction. However, each optically selected sample (>104 clusters) shows an opposite result: the mean temperature rises to about 10 μK. This unexpected qualitative scenario implies that the main foreground effect of most clusters is not always the expected SZ effect. This may be the reason why the SZ signal detection result is lower than expected from the model.

  11. Solar astrophysical fundamental parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meftah, M.; Irbah, A.; Hauchecorne, A.

    2014-08-01

    The accurate determination of the solar photospheric radius has been an important problem in astronomy for many centuries. From the measurements made by the PICARD spacecraft during the transit of Venus in 2012, we obtained a solar radius of 696,156±145 kilometres. This value is consistent with recent measurements carried out atmosphere. This observation leads us to propose a change of the canonical value obtained by Arthur Auwers in 1891. An accurate value for total solar irradiance (TSI) is crucial for the Sun-Earth connection, and represents another solar astrophysical fundamental parameter. Based on measurements collected from different space instruments over the past 35 years, the absolute value of the TSI, representative of a quiet Sun, has gradually decreased from 1,371W.m-2 in 1978 to around 1,362W.m-2 in 2013, mainly due to the radiometers calibration differences. Based on the PICARD data and in agreement with Total Irradiance Monitor measurements, we predicted the TSI input at the top of the Earth's atmosphere at a distance of one astronomical unit (149,597,870 kilometres) from the Sun to be 1,362±2.4W.m-2, which may be proposed as a reference value. To conclude, from the measurements made by the PICARD spacecraft, we obtained a solar photospheric equator-to-pole radius difference value of 5.9±0.5 kilometres. This value is consistent with measurements made by different space instruments, and can be given as a reference value.

  12. Dynamic Artificial Neural Networks with Affective Systems

    PubMed Central

    Schuman, Catherine D.; Birdwell, J. Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are processors that are trained to perform particular tasks. We couple a computational ANN with a simulated affective system in order to explore the interaction between the two. In particular, we design a simple affective system that adjusts the threshold values in the neurons of our ANN. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate that this simple affective system can control the firing rate of the ensemble of neurons in the ANN, as well as to explore the coupling between the affective system and the processes of long term potentiation (LTP) and long term depression (LTD), and the effect of the parameters of the affective system on its performance. We apply our networks with affective systems to a simple pole balancing example and briefly discuss the effect of affective systems on network performance. PMID:24303015

  13. Shakemaps of the L'Aquila main shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faenza, L.; Lauciani, V.; Michelini, A.

    2009-12-01

    This work addresses the determination of the shakemap of the l’Aquila, M6.3 April 6, 2009, main shock. Since 2006 and as part of national projects funded by the Italian Civil Protection and by the EU SAFER project, INGV has been determining shakemaps for M3.0+ using the USGS-ShakeMap software package and a fully automatic procedure, based on manually revised location and magnitude. This work summarizes how the shakemaps of the main shocks have been obtained. Focus of the presentation is on the importance that the data and the extent of the finite fault have in the determination of faithful ground motion maps. For the L'Aquila main shock, we have found that the data alone are not sufficient to replicate the observed ground motion in parts of the strongly affected areas. In particular, since the station coverage toward the SE where the earthquake rupture propagated is scantier, prompt availability of a rupture fault model would have been important to better describe the level of strong ground motion throughout the affected area. We present an overview of the performance of the INGV real time system during the L’Aquila main shock - the first time that INGV provides real time information to Civil Protetion during a seismic crisis. Finally, we show a comparison between the intensities determined from the strong ground motion and those obtained from the macroseismic survey.

  14. Parameter Estimation Using VLA Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venter, Willem C.

    The main objective of this dissertation is to extract parameters from multiple wavelength images, on a pixel-to-pixel basis, when the images are corrupted with noise and a point spread function. The data used are from the field of radio astronomy. The very large array (VLA) at Socorro in New Mexico was used to observe planetary nebula NGC 7027 at three different wavelengths, 2 cm, 6 cm and 20 cm. A temperature model, describing the temperature variation in the nebula as a function of optical depth, is postulated. Mathematical expressions for the brightness distribution (flux density) of the nebula, at the three observed wavelengths, are obtained. Using these three equations and the three data values available, one from the observed flux density map at each wavelength, it is possible to solve for two temperature parameters and one optical depth parameter at each pixel location. Due to the fact that the number of unknowns equal the number of equations available, estimation theory cannot be used to smooth any noise present in the data values. It was found that a direct solution of the three highly nonlinear flux density equations is very sensitive to noise in the data. Results obtained from solving for the three unknown parameters directly, as discussed above, were not physical realizable. This was partly due to the effect of incomplete sampling at the time when the data were gathered and to noise in the system. The application of rigorous digital parameter estimation techniques result in estimated parameters that are also not physically realizable. The estimated values for the temperature parameters are for example either too high or negative, which is not physically possible. Simulation studies have shown that a "double smoothing" technique improves the results by a large margin. This technique consists of two parts: in the first part the original observed data are smoothed using a running window and in the second part a similar smoothing of the estimated parameters

  15. Affective Dynamics in Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Trull, Timothy J.; Lane, Sean P.; Koval, Peter; Ebner-Priemer, Ulrich W.

    2016-01-01

    We discuss three varieties of affective dynamics (affective instability, emotional inertia, and emotional differentiation). In each case, we suggest how these affective dynamics should be operationalized and measured in daily life using time-intensive methods, like ecological momentary assessment or ambulatory assessment, and recommend time-sensitive analyses that take into account not only the variability but also the temporal dependency of reports. Studies that explore how these affective dynamics are associated with psychological disorders and symptoms are reviewed, and we emphasize that these affective processes are within a nexus of other components of emotion regulation.

  16. TRS-80 at the Maine State Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wismer, Donald

    This report describes the applications and work flow of a TRS-80 microcomputer at the Maine State Library, and provides sample computer-generated records and programs used with the TRS-80. The machine was chosen for its price, availability, and compatibility with machines already in Maine's schools. It is used for mailing list management (with…

  17. 21 CFR 808.69 - Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maine. 808.69 Section 808.69 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EXEMPTIONS FROM FEDERAL PREEMPTION OF STATE AND LOCAL MEDICAL DEVICE REQUIREMENTS Listing of Specific State and Local Exemptions § 808.69 Maine. (a)...

  18. Maine's Employability Skills Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, John M.; Wolffe, Karen E.; Wolfe, Judy; Brooker, Carrie

    2013-01-01

    This Practice Report describes the development and implementation of the "Maine Employability Skills Program," a model employment program developed by the Maine Division for the Blind and Visually Impaired (DBVI). The program was designed to support the efforts of the chronically unemployed or underemployed. These consumers were either…

  19. Compensating linkage for main rotor control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeffery, P. A. E.; Huber, R. F. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A compensating linkage for the rotor control system on rotary wing aircraft is described. The main rotor and transmission are isolated from the airframe structure by clastic suspension. The compensating linkage prevents unwanted signal inputs to the rotor control system caused by relative motion of the airframe structure and the main rotor and transmission.

  20. MAINE 1:24,000 HYDROLOGY POLYGONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Maine 1:24,000 Hydrology Polygons SDE feature class depicts double line river features, single line streams, pond, lake and coastal outlines in Maine from USGS 1:24,000 scale quadrangles. Some New Hampshire and New Brunswick features are also included. Codes are included to ...

  1. MAINE 1:24,000 HYDROLOGY LINES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Maine 1:24,000 Hydrology Lines SDE feature class depicts double line river features, single line streams, pond, lake and coastal outlines in Maine from USGS 1:24,000 scale quadrangles. Some New Hampshire and New Brunswick features are also included. Codes are included to sel...

  2. 40 CFR 81.320 - Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Maine. 81.320 Section 81.320 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section 107 Attainment Status Designations § 81.320 Maine. Maine—TSP Designated areas Does not meet...

  3. Effects of Learning Parameters on Learning Procedure and Performance of a BPNN.

    PubMed

    MacBeth, Colin; Dai, Hengchang

    1997-11-01

    We examined the effects of changing learning parameters on the learning procedure and performance of back-propagation neural networks used to pick seismic arrivals. The results show that such change mainly affects the speed of convergence of the learning procedures, and does not affect the BPNN structure and its overall performance. A relationship between the learning parameters and iteration number is obtained. This relationship may be used as a guide to check the convergence of the learning procedure and the BPNN performance. We also use a weight map of BPNN structure to analyze its interior and performance. Two BPNNs used to pick seismic arrivals from three-component and single-component seismograms have similar weight patterns and operate in a similar way, although they have different structures and trained by different training dataset. PMID:12662490

  4. As the nation goes, so goes Maine?

    PubMed

    Kilbreth, Elizabeth

    2014-06-01

    Historically, Maine has been a state with generous safety net programs and a track record of innovative efforts in health system reform, developed under the leadership of Democratic administrations and with frequent support from moderate Republicans. But the 2010 elections in Maine dramatically changed the political balance of power, anointing both a governor and a legislature ideologically at odds with the state's recent political past. Maine has become a bastion of resistance to the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, with a reduced Medicaid program, defunded state access initiative, and no state exchange. In addition, the state has adopted a laissez-faire approach to insurance market dysfunction. Using Maine as a case study of the shifts in national political mood, this article describes in broad brushstrokes Maine's history of health reform efforts and recent shift in political direction, and discusses some of the factors that contributed to the change. PMID:24603087

  5. The Collisional Evolution of the Main Asteroid Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottke, W. F.; Brož, M.; O'Brien, D. P.; Campo Bagatin, A.; Morbidelli, A.; Marchi, S.

    Collisional and dynamical models of the main asteroid belt allow us to glean insights into planetesimal- and planet-formation scenarios as well as how the main belt reached its current state. Here we discuss many of the processes affecting asteroidal evolution and the constraints that can be used to test collisional model results. We argue the main belt's wavy size-frequency distribution for diameter D < 100-km asteroids is increasingly a byproduct of comminution as one goes to smaller sizes, with its shape a fossil-like remnant of a violent early epoch. Most D > 100-km asteroids, however, are primordial, with their physical properties set by planetesimal formation and accretion processes. The main-belt size distribution as a whole has evolved into a collisional steady state, and it has possibly been in that state for billions of years. Asteroid families provide a critical historical record of main-belt collisions. The heavily depleted and largely dispersed "ghost families," however, may hold the key to understanding what happened in the primordial days of the main belt. New asteroidal fragments are steadily created by both collisions and mass shedding events via YORP spinup processes. A fraction of this population, in the form of D < 30 km fragments, go on to escape the main belt via the Yarkovsky/YORP effects and gravitational resonances, thereby creating a quasi-steady-state population of planet-crossing and near-Earth asteroids. These populations go on to bombard all inner solar system worlds. By carefully interpreting the cratering records they produce, it is possible to constrain how portions of the main-belt population have evolved with time.

  6. Review of critical factors affecting crude corrosivity

    SciTech Connect

    Tebbal, S.; Kane, R.D.

    1996-08-01

    Lower quality opportunity crudes are now processed in most refineries and the source of the crudes may vary daily. These feedstocks, if not properly handled, can result in reduction in service life of equipment as well as costly failure and downtime. Analytical tools are needed to predict their high temperature corrosivity toward distillation units. Threshold in total sulfur and total acid number (TAN) have been used for many years as rules of thumb for predicting crude corrosivity, However, it is now realized that they are not accurate in their predictive ability. Crudes with similar composition and comparable with respect to process considerations have been found to be entirely different in their impact on corrosion. Naphthenic acid content, sulfur content, velocity, temperature, and materials of construction are the main factors affecting the corrosion process, Despite progress made in elucidating the role of the different parameters on the crude corrosivity process, the main problem is in calculating their combined effect, especially when the corroding stream is such a complex mixture. The TAN is usually related directly to naphthenic acid content. However, discrepancies between analytical methods and interference of numerous components of the crude itself lead to unreliable reported content of naphthenic acid. The sulfur compounds, with respect to corrosivity, appear to relate more to their decomposition at elevated temperature to form hydrogen sulfide than to their total content in crude. This paper reviews the present situation regarding crude corrosivity in distillation units, with the aim of indicating the extent of available information, and areas where further research is necessary.

  7. On the effects of subsurface parameters on evaporite dissolution (Switzerland).

    PubMed

    Zidane, Ali; Zechner, Eric; Huggenberger, Peter; Younes, Anis

    2014-05-01

    Uncontrolled subsurface evaporite dissolution could lead to hazards such as land subsidence. Observed subsidences in a study area of Northwestern Switzerland were mainly due to subsurface dissolution (subrosion) of evaporites such as halite and gypsum. A set of 2D density driven flow simulations were evaluated along 1000 m long and 150 m deep 2D cross sections within the study area that is characterized by tectonic horst and graben structures. The simulations were conducted to study the effect of the different subsurface parameters that could affect the dissolution process. The heterogeneity of normal faults and its impact on the dissolution of evaporites is studied by considering several permeable faults that include non-permeable areas. The mixed finite element method (MFE) is used to solve the flow equation, coupled with the multipoint flux approximation (MPFA) and the discontinuous Galerkin method (DG) to solve the diffusion and the advection parts of the transport equation. Results show that the number of faults above the lower aquifer that contains the salt layer is considered as the most important factor that affects the dissolution compared to the other investigated parameters of thickness of the zone above the halite formation, a dynamic conductivity of the lower aquifer, and varying boundary conditions in the upper aquifer. PMID:24650646

  8. Distillation tray structural parameter study: Phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winter, J. Ronald

    1991-01-01

    The purpose here is to identify the structural parameters (plate thickness, liquid level, beam size, number of beams, tray diameter, etc.) that affect the structural integrity of distillation trays in distillation columns. Once the sensitivity of the trays' dynamic response to these parameters has been established, the designer will be able to use this information to prepare more accurate specifications for the construction of new trays. Information is given on both static and dynamic analysis, modal response, and tray failure details.

  9. Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) Test Firing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    A Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) undergoing a full power level 290.04 second test firing at the National Space Technology Laboratories (currently called the Stennis Space Center) in Mississippi. The firings were part of a series of developmental testing designed to increase the amount of thrust available to the Shuttle from its three main engines. The additional thrust allowed the Shuttle to launch heavier payloads into orbit. The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) had management responsibility of Space Shuttle propulsion elements, including the Main Engines.

  10. Drifter observations of the Gulf of Maine Coastal Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, J. P.; McGillicuddy, D. J., Jr.; Pettigrew, N. R.; Churchill, J. H.; Incze, L. S.

    2009-04-01

    Two-hundred and twenty seven satellite-tracked drifters were deployed in the Gulf of Maine (GoM) from 1988 to 2007, primarily during spring and summer. The archive of tracks includes over 100,000 km logged thus far. Statistics such as transit times, mean velocities, response to wind events, and preferred pathways are compiled for various areas of the coastal GoM. We compare Lagrangian flow with Eulerian estimates from nearby moorings and evaluate drifter trajectories using Ekman theory and 3-D ocean circulation models. Results indicate that the Gulf of Maine Coastal Current is a strong and persistent feature centered on the 94±23 m isobath, but that particles: (a) deviate from the seasonal-mean core fairly regularly, and are often re-entrained; (b) follow a slower (9 cm/s), less-constrained path in the western portion off the coast of Maine relative to the eastern (16 cm/s) section; and (c) can be affected by wind events and small-scale baroclinic structures. Residence times calculated for each 1/2° grid cell throughout the GoM depict some regions (Eastern Maine and Western Nova Scotia) as being relatively steady, flow-through systems, while others (Penobscot, Great South Channel) have more variable, branching pathways. Travel times for drifters that are retained within the coastal current along the entire western side of the Gulf of Maine are typically less than two months (55 days).

  11. Space Shuttle Main Engine Test Firing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    A cloud of extremely hot steam boils out of the flame deflector at the A-1 test stand during a test firing of a Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) at the John C. Stennis Space Center, Hancock County, Mississippi.

  12. Distributed PV Adoption in Maine Through 2021

    SciTech Connect

    Gagnon, Pieter; Sigrin, Ben

    2015-11-06

    NREL has used its dSolar (distributed solar) model to generate low-medium-high estimates of distributed PV adoption in Maine through 2021. This presentation gives a high-level overview of the model and modeling results.

  13. Solution based CVD of main group materials.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Caroline E; Carmalt, Claire J

    2016-02-21

    This critical review focuses on the solution based chemical vapour deposition (CVD) of main group materials with particular emphasis on their current and potential applications. Deposition of thin films of main group materials, such as metal oxides, sulfides and arsenides, have been researched owing to the array of applications which utilise them including solar cells, transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) and window coatings. Solution based CVD processes, such as aerosol-assisted (AA)CVD have been developed due to their scalability and to overcome the requirement of suitably volatile precursors as the technique relies on the solubility rather than volatility of precursors which vastly extends the range of potentially applicable compounds. An introduction into the applications and precursor requirements of main group materials will be presented first followed by a detailed discussion of their deposition reviewed according to this application. The challenges and prospects for further enabling research in terms of emerging main group materials will be discussed. PMID:26446057

  14. Substructure Main Bridge, River Piers A & V ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Substructure - Main Bridge, River Piers A & V - Huey P. Long Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River approximately midway between nine & twelve mile points upstream from & west of New Orleans, Jefferson, Jefferson Parish, LA

  15. Shuttle Main Engine Firing in Gimbal Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    A close-up view of a Space Shuttle Main Engine during a test at the John C. Stennis Space Center shows how the engine is gimballed, or rotated to evaluate the performance of its components under simulated flight conditions.

  16. NASA Now: Geology: Curiosity -- Main Science Goals

    NASA Video Gallery

    Dr. Ashwin Vasavada, deputy project scientist for the Mars Science Laboratory, discusses the main science goals for Curiosity, including the investigation of the presence of water and evidence of l...

  17. Libraries in Maine: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... New England Jack S. Ketchum Library 11 Hills Beach Road, University Campus Biddeford, ME 04005-9599 207-602- ... College of Maine Wellehan Library 284 Whites Bridge Road Standish, ME 04084-5236 207-893-7725 http:// ...

  18. Geomagnetic main field modeling using magnetohydrodynamic constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, R. H.

    1985-01-01

    The influence of physical constraints are investigated which may be approximately satisfied by the Earth's liquid core on models of the geomagnetic main field and its secular variation. A previous report describes the methodology used to incorporate nonlinear equations of constraint into the main field model. The application of that methodology to the GSFC 12/83 field model to test the frozen-flux hypothesis and the usefulness of incorporating magnetohydrodynamic constraints for obtaining improved geomagnetic field models is described.

  19. Estimating Phenomenological Parameters in Multi-Assets Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raffaelli, Giacomo; Marsili, Matteo

    Financial correlations exhibit a non-trivial dynamic behavior. This is reproduced by a simple phenomenological model of a multi-asset financial market, which takes into account the impact of portfolio investment on price dynamics. This captures the fact that correlations determine the optimal portfolio but are affected by investment based on it. Such a feedback on correlations gives rise to an instability when the volume of investment exceeds a critical value. Close to the critical point the model exhibits dynamical correlations very similar to those observed in real markets. We discuss how the model's parameter can be estimated in real market data with a maximum likelihood principle. This confirms the main conclusion that real markets operate close to a dynamically unstable point.

  20. [Correlations between wild Polygonatum odoratum quality and main ecological factors].

    PubMed

    Bu, Jing; Li, Deng-Wu; Wang, Dong-Mei

    2012-06-01

    By the methods of stepwise regression, principal component analysis, and grey relational grade analysis, this paper studied the correlations between the effective components (polysaccharides and water- and alcohol-soluble substances) contents and antioxidant activity of wild Polygonatum odoratum in different places and the ecological factors. Among the test ecological factors, the mean air temperature in January and in July, mean annual precipitation, frost-free period, and soil pH and total potassium were the main factors affecting the effective component contents of P. odoratum, with a contribution rate of 99.0%. As compared with soil factors, climatic factors made more contribution to the effective component contents. Soil total potassium was the key factor controlling the effective component contents, mean annual precipitation was the main decision factor, and mean air temperature in January was the main limiting factor. The plant polysaccharides and water-soluble substance contents were the key factors affecting the antioxidant activity of P. odoratum, and the capability of P. odoratum in excavating DPPH free radical increased with increasing contents of polysaccharides and water-soluble substances. PMID:22937629

  1. Effect of including torsional parameters for histidine-metal interactions in classical force fields for metalloproteins.

    PubMed

    Mera-Adasme, Raúl; Sadeghian, Keyarash; Sundholm, Dage; Ochsenfeld, Christian

    2014-11-20

    Classical force-field parameters of the metal site of metalloproteins usually comprise only the partial charges of the involved atoms, as well as the bond-stretching and bending parameters of the metal-ligand interactions. Although for certain metal ligands such as histidine residues, the torsional motions at the metal site play an important role for the dynamics of the protein, no such terms have been considered to be crucial in the parametrization of the force fields, and they have therefore been omitted in the parametrization. In this work, we have optimized AMBER-compatible force-field parameters for the reduced state of the metal site of copper, zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1) and assessed the effect of including torsional parameters for the histidine-metal interactions in molecular dynamics simulations. On the basis of the obtained results, we recommend that torsion parameters of the metal site are included when processes at the metal site are investigated or when free-energy calculations are performed. As the torsion parameters mainly affect the structure of the metal site, other kinds of structural studies can be performed without considering the torsional parameters of the metal site. PMID:25410708

  2. Impact of various operating modes on performance and emission parameters of small heat source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vician, Peter; Holubčík, Michal; Palacka, Matej; Jandačka, Jozef

    2016-06-01

    Thesis deals with the measurement of performance and emission parameters of small heat source for combustion of biomass in each of its operating modes. As the heat source was used pellet boiler with an output of 18 kW. The work includes design of experimental device for measuring the impact of changes in air supply and method for controlling the power and emission parameters of heat sources for combustion of woody biomass. The work describes the main factors that affect the combustion process and analyze the measurements of emissions at the heat source. The results of experiment demonstrate the values of performance and emissions parameters for the different operating modes of the boiler, which serve as a decisive factor in choosing the appropriate mode.

  3. Effects of process parameters on the molding quality of the micro-needle array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Z. J.; Ma, Z.; Gao, S.

    2016-07-01

    Micro-needle array, which is used in medical applications, is a kind of typical injection molded products with microstructures. Due to its tiny micro-features size and high aspect ratios, it is more likely to produce short shots defects, leading to poor molding quality. The injection molding process of the micro-needle array was studied in this paper to find the effects of the process parameters on the molding quality of the micro-needle array and to provide theoretical guidance for practical production of high-quality products. With the shrinkage ratio and warpage of micro needles as the evaluation indices of the molding quality, the orthogonal experiment was conducted and the analysis of variance was carried out. According to the results, the contribution rates were calculated to determine the influence of various process parameters on molding quality. The single parameter method was used to analyse the main process parameter. It was found that the contribution rate of the holding pressure on shrinkage ratio and warpage reached 83.55% and 94.71% respectively, far higher than that of the other parameters. The study revealed that the holding pressure is the main factor which affects the molding quality of micro-needle array so that it should be focused on in order to obtain plastic parts with high quality in the practical production.

  4. Parameter estimating state reconstruction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, E. B.

    1976-01-01

    Parameter estimation is considered for systems whose entire state cannot be measured. Linear observers are designed to recover the unmeasured states to a sufficient accuracy to permit the estimation process. There are three distinct dynamics that must be accommodated in the system design: the dynamics of the plant, the dynamics of the observer, and the system updating of the parameter estimation. The latter two are designed to minimize interaction of the involved systems. These techniques are extended to weakly nonlinear systems. The application to a simulation of a space shuttle POGO system test is of particular interest. A nonlinear simulation of the system is developed, observers designed, and the parameters estimated.

  5. RESRAD parameter sensitivity analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, J.J.; Yu, C.; Zielen, A.J.

    1991-08-01

    Three methods were used to perform a sensitivity analysis of RESRAD code input parameters -- enhancement of RESRAD by the Gradient Enhanced Software System (GRESS) package, direct parameter perturbation, and graphic comparison. Evaluation of these methods indicated that (1) the enhancement of RESRAD by GRESS has limitations and should be used cautiously, (2) direct parameter perturbation is tedious to implement, and (3) the graphics capability of RESRAD 4.0 is the most direct and convenient method for performing sensitivity analyses. This report describes procedures for implementing these methods and presents a comparison of results. 3 refs., 9 figs., 8 tabs.

  6. GRCop-84 Rolling Parameter Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewenthal, William S.; Ellis, David L.

    2008-01-01

    This report is a section of the final report on the GRCop-84 task of the Constellation Program and incorporates the results obtained between October 2000 and September 2005, when the program ended. NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has developed a new copper alloy, GRCop-84 (Cu-8 at.% Cr-4 at.% Nb), for rocket engine main combustion chamber components that will improve rocket engine life and performance. This work examines the sensitivity of GRCop-84 mechanical properties to rolling parameters as a means to better define rolling parameters for commercial warm rolling. Experiment variables studied were total reduction, rolling temperature, rolling speed, and post rolling annealing heat treatment. The responses were tensile properties measured at 23 and 500 C, hardness, and creep at three stress-temperature combinations. Understanding these relationships will better define boundaries for a robust commercial warm rolling process. The four processing parameters were varied within limits consistent with typical commercial production processes. Testing revealed that the rolling-related variables selected have a minimal influence on tensile, hardness, and creep properties over the range of values tested. Annealing had the expected result of lowering room temperature hardness and strength while increasing room temperature elongations with 600 C (1112 F) having the most effect. These results indicate that the process conditions to warm roll plate and sheet for these variables can range over wide levels without negatively impacting mechanical properties. Incorporating broader process ranges in future rolling campaigns should lower commercial rolling costs through increased productivity.

  7. Assessing Student Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popham, W. James

    2009-01-01

    Student affect--the attitudes, interests, and values that students exhibit and acquire in school--can play a profoundly important role in students' postschool lives, possibly an even more significant role than that played by students' cognitive achievements. If student affect is so crucial, then why don't teachers assess it? One deterrent is that…

  8. Affective Involvement Instrument.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemlech, Johanna K.

    1970-01-01

    The Affective Involvement Instrument (AII) describes and classifies affective involvement in the process of decision-making as it occurs during classroom activities such as role-playing or group discussions. The thirty-celled instrument behaviorizes the six processes involved in decision-making and combines them with the taxonomic levels of the…

  9. Affectional Patterns of Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, William J.

    1979-01-01

    This study sought to determine if there is a shift with age in affection (1) from parents to friends, (2) from one parent to the other, and (3) from same-sex to opposite-sex friends. Subjects, eighth graders and eleventh graders, completed the Measurement of Family Affective Structure. (Author)

  10. Marine Occupations Conference (Southern Maine Vocational Technical Institute, South Portland, Maine, April 5, 1974). Maine Sea Grant Bulletin 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coggins, Phyllis, Ed.; And Others

    This collection of speeches, presented as the 1974 Marine Occupations Conference in South Portland, Maine, provides an overview of information regarding availability and kinds of careers in, as well as the educational requirements for, marine occupations. Also reviewed are the problems of developing marine resources, such as those involving…

  11. Reassessment of safeguards parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Hakkila, E.A.; Richter, J.L.; Mullen, M.F.

    1994-07-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency is reassessing the timeliness and goal quantity parameters that are used in defining safeguards approaches. This study reviews technology developments since the parameters were established in the 1970s and concludes that there is no reason to relax goal quantity or conversion time for reactor-grade plutonium relative to weapons-grade plutonium. For low-enriched uranium, especially in countries with advanced enrichment capability there may be an incentive to shorten the detection time.

  12. Guide to the Main Ring DO overpass

    SciTech Connect

    Turkot, F.

    1985-03-20

    The DO overpass is a modification of the beam orbit in Main Ring in order to better accommodate a Tevatron collider detector at DO. The orbit is moved up approx. 51 inches over most of the long straight section at DO, thus making the Main Ring the world's first non-planar proton synchrotron. A similar overpass, but with four times the displacement, is planned for the CDF detector at the BO straight section. The nominal separation between the beam orbit in the Main Ring and the orbit in the Tevatron is 25.5 inches. Early in the design study of a detector that would utilize the Tevatron is a anti pp collider, it was apparent that a larger separation at the detector was highly desirable. In 1981, Tom Collins proposed a specific lattice geometry in the Main Ring for achieving larger separation, called ''the screw beam''. His proposal has served as the basis for the design of both the BO and DO overpasses. The main purpose of this report is to describe in some detail the implementation of the DO overpass. Topics to be covered include: (a) geometry of the overpass orbit, (b) the new hardware in the tunnel, (c) the power supply system, (d) the control facility, (e) accelerator beam dynamics ramifications, and (f) commissioning experience. A secondary purpose is to provide a fairly complete ''bibliography'' to the sources of information on the overpass. 17 refs., 17 figs.

  13. MODELING PHYSICAL HABITAT PARAMETERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Salmonid populations can be affected by alterations in stream physical habitat. Fish productivity is determined by the stream's physical habitat structure ( channel form, substrate distribution, riparian vegetation), water quality, flow regime and inputs from the watershed (sedim...

  14. Low-frequency Slivan states in the outer main belt?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vraštil, J.; Vokrouhlický, D.

    2016-02-01

    Context. Spin states of several main belt asteroids have been recently found to reside in what is called the Slivan state, namely a secular spin-orbit resonance with the s6 mode of their orbital precession in space. Aims: We examine a possibility of the Slivan states of asteroids with other than orbital s6 precession frequency. Methods: The asteroids' orbital and spin states are numerically propagated using well-tested computer codes. We select parameter space favorable for the Slivan-state capture with the s7 frequency mode of the orbital precession. The stability of these states is numerically verified. Results: We find that asteroid (184) Dejopeja has a spin state captured in (or very nearly) the Slivan state with the s7 orbital frequency. In general, such a situation may favorably occur for low-inclination orbits in the outermost part of the main asteroid belt. We expect these states to be common among the Themis family members.

  15. Space shuttle main engine fault detection using neural networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Thomas; Greenwood, Dan; Shew, Kenneth; Stevenson, Fareed

    1991-01-01

    A method for on-line Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) anomaly detection and fault typing using a feedback neural network is described. The method involves the computation of features representing time-variance of SSME sensor parameters, using historical test case data. The network is trained, using backpropagation, to recognize a set of fault cases. The network is then able to diagnose new fault cases correctly. An essential element of the training technique is the inclusion of randomly generated data along with the real data, in order to span the entire input space of potential non-nominal data.

  16. Coupled orbital-thermal evolution of the main Uranian satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noyelles, B.; Verheylewegen, E.; Karatekin, O.

    2013-12-01

    Some of the main satellites of Uranus, in particular Miranda and Ariel, present evidence of a past geophysical activity. This activity can be associated with internal heating during its history and several causes for this heating are envisaged, like the tides and impact(s), following radiogenic heating at the early stage of the evolution. Here, we present a coupled thermal-orbital model of the history of the main satellites of Uranus, in which not only the orbit acts on the heating, but the heating acts also on the orbit in affecting tidal dissipation. We focus in particular on the past mean-motion resonance Miranda-Umbriel, responsible for Miranda's current high inclination.

  17. VLT 8-m unit telescope main structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quattri, Marco; Ravensbergen, Martin; Koch, Franz; Contiero, Oscar; Marchiori, Gianpietro; Piccinini, Antonio

    1997-03-01

    The main structure is defined as the telescope mechanical structure including the drives, the encoder system, the hydrostatic bearing system and all those subsystems which make the system self standing safe and testable as an electromechanical system, with the exclusion of the velocity and position control loops. The main structure is now almost completely assembled in Milan. The tests of the main mechanical performances (dynamic and static) have been carried out to gather information at the earliest possible stage of the assembling activities. The drives and the hydrostatic bearing system have been tested concerning their functionality. This paper aims to summarize concisely the results of the tests, to compare them to the design calculations and to show some possible design changes which could improve the performances of the telescope.

  18. Main Coast Winds - Final Scientific Report

    SciTech Connect

    Jason Huckaby; Harley Lee

    2006-03-15

    The Maine Coast Wind Project was developed to investigate the cost-effectiveness of small, distributed wind systems on coastal sites in Maine. The restructuring of Maine's electric grid to support net metering allowed for the installation of small wind installations across the state (up to 100kW). The study performed adds insight to the difficulties of developing cost-effective distributed systems in coastal environments. The technical hurdles encountered with the chosen wind turbine, combined with the lower than expected wind speeds, did not provide a cost-effective return to make a distributed wind program economically feasible. While the turbine was accepted within the community, the low availability has been a negative.

  19. Space shuttle main engine computed tomography applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sporny, Richard F.

    1990-01-01

    For the past two years the potential applications of computed tomography to the fabrication and overhaul of the Space Shuttle Main Engine were evaluated. Application tests were performed at various government and manufacturer facilities with equipment produced by four different manufacturers. The hardware scanned varied in size and complexity from a small temperature sensor and turbine blades to an assembled heat exchanger and main injector oxidizer inlet manifold. The evaluation of capabilities included the ability to identify and locate internal flaws, measure the depth of surface cracks, measure wall thickness, compare manifold design contours to actual part contours, perform automatic dimensional inspections, generate 3D computer models of actual parts, and image the relationship of the details in a complex assembly. The capabilities evaluated, with the exception of measuring the depth of surface flaws, demonstrated the existing and potential ability to perform many beneficial Space Shuttle Main Engine applications.

  20. Main-group elements as transition metals.

    PubMed

    Power, Philip P

    2010-01-14

    The last quarter of the twentieth century and the beginning decade of the twenty-first witnessed spectacular discoveries in the chemistry of the heavier main-group elements. The new compounds that were synthesized highlighted the fundamental differences between their electronic properties and those of the lighter elements to a degree that was not previously apparent. This has led to new structural and bonding insights as well as a gradually increasing realization that the chemistry of the heavier main-group elements more resembles that of transition-metal complexes than that of their lighter main-group congeners. The similarity is underlined by recent work, which has shown that many of the new compounds react with small molecules such as H(2), NH(3), C(2)H(4) or CO under mild conditions and display potential for applications in catalysis. PMID:20075912

  1. Bunch coalescing in the Fermilab Main Ring

    SciTech Connect

    Wildman, D.; Martin, P.; Meisner, K.; Miller, H.W.

    1987-03-01

    A new rf system has been installed in the Fermilab Main Ring to coalesce up to 13 individual bunches of protons or antiprotons into a single high-intensity bunch. The coalescing process consists of adiabatically reducing the h = 1113 Main Ring rf voltage from 1 MV to less than 1 kV, capturing the debunched beam in a linearized h = 53 and h = 106 bucket, rotating for a quarter of a synchrotron oscillation period, and then recapturing the beam in a single h = 1113 bucket. The new system will be described and the results of recent coalescing experiments will be compared with computer-generated particle tracking simulations.

  2. Translation and Borrowing of Acronyms: Main Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Felix Rodriguez

    1991-01-01

    Describes the conditions affecting the translation and borrowing of acronyms (such as "VHS") among other languages, concluding that the major difficulty in translating acronyms is in balancing intended expressed meaning, represented technicality or potential for common usage, articulation, and perceived acceptability of "foreign" terms. (20…

  3. [Affect and mimetic behavior].

    PubMed

    Zepf, S; Ullrich, B; Hartmann, S

    1998-05-01

    The relationship between facial expression and experienced affect presents many problems. The two diametrically opposed positions proposing solutions to this problem are exemplified using the conceptions of Mandler u. Izard. The underlying premises of both conceptions still prevail in various forms. The authors reject the concepts according to which facial expression is merely correlated to the affects (see Mandler 1975) as well as the view that facial expression controls the affects (see Izard 1977). The relationship between affect and facial expression is reexamined, subjecting it to a semiotic, essentially semantic analysis similar to the Ogden and Richards' language and meaning approach. This analysis involves a critical discussion of Scherer's attempt of a purely communicational interpretation using Bühler's organon model. In the author's approach, facial expression is seen not simply as a system of signals, but as a system of representative signs which signify the affects and refer to the emotive meaning of things for the subject. The authors develop the thesis that human beings are not born simply with the ability to speak, but also with the abstract possibility of performing facial expressions. This ability develops by way of coordinating patterns of expressions, which are presumably phylogenetically determined, with affects that take on a socially determined individual form, similar to language acquisition during socialisation. The authors discuss the methodological implications arising for studies investigating the affective meaning of facial expressions. PMID:9632951

  4. Maine's College Graduates: Where They Go and Why. Finding Maine's Future Workforce (Revisited)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silvernail, David L.; Woodard, Brianne L.

    2006-01-01

    In the knowledge-based economy of today, training and retaining a college educated workforce is crucial to the vitality of Maine. Approximately one-half of Maine's high school graduates who go on to college leave the State to do so. A previous study, "Maine's College Graduates: Where They Go and Why" (2003), looked at the factors that influenced…

  5. 125. Pre1911. Crew on main deck, starboard side at main ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    125. Pre-1911. Crew on main deck, starboard side at main hatch, looking aft. Note dark object in center of photo that may be original main deck capstan. Fred Heick collection. (K9.9571) - Ship BALCLUTHA, 2905 Hyde Street Pier, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  6. 33 CFR 334.30 - Gulf of Maine off Pemaquid Point, Maine; naval sonobuoy test area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., Maine; naval sonobuoy test area. 334.30 Section 334.30 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....30 Gulf of Maine off Pemaquid Point, Maine; naval sonobuoy test area. (a) The area. The test area or... during the period when sonobuoys are being dropped, an escort vessel or naval aircraft will be in...

  7. 33 CFR 334.30 - Gulf of Maine off Pemaquid Point, Maine; naval sonobuoy test area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., Maine; naval sonobuoy test area. 334.30 Section 334.30 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....30 Gulf of Maine off Pemaquid Point, Maine; naval sonobuoy test area. (a) The area. The test area or... during the period when sonobuoys are being dropped, an escort vessel or naval aircraft will be in...

  8. Impacts of Lithological and Anthropogenic Factors Affecting Water Chemistry in the Upper Paraguay River Basin.

    PubMed

    Rezende-Filho, Ary T; Valles, Vincent; Furian, Sônia; Oliveira, Célia M S C; Ouardi, Jamila; Barbiero, Laurent

    2015-11-01

    Located in the Upper Paraguay River Basin (UPRB), the Pantanal is considered the world's largest wetland, being rather pristine although increasingly threatened by development programs. The main objective of this paper is to provide a baseline of water chemistry for this region, which is largely unknown as a result of poor accessibility. We used two datasets (70 and 122 water samples) collected in the Pantanal floodplain and surrounding uplands during the wet season occurring from November to March. From the major-ion mineral chemistry, dissolved silica, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), and the ionic forms of N, principal components analysis (PCA) treatments were used to identify and rank the main factors of variability and decipher the associated processes affecting the water chemistry. The results revealed that the water mineral concentration was a major factor of variability and it must be attributed first to lithology and second to agricultural inputs from extensive crop cultivation areas that mainly affects sulfate (SO) concentration on the eastern edge of the Pantanal. These processes influence the floodplain, where (i) the mixing of waters remains the main process, (ii) the weight of the biological and redox processes increased, and (iii) the chemical signature of the extensive cropping is transferred along the São Lourenço Basin down to its confluence with the Cuiaba River. Optimized parameters based on projections in the main factorial score plots were used for the mapping of lithological and agricultural impacts on water chemistry. PMID:26641335

  9. Maine KIDS COUNT 2001 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davey, Lynn

    This KIDS COUNT data book details statewide trends in the well-being of Maine's children. The statistical portrait is based on a variety of indicators in the areas of: (1) physical and mental health; (2) social and economic opportunity; (3) education and learning; and (4) child health care access. The data book presents state level trend data, a…

  10. Maine Kids Count 1998 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine Children's Alliance, Augusta.

    This Kids Count report details statewide trends in the well-being of Maine's children. The statistical portrait is based on indicators of children's well-being in four areas: (1) physical and mental health; (2) community and family environment; (3) social and economic opportunity; and (4) education and learning. The report's introduction describes…

  11. Maine Kids Count 1997 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine Children's Alliance, Augusta.

    This Kids Count report details statewide trends in the well-being of Maine's children. The statistical portrait is based on indictors children's well-being in four areas: (1) physical and mental health; (2) social and economic opportunity; (3) community and family environment; and (4) education and learning. The report's introduction describes…

  12. Foreign Body in Left Main Bronchus.

    PubMed

    Dhadke, Shubhangi V; Chaudhari, Amit L; Deshpande, Neelima S; Dhadke, Vithal N; Sangle, Shashikala A

    2015-07-01

    Tracheobronchial foreign body (TFB) aspiration is rare in adults, although incidence rates increases with advancing age. We report a case of foreign body in left main bronchus in an adult female who had no risk factor. She was successfully treated with removal of betel nuts by bronchoscopy. Unusual presentation and high index of suspicion can help in proper management. PMID:26731835

  13. Identification of space shuttle main engine dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duyar, Ahmet; Guo, Ten-Huei; Merrill, Walter C.

    1989-01-01

    System identification techniques are used to represent the dynamic behavior of the Space Shuttle Main Engine. The transfer function matrices of the linearized models of both the closed loop and the open loop system are obtained by using the recursive maximum likelihood method.

  14. Maine KIDS COUNT 2000 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine Children's Alliance, Augusta.

    This KIDS COUNT Report details statewide trends in the well-being of Maine's children. The statistical portrait is based on a variety of indicators in the areas of: (1) physical and mental health; (2) social and economic opportunity; (3) education and learning; and (4) child health care access. The report contains a special section on Maine…

  15. Space transportation main engine reliability and safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monk, Jan C.

    1991-01-01

    Viewgraphs are used to illustrate the reliability engineering and aerospace safety of the Space Transportation Main Engine (STME). A technology developed is called Total Quality Management (TQM). The goal is to develop a robust design. Reducing process variability produces a product with improved reliability and safety. Some engine system design characteristics are identified which improves reliability.

  16. Maine KIDS COUNT 2002 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine Children's Alliance, Augusta.

    This KIDS COUNT data book details statewide trends in the well-being of Maine's children. Following a brief overview of the data book and a summary of indicators, state trend data are presented in the areas of: (1) poverty; (2) child and adolescent suicide; (3) public high school dropouts; (4) teen pregnancy; (5) public high school graduates…

  17. Main Concepts of Chemical and Biological Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trojanowicz, Marek

    Brief historic introduction precedes presentation of main types of transducers used in sensors including electrochemical, optical, mass sensitive, and thermal devices. Review of chemical sensors includes various types of gas sensitive devices, potentiometric and amperometric sensors, and quartz microbalance applications. Mechanisms of biorecognition employed in biosensors are reviewed with the method of immobilization used. Some examples of biomimetic sensors are also presented.

  18. Maine Indians: A Brief Summary. December 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine State Dept. of Indian Affairs, Augusta.

    Divided into five major sections, this revised summary of the socioeconomic development of Maine American Indians presents the following: (1) General Information (prehistoric development of these Algonquian-speaking Indians including the most recently accepted tribal and band subdivisions; their cultural and historical development; and their…

  19. Maine's Balance of Representation: Information and Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine Department of Education, 2003

    2003-01-01

    This document, a companion to the "LAS Guide Principles and Criteria for the Adoption of Local Assessment Systems," [ED484135] presents results that are intended to provide Maine's school administrative units with an option for selecting sample performance indicators to be assessed through the Local Assessment System to meet the requirements for…

  20. Eutrophication: State of the Gulf of Maine

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cultural eutrophication is an ecosystem response to increases in nutrient (primarily nitrogen and phosphorus) inputs from human sources. Estuaries, bays and nearshore coastal waters in the Gulf of Maine receive nutrient inputs from land-based sources via rivers and streams, dir...

  1. Maine Special Education Regulations: Chapter 101.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine State Dept. of Education, Augusta. Div. of Special Services.

    This document contains regulations governing the provision of equal educational opportunities and free, appropriate public education in the least restrictive educational alternative to all Maine student residents with disabilities between the ages of 5 and 20. Twenty sections contain provisions relating to: (1) the policy and purpose of special…

  2. Eutrophication in the Gulf of Maine's waters

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Gulf of Maine and its watershed encompass more than 170,000 km2 and is home to over 6.5 million Canadians and Americans. Despite its long-standing importance to fisheries and natural resources and current interest in exploration of wind and tide as renewable energy sources, ...

  3. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Maine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Maine students had across-the-board gains. There were improvements in both reading and math at the basic, proficient and advanced levels for the subgroups large enough to count, which were white students, low income students, and boys and girls. Results on…

  4. 40 CFR 81.320 - Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Aroostook Intrastate Unclassifiable/Attainment Aroostook County (part) see 40 CFR 81.179 AQCR 109 Down East Intrastate Unclassifiable/Attainment Penobscot County (part), as described under 40 CFR 81.181 Piscataquis County (part) see 40 CFR 81.181 Washington County AQCR 111 Northwest Maine Intrastate (Remainder...

  5. 40 CFR 81.320 - Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Aroostook Intrastate Unclassifiable/Attainment Aroostook County (part) see 40 CFR 81.179 AQCR 109 Down East Intrastate Unclassifiable/Attainment Penobscot County (part), as described under 40 CFR 81.181 Piscataquis County (part) see 40 CFR 81.181 Washington County AQCR 111 Northwest Maine Intrastate (Remainder...

  6. 40 CFR 81.320 - Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CFR 81.179 AQCR 109 Down East Intrastate Unclassifiable/Attainment Penobscot County (part), as described under 40 CFR 81.181 Piscataquis County (part) see 40 CFR 81.181 Washington County AQCR 111 Northwest Maine Intrastate (Remainder of) Unclassifiable/Attainment see 40 CFR 81.182 Aroostook...

  7. 40 CFR 81.320 - Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Aroostook Intrastate Unclassifiable/Attainment Aroostook County (part) see 40 CFR 81.179 AQCR 109 Down East Intrastate Unclassifiable/Attainment Penobscot County (part), as described under 40 CFR 81.181 Piscataquis County (part) see 40 CFR 81.181 Washington County AQCR 111 Northwest Maine Intrastate (Remainder...

  8. Maine Kids Count 2003 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jelcich, Susan, Ed.

    This Kids Count data book details statewide trends in the well-being of Maine's children. The statistical portrait is based on indicators in the areas of physical and mental health, including insurance enrollment, adolescent health and safety, and child welfare; social and economic status, including poverty, unemployment, and teen pregnancies; and…

  9. Slow extraction from the Fermilab Main Injector

    SciTech Connect

    Craig D. Moore et al.

    2001-07-20

    Slow resonant extraction from the Fermilab Main Injector through the extraction channel was achieved in February, 2000, with a spill length of 0.3 sec. Beam losses were small. Excellent wire chamber profiles were obtained and analyzed. The duty factor was not very good and needs to be improved.

  10. 75 FR 39993 - MAINE Disaster #ME-00026

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-13

    ... State of MAINE (FEMA-- 1920--DR), dated 07/01/2010. Incident: Severe Storms and Flooding. Incident Period: 03/12/2010 through 04/01/2010. Effective Date: 07/01/2010. Physical Loan Application Deadline Date: 08/30/2010. Economic Injury (EIDL) Loan Application Deadline Date: 04/01/2011. ADDRESSES:...

  11. 75 FR 17792 - Maine Disaster # ME-00024

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-07

    ... State of Maine (FEMA-1891- DR), dated 03/25/2010. Incident: Severe winter storms and flooding. Incident Period: 02/23/2010 through 03/02/2010. Effective Date: 03/25/2010. Physical Loan Application Deadline Date: 05/24/2010. Economic Injury (EIDL) Loan Application Deadline Date: 12/27/2010. ADDRESSES:...

  12. High Moisture Corn Evaluated for Northern Maine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Profitable rotation crops that can grow in cool, northern Maine climates are needed to sustain the diversity of potato systems. A field experiment was conducted to determine whether three high moisture corn hybrids were suitable for harvest as a short season rotation crop. Yield and grain moisture...

  13. The Gulf of Maine in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Michael J.

    This paper describes some of the correct, missing, and alternative conceptions which students possess related to the Gulf of Maine. Students (N=226) from grades 4, 8, and 11 were interviewed on 15 major concepts involving geology, physical and chemical oceanography, natural resources, ecology, and decision-making. The mean interview scores of the…

  14. Geomagnetic main field modeling with DMSP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alken, P.; Maus, S.; Lühr, H.; Redmon, R. J.; Rich, F.; Bowman, B.; O'Malley, S. M.

    2014-05-01

    The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) launches and maintains a network of satellites to monitor the meteorological, oceanographic, and solar-terrestrial physics environments. In the past decade, geomagnetic field modelers have focused much attention on magnetic measurements from missions such as CHAMP, Ørsted, and SAC-C. With the completion of the CHAMP mission in 2010, there has been a multiyear gap in satellite-based vector magnetic field measurements available for main field modeling. In this study, we calibrate the special sensor magnetometer instrument on board DMSP to create a data set suitable for main field modeling. These vector field measurements are calibrated to compute instrument timing shifts, scale factors, offsets, and nonorthogonality angles of the fluxgate magnetometer cores. Euler angles are then computed to determine the orientation of the vector magnetometer with respect to a local coordinate system. We fit a degree 15 main field model to the data set and compare with the World Magnetic Model and Ørsted scalar measurements. We call this model DMSP-MAG-1, and its coefficients and software are available for download at http://geomag.org/models/dmsp.html. Our results indicate that the DMSP data set will be a valuable source for main field modeling for the years between CHAMP and the recently launched Swarm mission.

  15. Parameter estimation through ignorance.

    PubMed

    Du, Hailiang; Smith, Leonard A

    2012-07-01

    Dynamical modeling lies at the heart of our understanding of physical systems. Its role in science is deeper than mere operational forecasting, in that it allows us to evaluate the adequacy of the mathematical structure of our models. Despite the importance of model parameters, there is no general method of parameter estimation outside linear systems. A relatively simple method of parameter estimation for nonlinear systems is introduced, based on variations in the accuracy of probability forecasts. It is illustrated on the logistic map, the Henon map, and the 12-dimensional Lorenz96 flow, and its ability to outperform linear least squares in these systems is explored at various noise levels and sampling rates. As expected, it is more effective when the forecast error distributions are non-Gaussian. The method selects parameter values by minimizing a proper, local skill score for continuous probability forecasts as a function of the parameter values. This approach is easier to implement in practice than alternative nonlinear methods based on the geometry of attractors or the ability of the model to shadow the observations. Direct measures of inadequacy in the model, the "implied ignorance," and the information deficit are introduced. PMID:23005513

  16. Document Retrieval Systems; Factors Affecting Search Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, K. Leon, Ed.

    An experiment was conducted to identify some of the important parameters affecting search time, a critical cost factor in retrieval systems. Using actual computer searches of Chemical Abstracts Condensate, a comparison was made between the effectiveness of linear and inverted filing systems. Since the results indicated that it was the type and…

  17. Compounds affecting cholesterol absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hua, Duy H. (Inventor); Koo, Sung I. (Inventor); Noh, Sang K. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A class of novel compounds is described for use in affecting lymphatic absorption of cholesterol. Compounds of particular interest are defined by Formula I: ##STR1## or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

  18. [Pharmacological effects of CM6912 and its main metabolites].

    PubMed

    Morishita, H; Kushiku, K; Furukawa, T; Yamaki, Y; Izawa, M; Shibazaki, Y; Shibata, U

    1985-07-01

    Pharmacodynamic effects of ethyl 7-chloro-2,3-dihydro-5-(2-fluorophenyl)-2-oxo-1H-1,4- benzodiazepine-3-carboxylate (CM6912), a new benzodiazepine derivative, and its main metabolites (CM6913 = M1, CM7116 = M2) on the peripheral systems were investigated in several species of animals. In pentobarbital-anesthetized rabbits, CM6912 and M2 (1 or 5 mg/kg, i.v.) had little effect on blood pressure, heart rate and ECG, but it slightly reduced the respiration rate. M1 decreased the heart rate without affecting respiration, blood pressure and ECG. In conscious rabbits, CM6912 and M2 (1 mg/kg, i.v.) did not affect respiration, blood pressure, heart rate and ECG, but M1 (1 mg/kg, i.v.) increased the heart rate. CM6912 (5 or 30 mg/kg), when administered orally, also increased heart rate. In pentobarbital-anesthetized dogs, CM6912 and its metabolites (5 mg/kg, i.v.) decreased respiration and heart rate without affecting blood pressure and ECG. CM 6912 (5 mg/kg, i.v.) did not affect cardiovascular responses to the carotid occlusion, vagus stimulation, and pre- and post-ganglionic stimulation of cardiac ganglion in anesthetized dogs. CM6912 and its metabolites affected neither the spontaneous contraction nor the heart rate of isolated rabbit atria. These compounds also had no action on isolated aortic strips from rabbits. CM6912 and its metabolites did not affect the muscle tone of isolated guinea pig intestine, and it had no effects on the contractile responses to acetylcholine, histamine, serotonin and barium chloride. In isolated rabbit intestine, CM6912 and M2 slightly reduced the amplitude of contraction, while M1 had no effect. CM6912 and its metabolites did not affect the spontaneous motility of isolated non-pregnant and pregnant rat uteri as well as in situ non-pregnant rat uterus and isolated guinea pig vas deferens, including the contractile response to adrenaline. CM6912 and M2 relaxed isolated guinea pig trachea strips only at high concentrations. CM6912 and its

  19. [Hygienic characteristics of work conditions for main occupations in asbestos cement production of Ukraine].

    PubMed

    Kundiev, Iu I; Cherniuk, V I; Karakashian, A N; Kucheruk, T K; Martynovskaia, T Iu; Demetskaia, A V; Sal'nikova, N A; Chuĭ, T S; Piatnitsa-Gorpinchenko, N K

    2008-01-01

    Studies covered of work conditions for main occupations in asbestos cement production of Ukraine. Studies covered work conditions and occupational features of workers engaged into main occupations in asbestos cement enterprises of Ukraine. Parameters presented characterize ambient air state, microclimate conditions, levels of noise and vibration, work intensity and hardness. PMID:18461799

  20. Factors Affecting the Capture Efficiency of a Fume Extraction Torch for Gas Metal Arc Welding.

    PubMed

    Bonthoux, Francis

    2016-07-01

    Welding fumes are classified as Group 2B 'possibly carcinogenic' and this prompts to the implementation of local exhaust ventilation (LEV). The fume extraction torch with LEV integrated into the tool is the most attractive solution but its capture efficiency is often disappointing in practice. This study assesses the main parameters affecting fume capture efficiency namely the extraction flow rate, the positioning of the suction openings on the torch, the angle of inclination of the torch to the workpiece during welding, the metal transfer modes, and the welding deposition rate. The theoretical velocity induced by suction, estimated from the extraction flow rate and the position of the suction openings, is the main parameter affecting effectiveness of the device. This is the design parameter and its value should never be <0.25 m s(-1) The angle of the torch relative to the workpiece also has a great deal of influence. To improve efficiency, work station layouts need to favour positions where the torch is held with angles closer to perpendicular (<15°). Welding with high deposition rates (>1.1g s(-1)) and spray transfer leads to low capture efficiency if induced velocities are <0.5 m s(-1) The results of the study can be used in the design of integrated on-torch extraction systems and provide information for fixing system objectives. PMID:27074798

  1. Factors Affecting the Capture Efficiency of a Fume Extraction Torch for Gas Metal Arc Welding

    PubMed Central

    Bonthoux, Francis

    2016-01-01

    Welding fumes are classified as Group 2B ‘possibly carcinogenic’ and this prompts to the implementation of local exhaust ventilation (LEV). The fume extraction torch with LEV integrated into the tool is the most attractive solution but its capture efficiency is often disappointing in practice. This study assesses the main parameters affecting fume capture efficiency namely the extraction flow rate, the positioning of the suction openings on the torch, the angle of inclination of the torch to the workpiece during welding, the metal transfer modes, and the welding deposition rate. The theoretical velocity induced by suction, estimated from the extraction flow rate and the position of the suction openings, is the main parameter affecting effectiveness of the device. This is the design parameter and its value should never be <0.25 m s−1. The angle of the torch relative to the workpiece also has a great deal of influence. To improve efficiency, work station layouts need to favour positions where the torch is held with angles closer to perpendicular (<15°). Welding with high deposition rates (>1.1g s−1) and spray transfer leads to low capture efficiency if induced velocities are <0.5 m s−1. The results of the study can be used in the design of integrated on-torch extraction systems and provide information for fixing system objectives. PMID:27074798

  2. Aircraft parameter estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iliff, Kenneth W.

    1987-01-01

    The aircraft parameter estimation problem is used to illustrate the utility of parameter estimation, which applies to many engineering and scientific fields. Maximum likelihood estimation has been used to extract stability and control derivatives from flight data for many years. This paper presents some of the basic concepts of aircraft parameter estimation and briefly surveys the literature in the field. The maximum likelihood estimator is discussed, and the basic concepts of minimization and estimation are examined for a simple simulated aircraft example. The cost functions that are to be minimized during estimation are defined and discussed. Graphic representations of the cost functions are given to illustrate the minimization process. Finally, the basic concepts are generalized, and estimation from flight data is discussed. Some of the major conclusions for the simulated example are also developed for the analysis of flight data from the F-14, highly maneuverable aircraft technology (HiMAT), and space shuttle vehicles.

  3. Target parameter estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hocking, W. K.

    1989-01-01

    The objective of any radar experiment is to determine as much as possible about the entities which scatter the radiation. This review discusses many of the various parameters which can be deduced in a radar experiment, and also critically examines the procedures used to deduce them. Methods for determining the mean wind velocity, the RMS fluctuating velocities, turbulence parameters, and the shapes of the scatterers are considered. Complications with these determinations are discussed. It is seen throughout that a detailed understanding of the shape and cause of the scatterers is important in order to make better determinations of these various quantities. Finally, some other parameters, which are less easily acquired, are considered. For example, it is noted that momentum fluxes due to buoyancy waves and turbulence can be determined, and on occasions radars can be used to determine stratospheric diffusion coefficients and even temperature profiles in the atmosphere.

  4. Standard pre-main sequence models of low-mass stars

    SciTech Connect

    Prada Moroni, P. G.; Degl'Innocenti, S.; Tognelli, E.

    2014-05-09

    The main characteristics of standard pre-main sequence (PMS) models are described. A discussion of the uncer-tainties affecting the current generation of PMS evolutionary tracks and isochrones is also provided. In particular, the impact of the uncertainties in the adopted equation of state, radiative opacity, nuclear cross sections, and initial chemical abundances are analysed.

  5. Ecological parameters influencing microbial diversity and stability of traditional sourdough.

    PubMed

    Minervini, Fabio; De Angelis, Maria; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Gobbetti, Marco

    2014-02-01

    The quality of some leavened, sourdough baked goods is not always consistent, unless a well propagated sourdough starter culture is used for the dough fermentation. Among the different types of sourdough used, the traditional sourdough has attracted the interest of researchers, mainly because of its large microbial diversity, especially with respect to lactic acid bacteria. Variation in this diversity and the factors that cause it will impact on quality and is the subject of this review. Sourdough microbial diversity is mainly caused by the following factors: (i) sourdough is obtained through spontaneous, multi-step fermentation; (ii) it is propagated using flour, whose nutrient content may vary according to the batch and to the crop, and which is naturally contaminated by microorganisms; and (iii) it is propagated under peculiar technological parameters, which vary depending on the historical and cultural background and type of baked good. In the population dynamics leading from flour to mature sourdough, lactic acid bacteria (several species of Lactobacillus sp., Leuconostoc sp., and Weissella sp.) and yeasts (mainly Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida sp.) outcompete other microbial groups contaminating flour, and interact with each other at different levels. Ecological parameters qualitatively and quantitatively affecting the dominant sourdough microbiota may be classified into specific technological parameters (e.g., percentage of sourdough used as inoculum, time and temperature of fermentation) and parameters that are not fully controlled by those who manage the propagation of sourdough (e.g., chemical, enzyme and microbial composition of flour). Although some sourdoughs have been reported to harbour a persistent dominant microbiota, the stability of sourdough ecosystem during time is debated. Indeed, several factors may interfere with the persistence of species and strains associations that are typical of a given sourdough: metabolic adaptability to the

  6. Performance parameters in the design of flight motion simulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Robert W.

    2012-06-01

    The desired test performance parameters influence the design of a Flight Motion Simulator (FMS) and affect its size, weight, power, electro-magnetic interference, noise, and vibration. A common desire is to specify requirements beyond the immediate need for future test programs. This may directly affect cost and schedule. Critical parameters that affect the FMS design are larger payload sizes, higher accuracies, and higher dynamic requirements. This paper provides a checklist of parameters and specification tradeoffs to be considered for the overall system performance requirements.

  7. Schizophrenia--a parameters' game?

    PubMed

    Radulescu, Anca

    2008-09-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe, currently incurable, relatively common mental condition. Its symptoms are complex and widespread. It structurally and functionally affects cortical and subcortical regions involved in cognitive, emotional and motivational aspects of behavior. Its diagnosis is based on statistical behavior rather than on its actual cause and its treatment is elusive. We elaborate a theoretical paradigm that accounts for some of the most important features of this illness. Our nonlinear mathematical model, built upon recent hypotheses of neural vulnerability and limbic dysregulation, addresses the amygdala-hippocampus-prefrontal interactions and their evolution under perturbation. The dependence of the dynamics on the system's parameters offers an analytical context for the "normality/disease" dichotomy. The concept of bifurcation could be the key to understanding the threshold between these two states. The nonlinearity parameter (Lyapunov number) is responsible in our setup for tuning the limbic vulnerability characteristic to schizophrenia. Studying its effect on the dynamics helps us understand how stressful events and medication can switch the system from a regime of safety to one of instability, and conversely. The approach has potential for pre-symptomatic risk assessments and for long-term predictions. PMID:18571677

  8. Early history of the Fermilab Main Ring

    SciTech Connect

    Malamud, E.; /Fermilab

    1983-10-01

    This note is written in response to a request from Phil Livdahl for corrections, and additions to a TM he is writing on Staffing Levels at Fermilab during Initial Construction Years and to a note that Hank Hinterberger is preparing on milestones. In my spare time over the past few years I have taken the original files of the Main Ring Section, my own notes from that period, and various other collections of relevant paper, and arranged them in a set of 44 large loose leaf binders in chronological order. I call this set of volumes the 'Main Ring Chronological Archives'. In response to Phil's request I have recently skimmed through these records of the period and extracted a small subset of documents which relate to the specific questions that Phil is addressing: staffing. administration, and milestones.

  9. Orbital evolution of the main Uranian satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verheylewegen, E.; Noyelles, B.

    2011-10-01

    Since Voyager 2 space mission, we know some properties of the main Uranian satellites (Miranda, Ariel, Umbriel, Titania, Oberon): on the one hand, we observe an important resurfacing of both Miranda and Ariel, and on the other hand some strangenesses in the orbital elements such as the anomalously high inclinaison of Miranda or the anomalously high eccentricity of Ariel. The aim of this study is to use some modern methods including advances in computing resources to revise some studies developed in the last 20 years (see for instance [1], [2], [3], [4]). We therefore consider a model of a n-body problem which takes into account of the mutual perturbations of the five main satellites and of the planet Uranus and meet/improve some previous results.

  10. Aftershock patterns and main shock faulting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mendoza, C.; Hartzell, S.H.

    1988-01-01

    We have compared aftershock patterns following several moderate to large earthquakes with the corresponding distributions of coseismic slip obtained from previous analyses of the recorded strong ground motion and teleseismic waveforms. Our results are consistent with a hypothesis of aftershock occurrence that requires a secondary redistribution of stress following primary failure on the earthquake fault. Aftershocks followng earthquakes examined in this study occur mostly outside of or near the edges of the source areas indicated by the patterns of main shock slip. The spatial distribution of aftershocks reflects either a continuation of slip in the outer regions of the areas of maximum coseismic displacement or the activation of subsidiary faults within the volume surrounding the boundaries of main shock rupture. -from Authors

  11. [The main schools of TCM in Zhejiang].

    PubMed

    Chen, C

    1999-10-01

    The history of the main academic TCM schools is described, beginning from Danxi school of Zhu Zhenheng of the Yuan dynasty to the 1980s. Established the theory of "exuberant yang and insufficient yin", Zhu set up the therapy of nourishing yin to decrease fire. In the late Ming dynasty, Zhao Xianke and Zhing Jingyue founded the warm - tonification school, Zhao's theory on vital gate exerted profound influence on the basic theory of later ages. At the turn of Ming - Qing dynasties, a Qiantang school was set up by Zhang Shuichen, Zhang Zhicong and Zhang Xijun, Zhang Zhi cong being the synthetizen. The Shao school of cold-disease refers mainly to the physicians in the shaoxin region who studied the warm heat disorders (especially damp - warm diseases) which was mature at the turn of Qing dynasty and the Republican period, whose influence remained until the 1980s. PMID:11624245

  12. Minerals yearbook, 1991: Maine. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, D.K.; Anderson, W.; Foley, M.E.

    1993-07-01

    The report has been prepared under a Memorandum of Understanding between the U.S. Bureau of Mines, U.S. Department of the Interior, and the Maine Geological Survey for collecting information on all nonfuel minerals. The value of Maine's nonfuel mineral production in 1991 was $41.3 million, a $21.2 million decrease compared with that of 1990. Decreases in output and value were reported for most of the nonfuel minerals produced. The largest decreases in both production and value were for construction sand and gravel and dimension stone. Smaller decreases were estimated for both masonry and portland cement. Other mineral commodities produced in the State included common clay, gemstones, and peat. Perlite was shipped in from out-of-State and expanded at one plant in the State.

  13. Acadian dextral transpression in western Maine

    SciTech Connect

    Pollock, S.G. ); Marvinney, R.G. )

    1993-03-01

    Two groups of faults characterize the Acadian tectonic regime of northwestern Maine. The first group is largely dextral and reverse in nature and is represented by the Deep Pond (DPF) and Thrasher Peaks (TPF) faults in the Jackman area. The second is reverse in nature, and is represented by three faults in the Caucomgomoc Lake area. Taken together this fault system represents an Acadian dextral transpressive regime. Part of this regime includes an 11 km wide by 17 km long horst of Cambrian( ), Ordovician( ) and Late Silurian rocks in the Caucomgomoc Lake area. This horst is a part of a restraining bend. Associated with this bend is a deflection and rotation of the regional fault, fold axis and cleavage pattern. Orientations of these structures generally change from NE-SW in the Jackman area to N-S in the Caucomgomoc area. In westernmost Maine, the DPF and TPF both strike NE-SW, but the strikes rotate to ENE-WSW farther to the east in the Jackman area. The NW-dipping DPF separates Silurian rocks of the Frontenac Fm on the north from Devonian rocks of the Seboomook Group on the south. Foliation associated with Acadian folding dips moderately (30--50 degrees) near the DPF and major folds are overturned and verge toward the SE along its entire length in Maine. This contrasts sharply with the dominant upright, NW-verging folds and sleep foliation which characterizes the Acadian throughout northwestern Maine. The NW-dipping TPF separates Devonian rocks of the Seboomook Group on the north from Precambrian and Ordovician rocks of the Chain Lakes massif and Attean pluton, respectively, on the south. Along the TPF and DPF are kinematic indicators which suggest reverse and dextral components to movement.

  14. Neurological disorders presenting mainly in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Macleod, S; Appleton, R E

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this review is to discuss some of the neurological diseases that present mainly in the adolescent period. The article focuses on the usual presentation and course of the more common, and some uncommon, epilepsies, neuromuscular disorders, neurodegenerative disorders, inflammatory disorders of the central nervous system and some other, miscellaneous conditions. The article ends with a very brief and general discussion about management issues in this age group. PMID:17264287

  15. Dark current model for ILC main linac

    SciTech Connect

    Solyak, N.; Romanov, G.; Mokhov, N.V.; Eidelman, Y.; Tam, Wai-Ming; /Indiana U.

    2008-06-01

    In the ILC Main Linac, the dark current electrons, generated in SRF cavity can be accelerated to hundreds of MeV before being kicked out by quadrupoles and thus will originate electromagnetic cascade showers in the surrounding materials. Some of the shower secondaries can return back into vacuum and be re-accelerated again. The preliminary results of simulation of the dark current generation in ILC cavity, its dynamics in linac are discussing in this paper.

  16. Maine Geological Survey Borehole Temperature Profiles

    DOE Data Explorer

    Marvinney, Robert

    2013-11-06

    This dataset includes temperature profiles from 30 boreholes throughout Maine that were selected for their depth, location, and lithologies encountered. Depths range from about 300 feet to 2,200 feet. Most of the boreholes selected for measurement were completed in granite because this lithology can be assumed to be nearly homogeneous over the depth of the borehole. Boreholes were also selected to address gaps in existing geothermal datasets. Temperature profiles were collected in October and November, 2012.

  17. Space shuttle main engine plume radiation model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reardon, J. E.; Lee, Y. C.

    1978-01-01

    The methods are described which are used in predicting the thermal radiation received by space shuttles, from the plumes of the main engines. Radiation to representative surface locations were predicted using the NASA gaseous plume radiation GASRAD program. The plume model is used with the radiative view factor (RAVFAC) program to predict sea level radiation at specified body points. The GASRAD program is described along with the predictions. The RAVFAC model is also discussed.

  18. El Paso automates main line compressor stations

    SciTech Connect

    Kind, R.H. )

    1989-12-01

    This paper reports how an El Paso natural gas company has automated 27 compressor stations on its main line gas-transmission system, ahead of its 5-year schedule begun in 1984. The project involved the total automation (unmanned operation) of one reciprocating engine-driven compressor station and 21 turbine-driven compressor facilities; the semi-automation (computer-assisted operation) of six reciprocating engine-driven compressor stations; and the addition of a central control facility located in El Paso.

  19. Space shuttle main engine vibration data base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewallen, Pat

    1987-01-01

    In order to evaluate Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) vibration data without having to constantly replay analog tapes, the SSME Vibration Data Base was developed. This data base contains data that have been digitized at a high sample rate for the entire test duration. It provides quick and efficient recall capabilities for numerious computation and display routines. The data base components are described as well as some of the compution and display features.

  20. Space shuttle main engine vibration data base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewallen, Pat

    1986-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Main Engine Vibration Data Base is described. Included is a detailed description of the data base components, the data acquisition process, the more sophisticated software routines, and the future data acquisition methods. Several figures and plots are provided to illustrate the various output formats accessible to the user. The numerous vibration data recall and analysis capabilities available through automated data base techniques are revealed.

  1. Photogrammetric Analysis of CPAS Main Parachutes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Eric; Bretz, David

    2011-01-01

    The Crew Exploration Vehicle Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) is being designed to land the Orion Crew Module (CM) at a safe rate of descent at splashdown with a cluster of two to three Main parachutes. The instantaneous rate of descent varies based on parachute fly-out angles and geometric inlet area. Parachutes in a cluster oscillate between significant fly-out angles and colliding into each other. The former presents a sub-optimal inlet area and the latter lowers the effective drag area as the parachutes interfere with each other. The fly-out angles are also important in meeting a twist torque requirement. Understanding cluster behavior necessitates measuring the Mains with photogrammetric analysis. Imagery from upward looking cameras is analyzed to determine parachute geometry. Fly-out angles are measured from each parachute vent to an axis determined from geometry. Determining the scale of the objects requires knowledge of camera and lens calibration as well as features of known size. Several points along the skirt are tracked to compute an effective circumference, diameter, and inlet area as a function of time. The effects of this geometry are clearly seen in the system drag coefficient time history. Photogrammetric analysis is key in evaluating the effects of design features such as an Over-Inflation Control Line (OICL), Main Line Length Ratio (MLLR), and geometric porosity, which are varied in an attempt to minimize cluster oscillations. The effects of these designs are evaluated through statistical analysis.

  2. Phenological Parameters Estimation Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKellip, Rodney D.; Ross, Kenton W.; Spruce, Joseph P.; Smoot, James C.; Ryan, Robert E.; Gasser, Gerald E.; Prados, Donald L.; Vaughan, Ronald D.

    2010-01-01

    The Phenological Parameters Estimation Tool (PPET) is a set of algorithms implemented in MATLAB that estimates key vegetative phenological parameters. For a given year, the PPET software package takes in temporally processed vegetation index data (3D spatio-temporal arrays) generated by the time series product tool (TSPT) and outputs spatial grids (2D arrays) of vegetation phenological parameters. As a precursor to PPET, the TSPT uses quality information for each pixel of each date to remove bad or suspect data, and then interpolates and digitally fills data voids in the time series to produce a continuous, smoothed vegetation index product. During processing, the TSPT displays NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) time series plots and images from the temporally processed pixels. Both the TSPT and PPET currently use moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite multispectral data as a default, but each software package is modifiable and could be used with any high-temporal-rate remote sensing data collection system that is capable of producing vegetation indices. Raw MODIS data from the Aqua and Terra satellites is processed using the TSPT to generate a filtered time series data product. The PPET then uses the TSPT output to generate phenological parameters for desired locations. PPET output data tiles are mosaicked into a Conterminous United States (CONUS) data layer using ERDAS IMAGINE, or equivalent software package. Mosaics of the vegetation phenology data products are then reprojected to the desired map projection using ERDAS IMAGINE

  3. MISR Parameter Definitions

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-03-26

    MISR Parameter Definitions Stereo Height BestWinds:  Stereoscopic height determined using the Best ... wind was not available (Feature-referenced). Stereo Height WithoutWinds:  Stereoscopic height calculated without a wind correction (Feature-referenced). Stereo Height prelimER_BestWinds:  Preliminary stereoscopic height derived ...

  4. Thermophysical modeling of main-belt asteroids from WISE data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanuš, J.; Delbó, M.; Durech, J.; Alí-Lagoa, V.

    2014-07-01

    We determine asteroid physical parameters such as size, surface roughness, albedo, and thermal inertia by applying the implementation of the thermophysical model (TPM) of Lagerros (1996; 1997; 1998) to the thermal data obtained by the NASA WISE satellite. We present thermophysical parameters for ˜150 asteroids, which gives us so far the largest sample of asteroids with determined values of thermal inertia. On several individual cases, we discuss the reliability of our determinations and limitations of the TPM method we use. As initial shapes, we adopt convex shape models from the DAMIT database (Durech et al., 2010) and present new determinations based on combined dense and sparse-in-time disk-integrated photometry and the lightcurve inversion method (Kaasalainen & Torppa 2001; Kaasalainen et al., 2001). We use thermal data from the WISE filters W3 and W4, as well as the data observed by the IRAS satellite. However, due to the intriguing accuracy of the fluxes and larger amount of measurements, the WISE data are significantly more important and dominate the modeling. The WISE data are processed the same way as in Alí-Lagoa et al. (2014) for asteroid (341 843) 2008 EV_5. We show the main results of the study of derived thermophysical parameters within the whole population of MBAs and within several asteroid families with the main focus on the thermal inertia. The thermal inertia increases with decreasing size (as previously shown by Delbó et al., 2007), but a large range of thermal inertia values is observed within the similar size ranges between D˜10-100 km. Surprisingly, we derived very low (<10 J m^{-2} s^{-1/2} K^{-1}) thermal inertias for many asteroids (˜20) with various sizes. The range of thermal inertia values is large even within a few asteroid families.

  5. Alexithymia and Affect Intensity of Fine Artists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botella, Marion; Zenasni, Franck; Lubart, Todd

    2015-01-01

    Research on creative artists has examined mainly their personality traits or cognitive abilities. However, it seems important to explore also their emotional traits to complete the profile. This study examines two emotional characteristics: alexithymia and affect intensity. Even if most research suggests that artists are less alexithymic and…

  6. Environmental Factors Affecting Preschoolers' Motor Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venetsanou, Fotini; Kambas, Antonis

    2010-01-01

    The process of development occurs according to the pattern established by the genetic potential and also by the influence of environmental factors. The aim of the present study was to focus on the main environmental factors affecting motor development. The review of the literature revealed that family features, such as socioeconomic status,…

  7. The Gaia Parameter Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Bruijne, J. H. J.; Lammers, U.; Perryman, M. A. C.

    2005-01-01

    The parallel development of many aspects of a complex mission like Gaia, which includes numerous participants in ESA, industrial companies, and a large and active scientific collaboration throughout Europe, makes keeping track of the many design changes, instrument and operational complexities, and numerical values for the data analysis a very challenging problem. A comprehensive, easily-accessible, up-to-date, and definitive compilation of a large range of numerical quantities is required, and the Gaia parameter database has been established to satisfy these needs. The database is a centralised repository containing, besides mathematical, physical, and astronomical constants, many satellite and subsystem design parameters. At the end of 2004, more than 1600 parameters had been included. Version control has been implemented, providing, next to a `live' version with the most recent parameters, well-defined reference versions of the full database contents. The database can be queried or browsed using a regular Web browser (http://www.rssd.esa.int/Gaia/paramdb). Query results are formated by default in HTML. Data can also be retrieved as Fortran-77, Fortran-90, Java, ANSIC, C++, or XML structures for direct inclusion into software codes in these languages. The idea is that all collaborating scientists can use the database parameters and values, once retrieved, directly linked to computational routines. An off-line access mode is also available, enabling users to automatically download the contents of the database. The database will be maintained actively, and significant extensions of the contents are planned. Consistent use in the future of the database by the Gaia community at large, including all industrial teams, will ensure correct numerical values throughout the complex software systems being built up as details of the Gaia design develop. The database is already being used for the telemetry simulation chain in ESTEC, and in the data simulations for GDAAS2.

  8. Multiple-coincidence of flood waves on the main river and its tributaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prohaska, S.; Ilic, A.; Majkic, B.

    2008-11-01

    This paper addresses the definition of multiple coincidences of flood waves on the main river and its tributaries. Contrary to previous studies of partial coincidences of various flood parameters (Prohaska 1999) for the main river and one of its tributaries, this procedure allows for the definition of complex (multiple) coincidences of a single parameter for the main river and several of its tributaries. In particular, coincidence is defined for the major parameter which characterizes a flood (i.e., the flood wave volume). The paper gives a practical example of the analysis of simultaneous flood waves on the Danube and its main tributaries in Serbia: the Tisa and the Sava rivers. The procedure for potential use of the established coincidence functions in applied water management and forecasting is also described in the paper.

  9. A photoelectric lightcurve survey of small main belt asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Binzel, R. P.; Mulholland, J. D.

    1983-01-01

    A survey to obtain photoelectric lightcurves of small main-belt asteroids was conducted from November 1981 to April 1982 using the 0.91- and 2.1-m telescopes at the University of Texas McDonald Observatory. A total of 18 main-belt asteroids having estimated dimaters under 30 km were observed with over half of these being smaller than 15 km. Rotational periods were determined or estimated from multiple nights of observation for nearly all of these yielding a sample of 17 small main-belt asteroids which is believed to be free of observational selection effects. All but two of these objects were investigated for very short periods in the range of 1 min to 2 hr using power spectrum analysis of a continuous set of integrations. No evidence for such short periods was seen in this sample. Rotationally averaged B(1,0) magnitudes were determined for most of the surveyed asteroids, allowing diameter estimates to be made. Imposing the suspected selection effects of photogaphic photometry on the results of this survey gives excellent agreement with the results from that technique. This shows that the inability of photographic photometry to obtain results for many asteroids is indeed due to the rotational parameter of those asteroids.

  10. Selection of Wire Electrical Discharge Machining Process Parameters on Stainless Steel AISI Grade-304 using Design of Experiments Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lingadurai, K.; Nagasivamuni, B.; Muthu Kamatchi, M.; Palavesam, J.

    2012-06-01

    Wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM) is a specialized thermal machining process capable of accurately machining parts of hard materials with complex shapes. Parts having sharp edges that pose difficulties to be machined by the main stream machining processes can be easily machined by WEDM process. Design of Experiments approach (DOE) has been reported in this work for stainless steel AISI grade-304 which is used in cryogenic vessels, evaporators, hospital surgical equipment, marine equipment, fasteners, nuclear vessels, feed water tubing, valves, refrigeration equipment, etc., is machined by WEDM with brass wire electrode. The DOE method is used to formulate the experimental layout, to analyze the effect of each parameter on the machining characteristics, and to predict the optimal choice for each WEDM parameter such as voltage, pulse ON, pulse OFF and wire feed. It is found that these parameters have a significant influence on machining characteristic such as metal removal rate (MRR), kerf width and surface roughness (SR). The analysis of the DOE reveals that, in general the pulse ON time significantly affects the kerf width and the wire feed rate affects SR, while, the input voltage mainly affects the MRR.

  11. Drugs affecting glycosaminoglycan metabolism.

    PubMed

    Ghiselli, Giancarlo; Maccarana, Marco

    2016-07-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are charged polysaccharides ubiquitously present at the cell surface and in the extracellular matrix. GAGs are crucial for cellular homeostasis, and their metabolism is altered during pathological processes. However, little consideration has been given to the regulation of the GAG milieu through pharmacological interventions. In this review, we provide a classification of small molecules affecting GAG metabolism based on their mechanism of action. Furthermore, we present evidence to show that clinically approved drugs affect GAG metabolism and that this could contribute to their therapeutic benefit. PMID:27217160

  12. The fossilized size distribution of the main asteroid belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottke, William F.; Durda, Daniel D.; Nesvorný, David; Jedicke, Robert; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Vokrouhlický, David; Levison, Hal

    2005-05-01

    Planet formation models suggest the primordial main belt experienced a short but intense period of collisional evolution shortly after the formation of planetary embryos. This period is believed to have lasted until Jupiter reached its full size, when dynamical processes (e.g., sweeping resonances, excitation via planetary embryos) ejected most planetesimals from the main belt zone. The few planetesimals left behind continued to undergo comminution at a reduced rate until the present day. We investigated how this scenario affects the main belt size distribution over Solar System history using a collisional evolution model (CoEM) that accounts for these events. CoEM does not explicitly include results from dynamical models, but instead treats the unknown size of the primordial main belt and the nature/timing of its dynamical depletion using innovative but approximate methods. Model constraints were provided by the observed size frequency distribution of the asteroid belt, the observed population of asteroid families, the cratered surface of differentiated Asteroid (4) Vesta, and the relatively constant crater production rate of the Earth and Moon over the last 3 Gyr. Using CoEM, we solved for both the shape of the initial main belt size distribution after accretion and the asteroid disruption scaling law QD∗. In contrast to previous efforts, we find our derived QD∗ function is very similar to results produced by numerical hydrocode simulations of asteroid impacts. Our best fit results suggest the asteroid belt experienced as much comminution over its early history as it has since it reached its low-mass state approximately 3.9-4.5 Ga. These results suggest the main belt's wavy-shaped size-frequency distribution is a "fossil" from this violent early epoch. We find that most diameter D≳120 km asteroids are primordial, with their physical properties likely determined during the accretion epoch. Conversely, most smaller asteroids are byproducts of fragmentation

  13. DEB parameters estimation for Mytilus edulis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saraiva, S.; van der Meer, J.; Kooijman, S. A. L. M.; Sousa, T.

    2011-11-01

    The potential of DEB theory to simulate an organism life-cycle has been demonstrated at numerous occasions. However, its applicability requires parameter estimates that are not easily obtained by direct observations. During the last years various attempts were made to estimate the main DEB parameters for bivalve species. The estimation procedure was by then, however, rather ad-hoc and based on additional assumptions that were not always consistent with the DEB theory principles. A new approach has now been developed - the covariation method - based on simultaneous minimization of the weighted sum of squared deviations between data sets and model predictions in one single procedure. This paper presents the implementation of this method to estimate the DEB parameters for the blue mussel Mytilus edulis, using several data sets from the literature. After comparison with previous trials we conclude that the parameter set obtained by the covariation method leads to a better fit between model and observations, with potentially more consistency and robustness.

  14. PSS Parameters Tuning Using Genetic Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdulrahim, M.; Almoula, Zakaria Fadl; Al-Hafid, Hafid

    2008-10-01

    Optimal tuning of power system stabilizer (PSS) parameters using genetic algorithm with single objective function is presented in this paper. A Single Machine Infinite Bus (SMIB) system is considered. The main objective of this research paper is to investigate the suitability of genetic algorithm for effective tuning of parameters of the power system stabilizer in a single machine infinite bus system. A conventional speed based lead-lag PSS is used. A simple and effective method of tuning the parameters of PSS is proposed which is posed as an optimization formulation by maximizing the damping of modes of oscillations of the SMIB system over a wide range of loading conditions and different system configurations. It is found that GA based PSS with single objective design shows improved dynamic performance over Conventional PSS over a wide range of operating conditions and different system parameters.

  15. Main Chamber and Preburner Injector Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santoro, Robert J.; Merkle, Charles L.

    1999-01-01

    This document reports the experimental and analytical research carried out at the Penn State Propulsion Engineering Research Center in support of NASA's plan to develop advanced technologies for future single stage to orbit (SSTO) propulsion systems. The focus of the work is on understanding specific technical issues related to bi-propellant and tri-propellant thrusters. The experiments concentrate on both cold flow demonstrations and hot-fire uni-element tests to demonstrate concepts that can be incorporated into hardware design and development. The analysis is CFD-based and is intended to support the design and interpretation of the experiments and to extrapolate findings to full-scale designs. The research is divided into five main categories that impact various SSTO development scenarios. The first category focuses on RP-1/gaseous hydrogen (GH2)/gaseous oxygen (GO2) tri-propellant combustion with specific emphasis on understanding the benefits of hydrogen addition to RP-1/oxygen combustion and in developing innovative injector technology. The second category investigates liquid oxygen (LOX)/GH2 combustion at main chamber near stoichiometric conditions to improve understanding of existing LOX/GH2 rocket systems. The third and fourth categories investigate the technical issues related with oxidizer-rich and fuel-rich propulsive concepts, issues that are necessary for developing the full-flow engine cycle. Here, injector technology issues for both LOX/GH2 and LOX/RP-1 propellants are examined. The last category, also related to the full-flow engine cycle, examines injector technology needs for GO2/GH2 propellant combustion at near-stoichiometric conditions for main chamber application.

  16. Coccolithophores in the Gulf of Maine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Earlier this summer, trillions of calcite (limestone) coated phytoplankton, known as coccolithophores, appeared in the waters off the coast of Maine. This true color image of the coccolithophore bloom was acquired on July 11, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The bloom is the large bluish-green patch in the center of the image in the Gulf of Maine. Unlike any other plant in the ocean, coccolithophores surround themselves with microscopic plating made of calcite. These scales, known as coccoliths, are shaped like hubcaps and are only three one-thousandths of a millimeter in diameter. What coccoliths lack in size, they make up in volume. At any one time a single coccolithophore is attached to or surrounded by at least 30 scales. Additional coccoliths are dumped into the water when the coccolithophores multiply asexually, die or simply make too many scales. In areas with trillions of coccolithophores, the waters will turn an opaque turquoise from the dense cloud of coccoliths. (Click to read more about coccolithophores.) Though there are always coccoliths in the Gulf of Maine, the area hasn't seen a bloom like this one since 1989. Currently, NASA researchers are studying the bloom aboard a ferry in the gulf in an attempt to measure the bloom's density and depth. So far the bloom appears to be about 20 to 25 meters thick and contains nearly half a million tons of calcite. Image by Jesse Allen, NASA Earth Observatory; Data courtesy MODIS Land Rapid Response Team

  17. Space shuttle main engine hardware simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vick, H. G.; Hampton, P. W.

    1985-01-01

    The Huntsville Simulation Laboratory (HSL) provides a simulation facility to test and verify the space shuttle main engine (SSME) avionics and software system using a maximum complement of flight type hardware. The HSL permits evaluations and analyses of the SSME avionics hardware, software, control system, and mathematical models. The laboratory has performed a wide spectrum of tests and verified operational procedures to ensure system component compatibility under all operating conditions. It is a test bed for integration of hardware/software/hydraulics. The HSL is and has been an invaluable tool in the design and development of the SSME.

  18. Upgraded SCADA for Yugoslav main gas pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    Atlagic, B.S.; Kovacevic, V.V.; Maruna, V.S.; Mihic, V.M.; Adjanski, B.D.

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents the configuration of a SCADA based telemetry system for the main Yugoslav gas pipeline network. A central supervising SCADA station is realized by using reliable industrial PC stations interconnected via a LAN. The key features of this SCADA are open architecture, hot stand-by, an effective MMI subsystem and an information link to the Enterprise Information System. In order to achieve better supervision and control over the gas-transport process, basic SCADA functions are supplemented with a decision support system based on trend analysis and a steady-state simulation model.

  19. Slip stacking experiments at Fermilab main injector

    SciTech Connect

    Kiyomi Koba et al.

    2003-06-02

    In order to achieve an increase in proton intensity, Fermilab Main Injector will use a stacking process called ''slip stacking''. The intensity will be doubled by injecting one train of bunches at a slightly lower energy, another at a slightly higher energy, then bringing them together for the final capture. Beam studies have started for this process and we have already verified that, at least for a low beam intensity, the stacking procedure works as expected. For high intensity operation, development work of the feedback and feedforward systems is under way.

  20. Additively Manufactured Main Fuel Valve Housing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eddleman, David; Richard, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Selective Laser Melting (SLM) was utilized to fabricate a liquid hydrogen valve housing typical of those found in rocket engines and main propulsion systems. The SLM process allowed for a valve geometry that would be difficult, if not impossible to fabricate by traditional means. Several valve bodies were built by different SLM suppliers and assembled with valve internals. The assemblies were then tested with liquid nitrogen and operated as desired. One unit was also burst tested and sectioned for materials analysis. The design, test results, and planned testing are presented herein.

  1. Space Shuttle Main Engine Public Test Firing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A new NASA Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) roars to the approval of more than 2,000 people who came to John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., on July 25 for a flight-certification test of the SSME Block II configuration. The engine, a new and significantly upgraded shuttle engine, was delivered to NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida for use on future shuttle missions. Spectators were able to experience the 'shake, rattle and roar' of the engine, which ran for 520 seconds - the length of time it takes a shuttle to reach orbit.

  2. Dust around main sequence and evolved stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, H. J.; Heinrichsen, I.; Richards, P. J.

    Data for several main sequence and evolved stars, from the photopolarimeter on ISO (ISOPHOT), are presented. Dust shells are resolved for Y CVn and RS Lib at 60mum. Low resolution spectra from ISOPHOT are shown for several evolved stars, and compared to the spectrum of Vega (a stellar photosphere) and HD 169142 (showing emission features from Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons). W Lyr shows the signature of oxygen-rich circumstellar material around 3mum, V Aql and Y CVn the signature of carbon-rich material.

  3. Some peat deposits in Penobscot County, Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cameron, Cornelia Clermont; Anderson, Walter A.

    1979-01-01

    Twenty of the peat deposits in Penobscot County, Maine contain an estimated 29,282,000 short tons air-dried peat. The peat is chiefly sphagnum moss and reed-sedge of high quality according to ASTM standards for agricultural and horticultural use. Analyses show that this same volume has high fuel value, low sulfur and high hydrogen contents compared with lignite and sub-bituminous coal, which may indicate that it also has potential for fuel use. On the basis of the metallic trace element content, one area within the region containing the 20 deposits has been delineated for further bedrock studies.

  4. Maine PACE Program Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, Dana; Adamson, Joy M

    2015-01-30

    The ARRA EECBG BetterBuilding helped augment the existing Home Energy Savings Programs (HESP) and incentives with financing through a subordinate lien PACE and HUD PowerSaver programs. The program was designed to document innovative techniques to dramatically increase the number of homes participating in weatherization programs in participating towns. Maine will support new energy efficiency retrofit pilots throughout the state, designed to motivate a large number of homeowners to invest in comprehensive home energy efficiency upgrades to bring real solutions to market.

  5. Parameters Describing Earth Observing Remote Sensing Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zanoni, Vicki; Ryan, Robert E.; Pagnutti, Mary; Davis, Bruce; Markham, Brian; Storey, Jim

    2003-01-01

    The Earth science community needs to generate consistent and standard definitions for spatial, spectral, radiometric, and geometric properties describing passive electro-optical Earth observing sensors and their products. The parameters used to describe sensors and to describe their products are often confused. In some cases, parameters for a sensor and for its products are identical; in other cases, these parameters vary widely. Sensor parameters are bound by the fundamental performance of a system, while product parameters describe what is available to the end user. Products are often resampled, edge sharpened, pan-sharpened, or compressed, and can differ drastically from the intrinsic data acquired by the sensor. Because detailed sensor performance information may not be readily available to an international science community, standardization of product parameters is of primary performance. Spatial product parameters described include Modulation Transfer Function (MTF), point spread function, line spread function, edge response, stray light, edge sharpening, aliasing, ringing, and compression effects. Spectral product parameters discussed include full width half maximum, ripple, slope edge, and out-of-band rejection. Radiometric product properties discussed include relative and absolute radiometry, noise equivalent spectral radiance, noise equivalent temperature diffenence, and signal-to-noise ratio. Geometric product properties discussed include geopositional accuracy expressed as CE90, LE90, and root mean square error. Correlated properties discussed include such parameters as band-to-band registration, which is both a spectral and a spatial property. In addition, the proliferation of staring and pushbroom sensor architectures requires new parameters to describe artifacts that are different from traditional cross-track system artifacts. A better understanding of how various system parameters affect product performance is also needed to better ascertain the

  6. Military display performance parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desjardins, Daniel D.; Meyer, Frederick

    2012-06-01

    The military display market is analyzed in terms of four of its segments: avionics, vetronics, dismounted soldier, and command and control. Requirements are summarized for a number of technology-driving parameters, to include luminance, night vision imaging system compatibility, gray levels, resolution, dimming range, viewing angle, video capability, altitude, temperature, shock and vibration, etc., for direct-view and virtual-view displays in cockpits and crew stations. Technical specifications are discussed for selected programs.

  7. A Summary: Maine Teacher Corps, 1973-75. University of Maine, Portland-Gorham.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, Jeanie; Massey, Sara

    This document is a summary of two years of activity of the Maine Teacher Corps presented in outline form. Throughout, several questions are asked (What was done? What was learned? What was expected? What was found?) followed by recommendations for other programs. Section I is an introductory essay entitled, "Maine Teacher Corps, A Viable…

  8. Prediction of psychoacoustic parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genuit, Klaus; Fiebig, Andre

    2005-09-01

    Noise is defined as an audible sound which either disturbs the silence, or an intentional sound that listening to leads to annoyance. Thus, it is clearly defined that the assignment of noise cannot be reduced to simple determining objective parameters like the A-weighted SPL. The question whether a sound is judged as noise can only be answered after the transformation from the sound event into an hearing event has been accomplished. The evaluation of noise depends on the physical characteristics of the sound event, on the psychoacoustical features of the human ear as well as on the psychological aspects of men. The subjectively felt noise quality depends not only on the A-weighted sound-pressure level, but also on other psychoacoustical parameters such as loudness, roughness, sharpness, etc. The known methods for the prediction of the spatial A-weighted SPL distribution in dependence on the propagation are not suitable to predict psychoacoustic parameters in an adequate way. Especially, the roughness provoked by modulation or the sharpness generated by an accumulation of high, frequent sound energy cannot offhandedly be predicted as distance dependent.

  9. Parameter estimation for transformer modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Sung Don

    Large Power transformers, an aging and vulnerable part of our energy infrastructure, are at choke points in the grid and are key to reliability and security. Damage or destruction due to vandalism, misoperation, or other unexpected events is of great concern, given replacement costs upward of $2M and lead time of 12 months. Transient overvoltages can cause great damage and there is much interest in improving computer simulation models to correctly predict and avoid the consequences. EMTP (the Electromagnetic Transients Program) has been developed for computer simulation of power system transients. Component models for most equipment have been developed and benchmarked. Power transformers would appear to be simple. However, due to their nonlinear and frequency-dependent behaviors, they can be one of the most complex system components to model. It is imperative that the applied models be appropriate for the range of frequencies and excitation levels that the system experiences. Thus, transformer modeling is not a mature field and newer improved models must be made available. In this work, improved topologically-correct duality-based models are developed for three-phase autotransformers having five-legged, three-legged, and shell-form cores. The main problem in the implementation of detailed models is the lack of complete and reliable data, as no international standard suggests how to measure and calculate parameters. Therefore, parameter estimation methods are developed here to determine the parameters of a given model in cases where available information is incomplete. The transformer nameplate data is required and relative physical dimensions of the core are estimated. The models include a separate representation of each segment of the core, including hysteresis of the core, lambda-i saturation characteristic, capacitive effects, and frequency dependency of winding resistance and core loss. Steady-state excitation, and de-energization and re-energization transients

  10. Affective Factors: Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tasnimi, Mahshad

    2009-01-01

    Affective factors seem to play a crucial role in success or failure in second language acquisition. Negative attitudes can reduce learners' motivation and harm language learning, while positive attitudes can do the reverse. Discovering students' attitudes about language will help both teacher and student in teaching learning process. Anxiety is…

  11. How Technology Affects Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiske, Martha Stone; And Others

    This study presents composite profiles of teachers who were interviewed in order to assess how they are being affected by the challenges and opportunities presented by computer technology use. In-depth interviews were held with 76 teachers from 10 sites around the country, and the interview data were analyzed to identify themes and to construct…

  12. Factors affecting soil cohesion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil erodibility is a measure of a soil’s resistance against erosive forces and is affected by both intrinsic (or inherent) soil property and the extrinsic condition at the time erodibility measurement is made. Since soil erodibility is usually calculated from results obtained from erosion experimen...

  13. What Variables Affect Solubility?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, William P.; Leyva, Kathryn

    2003-01-01

    Helps middle school students understand the concept of solubility through hands-on experience with a variety of liquids and solids. As they explore factors that affect solubility and saturation, students gain content mastery and an understanding of the inquiry process. Also enables teachers to authentically assess student performance on several…

  14. How Body Affects Brain.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Wendy A

    2016-08-01

    Studies show that physical exercise can affect a range of brain and cognitive functions. However, little is known about the peripheral signals that initiate these central changes. Moon et al. (2016) provide exciting new evidence that a novel myokine, cathepsin B (CTSB), released with exercise is associated with improved memory. PMID:27508865

  15. Food Affects Human Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolata, Gina

    1982-01-01

    A conference on whether food and nutrients affect human behavior was held on November 9, 1982 at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Various research studies on this topic are reviewed, including the effects of food on brain biochemistry (particularly sleep) and effects of tryptophane as a pain reducer. (JN)

  16. Pendulum Motion in Main Parachute Clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Eric S.; Machin, Ricardo A.

    2015-01-01

    The coupled dynamics of a cluster of parachutes to a payload are notoriously difficult to predict. Often the payload is designed to be insensitive to the range of attitude and rates that might occur, but spacecraft generally do not have the mass and volume budgeted for this robust of a design. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Orion Capsule Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) implements a cluster of three mains for landing. During testing of the Engineering Development Unit (EDU) design, it was discovered that with a cluster of two mains (a fault tolerance required for human rating) the capsule coupled to the parachute cluster could get into a limit cycle pendulum motion which would exceed the spacecraft landing capability. This pendulum phenomenon could not be predicted with the existing models and simulations. A three phased effort has been undertaken to understand the consequence of the pendulum motion observed, and explore potential design changes that would mitigate this phenomenon. This paper will review the early analysis that was performed of the pendulum motion observed during EDU testing, summarize the analysis ongoing to understand the root cause of the pendulum phenomenon, and discuss the modeling and testing that is being pursued to identify design changes that would mitigate the risk.

  17. Booster Main Engine Selection Criteria for the Liquid Fly-Back Booster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Richard M.; Rothschild, William J.; Christensen, David L.

    1998-01-01

    The Liquid Fly-Back Booster (LFBB) Program seeks to enhance the Space Shuttle system safety, performance and economy of operations through the use of an advanced, liquid propellant Booster Main Engine (BME). There are several viable BME candidates that could be suitable for this application. The objective of this study was to identify the key Criteria to be applied in selecting among these BME candidates. This study involved an assessment of influences on the overall LFBB utility due to variations in the candidate rocket-engines characteristics. This includes BME impacts on vehicle system weight, performance, design approaches, abort modes, margins of safety, engine-out operations, and maintenance and support concepts. Systems engineering analyses and trade studies were performed to identify the LFBB system level sensitivities to a wide variety of BME related parameters. This presentation summarizes these trade studies and the resulting findings of the LFBB design teams regarding the BME characteristics that most significantly affect the LFBB system. The resulting BME choice should offer the best combination of reliability, performance, reusability, robustness, cost, and risk for the LFBB program.

  18. Booster Main Engine Selection Criteria for the Liquid Fly-Back Booster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Richard M.; Rothschild, William J.; Christensen, David L.

    1998-01-01

    The Liquid Fly-Back Booster (LFBB) Program seeks to enhance the Space Shuttle system safety performance and economy of operations through the use of an advanced, liquid propellant Booster Main Engine (BME). There are several viable BME candidates that could be suitable for this application. The objective of this study was to identify the key criteria to be applied in selecting among these BME candidates. This study involved an assessment of influences on the overall LFBB utility due to variations in the candidate rocket engines' characteristics. This includes BME impacts on vehicle system weight, perfortnance,design approaches, abort modes, margins of safety, engine-out operations, and maintenance and support concepts. Systems engineering analyses and trade studies were performed to identify the LFBB system level sensitivities to a wide variety of BME related parameters. This presentation summarizes these trade studies and the resulting findings of the LFBB design teams regarding the BME characteristics that most significantly affect the LFBB system. The resulting BME choice should offer the best combination of reliability, performance, reusability, robustness, cost, and risk for the LFBB program.

  19. [Soil infiltration characteristics under main vegetation types in Anji County of Zhejiang Province].

    PubMed

    Liu, Dao-Ping; Chen, San-Xiong; Zhang, Jin-Chi; Xie, Li; Jiang, Jiang

    2007-03-01

    The study on the soil infiltration under different main vegetation types in Anji County of Zhejiang Province showed that the characteristics of soil infiltration differed significantly with land use type, and the test eight vegetation types could be classified into four groups, based on soil infiltration capability. The first group, deciduous broadleaved forest, had the strongest soil infiltration capability, and the second group with a stronger soil infiltration capability was composed of grass, pine forest, shrub community and tea bush. Bamboo and evergreen broadleaved forest were classified into the third group with a relatively strong soil infiltration capability, while bare land belonged to the fourth group because of the bad soil structure and poorest soil infiltration capability. The comprehensive parameters of soil infiltration (alpha) and root (beta) were obtained by principal component analysis, and the regression model of alpha and beta could be described as alpha = 0. 1708ebeta -0. 3122. Soil infiltration capability was greatly affected by soil physical and chemical characteristics and root system. Fine roots (< or = 1 mm in diameter) played effective roles on the improvement of soil physical and chemical properties, and the increase of soil infiltration capability was closely related to the amount of the fine roots. PMID:17552181

  20. Stellar Parameter Determination Using Bayesian Techniques.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekanayake, Gemunu B.; Wilhelm, Ronald J.

    2015-01-01

    Spectral energy distributions of stars covering the wavelength range from far UV to far IR can be used to derive stellar atmospheric parameters (effective temperature, surface gravity and iron abundance) with a high reliability. For this purpose we are using a method based on Bayesian statistics, which make use of all available photometric data for a given star to construct stellar parameter probability distribution function (PDF) in order to determine the expectation values and their uncertainties in stellar parameters. The marginalized probabilities allow us to characterize the constraint for each parameter and estimate the influence of the quantity and quality of the photometric data on the resulting parameter values. We have obtained low resolution spectroscopy of blue horizontal branch, blue straggler and normal main sequence A, B, G and F stellar parameter standard stars using the McDonald observatory, 2.1m telescope to constrain both synthetic and empirical stellar libraries like Atlas9, MARCS, MILES and Pickles across a wide range in parameter space. This calibration process helps to evaluate the correlations between different stellar libraries and observed data especially in the UV part of the spectrum. When the calibration is complete the Bayesian analysis can be applied to large samples of data from GALEX, SDSS, 2MASS,WISE etc. We expect significant improvements to luminosity classification, distances and interstellar extinction using this technique.

  1. Preliminary Modeling of Two-Phase Flow at the Main Endeavour Vent Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, S.; Lowell, R. P.

    2011-12-01

    The high temperature hydrothermal vents of Main Endeavour Field (MEF), Juan de Fuca ridge exhibited quasi-steady North-South trending spatial gradients of both temperature and salinity for more than a decade before a magmatic event changed the vent characteristics. In order to explain these observations, we construct two-dimensional numerical models of two-phase hydrothermal flow of the MEF. We consider both along-axis and across-axis simulations, taking into account the vent field geometry and incorporating various parameters, such as different basal temperature distributions and permeability structures that might affect the vent fluid temperature and chemistry. Preliminary results from across-axis models, in which the basal temperature decreases linearly away from the ridge axis and results in a single high-temperature plume, indicate that basal temperature alone does not affect steady-state vent temperature and salinity of the vents. Simulations that include the presence of a high-permeability extrusive layer 2A atop the spreading ridge results in a zone of narrower and lower temperature venting. The effect of a low permeability zone of anhydrite would tend to mitigate the decrease in temperature, however. Along-axis simulations performed to date, with an extended uniform high temperature basal boundary, produce multiple plumes; but the plumes do not exhibit a strong along-axis gradient in vent salinity or temperature as observed at the MEF. These preliminary results suggest that the observed N-S gradient in temperature and salinity at MEF reflects interplay between heat source and either near the surface or deep-seated heterogeneous permeability structures. Three-dimensional simulations might ultimately be required to understand hydrothermal circulation at the MEF.

  2. Dynamic Synchronization of Teacher-Students Affection in Affective Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Wenhai; Lu, Jiamei

    2011-01-01

    Based on Bower's affective network theory, the article links the dynamic analysis of affective factors in affective instruction, and presents affective instruction strategic of dynamic synchronization between teacher and students to implement the best ideal mood that promotes students' cognition and affection together. In the process of teaching,…

  3. Naturally occurring compounds affect glutamatergic neurotransmission in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Martini, Lucia Helena; Jung, Fernanda; Soares, Felix Antunes; Rotta, Liane Nanci; Vendite, Deusa Aparecida; Frizzo, Marcos Emilio dos Santos; Yunes, Rosendo A; Calixto, João Batista; Wofchuk, Susana; Souza, Diogo O

    2007-11-01

    Natural products, including those derived from plants, have largely contributed to the development of therapeutic drugs. Glutamate is the main excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system and it is also considered a nociceptive neurotransmitter, by acting on peripheral nervous system. For this reason, in this study we investigated the effects of the hydroalcoholic extracts from Drymis winteri (polygodial and drimanial), Phyllanthus (rutin and quercetine), Jathopha elliptica (jatrophone), Hedyosmum brasiliense (13HDS), Ocotea suaveolens (Tormentic acid), Protium kleinii (alphabeta-amyrin), Citrus paradise (naringin), soybean (genistein) and Crataeva nurvala (lupeol), described as having antinociceptive effects, on glutamatergic transmission parameters, such as [(3)H]glutamate binding, [(3)H]glutamate uptake by synaptic vesicles and astrocyte cultures, and synaptosomal [(3)H]glutamate release. All the glutamatergic parameters were affected by one or more of these compounds. Specifically, drimanial and polygodial presented more broad and profound effects, requiring more investigation on their mechanisms. The putative central side effects of these compounds, via the glutamatergic system, are discussed. PMID:17577666

  4. Apollo 15 main-parachute failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arabian, D. D.; Mechelay, J. E.

    1972-01-01

    In the investigation of the failure of one of the three main parachutes of the Apollo 15 spacecraft, which collapsed at approximately 1825 meters after operating properly from deployment at 3050 meters, three conditions considered to be possible causes of the failure were produced. The suspect conditions were the proximity of the forward heat shield that passed the spacecraft at approximately 1825 meters, the dumping of the reaction control system hypergolic propellants at approximately 1825 meters, and the failing of a riser link found on a recovered parachute. (The failed parachute was not recovered). The remaining two parachutes functioned as planned and averted a catastrophic failure. The conclusions concerning the cause of the failure are discussed.

  5. Intensity Limitations in Fermilab Main Injector

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, W.

    1997-06-01

    The design beam intensity of the FNAL Main Injector (MI) is 3 x 10{sup 13} ppp. This paper investigates possible limitations in the intensity upgrade. These include the space charge, transition crossing, microwave instability, coupled bunch instability, resistive wall, beam loading (static and transient), rf power, aperture (physical and dynamic), coalescing, particle losses and radiation shielding, etc. It seems that to increase the intensity by a factor of two from the design value is straightforward. Even a factor of five is possible provided that the following measures are to be taken: an rf power upgrade, a {gamma}{sub t}-jump system, longitudinal and transverse feedback systems, rf feedback and feedforward, stopband corrections and local shieldings.

  6. Failure investigation of eddystone main steam piping

    SciTech Connect

    DeLong, J.F.; Bynum, J.E.; Daikoku, T.; Ellis, F.V.; Haneda, H.; Rafiee, M.H.; Siddall, W.F.

    1985-10-01

    In March 1983, personnel at Philadelphia Electric's Eddystone No. 1 power plant discovered a through wall leak in the main steam outlet piping. This pipe was designed to carry steam at a pressure of 5300 psi (36,538 kPa) and a temperature of 1210F(654C). The pipe was made of 316 stainless steel and had been operated approximately 130,000 hours at the time that failure was discovered. Subsequent inspection revealed that many OD cracks existed in this piping system. This paper details the investigation into the cause of the failure. The following elements are highlighted: the in-place metallography which successfully used the plastic replica technique; the elasticplastic stress analysis and life prediction techniques carried out to assess probable failure modes and loadings; and the experimental stress analysis which was conducted to confirm analytical hypotheses.

  7. Main challenges for ITER optical diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vukolov, K. Yu.; Orlovskiy, I. I.; Alekseev, A. G.; Borisov, A. A.; Andreenko, E. N.; Kukushkin, A. B.; Lisitsa, V. S.; Neverov, V. S.

    2014-08-01

    The review is made of the problems of ITER optical diagnostics. Most of these problems will be related to the intensive neutron radiation from hot plasma. At a high level of radiation loads the most types of materials gradually change their properties. This effect is most critical for optical diagnostics because of degradation of optical glasses and mirrors. The degradation of mirrors, that collect the light from plasma, basically will be induced by impurity deposition and (or) sputtering by charge exchange atoms. Main attention is paid to the search of glasses for vacuum windows and achromatic lens which are stable under ITER irradiation conditions. The last results of irradiation tests in nuclear reactor of candidate silica glasses KU-1, KS-4V and TF 200 are presented. An additional problem is discussed that deals with the stray light produced by multiple reflections from the first wall of the intense light emitted in the divertor plasma.

  8. The shuttle main engine: A first look

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schreur, Barbara

    1996-01-01

    Anyone entering the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) team attends a two week course to become familiar with the design and workings of the engine. This course provides intensive coverage of the individual hardware items and their functions. Some individuals, particularly those involved with software maintenance and development, have felt overwhelmed by this volume of material and their lack of a logical framework in which to place it. To provide this logical framework, it was decided that a brief self-taught introduction to the overall operation of the SSME should be designed. To aid the people or new team members with an interest in the software, this new course should also explain the structure and functioning of the controller and its software. This paper presents a description of this presentation.

  9. Heavy hydrocarbon main injector technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arbit, H. A.; Tuegel, L. M.; Dodd, F. E.

    1991-01-01

    The Heavy Hydrocarbon Main Injector Program was an analytical, design, and test program to demonstrate an injection concept applicable to an Isolated Combustion Compartment of a full-scale, high pressure, LOX/RP-1 engine. Several injector patterns were tested in a 3.4-in. combustor. Based on these results, features of the most promising injector design were incorporated into a 5.7-in. injector which was then hot-fire tested. In turn, a preliminary design of a 5-compartment 2D combustor was based on this pattern. Also the additional subscale injector testing and analysis was performed with an emphasis on improving analytical techniques and acoustic cavity design methodology. Several of the existing 3.5-in. diameter injectors were hot-fire tested with and without acoustic cavities for spontaneous and dynamic stability characteristics.

  10. Daytime OIO in the Gulf of Maine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stutz, J.; Pikelnaya, O.; Hurlock, S. C.; Trick, S.; Pechtl, S.; von Glasow, R.

    2007-11-01

    The potential importance of iodine for marine boundary layer (MBL) chemistry has found increasing recognition in recent years. However, observations of the key iodine species are sparse and the chemical reactions of the iodine oxides are not well understood. Here we present Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy observations of IO, OIO in the MBL of the Gulf of Maine, U.S., during Summer 2004. We report the first daytime observation of OIO, indicating that this compound is rather photostable. Mixing ratios of IO were similar to, and those of OIO higher than, values reported for European coastal sites. Calculations with the one-dimensional model MISTRA show that the observed simultaneous presence of elevated OIO and NOx cannot be explained by currently known iodine chemistry. Our results lead to the conclusion that thus far unknown chemical reactions of iodine oxides, probably involving iodine nitrates, might occur in the MBL.

  11. STS-86 Landing (Main Gear Touchdown)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Space Shuttle orbiter Atlantis touches down on Runway 15 of the KSC Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF) to complete the nearly 11- day STS-86 mission. Main gear touchdown was at 5:55:09 p.m. EDT on Oct. 6, 1997. The unofficial mission-elapsed time at main gear touchdown was 10 days, 19 hours, 20 minutes and 50 seconds. The first two landing opportunities on Sunday were waved off because of weather concerns. The 87th Space Shuttle mission was the 40th landing of the Shuttle at KSC. On Sunday evening, the Space Shuttle program reached a milestone: The total flight time of the Shuttle passed the two-year mark. STS-86 was the seventh of nine planned dockings of the Space Shuttle with the Russian Space Station Mir. STS-86 Mission Specialist David A. Wolf replaced NASA astronaut and Mir 24 crew member C. Michael Foale, who has been on the Mir since mid-May. Foale returned to Earth on Atlantis with the remainder of the STS-86 crew. The other crew members are Commander James D. Wetherbee, Pilot Michael J. Bloomfield, and Mission Specialists Wendy B. Lawrence, Scott E. Parazynski, Vladimir Georgievich Titov of the Russian Space Agency, and Jean-Loup J.M. Chretien of the French Space Agency, CNES. Wolf is scheduled to remain on the Mir until the STS-89 Shuttle mission in January. Besides the docking and crew exchange, STS-86 included the transfer of more than three-and-a- half tons of science/logistical equipment and supplies between the two orbiting spacecraft. Parazynski and Titov also conducted a spacewalk while Atlantis and the Mir were docked.

  12. Remotely triggered earthquakes following moderate main shocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hough, S.E.

    2007-01-01

    Since 1992, remotely triggered earthquakes have been identified following large (M > 7) earthquakes in California as well as in other regions. These events, which occur at much greater distances than classic aftershocks, occur predominantly in active geothermal or volcanic regions, leading to theories that the earthquakes are triggered when passing seismic waves cause disruptions in magmatic or other fluid systems. In this paper, I focus on observations of remotely triggered earthquakes following moderate main shocks in diverse tectonic settings. I summarize evidence that remotely triggered earthquakes occur commonly in mid-continent and collisional zones. This evidence is derived from analysis of both historic earthquake sequences and from instrumentally recorded M5-6 earthquakes in eastern Canada. The latter analysis suggests that, while remotely triggered earthquakes do not occur pervasively following moderate earthquakes in eastern North America, a low level of triggering often does occur at distances beyond conventional aftershock zones. The inferred triggered events occur at the distances at which SmS waves are known to significantly increase ground motions. A similar result was found for 28 recent M5.3-7.1 earthquakes in California. In California, seismicity is found to increase on average to a distance of at least 200 km following moderate main shocks. This supports the conclusion that, even at distances of ???100 km, dynamic stress changes control the occurrence of triggered events. There are two explanations that can account for the occurrence of remotely triggered earthquakes in intraplate settings: (1) they occur at local zones of weakness, or (2) they occur in zones of local stress concentration. ?? 2007 The Geological Society of America.

  13. Debiasing the Main-Belt Asteroid Population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spahr, Timothy Bruce

    1998-12-01

    We present here two general techniques to remove observational selection effects from asteroid surveys. When applied to two specific asteroid surveys, these methods have allowed the first computation of the debiased distribution of asteroidal orbital elements and sizes for the first time. The first survey was conducted in 1960. Advances in computing have allowed the data to be re-analyzed using an existing computer program and given a much more rigorous statistical treatment. The survey was confined to the near-ecliptic at opposition, therefore its usefulness is limited with regard to highly inclined orbits. To compensate for this limitation, we conducted our own survey aimed specifically at high-inclination objects. Since these orbits are, in general, distributed differently than lower-inclination orbits, removing observational selection effects required creating a statistical technique using Monte-Carlo type simulations. The results of this work show no evidence for differing slopes of the size-frequency distribution throughout the asteroid belt, from the highly inclined Hungaria-type asteroids in the inner edge of the belt (1.8-2.0 AU), to the outer belt (3-3.5 AU). The slopes of the absolute-magnitude frequency distributions, being less than 0.5, show that the asteroidal size distribution is somewhat shallower than what would be predicted assuming the asteroids to be a collisionally evolved population of bodies with size-independent impact strengths. Also determined are rough numbers of asteroids in the main dynamical families of Eos, Maria, Themis, and Koronis, which comprise a significant fraction of the total number of objects in the main belt. This work has also resulted in the discovery of a new asteroid dynamical family, and possibly two new asteroid groups.

  14. Estimation of Seismicity Parameters Using a Computer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veneziano, Daniele

    The book is a translation from an original in Russian, published in 1972. After 15 years, the book appears dated, its emphasis being the use of computers as an innovative technology for seismicity parameter estimation.The book is divided into two parts. Part I (29 pages) reviews the literature for quantitative measures of seismicity and for earthquake recurrence models, and describes previous uses of the computer to determine seismicity parameters. The literature reviewed is mainly that of the 1960s, with prevalence of Russian and European titles. This part of the book may retain some interest for the historical perspective it gives on the subject.

  15. NICMOS Defocus parameter test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dashevsky, Ilana

    2007-07-01

    This proposal tests the new NICMOS non-nominal focus positions, which are implemented in the front-end systems and are specified in the Phase II using the CAMERA-FOCUS=DEFOCUS Optional Parameter. The targets from Proposals 9832 and 11063 are used in this Proposal. The GO Proposal 9832 is an example of how GOs may use the new non-nominal focus implementation for detector 3. Proposal 11063 is the NICMOS focus monitor, which will be used to verify the non-nominal focus for all 3 detectors.

  16. CELSS engineering parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drysdale, Alan; Sager, John; Wheeler, Ray; Fortson, Russ; Chetirkin, Peter

    1993-01-01

    The most important Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) engineering parameters are, in order of decreasing importance, manpower, mass, and energy. The plant component is a significant contributor to the total system equivalent mass. In this report, a generic plant component is described and the relative equivalent mass and productivity are derived for a number of instances taken from the KSC CELSS Breadboard Project data and literature. Typical specific productivities (edible biomass produced over 10 years divided by system equivalent mass) for closed systems are of the order of 0.2.

  17. Maine Tidal Power Initiative: Environmental Impact Protocols For Tidal Power

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Michael Leroy; Zydlewski, Gayle Barbin; Xue, Huijie; Johnson, Teresa R.

    2014-02-02

    The Maine Tidal Power Initiative (MTPI), an interdisciplinary group of engineers, biologists, oceanographers, and social scientists, has been conducting research to evaluate tidal energy resources and better understand the potential effects and impacts of marine hydro-kinetic (MHK) development on the environment and local community. Project efforts include: 1) resource assessment, 2) development of initial device design parameters using scale model tests, 3) baseline environmental studies and monitoring, and 4) human and community responses. This work included in-situ measurement of the environmental and social response to the pre-commercial Turbine Generator Unit (TGU®) developed by Ocean Renewable Power Company (ORPC) as well as considering the path forward for smaller community scale projects.

  18. Three eclipsing white dwarf plus main sequence binaries from SDSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyrzas, S.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Marsh, T. R.; Aungwerojwit, A.; Rebassa-Mansergas, A.; Southworth, J.; Rodríguez-Gil, P.; Schreiber, M. R.; Koester, D.

    2009-06-01

    We identify SDSS 0110+1326, SDSS 0303+0054 and SDSS 1435+3733 as three eclipsing white dwarf plus main sequence binaries from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, and report on their follow-up observations. Orbital periods for the three systems are established through multi-season photometry. Time-resolved spectroscopic observations lead to the determination of the radial velocities of the secondary stars. A decomposition technique of the SDSS spectra is used to estimate the surface gravities and effective temperatures of the white dwarfs, as well as the spectral types of the secondaries. By combining the constraints from the spectral decomposition, the radial velocity data and the modeling of the systems' light curves, we determine the physical parameters of the stellar components. Two of the white dwarfs are of low mass (Mwd ~ 0.4 Modot), while the third white dwarf is unusually massive (MWD ~ 0.8-0.9 Modot) for a post-common envelope system.

  19. Effective length measurements of prototype Main Injector Dipole endpacks

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, H.D.; Brown, B.C.; Harding, D.J.

    1993-03-03

    An endpack design has been developed for the Fermilab Main Injector Dipole. A major part of the design process was the testing of a series of prototype removable endpacks. The magnetic parameters that were tested included the effective length and the field shape variation. This report presents a description of the measurement techniques and the results for the effective length. The final endpack has an effective length at 1500 A (0.29T) of 2.6 {plus_minus} 0.3 mm greater than the steel length, and the change in effective length from 1500 A to maximum current of 9500 A (1.74T) is {minus}1.88 {plus_minus} 0.05 mm.

  20. Skipped Stage Modeling and Testing of the CPAS Main Parachutes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varela, Jose G.; Ray, Eric S.

    2013-01-01

    The Capsule Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) has undergone the transition from modeling a skipped stage event using a simulation that treats a cluster of parachutes as a single composite canopy to the capability of simulating each parachute individually. This capability along with data obtained from skipped stage flight tests has been crucial in modeling the behavior of a skipping canopy as well as the crowding effect on non-skipping ("lagging") neighbors. For the finite mass inflation of CPAS Main parachutes, the cluster is assumed to inflate nominally through the nominal fill time, at which point the skipping parachute continues inflating. This sub-phase modeling method was used to reconstruct three flight tests involving skipped stages. Best fit inflation parameters were determined for both the skipping and lagging canopies.

  1. Fault diagnosis for the Space Shuttle main engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duyar, Ahmet; Merrill, Walter

    1992-01-01

    A conceptual design of a model-based fault detection and diagnosis system is developed for the Space Shuttle main engine. The design approach consists of process modeling, residual generation, and fault detection and diagnosis. The engine is modeled using a discrete time, quasilinear state-space representation. Model parameters are determined by identification. Residuals generated from the model are used by a neural network to detect and diagnose engine component faults. Fault diagnosis is accomplished by training the neural network to recognize the pattern of the respective fault signatures. Preliminary results for a failed valve, generated using a full, nonlinear simulation of the engine, are presented. These results indicate that the developed approach can be used for fault detection and diagnosis. The results also show that the developed model is an accurate and reliable predictor of the highly nonlinear and very complex engine.

  2. ETS and tidal stressing: Fault weakening after main slip pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houston, H.

    2013-12-01

    Time-varying stresses from solid Earth tides and ocean loading influence slow slip (Hawthorne and Rubin, 2010) and, consequently, the frequency of occurrence and intensity of tremor during ETS episodes (Rubinstein et al., 2008). This relationship can illuminate changes in the mechanical response of the rupture surfaces(s) during slip in ETS. I compare the influence of tidal loading when and after the propagating ETS slip front (estimated by tremor density in time) ruptures the fault at a given spot. Using estimates of slip fronts that I derived from tremor locations, I divide ETS tremor into two groups: that occurring within a day of the start of the inferred slip front and that occurring over several days thereafter. The tremor catalog used contains 50K waveform cross-correlation locations of tremor in 7 large ETS in northern Cascadia between 2005 and 2012. I calculate normal, shear and volumetric stresses due to the Earth and ocean tides at numerous locations on the inferred rupture plane of the ETS following the method of Hawthorne and Rubin (2010). The Coulomb stress increment at each tremor time and location is compared with tremor occurrence for the two groups of tremor. Unreasonable results appear if the effective frictional coefficient mu > 0.2, and results are most 'reasonable' when mu is very near or equal to zero. Following passage of the main slip pulse, tremor generation is notably more sensitive to tidal stressing. One kPa of encouraging tidal Coulomb stress boosts the occurrence of tremor after the main slip pulse by about 50% above the average value, while the same amount of discouraging stress decreases the occurrence of such tremor by a similar factor. The greater the encouraging or discouraging stress, the greater the effect. In contrast, tremor in the main slip pulse is much less affected by positive or negative tidal stresses. I interpret the greater sensitivity to tidal stressing of the tremor after the main slip pulse as a measure of the

  3. Seasonal variations of the humoral immune parameters of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.).

    PubMed

    Valero, Yulema; García-Alcázar, Alicia; Esteban, M Ángeles; Cuesta, Alberto; Chaves-Pozo, Elena

    2014-08-01

    Seasonal cycles, mainly due to great variations in the light duration and temperature, are important and modulate several aspects of the animal behavior. In the case of poikilotherms animals such as fish this is very relevant. Thus, temperature changes fish immunity and affects disease resistance. We evaluate in this work the season variations of the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) humoral innate parameters focusing on winter months, at which the culture of this specie is more difficult. Our results showed that not all the innate immune parameters are depressed by low temperatures. Moreover, some of them are more dependent than others to the season and both temperature and photoperiod are operating together. PMID:24852342

  4. Parameter tuning method for dither compensation of a pneumatic proportional valve with friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tao; Song, Yang; Huang, Leisheng; Fan, Wei

    2016-04-01

    In the practical application of pneumatic control devices, the nonlinearity of a pneumatic control valve become the main factor affecting the control effect, which comes mainly from the dynamic friction force. The dynamic friction inside the valve may cause hysteresis and a dead zone. In this paper, a dither compensation mechanism is proposed to reduce negative effects on the basis of analyzing the mechanism of friction force. The specific dither signal (using a sinusoidal signal) was superimposed on the control signal of the valve. Based on the relationship between the parameters of the dither signal and the inherent characteristics of the proportional servo valve, a parameter tuning method was proposed, which uses a displacement sensor to measure the maximum static friction inside the valve. According to the experimental results, the proper amplitude ranges are determined for different pressures. In order to get the optimal parameters of the dither signal, some dither compensation experiments have been carried out on different signal amplitude and gas pressure conditions. Optimal parameters are determined under two kinds of pressure conditions. Using tuning parameters the valve spool displacement experiment has been taken. From the experiment results, hysteresis of the proportional servo valve is significantly reduced. And through simulation and experiments, the cut-off frequency of the proportional valve has also been widened. Therefore after adding the dither signal, the static and dynamic characteristics of the proportional valve are both improved to a certain degree. This research proposes a parameter tuning method of dither signal, and the validity of the method is verified experimentally.

  5. Parameter tuning method for dither compensation of a pneumatic proportional valve with friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tao; Song, Yang; Huang, Leisheng; Fan, Wei

    2016-05-01

    In the practical application of pneumatic control devices, the nonlinearity of a pneumatic control valve become the main factor affecting the control effect, which comes mainly from the dynamic friction force. The dynamic friction inside the valve may cause hysteresis and a dead zone. In this paper, a dither compensation mechanism is proposed to reduce negative effects on the basis of analyzing the mechanism of friction force. The specific dither signal (using a sinusoidal signal) was superimposed on the control signal of the valve. Based on the relationship between the parameters of the dither signal and the inherent characteristics of the proportional servo valve, a parameter tuning method was proposed, which uses a displacement sensor to measure the maximum static friction inside the valve. According to the experimental results, the proper amplitude ranges are determined for different pressures. In order to get the optimal parameters of the dither signal, some dither compensation experiments have been carried out on different signal amplitude and gas pressure conditions. Optimal parameters are determined under two kinds of pressure conditions. Using tuning parameters the valve spool displacement experiment has been taken. From the experiment results, hysteresis of the proportional servo valve is significantly reduced. And through simulation and experiments, the cut-off frequency of the proportional valve has also been widened. Therefore after adding the dither signal, the static and dynamic characteristics of the proportional valve are both improved to a certain degree. This research proposes a parameter tuning method of dither signal, and the validity of the method is verified experimentally.

  6. Calculation of shielding parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montoya, Zeferino Jorge

    Within the nuclear reaction exists three types of energy producing reactions: (1) radioactive disintegration; (2) fission; and (3) fusion. Besides the radiation produced in these reactions there are radioactive emissions of a different type, and in some of these cases they are of great penetration power and scope. The radiation produces great damage when interacted with materials, in particular the most dangerous are neutrons and gamma photons. For this reason it is necessary to protect people who work in places which operate with radioactive sources from the radiation, in addition to reducing the radiation doses to the most reasonably possible, considering the circumstances of the installations. The three determining factors in the proposition of reducing exposure to radiation are: (1) to maintain control over the reduced exposure in the time of the permanence in the irradiated areas; (2) to increase the distance between the source and the operating personnel as much as possible; and (3) to place an armor-plate between the source and the receptor. The work described in this paper has its objective a calculation of the parameters of an armor-plate in radioactive sources, with the goal of estimating the doses of radiation in protecting people and other biological systems from exposure to radiation produced during the nuclear reactions. The parameters to be principally considered are: (1) characteristics of the source; (2) geometry of the source at the point of exposure; and (3) material and thickness of the armor-plate.

  7. Parameters for burst detection

    PubMed Central

    Bakkum, Douglas J.; Radivojevic, Milos; Frey, Urs; Franke, Felix; Hierlemann, Andreas; Takahashi, Hirokazu

    2014-01-01

    Bursts of action potentials within neurons and throughout networks are believed to serve roles in how neurons handle and store information, both in vivo and in vitro. Accurate detection of burst occurrences and durations are therefore crucial for many studies. A number of algorithms have been proposed to do so, but a standard method has not been adopted. This is due, in part, to many algorithms requiring the adjustment of multiple ad-hoc parameters and further post-hoc criteria in order to produce satisfactory results. Here, we broadly catalog existing approaches and present a new approach requiring the selection of only a single parameter: the number of spikes N comprising the smallest burst to consider. A burst was identified if N spikes occurred in less than T ms, where the threshold T was automatically determined from observing a probability distribution of inter-spike-intervals. Performance was compared vs. different classes of detectors on data gathered from in vitro neuronal networks grown over microelectrode arrays. Our approach offered a number of useful features including: a simple implementation, no need for ad-hoc or post-hoc criteria, and precise assignment of burst boundary time points. Unlike existing approaches, detection was not biased toward larger bursts, allowing identification and analysis of a greater range of neuronal and network dynamics. PMID:24567714

  8. Glacioisostasy and Lake-Level Change at Moosehead Lake, Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Balco, G.; Belknap, D.F.; Kelley, J.T.

    1998-01-01

    Reconstructions of glacioisostatic rebound based on relative sea level in Maine and adjacent Canada do not agree well with existing geophysical models. In order to understand these discrepancies better, we investigated the lake-level history of 40-km-long Moosehead Lake in northwestern Maine. Glacioisostasy has affected the level of Moosehead Lake since deglaciation ca. 12,500 14C yr B.P. Lowstand features at the southeastern end and an abandoned outlet at the northwestern end of the lake indicate that the lake basin was tilted down to the northwest, toward the retreating ice sheet, by 0.7 m/km at 10,000 14C yr B.P. Water level then rose rapidly in the southeastern end of the lake, and the northwestern outlet was abandoned, indicating rapid relaxation of landscape tilt. Lowstand features at the northwestern end of the lake suggest that the lake basin was tilted to the southeast at ca. 8750 14C yr B.P., possibly as the result of a migrating isostatic forebulge. After 8000 14C yr B.P., water level at the southeastern end was again below present lake level and rose gradually thereafter. We found no evidence suggesting that postglacial climate change significantly affected lake level. The rebound history inferred from lake-level data is consistent with previous interpretations of nearby relative sealevel data, which indicate a significantly steeper and faster-moving ice-proximal depression and ice-distal forebulge than geophysical models predict. ?? 1998 University of Washington.

  9. New schools design: Acoustics as main target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maffei, Luigi; Lembo, Paola

    2005-04-01

    The effects of poor intelligibility and high background noise levels on the cognitive development of school children and on the dissatisfaction of teachers has been largely investigated. National standards have been implemented and attempts to harmonize these standards in international guidelines are ongoing. All these activities have led to the awareness that design of new schools must be centered on the achievement of a good acoustic environment. At this point a strong research effort to study and implement best solutions must be conducted, in collaboration, by architects, acousticians, pedagogues, psychologists, builders and acoustic materials producers. Recently an international competition for the planning of new primary schools in Rome, Italy has been announced. The aim of the competition is to study new architectural and running features of primary schools to obtain, among other parameters such as lighting, low cost energy solutions and air quality, the control of reverberation time, sound insulation and mechanical equipments noise. In these school buildings, as innovative requirement, children must be also able to elaborate interpretative hypothesis of physical phenomena such as sound emission and perception and be aware of their influence on these phenomena. Different possible solutions are presented.

  10. Affective brain–computer music interfacing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daly, Ian; Williams, Duncan; Kirke, Alexis; Weaver, James; Malik, Asad; Hwang, Faustina; Miranda, Eduardo; Nasuto, Slawomir J.

    2016-08-01

    Objective. We aim to develop and evaluate an affective brain–computer music interface (aBCMI) for modulating the affective states of its users. Approach. An aBCMI is constructed to detect a user's current affective state and attempt to modulate it in order to achieve specific objectives (for example, making the user calmer or happier) by playing music which is generated according to a specific affective target by an algorithmic music composition system and a case-based reasoning system. The system is trained and tested in a longitudinal study on a population of eight healthy participants, with each participant returning for multiple sessions. Main results. The final online aBCMI is able to detect its users current affective states with classification accuracies of up to 65% (3 class, p\\lt 0.01) and modulate its user's affective states significantly above chance level (p\\lt 0.05). Significance. Our system represents one of the first demonstrations of an online aBCMI that is able to accurately detect and respond to user's affective states. Possible applications include use in music therapy and entertainment.

  11. Immunological Parameters Associated With Vitiligo Treatments: A Literature Review Based on Clinical Studies

    PubMed Central

    Abreu, Ana Cláudia Guimarães; Duarte, Gabriela Guy; Miranda, Juliana Yasmin Pains; Ramos, Daniel Gontijo; Ramos, Camila Gontijo; Ramos, Mariana Gontijo

    2015-01-01

    Vitiligo, a depigmentary disorder, caused by the loss of melanocytes, affects approximately 1% of the world population, irrespective of skin type, with a serious psychological impact on the patient quality of life. So far, the origin of vitiligo has not been traced and the pathogenesis is complex, involving the interplay of a multitude of variables. Although there is no treatment that ensures the complete cure of the disorder, there are some pharmacological, phototherapy, and surgical therapies available. A series of variables can affect treatment outcome, such as individual characteristics, emotional issues, type of vitiligo, stability of the lesions, and immunological status. The present literature review identified the main immunological parameters associated with treatments for vitiligo. Cytotoxic CD8+ T lymphocytes are the main cell type involved in treatment success, as fewer cells in skin lesions are associated with better results. Other parameters such as cytokines and regulatory T cells may also be involved. Further clinical scientific studies are needed to elucidate the complex mechanisms underlying vitiligo and its treatments, in order to expand the range of therapeutic approaches for each individual case. PMID:26457199

  12. Reconstruction of Twist Torque in Main Parachute Risers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Day, Joshua D.

    2015-01-01

    The reconstruction of twist torque in the Main Parachute Risers of the Capsule Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) has been successfully used to validate CPAS Model Memo conservative twist torque equations. Reconstruction of basic, one degree of freedom drop tests was used to create a functional process for the evaluation of more complex, rigid body simulation. The roll, pitch, and yaw of the body, the fly-out angles of the parachutes, and the relative location of the parachutes to the body are inputs to the torque simulation. The data collected by the Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) was used to calculate the true torque. The simulation then used photogrammetric and IMU data as inputs into the Model Memo equations. The results were then compared to the true torque results to validate the Model Memo equations. The Model Memo parameters were based off of steel risers and the parameters will need to be re-evaluated for different materials. Photogrammetric data was found to be more accurate than the inertial data in accounting for the relative rotation between payload and cluster. The Model Memo equations were generally a good match and when not matching were generally conservative.

  13. Detecting Mass Loss in Main Belt Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandberg, Erik; Rajagopal, Jayadev; Ridgway, Susan E.; Kotulla, Ralf C.; Valdes, Francisco; Allen, Lori

    2016-01-01

    Sandberg, E., Rajagopal, J., Ridgway, S.E, Kotulla, R., Valdes, F., Allen, L.The Dark Energy Camera (DECam) on the 4m Blanco telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) is being used for a survey of Near Earth Objects (NEOs). Here we attempt to identify mass loss in main belt asteroids (MBAs) from these data. A primary motivation is to understand the role that asteroids may play in supplying dust and gas for debris disks. This work focuses on finding methods to automatically pick out asteroids that have qualities indicating possible mass loss. Two methods were chosen: looking for flux above a certain threshold in the asteroid's radial profile, and comparing its PSF to that of a point source. After sifting through 490 asteroids, several have passed these tests and should be followed up with a more rigorous analysis.Sandberg was supported by the NOAO/KPNO Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) Program which is funded by the National Science Foundation Research Experiences for Undergraduates Program (AST-1262829)

  14. Flood inundation map library, Fort Kent, Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lombard, Pamela J.

    2012-01-01

    Severe flooding occurred in northern Maine from April 28 to May 1, 2008, and damage was extensive in the town of Fort Kent (Lombard, 2010). Aroostook County was declared a Federal disaster area on May 9, 2008. The extent of flooding on both the Fish and St. John Rivers during this event showed that the current Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Flood Insurance Study (FIS) and Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM) (Federal Emergency Management Agency, 1979) were out of date. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a study to develop a flood inundation map library showing the areas and depths for a range of flood stages from bankfull to the flood of record for Fort Kent to complement an updated FIS (Federal Emergency Management Agency, in press). Hydrologic analyses that support the maps include computer models with and without the levee and with various depths of backwater on the Fish River. This fact sheet describes the methods used to develop the maps and describes how the maps can be accessed.

  15. The main magnetic field of Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acuna, M. H.; Ness, N. F.

    1976-01-01

    The main magnetic field of Jupiter has been measured by the Goddard Space Flight Center flux gate magnetometer on Pioneer 11. Analysis of the data yields a more detailed model than that obtained from Pioneer 10 results. In a spherical harmonic octupole representation the dipole term (with opposite polarity to earth's) has a magnitude of 4.28 G times the radial distance cubed at a tilt angle of 9.6 deg and a system 111 longitude of 232 deg. The quadrupole and octupole moments are 24% and 21% of the dipole, respectively. This leads to a significant deviation of the planetary magnetic field from a simple offset dipole topology at distances of less than three times the radial distance. The north polar field strength is 14 G, and in the Northern Hemisphere the 'footprint' of the Io associated flux tube traverses the magnetic polar region. Associated L shell splitting in the radiation belts, warping of the charged particle equatorial planes, and enhanced absorption effects due to the satellites Amalthea and Io are expected as a result of the field complexity.

  16. Main sources of lead and cadmium

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-03-01

    Lead-acid batteries used in cars accounted for 65% of the lead in MSW in 1986, and rechargeable nickel-cadmium batteries contributed 52% of the cadmium discarded in the U.S. since 1980. According to an EPA draft report, other major sources of lead are consumer electronics 27%; glass and ceramics, 4%; and such plastic items as PVC resins. Other less significant sources of lead are soldered cans, pigments, brass and bronze products, light bulbs, rubber products, used oil, and lead foil wine bottle wrappers. Cadmium comes from other sources in addition to nickel-cadmium batteries. Plastics using cadmium as stabilizer (mainly PVC) or in pigments contribute 28% of the total amount entering the waste stream. Consumer electronics account for 9% (including cadmium-plated steel chassis on old TV sets and radios); appliances which used to be built with cadmium-plated parts to resist corrosion, 5% pigments, particularly those used in non-newspaper printing inks, textile dyes and paints, 4%; and glass and ceramics, 1.6% of the total.

  17. Main factors providing specificity of repair enzymes.

    PubMed

    Nevinsky, G A

    2011-01-01

    Specific and nonspecific DNA complex formation with human uracil-DNA glycosylase, 8-oxoguanine-DNA glycosylase, and apurine/apyrimidine endonuclease, as well as with E. coli 8-oxoguanine-DNA glycosylase and RecA protein was analyzed using the method of stepwise increase in DNA-ligand complexity. It is shown that high affinity of these enzymes to any DNA (10(-4)-10(-8) M) is provided by a large number of weak additive contacts mainly with DNA internucleoside phosphate groups and in a less degree with bases of nucleotide links "covered" by protein globules. Enzyme interactions with specific DNA links are comparable in efficiency with weak unspecific contacts and provide only for one-two orders of affinity (10(-1)-10(-2) M), but these contacts are extremely important at stages of DNA and enzyme structural adaptation and catalysis proper. Only in the case of specific DNA individual for each enzyme alterations in DNA structure provide for efficient adjustment of reacting enzyme atoms and DNA orbitals with accuracy up to 10-15° and, as a result, for high reaction rate. Upon transition from nonspecific to specific DNA, reaction rate (k(cat)) increases by 4-8 orders of magnitude. Thus, stages of DNA and enzyme structural adaptation as well as catalysis proper are the basis of specificity of repair enzymes. PMID:21568843

  18. Dynamic picture of the main asteroid belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michtchenko, T. A.; Lazzaro, D.; Carvano, J. M.; Mothé-Diniz, T.

    2011-10-01

    Using the Spectral Analysis Method introduced by Michtchenko et al. (2002), we construct a dynamic portrait of the main asteroid belt. For this task, we use information extracted from the distribution of test particles (which were initially placed on a perfectly rectangular grid of initial conditions) after 4.2 Myr of gravitational interactions with the Sun and five planets, from Mars to Neptune. We illustrate in detail the asteroidal behavior on the dynamical, averaged and frequency maps. On the maps, we superpose information on the proper elements and proper frequencies of real objects, extracted from the data base, Ast- DyS (http://hamilton.dm.unipi.it/astdys), constructed by Milani and Knežević (2003). A comparison of the maps with the distribution of real objects allows us to detect dynamical mechanisms acting in the domain under study. These mechanisms are related to meanmotion and secular resonances. We note that the twoand three-body mean-motion resonances and the secular resonances (strong linear and weaker non-linear) play an important role in the diffusive transportation of the objects and the formation of the clumps which could be misidentified as asteroid families. The longlasting action of the resonances, overlaid with the Yarkovsky effect, may explain many observed features of the density, size and taxonomic distributions of the asteroids.

  19. Commissioning Measurements of the KATRIN Main Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wierman, Kevin; Katrin Collaboration

    2013-10-01

    Beginning in May 2013, the KArlsruhe TRItium Neutrino experiment (KATRIN) collaboration began measurements to commission the 10-m diameter main spectrometer. KATRIN utilizes the spectrometer to provide magnetic adiabatic collimation and electrostatic filtering designed to analyze the tritium beta decay spectrum for contributions from the neutrino mass. In order to achieve an order-of-magnitude improvement on previous neutrino mass experiments the desired sensitivity of the apparatus must be 200 meV in the decay endpoint region. Goals of the recent measurements include identification and reduction of backgrounds and determination of the spectrometer transfer function. Backgrounds have been probed by utilizing electromagnetic field configurations to explore decays in the spectrometer, Penning traps and field emission. A 148-pixel PIN diode array is employed to detect particles exiting the spectrometer, which permits angular and radial distributions of particles to be analyzed. This has allowed for high precision comparison between measurements and simulations of expected backgrounds to be investigated in order to commission the spectrometer. This work is supported by grants from the DOE Office of Nuclear Physics and the Helmholtz Association.

  20. Space shuttle main engine: Interactive design challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarty, J. P.; Wood, B. K.

    1985-01-01

    The operating requirements established by NASA for the SSME were considerably more demanding than those for earlier rocket engines used in the military launch vehicles or Apollo program. The SSME, in order to achieve the high performance, low weight, long life, reusable objectives, embodied technical demands far in excess of its predecessor rocket engines. The requirements dictated the use of high combustion pressure and the staged combustion cycle which maximizes performance through total use of all propellants in the main combustion process. This approach presented a myriad of technical challenges for maximization of performance within attainable state of the art capabilities for operating pressures, operating temperatures and rotating machinery efficiencies. Controlling uniformity of the high pressure turbomachinery turbine temperature environment was a key challenge for thrust level and life capability demanding innovative engineering. New approaches in the design of the components were necessary to accommodate the multiple use, minimum maintenance objectives. Included were the use of line replaceable units to facilitate field maintenance automatic checkout and internal inspection capabilities.