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1

[Cosmic rays as the main factor affecting solar variability on climatic and atmospheric parameters].  

PubMed

Analysis of experimental data demonstrates that cosmic ray enhancement stimulates an increase of atmospheric aerosols and cloudiness. The study of solar proton events (SPE) has shown that during SPE one can observe increase in aerosol density by 1.2-1.4 times at 12-18 km altitudes. Such variations of aerosol density can be detected on global scale. Aerosol variations cause changes in integral atmospheric transparency which during disturbed periods can reach 5-6%. The atmospheric integral transparency variations are not less during the solar cycle on account of galactic cosmic ray variations. Atmospheric transparency variations creating the so-called "grey filter" for solar radiation should lead to surface temperature variations. During the periods of low solar activity under the influence of enhanced galactic cosmic ray fluxes, the density of the "grey filter" should increase and cause a decrease in surface temperatures, correspondingly. In frame of the physical mechanism considered the connection between solar cycle durations and surface temperature variations can be explained. In addition, one can understand the physical reason for the "Little Ice Age" appearance during Maunder minimum of solar activity, 2400 years periodicity of climatic processes, strong influence of the decrease in main geomagnetic field intensity on the development of Ice Age and Global Cooling. PMID:9914850

Raspopov, O M; Shumilov, O I; Kasatkina, E A

1998-01-01

2

Parameters affecting radiographic contrast.  

PubMed

Kilovoltage, in most cases a variable readily controlled by the operator, and half-value layer have come to be regarded as factors defining image contrast. This has led to the assumption that comparable levels of image contrast may be obtained using X-ray units operated at the same kilovoltage and with the same half-value layer. To ascertain the validity of this view X-ray beams generated by seven X-ray units were compared with each other and with those from a Gendex Model 1000 operated at the same kilovoltage. The basis for comparison was the level of image contrast the X-ray beams were capable of producing after passage through selected thicknesses of aluminium absorber. While results showed no correlation between the nominal (stated) operating kilovoltage of any X-ray generator studied and the level of image contrast produced, a correlation (-0.98) was found between the measured half-value layer and image contrast when the units tested were compared with the Model 1000. This information should significantly affect the criteria used for the selection and/or operation of X-ray generators. PMID:2097228

Frederiksen, N L; Goaz, P W

1990-11-01

3

Sharp estimates for the main parameters of the Euclid Algorithm.  

E-print Network

Sharp estimates for the main parameters of the Euclid Algorithm. Lo¨ick Lhote1 and Brigitte Vall provide sharp estimates for the probabilistic behaviour of the main parameters of the Euclid algorithm precise for the extended algorithm. We prove that the bit­complexity of the extended Euclid algorithm

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

4

GAUSSIAN LAWS FOR THE MAIN PARAMETERS OF THE EUCLID ALGORITHMS  

E-print Network

GAUSSIAN LAWS FOR THE MAIN PARAMETERS OF THE EUCLID ALGORITHMS LO¨ICK LHOTE AND BRIGITTE VALL´EE Abstract. We provide sharp estimates for the probabilistic behaviour of the main parameters of the Euclid The Euclid algorithm is one of the most ancient algorithmic scheme. Designed by Euclid himself for computing

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

5

Rotating biological contactors: a review on main factors affecting performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rotating biological contactors (RBCs) constitute a very unique and superior alternative for biodegradable matter and nitrogen\\u000a removal on account of their feasibility, simplicity of design and operation, short start-up, low land area requirement, low\\u000a energy consumption, low operating and maintenance cost and treatment efficiency. The present review of RBCs focus on parameters\\u000a that affect performance like rotational speed, organic and

S. Cortez; P. Teixeira; R. Oliveira; M. Mota

2008-01-01

6

Parameters affecting the fate of metals in various soils  

E-print Network

PARAMETERS AFFECTING THE FATE OF METALS IN VARIOUS SOILS A Thesis by ANDREW PRESCOTT COVAR Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1975... Major Subject: Civil Engineering PARAMETERS AFFECTING THE FATE OF METALS IN VARIOUS SOILS A Thesis by ANDREW PRESCOTT COVAR Approved as to style and content by: Chairman of Committee Head of Department) e ber Member December 1975 ABSTRACT...

Covar, Andrew Prescott

1975-01-01

7

Parameters affecting greywater quality and its safety for reuse.  

PubMed

Reusing greywater (GW) for on-site irrigation is becoming a common practice worldwide. Alongside its benefits, GW reuse might pose health and environmental risks. The current study assesses the risks associated with on-site GW reuse and the main factors affecting them. GW from 34 households in Israel was analyzed for physicochemical parameters, Escherichia coli (as an indicator for rotavirus), Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Each participating household filled out a questionnaire about their GW sources, treatment and usages. Quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) was performed based on the measured microbial quality, and on exposure scenarios derived from the questionnaires and literature data. The type of treatment was found to have a significant effect on the quality of the treated GW. The average E. coli counts in GW (which exclude kitchen effluent) treated by professionally-designed system resulted in acceptable risk under all exposure scenarios while the risk from inadequately-treated GW was above the accepted level as set by the WHO. In conclusion, safe GW reuse requires a suitable and well-designed treatment system. A risk-assessment approach should be used to adjust the current regulations/guidelines and to assess the performance of GW treatment and reuse systems. PMID:24751591

Maimon, Adi; Friedler, Eran; Gross, Amit

2014-07-15

8

Study of Correlationships between Main Ionospheric Parameters by Stochastic Modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We employ multivariate statistic methods applied to long period daily observational data for find out time shifts between fundamental ionospheric parameters. The F2 layer critical frequency (foF2), Kp index, and solar radiation flux at 10.7cm (F10.7 index), and relative sunspot number R as indicators of phase of solar cycle as studied time series was used. As a paralel observed series was utilized E10.7 (Solar EUV index based on F10.7) and TEC series. The foF2 data series measured from mid-latitude ionosonde stations was used. For investigation of relationships between time and geographic variations of parameters studied we employ the method of the conditional independence graphical models (CIG) which describing and transparently representing structure of dependence relationships in the time series. This method appears useful for studying the correlationships between fundamental ionospheric parameters and can be applied even in the case when classical parametric methods are not convenient, e.g. for non-continuous time series etc. We consider the structure of pairwise dependence of its individual components, looking for the maximum likelihood estimate of the variance matrix under conditions given by the graphical model. The CIG method allowed implementation of additional time series variables into previous model. Simultaneously we used clasical stochastic model. The data best fit relationship model is computed.

Podolsk, K.; Truhlk, V.; T?skov, L.

2012-04-01

9

A review of the meteorological parameters which affect aerial application  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ambient wind field and temperature gradient were found to be the most important parameters. Investigation results indicated that the majority of meteorological parameters affecting dispersion were interdependent and the exact mechanism by which these factors influence the particle dispersion was largely unknown. The types and approximately ranges of instrumented capabilities for a systematic study of the significant meteorological parameters influencing aerial applications were defined. Current mathematical dispersion models were also briefly reviewed. Unfortunately, a rigorous dispersion model which could be applied to aerial application was not available.

Christensen, L. S.; Frost, W.

1979-01-01

10

Parameters Affecting Viscosity as a Quality Control for Frozen Fish  

E-print Network

Parameters Affecting Viscosity as a Quality Control for Frozen Fish A. J. BORDER1AS, F. JIMENEZ-COLMENERO, and M. TEJADA Introduction Several authors have reported de- creases in the viscosity ofproteins fromLl) has shown a cor- relation between the viscosity value and 'Tejada, M., A. 1. Borderfas, and F. Jimenez

11

An analysis of parameters affecting slapdown of transportation packages  

SciTech Connect

Several parameters affecting the accelerations experienced by packages for the transport of nuclear material during eccentric impact are evaluated. Eccentric impact on one end of a cask causes rotation leading to secondary impact, referred to as slapdown, at the other end. In a slapdown event, the rotational acceleration during the primary impact can cause accelerations at the nose and tail which are greater than those during a side-on impact. Slapdown can also cause acceleration at the tail during the secondary impact to be more severe than at the nose during primary impact. Both of these effects are investigated for two casks geometries. Other parameters evaluated are the characteristics of impact limiters and friction between the impact limiter the impacted surface. Results were obtained using SLAPDOWN, a code which models the impact response of deformable bodies. 2 refs., 11 figs.

Bergmann, V.L.; Ammerman, D.J.

1991-01-01

12

Diazinon toxicity affects histophysiological and biochemical parameters in rabbits.  

PubMed

Diazinon is a widely used pesticide in agriculture. So, the current work aimed to investigate the effects of diazinon exposure on some physiological and biochemical parameters, as well as, histopathological changes and histochemical acetyl-cholinesterase activity (AChE). The red Baladi rabbits were dipped into water (Control Group), diazinon at low concentrations of 0.6 mg diazinon low concentration (DLC) or high concentration of 3mg diazinon high concentration (DHC) dissolved in 1l of water for 10s. Treatment was repeated after 10 days and animals were sacrificed between 0 and 21 days after the second treatment. Blood analysis revealed that Red blood cells (RBC's), hemoglobin (Hb) and plasma total protein (TP) were significantly decreased in both diazinon concentrations (P<0.01), (P<0.05), (P<0.01) respectively. Cholesterol and microsomal protein were increased (P<0.01), while, liver/ body weight and cytochrome P-450 were decreased in both concentrations (P<0.01). Also there was a highly significant effect of concentration X day interaction on all parameters (P<0.01). Histopathological changes of liver, kidney and brain were observed after DHC dipping. Glycogen content was decreased in liver and increased in kidney Bowman's capsule. Furthermore, AChE activity was inhibited in brain tissue, decreased in liver cells, but gradually increased in kidney glomerular cells. Therefore, kidney and brain were highly affected by diazinon exposure compared with the liver. Exposure of animals to diazinon caused extensive changes in physiological, biochemical, and histopathological parameters as well as histochemical AChE. So, contact exposure of diazinon leads to negative response on animal health. PMID:17933502

Yehia, Mona A H; El-Banna, Sabah G; Okab, Aly B

2007-11-01

13

On-line implementation of nonlinear parameter estimation for the Space Shuttle main engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the performance of a nonlinear estimation scheme applied to the estimation of several parameters in a performance model of the Space Shuttle Main Engine. The nonlinear estimator is based upon the extended Kalman filter which has been augmented to provide estimates of several key performance variables. The estimated parameters are directly related to the efficiency of both the

Julia H. Buckland; Jeffrey L. Musgrave; Bruce K. Walker

1992-01-01

14

Does Cigarette Smoking Affect Seminal Fluid Parameters? A Comparative Study  

PubMed Central

Objective To study the effect of cigarette smoking on seminal fluid parameters, namely; volume, sperm concentration, and motility, as well as morphology, leukocyte infiltration, among males complaining of infertility. Methods Between August 2010 and July 2011, seminal fluid analysis was done for 1438 males who are partners of couples who visited the infertility clinic at Prince Rashid Ben Al Hassan Hospital (PRH) for infertility. The men who fit the inclusion criteria (n=960) were classified into two groups: group a (non-smokers; n=564) and group B (smokers; n=396), which represents 41.25% of the study group. Seminal fluid was collected using masturbation after 3-5 days of abstinence then analyzed for volume, sperm count, sperm concentration, motility and morphology. In order to analyze whether the number of cigarettes smoked per day has an effect on the spermatogram; the smoking men were divided into two subgroups: the heavy smokers (n=266) and non-heavy smokers (n=130). Results A total of 960 adult males were enrolled. Their age ranged between 21 and 76 years, 564 were non-smokers with mean age of 36. 456.27 (MeanSD). Three-hundred-and-ninety-six were smokers with a mean age of 34.354.25 (MeanSD). There was a significant effect of smoking on the motility of sperms and the ratios of abnormality (p<0.005). Concentration appeared not to be affected by smoking. Furthermore, the group of heavy smokers were found to have lower sperm concentrations and a higher percentage of abnormal sperms compared to the non-heavy smokers. Conclusion Cigarette smoking has a deleterious effect on some of the seminal fluid parameters (motility, morphology and leukocyte count) which in turn may result in male subfertility. PMID:23386938

Meri, Zakarya Bani; Irshid, Ibrahim Bani; Migdadi, Mohammad; Irshid, Ayat Bani; Mhanna, Somia A.

2013-01-01

15

PREDICTING ENGINE PARAMETERS USING THE OPTICAL SPECTRUM OF THE SPACE SHUTTLE MAIN ENGINE EXHAUST PLUME  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Optical Plume Anomaly Detection (OPAD) sys- tem is under development to predict engine anoma- lies and engine parameters of the Space Shuttle's Main Engine (SSME). The anomaly detection is based on abnormal metal concentrations in the op- tical spectrum of the rocket plume. Such abnor- malities could be indicative of engine corrosion or other malfunctions. Here, we focus on

Ashok N. Srivastava; Wray Buntine

16

Predicting engine parameters using the optic spectrum of the space shuttle main engine exhaust plume  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Optical Plume Anomaly Detection (OPAD) system is under development to predict engine anomalies and engine parameters of the Space Shuttle's Main Engine (SSME). The anomaly detection is based on abnormal metal concentrations in the optical spectrum of the rocket plume. Such abnormalities could be indicative of engine corrosion or other malfunctions. Here, we focus on the second task of

Ashok N. Srivastava; Wray Buntine

1995-01-01

17

Evaluation of Parameters Affecting Arc Plasma Chute in a Typical Gas Interrupter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we examined a typical high-voltage gas circuit breaker. The main goal of this study is to characterize arc plasma and to determine its behavior using the generalized Mayr-type equation model following the interruption of high-voltage circuit breakers according to a semi-empirical one, named conductance model. Here, we tried to evaluate some arc parameters that affect interrupting ability by performing a numerical analysis so that our model defines recorded experimental results of an actual test.

Borghei, Seyed Majid; Ghoranneviss, Mahmood; Abolhassani, Mohammad Reza; Anvari, Abbas

2008-01-01

18

[Sizes of soil macropores and related main affecting factors on a vegetated basalt slope].  

PubMed

The landslide on vegetated slopes caused by extreme weather has being increased steadily, and the preferential flow in soil macropores plays an important role in the landslide. By using water breakthrough curve and Poiseuille equation, this paper estimated the radius range, amount, and average volume of soil macropores on a vegetated basalt slope of Maka Mountain, Southwest China, and analyzed the distribution of the soil macropores and the main affecting factors. In the study area, the radius of soil macropores ranged from 0.3 to 1.8 mm, mainly between 0.5 and 1.2 mm. The large-radius macropores (1.4-1.8 mm) were lesser, while the small-radius macropores (< 1.4 mm) were more. With the development of soil profile, soil macropores were more in upper layers and lesser in deeper layers. The average volume of the macropores contributed 84.7% to the variance of steady effluent rate. Among the factors affecting the average volume of the large macropores, vegetations root mass had a linear relationship, with the correlation coefficient being 0.70, and soil organic matter content also had a linear relationship, with the correlation coefficient being 0.64. PMID:24483084

Guan, Qi; Xu, Ze-Min; Tian, Lin

2013-10-01

19

Roll Forming of AHSS: Numerical Simulation and Investigation of Effects of Main Process Parameters on Quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The roll forming process is one of the main processes of producing straight profiles in many industrial sectors. The introduction of Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS), such as the DP and TRIP-series, into the production of roll-formed profiles has emerged new challenges. The combination of a higher yield strength with a lower total elongation of AHSS, brings new challenges to the roll forming process. In the current study, the numerical simulation of a V-section profile has been implemented. The effect of the main process parameters, such as the roll forming line velocity, rolls inter-distance, roll gap and rolls diameter on quality characteristics is investigated.

Salonitis, Konstantinos; Paralikas, John; Chryssolouris, George

20

Predicting engine parameters using the optic spectrum of the space shuttle main engine exhaust plume  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Optical Plume Anomaly Detection (OPAD) system is under development to predict engine anomalies and engine parameters of the Space Shuttle's Main Engine (SSME). The anomaly detection is based on abnormal metal concentrations in the optical spectrum of the rocket plume. Such abnormalities could be indicative of engine corrosion or other malfunctions. Here, we focus on the second task of the OPAD system, namely the prediction of engine parameters such as rated power level (RPL) and mixture ratio (MR). Because of the high dimensionality of the spectrum, we developed a linear algorithm to resolve the optical spectrum of the exhaust plume into a number of separate components, each with a different physical interpretation. These components are used to predict the metal concentrations and engine parameters for online support of ground-level testing of the SSME. Currently, these predictions are labor intensive and cannot be done online. We predict RPL using neural networks and give preliminary results.

Srivastava, Ashok N.; Buntine, Wray

1995-01-01

21

Predicting engine parameters using the optic spectrum of the space shuttle main engine exhaust plume  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Optical Plume Anomaly Detection (OPAD) system is under development to predict engine anomalies and engine parameters of the Space Shuttle's Main Engine (SSME). The anomaly detection is based on abnormal metal concentrations in the optical spectrum of the rocket plume. Such abnormalities could be indicative of engine corrosion or other malfunctions. Here, we focus on the second task of the OPAD system, namely the prediction of engine parameters such as rated power level (RPL) and mixture ratio (MR). Because of the high dimensionality of the spectrum, we developed a linear algorithm to resolve the optical spectrum of the exhaust plume into a number of separate components, each with a different physical interpretation. These components are used to predict the metal concentrations and engine parameters for online support of ground-level testing of the SSME. Currently, these predictions are labor intensive and cannot be done online. We predict RPL using neural networks and give preliminary results.

Srivastava, Ashok N.; Buntine, Wray

22

On-line implementation of nonlinear parameter estimation for the Space Shuttle main engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We investigate the performance of a nonlinear estimation scheme applied to the estimation of several parameters in a performance model of the Space Shuttle Main Engine. The nonlinear estimator is based upon the extended Kalman filter which has been augmented to provide estimates of several key performance variables. The estimated parameters are directly related to the efficiency of both the low pressure and high pressure fuel turbopumps. Decreases in the parameter estimates may be interpreted as degradations in turbine and/or pump efficiencies which can be useful measures for an online health monitoring algorithm. This paper extends previous work which has focused on off-line parameter estimation by investigating the filter's on-line potential from a computational standpoint. ln addition, we examine the robustness of the algorithm to unmodeled dynamics. The filter uses a reduced-order model of the engine that includes only fuel-side dynamics. The on-line results produced during this study are comparable to off-line results generated previously. The results show that the parameter estimates are sensitive to dynamics not included in the filter model. Off-line results using an extended Kalman filter with a full order engine model to address the robustness problems of the reduced-order model are also presented.

Buckland, Julia H.; Musgrave, Jeffrey L.; Walker, Bruce K.

1992-01-01

23

Does bleeding affect fetal Doppler parameters during genetic amniocentesis?  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between fetal Doppler parameters and bleeding at insertion points during amniocentesis. Material and Methods This prospective study was conducted between July 2010 and February 2011. A total of 215 amniocentesis procedures were performed during this period. Five patients with Down syndrome were excluded from the study. The remaining 210 patients were divided into Group 1 (bleeding at insertion site) and Group 2 as a control group. One needle type was used for all patients. Umbilical artery resistance index (UARI), umbilical artery pulsatility index (UAPI), middle cerebral artery resistance index (MCARI), middle cerebral artery pulsatility index (MCA PI), and middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity (MCAPSV) were measured immediately and before and after amniocentesis. Results Bleeding at the insertion point during amniocentesis did not significantly change the UARI (34% increase for Group 1 and 46.5% increase for Group 2, p=0.238), the MCARI (52% increase for Group 1 and 45% increase for Group 2, p=0.622), or the MCAPSV (37% increase for Group 1 and 49% increase for Group 2, p=0.199). UARI, MCARI, MCA PI, and MCAPSV were not significantly altered following amniocentesis in Groups 1 and 2. There was a significant increase in UAPI following amniocentesis only in Group 2. Conclusion Bleeding during genetic amniocentesis did not change umbilical artery and middle cerebral artery Doppler parameters. PMID:24976776

?skender, Cantekin; Tar?m, Ebru; ok, Tayfun; Kalayc?, Hakan; Parlakgm?, Ay?e; Yal?nkaya, Cem

2014-01-01

24

Effect of Welding Parameters on the Size of Heat Affected Zone of Submerged Arc Welding  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the effect of welding parameters on the size of the heat affected zone (HAZ) and its relative size as compared to the weld bead of submerged arc welding. It is discovered that the welding parameters influences the size of weld bead and HAZ differently which can be relate to the effect of welding parameters on the various

C. S. Lee; R. S. Chandel; H. P. Seow

2000-01-01

25

Parameters affecting water-hammer wave attenuation, shape and timingPart 1: Mathematical tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

This two-part paper investigates key parameters that may affect the pressurewaveform predicted by the classical theory ofwater-hammer. Shortcomings in the prediction of pressure wave attenuation, shape and timing originate from violation of assumptions made in the derivation of the classical waterhammer equations. Possible mechanisms that may significantly affect pressure waveforms include unsteady friction, cavitation (including column separation and trapped air

Anton Bergant; Arris S. Tijsseling; John P. Vtkovsk; Ddia I. C. Covas; Angus R. Simpson; Martin F. Lambert

2008-01-01

26

The Maine Question: How Is 4-Year College Enrollment Affected by Mandatory College Entrance Exams?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We use a difference-in-differences analytic approach to estimate postsecondary consequences from Maine's mandate that all public school juniors take the SAT. We find that, overall, the policy increased 4-year college-going rates by 2- to 3-percentage points and that 4-year college-going rates among induced students increased by 10-percentage

Hurwitz, Michael; Smith, Jonathan; Niu, Sunny; Howell, Jessica

2015-01-01

27

Garnet-biotite geothermometry revised: New Margules parameters and a natural specimen data set from Maine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The garnet-biotite geothermometer has been recalibrated using recently obtained Mar- gules parameters for iron-magnesium-calcium garnet, Mn interactions in garnet, and Al interactions in biotite, as well as the Fe oxidation state of both minerals. Fe-Mg and DWAl Margules parameters for biotite have been retrieved by combining experimental results on (6) Al-free and (6) Al-bearing biotite using statistical methods. Margules parameters,

M. J. HOLDAWAY; BISWAJIT MUKHOPADHYAY; M. D. DYAR; C. V. GUIDOTTI; B. L. DUTROW

1997-01-01

28

Parameters affecting water-hammer wave attenuation, shape and timingPart 2: Case studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This two-part paper investigates parameters that may significantly affect water-hammer wave attenuation, shape and timing. Possible sources that may affect the waveform predicted by classical water-hammer theory include unsteady friction, cavitation (including column separation and trapped air pockets), a number of fluidstructure interaction effects, viscoelastic behaviour of the pipe-wall material, leakages and blockages. Part 1 of this two-part paper presents

Anton Bergant; Arris S. Tijsseling; John P. Vtkovsk; Ddia I. C. Covas; Angus R. Simpson; Martin F. Lambert

2008-01-01

29

Measures of GCM Performance as Functions of Model Parameters Affecting Clouds and Radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This abstract is one of three related presentations at this meeting dealing with several issues surrounding optimal parameter and uncertainty estimation of model predictions of climate. Uncertainty in model predictions of climate depends in part on the uncertainty produced by model approximations or parameterizations of unresolved physics. Evaluating these uncertainties is computationally expensive because one needs to evaluate how arbitrary choices for any given combination of model parameters affects model performance. Because the computational effort grows exponentially with the number of parameters being investigated, it is important to choose parameters carefully. Evaluating whether a parameter is worth investigating depends on two considerations: 1) does reasonable choices of parameter values produce a large range in model response relative to observational uncertainty? and 2) does the model response depend non-linearly on various combinations of model parameters? We have decided to narrow our attention to selecting parameters that affect clouds and radiation, as it is likely that these parameters will dominate uncertainties in model predictions of future climate. We present preliminary results of ~20 to 30 AMIPII style climate model integrations using NCAR's CCM3.10 that show model performance as functions of individual parameters controlling 1) critical relative humidity for cloud formation (RHMIN), and 2) boundary layer critical Richardson number (RICR). We also explore various definitions of model performance that include some or all observational data sources (surface air temperature and pressure, meridional and zonal winds, clouds, long and short-wave cloud forcings, etc...) and evaluate in a few select cases whether the model's response depends non-linearly on the parameter values we have selected.

Jackson, C.; Mu, Q.; Sen, M.; Stoffa, P.

2002-05-01

30

Upper Middle Mainstem Columbia River Subbasin Water Quality Parameters Affected by Hydropower Production  

E-print Network

Appendix E Upper Middle Mainstem Columbia River Subbasin Water Quality Parameters Affected in the Columbia River was identified in the 1960's and 1970's as a potential detriment to salmon. Those concerns an average TDG level of 120 percent for the highest 12 hours of a day at the tailrace of the respective dam

31

The variation in molecular gas depletion time among nearby galaxies: what are the main parameter dependences?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We re-analyse correlations between global molecular gas depletion time (tdep) and galaxy parameters for nearby galaxies from the COLD GASS survey. We improve on previous work of Saintonge et al. by estimating star formation rates using the combination of Galaxy Evolution Explorer far-ultraviolet and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer 22 ?m data and by deriving tdep within a fixed aperture set by the beam size of gas observation. In our new study, we find correlations with much smaller scatter. Dependences of the depletion time on galaxy structural parameters such as stellar surface density and concentration index are now weak or absent. We demonstrate that the primary global parameter correlation is between tdep and specific star formation rate (sSFR); all other remaining correlations can be shown to be induced by this primary dependence. This implies that galaxies with high current-to-past-averaged star formation activity, will drain their molecular gas reservoir sooner. We then analyse tdep on 1 kpc scales in galactic discs using data from the HERA CO-Line Extragalactic Survey survey. There is remarkably good agreement between the global tdep-sSFR relation for the COLD GASS galaxies and that derived for 1 kpc scale grids in discs. This leads to the conclusion that the local molecular gas depletion time in galactic discs is dependent on the local fraction of young-to-old stars.

Huang, Mei-Ling; Kauffmann, Guinevere

2014-09-01

32

Earthquake source parameters for the 2010 January Haiti main shock and aftershock sequence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous analyses of geological and geodetic data suggest that the obliquely compressive relative motion across the Caribbean-North America plate boundary in Hispaniola is accommodated through strain partitioning between near-vertical transcurrent faults on land and low-angle thrust faults offshore. In the Dominican Republic, earthquake focal-mechanism geometries generally support this interpretation. Little information has been available about patterns of seismic strain release in Haiti, however, due to the small numbers of moderate-to-large earthquakes occurring in western Hispaniola during the modern instrumental era. Here, we analyse the damaging MW = 7.0 earthquake that occurred near Port au Prince on 2010 January 12 and aftershocks occurring in the four months following this event, to obtain centroid-moment-tensor (CMT) solutions for 50 earthquakes with magnitudes as small as MW = 4.0. While the 2010 January main shock exhibited primarily strike-slip motion on a steeply dipping nodal plane (strike=250, dip=71 and rake=22), we find that nearly all of the aftershocks show reverse-faulting motion, typically on high-angle (30-45) nodal planes. Two small aftershocks (MW 4.5 and 4.6), located very close to the main shock epicentre, show strike-slip faulting with geometries similar to the main shock. One aftershock located off the south coast of Haiti shows low-angle thrust faulting. We also examine earthquakes occurring in this region from 1977-2009 successful analysis of four such events provides evidence for both strike-slip and reverse faulting. The pattern of seismic strain release in southern Haiti thus indicates that partitioning of plate motion between transcurrent and reverse structures extends far west within Hispaniola. While we see limited evidence for low-angle underthrusting offshore, most reverse motion appears to occur on high-angle fault structures adjacent to the Enriquillo fault. Our results highlight the need to incorporate seismogenic slip on compressional structures into hazard assessments for southern Haiti.

Nettles, Meredith; Hjrleifsdttir, Vala

2010-10-01

33

Transfecting mammalian cells: optimization of critical parameters affecting calcium-phosphate precipitate formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA-calcium phosphate co-precipitates arise spontaneously in supersaturated solutions. Highly effective precipitates for transfection purposes, however, can be generated only in a very narrow range of physico-chemical conditions that control the initiation and growth of precipitate complexes. The concentrations of calcium and phosphate are the main factors influencing characteristics of the precipitate complex, but other parameters, such as temperature, DNA concentration

Martin Jordan; Annette Schallhorn; Florian M. Wurm

1996-01-01

34

Main trunk of the left coronary artery: anatomic study of the parameters of clinical interest.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to analyze in one single series all the characteristics of the main trunk of the left coronary artery (MT) that may be of use in the diagnosis and treatment of its pathologies. One-hundred human hearts from autopsies were used. The average age of the sample studied was 63.15 years +/- 18.76 (range = 17-94 years). The heart was removed after resection of the costosternum and placed in 10% formaldehyde. With gradual separation and retraction of the myocardial fasciculi the MT was exposed. The length of the MT, the luminal diameter of the MT at its midpoint, and the luminal diameter of the left coronary orifice were measured with a caliper. The angle of division between the anterior interventricular and circumflex branches was also measured, and the number of terminal branches originating from the MT was recorded. In four cases, there was no MT and the anterior interventricular and circumflex branches originated directly from the left aortic sinus. The average length of the MT was 10.8 +/- 5.52 mm (range = 2-23 mm); the average diameter at its midpoint was 4.86 +/- 0.80 mm; and there was no significant difference noted between the midpoint diameter of the MT and the diameter of the left coronary orifice. The most frequent type of division of the MT was bifurcation (62%); in 38% of cases the MT divided into three or more branches. An average value of 86.7 +/- 28.8 degrees was obtained for the angle of division of the terminal branches of the MT (range = 40-165 degrees ). There was a positive correlation between the length of the MT and the angle of division of its terminal branches, with the longest MTs having the largest angle of division. PMID:14695580

Reig, J; Petit, M

2004-01-01

35

Parameters Affecting the Early Seedling Development of Four Neotropical Trees under Oxygen Deprivation Stress  

PubMed Central

Some of the parameters that determine flooding resistanceand consequently habitat zonationwere investigated in four neotropical trees (Schizolobium parahyba, Sebastiania commersoniana, Erythrina speciosa and Sesbania virgata). The constitutive parameters of seeds (size, nature and amount of reserves) only partly influenced resistance to flooding, mainly through a high carbohydrate:size ratio. Parameters describing metabolic efficiency under stress conditions were more important. Among them, fermentation capacity and levels of ATP and of total adenylates played a key role. The highest resistance to anoxia was associated with increased availability of free sugars, elevated alcohol dehydrogenase activity and corresponding mRNA levels, more efficient removal of ethanol and lactate, and higher adenylate levels. Finally, as a lethal consequence of energy shortage, free fatty acids were released on a massive scale in the flooding?sensitive species Schizolobium parahyba, whereas lipid hydrolysis did not occur in the most resistant species Sesbania virgata. PMID:12099528

KOLB, ROSANA MARTA; RAWYLER, ANDR; BRAENDLE, ROLAND

2002-01-01

36

Main Parameters of Soil Quality and it's Management Under Changing Climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reviewing Paper Introduction: Malcolm summarised the topic of soil quality and it's management in a well synthetized form in 2000. So, the soils are fundamental to the well-being and productivity of agricultural and natural ecosystems. Soil quality is a concept being developed to characterize the usefulness and health of soils. Soil quality includes soil fertility, potential productivity, contaminant levels and their effects, resource sustainability and environmental quality. A general definition of soil quality is the degree of fitness of a soil for a specific use. The existence of multiple definitions suggests that the soil quality concept continues to evolve (Kdr, 1992; Vrallyay, 1992, 1994, 2005; Nmeth, 1996; Malcolm, 2000; Mrton, 2005; Mrton et al. 2007). Recent attention has focused on the sustainability of human uses of soil, based on concerns that soil quality may be declining (Boehn and Anderson, 1997). We use sustainable to mean that a use or management of soil will sustain human well-being over time. Lal (1995) described the land resources of the world (of which soil is one component) as "finite, fragile, and nonrenewable," and reported that only about 22% (3.26 billion ha) of the total land area on the globe is suitable for cultivation and at present, only about 3% (450 million ha) has a high agricultural production capacity. Because soil is in large but finite supply, and some soil components cannot be renewed within a human time frame, the condition of soils in agriculture and the environment is an issue of global concern (Howard, 1993; FAO, 1997). Concerns include soil losses from erosion, maintaining agricultural productivity and system sustainability, protecting natural areas, and adverse effects of soil contamination on human health (Haberern, 1992; Howard, 1993; Sims et al., 1997). Parr et al. (1992) state, "...soil degradation is the single most destructive force diminishing the world's soil resource base." Soil quality guidelines are intended to protect the ability of ecosystems to function properly (Kdr, 1992; Vrallyay, 1992, 1994, 2005; Cook and Hendershot, 1996; Nmeth, 1996; Malcolm, 2000; Mrton, 2005; Mrton et al. 2007). The Hungarian Ministry of Environment and Water (HMEW, 2004) suggests that the Hungarian Regions should adopt a national policy "...that seeks to conserve and enhance soil quality...". Useful evaluation of soil quality requires agreement about why soil quality is important, how it is defined, how it should be measured, and how to respond to measurements with management, restoration, or conservation practices. Because determining soil quality requires one or more value judgments and because we have much to learn about soil, these issues are not easily addressed (Vrallyay, 1992, 1994, 2005; Cook and Hendershot, 1996; Nmeth, 1996; Malcolm, 2000). Definitions of soil quality have been based both on human uses of soil and on the functions of soil within natural and agricultural ecosystems. For purposes of this work, we are showing soil quality within the context of managed agricultural ecosystems. To many in agriculture and agricultural research, productivity is analogous to soil quality. Maintaining soil quality is also a human health concern because air, groundwater and surface water consumed by humans can be adversely affected by mismanaged and contaminated soils, and because humans may be exposed to contaminated soils in residential areas (Kdr, 1992; Vrallyay, 2005; Cook and Hendershot, 1996; Nmeth, 1996; Malcolm, 2000; Mrton et al. 2007). Contamination may include heavy metals, toxic elements, excess nutrients, volatile and nonvolatile organics, explosives, radioactive isotopes and inhalable fibers (Sheppard et al., 1992; Cook and Hendershot, 1996). Soil quality is not determined by any single conserving or degrading process or property, and soil has both dynamic and relatively static properties that also vary spatially (Carter et al., 1997). Gregorich et al. (1994) state that "soil quality is a composite me

Lszl Phd, M., ,, Dr.

2009-04-01

37

Sporadic Infantile Epileptic Encephalopathy Caused by Mutations in PCDH19 Resembles Dravet Syndrome but Mainly Affects Females  

PubMed Central

Dravet syndrome (DS) is a genetically determined epileptic encephalopathy mainly caused by de novo mutations in the SCN1A gene. Since 2003, we have performed molecular analyses in a large series of patients with DS, 27% of whom were negative for mutations or rearrangements in SCN1A. In order to identify new genes responsible for the disorder in the SCN1A-negative patients, 41 probands were screened for micro-rearrangements with Illumina high-density SNP microarrays. A hemizygous deletion on chromosome Xq22.1, encompassing the PCDH19 gene, was found in one male patient. To confirm that PCDH19 is responsible for a Dravet-like syndrome, we sequenced its coding region in 73 additional SCN1A-negative patients. Nine different point mutations (four missense and five truncating mutations) were identified in 11 unrelated female patients. In addition, we demonstrated that the fibroblasts of our male patient were mosaic for the PCDH19 deletion. Patients with PCDH19 and SCN1A mutations had very similar clinical features including the association of early febrile and afebrile seizures, seizures occurring in clusters, developmental and language delays, behavioural disturbances, and cognitive regression. There were, however, slight but constant differences in the evolution of the patients, including fewer polymorphic seizures (in particular rare myoclonic jerks and atypical absences) in those with PCDH19 mutations. These results suggest that PCDH19 plays a major role in epileptic encephalopathies, with a clinical spectrum overlapping that of DS. This disorder mainly affects females. The identification of an affected mosaic male strongly supports the hypothesis that cellular interference is the pathogenic mechanism. PMID:19214208

Depienne, Christel; Bouteiller, Delphine; Keren, Boris; Cheuret, Emmanuel; Poirier, Karine; Trouillard, Oriane; Benyahia, Baya; Quelin, Chlo; Carpentier, Wassila; Julia, Sophie; Afenjar, Alexandra; Gautier, Agns; Rivier, Franois; Meyer, Sophie; Berquin, Patrick; Hlias, Marie; Py, Isabelle; Rivera, Serge; Bahi-Buisson, Nadia; Gourfinkel-An, Isabelle; Cazeneuve, Ccile; Ruberg, Merle; Brice, Alexis; Nabbout, Rima; LeGuern, Eric

2009-01-01

38

Characterization of Geotechnical Parameters Affecting Stability of Unconsolidated Materials from Electrical Measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Non-invasive geophysical techniques, which are non-invasive and cost effective, can be used to predict some useful petrophysical and engineering properties of unconsolidated geomaterials (e.g.,soils) that are known to affect their geotechnical behavior, that is, stability and strength. Knowledge of such properties are useful in the assessment of landslides and other natural hazards. We investigate the influence of petrophysical and geotechncial engineering parameters of unconsolidated near surface materials on their electrical measurements. Frequency-dependent resistivity measurements are performed at a constant effective stress level on thirty two samples of varying textures and compositions in a laboratory environment. Petrophysical and engineering parameters which affect the mechanical and strength behavior of the samples, that is, fines content, specific surface area, pore size parameter and fractal dimension of the grain size distributions are obtained from geotechnical analysis. The electrical parameters which describe the electrical response of the samples, that is, resistivity amplitude, phase shift, percent frequency effect, loss tangent and the normalized phase, are extracted from the electrical measurements. Crossplots of the electrical versus the engineering parameters provide some useful information on how the geotechnical properties influence electrical measurements. Analyses of the correlations also indicate that there exist characteristic or transitional values of the fines content (18%) and pore size(0.03mm), beyond which the phase and normalized phase values are insensitive to their respective increases. The characteristic value of 18% of fines content is close to values reported in previous studies that signifies transition in strength behavior of soils, and thus such relations could be important in non-invasive strength assessment and monitoring of soils. Normalized phase values are used to reasonably assess the relative amount of fines in the studied soils.

Boadu, F.; Owusu-Nimo, F.

2009-12-01

39

Experimental Analyses of the Major Parameters Affecting the Intensity of Outbursts of Coal and Gas  

PubMed Central

With an increase in mining depth and production, the intensity and frequency of outburst of coal and gas have a tendency to increase. Estimating the intensity of outbursts of coal and gas plays an important role because of its relation with the risk value. In this paper, we described the semiquantitative relations between major parameters and intensity of outburst based on physical experiments. The results showed increment of geostress simulated by horizontal load (from 1.4, 2.4, 3.2, to 3.4?MPa) or vertical load (from 2, 3, 3.6, to 4?MPa) improved the relative intensity rate (3.7637.403% and 1.2737.99%); the increment of porosity (from 1.57, 2.51, 3, to 3.6%) improved the relative intensity rate from 3.8 to 13.8%; the increment of gas pressure (from 0, 0.5, 0.65, 0.72, 1, to 1.5?Mpa) induced the relative intensity rate to decrease from 38.22 to 0%; the increment of water content (from 0, 2, 4, to 8%) caused the relative intensity rate to drop from 5.425 to 0.5%. Furthermore, sensitivity and range analysis evaluates coupled factors affecting the relative intensity. In addition, the distinction with initiation of outburst of coal and gas affected by these parameters is discussed by the relative threshold of gas content rate. PMID:25162042

Nie, W.; Peng, S. J.; Xu, J.; Liu, L. R.; Wang, G.; Geng, J. B.

2014-01-01

40

In vitro exposure to the organochlorine p,p'-DDE affects functional human sperm parameters.  

PubMed

Although no information exists regarding the levels of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) on reproductive fluids of heavily exposed populations, they are possibly quite high given the serum levels reported so far. In these populations altered semen quality has been reported, although the direct effects of this DDT metabolite on crucial sperm parameters remain largely unexplored. With this in mind, a long-term in vitro incubation that better mimics the putative continuous exposure of spermatozoa to p,p'-DDE in the female reproductive tract in vivo was used. Before compromising sperm viability, continuous p,p'-DDE exposure remarkably decreased sperm motility, possibly due to the combined reduction in the proportion of sperm with high mitochondrial membrane potential and cellular ATP levels, all of which were clearly more affected at 50 and 100?M p,p'-DDE. Moreover, 25?M p,p'-DDE was also able to promote a decline in sperm with high MMP, however without significantly affecting motility. On the other hand, p,p'-DDE at the highest concentration strongly inhibited the process of capacitation following 24h of incubation. In conclusion, human sperm function is affected by continuous high p,p'-DDE exposure which may ultimately compromise male fertility. Given our previously findings that showed a non-regulated Ca(2+) entry in the presence of p,p'-DDE, we suggest that this organochlorine may promote mitochondrial Ca(2+) overload which may culminate in a general mitochondrial dysfunction and cellular ATP depletion, thus affecting sperm fertilizing potential. Our findings suggest a broader understanding of the non-genomic mechanism of p,p'-DDE action in human sperm. PMID:25240159

Tavares, Renata S; Amaral, Sandra; Paiva, Carla; Baptista, Marta; Ramalho-Santos, Joo

2015-02-01

41

Modeling of mouse eye and errors in ocular parameters affecting refractive state  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rodents eye are particularly used to study refractive error state of an eye and development of refractive eye. Genetic organization of rodents is similar to that of humans, which makes them interesting candidates to be researched upon. From rodents family mice models are encouraged over rats because of availability of genetically engineered models. Despite of extensive work that has been performed on mice and rat models, still no one is able to quantify an optical model, due to variability in the reported ocular parameters. In this Dissertation, we have extracted ocular parameters and generated schematics of eye from the raw data from School of Medicine, Detroit. In order to see how the rays would travel through an eye and the defects associated with an eye; ray tracing has been performed using ocular parameters. Finally we have systematically evaluated the contribution of various ocular parameters, such as radii of curvature of ocular surfaces, thicknesses of ocular components, and refractive indices of ocular refractive media, using variational analysis and a computational model of the rodent eye. Variational analysis revealed that variation in all the ocular parameters does affect the refractive status of the eye, but depending upon the magnitude of the impact those parameters are listed as critical or non critical. Variation in the depth of the vitreous chamber, thickness of the lens, radius of the anterior surface of the cornea, radius of the anterior surface of the lens, as well as refractive indices for the lens and vitreous, appears to have the largest impact on the refractive error and thus are categorized as critical ocular parameters. The radii of the posterior surfaces of the cornea and lens have much smaller contributions to the refractive state, while the radii of the anterior and posterior surfaces of the retina have no effect on the refractive error. These data provide the framework for further refinement of the optical models of the rat and mouse eye and suggest that extra efforts should be directed towards increasing the linear resolution of the rodent eye biometry and obtaining more accurate data for the refractive indices of the lens and vitreous.

Bawa, Gurinder

42

External Load Affects Ground Reaction Force Parameters Non-uniformly during Running in Weightlessness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Long-term exposure to microgravity induces detrimefits to the musculcskdetal system (Schneider et al., 1995; LeBlanc et al., 2000). Treadmill exercise is used onboard the International Space Station as an exercise countermeasure to musculoskeletal deconditioning due to spaceflight. During locomotive exercise in weightlessness (0G), crewmembers wear a harness attached to an external loading mechanism (EL). The EL pulls the crewmember toward the treadmill, and provides resistive load during the impact and propulsive phases of gait. The resulting forces may be important in stimulating bone maintenance (Turner, 1998). The EL can be applied via a bungee and carabineer clip configuration attached to the harness and can be manipulated to create varying amounts of load levels during exercise. Ground-based research performed using a vertically mounted treadmill found that peak ground reaction forces (GRF) during running at an EL of less than one body weight (BW) are less than those that occur during running in normal gravity (1G) (Davis et al., 1996). However, it is not known how the GRF are affected by the EL in a true OG environment. Locomotion while suspended may result in biomechanics that differ from free running. The purpose of this investigation was to determine how EL affects peak impact force, peak propulsive force, loading rate, and impulse of the GRF during running in 0G. It was hypothesized that increasing EL would result in increases in each GRF parameter.

DeWitt, John; Schaffner, Grant; Laughlin, Mitzi; Loehr, James; Hagan, R. Donald

2004-01-01

43

Mycoplasma contamination of murine embryonic stem cells affects cell parameters, germline transmission and chimeric progeny.  

PubMed

Murine embryonic stem cells (mESCs) inoculated at passage P13 with the mycoplasma species M. hominis, M. fermentans and M. orale and cultured over 20 passages showed reduced growth rate and viability (P < 0.0001) compared to control mESCs. Spectral karyotypic analysis of mycoplasma-infected mESCs showed a number of non-clonal chromosomal aberrations which increased with the duration of infection. The differentiation status of the infected mESCs was most affected at passage P13+6 where the infection was strongest and 46.3% of the mESCs expressed both POU5F1 and SSEA-1 markers whereas 84.8% of control mESCs expressed both markers. The percentage of germline chimeras from mycoplasma-infected mESCs was examined after blastocyst injection and embryo transfer to suitable recipients at different passages and, compared to the respective control group, was most affected at passage P13+5 (50% vs. 90%; P < 0.07). Further reductions were obtained at the same passage in the percentage of litters born (50% vs. 100%; P < 0.07) and in the percentage of pups born (22% vs. 45%; P < 0.001). Thirty three chimeras (39.8%) obtained from blastocyst injection with mycoplasma-infected mESCs showed reduced body weight (P < 0.0001), nasal discharge, osteoarthropathia, and cachexia. Flow cytometric analysis of plasma from chimeras produced with mycoplasma-infected mESCs revealed statistically significant differences in the proportions of T-cells and increased levels of IgG1 (P < 0.001), IgG2a (P < 0.05) and IgM (P < 0.05), anti-DNA antibodies (P < 0.05) and rheumatoid factor (P < 0.01). The present data indicate that mycoplasma contamination of mESCs affects various cell parameters, germline transmission, and postnatal development of the resulting chimeras. PMID:18819014

Markoullis, Kyriaki; Bulian, Diana; Hlzlwimmer, Gabriele; Quintanilla-Martinez, Leticia; Heiliger, Katrin-Janine; Zitzelsberger, Horst; Scherb, Hagen; Mysliwietz, Josef; Uphoff, Cord C; Drexler, Hans G; Adler, Thure; Busch, Dirk H; Schmidt, Jrg; Mahabir, Esther

2009-02-01

44

Microenvironmental variables must influence intrinsic phenotypic parameters of cancer stem cells to affect tumourigenicity.  

PubMed

Since the discovery of tumour initiating cells (TICs) in solid tumours, studies focussing on their role in cancer initiation and progression have abounded. The biological interrogation of these cells continues to yield volumes of information on their pro-tumourigenic behaviour, but actionable generalised conclusions have been scarce. Further, new information suggesting a dependence of tumour composition and growth on the microenvironment has yet to be studied theoretically. To address this point, we created a hybrid, discrete/continuous computational cellular automaton model of a generalised stem-cell driven tissue with a simple microenvironment. Using the model we explored the phenotypic traits inherent to the tumour initiating cells and the effect of the microenvironment on tissue growth. We identify the regions in phenotype parameter space where TICs are able to cause a disruption in homeostasis, leading to tissue overgrowth and tumour maintenance. As our parameters and model are non-specific, they could apply to any tissue TIC and do not assume specific genetic mutations. Targeting these phenotypic traits could represent a generalizable therapeutic strategy across cancer types. Further, we find that the microenvironmental variable does not strongly affect the outcomes, suggesting a need for direct feedback from the microenvironment onto stem-cell behaviour in future modelling endeavours. PMID:24453958

Scott, Jacob G; Hjelmeland, Anita B; Chinnaiyan, Prakash; Anderson, Alexander R A; Basanta, David

2014-01-01

45

Relative importance of parameters affecting wind speed prediction using artificial neural networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In traditional artificial neural networks (ANN) models, the relative importance of the individual meteorological input variables is often overlooked. A case study is presented in this paper to model monthly wind speed values using meteorological data (air pressure, air temperature, relative humidity, and precipitation), where the study also includes an estimate of the relative importance of these variables. Recorded monthly mean data are available at a gauging site in Tabriz, Azerbaijan, Iran, for the period from 2000 to 2005, gauged in the city at the outskirt of alluvial funneling mountains with an established microclimatic conditions and a diurnal wind regime. This provides a sufficiently severe test for the ANN model with a good predictive capability of 1 year of lead time but without any direct approach to refer the predicted results to local microclimatic conditions. A method is used in this paper to calculate the relative importance of each meteorological input parameters affecting wind speed, showing that air pressure and precipitation are the most and least influential parameters with approximate values of 40 and 10 %, respectively. This gained knowledge corresponds to the local knowledge of the microclimatic and geomorphologic conditions surrounding Tabriz.

Ghorbani, M. A.; Khatibi, R.; Hosseini, B.; Bilgili, M.

2013-10-01

46

Use of Artificial Neural Networks to Examine Parameters Affecting the Immobilization of Streptokinase in Chitosan  

PubMed Central

Streptokinase is a potent fibrinolytic agent which is widely used in treatment of deep vein thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism (PE) and acute myocardial infarction (MI). Major limitation of this enzyme is its short biological half-life in the blood stream. Our previous report showed that complexing streptokinase with chitosan could be a solution to overcome this limitation. The aim of this research was to establish an artificial neural networks (ANNs) model for identifying main factors influencing the loading efficiency of streptokinase, as an essential parameter determining efficacy of the enzyme. Three variables, namely, chitosan concentration, buffer pH and enzyme concentration were considered as input values and the loading efficiency was used as output. Subsequently, the experimental data were modeled and the model was validated against a set of unseen data. The developed model indicated chitosan concentration as probably the most important factor, having reverse effect on the loading efficiency. PMID:25587327

Modaresi, Seyed Mohamad Sadegh; Faramarzi, Mohammad Ali; Soltani, Arash; Baharifar, Hadi; Amani, Amir

2014-01-01

47

Biofilm Formation by the Fish Pathogen Flavobacterium columnare: Development and Parameters Affecting Surface Attachment  

PubMed Central

Flavobacterium columnare is a bacterial fish pathogen that affects many freshwater species worldwide. The natural reservoir of this pathogen is unknown, but its resilience in closed aquaculture systems posits biofilm as the source of contagion for farmed fish. The objectives of this study were (i) to characterize the dynamics of biofilm formation and morphology under static and flow conditions and (ii) to evaluate the effects of temperature, pH, salinity, hardness, and carbohydrates on biofilm formation. Nineteen F. columnare strains, including representatives of all of the defined genetic groups (genomovars), were compared in this study. The structure of biofilm was characterized by light microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. F. columnare was able to attach to and colonize inert surfaces by producing biofilm. Surface colonization started within 6 h postinoculation, and microcolonies were observed within 24 h. Extracellular polysaccharide substances and water channels were observed in mature biofilms (24 to 48 h). A similar time course was observed when F. columnare formed biofilm in microfluidic chambers under flow conditions. The virulence potential of biofilm was confirmed by cutaneous inoculation of channel catfish fingerlings with mature biofilm. Several physicochemical parameters modulate attachment to surfaces, with the largest influence being exerted by hardness, salinity, and the presence of mannose. Maintenance of hardness and salinity values within certain ranges could prevent biofilm formation by F. columnare in aquaculture systems. PMID:23851087

Cai, Wenlong; De La Fuente, Leonardo

2013-01-01

48

Postpartum repeated separation from pups affects the behavior and neuroendocrine parameters of mandarin vole fathers.  

PubMed

Repeated separation from pups results in anxiety and depression-like behaviors in mothers. This level of attachment has also been established between fathers and pups in monogamous rodents. We hypothesized that brief and lengthy separation from their pups would affect emotion, social behavior and neuroendocrine parameters in socially monogamous male mandarin voles (Microtus mandarinus). The results indicate that brief pup separation (BPS) of 15min/day significantly reduced the percentage of time spent in the central area, total distance and total transition in open field tests. BPS resulted in increased sniffing and self-grooming in fathers, but reduced attacking and climbing. Long pup separation (LPS) of 3h/day suppressed attacking, sniffing, no-social investigating and digging in fathers, but increased time in immobile in social interaction and forced swimming tests. LPS upregulated levels of central oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP), serum corticosterone (CORT); BPS increased central OT and serum corticosterone only. These findings show that BPS and LPS are critical stressors for fathers and alter anxiety and depression-like and social behaviors in monogamous mandarin voles. These changes in behaviors may be associated with alteration in OT, AVP and CORT. PMID:25446219

Kong, Lingzhe; Wu, Ruiyong; Wang, Lu; Feng, Weige; Cao, Yan; Tai, Fadao

2015-02-01

49

The assay design used for measurement of therapeutic antibody concentrations can affect pharmacokinetic parameters: Case studies.  

PubMed

To interpret pharmacokinetic (PK) data of biotherapeutics, it is critical to understand which drug species is being measured by the PK assay. For therapeutic antibodies, it is generally accepted that "free" circulating antibodies are the pharmacologically active form needed to determine the PK/pharmacodynamic (PD) relationship, safety margin calculations, and dose projections from animals to humans and the eventual characterization of the exposure in the clinic. However, "total" drug may be important in evaluating the dynamic interaction between the drug and the target, as well as the total drug exposure. In the absence of or with low amounts of soluble ligand/shed receptor, total and free drug species are often equivalent and their detection is less sensitive to assay formats or reagent choices. In contrast, in the presence of a significant amount of ligand, assay design and characterization of assay reagents are critical to understanding the PK profiles. Here, we present case studies where different assay formats affected measured PK profiles and data interpretation. The results from reagent characterizations provide a potential explanation for the observed discrepancies and highlight the importance of reagent characterization in understanding which drug species are being measured to accurately interpret PK parameters. PMID:22820463

Fischer, Saloumeh K; Yang, Jihong; Anand, Banmeet; Cowan, Kyra; Hendricks, Robert; Li, Jing; Nakamura, Gerald; Song, An

2012-01-01

50

Multivariate analysis of respiratory problems and their connection with meteorological parameters and the main biological and chemical air pollutants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of the study is to analyse the joint effect of biological (pollen) and chemical air pollutants, as well as meteorological variables, on the hospital admissions of respiratory problems for the Szeged region in Southern Hungary. The data set used covers a nine-year period (1999-2007) and is unique in the sense that it includesbesides the daily number of respiratory hospital admissionsnot just the hourly mean concentrations of CO, PM 10, NO, NO 2, O 3 and SO 2 with meteorological variables (temperature, global solar flux, relative humidity, air pressure and wind speed), but two pollen variables ( Ambrosia and total pollen excluding Ambrosia) as well. The analysis was performed using three age categories for the pollen season of Ambrosia and the pollen-free season. Meteorological elements and air pollutants are clustered in order to define optimum environmental conditions of high patient numbers. ANOVA was then used to determine whether cluster-related mean patient numbers differ significantly. Furthermore, two novel procedures are applied here: factor analysis including a special transformation and a time-varying multivariate linear regression that makes it possible to determine the rank of importance of the influencing variables in respiratory hospital admissions, and also compute the relative importance of the parameters affecting respiratory disorders. Both techniques revealed that Ambrosia pollen is an important variable that influences hospital admissions (an increase of 10 pollen grains m -3 can imply an increase of around 24% in patient numbers). The role of chemical and meteorological parameters is also significant, but their weights vary according to the seasons and the methods. Clearer results are obtained for the pollination season of Ambrosia. Here, a 10 ?g m -3 increase in O 3 implies a patient number response from -17% to +11%. Wind speed is a surprisingly important variable, where a 1 m s -1 rise may result in a hospital admission reduction of up to 42-45%.

Matyasovszky, Istvn; Makra, Lszl; Blint, Beatrix; Guba, Zoltn; Smeghy, Zoltn

2011-08-01

51

Evaluation of CD52 positive sperms in subfertile human semen samples: Is there any relationship with main semen parameters?  

PubMed Central

Background: Sperm maturation and sperm membrane integration are the most important elements in male fertility. CD52 is one of the antigens. CD52 is a GPI (glycosylphosphatidylinositol) anchored that express on lymphocytes and epididymal cells. This antigen bind to sperm membrane during transition sperm from epididymal duct as well as its relationship with semenogelins in human seminal plasma. The aim of this study was to obtain any association between the percentage of CD52 positive sperms with main semen parameters such as percentage of motile sperms, percentage of sperm with normal morphology, and the presence of normal viscosity. Materials and Methods: Semen samples from subfertile men were analyzed, the samples totally were 45 that divided according to their motility into three groups, first one, more than 40%, second one 10-40%, and the third one under 10% total motility. Fifteen samples in each group were evaluated by semen analysis according to WHO 2010 guidelines for infertility laboratory. Sperms were washed by Ham's F-10 and immunostaining with the monoclonal antibody CAMPATH-1G and then analyzed by flow cytometry. We compared each of the groups based on their motility and the data were analyzed by SPSS 20. Results: Correlation between CD52 labeling and sperm motility was negatively significant, in the second group (r = 0.592, P = 0.020) and in the third group (r = 0.805, P = 0.00). Conclusion: Our results showed that the correlation between CD52 labeling and sperm motility was negatively significant, but we did not observe any relation with other semen parameters, such as sperm normal morphology, sperm concentration, and semen viscosity. PMID:24949295

Aboutorabi, Roshanak; Mazani, Fatemeh; Rafiee, Laleh

2014-01-01

52

A study of the parameters affecting the effectiveness of Moringa oleifera in drinking water purification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The powder obtained from the seeds of the Moringa oleifera tree has been shown to be an effective primary coagulant for water treatment. When the seeds are dried, dehusked, crushed and added to water, the powder acts as a coagulant binding colloidal particles and bacteria to form agglomerated particles (flocs), which settle allowing the clarified supernatant to be poured off. Very little research has been undertaken on the parameters affecting the effectiveness of M. oleifera, especially in Malawi, for purification of drinking water and there is a great need for further testing in this area. Conclusive data needs to be compiled to demonstrate the effects of various water parameters have on the efficiency of the seeds. A parametric study was undertaken at Leeds Metropolitan University, UK, with the aim to establish the most appropriate dosing method; the optimum dosage for removal of turbidity; the influence of pH and temperature; together with the shelf life of the M. oleifera seeds. The study revealed that the most suitable dosing method was to mix the powder into a concentrated paste, hence forming a stock suspension. The optimum M. oleifera dose, for turbidity values between 40 and 200 NTU, ranged between 30 and 55 mg/l. With turbidity set at 130 NTU and a M. oleifera dose within the optimum range at 50 mg/l, pH levels were varied between 4 and 9. It was discovered that the coagulant performance was not too sensitive to pH fluctuations when conditions were within the optimum range. The most efficient coagulation, determined by the greatest reduction in turbidity, occurred at pH 6.5. Alkaline conditions were overall more favourable than acidic conditions; pH 9 had an efficiency of 65% of optimum, whilst at pH 5 the efficiency dropped to around 55%. The efficiency further dropped at pH 4, where the powder only produced results of around 10% of optimum conditions. A temperature range of 4-60 C was studied in this research. Colder waters (<15 C) were found to hinder the effectiveness of the coagulation process. The higher the temperature the more effective was the coagulation. It was also found that the age of the seeds, up to 18 months, did not have any noticeable effect on dose level and percentage reduction in turbidity, although at 18 months the seeds had a narrower dosing range to produce near-optimum reduction. Seeds aged 24 months showed a significant decline in coagulant efficiency.

Pritchard, M.; Craven, T.; Mkandawire, T.; Edmondson, A. S.; O'Neill, J. G.

53

Parameters Affecting Spore Recovery from Wipes Used in Biological Surface Sampling ?  

PubMed Central

The need for the precise and reliable collection of potential biothreat contaminants has motivated research in developing a better understanding of the variability in biological surface sampling methods. In this context, the objective of this work was to determine parameters affecting the efficiency of extracting Bacillus anthracis Sterne spores from commonly used wipe sampling materials and to describe performance using the interfacial energy concept. In addition, surface thermodynamics was applied to understand and predict surface sampling performance. Wipe materials were directly inoculated with known concentrations of B. anthracis spores and placed into extraction solutions, followed by sonication or vortexing. Experimental factors investigated included wipe material (polyester, cotton, and polyester-rayon), extraction solution (sterile deionized water [H2O], deionized water with 0.04% Tween 80 [H2O-T], phosphate-buffered saline [PBS], and PBS with 0.04% Tween 80 [PBST]), and physical dissociation method (vortexing or sonication). The most efficient extraction from wipes was observed for solutions containing the nonionic surfactant Tween 80. The increase in extraction efficiency due to surfactant addition was attributed to an attractive interfacial energy between Tween 80 and the centrifuge tube wall, which prevented spore adhesion. Extraction solution significantly impacted the extraction efficiency, as determined by statistical analysis (P < 0.05). Moreover, the extraction solution was the most important factor in extraction performance, followed by the wipe material. Polyester-rayon was the most efficient wipe material for releasing spores into solution by rank; however, no statistically significant difference between polyester-rayon and cotton was observed (P > 0.05). Vortexing provided higher spore recovery in H2O and H2O-T than sonication, when all three wipe materials and the reference control were considered (P < 0.05). PMID:21296945

Da Silva, Sandra M.; Filliben, James J.; Morrow, Jayne B.

2011-01-01

54

Monte Carlo modeling and analyses of YALINA-booster subcritical assembly part 1: analytical models and main neutronics parameters.  

SciTech Connect

This study was carried out to model and analyze the YALINA-Booster facility, of the Joint Institute for Power and Nuclear Research of Belarus, with the long term objective of advancing the utilization of accelerator driven systems for the incineration of nuclear waste. The YALINA-Booster facility is a subcritical assembly, driven by an external neutron source, which has been constructed to study the neutron physics and to develop and refine methodologies to control the operation of accelerator driven systems. The external neutron source consists of Californium-252 spontaneous fission neutrons, 2.45 MeV neutrons from Deuterium-Deuterium reactions, or 14.1 MeV neutrons from Deuterium-Tritium reactions. In the latter two cases a deuteron beam is used to generate the neutrons. This study is a part of the collaborative activity between Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) of USA and the Joint Institute for Power and Nuclear Research of Belarus. In addition, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has a coordinated research project benchmarking and comparing the results of different numerical codes with the experimental data available from the YALINA-Booster facility and ANL has a leading role coordinating the IAEA activity. The YALINA-Booster facility has been modeled according to the benchmark specifications defined for the IAEA activity without any geometrical homogenization using the Monte Carlo codes MONK and MCNP/MCNPX/MCB. The MONK model perfectly matches the MCNP one. The computational analyses have been extended through the MCB code, which is an extension of the MCNP code with burnup capability because of its additional feature for analyzing source driven multiplying assemblies. The main neutronics parameters of the YALINA-Booster facility were calculated using these computer codes with different nuclear data libraries based on ENDF/B-VI-0, -6, JEF-2.2, and JEF-3.1.

Talamo, A.; Gohar, M. Y. A.; Nuclear Engineering Division

2008-09-11

55

Dietary methionine availability affects the main factors involved in muscle protein turnover in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).  

PubMed

Methionine is a limiting essential amino acid in most plant-based ingredients of fish feed. In the present study, we aimed to determine the effect of dietary methionine concentrations on several main factors involved in the regulation of mRNA translation and the two major proteolytic pathways (ubiquitin-proteasome and autophagy-lysosomal) in the white muscle of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The fish were fed for 6 weeks one of the three isonitrogenous diets providing three different methionine concentrations (deficient (DEF), adequate (ADQ) and excess (EXC)). At the end of the experiment, the fish fed the DEF diet had a significantly lower body weight and feed efficiency compared with those fed the EXC and ADQ diets. This reduction in the growth of fish fed the DEF diet was accompanied by a decrease in the activation of the translation initiation factors ribosomal protein S6 and eIF2?. The levels of the main autophagy-related markers (LC3-II and beclin 1) as well as the expression of several autophagy genes (atg4b, atg12 l, Uvrag, SQSTM1, Mul1 and Bnip3) were higher in the white muscle of fish fed the DEF diet. Similarly, the mRNA levels of several proteasome-related genes (Fbx32, MuRF2, MuRF3, ZNF216 and Trim32) were significantly up-regulated by methionine limitation. Together, these results extend our understanding of mechanisms regulating the reduction of muscle growth induced by dietary methionine deficiency, providing valuable information on the biomarkers of the effects of low-fishmeal diets. PMID:24877663

Belghit, Ikram; Skiba-Cassy, Sandrine; Geurden, Inge; Dias, Karine; Surget, Anne; Kaushik, Sadasivam; Panserat, Stphane; Seiliez, Iban

2014-08-28

56

Stability of Intercellular Exchange of Biochemical Substances Affected by Variability of Environmental Parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Communication between cells is realized by exchange of biochemical substances. Due to internal organization of living systems and variability of external parameters, the exchange is heavily influenced by perturbations of various parameters at almost all stages of the process. Since communication is one of essential processes for functioning of living systems it is of interest to investigate conditions for its stability. Using previously developed simplified model of bacterial communication in a form of coupled difference logistic equations we investigate stability of exchange of signaling molecules under variability of internal and external parameters.

Mihailovi?, Dragutin T.; Budin?evi?, Mirko; Bala, Igor; Mihailovi?, Anja

57

A Lagrangian Identification of the Main Sources of Moisture Affecting Northeastern Brazil during Its Pre-Rainy and Rainy Seasons  

PubMed Central

This work examines the sources of moisture affecting the semi-arid Brazilian Northeast (NEB) during its pre-rainy and rainy season (JFMAM) through a Lagrangian diagnosis method. The FLEXPART model identifies the humidity contributions to the moisture budget over a region through the continuous computation of changes in the specific humidity along back or forward trajectories up to 10 days period. The numerical experiments were done for the period that spans between 2000 and 2004 and results were aggregated on a monthly basis. Results show that besides a minor local recycling component, the vast majority of moisture reaching NEB area is originated in the south Atlantic basin and that the nearby wet Amazon basin bears almost no impact. Moreover, although the maximum precipitation in the Poligono das Secas region (PS) occurs in March and the maximum precipitation associated with air parcels emanating from the South Atlantic towards PS is observed along January to March, the highest moisture contribution from this oceanic region occurs slightly later (April). A dynamical analysis suggests that the maximum precipitation observed in the PS sector does not coincide with the maximum moisture supply probably due to the combined effect of the Walker and Hadley cells in inhibiting the rising motions over the region in the months following April. PMID:20585458

Drumond, Anita; Nieto, Raquel; Trigo, Ricardo; Ambrizzi, Tercio; Souza, Everaldo; Gimeno, Luis

2010-01-01

58

Sensitivity Analysis of Parameters Affecting Protection of Water Resources at Hanford WA  

SciTech Connect

The scope of this analysis was to assess the sensitivity of contaminant fluxes from the vadose zone to the water table, to several parameters, some of which can be controlled by operational considerations.

DAVIS, J.D.

2002-02-08

59

An analysis of the solar wind parameters responsible for the main phase of the super geomagnetic storm on March 31, 2001  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the solar wind parameters responsible for the main phase of the super geomagnetic storm occurred on March 31, 2001 is analyzed taking into account the delayed geomagnetic effect of solar wind at the L1 point and using the SYM-H index. The solar wind responsible for the main phase is split into two periods. The solar wind parameters in the two periods contributed differently to the main phase. A comparative study of solar wind parameters in the two periods shows the evidence that the solar wind density defines energy transfer to the magnetosphere. Analysis is also made to understand a range of key factors that may define the development of the storm's main phase, including the time integral of the southward component of interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) or the solar wind electric field, and a solar wind energy coupling function established by Akasofu (1981). Additionally, the paper discusses the assumption that a strong southward IMF and high inclination to the ecliptic plane would contribute to the occurrence of a super geomagnetic storm, and assesses the rationality behind an empirical formula relating the Dst peak value to solar wind parameters established by Wang Y M et al.(2003). The paper is concluded with a summary of the key solar wind parameters that may define the development of a storm's main phase.

Le, G.; Zheng, L.

2012-12-01

60

Analysis of Process Parameters Affecting Spray-Dried Oily Core Nanocapsules Using Factorial Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this work was to optimize the process parameters required for the production of spray-dried oily core nanocapsules\\u000a (NCs) with targeted size and drug yield using a two-level four-factor fractional factorial experimental design (FFED). The\\u000a coded process parameters chosen were inlet temperature (X\\u000a 1), feed flow rate (X\\u000a 2), atomizing air flow (X\\u000a 3), and aspiration rate (X

Tao Zhang; Bi-Botti C. Youan

2010-01-01

61

Influence of pre-injection control parameters on main-injection fuel quantity for an electronically controlled double-valve fuel injection system of diesel engine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simulation model of an electronically controlled two solenoid valve fuel injection system for a diesel engine is established in the AMESim environment. The accuracy of the model is validated through comparison with experimental data. The influence of pre-injection control parameters on main-injection quantity under different control modes is analyzed. In the spill control valve mode, main-injection fuel quantity decreases gradually and then reaches a stable level because of the increase in multi-injection dwell time. In the needle control valve mode, main-injection fuel quantity increases with rising multi-injection dwell time; this effect becomes more obvious at high-speed revolutions and large main-injection pulse widths. Pre-injection pulse width has no obvious influence on main-injection quantity under the two control modes; the variation in main-injection quantity is in the range of 1 mm3.

Song, Enzhe; Fan, Liyun; Chen, Chao; Dong, Quan; Ma, Xiuzhen; Bai, Yun

2013-09-01

62

Structural parameters of normal and osteoporotic human trabecular bone are affected differently by microCT image resolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryThis study employed microCT to investigate whether image resolution affects bone structural parameters differently in healthy\\u000a normal and osteoporotic trabecular bone. With increasing image voxel size, the originally detected differences between sample\\u000a groups diminished. The results suggest that structural differences may not be reliably detected with clinical scanners.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a IntroductionStructural parameters of bone reflect its health status, but are highly dependent

H. Isaksson; J. Tyrs; M. Hakulinen; A. S. Aula; I. Tamminen; P. Julkunen; H. Krger; J. S. Jurvelin

2011-01-01

63

Factors Affecting the Item Parameter Estimation and Classification Accuracy of the DINA Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To better understand the statistical properties of the deterministic inputs, noisy "and" gate cognitive diagnosis (DINA) model, the impact of several factors on the quality of the item parameter estimates and classification accuracy was investigated. Results of the simulation study indicate that the fully Bayes approach is most accurate when the

de la Torre, Jimmy; Hong, Yuan; Deng, Weiling

2010-01-01

64

Investigation of parameters affecting treatment time in MRI-guided transurethral ultrasound therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MRI-guided transurethral ultrasound therapy shows promise for minimally invasive treatment of localized prostate cancer. Real-time MR temperature feedback enables the 3D control of thermal therapy to define an accurate region within the prostate. Previous in-vivo canine studies showed the feasibility of this method using transurethral planar transducers. The aim of this simulation study was to reduce the procedure time, while maintaining treatment accuracy by investigating new combinations of treatment parameters. A numerical model was used to simulate a multi-element heating applicator rotating inside the urethra in 10 human prostates. Acoustic power and rotation rate were varied based on the feedback of the temperature in the prostate. Several parameters were investigated for improving the treatment time. Maximum acoustic power and rotation rate were optimized interdependently as a function of prostate radius and transducer operating frequency, while avoiding temperatures >90 C in the prostate. Other trials were performed on each parameter separately, with the other parameter fixed. The concept of using dual-frequency transducers was studied, using the fundamental frequency or the 3rd harmonic component depending on the prostate radius. The maximum acoustic power which could be used decreased as a function of the prostate radius and the frequency. Decreasing the frequency (9.7-3.0 MHz) or increasing the power (10-20 W.cm-2) led to treatment times shorter by up to 50% under appropriate conditions. Dual-frequency configurations, while helpful, tended to have less impact on treatment times. Treatment accuracy was maintained and critical adjacent tissues like the rectal wall remained protected. The interdependence between power and frequency may require integrating multi-parametric functions inside the controller for future optimizations. As a first approach, however, even slight modifications of key parameters can be sufficient to reduce treatment time.

N'Djin, W. A.; Burtnyk, M.; Chopra, R.; Bronskill, M. J.

2010-03-01

65

Clinical parameters affecting prediction accuracy of postoperative lung function in non-small cell lung cancer.  

PubMed

Despite significant development in chemotherapy and radiotherapy, surgery is still the cornerstone for curative lung cancer treatment. Accurate prediction of postoperative lung function is mandatory. The goal of this study was to identify important clinical factors affecting prediction accuracy of postoperative lung function for more careful patient selection. The medical records of non-small cell lung cancer patients undergoing pulmonary resection were reviewed. An accuracy index, apo/ppoFEV(1) was defined as the ratio of actual postoperative FEV(1) [apoFEV(1)] to predicted postoperative FEV(1) [ppoFEV(1)]. We used multivariate analysis to inspect the relationship between the accuracy index and seven tentative clinical factors: age, gender, preoperative FEV(1), time interval between operation and the first postoperative FEV(1), bronchodilator response (%), resected lung portion, and the number of resected lung segments. A total of 82 patients were analyzed. Accuracy index of quantitative perfusion lung scan-based prediction was better than that of simple calculation. Multivariate analysis identified the number of resected lung segments and preoperative FEV(1) as the significant clinical factors affecting the accuracy index (P=0.026 and 0.002, respectively). Preoperative FEV(1) and the number of resected lung segments are significant clinical factors affecting prediction accuracy of postoperative lung function. PMID:18687696

Kim, Jwa-Kyung; Jang, Seung Hun; Lee, Jae Woong; Kim, Dong-Gyu; Hong, Ki Woo; Jung, Ki-Suck

2008-12-01

66

Main and Interactive Effects of Distress Tolerance and Negative Affect Intensity in Relation to PTSD Symptoms among Trauma-Exposed Adults.  

PubMed

The present investigation evaluated the main and interactive effects of distress tolerance and negative affect intensity in relation to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity and symptom cluster severity. Participants were 190 trauma-exposed adults (52.6 % women; M age=25.3 years, SD=11.4) recruited from the community. Distress tolerance (i.e., perceived ability to withstand distressing emotional states) demonstrated significant incremental associations with global PTSD symptom severity as well as Re-Experiencing, Emotional Numbing, and Hyperarousal symptom cluster severity. Negative affect intensity (i.e., perceived intensity of negative emotional responses) demonstrated significant incremental associations with each of the PTSD symptom outcomes. Moreover, the incremental interactive effect of distress tolerance and negative affect intensity was significantly associated with PTSD symptom severity as well as PTSD-Emotional Numbing symptom cluster severity. These incremental effects were evident after accounting for the variance explained by anxiety sensitivity (i.e., fear of anxiety-related sensations). Post hoc probing analyses supported the moderating role of negative affect intensity in the association between distress tolerance and PTSD symptom severity, such that low levels of distress tolerance, in the context of elevated levels of negative affect intensity, were associated with the greatest levels of PTSD symptoms. PMID:24431482

Vujanovic, Anka A; Hart, Ashley S; Potter, Carrie M; Berenz, Erin C; Niles, Barbara; Bernstein, Amit

2013-06-01

67

Systematic investigation of parameters affecting the performance of an agitated filter-dryer.  

PubMed

A systematic experimental investigation of contact drying operation was carried out in an agitated Charles Thompson filter-dryer. In this study, the effect of process parameters (wall temperature, impeller speed, fill level) on the drying performance in the filter-dryer is quantified as a function of bed temperature and solvent concentration. In addition, the impact of drying conditions on the particle size distribution was also examined. It was found that in the range of parameters investigated, drying rate increased with wall temperature and reduced bed depth. The effect of impeller speed was variable where favorable drying conditions were strongly dependent on the particle properties. Moreover, decrease in the particle size was evident with an increase in impeller speed and decrease in the bed depth due to increased collision frequency and reduction in the fill volume both leading to particle attrition respectively. Besides, the average wall to solid heat transfer coefficient is also estimated for variable operating conditions. PMID:23650096

Sahni, Ekneet Kaur; Bogner, Robin H; Chaudhuri, Bodhisattwa

2013-07-01

68

Abundance and demographic parameters of humpback whales from the Gulf of Maine, and stock definition relative to the Scotian Shelf  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Gulf of Maine is one of the principal summer feeding grounds for humpback whales ( Megaptera novaeangliae ) in the North Atlantic, and was one focus of effort in an ocean-basin-wide study known as the Years of the North Atlantic Humpback (YoNAH) project. Dat a from that project and from subsequent surveys were used to assess stock boundaries, abundance

Phil Clapham; Jay Barlow; Moriah Bessinger; Tim Cole; David Mattila; Richard Pace; Debra Palka; Jooke Robbins; Rosemary Seton

2003-01-01

69

Probiotics affect the clinical inflammatory parameters of experimental gingivitis in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives:To determine the effects of a probiotic milk drink consumed over a period of 28 days, regarding the expression of clinical inflammatory parameters of the oral gingiva during various phases of plaque-induced gingivitis.Methods:Twenty-eight adults with healthy gingiva took part in a prospective and clinical-controlled study. The test group was advised to consume a probiotic milk drink (Yacult) daily during a

S Slawik; I Staufenbiel; R Schilke; S Nicksch; K Weinspach; M Stiesch; J Eberhard

2011-01-01

70

Refining in silico simulation to study digestion parameters affecting the bioaccessibility of lipophilic nutrients and micronutrients.  

PubMed

Despite the considerable number of in vivo and in vitro studies on the digestive fate of lipophilic nutrients, micronutrients, and bioactives, the effects of the structure and composition of foods on the physicochemical mechanisms of luminal digestion are still poorly understood. Studying them is indeed complex because the number of parameters is high and many of them are interdependent. To solve this problem, an in silico simulation based on a multi-agent system was recently proposed to study the intestinal bioaccessibility of lipophilic nutrients and micronutrients from a single oil droplet. The roles of lipolysis and solubilization in bile salt were included. The effects of several food and digestion parameters were in line with those reported in the experimental literature. The goal of the research reported in this new article was to include more digestion parameters in the simulation in order to make it more realistic against complex cases. This was done in one specific digestion condition reflecting in vitro experiments, using droplets of tricaprylin or triolein containing vitamin A. The structure and principles of the original model were kept, with independent local modifications in order to study each factor separately. First, a gastric step was added where lipolysis took place, and only a marginal effect on the following intestinal step was found. Then, the chemical form of vitamin A, either non-hydrolyzed retinyl ester or retinyl ester instantly hydrolyzed into retinol, was investigated by considering different localizations in the droplet, resulting in a higher bioaccessibility for the retinol. The case of a mixture of tricaprylin and triolein indicated an influence of the oil phase viscosity. The consideration of mixed micelles compared to simple bile salt micelles was also investigated, and resulted in a higher vitamin A bioaccessibility, especially with triolein. Finally, a full model including the most influential parameters was tested to simulate the digestion of triglyceride-limonene mixtures, giving bioaccessibility trends in very good agreement with the literature. PMID:25340470

Marze, Sbastien

2015-01-24

71

How do population genetic parameters affect germination of the heterocarpic species Atriplex tatarica (Amaranthaceae)?  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The heterocarpic species Atriplex tatarica produces two types of seeds. In this study, how basic population genetic parameters correlate with seed germinability under various experimental conditions was tested. Methods Population genetic diversity was ascertained in eight populations of A. tatarica by assessing patterns of variation at nine allozyme loci. Germinability of both seed types from all sampled populations was determined by a common laboratory experiment under different salinity levels. Basic population genetic parameters, i.e. percentage of polymorphic loci, average number of alleles per locus and observed heterozygosity were correlated with observed population germination characteristics. Key Results Atriplex tatarica possesses a remarkable heterocarpy, i.e. one type of seed is non-dormant and the other shows different dormancy levels in relation to experimental conditions. Significant negative correlations have been detected between germination of both seed types and the coefficient of inbreeding, and a significant negative correlation between germination of dormant seeds and other population genetic parameters, i.e. percentage of polymorphic loci and average number of alleles per polymorphic locus. Moreover, populations from the region characterized by a shorter growing season manifested higher germinability, i.e. had lower dormancy, than those from the lower-latitude one. Conclusions In general, germination of non-dormant seeds is probably not under strong genetic control. Hence, they germinate as soon as conditions are favourable, thus ensuring survival in the short term, but populations risk local extinction if conditions become adverse (i.e. a high-risk strategy). In contrast, germination of the dormant type of seeds is under stronger genetic control and is significantly correlated with basic population genetic parameters. These seeds ensure long-term reproduction and survival in the field by protracted germination, albeit in low quantities (i.e. A. tatarica also adopts a low-risk strategy). PMID:19339299

Kochnkov, Jana; Mandk, Bohumil

2009-01-01

72

Technical parameters affecting image characteristics in in vivo MR microscopy of the mouse.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to assess the effects of changing acquisition parameters used for high-resolution in vivo magnetic resonance (MR) microscopy on image quality and scan time. The head or abdomen of 11 normal and 1 glioblastoma-bearing anesthetized BALB/c mice were imaged using a high-resolution 7.0-Tesla magnet. Scan parameters such as matrix size (MTX), slice thickness (ST), number of excitations (NEX), pulse sequence type including repetition time (TR) and echo time (TE), respiratory gating, and intraperitoneal contrast medium administration were altered to assess their actual effect on signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) as compared to calculated effects. As expected, SNR increased with increasing ST or NEX and with decreasing MTX. However, although the empirical increase in SNR was similar to that expected for increased ST, it was less than that anticipated for increasing NEX or decreasing MTX. Increasing NEX and applying respiratory gating both increased SNR and reduced the image degradation associated with respiratory motion in images of the abdomen. Intraperitoneal contrast medium administration produced a marked increase in CNR in the subject with the implanted glioblastoma, suggesting that this route is satisfactory for the enhancement of lesions disrupting the blood-brain barrier. The consequence of improving image quality in terms of spatial and contrast resolution is increased scan time. However, the actual increase in SNR when altering acquisition parameters may not be as much as predicted by theory. PMID:12502104

Yamada, Kazutaka; Wisner, Erik R; de Ropp, Jeff S; LeCouteur, Richard A; Tripp, Linda D

2002-01-01

73

Retrospective surveillance of metabolic parameters affecting reproductive performance of Japanese Black breeding cows  

PubMed Central

This retrospective study was conducted to confirm the relationship between pre- and postpartum metabolic parameters and postpartum reproductive performance and to clarify seasonal characteristics of the metabolic parameters by using our metabolic profile test (MPT) database of Japanese Black breeding herds. In evaluation 1, MPT databases of blood samples from multiparous cows collected prepartum and postpartum were divided into two groups according to calving interval, and each MPT parameter was compared. In evaluation 2, the same MPT databases used in evaluation 1 were divided into two groups according to the sampling period. Significant differences were found in the prepartal total protein and postpartal ?-glutamyltransferase in evaluation 1. In evaluation 2, significant differences were found in the prepartal and postpartal total protein, albumin/globulin ratio, and glucose. Clear seasonal differences in MPT results emphasized the usefulness of the MPT in breeding cattle herds fed home-pasture roughage and suggest that unsatisfactory reproductive performance during hot periods reflects inadequate nutritional content of the diet and possible reduced feed intake due to heat stress. PMID:24675835

Watanabe, Urara; Yamato, Osamu; Otoi, Takeshige; Okamoto, Koji

2014-01-01

74

Parameters Affecting Image-guided, Hydrodynamic Gene Delivery to Swine Liver  

PubMed Central

Development of a safe and effective method for gene delivery to hepatocytes is a critical step toward gene therapy for liver diseases. Here, we assessed the parameters for gene delivery to the livers of large animals (pigs, 4065?kg) using an image-guided hydrodynamics-based procedure that involves image-guided catheter insertion into the lobular hepatic vein and hydrodynamic injection of reporter plasmids using a computer-controlled injector. We demonstrated that injection parameters (relative position of the catheter in the hepatic vasculature, intravascular pressure upon injection, and injection volume) are directly related to the safety and efficiency of the procedure. By optimizing these parameters, we explored for the first time, the advantage of the procedure for sequential injections to multiple lobes in human-sized pigs. The optimized procedure resulted in sustained expression of the human ?-1 antitrypsin gene in livers for more than 2 months after gene delivery. In addition, repeated hydrodynamic gene delivery was safely conducted and no adverse events were seen in the entire period of the study. Our results support the clinical applicability of the image-guided hydrodynamic gene delivery method for the treatment of liver diseases. PMID:24129227

Kamimura, Kenya; Suda, Takeshi; Zhang, Guisheng; Aoyagi, Yutaka; Liu, Dexi

2013-01-01

75

Parameter sensitivities affecting the flutter speed of a MW-sized blade.  

SciTech Connect

With the current trend toward larger and larger horizontal axis wind turbines, classical flutter is becoming a more critical issue. Recent studies have indicated that for a single blade turning in still air the flutter speed for a modern 35 m blade occurs at approximately twice its operating speed (2 per rev), whereas for smaller blades (5-9 m), both modern and early designs, the flutter speeds are in the range of 3.5-6 per rev. Scaling studies demonstrate that the per rev flutter speed should not change with scale. Thus, design requirements that change with increasing blade size are producing the concurrent reduction in per rev flutter speeds. In comparison with an early small blade design (5 m blade), flutter computations indicate that the non rotating modes which combine to create the flutter mode change as the blade becomes larger (i.e., for the larger blade the second flapwise mode, as opposed to the first flapwise mode for the smaller blade, combines with the first torsional mode to produce the flutter mode). For the more modern smaller blade design (9 m blade), results show that the non rotating modes that couple are similar to those of the larger blade. For the wings of fixed-wing aircraft, it is common knowledge that judicious selection of certain design parameters can increase the airspeed associated with the onset of flutter. Two parameters, the chordwise location of the center of mass and the ratio of the flapwise natural frequency to the torsional natural frequency, are especially significant. In this paper studies are performed to determine the sensitivity of the per rev flutter speed to these parameters for a 35 m wind turbine blade. Additional studies are performed to determine which structural characteristics of the blade are most significant in explaining the previously mentioned per rev flutter speed differences. As a point of interest, flutter results are also reported for two recently designed 9 m twist/coupled blades.

Lobitz, Donald Wayne, Jr.

2004-10-01

76

Parameter sensitivities affecting the flutter speed of a MW-sized blade.  

SciTech Connect

With the current trend toward larger and larger horizontal axis wind turbines, classical flutter is becoming a more critical issue. Recent studies have indicated that for a single blade turning in still air the flutter speed for a modern 35 m blade occurs at approximately twice its operating speed (2 per rev), whereas for smaller blades (5-9 m), both modern and early designs, the flutter speeds are in the range of 3.5-6 per rev. Scaling studies demonstrate that the per rev flutter speed should not change with scale. Thus, design requirements that change with increasing blade size are producing the concurrent reduction in per rev flutter speeds. In comparison with an early small blade design (5 m blade), flutter computations indicate that the non rotating modes which combine to create the flutter mode change as the blade becomes larger (i.e., for the larger blade the second flapwise mode, as opposed to the first flapwise mode for the smaller blade, combines with the first torsional mode to produce the flutter mode). For the more modern smaller blade design (9 m blade), results show that the non rotating modes that couple are similar to those of the larger blade. For the wings of fixed-wing aircraft, it is common knowledge that judicious selection of certain design parameters can increase the airspeed associated with the onset of flutter. Two parameters, the chordwise location of the center of mass and the ratio of the flapwise natural frequency to the torsional natural frequency, are especially significant. In this paper studies are performed to determine the sensitivity of the per rev flutter speed to these parameters for a 35 m wind turbine blade. Additional studies are performed to determine which structural characteristics of the blade are most significant in explaining the previously mentioned per rev flutter speed differences. As a point of interest, flutter results are also reported for two recently designed 9 m twist/coupled blades.

Lobitz, Donald Wayne, Jr.

2005-08-01

77

Parameters affecting production and character of an extrusion texturized protein product from defatted glandless cottonseed meal  

E-print Network

to calculate Z water regain 25 Typical force vs, deformation curves obtained with the Warner-Bratzler shear cell device 29 Rheological parameters extracted from the force vs. deformation curve 30 The effect of feed rate and oil bath temp- erature... on the product (head No. 8) temp- erature at a constant screw speed of 650 rpm . . 36 The effect of screw speed and oil bath temp- erature on the product (head No, 8) tempera- ture at a constant feed rate of 0, 30 lbs. /min. . 38 The effect of screw speed...

Taranto, Michael Vincent

1974-01-01

78

Dependence of radial thermal diffusivity on parameters of toroidal plasma affected by resonant magnetic perturbations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate how the neoclassical thermal diffusivity of an axisymmetric toroidal plasma is modified by the effect of resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs), using a drift-kinetic simulation code for calculating the radial thermal diffusivity of ion in the perturbed region under an assumption of zero electric field. Here, the perturbed region is assumed to be generated on and near the resonance surfaces, and is wedged in between the regular closed magnetic surfaces. We find that the dependence of the radial thermal diffusivity on parameters of the toroidal plasma is represented as \\chi_r=\\chi_r^{(0)} \\{1+ c_0\\,(\\omega_b/\

Kanno, Ryutaro; Nunami, Masanori; Satake, Shinsuke; Takamaru, Hisanori; Okamoto, Masao

2013-06-01

79

Selection for the parthenogenetic trait in Chinese Painted Quail (Coturnix chinensis) affects hatchability parameters.  

PubMed

Poultry are capable of laying unfertilized eggs in which embryonic development occurs; this phenomenon is called parthenogenesis. Through genetic selection, the incidence of parthenogenesis in virgin Chinese Painted Quail hens can be increased. However, it is unknown if selection for this trait affects hatchability of fertilized eggs. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine if genetic selection for parthenogenesis in virgin Chinese Painted Quail affects hatchability of mated hens. At 4 wk of age, females were separated from males and individually caged. Daily, eggs were collected, labeled, and stored from 0 to 3 d at 20C then incubated at 37.5C. At d 10 of incubation, eggs from virgin hens were broken out to determine the incidence of parthenogenesis. After the incidence of parthenogenesis in virgin hens was determined, hens were selected for mating. Eggs from the parent stock and generations 1 through 7 that did not hatch were examined for stage of hatching failure and categorized as infertile or possible parthenogens as well as early, middle, and late embryonic mortality. For hatch of set and hatch of fertile eggs, generation 1 hatched the greatest percentage of eggs compared with the other generations. Also, as the generation of selection increased, there was a linear decline in the percentage of eggs hatched for both hatch of set and hatch of fertile eggs. Additionally, generation 2 had the highest percentage of infertile eggs. There was a linear increase as generation of selection increased for both the percentage of eggs exhibiting possible parthenogens and early embryonic mortality. Unlike early embryonic mortality, the parent generation had the greatest percentage of embryos die in both the middle and late stage of incubation. In conclusion, it appears that selecting Chinese Painted Quail for the parthenogenetic trait impairs hatchability when hens are mated. PMID:24604860

Parker, H M; Kiess, A S; Santa Rosa, P; McDaniel, C D

2014-03-01

80

Antimicrobial resistances do not affect colonization parameters of intestinal E. coli in a small piglet group  

PubMed Central

Background Although antimicrobial resistance and persistence of resistant bacteria in humans and animals are major health concerns worldwide, the impact of antimicrobial resistance on bacterial intestinal colonization in healthy domestic animals has only been rarely studied. We carried out a retrospective analysis of the antimicrobial susceptibility status and the presence of resistance genes in intestinal commensal E. coli clones from clinically healthy pigs from one production unit with particular focus on effects of pheno- and/or genotypic resistance on different nominal and numerical intestinal colonization parameters. In addition, we compared the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance phenotypes and genotypes with the occurrence of virulence associated genes typical for extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli. Results In general, up to 72.1% of all E. coli clones were resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, kanamycin, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole or tetracycline with a variety of different resistance genes involved. There was no significant correlation between one of the nominal or numerical colonization parameters and the absence or presence of antimicrobial resistance properties or resistance genes. However, there were several statistically significant associations between the occurrence of single resistance genes and single virulence associated genes. Conclusion The demonstrated resistance to the tested antibiotics might not play a dominant role for an intestinal colonization success in pigs in the absence of antimicrobial drugs, or cross-selection of other colonization factors e.g. virulence associated genes might compensate "the cost of antibiotic resistance". Nevertheless, resistant strains are not outcompeted by susceptible bacteria in the porcine intestine. Trial Registration The study was approved by the local animal welfare committee of the "Landesamt fr Arbeitsschutz, Gesundheitsschutz und technische Sicherheit" Berlin, Germany (No. G0037/02). PMID:19814790

Schierack, Peter; Kadlec, Kristina; Guenther, Sebastian; Filter, Matthias; Schwarz, Stefan; Ewers, Christa; Wieler, Lothar H

2009-01-01

81

Physical and biological parameters affecting DNA double strand break misrejoining in mammalian cells.  

PubMed

In an attempt to investigate the effect of radiation quality, dose and specific repair pathways on correct and erroneous rejoining of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs), an assay was applied that allows the identification and quantification of incorrectly rejoined DSB ends produced by ionising radiation. While substantial misrejoining occurs in mammalian cells after high acute irradiation doses, decreasing misrejoining frequencies were observed in dose fractionation experiments with X rays. In line with this finding, continuous irradiation with gamma rays at low dose rate leads to no detectable misrejoining. This indicates that the probability for a DSB to be misrejoined decreases drastically when DSBs are separated in time and space. The same dose fractionation approach was applied to determine DSB misrejoining after alpha particle exposure. In contrast to the results with X rays, there was no significant decrease in DSB misrejoining with increasing fractionation. This suggests that DSB misrejoining after alpha irradiation is not significantly affected by a separation of particle tracks. To identify the enzymatic pathways that are involved in DSB misrejoining, cell lines deficient in non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) were examined. After high X ray doses, DSB misrejoining is considerably reduced in NHEJ mutants. Low dose rate experiments show elevated DSB misrejoining in NHEJ mutants compared with wild-type cells. The authors propose that NHEJ serves as an efficient pathway for rejoining correct break ends in situations of separated breaks but generates genomic rearrangements if DSBs are close in time and space. PMID:12194264

Khne, M; Rothkamm, K; Lbrich, M

2002-01-01

82

Understanding the removal mechanisms of PPCPs and the influence of main technological parameters in anaerobic UASB and aerobic CAS reactors.  

PubMed

The removal of 16 Pharmaceutical and Personal Care Products (PPCPs) were studied in a conventional activated sludge (CAS) unit and an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. Special attention was paid to each biomass conformation and activity as well as to operational conditions. Biodegradation was the main PPCP removal mechanism, being higher removals achieved under aerobic conditions, except in the case of sulfamethoxazole and trimetrophim. Under anaerobic conditions, PPCP biodegradation was correlated with the methanogenic rate, while in the aerobic reactor a relationship with nitrification was found. Sorption onto sludge was influenced by biomass conformation, being only significant for musk fragrances in the UASB reactor, in which an increase of the upward velocity and hydraulic retention time improved this removal. Additionally, PPCP sorption increased with time in the UASB reactor, due to the granular biomass structure which suggests the existence of intra-molecular diffusion. PMID:25010455

Alvarino, T; Suarez, S; Lema, J M; Omil, F

2014-08-15

83

Dermal nanocrystals from medium soluble actives - physical stability and stability affecting parameters.  

PubMed

Nanocrystals are meanwhile applied to increase the dermal penetration of drugs, but were applied by now only to poorly soluble drugs (e.g. 1-10 ?g/ml). As a new concept nanocrystals from medium soluble actives were produced, using caffeine as model compound (solubility 16 mg/ml at 20 C). Penetration should be increased by (a) further increase in solubility and (b) mainly by increased hair follicle targeting of nanocrystals compared to pure solution. Caffeine nanocrystal production in water lead to pronounced crystal growth. Therefore the stability of nanocrystals in water-ethanol (1:9) and ethanol-propylene glycol (3:7) mixtures with lower dielectric constant D was investigated, using various stabilizers. Both mixtures in combination with Carbopol 981 (non-neutralized) yielded stable nanosuspensions over 2 months at 4 C and room temperature. Storage at 40 C lead to crystal growth, attributed to too strong solubility increase, supersaturation and Ostwald ripening effects. Stability of caffeine nanocrystals at lower temperatures could not only be attributed to lower solubility, because the solubilities of caffeine in mixtures and in water are not that much different. Other effects such as quantified by reduced dielectric constant D, and specific interactions between dispersion medium and crystal surface seem to play a role. With the 2 mixtures and Carbopol 981, a basic formulation composition for this type of nanocrystals has been established, to be used in the in vivo proof of principle of the new concept. PMID:25016978

Zhai, Xuezhen; Lademann, Jrgen; Keck, Cornelia M; Mller, Rainer H

2014-09-01

84

Experimental and theoretical studies on physico-chemical parameters affecting the solubility of phosphogypsum.  

PubMed

Phosphogypsum is a waste by-product of the phosphate fertilizer industry, which is usually disposed in the environment because of its restricted use in industrial applications. Physico-chemical conditions existing in stack fluids and leachates are of major importance and determine solubility and redox stability of phosphogypsum, as well as radionuclide release from stacks to terrestrial environments. The aim of this study is to assess the effect of key parameters (e.g. ionic strength, temperature, pH) on the solubility of phosphogypsum. Phosphogypsum sampling and in-situ measurements were carried out at a coastal stack in Cyprus, solubility experiments were performed in simulated laboratory systems and thermodynamic calculations by means of MINTEQA2, an equilibrium speciation model. Generally, increasing ionic strength and temperature leads to increased phosphogypsum solubility, with the former being much more effective. The increased solubility of phosphogypsum in saline solutions is attributed solely to ionic strength effects on the activity of ionic species in solution and no solid phase transformations could be observed. The effect of pH on phosphogypsum solubility seems to be insignificant at least in a pH range between 4 and 8. Regarding uranium levels, there is a strong correlation between salinity and uranium concentration and linear correlation between phosphogypsum solubility and uranium levels in stack solutions, indicating the incorporation of uranium into the gypsum lattice and the formation of a solid solution. PMID:19596498

Papanicolaou, Fanos; Antoniou, Stella; Pashalidis, Ioannis

2009-10-01

85

Dexamethasone acutely regulates endocrine parameters in stallions and subsequently affects gene expression in testicular germ cells.  

PubMed

Testicular steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis are negatively impacted by stress-related hormones such as glucocorticoids. The effects of two injections of a therapeutic dose of dexamethasone (a synthetic glucocorticoid, 0.1mg/kg; i.v.) given 24h apart to each of three stallions were investigated and compared to three saline-injected control stallions. Dexamethasone decreased circulating concentrations of cortisol by 50% at 24h after the initial injection. Serum testosterone decreased by a maximum of 94% from 4 to 20h after the initial injection of dexamethasone. Semen parameters of the dexamethasone-treated stallions were unchanged in the subsequent two weeks. Two weeks after treatment, stallions were castrated. Functional genomic analyses of the testes revealed that, of eight gene products analyzed, dexamethasone depressed concentrations of heat shock protein DNAJC4 and sperm-specific calcium channel CATSPER1 mRNAs by more than 60%. Both genes are expressed in germ cells during spermiogenesis and have been related to male fertility in other species, including humans. This is the first report of decreased DNAJC4 and CATSPER1 mRNA concentrations in testes weeks after dexamethasone treatment. Concentrations of these mRNAs in sperm may be useful as novel markers of fertility in stallions. PMID:25487569

Ing, N H; Brinsko, S P; Curley, K O; Forrest, D W; Love, C C; Hinrichs, K; Vogelsang, M M; Varner, D D; Welsh, T H

2015-01-01

86

Carbamazepine-exposure during gestation and lactation affects pubertal onset and spermatic parameters in male pubertal offspring.  

PubMed

Carbamazepine (CBZ) is an anti-epileptic drug that acts on Leydig cells, affecting steroidogenesis and causes fetal malformation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of CBZ on male sexual maturation and other male parameters. Rat dams were treated with CBZ during pregnancy and breastfeeding. The anogenital distance (AGD) and the anogenital index (AGI) were obtained. Testicular descent and preputial separation were also evaluated. The offspring was euthanized at PND 41 and 63. The accessory glands were weighed and the testes were collected for histopathological, morphometric and sterological analyses. The numerical density of Leydig cells and hormone dosage were obtained. CBZ caused an increase of AGI and a delay of testicular descent and of preputial separation. CBZ also caused a decrease of testosterone level and of sperm count and an increase of abnormal sperm. These results indicate that CBZ delays puberty onset and affects steroidogenesis and sperm quality. PMID:24126190

Andretta, Rhayza Roberta; Okada, Fatima Kazue; Paccola, Camila Cicconi; Stumpp, Taiza; de Oliva, Samara Urban; Miraglia, Sandra M

2014-04-01

87

Egg related parameters affecting fertility and hatchability in the Italian bantam breed Mericanel della Brianza.  

PubMed

Local chicken breeds are a vital reservoir of gene resources and their conservation has a technical role related to the future development of the productive system, as well as a social-cultural role. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of egg weight, egg storage period and egg weight loss on hatchability of fertile eggs in the Italian bantam breed Mericanel della Brianza. Fourteen females and eight males were kept in floor pens and divided in 8 families (1M:1 or 2F) during the reproductive season (March-June). Birds received a photoperiod of 14L:10D and were fed ad libitum. Egg production and egg weight were recorded daily. Eggs were divided in 4 weight groups: EW1 =< 33 g, EW2 = 33-36 g, EW3 = 36-39 g and EW4 =? 39 g. Eggs were stored at 18 C and classified in 3 egg storage groups: ES1 = 0-4, ES2 = 5-9 and ES3 = 10-15 days. Egg weight loss was recorded and distributed in 5 different classes: EWL1 =< 10%, EWL2 = 10-15%, EWL3 = 16-20%, EWL4 = 21-25%, EWL5 => 25%. Fertility, embryo mortality and hatchability were recorded. The mean values during the reproductive season were 82% fertility and 50% hatchability of fertile eggs. The best combination of fertility and hatchability values were recorded in EW2 and lower fertility was recorded in EW1 (P < 0.05). Hatchability decreased under 50% after 10 day storage period before incubation and the best hatchability was recorded in EWL1. The present results contribute to the knowledge on reproductive parameters necessary to improve the reproductive efficiency of this Italian breed within a conservation plan. PMID:23352422

Madeddu, M; Zaniboni, L; Mangiagalli, M G; Cassinelli, C; Cerolini, S

2013-03-01

88

Developmental methoxychlor exposure affects multiple reproductive parameters and ovarian folliculogenesis and gene expression in adult rats  

SciTech Connect

Methoxychlor (MXC) is an organochlorine pesticide with estrogenic, anti-estrogenic, and anti-androgenic properties. To investigate whether transient developmental exposure to MXC could cause adult ovarian dysfunction, we exposed Fischer rats to 20 {mu}g/kg/day (low dose; environmentally relevant dose) or 100 mg/kg/day (high dose) MXC between 19 days post coitum and postnatal day 7. Multiple reproductive parameters, serum hormone levels, and ovarian morphology and molecular markers were examined from prepubertal through adult stages. High dose MXC accelerated pubertal onset and first estrus, reduced litter size, and increased irregular cyclicity (P < 0.05). MXC reduced superovulatory response to exogenous gonadotropins in prepubertal females (P < 0.05). Rats exposed to high dose MXC had increasing irregular estrous cyclicity beginning at 4 months of age, with all animals showing abnormal cycles by 6 months. High dose MXC reduced serum progesterone, but increased luteinizing hormone (LH). Follicular composition analysis revealed an increase in the percentage of preantral and early antral follicles and a reduction in the percentage of corpora lutea in high dose MXC-treated ovaries (P < 0.05). Immunohistochemical staining and quantification of the staining intensity showed that estrogen receptor {beta} was reduced by high dose MXC while anti-Mullerian hormone was upregulated by both low- and high dose MXC in preantral and early antral follicles (P < 0.05). High dose MXC significantly reduced LH receptor expression in large antral follicles (P < 0.01), and down-regulated cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage. These results demonstrated that developmental MXC exposure results in reduced ovulation and fertility and premature aging, possibly by altering ovarian gene expression and folliculogenesis.

Armenti, AnnMarie E.; Zama, Aparna Mahakali; Passantino, Lisa [Department of Animal Sciences School of Environmental and Biological Sciences Rutgers, State 84 Lipman Drive University of New Jersey New Brunswick, NJ 08901-8525 (United States); Uzumcu, Mehmet [Department of Animal Sciences School of Environmental and Biological Sciences Rutgers, State 84 Lipman Drive University of New Jersey New Brunswick, NJ 08901-8525 (United States)], E-mail: uzumcu@aesop.rutgers.edu

2008-12-01

89

"RadioAstron"-A telescope with a size of 300 000 km: Main parameters and first observational results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Russian Academy of Sciences and Federal Space Agency, together with the participation of many international organizations, worked toward the launch of the RadioAstron orbiting space observatory with its onboard 10-m reflector radio telescope from the Baikonur cosmodrome on July 18, 2011. Together with some of the largest ground-based radio telescopes and a set of stations for tracking, collecting, and reducing the data obtained, this space radio telescope forms a multi-antenna ground-space radio interferometer with extremely long baselines, making it possible for the first time to study various objects in the Universe with angular resolutions a million times better than is possible with the human eye. The project is targeted at systematic studies of compact radio-emitting sources and their dynamics. Objects to be studied include supermassive black holes, accretion disks, and relativistic jets in active galactic nuclei, stellar-mass black holes, neutron stars and hypothetical quark stars, regions of formation of stars and planetary systems in our and other galaxies, interplanetary and interstellar plasma, and the gravitational field of the Earth. The results of ground-based and inflight tests of the space radio telescope carried out in both autonomous and ground-space interferometric regimes are reported. The derived characteristics are in agreement with the main requirements of the project. The astrophysical science program has begun.

Kardashev, N. S.; Khartov, V. V.; Abramov, V. V.; Avdeev, V. Yu.; Alakoz, A. V.; Aleksandrov, Yu. A.; Ananthakrishnan, S.; Andreyanov, V. V.; Andrianov, A. S.; Antonov, N. M.; Artyukhov, M. I.; Arkhipov, M. Yu.; Baan, W.; Babakin, N. G.; Babyshkin, V. E.; Bartel', N.; Belousov, K. G.; Belyaev, A. A.; Berulis, J. J.; Burke, B. F.; Biryukov, A. V.; Bubnov, A. E.; Burgin, M. S.; Busca, G.; Bykadorov, A. A.; Bychkova, V. S.; Vasil'kov, V. I.; Wellington, K. J.; Vinogradov, I. S.; Wietfeldt, R.; Voitsik, P. A.; Gvamichava, A. S.; Girin, I. A.; Gurvits, L. I.; Dagkesamanskii, R. D.; D'Addario, L.; Giovannini, G.; Jauncey, D. L.; Dewdney, P. E.; D'yakov, A. A.; Zharov, V. E.; Zhuravlev, V. I.; Zaslavskii, G. S.; Zakhvatkin, M. V.; Zinov'ev, A. N.; Ilinen, Yu.; Ipatov, A. V.; Kanevskii, B. Z.; Knorin, I. A.; Casse, J. L.; Kellermann, K. I.; Kovalev, Yu. A.; Kovalev, Yu. Yu.; Kovalenko, A. V.; Kogan, B. L.; Komaev, R. V.; Konovalenko, A. A.; Kopelyanskii, G. D.; Korneev, Yu. A.; Kostenko, V. I.; Kotik, A. N.; Kreisman, B. B.; Kukushkin, A. Yu.; Kulishenko, V. F.; Cooper, D. N.; Kut'kin, A. M.; Cannon, W. H.; Larionov, M. G.; Lisakov, M. M.; Litvinenko, L. N.; Likhachev, S. F.; Likhacheva, L. N.; Lobanov, A. P.; Logvinenko, S. V.; Langston, G.; McCracken, K.; Medvedev, S. Yu.; Melekhin, M. V.; Menderov, A. V.; Murphy, D. W.; Mizyakina, T. A.; Mozgovoi, Yu. V.; Nikolaev, N. Ya.; Novikov, B. S.; Novikov, I. D.; Oreshko, V. V.; Pavlenko, Yu. K.; Pashchenko, I. N.; Ponomarev, Yu. N.; Popov, M. V.; Pravin-Kumar, A.; Preston, R. A.; Pyshnov, V. N.; Rakhimov, I. A.; Rozhkov, V. M.; Romney, J. D.; Rocha, P.; Rudakov, V. A.; Risnen, A.; Sazankov, S. V.; Sakharov, B. A.; Semenov, S. K.; Serebrennikov, V. A.; Schilizzi, R. T.; Skulachev, D. P.; Slysh, V. I.; Smirnov, A. I.; Smith, J. G.; Soglasnov, V. A.; Sokolovskii, K. V.; Sondaar, L. H.; Stepan'yants, V. A.; Turygin, M. S.; Turygin, S. Yu.; Tuchin, A. G.; Urpo, S.; Fedorchuk, S. D.; Finkel'shtein, A. M.; Fomalont, E. B.; Fejes, I.; Fomina, A. N.; Khapin, Yu. B.; Tsarevskii, G. S.; Zensus, J. A.; Chuprikov, A. A.; Shatskaya, M. V.; Shapirovskaya, N. Ya.; Sheikhet, A. I.; Shirshakov, A. E.; Schmidt, A.; Shnyreva, L. A.; Shpilevskii, V. V.; Ekers, R. D.; Yakimov, V. E.

2013-03-01

90

Fusion of Multi Precursors Earthquake Parameters to Estimate the Date, Magnitude and Affected Area of the Forthcoming Powerful Earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since not any individual precursor can be used as an accurate stand alone means for the earthquake prediction, it is necessary to integrate different kinds of precursors. The precursors selected for analysis in this study include electron and ion density, electron temperature, total electron content (TEC), electric and magnetic fields and land surface temperature (LST) several days before three strong earthquakes which happened in Samoa Islands, Sichuan (China) and Borujerd (Iran). The precursor's variations were monitored using data obtained from experiments onboard DEMETER (IAP, ISL, ICE and IMSC) and Aqua-MODIS satellites. Regarding the ionospheric precursors, the geomagnetic indices Dst and Kp were used to distinguish pre-earthquake disturbed states from the other anomalies related to the geomagnetic activities. The inter-quartile range of data was utilized to construct their upper and lower bound to detect disturbed states outsides the bounds which might be associated with impending earthquakes. When the disturbed state associated with impending earthquake is detected, based on the type of precursor, the number of days relative to earthquake day is estimated. Then regarding the deviation value of the precursor from the undisturbed state the magnitude of impending earthquake is estimated. The radius of the affected area is calculated using the estimated magnitude and Dobrovolsky formula. In order to assess final earthquake parameters (which are date, magnitude and radius of the affected area) for each case study, using the median and inter-quartile range of earthquake parameters obtained from different precursors, the approximate bounds of final earthquake parameters are defined. For each studied case, a good agreement was found between the estimated and registered earthquake parameters.

Akhoondzadeh, M.; Saradjian, M. R.

2012-07-01

91

Altered membrane lipid composition and functional parameters of circulating cells in cockles (Cerastoderma edule) affected by disseminated neoplasia.  

PubMed

Membrane lipid composition and morpho-functional parameters were investigated in circulating cells of the edible cockle (Cerastoderma edule) affected by disseminated neoplasia (neoplastic cells) and compared to those from healthy cockles (hemocytes). Membrane sterol levels, phospholipid (PL) class and subclass proportions and their respective fatty acid (FA) compositions were determined. Morpho-functional parameters were evaluated through total hemocyte count (THC), mortality rate, phagocytosis ability and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Both morpho-functional parameters and lipid composition were profoundly affected in neoplastic cells. These dedifferentiated cells displayed higher THC (5), mortality rate (3) and ROS production with addition of carbonyl cyanide m-chloro phenylhydrazone (1.7) but lower phagocytosis ability (), than unaffected hemocytes. Total PL amounts were higher in neoplastic cells than in hemocytes (12.3 and 5.1 nmol10(-6) cells, respectively). However, sterols and a particular subclass of PL (plasmalogens; 1-alkenyl-2-acyl PL) were present in similar amounts in both cell type membranes. This led to a two times lower proportion of these membrane lipid constituents in neoplastic cells when compared to hemocytes (20.5% vs. 42.1% of sterols in total membrane lipids and 21.7% vs. 44.2% of plasmalogens among total PL, respectively). Proportions of non-methylene interrupted FA- and 20:1n-11-plasmalogen molecular species were the most impacted in neoplastic cells when compared to hemocytes (? and , respectively). These changes in response to this leukemia-like disease in bivalves highlight the specific imbalance of plasmalogens and sterols in neoplastic cells, in comparison to the greater stability of other membrane lipid components. PMID:23333874

Le Grand, Fabienne; Soudant, Philippe; Marty, Yanic; Le Goc, Nelly; Kraffe, Edouard

2013-01-01

92

Development of an auditory emotion recognition function using psychoacoustic parameters based on the International Affective Digitized Sounds.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to develop an auditory emotion recognition function that could determine the emotion caused by sounds coming from the environment in our daily life. For this purpose, sound stimuli from the International Affective Digitized Sounds (IADS-2), a standardized database of sounds intended to evoke emotion, were selected, and four psychoacoustic parameters (i.e., loudness, sharpness, roughness, and fluctuation strength) were extracted from the sounds. Also, by using an emotion adjective scale, 140 college students were tested to measure three basic emotions (happiness, sadness, and negativity). From this discriminant analysis to predict basic emotions from the psychoacoustic parameters of sound, a discriminant function with overall discriminant accuracy of 88.9% was produced from training data. In order to validate the discriminant function, the same four psychoacoustic parameters were extracted from 46 sound stimuli collected from another database and substituted into the discriminant function. The results showed that an overall discriminant accuracy of 63.04% was confirmed. Our findings provide the possibility that daily-life sounds, beyond voice and music, can be used in a human-machine interface. PMID:25319038

Choi, Youngimm; Lee, Sungjun; Jung, SungSoo; Choi, In-Mook; Park, Yon-Kyu; Kim, Chobok

2014-10-16

93

Improvement of Oxidative and Metabolic Parameters by Cellfood Administration in Patients Affected by Neurodegenerative Diseases on Chelation Treatment  

PubMed Central

Objective. This prospective pilot study aimed at evaluating the effects of therapy with antioxidant compounds (Cellfood, and other antioxidants) on patients affected by neurodegenerative diseases (ND), who displayed toxic metal burden and were subjected to chelation treatment with the chelating agent calcium disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (CaNa2EDTA or EDTA). Methods. Two groups of subjects were studied: (a) 39 patients affected by ND and (b) 11 subjects unaffected by ND (controls). The following blood parameters were analyzed before and after three months' treatment with chelation + Cellfood or chelation + other antioxidants: oxidative status (reactive oxygen species, ROS; total antioxidant capacity, TAC; oxidized LDL, oxLDL; glutathione), homocysteine, vitamin B12, and folate. Results. After 3-months' chelation + Cellfood administration oxLDL decreased, ROS levels were significantly lower, and TAC and glutathione levels were significantly higher than after chelation + other antioxidants treatment, both in ND patients and in controls. Moreover, homocysteine metabolism had also improved in both groups. Conclusions. Chelation + Cellfood treatment was more efficient than chelation + other antioxidants improving oxidative status and homocysteine metabolism significantly in ND patients and controls. Although limited to a small number of cases, this study showed how helpful antioxidant treatment with Cellfood was in improving the subjects' metabolic conditions. PMID:25114898

Fulgenzi, Alessandro; Giuseppe, Rachele De; Bamonti, Fabrizia; Ferrero, Maria Elena

2014-01-01

94

Parameters affecting the quality of acquired signals for the global health monitoring of mobile bridges using fiber optic polarimetric sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fiber Optic Polarimetric Sensors (FOPS) can be used for static and dynamic integrated deformation/strain measurement. It has also been shown to capture natural and excited frequency response spectra for structural health assessment. This is achieved by relating vibrational frequency changes to structural stiffness variations caused by damage. The deployment of the FOPS for this purpose is a relatively new endeavor and many factors pertaining to its use have yet to be investigated in detail -- including the parameters affecting its signal acquisition and the subsequent interpretation of acquired signals. Using a military mobile bridge as the test specimen, it is found that the FOPS yields a unique frequency spectrum containing information on damage severity and location for each specimen. The reliability of this signature frequency spectrum depends primarily on empirical parameters such as mounting location, method of bonding, type of structural supports used, strength of excitation impact and location of impact. Further, owing to the FOPS' unique global sensing nature, a new damage quantification system has to be used, which is also dependent on the consistency of the signal acquisition process for accuracy. Both finite element and experimental modal analyses were used in the development of an optimal FOPS configuration for signal reliability.

Asundi, Anand K.; Neo Tien Song, Paul

2003-08-01

95

Effects of tryptophan depletion and catecholamine depletion on immune parameters in patients with seasonal affective disorder in remission with light therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundAltered immunologic parameters are found in symptomatic depressed patients relative to remitted depressed patients and healthy controls. We investigated whether tryptophan depletion and catecholamine depletion induce alterations in immunologic parameters in patients with seasonal affective disorder remitted on light therapy, and whether these changes are associated with changes in mood.

Jrgen Stastny; Anastasios Konstantinidis; Markus J Schwarz; Norman E Rosenthal; Oliver Vitouch; Siegfried Kasper; Alexander Neumeister

2003-01-01

96

Measurement of Hydrologic Streamflow Metrics and Estimation of Streamflow with Lumped Parameter Models in a Managed Lake System, Sebago Lake, Maine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface waters within the Sebago Lake watershed (southern Maine, USA) provide a variety of economically and intrinsically valuable recreational, commercial and environmental services. Different stakeholder groups for the 118 km2 Sebago Lake and surrounding watershed advocate for different lake and watershed management strategies, focusing on the operation of a dam at the outflow from Sebago Lake. While lake level in Sebago Lake has been monitored for over a century, limited data is available on the hydrologic processes that drive lake level and therefore impact how dam operation (and other changes to the region) will influence the hydroperiod of the lake. To fill this information gap several tasks were undertaken including: 1) deploying data logging pressure transducers to continuously monitor stream stage in nine tributaries, 2) measuring stream discharge at these sites to create rating curves for the nine tributaries, and using the resulting continuous discharge records to 3) calibrate lumped parameter computer models based on the GR4J model, modified to include a degree-day snowmelt routine. These lumped parameter models have been integrated with a simple lake water-balance model to estimate lake level and its response to different scenarios including dam management strategies. To date, about three years of stream stage data have been used to estimate stream discharge in all monitored tributaries (data collection is ongoing). Baseflow separation indices (BFI) for 2010 and 2011 using the USGS software PART and the Eckhart digital filter in WHAT range from 0.80-0.86 in the Crooked River and Richmill Outlet,followed by Northwest (0.75) and Muddy (0.53-0.56) Rivers, with the lowest BFI measured in Sticky River (0.41-0.56). The BFI values indicate most streams have significant groundwater (or other storage) inputs. The lumped parameter watershed model has been calibrated for four streams (Nash-Sutcliffe = 0.4 to 0.9), with the other major tributaries containing hydraulic structures that are not included in the lumped parameter model. Calibrated watershed models tend to substantially underestimate the highest streamflows while overestimating low flows. An early June 2012 event caused extremely high flows with discharge in the Crooked River (the most significant tributary) peaking at about 85 m3/day. The lumped parameter model dramatically underestimated this important and anomalous event, but provided a reasonable prediction of flows throughout the rest of 2012. Ongoing work includes incorporating hydraulic structures in the lumped parameter model and using the available data to drive the lake water-balance model that has been prepared.

Reeve, A. S.; Martin, D.; Smith, S. M.

2013-12-01

97

A comprehensive study of physical and physiological parameters that affect bio-sorption of metal pollutants from aqueous solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An attempt was made to remove silver (I), chromium (III), and lead (II) from aqueous solutions. To optimize the bio-sorption capacity of microorganisms ( Bacillus subtilis and Bacillaceae bacterium), the effect of process parameters such as pH, temperature, metal load and culture age on the metal uptake was investigated. Indigenous strains of B. subtilis and Bacillaceae bacterium found in gold and copper mines in South Africa were exposed to silver (I), chromium (III), and lead (II) solutions under different physico-chemical and physiological conditions. Optimum conditions for the uptake of silver (I), chromium (III) and lead (II) by microorganisms used in this study were determined. The pH range 7-8, higher temperature (45 C) and stationary growth phase, were observed as being suitable physical and physiological conditions for optimum removal of metals (Ag-87.2%; Cr-94% and Pb-98.5%). On the other hand very low pH (3) adversely affected the metal removal ability of bacteria. Silver (I) was the most poorly uptaken metal. It was also found that silver inhibited bacteria growth. Attempt to elute metal from the above cell biomass showed that 56.6% silver (I) and 88.3% lead (II) could effectively be desorbed at pH 5. It was additionally observed that optimum conditions for metal removal were specific to microbial bio-sorbent and the targeted metal. Design and implementation of bioremediation processes therefore require thorough study of specific interactions among metals and bio-sorbents involved.

Fosso-Kankeu, E.; Mulaba-Bafubiandi, A. F.; Mamba, B. B.; Marjanovic, L.; Barnard, T. G.

98

Factors Affecting the Accuracy of Controlled Attenuation Parameter (CAP) in Assessing Hepatic Steatosis in Patients with Chronic Liver Disease  

PubMed Central

Background & Aims Controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) can measure hepatic steatosis. However, factors affecting its accuracy have not been described yet. This study investigated predictors of discordance between liver biopsy (LB) and CAP. Methods A total of 161 consecutive patients with chronic liver disease who underwent LB and CAP were enrolled prospectively. Histological steatosis was graded as S0 (<5%), S1 (533%), S2 (3466%), and S3 (>66% of hepatocytes). Cutoff CAP values were calculated from our cohort (250, 301, and 325 dB/m for ?S1, ?S2, and S3). Discordance was defined as a discrepancy of at least two steatosis stages between LB and CAP. Results The median age (102 males and 59 females) was 49 years. Repartition of histological steatosis was as follows; S0 26.1% (n?=?42), S1 49.7% (n?=?80), S2 20.5% (n?=?33), and S3 3.7% (n?=?6). In multivariate linear regression analysis, CAP value was independently associated with steatosis grade along with body mass index (BMI) and interquartile range/median of CAP value (IQR/MCAP) (all P<0.05). Discordance was identified in 13 (8.1%) patients. In multivariate analysis, histological S3 (odd ratio [OR], 9.573; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20775.931; P?=?0.033) and CAP value (OR, 1.020; 95% CI, 1.0061.034; P?=?0.006) were significantly associated with discordance, when adjusting for BMI, IQR/MCAP, and necroinflammation, reflected by histological activity or ALT level. Conclusions Patients with high grade steatosis or high CAP values have a higher risk of discordance between LB and CAP. Further studies are needed to improve the accuracy of CAP interpretation, especially in patients with higher CAP values. PMID:24901649

Jung, Kyu Sik; Kim, Beom Kyung; Kim, Seung Up; Chon, Young Eun; Cheon, Kyung Hyun; Kim, Sung Bae; Lee, Sang Hoon; Ahn, Sung Soo; Park, Jun Yong; Kim, Do Young; Ahn, Sang Hoon; Park, Young Nyun; Han, Kwang-Hyub

2014-01-01

99

Rock Mass Grouting in the Lren Tunnel: Case Study with the Main Focus on the Groutability and Feasibility of Drill Parameter Interpretation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Lren road tunnel is a part of a major project at Ring road 3 in Oslo, Norway. The rock part of the tunnel is 915 m long and has two tubes with three lanes and breakdown lanes. Strict water ingress restriction was specified and continuous rock mass grouting was, therefore, carried out for the entire tunnel, which was excavated in folded Cambro-Silurian shales intruded by numerous dykes. This paper describes the rock mass grouting that was carried out for the Lren tunnel. Particular emphasis is placed on discussing grout consumption and the challenges that were encountered when passing under a distinct rock depression. Measurement while drilling (MWD) technology was used for this project, and, in this paper, the relationships between the drill parameter interpretation (DPI) factors water and fracturing are examined in relation to grout volumes. A lowering of the groundwater table was experienced during excavation under the rock depression, but the groundwater was nearly re-established after completion of the main construction work. A planned 80-m watertight concrete lining was not required to be built due to the excellent results from grouting in the rock depression area. A relationship was found between leakages mapped in the tunnel and the DPI water factor, indicating that water is actually present where the DPI water factor shows water in the rock. It is concluded that, for the Lren tunnel, careful planning and high-quality execution of the rock mass grouting made the measured water ingress meet the restrictions. For future projects, the DPI water factor may be used to give a better understanding of the material in which the rock mass grouting is performed and may also be used to reduce the time spent and volumes used when grouting.

Hien, Are Hvard; Nilsen, Bjrn

2014-05-01

100

Population Parameters of Intermediate-Age Star Clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud. I. NGC 1846 and its Wide Main-Sequence Turnoff  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Advanced Camera for Surveys onboard the Hubble Space Telescope has been used to obtain deep, high-resolution images of the intermediate-age star cluster NGC 1846 in the Large Magellanic Cloud. We present new color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) based on F435W, F555W, and F814W imaging. We test the previously observed broad main-sequence turnoff (MSTO) region for "contamination" by field stars and (evolved) binary star systems. We find that while these impact the number of objects in this region, none can fully account for the large color spread. Our results therefore solidify the recent finding that stars in the MSTO region of this cluster have a large spread in color which is unrelated to measurement errors or contamination by field stars, and likely due to a ~ 300 Myr range in the ages of cluster stars. An unbiased estimate of the stellar density distribution across the MSTO region shows that the spread is fairly continuous rather than strongly bimodal, as suggested previously. We fit the CMDs with several different sets of theoretical isochrones, and determine systematic uncertainties for population parameters when derived using any one set of isochrones. We note a degeneracy between age and [?/Fe], which can be lifted by matching the shape (curvature) of the full red giant branch (RGB) in the CMD. We find that stars in the upper part of the MSTO region are more centrally concentrated than those in any other region, including more massive RGB and asymptotic giant branch stars. We consider several possible formation scenarios which account for the unusual features observed in the CMD of NGC 1846. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

Goudfrooij, Paul; Puzia, Thomas H.; Kozhurina-Platais, Vera; Chandar, Rupali

2009-06-01

101

Phagocytosis Is the Main CR3-Mediated Function Affected by the Lupus-Associated Variant of CD11b in Human Myeloid Cells  

PubMed Central

The CD11b/CD18 integrin (complement receptor 3, CR3) is a surface receptor on monocytes, neutrophils, macrophages and dendritic cells that plays a crucial role in several immunological processes including leukocyte extravasation and phagocytosis. The minor allele of a non-synonymous CR3 polymorphism (rs1143679, conversation of arginine to histidine at position 77: R77H) represents one of the strongest genetic risk factor in human systemic lupus erythematosus, with heterozygosity (77R/H) being the most common disease associated genotype. Homozygosity for the 77H allele has been reported to reduce adhesion and phagocytosis in human monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages, respectively, without affecting surface expression of CD11b. Herein we comprehensively assessed the influence of R77H on different CR3-mediated activities in monocytes, neutrophils, macrophages and dendritic cells. R77H did not alter surface expression of CD11b including its active form in any of these cell types. Using two different iC3b-coated targets we found that the uptake by heterozygous 77R/H macrophages, monocytes and neutrophils was significantly reduced compared to 77R/R cells. Allele-specific transduced immortalized macrophage cell lines demonstrated that the minor allele, 77H, was responsible for the impaired phagocytosis. R77H did not affect neutrophil adhesion, neutrophil transmigration in vivo or Toll-like receptor 7/8-mediated cytokine release by monocytes or dendritic cells with or without CR3 pre-engagement by iC3b-coated targets. Our findings demonstrate that the reduction in CR3-mediated phagocytosis associated with the 77H CD11b variant is not macrophage-restricted but demonstrable in other CR3-expressing professional phagocytic cells. The association between 77H and susceptibility to systemic lupus erythematosus most likely relates to impaired waste disposal, a key component of lupus pathogenesis. PMID:23451151

Cortini, Andrea; Szajna, Marta; Malik, Talat H.; McDonald, Jacqueline U.; Pickering, Matthew C.; Cook, H. Terence; Taylor, Philip R.; Botto, Marina

2013-01-01

102

Blastocyst culture and transfer: analysis of results and parameters affecting outcome in two in vitro fertilization programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine whether previously described advanced blastocyst development and high implantation rates are confirmed in an expanded multicenter trial.Design: Retrospective review.Setting: Two private assisted reproductive technology units.Patient(s): One hundred seventy-four patients who underwent blastocyst culture and transfer.Intervention(s): Culture of all pronucleate embryos in sequential media to the blastocyst stage (day 5) followed by ET.Main Outcome Measure(s): The number and

William B Schoolcraft; David K Gardner; Terry Schlenker; David R Meldrum

1999-01-01

103

Does blood transfusion affect pituitary gonadal axis and sperm parameters in young males with sickle cell disease?  

PubMed Central

Objective: We evaluated the effect of packed red cell transfusion (PCTx) on serum concentrations of gonadotropins luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone (LH and FSH) and testosterone (T) levels and measured sperm parameters in young adults with sickle cell disease (SCD) on top-up transfusion (TTx) and those on exchange transfusion (ETx) regimen. Materials and Methods: Basal serum concentrations of FSH, LH, and T and semen parameters were evaluated before and 7 days after PCTx in 18 young adults with transfusion-dependent SCD, aged 20.7 2.88 years. They had full pubertal development (Tanner's stage 5), and capacity to ejaculate. They were regularly transfused since early childhood. Chelation therapy was started early during the first 2 years of life using desferrioxamine and was replaced by deferasirox for the last 4-5 years. Ten patients were on TTx and eight were on ETx regimen. Results: PCTx significantly increased hemoglobin (Hb) from 8.5 1.17 g/dl to 10.5 0.4 g/dl, T from 12.3 1.24 nmol/L to 14.23 1.22 nmol/L and gonadotropins concentrations. Sperm parameters improved significantly after PCTx including: total sperm count from 87.4 24.6 million/ml to 146.2 51.25 million/ml, total progressive sperm motility (TPM) from 40.8 11.1 million/ml to 93.4 38.3 million/ml, rapid progressive sperm motility (RPM) progressive motility from 29.26 8.75 million/ml to 67.4 29 million/ml. After PCTx the total sperm count, TPM and RPM were significantly better in the ETx group versus the TTx group. Before and after PCTx, T concentrations were correlated significantly with sperm total count, volume, TPM and RPM (r = 0.53, 0.55, 0.42, and 0.38, respectively, P < 0.01). Hb concentrations were correlated significantly with sperm count, TPM, RPM, and % of sperms with normal morphology (r = 0.60, 0.69, 0.66, and 0.86, respectively, P < 0.001). Conclusion: Our study suggests that in males with SCD blood transfusion is associated with significant acute enhancement of sperm parameters and with increased concentrations of serum T, LH, and FSH. Improvement of sperm parameters were significantly better in the ETx group verses the TTx group. These acute effects on spermiogenesis are reached with an unknown mechanism/s and suggest a number of pathways that need further human and/or experimental studies. PMID:24381868

Soliman, Ashraf T.; Yasin, Mohamed; El-Awwa, Ahmed; Abdelrahman, Mohamed O.; De Sanctis, Vincenzo

2013-01-01

104

How parameters and regularization affect the Polyakov-Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model phase diagram and thermodynamic quantities  

SciTech Connect

We explore the phase diagram and the critical behavior of QCD thermodynamic quantities in the context of the so-called Polyakov-Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. We show that this improved field theoretical model is a successful candidate for studying the equation of state and the critical behavior around the critical endpoint. We argue that a convenient choice of the model parameters is crucial to get the correct description of isentropic trajectories. The effects of the regularization procedure in several thermodynamic quantities is also analyzed. The results are compared with simple thermodynamic expectations and lattice data.

Costa, P. [Centro de Fisica Computacional, Departamento de Fisica, Universidade de Coimbra, P-3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal) and E.S.T.G., Instituto Politecnico de Leiria, Morro do Lena-Alto do Vieiro, 2411-901 Leiria (Portugal); Hansen, H. [IPNL, Universite de Lyon/Universite Lyon 1, CNRS/IN2P3, 4 rue E.Fermi, F-69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Ruivo, M. C.; Sousa, C. A. de [Centro de Fisica Computacional, Departamento de Fisica, Universidade de Coimbra, P-3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal)

2010-01-01

105

Willingness to Use Microbicides Is Affected by the Importance of Product Characteristics, Use Parameters, and Protective Properties  

PubMed Central

Background Along with efficacy, a microbicides acceptability will be integral to its impact on the pandemic. Understanding Product Characteristics that users find most acceptable and determining who will use which type of product are key to optimizing use effectiveness. Objectives To evaluate psychometrically the Important Microbicide Characteristics (IMC) instrument and examine its relationship to willingness to use microbicides. Results Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed 2 IMC subscales (Cronbachs coefficient ?: Product Characteristics subscale (? = 0.84) and Protective Properties subscale (? = 0.89)). Significant differences on Product Characteristics subscale scores were found for history of douching (P = 0.002) and employment status (P = 0.001). Whether a woman used a method to prevent pregnancy or sexually transmitted disease (STD) in the last 3 months (P < 0.001) and whether she used a condom during the last vaginal sex episode (P < 0.001) were significantly related to her rating of the importance of microbicides being contraceptive. Product Characteristics (r = 0.21) and Protective Properties (r = 0.27) subscale scores and whether a microbicide had contraceptive properties (r = 0.24) were all significantly associated (P < 0.001) with willingness to use microbicides. Conclusions Formulation and use characteristics and product function(s) affect willingness to use microbicides and should continue to be addressed in product development. The IMC instrument serves as a template for future studies of candidate microbicides. PMID:17325607

Morrow, Kathleen M.; Fava, Joseph L.; Rosen, Rochelle K.; Vargas, Sara; Barroso, Candelaria; Christensen, Anna L.; Woodsong, Cynthia; Severy, Lawrence

2008-01-01

106

Critical rearing parameters of Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) as affected by host plant substrate and host-parasitoid group structure.  

PubMed

In laboratory assays, we evaluated the potential impact of host plant substrate types, host-parasitoid group sizes (densities), and parasitoid-to-host ratios on select fitness parameters of the larval endoparasitoid Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), newly introduced for biological control of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), in the United States. Results from our study showed that offspring production and critical fitness parameters (body size and sex ratio) of T. planipennisi from parasitized emerald ash borer larvae are significantly influenced by host plant substrate type, host-parasitoid group size, parasitoid-to-host ratio, or a combination in the primary exposure assay. The number of both female and male T. planipennisi progeny was significantly greater when emerald ash borer larvae were inserted into tropical ash [Fraxinus uhdei (Wenz.) Lingelsh.] logs rather than green ash (Fraxinus pensylvanica Marshall). When maintained at a constant 1:1 parasitoid-to-host ratio, assays with larger host-parasitoid group sizes (3:3-12:12) produced significantly greater numbers of both male and female offspring per parental wasp compared with those with the single host-parasitoid (1:1) group treatment. As the parasitoid-to-host ratio increased from 1:1 to 8:1 in the assay, the average brood size (number of offspring per parasitized emerald ash borer larva) increased significantly, whereas the average brood sex ratio (female to male) changed from being female-biased (6:1) to male-biased (1:2); body size of female offspring as measured by the length of ovipositor and left hind tibia also was reduced significantly. Based on these findings, we suggest that the current method of rearing T. planipennisi with artificially infested-emerald ash borer larvae use the tropical ash logs for emerald ash borer insertion, a larger (> or = 3:3) host-parasitoid group size and 1:1 parasitoid-to-host ratio in the primary parasitoid exposure assays. PMID:22812114

Duan, Jian J; Oppel, Craig

2012-06-01

107

Initialization parameter sweep in ATHENA: optimizing neural networks for detecting gene-gene interactions in the presence of small main effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in genotyping technology have led to the generation of an enormous quantity of genetic data. Traditional methods of statistical analysis have proved insufficient in extracting all of the information about the genetic components of common, complex human diseases. A contributing factor to the problem of analysis is that amongst the small main effects of each single gene on

Emily Rose Holzinger; Carrie C. Buchanan; Scott M. Dudek; Eric C. Torstenson; Stephen D. Turner; Marylyn D. Ritchie

2010-01-01

108

Salt ions and related parameters affect PEI-DNA particle size and transfection efficiency in Chinese hamster ovary cells.  

PubMed

Transfection efficiency is directly associated with the expression level and quantity of recombinant protein after the transient transfection of animal cells. The transfection process can be influenced by many still-unknown factors, so it is valuable to study the precise mechanism and explore these factors in gene delivery. Polyethylenimine (PEI) is considered to have high transfection efficiency and endosome-disrupting capacity. Here we aimed to investigate optimal conditions for transfection efficiency by setting different parameters, including salt ion concentration, DNA/PEI ratio, and incubation time. We examined the PEI-DNA particle size using a Malvern particle size analyzer and assessed the transfection efficiency using flow cytometry in Chinese hamster ovary-S cells. Salt ions, higher amounts of PEI tended to improve the aggregation of PEI-DNA particles and the particle size of PEI-DNA complexes and the transfection efficiency were increased. Besides, the particle size was also found to benefit from longer incubation time. However, the transfection efficiency increased to maximum of 68.92% at an incubation time of 10min, but decreased significantly thereafter to 23.71%, when incubating for 120min (P<0.05). Besides, PEI-DNA complexes formed in salt-free condition were unstable. Our results suggest DNA and PEI incubated in 300mM NaCl at a ratio of 1:4 for 10min could achieve the optimal transfection efficiency. Our results might provide guidance for the optimization of transfection efficiency and the industrial production of recombinant proteins. PMID:24166598

Sang, Yunxia; Xie, Kui; Mu, Yubin; Lei, Yun; Zhang, Baohong; Xiong, Sheng; Chen, Yantian; Qi, Nianmin

2015-01-01

109

IN-SYNC I: Homogeneous Stellar Parameters from High-resolution APOGEE Spectra for Thousands of Pre-main Sequence Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over two years, 8859 high-resolution H-band spectra of 3493 young (1-10 Myr) stars were gathered by the multi-object spectrograph of the APOGEE project as part of the IN-SYNC ancillary program of the SDSS-III survey. Here we present the forward modeling approach used to derive effective temperatures, surface gravities, radial velocities, rotational velocities, and H-band veiling from these near-infrared spectra. We discuss in detail the statistical and systematic uncertainties in these stellar parameters. In addition, we present accurate extinctions by measuring the E(J H) of these young stars with respect to the single-star photometric locus in the Pleiades. Finally, we identify an intrinsic stellar radius spread of about 25% for late-type stars in IC 348 using three (nearly) independent measures of stellar radius, namely, the extinction-corrected J-band magnitude, the surface gravity, and the Rsin i from the rotational velocities and literature rotation periods. We exclude that this spread is caused by uncertainties in the stellar parameters by showing that the three estimators of stellar radius are correlated, so that brighter stars tend to have lower surface gravities and larger Rsin i than fainter stars at the same effective temperature. Tables providing the spectral and photometric parameters for the Pleiades and IC 348 have been provided online.

Cottaar, Michiel; Covey, Kevin R.; Meyer, Michael R.; Nidever, David L.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Foster, Jonathan B.; Tan, Jonathan C.; Chojnowski, S. Drew; da Rio, Nicola; Flaherty, Kevin M.; Frinchaboy, Peter M.; Skrutskie, Michael; Majewski, Steven R.; Wilson, John C.; Zasowski, Gail

2014-10-01

110

Sulfate formation in oil-fired power plant plumes. Volume 1. Parameters affecting primary sulfate emissions and a model for predicting emissions and plume opacity. Final report  

SciTech Connect

High sulfuric acid emissions with concomitant acid smuts and plume opacity concerns at oil fired utility boilers has been associated with combustion of high sulfur-, high vanadium-containing fuel. The purpose of this program was to elucidate the mechanisms responsible for the formation of flue gas H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and metal sulfates (MSO/sub 4/) and to determine the extent by which operating and controls parameters as well as the composition of the fuel affected those emissions. More than 200 flue gas measurements were made at a number of oil fired units and one coal fired unit, providing emissions levels of SO/sub 2/, H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, MSO/sub 4/, total suspended particulate, and NO/sub x/. Parameters shown to significantly affect H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and MSO/sub 4/ emissions were furnace O/sub 2/ level, sulfur and vanadium content of the fuel, the amount of corrosion inhibitor added to the oil, power level, and the composition of the fly ash. Correlations were developed which related the H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and MSO/sub 4/ emissions at oil fired units with the parameters above; predictions of emissions appear to be accurate to within +-25%. Based on limited data from the literature, the correlations were extended to include a means for predicting plume opacity and in-stack opacity. Recommendations for controlling the levels of H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and MSO/sub 4/ emissions as well as maintaining utility units in compliance with opacity regulations were made. Future research needs were indicated, including more studies relating H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ levels in flue gas with plume opacity and emissions studies at coal fired units. 85 references, 27 figures, 23 tables.

Dietz, R.N.; Wieser, R.F.

1983-11-01

111

Maine Ingredients  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article features Maine Learning Technology Initiative (MLTI), the nation's first-ever statewide 1-to-1 laptop program which marks its seventh birthday by expanding into high schools, providing an occasion to celebrate--and to examine the components of its success. The plan to put laptops into the hands of every teacher and student in grades 7

Waters, John K.

2009-01-01

112

MAINE HYDROGRAPHY  

EPA Science Inventory

Hydronet_me24 and Hydropoly_me24 depict Maine's hydrography data, based on 8-digit hydrological unit codes (HUC's) at the 1:24,000 scale. Some New Hampshire and New Brunswick hydrography data are also included. The NHD hydrography data was compiled from previous ArcIn...

113

MAINE WOODLOTS  

EPA Science Inventory

MEOWN250 describes industrial, non-industrial, and public woodlot ownership in Maine at 1:250,000 scale. Industrial owners are those having at least one primary wood processing facility. Non-industrial owners are those with no primary wood processing facility. Public ownership...

114

Main Report  

PubMed Central

Background: States vary widely in their use of newborn screening tests, with some mandating screening for as few as three conditions and others mandating as many as 43 conditions, including varying numbers of the 40+ conditions that can be detected by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). There has been no national guidance on the best candidate conditions for newborn screening since the National Academy of Sciences report of 19751 and the United States Congress Office of Technology Assessment report of 1988,2 despite rapid developments since then in genetics, in screening technologies, and in some treatments. Objectives: In 2002, the Maternal and Child Health Bureau (MCHB) of the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) of the United States Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) commissioned the American College of Medical Genetics (ACMG) to: Conduct an analysis of the scientific literature on the effectiveness of newborn screening.Gather expert opinion to delineate the best evidence for screening for specified conditions and develop recommendations focused on newborn screening, including but not limited to the development of a uniform condition panel.Consider other components of the newborn screening system that are critical to achieving the expected outcomes in those screened. Methods: A group of experts in various areas of subspecialty medicine and primary care, health policy, law, public health, and consumers worked with a steering committee and several expert work groups, using a two-tiered approach to assess and rank conditions. A first step was developing a set of principles to guide the analysis. This was followed by developing criteria by which conditions could be evaluated, and then identifying the conditions to be evaluated. A large and broadly representative group of experts was asked to provide their opinions on the extent to which particular conditions met the selected criteria, relying on supporting evidence and references from the scientific literature. The criteria were distributed among three main categories for each condition: The availability and characteristics of the screening test;The availability and complexity of diagnostic services; andThe availability and efficacy of treatments related to the conditions. A survey process utilizing a data collection instrument was used to gather expert opinion on the conditions in the first tier of the assessment. The data collection format and survey provided the opportunity to quantify expert opinion and to obtain the views of a diverse set of interest groups (necessary due to the subjective nature of some of the criteria). Statistical analysis of data produced a score for each condition, which determined its ranking and initial placement in one of three categories (high scoring, moderately scoring, or low scoring/absence of a newborn screening test). In the second tier of these analyses, the evidence base related to each condition was assessed in depth (e.g., via systematic reviews of reference lists including MedLine, PubMed and others; books; Internet searches; professional guidelines; clinical evidence; and cost/economic evidence and modeling). The fact sheets reflecting these analyses were evaluated by at least two acknowledged experts for each condition. These experts assessed the data and the associated references related to each criterion and provided corrections where appropriate, assigned a value to the level of evidence and the quality of the studies that established the evidence base, and determined whether there were significant variances from the survey data. Survey results were subsequently realigned with the evidence obtained from the scientific literature during the second-tier analysis for all objective criteria, based on input from at least three acknowledged experts in each condition. The information from these two tiers of assessment was then considered with regard to the overriding principles and other technology or condition-specific recommendations. On the basis of this information, conditions were assigned to one of thr

2006-01-01

115

Effect of parameter choice in root water uptake models - the arrangement of root hydraulic properties within the root architecture affects dynamics and efficiency of root water uptake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detailed three-dimensional models of root water uptake have become increasingly popular for investigating the process of root water uptake. However, they suffer from a lack of information on important parameters, particularly on the spatial distribution of root axial and radial conductivities, which vary greatly along a root system. In this paper we explore how the arrangement of those root hydraulic properties and branching within the root system affects modelled uptake dynamics, xylem water potential and the efficiency of root water uptake. We first apply a simple model to illustrate the mechanisms at the scale of single roots. By using two efficiency indices based on (i) the collar xylem potential ("effort") and (ii) the integral amount of unstressed root water uptake ("water yield"), we show that an optimal root length emerges, depending on the ratio between roots axial and radial conductivity. Young roots with high capacity for radial uptake are only efficient when they are short. Branching, in combination with mature transport roots, enables soil exploration and substantially increases active young root length at low collar potentials. Second, we investigate how this shapes uptake dynamics at the plant scale using a comprehensive three-dimensional root water uptake model. Plant-scale dynamics, such as the average uptake depth of entire root systems, were only minimally influenced by the hydraulic parameterization. However, other factors such as hydraulic redistribution, collar potential, internal redistribution patterns and instantaneous uptake depth depended strongly on the arrangement on the arrangement of root hydraulic properties. Root systems were most efficient when assembled of different root types, allowing for separation of root function in uptake (numerous short apical young roots) and transport (longer mature roots). Modelling results became similar when this heterogeneity was accounted for to some degree (i.e. if the root systems contained between 40 and 80% of young uptake roots). The average collar potential was cut to half and unstressed transpiration increased by up to 25% in composed root systems, compared to homogenous ones. Also, the least efficient root system (homogenous young root system) was characterized by excessive bleeding (hydraulic lift), which seemed to be an artifact of the parameterization. We conclude that heterogeneity of root hydraulic properties is a critical component for efficient root systems that needs to be accounted for in complex three-dimensional root water uptake models.

Bechmann, M.; Schneider, C.; Carminati, A.; Vetterlein, D.; Attinger, S.; Hildebrandt, A.

2014-10-01

116

The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey XIX. B-type Supergiants - Atmospheric Parameters and Nitrogen Abundances to Investigate the Role of Binarity and the Width of the Main Sequence  

E-print Network

TLUSTY non-LTE model atmosphere calculations have been used to determine atmospheric parameters and nitrogen (N) abundances for 34 single and 18 binary B-type supergiants (BSGs). The effects of flux contribution from an unseen secondary were considered for the binary sample. We present the first systematic study of the incidence of binarity for a sample of BSGs across the theoretical terminal age main sequence (TAMS). To account for the distribution of effective temperatures of the BSGs it may be necessary to extend the TAMS to lower temperatures. This is consistent with the derived distribution of mass discrepancies, projected rotational velocities (vsini) and N abundances, provided that stars cooler than this temperature are post RSG objects. For the BSGs in the Tarantula and previous FLAMES surveys, most have small vsini. About 10% have larger vsini (>100 km/s) but surprisingly these show little or no N enhancement. All the cooler BSGs have low vsini of <70km/s and high N abundance estimates, implying t...

McEvoy, C M; Evans, C J; Kalari, V M; Markova, N; Simn-Daz, S; Vink, J S; Walborn, N R; Crowther, P A; de Koter, A; de Mink, S E; Dunstall, P R; Hnault-Brunet, V; Herrero, A; Langer, N; Lennon, D J; Apellniz, J Maz; Najarro, F; Puls, J; Sana, H; Schneider, F R N; Taylor, W D

2014-01-01

117

Body mass index, calcium intake, and physical activity affect calcaneal ultrasound in healthy Greek males in an age-dependent and parameter-specific manner  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) is a peripheral bone densitometry technique that is rapidly gaining in popularity for the assessment of skeletal status. This study was carried out to examine the effect of anthropometric, dietary, physical activity, and other lifestyle factors on QUS parameters in healthy Greek males of various ages, including children (n = 192), adults (n = 106), and elderly

Eirini Babaroutsi; Faidon Magkos; Yannis Manios; Labros S. Sidossis

2005-01-01

118

Two weeks of dietary supplementation with green tea powder does not affect performance, d -xylose absorption, and selected serum parameters in broiler chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to investigate the putative effects of dietary supplementation with green tea powder on growth\\u000a performance, d-xylose absorption as well as serum-selected parameters of broiler chickens. Forty 21-day-old chickens were randomly allocated\\u000a into four groups and fed with diets supplemented with 0% (control), 1%, 2%, or 4% green tea powder for 2weeks. At the

Tahoora Shomali; Najmeh Mosleh; Saeed Nazifi

119

Affective Technology, Affective Management, towards Affective Society  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the term affective is defined as being capable to evoke affects in peoples mind or being capable to deliberate affects to be evoked in peoples\\u000a mind. This paper discusses potential impact of concept of affectiveness on development of technological products and services, management, and value systems of societies.

Hiroyuki Umemuro

2009-01-01

120

Parameters affecting the stability of the digestate from a two-stage anaerobic process treating the organic fraction of municipal solid waste.  

PubMed

This paper focused on the factors affecting the respiration rate of the digestate taken from a continuous anaerobic two-stage process treating the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW). The process involved a hydrolytic reactor (HR) that produced a leachate fed to a submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor (SAMBR). It was found that a volatile solids (VS) removal in the range 40-75% and an operating temperature in the HR between 21 and 35 C resulted in digestates with similar respiration rates, with all digestates requiring 17 days of aeration before satisfying the British Standard Institution stability threshold of 16 mg CO(2) g VS(-1) day(-1). Sanitization of the digestate at 65 C for 7 days allowed a mature digestate to be obtained. At 4 g VS L(-1) d(-1) and Solid Retention Times (SRT) greater than 70 days, all the digestates emitted CO(2) at a rate lower than 25 mg CO(2) g VS(-1) d(-1) after 3 days of aeration, while at SRT lower than 20 days all the digestates displayed a respiration rate greater than 25 mg CO(2) g VS(-1) d(-1). The compliance criteria for Class I digestate set by the European Commission (EC) and British Standard Institution (BSI) could not be met because of nickel and chromium contamination, which was probably due to attrition of the stainless steel stirrer in the HR. PMID:21419612

Trzcinski, Antoine P; Stuckey, David C

2011-07-01

121

Feed gas humidity: a vital parameter affecting a cold atmospheric-pressure plasma jet and plasma-treated human skin cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the effect of feed gas humidity on the reactive component generation of an atmospheric-pressure argon plasma jet and its effect on human skin cells are investigated. Feed gas humidity is identified as one key parameter that strongly influences stability and reproducibility of plasma medical studies. The plasma jet is investigated by absorption spectroscopy in the ultraviolet and infrared spectral region for its ozone production depending on the humidity concentration in the feed gas. By optical emission spectroscopy the dependence of present excited plasma species such as hydroxyl radicals, molecular nitrogen, argon and atomic oxygen on the feed gas humidity is investigated. As an interface layer between the plasma jet effluent and the biological cell, a buffer solution is treated and the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production is studied with two independent colorimetric assays as a function of humidity admixture to the feed gas. Ultimately, the effect of varying feed gas humidity on the cell viability of indirect plasma treated adherent HaCAT cells is investigated. The highest viability is found for the driest feed gas condition. Furthermore, this work shows answers for the relevance of unwantedor intendedfeed gas humidity in plasma medical experiments and their comparatively large relevance with respect to ambient humidity. The findings will lead to more reproducible experiments in the field of plasma medicine.

Winter, J.; Wende, K.; Masur, K.; Iseni, S.; Dnnbier, M.; Hammer, M. U.; Tresp, H.; Weltmann, K.-D.; Reuter, S.

2013-07-01

122

Parameters affecting the stability of the digestate from a two-stage anaerobic process treating the organic fraction of municipal solid waste  

SciTech Connect

This paper focused on the factors affecting the respiration rate of the digestate taken from a continuous anaerobic two-stage process treating the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW). The process involved a hydrolytic reactor (HR) that produced a leachate fed to a submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor (SAMBR). It was found that a volatile solids (VS) removal in the range 40-75% and an operating temperature in the HR between 21 and 35 {sup o}C resulted in digestates with similar respiration rates, with all digestates requiring 17 days of aeration before satisfying the British Standard Institution stability threshold of 16 mg CO{sub 2} g VS{sup -1} day{sup -1}. Sanitization of the digestate at 65 {sup o}C for 7 days allowed a mature digestate to be obtained. At 4 g VS L{sup -1} d{sup -1} and Solid Retention Times (SRT) greater than 70 days, all the digestates emitted CO{sub 2} at a rate lower than 25 mg CO{sub 2} g VS{sup -1} d{sup -1} after 3 days of aeration, while at SRT lower than 20 days all the digestates displayed a respiration rate greater than 25 mg CO{sub 2} g VS{sup -1} d{sup -1}. The compliance criteria for Class I digestate set by the European Commission (EC) and British Standard Institution (BSI) could not be met because of nickel and chromium contamination, which was probably due to attrition of the stainless steel stirrer in the HR.

Trzcinski, Antoine P., E-mail: a.trzcinski05@ic.ac.uk [Department of Chemical Engineering, Imperial College of Science and Technology and Medicine, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Stuckey, David C., E-mail: d.stuckey@ic.ac.uk [Department of Chemical Engineering, Imperial College of Science and Technology and Medicine, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

2011-07-15

123

Jupiter's Main Ring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A mosaic of four images taken through the clear filter (610 nanometers) of the solid state imaging (CCD) system aboard NASA's Galileo spacecraft on November 8, 1996, at a resolution of approximately 46 kilometers (km) per picture element (pixel) along the rings; however, because the spacecraft was only about 0.5 degrees above the ring plane, the image is highly foreshortened in the vertical direction. The images were obtained when Galileo was in Jupiter's shadow peering back toward the Sun; the ring was approximately 2,300,000 kilometers (km) away. The arc on the far right of the image is produced by sunlight scattered by small particles comprising Jupiter's upper atmospheric haze. The ring also efficiently scatters light, indicating that much of its brightness is due to particles that are microns or less in diameter. Such small particles are believed to have human-scale lifetimes, i.e., very brief compared to the solar system's age.

Jupiter's ring system is composed of three parts -- a flat main ring, a lenticular halo interior to the main ring, and the gossamer ring, which lies exterior to the main ring. The near and far arms of Jupiter's main ring extend horizontally across the mosaic, joining together at the ring's ansa, on the far left side of the figure. The near arm of the ring appears to be abruptly truncated close to the planet, at the point where it passes into Jupiter's shadow. Some radial structure is barely visible across the ring's ansa. A faint mist of particles can be seen above and below the main rings; this vertically extended 'halo' is unusual in planetary rings, and is probably caused by electromagnetic forces pushing the smallest grains out of the ring plane. Because of shadowing, the halo is not visible close to Jupiter in the lower right part of the mosaic.

Jupiter's main ring is a thin strand of material encircling the planet. The diffuse innermost boundary begins at approximately 123,000 km. The main ring's outer radius is found to be at 128,940 +/-50 km, slightly less than the Voyager value of 129,130 +/-100 km, but very close to the orbit of the satellite Adrastea (128,980 km). The main ring exhibits a marked drop in brightness at 127,849 +/-50 km, lying almost atop the orbit of the Jovian moon Metis at 127,978 km. Satellites seem to affect the structure of even tenuous rings like that found at Jupiter.

The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at: http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at: http:/ /www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo.

1997-01-01

124

Two-spotted spider mite reared on resistant eggplant affects consumption rate and life table parameters of its predator, Typhlodromus bagdasarjani (Acari: Phytoseiidae).  

PubMed

The study of interactions between host plant cultivars and biological control agents is important in integrated pest management programs. In this study, the life table parameters and predation rate of Typhlodromus bagdasarjani Wainstein & Arutunjan were determined on two-spotted spider mites reared on a susceptible (Isfahan) or a resistant (Neishabour) eggplant cultivar. All experiments were carried out under laboratory conditions, at 251C, 605% RH and a photoperiod of 16:8 (L:D) h. A significant difference was observed between mean developmental time of immature stages of T. bagdasarjani on the two eggplant cultivars: 6.6 versus 7.5days, on the susceptible and resistant cultivar, respectively. Net reproductive rate (R 0) of T. bagdasarjani did not differ between the cultivars. Doubling time on the susceptible and resistant cultivars was 3.48 versus 5.72days, mean generation time (T) was 10.13 versus 16.08days, respectively. Total fecundity was higher on susceptible than on resistant eggplants, the intrinsic rate of population increase (r) was 0.188 versus 0.119day(-1), respectively. Daily and total prey consumption of various life stages of T. bagdasarjani on two-spotted spider mite reared on susceptible versus resistant eggplant differed; total consumption was higher on spider mites reared on the resistant cultivar. However, the lower intrinsic rate of increase and higher mortality of the predator on the resistant eggplant (Neishabour) revealed that more attention should be devoted to integrated control of spider mites using resistant cultivars and phytoseiid mites. PMID:24599555

Khanamani, Mostafa; Fathipour, Yaghoub; Hajiqanbar, Hamidreza; Sedaratian, Amin

2014-06-01

125

Affective Domain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The affective domain can significantly enhance, inhibit or even prevent student learning. The affective domain includes factors such as student motivation, attitudes, perceptions and values. Teachers can increase their effectiveness by considering the affective domain in planning courses, delivering lectures and activities, and assessing student learning. This module contains information and resources for incorporating the affective domain into teaching.

126

Parameters affecting downhole pH  

SciTech Connect

The presence of acetic and formic acids in the produced water of gas condensate wells has been known for some time by the industry. In traditional water analysis, it has been titrated and reported as alkalinity. The calculation of accurate downhole pH values requires that these ions be analyzed separately in the water and that an organic acid material balance be performed on all three phases in the separator. In this manner, it is then possible to use phase distribution coefficients involving ionic equilibrium to determine how these acids distribute themselves between phases as the pH calculation proceeds downhole. In this paper, the above method of calculation of pH and {Delta}pH is used to examine the effect that various concentrations of these acids have on the downhole pH. Various concentrations of acids are examined, and two cases are calculated in which the effect of condensate on the pH is examined.

Garber, J.D. [Univ. of Southwestern Louisiana, Lafayette, LA (United States). Corrosion Research Center; Jangama, V.R. [CLI International, Houston, TX (United States); Willmon, J. [Weatherly Labs., Lafayette, LA (United States)

1997-09-01

127

Fundamental Parameters Affecting Yarn-pullout Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yarn-pullout behavior from a woven fabric is an important indicator of the mechanism of yarn interactions within the fabric. An analytical model is presented to describe the yarn-pullout behavior from woven fabric. This model is based on the free vibration caused by the orthogonal threads and can describe the motion of the yarn-pullout force. It was observed that the stick-slip-motion

M. R. Badrossamay; S. A. Hosseini Ravandi; M. Morshed

2001-01-01

128

History of Maine Fisheries Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A number of institutions have begun to expand their digital collections in order to include lesser-known subjects, and the University of Maine's Raymond H. Fogler Library continues to expand their online offerings with this intriguing collection. Drawing on the holdings of institutions like the Machias Historical Society, the Maine Maritime Museum, and the Maine State Archives, their digital collections team has created this History of Maine Fisheries database. There aren't any subject headings or sample searches on the site, but it is still quite easy to use. Visitors can use the keyword search to locate materials of interest, and they can also set date parameters to look for materials from a given time period. To get started, visitors might try typing in words like "lobster", "fleet", and "Bangor".

129

The Fabled Maine Winter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

No study of Maine weather would be complete without analysis of the year of 1816 - the year with no summer in an area from western Pennsylvania and New York, up through Quebec and across to Maine and the Canadian maritimes. In this five-unit lesson, students will investigate the causes and effects of the Fabled Maine Winter by exploring a variety of data sources. They will locate, graph, and analyze meteorological and climatological data for Portland, Maine, for more recent years to try to find one that most closely resembles the fabled Maine winter of 1816.

130

Childhood Injuries in Maine: A Status Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purposes of this report are to: (1) describe the extent of the childhood injury problem relative to diseases and other conditions affecting children in Maine who are 1 to 19 years of age; (2) give an overview of what is known about the incidence of childhood injuries in Maine; and (3) offer recommendations to improve the state's ability to control

DiCara, Cheryl; And Others

131

The Maine Event  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author describes the successful laptop program employed at Mt. Abram High School in Strong, Maine. Through the Maine Learning Technology Initiative, the school has issued laptops to all 36,000 teachers and students in grades 7-8. This program has helped level the playing field for a student population that is 50 percent to 55

McHale, Tom

2007-01-01

132

Gulf of Maine: Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Lessons and activities from the Gulf of Maine Research Institute (formerly Gulf of Maine Aquarium), focused on hurricanes, El Nino, fog, and volcanic eruptions. Emphasis on important hurricanes of the past. Resources include lessons, guides for simple experiments, and a student weather network. Downloadable materials and additional webpages also provided.

2010-08-04

133

MAINE MARINE WORM HABITAT  

EPA Science Inventory

WORM provides a generalized representation at 1:24,000 scale of commercially harvested marine worm habitat in Maine, based on Maine Department of Marine Resources data from 1970's. Original maps were created by MDMR and published by USF&WS as part of the ""&quo...

134

on Hurricane Island, Maine  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1981, a study was initiated to measure the effects of low-level trampling (100 to 200 tramples) on selected vegetation on Hurricane Island, Maine. Low levels of trampling are representative of general recreational use patterns on most Maine islands. The study was designed to compare percent survival of common island species when subjected to low-level trampling, to observe treadway formation,

R. E. Leonard; P. W. Conkling; J. L. McMahon

135

Maine Folklife Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Located at the University of Maine, the Maine Folklife Center is committed to documenting and understanding the folklore, folklife, and history of Maine and Atlantic Canada. Along with its various scholarly activities, the Center sponsors a number of festivals, lectures, and like-minded programs that encourage appreciation of the diverse cultural traditions within the region. The site will be useful to researchers with a penchant in these fields, as it contains information about the collections, including a rather extensive oral history collection (with work that documenting the cranberry culture of Massachusetts and the traditional music of Maine). There is also material on the public programs and exhibits sponsored by the center, and a set of external links that lead to other sites dealing with oral history, folklore, and Maine. While the Center's site does not have a great deal of online material for consideration, the center has transcribed the sixth volume of Northeast Folklore (originally published in 1964) and placed them online.

136

NA57 main results  

E-print Network

The CERN NA57 experiment was designed to study the production of strange and multi-strange particles in heavy ion collisions at SPS energies; its physics programme is essentially completed. A review of the main results is presented.

G. E. Bruno; for the NA57 Collaboration

2007-10-15

137

The Maine Music Box  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created through a collaboration between the University of Maine's Fogler Library and other Maine libraries, The Maine Music Box contains hundreds of digitized sheet music scores from five major collections. First-time visitors to the site will want to click on the "About Maine Music Box" project as a way of getting started. Here they can check out the "User Information" area, which contains helpful tips on viewing the music and how to best browse the entire database. Additionally, those with a penchant for technical details and information science in general can also learn in copious detail how the database was created for this project. From there, visitors can move straight away into the main collection. Visitors can browse the collection by music subject, sheet music cover art, or just type in their own keywords. One of the best ways to look over the collection is to browse around in such areas as "Instructional Violin", "Maine Collection" and "Parlor Salon Collection". It's also worth remarking that this site may inspire a sing-a-long, a campfire get-together, or a miniature Chautauqua.

138

Elements affecting runway traction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The five basic elements affecting runway traction for jet transport aircraft operation are identified and described in terms of pilot, aircraft system, atmospheric, tire, and pavement performance factors or parameters. Where possible, research results are summarized, and means for restoring or improving runway traction for these different conditions are discussed.

Horne, W. B.

1974-01-01

139

Reionization history and CMB parameter estimation  

SciTech Connect

We study how uncertainty in the reionization history of the universe affects estimates of other cosmological parameters from the Cosmic Microwave Background. We analyze WMAP7 data and synthetic Planck-quality data generated using a realistic scenario for the reionization history of the universe obtained from high-resolution numerical simulation. We perform parameter estimation using a simple sudden reionization approximation, and using the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) technique proposed by Mortonson and Hu. We reach two main conclusions: (1) Adopting a simple sudden reionization model does not introduce measurable bias into values for other parameters, indicating that detailed modeling of reionization is not necessary for the purpose of parameter estimation from future CMB data sets such as Planck. (2) PCA analysis does not allow accurate reconstruction of the actual reionization history of the universe in a realistic case.

Dizgah, Azadeh Moradinezhad; Kinney, William H. [Department of Physics, University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14260-1500 (United States); Gnedin, Nickolay Y., E-mail: am248@buffalo.edu, E-mail: gnedin@fnal.edu, E-mail: whkinney@buffalo.edu [Particle Astrophysics Center, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States)

2013-05-01

140

The Maine Memory Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Once you have visited Maine, it is most certainly not a place that you will soon forget. This website is designed to make sure longtime residents and visitors alike will not forget this tranquil state, as it brings together a very wide range of historical documents and memories from around the state. The site itself was created by the Maine Historical Society, and is supported by monies from the Institute of Museum and Library Services and several other partners. Within the site, visitors can search for historical items and documents, view thematic online exhibits, and learn about how the site may be used effectively in classroom settings. One particularly fine exhibit is the one that offers some visual documentation of rural Aroostook County around the year 1900. In this exhibit, visitors can experience the dense forests and rugged terrain that dominate the landscape of this part of Maine.

141

Indian Education in Maine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Maine Department of Education assumed the responsibility for the education of Indian children living on Indian reservations on July 1, 1966. This report provides information on the present status of the program. Information is provided on number of schools, school enrollment for the 1969-1970 school year, characteristics of the teaching staff,

Maine State Dept. of Education, Augusta.

142

Snow Falls - Maine  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

As the Little Androscoggin River flows through western Maine it eventually reaches Snow Falls, a 25 ft cascading waterfall in the town of West Paris. This photo was taken during a high flow event at the falls. The USGS monitors the Little Androscoggin River upstream of the falls at station 01...

143

MAIN APPLICATIONS Spot welding  

E-print Network

IRB 6400 MAIN APPLICATIONS Spot welding Press tending Material handling Machine tending Palletizing Assembly Industrial Robot High performance industrial robot The 6-axis IRB 6400 manipulator and S4Cplus precision. IRB 6400 accounts for one third of the 90,000 ABB robot installations. The family of 6400 robots

De Luca, Alessandro

144

MAINE SCHOOLS AND LIBRARIES  

EPA Science Inventory

SCHLIB shows point locations of libraries and educational institutions in Maine at 1:24,000 scale. Colleges, universities, technical colleges, high schools, middle schools, elementary schools, kindergarten/sub-primary and other special schools are included. The data was developed...

145

Oliver Kullmann Main results  

E-print Network

Oliver Kullmann Main results Complement invariance Lean clause-sets Minimal unsatisfiability SAT and Outlook SAT and the Polya Permanent Problem Oliver Kullmann Computer Science Department Swansea University SAT 2007, Lisbon, May 30, 2007 SAT: Connecting combinatorics and linear algebra #12;Oliver Kullmann

Martin, Ralph R.

146

Main features of meiosis  

SciTech Connect

Chapter 17, outlines the main features of meiosis, beginning with its significance and proceeding through the meiotic stages. Meiosis is the most important modification of mitosis because it is the reduction division that gives rise to the haploid generation in the life cycle. 17 refs., 6 figs.

NONE

1993-12-31

147

Windows on Maine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created with funds provided by the Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS), Windows on Maine contains interesting and informative programs and video clips from Maine Public Broadcasting and other partners. On their homepage, visitors can use their interactive map and timeline to locate video clips of interest, and they can also search the entire collection for specific items. Visitors can also use the subject category menu to look over 25 different headings, including "earth sciences", "land disputes", and "Penobscot tribe". The map feature is a real pip, and visitors can customize their search by location and date, and it's a great way to learn about different regions, including Aroostook County (also known as "the County") and Downeast. Also, many of the videos also have additional resources attached to them, such as railroad timetables, historic photographs, and so on.

148

Maine Humanities Council  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Formed as a private nonprofit organization, the Maine Humanities Council (MHC) "promotes strong communities and informed citizens by providing Mainers with opportunities to explore the power and pleasure of ideas." Their work is supported by volunteer board members, and their projects include programs to promote reading and writing, guest lectures around the state, and online newsletters and discussion groups. In the "Programs" area, visitors can learn about these programs, and educators can check out the resources created especially for them. The "Connections" area contains links to their thoughtful blog, their "Humanities on Demand" podcasts, and their periodic newsletter "Synapse", which deals with medicine and literature. The podcasts are quite fun, and they include "Franco-American Women's Words in Maine" and a talk by Professor Dianne Sadoff of Rutgers University on Middlemarch, by George Eliot.

149

Main roads to melanoma  

PubMed Central

The characterization of the molecular mechanisms involved in development and progression of melanoma could be helpful to identify the molecular profiles underlying aggressiveness, clinical behavior, and response to therapy as well as to better classify the subsets of melanoma patients with different prognosis and/or clinical outcome. Actually, some aspects regarding the main molecular changes responsible for the onset as well as the progression of melanoma toward a more aggressive phenotype have been described. Genes and molecules which control either cell proliferation, apoptosis, or cell senescence have been implicated. Here we provided an overview of the main molecular changes underlying the pathogenesis of melanoma. All evidence clearly indicates the existence of a complex molecular machinery that provides checks and balances in normal melanocytes. Progression from normal melanocytes to malignant metastatic cells in melanoma patients is the result of a combination of down- or up-regulation of various effectors acting on different molecular pathways. PMID:19828018

Palmieri, Giuseppe; Capone, Mariaelena; Ascierto, Maria Libera; Gentilcore, Giusy; Stroncek, David F; Casula, Milena; Sini, Maria Cristina; Palla, Marco; Mozzillo, Nicola; Ascierto, Paolo A

2009-01-01

150

Stars main sequence  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What happens during most of a star's life? This activity page, part of an interactive laboratory series for grades 8-12, introduces students to the main sequence phase of a star's existence. This phase is where a star lives out the majority of its life. In an interactive lab activity, students predict the length of the main sequence for four different stars. The predictions can be printed for later evaluation. Students view diagrams that compare the size and color of stars to human lives, and equilibrium within a star is stressed. Finally, students choose between two hypotheses about the length of life of a star. Students write a one- to three-sentence explanation for their hypotheses. The correct answer is provided. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

University of Utah. Astrophysics Science Project Integrating Research and Education (ASPIRE)

2003-01-01

151

Energetic Main Idea  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students will learn about different forms of energy and how to find the main idea and key details in informational text. Included with the lesson is an anticipation guide to assess prior knowledge, plus a rubric to score the students' summative assessment. Also present is a list of books to choose from so that teachers can use the books that fit their students best.

Shipley, Amanda

2012-09-16

152

Maine coast winds  

SciTech Connect

The Maine Coast Winds Project was proposed for four possible turbine locations. Significant progress has been made at the prime location, with a lease-power purchase contract for ten years for the installation of turbine equipment having been obtained. Most of the site planning and permitting have been completed. It is expect that the turbine will be installed in early May. The other three locations are less suitable for the project, and new locations are being considered.

Avery, Richard

2000-01-28

153

Main graphs: Quadratic equation  

E-print Network

Main graphs: Quadratic equation: Equation A2 +B+C = 0, has solutions given by the following 'abc equations: Equation dN dt = kN has the solution: N(t) = N0ekt; N0 is an (arbitrary) initial value of N. Characteristic time of change is = 1/k. Systems of linear differential equations: For system dx dt = ax+by dy dt

Utrecht, Universiteit

154

Prognostic Accumulation Zones for Oil and Natural Gas in the Criteria for the Distribution of Petrophysical Parameters in the Main Dolomite in Gorzow-Pniewy Area / Prognostyczne Strefy Akumulacji Dla Ropy Naftowej i Gazu Ziemnego W Kryteriach ROZK?ADU PARAMETRW Petrofizycznych Dolomitu G?WNEGO W Obszarze GORZW-PNIEWY  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The carbonate reservoirs are anisotropic environments in terms of both the quantitative and qualitative evaluations of pore space. The oil-and-gas-bearing Main Dolomite horizon shows diversified lithology, facial development and thickness resulting in complicated, fluid capacity-fluid filtration system. This system influences both the evaluation and exploration perspectives in the Zechstein Main Dolomite (Ca2) from the Gorzw-Pniewy area. In order to clarify this problem and to determine the hydrocarbon accumulation perspectives, analysis of petrophysical parameters based upon the porosimetric measurements was carried on for the Main Dolomite in the study area, where oil and gas accumulations were discovered. The results of porosimetric measurements clearly indicate the heterogeneity of petrophysical parameters of the Main Dolomite referred to lithologically diversified palaeogeographic zones distinguished in the study area. Such analysis, including the hydrocarbon storage capacity of the Main Dolomite, enabled us to evaluate the possible hydrocarbon accumulation related to generation potential of this horizon. W ocenie ilo?ciowej i jako?ciowej przestrzeni porowej ?rodowiskiem anizotropowym s? w?glanowe ska?y zbiornikowe. Zr?nicowany litologiczno-facjalnie oraz mi??szo?ciowo, ropo-gazono?ny poziom dolomitu g?wnego charakteryzuje si? z?o?onym uk?adem pojemno?ciowo-filtracyjnym. Tym regu?om podporz?dkowana jest ocena i perspektywy poszukiwawcze w cechszty?skim poziomie dolomitu g?wnego (Ca2) w Polsce w rejonie Gorzw-Pniewy.W celu uprz?dkowania tego zagadnienia i prognozy perspektyw z?o?owych, w oparciu o wyniki bada? porozymetrycznych, przeprowadzono analiz? parametrw petrofizycznych dolomitu g?wnego w przedstawionym obszarze, o stwierdzonej ropo-gazono?no?ci tego poziomu. Wyniki bada? porozymetrycznych wyra?nie wskazuj? na heteregoniczno?? utworw dolomitu g?wnego w zakresie zmienno?ci parametrw petrofizycznych, odniesionych do zr?nicowanych litologicznie stref paleogeograficznych w analizowanym obszarze. Analiza ta, w odniesieniu do pojemno?ci magazynowej dolomitu g?wnego, rozwini?tego w zr?nicowanych facjach poszczeglnych stref paleogeograficznych, pozwala na ocen? mo?liwej akumulacji w?glowodorowej, w stosunku do potencja?u generacyjnego tego poziomu.

Semyrka, Roman; Maruta, Micha?; Pasternacki, Andrzej

2013-12-01

155

Iodine application affects nitrogen-use efficiency of lettuce plants (Lactuca sativa L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this work was to determine whether nitrogen-use efficiency was affected by the application of different forms (iodide vs iodate) and dosages (20, 40 and 80 M) of iodine, to ascertain the influence of this trace element in a biofortification programme in lettuce plants. The parameters analysed were root and shoot biomass, nitrate concentration, and organic and

Begoa Blasco; Juan J. Rios; Luis M. Cervilla; Eva Snchez-Rodrguez; Mara M. Rubio-Wilhelmi; Miguel A. Rosales; Luis Romero; Juan M. Ruiz

2011-01-01

156

Is there an efficient trap or collection method for sampling Anopheles darlingi and other malaria vectors that can describe the essential parameters affecting transmission dynamics as effectively as human landing catches? - A Review.  

PubMed

Distribution, abundance, feeding behaviour, host preference, parity status and human-biting and infection rates are among the medical entomological parameters evaluated when determining the vector capacity of mosquito species. To evaluate these parameters, mosquitoes must be collected using an appropriate method. Malaria is primarily transmitted by anthropophilic and synanthropic anophelines. Thus, collection methods must result in the identification of the anthropophilic species and efficiently evaluate the parameters involved in malaria transmission dynamics. Consequently, human landing catches would be the most appropriate method if not for their inherent risk. The choice of alternative anopheline collection methods, such as traps, must consider their effectiveness in reproducing the efficiency of human attraction. Collection methods lure mosquitoes by using a mixture of olfactory, visual and thermal cues. Here, we reviewed, classified and compared the efficiency of anopheline collection methods, with an emphasis on Neotropical anthropophilic species, especially Anopheles darlingi, in distinct malaria epidemiological conditions in Brazil. PMID:25185008

Lima, Jos Bento Pereira; Rosa-Freitas, Maria Goreti; Rodovalho, Cynara Melo; Santos, Ftima; Loureno-de-Oliveira, Ricardo

2014-08-01

157

Is there an efficient trap or collection method for sampling Anopheles darlingi and other malaria vectors that can describe the essential parameters affecting transmission dynamics as effectively as human landing catches? - A Review  

PubMed Central

Distribution, abundance, feeding behaviour, host preference, parity status and human-biting and infection rates are among the medical entomological parameters evaluated when determining the vector capacity of mosquito species. To evaluate these parameters, mosquitoes must be collected using an appropriate method. Malaria is primarily transmitted by anthropophilic and synanthropic anophelines. Thus, collection methods must result in the identification of the anthropophilic species and efficiently evaluate the parameters involved in malaria transmission dynamics. Consequently, human landing catches would be the most appropriate method if not for their inherent risk. The choice of alternative anopheline collection methods, such as traps, must consider their effectiveness in reproducing the efficiency of human attraction. Collection methods lure mosquitoes by using a mixture of olfactory, visual and thermal cues. Here, we reviewed, classified and compared the efficiency of anopheline collection methods, with an emphasis on Neotropical anthropophilic species, especially Anopheles darlingi, in distinct malaria epidemiological conditions in Brazil. PMID:25185008

Lima, Jos Bento Pereira; Rosa-Freitas, Maria Goreti; Rodovalho, Cynara Melo; Santos, Ftima; Loureno-de-Oliveira, Ricardo

2014-01-01

158

March 29, 2008 Operating Systems: Main Memory 1 Main Memory  

E-print Network

March 29, 2008 Operating Systems: Main Memory 1 Main Memory Chapter 8 #12;March 29, 2008 Operating Systems: Main Memory 2 Chapter Outline Background Contiguous Memory Allocation Paging Structure of the Page Table Segmentation #12;March 29, 2008 Operating Systems: Main Memory 3 Objectives To provide

Adam, Salah

159

University of Maine Cooperative Extension  

E-print Network

University of Maine Cooperative Extension Hand Signals Useful for Farmers Bulletin #2335 by Dawna L of Congress of May 8 and June 30, 1914, by the University of Maine Cooperative Extension, Vaughn H. Holyoke, Director for the University of Maine Cooperative Extension, the Land Grant University of the state of Maine

Leistikow, Bruce N.

160

State of Maine's Environment 2010  

Microsoft Academic Search

The State of Maine's Environment is a regular series of reports written by senior environmental policy majors at Colby College in Waterville, Maine. The State of Maine's Environment 2010 is the sixth State of Maine's Environment report created by students enrolled in ES 493: Environmental Policy Practicum taught by Philip J. Nyhus, Environmental Studies Program. Topics in this report include

Philip J. Nyhus

2010-01-01

161

Why People Vote? Rationality or Affect  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to examine whether voters mainly depend on rationality or affect to make their turnout decisions. By utilizing the data of ANES 1976, 1988 and 2008, we find that in the 1976 presidential election, it is mainly affect to have an influence on peoples decision on whether to vote. However, in the 1988 and 2008

Ching-Hsing Wang

162

The effects of processing bath parameters on the quality and performance of zinc phosphate stearate coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

In cold metal-forging processes, low-friction coatings often provide the main part of the lubrication. In many cases, zinc phosphate stearate (ZPS) coatings are used. Many parameters affect the coatings' quality and performance. In this paper the typical Brinell indentation test is used to answer two industrial requirements: first, to reveal the sensitivity of the coating with regard to the ageing

L Lazzarotto; C Marchal; L Dubar; A Dubois; J Oudin

1999-01-01

163

Relative Partial Cross Sections and Angular Distribution Parameters of the Li 1s2s(^3,1S) Main and 1s2p(^3,1P) Conjugate Shake-up Lines in the Region of the 1s n? n'?' Autoionizing Resonances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atomic Li is the simplest open-subshell atom, and is therefore an ideal candidate for detailed experimental and theoretical studies. Despite the extensive experimental work which has been carried out on atomic Li, there is only one rather old measurement(T. A. Ferrett, D. W. Lindle, P. A. Heimann, W. D. Brewer, U. Becker, H. G. Kerhoff, and D. A. Shirley, Phys. Rev. A 36), 3172 (1987). of the 1s2s(^1,3S) main and 1s2p(^1,3P) conjugate shake-up photolines in the region of the strong 1s n? n'?' autoionizing resonances. We will present recent measurements of both the relative partial cross sections, ?, and angular distribution parameters, ?, of these photoelectron lines in this resonance region. Our high resolution constant-ionic state spectra completely separate the dynamic behavior of all four photolines allowing a detailed comparison to a state-of-the-art R-matrix calculation(L. Vo Ky, P. Faucher, A. Hibbert, J.-M. Li, Y.-Z. Qu, J. Yan, J. C. Chang, and F. Bely-Dubau, Phys. Rev. A 57), 1045 (1998).. The strong variations of both ? and ? of these lines across the 1s n? n'?' autoionizing resonances are in generally good accord with theory.

Whitfield, S. B.; Wehlitz, R.

2003-05-01

164

Risk measures The main result  

E-print Network

Outline Risk measures The main result A collection of risk measures Dual representations of risk measures Georg Ch. Pflug May 7, 2005 Georg Ch. Pflug Dual representations of risk measures #12;Outline Risk measures The main result A collection of risk measures Risk measures The main result A collection of risk

Pflug, Georg

165

2014 Maine Earth Science Day  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

On October 15, 2014 Maine Earth Science Day was held at the Maine State Museum in Augusta. The USGS was represented by Charlie Culbertson, left, and Nick Waldron, right. This photo was taken as the two were packing up for the day, and shows a main feature of the table, a touch screen display with th...

166

EXPLORATORY FISHING FOR MAINE HERRING  

E-print Network

of Maine waters were sounded and fished with a lampara seine, gill nets, midwater trawls, and otter trawls for Atlantic herring and to carry on research and developmental work on sardine fishing gear. Original efforts sought along the Maine coast and in the Gulf of Maine. Otter trawl surveys were made during the winters

167

Biogeography of Nearshore Subtidal Invertebrates in the Gulf of Maine  

EPA Science Inventory

The biogeography of nearshore benthic invertebrates in the Gulf of Maine was studied to compare recent data with historical biogeographic studies, define physical-chemical factors affecting species distributions, and provide information needed to calibrate benthic indices of envi...

168

Factors affecting sorghum protein digestibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the semi-arid tropics worldwide, sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is cultivated by farmers on a subsistence level and consumed as food by humans. A nutritional limitation to its use is the poor digestibility of sorghum protein when wet cooked. The factors affecting wet cooked sorghum protein digestibility may be categorised into two main groups: exogenous factors (grain organisational structure,

K. G Duodu; J. R. N Taylor; P. S Belton; B. R Hamaker

2003-01-01

169

View of the main interior space facing east. The main ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of the main interior space facing east. The main entry is on the left hand side at the rear. The exit to the deck is to the right. - San Luis Yacht Club, Avila Pier, South of Front Street, Avila Beach, San Luis Obispo County, CA

170

Pre-Workout Carbohydrate Supplementation does not Affect Measures of Selfassessed Vitality and Affect in College Swimmers  

PubMed Central

Beneficial effects of dietary carbohydrate (CHO) on physical and psychological parameters have been demonstrated in athletes. Because affect, or mood, can predict athletic performace, the main objective of this study was to determine the effect of pre-workout CHO on affect in swimmers. College swimmers (n = 37) participated in a randomized crossover experiment of the effects of a pre-workout CHO supplement on vitality and affect. Subjects consumed a CHO supplement or placebo for two days before morning practice. After each morning practice, swimmers completed measures of affect and feelings of vitality. Pearson correlations were performed to describe relationships among variables. Differences in means between the CHO and placebo conditions were determined by paired t-tests. Independent t-tests were used to determine differences in variables between the highest and lowest tertiles of breakfast consumption frequency. All statistical analyses were performed using SAS 9.1.3 (Cary, NC) and statistical signficance was set at ? = 0.05. There were no significant differences in affect or feelings of vitality between the CHO supplement and placebo conditions (all p ? 0.15). Our results do not support a beneficial effect of CHO supplementation before morning swim practice on affect or feelings of vitality in swimmers. Key points Pre-workout carbohydrate did not affect post-workout measures of vitality or affect in collegiate swimmers. Avoidance of feeling nauseous/ill and lack of time were the most frequent reasons reported by swimmers for forgoing breakfast before morning swim practice. A longer trial of carbohydrate supplementation is needed to verify if there is indeed no effect of pre-workout carbohydrate on post-workout measures of vitality or affect in swimmers. PMID:24150621

Hill, Kathleen M.; Whitehead, James R.; Goodwin, Janice K.

2011-01-01

171

Maine: Early Head Start Initiatives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maine has two initiatives that build on Early Head Start (EHS). The first initiative, Fund for a Healthy Maine, has since 2001 provided tobacco settlement money to existing Head Start and EHS programs to expand the number of children who receive full-day, full-year services. Local programs have the option of using these funds for EHS, depending on

Center for Law and Social Policy, Inc. (CLASP), 2012

2012-01-01

172

Main Injector power distribution system  

SciTech Connect

The paper describes a new power distribution system for Fermilab's Main Injector. The system provides 13.8 kV power to Main Injector accelerator (accelerator and conventional loads) and is capable of providing power to the rest of the laboratory (backfeed system). Design criteria, and features including simulation results are given.

Cezary Jach and Daniel Wolff

2002-06-03

173

Investigating Potential Main Belt Comets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The discovery of a new class of objects, the Main Belt Comets, has confirmed that ice has been preserved within the Main Belt, despite the fact that the snowline long ago migrated outwards to ~5AU. Main Belt Comets are cometary in appearance, with comae and dust tails visible, but are dynamically unremarkable when compared to asteroids within the Main Belt. Three of the four known Main Belt Comets are dynamically linked to the Themis Family - a collisional family of ~550 asteroids that was created when a 380km progenitor catastrophically disrupted approximately 2Gyr ago. Other Themis Family members are likely to have retained ice deposits and are, thus, potential Main Belt Comets, yet, conversely, hydrated minerals have been detected on one member of the family, asteroid 24 (Themis). The presence of these minerals imply that liquid water was once present on the asteroid, and suggest post-formation heating took place. The preservation of ice within Main Belt Comets suggests that the Themis Family may have once been, and may still be, an important reservoir of ice, while the detection of hydrated minerals on asteroid 24 (Themis) argues for post-formation heating in that region. We will search for hydration features on Themis Family asteroids to constrain the possible thermal evolution of potential Main Belt Comets.

Stevenson, Rachel; Jewitt, David

2009-08-01

174

MAINE LANDS OVER 2700 FEET  

EPA Science Inventory

MECON2700 contains areas in Maine with elevations greater than 2700 feet, generated from USGS 1:250,000 DEMs. Areas above 2700 feet are regulated by the Maine Land Use Regulation Commission (MELURC). Areas were generated from USGS 1:250,000 scale digital elevation models using A...

175

Maine Agricultural Foods. Project SEED.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes an activity-based program that teaches students in grades 4-12 about the importance of Maine agriculture in their lives. Specifically, the goal is to increase student awareness of how the foods they eat are planted, harvested, and processed. The emphasis is on crops grown in Maine such as potatoes, broccoli, peas, blueberries,

Beaulieu, Peter; Ossenfort, Pat

176

Main Propulsion Test Article (MPTA)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Scope: The Main Propulsion Test Article integrated the main propulsion subsystem with the clustered Space Shuttle Main Engines, the External Tank and associated GSE. The test program consisted of cryogenic tanking tests and short- and long duration static firings including gimbaling and throttling. The test program was conducted on the S1-C test stand (Position B-2) at the National Space Technology Laboratories (NSTL)/Stennis Space Center. 3 tanking tests and 20 hot fire tests conducted between December 21 1 1977 and December 17, 1980 Configuration: The main propulsion test article consisted of the three space shuttle main engines, flightweight external tank, flightweight aft fuselage, interface section and a boilerplate mid/fwd fuselage truss structure.

Snoddy, Cynthia

2010-01-01

177

A Literary Map of Maine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sure, you might know that Longfellow was a member of the literati who called Maine home, but did you know that Robert McCloskey was one as well? In case you might have forgotten, McCloskey was the author and illustrator of those children's classics "Make Way for Ducklings" and "Blueberries for Sal". It's easy to learn about dozens of Maine authors via this delightful website created as part of a partnership between the Maine Sunday Telegram and a number of library and humanities groups in Maine. Currently, the map features over 50 sites, and visitors can browse around at their leisure to learn about authors like Longfellow, Stephen King, and Richard Russo. Clicking on each site will pull up a brief excerpt of each author's work, along with a brief bio.

178

Humboldt River main stem, Nevada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This data set contains the main stem of the Humboldt River as defined by Humboldt Project personnel of the U.S. Geological Survey Nevada District, 2001. The data set was digitized on screen using digital orthophoto quadrangles from 1994.

Warmath, Eric; Medina, Rose L.

2001-01-01

179

Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience  

E-print Network

1 23 Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience ISSN 1530-7026 Volume 13 Number 1 Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci (2013) 13:46-59 DOI 10.3758/s13415-012-0128-4 Affective value and associative processing

Barrett, Lisa Feldman

180

Maine`s electric revenue adjustment mechanism: Why it fizzled  

SciTech Connect

Though entered into with broad support and good intentions, the Maine experiment in decoupling revenues from sales came undone in the face of poor regional economic conditions and mild weather. Any new approach to decoupling should be designed to endure these unexpected outcomes.

Hudson, L.; Seguino, S.; Townsend, R.E.

1995-10-01

181

Remember the MaineRx.  

PubMed

In 2000, Maine became the first state in the US to enact a law to establish maximum retail prices for prescription drugs for all qualified state residents-MaineRx. The purpose was to lower prescription drug prices for all eligible residents of the state. The state was to have the ability to negotiate manufacturer rebates and pharmacy discounts. Major drug manufacturers, represented by the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America, challenged MaineRx in the courts, going to the Supreme Court where it was upheld in 2003. Fifteen other states enacted, proposed, or filed price-control bills in their state legislatures. The result would have been downward pressure on prices outside of the public programs, and the first instance of state-sponsored monopsony power in the US. MaineRx is viewed as one of the proximate causes of the pharmaceutical industry's successful lobbying effort to implement Medicare Part D in 2004. Medicare Part D is administered through private Pharmacy Benefit Managers (PBMs); it made administration via state government PBMs illegal. The lower prices that could have resulted from MaineRx-type laws did not occur and the magnitude of these reductions is commented upon. PMID:24420789

Kemp, Robert

2014-02-01

182

Study on basalt fiber parameters affecting fiber-reinforced mortar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article considers the effect of different dosages and diameters of basalt fibers on tensile strength increase during bending of fiberboard-reinforced mortar samples. The optimal dosages of fiber, providing maximum strength in bending are revealed. The durability of basalt fiber in an environment of cement, by means of microscopic analysis of samples of fibers and fiberboard-reinforced mortar long-term tests is examined. The article also compares the behavior of basalt fiber in the cement stone environment to a glass one and reveals that the basalt fiber is not subject to destruction.

Orlov, A. A.; Chernykh, T. N.; Sashina, A. V.; Bogusevich, D. V.

2015-01-01

183

Parameters affecting electrostatic cooling. [high voltage convective cooling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A high voltage electrostatic field is discussed which enhances the rate of normal convective cooling. This cooling rate is a function of starting temperature and voltage applied, and an inverse function of atmospheric pressure or the heat capacity of the surrounding media. It appears that the cooling rate is also a function of current flow; however, additional work is needed to separate other variables from the effect of current flow. The maximum increase in heat loss over the normal convective cooling was approximately 0.167 C/sec (0.3 F/sec) at 316 C (600 F) and 20,000 V. From the data taken it is assumed that the addeded rate of cooling would be increased with higher temperatures and higher voltages. It appears that a high voltage field disrupts the molecular layer of air surrounding a hot body and increases the rate of convective cooling.

Demorest, K. E.; Gause, R. L.

1976-01-01

184

[Affective disorders and personality disorders].  

PubMed

Coexistence in an individual of an affective disorder and a personality disorder is very common and there is an abundant literature on it. Articles are numerous and heterogeneous ; the results are sometimes imprecise or discordant. Some data are, despite these reserves, shared by the scientific community. The main consensus is first on a bad prognosis, with a high rate of all DSM axes comorbidities, secondly on the trap of a same phenomenology for different underlying mechanisms. A review is presented. PMID:25550233

Maurel, M; Adida, M; Belzeaux, R; Cermolacce, M; Azorin, J-M

2014-12-01

185

Map showing of UT's Main,  

E-print Network

$ $ Map showing locations of UT's Main, Scott Park, and Health Science Campuses Student Parking HEALTH SCIENCE CAMPUS GLENDALE BANCROFT NEBRASKA DETROIT FERI A NG BUILDING DIRECTORY AC Scott Park..........................................WBReceiving..........................................WB Minority Business Development Ctr....FAMinority Business Development Ctr....FA NorthwestNorthwest State

Viola, Ronald

186

South Columbia Street (Main Hospital)  

E-print Network

Dental School Bridge A Bridge B East Parking Circle Deck Jackson Building Office Physicians NC Cancer South Columbia Street wood Dri P Drive Drive West ve (Main Hospital) Old Tarrson Brauer Dental Research Hospital BridgeC Em ergency R oom D rive UNC Hospitals Visitor Maps for the University of North Carolina

Whitton, Mary C.

187

South Columbia Street (Main Hospital)  

E-print Network

Research Dental School Bridge A Bridge B East Parking Circle Deck Jackson Building Office Physicians NC South Columbia Street wood Dri Pit D rive Drive West ve (Main Hospital) Old Tarrson Brauer Dental Cancer Hospital BridgeC Em ergency R oom D rive UNC Hospitals Visitor Maps for the University of North

Whitton, Mary C.

188

Main Street in Iowa History.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This theme issue of "The Goldfinch" focuses on the main streets in Iowa's past. Residential and business patterns are discussed with an analysis of successes and failures. Efforts of young Iowans involved in preservation of a historic town square in their community are described. Activities, fiction selections, and nonfictional accounts of present

Ruth, Amy, Ed.

1997-01-01

189

Strategic petroleum reserves in Maine  

Microsoft Academic Search

An evaluation was made to determine if the State of Maine should develop a State petroleum storage reserve to protect its economic and social vitality against future petroleum shortages. The requirements for residual oil are delineated and alternate storage options are described. The adequacy of the National Strategic Petroleum Reserve Program (S.P.R.) as a tool for alleviating shortfalls of residual

Tibbetts

1977-01-01

190

Library Site Finder MAIN LIBRARY  

E-print Network

Library Site Finder MAIN LIBRARY Burlington Street Tel: 0161 275 3751 THE ALAN GILBERT LEARNING COMMONS Oxford Road Tel: 0161 306 4306 ART & ARCHAEOLOGY LIBRARY Mansfield Cooper Building Tel: 0161 275 3657 BRADDICK LIBRARY School of Physics & Astronomy Brunswick Street Tel: 0161 275 4078 EDDIE DAVIES

Sidorov, Nikita

191

Main Campus Raleigh-Durham  

E-print Network

EGRC and Constructed Facilities Lab) Textiles ComplexCapability Dr. Bell Tower Stinson Dr. N NCSU North (Main) Campus for Advanced Electronic Materials Processing · Microelectronics Systems Lab · Multimedia Laboratory · Power of Textiles Complex · Textile Engr., Chemistry, and Sci. · Biomedical Engineering (partial) #12;#12;Directions

Velev, Orlin D.

192

Gulf of Maine Research Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Teaching about aquatic environments, serving as neutral conveners, and facilitating marine research is the mission of the Gulf of Maine Research Institute. Features hundreds of web pages with information and classroom activities covering: oceans, human impact, weather, satellite imagery, remote sensing, Antarctica, global climate change, lobsters, turtles, marine, freshwater issues and more. The project of building the new aquarium at Portland is specially considered.

193

MAINE CONTOUR LINES 60 FEET  

EPA Science Inventory

MECON60 contains contours at 60 foot intervals for the entire state of Maine as generated from USGS 1:250,000 scale digital elevation models using ARC/INFO software. Arcs are coded by elevation. Due to the nature of the source data, the positional accuracy of these contour line...

194

Numerical analysis of the three-dimensional flow in the main injector assembly of the Space Shuttle Main Engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Main Injector Assembly of the Space Shuttle Main Engine supplies the propellants to the Main Combustion Chamber through a large number of vertical injector elements. The gas flow around these elements (LOX posts) is three-dimensional, turbulent and compressible. This paper presents the results of numerical modeling of the hot and cool sections of the Main Injector Assembly and shows that the shields on the outermost row of injector elements affect the flow and the pressure drop in the hot section significantly. It is suggested that appropriate experiments are undertaken to verify the predictions.

Mukerjee, T.; Przkewas, A. J.; Holland, R. S.; Costes, N. C.

1986-01-01

195

Affect analysis of text using fuzzy semantic typing  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a convenient fusion of natural-language processing and fuzzy logic techniques for analyzing affect content in free text; our main goals are fast analysis and visualization of affect content for decision-making. The primary linguistic resource for fuzzy semantic typing is the fuzzy affect lexicon, from which other important resources are generated, notably the fuzzy thesaurus and affect category groups.

Pero Subasic; Alison Huettner

2000-01-01

196

Estimating ice-affected streamflow by extended Kalman filtering  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An extended Kalman filter was developed to automate the real-time estimation of ice-affected streamflow on the basis of routine measurements of stream stage and air temperature and on the relation between stage and streamflow during open-water (ice-free) conditions. The filter accommodates three dynamic modes of ice effects: sudden formation/ablation, stable ice conditions, and eventual elimination. The utility of the filter was evaluated by applying it to historical data from two long-term streamflow-gauging stations, St. John River at Dickey, Maine and Platte River at North Bend, Nebr. Results indicate that the filter was stable and that parameters converged for both stations, producing streamflow estimates that are highly correlated with published values. For the Maine station, logarithms of estimated streamflows are within 8% of the logarithms of published values 87.2% of the time during periods of ice effects and within 15% 96.6% of the time. Similarly, for the Nebraska station, logarithms of estimated streamflows are within 8% of the logarithms of published values 90.7% of the time and within 15% 97.7% of the time. In addition, the correlation between temporal updates and published streamflows on days of direct measurements at the Maine station was 0.777 and 0.998 for ice-affected and open-water periods, respectively; for the Nebraska station, corresponding correlations were 0.864 and 0.997.

Holtschlag, D.J.; Grewal, M.S.

1998-01-01

197

Community structure affects behavior.  

PubMed

AID's prevention efforts can benefit from taking into account 5 main aspects (KEPRA) of community structure identified by anthropologists: 1) kinship patterns, 2) economics, 3) politics, 4) religion, and 5) associations. For example, in Uganda among the Basoga and paternal aunt or senga is responsible for female sex education. Such culturally determined patterns need to be targeted in order to enhance education and effectiveness. Economics can reflect differing systems of family support through sexual means. The example given involves a poor family with a teenager in Thailand who exchanges a water buffalo or basic necessity for this daughter's prostitution. Politics must be considered because every society identifies people who have the power to persuade, influence, exchange resources, coerce, or in some way get people to do what is wanted. Utilizing these resources whether its ministers of health, factory owners, or peers is exemplified in the Monterey, Mexico factor floor supervisor and canteen worker introducing to workers the hows and whys of a new AID's education program. His peer status will command more respect than the director with direct authority. Religious beliefs have explanations for causes of sickness or disease, or provide instruction in sex practices. The example given is of a health workers in Uganda discussing AIDS with rural women by saying that we all know that disease and deaths are caused by spells. "But not AIDS - slim. AIDS is different." Associations can help provide educational, economic, and emotional assistance to the AID's effort or families affected. PMID:12316890

Jaenson, C

1991-06-01

198

Overview: Main Fundamentals for Steganography  

E-print Network

The rapid development of multimedia and internet allows for wide distribution of digital media data. It becomes much easier to edit, modify and duplicate digital information .Besides that, digital documents are also easy to copy and distribute, therefore it will be faced by many threats. It is a big security and privacy issue, it become necessary to find appropriate protection because of the significance, accuracy and sensitivity of the information. Steganography considers one of the techniques which used to protect the important information. The main goals for this paper, to recognize the researchers for the main fundamentals of steganography. In this paper provides a general overview of the following subject areas: Steganography types, General Steganography system, Characterization of Steganography Systems and Classification of Steganography Techniques.

AL-Ani, Zaidoon Kh; Zaidan, B B; Alanazi, Hamdan O

2010-01-01

199

Surficial Geologic Map of Maine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students become familiar with the nature and use of the Surficial Geologic Map of Maine and gain practice in using maps other than topographic maps. They will discover that surficial geology deals primarily with the geologically youthful, unconsolidated sedimentary materials that exist at, or close to the surface of a specific area and are important because the surface deposits filter and control the access of water to the water table. Students also learn that the study of surficial geology is important for siting of waste disposal facilities and for resources such as sand, gravel, and clay. Although this activity was written for a map of Maine, it will work in any state where surficial geological maps are available.

200

Heavy hydrocarbon main injector technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the key components of the Advanced Launch System (ALS) is a large liquid rocket, booster engine. To keep the overall vehicle size and cost down, this engine will probably use liquid oxygen (LOX) and a heavy hydrocarbon, such as RP-1, as propellants and operate at relatively high chamber pressures to increase overall performance. A technology program (Heavy Hydrocarbon Main Injector Technology) is being studied. The main objective of this effort is to develop a logic plan and supporting experimental data base to reduce the risk of developing a large scale (approximately 750,000 lb thrust), high performance main injector system. The overall approach and program plan, from initial analyses to large scale, two dimensional combustor design and test, and the current status of the program are discussed. Progress includes performance and stability analyses, cold flow tests of injector model, design and fabrication of subscale injectors and calorimeter combustors for performance, heat transfer, and dynamic stability tests, and preparation of hot fire test plans. Related, current, high pressure, LOX/RP-1 injector technology efforts are also briefly discussed.

Fisher, S. C.; Arbit, H. A.

1988-01-01

201

Dynamic Artificial Neural Networks with Affective Systems  

PubMed Central

Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are processors that are trained to perform particular tasks. We couple a computational ANN with a simulated affective system in order to explore the interaction between the two. In particular, we design a simple affective system that adjusts the threshold values in the neurons of our ANN. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate that this simple affective system can control the firing rate of the ensemble of neurons in the ANN, as well as to explore the coupling between the affective system and the processes of long term potentiation (LTP) and long term depression (LTD), and the effect of the parameters of the affective system on its performance. We apply our networks with affective systems to a simple pole balancing example and briefly discuss the effect of affective systems on network performance. PMID:24303015

Schuman, Catherine D.; Birdwell, J. Douglas

2013-01-01

202

78 FR 70545 - KEI (Maine) Power Management (I) LLC, KEI (Maine) Power Management (II) LLC, KEI (Maine) Power...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...11472-060, 11132-028, 11482-030, 4202-023, 3562-024] KEI (Maine) Power Management (I) LLC, KEI (Maine) Power Management (II) LLC, KEI (Maine) Power Management (III) LLC, KEI (Maine) Power Management (IV)...

2013-11-26

203

I-WARP: Individual Water Main Renewal Planner  

Microsoft Academic Search

I-WARP is based upon a nonhomogeneous Poisson approach to model breakage rates in individual water mains. The structural deterioration of water mains and their subsequent failure are affected by many factors, both static (e.g., pipe material, pipe size, age (vintage), soil type) and dynamic (e.g., climate, cathodic protection, pressure zone changes). I-WARP allows for the consideration of both static and

Yehuda Kleiner; Balvant Rajani

204

Ephemerides of the main Uranian satellites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new model of motions of the five main Uranian satellites is developed. The model is based on all published observations made since the dates of the satellites' discoveries until 2008. The corresponding periods are 220 yr for Titania and Oberon, 160 yr for Ariel and Umbriel and 60 yr for Miranda. To fit the parameters of the satellites' motion, 30 139 observations were used, including those made by the Voyager 2 spacecraft as well as astrometric results of the photometric observations of mutual occultations and eclipses of the main Uranian satellites in 2007-2008. The model is elaborated by the numerical integration of equations of motions of the satellites where all necessary perturbating factors were taken into consideration. Basing on the model, new ephemerides of the main Uranian satellites were generated for the period from 1787 to 2031. The ephemerides are put to the MULTI-SAT ephemeris server. The root-mean-square residual of observed topocentric positions of the satellites and their ephemeris positions is 0.43 arcsec. Taking into account the weighting factors of the observations, this value is 0.12 arcsec. An attempt is also made to define from observations the parameters of the mechanical energy dissipation of the satellites' motion. The dissipation can be caused by both tides in the planet and by the tides in the satellites' bodies. Approximate values of the quadratic terms in the orbital longitudes are obtained. These values are equal to -(0.64 0.11) 10-11 d-2 for Ariel, -(0.08 0.24) 10-11 d-2 for Umbriel, -(0.29 0.09) 10-11 d-2 for Titania, -(0.32 0.07) 10-11 d-2 for Oberon and -(7.56 1.15) 10-11 d-2 for Miranda. The obtained parameters reveal deceleration in the orbital motion of the satellites, which results from the influence of the tides raised on the interior of Uranus that is rotating faster than the satellites.

Emelyanov, N. V.; Nikonchuk, D. V.

2013-12-01

205

Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience  

E-print Network

1 23 Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience ISSN 1530-7026 Volume 13 Number 4 Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci (2013) 13:757-770 DOI 10.3758/s13415-013-0172-8 The interplay of attention and emotion

Larson, Christine L.

206

Seasonal affective disorder  

MedlinePLUS

Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is a type of depression that occurs at a certain time of the year, usually ... American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. Byrne B, Brainard GC. Seasonal affective disorder and light therapy. Sleep Med Clin . 2008;3: ...

207

Sensitivity analysis of submerged arc welding process parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selection of process parameters has great influence on the quality of a welded connection. Mathematical modelling can be utilized in the optimization and control procedure of parameters. Rather than the well-known effects of main process parameters, this study focuses on the sensitivity analysis of parameters and fine tuning requirements of the parameters for optimum weld bead geometry. Changeable process parameters

Serdar Karao?lu; Abdullah Segin

2008-01-01

208

Bald Mountain, Washington Plantation, Maine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This guide provides information on the geology of Bald Mountain, an outstanding example of an unvegetated mountain summit in western Maine. Topics include the petrology of the metamorphic rocks exposed on the mountain (layered quartzite and schist), which preserve evidence of their sedimentary origin (graded bedding, cross-bedding). There is also information on the glacial history of the area, as indicated by the presence of glacial striations and erratics. For visitors, there is information on permission and access, directions, sampling information, and activities. References are included.

209

Quantification of Affective Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A need for measurement exists not only in academic events but also in the affective domain. The author presents a procedure for quantification of affective behavior. The procedure contains three stages. One is the conceptualization stage in which personal meanings of elements in the affective domain are examined. Another is the crucial

Radocy, Rudolf E.

210

Affective Learning A Manifesto  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of the computer as a model, metaphor, and modelling tool has tended to privilege the 'cognitive' over the 'affective' by engendering theories in which thinking and learning are viewed as information processing and affect is ignored or marginalised. In the last decade there has been an accelerated flow of findings in multiple disciplines supporting a view of affect

R W Picard; S Papert; W Bender; B Blumberg; C Breazeal; D Cavallo; T Machover; M Resnick; D Roy; C Strohecker

2004-01-01

211

Affecting qualitative health psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The affective turn is a contemporary movement within the humanities, social science, and psychology to investigate affect, emotion, and feeling as hybrid phenomena jointly constituted from both biological and social influences. Health and illness are themselves jointly constituted in this way, and many of the topics, concerns, and methods of health psychology are strongly permeated by affective phenomena. Qualitative research

John Cromby

2011-01-01

212

Enzootic Babesia microti in Maine.  

PubMed

Human babesiosis in the northeastern United States caused by Babesia microti (Apicomplexa: Piroplasmida) is mainly reported from coastal New England sites, where deer ticks (Ixodes dammini) are common. However, the piroplasm has been detected in microtine rodents elsewhere in association with I. angustus or other nidicolous ticks, suggesting that the agent is widely distributed but zoonotically significant only where a human-biting "bridge" vector is present. To determine whether this piroplasm may be enzootic in areas where I. dammini is absent, we surveyed small mammals collected from 2 sites in Maine, where I. angustus or I. muris is common but I. dammini is not. Of 43 chipmunks, voles, deer mice, and shrews examined, 3 (6.9, 95% confidence interval 0 to 14.5) were parasitemic, as determined by blood smear or polymerase chain reaction targeting a piroplasm-specific portion of the 18S ribosomal DNA gene. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequenced amplification products demonstrates the presence of 2 forms of B. microti. We conclude that B. microti may be enzootic in the absence of I. dammini but that human risk relates to dense infestations of this human-biting tick. PMID:14627162

Goethert, H K; Lubelcyzk, C; LaCombe, E; Holman, M; Rand, P; Smith, R P; Telford, S R

2003-10-01

213

STATISTICAL METHOD TO IDENTIFY KEY ANTHROPOMETRIC PARAMETERS IN HRTF INDIVIDUALIZATION  

E-print Network

STATISTICAL METHOD TO IDENTIFY KEY ANTHROPOMETRIC PARAMETERS IN HRTF INDIVIDUALIZATION M. Zhang, R, Australia ABSTRACT This paper identifies the main anthropometric parameters which strongly influence information, along with all anthropometric parameters, is intro- duced in the multiple linear regression

Zhang, Wen

214

Jupiter's Main Ring/Ring Halo  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A mosaic of four images taken through the clear filter (610 nanometers) of the solid state imaging (CCD) system aboard NASA's Galileo spacecraft on November 8, 1996, at a resolution of approximately 46 kilometers (28.5 miles) per picture element (pixel) along Jupiter's rings. Because the spacecraft was only about 0.5 degrees above the ring plane, the image is highly foreshortened in the vertical direction. The images were obtained when Galileo was in Jupiter's shadow, peering back toward the Sun; the ring was approximately 2.3 million kilometers (1.4 million miles) away. The arc on the far right of the image is produced when sunlight is scattered by small particles comprising Jupiter's upper atmospheric haze. The ring also efficiently scatters light, indicating that much of its brightness is due to particles that are microns or less in diameter. Such small particles are believed to have human-scale lifetimes, i.e., very brief compared to the solar system's age.

Jupiter's ring system is composed of three parts - - a flat main ring, a lenticular halo interior to the main ring, and the gossamer ring, outside the main ring. The near and far arms of Jupiter's main ring extend horizontally across the mosaic, joining together at the ring's ansa, on the figure's far left side. The near arm of the ring appears to be abruptly truncated close to the planet, at the point where it passes into Jupiter's shadow. Some radial structure is barely visible across the ring's ansa (top image). A faint mist of particles can be seen above and below the main rings. This vertically extended 'halo' is unusual in planetary rings, and is probably caused by electromagnetic forces pushing the smallest grains out of the ring plane. Because of shadowing, the halo is not visible close to Jupiter in the lower right part of the mosaic. To accentuate faint features in the bottom image of the ring halo, different brightnesses are shown through color. Brightest features are white or yellow and the faintest are purple.

Jupiter's main ring is a thin strand of material encircling the planet. The diffuse innermost boundary begins at approximately 123,000 kilometers (76,429 miles). The main ring's outer radius is found to be at 128,940 kilometers (80,119 miles) +/-50 kilometers (31 miles), slightly less than the Voyager value of 129,130 kilometers (80,237 miles) +/-100 kilometers (62 miles), but very close to the orbit of the satellite Adrastea (128,980 kilometers or 80,144 miles). The main ring exhibits a marked drop in brightness at 127,849 kilometers (79,441 miles) +/-50 kilometers (31 miles), lying almost atop the orbit of the Jovian moon Metis at 127,978 kilometers (79,521 miles). Satellites seem to affect the structure of even tenuous rings like those found at Jupiter.

The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

1997-01-01

215

Flavor ofmaine 4 Maine Sardine Pizza  

E-print Network

Flavor of maine #12;Flavor ofmaine 4 Maine Sardine Pizza Maine Tomato Surprise French Toasted Sardine Sandwich 6 Sardines on a Roll Maine Sardine Olive Sandwich Sardine Skyscraper Sandwich 7 Maine Sardine Submarine Sandwich Mustard Sauce 8 Bohemian Salad Marinade Maine Sardine Cole Slaw Cole Slaw

216

The Main Aeromonas Pathogenic Factors  

PubMed Central

The members of the Aeromonas genus are ubiquitous, water-borne bacteria. They have been isolated from marine waters, rivers, lakes, swamps, sediments, chlorine water, water distribution systems, drinking water and residual waters; different types of food, such as meat, fish, seafood, vegetables, and processed foods. Aeromonas strains are predominantly pathogenic to poikilothermic animals, and the mesophilic strains are emerging as important pathogens in humans, causing a variety of extraintestinal and systemic infections as well as gastrointestinal infections. The most commonly described disease caused by Aeromonas is the gastroenteritis; however, no adequate animal model is available to reproduce this illness caused by Aeromonas. The main pathogenic factors associated with Aeromonas are: surface polysaccharides (capsule, lipopolysaccharide, and glucan), S-layers, iron-binding systems, exotoxins and extracellular enzymes, secretion systems, fimbriae and other nonfilamentous adhesins, motility and flagella. PMID:23724321

Toms, J. M.

2012-01-01

217

Bedrock Geologic Map of Maine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students study a map of bedrock geology which describes the types of rocks that exist in a given area. It shows these rock units as well as their known and inferred contacts. Consideration is also given to folding, faulting, unconformities, and similar rock relationships. These features are often included in bedrock geology maps. Students study the legend and scale and become aware of the other information that is included on the map such as the stratigraphic column, list of formations, and inset map of metamorphic grade. Students then locate their city or town and draw a 40-mile diameter circle around it and identify all the symbols inside the circle and the age of the various rocks. Student question sheets are available at this site. Although this activity was written for a map of Maine, it will work in any state where geological maps are available.

218

Space Shuttle Main Engine performance analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For a number of years, NASA has relied primarily upon periodically updated versions of Rocketdyne's power balance model (PBM) to provide space shuttle main engine (SSME) steady-state performance prediction. A recent computational study indicated that PBM predictions do not satisfy fundamental energy conservation principles. More recently, SSME test results provided by the Technology Test Bed (TTB) program have indicated significant discrepancies between PBM flow and temperature predictions and TTB observations. Results of these investigations have diminished confidence in the predictions provided by PBM, and motivated the development of new computational tools for supporting SSME performance analysis. A multivariate least squares regression algorithm was developed and implemented during this effort in order to efficiently characterize TTB data. This procedure, called the 'gains model,' was used to approximate the variation of SSME performance parameters such as flow rate, pressure, temperature, speed, and assorted hardware characteristics in terms of six assumed independent influences. These six influences were engine power level, mixture ratio, fuel inlet pressure and temperature, and oxidizer inlet pressure and temperature. A BFGS optimization algorithm provided the base procedure for determining regression coefficients for both linear and full quadratic approximations of parameter variation. Statistical information relative to data deviation from regression derived relations was also computed. A new strategy for integrating test data with theoretical performance prediction was also investigated. The current integration procedure employed by PBM treats test data as pristine and adjusts hardware characteristics in a heuristic manner to achieve engine balance. Within PBM, this integration procedure is called 'data reduction.' By contrast, the new data integration procedure, termed 'reconciliation,' uses mathematical optimization techniques, and requires both measurement and balance uncertainty estimates. The reconciler attempts to select operational parameters that minimize the difference between theoretical prediction and observation. Selected values are further constrained to fall within measurement uncertainty limits and to satisfy fundamental physical relations (mass conservation, energy conservation, pressure drop relations, etc.) within uncertainty estimates for all SSME subsystems. The parameter selection problem described above is a traditional nonlinear programming problem. The reconciler employs a mixed penalty method to determine optimum values of SSME operating parameters associated with this problem formulation.

Santi, L. Michael

1993-01-01

219

Space Shuttle Main Engine performance analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For a number of years, NASA has relied primarily upon periodically updated versions of Rocketdyne's power balance model (PBM) to provide space shuttle main engine (SSME) steady-state performance prediction. A recent computational study indicated that PBM predictions do not satisfy fundamental energy conservation principles. More recently, SSME test results provided by the Technology Test Bed (TTB) program have indicated significant discrepancies between PBM flow and temperature predictions and TTB observations. Results of these investigations have diminished confidence in the predictions provided by PBM, and motivated the development of new computational tools for supporting SSME performance analysis. A multivariate least squares regression algorithm was developed and implemented during this effort in order to efficiently characterize TTB data. This procedure, called the 'gains model,' was used to approximate the variation of SSME performance parameters such as flow rate, pressure, temperature, speed, and assorted hardware characteristics in terms of six assumed independent influences. These six influences were engine power level, mixture ratio, fuel inlet pressure and temperature, and oxidizer inlet pressure and temperature. A BFGS optimization algorithm provided the base procedure for determining regression coefficients for both linear and full quadratic approximations of parameter variation. Statistical information relative to data deviation from regression derived relations was also computed. A new strategy for integrating test data with theoretical performance prediction was also investigated. The current integration procedure employed by PBM treats test data as pristine and adjusts hardware characteristics in a heuristic manner to achieve engine balance. Within PBM, this integration procedure is called 'data reduction.' By contrast, the new data integration procedure, termed 'reconciliation,' uses mathematical optimization techniques, and requires both measurement and balance uncertainty estimates. The reconciler attempts to select operational parameters that minimize the difference between theoretical prediction and observation. Selected values are further constrained to fall within measurement uncertainty limits and to satisfy fundamental physical relations (mass conservation, energy conservation, pressure drop relations, etc.) within uncertainty estimates for all SSME subsystems. The parameter selection problem described above is a traditional nonlinear programming problem. The reconciler employs a mixed penalty method to determine optimum values of SSME operating parameters associated with this problem formulation.

Santi, L. Michael

1993-11-01

220

75 FR 27863 - Savings Bank of Maine, MHC and Savings Bank of Maine, Gardiner, Maine; Approval of Conversion...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision [AC-38: OTS Nos. 06947 and H 4709] Savings Bank of Maine, MHC and Savings Bank of Maine, Gardiner, Maine; Approval of Conversion Application Notice is hereby given that on May 7, 2010, the...

2010-05-18

221

Antiproton Accumulator in the Main Injector era (2)  

SciTech Connect

By adding a single quadrupole per sextant in the Antiproton Accumulator it is possible to obtain a lattice well suited for higher bandwidth stochastic cooling systems such as those anticipated for the Main Injector era. The lattice proposed here has excellent properties concerning both the lattice functions and the stochastic cooling parameters.

Visnjic, V.

1992-12-01

222

Space Shuttle Main Engine real time stability analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) is a reusable, high performance, liquid rocket engine with variable thrust. The engine control system continuously monitors the engine parameters and issues propellant valve control signals in accordance with the thrust and mixture ratio commands. A real time engine simulation lab was installed at MSFC to verify flight software and to perform engine dynamic

F. Y. Kuo

1993-01-01

223

21 CFR 808.69 - Maine.  

... 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Maine. 808.69 Section 808.69 Food and Drugs...Specific State and Local Exemptions 808.69 Maine. (a) The following Maine medical device requirement is enforceable...

2014-04-01

224

78 FR 34701 - Maine Disaster #ME-00037  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Disaster Declaration 13594 and 13595] Maine Disaster ME-00037 AGENCY: U.S...declaration of a disaster for the State of Maine dated 05/30/2013. Incident: Commercial...Androscoggin. Contiguous Counties: Maine: Cumberland, Franklin, Kennebec,...

2013-06-10

225

21 CFR 808.69 - Maine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Maine. 808.69 Section 808.69 Food and Drugs...Specific State and Local Exemptions 808.69 Maine. (a) The following Maine medical device requirement is enforceable...

2012-04-01

226

21 CFR 808.69 - Maine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Maine. 808.69 Section 808.69 Food and Drugs...Specific State and Local Exemptions 808.69 Maine. (a) The following Maine medical device requirement is enforceable...

2013-04-01

227

75 FR 22167 - Maine Disaster #ME-00025  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Disaster Declaration 12126 and 12127] Maine Disaster ME-00025 AGENCY: U.S...declaration of a disaster for the State of MAINE dated 04/19/2010. Incident: Severe...Counties: York. Contiguous Counties: Maine: Cumberland, Oxford. New...

2010-04-27

228

21 CFR 808.69 - Maine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Maine. 808.69 Section 808.69 Food and Drugs...Specific State and Local Exemptions 808.69 Maine. (a) The following Maine medical device requirement is enforceable...

2011-04-01

229

78 FR 34701 - Maine Disaster #ME-00036  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Disaster Declaration 13592 and 13593] Maine Disaster ME-00036 AGENCY: U.S...declaration of a disaster for the State of Maine dated 05/30/2013. Incident: Apartment...Androscoggin. Contiguous Counties: Maine: Cumberland, Franklin, Kennebec,...

2013-06-10

230

21 CFR 808.69 - Maine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maine. 808.69 Section 808.69 Food and Drugs...Specific State and Local Exemptions 808.69 Maine. (a) The following Maine medical device requirement is enforceable...

2010-04-01

231

Tinkering at the main-ring lattice  

SciTech Connect

To improve production of usable antiprotons using the proton beam from the main ring and the lossless injection of cooled antiprotons into the main ring, modifications of the main ring lattice are recommended.

Ohnuma, S.

1982-08-23

232

[Experience with the treatment of combined open injuries to the upper extremities with affected main arteries].  

PubMed

The paper deals with the principles of management of combined mechanical injuries to the upper extremities with special reference to amputation of their segments based on the 3-year experience with the treatment of 1488 patients including 405 ones with traumatic amputations. Replantation of large and small segments was undertaken in 24 and 76% of the cases respectively. 43% of the patients underwent one-step traumatic amputation of two and more segments. Skin and soft tissue defects occurred in 111 patients including 27 with extensive lesions. 82.4% of the surgical interventions had the desired outcome. An example of successful replantation is described. The results are compared with the literature data. PMID:21395091

Asamov, P ; Minaev, T R; Akhmedov, R A; Iuldashev, A A; Nizov, O N; Khakimov, A B

2011-01-01

233

Towards Development of an Algorithm for Mains Water Temperature  

SciTech Connect

Mains water temperature (T{sub mains}) has significant influence on the energy consumption of water heating equipment. It is dominantly influenced by ambient temperature (T{sub amb}). Since T{sub amb} is roughly an annual sinusoid, T{sub mains} is assumed to be a sinusoid whose mean value varies directly with annual average temperature T{sub amb},{sub ann}. Model parameters are based on water system physics and include: (i) a constant offset from T{sub amb},{sub ann}; and (ii) amplitude and phase which vary linearly with T{sub amb},{sub ann}. Available T{sub mains} data indicate that the offset is {approx}6 oF, and that the amplitude is {approx}0.4{delta}T{sub amb} Uncertainties include: (i) data quality issues, including bias of T{sub mains} data from heat exchange with house air; (ii) inherent spatial variations in mains networks, and (iii) limited data sets. Future work includes acquiring quality data sets, testing the model in northern climates, and refining parameter estimates.

Burch, J.; Christensen, C.

2007-01-01

234

Arsenic on Main St., Unity ME  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Class description Analytical Chemistry syllabus (Microsoft Word 2007 (.docx) 42kB Feb8 10) Timeline Spring 2010 - Analytical Chemistry students implement the pilot project after learning to use the analytical equipment in a "standard" course context. Pilot Project - As a service to Unity College employees, students will analyze water samples brought in by faculty and staff using techniques learned during the semester. Students will collaborate to draft a letter describing the water quality (in terms of the measured parameters) including an recommendation that the water be analyzed at a certified laboratory. Student assessment of the project will be used to modify the database, suggest activities for the full blown event planned for the next year. Based on this work, I will ask a local NGO to "request" a similar event be held in town. As an alternate to a final exam, students will present the results of this work at the Unity College Student Conference during Finals week. Summer 2010 - I have applied for a faculty research grant to work with a student and examine water quality "downtown" (Unity has a total population of about 1500 residents). 2010-2011 - There are at least 2 possibilities: either a lab section of General Chemistry 2 or an upper-level topics class on Arsenic (my preference) will undertake planning for the "Water Days" event during Spring 2011. Projects on which students could work will include informational brochures, posters, and K12 lessons. The Water Days event will include invitations to local analytical chemical labs and water conditioning companies to set up information displays. The data solicited from those who submit samples will include: contact information, well depth, age, existing water conditioning capability, any current complaints. Research Rationale: In 1995, Caswell, Eichler & Hill, Inc. evaluated the "current state of the groundwater resources" in the downtown Unity, ME area for the Town of Unity (1). Analysis of the data available from 76 wells and springs in 3 aquifers (esker, marine sand, and bedrock) found 11 wells with arsenic concentrations ranging from 0.001 to 0.200 mg/L. Other water quality issues, notably hardness (22 wells), elevated iron concentrations (20 wells), and bacterial contamination (8 wells) were noted. This report seems to have generated little further investigation. Leaching of arsenic in aquifers from meta-sedimentary bedrock high in sulfides is well documented in Central Maine (7), though arsenic leached from unconsolidated aquifers also exists (8, for example). Arsenic in Eastern New England groundwater has been weakly correlated to elevated pH (8), which plausibly explains dissolved As IV, but less so As III, which is often associated with highly reduced conditions. The health hazards of arsenic are now well-known. Chronic exposure to low levels of arsenic in drinking water has been shown to cause multiple cancers, as well pigment changes and thickening of the skin on hands and feet (palmoplantar hyperkeratosis) (2). Chronic ingestion has also been linked to skin lesions, liver disease, cardiovascular disease, and a decrease in production of red and white blood cells due to bone marrow depression (2). Based on personal discussions with state officials, the health hazard most of concern in Maine is bladder cancer. Arsenic in ground water is an issue of national and international concern, and of particular importance in Maine, which has naturally occurring arsenic in groundwater and well water (3, 4). Currently the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences is funding a multilevel investigation of arsenic toxicity, mobilization and mitigation, including characterization of failed arsenic treatment systems in Central Maine (5). This project seeks to answer the following questions: Does water quality on Main St in Unity depend on the aquifer in which a resident's well is completed? A statistically sufficient number of wells in each aquifer will be analyzed for "normal" water quality parameters (pH, alkalinity, hardness, phosphate, chloride for example) and for arsenic. While this project does not focus on the health effects of arsenic, those are important considerations in the motivation of undergraduate students. The immediacy of working on the drinking water many students consume will also motivate undergraduate researchers as well as educate students and other residents about home water treatment systems. Caswell, Eichler, & Hill, 1995. The Current State of Groundwater Resources, Unity, ME. Report to the Town of Unity. The Department of Health and Human Services: Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry has a Arsenic Toxicological Profile Maine Geological Survey, 2005 Weldon, J.M. and MacRae, J. D. 2006, Correlations between arsenic in Maine groundwater and microbial populations as determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Chemosphere, Vol 63, N 3, 440-448 National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) Superfund basic research program. Dahr et al., 2004, A rapid colorimetric method for measuring arsenic concentrations in ground water, Analytica Chimica Acta, 526, 203-209. Welch, A.H., Westjohn, D.B., Helsel, D.R., and Wanty, R.B., 2000, Arsenic in ground water of the United States-- occurrence and geochemistry: Ground Water v.38 no.4, p.589-604. Ayotte, J. D., Montgomery, D. L., Flanagan, S. M., and Robinson, K. W. 2003. Arsenic in groundwater in Eastern New England: occurrence, controls, and human health implications. Eviron. Sci. Technol. Vol 37: 2075-2083.

Ongley, Lois

235

Changes Affecting Human Interaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contemporary changes in population patterns, power structures, civil rights, and role adaptations, are affecting human interactions and self-concepts. These social changes call for a re-vamped educational system capable of contributing to a genuine community education. (JH)

Dodson, Dan W.

1970-01-01

236

Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD)  

MedlinePLUS

... and winter, when there is less exposure to sunlight during the day. Depression symptoms can be mild ... by shorter daylight hours and a lack of sunlight in winter. Just as sunlight affects the seasonal ...

237

The Maine Coastal Current: Spring Climatological Circulation  

E-print Network

The Maine Coastal Current: Spring Climatological Circulation Daniel R. Lynch, Monica J. Holboke in the Gulf of Maine, with special emphasis on its coastal current in the periods March­April and May of Maine cyclonic circulation is persistent, with significant bimonthly modulation of key Maine Coastal

238

Implementation techniques for main memory database systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the availability of very large, relatively inexpensive main memories, it is becoming possible keep large databases resident in main memory In this paper we consider the changes necessary to permit a relational database system to take advantage of large amounts of main memory We evaluate AVL vs B+-tree access methods for main memory databases, hash-based query processing strategies vs

David J DeWitt; Randy H Katz; Frank Olken; Leonard D Shapiro; Michael R Stonebraker; David A. Wood

1984-01-01

239

Wave Climatology in Coastal Maine for Aquaculture and Other Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wind waves represent a significant hydrodynamic factor affecting many oceanographic studies such as sediment transport, design\\u000a of structures, etc. In coastal Maine, wave information is needed, among other applications, for aquaculture-related activities.\\u000a As few data sources exist, a question that confronts scientists pertains to the magnitudes of typical and extreme wave conditions\\u000a at various times. To address this, numerical modeling

Vijay G. Panchang; Chankwon Jeong; Dongcheng Li

2008-01-01

240

Weather affects us  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

2nd grade weather unit. The students will learn how weather affects us in our daily lives Read and view the video on meteorologists Kid Meteorologist Learn about clouds - watch S'cool Clouds All About Clouds Do scholastic: weather watch and game Weather Read winter storms Interactive Weather Web Pages Read a reason for the season A Reason for the Season Read about precipitation Precipitation Read and view video on flooding Flood: Farming and Erosion Read about air pressure It's a Breeze: How Air Pressure Affects You Read about Hurricanes Hurricanes Do the activities and read ...

Kimmy

2009-11-09

241

Seasonal Affective Disorder  

PubMed Central

Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is a recently described mood disorder characterized by recurrent winter depressive episodes and summer remissions. The symptoms of SAD include DSM III-R criteria for recurrent major depression, but atypical depressive symptoms predominate with hypersomnia, hyperphagia and carbohydrate craving, and anergia. Seasonal affective disorder is effectively treated by exposure to bright light (phototherapy or light therapy), a novel antidepressant treatment. The authors review the syndrome of SAD, hypotheses about its pathophysiology, and the use of phototherapy to treat the disorder. PMID:21233986

Lam, Raymond W.; Fleming, Jonathan A.E.; Buchanan, Alan; Remick, Ronald A.

1990-01-01

242

Structural dynamic analysis of the Space Shuttle Main Engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This structural dynamic analysis supports development of the SSME by evaluating components subjected to critical dynamic loads, identifying significant parameters, and evaluating solution methods. Engine operating parameters at both rated and full power levels are considered. Detailed structural dynamic analyses of operationally critical and life limited components support the assessment of engine design modifications and environmental changes. Engine system test results are utilized to verify analytic model simulations. The SSME main chamber injector assembly is an assembly of 600 injector elements which are called LOX posts. The overall LOX post analysis procedure is shown.

Scott, L. P.; Jamison, G. T.; Mccutcheon, W. A.; Price, J. M.

1981-01-01

243

75 FR 39993 - MAINE Disaster #ME-00026  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12222 and 12223] MAINE Disaster ME-00026 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration...a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the State of MAINE (FEMA-- 1920--DR), dated 07/01/2010....

2010-07-13

244

75 FR 17792 - Maine Disaster # ME-00024  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12091 and 12092] Maine Disaster ME-00024 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration...a major disaster for Public Assistance only for the State of Maine (FEMA-1891- DR), dated 03/25/2010. Incident:...

2010-04-07

245

78 FR 20370 - Maine Disaster # ME-00035  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 13525 and 13526] Maine Disaster ME-00035 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration...a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the State of Maine (FEMA-4108- DR), dated 03/25/2013. Incident:...

2013-04-04

246

76 FR 7622 - Maine Disaster # ME-00028  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12461 and 12462] Maine Disaster ME-00028 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration...a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the State of Maine (FEMA-1953- DR), dated 02/01/2011. Incident:...

2011-02-10

247

40 CFR 81.320 - Maine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section...otherwise noted. MaineOzone (1-Hour Standard)4 Designated...2001. 4 The 1-hour ozone standard is revoked...noted. Maine1997 8-Hour Ozone NAAQS (Primary and...

2013-07-01

248

40 CFR 81.320 - Maine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section...otherwise noted. MaineOzone (1-Hour Standard)4 Designated...2001. 4 The 1-hour ozone standard is revoked... X AQCR 111 X MaineOzone (8-Hour Standard)...

2010-07-01

249

40 CFR 81.320 - Maine.  

... DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section...otherwise noted. MaineOzone (1-Hour Standard)4 Designated...2001. 4 The 1-hour ozone standard is revoked...noted. Maine1997 8-Hour Ozone NAAQS (Primary and...

2014-07-01

250

Space Shuttle Main Engine Flies High  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Space Shuttle Main Engine is being lowered onto its handler before its journey to the test complex at Stennis Space Center. This building is where partially assembled Space Shuttle Main Engines are received and prepared for testing.

1996-01-01

251

Main-sequence mass loss and the lithium dip  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The significant dip in observed lithium abundances for Population I stars near M about 1.3 solar mass is discussed. It is noted that this dip occurs near where the instability strip crosses the main sequence on the lower edge of the Delta Scuti stars and that stellar pulsations are expected to give rise to mass loss. A total mass loss of 0.05 solar mass over the main-sequence lifetime of these stars would be sufficient to explain the observations of lithium depletion. The absence of a dip in the Pleiades and of significant depletion of beryllium in the Hyades places tight constraints on the rate of mass loss. These constraints make unlikely the high main-sequence mass-loss rates which would significantly affect globular cluster ages.

Schramm, David N.; Steigman, Gary; Dearborn, David S. P.

1990-01-01

252

Individual Differences in Affect.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper argues that infants' affect patterns are innate and are meaningful indicators of individual differences in internal state. Videotapes of seven infants' faces were coded using an ethogram; the movement of the eyebrow, eye direction, eye openness, mouth shape, mouth position, lip position, and tongue protrusion were assessed

Haviland, Jeannette

253

How Fire Affects Wildlife  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is part of Planet Diary and is an online exploration on how wildfires affect animals and plants. Students each investigate one animal and one plant to see how well certain organisms have adapted to fire, and then compare survival strategies. This page is accompanied by a page of website links for further information.

254

What Variables Affect Solubility?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Helps middle school students understand the concept of solubility through hands-on experience with a variety of liquids and solids. As they explore factors that affect solubility and saturation, students gain content mastery and an understanding of the inquiry process. Also enables teachers to authentically assess student performance on several

Baker, William P.; Leyva, Kathryn

2003-01-01

255

Factors Affecting Photosynthesis!  

E-print Network

Factors Affecting Photosynthesis! Temperature Eppley (1972) Light Sverdrup's Critical Depth-493, but the general concept is still valid! ! #12;PB opt & Temperature! #12;Photosynthesis & Temperature! Remember: in the laboratory, we can measure photosynthesis versus irradiance (PvsE) and calculate Ek, Pmax, and alpha

Kudela, Raphael M.

256

Seasonal Affective Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seasonal affective disorder is a depressive disorder that afflicts millions worldwide. Although the etiology is unknown, current treatments, including alternative and complementary therapies, provide relief for those suffering from the disorder. As clinical investigation continues, the Internet can be a valuable resource for health care providers and consumers.

Nancy K. Mann

2004-01-01

257

In Maine, Postsecondary Success Starts before College  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 2008 report from the Joint Standing Committee on Education and Culture Affairs of the Maine Legislature indicates a quarter of those who enrolled at a public university in Maine required a remedial course to catch them up to the level where they should have been when they completed high school. Regardless of how hard Maine has tried and how much

LePage, Paul R.

2011-01-01

258

40 CFR 81.320 - Maine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Maine. 81.320 Section 81.320 Protection of Environment...Section 107 Attainment Status Designations 81.320 Maine. MaineTSP Designated areas Does not meet primary...

2012-07-01

259

40 CFR 81.320 - Maine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maine. 81.320 Section 81.320 Protection of Environment...Section 107 Attainment Status Designations 81.320 Maine. MaineTSP Designated areas Does not meet primary...

2011-07-01

260

University of Maine Office of Human Resources  

E-print Network

University of Maine Office of Human Resources EMPLOYEE AUTHORIZATION for the University of Maine Office of Human Resources to Disclose the Identity of Spouse/Domestic Partner to the New Balance Student of Human Resources ("OHR") at the University of Maine to disclose to the New Balance Student Recreation

Thomas, Andrew

261

AMERICAN LOBSTERS TAGGED BY MAINE COMMERCIAL FISHERMEN,  

E-print Network

AMERICAN LOBSTERS TAGGED BY MAINE COMMERCIAL FISHERMEN, 1957-59 In 1957 at the suggestion of C. Owen Smith, then editor of the "Maine Coast Fisherman," several commercial lobster fishermen volunteered to tag illegal American lobster, Homarus ameri- canus, with tags furnished by the Maine Depart

262

MAINE BEDROCK SOURCE WATER PROTECTION AREAS  

EPA Science Inventory

Bedrocksqpa_region_pws is a REGIONS SDE layer of bedrock source water protection areas in Maine with a high, moderate, or low probability of contributing water to community public water supplies. The Maine Drinking Water Program (MEDWP), in cooperation with the Maine Geological S...

263

Parameters Optimization for Operational Storm Surge/Tide Forecast Model using a Genetic Algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Typhoons generated in northwestern Pacific Ocean annually affect the Korean Peninsula and storm surges generated by strong low pressure and sea winds often cause serious damage to property in the coastal region. To predict storm surges, a lot of researches have been conducted by using numerical models for many years. Various parameters used for calculation of physics process are used in numerical models based on laws of physics, but they are not accurate values. Because those parameters affect to the model performance, these uncertain values can sensitively operate results of the model. Therefore, optimization of these parameters used in numerical model is essential for accurate storm surge predictions. A genetic algorithm (GA) is recently used to estimate optimized values of these parameters. The GA is a stochastic exploration modeling natural phenomenon named genetic heritance and competition for survival. To realize breeding of species and selection, the groups which may be harmed are kept and use genetic operators such as inheritance, mutation, selection and crossover. In this study, we have improved operational storm surge/tide forecast model(STORM) of NIMR/KMA (National Institute of Meteorological Research/Korea Meteorological Administration) that covers 115E - 150E, 20N - 52N based on POM (Princeton Ocean Model) with 8km horizontal resolutions using the GA. Optimized values have been estimated about main 4 parameters which are bottom drag coefficient, background horizontal diffusivity coefficient, Smagoranskis horizontal viscosity coefficient and sea level pressure scaling coefficient within STORM. These optimized parameters were estimated on typhoon MAEMI in 2003 and 9 typhoons which have affected to Korea peninsula from 2005 to 2007. The 4 estimated parameters were also used to compare one-month predictions in February and August 2008. During the 48h forecast time, the mean and median model accuracies improved by 25 and 51%, respectively.

Lee, W.; You, S.; Ryoo, S.; Global Environment System Research Laboratory

2010-12-01

264

On the effects of subsurface parameters on evaporite dissolution (Switzerland).  

PubMed

Uncontrolled subsurface evaporite dissolution could lead to hazards such as land subsidence. Observed subsidences in a study area of Northwestern Switzerland were mainly due to subsurface dissolution (subrosion) of evaporites such as halite and gypsum. A set of 2D density driven flow simulations were evaluated along 1000 m long and 150 m deep 2D cross sections within the study area that is characterized by tectonic horst and graben structures. The simulations were conducted to study the effect of the different subsurface parameters that could affect the dissolution process. The heterogeneity of normal faults and its impact on the dissolution of evaporites is studied by considering several permeable faults that include non-permeable areas. The mixed finite element method (MFE) is used to solve the flow equation, coupled with the multipoint flux approximation (MPFA) and the discontinuous Galerkin method (DG) to solve the diffusion and the advection parts of the transport equation. Results show that the number of faults above the lower aquifer that contains the salt layer is considered as the most important factor that affects the dissolution compared to the other investigated parameters of thickness of the zone above the halite formation, a dynamic conductivity of the lower aquifer, and varying boundary conditions in the upper aquifer. PMID:24650646

Zidane, Ali; Zechner, Eric; Huggenberger, Peter; Younes, Anis

2014-05-01

265

Critical parameters of metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper establishes the similarity relations between the critical parameters and atomic characteristics of a series of metals retaining the metallic state at the critical point. The critical parameters of these metals are interrelated. The critical parameters of some simple and transition metals are estimated on the basis of experimental data on the critical parameters of cesium.

Likalter

1985-01-01

266

The impact of type Ia supernovae on main sequence binary companions  

E-print Network

The nature of Type Ia supernova progenitors is still unclear. The outstanding characteristic of the single-degenerate scenario is that it contains hydrogen in the binary companion of the exploding white dwarf star, which, if mixed into the ejecta of the supernova in large amounts may lead to conflicts with the observations thus ruling out the scenario. We investigate the effect of the impact of Type Ia supernova ejecta on a main sequence companion star of the progenitor system. With a series of simulations we investigate how different parameters of this system affect the amount of hydrogen stripped from the companion by the impact. The stellar evolution code GARSTEC is used to set up the structure of the companion stars mimicking the effect of a binary evolution phase. The impact itself is simulated with the smoothed particle hydrodynamics code GADGET2. We reproduce and confirm the results of earlier grid-based hydrodynamical simulation. Parameter studies of the progenitor system are extended to include the results of recent binary evolution studies. The more compact structure of the companion star found here significantly reduces the stripped hydrogen mass. The low hydrogen masses resulting from a more realistic companion structure are consistent with current observational constraints. Therefore, the single-degenerate scenario remains a valid possibility for Type Ia supernova progenitors. These new results are not a numerical effect, but the outcome of different initial conditions.

R. Pakmor; F. K. Roepke; A. Weiss; W. Hillebrandt

2008-07-21

267

Hot subdwarfs in (eclipsing) binaries with brown dwarf or low-mass main-sequence companions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The formation of hot subdwarf stars (sdBs), which are core helium-burning stars located on the extended horizontal branch, is not yet understood. Many of the known hot subdwarf stars reside in close binary systems with short orbital periods of between a few hours and a few days, with either M-star or white-dwarf companions. Common-envelope ejection is the most probable formation channel. Among these, eclipsing systems are of special importance because it is possible to constrain the parameters of both components tightly by combining spectroscopic and light-curve analyses. They are called HW Virginis systems. Soker (1998) proposed that planetary or brown-dwarf companions could cause the mass loss necessary to form an sdB. Substellar objects with masses greater than >10 M_J were predicted to survive the common-envelope phase and end up in a close orbit around the stellar remnant, while planets with lower masses would entirely evaporate. This raises the question if planets can affect stellar evolution. Here we report on newly discovered eclipsing or not eclipsing hot subdwarf binaries with brown-dwarf or low-mass main-sequence companions and their spectral and photometric analysis to determine the fundamental parameters of both components.

Schaffenroth, Veronika; Geier, Stephan; Heber, Uli

2014-09-01

268

Determining the main thermodynamic parameters of caffeine melting by means of DSC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The temperature and enthalpy of the melting of caffeine, which are 235.5 0.1C and 19.6 0.2 kJ/mol, respectively, are determined by DSC. The melting entropy and the cryoscopic constant of caffeine are calculated.

Agafonova, E. V.; Moshchenskii, Yu. V.; Tkachenko, M. L.

2012-06-01

269

Main Parameters of Soil Quality and it's Management Under Changing Climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reviewing Paper Introduction: Malcolm summarised the topic of soil quality and it's management in a well synthetized form in 2000. So, the soils are fundamental to the well-being and productivity of agricultural and natural ecosystems. Soil quality is a concept being developed to characterize the usefulness and health of soils. Soil quality includes soil fertility, potential productivity, contaminant levels and

2009-01-01

270

Effective Temperatures of Selected Main-sequence Stars with Most Accurate Parameters  

E-print Network

In this study, the distributions of the double-lined detached binaries (DBs) on the planes of mass-luminosity, mass radius and mass-effective temperature have been studied. We improved the classical mass-luminosity relation based on the database of DBs by Eker et al. (2004a). With accurate observational data available to us, a method for improving effective temperatures for eclipsing binaries with accurate masses and radii were suggested.

Soydugan, F; Soydugan, E; Bilir, S; Gke, E Yaz; Steer, I; Tysz, M; ?enyz, T; Demircan, O

2014-01-01

271

Neuroanatomy of pseudobulbar affect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pseudobulbar affect (PBA) is defined as episodes of involuntary crying, laughing, or both in the absence of a matching subjective\\u000a mood state. This neuropsychiatric syndrome can be found in a number of neurological disorders including multiple sclerosis\\u000a (MS). The aim of this study was to identify neuroanatomical correlates of PBA in multiple sclerosis (MS) using a case-control\\u000a 1.5T MRI study.

Omar Ghaffar; Laury Chamelian; Anthony Feinstein

2008-01-01

272

Affective Processes and Academic Achievement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data indicate that for girls, affective dispositional factors (empathy, depressive affectivity, aggression, and self-concept) are intimately linked to cognitive development and academic achievement. (PCB)

Feshbach, Norma Deitch; Feshbach, Seymour

1987-01-01

273

77 FR 48565 - Maine Yankee Atomic Power Company, Maine Yankee Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Nos. 50-309 and 72-30; NRC-2012-0189] Maine Yankee Atomic Power Company, Maine Yankee Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation, Exemption--Staff Evaluation 1.0 Background Maine Yankee Atomic Power Company (MY, the...

2012-08-14

274

77 FR 12909 - Eastern Maine Railway Company-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-Montreal, Maine & Atlantic...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Surface Transportation Board [Docket No. FD 35588] Eastern Maine Railway Company--Acquisition and Operation Exemption--Montreal, Maine & Atlantic Railway, Ltd. Eastern Maine Railway Company (EMR), a Class III rail carrier, has...

2012-03-02

275

Redefining solubility parameters: the partial solvation parameters.  

PubMed

The present work reconsiders a classical and universally accepted concept of physical chemistry, the solubility parameter. Based on the insight derived from modern quantum chemical calculations, a new definition of solubility parameter is proposed, which overcomes some of the inherent restrictions of the original definition and expands its range of applications. The original single solubility parameter is replaced by four partial solvation parameters reflecting the dispersion, the polar, the acidic and the basic character of the chemical compounds as expressed either in their pure state or in mixtures. Simple rules are adopted for the definition and calculation of these four parameters and their values are tabulated for a variety of common substances. In contrast, however, to the well known Hansen solubility parameters, their design and evaluation does not rely exclusively on the basic rule of "similarity matching" for solubility but it makes also use of the other basic rule of compatibility, namely, the rule of "complementarity matching". This complementarity matching becomes particularly operational with the sound definition of the acidic and basic components of the solvation parameter based on the third ?-moments of the screening charge distributions of the quantum mechanics-based COSMO-RS theory. The new definitions are made in a simple and straightforward manner, thus, preserving the strength and appeal of solubility parameter stemming from its simplicity. The new predictive method has been applied to a variety of solubility data for systems of pharmaceuticals and polymers. The results from quantum mechanics calculations are critically compared with the results from Abraham's acid/base descriptors. PMID:22327537

Panayiotou, Costas

2012-03-21

276

Factors affecting water coning  

E-print Network

(December 1977) Randy Keith Parker, B. S. , Texas ASM University Chairman of Advisory Conmittee: Dr. Richard A. Morse The production of oil that is underlain by water, through a partially penetrating well at a production rate greater than a certain... of well, reservoir, and fluid parameters, it was found that equivalent systems could be determined that had the same water and oil production characteristics. Most of the we' ll, reservoir, and fluid relationships are based on two equations which were...

Parker, Randy Keith

2012-06-07

277

Seasonal Affective Disorder  

PubMed Central

Seasonal affective disorder (SAD), characterized by fall/winter major depression with spring/summer remission, is a prevalent mental health problem. SAD etiology is not certain, but available models focus on neurotransmitters, hormones, circadian rhythm dysregulation, genetic polymorphisms, and psychological factors. Light therapy is established as the best available treatment for SAD. Alternative and/or supplementary approaches involving medications, cognitive-behavioral therapy, and exercise are currently being developed and evaluated. Given the complexity of the disorder, interdisciplinary research stands to make a significant contribution to advancing our understanding of SAD conceptualization and treatment. PMID:21179639

Rohan, Kelly J.

2005-01-01

278

Research papers Does hyperaccumulated nickel affect leaf decomposition?  

E-print Network

Research papers Does hyperaccumulated nickel affect leaf decomposition? A field test using Senecio and the other a non-hyper- accumulator population. Our main goal was to determine if leaf Ni status (hyperaccumulator or non-hyperaccu- mulator) affected leaf decomposition rate on serpentine sites. We also used

Boyd, Robert S.

279

Bifunctional Photoacids: Remote Protonation Affecting Chemical Reactivity.  

PubMed

Reversible protonation (deprotonation) of a side-group is a useful and convenient way to affect the reactivity of large organic and biological molecules. We use bifunctional photoacids to demonstrate how the protonation state of a basic side-group (COO(-)) controls the reactivity of the main acidic group of the photoacid (OH), both in the ground and the electronic excited state of 6-carboxy derivatives of 2-naphthol. PMID:25369117

Ditkovich, Julia; Mukra, Tzach; Pines, Dina; Huppert, Dan; Pines, Ehud

2014-11-19

280

Natural light treatment of seasonal affective disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with seasonal affective disorder (SAD) were treated for 1 week either with a daily 1-h morning walk outdoors (natural light) or low-dose artificial light (0.5 h @ 2800 lux). The latter treatment (given under double-blind conditions) can be considered mainly placebo and did not improve any of the depression self-ratings, whereas natural light exposure improved all self-ratings. According to

Anna Wirz-Justice; Peter Graw; Kurt Kruchi; Asita Sarrafzadeh; Judie English; Josephine Arendt; Lothar Sand

1996-01-01

281

Distillation tray structural parameter study: Phase 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose here is to identify the structural parameters (plate thickness, liquid level, beam size, number of beams, tray diameter, etc.) that affect the structural integrity of distillation trays in distillation columns. Once the sensitivity of the trays' dynamic response to these parameters has been established, the designer will be able to use this information to prepare more accurate specifications for the construction of new trays. Information is given on both static and dynamic analysis, modal response, and tray failure details.

Winter, J. Ronald

1991-01-01

282

Comprehensive review of structural deterioration of water mains: physically based models  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a comprehensive (although not exhaustive) overview of the physical\\/mechanical models that have been developed to improve the understanding of the structural performance of water mains. Several components have to be considered in modelling this structural behaviour. The residual structural capacity of water mains is affected by material deterioration due to environmental and operational conditions as well as

B. Rajani; Y. Kleiner

2001-01-01

283

40 CFR 81.413 - Maine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Maine. 81.413 Section 81.413 Protection of Environment...Federal Areas Where Visibility Is an Important Value 81.413 Maine. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing...

2013-07-01

284

40 CFR 81.413 - Maine.  

...Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Maine. 81.413 Section 81.413 Protection of Environment...Federal Areas Where Visibility Is an Important Value 81.413 Maine. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing...

2014-07-01

285

40 CFR 81.413 - Maine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maine. 81.413 Section 81.413 Protection of Environment...Federal Areas Where Visibility Is an Important Value 81.413 Maine. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing...

2010-07-01

286

40 CFR 81.413 - Maine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Maine. 81.413 Section 81.413 Protection of Environment...Federal Areas Where Visibility Is an Important Value 81.413 Maine. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing...

2012-07-01

287

Main Memory Caching of Web Documents  

Microsoft Academic Search

An increasing amount of information is currently becoming available through World Wide Web servers. Document requests to popular Web servers arrive every few tens of milliseconds at peak rate. To reduce the overhead imposed by frequent document requests, we propose the notion of caching a World Wide Web server's documents in its main memory (which we call Main Memory Web

Evangelos P. Markatos

1996-01-01

288

40 CFR 81.413 - Maine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maine. 81.413 Section 81.413 Protection of Environment...Federal Areas Where Visibility Is an Important Value 81.413 Maine. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing...

2011-07-01

289

The Legal Rights of Maine Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet is intended to help Maine women recognize and enforce their rights under Maine and federal law. It is not designed to be a substitute for lawyers' services, but to inform women of their legal rights so that they will know when to consult a lawyer or a governmental agency for assistance in enforcing these rights. Organized topically by

Potter, Judy R.; Marshall, Gail

290

Penetration electric fields driving main phase Dst  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the basis of three selection criteria we have analyzed the main phase electrodynamics of 17 magnetic storms that occurred between 1999 and mid-2005: (1) the availability of solar wind measurements from the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) satellite, (2) a minimum Dst ? ?100 nT, and (3) no significant recovery episode between the beginning and maximum epoch of the main

William J. Burke; Louise C. Gentile; Cheryl Y. Huang

2007-01-01

291

UC SAN DIEGO ELEVATOR LOCATIONS MAIN CAMPUS  

E-print Network

UC SAN DIEGO ELEVATOR LOCATIONS MAIN CAMPUS BUILDING # OF ELEVATORS APPLIED PHYSICS AND MATHEMATICS BUILDING, UNIT 3B 2 ERC 5.1 1 FORUM THEATRE CONTROL ROOM 1 GALBRAITH HALL 3 GEISEL LIBRARY 6 GILMAN PARKING BUILDING # OF ELEVATORS HILLCREST MAIN HOSPITAL 16 HILLCREST AMBULATORY CARE CENTER 2 HILLCREST FACULTY

Tsien, Roger Y.

292

Water main assets: from deterioration to renewal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The deterioration of water mains is taking its toll on water utilities across the world. It is imperative that this deterioration be accurately quantified in order to implement effective renewal plans for water distribution systems. With hundreds and even thousands of buried pipes, it is often prohibitively expensive to directly inspect every water main in a distribution network. Identifying water

Yehuda Kleiner; Balvant Rajani

293

Maine KIDS COUNT 2000 Data Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This KIDS COUNT Report details statewide trends in the well-being of Maine's children. The statistical portrait is based on a variety of indicators in the areas of: (1) physical and mental health; (2) social and economic opportunity; (3) education and learning; and (4) child health care access. The report contains a special section on Maine

Maine Children's Alliance, Augusta.

294

A computational model of affects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotions and feelings (i.e. affects) are a central fea- ture of human behavior. Due to complexity and interdisciplinarity of affective phenomena, attempts to define them have often be en unsatisfactory. This article provides a simple logical str ucture, in which affective concepts can be defined. The set of affects de fined is similar to the set of emotions covered in

Mika Turkia

2008-01-01

295

Seasonal affective disorder.  

PubMed

Seasonal affective disorder is a combination of biologic and mood disturbances with a seasonal pattern, typically occurring in the autumn and winter with remission in the spring or summer. In a given year, about 5 percent of the U.S. population experiences seasonal affective disorder, with symptoms present for about 40 percent of the year. Although the condition is seasonally limited, patients may have significant impairment from the associated depressive symptoms. Treatment can improve these symptoms and also may be used as prophylaxis before the subsequent autumn and winter seasons. Light therapy is generally well tolerated, with most patients experiencing clinical improvement within one to two weeks after the start of treatment. To avoid relapse, light therapy should continue through the end of the winter season until spontaneous remission of symptoms in the spring or summer. Pharmacotherapy with antidepressants and cognitive behavior therapy are also appropriate treatment options and have been shown to be as effective as light therapy. Because of the comparable effectiveness of treatment options, first-line management should be guided by patient preference. PMID:23198671

Kurlansik, Stuart L; Ibay, Annamarie D

2012-12-01

296

As the nation goes, so goes Maine?  

PubMed

Historically, Maine has been a state with generous safety net programs and a track record of innovative efforts in health system reform, developed under the leadership of Democratic administrations and with frequent support from moderate Republicans. But the 2010 elections in Maine dramatically changed the political balance of power, anointing both a governor and a legislature ideologically at odds with the state's recent political past. Maine has become a bastion of resistance to the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, with a reduced Medicaid program, defunded state access initiative, and no state exchange. In addition, the state has adopted a laissez-faire approach to insurance market dysfunction. Using Maine as a case study of the shifts in national political mood, this article describes in broad brushstrokes Maine's history of health reform efforts and recent shift in political direction, and discusses some of the factors that contributed to the change. PMID:24603087

Kilbreth, Elizabeth

2014-06-01

297

Maine Studiesumaine.edu/mainestudies An Interdisciplinary Minor that Focuses on the Study of Maine  

E-print Network

Maine Studiesumaine.edu/mainestudies An Interdisciplinary Minor that Focuses on the Study of Maine Interdisciplinary Core Courses: · MES 101- Introduction to Maine Studies (one section online, one section on site at UMaine), satisfies one or more general education requirements (gen ed). · MES 201 - The Maine Coast

Thomas, Andrew

298

33 CFR 334.30 - Gulf of Maine off Pemaquid Point, Maine; naval sonobuoy test area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Maine off Pemaquid Point, Maine; naval sonobuoy test area. 334.30 Section 334...Maine off Pemaquid Point, Maine; naval sonobuoy test area. (a) The area. The...Light. (b) The regulations. (1) Sonobuoy drops will be made only in the...

2012-07-01

299

33 CFR 334.30 - Gulf of Maine off Pemaquid Point, Maine; naval sonobuoy test area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Maine off Pemaquid Point, Maine; naval sonobuoy test area. 334.30 Section 334...Maine off Pemaquid Point, Maine; naval sonobuoy test area. (a) The area. The...Light. (b) The regulations. (1) Sonobuoy drops will be made only in the...

2013-07-01

300

33 CFR 334.30 - Gulf of Maine off Pemaquid Point, Maine; naval sonobuoy test area.  

...Maine off Pemaquid Point, Maine; naval sonobuoy test area. 334.30 Section 334...Maine off Pemaquid Point, Maine; naval sonobuoy test area. (a) The area. The...Light. (b) The regulations. (1) Sonobuoy drops will be made only in the...

2014-07-01

301

33 CFR 334.30 - Gulf of Maine off Pemaquid Point, Maine; naval sonobuoy test area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Maine off Pemaquid Point, Maine; naval sonobuoy test area. 334.30 Section 334...Maine off Pemaquid Point, Maine; naval sonobuoy test area. (a) The area. The...Light. (b) The regulations. (1) Sonobuoy drops will be made only in the...

2011-07-01

302

33 CFR 334.30 - Gulf of Maine off Pemaquid Point, Maine; naval sonobuoy test area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Maine off Pemaquid Point, Maine; naval sonobuoy test area. 334.30 Section 334...Maine off Pemaquid Point, Maine; naval sonobuoy test area. (a) The area. The...Light. (b) The regulations. (1) Sonobuoy drops will be made only in the...

2010-07-01

303

Selection of Wire Electrical Discharge Machining Process Parameters on Stainless Steel AISI Grade-304 using Design of Experiments Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM) is a specialized thermal machining process capable of accurately machining parts of hard materials with complex shapes. Parts having sharp edges that pose difficulties to be machined by the main stream machining processes can be easily machined by WEDM process. Design of Experiments approach (DOE) has been reported in this work for stainless steel AISI grade-304 which is used in cryogenic vessels, evaporators, hospital surgical equipment, marine equipment, fasteners, nuclear vessels, feed water tubing, valves, refrigeration equipment, etc., is machined by WEDM with brass wire electrode. The DOE method is used to formulate the experimental layout, to analyze the effect of each parameter on the machining characteristics, and to predict the optimal choice for each WEDM parameter such as voltage, pulse ON, pulse OFF and wire feed. It is found that these parameters have a significant influence on machining characteristic such as metal removal rate (MRR), kerf width and surface roughness (SR). The analysis of the DOE reveals that, in general the pulse ON time significantly affects the kerf width and the wire feed rate affects SR, while, the input voltage mainly affects the MRR.

Lingadurai, K.; Nagasivamuni, B.; Muthu Kamatchi, M.; Palavesam, J.

2012-06-01

304

Factors Affecting Wound Healing  

PubMed Central

Wound healing, as a normal biological process in the human body, is achieved through four precisely and highly programmed phases: hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. For a wound to heal successfully, all four phases must occur in the proper sequence and time frame. Many factors can interfere with one or more phases of this process, thus causing improper or impaired wound healing. This article reviews the recent literature on the most significant factors that affect cutaneous wound healing and the potential cellular and/or molecular mechanisms involved. The factors discussed include oxygenation, infection, age and sex hormones, stress, diabetes, obesity, medications, alcoholism, smoking, and nutrition. A better understanding of the influence of these factors on repair may lead to therapeutics that improve wound healing and resolve impaired wounds. PMID:20139336

Guo, S.; DiPietro, L.A.

2010-01-01

305

Seasonal affective disorder.  

PubMed

Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is a form of recurrent depressive or bipolar disorder, with episodes that vary in severity. Seasonal patterns of depressive episodes are common, but SAD seems to be less common than such patterns suggest. SAD was at first believed to be related to abnormal melatonin metabolism, but later findings did not support this hypothesis. Studies of brain serotonin function support the hypothesis of disturbed activity. The short-allele polymorphism for serotonin transporter is more common in patients with SAD than in healthy people. Atypical depressive symptoms commonly precede impaired functioning, and somatic symptoms are frequently the presenting complaint at visits to family physicians. The best treatment regimens include 2500 Ix of artificial light exposure in the morning. When patients seem to have no response or to prefer another treatment, antidepressants should be considered. PMID:9802288

Partonen, T; Lnnqvist, J

1998-10-24

306

Variables Affecting Earth's Albedo  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Earth's albedo is the fraction of incoming radiation (sunlight) that is reflected into space. The Earth has an average albedo, which describes how much sunlight is reflected on average for the whole planet and the whole year. The Earth also has a local albedo, which determines how much of the Sun's light is reflected from a particular place at a particular time. The local albedo depends on the particular local surface, which can change seasonally as vegetation changes. It also depends on more rapidly changing things such as snow and clouds. In this lesson, students will investigate one of the variables that affect the Earth's albedo. They will collect and graph data on Earth's albedo from two surface types at the same latitude over a period of two years. They will then use the data to calculate how much difference there is in Earth's albedo between the two locations and suggest reasons for the differences.

307

Genetic Status of Atlantic Salmon in Maine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interim report from the National Research Council's (NRC) Committee on Atlantic Salmon in Maine is a prepublication of the March 2002 report provided by National Academy Press. The once abundant populations of Atlantic Salmon in Maine have declined in recent years, now listed as endangered. The NRC Committee believes that "understanding the genetic makeup of Maine's salmon is important for recovery efforts." This 48-page report includes information on the salmon's biology, evolution, genetics, its current state, and the committee's conclusions. It can be viewed online or downloaded for printing.

National Research Council. Committee on Atlantic Salmon in Maine.

308

The biological affects: a typology.  

PubMed

This typology of biological affects is based on developmental-interactionist theory of motivation, emotion, and cognition. Affects--subjectively experienced feelings and desires--involve interoceptive perceptual systems based on primordial molecules that characterize neurochemicals. Biological affects involve primary motivational-emotional systems (primes) associated with hierarchically organized neurochemical systems in the brain, including subcortical (reptilian) and paleocortical (limbic) brain structures. Affects fulfill individualistic (selfish) functions (arousal, approach-avoidance, agonistic) and prosocial (cooperative) functions. Selfish and cooperative functions are associated respectively with the right and left hemispheres. Biological affects constitute the physiological bases for higher level affects: social affects (e.g., pride, guilt, shame, pity, jealousy), cognitive affects (e.g., curiosity, surprise), and moral affects. PMID:10378015

Buck, R

1999-04-01

309

Space Shuttle Main Engine Test Firing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A cloud of extremely hot steam boils out of the flame deflector at the A-1 test stand during a test firing of a Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) at the John C. Stennis Space Center, Hancock County, Mississippi.

1988-01-01

310

Maine Geological Survey: Online Educational Materials  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Maine Geological Survey (MGS) has crafted a fine set of materials for those interested in learning more about the state's natural history via virtual tours, lesson plans, and maps. First up is the Virtual Tour of Maine Geology, which includes photographs of bedrock geology, geologic hazards, mineral collecting, and surficial geology. The Lesson Plans area contains 51 lessons, including "Igneous Rock Identification" and "Composition of Topsoil." A number of MGS maps are available online in the Maps and Publications area. The site includes a Bibliography of Maine Geology, which contains over 12,000 references. Additionally, the site contains a link to the MGS publications page, which has official state of Maine wall maps available for purchase.

2013-05-30

311

Maine Geological Survey: Online Educational Materials  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Maine Geological Survey (MGS) has crafted a fine set of materials for those interested in learning more about the state's natural history via virtual tours, lesson plans, and maps. First up is the Virtual Tour of Maine Geology, which includes photographs of bedrock geology, geologic hazards, mineral collecting, and surficial geology. The Lesson Plans area contains 51 lessons, including "Igneous Rock Identification" and "Composition of Topsoil." A number of MGS maps are available online in the Maps and Publications area. The site includes a Bibliography of Maine Geology, which contains over 12,000 references. Additionally, the site contains a link to the MGS publications page, which has official state of Maine wall maps available for purchase.

2009-12-08

312

Main ring lattice and beam dynamics  

SciTech Connect

The main-ring lattice considered in this note is based on previous studies made for high-energy rings of the TRIUMF Kaon Factory as well as for the main ring and second-generation storage ring proposed for an advanced hadron facility at Los Alamos. The reason for further study of the design concepts is mainly to increase the dynamic aperture for coupled motion in the presence of the sextupoles used for chromaticity adjustment and magnet imperfection compensation. At the same time, it was interesting to include the features required for slow extraction and direct H/sup /minus// injection and obtain a complete layout of the ring as close as possible to a realistic structure for estimating the stability limit. The basic ideas retained for the design of the main ring lattice are briefly recalled here. 10 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Guignard, G.

1989-01-01

313

Main Ideas Are Hamburgers (in the Classroom).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lists 10 activities used to develop and reinforce the concepts of main idea and generalizing, after describing how a particular teacher connected a favorite meal with the understanding of these concepts. (MG)

Arthur, Beth M.

1991-01-01

314

PARAMETER MODIFICATION FOR GAS LABYRINTH SEALS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gas labyrinth seals, widely used in steam turbine-generator sets to reduce steam leakage between casings and rotors, significantly affect the vibration stability of rotor train systems. Therefore, the modeling of gas labyrinth seals has been a major concern in the rotordynamic simulation of steam turbine-generator sets. In this paper, the empirical parameters, (m, n) in the Childs' bulk flow equations

Tachung Yang; Chun-Ting Yeh

315

Speech recognition from GSM codec parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Speech coding affects speech recognition performance, with rec- ognition accuracy deteriorating as the coded bit rate decreases. Virtually all systems that recognize coded speech reconstruct the speech waveform from the coded parameters, and then perform recognition (after possible noise and\\/or channel compensation) using conventional techniques. In this paper we compare the rec- ognition accuracy of coded speech obtained by reconstructing

Juan M. Huerta; Richard M. Stern

1998-01-01

316

Adolescent Varicocele: Association with Somatometric Parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: The developmental changes that occur as a result of puberty have been hypothesized to be important causes of varicocele. Various somatometric parameters were known to affect the occurrence of varicocele during the growth period. We conducted this study in order to examine these relationships and to determine the incidence of varicocele in adolescent males. Patients and Methods: We evaluated

Sushil Prabakaran; Philip Kumanov; Analia Tomova; Stanislav Hubaveshki; Ashok Agarwal

2006-01-01

317

Space shuttle main engine meets test objectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The second, full-duration test of the space shuttle's main propulsion system was conducted successfully on February 28, at the NASA test site in Mississippi. Officials responsible for shuttle propulsion system development said afterwards that all test objectives had been met during the 555-second firing.Cited as noteworthy was the fact that the three main engines used in the test were successfully

Peter M. Bell

1980-01-01

318

Food Habits of Bald Eagles in Maine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: Food remains,were,collected at 78 different bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) breeding and wintering areas in Maine during 1976-80. Nearly 1,400 prey individuals were identified. Fish com- prised 79% of the food items collected in interior Maine. Three species, brown bullhead (Ictalurus neb- ulosus),white sucker (Catostomus commersoni), and chain pickerel (Esox niger), were favored foods in freshwater habitats. Birds, primarily gulls

C. S. Todd; L. S. Young; R. B. Owen; F. J. Gramlich

2008-01-01

319

Affective coding: the emotional dimension of agency  

PubMed Central

The sense of agency (SoA) (i.e., the registration that I am the initiator and controller of my actions and relevant events) is associated with several affective dimensions. This makes it surprising that the emotion factor has been largely neglected in the field of agency research. Current empirical investigations of the SoA mainly focus on sensorimotor signals (i.e., efference copy) and cognitive cues (i.e., intentions, beliefs) and on how they are integrated. Here we argue that this picture is not sufficient to explain agency experience, since agency and emotions constantly interact in our daily life by several ways. Reviewing first recent empirical evidence, we show that self-action perception is in fact modulated by the affective valence of outcomes already at the sensorimotor level. We hypothesize that the affective coding between agency and action outcomes plays an essential role in agency processing, i.e., the prospective, immediate or retrospective shaping of agency representations by affective components. This affective coding of agency be differentially altered in various neuropsychiatric diseases (e.g., schizophrenia vs. depression), thus helping to explain the dysfunctions and content of agency experiences in these diseases. PMID:25161616

Gentsch, Antje; Synofzik, Matthis

2014-01-01

320

On the statistics of ultrasonic spectral parameters.  

PubMed

Several factors affect the accuracy and precision of ultrasonic spectrum analysis, which is used for characterization of normal and diseased tissue in a variety of organs. For example, averaging procedures and the sequence of operations affect the accuracy and precision of spectrum analysis. Averaging procedures and logarithmic conversion (i.e., conversion to dB) introduce a constant bias that affects spectral amplitudes and the values of intercept and midband fit; the bias depends on the sequencing of the log conversion and averaging as well as the number of independent spectra or spectral parameters that are averaged. We derive expressions that permit correction of such biases. Furthermore, we show that standard deviations for slope and midband-fit estimation can be minimized by averaging spectra before dB conversion and before computing spectral parameters by linear regression. Experimental results using phantoms agree remarkably with theoretical predictions for the data window functions studied in this article, Hamming and rectangular. PMID:17112954

Lizzi, Frederic L; Alam, S Kaisar; Mikaelian, Samuel; Lee, Paul; Feleppa, Ernest J

2006-11-01

321

Optimized design of the main circuit of LLC converter for high frequency application  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper deals with optimized design of parameters of the main circuit of LLC resonant converter with output power of 1 kW designed for distributed power systems application. The switching frequency should be 500 kHz, therefore the optimization of main circuit in the way of proper transformer design and selection of compromise between conduction losses, switching losses and regulation range

Michal Frvaldsk; J. Kandra?c?; P. S?pa?nik

2010-01-01

322

Performance parameters in the design of flight motion simulators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The desired test performance parameters influence the design of a Flight Motion Simulator (FMS) and affect its size, weight, power, electro-magnetic interference, noise, and vibration. A common desire is to specify requirements beyond the immediate need for future test programs. This may directly affect cost and schedule. Critical parameters that affect the FMS design are larger payload sizes, higher accuracies, and higher dynamic requirements. This paper provides a checklist of parameters and specification tradeoffs to be considered for the overall system performance requirements.

Mitchell, Robert W.

2012-06-01

323

Maine ePSCoR at the UniveRSity of Maine Maine EPSCoR has just received a $1M award from  

E-print Network

Maine ePSCoR at the UniveRSity of Maine Maine EPSCoR has just received a $1M award from NSF EPSCo "Maine EPSCoR End-to-End Connectivity for Sustainability Science Collaboration," will allow Maine research, higher education, and K-12 institutions through MaineREN, Maine's Research and Education Network

Thomas, Andrew

324

All-Stokes Parameterization of the Main Beam and First Sidelobe for the Arecibo Radio Telescope  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radio astronomical measurements of extended emission require knowledge of the beam shape and response because the measurements need correction for quantities such as beam efficiency and beamwidth. We describe a scheme that characterizes the main beam and sidelobe in all Stokes parameters employing parameters that allow reconstruction of the complete beam patterns and, also, afford an easy way to see

Carl Heiles; Phil Perillat; Michael Nolan; Duncan Lorimer; Ramesh Bhat; Tapasi Ghosh; Ellen Howell; Murray Lewis; Karen O'Neil; Chris Salter; Snezana Stanimirovic

2001-01-01

325

Space shuttle main engine fault detection using neural networks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method for on-line Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) anomaly detection and fault typing using a feedback neural network is described. The method involves the computation of features representing time-variance of SSME sensor parameters, using historical test case data. The network is trained, using backpropagation, to recognize a set of fault cases. The network is then able to diagnose new fault cases correctly. An essential element of the training technique is the inclusion of randomly generated data along with the real data, in order to span the entire input space of potential non-nominal data.

Bishop, Thomas; Greenwood, Dan; Shew, Kenneth; Stevenson, Fareed

1991-01-01

326

Ecological parameters influencing microbial diversity and stability of traditional sourdough.  

PubMed

The quality of some leavened, sourdough baked goods is not always consistent, unless a well propagated sourdough starter culture is used for the dough fermentation. Among the different types of sourdough used, the traditional sourdough has attracted the interest of researchers, mainly because of its large microbial diversity, especially with respect to lactic acid bacteria. Variation in this diversity and the factors that cause it will impact on quality and is the subject of this review. Sourdough microbial diversity is mainly caused by the following factors: (i) sourdough is obtained through spontaneous, multi-step fermentation; (ii) it is propagated using flour, whose nutrient content may vary according to the batch and to the crop, and which is naturally contaminated by microorganisms; and (iii) it is propagated under peculiar technological parameters, which vary depending on the historical and cultural background and type of baked good. In the population dynamics leading from flour to mature sourdough, lactic acid bacteria (several species of Lactobacillus sp., Leuconostoc sp., and Weissella sp.) and yeasts (mainly Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida sp.) outcompete other microbial groups contaminating flour, and interact with each other at different levels. Ecological parameters qualitatively and quantitatively affecting the dominant sourdough microbiota may be classified into specific technological parameters (e.g., percentage of sourdough used as inoculum, time and temperature of fermentation) and parameters that are not fully controlled by those who manage the propagation of sourdough (e.g., chemical, enzyme and microbial composition of flour). Although some sourdoughs have been reported to harbour a persistent dominant microbiota, the stability of sourdough ecosystem during time is debated. Indeed, several factors may interfere with the persistence of species and strains associations that are typical of a given sourdough: metabolic adaptability to the stressing conditions of sourdough, nutritional and antagonistic interactions among microorganisms, intrinsic robustness of microorganisms, and existence of a stable house microbiota. Further studies have to be performed in order to highlight hidden mechanisms underlying the microbial structure and stability of sourdough. The comprehension of such mechanisms would be helpful to assess the most appropriate conditions that allow keeping a given traditional sourdough as a stable microbial ecosystem, thus preserving, during time, the typical traits of the resulting product. PMID:24355817

Minervini, Fabio; De Angelis, Maria; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Gobbetti, Marco

2014-02-01

327

Space shuttle main engine sensor modeling using radial-basis-function neural networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

An efficient method of parameter prediction is needed for sensor validation of space shuttle main-engine (SSME) parameters during real-time safety monitoring and post-test analysis. Feedforward neural networks (FFNN) have been used to model the highly nonlinear and dynamic SSME parameters during startup. Due to several problems associated with the use of feedforward networks, radial-basis-function neural networks (RBFNN) were investigated in

Kevin R. Wheeler; Atam P. Dhawan; Claudia M. Meyer

1994-01-01

328

Affective Monitoring: A Generic Mechanism for Affect Elicitation  

PubMed Central

In this paper we sketch a new framework for affect elicitation, which is based on previous evolutionary and connectionist modeling and experimental work from our group. Affective monitoring is considered a local matchmismatch process within a module of the neural network. Negative affect is raised instantly by mismatches, incongruency, disfluency, novelty, incoherence, and dissonance, whereas positive affect follows from matches, congruency, fluency, familiarity, coherence, and resonance, at least when an initial mismatch can be solved quickly. Affective monitoring is considered an evolutionary-early conflict and change detection process operating at the same level as, for instance, attentional selection. It runs in parallel and imparts affective flavor to emotional behavior systems, which involve evolutionary-prepared stimuli and action tendencies related to for instance defensive, exploratory, attachment, or appetitive behavior. Positive affect is represented in the networks by high-frequency oscillations, presumably in the gamma band. Negative affect corresponds to more incoherent lower-frequency oscillations, presumably in the theta band. For affect to become conscious, large-scale synchronization of the oscillations over the network and the construction of emotional experiences are required. These constructions involve perceptions of bodily states and action tendencies, but also appraisals as well as efforts to regulate the emotion. Importantly, affective monitoring accompanies every kind of information processing, but conscious emotions, which result from the later integration of affect in a cognitive context, are much rarer events. PMID:22403557

Phaf, R. Hans; Rotteveel, Mark

2012-01-01

329

Fermilab Main Injector Beam Position Monitor Upgrade  

SciTech Connect

An upgrade of the Beam Position Monitor (BPM) signal processing and data acquisition system for the Fermilab Main Injector is described. The Main Injector is a fast cycling synchrotron that accelerates protons or antiprotons from 8 to 150 GeV. Each Main Injector cycle can have a totally different magnet ramp, RF frequency configuration, beam bunch structure, and injection/extraction pattern from the previous cycle. The new BPM system provides the capabilities and flexibility required by the dynamic and complex machine operations. The system offers measurement capability in the 2.5 MHz and 53 MHz channels to detect the range of bunch structures for protons and antiprotons in both wideband (turn-by-turn) and narrowband (closed-orbit) modes. The new BPM read-out system is based on the digital receiver concept and is highly configurable, allowing the signal processing of nearly all Main Injector beam conditions, including the detection of individual batches. An overview of the BPM system in the Main Injector operating environment, some technology details and first beam measurements are presented.

Banerjee, B.; Barker, W.; Bledsoe, S.; Boes, T.; Briegel, C.; Capista, D.; Deuerling, G.; Dysert, R.; Forster, R.; Foulkes, S.; Haynes, W.; Hendricks, B.; Kasza, T.; Kutschke, R.; Marchionni, A.; Olson, M.; Pavlicek, V.; Piccoli, L.; Prieto, P.; Rapisarda, S.; Saewert, A.; /Fermilab

2006-05-01

330

Marine Occupations Conference (Southern Maine Vocational Technical Institute, South Portland, Maine, April 5, 1974). Maine Sea Grant Bulletin 9.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of speeches, presented as the 1974 Marine Occupations Conference in South Portland, Maine, provides an overview of information regarding availability and kinds of careers in, as well as the educational requirements for, marine occupations. Also reviewed are the problems of developing marine resources, such as those involving

Coggins, Phyllis, Ed.; And Others

331

Affective Productions of Mathematical Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In underscoring the affective elements of mathematics experience, we work with contemporary readings of the work of Spinoza on the politics of affect, to understand what is included in the cognitive repertoire of the Subject. We draw on those resources to tell a pedagogical tale about the relation between cognition and affect in settings of

Walshaw, Margaret; Brown, Tony

2012-01-01

332

Maine's College Graduates: Where They Go and Why. Finding Maine's Future Workforce (Revisited)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the knowledge-based economy of today, training and retaining a college educated workforce is crucial to the vitality of Maine. Approximately one-half of Maine's high school graduates who go on to college leave the State to do so. A previous study, "Maine's College Graduates: Where They Go and Why" (2003), looked at the factors that influenced

Silvernail, David L.; Woodard, Brianne L.

2006-01-01

333

Main Coast Winds - Final Scientific Report  

SciTech Connect

The Maine Coast Wind Project was developed to investigate the cost-effectiveness of small, distributed wind systems on coastal sites in Maine. The restructuring of Maine's electric grid to support net metering allowed for the installation of small wind installations across the state (up to 100kW). The study performed adds insight to the difficulties of developing cost-effective distributed systems in coastal environments. The technical hurdles encountered with the chosen wind turbine, combined with the lower than expected wind speeds, did not provide a cost-effective return to make a distributed wind program economically feasible. While the turbine was accepted within the community, the low availability has been a negative.

Jason Huckaby; Harley Lee

2006-03-15

334

Gulf of Maine Research Institute: Atlantic Herring  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by the Gulf of Maine Research Institute, this website offers several interesting perspectives on a very important fish in the food chain -- the Atlantic Herring (_Clupea harengus_). The website organizes information about the Atlantic Herring into three main categories: Biology; Harvest and Processing; and Research. The site utilizes beautiful photos, illustrations, and maps as it briefly describes herring life cycle, distribution, spawning research, mid-water trawling, processing, and much more. The website also provides a solid collection of herring resources and references.

335

On Parameter Selection in Cold Spraying  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For cold spraying, a method for the construction of the window of deposition and the selection of optimum process parameters is presented. Initially, particle impact velocity and the critical particle velocity for bonding are worked out and expressed explicitly in terms of key process and material parameters. Subsequently, the influence of particle velocity on coating characteristics is examined in view of the results of experiments and simulations. It has been found that main coating characteristics can be described as a unique function of the ratio of particle velocity to critical velocity, here referred to as ?. Finally, coating properties are linked directly to primary process parameters via parameter selection maps, where contours of constant ? are plotted on a plane of gas temperature versus gas pressure. Inferences of the presented method and the resulting parameter selection maps are discussed for the example of copper as feedstock material.

Assadi, H.; Schmidt, T.; Richter, H.; Kliemann, J.-O.; Binder, K.; Grtner, F.; Klassen, T.; Kreye, H.

2011-12-01

336

Drugs affecting the eye.  

PubMed

This discussion reviews drugs that affect the eye, including antihyperglycemic agents; corticosteroids; antirheumatic drugs (quinolines, indomethacin, and allopurinol); psychiatric drugs (phenothiazine, thioridazine, and chlorpromazine); drugs used in cardiology (practolol, amiodarone, and digitalis gylcosides); drugs implicated in optic neuritis and atrophy, drugs with an anticholinergic action; oral contraceptives (OCs); and topical drugs and systemic effects. Refractive changes, either myopic or hypermetropic, can occur as a result of hyperglycemia, and variation in vision is sometimes a presenting symptom in diabetes mellitus. If it causes a change in the refraction, treatment of hyperglycemia almost always produces a temporary hypermetropia. A return to the original refractive state often takes weeks, sometimes months. There is some evidence that patients adequately treated with insulin improve more rapidly than those taking oral medication. Such patients always should be referred for opthalmological evaluation as other factors might be responsible, but it might not be possible to order the appropriate spectacle correction for some time. The most important ocular side effect of the systemic adiministration of corticosteroids is the formation of a posterior subcapsular cataract. Glaucoma also can result from corticosteroids, most often when they are applied topically. Corticosteroids have been implicated in the production of benign intracranial hypertension, which is paradoxical because they also are used in its treatment. The most important side effect of drugs such as chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine is an almost always irreversible maculopathy with resultant loss of central vision. Corneal and retinal changes similar to those caused by the quinolines have been reported with indomethacin, but there is some question about a cause and effect relationship. The National Registry of Drug Induced Ocular Side Effects in the US published 30 case histories of cataract suspected to be induced by allopurinol; numerous additional cases have been reported to the registry since. Phenothiazine, with an estimated 3% incidence of side effects, appears to be safer than other antipsychotic drugs, but the rate of ocular effects increases with the duration of therapy. Thioridazine and chlorpromazine are known to cause lens deposits and pigmentary retinopathy. There is a significantly high prevalence of thrombophlebitis and pseudotumor cerebri among women who use OCs and thrombotic retinal vascular disease, such as retinal vein occulsion, might be linked with them. It also is probable that, because of altered hydration of the cornea, there is a decreased tolerance to contact lenses. PMID:2864912

Taylor, F

1985-08-01

337

Developmental Potential of Prepubertal Mouse Oocytes Is Compromised Due Mainly to Their Impaired Synthesis of Glutathione  

PubMed Central

Although oocytes from prepubertal animals are found less competent than oocytes from adults, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Using the mouse oocyte model, this paper has tested the hypothesis that the developmental potential of prepubertal oocytes is compromised due mainly to their impaired potential for glutathione synthesis. Oocytes from prepubertal and adult mice, primed with or without eCG, were matured in vitro and assessed for glutathione synthesis potential, oxidative stress, Ca2+ reserves, fertilization and in vitro development potential. In unprimed mice, abilities for glutathione synthesis, activation, male pronuclear formation, blastocyst formation, cortical granule migration and polyspermic block were all compromised significantly in prepubertal compared to adult oocytes. Cysteamine and cystine supplementation to maturation medium significantly promoted oocyte glutathione synthesis and blastocyst development but difference due to maternal age remained. Whereas reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels increased, Ca2+ storage decreased significantly in prepubertal oocytes. Levels of both catalytic and modifier subunits of the ?-glutamylcysteine ligase were significantly lower in prepubertal than in adult oocytes. Maternal eCG priming improved all the parameters and eliminated the age difference. Together, the results have confirmed our hypothesis by showing that prepubertal oocytes have a decreased ability to synthesize glutathione leading to an impaired potential to reduce ROS and to form male pronuclei and blastocysts. The resulting oxidative stress decreases the intracellular Ca2+ store resulting in impaired activation at fertilization, and damages the microfilament network, which affects cortical granule redistribution leading to polyspermy. PMID:23469259

Cui, Wei; Lian, Hua-Yu; Miao, Yi-Long; Wu, Xiu-Fen; Han, Dong; Tan, Jing-He

2013-01-01

338

Affect as a Psychological Primitive  

PubMed Central

In this article, we discuss the hypothesis that affect is a fundamental, psychologically irreducible property of the human mind. We begin by presenting historical perspectives on the nature of affect. Next, we proceed with a more contemporary discussion of core affect as a basic property of the mind that is realized within a broadly distributed neuronal workspace. We then present the affective circumplex, a mathematical formalization for representing core affective states, and show that this model can be used to represent individual differences in core affective feelings that are linked to meaningful variation in emotional experience. Finally, we conclude by suggesting that core affect has psychological consequences that reach beyond the boundaries of emotion, to influence learning and consciousness. PMID:20552040

Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Bliss-Moreau, Eliza

2009-01-01

339

All-Stokes Parameterization of the Main Beam and First Sidelobe for the Arecibo Radio Telescope  

E-print Network

We describe a scheme that characterizes the main beam and sidelobe in all Stokes parameters employing parameters that allow reconstruction of the complete beam patterns and, also, afford an easy way to see how the beam changes with azimuth, zenith angle, and time. For the main beam in Stokes I the parameters include the beam width, ellipticity and its orientation, coma and its orientation, the point-source gain, the integrated gain (or, equivalently, the main beam efficiency); for the other Stokes parameters the beam parameters include beam squint and beam squash. For the first sidelobe ring in Stokes I the parameters include an 8-term Fourier series describing the height, radius, and radial width; for the other Stokes parameters they include only the sidelobe's fractional polarization. We illustrate the technique by applying it to the Arecibo telescope. The main beam width is smaller and the sidelobe levels higher than for a uniformly-illuminated aperture of the same effective area. These effects are modeled modestly well by a blocked aperture, with the blocked area equal to about 10% of the effective area (this corresponds to 5% physical blockage). In polarized emission, the effects of beam squint (difference in pointing direction between orthogonal polarizations) and squash (difference in beamwidth between orthogonal polarizations) do not correspond to theoretical expectation and are higher than expected; these effects are almost certainly caused by the blockage. The first sidelobe is highly polarized because of blockage.

Carl Heiles; Phil Perillat; Michael Nolan; Duncan Lorimer; Ramesh Bhat; Tapasi Ghosh; Ellen Howell; Murray Lewis; Karen O'Neil; Chris Salter; Snezana Stanimirovic

2001-07-18

340

Maine Kids Count 2003 Data Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count data book details statewide trends in the well-being of Maine's children. The statistical portrait is based on indicators in the areas of physical and mental health, including insurance enrollment, adolescent health and safety, and child welfare; social and economic status, including poverty, unemployment, and teen pregnancies; and

Jelcich, Susan, Ed.

341

Maine's Regional Library System: A History.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over time, the Regional Library Systems Act has succeeded in its aim to widen and improve access to library services for all Maine residents. Today, students in the smallest high schools and users of the most remote public libraries can plug into the resources of the largest public libraries in the state and draw on the services of their

Woodward, Robert C.

342

Salazar, Collins: Economic Benefits for Maine  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Secretary Salazar and Senator Collins visited with some of the leaders of Maine's four tribes. They met at the College of the Atlantic. From left to right: Lt. Governor Joseph Socobasin, Passamaquoddy Tribe at Indian Township, Micmac Chief Victoria Higgins, Secretary Salazar, Senator Collins, Tribal...

2009-07-28

343

State Teacher Policy Yearbook, 2009. Maine  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Maine edition of the National Council on Teacher Quality's (NCTQ's) 2009 "State Teacher Policy Yearbook" is the third annual look at state policies impacting the teaching profession. It is hoped that this report will help focus attention on areas where state policymakers can make changes that will have a positive impact on teacher quality and

National Council on Teacher Quality, 2009

2009-01-01

344

Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Maine  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Maine students had across-the-board gains. There were improvements in both reading and math at the basic, proficient and advanced levels for the subgroups large enough to count, which were white students, low income students, and boys and girls. Results on

Center on Education Policy, 2010

2010-01-01

345

Semantic Web research main streams, popular falacies,  

E-print Network

Semantic Web research anno 2006: main streams, popular falacies, current status, future challenges Frank van Harmelen Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam #12;2 This is NOT a Semantic Web evangelization talk (I of the day, of temporary interest" #12;Which Semantic Web are we talking about? Semantic Web research anno

van Harmelen, Frank

346

Space Transportation Main Engine reliability demonstration technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

To satisfy the Space Transportation Main Engine (STME) reliability requirement demonstration of 99% reliability at 90% confidence, the Space Propulsion Integrated Reliability Team (SPIRT) developed a cost-efficient and effective approach using the binomial model in combination with the US Army Materiel Systems Analysis Activity (AMSAA) growth model. Using the binomial model as the base, the number of tests necessary to

R. L. Pugh; Whitney West Palm Beach

1993-01-01

347

Human babesiosis, Maine, USA, 1995-2011.  

PubMed

We observed an increase in the ratio of pathogenic Babesia microti to B. odocoilei in adult Ixodes scapularis ticks in Maine. Risk for babesiosis was associated with adult tick abundance, Borrelia burgdorferi infection prevalence, and Lyme disease incidence. Our findings may help track risk and increase the focus on blood supply screening. PMID:25272145

Smith, Robert P; Elias, Susan P; Borelli, Timothy J; Missaghi, Bayan; York, Brian J; Kessler, Robert A; Lubelczyk, Charles B; Lacombe, Eleanor H; Hayes, Catherine M; Coulter, Michael S; Rand, Peter W

2014-10-01

348

Eutrophication: State of the Gulf of Maine  

EPA Science Inventory

Cultural eutrophication is an ecosystem response to increases in nutrient (primarily nitrogen and phosphorus) inputs from human sources. Estuaries, bays and nearshore coastal waters in the Gulf of Maine receive nutrient inputs from land-based sources via rivers and streams, dir...

349

Eutrophication in the Gulf of Maine's waters  

EPA Science Inventory

The Gulf of Maine and its watershed encompass more than 170,000 km2 and is home to over 6.5 million Canadians and Americans. Despite its long-standing importance to fisheries and natural resources and current interest in exploration of wind and tide as renewable energy sources, ...

350

Semantic Web Research anno 2006: main streams,  

E-print Network

Semantic Web Research anno 2006: main streams, popular fallacies, current status and future. In this topical1 paper we try to give an analysis and overview of the current state of Semantic Web research. We point to different in- terpretations of the Semantic Web as the reason underlying many contro- versies

van Harmelen, Frank

351

Identification of space shuttle main engine dynamics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

System identification techniques are used to represent the dynamic behavior of the Space Shuttle Main Engine. The transfer function matrices of the linearized models of both the closed loop and the open loop system are obtained by using the recursive maximum likelihood method.

Duyar, Ahmet; Guo, Ten-Huei; Merrill, Walter C.

1989-01-01

352

Kennebec: A Portfolio of Maine Writing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Maine has produced some tremendous writers, and the University of Maine at Augusta has been working diligently to provide a set of online resources related to these artists and their writings. Part of this work includes the project to digitize the literary journal "Kennebec". The journal was first published in 1977 under the direction of faculty and students of the University of Maine, along with assistance and support from citizens in the Kennebec community. Interestingly enough, the first issue sets out a grand plan to move the capitol of Augusta to a type of "Brasilia" in the western hills of Maine. It's a grand start, and each issues contains poetry, non-fiction pieces, and other items. Visitors can scan through the issues as they see fit, or they can also use the index file which lists each piece of writing and its location within the pdf file. In the first issue, visitors should definitely check out "Three Immortals", which is a series of poems about the jazz greats Lester Young, Bud Powell, and Charlie Parker.

353

The main magnetic field of Jupiter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main magnetic field of Jupiter has been measured by the Goddard Space Flight Center flux gate magnetometer on Pioneer 11, and analysis of the data yields a more detailed model than that obtained from Pioneer 10 results. In a spherical harmonic octupole representation the dipole term (with opposite polarity to earth's) has a magnitude of 4.28 G R\\/sub j\\/

Mario H. Acuna; Norman F. Ness

1976-01-01

354

RETURN TO MAIN MENU Manage Your Activities  

E-print Network

RETURN TO MAIN MENU Dashboard Manage Your Activities Manage Data Run Ad Hoc Reports Run Custom lecturer in other course or courses Taught Research Safety in the Classroom Taught Responsible Research and Research Ethics in the Classroom Training activities on responsible conduct of research integrated

Gelfond, Michael

355

Library Locations Locations other than Main Library  

E-print Network

Library Locations Locations other than Main Library Example: Feminist Studies HQ1410 .U54 2009 University of California, Santa Barbara Library www.library.ucsb.edu Updated 3-2014 A - B.......................................6 Central M - N..................................................Arts Library (Music Building) P

356

Library Locations Locations other than Main Library  

E-print Network

Library Locations Locations other than Main Library Example: Feminist Studies HQ1410 .U54 2009 Andelson Collection: 2 South, Ethnic & Gender Studies Library (EGSL) Annex: Off campus storage. See www.library.ucsb.edu/depts/access/annex.html Arts Library: 1st Floor, Music Building Asian American Studies: 2 South, Ethnic & Gender Studies

357

Space shuttle main engine failure detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of how to improve recognition of anomalous behavior in the Space Shuttle Main Engine is currently under study. The effort is planned to lead to an advanced real-time failure detection system for test stand application. This paper addresses motivation for the study, engine characteristics, failure detection problems, and the technical issues that are involved.

Harry A. Cikanek

1986-01-01

358

Space Shuttle Main Engine performance analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

For a number of years, NASA has relied primarily upon periodically updated versions of Rocketdyne's power balance model (PBM) to provide space shuttle main engine (SSME) steady-state performance prediction. A recent computational study indicated that PBM predictions do not satisfy fundamental energy conservation principles. More recently, SSME test results provided by the Technology Test Bed (TTB) program have indicated significant

L. Michael Santi

1993-01-01

359

Space shuttle main engine turbopump transducer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in liquid rocket engine technology were required to meet the life and reuseability criteria set by the Space Shuttle Program for the Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSME). To verify the SSME design life, extensive development testing and hardware inspection was required. Each SSME has four turbopumps which are used to pump propellant for combustion. One of these turbopumps which

T. Peterson

1983-01-01

360

Identification of Space Shuttle Main Engine Dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

System identification techniques are used to represent the dynamic behavior of the Space Shuttle Main Engine. The transfer function matrices of the linearized models of both the closed loop and the open loop system are obtained by using the recursive maximum likelihood method.

Ahmet Duyar; Ten-Huel Guo; Walter C. Merrill

1989-01-01

361

Space Shuttle Main Engine Test Firing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On the 25th Anniversary of the Apollo 11 (the first moon landing mission) launch, Marshall Space & Flight Center celebrated with a test firing of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) at the Technology Test Bed (TTB). This drew a large crowd who stood in the fields around the test site and watched as plumes of white smoke verified ignition.

1994-01-01

362

Space shuttle main engine model identification  

Microsoft Academic Search

System identification techniques are used to represent the dynamic behavior of the SSME (space shuttle main engine). The comparison of the responses of a nonlinear simulation with the responses of an identified model indicates very good agreement. The identified model can be used for control design purposes. The identified model does not include valve linkage backlash and valve stiction nonlinearities.

A. Duyar; T.-H. Guo; W. C. Merrill

1990-01-01

363

Geomagnetic main field modeling with DMSP  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) launches and maintains a network of satellites to monitor the meteorological, oceanographic, and solar-terrestrial physics environments. In the past decade, geomagnetic field modelers have focused much attention on magnetic measurements from missions such as CHAMP, rsted, and SAC-C. With the completion of the CHAMP mission in 2010, there has been a multiyear gap in satellite-based vector magnetic field measurements available for main field modeling. In this study, we calibrate the special sensor magnetometer instrument on board DMSP to create a data set suitable for main field modeling. These vector field measurements are calibrated to compute instrument timing shifts, scale factors, offsets, and nonorthogonality angles of the fluxgate magnetometer cores. Euler angles are then computed to determine the orientation of the vector magnetometer with respect to a local coordinate system. We fit a degree 15 main field model to the data set and compare with the World Magnetic Model and rsted scalar measurements. We call this model DMSP-MAG-1, and its coefficients and software are available for download at http://geomag.org/models/dmsp.html. Our results indicate that the DMSP data set will be a valuable source for main field modeling for the years between CHAMP and the recently launched Swarm mission.

Alken, P.; Maus, S.; Lhr, H.; Redmon, R. J.; Rich, F.; Bowman, B.; O'Malley, S. M.

2014-05-01

364

Maine's Balance of Representation: Information and Results  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document, a companion to the "LAS Guide Principles and Criteria for the Adoption of Local Assessment Systems," [ED484135] presents results that are intended to provide Maine's school administrative units with an option for selecting sample performance indicators to be assessed through the Local Assessment System to meet the requirements for

Maine Department of Education, 2003

2003-01-01

365

Layered Manufacturing Sara McMains  

E-print Network

Grossman) #12;LM vs. Conventional Manufacturing · Subtractive · Net shape · Additive #12;Conventional · Molding · Casting #12;Conventional Manufacturing · Additive ­ Combine complex sub-units ­ E.g. · WeldingLayered Manufacturing Sara McMains #12;Layered Manufacturing (LM) a.k.a. Solid Freeform Fabrication

McMains, Sara

366

Prioritising individual water mains for renewal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The statistical analysis of historical breakage patterns of water mains is a cost effective approach to discern their deterioration, where physical mechanisms that lead to their deterioration are often very complex and not well understood. Furthermore, data required to model these physical mechanisms are rarely available and prohibitively costly to acquire. Several models exist in the literature, which use various

Yehuda Kleiner; Balvant Rajani

367

Economic analysis of water main breaks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cost of water main breaks can represent a significant portion of a distribution system's maintenance costs. Although qualitative guidance is available on why pipes break and when they should be replaced, there are no universal quantitative rules for when to replace pipe. This paper gives a simple method for determining which pipes need to be replaced, based on the

Thomas M. Walski; Anthony Pelliccia

1982-01-01

368

An extended filter for industrial mains  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new structure and control scheme for a parallel active filter system intended for harmonic compensation of large nonlinear mains loads, such as speed-controlled electric drives, up to 5 MVA. The filter has relatively small rating; it is about 15% of the nonlinear load power rating. The control scheme is based on the direct harmonic control method

S. N. Kalachnikov

2000-01-01

369

Acadian dextral transpression in western Maine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two groups of faults characterize the Acadian tectonic regime of northwestern Maine. The first group is largely dextral and reverse in nature and is represented by the Deep Pond (DPF) and Thrasher Peaks (TPF) faults in the Jackman area. The second is reverse in nature, and is represented by three faults in the Caucomgomoc Lake area. Taken together this fault

S. G. Pollock; R. G. Marvinney

1993-01-01

370

West Virginia University -Main Campus Program Accreditations  

E-print Network

Eberly Association for Behavior Analysis 2008 2013 Site visit will occur during 2013-14 academic yearWest Virginia University - Main Campus Program Accreditations Updated 2013-14 School, College Association for Schools of Art and Design 2013 2023 Change from Council for Interior Design Accreditation

Mohaghegh, Shahab

371

Professor Ralf Hiptmair Main research areas  

E-print Network

DRAFT Professor Ralf Hiptmair Main research areas Professor Hiptmair's research in Applied electromagnetics, which forms the core of most of his research. His activities range from issues of modeling, via discretization techniques, to special multigrid methods for the boundary value problems of electromagnetism

Hiptmair, Ralf

372

Is muscle coordination affected by loading condition in ballistic movements?  

PubMed

This study aimed to investigate the effect of loading on lower limb muscle coordination involved during ballistic squat jumps. Twenty athletes performed ballistic squat jumps on a force platform. Vertical force, velocity, power and electromyographic (EMG) activity of lower limb muscles were recorded during the push-off phase and compared between seven loading conditions (0-60% of the concentric-only maximal repetition). The increase in external load increased vertical force (from 1962 N to 2559 N; P=0.0001), while movement velocity decreased (from 2.5 to 1.6ms(-1); P=0.0001). EMG activity of tibialis anterior first peaked at 5% of the push-off phase, followed by gluteus maximus (35%), vastus lateralis and soleus (45%), rectus femoris (55%), gastrocnemius lateralis (65%) and semitendinosus (75%). This sequence of activation (P=0.67) and the amplitude of muscle activity (P=0.41) of each muscle were not affected by loading condition. However, a main effect of muscle was observed on these parameters (peak value: P<0.001; peak occurrence: P=0.02) illustrating the specific role of each muscle during the push-off phase. Our findings suggest that muscle coordination is not influenced by external load during a ballistic squat jump. PMID:25467546

Giroux, Caroline; Guilhem, Gal; Couturier, Antoine; Chollet, Didier; Rabita, Giuseppe

2014-10-30

373

Natural interference phenomena affecting spaceborne receivers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Earth orbiting microwave receivers which are vulnerable to the interference from natural sources, mainly, the Sun and the Moon, are discussed. The irradiance from the Sun affects microwave receivers in two ways: (1) the infrared component of the irradiance causes nonuniform heating in metal structures and produces distortions that affect electrical performance; and (2) the graybody radiation component of the solar irradiance enters the collecting aperture of the antenna and the feed ports of the calibration circuits. The graybody radiation operates to degrade the signal to noise ratios and vitiate the internal calibration accuracy. The magnitudes of interference from the Sun and the Moon are analyzed and mathematical expressions are derived which serve to quantify the expected interference levels.

Stacey, J. M.

1984-01-01

374

RESEARCH NOTE : Inversion for multiple parameter classes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many geophysical data, such as the frequencies of the free oscillations of the Earth, depend on more than one type of model parameter. For inverse problems depending on multiple parameter classes, an iterative solution procedure is introduced in which each parameter class can be treated in the same way. This approach has considerable advantages where a large number of parameters are employed, but can still be useful for smaller systems. The iteration by parameter class commences by solving for the direct dependence on a particular parameter class, and at subsequent iterations the cross-dependences between classes are introduced. The update affects only the right-hand side of the equations, and, because the same sets of equations have to be solved at each iteration, an efficient computational implementation can be made. The largest set of equations that has to be solved at a time corresponds to the number of variables in an individual parameter class rather than the full set of parameters, which confers substantial computational benefits for very large problems.

Kennett, B. L. N.; Sambridge, M.

1998-10-01

375

Affective priming in schizophrenia with and without affective negative symptoms.  

PubMed

In the present study automatic perceptual sensitivity to facial affect information was examined in chronic schizophrenic patients. An affective priming task including subliminal and supraliminal presentations of sad and happy facial affect was administered to schizophrenia patients with a flat affect expression (n = 30), schizophrenia patients suffering from anhedonia (n = 30), schizophrenia patients not suffering from anhedonia or flat affect (n = 28), and a group of healthy controls (n = 30). Subjects had to judge valence of neutral Chinese ideographs. Anhedonic and flat affect patients but not patients without affect symptoms were found to be sensitive to negative facial affect on an automatic processing level. None of the schizophrenic patient groups but healthy controls showed a subliminal valence-congruent priming effect based on positive facial affect. Anhedonia as assessed by standardised psychiatric rating was related to a subliminal sensitivity to negative facial expression and a valence-inverted perception of positive facial expression. This pattern of results is largely consistent with predictions derived from Meehl's model of anhedonia. The aversive automatic perception of positive facial expression primarily found in anhedonic patients but also in schizophrenic control patients could lie in structural disturbances concerning the regulation of intimacy and distance. PMID:14714118

Suslow, Thomas; Roestel, Cornelia; Arolt, Volker

2003-12-01

376

Main Injector beam to the new muon and meson areas  

SciTech Connect

Measured beam parameters from the Main Injector are used to calculate the beam envelope from MI extraction to the Meson area. The primary beam is then transported to a straw-man experiment in the MP beamline. Secondary yields are also calculated for the MTest test beam. For this study, it was assumed that the A0 region was modified as per Switchyard in the Main Injector Era Technical Design Report, and that the cryogenic magnets in Switchyard had EPB type gaps. Under these assumptions, it is possible to transport 120 GeV/c protons from the Main Injector to the Meson and New Muon areas with minimal (on the order of 1%) scraping. Regarding the Meson area, this scraping occurs at the FSeps (which produce the three-way split to Meson). Regarding the New Muon area, the scraping occurs at the MuSeps, MuLams (both of which establish the Neutrino/Muon split), and the final focusing quadrupoles. Thus, multi-beam, high-intensity running to the Meson area is precluded, as is high intensity running to the New Muon area.

T. Kobilarcik

2000-04-18

377

Parameter Estimation Optimal Control  

E-print Network

Welding Process IGPM, RWTH Aachen MOR I: Reduced Basis Method #12;Motivation Parameter Estimation Optimal Transport RB Relevance Contaminant Transport ­ Problem Statement Scalar Convection-Diffusion y(x, t = 0; µ

378

Aftershock patterns and main shock faulting  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We have compared aftershock patterns following several moderate to large earthquakes with the corresponding distributions of coseismic slip obtained from previous analyses of the recorded strong ground motion and teleseismic waveforms. Our results are consistent with a hypothesis of aftershock occurrence that requires a secondary redistribution of stress following primary failure on the earthquake fault. Aftershocks followng earthquakes examined in this study occur mostly outside of or near the edges of the source areas indicated by the patterns of main shock slip. The spatial distribution of aftershocks reflects either a continuation of slip in the outer regions of the areas of maximum coseismic displacement or the activation of subsidiary faults within the volume surrounding the boundaries of main shock rupture. -from Authors

Mendoza, C.; Hartzell, S.H.

1988-01-01

379

Orbital evolution of the main Uranian satellites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since Voyager 2 space mission, we know some properties of the main Uranian satellites (Miranda, Ariel, Umbriel, Titania, Oberon): on the one hand, we observe an important resurfacing of both Miranda and Ariel, and on the other hand some strangenesses in the orbital elements such as the anomalously high inclinaison of Miranda or the anomalously high eccentricity of Ariel. The aim of this study is to use some modern methods including advances in computing resources to revise some studies developed in the last 20 years (see for instance [1], [2], [3], [4]). We therefore consider a model of a n-body problem which takes into account of the mutual perturbations of the five main satellites and of the planet Uranus and meet/improve some previous results.

Verheylewegen, E.; Noyelles, B.

2011-10-01

380

Main field and recent secular variation.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As Cain (1979) indicated might happen in the last IUGG quadrennial report, added resources were made available during the past few years and a real impulse was added to the geomagnetic work in the US by the launching of the MAGSAT Satellite. This new effort paid off in terms of new charts, additional long wavelength studies, and external source studies. As before, however, the future funding for new starts in geomagnetism does not look bright at the present time. A single MAGSAT in orbit a little more than seven months did wonders for main field (M.F.) charting, but did little or nothing for secular variation (S.V.) charting. It would take a number of repeated MAGSATS to help the S.V. picture. Meanwhile, the world magnetic observatory net and surface repeat stations remain as the main source of S.V. data. -from Author

Alldredge, L.R.

1983-01-01

381

Icing tests of a model main rotor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A NASA-sponsored consortium conducted an experimental program to investigate the characteristics of a model rotor under icing conditions. This project resulted in the first U.S. test of a heavily instrumented model rotor conducted in the controlled environment of a refrigerated wind tunnel, the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel. The tunnel entry used a powered force model with a 1.83-m-diameter main rotor, with 0.124-m-chord main rotor blades fabricated specially for this experiment. Test conditions included a range of liquid water content and median volume droplet diameters that fell within the FAA and DOD icing envelopes. The test data show the effects of icing on rotor lift, rotor torque, blade loads, and vibration. Ice shapes and ice dimensions were taken, and molds were made of three ice shapes. High-speed movies were taken to document ice shedding. The results have been compared with analytical accretion predictions.

Bond, Thomas H.; Flemming, Robert J.; Britton, Randall K.

1990-01-01

382

Main dimensions of human practical directives system  

SciTech Connect

A hypothesis is made that due to the uncertainty and complexity of the practical inference schemes, the acting subject exerts his/her own system of beliefs about efficient ways of attaining the given goals. These beliefs are termed here: Practical Directives, and their system: Practical Attitude. An attempt was made to reconstruct such a system and its main dimensions. To this end, an instrument was constructed: the Questionnaire of Practical Directives (QPD), which is meant as an operational definition of Practical Attitude. A group of 218 subjects was tested with the aid of QPD and the factor analysis of the results revealed nine factors interpreted as main dimensions of the system of Practical Directives. 19 refs.

Lewicka-Strzalecka, A.

1992-12-31

383

Main Memory Database Systems: An Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract-Memory resident database systems (MMDBs) store their data,in main physical memory and provide very high-speed access. Conventional database systems are optimized for the particular,characteristics,of disk,storage,mechanisms.,Memory resident systems, on the other hand, use different optimizations to structure and organize data, as well as to make it reliable. This paper,surveys,the major memory residence optimizations and briefly discusses some of the memory resident

Hector Garcia-molina; Kenneth Salem

1992-01-01

384

Space shuttle main engine plume radiation model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The methods are described which are used in predicting the thermal radiation received by space shuttles, from the plumes of the main engines. Radiation to representative surface locations were predicted using the NASA gaseous plume radiation GASRAD program. The plume model is used with the radiative view factor (RAVFAC) program to predict sea level radiation at specified body points. The GASRAD program is described along with the predictions. The RAVFAC model is also discussed.

Reardon, J. E.; Lee, Y. C.

1978-01-01

385

Three Main Subsystems: I. Centerpiece (Linear Actuation)  

E-print Network

Systems Two Main Subsystems: I. Solar Panels Four 100 W high efficiency solar panels were installed symmetrically atop the canopy. The panels were wired in parallel to a deep cycle solar battery. In full sunlight- Monocrystalline-Solar-Panel-4-Pack-GS-S-250- Fab5x4/202960000?N=8p9Z5yc1v Left Bottom: Wind Blue Power LLC. (2014

Provancher, William

386

MERIT Main Campaign: Reference Frame Intercomparisons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The polar coordinates obtained in the MERIT main campaign were selectively compared and analyzed. The preliminary results demonstrate that the polhode centers obtained from astrometry (BIH), satellite laser ranging (Lageos) and very long baseline interferometry are within an area 6 marcsec (19 cm) across, with satellite Doppler polhode center more than 10 marcsec (32 cm) away, and that the equatorial planes of the inertial systems inherent in all techniques mentioned above are aligned with one another on the order of milliarcseconds.

Mueller, Ivan I.; Ziqing, Wei

387

The Advanced Photon Source main control room  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory is a third-generation light source built in the 1990s. Like the machine itself, the Main Control Room (MCR) employs design concepts based on today`s requirements. The discussion will center on ideas used in the design of the MCR, the comfort of personnel using the design, and safety concerns integrated into the control room layout.

Pasky, S.

1998-07-01

388

The Cassini Main Engine Assembly Cover Mechanism  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes a micrometeroid protection system for the main engines of the Cassini spacecraft. The engine Cover Assembly is a deployable/restowable half sphere of multilayer insulation mounted to an articulatable frame over 2 meters (7 feet) in diameter. The Cover folds into a compact wedge only 25 cm (10 inches) at its maximum thickness. The micrometeroid environment and typical protection methods are described as well as the design details and development problems of the Cover Mechanism Assembly.

Sevilla, Donald R.

1997-01-01

389

Space shuttle main engine vibration data base  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Shuttle Main Engine Vibration Data Base is described. Included is a detailed description of the data base components, the data acquisition process, the more sophisticated software routines, and the future data acquisition methods. Several figures and plots are provided to illustrate the various output formats accessible to the user. The numerous vibration data recall and analysis capabilities available through automated data base techniques are revealed.

Lewallen, Pat

1986-01-01

390

Space shuttle main engine vibration data base  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to evaluate Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) vibration data without having to constantly replay analog tapes, the SSME Vibration Data Base was developed. This data base contains data that have been digitized at a high sample rate for the entire test duration. It provides quick and efficient recall capabilities for numerious computation and display routines. The data base components are described as well as some of the compution and display features.

Lewallen, Pat

1987-01-01

391

Acadian dextral transpression in western Maine  

SciTech Connect

Two groups of faults characterize the Acadian tectonic regime of northwestern Maine. The first group is largely dextral and reverse in nature and is represented by the Deep Pond (DPF) and Thrasher Peaks (TPF) faults in the Jackman area. The second is reverse in nature, and is represented by three faults in the Caucomgomoc Lake area. Taken together this fault system represents an Acadian dextral transpressive regime. Part of this regime includes an 11 km wide by 17 km long horst of Cambrian( ), Ordovician( ) and Late Silurian rocks in the Caucomgomoc Lake area. This horst is a part of a restraining bend. Associated with this bend is a deflection and rotation of the regional fault, fold axis and cleavage pattern. Orientations of these structures generally change from NE-SW in the Jackman area to N-S in the Caucomgomoc area. In westernmost Maine, the DPF and TPF both strike NE-SW, but the strikes rotate to ENE-WSW farther to the east in the Jackman area. The NW-dipping DPF separates Silurian rocks of the Frontenac Fm on the north from Devonian rocks of the Seboomook Group on the south. Foliation associated with Acadian folding dips moderately (30--50 degrees) near the DPF and major folds are overturned and verge toward the SE along its entire length in Maine. This contrasts sharply with the dominant upright, NW-verging folds and sleep foliation which characterizes the Acadian throughout northwestern Maine. The NW-dipping TPF separates Devonian rocks of the Seboomook Group on the north from Precambrian and Ordovician rocks of the Chain Lakes massif and Attean pluton, respectively, on the south. Along the TPF and DPF are kinematic indicators which suggest reverse and dextral components to movement.

Pollock, S.G. (Univ. Southern Maine, Gorham, ME (United States)); Marvinney, R.G. (Maine Geology Survey, Augusta, ME (United States))

1993-03-01

392

Accommodating Low Cost Airlines at Main Airports  

Microsoft Academic Search

The actual or impending dominance of low cost carriers is creating problems for a number of main airports. The established primary airports have taken on long-term obligations and created high-quality facilities to serve the traditional airlines. However, many of these legacy carriers have been collapsing and have poor long-term prospects. The prospective replacement clients are the low-cost airlines. Yet these

Richard de Neufville

393

Assortative mating and affective disorders.  

PubMed

Seventy-two spouses of subjects with recurrent primary affective disorders (PAD), were investigated for the presence of psychiatric disorders in their lives and in those of their first degree relatives, and compared with 71 spouses of non-psychiatrically ill control subjects. No difference was found in the risk for PAD; on the other hand spouses of affective patients manifested a greater occurrence of psychiatric disorders belonging to the affective spectrum, as did their respective first-degree relatives. PMID:162486

Negri, F; Melica, A M; Zuliani, R; Smeraldi, E

1979-12-01

394

Photogrammetric Analysis of CPAS Main Parachutes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Crew Exploration Vehicle Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) is being designed to land the Orion Crew Module (CM) at a safe rate of descent at splashdown with a cluster of two to three Main parachutes. The instantaneous rate of descent varies based on parachute fly-out angles and geometric inlet area. Parachutes in a cluster oscillate between significant fly-out angles and colliding into each other. The former presents a sub-optimal inlet area and the latter lowers the effective drag area as the parachutes interfere with each other. The fly-out angles are also important in meeting a twist torque requirement. Understanding cluster behavior necessitates measuring the Mains with photogrammetric analysis. Imagery from upward looking cameras is analyzed to determine parachute geometry. Fly-out angles are measured from each parachute vent to an axis determined from geometry. Determining the scale of the objects requires knowledge of camera and lens calibration as well as features of known size. Several points along the skirt are tracked to compute an effective circumference, diameter, and inlet area as a function of time. The effects of this geometry are clearly seen in the system drag coefficient time history. Photogrammetric analysis is key in evaluating the effects of design features such as an Over-Inflation Control Line (OICL), Main Line Length Ratio (MLLR), and geometric porosity, which are varied in an attempt to minimize cluster oscillations. The effects of these designs are evaluated through statistical analysis.

Ray, Eric; Bretz, David

2011-01-01

395

Affective incoherence: when affective concepts and embodied reactions clash  

Microsoft Academic Search

In five studies, the authors examined the effects on cognitive performance of coherence and incoherence between conceptual and experiential sources of affective information. The studies crossed the priming of happy and sad concepts with affective experiences. In different experiments, these included approach or avoidance actions, happy or sad feelings, and happy or sad expressive behaviors. In all studies, coherence between

David B. Centerbar; Simone Schnall; Gerald L. Clore; Erika D. Garvin

2008-01-01

396

Phentermine, Sibutramine and Affective Disorders  

PubMed Central

A safe and effective way to control weight in patients with affective disorders is needed, and phentermine is a possible candidate. We performed a PubMed search of articles pertaining to phentermine, sibutramine, and affective disorders. We compared the studies of phentermine with those of sibutramine. The search yielded a small number of reports. Reports concerning phentermine and affective disorders reported that i) its potency in the central nervous system may be comparatively low, and ii) it may induce depression in some patients. We were unable to find more studies on the subject; thus, it is unclear presently whether phentermine use is safe in affective disorder patients. Reports regarding the association of sibutramine and affective disorders were slightly more abundant. A recent study that suggested that sibutramine may have deleterious effects in patients with a psychiatric history may provide a clue for future phentermine research. Three explanations are possible concerning the association between phentermine and affective disorders: i) phentermine, like sibutramine, may have a depression-inducing effect that affects a specific subgroup of patients, ii) phentermine may have a dose-dependent depression-inducing effect, or iii) phentermine may simply not be associated with depression. Large-scale studies with affective disorder patients focusing on these questions are needed to clarify this matter before investigation of its efficacy may be carried out and it can be used in patients with affective disorders. PMID:23678348

An, Hoyoung; Sohn, Hyunjoo

2013-01-01

397

ETS and tidal stressing: Fault weakening after main slip pulse  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Time-varying stresses from solid Earth tides and ocean loading influence slow slip (Hawthorne and Rubin, 2010) and, consequently, the frequency of occurrence and intensity of tremor during ETS episodes (Rubinstein et al., 2008). This relationship can illuminate changes in the mechanical response of the rupture surfaces(s) during slip in ETS. I compare the influence of tidal loading when and after the propagating ETS slip front (estimated by tremor density in time) ruptures the fault at a given spot. Using estimates of slip fronts that I derived from tremor locations, I divide ETS tremor into two groups: that occurring within a day of the start of the inferred slip front and that occurring over several days thereafter. The tremor catalog used contains 50K waveform cross-correlation locations of tremor in 7 large ETS in northern Cascadia between 2005 and 2012. I calculate normal, shear and volumetric stresses due to the Earth and ocean tides at numerous locations on the inferred rupture plane of the ETS following the method of Hawthorne and Rubin (2010). The Coulomb stress increment at each tremor time and location is compared with tremor occurrence for the two groups of tremor. Unreasonable results appear if the effective frictional coefficient mu > 0.2, and results are most 'reasonable' when mu is very near or equal to zero. Following passage of the main slip pulse, tremor generation is notably more sensitive to tidal stressing. One kPa of encouraging tidal Coulomb stress boosts the occurrence of tremor after the main slip pulse by about 50% above the average value, while the same amount of discouraging stress decreases the occurrence of such tremor by a similar factor. The greater the encouraging or discouraging stress, the greater the effect. In contrast, tremor in the main slip pulse is much less affected by positive or negative tidal stresses. I interpret the greater sensitivity to tidal stressing of the tremor after the main slip pulse as a measure of the weakening of the fault plane following its initial rupture. Considering up- and down-dip sensitivities to tidal stress, tremor generation on the up-dip region is affected roughly 50% more by both positive and negative tidal stresses than tremor down-dip. Furthermore, for the down-dip tremor, there is less contrast in sensitivity to stress between the tremor at the main slip front and the later tremor, i.e., the fault downdip is both less sensitive to tidal stress and weakens less due to the rupture. These results are consistent with the timing and geometry of Rapid Tremor Reversals, which also indicate weakening of the fault after the main slip front has passed through a region (Houston et al., 2011). RTRs occur on updip parts of the fault, after the main slip front, and at times of encouraging tidal stress (Thomas et al., 2013).

Houston, H.

2013-12-01

398

Inhomogeneity parameter in designing an ion trap  

E-print Network

In designing an ion trap, geometry and rf source should be optimized such that the trap depth is maximized while the ion remain stable. In a quadrupole linear trap, stable parameters $a$ and $q$ are utilized frequently in describing the stability. However, in a surface trap, the trap have to be mapped to the linear quadrupole trap so that $a$ and $q$ can be evaluated. This work explains how to handle them for surface trap designing and how the geometry and rf source affect it. We conclude that the $q$ parameter should be 0.2~0.22 so that the trap is stable.

Weikang Fan

2014-12-26

399

Planning renewal of water mains while considering deterioration, economies of scale and adjacent infrastructure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structural deterioration of water mains and their subsequent failure are affected by many factors, both static (e.g., pipe material, pipe size, age (vintage), soil type) and dynamic (e.g., climate, cathodic protection, pressure zone changes). This paper describes a non-homogeneous Poisson model developed for the analysis and forecast of breakage patterns in individual water mains, while considering both static and

Yehuda Kleiner; Amir Nafi; Balvant Rajani

400

Parameters Describing Earth Observing Remote Sensing Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Earth science community needs to generate consistent and standard definitions for spatial, spectral, radiometric, and geometric properties describing passive electro-optical Earth observing sensors and their products. The parameters used to describe sensors and to describe their products are often confused. In some cases, parameters for a sensor and for its products are identical; in other cases, these parameters vary widely. Sensor parameters are bound by the fundamental performance of a system, while product parameters describe what is available to the end user. Products are often resampled, edge sharpened, pan-sharpened, or compressed, and can differ drastically from the intrinsic data acquired by the sensor. Because detailed sensor performance information may not be readily available to an international science community, standardization of product parameters is of primary performance. Spatial product parameters described include Modulation Transfer Function (MTF), point spread function, line spread function, edge response, stray light, edge sharpening, aliasing, ringing, and compression effects. Spectral product parameters discussed include full width half maximum, ripple, slope edge, and out-of-band rejection. Radiometric product properties discussed include relative and absolute radiometry, noise equivalent spectral radiance, noise equivalent temperature diffenence, and signal-to-noise ratio. Geometric product properties discussed include geopositional accuracy expressed as CE90, LE90, and root mean square error. Correlated properties discussed include such parameters as band-to-band registration, which is both a spectral and a spatial property. In addition, the proliferation of staring and pushbroom sensor architectures requires new parameters to describe artifacts that are different from traditional cross-track system artifacts. A better understanding of how various system parameters affect product performance is also needed to better ascertain the utility of existing datasets and products as well as to specify the performance of new sensors and products. Examples of simulations performed for the Landsat Data Continuity Mission illustrate how various parameters affect system and product performance. Specific examples include the effects of ground sample distance, MTF, and band-to-band registration on various products.

Zanoni, Vicki; Ryan, Robert E.; Pagnutti, Mary; Davis, Bruce; Markham, Brian; Storey, Jim

2003-01-01

401

Maine Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit and Department of Wildlife Ecology, University of Maine  

E-print Network

Maine Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit and Department of Wildlife Ecology, University Fisheries and Wildlife United States Geological Survey United States Fish and Wildlife Service Wildlife of this report in any way is withheld pending specific authorization from the Leader, Maine Cooperative Fish

Thomas, Andrew

402

78 FR 42556 - Maine Yankee Atomic Power Company; Maine Yankee Atomic Power Plant Issuance of Environmental...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...rule changes. Maine Yankee Atomic Power Company (MYAPC) is...DPR-36 for the Maine Yankee Atomic Power Plant (MY). The license, issued pursuant to the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended...to maintain the regulatory structure in place prior to...

2013-07-16

403

Design of a prototype Advanced Main Combustion Chamber for the Space Shuttle Main Engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of a prototype advanced main combustion chamber is underway at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The Advanced Main Combustion Chamber (AMCC) project is being approached utilizing a 'concurrent engineering' concept where groups from materials, manufacturing, stress, quality, and design are involved from the initiation of the project. The AMCC design has been tailored to be compatible with the investment

J. D. Lackey; W. N. Myers

1992-01-01

404

DEB parameters estimation for Mytilus edulis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potential of DEB theory to simulate an organism life-cycle has been demonstrated at numerous occasions. However, its applicability requires parameter estimates that are not easily obtained by direct observations. During the last years various attempts were made to estimate the main DEB parameters for bivalve species. The estimation procedure was by then, however, rather ad-hoc and based on additional assumptions that were not always consistent with the DEB theory principles. A new approach has now been developed - the covariation method - based on simultaneous minimization of the weighted sum of squared deviations between data sets and model predictions in one single procedure. This paper presents the implementation of this method to estimate the DEB parameters for the blue mussel Mytilus edulis, using several data sets from the literature. After comparison with previous trials we conclude that the parameter set obtained by the covariation method leads to a better fit between model and observations, with potentially more consistency and robustness.

Saraiva, S.; van der Meer, J.; Kooijman, S. A. L. M.; Sousa, T.

2011-11-01

405

Main Chamber and Preburner Injector Technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document reports the experimental and analytical research carried out at the Penn State Propulsion Engineering Research Center in support of NASA's plan to develop advanced technologies for future single stage to orbit (SSTO) propulsion systems. The focus of the work is on understanding specific technical issues related to bi-propellant and tri-propellant thrusters. The experiments concentrate on both cold flow demonstrations and hot-fire uni-element tests to demonstrate concepts that can be incorporated into hardware design and development. The analysis is CFD-based and is intended to support the design and interpretation of the experiments and to extrapolate findings to full-scale designs. The research is divided into five main categories that impact various SSTO development scenarios. The first category focuses on RP-1/gaseous hydrogen (GH2)/gaseous oxygen (GO2) tri-propellant combustion with specific emphasis on understanding the benefits of hydrogen addition to RP-1/oxygen combustion and in developing innovative injector technology. The second category investigates liquid oxygen (LOX)/GH2 combustion at main chamber near stoichiometric conditions to improve understanding of existing LOX/GH2 rocket systems. The third and fourth categories investigate the technical issues related with oxidizer-rich and fuel-rich propulsive concepts, issues that are necessary for developing the full-flow engine cycle. Here, injector technology issues for both LOX/GH2 and LOX/RP-1 propellants are examined. The last category, also related to the full-flow engine cycle, examines injector technology needs for GO2/GH2 propellant combustion at near-stoichiometric conditions for main chamber application.

Santoro, Robert J.; Merkle, Charles L.

1999-01-01

406

Coccolithophores in the Gulf of Maine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Earlier this summer, trillions of calcite (limestone) coated phytoplankton, known as coccolithophores, appeared in the waters off the coast of Maine. This true color image of the coccolithophore bloom was acquired on July 11, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The bloom is the large bluish-green patch in the center of the image in the Gulf of Maine. Unlike any other plant in the ocean, coccolithophores surround themselves with microscopic plating made of calcite. These scales, known as coccoliths, are shaped like hubcaps and are only three one-thousandths of a millimeter in diameter. What coccoliths lack in size, they make up in volume. At any one time a single coccolithophore is attached to or surrounded by at least 30 scales. Additional coccoliths are dumped into the water when the coccolithophores multiply asexually, die or simply make too many scales. In areas with trillions of coccolithophores, the waters will turn an opaque turquoise from the dense cloud of coccoliths. (Click to read more about coccolithophores.) Though there are always coccoliths in the Gulf of Maine, the area hasn't seen a bloom like this one since 1989. Currently, NASA researchers are studying the bloom aboard a ferry in the gulf in an attempt to measure the bloom's density and depth. So far the bloom appears to be about 20 to 25 meters thick and contains nearly half a million tons of calcite. Image by Jesse Allen, NASA Earth Observatory; Data courtesy MODIS Land Rapid Response Team

2002-01-01

407

Factors Affecting Willingness to Mentor  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper presents a survey among 300 employees in Northern Italy to assess the willingness to mentor and identify the factors that affect it. Men and respondents with previous mentoring experience indicate a higher willingness to be a mentor. Willingness is affected by personal characteristics that are perceived as necessary for a mentor and the

Ghislieri, Chiara; Gatti, Paola; Quaglino, Gian Piero

2009-01-01

408

BRIEF REPORT Predicting Affective Choice  

E-print Network

BRIEF REPORT Predicting Affective Choice Gaurav Suri Stanford University Gal Sheppes Tel Aviv quantified the role of two basic dimensions of affect--valence and arousal--in determining choice. We predicted choice and outperformed competing models drawn from well-established theoretical views. Finally

Gross, James J.

409

Affect and Graphing Calculator Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on a qualitative study of six high school calculus students designed to build an understanding about the affect associated with graphing calculator use in independent situations. DeBellis and Goldin's (2006) framework for affect as a representational system was used as a lens through which to understand the ways in which

McCulloch, Allison W.

2011-01-01

410

Affect and Self-Regulation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents affect as an essential aspect of students' self-reflection and self-regulation. The introduced concepts of self-system and self-system process stress the importance of self-appraisals of personal competence and agency in affective responses and self-regulation in problem solving. Students are viewed as agents who constantly

Malmivuori, Marja-Liisa

2006-01-01

411

The Main Sequence of Star Clusters  

E-print Network

A novel way of looking at the evolution of star clusters is presented. With a dynamical temperature, given by the mean kinetic energy of the cluster stars, and a dynamical luminosity, which is defined as the kinetic energy of the stars leaving the cluster in analogy to the energy of photons emitted by a star, the dissolution of star clusters is studied using a new dynamical temperature-luminosity diagram for star clusters. The investigation contains a parameter-space study of open clusters of up to N = 32768 single-mass stars with different initial density distributions, half-mass radii, tidal conditions and binary fractions. The clusters show a strong correlation between dynamical temperature and dynamical luminosity and most of the investigated cluster families share a common sequence in such a dynamical temperature-luminosity diagram. Deviations from this sequence are analyzed and discussed. After core collapse, the position of a cluster within this diagram can be defined by three parameters: the mass, the tidal conditions and the binary fraction. Due to core collapse all initial conditions are lost and the remaining stars adjust to the given tidal conditions. Binaries as internal energy sources influence this adjustment. A further finding concerns the Lagrange radii of star clusters: Throughout the investigated parameter space nearly all clusters show a constant half-mass radius for the time after core collapse until dissolution. Furthermore, the ratio of half-mass radius to tidal radius evolves onto a common sequence which only depends on the mass left in the cluster.

Andreas H. W. Kuepper; Pavel Kroupa; Holger Baumgardt

2008-06-24

412

Phytoplankton in the Gulf of Maine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Phytoplankton, microscopic floating plant-like marine organisms (plankton means wanderer) are at the bottom of the marine food chain. They perform photosynthesis using water, carbon dioxide, and sunlight to produce glucose for their own use, as well as oxygen. Humans and all land animals and sea creatures are dependent on phytoplankton. The chlorophyll in phytoplankton can be observed by remote sensing instruments and is used by scientists as a measure of phytoplankton. In this lesson, students will use satellite data to explore and determine the correlation between sea surface temperature, sunlight, and the amount of chlorophyll (phytoplankton) in the Gulf of Maine at various times of year.

413

Space Shuttle Main Engine Public Test Firing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new NASA Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) roars to the approval of more than 2,000 people who came to John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., on July 25 for a flight-certification test of the SSME Block II configuration. The engine, a new and significantly upgraded shuttle engine, was delivered to NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida for use on future shuttle missions. Spectators were able to experience the 'shake, rattle and roar' of the engine, which ran for 520 seconds - the length of time it takes a shuttle to reach orbit.

2000-01-01

414

Design of a main ring cavity  

SciTech Connect

The design of a main ring rf cavity discussed here is part of a Los Alamos-TRIUMF collaboration. Out of three of the recent proposals for advanced hadron facilities (the Los Alamos AHF, TRIUMF KAON, and the European Hadron Facility proposals), the rf cavity requirements for the TRIUMF proposed Driver ring are the most severe. We attempt to meet as many of the TRIUMF requirements as possible in a preliminary cavity version that could be tested in the Los Alamos Proton Storage Ring (PSR) with a coasting beam. 8 refs., 14 figs.

Swain, G.R.

1988-01-01

415

SSME failure detection. [Space Shuttle Main Engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During ground testing of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME), there have been twenty-six major incidents resulting in substantial hardware damage and loss. Historical characteristics, advances in detection technology, and advances in computing technology led to plans for study of an advanced real time SSME test stand failure detection system which would reduce damage and preserve evidence when a failure with major incident potential occurs. This detection system will speed recognition of dangerous engine operation, and quicken the shutdown decision. The scope of this study, SSME characteristics, SSME test history, the problem definition, and some technical issues will be addressed herein.

Cikanek, H. A., III

1985-01-01

416

Radiation dose measurement for various parameters in MDCT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The MDCT parameters affecting radiation dose include tube voltage, tube current, change of beam collimation, and size of the human body. The purpose of this study was to measure and evaluate radiation dose for MDCT parameters. A comparative analysis of the radiation dose according to before and after the calibration of the ionization chamber was performed. The ionization chamber was

Chang-Lae Lee; Hee-Joung Kim; Seong Su Jeon; Hyo-Min Cho; So Ra Nam; Ji-Young Jung

2008-01-01

417

Aircraft parameter estimation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The aircraft parameter estimation problem is used to illustrate the utility of parameter estimation, which applies to many engineering and scientific fields. Maximum likelihood estimation has been used to extract stability and control derivatives from flight data for many years. This paper presents some of the basic concepts of aircraft parameter estimation and briefly surveys the literature in the field. The maximum likelihood estimator is discussed, and the basic concepts of minimization and estimation are examined for a simple simulated aircraft example. The cost functions that are to be minimized during estimation are defined and discussed. Graphic representations of the cost functions are given to illustrate the minimization process. Finally, the basic concepts are generalized, and estimation from flight data is discussed. Some of the major conclusions for the simulated example are also developed for the analysis of flight data from the F-14, highly maneuverable aircraft technology (HiMAT), and space shuttle vehicles.

Iliff, Kenneth W.

1987-01-01

418

Target parameter estimation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of any radar experiment is to determine as much as possible about the entities which scatter the radiation. This review discusses many of the various parameters which can be deduced in a radar experiment, and also critically examines the procedures used to deduce them. Methods for determining the mean wind velocity, the RMS fluctuating velocities, turbulence parameters, and the shapes of the scatterers are considered. Complications with these determinations are discussed. It is seen throughout that a detailed understanding of the shape and cause of the scatterers is important in order to make better determinations of these various quantities. Finally, some other parameters, which are less easily acquired, are considered. For example, it is noted that momentum fluxes due to buoyancy waves and turbulence can be determined, and on occasions radars can be used to determine stratospheric diffusion coefficients and even temperature profiles in the atmosphere.

Hocking, W. K.

1989-01-01

419

The Nature of Transverse Beam Instabilities at Injection in the Fermilab Main Ring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transverse beam instabilities have been observed in the Fermilab Main Ring since 1972. It was well controlled by two active feedback systems until the last fix target run in 1991. The current upgrade of accelerator facilities, where the replacement of the Main Ring by the Main Injector will allow acceleration of higher proton intensities, makes the importance of this issue surface again. Experimental studies were conducted to understand the nature and the cause of these transverse beam instabilities. The interplay between accelerator parameters and the growth rate of transverse beam oscillations is investigated. Some previously puzzling behavior of the Main Ring is now understood because of the knowledge gained from these studies. Experimental techniques were implemented to measure some important parameters of the Main Ring, such as the vertical impedance, bunch form factor, and the wake function. Empirical theory is devised to understand the coupled bunch instability with many distributed gaps, and a satisfactory agreement is obtained between the analysis and the measured data. The cause of the transverse beam instabilities is identified to be the resistive wall impedance. Anomalous behavior in the frequency dependence of the impedance bellow the MHz range suggests that impedance sources other than the resistive wall also exist in the Main Ring. The performance of two active feedback systems is found to be inadequate to meet the goal of the Main Injector accelerator upgrade. Suggestions for hardware improvements and the choice of accelerator parameters are given.

Chou, Ping Jung

420

Intuition, Affect, and Peculiar Beliefs  

PubMed Central

Research with college students has found that intuitive thinking (e.g., using hunches to ascribe meaning to experiences) and positive affect interactively predict ideas of reference and odd/magical beliefs. We investigated whether these results would generalize to a diverse community sample of adults that included individuals with elevated levels of peculiar perceptions and beliefs. We measured positive and negative affect and intuitive thinking through questionnaires, and peculiar beliefs (i.e., ideas of reference and odd/magical beliefs) through structured clinical interviews. We found that peculiar beliefs were associated with intuitive thinking and negative affect, but not positive affect. Furthermore, in no instance did the interaction of affect and intuitive thinking predict peculiar beliefs. These results suggest that there are important differences in the factors that contribute to peculiar beliefs between college students and clinically meaningful samples. PMID:22707815

Boden, Matthew Tyler; Berenbaum, Howard; Topper, Maurice

2012-01-01

421

MEDICANES: database and environmental parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tropical-like cyclones occasionally develop over the Mediterranean Sea, sometimes attaining hurricane intensity and threatening the islands and coastal regions. These storms, recently called medicanes (MEDIterranean HurriCANES), operate on the thermodynamic disequilibrium between the sea and the atmosphere and in this respect, as well as in their visual appearance in satellite images, are much like tropical cyclones. As meteorological observations in maritime areas are scarce, satellite images become a crucial source of information to attempt, for the first time, to build a systematic database of events. In this work, cases were selected from historical IR image data (1982-2005) of Meteosat satellite. Two lists were created based on different criteria: a first list including any candidate storm, and a second one by narrowing the list down to most evident events. Main selection criteria are cyclone size, cyclone eye clarity and system lifetime. This identification was done subjectively. By analyzing both lists of events it was possible to derive characteristic spatial and time distributions. Most of the medicanes evolved on western and central part of the Mediterranean Sea and occurred in autumn and early winter. Another objective of the study is the identification of thermodynamical parameters associated with medicanes development. For that purpose, meteorological conditions existing on the genesis areas of medicanes have been compared against the bulk of ordinary (i.e baroclinic) Mediterranean cyclonic environments. These conditions have been described in terms of thermodynamic indices highlighted in previous studies on hurricanes. Among these, mid-tropospheric relative humidity, an empirically-derived genesis index for the tropical regions and the diabatic contribution to surface-level equivalent potential temperature local tendency are revealed as appropriate discriminative parameters. Finally, mesoscale numerical simulations of our second list medicane events have been designed to test the ability of MM5 model to simulate these extreme, small-scale storms. If these experiments get successful results, the model itself becomes an useful tool to examine additional medicane-prone environmental parameters.

Tous, Maria; Romero, Romu; Ramis, Climent

2010-05-01

422

Analysis of Earthquake Clustering in Parameter Space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The seismic event is described by a number of parameters whose values determine its location in a multidimensional parameter space. Studies of earthquake clustering involve an analysis of distances between the events. When such studies are to be done in the space constructed by any selected set of parameters they meet the essential problem of different scales of the parameters. To solve this problem with the measure of distance we make use of the property of probability distributions of random variables that the cumulative distribution function transforms the random variable of any distribution into the random variable of uniform distribution in [0,1] interval. The cumulative distribution functions of all parameters under study are estimated from parameter values of a set of earthquake by means of the non-parametric, kernel estimator. This transformation of values of parameters of events into values of their respective cumulative distributions equalizes all dimensions is such a way that the distance between points is Euclidean. The data for reconstructing the cumulative distributions can be any relevant for the investigated problem, i.e. a long event series that includes subseries under study, a series preceding the studied subseries, a background seismicity data etc. We apply this approach to analyze seismicity preceding Mw6.5 Kozani-Grevena (Greece) earthquake from 13/05/1995. The considered parameterizations are the interevent time, interevent distance, epicentral distance to the main shock and magnitude. The analysis in moving time windows reveals appearance of anomalous patterns of smaller events in the time - distance subspaces. Some four years before the main shock a simultaneous shortening of the interevent time and interevent distance becomes distinct. The anomalous patterns are less visible when magnitude complements the parameter space. This work was prepared within the framework of the research project No. PBS-Grecja/10/2007, financed by the Ministry of Education and Science of Poland during the period 2007 to 2009.

Lasocki, S.; Karakostas, V. G.

2008-12-01

423

Optimism predicting employees' creativity: The mediating role of positive affect and the positivity ratio  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine how optimism predicts creativity both directly and through the mediating role of positive affect and the positivity ratio (the ratio between the frequency of positive and negative affective states). Five hundred and ninety five employees reported their positive and negative affect, as well as their optimism. Their creativity was reported by supervisors. The main findings are the following:

Armnio Rego; Filipa Sousa; Carla Marques; Miguel Pina e Cunha

2012-01-01

424

Optimism predicting employees' creativity: The mediating role of positive affect and the positivity ratio  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine how optimism predicts creativity both directly and through the mediating role of positive affect and the positivity ratio (the ratio between the frequency of positive and negative affective states). Five hundred and ninety five employees reported their positive and negative affect, as well as their optimism. Their creativity was reported by supervisors. The main findings are the following:

Armnio Rego; Filipa Sousa; Carla Marques; Miguel Pina e Cunha

2011-01-01

425

APS: Active Parameter Searching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

APS finds Frequentist confidence limits on high-dimensional parameter spaces by using Gaussian Process interpolation to identify regions of parameter space for which chisquared is less than or equal to some specified limit. The code is written in C++, is robust against multi-modal chisquared functions and converges comparably fast to Monte Carlo methods. Code is also provided to draw Bayesian credible limits using the outputs of APS, though this code does not converge as well. APS requires the linear algebra libraries LAPACK, BLAS, and ARPACK (ascl:1311.010) to run.

Daniel, Scott F.; Connolly, Andrew J.; Schneider, Jeff

2014-08-01

426

[Human ecology. Which is the main challenge to Russia?].  

PubMed

The main direction in the study of human ecology in Russia today is to provide evidence for how to maintain environmental balance in the biosphere of the Earth, though the above factor also exerts a constantly growing negative impact on the health and life quality of the population. During the years of the reforms in the country, all the principal medical and demographic indices have undergone negative changes. To overcome the medicodemographic crisis should be now a priority problem to be solved in human ecology in Russia. The crisis was mainly caused by the "shock" strategy of the reforms. To eliminate the negative medicodemographic consequences, a strong working motivation should be firstly created for the population, that is to create such conditions that allow people to earn well-deserved living by honest work. All this requires the development of small business, democratization of private property forms of private property, and changes in the Government's policy concerning work payment. Medical scientists should clarify how biological mechanisms, that is negative social, economic and psychological factors, cause a drastic increase in mortality, particularly in the able-bodied population. This process is likely to involve three regulation levels; the central nervous system (dynamic stereotype break, as called by I. P. Pavlov), the neuroendocrine system (great stress, as described by G. Selye), molecular-cellular free radical processes (phenoptosis, as outlined by V. P. Skulachev). Five factors that most negatively affect human health and demographic processes were identified. PMID:12380277

Velichkovski?, B T

2002-01-01

427

Rotation Rates of 8 Main Belt Asteroids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the rotation rates of the 8 main-belt asteroids 205 Martha, 252 Clementina, 506 Marion, 567 Eleutheria, 613 Ginevra, 869 Mellena, 996 Hilaritas, and 1490 Limpopo and discuss future work. These bodies include one P and seven C-class asteroids located at heliocentric distances of 2.3 to 3.6 AU. Seven of the light curves produced useful results; three of the periods are reported here for the first time, one expands on a previous publication, and the remaining three periods support previously published results. The study of main belt asteroids is an important topic because they can give us insight into planet formation and evolution. The focus of this paper is to use photometry to learn rotation periods. Future work will focus on using this information to obtain shape and pole orientation. Knowing the rotation rate, shape and orientation and their dynamics can place constraints on the early solar system. This project was funded by the National Science Foundation Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) program through grant NSF AST-1004872.

Saylor, Dicy Ann E.; leake, M. A.

2011-01-01

428

The Main Ring of Jupiter (clear filter)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ring system of Jupiter was imaged by the Galileo spacecraft on November 9, 1996. In this image the west ansa of Jupiter's main ring is seen at a resolution of 24 kilometers per pixel. The ring clearly shows radial structure that had only been hinted at in the Voyager images. The plot of the brightness of ring as a function of location, going from the inner-most edge of the image to the outer-most through the thickest part of the ring, shows the 'dips' in brightness due to perturbations from satellites. Two small satellites, Adrastea and Metis, which are not seen in this image, orbit through the outer portion of the ansa; their location relative to these radial features will be available after further data analysis. The ring's faint halo is seen to arise in the inner main ring just as it fades. Although most of Jupiter's ring is composed of small grains that should be highly perturbed by the strong Jovian magnetosphere, the ring's brightness drops abruptly at the outer edge.

The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the Galileo mission home page on the World Wide Web at http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

1997-01-01

429

Circadian polymorphisms associated with affective disorders  

PubMed Central

Background Clinical symptoms of affective disorders, their response to light treatment, and sensitivity to other circadian interventions indicate that the circadian system has a role in mood disorders. Possibly the mechanisms involve circadian seasonal and photoperiodic mechanisms. Since genetic susceptibilities contribute a strong component to affective disorders, we explored whether circadian gene polymorphisms were associated with affective disorders in four complementary studies. Methods Four groups of subjects were recruited from several sources: 1) bipolar proband-parent trios or sib-pair-parent nuclear families, 2) unrelated bipolar participants who had completed the BALM morningness-eveningness questionnaire, 3) sib pairs from the GenRed Project having at least one sib with early-onset recurrent unipolar depression, and 4) a sleep clinic patient group who frequently suffered from depression. Working mainly with the SNPlex assay system, from 2 to 198 polymorphisms in genes related to circadian function were genotyped in the participant groups. Associations with affective disorders were examined with TDT statistics for within-family comparisons. Quantitative trait associations were examined within the unrelated samples. Results In NR1D1, rs2314339 was associated with bipolar disorder (P = 0.0005). Among the unrelated bipolar participants, 3 SNPs in PER3 and CSNK1E were associated with the BALM score. A PPARGC1B coding SNP, rs7732671, was associated with affective disorder with nominal significance in bipolar family groups and independently in unipolar sib pairs. In TEF, rs738499 was associated with unipolar depression; in a replication study, rs738499 was also associated with the QIDS-SR depression scale in the sleep clinic patient sample. Conclusion Along with anti-manic effects of lithium and the antidepressant effects of bright light, these findings suggest that perturbations of the circadian gene network at several levels may influence mood disorders, perhaps ultimately through regulation of MAOA and its modulation of dopamine transmission. Twenty-three associations of circadian polymorphisms with affective symptoms met nominal significance criteria (P < 0.05), whereas 15 would be expected by chance, indicating that many represented false discoveries (Type II errors). Some evidence of replication has been gathered, but more studies are needed to ascertain if circadian gene polymorphisms contribute to susceptibility to affective disorders. PMID:19166596

Kripke, Daniel F; Nievergelt, Caroline M; Joo, EJ; Shekhtman, Tatyana; Kelsoe, John R

2009-01-01

430

Positive and negative affective processing exhibit dissociable functional hubs during the viewing of affective pictures.  

PubMed

Recent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies using graph theory metrics have revealed that the functional network of the human brain possesses small-world characteristics and comprises several functional hub regions. However, it is unclear how the affective functional network is organized in the brain during the processing of affective information. In this study, the fMRI data were collected from 25 healthy college students as they viewed a total of 81 positive, neutral, and negative pictures. The results indicated that affective functional networks exhibit weaker small-worldness properties with higher local efficiency, implying that local connections increase during viewing affective pictures. Moreover, positive and negative emotional processing exhibit dissociable functional hubs, emerging mainly in task-positive regions. These functional hubs, which are the centers of information processing, have nodal betweenness centrality values that are at least 1.5 times larger than the average betweenness centrality of the network. Positive affect scores correlated with the betweenness values of the right orbital frontal cortex (OFC) and the right putamen in the positive emotional network; negative affect scores correlated with the betweenness values of the left OFC and the left amygdala in the negative emotional network. The local efficiencies in the left superior and inferior parietal lobe correlated with subsequent arousal ratings of positive and negative pictures, respectively. These observations provide important evidence for the organizational principles of the human brain functional connectome during the processing of affective information. Hum Brain Mapp, 36:415-426, 2015. 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25220389

Zhang, Wenhai; Li, Hong; Pan, Xiaohong

2015-02-01

431

Skipped Stage Modeling and Testing of the CPAS Main Parachutes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Capsule Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) has undergone the transition from modeling a skipped stage event using a simulation that treats a cluster of parachutes as a single composite canopy to the capability of simulating each parachute individually. This capability along with data obtained from skipped stage flight tests has been crucial in modeling the behavior of a skipping canopy as well as the crowding effect on non-skipping ("lagging") neighbors. For the finite mass inflation of CPAS Main parachutes, the cluster is assumed to inflate nominally through the nominal fill time, at which point the skipping parachute continues inflating. This sub-phase modeling method was used to reconstruct three flight tests involving skipped stages. Best fit inflation parameters were determined for both the skipping and lagging canopies.

Varela, Jose G.; Ray, Eric S.

2013-01-01

432

Pavement Thickness Design Parameter  

E-print Network

consuming · Several methods available, but design information generally the same · Terminology: #12;Pavement Thickness Design · Good design uses these parameters: ­ Soil characteristics (subgrade) ­ Soil compaction Distribution ­ HMA ­ PCC #12;Pavement Thickness Design · Soil Resilient Modulus MR ­ Property of the soil

433

Phenological Parameters Estimation Tool  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Phenological Parameters Estimation Tool (PPET) is a set of algorithms implemented in MATLAB that estimates key vegetative phenological parameters. For a given year, the PPET software package takes in temporally processed vegetation index data (3D spatio-temporal arrays) generated by the time series product tool (TSPT) and outputs spatial grids (2D arrays) of vegetation phenological parameters. As a precursor to PPET, the TSPT uses quality information for each pixel of each date to remove bad or suspect data, and then interpolates and digitally fills data voids in the time series to produce a continuous, smoothed vegetation index product. During processing, the TSPT displays NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) time series plots and images from the temporally processed pixels. Both the TSPT and PPET currently use moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite multispectral data as a default, but each software package is modifiable and could be used with any high-temporal-rate remote sensing data collection system that is capable of producing vegetation indices. Raw MODIS data from the Aqua and Terra satellites is processed using the TSPT to generate a filtered time series data product. The PPET then uses the TSPT output to generate phenological parameters for desired locations. PPET output data tiles are mosaicked into a Conterminous United States (CONUS) data layer using ERDAS IMAGINE, or equivalent software package. Mosaics of the vegetation phenology data products are then reprojected to the desired map projection using ERDAS IMAGINE

McKellip, Rodney D.; Ross, Kenton W.; Spruce, Joseph P.; Smoot, James C.; Ryan, Robert E.; Gasser, Gerald E.; Prados, Donald L.; Vaughan, Ronald D.

2010-01-01

434

Stellar Parameter Determination Using Bayesian Techniques.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spectral energy distributions of stars covering the wavelength range from far UV to far IR can be used to derive stellar atmospheric parameters (effective temperature, surface gravity and iron abundance) with a high reliability. For this purpose we are using a method based on Bayesian statistics, which make use of all available photometric data for a given star to construct stellar parameter probability distribution function (PDF) in order to determine the expectation values and their uncertainties in stellar parameters. The marginalized probabilities allow us to characterize the constraint for each parameter and estimate the influence of the quantity and quality of the photometric data on the resulting parameter values. We have obtained low resolution spectroscopy of blue horizontal branch, blue straggler and normal main sequence A, B, G and F stellar parameter standard stars using the McDonald observatory, 2.1m telescope to constrain both synthetic and empirical stellar libraries like Atlas9, MARCS, MILES and Pickles across a wide range in parameter space. This calibration process helps to evaluate the correlations between different stellar libraries and observed data especially in the UV part of the spectrum. When the calibration is complete the Bayesian analysis can be applied to large samples of data from GALEX, SDSS, 2MASS,WISE etc. We expect significant improvements to luminosity classification, distances and interstellar extinction using this technique.

Ekanayake, Gemunu B.; Wilhelm, Ronald J.

2015-01-01

435

Neutrino oscillation parameter sampling with MonteCUBES  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present MonteCUBES ("Monte Carlo Utility Based Experiment Simulator"), a software package designed to sample the neutrino oscillation parameter space through Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithms. MonteCUBES makes use of the GLoBES software so that the existing experiment definitions for GLoBES, describing long baseline and reactor experiments, can be used with MonteCUBES. MonteCUBES consists of two main parts: The first is a C library, written as a plug-in for GLoBES, implementing the Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm to sample the parameter space. The second part is a user-friendly graphical Matlab interface to easily read, analyze, plot and export the results of the parameter space sampling. Program summaryProgram title: MonteCUBES (Monte Carlo Utility Based Experiment Simulator) Catalogue identifier: AEFJ_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEFJ_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU General Public Licence No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 69 634 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 3 980 776 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C Computer: MonteCUBES builds and installs on 32 bit and 64 bit Linux systems where GLoBES is installed Operating system: 32 bit and 64 bit Linux RAM: Typically a few MBs Classification: 11.1 External routines: GLoBES [1,2] and routines/libraries used by GLoBES Subprograms used:Cat Id ADZI_v1_0, Title GLoBES, Reference CPC 177 (2007) 439 Nature of problem: Since neutrino masses do not appear in the standard model of particle physics, many models of neutrino masses also induce other types of new physics, which could affect the outcome of neutrino oscillation experiments. In general, these new physics imply high-dimensional parameter spaces that are difficult to explore using classical methods such as multi-dimensional projections and minimizations, such as those used in GLoBES [1,2]. Solution method: MonteCUBES is written as a plug-in to the GLoBES software [1,2] and provides the necessary methods to perform Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling of the parameter space. This allows an efficient sampling of the parameter space and has a complexity which does not grow exponentially with the parameter space dimension. The integration of the MonteCUBES package with the GLoBES software makes sure that the experimental definitions already in use by the community can also be used with MonteCUBES, while also lowering the learning threshold for users who already know GLoBES. Additional comments: A Matlab GUI for interpretation of results is included in the distribution. Running time: The typical running time varies depending on the dimensionality of the parameter space, the complexity of the experiment, and how well the parameter space should be sampled. The running time for our simulations [3] with 15 free parameters at a Neutrino Factory with O(10) samples varied from a few hours to tens of hours. References:P. Huber, M. Lindner, W. Winter, Comput. Phys. Comm. 167 (2005) 195, hep-ph/0407333. P. Huber, J. Kopp, M. Lindner, M. Rolinec, W. Winter, Comput. Phys. Comm. 177 (2007) 432, hep-ph/0701187. S. Antusch, M. Blennow, E. Fernandez-Martinez, J. Lopez-Pavon, arXiv:0903.3986 [hep-ph].

Blennow, Mattias; Fernandez-Martinez, Enrique

2010-01-01

436

John H. Dearborn Department of Zoology. University of Maine  

E-print Network

John H. Dearborn Department of Zoology. University of Maine Orono. Maine 04469 F. Patricio Ojeda Department of Zoology. University of Maine. Orono. Maine 04469 Present address: Departamento de Ecologra of the Gulf of Maine* Shallow subtidal habitats of the Gulf of Maine harbor important popula- tions of decapod

437

The shuttle main engine: A first look  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Anyone entering the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) team attends a two week course to become familiar with the design and workings of the engine. This course provides intensive coverage of the individual hardware items and their functions. Some individuals, particularly those involved with software maintenance and development, have felt overwhelmed by this volume of material and their lack of a logical framework in which to place it. To provide this logical framework, it was decided that a brief self-taught introduction to the overall operation of the SSME should be designed. To aid the people or new team members with an interest in the software, this new course should also explain the structure and functioning of the controller and its software. This paper presents a description of this presentation.

Schreur, Barbara

1996-01-01

438

MERIT Main Campaign - Reference frame intercomparisons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The polar coordinates obtained in the MERIT Main Campaign were selectively compared and analyzed in an attempt to find the differences between series of polar coordinates, and consequently the differences between various reference frames used by different techniques. The preliminary results demonstrate that the polhode centers obtained from astrometry (BIH), satellite laser ranging (Lageos) and very long baseline interferometry are within an area 6 marcsec (19 cm) across, with satellite Doppler polhode center more than 10 marcsec (32 cm) away, and that the equatorial planes of the inertial systems inherent in all techniques mentioned above are aligned with one another on the order of milliarcseconds, and those of the terrestrial systems used by all techniques but satellite Doppler tilt by the same order. The inclinations of the Doppler terrestrial equatorial plane are in the ranges of 10 to 16 and of -10 to -7 milliarcseconds around the x and y axes.

Mueller, Ivan I.; Wei, Ziqing

439

Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) Operational Capability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Through the years of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) program the engine has evolved and operational capabilities have been demonstrated beyond the original Shuttle requirements. In an effort to enhance flight safety and demonstrate safety features and margins, engines have been analyzed and tested at many different operating points. Various studies through the years evaluating the SSME for different applications both as a boost stage and upper stage have also added insight into the overall operational characteristics of the engine and have further defined safety margins for the Shuttle application. This paper will summarize the operational characteristics of the SSME from the original design requirements to the expanded capabilities demonstrated through analysis, lab testing and especially "off-nominal" engine testing leading to an increased understanding of the engine operational characteristics and safety margins. Basic engine characteristics such as thrust, mixture ratio, propellant inlet conditions, system redundancy, etc. will be examined.

Benefield, Philip; Bradley, Doug

2010-01-01

440

FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH CONDOM USE PROBLEMS DURING VAGINAL SEX WITH MAIN AND NON-MAIN PARTNERS  

PubMed Central

Background Incorrect condom use is a common problem that can undermine their prevention impact. We assessed the prevalence of two condom use problems, breakage/slippage and partial use, compared problems by partnership type, and examined associations with respondent, partner, and partnership characteristics. Methods Data were collected at 3-month intervals over a 12-month period (19992000) among urban STD clinic users. Condom use problems were compared between partnership types using z-tests for equality of proportions. Logistic generalized estimating equations modeling accounted for within-participant correlation of repeated measures. Results Overall, 3,297 respondents reported 9,304 main and 6,793 non-main partnerships; condoms were used at least once in 4,942 (53.0%) and 4,523 (66.6%) of these partnerships respectively. Condom breakage/slippage was reported during 6.0% of uses (5.1% main, 9.4% non-main) and partial use during 12.5% of uses (12.8% main, 11.5% non-main). The proportion of respondents experiencing any condom use problem in the prior 3 months was higher among main compared to non-main partnerships: 39.1% v. 29.9% had either problem; 22.5% v. 19.0% had breakage/slippage only; 21.8% v. 18.7%, partial use; and 8.7% v. 7.1% had both use problems. In multivariable analysis, factors associated with condom use problems varied by partnership type and respondent sex. The most common predictors of problems across models were sex while high and inconsistent condom use. Conclusions This study highlights the diverse set of risk factors for condom use problems at the individual, partner and partnerships levels. PMID:22895490

DAnna, Laura Hoyt; Korosteleva, Olga; Warner, Lee; Douglas, John; Paul, Sindy; Metcalf, Carol; McIlvaine, Elizabeth; Malotte, C. Kevin

2012-01-01

441

Explicit Representation of Main-Chamber Recycling in the OEDGE Boundary Code  

E-print Network

be substantial, resulting in significant levels of "main-chamber plasma recycling" (MCR). MCR affects core available for the boundary plasma. To aid the interpretation of MCR experiments, the OSM- EIRENE-DIVIMP (OEDGE) code package has been extended to allow the explicit inclusion of MCR in the simulation

Stangeby, P. C.

442

Mesoscale meteorology of the New England coast. Gulf of Maine, and Nova Scotia: Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

The North Atlantic Regional Experiment (NARE) domain includes the coastal and near-coastal areas of New England and Atlantic Canada, and the intervening Gulf of Maine. This area has a complex coastline on all scales. The meteorology of the region is affected by the contrasting properties of the land and ocean, especially the temperature contrast. This paper reviews the knowledge of

Wayne M. Angevine; Michael Trainer; Stuart A. McKeen; Carl M. Berkowitz

1996-01-01

443

77 FR 36298 - In the Matter of Maine Yankee Atomic Power Company; Maine Yankee Atomic Power Station...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DPR-36] In the Matter of Maine Yankee Atomic Power Company; Maine Yankee Atomic Power Station; Confirmatory Order Modifying License...issued a Confirmatory Order to Maine Yankee Atomic Power Company (Maine Yankee or the Licensee), to...

2012-06-18

444

Measurement of ocular parameters under various directions of gaze  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lid angles and aperture size are important factors for fitting and on-eye performance of contact lenses. In particular, toric and translating bifocal lenses rely on predictable interaction with the eyelid for successful positioning and orientation. Traditionally, lid assessment and fitting evaluation is performed under slit lamp observation. Observations are limited to primary gaze and nasal or temporal directions. Quantification of lid parameters and lens positioning is subjective and depended on the skill of the practitioner. No commercial instrument is available off the shelf, which would be suitable to measure objectively ocular parameters and/or contact lens positioning under different directions of gaze. This is the likely reason why only one study has been published in which ocular characteristics for different gaze angles were obtained [1]. However, only a limited number of parameters and gaze directions were investigated. Almost all contact lenses are designed for and assessed under primary gaze. Considering that patients constantly change their gaze while wearing contact lenses, the quantification of contact lens movement and changes in ocular parameters with eye movement can contribute substantially to the understanding of lens performance and thereby lead to improved lens designs. This is of particular importance for toric and translating bifocal lenses. Their complex optical and topographical design requires precise positioning, orientation and movement with changes in gaze direction in order to provide adequate vision. Baron [2] suggested that the lower eyelid is the most important factor for lens movement of translating bifocal lenses, but questions still remained on the complete dynamics of on eye behaviour. For toric contact lenses, the rotational orientation is more important than vertical translation to obtain optimum visual correction. Most toric lenses feature a prism ballast design. Blinking movements, mainly of the upper eyelid, interact with the wedge like shape and squeeze the thick part downwards. It has been observed that the upper eyelid does not move in a straight downward movement, but also twists slightly to close the temporal side first [3]. Precise quantification of this motion and how it affects the contact lens movement have not been reported. A new instrument was designed and constructed to provide objective measurements of ocular parameters.

Ehrmann, Klaus; Conrad, Fabian; Papas, Eric B.; Ho, Arthur

2006-02-01

445

Hydrologic modeling with uncertain input parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Erosion risk is recognized as a major threat whose consequences affect urbanized and agricultural areas. Recent assessments of the predictive abilities of erosion models show the difficulty to correctly predict the spatial patterns of erosion and deposition. This is due to the high sensibility of the model to input parameters that contain large spatial and temporal variability. Many studies concluded that model outputs are very sensitive to input hydrological parameters, especially to the saturated hydraulic conductivity. Here, we use an erosion model coupling the Shallow Water equations with the Hairsine-Rose soil erosion which can integrate different sediment size classes. As the scale of modeling is different from the scale of observed or measured data, we use a stochastic distribution of relevant input parameters to represent the micro-scale. A first part of the study concerns the rainfall/runoff model in which the saturated hydraulic conductivity is considered as an uncertain input parameter. A second part is dedicated to the influence of soil parameters in the erosion model. For each part, we evaluate how uncertainties on the inputs impact the surface runoff or the erosion model outputs during various types of rainfall events. We test different stochastic tools to quantify the propagation of uncertainties (Monte Carlo method, Karhunen-Love expansion) and we use numerical test cases representing fields or hillslope to assess the methodology in the context of runoff and soil erosion modeling. Simulation results allow us to know where effort should be concentrated when collecting input parameters and limit output error.

Rousseau, M.; Cerdan, O.; Ern, A.; Le Matre, O.; Sochala, P.

2012-04-01

446

Man-induced activities modify demographic parameters in a long-lived species: effects of poisoning and health policies.  

PubMed

Recent changes in sanitary policies within the European Union (EU) concerning disposal of carcasses of domestic animals and the increase of non-natural mortality factors, such as illegal poisoning, are threatening European vultures. However, the effects of anthropogenic activities on demographic parameters are poorly studied. Using a long-term study (1994-2011) of the threatened Pyrenean Bearded Vulture Gypaetus barbatus population, we assess the variation in the proportion of breeding pairs, egg-laying dates, clutch size, breeding success, and survival following a sharp reduction in food availability in 2005 due to the application of restrictive sanitary policies decreasing livestock carcass availability. We found a delay in laying dates and a regressive trend in clutch size, breeding success, and survival following policy change. The maintenance of specific supplementary feeding stations for Bearded Vultures probably reduced the negative effects of illegal poisoning and food shortages, which mainly affected subadult survival. A drop in food availability may have produced changes in demographic parameters and an increase in mortality due to an increased exposure to contaminated food. As a result, supplementary feeding as a precautionary measure can be a useful tool to reduce illegal poisoning and declines in demographic parameters until previous food availability scenarios are achieved. This study shows how anthropogenic activities through human health regulations that affect habitat quality can suddenly modify demographic parameters in long-lived species, including those, such as survival, with high sensitivity to population growth rate. PMID:24834731

Margalida, Antoni; Colomer, Ma Angels; Oro, Daniel

2014-04-01

447

Constraining Orbital Parameters Through Planetary Transit Monitoring  

E-print Network

The orbital parameters of extra-solar planets have a significant impact on the probability that the planet will transit the host star. This was recently demonstrated by the transit detection of HD 17156b whose favourable eccentricity and argument of periastron dramatically increased its transit likelihood. We present a study which provides a quantitative analysis of how these two orbital parameters affect the geometric transit probability as a function of period. Further, we apply these results to known radial velocity planets and show that there are unexpectedly high transit probabilities for planets at relatively long periods. For a photometric monitoring campaign which aims to determine if the planet indeed transits, we calculate the expected transiting planet yield and the significance of a potential null result, as well as the subsequent constraints that may be applied to orbital parameters.

Stephen R. Kane; Kaspar von Braun

2008-08-13

448

Factors Affecting Option Premium Values  

E-print Network

Factors Affecting Option Premium Values Jason Johnson, Jackie Smith, Kevin Dhuyvetter and Mark Waller* Put Options Hedging in the futures market with options is much like buying an insurance policy to protect commodity sellers against declining...

Johnson, Jason; Smith, Jackie; Dhuyvetter, Kevin C.; Waller, Mark L.

1999-06-23

449

How Are Diet & Exercise Affected?  

MedlinePLUS

... Our Blog Patient Education Pancreas News Basics of Pancreatic Cancer FAQs The Pancreas Types of Tumors Causes Hereditary ... diet & exercise affected? It is very difficult for pancreatic cancer patients to maintain weight for several reasons. Many ...

450

Insight in seasonal affective disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lack of insight complicates the evaluation and treatment of patients with psychotic and affective disorders. No studies of insight in seasonal affective disorder (SAD) have been reported. Thirty patients with SAD diagnosed by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R but no other axis I conditions were treated short-term with light-therapy. Insight was measured with the Scale to Assess Unawareness of

S. Nassir Ghaemi; Gary S Sachs; Claudia F Baldassano; Christine J Truman

1997-01-01

451

Orthogonal experiment and analysis on process parameters of bowl feed polishing (BFP)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the development of science and technology, the demand for high-precision product is increasing continuously. Ultra-smooth surface with sub-nanometer roughness has extensive applications in the field of soft X-ray optics, high power laser and laser gyro. Bowl feed polishing (BFP) technology is an effective ultra-smooth surface processing method, but the polishing process of BFP which is affected by a lot of factors is extremely complex and difficult to control. It is important to understand the effect of the process variables such as abrasive particle size, concentration of abrasive particle, speed of polishing pad, acidity and polishing time in the process of BFP. They are very important parameters that must be carefully formulated to achieve desired material removal rates and surface roughness. Using a design of experiment (DOE) approach, this study was performed investigating the main effect of the each parameter during K9 BFP. A better understanding of the interaction behavior between the various parameters and the effect on removal rate and surface roughness is achieved by using the statistical analysis techniques. In the experimental tests, the optimized parameters combination for BFP which were derived from the statistical analysis could be found for material removal rate and better surface roughness through the above experiment results.

Meng, Kai; Wan, Yongjian; Xu, Qinglan; Yang, Yang

2013-08-01

452

Military display performance parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The military display market is analyzed in terms of four of its segments: avionics, vetronics, dismounted soldier, and command and control. Requirements are summarized for a number of technology-driving parameters, to include luminance, night vision imaging system compatibility, gray levels, resolution, dimming range, viewing angle, video capability, altitude, temperature, shock and vibration, etc., for direct-view and virtual-view displays in cockpits and crew stations. Technical specifications are discussed for selected programs.

Desjardins, Daniel D.; Meyer, Frederick

2012-06-01

453

Environmental Effects on Affect: Density, Noise and Personality.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research findings are reported of a study (N=88 undergraduate males) of molar crowding in urban centers which involved the simultaneous variation of social density, spatial density, noise, and personality as they effect room affect (physical and psychological). Several main effects proved significant. (Author/DC)

Bharucha-Reid, Rodabe; Kivak, H. Asuman

1982-01-01

454

Do Entry Characteristics of Online Learners Affect Their Satisfaction?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study analyzed learner characteristics that affect satisfaction in an online certificate program under two main purposes. The first purpose was to examine relationships among selected variables (age, gender, educational level, and online course experience), learners' initial perceptions (online technology self-efficacy, online learning

Yukselturk, Erman

2009-01-01

455

FACTORS AFFECTING CONSUMER NEGATIVE PERCEPTIONS ABOUT BEEF IRRADIATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study has identified several important factors affecting consumer negative perceptions about beef irradiation. The effects of these factors boil down to two main points: lack of trust in the adequacy and enforcement effectiveness of food safety regulations and consumer ignorance about the irradiation process. This implies dissemination of information about food irradiation and enhancement of consumer trust in the

Senhui He; Stanley M. Fletcher; Arbindra Rimal

2004-01-01

456

How do earthworms affect microfloral and faunal community diversity?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much of the work regarding earthworm effects on other organisms has focused on the functional significance of microbial-earthworm interactions, and little is known on the effects of earthworms on microfloral and faunal diversity. Earthworms can affect soil microflora and fauna populations directly and indirectly by three main mechanisms: (1) comminution, burrowing and casting; (2) grazing; (3) dispersal. These activities change

George G. Brown

1995-01-01

457

How Anthropomorphism Affects Empathy Toward Robots Laurel D. Riek  

E-print Network

How Anthropomorphism Affects Empathy Toward Robots Laurel D. Riek , Tal-Chen Rabinowitch along the anthropomorphic spectrum. We conducted an experiment that measured how people empathized that re- mains unexplored is the degree to which people empathize with robots along the anthropomorphic

Robinson, Peter

458

Effects of Urbanization Factors on Model Parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study mainly explores effects of urbanization factors on hydrograph parameters. Urbanization impacts of the developing\\u000a watershed are evaluated based on rainfallrunoff simulations. A total of 51 rainfallrunoff events occurred from 1966 to 2002.\\u000a Forty of these were calibrated, and effects of urbanization factors on runoff hydrographs resulting from a simple hydrological\\u000a model were assessed. The block Kriging method was

Shin-jen Cheng; Cheng-feng Lee; Ju-huang Lee

2010-01-01

459

Dynamic picture of the main asteroid belt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using the Spectral Analysis Method introduced by Michtchenko et al. (2002), we construct a dynamic portrait of the main asteroid belt. For this task, we use information extracted from the distribution of test particles (which were initially placed on a perfectly rectangular grid of initial conditions) after 4.2 Myr of gravitational interactions with the Sun and five planets, from Mars to Neptune. We illustrate in detail the asteroidal behavior on the dynamical, averaged and frequency maps. On the maps, we superpose information on the proper elements and proper frequencies of real objects, extracted from the data base, Ast- DyS (http://hamilton.dm.unipi.it/astdys), constructed by Milani and Kneevi? (2003). A comparison of the maps with the distribution of real objects allows us to detect dynamical mechanisms acting in the domain under study. These mechanisms are related to meanmotion and secular resonances. We note that the twoand three-body mean-motion resonances and the secular resonances (strong linear and weaker non-linear) play an important role in the diffusive transportation of the objects and the formation of the clumps which could be misidentified as asteroid families. The longlasting action of the resonances, overlaid with the Yarkovsky effect, may explain many observed features of the density, size and taxonomic distributions of the asteroids.

Michtchenko, T. A.; Lazzaro, D.; Carvano, J. M.; Moth-Diniz, T.

2011-10-01

460

GAS MAIN SENSOR AND COMMUNICATIONS NETWORK SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

Automatika, Inc. was contracted by the Department of Energy (DOE) and with co-funding from the New York Gas Group (NYGAS), to develop an in-pipe natural gas prototype measurement and wireless communications system for assessing and monitoring distribution networks. A prototype system was built for low-pressure cast-iron mains and tested in a spider- and serial-network configuration in a live network in Long Island with the support of Keyspan Energy, Inc. The prototype unit combined sensors capable of monitoring pressure, flow, humidity, temperature and vibration, which were sampled and combined in data-packages in an in-pipe master-slave architecture to collect data from a distributed spider-arrangement, and in a master-repeater-slave configuration in serial or ladder-network arrangements. It was found that the system was capable of performing all data-sampling and collection as expected, yielding interesting results as to flow-dynamics and vibration-detection. Wireless in-pipe communications were shown to be feasible and valuable data was collected in order to determine how to improve on range and data-quality in the future.

Hagen Schempf, Ph.D.

2003-02-27

461

MEGARA main optics opto-mechanics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MEGARA is the future integral-field and multi-object spectrograph for the GTC 10.4m telescope located in the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos in La Palma. INAOE is a member of the MEGARA Consortium and it is in charge of the Optics Manufacturing work package. In addition to the manufacturing of 73 elements, the work package includes the opto-mechanics i.e. the opto-mechanical design, manufacture, tests and integration of the complete assembly of the main optics composed by the collimator and camera subsystems. MEGARA passed the Optics Detailed Design Review in May 2013 and will have the Detailed Design Review of the complete instrument early 2014. Here we describe the detailed design of the collimator and camera barrels. We also present the finite elements models developed to simulate the behavior of the barrel, sub-cells and other mechanical elements. These models verify that the expected stress fields and the gravitational displacements on the lenses are compatible with the optical quality tolerances. The design is finished and ready for fabrication.

Castillo-Domnguez, E.; Avils, J. L.; Carrasco, E.; Maldonado, M.; Gil de Paz, Armando; Gallego, J.; Cedazo, R.; Iglesias, J.

2014-08-01

462

Flood inundation map library, Fort Kent, Maine  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Severe flooding occurred in northern Maine from April 28 to May 1, 2008, and damage was extensive in the town of Fort Kent (Lombard, 2010). Aroostook County was declared a Federal disaster area on May 9, 2008. The extent of flooding on both the Fish and St. John Rivers during this event showed that the current Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Flood Insurance Study (FIS) and Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM) (Federal Emergency Management Agency, 1979) were out of date. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a study to develop a flood inundation map library showing the areas and depths for a range of flood stages from bankfull to the flood of record for Fort Kent to complement an updated FIS (Federal Emergency Management Agency, in press). Hydrologic analyses that support the maps include computer models with and without the levee and with various depths of backwater on the Fish River. This fact sheet describes the methods used to develop the maps and describes how the maps can be accessed.

Lombard, Pamela J.

2012-01-01

463

The main auxin biosynthesis pathway in Arabidopsis  

PubMed Central

The phytohormone auxin plays critical roles in the regulation of plant growth and development. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) has been recognized as the major auxin for more than 70 y. Although several pathways have been proposed, how auxin is synthesized in plants is still unclear. Previous genetic and enzymatic studies demonstrated that both TRYPTOPHAN AMINOTRANSFERASE OF ARABIDOPSIS (TAA) and YUCCA (YUC) flavin monooxygenase-like proteins are required for biosynthesis of IAA during plant development, but these enzymes were placed in two independent pathways. In this article, we demonstrate that the TAA family produces indole-3-pyruvic acid (IPA) and the YUC family functions in the conversion of IPA to IAA in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) by a quantification method of IPA using liquid chromatographyelectrospray ionizationtandem MS. We further show that YUC protein expressed in Escherichia coli directly converts IPA to IAA. Indole-3-acetaldehyde is probably not a precursor of IAA in the IPA pathway. Our results indicate that YUC proteins catalyze a rate-limiting step of the IPA pathway, which is the main IAA biosynthesis pathway in Arabidopsis. PMID:22025724

Mashiguchi, Kiyoshi; Tanaka, Keita; Sakai, Tatsuya; Sugawara, Satoko; Kawaide, Hiroshi; Natsume, Masahiro; Hanada, Atsushi; Yaeno, Takashi; Shirasu, Ken; Yao, Hong; McSteen, Paula; Zhao, Yunde; Hayashi, Ken-ichiro; Kamiya, Yuji; Kasahara, Hiroyuki

2011-01-01

464

Space shuttle main engine turbopump transducer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advances in liquid rocket engine technology were required to meet the life and reuseability criteria set by the Space Shuttle Program for the Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSME). To verify the SSME design life, extensive development testing and hardware inspection was required. Each SSME has four turbopumps which are used to pump propellant for combustion. One of these turbopumps which pumps liquid oxygen is the High Pressure Oxygen Turbopump (HPPTP). Using a two stage turbine, the HPCTP produces 29,410 horsepower to pump 69.6 pounds per second of liquid oxygen. One area of hardware inspection and testing to insure engine life and operation was in the area of the rocket engine turbopumps bearings. Bearing life is critical to the overall reusability of the HPOTP. After each development test of the SSME, inspection of many engine parts are made. During inspection of the HPOTP it was observed that some of the bearings in the pump were wearing excessively. The bearings in question were the number 3 and 4 bearings in the pump. To determine the cause of the wear, one HPOTP would be instrumented to monitor the bearing conditions.

Peterson, T.

465

The two main theories on dental bruxism.  

PubMed

Bruxism is characterized by non-functional contact of mandibular and maxillary teeth resulting in clenching or grating of teeth. Theories on factors causing bruxism are a matter of controversy in current literature. The dental profession has predominantly viewed peripheral local morphological disorders, such as malocclusion, as the cause of clenching and gnashing. This etiological model is based on the theory that occlusal maladjustment results in reduced masticatory muscle tone. In the absence of occlusal equilibration, motor neuron activity of masticatory muscles is triggered by periodontal receptors. The second theory assumes that central disturbances in the area of the basal ganglia are the main cause of bruxism. An imbalance in the circuit processing of the basal ganglia is supposed to be responsible for muscle hyperactivity during nocturnal dyskinesia such as bruxism. Some authors assume that bruxism constitutes sleep-related parafunctional activity (parasomnia). A recent model, which may explain the potential imbalance of the basal ganglia, is neuroplasticity. Neural plasticity is based on the ability of synapses to change the way they work. Activation of neural plasticity can change the relationship between inhibitory and excitatory neurons. It seems obvious that bruxism is not a symptom specific to just one disease. Many forms (and causes) of bruxism may exist simultaneously, as, for example, peripheral or central forms. PMID:22035706

Behr, Michael; Hahnel, Sebastian; Faltermeier, Andreas; Brgers, Ralf; Kolbeck, Carola; Handel, Gerhard; Proff, Peter

2012-03-20

466

STS-75 landing closeup (main gear touchdown)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The STS-75 mission comes to a close as the orbiter Columbia swoops down on Runway 33 of Kennedy Space Center's Shuttle Landing Facility. Main gear touchdown occured at 8:58:21 a.m. EST, March 9, 1996. During their 15 day, 17 hour, flight the seven-member crew conducted microgravity research with the U.S. Microgravity Payload (USMP-3), flying for the third time on the Shuttle. The other primary payload was the Tethered Satellite System (TSS-1R), flying as a reflight from an earlier mission, but the satellite was lost when the tether broke just short of its fully deployed length of nearly 13 miles. Leading the STS-75 crew is Mission Commander Andrew M. Allen. The pilot Scott J. 'Doc' Horowitz. Franklin R. Chang-Diaz is the payload commander, while Italian citizen Maurizio Cheli and Swiss citizen Claude Nicollier, both representing the European Space Agency (ESA), and U.S. astronaut Jeffrey A. Hoffman are assigned as mission specialists on the flight. Umberto Guidoni, also of Italy, is a payload specialist representing the Italian Space Agency (ASI).

1996-01-01

467

Mirror symmetry for two-parameter models (I)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study, by means of mirror symmetry, the quantum geometry of the Khler-class parameters of a number of Calabi-Yau manifolds that have b11 = 2. Our main interest lies in the structure of the moduli space and in the loci corresponding to singular models. This structure is considerably richer when there are two parameters than in the various one-parameter models

Philip Candelas; Xenia de La Ossa; Sheldon Katz; Douglas Robert Ogston Morrison

1994-01-01

468

Investigations of ice formation in the Space Shuttle Main Engine 0209 main injector coolant cavity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Severe main combustion chamber wall and main injector baffle element deterioration occurred during tests of Space Shuttle Main Engine 0209. One of the possible causes considered is ice formation and blockage of coolant to these components, resulting from the mixing of leaking hot turbine exhaust gas (hydrogen rich steam) and hydrogen coolant in the injector coolant cavity. The plausibility of ice blockage is investigated through simple mixing calculations for hot gas and hydrogen, investigation of condensation and water droplet formation, calculation of the freezing times for droplets, and the prediction of ice layer thicknesses. It is concluded that condensation and droplet formation can occur, and small water droplets that form can freeze very quickly when in contact with the cold coolant cavity surfaces. Copnservative analysis predicts, however, that the maximum thickness of the ice layers formed is too small to result in significant blockage of the coolant flow.

Richards, D. R.; Charklwick, D. M.

1991-01-01

469

Parameter consistency in disposable lenses.  

PubMed

An evaluation of parameter consistency and edge defects as they might relate to premature lens fracture was undertaken for 2 disposable lens types, 50 Johnson & Johnson Acuvue lenses and 50 Wesley-Jessen FreshLook lenses. Diameter measurements varied from 13.97 to 14.48 mm (mean = 14.28 mm, SD = 0.138 mm) for Acuvue and 14.30 to 14.63 mm (mean = 14.41 mm, SD = 0.064 mm) for FreshLook. Based on previously reported information, these diameter variations for Acuvue may be sufficient to affect lens fitting characteristics. Calculated back surface sagittal depth varied from 3.27 to 3.38 mm (mean = 3.32, SD = 0.029 mm) for Acuvue and 3.68 to 3.87 mm (mean = 3.75 mm, SD = 0.039 mm) for FreshLook. Center thickness was generally consistent across the power range evaluated (-0.50 to -4.00 D) for the FreshLook lenses, and appeared to increase significantly for low minus powers for the Acuvue lenses. Twenty-one (44%) Acuvue lenses and 6 (12%) FreshLook lenses showed edge defects that might contribute to premature lens fracture. PMID:8414390

Gundel, R E; Rosen, J S; Kaplan, E N

1993-08-01

470

Historical Dates of Ice-Affected Flows for 18 Rivers in New England  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Historical dates of ice-affected flows for 18 rivers in New England were compiled and are presented in this report. The length of this record for the rivers ranges from 48 to 71 years, with an average of 62 years. The minimum number of days of ice-affected flow in a water year (October 1 to September 30) ranged from zero on three rivers in south-coastal Maine and coastal New Hampshire to 110 on the Allagash River in northern Maine. The maximum number of days of ice-affected flow in a water year ranged from 106 on the Royal River in south-coastal Maine to 171 on the Allagash River in northern Maine. Six streamflow-< gaging stations in Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont had their latest days of ice-affected flow in the spring of 1939.

Hodgkins, Glenn A.; Caldwell, James M.; Dudley, Robert W.

2003-01-01

471