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1

Parameters affecting MOV performance  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the background status and current research on the motor-operated valve (MOV) disc and stem factor loads. Generic Safety Issue (GSI)-87 ``Failure of HPCI Steam Line Without Isolation`` and Generic Letter (GL) 89-10 ``Safety-Related Motor-Operated Valve Testing and Surveillance`` have initiated a great deal of research on MOVs in a relatively short time. Most of this research has concentrated on the motor-operated, rising, stem, wedge gate valve, which is the predominant valve in the GSI-87 applications and is widely used in the systems covered by GL 89-10. The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC), is performing research to assist in the resolution of GSI-87 and the implementation of GL 89-10. This work has identified two friction loads that were not well understood and that have a significant influence on the force required to operate a valve under load. The lack of understanding of one of the friction loads has led to questions about the diagnostic testing performed on MOVs over the last few years. It is also not known how aging (time) will affect these friction loads. This is also a subject of ongoing research.

Watkins, J.C.; DeWall, K.G.; Steele, R. Jr.

1992-12-31

2

Parameters affecting MOV performance  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the background status and current research on the motor-operated valve (MOV) disc and stem factor loads. Generic Safety Issue (GSI)-87 Failure of HPCI Steam Line Without Isolation'' and Generic Letter (GL) 89-10 Safety-Related Motor-Operated Valve Testing and Surveillance'' have initiated a great deal of research on MOVs in a relatively short time. Most of this research has concentrated on the motor-operated, rising, stem, wedge gate valve, which is the predominant valve in the GSI-87 applications and is widely used in the systems covered by GL 89-10. The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC), is performing research to assist in the resolution of GSI-87 and the implementation of GL 89-10. This work has identified two friction loads that were not well understood and that have a significant influence on the force required to operate a valve under load. The lack of understanding of one of the friction loads has led to questions about the diagnostic testing performed on MOVs over the last few years. It is also not known how aging (time) will affect these friction loads. This is also a subject of ongoing research.

Watkins, J.C.; DeWall, K.G.; Steele, R. Jr.

1992-01-01

3

Factors Affecting the Comprehension of Global and Local Main Idea  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated factors that would affect a reader's understanding of the main idea at the global level and explicit and implicit main ideas at the local level. Fifty-seven first-year university students taking a college reading course took a comprehension test on an expository text. Statistical analyses revealed that text structure had a…

Wang, Danhua

2009-01-01

4

Physical parameters affecting living cells in space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The question is posed: Why does a living cell react to the absence of gravity? What sensors may it have? Does it note pressure, sedimentation, convection, or other parameters? If somewhere in a liquid volume sodium ions are replaced by potassium ions, the density of the liquid changes locally: the heavier regions sink, the lighter regions rise. This may contribute to species transport, to the metabolism. Under microgravity this mechanism is strongly reduced. On the other hand, other reasons for convection like thermal and solutal interface convection are left. Do they affect species transport? Another important effect of gravity is the hydrostatic pressure. On the macroscopic side, the pressure between our head and feet changes by 0.35 atmospheres. On the microscopic level the hydrostatic pressure on the upper half of a cell membrane is lower than on the lower half. This, by affecting the ion transport through the membrane, may change the surrounding electric potential. It has been suggested to be one of the reasons for graviperception. Following the discussion of these and other effects possibly important in life sciences in space, an order of magnitude analysis of the residual accelerations tolerable during experiments in materials sciences is outlined. In the field of life sciences only rough estimates are available at present.

Langbein, Dieter

5

Direct determination of physical parameters for main sequence stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The environment of planetary formation and evolution is mainly characterized by its host star's physical properties. Until recently most fundamental stellar parameters, like e. g. the star's radius and effective temperature, have only been estimated indirectly; but with advances in interferometric observing technique it is now possible to obtain a direct estimate of them. In this poster we present preliminary results from measured interferometric fringe visibilities of main-sequence stars. These visibilities were collected using the four-beam combiner VLTI/PIONIER instrument and the 1.8m Auxiliary Telescopes (ATs) in A1-G1-K0-J3 quadruplet configuration. We bracketed each science target with different calibrators to ensure reducing the systematic errors in our data. For each target star, the data reduction was performed several hundred times, each time randomizing the set of fringes by the bootstrap method and the calibrators' diameters. This allowed us to take into account error correlations across spectral channels, between consecutive observations, and overnight. Each result was least-squares fitted by a uniform disc, yielding a value for the target's diameter. From the distribution of diameters we assessed the statistical error in the respective measurement. Using the HIPPARCOS parallax we estimated the distance and obtained the star's linear radius. Combined with the bolometric flux we obtained a direct quantification of the effective temperature from the Stefan-Boltzmann equation. Finally, these direct determinations of stellar radii and effective temperatures enable us to better characterize planets around main-sequence stars.

Rabus, Markus; Lachaume, Regis; Brahm, Rafael; Jordan, Andres; Le Bouquin, Jean-Baptiste; Berger, Jean-Philippe; Absil, Olivier; Boyajian, Tabetha; Duvert, Gilles; Patru, Fabien; Rojas-Ayala, Bárbara; von Braun, Kaspar; Lazareff, Bernard; Millan-Gabet, Rafael

2013-07-01

6

Identification of Critical Biological Parameters Affecting Gastrointestinal Absorption.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An analysis of absorption-related anatomical and physiological features of the gastrointestinal tract and the mechanisms of absorption of both nutrients and nonnutrients has been performed in order to identify critical parameters affecting gastrointestina...

J. M. DeSesso R. D. Mavis

1990-01-01

7

Parameters affecting greywater quality and its safety for reuse.  

PubMed

Reusing greywater (GW) for on-site irrigation is becoming a common practice worldwide. Alongside its benefits, GW reuse might pose health and environmental risks. The current study assesses the risks associated with on-site GW reuse and the main factors affecting them. GW from 34 households in Israel was analyzed for physicochemical parameters, Escherichia coli (as an indicator for rotavirus), Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Each participating household filled out a questionnaire about their GW sources, treatment and usages. Quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) was performed based on the measured microbial quality, and on exposure scenarios derived from the questionnaires and literature data. The type of treatment was found to have a significant effect on the quality of the treated GW. The average E. coli counts in GW (which exclude kitchen effluent) treated by professionally-designed system resulted in acceptable risk under all exposure scenarios while the risk from inadequately-treated GW was above the accepted level as set by the WHO. In conclusion, safe GW reuse requires a suitable and well-designed treatment system. A risk-assessment approach should be used to adjust the current regulations/guidelines and to assess the performance of GW treatment and reuse systems. PMID:24751591

Maimon, Adi; Friedler, Eran; Gross, Amit

2014-07-15

8

A review of the meteorological parameters which affect aerial application  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ambient wind field and temperature gradient were found to be the most important parameters. Investigation results indicated that the majority of meteorological parameters affecting dispersion were interdependent and the exact mechanism by which these factors influence the particle dispersion was largely unknown. The types and approximately ranges of instrumented capabilities for a systematic study of the significant meteorological parameters influencing aerial applications were defined. Current mathematical dispersion models were also briefly reviewed. Unfortunately, a rigorous dispersion model which could be applied to aerial application was not available.

Christensen, L. S.; Frost, W.

1979-01-01

9

The PASS Project - Identifying Parameters Affecting Student Success  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since (very) late last century, a research team at UNITEC Institute of Technology has been working on the PASS project, endeavouring to identify Parameters which Affect Student Success, both on our computing programmes and in the workplace after graduating. Four related strands are being investigated: ? is there any correlation between personal factors (age, ethnicity, gender, study process and motivation)

Donald Joyce

2000-01-01

10

Evaluation of Parameters Affecting Horizontal Stability of Landing Mats.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The parameters that affect the horizontal stability of airfield surfacing mats were studied by conducting a series of static full-scale buckling tests in the laboratory using various mats and lay patterns. AM2, XM18, and XM19 mats with simulated waterproo...

Y. T. Chou W. R. Barker W. P. Dawkins

1976-01-01

11

Parameters affecting long-term performance of painted galvanised steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to investigate which parameters affect the long-term performance of coil coated galvanised steel sheet. Therefore, the paint adhesion and corrosion resistance of selected painted pre-treated galvanised steel substrates were studied. The systems investigated included chromate-free pre-treatments and primers. The polymer coated panels were tested by using: T-bend, combined cross cut and adhesion, prohesion and

P. Puomi; H. M. Fagerholm; A. Sopanen

2001-01-01

12

PID controller parameters tuning of main steam temperature based on chaotic particle swarm optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ahstract- The main steam temperature of thermal power units is an important control parameter to the safety and economic operation of the thermal power plant, which requires its long­ term deviation to remain within ±5\\

Zhou Keliang; Qin Jieqiong

2011-01-01

13

The investigation of parameters affecting boron removal by electrocoagulation method.  

PubMed

Boron removal from wastewaters by electrocoagulation using aluminum electrode material was investigated in this paper. Several working parameters, such as pH, current density, boron concentration and type and concentration of supporting electrolyte were studied in an attempt to achieve a higher removal capacity. The experiments were carried out by keeping the pH of solution constant and optimum pH of solution was determined 8.0 for the aluminum electrode. Although energy consumption increased with decreasing boron concentration, which conductivity of these solutions were low, boron removal efficiency was higher at 100 mg/L than that of 1000 mg/L. Current density was an important parameter affecting removal efficiency. Boron removal efficiency and energy consumption increased with increasing current density from 1.2 to 6.0 mA/cm2. The types of different supporting electrolyte were experimented in order to investigate to this parameter effect on boron removal. The highest boron removal efficiency, 97%, was found by CaCl2. Added CaCl2 increased more the conductivity of solution according to other supporting electrolytes, but decreased energy consumption. The results showed to have a high effectiveness of the electrocoagulation method in removing boron from aqueous solutions. PMID:15985328

Yilmaz, A Erdem; Boncukcuo?lu, Recep; Kocakerim, M Muhtar; Keskinler, Bülent

2005-10-17

14

[Aerodynamic parameters and their affecting factors over Panjin reed wetland].  

PubMed

Based on the observation data from eddy covariance tower and meteorological gradient tower in Panjin reed wetland observation plot, and by the method combined eddy covariance with microclimate gradient observation, two fundamental aerodynamic parameters, i. e., zero-plane displacement (d) and roughness length (z0), were evaluated, with their affecting factors analyzed. The results showed that the method adopted was suitable for estimating the aerodynamic parameters. There existed obvious seasonal variations in d and z0, with the maximum (1.85 and 0.24 m) in September and the minimum (0.02 and 0.03 m) in December, respectively. The seasonal variations were closely related to vegetation characteristics, plant height (h) and leaf area index (LAI). There was a close linear relationship between d and h, and a conic relationship between z0 and h. Both d/h and d/z0 had power relationships with LAI, and the R2 values were 0.99 and 0.78, respectively. PMID:18533513

He, Qi-Jin; Zhou, Guang-Sheng; Zhou, Li; Wang, Yun-Long

2008-03-01

15

Does body posture affect the parameters of a cutaneous electrogastrogram?  

PubMed

In a study aimed to test the effect of body position on the parameters derived from surface electrogastrograms, 17 healthy volunteers (2M, 15F; median age 22.5 years) attended in random order two examination sessions held on separate days. A 30-min recording of the interdigestive gastric myoelectrical activity (GMA) was followed by a 90-min postprandial recording after intake of a 394 kcal mixed solid-liquid test meal. For the first examination the subject was examined in a recumbent position, whereas for the second examination a sitting position was maintained. The dominant frequency and relative time occupied by normogastria was negligibly affected by the posture of the subject during GMA recording. However, a decrease in the dominant power (DP) of the gastric slow waves was observed during both the interdigestive and the postprandial recording period in a sitting position compared to a recumbent position. Consequently, the fed to fasted state DP ratio remained unaffected by body posture during GMA recording. The results indicate that by carefully observing procedural guidelines, good quality electrogastrograms can be obtained with a sitting subject, enabling the provision of comparable parameters to those achieved from standard examination in a recumbent position. PMID:16006746

Jonderko, Krzysztof; Kasicka-Jonderko, Anna; B?o?ska-Fajfrowska, Barbara

2005-06-01

16

Does Cigarette Smoking Affect Seminal Fluid Parameters? A Comparative Study  

PubMed Central

Objective To study the effect of cigarette smoking on seminal fluid parameters, namely; volume, sperm concentration, and motility, as well as morphology, leukocyte infiltration, among males complaining of infertility. Methods Between August 2010 and July 2011, seminal fluid analysis was done for 1438 males who are partners of couples who visited the infertility clinic at Prince Rashid Ben Al Hassan Hospital (PRH) for infertility. The men who fit the inclusion criteria (n=960) were classified into two groups: group a (non-smokers; n=564) and group B (smokers; n=396), which represents 41.25% of the study group. Seminal fluid was collected using masturbation after 3-5 days of abstinence then analyzed for volume, sperm count, sperm concentration, motility and morphology. In order to analyze whether the number of cigarettes smoked per day has an effect on the spermatogram; the smoking men were divided into two subgroups: the heavy smokers (n=266) and non-heavy smokers (n=130). Results A total of 960 adult males were enrolled. Their age ranged between 21 and 76 years, 564 were non-smokers with mean age of 36. 45±6.27 (Mean±SD). Three-hundred-and-ninety-six were smokers with a mean age of 34.35±4.25 (Mean±SD). There was a significant effect of smoking on the motility of sperms and the ratios of abnormality (p<0.005). Concentration appeared not to be affected by smoking. Furthermore, the group of heavy smokers were found to have lower sperm concentrations and a higher percentage of abnormal sperms compared to the non-heavy smokers. Conclusion Cigarette smoking has a deleterious effect on some of the seminal fluid parameters (motility, morphology and leukocyte count) which in turn may result in male subfertility.

Meri, Zakarya Bani; Irshid, Ibrahim Bani; Migdadi, Mohammad; Irshid, Ayat Bani; Mhanna, Somia A.

2013-01-01

17

[Sizes of soil macropores and related main affecting factors on a vegetated basalt slope].  

PubMed

The landslide on vegetated slopes caused by extreme weather has being increased steadily, and the preferential flow in soil macropores plays an important role in the landslide. By using water breakthrough curve and Poiseuille equation, this paper estimated the radius range, amount, and average volume of soil macropores on a vegetated basalt slope of Maka Mountain, Southwest China, and analyzed the distribution of the soil macropores and the main affecting factors. In the study area, the radius of soil macropores ranged from 0.3 to 1.8 mm, mainly between 0.5 and 1.2 mm. The large-radius macropores (1.4-1.8 mm) were lesser, while the small-radius macropores (< 1.4 mm) were more. With the development of soil profile, soil macropores were more in upper layers and lesser in deeper layers. The average volume of the macropores contributed 84.7% to the variance of steady effluent rate. Among the factors affecting the average volume of the large macropores, vegetations root mass had a linear relationship, with the correlation coefficient being 0.70, and soil organic matter content also had a linear relationship, with the correlation coefficient being 0.64. PMID:24483084

Guan, Qi; Xu, Ze-Min; Tian, Lin

2013-10-01

18

Predicting engine parameters using the optic spectrum of the space shuttle main engine exhaust plume  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Optical Plume Anomaly Detection (OPAD) system is under development to predict engine anomalies and engine parameters of the Space Shuttle's Main Engine (SSME). The anomaly detection is based on abnormal metal concentrations in the optical spectrum of the rocket plume. Such abnormalities could be indicative of engine corrosion or other malfunctions. Here, we focus on the second task of the OPAD system, namely the prediction of engine parameters such as rated power level (RPL) and mixture ratio (MR). Because of the high dimensionality of the spectrum, we developed a linear algorithm to resolve the optical spectrum of the exhaust plume into a number of separate components, each with a different physical interpretation. These components are used to predict the metal concentrations and engine parameters for online support of ground-level testing of the SSME. Currently, these predictions are labor intensive and cannot be done online. We predict RPL using neural networks and give preliminary results.

Srivastava, Ashok N.; Buntine, Wray

1995-01-01

19

Leprosy affects facial nerves at the main trunk: neurolysis can possibly avoid transfer procedures.  

PubMed

The predilective sites of lesions in leprous peripheral nerves are well established, and their surgical decompression is common practice when sensorimotor disorders persist after medication. By contrast, the precise localization of leprous facial neuropathy still remains unclear, and musculofascial transfers have been the only type of surgical treatment. The goal of this study was to clarify where leprosy affects facial nerves and to determine whether neurolysis might suffice to restore facial function. In five Indian and two Egyptian patients suffering from leprous facial neuritis, the nerves were stimulated transcranially at the brainstem to evoke efferent motor nerve action potentials, which were recorded from the exposed nerves. Lesions were detected at the main trunk proximally from the first bifurcation in all cases. Epineuriotomy revealed fibrosis of the interfascicular epineurium in all instances, as an indication for interfascicular neurolysis. One patient was able to close his eye and showed a better smile soon after surgery. After 16 and 21 months, respectively, one patient had improved distinctly, two patients slightly, two patients showing no progress, and two patients were lost to follow-up. It is concluded that (1) leprous facial neuropathy is located at the main trunk close to the first bifurcation and not exclusively at the peripheral zygomatic branches, (2) microsurgical neurolysis can be considered in leprous facial neuropathy before transfer procedures as long as voluntary or spontaneous activity is present in the affected muscles, and (3) intraoperative transcranial electrical stimulation is an effective means of localizing the site and proximal extent of leprous facial neuropathy. PMID:9774012

Turkof, E; Tambwekar, S; Kamal, S; El-Dahrawi, M; Mansukhani, K; Soliman, H; Ciovica, R; Mayr, N

1998-10-01

20

On-line implementation of nonlinear parameter estimation for the Space Shuttle main engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We investigate the performance of a nonlinear estimation scheme applied to the estimation of several parameters in a performance model of the Space Shuttle Main Engine. The nonlinear estimator is based upon the extended Kalman filter which has been augmented to provide estimates of several key performance variables. The estimated parameters are directly related to the efficiency of both the low pressure and high pressure fuel turbopumps. Decreases in the parameter estimates may be interpreted as degradations in turbine and/or pump efficiencies which can be useful measures for an online health monitoring algorithm. This paper extends previous work which has focused on off-line parameter estimation by investigating the filter's on-line potential from a computational standpoint. ln addition, we examine the robustness of the algorithm to unmodeled dynamics. The filter uses a reduced-order model of the engine that includes only fuel-side dynamics. The on-line results produced during this study are comparable to off-line results generated previously. The results show that the parameter estimates are sensitive to dynamics not included in the filter model. Off-line results using an extended Kalman filter with a full order engine model to address the robustness problems of the reduced-order model are also presented.

Buckland, Julia H.; Musgrave, Jeffrey L.; Walker, Bruce K.

1992-01-01

21

Evaluation of Parameters Affecting Arc Plasma Chute in a Typical Gas Interrupter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we examined a typical high-voltage gas circuit breaker. The main goal of this study is to characterize arc plasma and to determine its behavior using the generalized Mayr-type equation model following the interruption of high-voltage circuit breakers according to a semi-empirical one, named conductance model. Here, we tried to evaluate some arc parameters that affect interrupting ability by performing a numerical analysis so that our model defines recorded experimental results of an actual test.

Borghei, Seyed Majid; Ghoranneviss, Mahmood; Abolhassani, Mohammad Reza; Anvari, Abbas

2008-01-01

22

Nozzle parameters affecting vortex tube energy separation performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This experimental study reports the effect of nozzle parameters on the energy separation of the vortex tube. The results indicate that maximum energy separation is achieved with tangential nozzle orientation while the symmetry/asymmetry of nozzles has a minimal effect on the performance of the energy separation. For current selected conditions and parameters, the study shows that the optimum number of nozzles for maximum energy separation is around 4 nozzles.

Hamdan, Mohammad O.; Alsayyed, Basel; Elnajjar, Emad

2013-04-01

23

A Parallel plate electrostatic droplet generator: Parameters affecting microbead size  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polymer microbead production by parallel plate electrostatic extrusion is presented. Factors affecting microbead size such as needle gauge, electrostatic potential, distance between needle and collecting solution, and polymer solution concentration and flow rate were evaluated. Smaller microbeads resulted from reduced needle diameter, reduced needle to collecting solution distance, increased electrostatic potential, and reduced polymer solution concentration and flow rate. In

D. Poncelet; R. Neufeld; B. Bugarski; B. G. Amsden; J. Zhu; M. F. A. Goosen

1994-01-01

24

A Parallel plate electrostatic droplet generator: parameters affecting microbead size  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polymer microbead production by parallel plate electrostatic extrusion is presented. Factors affecting microbead size such as needle gauge, electrostatic potential, distance between needle and collecting solution, and polymer solution concentration and flow rate were evaluated. Smaller microbeads resulted from reduced needle diameter, reduced needle to collecting solution distance, increased electrostatic potential, and reduced polymer solution concentration and flow rate. In

D. Poncelet; B. Bugarski; B. G. Amsden; J. Zhu; R. Neufeld; M. F. A. Goosen

1994-01-01

25

Importance and sensitivity of parameters affecting the Zion Seismic Risk  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of a study on the importance and sensitivity of structures, systems, equipment, components and design parameters used in the Zion Seismic Risk Calculations. This study is part of the Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP) supported by the NRC Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. The objective of this study is to provide the NRC with results on the importance and sensitivity of parameters used to evaluate seismic risk. These results can assist the NRC in making decisions dealing with the allocation of research resources on seismic issues. This study uses marginal analysis in addition to importance and sensitivity analysis to identify subject areas (input parameter areas) for improvements that reduce risk, estimate how much the improvement dfforts reduce risk, and rank the subject areas for improvements. Importance analysis identifies the systems, components, and parameters that are important to risk. Sensitivity analysis estimates the change in risk per unit improvement. Marginal analysis indicates the reduction in risk or uncertainty for improvement effort made in each subject area. The results described in this study were generated using the SEISIM (Systematic Evaluation of Important Safety Improvement Measures) and CHAIN computer codes. Part 1 of the SEISIM computer code generated the failure probabilities and risk values. Part 2 of SEISIM, along with the CHAIN computer code, generated the importance and sensitivity measures.

George, L.L.; O'Connell, W.J.

1985-06-01

26

Stabilometric parameters are affected by anthropometry and foot placement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To recognize and quantify the influence of biomechanical factors, namely anthropometry and foot placement, on the more common measures of stabilometric performance, including new-generation stochastic parameters.Design. Fifty normal-bodied young adults were selected in order to cover a sufficiently wide range of anthropometric properties. They were allowed to choose their preferred side-by-side foot position and their quiet stance was recorded

Lorenzo Chiari; Laura Rocchi; Angelo Cappello

2002-01-01

27

Stabilometric parameters are affected by anthropometry and foot placement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Objective. To recognize and quantify the influence of biomechanical factors, namely anthropometry and foot placement, on the more common measures of stabilometric performance, including new-generation stochastic parameters. Design. Fifty normal-bodied,young,adults were selected in order to cover a sufficiently wide range of anthropometric,properties. They were allowed to choose their preferred side-by-side foot position and their quiet stance was recorded with

Lorenzo Chiari; Laura Rocchi; Angelo Cappello

28

The investigation of parameters affecting boron removal by electrocoagulation method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Boron removal from wastewaters by electrocoagulation using aluminum electrode material was investigated in this paper. Several working parameters, such as pH, current density, boron concentration and type and concentration of supporting electrolyte were studied in an attempt to achieve a higher removal capacity. The experiments were carried out by keeping the pH of solution constant and optimum pH of solution

A. Erdem Yilmaz; Recep Boncukcuo?lu; M. Muhtar Kocakerim; Bülent Keskinler

2005-01-01

29

Does bleeding affect fetal Doppler parameters during genetic amniocentesis?  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between fetal Doppler parameters and bleeding at insertion points during amniocentesis. Material and Methods This prospective study was conducted between July 2010 and February 2011. A total of 215 amniocentesis procedures were performed during this period. Five patients with Down syndrome were excluded from the study. The remaining 210 patients were divided into Group 1 (bleeding at insertion site) and Group 2 as a control group. One needle type was used for all patients. Umbilical artery resistance index (UARI), umbilical artery pulsatility index (UAPI), middle cerebral artery resistance index (MCARI), middle cerebral artery pulsatility index (MCA PI), and middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity (MCAPSV) were measured immediately and before and after amniocentesis. Results Bleeding at the insertion point during amniocentesis did not significantly change the UARI (34% increase for Group 1 and 46.5% increase for Group 2, p=0.238), the MCARI (52% increase for Group 1 and 45% increase for Group 2, p=0.622), or the MCAPSV (37% increase for Group 1 and 49% increase for Group 2, p=0.199). UARI, MCARI, MCA PI, and MCAPSV were not significantly altered following amniocentesis in Groups 1 and 2. There was a significant increase in UAPI following amniocentesis only in Group 2. Conclusion Bleeding during genetic amniocentesis did not change umbilical artery and middle cerebral artery Doppler parameters.

Iskender, Cantekin; Tar?m, Ebru; Cok, Tayfun; Kalayc?, Hakan; Parlakgumus, Ayse; Yalc?nkaya, Cem

2014-01-01

30

Modeling of parameters affecting phytate phosphorus bioavailability in growing birds.  

PubMed

The current study was undertaken to establish a population from an unselected random-mating chicken population for the development of a model to predict factors that affect phytate P utilization in growing birds. A population was established from a mating of 40 male and 200 female chickens from the Athens Canadian randombred population. At 4 wk of age, birds were housed in individual metabolic cages and fed a diet containing 1.06% Ca, 0.35% total P, and 0.03% available P. After 3 d of acclimatization, feed consumption (FC) was measured and excreta produced in 3 consecutive d were collected. Individual 4-wk BW, BW gain (BWG), phytate P intake (PPI), inorganic P intake (IPI), Ca intake (CaI), N intake (NI), and energy intake (EI) during the 3 d excreta collection period were also measured. Feed conversion ratios (FCR) and relative growth rate were calculated. Phytate P bioavailability (PPB), Ca bioavailability (CaB), and N bioavailability (NB) were estimated from the disappearance of the nutrients during the passage of feed through the gastrointestinal tract. Energy bioavailability (EB) was measured by bomb calorimetry as the difference in the gross energy of the feed and the energy of the excreta. The major factors affecting PPB were CaB and EB for both sexes. In the males, BW contributed significantly to PPB. However, in the females, NB also contributed significantly to PPB. Faster growing birds tended to have a reduced retention time of feed compared with slow growing birds, and as a result utilized phytate P less. Birds that are able to utilize phytate P better are putatively able to release P for energy utilization. Therefore, the birds that were able to utilize phytate P better were also better energy utilizers. PMID:15285496

Ankra-Badu, G A; Aggrey, S E; Pesti, G M; Bakalli, R I; Edwards, H M

2004-07-01

31

Parameters that affect macromolecular self-assembly of prion protein.  

PubMed

Amyloidogenesis of prion protein (PrP) is closely associated with the pathobiology of prion diseases. To understand details on formation of PrP amyloids, we investigated various conditions that influence the process in vitro, using full length and truncated recombinant PrP. Disrupted agitation and fluctuated temperature resulted in prolongation of lag phase during PrP amyloid formation. With the same conditions and material for the assay, fluorescence microplate readers of different manufacturers, which are assumed to have incongruent level of mechanical performance, demonstrated variations for the length of lag phase and the level of fluorescence detection. Presence of preformed amyloid seeds accelerated PrP amyloid formation. Similarly, recombinant proteins of different species affected effectual generation of amyloids. This process was also influenced by the concentrations and truncation of recombinant PrP. By investigating several conditions to perform PrP amyloid formation assay, our study addresses the factors that determine how much and how rapidly PrP amyloids are formed. PMID:24671413

Kim, Seon-Gu; Lee, Hye-Mi; Ryou, Chongsuk

2014-06-01

32

Parameters affecting the detection of microbubbles in blood  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to detect small gas bubbles in blood depends on the relative magnitude of the acoustic power backscattered from the microbubbles (``signal'') to the power backscattered from the red blood cells (``noise''). Erythrocytes are weak, Rayleigh scatterers, and therefore the backscattering coefficient (BSC) of blood increases as the fourth power of frequency throughout the diagnostic frequency range. Microbubbles, on the other hand, are either resonant or super-resonant in the range 10-30 MHz. Above resonance, their total scattering cross-section remains constant with increasing frequency and the directivity pattern of the scattered wave changes significantly. Therefore, increasing the detection frequency may lead to a reduction in signal-to-noise ratio. An active cavitation detector (ACD) was utilized to observe the gradual obscuring of a steel target in blood with increasing frequency, and to measure the BSC of suspensions of Optison® microspheres in blood, as a function of microsphere concentration, hematocrit and frequency in the range 10-30 MHz. The experimental results were compared with theoretical predictions of the BSC of Optison® and blood, in order to determine whether the presence of tightly packed red blood cells affects the acoustic response of the microbubbles. [Work supported by the ASA, the US Army, and the NSF.

Coussios, Constantin-C.; Zanetti, Paolo; Roy, Ronald A.

2003-10-01

33

Skin-light interaction of three main chromofores in skin affected by Port Wine Stain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, simulation and mathematical analysis of the absorption, dispersion and dynamics of laser light generated at 690nm and its interaction with skin affected by the Port Wine Stain is presented. The absorption coefficient and penetration depth of water, hemoglobin and oxy-hemoglobin, as key chromophores are calculated. A suitable wavelength for possible treatment on Port Wine Stain located in the skin layers such as Dermis and Hypodermis is determined. The presentation will include a full fiber laser design description, detailed skin affectation explanation and preliminary results.

Mújica Ascencio, S.; Velázquez González, J. S.; Álvarez Chávez, J. A.

2013-11-01

34

Parameters Affecting the Early Seedling Development of Four Neotropical Trees under Oxygen Deprivation Stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some of the parameters that determine flooding resistance—and consequently habitat zonation—were investi- gated in four neotropical trees (Schizolobium parahyba, Sebastiania commersoniana, Erythrina speciosa and Sesbania virgata). The constitutive parameters of seeds (size, nature and amount of reserves) only partly influ- enced resistance to flooding, mainly through a high carbohydrate : size ratio. Parameters describing metabolic efficiency under stress conditions were

ROSANA M ARTA K OLB; A NDRERAWYLER; R OLAND B RAENDLE

2002-01-01

35

Pre-main sequence Lithium burning: the quest for a new structural parameter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the results of stellar evolutionary computations to study the sensitivity of lithium depletion in models of mass and metallicity close to solar, and its dependence on the micro - macro physical inputs in the models, like thermodynamics, mixing, overshooting and the convective model. We find that even marginal chemical inhomogeneities in stellar formation regions lead to a spread in Li-abundances for such stars. We show that a general update in the physical inputs reverses the previously established framework of the problem: solar models including the most recent opacities and equation of state, a Full Spectrum of Turbulence (FST) convection theory and a diffusive description of mixing deplete lithium very efficiently during the pre-Main Sequence (pre-MS). The present solar abundance could be then compatible with all the initial lithium having been burnt during this phase, with no need to invoke depletion during the MS lifetime. This new standard pre-MS Li-depletion is however not consistent with the observed Li-abundances versus mass in young open clusters (e.g. alpha \\ Per and the Pleiades). We are then led to interpret it as the maximum possible depletion for non rotating, non magnetic stars, and look for physical mechanisms which can inhibit pre-MS depletion. We then included in our code an approximated modeling of the influence of a magnetic field B on the convective envelope. We show that even relatively low values of B are sufficient to largely inhibit Li-depletion during pre-MS. A dynamo generated magnetic field of intensity related to stellar rotation would then lead to different Li-abundances at the end of the pre-MS phase, according to different rotational histories of stars, in qualitative agreement with the observed spread in Li-abundances in young open clusters stars. We discuss the possibility that the right balance between magnetic field and metallicity (and overshooting, if any) can be the relevant parameter in the evaluation of the amount of (7Li) \\ which should eventually survive after the pre-MS phase. Models of masses 1.25 <= M/M_sun <= 0.7\\ are compared with the open cluster (7Li) - T_eff observations.

Ventura, Paolo; Zeppieri, Anna; Mazzitelli, Italo; D'Antona, Francesca

1998-03-01

36

Characterization of the Main Semiconductor Laser Static and Dynamic Working Parameters From CW Optical Spectrum Measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a complete characterization of the work parameters of several types of semiconductor lasers. Static param- eters as: power, linewidth and linewidth enhancement factor and also dynamic parameters such as: relaxation oscillations, relative intensity noise and damping rates are calculated using measure- ments of the optical spectrum of the lasers operated in contin- uous-wave mode. Methods for the calculation

Asier Villafranca; Javier Lasobras; José A. Lázaro; Ignacio Garcés

2007-01-01

37

Effect of welding parameters on the heat-affected zone of AISI409 ferritic stainless steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the main problems during the welding of ferritic stainless steels is severe grain growth within the heat-affected zone (HAZ). In the present study, the microstructural characteristics of tungsten inert gas (TIG) welded AISI409 ferritic stainless steel were investigated by electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD), and the effects of welding parameters on the grain size, local misorientation, and low-angle grain boundaries were studied. A 3-D finite element model (FEM) was developed to predict the effects of welding parameters on the holding time of the HAZ above the critical temperature of grain growth. It is found that the base metal is not fully recrystallized. During the welding, complete recrystallization is followed by severe grain growth. A decrease in the number of low-angle grain boundaries is observed within the HAZ. FEM results show that the final state of residual strains is caused by competition between welding plastic strains and their release by recrystallization. Still, the decisive factor for grain growth is heat input.

Ranjbarnodeh, Eslam; Hanke, Stefanie; Weiss, Sabine; Fischer, Alfons

2012-10-01

38

Preparation of Radioactive Colloidal Gold sup 198 Au. Study of the Parameters Affecting Particle Size.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The preparation with simple equipment of radioactive colloidal gold of particle size about approximately 300 A from seed colloid stabilized by gelatine is described. Some physico-chemical parameters which can affect the process of formation of these collo...

S. A. Cammarosano

1979-01-01

39

Simulation and prediction of main rotor, tail rotor, and engine parameters from flight tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the framework of this research project, the main rotor torque, tail rotor torque, engine torque, and main rotor speed of a helicopter in forward flight are estimated by using a state-space model from flight tests data. The state-space model inputs are non-linear terms made of combinations of pilot controls and helicopter states. The model simulates the helicopter out- puts

M N Beaulieu; R M Botez

2008-01-01

40

Study on the methods of determining main geometric parameters of centrifugal fan impeller  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of the complexity of internal flow characteristics of centrifugal fan, a set of wholly mature design methods of impeller theory do not exist at the present time. The paper tries to investigate and analyze the internal relations between a large number of existing aerodynamic sketches and performance parameters of centrifugal fans by means of statistical method and finds regularity.

Yan Gui; Pingyuan Xi

2010-01-01

41

Dielectric constant as one of the main parameters used to monitor the state of working fluid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is shown that flow density must be estimated along with measuring the temperature (or pressure) for monitoring the state of two-phase medium. To this end, it is proposed to use a dielectric constant of coolant. A simple single-parameter relation is proposed, the use of which makes it possible to calculate the density of water and steam with the known values of temperature and dielectric constant in a concrete part of heat-transfer equipment.

Mulev, Yu. V.; Belyaeva, O. V.; Mulev, M. Yu.; Saplitsa, V. V.; Zayats, T. A.

2011-07-01

42

Effect of the geometric parameters of the EAF bath on the main characteristics of furnace operation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The models of melting a semiproduct in an electric arc furnace (EAF) and metal mixing developed earlier are used to study the effect of the proportion of the bath sizes on the following main technicaleconomic characteristics of a heat: the expenditure of electric energy, the heat time, and the operating time under electric current. The range of the optimal values of the proportion of the EAF bath sizes is determined with allowance for bath stirring with CO bubbles during decarburization. It is useful to increase the bath depth of EAFs operating according to single-slag technology and to classify furnaces according to the type of charge and the method of its loading.

Belkovskii, A. G.; Kats, Ya. L.

2013-06-01

43

The modern instrumentation used for monitoring and controlling the main parameters of the regenerative electro-mechano-hydraulic drive systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work is presented the modern instrumentation used for monitoring and controlling the main parameters for one regenerative drive system, used to recovering the kinetic energy of motor vehicles, lost in the braking phase, storing and using this energy in the starting or accelerating phases. Is presented a Romanian technical solution for a regenerative driving system, based on a

Corneliu Cristescu; Petrin Drumea; Petrica Krevey

2009-01-01

44

LARGE SCALE DISTRIBUTED PARAMETER MODEL OF MAIN MAGNET SYSTEM AND FREQUENCY DECOMPOSITION ANALYSIS  

SciTech Connect

Large accelerator main magnet system consists of hundreds, even thousands, of dipole magnets. They are linked together under selected configurations to provide highly uniform dipole fields when powered. Distributed capacitance, insulation resistance, coil resistance, magnet inductance, and coupling inductance of upper and lower pancakes make each magnet a complex network. When all dipole magnets are chained together in a circle, they become a coupled pair of very high order complex ladder networks. In this study, a network of more than thousand inductive, capacitive or resistive elements are used to model an actual system. The circuit is a large-scale network. Its equivalent polynomial form has several hundred degrees. Analysis of this high order circuit and simulation of the response of any or all components is often computationally infeasible. We present methods to use frequency decomposition approach to effectively simulate and analyze magnet configuration and power supply topologies.

ZHANG,W.; MARNERIS, I.; SANDBERG, J.

2007-06-25

45

[Seasonal changes of main water parameters of Reaumuria trigyna in different habitats].  

PubMed

By using press-volume technique, this paper studied the seasonal changes of water potential at saturated point (Psissat), water potential at turgor loss point (Psistlp), relative osmotic water content at turgor loss point (ROWCtlp), relative water content at turgor loss point (RWCtlp), relative content of apoplastic water (AWC), bound water/ free water (Va/Vo), and the difference between Psissat and (Psistlp(DeltaP) of Reaumuria trigyna growing on heavy solonchack, non-salinized soil, and saline soil. The seasonal changes of Psissat and Psistlp were in order of May > July > September, while those of AWC, Va/Vo, and DeltaP were in opposite sequence, indicating that the water deficit resistance ability of R. trigyna enhanced with season, being consistent with its growth rhythm. Comparing with other xerophytes, R. trigyna had very low Psissat and Psistlp, presenting its strong ability of maintaining high osmotic pressure and low water potential. Based on the water parameters measured in three months, and by using the subordination function of fuzzy mathematics, the water deficit resistance ability of R. trigyna was evaluated, which was the strongest on heavy solonchack, followed by on non-salinized soil, and on saline soil. PMID:20135992

Zhou, Jian-Hua; Wang, Ying-Chun; Shi, Song-Li

2009-11-01

46

Influences of the main anodic electroplating parameters on cerium oxide films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cerium oxide thin films were fabricated onto 316 L stainless steel via a potentiostatically anodic electrodeposition approach in the solutions containing cerium(III) nitrate (0.05 M), ammonia acetate (0.1 M) and ethanol (10% V/V). The electrochemical behaviors and deposition parameters (applied potential, bath temperature, dissolving O2 and bath pH) have been investigated. Results show that, the electrochemical oxidation of Ce3+ goes through one electrochemical step, which is under charge transfer control. The optimum applied potential for film deposition is 0.8 V. Bath temperature plays a significant effect on the deposition rate, composition (different colors of the film) and surface morphology of the deposits. Due to the hydrolysis of Ce3+, cerous hydroxide is facility to form when the bath temperature is higher than 60 °C. The electroplating bath pH is another key role for the anodic deposition of cerium oxide thin films, and the best bath pH is around 6.20. N2 or O2 purged into the bath will result in film porosities and O2 favors cerium oxide particles and film generation.

Yang, Yang; Yang, Yumeng; Du, Xiaoqing; Chen, Yu; Zhang, Zhao; Zhang, Jianqing

2014-06-01

47

Measures of GCM Performance as Functions of Model Parameters Affecting Clouds and Radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This abstract is one of three related presentations at this meeting dealing with several issues surrounding optimal parameter and uncertainty estimation of model predictions of climate. Uncertainty in model predictions of climate depends in part on the uncertainty produced by model approximations or parameterizations of unresolved physics. Evaluating these uncertainties is computationally expensive because one needs to evaluate how arbitrary choices for any given combination of model parameters affects model performance. Because the computational effort grows exponentially with the number of parameters being investigated, it is important to choose parameters carefully. Evaluating whether a parameter is worth investigating depends on two considerations: 1) does reasonable choices of parameter values produce a large range in model response relative to observational uncertainty? and 2) does the model response depend non-linearly on various combinations of model parameters? We have decided to narrow our attention to selecting parameters that affect clouds and radiation, as it is likely that these parameters will dominate uncertainties in model predictions of future climate. We present preliminary results of ~20 to 30 AMIPII style climate model integrations using NCAR's CCM3.10 that show model performance as functions of individual parameters controlling 1) critical relative humidity for cloud formation (RHMIN), and 2) boundary layer critical Richardson number (RICR). We also explore various definitions of model performance that include some or all observational data sources (surface air temperature and pressure, meridional and zonal winds, clouds, long and short-wave cloud forcings, etc...) and evaluate in a few select cases whether the model's response depends non-linearly on the parameter values we have selected.

Jackson, C.; Mu, Q.; Sen, M.; Stoffa, P.

2002-05-01

48

Improved fundamental parameters for the low-mass pre-main sequence eclipsing system RX J0529.4+0041  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report new photometric observations and a new determination of the fundamental stellar parameters for the low-mass pre-main sequence eclipsing system RX J0529.4+0041A based on high-precision, near-IR (JHK) differential photometry obtained using adaptive optics at the ESO-La Silla 3.6 m telescope, and UBV(RI)C CCD photometry performed with the OIG camera at TNG. The new photometric data, in combination with already

E. Covino; A. Frasca; J. M. Alcalá; R. Paladino; M. F. Sterzik

2004-01-01

49

Sporadic Infantile Epileptic Encephalopathy Caused by Mutations in PCDH19 Resembles Dravet Syndrome but Mainly Affects Females  

PubMed Central

Dravet syndrome (DS) is a genetically determined epileptic encephalopathy mainly caused by de novo mutations in the SCN1A gene. Since 2003, we have performed molecular analyses in a large series of patients with DS, 27% of whom were negative for mutations or rearrangements in SCN1A. In order to identify new genes responsible for the disorder in the SCN1A-negative patients, 41 probands were screened for micro-rearrangements with Illumina high-density SNP microarrays. A hemizygous deletion on chromosome Xq22.1, encompassing the PCDH19 gene, was found in one male patient. To confirm that PCDH19 is responsible for a Dravet-like syndrome, we sequenced its coding region in 73 additional SCN1A-negative patients. Nine different point mutations (four missense and five truncating mutations) were identified in 11 unrelated female patients. In addition, we demonstrated that the fibroblasts of our male patient were mosaic for the PCDH19 deletion. Patients with PCDH19 and SCN1A mutations had very similar clinical features including the association of early febrile and afebrile seizures, seizures occurring in clusters, developmental and language delays, behavioural disturbances, and cognitive regression. There were, however, slight but constant differences in the evolution of the patients, including fewer polymorphic seizures (in particular rare myoclonic jerks and atypical absences) in those with PCDH19 mutations. These results suggest that PCDH19 plays a major role in epileptic encephalopathies, with a clinical spectrum overlapping that of DS. This disorder mainly affects females. The identification of an affected mosaic male strongly supports the hypothesis that cellular interference is the pathogenic mechanism.

Depienne, Christel; Bouteiller, Delphine; Keren, Boris; Cheuret, Emmanuel; Poirier, Karine; Trouillard, Oriane; Benyahia, Baya; Quelin, Chloe; Carpentier, Wassila; Julia, Sophie; Afenjar, Alexandra; Gautier, Agnes; Rivier, Francois; Meyer, Sophie; Berquin, Patrick; Helias, Marie; Py, Isabelle; Rivera, Serge; Bahi-Buisson, Nadia; Gourfinkel-An, Isabelle; Cazeneuve, Cecile; Ruberg, Merle; Brice, Alexis; Nabbout, Rima; LeGuern, Eric

2009-01-01

50

Variation in wind and piscivorous predator fields affecting the survival of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, in the Gulf of Maine  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Observations relevant to the North American stock complex of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., suggest that marine mortality is influenced by variation in predation pressure affecting post-smolts during the first months at sea. This hypothesis was tested for Gulf of Maine (GOM) stocks by examining wind pseudostress and the distribution of piscivorous predator fields potentially affecting post-smolts. Marine survival has declined over recent decades with a change in the direction of spring winds, which is likely extending the migration of post-smolts by favouring routes using the western GOM. In addition to changes in spring wind patterns, higher spring sea surface temperatures have been associated with shifting distributions of a range of fish species. The abundance of several pelagic piscivores, which based on their feeding habits may predate on salmon post-smolts, has increased in the areas that serve as migration corridors for post-smolts. In particular, populations of silver hake, Merluccius bilinearis (Mitchell), red hake, Urophycis chuss (Walbaum), and spiny dogfish, Squalus acanthias L., increased in size in the portion of the GOM used by post-smolts. Climate variation and shifting predator distributions in the GOM are consistent with the predator hypothesis of recruitment control suggested for the stock complex.

Friedland, K. D.; Manning, J. P.; Link, J. S.; Gilbert, J. R.; Gilbert, A. T.; O'Connell, A. F., Jr.

2012-01-01

51

Parameters affecting the life cycle performance of PV technologies and systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper assesses modeling parameters that affect the environmental performance of two state-of-the-art photovoltaic (PV) electricity generation technologies: the PVL136 thin film laminates and the KC120 multi-crystalline modules. We selected three metrics to assess the modules’ environmental performance, which are part of an actual 33kW installation in Ann Arbor, MI. The net energy ratio (NER), the energy pay back time

Sergio Pacca; Deepak Sivaraman; Gregory A. Keoleian

2007-01-01

52

Transfecting mammalian cells: optimization of critical parameters affecting calcium-phosphate precipitate formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA-calcium phosphate co-precipitates arise spontaneously in supersaturated solutions. Highly effective precipitates for transfection purposes, however, can be generated only in a very narrow range of physico-chemical conditions that control the initiation and growth of precipitate complexes. The concentrations of calcium and phosphate are the main factors influencing characteristics of the precipitate complex, but other parameters, such as temperature, DNA concentration

Martin Jordan; Annette Schallhorn; Florian M. Wurm

1996-01-01

53

Parameters affecting the early seedling development of four neotropical trees under oxygen deprivation stress.  

PubMed

Some of the parameters that determine flooding resistance-and consequently habitat zonation-were investigated in four neotropical trees (Schizolobium parahyba, Sebastiania commersoniana, Erythrina speciosa and Sesbania virgata). The constitutive parameters of seeds (size, nature and amount of reserves) only partly influenced resistance to flooding, mainly through a high carbohydrate : size ratio. Parameters describing metabolic efficiency under stress conditions were more important. Among them, fermentation capacity and levels of ATP and of total adenylates played a key role. The highest resistance to anoxia was associated with increased availability of free sugars, elevated alcohol dehydrogenase activity and corresponding mRNA levels, more efficient removal of ethanol and lactate, and higher adenylate levels. Finally, as a lethal consequence of energy shortage, free fatty acids were released on a massive scale in the flooding-sensitive species Schizolobium parahyba, whereas lipid hydrolysis did not occur in the most resistant species Sesbania virgata. PMID:12099528

Kolb, Rosana Marta; Rawyler, André; Braendle, Roland

2002-05-01

54

Factors Affecting the Motor Evoked Potential Responsiveness and Parameters in Patients With Supratentorial Stroke  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the factors which affect the motor evoked potential (MEP) responsiveness and parameters and to find the correlation between the function of the upper extremities and the combined study of MEP with a diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) in patients with stroke. Methods A retrospective study design was used by analyzing medical records and neuroimaging data of 70 stroke patients who underwent a MEP test between June 2011 and March 2013. MEP parameters which were recorded from the abductor pollicis brevis muscle were the resting motor threshold, latency, amplitude, and their ratios. Functional variables, Brunnstrom stage of hand, upper extremity subscore of Fugl-Meyer assessment, Manual Function Test, and the Korean version of Modified Barthel Index (K-MBI) were collected together with the biographical and neurological data. The DTT parameters were fiber number, fractional anisotropy value and their ratios of affected corticospinal tract. The data were compared between two groups, built up according to the presence (MEP-P) or absence (MEP-N) of MEP on the affected hand. Results Functional and DTT variables were significantly different between MEP-P and MEP-N groups (p<0.001). Among the MEP-P group, the amplitude ratio (unaffected/affected) was significantly correlated with the Brunnstrom stage of hand (r=-0.427, p=0.013), K-MBI (r=-0.380, p=0.029) and the time post-onset (r=-0.401, p=0.021). The functional scores were significantly better when both MEP response and DTT were present and decreased if one or both of the two studies were absent. Conclusion This study indicates MEP responsiveness and amplitude ratio are significantly associated with the upper extremity function and the activities of daily living performance, and the combined study of MEP and DTT provides useful information.

Choi, Tae Woong; Jang, Seung Gul; Yang, Seung Nam

2014-01-01

55

Comparison of the main ionospheric parameter values measured by Digisonde at Irkutsk in 2003 with the IRI model data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper summarizes a one-year-long run of ionospheric condition observations made by the digisonde (DPS-4) at Irkutsk (52.5N, 104.3E). Presented are the results derived from comparing the values of the main ionospheric parameters (the critical frequency, and the height of the F2-, F1- and E-layer maxima) obtained by the DPS-4 in 2003 with the IRI model data. In order to exclude the error associated with the prediction of the solar activity index F10.7, the model values were calculated on the basis of the values of the index F10.7 measured with the Ottawa and Penticton radio telescopes. An analysis was made of the following aspects related to the comparison of the measured and model parameters. 1. Differences in median values. 2. Daily deviations of parameters from model values. 3. Relationship of daily deviations with daily variations of F10.7. 4. Geomagnetic activity influence on disagreements between the model and measurements

Oinats, A. V.; Ratovsky, K. G.; Kotovich, G. V.

56

Characterization of Geotechnical Parameters Affecting Stability of Unconsolidated Materials from Electrical Measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Non-invasive geophysical techniques, which are non-invasive and cost effective, can be used to predict some useful petrophysical and engineering properties of unconsolidated geomaterials (e.g.,soils) that are known to affect their geotechnical behavior, that is, stability and strength. Knowledge of such properties are useful in the assessment of landslides and other natural hazards. We investigate the influence of petrophysical and geotechncial engineering parameters of unconsolidated near surface materials on their electrical measurements. Frequency-dependent resistivity measurements are performed at a constant effective stress level on thirty two samples of varying textures and compositions in a laboratory environment. Petrophysical and engineering parameters which affect the mechanical and strength behavior of the samples, that is, fines content, specific surface area, pore size parameter and fractal dimension of the grain size distributions are obtained from geotechnical analysis. The electrical parameters which describe the electrical response of the samples, that is, resistivity amplitude, phase shift, percent frequency effect, loss tangent and the normalized phase, are extracted from the electrical measurements. Crossplots of the electrical versus the engineering parameters provide some useful information on how the geotechnical properties influence electrical measurements. Analyses of the correlations also indicate that there exist characteristic or transitional values of the fines content (18%) and pore size(0.03mm), beyond which the phase and normalized phase values are insensitive to their respective increases. The characteristic value of 18% of fines content is close to values reported in previous studies that signifies transition in strength behavior of soils, and thus such relations could be important in non-invasive strength assessment and monitoring of soils. Normalized phase values are used to reasonably assess the relative amount of fines in the studied soils.

Boadu, F.; Owusu-Nimo, F.

2009-12-01

57

Identifying Critical Road Geometry Parameters Affecting Crash Rate and Crash Type  

PubMed Central

The objective of this traffic safety investigation was to find critical road parameters affecting crash rate (CR). The study was based on crash and road maintenance data from Western Sweden. More than 3000 crashes, reported from 2000 to 2005 on median-separated roads, were collected and combined with road geometric and surface data. The statistical analysis showed variations in CR when road elements changed confirming that road characteristics affect CR. The findings indicated that large radii right-turn curves were more dangerous than left curves, in particular, during lane changing manoeuvres. However sharper curves are more dangerous in both left and right curves. Moreover, motorway carriageways with no or limited shoulders have the highest CR when compared to other carriageway widths, while one lane carriageway sections on 2+1 roads were the safest. Road surface results showed that both wheel rut depth and road roughness have negative impacts on traffic safety.

Othman, Sarbaz; Thomson, Robert; Lanner, Gunnar

2009-01-01

58

A study of factors affecting highway accident rates using the random-parameters tobit model.  

PubMed

A large body of previous literature has used a variety of count-data modeling techniques to study factors that affect the frequency of highway accidents over some time period on roadway segments of a specified length. An alternative approach to this problem views vehicle accident rates (accidents per mile driven) directly instead of their frequencies. Viewing the problem as continuous data instead of count data creates a problem in that roadway segments that do not have any observed accidents over the identified time period create continuous data that are left-censored at zero. Past research has appropriately applied a tobit regression model to address this censoring problem, but this research has been limited in accounting for unobserved heterogeneity because it has been assumed that the parameter estimates are fixed over roadway-segment observations. Using 9-year data from urban interstates in Indiana, this paper employs a random-parameters tobit regression to account for unobserved heterogeneity in the study of motor-vehicle accident rates. The empirical results show that the random-parameters tobit model outperforms its fixed-parameters counterpart and has the potential to provide a fuller understanding of the factors determining accident rates on specific roadway segments. PMID:22269550

Anastasopoulos, Panagiotis Ch; Mannering, Fred L; Shankar, Venky N; Haddock, John E

2012-03-01

59

Sub-clinical diseases affecting performance in Standardbred trotters: diagnostic methods and predictive parameters.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of sub-clinical diseases in poorly-performing Standardbred horses, compare their physiological response to exercise with control horses, and identify predictive parameters of poor-performance. Fifty horses underwent thorough clinical and ancillary examinations, including haematological and biochemical evaluation, Doppler echocardiography, standardised exercise tests (SETs) on both treadmill and racetrack, treadmill video-endoscopy and collection of respiratory fluids. Most of the poorly-performing horses exhibited many concomitant diseases. The most frequently diagnosed problems involved the lower and upper respiratory tract and the musculoskeletal system. Poor-performers had lower speeds at a blood lactate (LA) concentration of 4mmol/L (V(LA4)) and a heart rate (HR) of 200bpm (V(200)) on treadmill and racetrack, as well as lower values for haematological parameters, plasma angiotensin-converting enzyme and antioxidants, compared to control horses. Problems of the respiratory system were the most frequently diagnosed sub-clinical diseases affecting performance. SETs, together with some blood markers, may be useful as a non-specific diagnostic tool for early detection of diseases that may affect performance. PMID:19477143

Richard, Eric A; Fortier, Guillaume D; Pitel, Pierre-Hugues; Dupuis, Marie-Capucine; Valette, Jean-Paul; Art, Tatiana; Denoix, Jean-Marie; Lekeux, Pierre M; Erck, Emmanuelle Van

2010-06-01

60

Analysis of Process Parameters Affecting Spray-Dried Oily Core Nanocapsules Using Factorial Design  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this work was to optimize the process parameters required for the production of spray-dried oily core nanocapsules (NCs) with targeted size and drug yield using a two-level four-factor fractional factorial experimental design (FFED). The coded process parameters chosen were inlet temperature (X1), feed flow rate (X2), atomizing air flow (X3), and aspiration rate (X4). The produced NCs were characterized for size, yield, morphology, and powder flowability by dynamic light scattering, electron microscope, Carr’s index, and Hausner ratio measurement, respectively. The mean size of produced NCs ranged from 129.5 to 444.8 nm, with yield varying from 14.1% to 31.1%. The statistical analysis indicated an adequate model fit in predicting the effect of process parameters affecting yield. Predicted condition for maximum yield was: inlet temperature 140°C, atomizing air flow 600 L/h, feed flow rate 0.18 L/h, and aspiration air flow set at 100%, which led to a yield of 30.8%. The morphological analysis showed the existence of oily core and spherical nanostructure. The results from powder flowability analysis indicated average Carr’s index and Hausner ratio of 42.77% and 1.76, respectively. Spray-dried oily core NCs with size lower than 200 nm were successfully produced, and the FFED proved to be an effective approach in predicting the production of spray-dried NCs of targeted yield.

Zhang, Tao

2010-01-01

61

Modeling of mouse eye and errors in ocular parameters affecting refractive state  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rodents eye are particularly used to study refractive error state of an eye and development of refractive eye. Genetic organization of rodents is similar to that of humans, which makes them interesting candidates to be researched upon. From rodents family mice models are encouraged over rats because of availability of genetically engineered models. Despite of extensive work that has been performed on mice and rat models, still no one is able to quantify an optical model, due to variability in the reported ocular parameters. In this Dissertation, we have extracted ocular parameters and generated schematics of eye from the raw data from School of Medicine, Detroit. In order to see how the rays would travel through an eye and the defects associated with an eye; ray tracing has been performed using ocular parameters. Finally we have systematically evaluated the contribution of various ocular parameters, such as radii of curvature of ocular surfaces, thicknesses of ocular components, and refractive indices of ocular refractive media, using variational analysis and a computational model of the rodent eye. Variational analysis revealed that variation in all the ocular parameters does affect the refractive status of the eye, but depending upon the magnitude of the impact those parameters are listed as critical or non critical. Variation in the depth of the vitreous chamber, thickness of the lens, radius of the anterior surface of the cornea, radius of the anterior surface of the lens, as well as refractive indices for the lens and vitreous, appears to have the largest impact on the refractive error and thus are categorized as critical ocular parameters. The radii of the posterior surfaces of the cornea and lens have much smaller contributions to the refractive state, while the radii of the anterior and posterior surfaces of the retina have no effect on the refractive error. These data provide the framework for further refinement of the optical models of the rat and mouse eye and suggest that extra efforts should be directed towards increasing the linear resolution of the rodent eye biometry and obtaining more accurate data for the refractive indices of the lens and vitreous.

Bawa, Gurinder

62

Evaluation of CD52 positive sperms in subfertile human semen samples: Is there any relationship with main semen parameters?  

PubMed Central

Background: Sperm maturation and sperm membrane integration are the most important elements in male fertility. CD52 is one of the antigens. CD52 is a GPI (glycosylphosphatidylinositol) anchored that express on lymphocytes and epididymal cells. This antigen bind to sperm membrane during transition sperm from epididymal duct as well as its relationship with semenogelins in human seminal plasma. The aim of this study was to obtain any association between the percentage of CD52 positive sperms with main semen parameters such as percentage of motile sperms, percentage of sperm with normal morphology, and the presence of normal viscosity. Materials and Methods: Semen samples from subfertile men were analyzed, the samples totally were 45 that divided according to their motility into three groups, first one, more than 40%, second one 10-40%, and the third one under 10% total motility. Fifteen samples in each group were evaluated by semen analysis according to WHO 2010 guidelines for infertility laboratory. Sperms were washed by Ham's F-10 and immunostaining with the monoclonal antibody CAMPATH-1G and then analyzed by flow cytometry. We compared each of the groups based on their motility and the data were analyzed by SPSS 20. Results: Correlation between CD52 labeling and sperm motility was negatively significant, in the second group (r = –0.592, P = 0.020) and in the third group (r = –0.805, P = 0.00). Conclusion: Our results showed that the correlation between CD52 labeling and sperm motility was negatively significant, but we did not observe any relation with other semen parameters, such as sperm normal morphology, sperm concentration, and semen viscosity.

Aboutorabi, Roshanak; Mazani, Fatemeh; Rafiee, Laleh

2014-01-01

63

Parameters affecting temporal resolution of Time Resolved Integrative Optical Neutron Detector (TRION)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Time-Resolved Integrative Optical Neutron (TRION) detector was developed for Fast Neutron Resonance Radiography (FNRR), a fast-neutron transmission imaging method that exploits characteristic energy-variations of the total scattering cross-section in the En = 1-10 MeV range to detect specific elements within a radiographed object. As opposed to classical event-counting time of flight (ECTOF), it integrates the detector signal during a well-defined neutron Time of Flight window corresponding to a pre-selected energy bin, e.g., the energy-interval spanning a cross-section resonance of an element such as C, O and N. The integrative characteristic of the detector permits loss-free operation at very intense, pulsed neutron fluxes, at a cost however, of recorded temporal resolution degradation This work presents a theoretical and experimental evaluation of detector related parameters which affect temporal resolution of the TRION system.

Mor, I.; Vartsky, D.; Dangendorf, V.; Bar, D.; Feldman, G.; Goldberg, M. B.; Tittelmeier, K.; Bromberger, B.; Brandis, M.; Weierganz, M.

2013-11-01

64

Study of Parameters Affecting the Level of Ultrasound Exposure with In Vitro Set-Ups  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultrasound (US) exposures are widely used with in vitro cell systems e.g. in stem cell and tissue engineering research. However, without the knowledge of factors affecting the level of US exposure, the outcome of the biological result may vary from test to test or even be misinterpreted. Thereby, some of the factors affecting in vitro US exposures were studied. The level of US exposure was characterized in standard commercial cell culturing plates. The temperature distributions were measured inside the wells using infrared camera and fine wire thermocouples, and pressure and intensity distributions using a laser vibrometer and a schlieren system. The measurements were made at operating frequency of around 1 MHz with varying temporal parameters and powers (up to 2 W of acoustic power). Heat accumulation between the wells varied up to 40-50% depending on the location of the well on the plate. This well-to-well variation was be linked to the activity of reporter plasmid on osteoblastic cells. Similar temperature variations within the wells were also measured. Small sub-wavelength change in the exposure distance or, respectively, liquid volume inside the well was found to alter the acoustic field in both magnitude and shape due the standing waves. The gathered data reveals the complexity of the acoustic field in a typical in vitro set-up and gives new information about the environment of the in vitro cells during US exposures. This data may be especially useful when US set-ups are designed or characterized.

Leskinen, Jarkko J.; Hynynen, Kullervo

2010-03-01

65

External Load Affects Ground Reaction Force Parameters Non-uniformly during Running in Weightlessness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Long-term exposure to microgravity induces detrimefits to the musculcskdetal system (Schneider et al., 1995; LeBlanc et al., 2000). Treadmill exercise is used onboard the International Space Station as an exercise countermeasure to musculoskeletal deconditioning due to spaceflight. During locomotive exercise in weightlessness (0G), crewmembers wear a harness attached to an external loading mechanism (EL). The EL pulls the crewmember toward the treadmill, and provides resistive load during the impact and propulsive phases of gait. The resulting forces may be important in stimulating bone maintenance (Turner, 1998). The EL can be applied via a bungee and carabineer clip configuration attached to the harness and can be manipulated to create varying amounts of load levels during exercise. Ground-based research performed using a vertically mounted treadmill found that peak ground reaction forces (GRF) during running at an EL of less than one body weight (BW) are less than those that occur during running in normal gravity (1G) (Davis et al., 1996). However, it is not known how the GRF are affected by the EL in a true OG environment. Locomotion while suspended may result in biomechanics that differ from free running. The purpose of this investigation was to determine how EL affects peak impact force, peak propulsive force, loading rate, and impulse of the GRF during running in 0G. It was hypothesized that increasing EL would result in increases in each GRF parameter.

DeWitt, John; Schaffner, Grant; Laughlin, Mitzi; Loehr, James; Hagan, R. Donald

2004-01-01

66

Guidebook for performance assessment parameters used in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant compliance certification application. Volume 1: Main report  

SciTech Connect

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Compliance Certification Application (CCA) Performance Assessment (PA) Parameter Database and its ties to supporting information evolved over the course of two years. When the CCA was submitted to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in October 1996, information such as identification of parameter value or distribution source was documented using processes established by Sandia National Laboratories WIPP Quality Assurance Procedures. Reviewers later requested additional supporting documentation, links to supporting information, and/or clarification for many parameters. This guidebook is designed to document a pathway through the complex parameter process and help delineate flow paths to supporting information for all WIPP CCA parameters. In addition, this report is an aid for understanding how model parameters used in the WIPP CCA were developed and qualified. To trace the source information for a particular parameter, a dual-route system was established. The first route uses information from the Parameter Records Package as it existed when the CCA calculations were run. The second route leads from the EPA Parameter Database to additional supporting information.

Howarth, S.M.; Martell, M.A.; Weiner, R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lattier, C. [GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1998-06-01

67

The assay design used for measurement of therapeutic antibody concentrations can affect pharmacokinetic parameters  

PubMed Central

To interpret pharmacokinetic (PK) data of biotherapeutics, it is critical to understand which drug species is being measured by the PK assay. For therapeutic antibodies, it is generally accepted that “free” circulating antibodies are the pharmacologically active form needed to determine the PK/ pharmacodynamic (PD) relationship, safety margin calculations, and dose projections from animals to humans and the eventual characterization of the exposure in the clinic. However, “total” drug may be important in evaluating the dynamic interaction between the drug and the target, as well as the total drug exposure. In the absence of or with low amounts of soluble ligand /shed receptor, total and free drug species are often equivalent and their detection is less sensitive to assay formats or reagent choices. In contrast, in the presence of a significant amount of ligand, assay design and characterization of assay reagents are critical to understanding the PK profiles. Here, we present case studies where different assay formats affected measured PK profiles and data interpretation. The results from reagent characterizations provide a potential explanation for the observed discrepancies and highlight the importance of reagent characterization in understanding which drug species are being measured to accurately interpret PK parameters.

Fischer, Saloumeh K.; Yang, Jihong; Anand, Banmeet; Cowan, Kyra; Hendricks, Robert; Li, Jing; Nakamura, Gerald; Song, An

2012-01-01

68

The assay design used for measurement of therapeutic antibody concentrations can affect pharmacokinetic parameters: Case studies.  

PubMed

To interpret pharmacokinetic (PK) data of biotherapeutics, it is critical to understand which drug species is being measured by the PK assay. For therapeutic antibodies, it is generally accepted that "free" circulating antibodies are the pharmacologically active form needed to determine the PK/pharmacodynamic (PD) relationship, safety margin calculations, and dose projections from animals to humans and the eventual characterization of the exposure in the clinic. However, "total" drug may be important in evaluating the dynamic interaction between the drug and the target, as well as the total drug exposure. In the absence of or with low amounts of soluble ligand/shed receptor, total and free drug species are often equivalent and their detection is less sensitive to assay formats or reagent choices. In contrast, in the presence of a significant amount of ligand, assay design and characterization of assay reagents are critical to understanding the PK profiles. Here, we present case studies where different assay formats affected measured PK profiles and data interpretation. The results from reagent characterizations provide a potential explanation for the observed discrepancies and highlight the importance of reagent characterization in understanding which drug species are being measured to accurately interpret PK parameters. PMID:22820463

Fischer, Saloumeh K; Yang, Jihong; Anand, Banmeet; Cowan, Kyra; Hendricks, Robert; Li, Jing; Nakamura, Gerald; Song, An

2012-01-01

69

Transfecting mammalian cells: optimization of critical parameters affecting calcium-phosphate precipitate formation.  

PubMed Central

DNA-calcium phosphate co-precipitates arise spontaneously in supersaturated solutions. Highly effective precipitates for transfection purposes, however, can be generated only in a very narrow range of physico-chemical conditions that control the initiation and growth of precipitate complexes. The concentrations of calcium and phosphate are the main factors influencing characteristics of the precipitate complex, but other parameters, such as temperature, DNA concentration and reaction time are important as well. An example for this is the finding that almost all of the soluble DNA in the reaction mix can be bound into an insoluble complex with calcium phosphate in <1 min. Extending the reaction time to 20 min results in aggregation and/or growth of particles and reduces the level of expression. With improved protocols we gained better reproducibility and higher efficiencies both for transient and for stable transfections. Up to 60% of cells stained positive for beta-gal and transient production of secreted proteins was improved 5- to 10-fold over results seen with transfections using standard procedures. Similar improvements in efficiency (number of recombinant cell colonies) were observed with stable transfections, using co-transfected marker plasmids for selection. Transient expression levels 2 days after DNA transfer and titers obtained from stable cell lines, emerging weeks later, showed strong correlation.

Jordan, M; Schallhorn, A; Wurm, F M

1996-01-01

70

Genetically Determined Dosage of Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) Affects Male Reproductive Parameters  

PubMed Central

Context: The detailed role of FSH in contributing to male testicular function and fertility has been debated. We have previously identified the association between the T-allele of the FSHB promoter polymorphism (rs10835638; G/T, ?211 bp from the mRNA start) and significantly reduced male serum FSH. Objective: In the current study, the T-allele carriers of the FSHB ?211 G/T single nucleotide polymorphism represented a natural model for documenting downstream phenotypic consequences of insufficient FSH action. Design and Subjects: We genotyped rs10835638 in the population-based Baltic cohort of young men (n = 1054; GG carriers, n = 796; GT carriers, n = 244; TT carriers, n = 14) recruited by Andrology Centres in Tartu, Estonia; Riga, Latvia; and Kaunas, Lithuania. Marker-trait association testing was performed using linear regression (additive, recessive models) adjusted by age, body mass index, smoking, and recruitment center. Results: Serum hormones directly correlated with the T-allele dosage of rs10835638 included FSH (additive model, P = 1.11 × 10?6; T-allele effect, ?0.41 IU/liter), inhibin-B (P = 2.16 × 10?3; T-allele effect, ?14.67 pg/ml), and total testosterone (P = 9.30 × 10?3; T-allele effect, ?1.46 nmol/liter). Parameters altered only among TT homozygotes were reduced testicular volume (recessive model, P = 1.19 × 10?4; TT genotype effect, ?9.47 ml) and increased serum LH (P = 2.25 × 10?2; TT genotype effect, 1.07 IU/liter). The carrier status of rs10835638 alternative genotypes did not affect sperm motility and morphology, calculated free testosterone, serum SHBG, and estradiol concentrations. Conclusion: We showed for the first time that genetically determined low FSH may have wider downstream effects on the male reproductive system, including impaired testes development, altered testicular hormone levels (inhibin-B, total testosterone, LH), and affected male reproductive potential.

Grigorova, Marina; Punab, Margus; Zilaitiene, Birute; Erenpreiss, Juris; Ausmees, Kristo; Matulevicius, Valentinas; Tsarev, Igor; J?rgensen, Niels

2011-01-01

71

A study of the parameters affecting the effectiveness of Moringa oleifera in drinking water purification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The powder obtained from the seeds of the Moringa oleifera tree has been shown to be an effective primary coagulant for water treatment. When the seeds are dried, dehusked, crushed and added to water, the powder acts as a coagulant binding colloidal particles and bacteria to form agglomerated particles (flocs), which settle allowing the clarified supernatant to be poured off. Very little research has been undertaken on the parameters affecting the effectiveness of M. oleifera, especially in Malawi, for purification of drinking water and there is a great need for further testing in this area. Conclusive data needs to be compiled to demonstrate the effects of various water parameters have on the efficiency of the seeds. A parametric study was undertaken at Leeds Metropolitan University, UK, with the aim to establish the most appropriate dosing method; the optimum dosage for removal of turbidity; the influence of pH and temperature; together with the shelf life of the M. oleifera seeds. The study revealed that the most suitable dosing method was to mix the powder into a concentrated paste, hence forming a stock suspension. The optimum M. oleifera dose, for turbidity values between 40 and 200 NTU, ranged between 30 and 55 mg/l. With turbidity set at 130 NTU and a M. oleifera dose within the optimum range at 50 mg/l, pH levels were varied between 4 and 9. It was discovered that the coagulant performance was not too sensitive to pH fluctuations when conditions were within the optimum range. The most efficient coagulation, determined by the greatest reduction in turbidity, occurred at pH 6.5. Alkaline conditions were overall more favourable than acidic conditions; pH 9 had an efficiency of 65% of optimum, whilst at pH 5 the efficiency dropped to around 55%. The efficiency further dropped at pH 4, where the powder only produced results of around 10% of optimum conditions. A temperature range of 4-60 °C was studied in this research. Colder waters (<15 °C) were found to hinder the effectiveness of the coagulation process. The higher the temperature the more effective was the coagulation. It was also found that the age of the seeds, up to 18 months, did not have any noticeable effect on dose level and percentage reduction in turbidity, although at 18 months the seeds had a narrower dosing range to produce near-optimum reduction. Seeds aged 24 months showed a significant decline in coagulant efficiency.

Pritchard, M.; Craven, T.; Mkandawire, T.; Edmondson, A. S.; O'Neill, J. G.

72

A Lagrangian identification of the main sources of moisture affecting northeastern Brazil during its pre-rainy and rainy seasons.  

PubMed

This work examines the sources of moisture affecting the semi-arid Brazilian Northeast (NEB) during its pre-rainy and rainy season (JFMAM) through a Lagrangian diagnosis method. The FLEXPART model identifies the humidity contributions to the moisture budget over a region through the continuous computation of changes in the specific humidity along back or forward trajectories up to 10 days period. The numerical experiments were done for the period that spans between 2000 and 2004 and results were aggregated on a monthly basis. Results show that besides a minor local recycling component, the vast majority of moisture reaching NEB area is originated in the south Atlantic basin and that the nearby wet Amazon basin bears almost no impact. Moreover, although the maximum precipitation in the "Poligono das Secas" region (PS) occurs in March and the maximum precipitation associated with air parcels emanating from the South Atlantic towards PS is observed along January to March, the highest moisture contribution from this oceanic region occurs slightly later (April). A dynamical analysis suggests that the maximum precipitation observed in the PS sector does not coincide with the maximum moisture supply probably due to the combined effect of the Walker and Hadley cells in inhibiting the rising motions over the region in the months following April. PMID:20585458

Drumond, Anita; Nieto, Raquel; Trigo, Ricardo; Ambrizzi, Tercio; Souza, Everaldo; Gimeno, Luis

2010-01-01

73

A Lagrangian Identification of the Main Sources of Moisture Affecting Northeastern Brazil during Its Pre-Rainy and Rainy Seasons  

PubMed Central

This work examines the sources of moisture affecting the semi-arid Brazilian Northeast (NEB) during its pre-rainy and rainy season (JFMAM) through a Lagrangian diagnosis method. The FLEXPART model identifies the humidity contributions to the moisture budget over a region through the continuous computation of changes in the specific humidity along back or forward trajectories up to 10 days period. The numerical experiments were done for the period that spans between 2000 and 2004 and results were aggregated on a monthly basis. Results show that besides a minor local recycling component, the vast majority of moisture reaching NEB area is originated in the south Atlantic basin and that the nearby wet Amazon basin bears almost no impact. Moreover, although the maximum precipitation in the “Poligono das Secas” region (PS) occurs in March and the maximum precipitation associated with air parcels emanating from the South Atlantic towards PS is observed along January to March, the highest moisture contribution from this oceanic region occurs slightly later (April). A dynamical analysis suggests that the maximum precipitation observed in the PS sector does not coincide with the maximum moisture supply probably due to the combined effect of the Walker and Hadley cells in inhibiting the rising motions over the region in the months following April.

Drumond, Anita; Nieto, Raquel; Trigo, Ricardo; Ambrizzi, Tercio; Souza, Everaldo; Gimeno, Luis

2010-01-01

74

Suppression of Arterial Thrombosis without Affecting Hemostatic Parameters with A Cell-Penetrating PAR1 Pepducin  

PubMed Central

Background Thrombin-dependent platelet activation is heightened in the setting of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and may cause arterial thrombosis with consequent myocardial necrosis. Given the high incidence of adverse effects in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS), there remains an unmet need for the development of new therapeutics that target platelet activation without unduly affecting hemostasis. The thrombin receptor, PAR1, has recently emerged as a promising new target for therapeutic intervention in ACS patients. Methods and Results We report the development of a first-in-class intracellular PAR1 inhibitor with optimized pharmacokinetic properties for use during PCI in ACS patients. PZ-128 is a cell-penetrating ‘pepducin’ inhibitor of PAR1 which targets the receptor-G protein interface on the inside surface of platelets. The structure of PZ-128 closely resembles the predicted off-state of the corresponding juxtamembrane region of the third intracellular loop of PAR1. The onset of action of PZ-128 was rapid and suppressed PAR1 aggregation and arterial thrombosis in guinea pigs and baboons and strongly synergized with oral clopidogrel. There was full recovery of platelet function by 24 h. Importantly, PZ-128 had no effect on bleeding or coagulation parameters in primates or in blood from PCI patients. Conclusions Based on the efficacy data in non-human primates with no noted adverse effects on hemostasis, we anticipate that the rapid onset of platelet inhibition and reversible properties of PZ-128 are well suited to the acute interventional setting of PCI and may provide an alternative to long-acting small molecule inhibitors of PAR1.

Zhang, Ping; Gruber, Andras; Kasuda, Shogo; Kimmelstiel, Carey; O'Callaghan, Katie; Cox, Daniel H.; Bohm, Andrew; Baleja, James D.; Covic, Lidija; Kuliopulos, Athan

2012-01-01

75

Lamb-dip spectrum of methylacetylene and methyldiacetylene: precise rotational transition frequencies and parameters of the main isotopic species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context: Methylacetylene and methyldiacetylene are the first members of the methylpolyynes series, CH3C{2n}H (n = 1, 2). Their astrophysical relevance has motivated this spectroscopic study. Aims: The aim of this investigation is to provide very accurate rest frequencies, as well as to improve the spectroscopic parameters available in the literature for these molecules. Methods: The Lamb-dip technique was exploited in

G. Cazzoli; C. Puzzarini

2008-01-01

76

Research on signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) affect physiological parameters in tumor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deconvolution method has been used to estimate physiological (functional) parameters, such as blood flow (F), blood volume (V), mean transit time (MTT), and capillary permeability surface area product (PS), but it is very sensitive to the effect of noise. In this paper, the physiological parameters of ATH model are measured by deconvolution methods. Then, we will take advantage of these

Ying Qian; Yang Zhang

2010-01-01

77

Physical Parameters Affecting the Emanation of RADON-222 from Coal Ash.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Rn-222 emanation coefficients for coal ash and parameters which affected them were measured. Samples of ash from both stoker fired and pulverized coal fired boilers were obtained. The stoker ash samples were mechanically separated into size fractions. The pulverized samples were too fine for mechanical sizing and were categorized qualitatively according to origin. Bulk density of the stoker fractions was measured and ranged from .488 to .944 g-cm('-3), increasing as a function of decreasing particle size. Bulk density of the pulverized ash ranged from 1.254 to 1.520 g-cm('-3). Specific gravity of the stoker fractions ranged from 2.017 to 2.390 g-cm('-3), also increasing as a function of decreasing particle size. Specific gravity of the pulverized ash ranged from 2.357 to 2.588 g-cm(' -3). Ra-226 content of the samples was determined by gamma spectrometric analysis of the 352-KeV gamma of Pb -214 and the 609-KeV gamma of Bi-214 from sealed samples of ash. Ra-226 concentrations in the stoker fractions ranged from 11.82 to 16.77 dpm-g('-1), increasing as a function of decreasing particle size. Ra-226 concentrations in the pulverized ash ranged from 6.44 to 7.59 dpm-g(' -1). Scintillation cells were constructed out of commonly available materials and a commercial preparation of ZnS(Ag) scintillator. Emanation chambers which allowed for moderately large sample masses were constructed. The procedure used to measure emanation coefficients was shown to be insensitive to ingrowth time at greater than 3 days ingrowth and relatively insensitive to variations in sample porosity. Emanation coefficients of the stoker fractions were measured at moisture contents of 0, 1.0, 10, 20, and 40 percent by weight. Within each size fraction the emanation coefficient increased as a function of moisture content, ranging from 9.58 x 10('-4) to 4.13 x 10('-2) between 0 and 20 percent moisture, respectively. Emanation coefficients also increased as a function of decreasing particle size. Emanation coefficient measurements of the pulverized ash at the moisture contents stated above ranged from 3.00 x 10('-3) to 1.56 x 10('-1) between 0 and 20 percent moisture, respectively. Both the stoker and the pulverized ashes demonstrated slight decreases in emanation coefficient between 20 and 40 percent moisture by weight. The effect of sample depth on observed emanation coefficient was assessed by measuring the emanation coefficient of five samples of ash each of four depths. Results of these measurements demonstrated no effect of depth on observed emanation coefficient.

Barton, Terence Patrick

78

Main and Interactive Effects of Distress Tolerance and Negative Affect Intensity in Relation to PTSD Symptoms among Trauma-Exposed Adults  

PubMed Central

The present investigation evaluated the main and interactive effects of distress tolerance and negative affect intensity in relation to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity and symptom cluster severity. Participants were 190 trauma-exposed adults (52.6 % women; Mage=25.3 years, SD=11.4) recruited from the community. Distress tolerance (i.e., perceived ability to withstand distressing emotional states) demonstrated significant incremental associations with global PTSD symptom severity as well as Re-Experiencing, Emotional Numbing, and Hyperarousal symptom cluster severity. Negative affect intensity (i.e., perceived intensity of negative emotional responses) demonstrated significant incremental associations with each of the PTSD symptom outcomes. Moreover, the incremental interactive effect of distress tolerance and negative affect intensity was significantly associated with PTSD symptom severity as well as PTSD—Emotional Numbing symptom cluster severity. These incremental effects were evident after accounting for the variance explained by anxiety sensitivity (i.e., fear of anxiety-related sensations). Post hoc probing analyses supported the moderating role of negative affect intensity in the association between distress tolerance and PTSD symptom severity, such that low levels of distress tolerance, in the context of elevated levels of negative affect intensity, were associated with the greatest levels of PTSD symptoms.

Vujanovic, Anka A.; Hart, Ashley S.; Potter, Carrie M.; Berenz, Erin C.; Niles, Barbara; Bernstein, Amit

2013-01-01

79

Parameters affecting full energy peak efficiency determination during Monte Carlo simulation.  

PubMed

Aim of this work is to study the effect of various simulation parameters on the calculation of the full energy peak efficiency of HPGe detectors with the Monte Carlo simulation code PENELOPE. PMID:19954990

Karfopoulos, K L; Anagnostakis, M J

2010-01-01

80

Sensitivity Analysis of Parameters Affecting Protection of Water Resources at Hanford WA  

SciTech Connect

The scope of this analysis was to assess the sensitivity of contaminant fluxes from the vadose zone to the water table, to several parameters, some of which can be controlled by operational considerations.

DAVIS, J.D.

2002-02-08

81

Understanding the removal mechanisms of PPCPs and the influence of main technological parameters in anaerobic UASB and aerobic CAS reactors.  

PubMed

The removal of 16 Pharmaceutical and Personal Care Products (PPCPs) were studied in a conventional activated sludge (CAS) unit and an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. Special attention was paid to each biomass conformation and activity as well as to operational conditions. Biodegradation was the main PPCP removal mechanism, being higher removals achieved under aerobic conditions, except in the case of sulfamethoxazole and trimetrophim. Under anaerobic conditions, PPCP biodegradation was correlated with the methanogenic rate, while in the aerobic reactor a relationship with nitrification was found. Sorption onto sludge was influenced by biomass conformation, being only significant for musk fragrances in the UASB reactor, in which an increase of the upward velocity and hydraulic retention time improved this removal. Additionally, PPCP sorption increased with time in the UASB reactor, due to the granular biomass structure which suggests the existence of intra-molecular diffusion. PMID:25010455

Alvarino, T; Suarez, S; Lema, J M; Omil, F

2014-08-15

82

Parameters Affecting Light-Induced Excess Conductivity in Amorphous Silicon Doping-Modulated Multilayers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The phenomenon of light-induced excess conductivity (LEC) which occurs in a-Si:H npnp doping-modulated multilayers is found experimentally to be dependent on several different factors. The concentrations of the dopants in n-type and p-type layers affect t...

F. C. Su S. Levine P. E. Vanier

1986-01-01

83

A study of factors affecting highway accident rates using the random-parameters tobit model  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large body of previous literature has used a variety of count-data modeling techniques to study factors that affect the frequency of highway accidents over some time period on roadway segments of a specified length. An alternative approach to this problem views vehicle accident rates (accidents per mile driven) directly instead of their frequencies. Viewing the problem as continuous data

Panagiotis Ch. Anastasopoulos; Fred L. Mannering; Venky N. Shankar; John E. Haddock

84

"RadioAstron"-A telescope with a size of 300 000 km: Main parameters and first observational results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Russian Academy of Sciences and Federal Space Agency, together with the participation of many international organizations, worked toward the launch of the RadioAstron orbiting space observatory with its onboard 10-m reflector radio telescope from the Baikonur cosmodrome on July 18, 2011. Together with some of the largest ground-based radio telescopes and a set of stations for tracking, collecting, and reducing the data obtained, this space radio telescope forms a multi-antenna ground-space radio interferometer with extremely long baselines, making it possible for the first time to study various objects in the Universe with angular resolutions a million times better than is possible with the human eye. The project is targeted at systematic studies of compact radio-emitting sources and their dynamics. Objects to be studied include supermassive black holes, accretion disks, and relativistic jets in active galactic nuclei, stellar-mass black holes, neutron stars and hypothetical quark stars, regions of formation of stars and planetary systems in our and other galaxies, interplanetary and interstellar plasma, and the gravitational field of the Earth. The results of ground-based and inflight tests of the space radio telescope carried out in both autonomous and ground-space interferometric regimes are reported. The derived characteristics are in agreement with the main requirements of the project. The astrophysical science program has begun.

Kardashev, N. S.; Khartov, V. V.; Abramov, V. V.; Avdeev, V. Yu.; Alakoz, A. V.; Aleksandrov, Yu. A.; Ananthakrishnan, S.; Andreyanov, V. V.; Andrianov, A. S.; Antonov, N. M.; Artyukhov, M. I.; Arkhipov, M. Yu.; Baan, W.; Babakin, N. G.; Babyshkin, V. E.; Bartel', N.; Belousov, K. G.; Belyaev, A. A.; Berulis, J. J.; Burke, B. F.; Biryukov, A. V.; Bubnov, A. E.; Burgin, M. S.; Busca, G.; Bykadorov, A. A.; Bychkova, V. S.; Vasil'kov, V. I.; Wellington, K. J.; Vinogradov, I. S.; Wietfeldt, R.; Voitsik, P. A.; Gvamichava, A. S.; Girin, I. A.; Gurvits, L. I.; Dagkesamanskii, R. D.; D'Addario, L.; Giovannini, G.; Jauncey, D. L.; Dewdney, P. E.; D'yakov, A. A.; Zharov, V. E.; Zhuravlev, V. I.; Zaslavskii, G. S.; Zakhvatkin, M. V.; Zinov'ev, A. N.; Ilinen, Yu.; Ipatov, A. V.; Kanevskii, B. Z.; Knorin, I. A.; Casse, J. L.; Kellermann, K. I.; Kovalev, Yu. A.; Kovalev, Yu. Yu.; Kovalenko, A. V.; Kogan, B. L.; Komaev, R. V.; Konovalenko, A. A.; Kopelyanskii, G. D.; Korneev, Yu. A.; Kostenko, V. I.; Kotik, A. N.; Kreisman, B. B.; Kukushkin, A. Yu.; Kulishenko, V. F.; Cooper, D. N.; Kut'kin, A. M.; Cannon, W. H.; Larionov, M. G.; Lisakov, M. M.; Litvinenko, L. N.; Likhachev, S. F.; Likhacheva, L. N.; Lobanov, A. P.; Logvinenko, S. V.; Langston, G.; McCracken, K.; Medvedev, S. Yu.; Melekhin, M. V.; Menderov, A. V.; Murphy, D. W.; Mizyakina, T. A.; Mozgovoi, Yu. V.; Nikolaev, N. Ya.; Novikov, B. S.; Novikov, I. D.; Oreshko, V. V.; Pavlenko, Yu. K.; Pashchenko, I. N.; Ponomarev, Yu. N.; Popov, M. V.; Pravin-Kumar, A.; Preston, R. A.; Pyshnov, V. N.; Rakhimov, I. A.; Rozhkov, V. M.; Romney, J. D.; Rocha, P.; Rudakov, V. A.; Räisänen, A.; Sazankov, S. V.; Sakharov, B. A.; Semenov, S. K.; Serebrennikov, V. A.; Schilizzi, R. T.; Skulachev, D. P.; Slysh, V. I.; Smirnov, A. I.; Smith, J. G.; Soglasnov, V. A.; Sokolovskii, K. V.; Sondaar, L. H.; Stepan'yants, V. A.; Turygin, M. S.; Turygin, S. Yu.; Tuchin, A. G.; Urpo, S.; Fedorchuk, S. D.; Finkel'shtein, A. M.; Fomalont, E. B.; Fejes, I.; Fomina, A. N.; Khapin, Yu. B.; Tsarevskii, G. S.; Zensus, J. A.; Chuprikov, A. A.; Shatskaya, M. V.; Shapirovskaya, N. Ya.; Sheikhet, A. I.; Shirshakov, A. E.; Schmidt, A.; Shnyreva, L. A.; Shpilevskii, V. V.; Ekers, R. D.; Yakimov, V. E.

2013-03-01

85

Parameters affecting ultrafast laser microsurgery of subepithelial voids for scar treatment in vocal folds.  

PubMed

Toward developing a new method for restoring tissue viscoelasticity in scarred vocal folds, we previously proposed a method to localize biomaterials within subepithelial voids ablated using ultrafast laser pulses. The clinical implementation of this method necessitates the quantification of the laser parameters for ablating scarred tissue. Here, we present a comprehensive study of these parameters including ablation threshold and bubble lifetime in healthy and scarred tissues. We also present a new method for extracting tissue-specific ablation threshold and scattering lengths of different tissue layers. This method involves finding the ablation threshold at multiple depths and solving the equations based on Beer's law of light attenuation for each depth to estimate the unknown parameters. Measured threshold fluences were 1.75 J/cm2 for vocal folds and 0.5 J/cm2 for cheek pouches for 3-ps, 776-nm laser pulses. Scarred pouches exhibited 30% lower threshold than healthy pouches, possibly due to the degraded mechanical properties of scarred collagen during wound healing. The analysis of tissue architecture indicated a direct correlation between the ablation threshold and tissue tensile strength and that the bubble lifetime is inversely related to tissue stiffness. Overall, this study sheds light on the required laser parameters for successful implementation of ultrafast laser ablation for phonosurgery. PMID:24193950

Yildirim, Murat; Ferhanoglu, Onur; Kobler, James; Zeitels, Steven M; Ben-Yakar, Adela

2013-11-01

86

Sensitivity studies on parameters affecting gas release from an underground rock cavern  

SciTech Connect

A series of numerical simulation experiments is performed to quantify the effects of the release and migration of non-condensible gas in water-saturated fractured rock formations. The relative importance of multiphase parameters such as relative permeability, capillary pressure, intrinsic permeability, and porosity on system behavior is studied. 10 refs., 28 figs., 5 tabs.

Schlueter, E.; Pruess, K.

1990-01-01

87

Factors Affecting the Item Parameter Estimation and Classification Accuracy of the DINA Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To better understand the statistical properties of the deterministic inputs, noisy "and" gate cognitive diagnosis (DINA) model, the impact of several factors on the quality of the item parameter estimates and classification accuracy was investigated. Results of the simulation study indicate that the fully Bayes approach is most accurate when the…

de la Torre, Jimmy; Hong, Yuan; Deng, Weiling

2010-01-01

88

Investigation of parameters affecting treatment time in MRI-guided transurethral ultrasound therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MRI-guided transurethral ultrasound therapy shows promise for minimally invasive treatment of localized prostate cancer. Real-time MR temperature feedback enables the 3D control of thermal therapy to define an accurate region within the prostate. Previous in-vivo canine studies showed the feasibility of this method using transurethral planar transducers. The aim of this simulation study was to reduce the procedure time, while maintaining treatment accuracy by investigating new combinations of treatment parameters. A numerical model was used to simulate a multi-element heating applicator rotating inside the urethra in 10 human prostates. Acoustic power and rotation rate were varied based on the feedback of the temperature in the prostate. Several parameters were investigated for improving the treatment time. Maximum acoustic power and rotation rate were optimized interdependently as a function of prostate radius and transducer operating frequency, while avoiding temperatures >90° C in the prostate. Other trials were performed on each parameter separately, with the other parameter fixed. The concept of using dual-frequency transducers was studied, using the fundamental frequency or the 3rd harmonic component depending on the prostate radius. The maximum acoustic power which could be used decreased as a function of the prostate radius and the frequency. Decreasing the frequency (9.7-3.0 MHz) or increasing the power (10-20 W.cm-2) led to treatment times shorter by up to 50% under appropriate conditions. Dual-frequency configurations, while helpful, tended to have less impact on treatment times. Treatment accuracy was maintained and critical adjacent tissues like the rectal wall remained protected. The interdependence between power and frequency may require integrating multi-parametric functions inside the controller for future optimizations. As a first approach, however, even slight modifications of key parameters can be sufficient to reduce treatment time.

N'djin, W. A.; Burtnyk, M.; Chopra, R.; Bronskill, M. J.

2010-03-01

89

In silico prediction of blood-brain barrier permeation using the calculated molecular cross-sectional area as main parameter.  

PubMed

The cross-sectional area, AD, of a compound oriented in an amphiphilic gradient such as the air-water or lipid-water interface has previously been shown to be crucial for membrane partitioning and permeation, respectively. Here, we developed an algorithm that determines the molecular axis of amphiphilicity and the cross-sectional area, ADcalc, perpendicular to this axis. Starting from the conformational ensemble of each molecule, the three-dimensional conformation selected as the membrane-binding conformation was the one with the smallest cross-sectional area, ADcalcM, and the strongest amphiphilicity. The calculated, ADcalcM, and the measured, AD, cross-sectional areas correlated linearly (n=55, slope, m=1.04, determination coefficient, r2=0.95). The calculated cross-sectional areas, ADcalcM, were then used together with the calculated octanol-water distribution coefficients, log D7.4, of the 55 compounds (with a known ability to permeate the blood-brain barrier) to establish a calibration diagram for the prediction of blood-brain barrier permeation. It yielded a limiting cross-sectional area (ADcalcM=70 A2) and an optimal range of octanol-water distribution coefficients (-1.4parameters, ADcalcM and log D7.4, thus allow for a fast and accurate prediction of blood-brain barrier permeation. Analogous calibration diagrams can be established for other membrane barriers. PMID:17125204

Gerebtzoff, Grégori; Seelig, Anna

2006-01-01

90

Systematic investigation of parameters affecting the performance of an agitated filter-dryer.  

PubMed

A systematic experimental investigation of contact drying operation was carried out in an agitated Charles Thompson filter-dryer. In this study, the effect of process parameters (wall temperature, impeller speed, fill level) on the drying performance in the filter-dryer is quantified as a function of bed temperature and solvent concentration. In addition, the impact of drying conditions on the particle size distribution was also examined. It was found that in the range of parameters investigated, drying rate increased with wall temperature and reduced bed depth. The effect of impeller speed was variable where favorable drying conditions were strongly dependent on the particle properties. Moreover, decrease in the particle size was evident with an increase in impeller speed and decrease in the bed depth due to increased collision frequency and reduction in the fill volume both leading to particle attrition respectively. Besides, the average wall to solid heat transfer coefficient is also estimated for variable operating conditions. PMID:23650096

Sahni, Ekneet Kaur; Bogner, Robin H; Chaudhuri, Bodhisattwa

2013-07-01

91

Alkali activation of metakaolins: parameters affecting mechanical, structural and microstructural properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

The composition, structure and properties of the reaction product resulting from the alkali activation of metakaolin (MK)\\u000a are directly impacted by the specific surface and composition of the initial kaolin and the type, concentration and relative\\u000a amount of alkali activator used. This study aimed to analyze the effect of these parameters on the flexural strength, degree\\u000a of reaction, porosity and

M. Luz Granizo; M. T. Blanco-Varela; S. Martínez-Ramírez

2007-01-01

92

Parameters Affecting Image-guided, Hydrodynamic Gene Delivery to Swine Liver  

PubMed Central

Development of a safe and effective method for gene delivery to hepatocytes is a critical step toward gene therapy for liver diseases. Here, we assessed the parameters for gene delivery to the livers of large animals (pigs, 40–65?kg) using an image-guided hydrodynamics-based procedure that involves image-guided catheter insertion into the lobular hepatic vein and hydrodynamic injection of reporter plasmids using a computer-controlled injector. We demonstrated that injection parameters (relative position of the catheter in the hepatic vasculature, intravascular pressure upon injection, and injection volume) are directly related to the safety and efficiency of the procedure. By optimizing these parameters, we explored for the first time, the advantage of the procedure for sequential injections to multiple lobes in human-sized pigs. The optimized procedure resulted in sustained expression of the human ?-1 antitrypsin gene in livers for more than 2 months after gene delivery. In addition, repeated hydrodynamic gene delivery was safely conducted and no adverse events were seen in the entire period of the study. Our results support the clinical applicability of the image-guided hydrodynamic gene delivery method for the treatment of liver diseases.

Kamimura, Kenya; Suda, Takeshi; Zhang, Guisheng; Aoyagi, Yutaka; Liu, Dexi

2013-01-01

93

On the secondary stability of coated cementless hip replacement: parameters that affected interface strength.  

PubMed

Unlike primary stability of coated cementless implants, their secondary stability has been poorly studied. This paper considers some theoretical aspects of the secondary stability of a coated cementless hip implant in a human femur. The bone is separated from the implant by a thin layer of microscopic peaks and troughs formed on the surface of the coating. The size of the peaks and troughs is very small compared with the macrosize of the implant stem and bone in contact. The study of the bone-stem contact by direct application of the finite element method is prohibitively costly. A two-scale asymptotic homogenisation procedure that takes into account the microgeometry of the interface layer and mechanical properties of bone and the implant material is applied to obtain effective, homogenised contact parameters. These parameters can be used in finite element analyses involving smooth interfaces, which require hundreds of times fewer finite elements. With the homogenisation technique and finite element analyses for a simplified design, two parameters were found to be most important--the normal contact stiffness and the friction coefficient. They both increase several times as bone grows into the rough surface of the implant and mineralises, thus providing a stronger interface and resulting in reduced micromotions. PMID:14630470

Orlik, Julia; Zhurov, Alexei; Middleton, John

2003-12-01

94

Environmental parameters affecting the species diversity along the Aliakmon River, North Greece.  

PubMed

The annual distribution of aquatic and coastal macrophytes in five selected sites along the Aliakmon River was studied from January 2005 to December 2005 in Northern Greece. Soil and water chemical parameters in these sites were also evaluated. A total of 75 taxa were recorded belonging to 37 families and 53 genera. The majority of the macrophytes belonged to coastal plants (76%), whereas the rest of the macrophytes belonged to aquatic plants (24%). Species of the family Asteraceae were dominant among coastal plants, whereas species of the family Potamogetonaceae were dominant among aquatic plants. Soil samples from the site of Dam of Veria had higher pH and electric conductivity (80-100 cm depth), whereas CaCO3 contents were significantly higher in soil samples from the area of P. Prodromos (60-80 cm depth). Most physicochemical water parameters as well as selected soil nutrients and major ionic components showed an increase during the low charge period (fall) compared to with the high charge period (spring), especially in parameters associated with agricultural activity. Furthermore, there was an increase in most examined values moving towards the delta of the river. PMID:18814647

Ilias, Ilias F; Lakis, Christos; Papazafeiriou, Agapi Z

2008-03-15

95

Retrospective surveillance of metabolic parameters affecting reproductive performance of Japanese Black breeding cows  

PubMed Central

This retrospective study was conducted to confirm the relationship between pre- and postpartum metabolic parameters and postpartum reproductive performance and to clarify seasonal characteristics of the metabolic parameters by using our metabolic profile test (MPT) database of Japanese Black breeding herds. In evaluation 1, MPT databases of blood samples from multiparous cows collected prepartum and postpartum were divided into two groups according to calving interval, and each MPT parameter was compared. In evaluation 2, the same MPT databases used in evaluation 1 were divided into two groups according to the sampling period. Significant differences were found in the prepartal total protein and postpartal ?-glutamyltransferase in evaluation 1. In evaluation 2, significant differences were found in the prepartal and postpartal total protein, albumin/globulin ratio, and glucose. Clear seasonal differences in MPT results emphasized the usefulness of the MPT in breeding cattle herds fed home-pasture roughage and suggest that unsatisfactory reproductive performance during hot periods reflects inadequate nutritional content of the diet and possible reduced feed intake due to heat stress.

Watanabe, Urara; Yamato, Osamu; Otoi, Takeshige; Okamoto, Koji

2014-01-01

96

Delayed graft function: Risk factors, consequences and parameters affecting outcome—results from MOST, A Multinational Observational Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundDelayed graft function (DGF) is a common complication after renaltransplantation, and may affect graft function. The aim of this analysis was to evaluate riskfactors for DGF, as well as parameters and events influencing graft function after DGF. Weanalyzed data collected in an ongoing international, prospective; observational study, theNeoral-MOST (Multinational Observational Study in renal Transplantation), and included inthe analysis all patients

Y. Lebranchu; J. M. Halimi; A. Bock; J. Chapman; B. Dussol; L. Fritsche; V. Kliem; F. Oppenheimer; E. Pohanka; M. Salvadori; M. Soergel; G. Tufveson

2005-01-01

97

Parameter sensitivities affecting the flutter speed of a MW-sized blade.  

SciTech Connect

With the current trend toward larger and larger horizontal axis wind turbines, classical flutter is becoming a more critical issue. Recent studies have indicated that for a single blade turning in still air the flutter speed for a modern 35 m blade occurs at approximately twice its operating speed (2 per rev), whereas for smaller blades (5-9 m), both modern and early designs, the flutter speeds are in the range of 3.5-6 per rev. Scaling studies demonstrate that the per rev flutter speed should not change with scale. Thus, design requirements that change with increasing blade size are producing the concurrent reduction in per rev flutter speeds. In comparison with an early small blade design (5 m blade), flutter computations indicate that the non rotating modes which combine to create the flutter mode change as the blade becomes larger (i.e., for the larger blade the second flapwise mode, as opposed to the first flapwise mode for the smaller blade, combines with the first torsional mode to produce the flutter mode). For the more modern smaller blade design (9 m blade), results show that the non rotating modes that couple are similar to those of the larger blade. For the wings of fixed-wing aircraft, it is common knowledge that judicious selection of certain design parameters can increase the airspeed associated with the onset of flutter. Two parameters, the chordwise location of the center of mass and the ratio of the flapwise natural frequency to the torsional natural frequency, are especially significant. In this paper studies are performed to determine the sensitivity of the per rev flutter speed to these parameters for a 35 m wind turbine blade. Additional studies are performed to determine which structural characteristics of the blade are most significant in explaining the previously mentioned per rev flutter speed differences. As a point of interest, flutter results are also reported for two recently designed 9 m twist/coupled blades.

Lobitz, Donald Wayne, Jr.

2004-10-01

98

Parameter sensitivities affecting the flutter speed of a MW-sized blade.  

SciTech Connect

With the current trend toward larger and larger horizontal axis wind turbines, classical flutter is becoming a more critical issue. Recent studies have indicated that for a single blade turning in still air the flutter speed for a modern 35 m blade occurs at approximately twice its operating speed (2 per rev), whereas for smaller blades (5-9 m), both modern and early designs, the flutter speeds are in the range of 3.5-6 per rev. Scaling studies demonstrate that the per rev flutter speed should not change with scale. Thus, design requirements that change with increasing blade size are producing the concurrent reduction in per rev flutter speeds. In comparison with an early small blade design (5 m blade), flutter computations indicate that the non rotating modes which combine to create the flutter mode change as the blade becomes larger (i.e., for the larger blade the second flapwise mode, as opposed to the first flapwise mode for the smaller blade, combines with the first torsional mode to produce the flutter mode). For the more modern smaller blade design (9 m blade), results show that the non rotating modes that couple are similar to those of the larger blade. For the wings of fixed-wing aircraft, it is common knowledge that judicious selection of certain design parameters can increase the airspeed associated with the onset of flutter. Two parameters, the chordwise location of the center of mass and the ratio of the flapwise natural frequency to the torsional natural frequency, are especially significant. In this paper studies are performed to determine the sensitivity of the per rev flutter speed to these parameters for a 35 m wind turbine blade. Additional studies are performed to determine which structural characteristics of the blade are most significant in explaining the previously mentioned per rev flutter speed differences. As a point of interest, flutter results are also reported for two recently designed 9 m twist/coupled blades.

Lobitz, Donald Wayne, Jr.

2005-08-01

99

Dependence of radial thermal diffusivity on parameters of toroidal plasma affected by resonant magnetic perturbations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate how the neoclassical thermal diffusivity of an axisymmetric toroidal plasma is modified by the effect of resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs), using a drift-kinetic simulation code for calculating the radial thermal diffusivity of ion in the perturbed region under an assumption of zero electric field. Here, the perturbed region is assumed to be generated on and near the resonance surfaces, and is wedged in between the regular closed magnetic surfaces. We find that the dependence of the radial thermal diffusivity on parameters of the toroidal plasma is represented as \\chi_r=\\chi_r^{(0)} \\{1+ c_0\\,(\\omega_b/\

Kanno, Ryutaro; Nunami, Masanori; Satake, Shinsuke; Takamaru, Hisanori; Okamoto, Masao

2013-06-01

100

Mass loss in O-type stars - Parameters which affect it  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Newly determined mass loss rates are presented for sixteen O-type stars in three open clusters. Combining the data with that already in the literature, no evidence is found that the rates are different in clusters with differing galactocentric distances and compositions, at least near the sun. There is still appreciable dispersion in the relationship between the mass loss rate and the stellar luminosity. It may be that the mass loss depends additionally on the stellar mass and/or radius, but these data cannot unequivocally indicate which physical dependence is correct. Evidence is found that a stellar wind increases as a massive star evolves from the zero-age main sequence.

Garmany, C. D.; Conti, P. S.

1984-01-01

101

The nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, ibuprofen, affects the immune parameters in the clam Ruditapes philippinarum.  

PubMed

The effects of ibuprofen (IBU) on the immune parameters of the clam Ruditapes philippinarum were investigated after a 7-day exposure to sublethal IBU concentrations (0, 0 + ethanol, 100, 500, and 1000 ?g/L). Total haemocyte count (THC), haemocyte diameter and volume, haemocyte proliferation and uptake of the vital dye Neutral Red (NR) were measured. The cytotoxicity (assessed by the lactate dehydrogenase assay, LDH) and the capability of IBU to induce DNA fragmentation (indicative of apoptosis) were also investigated. The exposure of clams to the highest IBU concentration significantly reduced their THC, whereas no significant changes were observed in either the diameter or volume of haemocytes. Significant increases in haemocyte proliferation were recorded in clams that were exposed to the two highest tested concentrations of IBU. Exposure of clams to 1000 ?g IBU/L significantly reduced NR uptake and increased haemolymph LDH activity. Conversely, IBU did not induce DNA fragmentation in haemocytes. Although the IBU concentrations tested in this study were higher than those generally recorded in aquatic environments, results obtained indicate that exposure of clams to IBU induces significant alterations in the immune parameters and suggest potential immunosuppression in treated clams. PMID:22727203

Matozzo, Valerio; Rova, Silvia; Marin, Maria Gabriella

2012-08-01

102

A systematic experimental investigation of significant parameters affecting model tire hydroplaning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of a comprehensive parametric study of model and small pneumatic tires operating on a wet surface are presented. Hydroplaning inception (spin down) and rolling restoration (spin up) are discussed. Conclusions indicate that hydroplaning inception occurs at a speed significantly higher than the rolling restoration speed. Hydroplaning speed increases considerably with tread depth, surface roughness and tire inflation pressure of footprint pressure, and only moderately with increased load. Water film thickness affects spin down speed only slightly. Spin down speed varies inversely as approximately the one-sixth power of film thickness. Empirical equations relating tire inflation pressure, normal load, tire diameter and water film thickness have been generated for various tire tread and surface configurations.

Wray, G. A.; Ehrlich, I. R.

1973-01-01

103

Selection for the parthenogenetic trait in Chinese Painted Quail (Coturnix chinensis) affects hatchability parameters.  

PubMed

Poultry are capable of laying unfertilized eggs in which embryonic development occurs; this phenomenon is called parthenogenesis. Through genetic selection, the incidence of parthenogenesis in virgin Chinese Painted Quail hens can be increased. However, it is unknown if selection for this trait affects hatchability of fertilized eggs. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine if genetic selection for parthenogenesis in virgin Chinese Painted Quail affects hatchability of mated hens. At 4 wk of age, females were separated from males and individually caged. Daily, eggs were collected, labeled, and stored from 0 to 3 d at 20°C then incubated at 37.5°C. At d 10 of incubation, eggs from virgin hens were broken out to determine the incidence of parthenogenesis. After the incidence of parthenogenesis in virgin hens was determined, hens were selected for mating. Eggs from the parent stock and generations 1 through 7 that did not hatch were examined for stage of hatching failure and categorized as infertile or possible parthenogens as well as early, middle, and late embryonic mortality. For hatch of set and hatch of fertile eggs, generation 1 hatched the greatest percentage of eggs compared with the other generations. Also, as the generation of selection increased, there was a linear decline in the percentage of eggs hatched for both hatch of set and hatch of fertile eggs. Additionally, generation 2 had the highest percentage of infertile eggs. There was a linear increase as generation of selection increased for both the percentage of eggs exhibiting possible parthenogens and early embryonic mortality. Unlike early embryonic mortality, the parent generation had the greatest percentage of embryos die in both the middle and late stage of incubation. In conclusion, it appears that selecting Chinese Painted Quail for the parthenogenetic trait impairs hatchability when hens are mated. PMID:24604860

Parker, H M; Kiess, A S; Santa Rosa, P; McDaniel, C D

2014-03-01

104

A Monte Carlo study of parameters affecting computer simulations of crater saturation density  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computer models of cratered surfaces often use inputs of uncertain nature and importance. This work evaluates the sensitivity of the resulting crater-saturation estimates to the input parameters, principally applicable to the study of craters upward from 8 km diameter. In order of decreasing importance, crater saturation simulations are found to be sensitive to: (1) the dynamic range of crater diameters used, (2) the effectiveness of ejecta-blanket obliteration assumed, and (3) the number of points taken to describe the crater rim. The size of the largest crater in proportion to the size of the simulated surface has no effect on the results when the edges of the simulated surface are correctly treated and craters are not counted simply by integers. Craters should be counted by their fractions lying within the simulated area. A similar procedure is recommended when gathering crater size-density data from images.

Woronow, A.

1985-01-01

105

Parameters affecting the slow inward channel repriming process in frog atrium.  

PubMed Central

1. The time of recovery (from the inactivation) of the slow inward current was studied in the frog atrium, using the double sucrose gap voltage clamp technique. 2. The 'repriming' process was found to be distinct from the current inactivation, and to depend on experimental protocol: double pulses given at low frequencies (at 'rest') gave a faster recovery time when compared to recovery during constant stimulation, with interposed stimuli monitoring the recovery. Longer durations of the clamp pulses led to a faster recovery process. 3. Changing the holding potential of the membrane (with double pulses to the same absolute membrane potential monitoring the recovery process) greatly affect the repriming with depolarized levels slowing down the process. 4. The recovery time was fastest following clamp pulses to intermediate membrane potentials (in the plateau range). This was determined by double pulses, from a constant hold potentials, to different levels. 5. Decreasing extracellular Ca prolonged, and increasing Ca enhanced the recovery process. 6. The recovery process was markedly slowed down in Na or in K-free solutions. 7. The recovery process was enhanced in solutions with a raised concentration of Mg or H ions (lower pH). In higher Mg solutions, the inactivation of the slow inward current was slower. 8. It is proposed that the recovery process is sensitive to alterations in intracellular Ca ions and to variations in extracellular surface charges. The possible implications are discussed.

Shimoni, Y

1981-01-01

106

Study of parameters affecting the performance of solar desiccant cooling systems  

SciTech Connect

The performance of a solar desiccant cooling system depends on the performance of its components, particularly the desiccant dehumidifier and solar collectors. The desiccant dehumidifier performance is affected by the properties of the desiccant, particularly the shape of the isotherm and the regeneration temperature. The performance of a solar collector, as one would expect, depends on its operating temperature, which is very close to the desiccant regeneration temperature. The purpose of this study was to identify the desiccant isotherm shape (characterized by separation factor) that would result in the optimum performance - based on thermal coefficient of performance and cooling capacity - of a desiccant cooling cycle operating in ventilation mode. Different regeneration temperatures ranging from 65[degree]C to 160[degree]C were investigated to identify the corresponding optimum isotherm shape at each. Thermal COP dictates the required area of the solar collectors, and the cooling capacity is an indication of the size and cost of the cooling equipment. Staged and no-staged regeneration methods were studied.

Pesaran, A.A.; Hoo, E.A.

1993-01-01

107

Study of parameters affecting the performance of solar desiccant cooling systems  

SciTech Connect

The performance of a solar desiccant cooling system depends on the performance of its components, particularly the desiccant dehumidifier and solar collectors. The desiccant dehumidifier performance is affected by the properties of the desiccant, particularly the shape of the isotherm and the regeneration temperature. The performance of a solar collector, as one would expect, depends on its operating temperature, which is very close to the desiccant regeneration temperature. The purpose of this study was to identify the desiccant isotherm shape (characterized by separation factor) that would result in the optimum performance - based on thermal coefficient of performance and cooling capacity - of a desiccant cooling cycle operating in ventilation mode. Different regeneration temperatures ranging from 65{degree}C to 160{degree}C were investigated to identify the corresponding optimum isotherm shape at each. Thermal COP dictates the required area of the solar collectors, and the cooling capacity is an indication of the size and cost of the cooling equipment. Staged and no-staged regeneration methods were studied.

Pesaran, A.A.; Hoo, E.A.

1993-01-01

108

Low doses of dexamethasone affect immune parameters in the absence of immunological stimulation.  

PubMed

Recent findings suggest an important role of subtle changes in the plasma levels of inflammatory cytokines within the brain-immune interplay. It is unclear how such changes are regulated in the absence of acute inflammatory or infectious stimuli. Endocrine systems are a good candidate, because innate immunity and the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-system are closely related: glucocorticoids have immunosuppressive properties and modulate cytokine release from stimulated mononuclear blood cells in vitro and the immune response in vivo, but it still remains unclear, whether they also modulate circulating cytokine levels in the absence of immunological stimuli. We measured the influence of 1.5 or 3.0 mg dexamethasone (DEX) per os at 09:00 or 21:00 hours on body temperature, cortisol plasma levels, differential white blood cell counts, and cytokine plasma levels in 40 healthy male volunteers using a double-blind, placebo-controlled study design. In addition to significant morning-evening differences in tympanic temperature and several immune parameters, we found that DEX-intake significantly increased tympanic temperature, decreased cortisol plasma levels, altered differential white blood cell counts and induced changes in unstimulated plasma cytokine levels. Whereas the levels of TNF-alpha and sTNF-R p75 were reduced, the levels of sTNF-R p55 increased after a transient decrease. PMID:16868892

Schuld, A; Birkmann, S; Beitinger, P; Haack, M; Kraus, T; Dalal, M A; Holsboer, F; Pollmächer, T

2006-06-01

109

X-ray emission from O-type stars - Parameters which affect it  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As a result of previous analyses of the X-ray fluxes of O-type stars, it has been established that, surprisingly, there is no correlation between X-ray flux and such basic parameters as M, R, v(rot), T(eff), mass accretion rate v(infinity), L(w) = mass accretion rate v(infinity), and wind energy. In this paper, other factors influencing the X-ray flux of the hottest stars are sought. As a result of the present analysis, it is found that stars embedded in dense clouds are often X-ray brighter, runaway stars are fainter in X-rays, massive binaries emit more X-rays than single stars, and radio-bright stars are also more active in X-rays. All these correlations lead to the conclusion that the stellar environment and the interaction of the stellar wind with circumstellar matter (possible remnants of protostellar clouds) play a dominant role in the production of the X-ray flux.

Chlebowski, T.

1989-01-01

110

Fusion of Multi Precursors Earthquake Parameters to Estimate the Date, Magnitude and Affected Area of the Forthcoming Powerful Earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since not any individual precursor can be used as an accurate stand alone means for the earthquake prediction, it is necessary to integrate different kinds of precursors. The precursors selected for analysis in this study include electron and ion density, electron temperature, total electron content (TEC), electric and magnetic fields and land surface temperature (LST) several days before three strong earthquakes which happened in Samoa Islands, Sichuan (China) and Borujerd (Iran). The precursor's variations were monitored using data obtained from experiments onboard DEMETER (IAP, ISL, ICE and IMSC) and Aqua-MODIS satellites. Regarding the ionospheric precursors, the geomagnetic indices Dst and Kp were used to distinguish pre-earthquake disturbed states from the other anomalies related to the geomagnetic activities. The inter-quartile range of data was utilized to construct their upper and lower bound to detect disturbed states outsides the bounds which might be associated with impending earthquakes. When the disturbed state associated with impending earthquake is detected, based on the type of precursor, the number of days relative to earthquake day is estimated. Then regarding the deviation value of the precursor from the undisturbed state the magnitude of impending earthquake is estimated. The radius of the affected area is calculated using the estimated magnitude and Dobrovolsky formula. In order to assess final earthquake parameters (which are date, magnitude and radius of the affected area) for each case study, using the median and inter-quartile range of earthquake parameters obtained from different precursors, the approximate bounds of final earthquake parameters are defined. For each studied case, a good agreement was found between the estimated and registered earthquake parameters.

Akhoondzadeh, M.; Saradjian, M. R.

2012-07-01

111

Metabolic Parameters and Emotionality Are Little Affected in G-Protein Coupled Receptor 12 (Gpr12) Mutant Mice  

PubMed Central

Background G-protein coupled receptors (GPR) bear the potential to serve as yet unidentified drug targets for psychiatric and metabolic disorders. GPR12 is of major interest given its putative role in metabolic function and its unique brain distribution, which suggests a role in emotionality and affect. We tested Gpr12 deficient mice in a series of metabolic and behavioural tests and subjected them to a well-established high-fat diet feeding protocol. Methodology/Principal Findings Comparing the mutant mice with wild type littermates, no significant differences were seen in body weight, fatness or weight gain induced by a high-fat diet. The Gpr12 mutant mice displayed a modest but significant lowering of energy expenditure and a trend to lower food intake on a chow diet, but no other metabolic parameters, including respiratory rate, were altered. No emotionality-related behaviours (assessed by light-dark box, tail suspension, and open field tests) were affected by the Gpr12 gene mutation. Conclusions/Significance Studying metabolic and emotionality parameters in Gpr12 mutant mice did not reveal a major phenotypic impact of the gene mutation. Compared to previous results showing a metabolic phenotype in Gpr12 mice with a mixed 129 and C57Bl6 background, we suggest that a more pure C57Bl/6 background due to further backcrossing might have reduced the phenotypic penetrance.

Frank, Elisabeth; Wu, Yizhen; Piyaratna, Naomi; Body, William James; Snikeris, Peta; South, Timothy; Gerdin, Anna-Karin; Bjursell, Mikael; Bohlooly-Y, Mohammad; Storlien, Leonard; Huang, Xu-Feng

2012-01-01

112

Altered membrane lipid composition and functional parameters of circulating cells in cockles (Cerastoderma edule) affected by disseminated neoplasia.  

PubMed

Membrane lipid composition and morpho-functional parameters were investigated in circulating cells of the edible cockle (Cerastoderma edule) affected by disseminated neoplasia (neoplastic cells) and compared to those from healthy cockles (hemocytes). Membrane sterol levels, phospholipid (PL) class and subclass proportions and their respective fatty acid (FA) compositions were determined. Morpho-functional parameters were evaluated through total hemocyte count (THC), mortality rate, phagocytosis ability and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Both morpho-functional parameters and lipid composition were profoundly affected in neoplastic cells. These dedifferentiated cells displayed higher THC (5×), mortality rate (3×) and ROS production with addition of carbonyl cyanide m-chloro phenylhydrazone (1.7×) but lower phagocytosis ability (½×), than unaffected hemocytes. Total PL amounts were higher in neoplastic cells than in hemocytes (12.3 and 5.1 nmol×10(-6) cells, respectively). However, sterols and a particular subclass of PL (plasmalogens; 1-alkenyl-2-acyl PL) were present in similar amounts in both cell type membranes. This led to a two times lower proportion of these membrane lipid constituents in neoplastic cells when compared to hemocytes (20.5% vs. 42.1% of sterols in total membrane lipids and 21.7% vs. 44.2% of plasmalogens among total PL, respectively). Proportions of non-methylene interrupted FA- and 20:1n-11-plasmalogen molecular species were the most impacted in neoplastic cells when compared to hemocytes (?× and ¼×, respectively). These changes in response to this leukemia-like disease in bivalves highlight the specific imbalance of plasmalogens and sterols in neoplastic cells, in comparison to the greater stability of other membrane lipid components. PMID:23333874

Le Grand, Fabienne; Soudant, Philippe; Marty, Yanic; Le Goïc, Nelly; Kraffe, Edouard

2013-01-01

113

Measurement of Hydrologic Streamflow Metrics and Estimation of Streamflow with Lumped Parameter Models in a Managed Lake System, Sebago Lake, Maine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface waters within the Sebago Lake watershed (southern Maine, USA) provide a variety of economically and intrinsically valuable recreational, commercial and environmental services. Different stakeholder groups for the 118 km2 Sebago Lake and surrounding watershed advocate for different lake and watershed management strategies, focusing on the operation of a dam at the outflow from Sebago Lake. While lake level in Sebago Lake has been monitored for over a century, limited data is available on the hydrologic processes that drive lake level and therefore impact how dam operation (and other changes to the region) will influence the hydroperiod of the lake. To fill this information gap several tasks were undertaken including: 1) deploying data logging pressure transducers to continuously monitor stream stage in nine tributaries, 2) measuring stream discharge at these sites to create rating curves for the nine tributaries, and using the resulting continuous discharge records to 3) calibrate lumped parameter computer models based on the GR4J model, modified to include a degree-day snowmelt routine. These lumped parameter models have been integrated with a simple lake water-balance model to estimate lake level and its response to different scenarios including dam management strategies. To date, about three years of stream stage data have been used to estimate stream discharge in all monitored tributaries (data collection is ongoing). Baseflow separation indices (BFI) for 2010 and 2011 using the USGS software PART and the Eckhart digital filter in WHAT range from 0.80-0.86 in the Crooked River and Richmill Outlet,followed by Northwest (0.75) and Muddy (0.53-0.56) Rivers, with the lowest BFI measured in Sticky River (0.41-0.56). The BFI values indicate most streams have significant groundwater (or other storage) inputs. The lumped parameter watershed model has been calibrated for four streams (Nash-Sutcliffe = 0.4 to 0.9), with the other major tributaries containing hydraulic structures that are not included in the lumped parameter model. Calibrated watershed models tend to substantially underestimate the highest streamflows while overestimating low flows. An early June 2012 event caused extremely high flows with discharge in the Crooked River (the most significant tributary) peaking at about 85 m3/day. The lumped parameter model dramatically underestimated this important and anomalous event, but provided a reasonable prediction of flows throughout the rest of 2012. Ongoing work includes incorporating hydraulic structures in the lumped parameter model and using the available data to drive the lake water-balance model that has been prepared.

Reeve, A. S.; Martin, D.; Smith, S. M.

2013-12-01

114

Insertion depth of oral stomach tubes may affect the fermentation parameters of ruminal fluid collected in dairy cows.  

PubMed

Six rumen-fistulated dairy cows were used in 2 trials to validate the technique for the collection of ruminal fluid by an oral stomach tube (OST). Trial 1 was conducted to compare the differences of ruminal fermentation parameters among rumen sites (cranial dorsal, cranial ventral, central, ventral, caudal dorsal, and caudal ventral). The ruminal fluid was collected once per day for 3 consecutive days through rumen cannula (RC). The samples were analyzed for pH, volatile fatty acids (VFA), ammonia N, sodium, potassium, calcium, chloride, and phosphorus concentrations. The ruminal fermentation parameters varied significantly among rumen sites. Compared with the central or ventral rumen, the cranial dorsal rumen had significantly higher pH, ammonia, and sodium concentrations and lower acetate, propionate, and butyrate concentrations, indicating that the sampling site may be one of the main factors contributing to the difference in ruminal fermentation parameters between the samples collected via the OST and RC. In trial 2, the fermentation parameters of ruminal fluid collected via OST at 2 insertion depths (180 or 200 cm) were compared with those of ruminal fluid collected via RC (ventral sac). Ruminal fluid was collected once per week at 5 to 6h after morning feeding. When the OST was inserted to a depth of 180 cm, the OST head was located in the cranial dorsal (atrium) of the rumen. The ruminal fluid collected via the OST had higher pH and sodium concentrations but lower VFA, potassium, calcium, and phosphorus concentrations than that collected via RC. However, when the OST was inserted to a depth of 200 cm, the OST head could pass through the front rumen pillar and reach the central rumen for sampling. No differences were found in pH, VFA, ammonia N, and ion concentrations between the samples collected via the 2 sampling methods. These results indicated that the OST should be inserted to reach the central rumen to obtain representative rumen fluid samples. PMID:22921624

Shen, J S; Chai, Z; Song, L J; Liu, J X; Wu, Y M

2012-10-01

115

Quench of ITER Poloidal Field Coils: Influence of some initiation parameters on thermo-hydraulic detection signals and main impact on cryogenic system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In case of a magnet quench, the primary quench detection system is classically based on voltage detection. In addition, a secondary quench detection is required and it could rely on signals of thermohydraulic nature. A model based on the coupled GANDALF [1] and FLOWER [2] codes has been developed in previous papers for the Central Solenoid [3,4], and for the Toroidal Field Coils [5,6] of ITER. This study focuses on Poloidal Field Coil PF5 as it has the highest magnetic field value along the conductor. Results of some parametric studies are presented and the influence of the initiation parameters of the quench (energy, location and length of heat deposition, time duration for detection). The possibility of a secondary thermohydraulic detection and the main impact on cryogenic system are analyzed and discussed.

Nicollet, S.; Bessette, D.; Ciazynski, D.; Coatanéa-Gouachet, M.; Duchateau, J.-L.; Lacroix, B.; Rodriguez-Mateos, F.

2013-01-01

116

Solidifying agent and processing of blood used for the larval diet affect screwworm (Diptera: Calliphoridae) life-history parameters.  

PubMed

Spray-dried whole bovine blood and a sodium polyacrylate polymer gel as a bulking and solidifying agent are among the constituents of the current larval diet for mass rearing screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae). Locally available, inexpensive dietary materials could reduce rearing cost and address an uncertain commercial supply of spray-dried blood. We compared efficacy of diet prepared from fresh bovine blood after decoagulation with sodium citrate or ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) or after mechanical defibrination, with the diet containing spray-dried blood using either gel or cellulose fiber as the bulking and solidifying agent. Several life-history parameters were compared among insects reared on each of the blood and bulking agent diets combination. Diets containing citrated blood yielded the lightest larval and pupal weights and fewest pupae. EDTA-treated blood with the gel also caused reductions. EDTA-treated blood with fiber yielded screwworms that were heavier and more numerous than those from the diet with citrated blood but lighter than those from the control diet using spray-dried blood. A reduction in percentage of adults emerging from pupae occurred from diets with both bulking agents using citrated blood and the diet using EDTA mixed with the gel bulking agent. As a group, the cellulose-fiber diets performed better than the gel diets. Larval diet did not affect adult longevity, weight of the eggs deposited by the females that emerged or subsequent egg hatch. Parameter measurements of insects from both defibrinated blood diets were similar to those from the spray-dried blood diets, indicating that fresh, defibrinated bovine blood can successfully replace the dry blood in the screwworm rearing medium. PMID:21735935

Chaudhury, M F; Skoda, S R; Sagel, A

2011-06-01

117

Investigation of Parameters Affecting the Interface Bonding of Thin Concrete Overlays Due to Vehicular Vibration. Effects of Vehicular Vibration on Debonding and Delamination of Concrete Overlays.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research is a further study of parameters affecting the interface bonding of thin concrete overlays. The specimens were tested in the flexural mode, while in the previous study, the direct shear test was applied to the specimens. The parameters inves...

J. S. Makahaube S. Nazarian D. B. Rozendal

1993-01-01

118

POPULATION PARAMETERS OF INTERMEDIATE-AGE STAR CLUSTERS IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD. II. NEW INSIGHTS FROM EXTENDED MAIN-SEQUENCE TURNOFFS IN SEVEN STAR CLUSTERS  

SciTech Connect

We discuss new photometry from high-resolution images of seven intermediate-age (1-2 Gyr) star clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud taken with the Advanced Camera for Surveys on board the Hubble Space Telescope. We fit color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) with several different sets of theoretical isochrones and determine systematic uncertainties for population parameters when derived using any one set of isochrones. The cluster CMDs show several interesting features, including extended main-sequence turnoff (MSTO) regions, narrow red giant branches, and clear sequences of unresolved binary stars. We show that the extended MSTOs are not caused by photometric uncertainties, contamination by field stars, or the presence of binary stars. Enhanced helium abundances in a fraction of cluster stars are also ruled out as the reason for the extended MSTOs. Quantitative comparisons with simulations indicate that the MSTO regions are better described by a spread in ages than by a bimodal age distribution, although we cannot formally rule out the latter for the three lowest-mass clusters in our sample (which have masses lower than {approx}3 x 10{sup 4} M{sub sun}). This conclusion differs from that of some previous works which suggested that the age distribution in massive clusters in our sample is bimodal. This suggests that any secondary star formation occurred in an extended fashion rather than through short bursts. We discuss these results in the context of the nature of multiple stellar populations in star clusters.

Goudfrooij, Paul; Kozhurina-Platais, Vera [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Puzia, Thomas H. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Av. Vicuna Mackenna 4860, Macul 7820436, Santiago (Chile); Chandar, Rupali, E-mail: goudfroo@stsci.edu, E-mail: verap@stsci.edu, E-mail: tpuzia@gmail.com, E-mail: rupali.chandar@utoledo.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, 2801 West Bancroft Street, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States)

2011-08-10

119

Determination of antibody concentration as the main parameter in a dengue virus antibody-dependent enhancement assay using Fc?R-expressing BHK cells.  

PubMed

Dengue virus (DENV) causes a life-threatening illness, with a wide range of symptoms from mild febrile illness, dengue fever (DF), to life-threatening illness, dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF). Antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) is considered to be a risk factor for DHF. In the present study, we determined the parameters for ADE assays using Fc?R-expressing BHK cells. Monoclonal antibodies and human serum samples were used in the assays. We examined antibody concentration and virus concentration and analyzed whether antibody concentration or DENV-antibody ratio determines ADE activity. Virus growth was quantified by a conventional plaque titration method using Fc?R-expressing BHK cells. The assay allowed the detection of DENV growth with inoculation doses ranging from 10(2) PFU/ml to 10(6) PFU/ml using monoclonal antibodies and undiluted or diluted serum samples. The results indicate that antibody concentration rather than DENV-antibody ratio determines the demonstration of ADE activity. Thus, antibody concentration rather than multiplicity of infection was defined as the main determinant in ADE assays using Fc?R-expressing BHK cells. PMID:23900750

Moi, Meng Ling; Takasaki, Tomohiko; Saijo, Masayuki; Kurane, Ichiro

2014-01-01

120

Effect of electronic flame off parameters on copper bonding wire: Free-air ball deformability, heat affected zone length, heat affected zone breaking force  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cu bonding wire is more and more used for interconnections to integrated circuits (ICs) to reduce cost and increase performance compared to Au wire. To eliminate underpad damage for Cu wire applications, it is worthwhile to reduce the hardness of the free-air ball (FAB). Short heat affected zone (HAZ) and high HAZ breaking load are often required for advanced microelectronics

C. J. Hang; W. H. Song; I. Lum; M. Mayer; Y. Zhou; C. Q. Wang; J. T. Moon; J. Persic

2009-01-01

121

In vitro acute exposure to DEHP affects oocyte meiotic maturation, energy and oxidative stress parameters in a large animal model.  

PubMed

Phthalates are ubiquitous environmental contaminants because of their use in plastics and other common consumer products. Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is the most abundant phthalate and it impairs fertility by acting as an endocrine disruptor. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effects of in vitro acute exposure to DEHP on oocyte maturation, energy and oxidative status in the horse, a large animal model. Cumulus cell (CC) apoptosis and oxidative status were also investigated. Cumulus-oocyte complexes from the ovaries of slaughtered mares were cultured in vitro in presence of 0.12, 12 and 1200 µM DEHP. After in vitro maturation (IVM), CCs were removed and evaluated for apoptosis (cytological assessment and TUNEL) and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Oocytes were evaluated for nuclear chromatin configuration. Matured (Metaphase II stage; MII) oocytes were further evaluated for cytoplasmic energy and oxidative parameters. DEHP significantly inhibited oocyte maturation when added at low doses (0.12 µM; P<0.05). This effect was related to increased CC apoptosis (P<0.001) and reduced ROS levels (P<0.0001). At higher doses (12 and 1200 µM), DEHP induced apoptosis (P<0.0001) and ROS increase (P<0.0001) in CCs without affecting oocyte maturation. In DEHP-exposed MII oocytes, mitochondrial distribution patterns, apparent energy status (MitoTracker fluorescence intensity), intracellular ROS localization and levels, mt/ROS colocalization and total SOD activity did not vary, whereas increased ATP content (P<0.05), possibly of glycolytic origin, was found. Co-treatment with N-Acetyl-Cysteine reversed apoptosis and efficiently scavenged excessive ROS in DEHP-treated CCs without enhancing oocyte maturation. In conclusion, acute in vitro exposure to DEHP inhibits equine oocyte maturation without altering ooplasmic energy and oxidative stress parameters in matured oocytes which retain the potential to be fertilized and develop into embryos even though further studies are necessary to confirm this possibility. PMID:22076161

Ambruosi, Barbara; Uranio, Manuel Filioli; Sardanelli, Anna Maria; Pocar, Paola; Martino, Nicola Antonio; Paternoster, Maria Stefania; Amati, Francesca; Dell'Aquila, Maria Elena

2011-01-01

122

Population Parameters of Intermediate-age Star Clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud. II. New Insights from Extended Main-sequence Turnoffs in Seven Star Clusters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss new photometry from high-resolution images of seven intermediate-age (1-2 Gyr) star clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud taken with the Advanced Camera for Surveys on board the Hubble Space Telescope. We fit color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) with several different sets of theoretical isochrones and determine systematic uncertainties for population parameters when derived using any one set of isochrones. The cluster CMDs show several interesting features, including extended main-sequence turnoff (MSTO) regions, narrow red giant branches, and clear sequences of unresolved binary stars. We show that the extended MSTOs are not caused by photometric uncertainties, contamination by field stars, or the presence of binary stars. Enhanced helium abundances in a fraction of cluster stars are also ruled out as the reason for the extended MSTOs. Quantitative comparisons with simulations indicate that the MSTO regions are better described by a spread in ages than by a bimodal age distribution, although we cannot formally rule out the latter for the three lowest-mass clusters in our sample (which have masses lower than ~3 × 104 M sun). This conclusion differs from that of some previous works which suggested that the age distribution in massive clusters in our sample is bimodal. This suggests that any secondary star formation occurred in an extended fashion rather than through short bursts. We discuss these results in the context of the nature of multiple stellar populations in star clusters. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

Goudfrooij, Paul; Puzia, Thomas H.; Kozhurina-Platais, Vera; Chandar, Rupali

2011-08-01

123

Rock Mass Grouting in the Løren Tunnel: Case Study with the Main Focus on the Groutability and Feasibility of Drill Parameter Interpretation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Løren road tunnel is a part of a major project at Ring road 3 in Oslo, Norway. The rock part of the tunnel is 915 m long and has two tubes with three lanes and breakdown lanes. Strict water ingress restriction was specified and continuous rock mass grouting was, therefore, carried out for the entire tunnel, which was excavated in folded Cambro-Silurian shales intruded by numerous dykes. This paper describes the rock mass grouting that was carried out for the Løren tunnel. Particular emphasis is placed on discussing grout consumption and the challenges that were encountered when passing under a distinct rock depression. Measurement while drilling (MWD) technology was used for this project, and, in this paper, the relationships between the drill parameter interpretation (DPI) factors water and fracturing are examined in relation to grout volumes. A lowering of the groundwater table was experienced during excavation under the rock depression, but the groundwater was nearly re-established after completion of the main construction work. A planned 80-m watertight concrete lining was not required to be built due to the excellent results from grouting in the rock depression area. A relationship was found between leakages mapped in the tunnel and the DPI water factor, indicating that water is actually present where the DPI water factor shows water in the rock. It is concluded that, for the Løren tunnel, careful planning and high-quality execution of the rock mass grouting made the measured water ingress meet the restrictions. For future projects, the DPI water factor may be used to give a better understanding of the material in which the rock mass grouting is performed and may also be used to reduce the time spent and volumes used when grouting.

Høien, Are Håvard; Nilsen, Bjørn

2014-05-01

124

Factors Affecting the Accuracy of Controlled Attenuation Parameter (CAP) in Assessing Hepatic Steatosis in Patients with Chronic Liver Disease  

PubMed Central

Background & Aims Controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) can measure hepatic steatosis. However, factors affecting its accuracy have not been described yet. This study investigated predictors of discordance between liver biopsy (LB) and CAP. Methods A total of 161 consecutive patients with chronic liver disease who underwent LB and CAP were enrolled prospectively. Histological steatosis was graded as S0 (<5%), S1 (5–33%), S2 (34–66%), and S3 (>66% of hepatocytes). Cutoff CAP values were calculated from our cohort (250, 301, and 325 dB/m for ?S1, ?S2, and S3). Discordance was defined as a discrepancy of at least two steatosis stages between LB and CAP. Results The median age (102 males and 59 females) was 49 years. Repartition of histological steatosis was as follows; S0 26.1% (n?=?42), S1 49.7% (n?=?80), S2 20.5% (n?=?33), and S3 3.7% (n?=?6). In multivariate linear regression analysis, CAP value was independently associated with steatosis grade along with body mass index (BMI) and interquartile range/median of CAP value (IQR/MCAP) (all P<0.05). Discordance was identified in 13 (8.1%) patients. In multivariate analysis, histological S3 (odd ratio [OR], 9.573; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.207–75.931; P?=?0.033) and CAP value (OR, 1.020; 95% CI, 1.006–1.034; P?=?0.006) were significantly associated with discordance, when adjusting for BMI, IQR/MCAP, and necroinflammation, reflected by histological activity or ALT level. Conclusions Patients with high grade steatosis or high CAP values have a higher risk of discordance between LB and CAP. Further studies are needed to improve the accuracy of CAP interpretation, especially in patients with higher CAP values.

Jung, Kyu Sik; Kim, Beom Kyung; Kim, Seung Up; Chon, Young Eun; Cheon, Kyung Hyun; Kim, Sung Bae; Lee, Sang Hoon; Ahn, Sung Soo; Park, Jun Yong; Kim, Do Young; Ahn, Sang Hoon; Park, Young Nyun; Han, Kwang-Hyub

2014-01-01

125

MAINE POPULATION  

EPA Science Inventory

MEPOP250 depicts Maine's 1950-1990 population data by town or Census in unorganized territories. Populations were compiled from US Census Bureau data where available or from Maine Municipal Information (mainly for older records). Unorganized towns with very low or zero pop...

126

Influence of different stimulation parameters on the somatosensory evoked potentials of the nervus vagus--how varied stimulation parameters affect VSEP.  

PubMed

Vagus somatosensory evoked potentials are a method for assessing the function of the vagus nerve, which were shown to be altered in neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. Various parameters of the stimulation such as the electrode position and the stimulus intensity have already been investigated. In this study, the focus is on the systematic examination of the other parameters of the stimulation of the vagus somatosensory evoked potentials: stimulus duration, interstimulus interval, and, again, the stimulation intensity. Thirty young and healthy subjects were examined using five different sets of stimulation parameters, and 24 were included in the further analysis. The results show that a reduction of the stimulus duration and a decrease in stimulus intensity have a significant effect on the amplitudes. A shortening of the interstimulus interval does not seem to have such an effect, but this stimulation is rated more painful and unpleasant than the standard stimulation. Overall, the standard stimulation used so far seems to be the most preferable condition. PMID:24691232

Hagen, Katja; Ehlis, Ann-Christine; Schneider, Sabrina; Haeussinger, Florian B; Fallgatter, Andreas J; Metzger, Florian G

2014-04-01

127

Phagocytosis Is the Main CR3-Mediated Function Affected by the Lupus-Associated Variant of CD11b in Human Myeloid Cells  

PubMed Central

The CD11b/CD18 integrin (complement receptor 3, CR3) is a surface receptor on monocytes, neutrophils, macrophages and dendritic cells that plays a crucial role in several immunological processes including leukocyte extravasation and phagocytosis. The minor allele of a non-synonymous CR3 polymorphism (rs1143679, conversation of arginine to histidine at position 77: R77H) represents one of the strongest genetic risk factor in human systemic lupus erythematosus, with heterozygosity (77R/H) being the most common disease associated genotype. Homozygosity for the 77H allele has been reported to reduce adhesion and phagocytosis in human monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages, respectively, without affecting surface expression of CD11b. Herein we comprehensively assessed the influence of R77H on different CR3-mediated activities in monocytes, neutrophils, macrophages and dendritic cells. R77H did not alter surface expression of CD11b including its active form in any of these cell types. Using two different iC3b-coated targets we found that the uptake by heterozygous 77R/H macrophages, monocytes and neutrophils was significantly reduced compared to 77R/R cells. Allele-specific transduced immortalized macrophage cell lines demonstrated that the minor allele, 77H, was responsible for the impaired phagocytosis. R77H did not affect neutrophil adhesion, neutrophil transmigration in vivo or Toll-like receptor 7/8-mediated cytokine release by monocytes or dendritic cells with or without CR3 pre-engagement by iC3b-coated targets. Our findings demonstrate that the reduction in CR3-mediated phagocytosis associated with the 77H CD11b variant is not macrophage-restricted but demonstrable in other CR3-expressing professional phagocytic cells. The association between 77H and susceptibility to systemic lupus erythematosus most likely relates to impaired waste disposal, a key component of lupus pathogenesis.

Cortini, Andrea; Szajna, Marta; Malik, Talat H.; McDonald, Jacqueline U.; Pickering, Matthew C.; Cook, H. Terence; Taylor, Philip R.; Botto, Marina

2013-01-01

128

Phagocytosis is the main CR3-mediated function affected by the lupus-associated variant of CD11b in human myeloid cells.  

PubMed

The CD11b/CD18 integrin (complement receptor 3, CR3) is a surface receptor on monocytes, neutrophils, macrophages and dendritic cells that plays a crucial role in several immunological processes including leukocyte extravasation and phagocytosis. The minor allele of a non-synonymous CR3 polymorphism (rs1143679, conversation of arginine to histidine at position 77: R77H) represents one of the strongest genetic risk factor in human systemic lupus erythematosus, with heterozygosity (77R/H) being the most common disease associated genotype. Homozygosity for the 77H allele has been reported to reduce adhesion and phagocytosis in human monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages, respectively, without affecting surface expression of CD11b. Herein we comprehensively assessed the influence of R77H on different CR3-mediated activities in monocytes, neutrophils, macrophages and dendritic cells. R77H did not alter surface expression of CD11b including its active form in any of these cell types. Using two different iC3b-coated targets we found that the uptake by heterozygous 77R/H macrophages, monocytes and neutrophils was significantly reduced compared to 77R/R cells. Allele-specific transduced immortalized macrophage cell lines demonstrated that the minor allele, 77H, was responsible for the impaired phagocytosis. R77H did not affect neutrophil adhesion, neutrophil transmigration in vivo or Toll-like receptor 7/8-mediated cytokine release by monocytes or dendritic cells with or without CR3 pre-engagement by iC3b-coated targets. Our findings demonstrate that the reduction in CR3-mediated phagocytosis associated with the 77H CD11b variant is not macrophage-restricted but demonstrable in other CR3-expressing professional phagocytic cells. The association between 77H and susceptibility to systemic lupus erythematosus most likely relates to impaired waste disposal, a key component of lupus pathogenesis. PMID:23451151

Fossati-Jimack, Liliane; Ling, Guang Sheng; Cortini, Andrea; Szajna, Marta; Malik, Talat H; McDonald, Jacqueline U; Pickering, Matthew C; Cook, H Terence; Taylor, Philip R; Botto, Marina

2013-01-01

129

Determination of some main parameters for quantum values of GaAlAs/GaAs transmission-mode photocathodes in near-ir region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The values of the quantum yield, its spectral dependence, and the external quantum efficiency of GaAlAs/GaAs transmission-mode photocathodes used in image intensification systems are computed based on the parameters of the internal quantum efficiency, the diffusion length, and the normalized surface recombination velocity. The variations for these parameters obtained are shown on the three orthogonal axes. Possible explanations and further lines of the investigation are also discussed.

Farsakoglu, Omer F.; Zengin, D. M.; Kocabas, Hikmet

1993-05-01

130

The Lattice Parameters and Solubility Limits of alpha Iron as Affected by Some Binary Transition-Element Additions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The lattice parameters of alpha iron with binary additions of all the transition metals, except technetium, have been accurately determined on solid samples. No direct correlation with solute size is observed, but an effect of electron configuration is no...

E. P. Abrahamson S. L. Lopata

1966-01-01

131

Acclimatory responses of the Daphnia pulex proteome to environmental changes. II. Chronic exposure to different temperatures (10 and 20?C) mainly affects protein metabolism  

PubMed Central

Background Temperature affects essentially every aspect of the biology of poikilothermic animals including the energy and mass budgets, activity, growth, and reproduction. While thermal effects in ecologically important groups such as daphnids have been intensively studied at the ecosystem level and at least partly at the organismic level, much less is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying the acclimation to different temperatures. By using 2D gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, the present study identified the major elements of the temperature-induced subset of the proteome from differently acclimated Daphnia pulex. Results Specific sets of proteins were found to be differentially expressed in 10°C or 20°C acclimated D. pulex. Most cold-repressed proteins comprised secretory enzymes which are involved in protein digestion (trypsins, chymotrypsins, astacin, carboxypeptidases). The cold-induced sets of proteins included several vitellogenin and actin isoforms (cytoplasmic and muscle-specific), and an AAA+ ATPase. Carbohydrate-modifying enzymes were constitutively expressed or down-regulated in the cold. Conclusion Specific sets of cold-repressed and cold-induced proteins in D. pulex can be related to changes in the cellular demand for amino acids or to the compensatory control of physiological processes. The increase of proteolytic enzyme concentration and the decrease of vitellogenin, actin and total protein concentration between 10°C and 20°C acclimated animals reflect the increased amino-acids demand and the reduced protein reserves in the animal's body. Conversely, the increase of actin concentration in cold-acclimated animals may contribute to a compensatory mechanism which ensures the relative constancy of muscular performance. The sheer number of peptidase genes (serine-peptidase-like: > 200, astacin-like: 36, carboxypeptidase-like: 30) in the D. pulex genome suggests large-scaled gene family expansions that might reflect specific adaptations to the lifestyle of a planktonic filter feeder in a highly variable aquatic environment.

Schwerin, Susanne; Zeis, Bettina; Lamkemeyer, Tobias; Paul, Rudiger J; Koch, Marita; Madlung, Johannes; Fladerer, Claudia; Pirow, Ralph

2009-01-01

132

MAINE AQUIFERS  

EPA Science Inventory

AQFRS24 contains polygons of significant aquifers in Maine (glacial deposits that are a significant ground water resource) mapped at a scale 1:24,000. This statewide coverage was derived from aquifer boundaries delineated and digitized by the Maine Geological Survey from data com...

133

Parameters affecting pattern fidelity and line edge roughness under diffraction effects in optical maskless lithography using a digital micromirror device  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In optical maskless lithography in concern, a digital micromirror device plays the role of a digital mask. Due to the spatial/temporal configuration of micromirror arrays/response or the specification of illumination/projection optics, the irradiance may be influenced by diffraction effects. In present study, an investigation of various optical maskless lithography models based on binary micromirror reflections is performed in consideration of the diffraction effect. To evaluate lithographic parameters dissolved in the lithography models, parametric studies are performed focusing on pattern fidelity and line edge roughness. To reduce corner rounding phenomena due to an image size and further to a reflection criterion, the auxiliary corner reflection adjusting feature (ACRAF) analogous to conventional serif are employed and the effectiveness of ACRAFs is analyzed. The potential of utilizing the adjusted parameters for enhancing pattern fidelity and line edge roughness under diffraction effects is demonstrated through simulations and experiments.

Seo, Manseung; Lee, Taehyoung; Kim, Haeryung

2012-11-01

134

Blastocyst culture and transfer: analysis of results and parameters affecting outcome in two in vitro fertilization programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine whether previously described advanced blastocyst development and high implantation rates are confirmed in an expanded multicenter trial.Design: Retrospective review.Setting: Two private assisted reproductive technology units.Patient(s): One hundred seventy-four patients who underwent blastocyst culture and transfer.Intervention(s): Culture of all pronucleate embryos in sequential media to the blastocyst stage (day 5) followed by ET.Main Outcome Measure(s): The number and

William B Schoolcraft; David K Gardner; Terry Schlenker; David R Meldrum

1999-01-01

135

How parameters and regularization affect the Polyakov-Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model phase diagram and thermodynamic quantities  

SciTech Connect

We explore the phase diagram and the critical behavior of QCD thermodynamic quantities in the context of the so-called Polyakov-Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. We show that this improved field theoretical model is a successful candidate for studying the equation of state and the critical behavior around the critical endpoint. We argue that a convenient choice of the model parameters is crucial to get the correct description of isentropic trajectories. The effects of the regularization procedure in several thermodynamic quantities is also analyzed. The results are compared with simple thermodynamic expectations and lattice data.

Costa, P. [Centro de Fisica Computacional, Departamento de Fisica, Universidade de Coimbra, P-3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal) and E.S.T.G., Instituto Politecnico de Leiria, Morro do Lena-Alto do Vieiro, 2411-901 Leiria (Portugal); Hansen, H. [IPNL, Universite de Lyon/Universite Lyon 1, CNRS/IN2P3, 4 rue E.Fermi, F-69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Ruivo, M. C.; Sousa, C. A. de [Centro de Fisica Computacional, Departamento de Fisica, Universidade de Coimbra, P-3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal)

2010-01-01

136

Both aluminum and polyphenols in green tea decoction ( Camellia sinensis ) affect iron status and hematological parameters in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Green tea leaves naturally contain high levels of polyphenols and aluminum (Al). Polyphenols in green tea decoction are considered\\u000a to be one of the major factors responsible of low iron status. However, the effects of Al from green tea decoction on iron\\u000a status and hematological parameters remained unclear.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Aim of the study  The objective was to investigate the Al absorption from

Neila Marouani; Adel Chahed; Abderrazek Hédhili; Mohamed Hédi Hamdaoui

2007-01-01

137

The role of mechanical properties in cavitation erosion resistance. [parameters affecting metal fatigue under cavitation flow conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Methods for determining the correlations of erosion resistance and mechanical properties of materials are discussed. The most common method of testing cavitation erosion resistance of materials is the vibratory cavitation probe. The instrument and its operation are described. The use of the whirling arm device is considered as a second method. Metallographic investigations of the earliest stages of cavitation erosion damage of metallic materials was conducted. The materials show plastic deformation occurring during the incubation period and increasing until cracks form and metal fragments are lost. The parameters of the work done to cause material fractures are identified. The reactions obtained with specific materials are reported.

Gould, G. C.

1974-01-01

138

MAINE HYDROGRAPHY  

EPA Science Inventory

Hydronet_me24 and Hydropoly_me24 depict Maine's hydrography data, based on 8-digit hydrological unit codes (HUC's) at the 1:24,000 scale. Some New Hampshire and New Brunswick hydrography data are also included. The NHD hydrography data was compiled from previous ArcIn...

139

MAINE WOODLOTS  

EPA Science Inventory

MEOWN250 describes industrial, non-industrial, and public woodlot ownership in Maine at 1:250,000 scale. Industrial owners are those having at least one primary wood processing facility. Non-industrial owners are those with no primary wood processing facility. Public ownership...

140

Maine Ingredients  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article features Maine Learning Technology Initiative (MLTI), the nation's first-ever statewide 1-to-1 laptop program which marks its seventh birthday by expanding into high schools, providing an occasion to celebrate--and to examine the components of its success. The plan to put laptops into the hands of every teacher and student in grades 7…

Waters, John K.

2009-01-01

141

Investigation of Parameters that Affect the Success Rate of Microarray-Based Allele-Specific Hybridization Assays  

PubMed Central

Background The development of microarray-based genetic tests for diseases that are caused by known mutations is becoming increasingly important. The key obstacle to developing functional genotyping assays is that such mutations need to be genotyped regardless of their location in genomic regions. These regions include large variations in G+C content, and structural features like hairpins. Methods/Findings We describe a rational, stable method for screening and combining assay conditions for the genetic analysis of 42 Phenylketonuria-associated mutations in the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene. The mutations are located in regions with large variations in G+C content (20–75%). Custom-made microarrays with different lengths of complementary probe sequences and spacers were hybridized with pooled PCR products of 12 exons from each of 38 individual patient DNA samples. The arrays were washed with eight buffers with different stringencies in a custom-made microfluidic system. The data were used to assess which parameters play significant roles in assay development. Conclusions Several assay development methods found suitable probes and assay conditions for a functional test for all investigated mutation sites. Probe length, probe spacer length, and assay stringency sufficed as variable parameters in the search for a functional multiplex assay. We discuss the optimal assay development methods for several different scenarios.

Poulsen, Lena; S?e, Martin Jensen; M?ller, Lisbeth Birk; Dufva, Martin

2011-01-01

142

Individual match playing time during the season affects fitness-related parameters of male professional soccer players.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of an entire season on physical fitness parameters (PFPs) in male professional soccer players (N = 18). Performance in 5- and 30-m sprint (T5 and T30), countermovement jump (CMJ), agility (T-test), knee extensor (KE) and knee flexor (KF) isokinetic strength, hamstrings/quadriceps strength ratio (H/Q) and bilateral differences (BDs), and Yo-Yo intermittent endurance test 2 (YYIE2) was evaluated in 4 moments (E1-E4) throughout the season. Individual match playing time was quantified. Significant improvements in CMJ and YYIE2 from E1 to E2 were observed (p < 0.05-0.01). The T30 improved from E2 to E3 (p < 0.01). The CMJ decreased from E2 to E3 and E4, and YYIE2 from E2 to E4 (p < 0.05). There were increments in the H/Q ratio and Agility from E1 and E2 to E3 and E4 (p < 0.05-0.01). Significant correlations were found in all evaluation points between different PFPs and between changes in strength parameters and agility, T5 and T30, CMJ, and YYIE2 (p < 0.05-0.001). Influence of individual match playing time was correlated to changes in T5 (E1 to E3; r = -0.705), KE nondominant leg (KEND; E2 to E3; r = 0.786), and KF (E3 to E4; r = 0.575-0.590). The interrelationship between muscle strength (e.g., KE), sprint (e.g., T5), and jump abilities (CMJ) suggests the importance of muscle strength and power training for soccer. This study suggests that the systematic participation of the players in soccer matches favors the increase and maintenance of soccer players KE and KF muscle strength and sprint ability (T5). Thus, given the unique demands of actual match play, coaches should try to incorporate a competitive friendly match in the weekly training cycle of nonstarter players. PMID:21912284

Silva, João R; Magalhães, José F; Ascensão, António A; Oliveira, Eduardo M; Seabra, André F; Rebelo, António N

2011-10-01

143

Critical rearing parameters of Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) as affected by host plant substrate and host-parasitoid group structure.  

PubMed

In laboratory assays, we evaluated the potential impact of host plant substrate types, host-parasitoid group sizes (densities), and parasitoid-to-host ratios on select fitness parameters of the larval endoparasitoid Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), newly introduced for biological control of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), in the United States. Results from our study showed that offspring production and critical fitness parameters (body size and sex ratio) of T. planipennisi from parasitized emerald ash borer larvae are significantly influenced by host plant substrate type, host-parasitoid group size, parasitoid-to-host ratio, or a combination in the primary exposure assay. The number of both female and male T. planipennisi progeny was significantly greater when emerald ash borer larvae were inserted into tropical ash [Fraxinus uhdei (Wenz.) Lingelsh.] logs rather than green ash (Fraxinus pensylvanica Marshall). When maintained at a constant 1:1 parasitoid-to-host ratio, assays with larger host-parasitoid group sizes (3:3-12:12) produced significantly greater numbers of both male and female offspring per parental wasp compared with those with the single host-parasitoid (1:1) group treatment. As the parasitoid-to-host ratio increased from 1:1 to 8:1 in the assay, the average brood size (number of offspring per parasitized emerald ash borer larva) increased significantly, whereas the average brood sex ratio (female to male) changed from being female-biased (6:1) to male-biased (1:2); body size of female offspring as measured by the length of ovipositor and left hind tibia also was reduced significantly. Based on these findings, we suggest that the current method of rearing T. planipennisi with artificially infested-emerald ash borer larvae use the tropical ash logs for emerald ash borer insertion, a larger (> or = 3:3) host-parasitoid group size and 1:1 parasitoid-to-host ratio in the primary parasitoid exposure assays. PMID:22812114

Duan, Jian J; Oppel, Craig

2012-06-01

144

Visual display of reservoir parameters affecting enhanced oil recovery. Second quarterly report, [January 1, 1994--March 31, 1994  

SciTech Connect

This project will provide a detailed example, based on a field trail, of how to evaluate a field for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) operations utilizing data typically available in a field that has undergone primary development. The approach will utilize readily available, affordable computer software and analytical services. This study will illustrate the steps involved in (1) integration of data typically available for gas and oil fields with predictive models for reservoir alteration and (2) linking these data and models with modem computer software to provide 2- and 3-D visualizations of reservoir geometry, facies and subsurface, stratigraphy, original oil in place, present (estimated) oil in place, and measured and model parameters. The Michigan Technological University (MTU) group continued work on sample measurement and prepared for technology transfer of results at the June AAPG meeting in Denver D. Schueler is developing a program to store and display the results of our project in an interactive format using the MacroMind Director multimedia program. All project data, results and reports will be integrated in this medium and the final product will be a CD ROM which can be distributed to interested parties as part of our technology transfer effort. X-ray Diffraction (XRD: R. Kramer) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR: N. Popko) analysis of samples from one of the Pioneer wells have begun and spreadsheets and graphics to record and display the results have been developed.

Wood, J.R.

1994-04-01

145

Technical parameters influencing the severity of injury of front-seat, belt-protected car passengers on the impact side in car-to-car side collisions with the main impact between the front and rear seats (B-pillars)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Authentic car-to-car side collisions (n = 30) with the main impact area at the B-pillar were analyzed to find technical parameters corresponding with the injury severities of the front seat, belt-protected car passengers on the impact side. EES (Energy Equivalent Speed) and Av (delta v, change in velocity) were highly significant predictors of the severity of thoracic and abdominal

E. Miltner; H. P. Wiedmann; B. Leutwein; H.-P. Hepp; R. Fischer; H. J. Salwender; H. Frobenius; D. Kallieris

1992-01-01

146

Isochronous cyclotron AIC-144 main parameters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

General technical description of the Cracow AIC-144 isochronous cyclotron is given as well as some of possible application of the facility in experimental physics, medical therapy and diagnostics, pharmacology, agriculture, metallurgy and radiochemistry. ...

J. Schwabe

1995-01-01

147

Main Report  

PubMed Central

Background: States vary widely in their use of newborn screening tests, with some mandating screening for as few as three conditions and others mandating as many as 43 conditions, including varying numbers of the 40+ conditions that can be detected by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). There has been no national guidance on the best candidate conditions for newborn screening since the National Academy of Sciences report of 19751 and the United States Congress Office of Technology Assessment report of 1988,2 despite rapid developments since then in genetics, in screening technologies, and in some treatments. Objectives: In 2002, the Maternal and Child Health Bureau (MCHB) of the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) of the United States Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) commissioned the American College of Medical Genetics (ACMG) to: Conduct an analysis of the scientific literature on the effectiveness of newborn screening.Gather expert opinion to delineate the best evidence for screening for specified conditions and develop recommendations focused on newborn screening, including but not limited to the development of a uniform condition panel.Consider other components of the newborn screening system that are critical to achieving the expected outcomes in those screened. Methods: A group of experts in various areas of subspecialty medicine and primary care, health policy, law, public health, and consumers worked with a steering committee and several expert work groups, using a two-tiered approach to assess and rank conditions. A first step was developing a set of principles to guide the analysis. This was followed by developing criteria by which conditions could be evaluated, and then identifying the conditions to be evaluated. A large and broadly representative group of experts was asked to provide their opinions on the extent to which particular conditions met the selected criteria, relying on supporting evidence and references from the scientific literature. The criteria were distributed among three main categories for each condition: The availability and characteristics of the screening test;The availability and complexity of diagnostic services; andThe availability and efficacy of treatments related to the conditions. A survey process utilizing a data collection instrument was used to gather expert opinion on the conditions in the first tier of the assessment. The data collection format and survey provided the opportunity to quantify expert opinion and to obtain the views of a diverse set of interest groups (necessary due to the subjective nature of some of the criteria). Statistical analysis of data produced a score for each condition, which determined its ranking and initial placement in one of three categories (high scoring, moderately scoring, or low scoring/absence of a newborn screening test). In the second tier of these analyses, the evidence base related to each condition was assessed in depth (e.g., via systematic reviews of reference lists including MedLine, PubMed and others; books; Internet searches; professional guidelines; clinical evidence; and cost/economic evidence and modeling). The fact sheets reflecting these analyses were evaluated by at least two acknowledged experts for each condition. These experts assessed the data and the associated references related to each criterion and provided corrections where appropriate, assigned a value to the level of evidence and the quality of the studies that established the evidence base, and determined whether there were significant variances from the survey data. Survey results were subsequently realigned with the evidence obtained from the scientific literature during the second-tier analysis for all objective criteria, based on input from at least three acknowledged experts in each condition. The information from these two tiers of assessment was then considered with regard to the overriding principles and other technology or condition-specific recommendations. On the basis of this information, conditions were assigned to one of thr

2006-01-01

148

Transient states of air parameters after a stoppage and re-start of the main fan / Stany przej?ciowe parametrów powietrza po postoju i za??czeniu wentylatora g?ównego  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A stoppage of the main ventilation fan constitutes a disturbance of ventilation conditions of a deepmine and its effects can cause serious hazards by generating transient states of air and gas flow. Main ventilation fans are the basic deep-mine facilities; therefore, under mining regulations it is only allowed to stop them with the consent and under the conditions specified by the mine maintenance manager. The stoppage of the main ventilation fan may be accompanied by transient air parameters, including the air pressure and flow patterns. There is even the likelihood of reversing the direction of air flow, which, in case of methane mines, can pose a major hazard, particularly in sections of the mine with fire fields or large goaf areas. At the same time, stoppages of deep-mine main ventilation fans create interesting research conditions, which if conducted under the supervision of the monitoring systems, can provide much information about the transient processes of pressure, air and gas flow in underground workings. This article is a discussion of air parameter observations in mine workings made as part of such experiments. It also presents the procedure of the experiments, conducted in three mines. They involved the observation of transient processes of mine air parameters, and most interestingly, the recording of pressure and air and gas flow in the workings of the mine ventilation networks by mine monitoring systems and using specialist recording instruments. In mining practice, both in Poland and elsewhere, software tools and computer modelling methods are used to try and reproduce the conditions prior to and during disasters based on the existing network model and monitoring system data. The use of these tools to simulate the alternatives of combating and liquidation of the gas-fire hazard after its occurrence is an important issue. Measurement data collected during the experiments provides interesting research material for the verification and validation of the software tools used for the simulation of processes occurring in deep-mine ventilation systems.

Wasilewski, Stanis?aw

2012-12-01

149

Do organic solvents affect the catalytic properties of lipase? Intrinsic kinetic parameters of lipases in ester hydrolysis and formation in various organic solvents  

SciTech Connect

When it is assumed that organic solvents do not interfere with the binding process nor with the catalytic mechanism, the contribution of substrate-solvent interactions to enzyme kinetics can be accounted for by just replacing substrate concentrations in the equations by thermodynamic activities. It appears from the transformation that only the affinity parameters (K{sub m},k{sub sp}) are affected by this. Thus, in theory, the values of these corrected, intrinsic parameters (K{sub m}{sup int}, k{sub sp}{sup int}) and the maximal rate (V{sub 1}) should be equal for all media. This was tested for hydrolysis, transesterification, and esterification reactions catalyzed by pig pancreas lipase and Pseudomonas cepacia lipase in various organic solvents. Correction was carried out via experimentally determined activity coefficients for the substrates in these solvents or, if not feasible, from values in data bases. However, although the kinetic performances of each enzyme in the solvents became much more similar after correction, differences still remained. Analysis of the enzyme suspensions revealed massive particles, which explains the low activity of enzymes in organic solvents. However, no correlation was found between estimates of the amount of catalytically available enzyme (present at the surface of suspended particles or immobilized on beads) and the maximal rates observed. Moreover, the solvents had similar effects on the intrinsic parameters of suspended and immobilized enzyme. The possible causes for the effects of the solvents on the catalytic performance of the enzymes, remaining after correction for solvent-substrate interactions and the amount of participating enzyme, are discussed with respect to the premises on which the correction method is based.

Tol, J.B.A. van; Stevens, R.M.M.; Veldhuizen, W.J.; Jongejan, J.A.; Duine, J.A. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands)

1995-07-05

150

Comparison of Mathematical Models Applied to F1 Dairy Sheep Lactations in Organic Farm and Environmental Factors Affecting Lactation Curve Parameter  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to compare the goodness of fit of four lactation curve models: Wood’s Gamma model (WD), Wilmink (WL), and Pollott’s multiplicative two (POL2) and three parameters (POL3) and to determine the environmental factors affecting the complete lactation curve of F1 dairy sheep under organic management. A total of 5,382 weekly milk yields records from 150 ewes, under organic management were used. Residual mean square (RMS), determination coefficients (R2), and correlation (r) analysis were used as an indicator of goodness of fit for each model. WL model best fitted the lactation curves as indicated by the lower RMS values (0.019), followed by WD (0.023), POL2 (0.025) and POL3 (0.029). The four models provided total milk yield (TMY) estimations that were highly correlated (0.93 to 0.97) with observed TMY (89.9 kg). The four models under estimated peak yield (PY), whereas POL2 and POL3 gave nearer peak time lactation estimations. Ewes lambing in autumn had higher TMY and showed a typical curve shape. Higher TMY were recorded in second and third lambing. Season of lambing, number of lambing and type of lambing had a great influenced over TMY shaping the complete lactation curve of F1 dairy sheep. In general terms WL model showed the best fit to the F1 dairy sheep lactation curve under organic management.

Angeles-Hernandez, J. C.; Albarran-Portillo, B.; Gomez Gonzalez, A. V.; Pescador Salas, N.; Gonzalez-Ronquillo, M.

2013-01-01

151

The Assessment of Parameters Affecting the Quality of Cord Blood by the Appliance of the Annexin V Staining Method and Correlation with CFU Assays.  

PubMed

The assessment of nonviable haematopoietic cells by Annexin V staining method in flow cytometry has recently been published by Duggleby et al. Resulting in a better correlation with the observed colony formation in methylcellulose assays than the standard ISHAGE protocol, it presents a promising method to predict cord blood potency. Herein, we applied this method for examining the parameters during processing which potentially could affect cord blood viability. We could verify that the current standards regarding time and temperature are sufficient, since no significant difference was observed within 48 hours or in storage at 4°C up to 26°C. However, the addition of DMSO for cryopreservation alone leads to an inevitable increase in nonviable haematopoietic stem cells from initially 14.8% ± 4.3% to at least 30.6% ± 5.5%. Furthermore, CFU-assays with varied seeding density were performed in order to evaluate the applicability as a quantitative method. The results revealed that only in a narrow range reproducible clonogenic efficiency (ClonE) could be assessed, giving at least a semiquantitative estimation. We conclude that both Annexin V staining method and CFU-assays with defined seeding density are reliable means leading to a better prediction of the final potency. Especially Annexin V, due to its fast readout, is a practical tool for examining and optimising specific steps in processing, while CFU-assays add a functional confirmation. PMID:23533443

Radke, Teja Falk; Barbosa, David; Duggleby, Richard Charles; Saccardi, Riccardo; Querol, Sergio; Kögler, Gesine

2013-01-01

152

The Assessment of Parameters Affecting the Quality of Cord Blood by the Appliance of the Annexin V Staining Method and Correlation with CFU Assays  

PubMed Central

The assessment of nonviable haematopoietic cells by Annexin V staining method in flow cytometry has recently been published by Duggleby et al. Resulting in a better correlation with the observed colony formation in methylcellulose assays than the standard ISHAGE protocol, it presents a promising method to predict cord blood potency. Herein, we applied this method for examining the parameters during processing which potentially could affect cord blood viability. We could verify that the current standards regarding time and temperature are sufficient, since no significant difference was observed within 48 hours or in storage at 4°C up to 26°C. However, the addition of DMSO for cryopreservation alone leads to an inevitable increase in nonviable haematopoietic stem cells from initially 14.8% ± 4.3% to at least 30.6% ± 5.5%. Furthermore, CFU-assays with varied seeding density were performed in order to evaluate the applicability as a quantitative method. The results revealed that only in a narrow range reproducible clonogenic efficiency (ClonE) could be assessed, giving at least a semiquantitative estimation. We conclude that both Annexin V staining method and CFU-assays with defined seeding density are reliable means leading to a better prediction of the final potency. Especially Annexin V, due to its fast readout, is a practical tool for examining and optimising specific steps in processing, while CFU-assays add a functional confirmation.

Radke, Teja Falk; Barbosa, David; Duggleby, Richard Charles; Saccardi, Riccardo; Querol, Sergio; Kogler, Gesine

2013-01-01

153

The dynamics of phase partition. A study of parameters affecting rat liver organelle partitioning in aqueous two-polymer phase systems.  

PubMed Central

Separation of subcellular organelles by two-phase partition is thought to reflect differential partition of the organelles between the two phases or between one of the phases and the interface. Studies by Fisher and colleagues [Fisher & Walter (1984) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 801, 106-110] suggest that cell separation by phase partition is a dynamic process in which the partition changes with time. This is mainly due to association of the cells with sedimenting droplets of one phase in the bulk of the other. Rat liver organelle partition was studied to determine whether the same dynamic behaviour is observed. Partition was clearly time-dependent during 24 h at unit gravity, and was also affected by altering the volume ratio of the two phases and the duration of phase mixing. These results indicate that, as with cells, the partition of organelles between phases is a dynamic process, and is consistent with the demonstration that organelles adhere to the phase droplet surfaces. Optimization of the volume ratio between phases may lead to significant processing economies. Organelle sedimentation in the upper phase was significantly faster than in the isoosmotic sucrose. Theoretical modelling of apparent organelle sizes indicates that aggregation occurs in the poly(ethylene glycol)-rich upper phase. This phenomenon is likely to limit the use of this technique in organelle separations unless means can be found to decrease aggregation. Images Fig. 6.

Heywood-Waddington, D; Peters, T J; Sutherland, I A

1986-01-01

154

Parameter Stability of the Functional-Structural Plant Model GREENLAB as Affected by Variation within Populations, among Seasons and among Growth Stages  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims It is increasingly accepted that crop models, if they are to simulate genotype-specific behaviour accurately, should simulate the morphogenetic process generating plant architecture. A functional–structural plant model, GREENLAB, was previously presented and validated for maize. The model is based on a recursive mathematical process, with parameters whose values cannot be measured directly and need to be optimized statistically. This study aims at evaluating the stability of GREENLAB parameters in response to three types of phenotype variability: (1) among individuals from a common population; (2) among populations subjected to different environments (seasons); and (3) among different development stages of the same plants. Methods Five field experiments were conducted in the course of 4 years on irrigated fields near Beijing, China. Detailed observations were conducted throughout the seasons on the dimensions and fresh biomass of all above-ground plant organs for each metamer. Growth stage-specific target files were assembled from the data for GREENLAB parameter optimization. Optimization was conducted for specific developmental stages or the entire growth cycle, for individual plants (replicates), and for different seasons. Parameter stability was evaluated by comparing their CV with that of phenotype observation for the different sources of variability. A reduced data set was developed for easier model parameterization using one season, and validated for the four other seasons. Key Results and Conclusions The analysis of parameter stability among plants sharing the same environment and among populations grown in different environments indicated that the model explains some of the inter-seasonal variability of phenotype (parameters varied less than the phenotype itself), but not inter-plant variability (parameter and phenotype variability were similar). Parameter variability among developmental stages was small, indicating that parameter values were largely development-stage independent. The authors suggest that the high level of parameter stability observed in GREENLAB can be used to conduct comparisons among genotypes and, ultimately, genetic analyses.

Ma, Yuntao; Li, Baoguo; Zhan, Zhigang; Guo, Yan; Luquet, Delphine; de Reffye, Philippe; Dingkuhn, Michael

2007-01-01

155

Comparison of creep crack growth rate in heat affected zone of welded joint for 9%Cr ferritic heat resistant steel based on C ?, d ?\\/d t, K and Q ? parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Creep crack growth behavior is very sensitive to the materials’ micro-structures such as the heat affected zone of a weld joint. This is a main issue to be clarified for 9%Cr ferritic heat resistant steel for their application in structural components. In this paper, high temperature creep crack growth tests were conducted on CT specimens with cracks in the heat

R. Sugiura; A YOKOBORIJR; M. Tabuchi; T. Yokobori

2007-01-01

156

Metal-poor Dwarf Galaxies in the SIGRID Galaxy Sample. II. The Electron Temperature-Abundance Calibration and the Parameters that Affect it  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we use the Mappings photoionization code to explore the physical parameters that impact on the measurement of electron temperature and abundance in H II regions. In our previous paper, we presented observations and measurements of physical properties from the spectra of 17 H II regions in 14 isolated dwarf irregular galaxies from the SIGRID sample. Here, we analyze these observations further, together with three additional published data sets. We explore the effects of optical thickness, electron density, ionization parameter, ionization source, and non-equilibrium effects on the relation between electron temperature and metallicity. We present a standard model that fits the observed data remarkably well at metallicities between one-tenth and 1 solar. We investigate the effects of optically thin H II regions, and show that they can have a considerable effect on the measured electron temperature, and that there is evidence that some of the observed objects are optically thin. We look at the role of the ionization parameter and find that lower ionization parameter values give better fits at higher oxygen abundance. We show that higher pressures combined with low optical depth, and also ? electron energy distributions at low ? values, can generate the apparent high electron temperatures in low-metallicity H II regions, and that the former provides the better fit to observations. We examine the effects of these parameters on the strong line diagnostic methods. We extend this to three-dimensional diagnostic grids to confirm how well the observations are described by the grids.

Nicholls, David C.; Dopita, Michael A.; Sutherland, Ralph S.; Jerjen, Helmut; Kewley, Lisa J.

2014-07-01

157

Jupiter's Main Ring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A mosaic of four images taken through the clear filter (610 nanometers) of the solid state imaging (CCD) system aboard NASA's Galileo spacecraft on November 8, 1996, at a resolution of approximately 46 kilometers (km) per picture element (pixel) along the rings; however, because the spacecraft was only about 0.5 degrees above the ring plane, the image is highly foreshortened in the vertical direction. The images were obtained when Galileo was in Jupiter's shadow peering back toward the Sun; the ring was approximately 2,300,000 kilometers (km) away. The arc on the far right of the image is produced by sunlight scattered by small particles comprising Jupiter's upper atmospheric haze. The ring also efficiently scatters light, indicating that much of its brightness is due to particles that are microns or less in diameter. Such small particles are believed to have human-scale lifetimes, i.e., very brief compared to the solar system's age.

Jupiter's ring system is composed of three parts -- a flat main ring, a lenticular halo interior to the main ring, and the gossamer ring, which lies exterior to the main ring. The near and far arms of Jupiter's main ring extend horizontally across the mosaic, joining together at the ring's ansa, on the far left side of the figure. The near arm of the ring appears to be abruptly truncated close to the planet, at the point where it passes into Jupiter's shadow. Some radial structure is barely visible across the ring's ansa. A faint mist of particles can be seen above and below the main rings; this vertically extended 'halo' is unusual in planetary rings, and is probably caused by electromagnetic forces pushing the smallest grains out of the ring plane. Because of shadowing, the halo is not visible close to Jupiter in the lower right part of the mosaic.

Jupiter's main ring is a thin strand of material encircling the planet. The diffuse innermost boundary begins at approximately 123,000 km. The main ring's outer radius is found to be at 128,940 +/-50 km, slightly less than the Voyager value of 129,130 +/-100 km, but very close to the orbit of the satellite Adrastea (128,980 km). The main ring exhibits a marked drop in brightness at 127,849 +/-50 km, lying almost atop the orbit of the Jovian moon Metis at 127,978 km. Satellites seem to affect the structure of even tenuous rings like that found at Jupiter.

The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at: http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at: http:/ /www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo.

1997-01-01

158

Body mass index, calcium intake, and physical activity affect calcaneal ultrasound in healthy Greek males in an age-dependent and parameter-specific manner  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) is a peripheral bone densitometry technique that is rapidly gaining in popularity for the assessment of skeletal status. This study was carried out to examine the effect of anthropometric, dietary, physical activity, and other lifestyle factors on QUS parameters in healthy Greek males of various ages, including children (n = 192), adults (n = 106), and elderly

Eirini Babaroutsi; Faidon Magkos; Yannis Manios; Labros S. Sidossis

2005-01-01

159

Variations in Mechanical Parameters of Rock Mass Affecting Shaft Lining / Zmiany Parametrów Mechanicznych Górotworu I Ich Wp?yw Na Obudow? Szybow?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents geomechanical properties of rock mass occurring in the initial section of shaft lining during its execution. The shaft being sunk is surrounded with cohesive soils, mainly clays with sand layers and silts. Such lithology causes that in various levels some parts of strata are saturated with water. This results in a considerable changeability of soil properties in time. With high water content, the soil is washed away leading to local loss of contact between shaft lining and surrounding soils. This, in turn, results in lack of proper support for curbs and shaft lining fracture in some sections. Engineering activity in such a case should embrace sealing injections in selected parts of the shaft in order to resume proper reinforcement in the lining-rock mass system. The studies of the soils surrounding shaft lining were supposed to help design curbs with increased bearing capacity. The tests of soils indicated that the angle of internal friction and cohesion do change not only at different depths but also at the same depth in different points of perimeter. It was also observed during the study that the mechanical parameters of the analyzed soils improve as the distance from the shaft lining increases, which clearly indicates change of soil properties in the direct neighborhood of the shaft. Considerable number of tests carried out in the study allowed to determine the relationship between water content and angle of internal friction or soil cohesion. The determined relationships can help to estimate change of soil properties under the influence of water with considerable precision. The reinforcement of curbs executed with the use of ground anchors allowed for further shaft sinking. The tests of concrete used in the shaft carried out in the analyzed section produced results similar to the values assumed in the project. W artykule przedstawiono charakterystyk? w?asno?ci geomechanicznych górotworu jakie wyst?puj? podczas dr??enia szybu w jego pocz?tkowej d?ugo?ci. W otoczeniu g??bionego szybu wyst?puj? grunty spoiste, g?ównie w postaci glin z przerostami piasków oraz py?y. Taka litologia powoduje, ?e na ró?nych poziomach cz??? warstw gruntu jest zawodniona. Wp?ywa to na du?? zmienno?? w?asno?ci gruntów wokó? szybu oraz zmiany tych w?asno?ci w czasie. Przy du?ym zawodnieniu grunt by? wymywany zza obudowy, co prowadzi?o do lokalnej utraty kontaktu pomi?dzy obudow? a otaczaj?cym gruntem oraz braku w?a?ci- wego podparcia dla stóp szybowych. Efektem tego by?o na niewielkim odcinku szybu p?kanie obudowy. Podj?te dzia?ania, które sprowadzi?y si? do wykonania iniekcji na pewnym odcinku szybu doprowadzi?y do przywrócenia w?a?ciwej wspó?pracy obudowa - górotwór. Przeprowadzone badania gruntu zza obudowy pos?u?y?y do podj?cia dzia?a? w celu zwi?kszenia no?no?ci stóp szybowych. Badania gruntu wykaza?y, ?e k?t tarcia wewn?trznego oraz spójno?? zmieniaj? si? nie tylko na poszczególnych g??boko?ciach, ale tak?e obserwuje si? du?e ró?nice dla próbek pobranych z tej samej g??boko?ci ale z ró?nych punktów na obwodzie szybu. Badania wykaza?y tak?e wzrost parametrów mechanicznych badanych gruntów wraz z oddalaniem si? od obudowy, co ?wiadczy o zmianie w?asno?ci gruntów bezpo?rednio w s?siedztwie szybu. Du?a liczba wykonanych bada? pozwoli?a na opracowanie zale?no?ci pomi?dzy wilgotno?ci? a k?tem tarcia wewn?trznego i spójno?ci?. Na podstawie uzyskanych zale?no?ci mo?na szacowa? z du?? dok?adno?ci? zmian? w?asno?ci gruntów pod wp?ywem dzia?ania wody. Zrealizowane wzmocnienia stóp szybowych z wykorzystaniem kotew gruntowych pozwoli?y na podj?cie dalszego g??bienia szybu. Przeprowadzone na analizowanym odcinku badania betonu z obudowy szybu wykaza?y warto?ci zgodne z projektem.

Majcherczyk, Tadeusz; Niedbalski, Zbigniew; Wa?ach, Daniel

2013-09-01

160

Relationship between blood concentrations of heavy metals and cytogenetic and endocrine parameters among subjects involved in cleaning coastal areas affected by the 'Prestige' tanker oil spill.  

PubMed

The sinking of the 'Prestige' oil tanker in front of the Galician coast (NW of Spain) in November 2002 offered a unique opportunity to analyze intermediate cytogenetic and endocrine effects among people exposed to the complex mixture of substances that oil constitutes, including several toxic heavy metals. In this work we evaluated the relationship between exposure to heavy metals (blood concentrations of aluminium, cadmium, nickel, lead and zinc) and genotoxic parameters (sister chromatid exchanges, micronucleus test and comet assay) or endocrine parameters (plasmatic concentrations of prolactin and cortisol) in subjects exposed to 'Prestige' oil during cleaning tasks developed after the spillage. Concentrations of lead were significantly related to the comet assay even after adjusting by age, sex and smoking. Cortisol concentrations were significantly influenced by aluminium, nickel (both, inversely) and cadmium (positively). Women had clearly higher concentrations of prolactin and cortisol, even when adjusting by age, smoking, cadmium, aluminium or nickel. Plasmatic cortisol was jointly influenced by gender, smoking and aluminium or nickel (all p<0.05). In women there was a strong relationship between concentrations of cadmium and prolactin (beta=0.37, p=0.031). When the effects of cadmium, aluminium and nickel on cortisol were simultaneously assessed, only the latter two metals remained statistically significant. Among parameters analysed, cortisol appeared to be the most sensitive to the effects of metal exposure. Plasma levels of cortisol deserve further evaluation as a potentially relevant biomarker to assess the effects of exposure to heavy metals. PMID:18221981

Pérez-Cadahía, Beatriz; Laffon, Blanca; Porta, Miquel; Lafuente, Anunciación; Cabaleiro, Teresa; López, Tomàs; Caride, Ana; Pumarega, José; Romero, Alejandro; Pásaro, Eduardo; Méndez, Josefina

2008-03-01

161

Hematology and serum chemistry in stranded and wild-caught harbor seals in central California: reference intervals, predictors of survival, and parameters affecting blood variables.  

PubMed

Blood was collected from stranded harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) pups at admission (n=64) and release (n=45) from rehabilitation in 2007 and 2008 and from wild-caught harbor seal pups, subadults, and adults (n=110) in 2004, 2007, and 2008. Blood values measured at the time of admission were not predictive of survival during rehabilitation. Mass was associated with survival until release, and all pups that died weighed less than 10 kg at the time of admission. Döhle bodies were observed in leukocytes from 15% to 22% of the pups in rehabilitation, but not in the wild pups. Thresholds (95% confidence intervals) among wild pups were less than those in the released pups for leukocytes, neutrophils, total cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), glucose, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, total protein, albumin, and globulin; thresholds were greater in wild pups than in released pups for hemoglobin (HGB), hematocrit (HCT), and glucose. Thresholds among released pups were less than those in wild pups for HGB, HCT, mean cell volume, chloride, and creatine kinase; thresholds among released pups were greater than those in wild pups for neutrophils, platelets, total cholesterol, triglycerides, ALT, aspartate aminotransferase, sorbitol dehydrogenase, bilirubin, phosphorus, potassium, total protein, and albumin. Age, girth, and geographic location affected the blood variables from wild-caught pups; age class, geographic location, sex, and body condition affected the blood variables of wild-caught, subadult and adult harbor seals. PMID:20966268

Greig, Denise J; Gulland, Frances M D; Rios, Carlos A; Hall, Ailsa J

2010-10-01

162

Feed gas humidity: a vital parameter affecting a cold atmospheric-pressure plasma jet and plasma-treated human skin cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the effect of feed gas humidity on the reactive component generation of an atmospheric-pressure argon plasma jet and its effect on human skin cells are investigated. Feed gas humidity is identified as one key parameter that strongly influences stability and reproducibility of plasma medical studies. The plasma jet is investigated by absorption spectroscopy in the ultraviolet and infrared spectral region for its ozone production depending on the humidity concentration in the feed gas. By optical emission spectroscopy the dependence of present excited plasma species such as hydroxyl radicals, molecular nitrogen, argon and atomic oxygen on the feed gas humidity is investigated. As an interface layer between the plasma jet effluent and the biological cell, a buffer solution is treated and the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production is studied with two independent colorimetric assays as a function of humidity admixture to the feed gas. Ultimately, the effect of varying feed gas humidity on the cell viability of indirect plasma treated adherent HaCAT cells is investigated. The highest viability is found for the driest feed gas condition. Furthermore, this work shows answers for the relevance of unwanted—or intended—feed gas humidity in plasma medical experiments and their comparatively large relevance with respect to ambient humidity. The findings will lead to more reproducible experiments in the field of plasma medicine.

Winter, J.; Wende, K.; Masur, K.; Iseni, S.; Dünnbier, M.; Hammer, M. U.; Tresp, H.; Weltmann, K.-D.; Reuter, S.

2013-07-01

163

Parameters affecting the stability of the digestate from a two-stage anaerobic process treating the organic fraction of municipal solid waste  

SciTech Connect

This paper focused on the factors affecting the respiration rate of the digestate taken from a continuous anaerobic two-stage process treating the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW). The process involved a hydrolytic reactor (HR) that produced a leachate fed to a submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor (SAMBR). It was found that a volatile solids (VS) removal in the range 40-75% and an operating temperature in the HR between 21 and 35 {sup o}C resulted in digestates with similar respiration rates, with all digestates requiring 17 days of aeration before satisfying the British Standard Institution stability threshold of 16 mg CO{sub 2} g VS{sup -1} day{sup -1}. Sanitization of the digestate at 65 {sup o}C for 7 days allowed a mature digestate to be obtained. At 4 g VS L{sup -1} d{sup -1} and Solid Retention Times (SRT) greater than 70 days, all the digestates emitted CO{sub 2} at a rate lower than 25 mg CO{sub 2} g VS{sup -1} d{sup -1} after 3 days of aeration, while at SRT lower than 20 days all the digestates displayed a respiration rate greater than 25 mg CO{sub 2} g VS{sup -1} d{sup -1}. The compliance criteria for Class I digestate set by the European Commission (EC) and British Standard Institution (BSI) could not be met because of nickel and chromium contamination, which was probably due to attrition of the stainless steel stirrer in the HR.

Trzcinski, Antoine P., E-mail: a.trzcinski05@ic.ac.uk [Department of Chemical Engineering, Imperial College of Science and Technology and Medicine, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Stuckey, David C., E-mail: d.stuckey@ic.ac.uk [Department of Chemical Engineering, Imperial College of Science and Technology and Medicine, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

2011-07-15

164

Blood parameters and corneal-reflex of finishing pigs with and without lung affections observed post mortem in two abattoirs stunning with CO?.  

PubMed

In two pig abattoirs of different slaughter capacities, the stunning efficacy of CO2 on finishing pigs with and without pneumonic lesions (observed post mortem) was reflected against the corneal-reflex and blood parameters (blood pH, pCO2 and pO2) from individual finishers. Stunning duration was 120 s (abattoir A) and 90 s (abattoir B), respectively. Pneumonia in finisher pigs is frequently observed during post mortem inspection, which may raise concerns about a delay of unconsciousness because of hampered gas exchange in the lungs. The aim of this study was to examine possible pneumonia consequences for stunning efficacy under commercial conditions. For that, corneal reflex, O2 and CO2 partial pressure in the blood as well as blood pH were measured in 2650 finishers from abattoir A and 2100 from abattoir B. The partial pressure of O2 after stunning accounted to about 3 kPa, the partial pressure of CO2 was found at levels of about 24 kPa in abattoir A (after 120 s CO2 exposure) and 17.5 kPa in abattoir B (after 90 s CO2 exposure). In abattoir A, the blood pH was at 6.9, and at 7.0 in abattoir B. The corneal reflex was observed in 6.2% of pigs in abattoir A and 17.1% of pigs in abattoir B. A correlation between pneumonic lesions and blood status was not observed. However, for some individual farms, a significant correlation between pneumonia and corneal reflex was observed. PMID:22898535

Fries, R; Rindermann, G; Siegling-Vlitakis, C; Bandick, N; Bräutigam, L; Buschulte, A; Irsigler, H; Wolf, K; Hartmann, H

2013-02-01

165

Two-spotted spider mite reared on resistant eggplant affects consumption rate and life table parameters of its predator, Typhlodromus bagdasarjani (Acari: Phytoseiidae).  

PubMed

The study of interactions between host plant cultivars and biological control agents is important in integrated pest management programs. In this study, the life table parameters and predation rate of Typhlodromus bagdasarjani Wainstein & Arutunjan were determined on two-spotted spider mites reared on a susceptible (Isfahan) or a resistant (Neishabour) eggplant cultivar. All experiments were carried out under laboratory conditions, at 25 ± 1 °C, 60 ± 5 % RH and a photoperiod of 16:8 (L:D) h. A significant difference was observed between mean developmental time of immature stages of T. bagdasarjani on the two eggplant cultivars: 6.6 versus 7.5 days, on the susceptible and resistant cultivar, respectively. Net reproductive rate (R 0) of T. bagdasarjani did not differ between the cultivars. Doubling time on the susceptible and resistant cultivars was 3.48 versus 5.72 days, mean generation time (T) was 10.13 versus 16.08 days, respectively. Total fecundity was higher on susceptible than on resistant eggplants, the intrinsic rate of population increase (r) was 0.188 versus 0.119 day(-1), respectively. Daily and total prey consumption of various life stages of T. bagdasarjani on two-spotted spider mite reared on susceptible versus resistant eggplant differed; total consumption was higher on spider mites reared on the resistant cultivar. However, the lower intrinsic rate of increase and higher mortality of the predator on the resistant eggplant (Neishabour) revealed that more attention should be devoted to integrated control of spider mites using resistant cultivars and phytoseiid mites. PMID:24599555

Khanamani, Mostafa; Fathipour, Yaghoub; Hajiqanbar, Hamidreza; Sedaratian, Amin

2014-06-01

166

Discrepancies in anthropometric parameters between different models affect intervertebral rotations when loading finite element models with muscle forces from inverse static analyses.  

PubMed

Abstract In only a few published finite element (FE) simulations have muscle forces been applied to the spine. Recently, muscle forces determined using an inverse static (IS) model of the spine were transferred to a spinal FE model, and the effect of methodical parameters was investigated. However, the sensitivity of anthropometric differences between FE and IS models, such as body height and spinal orientation, was not considered. The aim of this sensitivity study was to determine the influence of those differences on the intervertebral rotations (IVRs) following the transfer of muscle forces from an IS model to a FE model. Muscle forces were estimated for 20° flexion and 10° extension of the upper body using an inverse static musculoskeletal model. These forces were subsequently transferred to a nonlinear FE model of the spino-pelvic complex, which includes 243 muscle fascicles. Deviations of body height (±10 cm), spinal orientation in the sagittal plane (±10°), and body weight (±10 kg) between both models were intentionally generated, and their influences on IVRs were determined. The changes in each factor relative to their corresponding reference value of the IS model were calculated. Deviations in body height, spinal orientation, and body weight resulted in maximum changes in the IVR of 19.2%, 26% and 4.2%, respectively, relative to T12-S1 IVR. When transferring muscle forces from an IS to a FE model, it is crucial that both models have the same spinal orientation and height. Additionally, the body weight should be equal in both models. PMID:24515995

Zhu, Rui; Rohlmann, Antonius

2014-06-01

167

History of Maine Fisheries Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A number of institutions have begun to expand their digital collections in order to include lesser-known subjects, and the University of Maine's Raymond H. Fogler Library continues to expand their online offerings with this intriguing collection. Drawing on the holdings of institutions like the Machias Historical Society, the Maine Maritime Museum, and the Maine State Archives, their digital collections team has created this History of Maine Fisheries database. There aren't any subject headings or sample searches on the site, but it is still quite easy to use. Visitors can use the keyword search to locate materials of interest, and they can also set date parameters to look for materials from a given time period. To get started, visitors might try typing in words like "lobster", "fleet", and "Bangor".

168

Periodically-modulated inhibition of living pacemaker neurons--III. The heterogeneity of the postsynaptic spike trains, and how control parameters affect it.  

PubMed

Codings involving spike trains at synapses with inhibitory postsynaptic potentials on pacemakers were examined in crayfish stretch receptor organs by modulating presynaptic instantaneous rates periodically (triangles or sines; frequencies, slopes and depths under, respectively, 5.0 Hz, 40.0/s/s and 25.0/s). Timings were described by interspike and cross-intervals ("phases"); patterns (dispersions, sequences) and forms (timing classes) were identified using pooled graphs (instant along the cycle when a spike occurs vs preceding interval) and return maps (plots of successive intervals). A remarkable heterogeneity of postsynaptic intervals and phases characterizes each modulation. All cycles separate into the same portions: each contains a particular form and switches abruptly to the next. Forms differ in irregularity and predictability: they are (see text) "p:q alternations", "intermittent", "phase walk-throughs", "messy erratic" and "messy stammering". Postsynaptic cycles are asymmetric (hysteresis). This contrasts with the presynaptic homogeneity, smoothness and symmetry. All control parameters are, individually and jointly, strongly influential. Presynaptic slopes, say, act through a postsynaptic sensitivity to their magnitude and sign; when increasing, hysteresis augments and forms change or disappear. Appropriate noise attenuates between-train contrasts, providing modulations are under 0.5 Hz. Postsynaptic natural intervals impose critical time bases, separating presynaptic intervals (around, above or below them) with dissimilar consequences. Coding rules are numerous and have restricted domains; generalizations are misleading. Modulation-driven forms are trendy pacemaker-driven forms. However, dissimilarities, slight when patterns are almost pacemaker, increase as inhibition departs from pacemaker and incorporate unpredictable features. Physiological significance-(1) Pacemaker-driven forms, simple and ubiquitous, appear to be elementary building blocks of synaptic codings, present always but in each case distorted typically. (2) Synapses are prototype: similar behaviours should be widespread, and networks simulations benefit by nonlinear units generating all forms. (3) Relevant to periodic functions are that few variables need be involved in form selection, that distortions are susceptible to noise levels and, if periods are heterogeneous, that simple input cycles impose heterogeneous outputs. (4) Slow Na inactivations are necessary for obtaining complex forms and hysteresis. Formal significance--(1) Pacemaker-driven forms and presumably their modulation-driven counterparts, pertain to universal periodic, intermittent, quasiperiodic and chaotic categories whose formal properties carry physiological connotations. (2) Only relatively elaborate, nonlinear geometric models show all forms; simpler ones, show only alternations and walk-throughs. (3) Bifurcations resemble those of simple maps that can provide useful guidelines. (4) Heterogeneity poses the unanswered question of whether or not the entire cycle and all portions have the same behaviours: therefore, whether trajectories are continuous or have discontinuities and/or singular points. PMID:9722139

Segundo, J P; Vibert, J F; Stiber, M

1998-11-01

169

Study of various clinical and laboratory parameters among 178 patients affected by hooch tragedy in Ahmedabad, Gujarat (India): A single center experience  

PubMed Central

Introduction/Purpose: The outbreak of methanol poisoning described in this paper occurred in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India in July 2009. Our intention is to share the experience of clinical features, laboratory investigations and their relation during this tragedy. Materials and Methods: Single center, retrospective study of clinical features and laboratory parameters of 178 cases of methanol toxicity treated at tertiary care hospital in Ahmedabad, Gujarat. Results: Maximum patients (39.8%, n = 45) were received in 48 h; Mean age of presentation was 41.9 ± 10.2 years. Most of them were men (175 out of 178). On presentation, 83% patients had gastro-intestinal symptoms, 46% had neurological symptoms, 73% had visual symptoms and 32% had dyspnoea. 62% had blurred vision, 10.5% had blindness. Patients with visual symptoms had high mean level of methanol (120.12 ± 23.12 vs. 55.43 ± 29.24, P = 0.014). On fundus examination 52.8% (n = 62) had bilateral hyperaemia of discs, 8.4% (n = 12) had bilateral disc pallor and 4.5% had papilledema (n = 5). Patients with hyperaemia of discs, discs pallor or papilledema, had higher mean methanol level (121.1 ± 32.2 mg% v/s 70.1 ± 23.2 mg%, P = 0.032). Mean of pH values was 7.17 ± 0.22 and bicarbonate was 12.3 ± 7.3 mmol/L. Both pH and bicarbonate levels correlated well with mortality and serum methanol level. Mean serum methanol level was 87.1 mg/dL, and correlated significantly with the mortality (53.1 ± 41 mg/dL v/s 121 ± 92 mg/dL, P value < 0.05). Conclusion: GI symptoms, neurological symptoms and breathlessness are important clue to ED physician for diagnose methanol poisoning. Visual symptoms and fundus findings correlate well with the methanol level. Arterial Blood Gas derived pH and bicarbonate levels correlate significantly with the methanol level and mortality.

Jarwani, Bhavesh S; Motiani, Puja D; Sachdev, Sachin

2013-01-01

170

Main pulmonary artery aneurysm.  

PubMed

Alterations of main pulmonary artery have been described in literature. Main pulmonary artery aneurysm is very rare with few available published data. We present a case of echocardiographic finding of a main pulmonary artery aneurysm in a 78-year-old Italian woman. PMID:19631397

Patanè, Salvatore; Marte, Filippo; Dattilo, Giuseppe; Sturiale, Mauro

2011-10-20

171

Population Parameters of Intermediate-age Star Clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud. III. Dynamical Evidence for a Range of Ages Being Responsible for Extended Main-sequence Turnoffs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new analysis of 11 intermediate-age (1-2 Gyr) star clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud based on Hubble Space Telescope imaging data. Seven of the clusters feature main-sequence turnoff (MSTO) regions that are wider than can be accounted for by a simple stellar population, whereas their red giant branches (RGBs) indicate a single value of [Fe/H]. The star clusters cover a range in present-day mass from about 1 × 104 M sun to 2 × 105 M sun. We compare radial distributions of stars in the upper and lower parts of the MSTO region, and calculate cluster masses and escape velocities from the present time back to a cluster age of 10 Myr. Our main result is that for all clusters in our sample with estimated escape velocities v esc >~ 15 km s-1 at an age of 10 Myr, the stars in the brightest half of the MSTO region are significantly more centrally concentrated than the stars in the faintest half and more massive RGB and asymptotic giant branch stars. This is not the case for clusters with v esc <~ 10 km s-1 at an age of 10 Myr. We argue that the wide MSTO region of such clusters is caused mainly by a ~200-500 Myr range in the ages of cluster stars due to extended star formation within the cluster from material shed by first-generation stars featuring slow stellar winds. Dilution of this enriched material by accretion of ambient interstellar matter is deemed plausible if the spread of [Fe/H] in this ambient gas was very small when the second-generation stars were formed in the cluster. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

Goudfrooij, Paul; Puzia, Thomas H.; Chandar, Rupali; Kozhurina-Platais, Vera

2011-08-01

172

POPULATION PARAMETERS OF INTERMEDIATE-AGE STAR CLUSTERS IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD. III. DYNAMICAL EVIDENCE FOR A RANGE OF AGES BEING RESPONSIBLE FOR EXTENDED MAIN-SEQUENCE TURNOFFS  

SciTech Connect

We present a new analysis of 11 intermediate-age (1-2 Gyr) star clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud based on Hubble Space Telescope imaging data. Seven of the clusters feature main-sequence turnoff (MSTO) regions that are wider than can be accounted for by a simple stellar population, whereas their red giant branches (RGBs) indicate a single value of [Fe/H]. The star clusters cover a range in present-day mass from about 1 x 10{sup 4} M{sub sun} to 2 x 10{sup 5} M{sub sun}. We compare radial distributions of stars in the upper and lower parts of the MSTO region, and calculate cluster masses and escape velocities from the present time back to a cluster age of 10 Myr. Our main result is that for all clusters in our sample with estimated escape velocities v{sub esc} {approx}> 15 km s{sup -1} at an age of 10 Myr, the stars in the brightest half of the MSTO region are significantly more centrally concentrated than the stars in the faintest half and more massive RGB and asymptotic giant branch stars. This is not the case for clusters with v{sub esc} {approx}< 10 km s{sup -1} at an age of 10 Myr. We argue that the wide MSTO region of such clusters is caused mainly by a {approx}200-500 Myr range in the ages of cluster stars due to extended star formation within the cluster from material shed by first-generation stars featuring slow stellar winds. Dilution of this enriched material by accretion of ambient interstellar matter is deemed plausible if the spread of [Fe/H] in this ambient gas was very small when the second-generation stars were formed in the cluster.

Goudfrooij, Paul; Kozhurina-Platais, Vera [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Puzia, Thomas H. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Av. Vicuna Mackenna 4860, Macul 7820436, Santiago (Chile); Chandar, Rupali, E-mail: goudfroo@stsci.edu, E-mail: verap@stsci.edu, E-mail: tpuzia@gmail.com, E-mail: rupali.chandar@utoledo.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Toledo, 2801 West Bancroft Street, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States)

2011-08-10

173

The Fabled Maine Winter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

No study of Maine weather would be complete without analysis of the year of 1816 - the year with no summer in an area from western Pennsylvania and New York, up through Quebec and across to Maine and the Canadian maritimes. In this five-unit lesson, students will investigate the causes and effects of the Fabled Maine Winter by exploring a variety of data sources. They will locate, graph, and analyze meteorological and climatological data for Portland, Maine, for more recent years to try to find one that most closely resembles the fabled Maine winter of 1816.

174

Age-Related Reference Intervals of the Main Biochemical and Hematological Parameters in C57BL/6J, 129SV/EV and C3H/HeJ Mouse Strains  

PubMed Central

Background Although the mouse is the animal model most widely used to study the pathogenesis and treatment of human diseases, reference values for biochemical parameters are scanty or lacking for the most frequently used strains. We therefore evaluated these parameters in the C57BL/6J, 129SV/EV and C3H/HeJ mice. Methodology/Principal Findings We measured by dry chemistry 26 analytes relative to electrolyte balance, lipoprotein metabolism, and muscle/heart, liver, kidney and pancreas functions, and by automated blood counter 5 hematological parameters in 30 animals (15 male and 15 female) of each mouse strain at three age ranges: 1–2 months, 3–8 months and 9–12 months. Whole blood was collected from the retro-orbital sinus. We used quality control procedures to investigate analytical imprecision and inaccuracy. Reference values were calculated by non parametric methods (median and 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles). The Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used for between-group comparisons. Median levels of GLU, LDH, Chol and BUN were higher, and LPS, AST, ALP and CHE were lower in males than in females (p range: 0.05–0.001). Inter-strain differences were observed for: (1) GLU, t-Bil, K+, Ca++, PO4? (p<0.05) and for TAG, Chol, AST, Fe++ (p<0.001) in 4–8 month-old animals; (2) for CK, Crea, Mg++, Na++, K+, Cl? (p<0.05) and BUN (p<0.001) in 2- and in 10–12 month-old mice; and (3) for WBC, RBC, HGB, HCT and PLT (p<0.05) during the 1 year life span. Conclusion/Significance Our results indicate that metabolic variations in C57BL/6J, 129SV/EV and C3H/HeJ mice after therapeutic intervention should be evaluated against gender- and age-dependent reference intervals.

Mazzaccara, Cristina; Labruna, Giuseppe; Cito, Gennaro; Scarfo, Marzia; De Felice, Mario; Pastore, Lucio; Sacchetti, Lucia

2008-01-01

175

Space Transportation Main Engine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: Space Transportation Main Engine (STME) definition, design philosophy, robust design, maximum design condition, casting vs. machined and welded forgings, operability considerations, high reliability design philosophy, engine reliability enhancement, low cost design philosophy, engine systems requirements, STME schematic, fuel turbopump, liquid oxygen turbopump, main injector, and gas generator. The major engine components of the STME and the Space Shuttle Main Engine are compared.

Monk, Jan C.

1992-07-01

176

MAINE MARINE WORM HABITAT  

EPA Science Inventory

WORM provides a generalized representation at 1:24,000 scale of commercially harvested marine worm habitat in Maine, based on Maine Department of Marine Resources data from 1970's. Original maps were created by MDMR and published by USF&WS as part of the ""&quo...

177

The Maine Event  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author describes the successful laptop program employed at Mt. Abram High School in Strong, Maine. Through the Maine Learning Technology Initiative, the school has issued laptops to all 36,000 teachers and students in grades 7-8. This program has helped level the playing field for a student population that is 50 percent to 55…

McHale, Tom

2007-01-01

178

Teaching Main Idea Comprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended to help classroom teachers, curriculum developers, and researchers, this book provides current information on theoretical and instructional aspects of main idea comprehension. Titles and authors are as follows: "The Confused World of Main Idea" (James W. Cunningham and David W. Moore); "The Comprehension of Important Information in…

Baumann, James F., Ed.

179

Maine Folklife Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Located at the University of Maine, the Maine Folklife Center is committed to documenting and understanding the folklore, folklife, and history of Maine and Atlantic Canada. Along with its various scholarly activities, the Center sponsors a number of festivals, lectures, and like-minded programs that encourage appreciation of the diverse cultural traditions within the region. The site will be useful to researchers with a penchant in these fields, as it contains information about the collections, including a rather extensive oral history collection (with work that documenting the cranberry culture of Massachusetts and the traditional music of Maine). There is also material on the public programs and exhibits sponsored by the center, and a set of external links that lead to other sites dealing with oral history, folklore, and Maine. While the Center's site does not have a great deal of online material for consideration, the center has transcribed the sixth volume of Northeast Folklore (originally published in 1964) and placed them online.

180

Major Parameters Affecting Temperature inside Inhalation Chambers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

These studies showed that stainless steel chamber walls were very effective at removing heat from an (380 l) inhalation chamber. Cooling the incoming air was not as effective in cooling the stainless steel chamber, because most of the heat transfer from t...

D. M. Bernstein R. T. Drew

1978-01-01

181

Parameters affecting hydrogen chloride measurements. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The launching of solid rocket boosters releases numerous gases, including hydrogen chloride. Monitoring the concentrations of these gases and predicting their atmospheric transport is required for safety reasons and for compliance with environmental laws. Monitoring of these gases is difficult because they are hydrophilic and tend to condense on atmospheric aerosols. Once such gases are condensed in the atmospheric aerosols, they will not appear on gas-phase sensors unless provision iB made to evaporate the aerosols. Transport of the gases will also be governed by the chemistry in the aerosols and movement of the aerosols in the atmosphere, as opposed to the gas-phase chemistry alone. The objective of this project is to investigate the behavior of hydrogen chloride in the presence of atmospheric aerosols. The thermodynamics of HCl in the gas and liquid phase will be reviewed, and kinetics of mass transfer, diffusivity, and sticking coefficients on water of HCl will be measured. The evaporation of atmospheric aerosols will also be discussed. Hydrogen chloride, Aerosol, Diffusivity, Sticking, Condensation, Atmospheric chemistry, Laser fluorescence, Hydrophilic, Humid air, Water, Salt water.

Martin, L.R.; Abul-Haj, N.A.; Brenner, D.M.; Westberg, K.R.

1993-06-01

182

Main Street Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Several years ago the National Trust for Historic Preservation developed the Main Street Program to assist small, primarily rural, communities to revitalize their downtown economic bases. The program has four major components: organization, promotion, des...

1987-01-01

183

The Maine Music Box  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created through a collaboration between the University of Maine's Fogler Library and other Maine libraries, The Maine Music Box contains hundreds of digitized sheet music scores from five major collections. First-time visitors to the site will want to click on the "About Maine Music Box" project as a way of getting started. Here they can check out the "User Information" area, which contains helpful tips on viewing the music and how to best browse the entire database. Additionally, those with a penchant for technical details and information science in general can also learn in copious detail how the database was created for this project. From there, visitors can move straight away into the main collection. Visitors can browse the collection by music subject, sheet music cover art, or just type in their own keywords. One of the best ways to look over the collection is to browse around in such areas as "Instructional Violin", "Maine Collection" and "Parlor Salon Collection". It's also worth remarking that this site may inspire a sing-a-long, a campfire get-together, or a miniature Chautauqua.

184

Affective Domain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The affective domain can significantly enhance, inhibit or even prevent student learning. The affective domain includes factors such as student motivation, attitudes, perceptions and values. Teachers can increase their effectiveness by considering the affective domain in planning courses, delivering lectures and activities, and assessing student learning. This module contains information and resources for incorporating the affective domain into teaching.

185

Main sequence mass loss  

SciTech Connect

It has been hypothesized that variable stars may experience mass loss, driven, at least in part, by oscillations. The class of stars we are discussing here are the delta Scuti variables. These are variable stars with masses between about 1.2 and 2.25 M/sub theta/, lying on or very near the main sequence. According to this theory, high rotation rates enhance the rate of mass loss, so main sequence stars born in this mass range would have a range of mass loss rates, depending on their initial rotation velocity and the amplitude of the oscillations. The stars would evolve rapidly down the main sequence until (at about 1.25 M/sub theta/) a surface convection zone began to form. The presence of this convective region would slow the rotation, perhaps allowing magnetic braking to occur, and thus sharply reduce the mass loss rate. 7 refs.

Brunish, W.M.; Guzik, J.A.; Willson, L.A.; Bowen, G.

1987-01-01

186

Space Shuttle Main Engine. Overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An overview of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) is presented. The Space Shuttle propulsion system consists of two large solid booster motors, three SSME's, two orbital maneuvering system engines, and 44 reaction control system thrusters. The three SSME's burn liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen from the external tank and are sequentially started at launch. Engine thrust is throttleable. The major components and some of their key features and operational parameters are outlined. The life and reliability being achieved by the SSME are presented.

Jackson, Eugene D.

187

EMMA Main Ring Lattice.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The author gave a brief introduction to the purpose and goals of the EMMA experiment and describe how they will impact the design of the main EMMA ring. He then describes the mathematical model that is used to describe the EMMA lattice. Finally, The autho...

J. S. Berg

2008-01-01

188

A Gift from Maine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Artists and writers from Maine were asked to develop creative activities for a sixth-grade class. Students were encouraged to observe nature, investigate their ancestors, design logos, and think about the impossible. Several of the activities that could be adopted to relate to other states are presented. (DF)

Instructor, 1984

1984-01-01

189

COBRA Main Engine Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The COBRA (CO-Optimized Booster for Reusable Applications) project include the following: 1. COBRA main engine project team. 2. COBRA and RLX cycles selected. 3. COBRA proto-type engine approach enables mission success. 4. COBRA provides quick, low cost d...

J. Snoddy S. Sides

2002-01-01

190

MAINE SCHOOLS AND LIBRARIES  

EPA Science Inventory

SCHLIB shows point locations of libraries and educational institutions in Maine at 1:24,000 scale. Colleges, universities, technical colleges, high schools, middle schools, elementary schools, kindergarten/sub-primary and other special schools are included. The data was developed...

191

Maine Studies ECRI.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The articles in this booklet address the questions raised by the Maine Learning Consortium in its efforts to look closely at, describe, and assess the use of programs such as the Exemplary Center for Reading Instruction (ECRI). Based on interviews with six teachers, the first article examines student achievement gains through the use of ECRI.…

Maine Mastery Learning Consortium, Gardiner.

192

WCDMA handover parameters optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

WCDMA soft handover is assisted by mobile station's measurements of the monitored and active set cells' quality. The rules for measurement reporting are based on thresholds whose computation depends on many parameters. The setting of parameters greatly affects handover, performance and downlink capacity consumption. In this paper, handover parameters are optimized using field measurements. Field measurements are fed into a

Vieri Vanghi; Christophe Chevallier

2004-01-01

193

Maine Humanities Council  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Formed as a private nonprofit organization, the Maine Humanities Council (MHC) "promotes strong communities and informed citizens by providing Mainers with opportunities to explore the power and pleasure of ideas." Their work is supported by volunteer board members, and their projects include programs to promote reading and writing, guest lectures around the state, and online newsletters and discussion groups. In the "Programs" area, visitors can learn about these programs, and educators can check out the resources created especially for them. The "Connections" area contains links to their thoughtful blog, their "Humanities on Demand" podcasts, and their periodic newsletter "Synapse", which deals with medicine and literature. The podcasts are quite fun, and they include "Franco-American Women's Words in Maine" and a talk by Professor Dianne Sadoff of Rutgers University on Middlemarch, by George Eliot.

194

Windows on Maine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created with funds provided by the Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS), Windows on Maine contains interesting and informative programs and video clips from Maine Public Broadcasting and other partners. On their homepage, visitors can use their interactive map and timeline to locate video clips of interest, and they can also search the entire collection for specific items. Visitors can also use the subject category menu to look over 25 different headings, including "earth sciences", "land disputes", and "Penobscot tribe". The map feature is a real pip, and visitors can customize their search by location and date, and it's a great way to learn about different regions, including Aroostook County (also known as "the County") and Downeast. Also, many of the videos also have additional resources attached to them, such as railroad timetables, historic photographs, and so on.

195

Energetic Main Idea  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students will learn about different forms of energy and how to find the main idea and key details in informational text. Included with the lesson is an anticipation guide to assess prior knowledge, plus a rubric to score the students' summative assessment. Also present is a list of books to choose from so that teachers can use the books that fit their students best.

Shipley, Amanda

2012-09-16

196

Gulf of Maine Aquarium  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Gulf of Maine Aquarium Web site is an abundant resource on marine ecosystems. From communication strategies of marine mammals to coral reefs in Belize, the site uses descriptive text and vivid photos to explore a variety of topics related to ocean life. With each menu expanding into a number of further selections, the site is a maze of topics that allows users to navigate through a vast amount of information based on their own interests. Several of the sections include some classroom activities to make the site more useful for teachers.

2001-01-01

197

Alongshore transport of a toxic phytoplankton bloom in a buoyancy current: Alexandrium tamarense in the Gulf of Maine  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the mechanisms controlling blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense Lebour and the concomintant patterns of shellfish toxicity in the southwestern Gulf of Maine, USA. During a series of cruises from 1987 to 1989, hydrographic parameters were measured to elucidate the physical factors affecting the distribution and abundance of dinoflagellates along this coast. In 1988 and 1989 when

P. J. S. Franks; D. M. Anderson

1992-01-01

198

BIOFILM IMAGE RECONSTRUCTION FOR ASSESSING STRUCTURAL PARAMETERS  

PubMed Central

The structure of biofilms can be numerically quantified from microscopy images using structural parameters. These parameters are used in biofilm image analysis to compare biofilms, to monitor temporal variation in biofilm structure, to quantify the effects of antibiotics on biofilm structure and to determine the effects of environmental conditions on biofilm structure. It is often hypothesized that biofilms with similar structural parameter values will have similar structures; however, this hypothesis has never been tested. The main goal was to test the hypothesis that the commonly used structural parameters can characterize the differences or similarities between biofilm structures. To achieve this goal 1) biofilm image reconstruction was developed as a new tool for assessing structural parameters, 2) independent reconstructions using the same starting structural parameters were tested to see how they differed from each other, 3) the effect of the original image parameter values on reconstruction success was evaluated and 4) the effect of the number and type of the parameters on reconstruction success was evaluated. It was found that two biofilms characterized by identical commonly used structural parameter values may look different, that the number and size of clusters in the original biofilm image affect image reconstruction success and that, in general, a small set of arbitrarily selected parameters may not reveal relevant differences between biofilm structures.

Renslow, Ryan; Lewandowski, Zbigniew; Beyenal, Haluk

2011-01-01

199

Prognostic Accumulation Zones for Oil and Natural Gas in the Criteria for the Distribution of Petrophysical Parameters in the Main Dolomite in Gorzow-Pniewy Area / Prognostyczne Strefy Akumulacji Dla Ropy Naftowej i Gazu Ziemnego W Kryteriach ROZK?ADU PARAMETRÓW Petrofizycznych Dolomitu G?ÓWNEGO W Obszarze GORZÓW-PNIEWY  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The carbonate reservoirs are anisotropic environments in terms of both the quantitative and qualitative evaluations of pore space. The oil-and-gas-bearing Main Dolomite horizon shows diversified lithology, facial development and thickness resulting in complicated, fluid capacity-fluid filtration system. This system influences both the evaluation and exploration perspectives in the Zechstein Main Dolomite (Ca2) from the Gorzów-Pniewy area. In order to clarify this problem and to determine the hydrocarbon accumulation perspectives, analysis of petrophysical parameters based upon the porosimetric measurements was carried on for the Main Dolomite in the study area, where oil and gas accumulations were discovered. The results of porosimetric measurements clearly indicate the heterogeneity of petrophysical parameters of the Main Dolomite referred to lithologically diversified palaeogeographic zones distinguished in the study area. Such analysis, including the hydrocarbon storage capacity of the Main Dolomite, enabled us to evaluate the possible hydrocarbon accumulation related to generation potential of this horizon. W ocenie ilo?ciowej i jako?ciowej przestrzeni porowej ?rodowiskiem anizotropowym s? w?glanowe ska?y zbiornikowe. Zró?nicowany litologiczno-facjalnie oraz mi??szo?ciowo, ropo-gazono?ny poziom dolomitu g?ównego charakteryzuje si? z?o?onym uk?adem pojemno?ciowo-filtracyjnym. Tym regu?om podporz?dkowana jest ocena i perspektywy poszukiwawcze w cechszty?skim poziomie dolomitu g?ównego (Ca2) w Polsce w rejonie Gorzów-Pniewy.W celu uprz?dkowania tego zagadnienia i prognozy perspektyw z?o?owych, w oparciu o wyniki bada? porozymetrycznych, przeprowadzono analiz? parametrów petrofizycznych dolomitu g?ównego w przedstawionym obszarze, o stwierdzonej ropo-gazono?no?ci tego poziomu. Wyniki bada? porozymetrycznych wyra?nie wskazuj? na heteregoniczno?? utworów dolomitu g?ównego w zakresie zmienno?ci parametrów petrofizycznych, odniesionych do zró?nicowanych litologicznie stref paleogeograficznych w analizowanym obszarze. Analiza ta, w odniesieniu do pojemno?ci magazynowej dolomitu g?ównego, rozwini?tego w zró?nicowanych facjach poszczególnych stref paleogeograficznych, pozwala na ocen? mo?liwej akumulacji w?glowodorowej, w stosunku do potencja?u generacyjnego tego poziomu.

Semyrka, Roman; Maruta, Micha?; Pasternacki, Andrzej

2013-12-01

200

Polycystic ovary syndrome and obesity do not affect vascular parameters related to early atherosclerosis in young women without glucose metabolism disturbances, arterial hypertension and severe abnormalities of lipid profile.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and obesity on vascular parameters related to early atherosclerosis (VP-EA) [brachial flow-mediated dilation (FMD), carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and carotid arterial compliance (CAC)] in women with minor cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs). Twenty-five young women with PCOS and 23 eumenorrheic women matched for body mass index (BMI) were studied. The women were subdivided according to BMI and PCOS status, and comparisons were done between PCOS and Control group, regardless of BMI, and between Obese and Lean group, regardless of the presence of PCOS. Insulin resistance was higher in PCOS-group than in control-group and in obese-group than in lean-group. The median of all VP-EA evaluated were similar between PCOS-group and Control-group [FMD: 6.6 versus 8.4% (p = NS); CIMT: 48.0 versus 47.0 mm.10-2 (p = NS); CAC: 6.2 versus 5.6N-1.m4.10-10 (p = NS)] and between obese-group and lean-group [FMD: 7.8 versus 6.6% (p = NS); CIMT: 48.0 versus 47.0 mm.10-2 (p = NS); CAC: 5.7 versus 6.3N-1.m4.10-10 (p = NS)]. These results suggest that PCOS and obesity do not affect VP-EA in women with minor CVRFs. PMID:23327607

Barcellos, Cristiano Roberto Grimaldi; Lage, Silvia Helena Gelás; Rocha, Michelle Patrocínio; Hayashida, Sylvia Asaka Yamashita; Baracat, Edmund Chade; Romano, Angela; Brito, Vinicius Nahime; Marcondes, José Antonio Miguel

2013-04-01

201

A Parameter Reduction Based Technique For Automatic Analysis of Database Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analyzing database system performance is a difficult task. Traditional tools rely mainly on graphing to analyze data in an ad-hoc manner. Determining the right parameters to examine is often a lengthy process of educated guesswork; where many problems can run undetected. To cope with the enormous number of parameters (in the magnitude of thousands) that can affect system performance, we

Ning Jiang; Kien A. Hua; Morgan C. Wang

202

Elements affecting runway traction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The five basic elements affecting runway traction for jet transport aircraft operation are identified and described in terms of pilot, aircraft system, atmospheric, tire, and pavement performance factors or parameters. Where possible, research results are summarized, and means for restoring or improving runway traction for these different conditions are discussed.

Horne, W. B.

1974-01-01

203

76 FR 31010 - Montreal, Maine & Atlantic Railway, Ltd.-Trackage Rights Exemption-Maine Northern Railway Company  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement, Maine Northern...to grant overhead trackage rights to Montreal, Maine & Atlantic...condition to this exemption, any employees affected by the trackage rights will be protected by the...

2011-05-27

204

Dravet syndrome: the main issues.  

PubMed

Dravet syndrome (DS) is a severe form of infantile onset epilepsy characterized by multiple seizure types, prolonged convulsive seizures and frequent episodes of status epilepticus. Seizures precipitated by fever are a main characteristic. Affected children exhibit normal early development. Cognitive impairment, behavioral disturbances with hyperactivity and sometimes autistic traits occur after seizure onset. Seizures persist into adulthood but become less frequent. In about 85% of patients, a mutation of the SCN1A gene is present. DS fully illustrates the concept of epileptic encephalopathy. However, it is difficult to determine the causative role of the underlying sodium channel dysfunction and that of the consequent seizures in influencing cognitive outcome. An overwhelmingly high number of SCN1A mutations have been associated with DS. Intragenic or whole gene deletions, duplications and amplifications are additional rare molecular mechanisms. Most mutations are de novo, but familial mutations also occur. Somatic mosaic mutations should be considered when estimating the recurrence. MRI imaging is usually normal, and no neuropathologic signature of the condition seems to exist. In heterozygous Scn1a+/- mice, GABAergic interneurons exhibit substantially reduced sodium current density with reduced ability for sustained action potential firing. GABAergic output is reduced and excitability of downstream synaptic targets increased. Stiripentol was effective in combination with valproate and clobazam in two pivotal phase III trials. Phenytoin, carbamazepine, and lamotrigine can worsen seizures and should be avoided. Prospective studies will clarify to what extent earlier diagnosis and efforts at seizure control with the most appropriate drug combinations will reduce clinical deterioration. PMID:22705271

Guerrini, Renzo

2012-09-01

205

State of Maine's Environment 2009  

Microsoft Academic Search

The State of Maine's Environment is a regular series of reports written by senior environmental policy majors at Colby College in Waterville, Maine. The State of Maine's Environment 2009 is the fifth State of Maine's Environment report created by students enrolled in ES 493: Environmental Policy Practicum taught by Philip J. Nyhus, Environmental Studies Program. Topics in this report include

Philip J. Nyhus

2009-01-01

206

37. Fore and main masts, and main boom lying in ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

37. Fore and main masts, and main boom lying in storage yard. Stern of Museum Ship Wavetreet to left in photograph. - Schooner "Lettie G. Howard", South Street Seaport Museum, New York, New York County, NY

207

4. SOUTH CORNER, MAIN ENTRANCE WAREHOUSE DOORS ON MAIN (SOUTHWEST) ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. SOUTH CORNER, MAIN ENTRANCE WAREHOUSE DOORS ON MAIN (SOUTHWEST) ELEVATION, AND LOADING DOCK ON SOUTHEAST ELEVATION. - North Bend Ranger Station, Building 2230, 42404 Southeast North Bend Way, North Bend, King County, WA

208

Sensitivity analysis of an Ocean Carbon Cycle Model in the North Atlantic: an investigation of parameters affecting the air-sea CO2 flux, primary production and export of detritus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sensitivity of the biological parameters in a nutrient-phytoplankton-zooplankton-detritus (NPZD) model in the calculation of the air-sea CO2 flux, primary production and detrital export is analysed. The NPZD model is the Hadley Centre Ocean Carbon Cycle model (HadOCC) from the UK Met Office, used in the Hadley Centre Coupled Model 3 (HadCM3) and FAst Met Office and Universities Simulator (FAMOUS) GCMs. Here, HadOCC is coupled to the 1-D General Ocean Turbulence Model (GOTM) and forced with European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasting meteorology to undertake a sensitivity analysis of its twenty biological parameters. Analyses are performed at three sites in the EuroSITES European Ocean Observatory Network: the Central Irminger Sea (60° N 40° W), the Porcupine Abyssal Plain (49° N 16° W) and the European Station for Time series in the Ocean Canary Islands (29° N 15° W) to assess variability in parameter sensitivities at different locations in the North Atlantic Ocean. Reasonable changes to the values of key parameters are shown to have a large effect on the calculation of the air-sea CO2 flux, primary production, and export of biological detritus to the deep ocean. Changes in the values of key parameters have a greater effect in more productive regions than in less productive areas. We perform the analysis using one-at-a-time perturbations and using a statistical emulator, and compare results. The most sensitive parameters are generic to many NPZD ocean ecosystem models. The air-sea CO2 flux is most influenced by variation in the parameters that control phytoplankton growth, detrital sinking and carbonate production by phytoplankton (the rain ratio). Primary production is most sensitive to the parameters that define the shape of the photosythesis-irradiance curve. Export production is most sensitive to the parameters that control the rate of detrital sinking and the remineralisation of detritus.

Scott, V.; Kettle, H.; Merchant, C. J.

2010-12-01

209

Choosing the Best Main Idea  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this resource, students will choose the best main idea. Through teacher modeling, guided practice, and independent practice, students will choose the best main idea from two choices in each short literary passage.

Readworks

2012-03-26

210

Sensitivity analysis of an ocean carbon cycle model in the North Atlantic: an investigation of parameters affecting the air-sea CO2 flux, primary production and export of detritus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sensitivity of the biological parameters in a nutrient-phytoplankton-zooplankton-detritus (NPZD) model in the calculation of the air-sea CO2 flux, primary production and detrital export is analysed. We explore the effect on these outputs of variation in the values of the twenty parameters that control ocean ecosystem growth in a 1-D formulation of the UK Met Office HadOCC NPZD model used in GCMs. We use and compare the results from one-at-a-time and all-at-a-time perturbations performed at three sites in the EuroSITES European Ocean Observatory Network: the Central Irminger Sea (60° N 40° W), the Porcupine Abyssal Plain (49° N 16° W) and the European Station for Time series in the Ocean Canary Islands (29° N 15° W). Reasonable changes to the values of key parameters are shown to have a large effect on the calculation of the air-sea CO2 flux, primary production, and export of biological detritus to the deep ocean. Changes in the values of key parameters have a greater effect in more productive regions than in less productive areas. The most sensitive parameters are generally found to be those controlling well-established ocean ecosystem parameterisations widely used in many NPZD-type models. The air-sea CO2 flux is most influenced by variation in the parameters that control phytoplankton growth, detrital sinking and carbonate production by phytoplankton (the rain ratio). Primary production is most sensitive to the parameters that define the shape of the photosynthesis-irradiance curve. Export production is most sensitive to the parameters that control the rate of detrital sinking and the remineralisation of detritus.

Scott, V.; Kettle, H.; Merchant, C. J.

2011-06-01

211

View of the main interior space facing east. The main ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of the main interior space facing east. The main entry is on the left hand side at the rear. The exit to the deck is to the right. - San Luis Yacht Club, Avila Pier, South of Front Street, Avila Beach, San Luis Obispo County, CA

212

12. Main cabin, interior view of living room with main ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. Main cabin, interior view of living room with main cross beams, purlins and decking, fireplace in rear. Note twisted pine light fixture in center of photograph; view to southeast. - M.T. & Jennie H. Deaton Property, Big Springs Summer Home Area, Lot 2, Block N, Island Park, Fremont County, ID

213

Maine Agricultural Foods. Project SEED.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes an activity-based program that teaches students in grades 4-12 about the importance of Maine agriculture in their lives. Specifically, the goal is to increase student awareness of how the foods they eat are planted, harvested, and processed. The emphasis is on crops grown in Maine such as potatoes, broccoli, peas, blueberries,…

Beaulieu, Peter; Ossenfort, Pat

214

MAINE ATLANTIC SALMON HABITAT - GENERAL  

EPA Science Inventory

ASDENN00 describes, at 1:24,000 scale, important Atlantic salmon habitat of the Dennys River in Maine. The coverage was developed from field surveys conducted on the Dennys River in Maine by staff of the Atlantic Salmon Authority and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. This survey wa...

215

Main Injector power distribution system  

SciTech Connect

The paper describes a new power distribution system for Fermilab's Main Injector. The system provides 13.8 kV power to Main Injector accelerator (accelerator and conventional loads) and is capable of providing power to the rest of the laboratory (backfeed system). Design criteria, and features including simulation results are given.

Cezary Jach and Daniel Wolff

2002-06-03

216

Oxycontin Abuse: Maine's Newest Epidemic.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Oxycontin, a prescription pain medication introduced in 1995 has become a major drug of abuse in Maine over the past five years. Maine has gotten a great deal of publicity for its role as the first state to identify a problem with Oxycontin and other pres...

2002-01-01

217

Main Propulsion Test Article (MPTA)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Scope: The Main Propulsion Test Article integrated the main propulsion subsystem with the clustered Space Shuttle Main Engines, the External Tank and associated GSE. The test program consisted of cryogenic tanking tests and short- and long duration static firings including gimbaling and throttling. The test program was conducted on the S1-C test stand (Position B-2) at the National Space Technology Laboratories (NSTL)/Stennis Space Center. 3 tanking tests and 20 hot fire tests conducted between December 21 1 1977 and December 17, 1980 Configuration: The main propulsion test article consisted of the three space shuttle main engines, flightweight external tank, flightweight aft fuselage, interface section and a boilerplate mid/fwd fuselage truss structure.

Snoddy, Cynthia

2010-01-01

218

Stellar Activity and Rotation Period of Lower Main Sequence Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To examine relations between stellar activity and rotation we estimated parameters of stellar activity such as R'HK, R'MgII, R'CII, R'CIV and R'X-ray from the published data which measure the activity levels of stellar chromospheres, transition regions and coronae. In the present study we considered only the main sequence stars in an attempt to minimize the influence of other stellar parameters such as radius, age and stellar convection on stellar activity since they are also known to affect the magnetic field generation. In the present analysis we selected only those stars that satisfy the following conditions: (1) flux measurements are available together with Ca II fluxes and (2) rotation periods are determined by Ca II observations. We derived relations between the Rossby number Ro and stellar activity R'HK, R'MgII, R'CII, R'CIV and R'X-ray and assessed the relations by plotting R'HK, R'MgII, and R'X-ray against rotation period Prot for comparison with observations. From the comparison it is found that as far as the rotation-activity relation is concerned, (1) normalized surface flux R'HK is better than the surface flux F'HK, defined by Rutten (1984) describes the observations notably better than R'HK of Noyes et al. (1984).

Yun, Hong Sik; Park, Young Deuk

1988-06-01

219

Biogeography of Nearshore Subtidal Invertebrates in the Gulf of Maine  

EPA Science Inventory

The biogeography of nearshore benthic invertebrates in the Gulf of Maine was studied to compare recent data with historical biogeographic studies, define physical-chemical factors affecting species distributions, and provide information needed to calibrate benthic indices of envi...

220

Humboldt River main stem, Nevada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This data set contains the main stem of the Humboldt River as defined by Humboldt Project personnel of the U.S. Geological Survey Nevada District, 2001. The data set was digitized on screen using digital orthophoto quadrangles from 1994.

Warmath, Eric; Medina, Rose L.

2001-01-01

221

Space Shuttle Era: Main Engines  

NASA Video Gallery

Producing 500,000 pounds of thrust from a package weighing only 7,500 pounds, the Space Shuttle Main Engines are one of the shining accomplishments of the shuttle program. The success did not come ...

222

A Literary Map of Maine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sure, you might know that Longfellow was a member of the literati who called Maine home, but did you know that Robert McCloskey was one as well? In case you might have forgotten, McCloskey was the author and illustrator of those children's classics "Make Way for Ducklings" and "Blueberries for Sal". It's easy to learn about dozens of Maine authors via this delightful website created as part of a partnership between the Maine Sunday Telegram and a number of library and humanities groups in Maine. Currently, the map features over 50 sites, and visitors can browse around at their leisure to learn about authors like Longfellow, Stephen King, and Richard Russo. Clicking on each site will pull up a brief excerpt of each author's work, along with a brief bio.

223

Virtual Tour of Maine Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This selection of slide shows provides a photographic tour of Maine geology. Users can choose slide shows on surficial, bedrock, and coastal geology; fossils, geologic hazards, groundwater and wells; or mineral collecting, mining, and quarrying.

224

76 FR 32265 - Maine Northern Railway Company-Trackage Rights Exemption-Montreal, Maine & Atlantic Railway, Ltd.  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Railway Company--Trackage Rights Exemption--Montreal, Maine...exemption for overhead trackage rights over an MMA line to the south...condition to this exemption, any employees affected by the trackage rights will be protected by the...

2011-06-03

225

76 FR 32266 - Maine Northern Railway Company-Trackage Rights Exemption-Montreal, Maine & Atlantic Railway, Ltd.  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Railway Company--Trackage Rights Exemption--Montreal, Maine...exemption for overhead trackage rights over an MMA line to the north...condition to this exemption, any employees affected by the trackage rights will be protected by the...

2011-06-03

226

Solar Pond for Maine Audubon Society, Falmouth, Maine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A solar pond heating system has been designed for the old farmhouse at the entrance to the Maine Audubon Society headquarters site. The 1600 ft exp 2 pond would be 40 x 40 ft wide, and occupy a space of about 80 x 80 ft if the sloping embankment is constr...

R. K. Multer

1981-01-01

227

World Energy Projection System Plus Model Documentation: Main Model  

EIA Publications

This report documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the World Energy Projection System Plus (WEPS+) Main Model. It also catalogues and describes critical assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and model source code.

Information Center

2011-01-20

228

Main Idea: Where is Matter?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson teaches main idea and details incorporating a science lesson on matter.Teachers will utilize a KWL chart to help assess students' background knowledge, as well as what they want to learn, and what they have learned at the end of the lesson. An informational text entitled What is the World Made of? All about Solids, Liquids, and Gases will be used throughout the lesson. As a summative assessment, students will write a summary which identifies the main idea and key details from this text.

Miller, Brandi

2012-06-30

229

Period Determination of Six Main Belt Asteroids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations of six main-belt asteroids (MBA) produced lightcurve parameters of: 487 Venetia, P = 13.34 ± 0.01 h, A = 0.20 mag; 684 Hildburg, P = 15.89 ± 0.01 h, A = 0.22 mag; 772 Tanete, P = 8.629 ± 0.001 h, A = 0.18 mag.; 1181 Lilith, P = 15.04 ± 0.01 h, A = 0.11 mag.; 1246 Chaka, P = 25.44 ± 0.01 h, A = 0.25 mag.; and 2834 Christy Carol, P = 12.79 ± 0.01 h, A = 0.39 mag.

Ferrero, Andrea

2014-07-01

230

Analysis of process parameters for steady operations in methane mild combustion technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main process parameters affecting combustors of all types are analyzed in the range of interest concerning mild combustion processes for methane oxidation. They are studied by means of direct comparison between experimental measurements made in a Jet Stirred Flow Reactor and numerical predictions based on a kinetic scheme developed for general use. Wide ranges of both inlet temperature (875–1275K)

M. de Joannon; A. Cavaliere; T Faravelli; E. Ranzi; P. Sabia; A. Tregrossi

2005-01-01

231

DISINFECTION OF NEW WATER MAINS  

EPA Science Inventory

The 'AWWA Standard for Disinfecting Water Mains' (AWWA C601-68) has fallen into disuse by a number of water utilities because of repeated bacteriological failures following initial disinfection with the recommended high-dose chlorination. Other methods of disinfection, including ...

232

Gulf of Maine Research Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Maine's oceanic shoreline has long been one of the richest in North America, both in terms of natural resources and its importance to the local economy. One important organization that is committed to this valued ecosystem is the Gulf of Maine Research Institute. Based in Portland, the Institute is designed to educate Maine residents and visitors about Maine's fresh and saltwater resources and to "facilitate and conduct collaborative research.ïÿý Their website contains some of these resources, and first-time visitors should start their journey here at the "Science" section. As might be expected, visitors will be able to learn about some of the Institute's ongoing survey work, including their comprehensive survey of the region's shrimp stocks, the impacts of mobile fishing gear, and cod-tagging. Every good institute worth its salt has a strong education component, and this institute has got the web-browsing public's best interests in mind. In their "Education" section, they have placed a number of interactive and multimedia features, including such areas as "All About Lobsters" and "Undersea Landscapes".

233

Heavy hydrocarbon main injector technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the key components of the Advanced Launch System (ALS) is a large liquid rocket, booster engine. To keep the overall vehicle size and cost down, this engine will probably use liquid oxygen (LOX) and a heavy hydrocarbon, such as RP-1, as propellants and operate at relatively high chamber pressures to increase overall performance. A technology program (Heavy Hydrocarbon Main Injector Technology) is being studied. The main objective of this effort is to develop a logic plan and supporting experimental data base to reduce the risk of developing a large scale (approximately 750,000 lb thrust), high performance main injector system. The overall approach and program plan, from initial analyses to large scale, two dimensional combustor design and test, and the current status of the program are discussed. Progress includes performance and stability analyses, cold flow tests of injector model, design and fabrication of subscale injectors and calorimeter combustors for performance, heat transfer, and dynamic stability tests, and preparation of hot fire test plans. Related, current, high pressure, LOX/RP-1 injector technology efforts are also briefly discussed.

Fisher, S. C.; Arbit, H. A.

1988-01-01

234

Evolutionary Models of Main Belt Comets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The discovery of the new class of objects, known as Main Belt Comets (MBCs), raises several questions regarding their structure, composition and origin. Whether MBCs were formed in their present location or captured from more distant regions during the early bombardment era is still debated; either way, they have spent most of their lifetimes in the main belt, which has been considered too hot for ice to survive for any length of time. The low conductivity of porous cometary material suggests, however, that ice may be retained in the interior of MBCs, despite continual insolation. We show results of long-term evolutionary calculations for a model representing MBC 133P/Elst-Pizarro, considering different mixtures of ices and dust. The main conclusion is that crystalline water ice may survive at depths of 50-150m, but other volatiles will be completely lost. We then show results of a parameter study addressing the ice survival question by means of long-term evolution calculations for a range of initial parameters: radii between 150m and 2.5km, two different density values, and two different orbits. We find that small bodies (< 600m in radius) may completely lose the ice over the age of the Solar System, especially if the density is low and they are relatively close to the Sun. By contrast, in larger bodies (a few km in size) that may have been captured or collisionally formed only 100 Myr ago, ice may be found at depths of only 10m. Such bodies could be easily activated by collisions to exhibit cometary activity. Finally, we investigate the effect of spin and latitude on the depth at which ice may be found and show that near the poles ice may survive quite close to the surface.

Prialnik, Dina; Sarid, G.; Meech, K.; Assis, A.

2012-01-01

235

Mount Apatite Park, Auburn, Maine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This guide discusses the geology, mineralogy, and mineral collecting opportunities of the Mount Apatite quarries at Auburn, Maine. Topics include the history and occurrence of the granite pegmatites, which contain collectible specimens of apatite, tourmaline, lepidolite, and other minerals; the history of glaciation in the area; and the history of the mining industry in Auburn, an important producer of commercial feldspar in the early 1900s. There is also information for mineral collectors, including permission and access, directions, and information on the exposures and how to extract specimens from them. References and links to additonal information are included.

236

Factors affecting sorghum protein digestibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the semi-arid tropics worldwide, sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is cultivated by farmers on a subsistence level and consumed as food by humans. A nutritional limitation to its use is the poor digestibility of sorghum protein when wet cooked. The factors affecting wet cooked sorghum protein digestibility may be categorised into two main groups: exogenous factors (grain organisational structure,

K. G Duodu; J. R. N Taylor; P. S Belton; B. R Hamaker

2003-01-01

237

The Main Aeromonas Pathogenic Factors  

PubMed Central

The members of the Aeromonas genus are ubiquitous, water-borne bacteria. They have been isolated from marine waters, rivers, lakes, swamps, sediments, chlorine water, water distribution systems, drinking water and residual waters; different types of food, such as meat, fish, seafood, vegetables, and processed foods. Aeromonas strains are predominantly pathogenic to poikilothermic animals, and the mesophilic strains are emerging as important pathogens in humans, causing a variety of extraintestinal and systemic infections as well as gastrointestinal infections. The most commonly described disease caused by Aeromonas is the gastroenteritis; however, no adequate animal model is available to reproduce this illness caused by Aeromonas. The main pathogenic factors associated with Aeromonas are: surface polysaccharides (capsule, lipopolysaccharide, and glucan), S-layers, iron-binding systems, exotoxins and extracellular enzymes, secretion systems, fimbriae and other nonfilamentous adhesins, motility and flagella.

Tomas, J. M.

2012-01-01

238

Space shuttle main engine controller  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A technical description of the space shuttle main engine controller, which provides engine checkout prior to launch, engine control and monitoring during launch, and engine safety and monitoring in orbit, is presented. Each of the major controller subassemblies, the central processing unit, the computer interface electronics, the input electronics, the output electronics, and the power supplies are described and discussed in detail along with engine and orbiter interfaces and operational requirements. The controller represents a unique application of digital concepts, techniques, and technology in monitoring, managing, and controlling a high performance rocket engine propulsion system. The operational requirements placed on the controller, the extremely harsh operating environment to which it is exposed, and the reliability demanded, result in the most complex and rugged digital system ever designed, fabricated, and flown.

Mattox, R. M.; White, J. B.

1981-01-01

239

Main ring transition crossing simulations  

SciTech Connect

We used ESME to simulate transition crossing in the Main Ring (MR). For the simulations, we followed the MR 29 cycle used currently for {bar p} production with a flat top of 120 GeV. In Sect. II, some inputs are discussed. In Sect. III, we present simulations with space charge turned off so that the effect of nonlinearity can be studied independently. When space charge is turned on in Sect. IV, we are faced with the problem of statistical errors due to binning, an analysis of which is given in the Appendices. Finally in Sects. V and VI, the results of simulations with space charge are presented and compared with the experimental measurements. 7 refs., 6 figs.

Kourbanis, I.; Ng, King-Yuen.

1990-10-01

240

Bedrock Geologic Map of Maine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students study a map of bedrock geology which describes the types of rocks that exist in a given area. It shows these rock units as well as their known and inferred contacts. Consideration is also given to folding, faulting, unconformities, and similar rock relationships. These features are often included in bedrock geology maps. Students study the legend and scale and become aware of the other information that is included on the map such as the stratigraphic column, list of formations, and inset map of metamorphic grade. Students then locate their city or town and draw a 40-mile diameter circle around it and identify all the symbols inside the circle and the age of the various rocks. Student question sheets are available at this site. Although this activity was written for a map of Maine, it will work in any state where geological maps are available.

241

Main Dangers of Our Times.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terrorism and threatening dictatorships are the main, man-made, dangers of our times. They are run by master demagogues, or, brain-washing manipulators. ----- Our next step in coping with terrorism is to counter master demagoguery. Therefore, supporting EDUCATION that would emphasize the most unifying (and the least controversial), yet, BASIC CIVIC RESPECT for lives of people in a civilian human society, is a priority everywhere on our planet. ----- At the same time we start facing mostly small, threatening, dictatorships, capable of producing weapons of mass destruction. Therefore, we have to try to contribute to developing systems of FREE ELECTIONS, controlling weapons of mass destruction, wherever such dangers exist. ----- In a foreseeable future, unfortunately, we are facing a danger even by orders of magnitude greater. We are facing a possibility of a mass-produced heavy accumulation of inter-continental nuclear missiles, on a computerized "push-button" control, by a very powerful (and, quite possibly, miscalculating, or, suicidal) dictator, dangerous to the very existence of humanity on our planet. Therefore, it is a historical urgency that such a technological power be under the control by a government of the people, by the people and for the people, based on a sufficiently reliable system of FREE ELECTIONS, wherever, on our planet, such a potential danger may originate.

Synek, Miroslav

2003-03-01

242

Main Injector synchronous timing system  

SciTech Connect

The Synchronous Timing System is designed to provide sub-nanosecond timing to instrumen-tation during the acceleration of particles in the Main Injector. Increased energy of the beam particles leads to a small but significant increase in speed, reducing the time it takes to com-plete a full turn of the ring by 61 nanoseconds (or more than 3 RF buckets). In contrast, the reference signal, used to trigger instrumentation and transmitted over a cable, has a constant group delay. This difference leads to a phase slip during the ramp and prevents instrumentation such as dampers from properly operating without additional measures. The Synchronous Tim-ing System corrects for this phase slip as well as signal propagation time changes due to tem-perature variations. A module at the LLRF system uses a 1.2 Gbit/s G-Link chip to transmit the RF clock and digital data (e.g. the current frequency) over a single mode fiber around the ring. Fiber optic couplers at service buildings split off part of this signal for a local module which reconstructs a synchronous beam reference signal. This paper describes the background, design, and expected performance of the Synchronous Timing System.

Willem Blokland and James Steimel

1999-03-02

243

Main injector synchronous timing system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Synchronous Timing System is designed to provide sub-nanosecond timing to instrumentation during the acceleration of particles in the Main Injector. Increased energy of the beam particles leads to a small but significant increase in speed, reducing the time it takes to complete a full turn of the ring by 61 nanoseconds (or more than 3 rf buckets). In contrast, the reference signal, used to trigger instrumentation and transmitted over a cable, has a constant group delay. This difference leads to a phase slip during the ramp and prevents instrumentation such as dampers from properly operating without additional measures. The Synchronous Timing System corrects for this phase slip as well as signal propagation time changes due to temperature variations. A module at the LLRF system uses a 1.2 Gbit/s G-Link chip to transmit the rf clock and digital data (e.g. the current frequency) over a single mode fiber around the ring. Fiber optic couplers at service buildings split off part of this signal for a local module which reconstructs a synchronous beam reference signal. This paper describes the background, design and expected performance of the Synchronous Timing System.

Blokland, Willem; Steimel, James

1998-12-01

244

Main injector synchronous timing system  

SciTech Connect

The Synchronous Timing System is designed to provide sub-nanosecond timing to instrumentation during the acceleration of particles in the Main Injector. Increased energy of the beam particles leads to a small but significant increase in speed, reducing the time it takes to complete a full turn of the ring by 61 nanoseconds (or more than 3 rf buckets). In contrast, the reference signal, used to trigger instrumentation and transmitted over a cable, has a constant group delay. This difference leads to a phase slip during the ramp and prevents instrumentation such as dampers from properly operating without additional measures. The Synchronous Timing System corrects for this phase slip as well as signal propagation time changes due to temperature variations. A module at the LLRF system uses a 1.2 Gbit/s G-Link chip to transmit the rf clock and digital data (e.g. the current frequency) over a single mode fiber around the ring. Fiber optic couplers at service buildings split off part of this signal for a local module which reconstructs a synchronous beam reference signal. This paper describes the background, design and expected performance of the Synchronous Timing System.

Blokland, Willem; Steimel, James [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States)

1998-12-10

245

Main injector synchronous timing system  

SciTech Connect

The Synchronous Timing System is designed to provide sub-nanosecond timing to instrumentation during the acceleration of particles in the Main Injector. Increased energy of the beam particles leads to a small but significant increase in speed, reducing the time it takes to complete a full turn of the ring by 61 nanoseconds (or more than 3 rf buckets). In contrast, the reference signal, used to trigger instrumentation and transmitted over a cable, has a constant group delay. This difference leads to a phase slip during the ramp and prevents instrumentation such as dampers from properly operating without additional measures. The Synchronous Timing System corrects for this phase slip as well as signal propagation time changes due to temperature variations. A module at the LLRF system uses a 1.2 Gbit/s G-Link chip to transmit the rf clock and digital data (e.g. the current frequency) over a single mode fiber around the ring. Fiber optic couplers at service buildings split off part of this signal for a local module which reconstructs a synchronous beam reference signal. This paper describes the background, design and expected performance of the Synchronous Timing System. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

Blokland, W.; Steimel, J. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States)

1998-12-01

246

Space Shuttle Main Engine performance analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For a number of years, NASA has relied primarily upon periodically updated versions of Rocketdyne's power balance model (PBM) to provide space shuttle main engine (SSME) steady-state performance prediction. A recent computational study indicated that PBM predictions do not satisfy fundamental energy conservation principles. More recently, SSME test results provided by the Technology Test Bed (TTB) program have indicated significant discrepancies between PBM flow and temperature predictions and TTB observations. Results of these investigations have diminished confidence in the predictions provided by PBM, and motivated the development of new computational tools for supporting SSME performance analysis. A multivariate least squares regression algorithm was developed and implemented during this effort in order to efficiently characterize TTB data. This procedure, called the 'gains model,' was used to approximate the variation of SSME performance parameters such as flow rate, pressure, temperature, speed, and assorted hardware characteristics in terms of six assumed independent influences. These six influences were engine power level, mixture ratio, fuel inlet pressure and temperature, and oxidizer inlet pressure and temperature. A BFGS optimization algorithm provided the base procedure for determining regression coefficients for both linear and full quadratic approximations of parameter variation. Statistical information relative to data deviation from regression derived relations was also computed. A new strategy for integrating test data with theoretical performance prediction was also investigated. The current integration procedure employed by PBM treats test data as pristine and adjusts hardware characteristics in a heuristic manner to achieve engine balance. Within PBM, this integration procedure is called 'data reduction.' By contrast, the new data integration procedure, termed 'reconciliation,' uses mathematical optimization techniques, and requires both measurement and balance uncertainty estimates. The reconciler attempts to select operational parameters that minimize the difference between theoretical prediction and observation. Selected values are further constrained to fall within measurement uncertainty limits and to satisfy fundamental physical relations (mass conservation, energy conservation, pressure drop relations, etc.) within uncertainty estimates for all SSME subsystems. The parameter selection problem described above is a traditional nonlinear programming problem. The reconciler employs a mixed penalty method to determine optimum values of SSME operating parameters associated with this problem formulation.

Santi, L. Michael

1993-01-01

247

Parameters affecting telomere-mediated chromosomal truncation in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

Conversion of a double-strand break into a telomere is a dangerous, potentially lethal event. However, little is known about the mechanism and control of de novo telomere formation (DNTF). DNTF can be instigated by the insertion of a telomere repeat array (TRA) into the host genome, which seeds the formation of a new telomere, resulting in chromosome truncation. Such events are rare and concentrated at chromosome ends. Here, we introduce tetraploid Arabidopsis thaliana as a robust genetic model for DNTF. Transformation of a 2.6-kb TRA into tetraploid plants resulted in a DNTF efficiency of 56%, fivefold higher than in diploid plants and 50-fold higher than in human cells. DNTF events were recovered across the entire genome, indicating that genetic redundancy facilitates recovery of DNTF events. Although TRAs as short as 100 bp seeded new telomeres, these tracts were unstable unless they were extended above a 1-kb size threshold. Unexpectedly, DNTF efficiency increased in plants lacking telomerase, and DNTF rates were lower in plants null for Ku70 or Lig4, components of the nonhomologous end-joining repair pathway. We conclude that multiple competing pathways modulate DNTF, and that tetraploid Arabidopsis will be a powerful model for elucidating the molecular details of these processes. PMID:21653196

Nelson, Andrew D; Lamb, Jonathan C; Kobrossly, Pierre S; Shippen, Dorothy E

2011-06-01

248

Parameters affecting retentive force of electroformed double-crown systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to determine the values of retentive forces of double crowns. The effect of the abutment height,\\u000a the material of the inner crown, and the taper were evaluated. Sixty inner crowns each were fabricated from zirconia and a\\u000a gold alloy having three different abutment heights (5, 7, and 9 mm) and two different tapers (0° and

Florian Beuer; Daniel Edelhoff; Wolfgang Gernet; Michael Naumann

2010-01-01

249

Parameters affecting the maintenance of negatively reinforced key pecking1  

PubMed Central

Three negative reinforcement experiments employing a key-peck response are described. In Experiment I, pigeons shocked on the average of twice per minute (imposed condition) could produce, by pecking a key, an alternate condition with correlated stimuli. Delayed shocks were added, across sessions, to the alternate condition until pecking stopped. Two of three pigeons continued to peck despite a 100% increase in shock frequency. In Experiment II, pigeons were shocked in the imposed condition four times per minute. The postresponse delay to shock was held constant by delivering, in the alternate condition, the next shock, or the next two, three, or four shocks from the imposed-condition shock schedule. All three subjects continued to peck with no change in delay to the first two postresponse shocks but with a 75% reduction in shock frequency. In Experiment III, a response produced an immediate shock followed by a shock-free period. Three of four subjects continued to respond despite reduced delay to shock. Delay-to-shock or shock-frequency reduction was sufficient to maintain key pecking, but neither was necessary. The conditions that negatively reinforce the pigeon's key peck were similar to conditions that negatively reinforce the rat's bar press.

Gardner, Edward T.; Lewis, Paul

1977-01-01

250

Immune parameters affecting the efficacy of chemotherapeutic regimens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The outcome of chemotherapy can be influenced by the host immune system at multiple levels. Chemotherapy can kill cancer cells by causing them to elicit an immune response or alternatively, by increasing their susceptibility to immune attack. In addition, chemotherapy can stimulate anticancer immune effectors either in a direct fashion or by subverting immunosuppressive mechanisms. Beyond cancer-cell-intrinsic factors that determine

Laurence Zitvogel; Oliver Kepp; Guido Kroemer

2011-01-01

251

Parameters affecting electrostatic cooling. [high voltage convective cooling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A high voltage electrostatic field is discussed which enhances the rate of normal convective cooling. This cooling rate is a function of starting temperature and voltage applied, and an inverse function of atmospheric pressure or the heat capacity of the surrounding media. It appears that the cooling rate is also a function of current flow; however, additional work is needed to separate other variables from the effect of current flow. The maximum increase in heat loss over the normal convective cooling was approximately 0.167 C/sec (0.3 F/sec) at 316 C (600 F) and 20,000 V. From the data taken it is assumed that the addeded rate of cooling would be increased with higher temperatures and higher voltages. It appears that a high voltage field disrupts the molecular layer of air surrounding a hot body and increases the rate of convective cooling.

Demorest, K. E.; Gause, R. L.

1976-01-01

252

Parameters affecting the adherence and tissue tropisms of Streptococcus pyogenes.  

PubMed

Virulent M protein-containing strains of Streptococcus pyogenes were found to adhere well to human pharyngeal cells in vitro. In contrast, an avirulent M - strain and an enteropathogenic Escherichia coli strain adhered feebly. When various rat tissues were exposed to mixtures of a virulent S. pyogenes strain and an enteropathogenic E. coli strain, the relative proportions of the two pathogenic strains recovered from mucosal surfaces differed among the sites studied. S. pyogenes cells were found to adhere in higher proportions than enteropathogenic E. coli cells to the mucosal surfaces of rat tongues, whereas on surfaces of the urinary bladder, their affinities were reversed. The data indicate that bacterial adherence is influenced by the specificity of both the bacterial and epithelial surfaces, and they suggest that adherence may influence the tissue tropisms of pathogens. Early stationary-phase cells of S. pyogenes attached better to epithelial cells than did bacteria in other growth phases. The adherence of S. pyogenes cells was impaired by pretreatment with trypsin, wheat germ lipase, Tween 80, Triton X-100, sodium lauryl sulfate, heat at 56 C, anti-group A antiserum, the presence of phospholipids, and preincubation of the epithelial cells with Streptococcus salivarius cell walls. Altering the pH or treatment with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid had no effect on the ability of S. pyogenes cells to adhere. PMID:4587386

Ellen, R P; Gibbons, R J

1974-01-01

253

Parameters affecting the formation of perfluoroalkyl acids during wastewater treatment.  

PubMed

This study examined the fate and behaviour of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in liquid and solid samples from five different wastewater treatment types: facultative and aerated lagoons, chemically assisted primary treatment, secondary aerobic biological treatment, and advanced biological nutrient removal treatment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest data set from a single study available in the literature to date for PFAAs monitoring study in wastewater treatment. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was the predominant PFAA in wastewater with levels from 2.2 to 150ng/L (influent) and 1.9 to 140ng/L (effluent). Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) was the predominant compound in primary sludge, waste biological sludge, and treated biosolids with concentrations from 6.4 to 2900ng/g dry weight (dw), 9.7 to 8200ng/gdw, and 2.1 to 17,000ng/gdw, respectively. PFAAs were formed during wastewater treatment and it was dependant on both process temperature and treatment type; with higher rates of formation in biological wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) operating at longer hydraulic retention times and higher temperatures. PFAA removal by sorption was influenced by different sorption tendencies; median log values of the solid-liquid distribution coefficient estimated from wastewater biological sludge and final effluent were: PFOS (3.73)>PFDA (3.68)>PFNA (3.25)>PFOA (2.49)>PFHxA (1.93). Mass balances confirmed the formation of PFAAs, low PFAA removal by sorption, and high PFAA levels in effluents. PMID:24691135

Guerra, P; Kim, M; Kinsman, L; Ng, T; Alaee, M; Smyth, S A

2014-05-15

254

Emulsification of oil in water as affected by different parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this investigation was to develop a basic understanding of the emulsification process by considering simple systems such as n-hexane, n-heptane, n-decane, and kerosene oil in water. The technique employed for the purpose was ultrasonification. The effect of ultrasonification time, chain length, viscosity, surface tension, oil content, and ionic strength of the media on the quality of emulsion

Musa Kaleem Baloch; Gulzar Hameed

2005-01-01

255

Parameters of the Plasma Affecting the Radiation of Pulsar 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of the relation between time delay and frequency for pulses from Pulsar 1 shows that the dispersive region of the ray path must exceed 300 astronomical units and have an average electron number density less than 8000 per cubic centimeter and average magnetic field strength less than 2 × 10-3 gauss. These requirements almost guarantee that the observed dispersion

B. S. Tanenbaum; G. A. Zeissig; F. D. Drake

1968-01-01

256

Immune parameters affecting adenoviral vector gene therapy in the brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gene therapy utilizing replication deficient adenoviral vectors represents a potentially promising approach to the treatment of brain tumors. Limited duration of systemic transgene expression and inefficient transduction following repeat systemic vector administration secondary to an effective anti-vector immune response limits the potential application of first generation adenoviral vectors. Whether host immune responses will significantly limit the use of these vectors

Michael J Parr; Patrick Y Wen; Meike Schaub; Samia J Khoury; Mohamed H Sayegh; Howard A Fine

1998-01-01

257

Parameters Affecting Hot Wire Ignition of Thermite Mixtures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ignitors have traditionally been fabricated using pyrotechnics or explosives that are sensitive to hot wire ignition. Most of these devices have a 1- omega bridgewire and require 30 to 50 mJ of energy to function when delivered at a 3 to 5 A rate. The use...

A. C. Munger M. D. Kelly

1984-01-01

258

Jupiter's Main Ring/Ring Halo  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A mosaic of four images taken through the clear filter (610 nanometers) of the solid state imaging (CCD) system aboard NASA's Galileo spacecraft on November 8, 1996, at a resolution of approximately 46 kilometers (28.5 miles) per picture element (pixel) along Jupiter's rings. Because the spacecraft was only about 0.5 degrees above the ring plane, the image is highly foreshortened in the vertical direction. The images were obtained when Galileo was in Jupiter's shadow, peering back toward the Sun; the ring was approximately 2.3 million kilometers (1.4 million miles) away. The arc on the far right of the image is produced when sunlight is scattered by small particles comprising Jupiter's upper atmospheric haze. The ring also efficiently scatters light, indicating that much of its brightness is due to particles that are microns or less in diameter. Such small particles are believed to have human-scale lifetimes, i.e., very brief compared to the solar system's age.

Jupiter's ring system is composed of three parts - - a flat main ring, a lenticular halo interior to the main ring, and the gossamer ring, outside the main ring. The near and far arms of Jupiter's main ring extend horizontally across the mosaic, joining together at the ring's ansa, on the figure's far left side. The near arm of the ring appears to be abruptly truncated close to the planet, at the point where it passes into Jupiter's shadow. Some radial structure is barely visible across the ring's ansa (top image). A faint mist of particles can be seen above and below the main rings. This vertically extended 'halo' is unusual in planetary rings, and is probably caused by electromagnetic forces pushing the smallest grains out of the ring plane. Because of shadowing, the halo is not visible close to Jupiter in the lower right part of the mosaic. To accentuate faint features in the bottom image of the ring halo, different brightnesses are shown through color. Brightest features are white or yellow and the faintest are purple.

Jupiter's main ring is a thin strand of material encircling the planet. The diffuse innermost boundary begins at approximately 123,000 kilometers (76,429 miles). The main ring's outer radius is found to be at 128,940 kilometers (80,119 miles) +/-50 kilometers (31 miles), slightly less than the Voyager value of 129,130 kilometers (80,237 miles) +/-100 kilometers (62 miles), but very close to the orbit of the satellite Adrastea (128,980 kilometers or 80,144 miles). The main ring exhibits a marked drop in brightness at 127,849 kilometers (79,441 miles) +/-50 kilometers (31 miles), lying almost atop the orbit of the Jovian moon Metis at 127,978 kilometers (79,521 miles). Satellites seem to affect the structure of even tenuous rings like those found at Jupiter.

The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

1997-01-01

259

Magnet system for the KEKB main ring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

KEKB is a two-ring electron-positron collider with asymmetric energies of 8 and 3.5 GeV to study CP violation in B meson decay. In KEKB, there are 21 types of magnets; about 1600 in total. About 430 dipole and quadrupole magnets were recycled from TRISTAN, the preceding program. All quadrupole magnets are equipped with vertical and horizontal steering dipole magnets. The number of steering magnets is about 1700. There are 212 sextupole magnets, and all of them are fixed on remotely controlled movers to adjust their positions to the beam passage. All main dipole magnets have back-leg coils to steer beams precisely. All quadrupole and sextupole magnets are equipped with correction coils to have a capability for beam-based alignment. Also one-turn coils are installed as well to each magnetic pole of the main magnets to monitor the magnetic flux in the case of trouble. The magnetic field in all magnets was measured and its quality strictly checked. After field measurement, the magnets were installed and precisely aligned. A cooling water system and a power supply system for these magnets were constructed. Magnet design was started in 1994, and construction of the two rings was completed in November 1998. The parameters of the magnets and the construction of the KEKB magnet system are described. Some of the problems experienced during this construction work are also presented.

Egawa, Kazumi; Endo, Kuninori; Fukuma, Hitoshi; Kubo, Tadashi; Masuzawa, Mika; Ohsawa, Yasunobu; Ohuchi, Norihito; Ozaki, Toshiyuki; Tsuchiya, Kiyosumi; Yoshida, Masato; Sugahara, Ryuhei

2003-02-01

260

Main chamber high recycling on ASDEX upgrade  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Main chamber recycling has been quantified over a wide range ( Ip = 0.6-1.1 MA, Bt = -3 to -1.9 T, ne = 0.3-1 × 10 20 m -3, Ptot = 2.5-20 MW), both inter-ELM and during type-I ELMs. A vertical CO 2 interferometer channel registers densities ?neLV2 in excess of those expected from core/SOL parameters. ?neLV2 is localized at the inner, lower divertor baffle in the main chamber. Its behavior follows the neutral fluxes measured by a nearby pressure gauge. Particle fluxes to the inner wall as well as densities exhibit parallel behavior. ?neLV2 can be as high as 8 × 10 19 m -2 and the ELM perturbation itself as large as 9 × 10 19 m -2. ne at the inner wall reaches 2.5 × 10 20 m -3 and fluxes ˜6 × 10 23 s -1. For controlled conditions ?neLV2 is linear with ne and increases with Ptot. A ne threshold increasing with Ip exists below which ?neLV2 ˜ 0, corresponding to a Greenwald density <0.45. These results suggest enhanced SOL transport, both inter-ELM and during ELMs, on the high field side leading to these appreciable plasma-wall interactions.

McCormick, K.; Dux, R.; Fischer, R.; Scarabosio, A.; ASDEX Upgrade Team

2009-06-01

261

Affective Audio-Visual Words and Latent Topic Driving Model for Realizing Movie Affective Scene Classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a novel method for movie affective scene classification that outputs the emotion (in the form of labels) that the scene is likely to arouse in viewers. Since the affective preferences of users play an important role in movie selection, affective scene classification has the potential to develop more attractive user-centric movie search and browsing applications. Two main

Go Irie; Takashi Satou; Akira Kojima; Toshihiko Yamasaki; Kiyoharu Aizawa

2010-01-01

262

Tinkering at the main-ring lattice  

SciTech Connect

To improve production of usable antiprotons using the proton beam from the main ring and the lossless injection of cooled antiprotons into the main ring, modifications of the main ring lattice are recommended.

Ohnuma, S.

1982-08-23

263

EFL Teachers' Factors and Students' Affect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Individual learners' affective factors are very important for foreign language learning. In China foreign language learning mainly happens in the classroom. Foreign language teachers are the organizers and carriers of language classes, and thus they inevitably influence the students' affection. This study explores how EFL teachers influence…

Qin, Lei

2007-01-01

264

Multidimensional classification of affective disorders.  

PubMed

Research data on biological markers, clinical presentation and course of affective disorders justify proposal of a new multidimensional classification of these disorders. The classification is made according to six parameters: clinical picture, severity, course, duration of episodes and lucid intervals, etiology and premorbid personality. The clinical picture defines the predominant syndrome types and subtypes. The severity of the disease is graded as mild, moderate and severe. The course type includes two subgroups: unipolar and bipolar. The fourth parameter gives the duration of the episodes and lucid intervals and the criteria for chronicity of the disorder. The etiological parameter assesses the relative contribution of endogenous, exogenous and psychogenic factors in the etiology. The personality of the patient is classified into three types: normothymia, monothymia (dysthymia, hyperthymia) and bithymia (cyclothymia). PMID:9314672

Roglev, M

1997-01-01

265

Antiproton Accumulator in the Main Injector era (2)  

SciTech Connect

By adding a single quadrupole per sextant in the Antiproton Accumulator it is possible to obtain a lattice well suited for higher bandwidth stochastic cooling systems such as those anticipated for the Main Injector era. The lattice proposed here has excellent properties concerning both the lattice functions and the stochastic cooling parameters.

Visnjic, V.

1992-12-01

266

Arsenic on Main St., Unity ME  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Class description Analytical Chemistry syllabus (Microsoft Word 2007 (.docx) 42kB Feb8 10) Timeline Spring 2010 - Analytical Chemistry students implement the pilot project after learning to use the analytical equipment in a "standard" course context. Pilot Project - As a service to Unity College employees, students will analyze water samples brought in by faculty and staff using techniques learned during the semester. Students will collaborate to draft a letter describing the water quality (in terms of the measured parameters) including an recommendation that the water be analyzed at a certified laboratory. Student assessment of the project will be used to modify the database, suggest activities for the full blown event planned for the next year. Based on this work, I will ask a local NGO to "request" a similar event be held in town. As an alternate to a final exam, students will present the results of this work at the Unity College Student Conference during Finals week. Summer 2010 - I have applied for a faculty research grant to work with a student and examine water quality "downtown" (Unity has a total population of about 1500 residents). 2010-2011 - There are at least 2 possibilities: either a lab section of General Chemistry 2 or an upper-level topics class on Arsenic (my preference) will undertake planning for the "Water Days" event during Spring 2011. Projects on which students could work will include informational brochures, posters, and K12 lessons. The Water Days event will include invitations to local analytical chemical labs and water conditioning companies to set up information displays. The data solicited from those who submit samples will include: contact information, well depth, age, existing water conditioning capability, any current complaints. Research Rationale: In 1995, Caswell, Eichler & Hill, Inc. evaluated the "current state of the groundwater resources" in the downtown Unity, ME area for the Town of Unity (1). Analysis of the data available from 76 wells and springs in 3 aquifers (esker, marine sand, and bedrock) found 11 wells with arsenic concentrations ranging from 0.001 to 0.200 mg/L. Other water quality issues, notably hardness (22 wells), elevated iron concentrations (20 wells), and bacterial contamination (8 wells) were noted. This report seems to have generated little further investigation. Leaching of arsenic in aquifers from meta-sedimentary bedrock high in sulfides is well documented in Central Maine (7), though arsenic leached from unconsolidated aquifers also exists (8, for example). Arsenic in Eastern New England groundwater has been weakly correlated to elevated pH (8), which plausibly explains dissolved As IV, but less so As III, which is often associated with highly reduced conditions. The health hazards of arsenic are now well-known. Chronic exposure to low levels of arsenic in drinking water has been shown to cause multiple cancers, as well pigment changes and thickening of the skin on hands and feet (palmoplantar hyperkeratosis) (2). Chronic ingestion has also been linked to skin lesions, liver disease, cardiovascular disease, and a decrease in production of red and white blood cells due to bone marrow depression (2). Based on personal discussions with state officials, the health hazard most of concern in Maine is bladder cancer. Arsenic in ground water is an issue of national and international concern, and of particular importance in Maine, which has naturally occurring arsenic in groundwater and well water (3, 4). Currently the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences is funding a multilevel investigation of arsenic toxicity, mobilization and mitigation, including characterization of failed arsenic treatment systems in Central Maine (5). This project seeks to answer the following questions: Does water quality on Main St in Unity depend on the aquifer in which a resident's well is completed? A statistically sufficient number of wells in each aquifer will be analyzed for "normal" water quality parameters (pH, alkalinity, hardness, phosphate, chloride for example) and for arsenic. While this project does not focus on the health effects of arsenic, those are important considerations in the motivation of undergraduate students. The immediacy of working on the drinking water many students consume will also motivate undergraduate researchers as well as educate students and other residents about home water treatment systems. Caswell, Eichler, & Hill, 1995. The Current State of Groundwater Resources, Unity, ME. Report to the Town of Unity. The Department of Health and Human Services: Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry has a Arsenic Toxicological Profile Maine Geological Survey, 2005 Weldon, J.M. and MacRae, J. D. 2006, Correlations between arsenic in Maine groundwater and microbial populations as determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Chemosphere, Vol 63, N 3, 440-448 National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) Superfund basic research program. Dahr et al., 2004, A rapid colorimetric method for measuring arsenic concentrations in ground water, Analytica Chimica Acta, 526, 203-209. Welch, A.H., Westjohn, D.B., Helsel, D.R., and Wanty, R.B., 2000, Arsenic in ground water of the United States-- occurrence and geochemistry: Ground Water v.38 no.4, p.589-604. Ayotte, J. D., Montgomery, D. L., Flanagan, S. M., and Robinson, K. W. 2003. Arsenic in groundwater in Eastern New England: occurrence, controls, and human health implications. Eviron. Sci. Technol. Vol 37: 2075-2083.

Ongley, Lois

267

Volcano Deformation in the Main Ethiopian Rift  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magmatism strongly influences continental rift development yet the mechanism, distribution and timescales on which melt is emplaced and erupted through the shallow crust are not well characterized. The Main Ethiopian Rift (MER) has experienced significant volcanism and the mantle beneath is characterized by high temperatures and partial melt. Despite its magma-rich geological record, only one eruption has been historically recorded and no dedicated monitoring networks exist. Consequently, the present-day magmatic processes in the region remain poorly documented, and the associated hazard neglected. We use satellite-based InSAR observations to demonstrate that significant deformation has occurring at 4 volcanic edifices in the MER (Alutu, Corbetti, Bora and Haledebi) from 1993-2010. This raises the number of volcanoes known to be deforming in East Africa beyond 12, comparable to many subduction arcs despite the smaller number of recorded eruptions. The largest displacements are at Alutu volcano, the site of a geothermal plant, which showed two pulses of rapid inflation (10-15 cm) in 2004 and 2008 separated by gradual subsidence. Our observations indicate a shallow (<10 km), frequently replenished zone of magma storage associated with volcanic edifices and add to the growing body of observations that indicate shallow magmatic processes operating on a decadal timescale are ubiquitous throughout the East African Rift. In the absence of detailed historical records of volcanic activity, satellite-based observations of monitoring parameters, such as deformation, could play an important role in assessing volcanic hazard.

Biggs, J.; Bastow, I.; Keir, D.; Hutchison, W.

2012-04-01

268

Estimating ice-affected streamflow by extended Kalman filtering  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An extended Kalman filter was developed to automate the real-time estimation of ice-affected streamflow on the basis of routine measurements of stream stage and air temperature and on the relation between stage and streamflow during open-water (ice-free) conditions. The filter accommodates three dynamic modes of ice effects: sudden formation/ablation, stable ice conditions, and eventual elimination. The utility of the filter was evaluated by applying it to historical data from two long-term streamflow-gauging stations, St. John River at Dickey, Maine and Platte River at North Bend, Nebr. Results indicate that the filter was stable and that parameters converged for both stations, producing streamflow estimates that are highly correlated with published values. For the Maine station, logarithms of estimated streamflows are within 8% of the logarithms of published values 87.2% of the time during periods of ice effects and within 15% 96.6% of the time. Similarly, for the Nebraska station, logarithms of estimated streamflows are within 8% of the logarithms of published values 90.7% of the time and within 15% 97.7% of the time. In addition, the correlation between temporal updates and published streamflows on days of direct measurements at the Maine station was 0.777 and 0.998 for ice-affected and open-water periods, respectively; for the Nebraska station, corresponding correlations were 0.864 and 0.997.

Holtschlag, D. J.; Grewal, M. S.

1998-01-01

269

Implementation techniques for main memory database systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the availability of very large, relatively inexpensive main memories, it is becoming possible keep large databases resident in main memory In this paper we consider the changes necessary to permit a relational database system to take advantage of large amounts of main memory We evaluate AVL vs B+-tree access methods for main memory databases, hash-based query processing strategies vs

David J DeWitt; Randy H Katz; Frank Olken; Leonard D Shapiro; Michael R Stonebraker; David A. Wood

1984-01-01

270

Ecological factors affecting Rainbow Smelt recruitment in the main basin of Lake Huron, 1976-2010  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Rainbow Smelt Osmerus mordax are native to northeastern Atlantic and Pacific–Arctic drainages and have been widely introduced throughout North America. In the Great Lakes region, Rainbow Smelt are known predators and competitors of native fish and a primary prey species in pelagic food webs. Despite their widespread distribution, importance as a prey species, and potential to negatively interact with native fish species, there is limited information concerning stock–recruitment relationships for Rainbow Smelt. To better understand recruitment mechanisms, we evaluated potential ecological factors determining recruitment dynamics for Rainbow Smelt in Lake Huron using data from bottom trawl catches. We specifically evaluated influence of stock size, environmental factors (water temperature, lake levels, and precipitation), and salmonine predation on the production of age-0 recruits from 1976 to 2010. Rainbow Smelt recruitment was negatively related to stock size exceeding 10 kg/ha, indicating that compensatory, density-dependent mortality from cannibalism or intraspecific competition was an important factor related to the production of age-0 recruits. Recruitment was positively related to spring precipitation suggesting that the amount of stream-spawning habitat as determined by precipitation was important for the production of strong Rainbow Smelt recruitment. Additionally, density of age-0 Rainbow Smelt was positively related to Lake Trout Salvelinus namaycush abundance. However, spawning stock biomass of Rainbow Smelt, which declined substantially from 1989 to 2010, was negatively associated with Lake Trout catch per effort suggesting predation was an important factor related to the decline of age-2 and older Rainbow Smelt in Lake Huron. As such, we found that recruitment of Rainbow Smelt in Lake Huron was regulated by competition with or cannibalism by older conspecifics, spring precipitation influencing stream spawning habitats, and predation by Lake Trout on age-2 and older Rainbow Smelt.

O'Brien, Timothy P.; Taylor, William W.; Roseman, Edward F.; Madenjian, Charles P.; Riley, Stephen C.

2014-01-01

271

The Maillard reaction in the human body. The main discoveries and factors that affect glycation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ever since the discovery of the Maillard reaction in 1912 and the discovery of the interaction between advanced glycation end-products and cellular receptors, impressive progress has been made in the knowledge of nonenzymatic browning of proteins in vivo. This reaction which leads to the accumulation of random damage in extracellular proteins is known to have deleterious effects on biological function,

F. J. Tessier

2010-01-01

272

Dynamic artificial neural networks with affective systems.  

PubMed

Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are processors that are trained to perform particular tasks. We couple a computational ANN with a simulated affective system in order to explore the interaction between the two. In particular, we design a simple affective system that adjusts the threshold values in the neurons of our ANN. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate that this simple affective system can control the firing rate of the ensemble of neurons in the ANN, as well as to explore the coupling between the affective system and the processes of long term potentiation (LTP) and long term depression (LTD), and the effect of the parameters of the affective system on its performance. We apply our networks with affective systems to a simple pole balancing example and briefly discuss the effect of affective systems on network performance. PMID:24303015

Schuman, Catherine D; Birdwell, J Douglas

2013-01-01

273

Dynamic Artificial Neural Networks with Affective Systems  

PubMed Central

Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are processors that are trained to perform particular tasks. We couple a computational ANN with a simulated affective system in order to explore the interaction between the two. In particular, we design a simple affective system that adjusts the threshold values in the neurons of our ANN. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate that this simple affective system can control the firing rate of the ensemble of neurons in the ANN, as well as to explore the coupling between the affective system and the processes of long term potentiation (LTP) and long term depression (LTD), and the effect of the parameters of the affective system on its performance. We apply our networks with affective systems to a simple pole balancing example and briefly discuss the effect of affective systems on network performance.

Schuman, Catherine D.; Birdwell, J. Douglas

2013-01-01

274

Affective Learning — A Manifesto  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of the computer as a model, metaphor, and modelling tool has tended to privilege the 'cognitive' over the 'affective' by engendering theories in which thinking and learning are viewed as information processing and affect is ignored or marginalised. In the last decade there has been an accelerated flow of findings in multiple disciplines supporting a view of affect

R W Picard; S Papert; W Bender; B Blumberg; C Breazeal; D Cavallo; T Machover; M Resnick; D Roy; C Strohecker

2004-01-01

275

Visualizing the Shields Parameter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is not so much an activity as it is a useful tool to build an activity around. I created an Excel spreadsheet that calculates the Shields parameter and the grain Reynolds number for a given set of conditions, then plots the resultant values on the Shields diagram. Thus, students can tweak the boundary shear stress value to calculate the stress required to move a given grain size in any fluid, under any gravitational conditions. It is a great way for them to understand how changes in fluid density and viscosity (water vs. air) affect initiation of motion, as well as the effects of grain size. I might use this in a lecture on initiation of motion, asking them to answer some basic questions (see attached example).

Hickson, Tom

276

A direct determination of minimum inertial parameters of robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

A direct method is presented to determine the minimum set of inertial parameters of robots. The set consists of the classical parameters that affect the dynamic model and the regrouped parameters. The method permits to most of the regrouped parameters to be determined by means of a closed-form function of the geometric parameters of the robot. It is proved that

M. Gautier; W. Khalil

1988-01-01

277

IMPROVEMENT OF WATER MAIN INSPECTION TECHNOLOGY  

EPA Science Inventory

This document is a handout of a slide presentation that addresses improvement of water main inspection technology. The slide presentation addresses the need for improved inspection technology (e.g., 237,000 main breaks/yr); the limits on main break prevention; and, the adverse ...

278

Structural dynamic analysis of the Space Shuttle Main Engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This structural dynamic analysis supports development of the SSME by evaluating components subjected to critical dynamic loads, identifying significant parameters, and evaluating solution methods. Engine operating parameters at both rated and full power levels are considered. Detailed structural dynamic analyses of operationally critical and life limited components support the assessment of engine design modifications and environmental changes. Engine system test results are utilized to verify analytic model simulations. The SSME main chamber injector assembly is an assembly of 600 injector elements which are called LOX posts. The overall LOX post analysis procedure is shown.

Scott, L. P.; Jamison, G. T.; Mccutcheon, W. A.; Price, J. M.

1981-01-01

279

Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect or not? Detecting the main foreground effect of most galaxy clusters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Galaxy clusters are the most massive objects in the Universe and comprise a high-temperature intracluster medium of about 107 K, believed to offer a main foreground effect for cosmic microwave background (CMB) data in the form of the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect. This assumption has been confirmed by SZ signal detection in hundreds of clusters but, in comparison with the huge numbers of clusters within optically selected samples from Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data, this only accounts for a few per cent of clusters. Here we introduce a model-independent new method to confirm the assumption that most galaxy clusters can offer the thermal SZ signal as their main foreground effect. For the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) seven-year data (and a given galaxy cluster sample), we introduced a parameter d1 as the nearest-neighbour cluster angular distance of each pixel, then we classified data pixels as `to be' (d1 ? 0 case) or `not to be' (d1 large enough) affected by the sample clusters. By comparing the statistical results of these two kinds of pixels, we can see how the sample clusters affect the CMB data directly. We find that the Planck Early Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (ESZ) sample and X-ray samples (˜102 clusters) can lead to obvious temperature depression in the WMAP seven-year data, which confirms the SZ effect prediction. However, each optically selected sample (>104 clusters) shows an opposite result: the mean temperature rises to about 10 ?K. This unexpected qualitative scenario implies that the main foreground effect of most clusters is not always the expected SZ effect. This may be the reason why the SZ signal detection result is lower than expected from the model.

Xiao, Weike; Chen, Chen; Zhang, Bin; Wu, Yongfeng; Dai, Mi

2013-05-01

280

Constraining the dark energy and smoothness parameter with supernovae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presence of inhomogeneities modifies the cosmic distances through the gravitational lensing effect, and, indirectly, must affect the main cosmological tests. Assuming that the dark energy is a smooth component, the simplest way to account for the influence of clustering is to suppose that the average evolution of the expanding Universe is governed by the total matter-energy density whereas the focusing of light is only affected by a fraction of the total matter density quantified by the ? Dyer-Roeder parameter. By using two different samples of SNe type Ia data, the ?m and ? parameters are constrained by applying the Zeldovich-Kantowski-Dyer-Roeder luminosity distance-redshift relation for a flat (?CDM) model. A ?2-analysis using the 115 SNe Ia data of the Astier et al. sample (2006) constrains the density parameter to be ?m=0.26-0.07+0.17 (2?) while the ? parameter is weakly limited (all the values ?[0,1] are allowed even at 1?). However, a similar analysis based the 182 SNe Ia data of Riess et al. (2007) constrains the pair of parameters to be ?m=0.33-0.07+0.09 and ??0.42 (2?). Basically, this occurs because the Riess et al. sample extends to appreciably higher redshifts. As a general result, even considering the existence of inhomogeneities as described by the smoothness ? parameter, the Einstein-de Sitter model is ruled out by the two samples with a high degree of statistical confidence (11.5? and 9.9?, respectively). The inhomogeneous Hubble-Sandage diagram discussed here highlights the necessity of the dark energy, and a transition deceleration/accelerating phase at z˜0.5 is also required.

Santos, R. C.; Cunha, J. V.; Lima, J. A. S.

2008-01-01

281

Affective Computing: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Affective computing is currently one of the most active research topics, furthermore, having increasingly intensive attention. This strong interest is driven by a wide spectrum of promising applications in many areas such as virtual reality, smart surveillance, perceptual interface, etc. Affective computing concerns multidisciplinary knowledge background such as psychology, cognitive, physiology and computer sciences. The paper is emphasized on the

Jianhua Tao; Tieniu Tan

2005-01-01

282

Pre-main sequence Lithium burning: the quest for a new structural parameter  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the results of stellar evolutionary computations to study the sensitivity of lithium depletion in models of mass and metallicity close to solar, and its dependence on the micro - macro physical inputs in the models, like thermodynamics, mixing, overshooting and the convective model. We find that even marginal chemical inhomogeneities in stellar formation regions lead to a spread

Paolo Ventura; Anna Zeppieri; Italo Mazzitelli; Francesca D'Antona

1998-01-01

283

Spectral dependence of the main parameters of ITE silicon avalanche photodiodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New applications for avalanche photodiodes (APDs) as in systems using visible radiation, have prompted the need for the evaluation of detection properties of ITE APDs in the 400 divided by 700 nm spectral range. The paper presents the method and result of studies on the spectral dependence of the gain, dark and noise currents, sensitivity and excess noise factor of ITE APDs. The studies have shown that ITE APDs optimized for the near IR radiation can be effectively applied in the detection of radiation above the 500 nm wavelength.

Wegrzecka, Iwona; Grynglas, Maria; Wegrzecki, Maciej

2001-08-01

284

High pressure effect on the main transition from the ripple gel P'beta phase to the liquid crystal (Lalpha) phase in dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine. Microcalorimetric study.  

PubMed

Scanning microcalorimetry has been used to study the high pressure effect on the main transition from the ripple gel P'(beta) phase to the liquid crystal (L(alpha)) phase in DPPC (dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine). It has been demonstrated that an increase of the pressure by 200 MPa shifts the transition to higher temperatures by 36.4 degrees. The pressure increase does not affect the cooperativity of transition but reduces noticeably its enthalpy. The changes of the molar partial volume, isothermal compressibility as well as volume thermal expansibility during transition in DPPC suspension have been estimated. It has been shown that monovalent ions (Na(+), Cl(-)) in solution slightly affect the main thermodynamic parameters of the transition. Calcium ions significantly decrease distinction in compressibility and thermal expansibility between liquid-crystal and ripple gel phases of lipid suspension, which in its turn reflects less difference in their volume fluctuations. PMID:18760993

Potekhin, S A; Senin, A A; Abdurakhmanov, N N; Khusainova, R S

2008-11-01

285

Adding Up to the Main Idea  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students will use non-fiction books on the subject of spiders to find key details in the text that lead them to the main idea. Students will use a graphic organizer that shows the concept as a math problem in which the key details from the text are added up to find the main idea. At the end of the lesson, students will create a poster utilizing key details and main idea from a book about an arachnid.

Blum, Lori

2012-06-15

286

[Affect and mimetic behavior].  

PubMed

The relationship between facial expression and experienced affect presents many problems. The two diametrically opposed positions proposing solutions to this problem are exemplified using the conceptions of Mandler u. Izard. The underlying premises of both conceptions still prevail in various forms. The authors reject the concepts according to which facial expression is merely correlated to the affects (see Mandler 1975) as well as the view that facial expression controls the affects (see Izard 1977). The relationship between affect and facial expression is reexamined, subjecting it to a semiotic, essentially semantic analysis similar to the Ogden and Richards' language and meaning approach. This analysis involves a critical discussion of Scherer's attempt of a purely communicational interpretation using Bühler's organon model. In the author's approach, facial expression is seen not simply as a system of signals, but as a system of representative signs which signify the affects and refer to the emotive meaning of things for the subject. The authors develop the thesis that human beings are not born simply with the ability to speak, but also with the abstract possibility of performing facial expressions. This ability develops by way of coordinating patterns of expressions, which are presumably phylogenetically determined, with affects that take on a socially determined individual form, similar to language acquisition during socialisation. The authors discuss the methodological implications arising for studies investigating the affective meaning of facial expressions. PMID:9632951

Zepf, S; Ullrich, B; Hartmann, S

1998-05-01

287

Recovering from Main-Memory Lapses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recovery activities, like logging, checkpointing and restart, are used to restore a database to a consistent state after a system crash has occurred. Recovery re- lated overhead is particularly troublesome in a main- memory database where I\\/O activities are performed for the sole purpose of ensuring data durability. In this paper we present a recovery technique for main-memory databases, whose

H. V. Jagadish; Abraham Silberschatz; S. Sudarshan

1993-01-01

288

Maine Workforce Investment Act Annual Report, 2010.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Maine experienced a major transition in Program Year 2010. The first half of the year was under the leadership of Governor John Baldacci. In January of 2011, Maine inaugurated its 74th Governor, the Honorable Paul R. LePage. Governor LePage has stated tha...

2011-01-01

289

Evolution of Stars Toward the Main Sequence.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A review is presented on the knowledge of stellar evolution toward the main sequence. This is the period during which the stars evolve from the beginning of their formation to the phase of stabilization on the main sequence where nuclear reactions begin t...

B. Hidajat

1973-01-01

290

Maine's Employability Skills Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Practice Report describes the development and implementation of the "Maine Employability Skills Program," a model employment program developed by the Maine Division for the Blind and Visually Impaired (DBVI). The program was designed to support the efforts of the chronically unemployed or underemployed. These consumers were either…

McMahon, John M.; Wolffe, Karen E.; Wolfe, Judy; Brooker, Carrie

2013-01-01

291

Off-Reservation Indian Survey [Maine].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The needs of the off-reservation Indian population in Maine and recommendations for the correction of these needs are discussed. The program's objectives were (1) to determine the present level of services available to off-reservation Indians in Maine, (2) to determine present housing standards, educational levels, health programs, and geographic…

Sockabasin, Allen J., Comp; Stone, John G., Comp.

292

Fermilab Main Ring ion profile monitor system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ion profile monitor system is now in operation in the Fermilab Main Ring. This system captures up to 64 K samples of both horizontal and vertical profiles in the Main Ring at a turn by turn sample rate. The hardware and software of the system is described. Some early results are presented

J. R. Zagel; J. L. Crisp; A. A. Halm; P. G. Hurh

1997-01-01

293

Maine Educational Assessment School Report, Grade 4.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Maine Educational Assessment (MEA) is the state's measure of student progress in achieving the challenging academic expectations, known as "Learning Results," adopted by the Maine Legislature in 1997. This report of student performance in writing, reading, mathematics, and science and technology provides a status report of student performance…

Maine Department of Education, 2004

2004-01-01

294

Space Weather Parameters Capable of Influencing Health of a Human Being  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space weather is a state of Earth-orbital space. The Sun and cosmic rays of high energy affect this state. As the main contribution to a space weather state is made exactly by the Sun then changes of solar activity parameters, and also the changes of geophysical parameters caused by such influence have been considered in this study. A condition of cardiovascular system of a person of volunteer groups has been considered as a condition of health of a human being. An experiment has been carried out within the framework of Russian-Ukrainian project "Geliomed" (http://geliomed.immsp.kiev.ua). It has been found both the immediate influence of electromagnetic solar radiation and the influence of parameters of solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field on a condition of cardiovascular system of a human being mediated through geophysical parameters.

Samsonov, S. N.; Manykina, V. I.

295

How crystals affect magma rheology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presence of solid particles in a liquid melt inevitably affects its flow behaviour: the crystals increase the bulk viscosity of the magma, and may impede flow at low driving stresses and cause shear thinning at increasing strain rates. Despite a multitude of theoretical and experimental investigations on suspension rheology no comprehensive flow model exists that satisfactorily accounts for the effects of particle concentration, particle shape and strain rate. We here present the data of an analogue experimental study, aimed to cover a broadest possible parameter space. We have measured suspensions of monodisperse particles of varying aspect ratio, from oblate to prolate, and covering particle volume fractions ? from dilute to highly concentrated. Rheology is characterized by fitting the experimental data to the model of Herschel & Bulkley (1926), yielding three rheometric parameters: consistency K (cognate with viscosity); flow index n (a measure of shear-thinning); yield stress ?0. We develop models to predict these three parameters in dependence of particle aspect ratio. We relate our rheological observations to the underlying particle motions via Jeffery's (1922) theory. We extend Jeffery's work to calculate, numerically, the Einstein coefficient for a suspension of many, initially randomly oriented particles. This provides a physical, microstructural explanation of our observations, including transient oscillations seen during run start-up and changes of rheological regime as ? increases.

Mueller, Sebastian; Llewellin, Edward W.; Mader, Heidy M.

2010-05-01

296

As the nation goes, so goes maine?  

PubMed

Historically, Maine has been a state with generous safety net programs and a track record of innovative efforts in health system reform, developed under the leadership of Democratic administrations and with frequent support from moderate Republicans. But the 2010 elections in Maine dramatically changed the political balance of power, anointing both a governor and a legislature ideologically at odds with the state's recent political past. Maine has become a bastion of resistance to the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, with a reduced Medicaid program, defunded state access initiative, and no state exchange. In addition, the state has adopted a laissez-faire approach to insurance market dysfunction. Using Maine as a case study of the shifts in national political mood, this article describes in broad brushstrokes Maine's history of health reform efforts and recent shift in political direction, and discusses some of the factors that contributed to the change. PMID:24603087

Kilbreth, Elizabeth

2014-06-01

297

Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD)  

MedlinePLUS

... and winter, when there is less exposure to sunlight during the day. Depression symptoms can be mild ... by shorter daylight hours and a lack of sunlight in winter. Just as sunlight affects the seasonal ...

298

Compounds affecting cholesterol absorption  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A class of novel compounds is described for use in affecting lymphatic absorption of cholesterol. Compounds of particular interest are defined by Formula I: ##STR1## or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

Hua, Duy H. (Inventor); Koo, Sung I. (Inventor); Noh, Sang K. (Inventor)

2004-01-01

299

Mindfulness Moderates the Relationship Between Depressive Affect and Negative Cognitions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main finding of this study is that varying levels of mindfulness are predictive of the strength of the relationship between depressive affect and negative cognitions. This finding supports the existing literature on affect-reactive modes of information processing, which indicate that a ruminative style of thinking in the presence of depressive affect serves to exacerbate and maintain depression (Scher et

Brennan D. Gilbert; Michael S. Christopher

2009-01-01

300

33 CFR 334.30 - Gulf of Maine off Pemaquid Point, Maine; naval sonobuoy test area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Maine off Pemaquid Point, Maine; naval sonobuoy test area. 334.30 Section 334...Maine off Pemaquid Point, Maine; naval sonobuoy test area. (a) The area. The...Light. (b) The regulations. (1) Sonobuoy drops will be made only in the...

2013-07-01

301

Genetic Status of Atlantic Salmon in Maine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interim report from the National Research Council's (NRC) Committee on Atlantic Salmon in Maine is a prepublication of the March 2002 report provided by National Academy Press. The once abundant populations of Atlantic Salmon in Maine have declined in recent years, now listed as endangered. The NRC Committee believes that "understanding the genetic makeup of Maine's salmon is important for recovery efforts." This 48-page report includes information on the salmon's biology, evolution, genetics, its current state, and the committee's conclusions. It can be viewed online or downloaded for printing.

Maine., National R.

2002-01-01

302

Towards parameter-free data mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most data mining algorithms require the setting of many input parameters. Two main dangers of working with parameter-laden algorithms are the following. First, incorrect settings may cause an algorithm to fail in finding the true patterns. Second, a perhaps more insidious problem is that the algorithm may report spurious patterns that do not really exist, or greatly overestimate the significance

Eamonn J. Keogh; Stefano Lonardi

2004-01-01

303

Oscillation mode linewidths and heights of 23 main-sequence stars observed by Kepler  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. Solar-like oscillations have been observed by Kepler and CoRoT in many solar-type stars, thereby providing a way to probe the stars using asteroseismology. Aims: We provide the mode linewidths and mode heights of the oscillations of various stars as a function of frequency and of effective temperature. Methods: We used a time series of nearly two years of data for each star. The 23 stars observed belong to the simple or F-like category. The power spectra of the 23 main-sequence stars were analysed using both maximum likelihood estimators and Bayesian estimators, providing individual mode characteristics such as frequencies, linewidths, and mode heights. We study the source of systematic errors in the mode linewidths and mode heights, and we present a way to correct these errors with respect to a common reference fit. Results: Using the correction, we can explain all sources of systematic errors, which could be reduced to less than ±15% for mode linewidths and heights, and less than ±5% for amplitude, when compared to the reference fit. The effect of a different estimated stellar background and a different estimated splitting will provide frequency-dependent systematic errors that might affect the comparison with theoretical mode linewidth and mode height, therefore affecting the understanding of the physical nature of these parameters. All other sources of relative systematic errors are less dependent upon frequency. We also provide the dependence of the so-called linewidth dip in the middle of the observed frequency range as a function of effective temperature. We show that the depth of the dip decreases with increasing effective temperature. The dependence of the dip on effective temperature may imply that the mixing length parameter ? or the convective flux may increase with effective temperature. Tables 4-27 and Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

Appourchaux, T.; Antia, H. M.; Benomar, O.; Campante, T. L.; Davies, G. R.; Handberg, R.; Howe, R.; Régulo, C.; Belkacem, K.; Houdek, G.; García, R. A.; Chaplin, W. J.

2014-06-01

304

Main Idea: What is the Book About?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this resource, students will identify and describe what a book is mainly about using the title, text and pictures. The two featured texts that students will use are informational texts about tigers and ladybugs.

Readworks

2012-03-26

305

The Art of Facility Stewardship in Maine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the facility stewardship of each of the seven state universities belonging to the University System of Maine. Focus is on successful and often creative facility management when confronted with limited budgets. (GR)

Adams, Matt

2000-01-01

306

Bathymetric Atlas of the Main Hawaiian Islands.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The maps presented in this atlas show where bathymetric data have been collected during various shipboard and aero surveys around the Main Hawaiian Islands (MHI) as of 2004. Metadata for the bathymetric surveys, including the location information, were co...

H. Wang M. F. Parke

2005-01-01

307

Open Heart Surgery Services, State of Maine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The major issues concerning open heart surgery and particularly the coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) operation are examined in this discussion paper. The paper was prepared for use by the members of the Maine Health Systems Agency's Acute Care Subcommi...

1979-01-01

308

Main ring lattice and beam dynamics  

SciTech Connect

The main-ring lattice considered in this note is based on previous studies made for high-energy rings of the TRIUMF Kaon Factory as well as for the main ring and second-generation storage ring proposed for an advanced hadron facility at Los Alamos. The reason for further study of the design concepts is mainly to increase the dynamic aperture for coupled motion in the presence of the sextupoles used for chromaticity adjustment and magnet imperfection compensation. At the same time, it was interesting to include the features required for slow extraction and direct H/sup /minus// injection and obtain a complete layout of the ring as close as possible to a realistic structure for estimating the stability limit. The basic ideas retained for the design of the main ring lattice are briefly recalled here. 10 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Guignard, G.

1989-01-01

309

Shuttle Main Engine: A First Look.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Anyone entering the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) team attends a two week course to become familiar with the design and workings of the engine. This course provides intensive coverage of the individual hardware items and their functions. Some individua...

B. Schreur

1996-01-01

310

Maine's Climate Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recent evidence suggests that climate change is occurring at an accelerated rate as a result of human-induced greenhouse gas emissions and associated pollutants. Based on a recently completed study, the authors of this article describe the changes Maine's...

C. V. Schmitt G. L. Jacobson I. J. Fernandez P. A. Mayewski

2008-01-01

311

Main Line Health CCOP - National Cancer Institute  

Cancer.gov

The Main Line Health CCOP, established in 1994, is a cancer clinical trials program comprised of Lankenau Medical Center, Bryn Mawr, and Paoli Hospitals. Each component site has a cancer program that provides definitive multidisciplinary cancer services accredited by the American College of Surgeons Commission on Cancer. Main Line Health encourages our community to stay "Well Ahead" by embracing a healthier lifestyle and taking advantage of our preventive care, disease management, and educational programs.

312

University of Maine School of Marine Sciences  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Located in Orono, Maine, the SMS is the largest concentration of marine expertise in Maine, and offers one of the largest research and educational programs in the Northeast. Research activities of faculty and students range from aquaculture, marine biology, marine biotechnology, oceanography, and marine geology, to public policy and marine archeology. Site offers information on graduate and undergraduate programs, current research, school news, upcoming events, and outreach initiatives.

313

SSME main injector 4000 Hertz phenomenon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSME) have experienced very high acceleration responses measured in the main injector of the powerhead during static firings. Data from previous hot fire SSME tests relating to the 4000 hertz phenomenon were reviewed to provide a better understanding of the nature of this structural response. The objective was to technically understand the way this phenomenon works, recommend a fix and test the fix.

Johnston, G. D.

1986-01-01

314

Adaptation of the Main Peripheral Artery and Vein to Long Term Confinement (MARS 500)  

PubMed Central

Purpose The objective was to check if 520 days in confinement (MARS 500), may affect the main peripheral arterial diameter and wall thickness and the main vein size. Method Common carotid (CC) femoral artery (FA) portal vein (PV), jugular (JG), femoral vein (FV) and tibial vein were assessed during MARS 500 by echography, performed by the subjects. A hand free volumic echographic capture method and a delayed 3D reconstruction software developed by our lab were used for collecting and measuring the vascular parameters. Results During the MARS 500 experiment the subjects performed 6 sessions among which 80% of the echographic data were of sufficient quality to be processed. No significant change was found for the Common carotid, Jugular vein, femoral artery, femoral vein, portal vein, and tibial vein diameter. CC and FA IMT (intima media thickness) were found significantly increased (14% to 28% P<0.05) in all the 6 subjects, during the confinement period and also at +2 days after the confinement period, but there was no significant difference 6 month later compare to pre MARS 500. Conclusion The experiment confirmed that even untrained to performing echography the subjects were able to capture enough echographic data to reconstruct the vessel image from which the parameters were measured. The increase in both CC and FA IMT should be in relation with the stress generated by the confined environment or absence of solar radiation, as there was no change in gravity, temperature and air in the MARS 500 module, and minor changes in physical exercise and nutrition.

Arbeille, Philippe; Provost, Romain; Vincent, Nicole; Aubert, Andre

2014-01-01

315

Environmental Factors Affecting Preschoolers' Motor Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The process of development occurs according to the pattern established by the genetic potential and also by the influence of environmental factors. The aim of the present study was to focus on the main environmental factors affecting motor development. The review of the literature revealed that family features, such as socioeconomic status,…

Venetsanou, Fotini; Kambas, Antonis

2010-01-01

316

Affective textile and costume museum website design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to identify and investigate the main factors involved in the affective design of textile and costume museum websites. The research was focused upon on the issues of visual assessment and the reasons why people visit and stay on a museum website. The study was carried out to develop an understanding of the factors that

Fang Suey Lin; Tom Cassidy

2008-01-01

317

Psychophysiological signals associated with affective states  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a preliminary quantitative study aimed at developing an optimal standard protocol for automatic classification of specific affective states as related to human- computer interactions. This goal is mainly achieved by comparing standard psychological test-reports to quantitative measures derived from simultaneous non-invasive acquisition of psychophysiological signals of interest, namely respiration, galvanic skin response, blood volume pulse, electrocardiogram and electroencephalogram.

Maurizio Mauri; Valentina Magagnin; Pietro Cipresso; Luca Mainardi; Emery N Brown; Sergio Cerutti; Marco Villamira; Riccardo Barbieri

2010-01-01

318

The ages of globular cluster stars - Effects of rotation on pre-main-sequence, main-sequence, and turnoff evolution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Evolutionary sequences for low-metallicity stars (Z ranging from 0.001 to 0.0001) to study the effects of internal stellar rotation on the evolutionary time scales in the pre-main sequence, the main sequence (MS), and around the MS turnoff. Although a substantial amount of angular momentum remains in the interior, rotation is only a minor perturbation on the structure and ages of globular cluster stars. Even models with large initial angular momenta have MS lifetimes that are within 1 percent of those of standard models of the same mass and composition. Therefore, rotation does not affect age estimates of globular clusters from isochrone fitting. Furthermore, the models suggest that because rotation is not likely to affect horizontal-branch (HB) morphology, it does not affect significantly age estimates from the Delta-V method. Nevertheless, the internal angular momentum in the models is consistent with observations of surface rotational velocities on the HB, which require the preservation of a large reservoir of internal angular momentum.

Deliyannis, Constantine P.; Demarque, Pierre; Pinsonneault, Marc H.

1989-01-01

319

Healing of Bone Affections and Gangrene with Low-Intensity Laser Irradiation in Diabetic Patients Suffering from Foot Infections.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE: Evalution of low-intensity laser irradiation on the healing of bone affections and gangrene in patients suffering from diabetic microangiopathy. DESIGN: Case-report study. PATIENTS: Two consecutive diabetic male patients with gangrene, osteomyelitis, and bone fractures. INTERVENTION: Helium-neon laser irradiation (36 J/cm2 ) 50 min/day. MAIN OUTCOME PARAMETER: Healing of gangrene and corticalis lesion as well as remineralisation of bone affections. RESULTS: Within a mean period of 14 weeks not only a complete healing of the diabetic gangrenes but also a radiographically determined reestablishment of corticalis and remineralisation of preexisting bone affections could be achieved. CONCLUSION: We therefore conclude that low-intensity laser irradiation should be further tested as an additional beneficial therapeutic modality for the healing of gangrene and bone affections in diabetic patients. PMID:9892822

Schindl; Schindl; Pölzleitner; Schindl

1998-01-01

320

Booster parameter list  

SciTech Connect

The AGS Booster is designed to be an intermediate synchrotron injector for the AGS, capable of accelerating protons from 200 MeV to 1.5 GeV. The parameters listed include beam and operational parameters and lattice parameters, as well as parameters pertaining to the accelerator's magnets, vacuum system, radio frequency acceleration system, and the tunnel. 60 refs., 41 figs. (LEW)

Parsa, Z.

1986-10-01

321

Coupled orbital-thermal evolution of the main Uranian satellites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some of the main satellites of Uranus, in particular Miranda and Ariel, present evidence of a past geophysical activity. This activity can be associated with internal heating during its history and several causes for this heating are envisaged, like the tides and impact(s), following radiogenic heating at the early stage of the evolution. Here, we present a coupled thermal-orbital model of the history of the main satellites of Uranus, in which not only the orbit acts on the heating, but the heating acts also on the orbit in affecting tidal dissipation. We focus in particular on the past mean-motion resonance Miranda-Umbriel, responsible for Miranda's current high inclination.

Noyelles, B.; Verheylewegen, E.; Karatekin, O.

2013-12-01

322

Theoretical Parameter Studies of Wing-Fuselage-Combinations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A parameter study is presented concerning the influence of the main geometry parameters on the aerodynamic characteristics of a wing-fuselage-combination in incompressible flow. For this study a prediction-method for wing-fuselage-combinations with cylind...

H. Koerner

1972-01-01

323

Marine Occupations Conference (Southern Maine Vocational Technical Institute, South Portland, Maine, April 5, 1974). Maine Sea Grant Bulletin 9.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of speeches, presented as the 1974 Marine Occupations Conference in South Portland, Maine, provides an overview of information regarding availability and kinds of careers in, as well as the educational requirements for, marine occupations. Also reviewed are the problems of developing marine resources, such as those involving…

Coggins, Phyllis, Ed.; And Others

324

Effects of Learning Parameters on Learning Procedure and Performance of a BPNN.  

PubMed

We examined the effects of changing learning parameters on the learning procedure and performance of back-propagation neural networks used to pick seismic arrivals. The results show that such change mainly affects the speed of convergence of the learning procedures, and does not affect the BPNN structure and its overall performance. A relationship between the learning parameters and iteration number is obtained. This relationship may be used as a guide to check the convergence of the learning procedure and the BPNN performance. We also use a weight map of BPNN structure to analyze its interior and performance. Two BPNNs used to pick seismic arrivals from three-component and single-component seismograms have similar weight patterns and operate in a similar way, although they have different structures and trained by different training dataset. PMID:12662490

MacBeth, Colin; Dai, Hengchang

1997-11-01

325

Fermilab Main Injector Beam Position Monitor Upgrade  

SciTech Connect

An upgrade of the Beam Position Monitor (BPM) signal processing and data acquisition system for the Fermilab Main Injector is described. The Main Injector is a fast cycling synchrotron that accelerates protons or antiprotons from 8 to 150 GeV. Each Main Injector cycle can have a totally different magnet ramp, RF frequency configuration, beam bunch structure, and injection/extraction pattern from the previous cycle. The new BPM system provides the capabilities and flexibility required by the dynamic and complex machine operations. The system offers measurement capability in the 2.5 MHz and 53 MHz channels to detect the range of bunch structures for protons and antiprotons in both wideband (turn-by-turn) and narrowband (closed-orbit) modes. The new BPM read-out system is based on the digital receiver concept and is highly configurable, allowing the signal processing of nearly all Main Injector beam conditions, including the detection of individual batches. An overview of the BPM system in the Main Injector operating environment, some technology details and first beam measurements are presented.

Banerjee, B.; Barker, W.; Bledsoe, S.; Boes, T.; Briegel, C.; Capista, D.; Deuerling, G.; Dysert, R.; Forster, R.; Foulkes, S.; Haynes, W.; Hendricks, B.; Kasza, T.; Kutschke, R.; Marchionni, A.; Olson, M.; Pavlicek, V.; Piccoli, L.; Prieto, P.; Rapisarda, S.; Saewert, A.; /Fermilab

2006-05-01

326

Fermilab Main Injector Beam Position Monitor Upgrade  

SciTech Connect

An upgrade of the Beam Position Monitor (BPM) signal processing and data acquisition system for the Fermilab Main Injector is described. The Main Injector is a fast cycling synchrotron that accelerates protons or antiprotons from 8 to 150 GeV, Each Main Injector cycle can have a totally different magnet ramp, RF frequency configuration, beam bunch structure, and injection/extraction pattern from the previous cycle. The new BPM system provides the capabilities and flexibility required by the dynamic and complex machine operations. The system offers measurement capability in the 2.5 MHz and 53 MHz channels to detect the range of bunch structures for protons and antiprotons in both wideband (turn-by-turn) and narrowband (closed-orbit) modes. The new BPM read-out system is based on the digital receiver concept and is highly configurable, allowing the signal processing of nearly all Main Injector beam conditions, including the detection of individual batches. An overview of the BPM system in the Main Injector operating environment, some technology details and first beam measurements are presented.

Banerjee, B.; Barker, W.; Bledsoe, S.; Boes, T.; Briegel, C.; Capista, D.; Deuerling, G.; Dysert, R.; Forster, R.; Foulkes, S.; Haynes, W.; Hendricks, B.; Kasza, T.; Kutschke, R.; Marchionni, A.; Olson, M.; Pavlicek, V.; Piccoli, L.; Prieto, P.; Rapisarda, S. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States)] (and others)

2006-11-20

327

What Variables Affect Solubility?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Helps middle school students understand the concept of solubility through hands-on experience with a variety of liquids and solids. As they explore factors that affect solubility and saturation, students gain content mastery and an understanding of the inquiry process. Also enables teachers to authentically assess student performance on several…

Baker, William P.; Leyva, Kathryn

2003-01-01

328

Conceptual Metaphors of Affect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotional experiences are often described in metaphoric language. A major question in linguistics and cognitive science is whether such metaphoric linguistic expressions reflect a deeper principle of cognition. Are abstract concepts structured by the embodied, sensorimotor domains that we use to describe them? This review presents the argument for conceptual metaphors of affect and summarizes recent findings from empirical studies.

L. Elizabeth Crawford

2009-01-01

329

Seasonal Affective Disorder  

MedlinePLUS

... org 3803 N. Fairfax Drive, Suite 100, Arlington, Va. 22203 1 What is seasonal affective disorder (SAD)? The symptoms ... SHEET NAMI • The National Alliance on Mental Illness • 1 (800) 950-NAMI • www.nami.org 3803 N. Fairfax Drive, Suite 100, Arlington, Va. 22203 2 Some people with bipolar disorder can ...

330

The Affective Side.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of the affective development of gifted students who are underachieving considers external stresses including a feeling of invisibility and mixed messages from the environment, internal stresses such as self-image, unrealistic self-expectations, and the possible co-existence of a learning disability. (DB)

Strop, Jean

2001-01-01

331

Future Trends Affecting Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines various trends and explores how they may affect education. Six specific trends are explored: (1) education trends, in which competition among schools for students, educators, and funds is increasing, calls for education accountability are increasing at all levels, and the demand for education professionals is rising; (2)…

Good, Dixie Griffin

332

Food Affects Human Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A conference on whether food and nutrients affect human behavior was held on November 9, 1982 at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Various research studies on this topic are reviewed, including the effects of food on brain biochemistry (particularly sleep) and effects of tryptophane as a pain reducer. (JN)

Kolata, Gina

1982-01-01

333

Affect and altruism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigated the relationship between affect and altruism in 7- and 8-yr-old middle-class white children (N = 48 males and 24 females). Ss were asked to think of things that made them happy or sad, or they were assigned to control conditions. Ss were then given an opportunity to donate money to other children in the E's absence. In accord with

Bert S. Moore; Bill Underwood; D. L. Rosenhan

1973-01-01

334

How Fire Affects Wildlife  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is part of Planet Diary and is an online exploration on how wildfires affect animals and plants. Students each investigate one animal and one plant to see how well certain organisms have adapted to fire, and then compare survival strategies. This page is accompanied by a page of website links for further information.

335

Band recovery distribution of eastern Maine woodcock  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A total of 9,643 American woodcock (Philohela minor) was banded in eastern Maine during the summers of 1962-74. The fall migration of these woodcock, based on 620 recoveries, occurred along a broad front between the Appalachian Mountains and Atlantic Ocean. Most birds wintered in a region extending from southern Virginia to northern Florida; a few woodcock moved as far west as Louisiana and eastern Texas. The band-recovery distribution of Maine woodcock, and band-recovery records from birds wintering in Louisiana published by other investigators, support the idea of Atlantic and Central flyways. However, recoveries from woodcock banded in breeding localities other than eastern Maine must be studied to more precisely relate major breeding and wintering grounds

Krohn, W.B.; Clark, E.R.

1977-01-01

336

Tune control in the Fermilab Main Injector  

SciTech Connect

We describe methods used to measure and control tunes in the Fermilab Main Injector (FMI). Emphasis is given to software implementation of the operator interface, to the front-end embedded computer system, and handling of hysteresis of main dipole and quadrupole magnets. Techniques are developed to permit control of tune of the Main Injector through several acceleration cycles: from 8.9 GeV/c to 120 GeV/c, from 8.9 GeV/c to 150 GeV/c, and from 150 GeV/c to 8.9 GeV/c. Systems which automate the complex interactions between tune measurement and the variety of ramping options are described. Some results of tune measurements and their comparison with the design model are presented.

G. Wu et al.

1999-04-16

337

125. Pre1911. Crew on main deck, starboard side at main ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

125. Pre-1911. Crew on main deck, starboard side at main hatch, looking aft. Note dark object in center of photo that may be original main deck capstan. Fred Heick collection. (K9.9571) - Ship BALCLUTHA, 2905 Hyde Street Pier, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

338

Standard pre-main sequence models of low-mass stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main characteristics of standard pre-main sequence (PMS) models are described. A discussion of the uncer-tainties affecting the current generation of PMS evolutionary tracks and isochrones is also provided. In particular, the impact of the uncertainties in the adopted equation of state, radiative opacity, nuclear cross sections, and initial chemical abundances are analysed.

Prada Moroni, P. G.; Tognelli, E.; Degl'Innocenti, S.

2014-05-01

339

Three-dimensional simulations of near-surface convection in main-sequence stars. I. Overall structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. The near-surface layers of cool main-sequence stars are structured by convective flows, which are overshooting into the atmosphere. The flows and the associated spatio-temporal variations of density and temperature affect spectral line profiles and thus have an impact on estimates of stellar properties such as effective temperature, gravitational acceleration, and abundances. Aims: We aim at identifying distinctive properties of the thermodynamic structure of the atmospheres of different stars and understand their causes. Methods: We ran comprehensive 3D radiation hydrodynamics simulations of the near-surface layers of six simulated stars of spectral type F3V to M2V with the MURaM code. We carry out a systematic parameter study of the mean stratifications, flow structures, and the energy flux in these stars. Results: We find monotonic trends along the lower main sequence in granule size, flow velocity, and intensity contrast. The convection in the M-star models differs substantially from that of the hotter stars, mainly owing to the more gradual transition from convective to radiative energy transport. Conclusions: While the basic mechanisms driving surface convection in cool stars are the same, the properties of the convection vary along the main sequence. Apart from monotonic trends in rms velocity, intensity contrast, granule size, etc., there is a transition between "naked" and "hidden" granulation around spectral type K5V caused by the (highly non-linear) temperature dependence of the opacity. These variations have to be taken into account when stellar parameters are derived from spectra. Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

Beeck, B.; Cameron, R. H.; Reiners, A.; Schüssler, M.

2013-10-01

340

Sensitivity analysis for RADTRAN 4 input parameters  

SciTech Connect

The transportation risk analysis code, RADTRAN 4, computer estimates of incident-free dose consequence and accident dose-risk. The output of the code includes a tabulation of sensitivity of the result to variation of the input parameters for the incident-free analysis. The values are calculated using closed mathematical expressions derived from the constitutive equations, which are linear. However, the equations for accident risk are not linear, in general, and a similar tabulation has not been available. Because of the importance of knowing how accident-risk estimates are affected by uncertainties in the input parameters, a direct investigation was undertaken of the variation in calculated accident dose-risk with changes in individual parameters. A limited, representative group of transportation scenarios was used, initially, to determine which of 23 accident-risk parameters affect the calculated accident dose risk significantly. Many of the parameters were observed to have minimal effect on the output, and others were judged as ``fixed`` either by regulation, convention or standards. The remaining 5 variables were selected for further study through Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS). LHS yields statistical information from observations (risk calculations) resulting from multiple input-parameter sets compiled from ``random`` sampling of parameter distributions. The LHS method requires fewer observations than classical Monte Carlo methods to yield statistically significant results. This paper presents the preliminary parameter study and LHS application results together with further LHS evaluations of RADTRAN input parameters.

Mills, G.S.; Neuhauser, K.S.

1995-02-01

341

Total main rotor isolation system analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The requirements for a preliminary design study and verification procedure for a total main rotor isolation system at n/rev are established. The system is developed and analyzed, and predesign drawings are created for an isolation system that achieves over 95 percent isolation of all six degrees of freedom.

Halwes, D. R.

1981-01-01

342

Maine's Balance of Representation: Information and Results  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document, a companion to the "LAS Guide Principles and Criteria for the Adoption of Local Assessment Systems," [ED484135] presents results that are intended to provide Maine's school administrative units with an option for selecting sample performance indicators to be assessed through the Local Assessment System to meet the requirements for…

Maine Department of Education, 2003

2003-01-01

343

Revamping FCC main fractionator energy systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fluid catalytic cracker's (FCC) main fractionator heat integration with the gas plant can supply incremental energy needed to meet improved olefins requirements and improve the unit's thermal efficiency. It is important, when optimizing, to understand the fractionator energy recovery limitations, possible pumparound draw temperature options and various temperature levels of the heat sinks. On older units, recoverable energy from

S. W. Golden; A. W. Sloley; B. Fleming

1993-01-01

344

Space Shuttle Main Engine Test Firing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On the 25th Anniversary of the Apollo 11 (the first moon landing mission) launch, Marshall Space & Flight Center celebrated with a test firing of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) at the Technology Test Bed (TTB). This drew a large crowd who stood in the fields around the test site and watched as plumes of white smoke verified ignition.

1994-01-01

345

A Modest Proposal: No More Main Entry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the concept of main entry in MARC bibliographic records based on the definition in the revised second edition of the "Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules." Access points versus entries are considered; differences between card catalog and online catalog environments are examined; and primary access is suggested as an appropriate replacement…

Bierbaum, Esther Green

1994-01-01

346

Maine Special Education Regulations: Chapter 101.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains regulations governing the provision of equal educational opportunities and free, appropriate public education in the least restrictive educational alternative to all Maine student residents with disabilities between the ages of 5 and 20. Twenty sections contain provisions relating to: (1) the policy and purpose of special…

Maine State Dept. of Education, Augusta. Div. of Special Services.

347

Project MAIN: Community Collaboration Benefits Senior Citizens.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines Project MAIN (Mobile Assistants in Nutrition), a 12-month demonstration project and the collaborative effort of an urban university, a high school, and a senior services agency, which employed students, ages 14 to 19, to research, plan, and operate a grocery delivery and escort service for elderly and disabled citizens. (BB)

Blake, Gerald F.

1986-01-01

348

State of Maine Learning Results: Social Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this document the social studies knowledge and skills deemed necessary for preparing Maine students for work, higher education, citizenship, and personal fulfillment are identified. The document serves as a guideline for teachers and parents regarding what students should know and be able to do at various checkpoints during their social studies…

Maine State Dept. of Education, Augusta.

349

Borehole instabilities in the KTB main borehole  

Microsoft Academic Search

Borehole instability has been a central problem for drilling operations and borehole measurements within the German Continental Deep Drilling Project (KTB) main borehole, which has been drilled entirely through crystalline rocks, mostly paragneisses and metabasites. The types of borehole instabilities observed were drilling-induced tensile fractures, breakouts, and convergence zones. These were strongly dominated by foliated, graphitic gneisses with sometimes very

G. Borm; B. Engeser; B. Hoffers; H. K. Kutter; C. Lempp

1997-01-01

350

Maine KIDS COUNT 2001 Data Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This KIDS COUNT data book details statewide trends in the well-being of Maine's children. The statistical portrait is based on a variety of indicators in the areas of: (1) physical and mental health; (2) social and economic opportunity; (3) education and learning; and (4) child health care access. The data book presents state level trend data, a…

Davey, Lynn

351

Maine Kids Count 2003 Data Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count data book details statewide trends in the well-being of Maine's children. The statistical portrait is based on indicators in the areas of physical and mental health, including insurance enrollment, adolescent health and safety, and child welfare; social and economic status, including poverty, unemployment, and teen pregnancies; and…

Jelcich, Susan, Ed.

352

Maine's Regional Library System: A History.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over time, the Regional Library Systems Act has succeeded in its aim to widen and improve access to library services for all Maine residents. Today, students in the smallest high schools and users of the most remote public libraries can plug into the resources of the largest public libraries in the state and draw on the services of their…

Woodward, Robert C.

353

The main magnetic field of Jupiter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main magnetic field of Jupiter has been measured by the Goddard Space Flight Center flux gate magnetometer on Pioneer 11, and analysis of the data yields a more detailed model than that obtained from Pioneer 10 results. In a spherical harmonic octupole representation the dipole term (with opposite polarity to earth's) has a magnitude of 4.28 G R\\/sub j\\/

Mario H. Acuna; Norman F. Ness

1976-01-01

354

Aboveground Tree Biomass Statistics for Maine: 1982.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A statistical report based on the third forest survey of Maine conducted in 1980-82. Results of the survey are displayed in 87 tables containing estimates of timberland area, timber volume, numbers of trees, and aboveground tree biomass. These estimates w...

A. M. Malley E. H. Wharton T. S. Frieswyk

1985-01-01

355

Results on Fermilab Main Injector Dipole measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of the productions run of Fermilab Main Injector Dipole magnets is underway. Redundant strength measurements provide a set of data which one can fit to mechanical and magnetic properties of the assembly. Plots of the field contribution from the steel supplement the usual plots of transfer function (B\\/I) vs I in providing insight into the measured results

B. C. Brown; R. Baiod; J. Dimarco; H. D. Glass; D. J. Harding; P. S. Martin; S. Mishra; A. Mokhtarani; D. F. Orris; A. D. Russell; J. C. Tompkins; D. G. C. Walbridge

1996-01-01

356

Salazar, Collins: Economic Benefits for Maine  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Secretary of the Interior Ken Salazar looks at plans for $8.3 million in projects at Acadia National Park funded under President Obama's economic recovery package that will bring jobs and economic growth to Maine. Left to right are Alan Goldstein, President of the Board of Directors for Acadia Partn...

2009-07-28

357

Profile of West Central Maine Nursing Homes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Long-term care services provided in three Maine counties as of August 1973 are described. Nursing homes in the counties of Androscoggin, Oxford, and Franklin were visited, and nursing home owners or administrators were interviewed. Five hospitals in the s...

1973-01-01

358

Geomagnetic main field modeling with DMSP  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) launches and maintains a network of satellites to monitor the meteorological, oceanographic, and solar-terrestrial physics environments. In the past decade, geomagnetic field modelers have focused much attention on magnetic measurements from missions such as CHAMP, Ørsted, and SAC-C. With the completion of the CHAMP mission in 2010, there has been a multiyear gap in satellite-based vector magnetic field measurements available for main field modeling. In this study, we calibrate the special sensor magnetometer instrument on board DMSP to create a data set suitable for main field modeling. These vector field measurements are calibrated to compute instrument timing shifts, scale factors, offsets, and nonorthogonality angles of the fluxgate magnetometer cores. Euler angles are then computed to determine the orientation of the vector magnetometer with respect to a local coordinate system. We fit a degree 15 main field model to the data set and compare with the World Magnetic Model and Ørsted scalar measurements. We call this model DMSP-MAG-1, and its coefficients and software are available for download at http://geomag.org/models/dmsp.html. Our results indicate that the DMSP data set will be a valuable source for main field modeling for the years between CHAMP and the recently launched Swarm mission.

Alken, P.; Maus, S.; Lühr, H.; Redmon, R. J.; Rich, F.; Bowman, B.; O'Malley, S. M.

2014-05-01

359

Maine KIDS COUNT 2002 Data Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This KIDS COUNT data book details statewide trends in the well-being of Maine's children. Following a brief overview of the data book and a summary of indicators, state trend data are presented in the areas of: (1) poverty; (2) child and adolescent suicide; (3) public high school dropouts; (4) teen pregnancy; (5) public high school graduates…

Maine Children's Alliance, Augusta.

360

Eutrophication in the Gulf of Maine's waters  

EPA Science Inventory

The Gulf of Maine and its watershed encompass more than 170,000 km2 and is home to over 6.5 million Canadians and Americans. Despite its long-standing importance to fisheries and natural resources and current interest in exploration of wind and tide as renewable energy sources, ...

361

Main Concepts of Chemical and Biological Sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Brief historic introduction precedes presentation of main types of transducers used in sensors including electrochemical, optical, mass sensitive, and thermal devices. Review of chemical sensors includes various types of gas sensitive devices, potentiometric and amperometric sensors, and quartz microbalance applications. Mechanisms of biorecognition employed in biosensors are reviewed with the method of immobilization used. Some examples of biomimetic sensors are also presented.

Trojanowicz, Marek

362

Maine Kids Count 1999 Data Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count Report details statewide trends in the well-being of Maine's children, with particular focus on child health care access. The statistical portrait is based on a variety of indicators in five areas: (1) child health care access; (2) physical and mental health; (3) community and family environment; (4) social and economic…

Maine Children's Alliance, Augusta.

363

Relations between demographic parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mean life-expectancy \\u000a describes the average prospective life-time of an individual aged zero. This parameter can be explicitly described in terms\\u000a of the survivorship distribution of the population. The Malthusian parameter r represents the asymptotic growth rate of a population. This parameter can be implicitly expressed in terms of the net-maternity\\u000a distribution. The parameters \\u000a and r incompletely incorporate the age-specific

Lloyd Demetrius

1979-01-01

364

Seismic moment ratio of aftershocks with respect to main shocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The empirical Båth's law indicates that the earthquake process is self-similar and provides an opportunity to estimate the magnitude of the largest aftershock subsequent to a main shock. However, the analysis of this relation is limited to a small magnitude range and also depends on the aftershock selection rules. As an alternative, we analyze, in this paper, the cumulative seismic moment of aftershocks relative to the main shock moment, because (i) it is a physical quantity that does not only take the largest aftershock into account; (ii) background activity can be considered and as a result estimations are less affected by selection rules; and (iii) the effects of the catalog cut-off magnitude can be corrected, what leads to larger magnitude range for the analysis. We analyze the global preliminary determination of epicenters U.S. Geological Society catalog (combined with centroid moment tensor focal mechanisms) and find that the seismic moment release of aftershocks is on average approximately 5% of the main shock seismic moment. We show that the results can be well fitted by simulations of the Epidemic Type Aftershock Sequence model. In particular, we test whether simulations constrained by predictions of the static stress-triggering model, proposing a break of self-similarity due to the finite seismogenic width, are in agreement with observations. Our analysis shows that the observed dependency on the main shock magnitude as well as systematic variations with the main shock fault plane solution can be both explained by the constraints based on the static stress triggering.

Zakharova, O.; Hainzl, S.; Bach, C.

2013-11-01

365

Influences of the guide bearing stiffness on the critical speed of rotation in the main shaft system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analysis is carried out on the natural vibration characteristics of the main shaft system of a hydro-turbine generating set. The critical speed of rotation in different orders are calculated based on simplified real parameters and the influences of different guide bearing stiffness on the critical speed are analyzed. The results show that the up guide bearing has little influence on the critical speed; however, the down and the water guide bearings strongly affect the critical speed and to a certain extent the "saturation" phenomenon happens; as all of these three bearings stiffness become larger at the same time, the critical speed also increases significantly. So it is necessary to consider the effect of the bearing stiffness when doing an estimation of the critical speed.

Bai, B.; Zhang, L. X.; Zhao, L.

2012-11-01

366

Orbital evolution of the main Uranian satellites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since Voyager 2 space mission, we know some properties of the main Uranian satellites (Miranda, Ariel, Umbriel, Titania, Oberon): on the one hand, we observe an important resurfacing of both Miranda and Ariel, and on the other hand some strangenesses in the orbital elements such as the anomalously high inclinaison of Miranda or the anomalously high eccentricity of Ariel. The aim of this study is to use some modern methods including advances in computing resources to revise some studies developed in the last 20 years (see for instance [1], [2], [3], [4]). We therefore consider a model of a n-body problem which takes into account of the mutual perturbations of the five main satellites and of the planet Uranus and meet/improve some previous results.

Verheylewegen, E.; Noyelles, B.

2011-10-01

367

Aftershock patterns and main shock faulting  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We have compared aftershock patterns following several moderate to large earthquakes with the corresponding distributions of coseismic slip obtained from previous analyses of the recorded strong ground motion and teleseismic waveforms. Our results are consistent with a hypothesis of aftershock occurrence that requires a secondary redistribution of stress following primary failure on the earthquake fault. Aftershocks followng earthquakes examined in this study occur mostly outside of or near the edges of the source areas indicated by the patterns of main shock slip. The spatial distribution of aftershocks reflects either a continuation of slip in the outer regions of the areas of maximum coseismic displacement or the activation of subsidiary faults within the volume surrounding the boundaries of main shock rupture. -from Authors

Mendoza, C.; Hartzell, S. H.

1988-01-01

368

The QWeak Experiment's Main Detector System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The QWeak experiment will determine the weak charge of the proton Qw^p to 4% accuracy by measuring the parity violating electron scattering asymmetry from a liquid Hydrogen target at a fixed Q^2. The Standard Model makes a precise prediction of the value of Qw^p, and as such makes it sensitive to new physics. QWeak's main detector subsystem is comprised of eight identical 2 m long quartz bar ?erenkov detectors that can operate in both integrating and counting configurations, depending on the task at hand. Where integrated detector yields are required to measure asymmetries, counting mode data acquisition is required in order to properly characterize detector performance as well as accurately measure momentum Q^2. A summary and status review of the main detectors will be discussed for each running mode.

MacEwan, Scott

2011-04-01

369

The Cassini Main Engine Assembly Cover Mechanism  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes a micrometeroid protection system for the main engines of the Cassini spacecraft. The engine Cover Assembly is a deployable/restowable half sphere of multilayer insulation mounted to an articulatable frame over 2 meters (7 feet) in diameter. The Cover folds into a compact wedge only 25 cm (10 inches) at its maximum thickness. The micrometeroid environment and typical protection methods are described as well as the design details and development problems of the Cover Mechanism Assembly.

Sevilla, Donald R.

1997-01-01

370

Neurological disorders presenting mainly in adolescence  

PubMed Central

The aim of this review is to discuss some of the neurological diseases that present mainly in the adolescent period. The article focuses on the usual presentation and course of the more common, and some uncommon, epilepsies, neuromuscular disorders, neurodegenerative disorders, inflammatory disorders of the central nervous system and some other, miscellaneous conditions. The article ends with a very brief and general discussion about management issues in this age group.

Macleod, S; Appleton, R E

2007-01-01

371

Dark current model for ILC main linac  

SciTech Connect

In the ILC Main Linac, the dark current electrons, generated in SRF cavity can be accelerated to hundreds of MeV before being kicked out by quadrupoles and thus will originate electromagnetic cascade showers in the surrounding materials. Some of the shower secondaries can return back into vacuum and be re-accelerated again. The preliminary results of simulation of the dark current generation in ILC cavity, its dynamics in linac are discussing in this paper.

Solyak, N.; Romanov, G.; Mokhov, N.V.; /Fermilab; Eidelman, Y.; /Novosibirsk, IYF; Tam, Wai-Ming; /Indiana U.

2008-06-01

372

Discontinuity in Jupiter's main auroral oval  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On the basis of a series of FUV Hubble Space Telescope images obtained between 1997 and 2007 it is shown that there is a segment of the main auroral oval where the emission drops significantly from a few hundreds to a few tens of kiloRayleigh, forming a discontinuity in the oval. It is shown that the discontinuity is present in both hemispheres and confined in magnetic local time. Its equatorial source is located in the prenoon and early noon sector. The main auroral oval is associated with the ionosphere-magnetosphere coupling current system which is related to the breakdown of corotation in the middle magnetosphere. Necessary for the electron precipitation in the ionosphere and the formation of the main auroral oval is the presence of upward field-aligned currents, carried by downward moving electrons. Field-aligned currents inferred by Pioneer, Voyager and Galileo in situ observations in the near equatorial plane showed evidence of reduced or/and downward field-aligned currents in the prenoon and early afternoon sector, the location of the equatorial source of the discontinuity. Additionally, we estimate the precipitation energy flux in the ionosphere, for a typical reduced upward field-aligned current value at that region, which is found to be within the range of the observed brightness of the discontinuity. Field aligned current distributions in the ionosphere based on magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the interaction between the solar wind and the magnetosphere have predicted a region of downward currents implying a discontinuity at the main auroral oval emission, in very good agreement with the HST observations presented in this work.

Radioti, A.; GéRard, J.-C.; Grodent, D.; Bonfond, B.; Krupp, N.; Woch, J.

2008-01-01

373

The Developing Patterns of Main Library Organization  

Microsoft Academic Search

%h , in all major main public libraries of subject departmentalization as a device for effectively bringing the patron and the material together. The development of departmentalization in public libraries into three major activities divisions-public services, technical services and ad- ministrative services-came early in Amer'can library history The ac- count of the development of departments y function (circul tion and

DAVID M. HENINGTON

374

Space shuttle main engine vibration data base  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to evaluate Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) vibration data without having to constantly replay analog tapes, the SSME Vibration Data Base was developed. This data base contains data that have been digitized at a high sample rate for the entire test duration. It provides quick and efficient recall capabilities for numerious computation and display routines. The data base components are described as well as some of the compution and display features.

Lewallen, Pat

1987-01-01

375

Coronary Anomalies: Left Main Coronary Artery Aneurysm  

PubMed Central

Coronary artery aneurysm is one of the rarest anomalies that we see in our medical practice and they are mostly associated with obstructive lesions due to atherosclerotic changes. Management of these aneurysm patients (conservative or surgical repair) usually depends on obstructive lesions and associated symptoms. We are presenting a case of left main aneurysm measuring around 14 × 28?mm with other obstructive leisons. It was treated with surgical repair in view of obstructive lesions and symptoms.

Varda, Rajsekhar; Chitimilla, Santosh Kumar; Lalani, Aslam

2012-01-01

376

El Paso automates main line compressor stations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports how an El Paso natural gas company has automated 27 compressor stations on its main line gas-transmission system, ahead of its 5-year schedule begun in 1984. The project involved the total automation (unmanned operation) of one reciprocating engine-driven compressor station and 21 turbine-driven compressor facilities; the semi-automation (computer-assisted operation) of six reciprocating engine-driven compressor stations; and the

Kind

1989-01-01

377

Space shuttle main engine plume radiation model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The methods are described which are used in predicting the thermal radiation received by space shuttles, from the plumes of the main engines. Radiation to representative surface locations were predicted using the NASA gaseous plume radiation GASRAD program. The plume model is used with the radiative view factor (RAVFAC) program to predict sea level radiation at specified body points. The GASRAD program is described along with the predictions. The RAVFAC model is also discussed.

Reardon, J. E.; Lee, Y. C.

1978-01-01

378

Left main aneurysm and what's next?  

PubMed Central

The purpose of the case report is to present a case of a 65-year-old male, referred for coronary angiography because of a typical chest pain. The coronary angiography showed an aneurysm of the left main coronary artery. Despite the absence of obvious ischemic symptoms and because of the potential complications of the aneurysm with a width of 15 mm, the patient underwent surgery.

Sciborski, Krzysztof; Drozdz, Donald; Negrusz-Kawecka, Marta; Mysiak, Andrzej

2014-01-01

379

[Total body irradiation: techniques and main indications].  

PubMed

The radiotherapy department at Salah Azaïz institute had started, in March 2000, a new sophisticated technique of irradiation consisting in total body irradiation (TBI). TBI is used in many preparative regimens before bone marrow transplantation in the treatment of haematological malignancies. TBI aims to destroy immunocompetent tissues in order to avoid graft rejection and to eradicate residual tumor cells. In this article, we review different TBI techniques and its main indications. We also describe the acute and late effects of TBI. PMID:16370205

Kochbati, Lotfi; Besbes, Mounir; Frikha, Hatem; Sellami, Dalila; Gargouri, Walid; Ben Ammar, Chiraz Nasr; Ben Aissia, Ridha; Benna, Farouk; Damak, Hedi; Maalej, Mongi

2005-10-01

380

The Maine coastal current: spring climatological circulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computational results are presented for the climatological circulation in the Gulf of Maine, with special emphasis on its coastal current in the periods March-April and May-June. The simulations use a 3-D prognostic Finite Element model. The computational domain includes the entire Gulf plus adjacent waters, with a higher resolution coastal domain nested within. A series of six bimonthly Gulf-wide simulations

Daniel R. Lynch; Monica J. Holboke; Christopher E. Naimie

1997-01-01

381

The Advanced Photon Source main control room  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory is a third-generation light source built in the 1990s. Like the machine itself, the Main Control Room (MCR) employs design concepts based on today`s requirements. The discussion will center on ideas used in the design of the MCR, the comfort of personnel using the design, and safety concerns integrated into the control room layout.

Pasky, S.

1998-07-01

382

Photogrammetric Analysis of CPAS Main Parachutes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Crew Exploration Vehicle Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) is being designed to land the Orion Crew Module (CM) at a safe rate of descent at splashdown with a cluster of two to three Main parachutes. The instantaneous rate of descent varies based on parachute fly-out angles and geometric inlet area. Parachutes in a cluster oscillate between significant fly-out angles and colliding into each other. The former presents a sub-optimal inlet area and the latter lowers the effective drag area as the parachutes interfere with each other. The fly-out angles are also important in meeting a twist torque requirement. Understanding cluster behavior necessitates measuring the Mains with photogrammetric analysis. Imagery from upward looking cameras is analyzed to determine parachute geometry. Fly-out angles are measured from each parachute vent to an axis determined from geometry. Determining the scale of the objects requires knowledge of camera and lens calibration as well as features of known size. Several points along the skirt are tracked to compute an effective circumference, diameter, and inlet area as a function of time. The effects of this geometry are clearly seen in the system drag coefficient time history. Photogrammetric analysis is key in evaluating the effects of design features such as an Over-Inflation Control Line (OICL), Main Line Length Ratio (MLLR), and geometric porosity, which are varied in an attempt to minimize cluster oscillations. The effects of these designs are evaluated through statistical analysis.

Ray, Eric; Bretz, David

2011-01-01

383

On the effects of subsurface parameters on evaporite dissolution (Switzerland)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Uncontrolled subsurface evaporite dissolution could lead to hazards such as land subsidence. Observed subsidences in a study area of Northwestern Switzerland were mainly due to subsurface dissolution (subrosion) of evaporites such as halite and gypsum. A set of 2D density driven flow simulations were evaluated along 1000 m long and 150 m deep 2D cross sections within the study area that is characterized by tectonic horst and graben structures. The simulations were conducted to study the effect of the different subsurface parameters that could affect the dissolution process. The heterogeneity of normal faults and its impact on the dissolution of evaporites is studied by considering several permeable faults that include non-permeable areas. The mixed finite element method (MFE) is used to solve the flow equation, coupled with the multipoint flux approximation (MPFA) and the discontinuous Galerkin method (DG) to solve the diffusion and the advection parts of the transport equation.

Zidane, Ali; Zechner, Eric; Huggenberger, Peter; Younes, Anis

2014-05-01

384

Factors which affect the erosion of solids by liquid impact.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The factors which affect the erosion of solids by liquid impact are considered. The nature of contaminated surfaces is described and the effect on the erosion rate (on non-active lead coupons) of varying jetting parameters is illustrated. Recommendations ...

M. A. Gugan

1990-01-01

385

Factors That Affect Generation of Collant Mists, December 14, 1998.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goal of this research was to characterize the mist formation process. The salient machining and metalworking fluid parameters affecting the mist generation rate and size distribution of each mist formation mechanism were identified. Empirical equation...

D. Leith J. Thornburg

1998-01-01

386

Parameter Sensitivity Visualization for DTI Fiber Tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—Fiber tracking of Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) data offers a unique,insight into the three-dimensional organisation,of white matter structures in the living brain. However, fiber tracking algorithms require a number of user-defined input parameters that strongly affect the output results. Usually the fiber tracking parameters,are set once and are then re-used for several patient datasets. However, the stability of the chosen

Ralph Brecheisen; Anna Vilanova; Bram Platel; Bart M. Ter Haar Romeny

2009-01-01

387

Distillation tray structural parameter study: Phase 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose here is to identify the structural parameters (plate thickness, liquid level, beam size, number of beams, tray diameter, etc.) that affect the structural integrity of distillation trays in distillation columns. Once the sensitivity of the trays' dynamic response to these parameters has been established, the designer will be able to use this information to prepare more accurate specifications for the construction of new trays. Information is given on both static and dynamic analysis, modal response, and tray failure details.

Winter, J. Ronald

1991-01-01

388

The fossilized size distribution of the main asteroid belt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Planet formation models suggest the primordial main belt experienced a short but intense period of collisional evolution shortly after the formation of planetary embryos. This period is believed to have lasted until Jupiter reached its full size, when dynamical processes (e.g., sweeping resonances, excitation via planetary embryos) ejected most planetesimals from the main belt zone. The few planetesimals left behind continued to undergo comminution at a reduced rate until the present day. We investigated how this scenario affects the main belt size distribution over Solar System history using a collisional evolution model (CoEM) that accounts for these events. CoEM does not explicitly include results from dynamical models, but instead treats the unknown size of the primordial main belt and the nature/timing of its dynamical depletion using innovative but approximate methods. Model constraints were provided by the observed size frequency distribution of the asteroid belt, the observed population of asteroid families, the cratered surface of differentiated Asteroid (4) Vesta, and the relatively constant crater production rate of the Earth and Moon over the last 3 Gyr. Using CoEM, we solved for both the shape of the initial main belt size distribution after accretion and the asteroid disruption scaling law QD?. In contrast to previous efforts, we find our derived QD? function is very similar to results produced by numerical hydrocode simulations of asteroid impacts. Our best fit results suggest the asteroid belt experienced as much comminution over its early history as it has since it reached its low-mass state approximately 3.9-4.5 Ga. These results suggest the main belt's wavy-shaped size-frequency distribution is a "fossil" from this violent early epoch. We find that most diameter D?120 km asteroids are primordial, with their physical properties likely determined during the accretion epoch. Conversely, most smaller asteroids are byproducts of fragmentation events. The observed changes in the asteroid spin rate and lightcurve distributions near D˜100-120 km are likely to be a byproduct of this difference. Estimates based on our results imply the primordial main belt population (in the form of D<1000 km bodies) was 150-250 times larger than it is today, in agreement with recent dynamical simulations.

Bottke, William F.; Durda, Daniel D.; Nesvorný, David; Jedicke, Robert; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Vokrouhlický, David; Levison, Hal

2005-05-01

389

Toward Affective Education: A Guide to Developing Affective Learning Objectives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide was designed to assist the educator in designing and implementing a program in affective education by introducing him to affective education, attempting to make him feel comfortable with it, and enabling him to improve his skills in the affective domain. The first chapter introduces the affective domain, discusses its importance, and…

Forsyth, Alfred S., Jr.; Gammel, J. D.

390

Multi-machine comparison of drift fluid dimensionless parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The behaviour of the turbulence in magnetic fusion plasmas is discussed in the framework of dimensional analysis. Three main dimensionless parameters are identified, which directly affect the adiabatic response of the plasma and hence control the electron response. They were originally introduced by Scott (1997 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 39 1635) and Rogers and Drake (1997 Phys. Rev. Lett. 79 229), and represent the effect of the electromagnetic induction, collisions and electron inertia. The dimensionless parameters are then evaluated at different radial positions in four existing divertor machines (ALCATOR C-MOD, ASDEX-Upgrade, JET and MAST) and in three future experiments (MAST-Upgrade, ITER and DEMO). Clear multi-machine trends, suggesting a quasi-universal behaviour of the plasma, are identified and discussed. Exploiting this quasi-universality, useful insight into the physics of the machines is obtained without complex calculations or expensive numerical simulations. In particular, the trends show a clear separation of the plasma in four distinct regions: core, edge, scrape-off layer and divertor, each of them characterized by a different set of parameters which, in turn, lead to significant variation of the dominant physical mechanisms across the machine.

Militello, F.; Fundamenski, W.

2011-09-01

391

Ventspils Radiotelescopes: History, Parameters, Possibilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After the withdrawal of the Russian army from Latvia, two fully steerable parabolic antennae of 32 m and 16 m in diameter were left near Ventspils, a port town on the shore of the Baltic sea. They have high surface accuracy and work in the centimeter and millimeter ranges. Their main mechanical and radiotechnical parameters, for example, a sensitivity of about 3--35 mJy in a wavelength range of 1--10 cm, allow their use as powerful middle class radiotelescopes for investigations of various cosmic radio sources. The antennae are open to international cooperation.

Balklavs, A.

392

Cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome.  

PubMed

There has been persistent uncertainty as to whether lesions of the cerebellum are associated with clinically significant disturbances of behavior and cognition. To address this question, 20 patients with diseases confined to the cerebellum were studied prospectively over a 7-year period and the nature and severity of the changes in neurological and mental function were evaluated. Neurological examination, bedside mental state testing, neuropsychological studies, and anatomic neuroimaging were administered at the time of presentation and during follow-up assessments. Behavioral changes were clinically prominent in patients with lesions involving the posterior lobe of the cerebellum and the vermis and, in some cases, overwhelmed other aspects of the presentation. These changes were characterized by an impairment of working memory, planning, set shifting, verbal fluency, abstract reasoning, and perseveration; visual-spatial disorganization, visual memory deficits, and logical sequencing; and a bland or frankly inappropriate affect. Lesions of the anterior lobe of the cerebellum produced only minor changes in executive and visual-spatial functions. This newly defined clinical entity is called the cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome. The constellation of deficits is suggestive of disruption of the cerebellar modulation of neural circuits than link frontal, parietal, temporal, and limbic cortices with the cerebellum. PMID:9378601

Schmahmann, J D; Sherman, J C

1997-01-01

393

Main Belt Comets: Ice in the Inner Solar System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main-belt comets (MBCs) (133P/Elst-Pizarro, P/2005 U1 (Read), and 176P/Linear) are defined by being simultaneously cometary in appearance and dynamically asteroidal, i.e. with low-inclination, nearly circular orbits in the main asteroid belt and Tisserand parameter values of TJ>3. Their orbits appear stable, are very unlikely to have resulted from the capture of comets from the other known (Jupiter family, Halley family, or long period) populations, and are probably primordial. Besides further blurring classical distinctions between asteroids and comets, the existence of the MBCs lends new support to the idea that main-belt objects could have been a major source of terrestrial water and offers new opportunities to investigate that idea. We will discuss the observations that led to the identification of this new class, the properties of the currently known MBCs, and the implications of this new find for future studies of small solar system bodies. This work has been published in Hsieh & Jewitt (2006), available at http://www.ifa.hawaii.edu/ hsieh/mbcs.html.

Hsieh, Henry H.; Jewitt, D.

2006-09-01

394

Multiple-coincidence of flood waves on the main river and its tributaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper addresses the definition of multiple coincidences of flood waves on the main river and its tributaries. Contrary to previous studies of partial coincidences of various flood parameters (Prohaska 1999) for the main river and one of its tributaries, this procedure allows for the definition of complex (multiple) coincidences of a single parameter for the main river and several of its tributaries. In particular, coincidence is defined for the major parameter which characterizes a flood (i.e., the flood wave volume). The paper gives a practical example of the analysis of simultaneous flood waves on the Danube and its main tributaries in Serbia: the Tisa and the Sava rivers. The procedure for potential use of the established coincidence functions in applied water management and forecasting is also described in the paper.

Prohaska, S.; Ilic, A.; Majkic, B.

2008-11-01

395

Main Chamber and Preburner Injector Technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document reports the experimental and analytical research carried out at the Penn State Propulsion Engineering Research Center in support of NASA's plan to develop advanced technologies for future single stage to orbit (SSTO) propulsion systems. The focus of the work is on understanding specific technical issues related to bi-propellant and tri-propellant thrusters. The experiments concentrate on both cold flow demonstrations and hot-fire uni-element tests to demonstrate concepts that can be incorporated into hardware design and development. The analysis is CFD-based and is intended to support the design and interpretation of the experiments and to extrapolate findings to full-scale designs. The research is divided into five main categories that impact various SSTO development scenarios. The first category focuses on RP-1/gaseous hydrogen (GH2)/gaseous oxygen (GO2) tri-propellant combustion with specific emphasis on understanding the benefits of hydrogen addition to RP-1/oxygen combustion and in developing innovative injector technology. The second category investigates liquid oxygen (LOX)/GH2 combustion at main chamber near stoichiometric conditions to improve understanding of existing LOX/GH2 rocket systems. The third and fourth categories investigate the technical issues related with oxidizer-rich and fuel-rich propulsive concepts, issues that are necessary for developing the full-flow engine cycle. Here, injector technology issues for both LOX/GH2 and LOX/RP-1 propellants are examined. The last category, also related to the full-flow engine cycle, examines injector technology needs for GO2/GH2 propellant combustion at near-stoichiometric conditions for main chamber application.

Santoro, Robert J.; Merkle, Charles L.

1999-01-01

396

Coccolithophores in the Gulf of Maine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Earlier this summer, trillions of calcite (limestone) coated phytoplankton, known as coccolithophores, appeared in the waters off the coast of Maine. This true color image of the coccolithophore bloom was acquired on July 11, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The bloom is the large bluish-green patch in the center of the image in the Gulf of Maine. Unlike any other plant in the ocean, coccolithophores surround themselves with microscopic plating made of calcite. These scales, known as coccoliths, are shaped like hubcaps and are only three one-thousandths of a millimeter in diameter. What coccoliths lack in size, they make up in volume. At any one time a single coccolithophore is attached to or surrounded by at least 30 scales. Additional coccoliths are dumped into the water when the coccolithophores multiply asexually, die or simply make too many scales. In areas with trillions of coccolithophores, the waters will turn an opaque turquoise from the dense cloud of coccoliths. (Click to read more about coccolithophores.) Though there are always coccoliths in the Gulf of Maine, the area hasn't seen a bloom like this one since 1989. Currently, NASA researchers are studying the bloom aboard a ferry in the gulf in an attempt to measure the bloom's density and depth. So far the bloom appears to be about 20 to 25 meters thick and contains nearly half a million tons of calcite. Image by Jesse Allen, NASA Earth Observatory; Data courtesy MODIS Land Rapid Response Team

2002-01-01

397

Focus cues affect perceived depth  

PubMed Central

Depth information from focus cues—accommodation and the gradient of retinal blur—is typically incorrect in three-dimensional (3-D) displays because the light comes from a planar display surface. If the visual system incorporates information from focus cues into its calculation of 3-D scene parameters, this could cause distortions in perceived depth even when the 2-D retinal images are geometrically correct. In Experiment 1 we measured the direct contribution of focus cues to perceived slant by varying independently the physical slant of the display surface and the slant of a simulated surface specified by binocular disparity (binocular viewing) or perspective/texture (monocular viewing). In the binocular condition, slant estimates were unaffected by display slant. In the monocular condition, display slant had a systematic effect on slant estimates. Estimates were consistent with a weighted average of slant from focus cues and slant from disparity/texture, where the cue weights are determined by the reliability of each cue. In Experiment 2, we examined whether focus cues also have an indirect effect on perceived slant via the distance estimate used in disparity scaling. We varied independently the simulated distance and the focal distance to a disparity-defined 3-D stimulus. Perceived slant was systematically affected by changes in focal distance. Accordingly, depth constancy (with respect to simulated distance) was significantly reduced when focal distance was held constant compared to when it varied appropriately with the simulated distance to the stimulus. The results of both experiments show that focus cues can contribute to estimates of 3-D scene parameters. Inappropriate focus cues in typical 3-D displays may therefore contribute to distortions in perceived space.

Watt, Simon J.; Akeley, Kurt; Ernst, Marc O.; Banks, Martin S.

2007-01-01

398

Slip stacking experiments at Fermilab main injector  

SciTech Connect

In order to achieve an increase in proton intensity, Fermilab Main Injector will use a stacking process called ''slip stacking''. The intensity will be doubled by injecting one train of bunches at a slightly lower energy, another at a slightly higher energy, then bringing them together for the final capture. Beam studies have started for this process and we have already verified that, at least for a low beam intensity, the stacking procedure works as expected. For high intensity operation, development work of the feedback and feedforward systems is under way.

Kiyomi Koba et al.

2003-06-02

399

Space Shuttle Main Engine Public Test Firing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new NASA Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) roars to the approval of more than 2,000 people who came to John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., on July 25 for a flight-certification test of the SSME Block II configuration. The engine, a new and significantly upgraded shuttle engine, was delivered to NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida for use on future shuttle missions. Spectators were able to experience the 'shake, rattle and roar' of the engine, which ran for 520 seconds - the length of time it takes a shuttle to reach orbit.

2000-01-01

400

TNG main axes motion control progress report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The TNG is an Italian 3.6 m Alt-Az telescope installed in La Palma, Canary Island. The drive and control system of the main axes is working since October, 1997. It has been used for some months to support the installation of optics and other mechanical subsystems. Since June, 1998 the control system is integrate in the overall TNG informatic environment. In 1998 TNG has seen its first light. After the installation of the rotator drive system and of the Nasmyth 'A' focus instrumentation, the TNG telescope project is in advanced optimization phase. This paper reports the recent updates in TNG axes motion control and the last most significant results.

Mancini, Dario; Schipani, Pietro

1999-09-01

401

Solar Orbiter - main goals and present status  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ESA's Solar Orbiter will be launched in 2014. Its main goals and present status are briefly described. Solar Orbiter will determine in-situ the properties of fields and particles in the unexplored near-Sun heliosphere in three dimensions, investigate remotely the fine-scale structures and events in the magnetically coupled layers of the Sun's atmosphere, identify through corotation the links between activity on the Sun's surface and the resulting evolution of the inner heliosphere, and observe from high latitudes the Sun's polar regions and equatorial corona. Some results from recent activities, such as industrial studies, payload working group meetings, science definition team meetings and ESA internal studies are shortly reviewed.

Marsch, E.

402

Gulf of Maine Marine Habitat Primer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This book provides an overview of the Gulf of Maine's coastal and offshore habitats for resource managers and other coastal decision-makers in government, Non-Government Organizations (NGOs), and the private sector. Illustrated with color photographs and drawings, the primer describes habitat characteristics, ecological functions, economic and recreational values, human impacts, and management considerations. It is intended as a tool for resource managers, planners, legislators, conservation commissioners, NGO staff members, and other people seeking a better understanding of marine habitats from Massachusetts to Nova Scotia. The book is available in six downloadable sections, or it can be ordered as a hard copy.

403

Enhancing the particle swarm optimizer via proper parameters selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unlike many other computational intelligence techniques, the particle swarm optimizer (PSO) has few parameters to tune. However, properly chosen values for these parameters can positively affect the accuracy of the obtained results as well as the time consumed during the search process. Many parameters have been added to the originally developed PSO to modify or to improve the performance of

A. El-Gallad; M. El-Hawary; A. Sallam; A. Kalas

2002-01-01

404

Preliminary Modeling of Two-Phase Flow at the Main Endeavour Vent Field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The high temperature hydrothermal vents of Main Endeavour Field (MEF), Juan de Fuca ridge exhibited quasi-steady North-South trending spatial gradients of both temperature and salinity for more than a decade before a magmatic event changed the vent characteristics. In order to explain these observations, we construct two-dimensional numerical models of two-phase hydrothermal flow of the MEF. We consider both along-axis and across-axis simulations, taking into account the vent field geometry and incorporating various parameters, such as different basal temperature distributions and permeability structures that might affect the vent fluid temperature and chemistry. Preliminary results from across-axis models, in which the basal temperature decreases linearly away from the ridge axis and results in a single high-temperature plume, indicate that basal temperature alone does not affect steady-state vent temperature and salinity of the vents. Simulations that include the presence of a high-permeability extrusive layer 2A atop the spreading ridge results in a zone of narrower and lower temperature venting. The effect of a low permeability zone of anhydrite would tend to mitigate the decrease in temperature, however. Along-axis simulations performed to date, with an extended uniform high temperature basal boundary, produce multiple plumes; but the plumes do not exhibit a strong along-axis gradient in vent salinity or temperature as observed at the MEF. These preliminary results suggest that the observed N-S gradient in temperature and salinity at MEF reflects interplay between heat source and either near the surface or deep-seated heterogeneous permeability structures. Three-dimensional simulations might ultimately be required to understand hydrothermal circulation at the MEF.

Singh, S.; Lowell, R. P.

2011-12-01

405

Ring Current Development During Storm Main Phase  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of the ring current ions in the inner magnetosphere during the main phase of a magnetic storm is studied. The temporal and spatial evolution of the ion phase space densities in a dipole field are calculated using a three dimensional ring current model, considering charge exchange and Coulomb losses along drift paths. The simulation starts with a quiet time distribution. The model is tested by comparing calculated ion fluxes with Active Magnetospheric Particle Tracer Explorers/CCE measurement during the storm main phase on May 2, 1986. Most of the calculated omnidirectional fluxes are in good agreement with the data except on the dayside inner edge (L less than 2.5) of the ring current, where the ion fluxes are underestimated. The model also reproduces the measured pitch angle distributions of ions with energies below 10 keV. At higher energy, an additional diffusion in pitch angle is necessary in order to fit the data. The role of the induced electric field on the ring current dynamics is also examined by simulating a series of substorm activities represented by stretching and collapsing the magnetic field lines. In response to the impulsively changing fields, the calculated ion energy content fluctuates about a mean value that grows steadily with the enhanced quiescent field.

Fok, Mei-Ching; Moore, Thomas E.; Greenspan, Marian E.

1996-01-01

406

Forensic entomology and main challenges in Brazil.  

PubMed

Apart from an early case report from China (13th century), the first observations on insects and other arthropods as forensic indicators were documented in Germany and France during mass exhumations in the 1880s by Reinhard, who is considered a co-founder of the discipline. After the French publication of Mégnin's popular book on the applied aspects of forensic entomology, the concept quickly spread to Canada and United States. At that time, researchers recognized that the lack of systematic observations of insects of forensic importance jeopardized their use as indicators of postmortem interval. General advances in insect taxonomy and ecology helped to fill this gap over the following decades. After World Wars, few forensic entomology cases were reported in the scientific literature. From 1960s to the 1980s, Leclercq and Nuorteva were primarily responsible for maintaining the method in Central Europe, reporting isolated cases. Since then, basic research in the USA, Russia and Canada opened the way to the routine use of Entomology in forensic investigations. Identifications of insects associated with human cadavers are relatively few in the literature of the Neotropical region and have received little attention in Brazil. This article brings an overview of historic developments in this field, the recent studies and the main problems and challenges in South America and mainly in Brazil. PMID:17352063

Gomes, Leonardo; Von Zuben, Cláudio J

2006-01-01

407

[Obesity in adolescence and its main determinants].  

PubMed

The objective of this paper was to discuss the main environmental factors determining overweight and obesity in adolescents, based on a critical review of the subject. The main national and international health databases, Medline/PubMed, Web of Science, SciELO, and Lilacs were searched including publications from 1975 to 2009. The following key-words and respective MeSH terms were used: "overweight", "obesity", "adolescence", "adolescents", "physical activity", "food intake". The findings showed that changes in dietary patterns in recent decades as the increased consumption of simple sugars, processed foods, and inadequate intake of fruits and vegetables have contributed directly to the weight gain in this population. In addition, the progressive reduction in physical activity associated with increased time spent with low-intensity activities like television viewing, playing computer and video games has contributed to the weight gain of adolescents. In conclusion, variables related to dietary pattern and physical activity should be prioritized interventions directed toward the prevention of obesity among adolescents. PMID:20683564

Enes, Carla Cristina; Slater, Betzabeth

2010-03-01

408

Observed and Predicted Pier Scour in Maine  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Pier-scour and related data were collected and analyzed for nine high river flows at eight bridges across Maine from 1997 through 2001. Six bridges had multiple piers. Fifteen of 23 piers where data were measured during a high flow had observed maximum scour depths ranging from 0.5 feet (ft) to 12.0 ft. No pier scour was observed at the remaining eight piers. The maximum predicted pier-scour depths associated with the 23 piers were computed using the equations in the Federal Highway Administration's Hydraulic Engineering Circular number 18 (HEC-18), with data collected for this study. The predicted HEC-18 maximum pier-scour depths were compared to the observed maximum pier-scour depths. The HEC-18 pier-scour equations are intended to be envelope equations, ideally never underpredicting scour depths and not appreciably overpredicting them. The HEC-18 pier-scour equations performed well for rivers in Maine. Twenty-two out of 23 pier-scour depths were overpredicted by 0.7 ft to 18.3 ft. One pier-scour depth was underpredicted by 4.5 ft. For one pier at each of two bridges, large amounts of debris lodged on the piers after high-flow measurements were made at those sites. The scour associated with the debris increased the maximum pier-scour depths by about 5 ft in each case.

Hodgkins, Glenn A.; Lombard, Pamela J.

2002-01-01

409

Are the main belt comets, comets?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the visible spectrum of asteroid-comet transition object 133P/Elst-Pizarro (7968), the first member of the new population of objects called Main Belt Comets (Hsieh & Jewitt 2006). The spectrum was obtained with the 4.2m William Herschel Telescope at the “Roque de los Muchachos” observatory. The orbital elements of 133P place it within the Themis collisional family, but the observed cometary activity during it last 3 perihelion passages also suggest a possible origin in the trans-Neptunian belt or the Oort Cloud, the known sources of comets. We found a clear similarity between our spectrum of 133P and those of other members of the Themis family such as 62 Erato, and a strong contrast with those of cometary nuclei, such as 162P/Siding-Spring. This spectral comparison leads us to conclude that 133P is unlikely to have a cometary origin. This conclusion is strengthened by spectral similarities with activated near-Earth asteroid 3200 Phaethon, and suggest that there are activated asteroids in the near-Earth asteroid and main belt populations with similar surface properties.

Licandro, Javier; Campins, Humberto

410

Factors Affecting Wound Healing  

PubMed Central

Wound healing, as a normal biological process in the human body, is achieved through four precisely and highly programmed phases: hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. For a wound to heal successfully, all four phases must occur in the proper sequence and time frame. Many factors can interfere with one or more phases of this process, thus causing improper or impaired wound healing. This article reviews the recent literature on the most significant factors that affect cutaneous wound healing and the potential cellular and/or molecular mechanisms involved. The factors discussed include oxygenation, infection, age and sex hormones, stress, diabetes, obesity, medications, alcoholism, smoking, and nutrition. A better understanding of the influence of these factors on repair may lead to therapeutics that improve wound healing and resolve impaired wounds.

Guo, S.; DiPietro, L.A.

2010-01-01

411

[The main directions in case of polyarthritis].  

PubMed

The polyarthritis is a relatively frequent situation which can translate a whole set of diverse and varied etiologies. A careful history and physica examination are key to accurate diagnosis of polyarthritis: the context, the topography of the articular involvement, the existence of general signs and extra-articular signs are crucial. It is advisable first of all to eliminate the infectious disease especially in case of fever (endocarditis). It is also necessary to look for a microcrystalline arthritis (gout, chondrocalcinosis) which the treatment justifies specific measures. Once these spread diagnoses, we can envisage an inflammatory rheumatism chronic and first of all, a rheumatoid arthritis (symmetric bilateral polyarthritis affecting hands and respecting distal interphalangeal joints). The rheumatoid arthritis is an urgency diagnosis: it requires an early, specialized, individualized and multidisciplinary care. The rapid institution of a disease-modifying antirheumatic drug can allow obtain a remission, mproves clinical outcomes and reduces the accrual of joint damage and disability. PMID:23227598

Gaujoux-Viala, Cécile

2012-10-01

412

A kaon physics program at the Fermialb Main Injector  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we describe a triad of kaon experiments which will form the foundation of a kaon physics program at Fermilab in the Main Injector era. These three experiments; KAMI, CKM and CPT, span the range of experiment types discussed above. KAMI will use the existing neutral kaon beam and the KTeV detector as the basis of a search for the Standard Model ultra rare decay K{sub L} {yields} {pi}{sup 0}{nu}{anti {nu}} decay mode is by far the theoretically cleanest measurement of the Standard Model parameter responsible for CP violation. CKM will measure the analogous charged kaon decay mode. Together these two experiments will determine the Standard Model contribution to CP violation independent of the B meson sector. The Standard Model parameters controlling CP violation must be observed to be the same in the K and B meson sectors in order to confirm the Standard Model as the sole source of CP violation in nature. CPT is a hybrid beam experiment using a high purity K{sup +} beam to produce a pure K{sub 0} beam in order to search for violation of CPT symmetry at a mass scale up to the Planck mass. CPT also will measure new CP violation parameters to test the Standard Model and search for rare K{sub S} decays. The Fermilab infrastructure for such a physics program largely already exists. The Main Injector will be an existing accelerator by late 1998 with beam properties comparable to any of the previous ``kaon factory`` proposals. The KTeV detector and neutral kaon beamline are unsurpassed in the world and were originally designed to also operate with the 120 GeV Main Injector beam as KAMI. The Fermilab Meson laboratory was originally designed as an area for fixed target experiments using 200 GeV proton beams. The charged kaon beam experiments will naturally find a home there. Both charged kaon experiments, CKM and CPT, will share a new high purity RF separated charged kaon beam based on superconducting RF technology which will provide the highest intensity and purity charged kaon beam in the world.

Cooper, Peter

1997-11-01

413

Will the Real Meaning of Affect Please Stand Up?  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is widely believed that affect plays an important role in risk perception, and that such perception is mainly governed by emotional processes. However, upon closer scrutiny it turns out that the belief is based on weak empirical evidence, if the words affect and emotion are interpreted according to their dominating meanings in natural language, and to common usage in

Lennart Sjöberg

2006-01-01

414

Factors affecting phenol transfer through polydimethylsiloxane composite membrane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polydimethylsiloxane composite membrane was employed for the separation of phenol and sodium chloride in synthetic wastewater. The major operational parameters affecting phenol transfer through this composite membrane were screened by the orthogonal array and range analysis. The results showed that the significance of parameters on the permeate flux followed the order of phenol concentration, membrane skin layer thickness, recirculation rate,

Mao-Sung Lee; Chihpin Huang; Kueir-Rarn Lee; Jill R. Pan; Wang-Kuan Chang

2008-01-01

415

Main-Sequence Star Populations in the Virgo Overdensity Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present deep color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) for two Subaru Suprime-Cam fields in the Virgo Stellar Stream (VSS)/Virgo Overdensity (VOD) and compare them to a field centered on the highest concentration of Sagittarius (Sgr) Tidal Stream stars in the leading arm, Branch A of the bifurcation. A prominent population of main-sequence stars is detected in all three fields and can be traced as faint as g ? 24 mag. Using theoretical isochrone fitting, we derive an age of 9.1^{+1.0}_{-1.1} Gyr, a median abundance of [Fe/H] = -0.70^{+0.15}_{-0.20} dex, and a heliocentric distance of 30.9 ± 3.0 kpc for the main sequence of the Sgr Stream Branch A. The dominant main-sequence populations in the two VSS/VOD fields (?? ? 265°, B ? ? 13°) are located at a mean distance of 23.3 ± 1.6 kpc and have an age of ~8.2 Gyr, and an abundance of [Fe/H] = -0.67^{+0.16}_{-0.12} dex, similar to the Sgr Stream stars. These statistically robust parameters, derived from the photometry of 260 main-sequence stars, are also in good agreement with the age of the main population in the Sgr dwarf galaxy (8.0 ± 1.5 Gyr). They also agree with the peak in the metallicity distribution of 2-3 Gyr old M giants, [Fe/H] ?-0.6 dex, in the Sgr north leading arm. We then compare the results from the VSS/VOD fields with the Sgr Tidal Stream model by Law & Majewski based on a triaxial Galactic halo shape that is empirically calibrated with Sloan Digital Sky Survey Sgr A-branch and Two Micron All Sky Survey M-giant stars. We find that the most prominent feature in the CMDs, the main-sequence population at 23 kpc, is not explained by the model. Instead the model predicts in these directions a low-density filamentary structure of Sgr debris stars at ~9 kpc and a slightly higher concentration of Sgr stars spread over a heliocentric distance range of 42-53 kpc. At best there is only marginal evidence for the presence of these populations in our data. Our findings then suggest that while there are probably some Sgr debris stars present, the dominant stellar population in the VOD originates from a different halo structure that has an almost identical age and metallicity as some sections of the Sgr tidal stream. Based on data collected at Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.

Jerjen, H.; Da Costa, G. S.; Willman, B.; Tisserand, P.; Arimoto, N.; Okamoto, S.; Mateo, M.; Saviane, I.; Walsh, S.; Geha, M.; Jordán, A.; Olszewski, E.; Walker, M.; Zoccali, M.; Kroupa, P.

2013-05-01

416

Main Belt Asteroids: Present and Future Inventory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is difficult to derive a precise inventory of the asteroids present in the main belt. This is due to the fact that a large fraction of the existing bodies have not been detected due to their faint apparent magnitudes. On the other hand, recent advances in asteroid science allow us to make more reliable estimates of the magnitude at which the available sample is nearly complete, and on the real trend of the underlying asteroid size distribution. The very important role played by asteroid families is extensively analyzed and discussed. Family members appear to dominate the asteroid population at small sizes, as impressively shown by some quantitative predictions of what will be the appearance of the asteroid inventory in the future. The importance of this conclusion from the point of view the asteroid collisional evolution is also discussed.

Zappala, V.; Cellino, A.

417

Heavy hydrocarbon main injector technology program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Heavy Hydrocarbon Main Injector Program was an analytical, design, and test program to demonstrate an injection concept applicable to an Isolated Combustion Compartment of a full-scale, high pressure, LOX/RP-1 engine. Several injector patterns were tested in a 3.4-in. combustor. Based on these results, features of the most promising injector design were incorporated into a 5.7-in. injector which was then hot-fire tested. In turn, a preliminary design of a 5-compartment 2D combustor was based on this pattern. Also the additional subscale injector testing and analysis was performed with an emphasis on improving analytical techniques and acoustic cavity design methodology. Several of the existing 3.5-in. diameter injectors were hot-fire tested with and without acoustic cavities for spontaneous and dynamic stability characteristics.

Arbit, H. A.; Tuegel, L. M.; Dodd, F. E.

1991-01-01

418

Main requirements for extra terrestrial sample preservation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Returning extraterrestrial samples on Earth for scientific investigations imposes to comply with two major requirements: - At first, COSPAR Planetary Protection recommendations ask for the protectionof Earth biosphere and consequently to be sure, before the release of samples tothe scientific community, that no risk exis t, particularly biohazard. - Secondly, the sample properties must be preserved in order to ensure thevalidity of scientific results. The preservation of such samples is not limited tothe curation facility design and working conditions, and is also not limited tocleanliness, but begins with the design of spacecrafts and probes and has to betaken into account at every level of the project development and during thewhole mission. The paper will describe the main requirements for planetary protection and sample preservation in order particularly to point out that project teams need clear scientific specifications very early in the development and the design of a sample return mission.

Debus, A.

419

[The hand: embryology and main malformative mechanisms].  

PubMed

Upper limb bud appears in the cervical region of the embryo during the fifth week of development. It is made of epithelia and underlying mesenchyme. Diffusible growth factors, expressed by the apical ectodermal ridge, direct the proximal-distal growth. Other factors are expressed by zone of polarizing activity and ectoderm. They induce together anterior-posterior growth and dorsal-ventral polarity of the limb bud. The development of axial skeleton pattern is controlled by transcription factors from the HOX family, which are expressed in a stripe along the proximal and distal edges of the limb bud. Embryologic mechanisms of the main hand malformations are described, as well as their known genetic or mechanical aetiologies. PMID:18838286

Perrin, J; Geoffroy-Siraudin, C; Metzler-Guillemain, C

2008-12-01

420

Snapshot digitizer system for Fermilab main accelerator  

SciTech Connect

The snapshot digitizer system is becoming an important diagnostic tool for the Fermilab main accelerator. This high speed data acquisition system operates at 53 MHz. Inputs to the system are various beam processors whose analog outputs may be digitized and stored in any combination of groupings; i.e. diagnostic mode, starting on any of the 1113 bunches, digitizing 1-1113 sequential bunches, with anywhere from 1-9999 turns around the 4 mile accelerator between digitizations. The system can be gated on at any point of the machine cycle. A description is given of the hardware and timing necessary for the system to operate. Figure 1 is the system block diagram. 3 refs.

Pasquinelli, R.J.

1981-06-01

421

Space shuttle main engine digital controller  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The controller provides responsive control of engine thrust and mixture ratio through the digital computer in the controller, updating the instructions to the engine control elements 50 times per second (every 20 milliseconds). Additionally, precise engine performance is achieved through closed loop control, utilizing 16 bit computation, 10 bit input/output resolution, and self calibrating analog-to-digital conversion. Engine reliability is enhanced by a dual redundant control system that allows normal operation after the first failure and a fail-safe shutdown after a second failure. The digital computer is programmable, allowing modification of engine control equations and constants by change of the stored program (software). The controller is packaged in a sealed, pressurized chassis with cooling provided by convection heat transfer through pin fins as part of the main chassis. The electronics are distributed on functional modules having special provisions for thermal and vibrational protection.

Mitchell, W. T.

1980-01-01

422

National Launch System Space Transportation Main Engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present liquid-oxygen/liquid-hydrogen engine is described as meeting the specific requirements of the National Launch System (NLS) Program including cost-effectiveness and robustness. An overview of the NLS and its objectives is given which indicates that the program aims to develop a flexible launch system to meet security, civil, and commercial needs. The Space Transportation Main Engine (STME) provides core and boost propulsion for the 1.5-stage vehicle and core propulsion for the solid booster vehicle. The design incorporates step-throttling, order-of-magnitude reductions in welds, and configuration targets designed to optimize robustness. The STME is designed to provide adaptable and dependable propulsion while minimizing recurring costs and is designed to meet the needs of NLS and other typical space-transportation programs currently being planned.

Hoodless, Ralph M., Jr.; Monk, Jan C.; Cikanek, Harry A., III

1991-01-01

423

Adolescent Varicocele: Association with Somatometric Parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: The developmental changes that occur as a result of puberty have been hypothesized to be important causes of varicocele. Various somatometric parameters were known to affect the occurrence of varicocele during the growth period. We conducted this study in order to examine these relationships and to determine the incidence of varicocele in adolescent males. Patients and Methods: We evaluated

Sushil Prabakaran; Philip Kumanov; Analia Tomova; Stanislav Hubaveshki; Ashok Agarwal

2006-01-01

424

The biological affects: a typology.  

PubMed

This typology of biological affects is based on developmental-interactionist theory of motivation, emotion, and cognition. Affects--subjectively experienced feelings and desires--involve interoceptive perceptual systems based on primordial molecules that characterize neurochemicals. Biological affects involve primary motivational-emotional systems (primes) associated with hierarchically organized neurochemical systems in the brain, including subcortical (reptilian) and paleocortical (limbic) brain structures. Affects fulfill individualistic (selfish) functions (arousal, approach-avoidance, agonistic) and prosocial (cooperative) functions. Selfish and cooperative functions are associated respectively with the right and left hemispheres. Biological affects constitute the physiological bases for higher level affects: social affects (e.g., pride, guilt, shame, pity, jealousy), cognitive affects (e.g., curiosity, surprise), and moral affects. PMID:10378015

Buck, R

1999-04-01

425

Hybrid text affect sensing system for emotional language analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is argued that for a computer to be able to interact with humans it needs to have the communication skills of humans. One of the main skills of human computer intelligent interaction is the affective aspect of communication, and language is one of the main ways for humans to express emotions. In order to analyze the emotions in language,

Rafael del-Hoyo; Isabelle Hupont; Francisco J. Lacueva; David Abadía

2009-01-01

426

The Development and Validation of a Math Affect Trait Questionnaire for the Investigation of Affect during Mathematical Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The development and validation of the Math Affect Trait Questionnaire (MATQ) for the investigation of affect during mathematical problem solving is presented. Anxiety, math interest, and self-esteem under problem solving conditions are the main constructs measured by the MATQ. The instrument validation process revealed that problem correctness…

Allen, Bradford D.; Carifio, James

427

Affective syndrome during perimenopause.  

PubMed

Perimenopause is characterized by decreasing levels of estrogens and progesterone until gonadal secretion comes to a complete halt. There are still very different views and positions on the significance of the menopause. Physical, mental-vegetative and depressive symptoms during climacteric are different in each culture. Currently, there is some controversy as to whether or not there really is a rise in actual depression during the perimenopausal phase of woman's life. The observations from humans taken together indicate that depressive disorders, as defined in ICD-10, do not occur more frequently during perimenopause. In this context, the terms subthreshold depression and or subsyndromal depression are important, describing depressive symptoms which do not fulfil the complete clinical picture of a depressive episode, either because there are not enough symptoms or because they are not severe enough. The affected women still suffer, but until now not enough studies have been carried out on this particular area. In view of the complexity and relevance of the perimenopausal period in a woman's life, it is necessary to establish and maintain a network of treatment between the family physician, gynecologist, psychiatrist and or psychotherapist, as soon as significant depressive symptoms occur. PMID:11955791

Banger, M

2002-04-15

428

Effective length measurements of prototype Main Injector Dipole endpacks  

SciTech Connect

An endpack design has been developed for the Fermilab Main Injector Dipole. A major part of the design process was the testing of a series of prototype removable endpacks. The magnetic parameters that were tested included the effective length and the field shape variation. This report presents a description of the measurement techniques and the results for the effective length. The final endpack has an effective length at 1500 A (0.29T) of 2.6 [plus minus] 0.3 mm greater than the steel length, and the change in effective length from 1500 A to maximum current of 9500 A (1.74T) is [minus]1.88 [plus minus] 0.05 mm.

Glass, H.D.; Brown, B.C.; Harding, D.J.

1993-03-03

429

Effective length measurements of prototype Main Injector Dipole endpacks  

SciTech Connect

An endpack design has been developed for the Fermilab Main Injector Dipole. A major part of the design process was the testing of a series of prototype removable endpacks. The magnetic parameters that were tested included the effective length and the field shape variation. This report presents a description of the measurement techniques and the results for the effective length. The final endpack has an effective length at 1500 A (0.29T) of 2.6 {plus_minus} 0.3 mm greater than the steel length, and the change in effective length from 1500 A to maximum current of 9500 A (1.74T) is {minus}1.88 {plus_minus} 0.05 mm.

Glass, H.D.; Brown, B.C.; Harding, D.J.

1993-03-03

430

Skipped Stage Modeling and Testing of the CPAS Main Parachutes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Capsule Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) has undergone the transition from modeling a skipped stage event using a simulation that treats a cluster of parachutes as a single composite canopy to the capability of simulating each parachute individually. This capability along with data obtained from skipped stage flight tests has been crucial in modeling the behavior of a skipping canopy as well as the crowding effect on non-skipping ("lagging") neighbors. For the finite mass inflation of CPAS Main parachutes, the cluster is assumed to inflate nominally through the nominal fill time, at which point the skipping parachute continues inflating. This sub-phase modeling method was used to reconstruct three flight tests involving skipped stages. Best fit inflation parameters were determined for both the skipping and lagging canopies.

Varela, Jose G.; Ray, Eric S.

2013-01-01

431

Resistive Wall Instability in the NLC Main Damping Rings  

SciTech Connect

We study transverse coupled-bunch instabilities driven by the resistive-wall impedance in the NLC Main Damping Rings. We compare the growth rates of the different modes predicted by a simple theory using a simplified lattice model with the results of a detailed simulation that includes variation of the beta functions and the actual fill structure of the machine. We find that the results of the analytical calculations are in reasonable agreement with the simulations. We include a simple model of a bunch-by-bunch feedback system in the simulation to show that the instabilities can be damped by a feedback system having parameters that are realistic, and possibly conservative. The noise level on the feedback system pick-up must be low, to avoid driving random bunch-to-bunch jitter above the specified limit of 10 percent of the vertical beam size.

Wolski, Andrzej

2004-07-01

432

Fault diagnosis for the Space Shuttle main engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A conceptual design of a model-based fault detection and diagnosis system is developed for the Space Shuttle main engine. The design approach consists of process modeling, residual generation, and fault detection and diagnosis. The engine is modeled using a discrete time, quasilinear state-space representation. Model parameters are determined by identification. Residuals generated from the model are used by a neural network to detect and diagnose engine component faults. Fault diagnosis is accomplished by training the neural network to recognize the pattern of the respective fault signatures. Preliminary results for a failed valve, generated using a full, nonlinear simulation of the engine, are presented. These results indicate that the developed approach can be used for fault detection and diagnosis. The results also show that the developed model is an accurate and reliable predictor of the highly nonlinear and very complex engine.

Duyar, Ahmet; Merrill, Walter

1992-01-01

433

GRCop-84 Rolling Parameter Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report is a section of the final report on the GRCop-84 task of the Constellation Program and incorporates the results obtained between October 2000 and September 2005, when the program ended. NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has developed a new copper alloy, GRCop-84 (Cu-8 at.% Cr-4 at.% Nb), for rocket engine main combustion chamber components that will improve rocket engine life and performance. This work examines the sensitivity of GRCop-84 mechanical properties to rolling parameters as a means to better define rolling parameters for commercial warm rolling. Experiment variables studied were total reduction, rolling temperature, rolling speed, and post rolling annealing heat treatment. The responses were tensile properties measured at 23 and 500 C, hardness, and creep at three stress-temperature combinations. Understanding these relationships will better define boundaries for a robust commercial warm rolling process. The four processing parameters were varied within limits consistent with typical commercial production processes. Testing revealed that the rolling-related variables selected have a minimal influence on tensile, hardness, and creep properties over the range of values tested. Annealing had the expected result of lowering room temperature hardness and strength while increasing room temperature elongations with 600 C (1112 F) having the most effect. These results indicate that the process conditions to warm roll plate and sheet for these variables can range over wide levels without negatively impacting mechanical properties. Incorporating broader process ranges in future rolling campaigns should lower commercial rolling costs through increased productivity.

Loewenthal, William S.; Ellis, David L.

2008-01-01

434

Flood of April 2007 in Southern Maine  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Up to 8.5 inches of rain fell from April 15 through 18, 2007, in southern Maine. The rain - in combination with up to an inch of water from snowmelt - resulted in extensive flooding. York County, Maine, was declared a presidential disaster area following the event. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), determined peak streamflows and recurrence intervals at 24 locations and peak water-surface elevations at 63 sites following the April 2007 flood. Peak streamflows were determined with data from continuous-record streamflow-gaging stations where available and through hydraulic models where station data were not available. The flood resulted in peak streamflows with recurrence intervals greater than 100 years throughout most of York County, and recurrence intervals up to 50 years in Cumberland County. Peak flows for selected recurrence intervals varied from less than 10 percent to greater than 100 percent different than those in the current FEMA flood-insurance studies due to additional data or newer regression equations. Water-surface elevations observed during the April 2007 flood were bracketed by elevation profiles in FEMA flood-insurance studies with the same recurrence intervals as the recurrence intervals bracketing the observed peak streamflows at seven sites, with higher elevation-profile recurrence intervals than streamflow recurrence intervals at six sites, and with lower elevation-profile recurrence intervals than streamflow recurrence intervals at one site. The April 2007 flood resulted in higher peak flows and water-surface elevations than the flood of May 2006 in coastal locations in York County, and lower peak flows and water-surface elevations than the May 2006 flood further from the coast and in Cumberland County. The Mousam River watershed with over 13 dams and reservoirs was severely impacted by both events. Analyses indicate that the April 2007 peak streamflows in the Mousam River watershed occurred despite the fact that up to 287 million ft3 of runoff was stored by 13 dams and reservoirs.

Lombard, Pamela J.

2009-01-01

435

[Accidents affecting potato harvesters].  

PubMed

During industrialization in agriculture, many farming machines have been introduced. It is well-known that farming is a dangerous workplace and that farm machinery cause many serious accidents every year. Four cases of accidents with potato harvesters are discussed. In three of four cases the farmers were injured while cleaning the machine without stopping it, which probably was the main cause of the accidents. Farmers are in general not careful enough when using farm machinery. Every year, farmers in Denmark are severely invalided in accidents with potato harvesters. A strategy to lower the accidents is proposed: 1. Information of farmers, farmer schools, machine constructors and importers about mechanisms of injury. 2. A better education of farmers in using potato harvesters (and other farming machines). 3. Better fencing of the potato harvesters. 4. If possibly constructional changes in the potato harvesters so things will not get stuck, or so that the machine will stop if things stuck. 5. Installation of switches on potato harvesters, which can be reached from all positions, stopping the machines immediately, or a remote switch control carried by the farmer. PMID:8212405

Hansen, J U

1993-09-27

436

MODELING PHYSICAL HABITAT PARAMETERS  

EPA Science Inventory

Salmonid populations can be affected by alterations in stream physical habitat. Fish productivity is determined by the stream's physical habitat structure ( channel form, substrate distribution, riparian vegetation), water quality, flow regime and inputs from the watershed (sedim...

437

Flood inundation map library, Fort Kent, Maine  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Severe flooding occurred in northern Maine from April 28 to May 1, 2008, and damage was extensive in the town of Fort Kent (Lombard, 2010). Aroostook County was declared a Federal disaster area on May 9, 2008. The extent of flooding on both the Fish and St. John Rivers during this event showed that the current Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Flood Insurance Study (FIS) and Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM) (Federal Emergency Management Agency, 1979) were out of date. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a study to develop a flood inundation map library showing the areas and depths for a range of flood stages from bankfull to the flood of record for Fort Kent to complement an updated FIS (Federal Emergency Management Agency, in press). Hydrologic analyses that support the maps include computer models with and without the levee and with various depths of backwater on the Fish River. This fact sheet describes the methods used to develop the maps and describes how the maps can be accessed.

Lombard, Pamela J.

2012-01-01

438

GAS MAIN SENSOR AND COMMUNICATIONS NETWORK SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

Automatika, Inc. was contracted by the Department of Energy (DOE) and with co-funding from the New York Gas Group (NYGAS), to develop an in-pipe natural gas prototype measurement and wireless communications system for assessing and monitoring distribution networks. A prototype system was built for low-pressure cast-iron mains and tested in a spider- and serial-network configuration in a live network in Long Island with the support of Keyspan Energy, Inc. The prototype unit combined sensors capable of monitoring pressure, flow, humidity, temperature and vibration, which were sampled and combined in data-packages in an in-pipe master-slave architecture to collect data from a distributed spider-arrangement, and in a master-repeater-slave configuration in serial or ladder-network arrangements. It was found that the system was capable of performing all data-sampling and collection as expected, yielding interesting results as to flow-dynamics and vibration-detection. Wireless in-pipe communications were shown to be feasible and valuable data was collected in order to determine how to improve on range and data-quality in the future.

Hagen Schempf, Ph.D.

2003-02-27

439

Emsian synorogenic paleogeography of the Maine Applachians  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Acadian deformation front in the northern Appalachians of Maine and New Hampshire can now be closely located during the early Emsian (Early Devonian; 408-406 Ma). Tight correlations between paleontologically and isotopically dated rocks are possible only because of a new 408-Ma time scale tie point for the early Emsian. The deformation front lay between a belt of Lower Devonian flysch and molasse that were deposited in an Acadian foreland basin and had not yet been folded and a belt of early Emsian plutons that intruded folded Lower Devonian rocks. This plutonic belt includes the newly dated Ore Mountain gabbro (U/Pb; 406 Ma), which hosts magmatic-sulfide mineralization. Along the deformation front, a 407-Ma pluton that locally truncates Acadian folds (Katahdin) was the feeder to volcanic rocks (Traveler Rhyolite; 406-407 Ma) that are part of the foreland-basin succession involved in these same folds. The Emsian igneous rocks thus define a syncollisional magmatic province that straddled the deformation front. These findings bear on three alternative subduction geometries for the Acadian collision.

Bradley, D.; Tucker, R.

2002-01-01

440

The main auxin biosynthesis pathway in Arabidopsis  

PubMed Central

The phytohormone auxin plays critical roles in the regulation of plant growth and development. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) has been recognized as the major auxin for more than 70 y. Although several pathways have been proposed, how auxin is synthesized in plants is still unclear. Previous genetic and enzymatic studies demonstrated that both TRYPTOPHAN AMINOTRANSFERASE OF ARABIDOPSIS (TAA) and YUCCA (YUC) flavin monooxygenase-like proteins are required for biosynthesis of IAA during plant development, but these enzymes were placed in two independent pathways. In this article, we demonstrate that the T