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1

Deriving reliable fundamental parameters of pre-main-sequence-rich star clusters affected by differential reddening  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an approach that improves the search for reliable astrophysical parameters (e.g. age, mass and distance) of differentially reddened, pre-main-sequence-rich star clusters. It involves simulating conditions related to the early-cluster phases, in particular the differential and foreground reddenings, and internal age spread. Given the loose constraints imposed by these factors, the derivation of parameters based only on photometry may be uncertain, especially for the poorly populated clusters. We consider a wide range of cluster (i) mass and (ii) age, and different values of (iii) distance modulus, (iv) differential and (v) foreground reddenings. Photometric errors and their relation with magnitude are also taken into account. We also investigate how the presence of unresolved binaries affect the derived parameters. For each set of (i)-(v) we build the corresponding model Hess diagram, and compute the root mean squared residual with respect to the observed Hess diagram. The parameters that produce the minimum residuals between model and observed Hess diagrams are searched by exploring the full parameter space of (i)-(v) by means of brute force, which may be time consuming but efficient. Control tests show that an adequate convergence is achieved allowing for solutions with residuals 10 per cent higher than the absolute minimum. Compared to a colour-magnitude diagram containing only single stars, the presence of 100 per cent of unresolved binaries has little effect on cluster age, foreground and differential reddenings; significant differences show up in the cluster mass and distance from the Sun. Our approach proves to be successful in minimizing the subjectiveness when deriving fundamental parameters of young star clusters.

Bonatto, C.; Bica, E.; Lima, E. F.

2012-02-01

2

Parameters affecting MOV performance  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the background status and current research on the motor-operated valve (MOV) disc and stem factor loads. Generic Safety Issue (GSI)-87 Failure of HPCI Steam Line Without Isolation'' and Generic Letter (GL) 89-10 Safety-Related Motor-Operated Valve Testing and Surveillance'' have initiated a great deal of research on MOVs in a relatively short time. Most of this research has concentrated on the motor-operated, rising, stem, wedge gate valve, which is the predominant valve in the GSI-87 applications and is widely used in the systems covered by GL 89-10. The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC), is performing research to assist in the resolution of GSI-87 and the implementation of GL 89-10. This work has identified two friction loads that were not well understood and that have a significant influence on the force required to operate a valve under load. The lack of understanding of one of the friction loads has led to questions about the diagnostic testing performed on MOVs over the last few years. It is also not known how aging (time) will affect these friction loads. This is also a subject of ongoing research.

Watkins, J.C.; DeWall, K.G.; Steele, R. Jr.

1992-01-01

3

Parameters affecting MOV performance  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the background status and current research on the motor-operated valve (MOV) disc and stem factor loads. Generic Safety Issue (GSI)-87 ``Failure of HPCI Steam Line Without Isolation`` and Generic Letter (GL) 89-10 ``Safety-Related Motor-Operated Valve Testing and Surveillance`` have initiated a great deal of research on MOVs in a relatively short time. Most of this research has concentrated on the motor-operated, rising, stem, wedge gate valve, which is the predominant valve in the GSI-87 applications and is widely used in the systems covered by GL 89-10. The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC), is performing research to assist in the resolution of GSI-87 and the implementation of GL 89-10. This work has identified two friction loads that were not well understood and that have a significant influence on the force required to operate a valve under load. The lack of understanding of one of the friction loads has led to questions about the diagnostic testing performed on MOVs over the last few years. It is also not known how aging (time) will affect these friction loads. This is also a subject of ongoing research.

Watkins, J.C.; DeWall, K.G.; Steele, R. Jr.

1992-12-31

4

Parameters Affecting Stopping Sight Distance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sight distance is one of the basic highway design criteria. Research was conducted to evaluate the specific parameters of perception and reaction time, eye height, object height, and braking distance. Current data on each parameter are presented in the re...

P. L. Olson D. E. Cleveland P. S. Fancher L. P. Kostyniuk L. W. Schneider

1984-01-01

5

Rotating biological contactors: a review on main factors affecting performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rotating biological contactors (RBCs) constitute a very unique and superior alternative for biodegradable matter and nitrogen\\u000a removal on account of their feasibility, simplicity of design and operation, short start-up, low land area requirement, low\\u000a energy consumption, low operating and maintenance cost and treatment efficiency. The present review of RBCs focus on parameters\\u000a that affect performance like rotational speed, organic and

S. Cortez; P. Teixeira; R. Oliveira; M. Mota

2008-01-01

6

How do primary and secondary information affect the results of parameter identification for groundwater modeling?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geostatistical inverse problems always utilize both primary information and secondary information to identify subsurface parameters. Many articles investigated inverse algorithms that were used to estimate unknown parameters in a subsurface system, but few of them explore what role the primary and secondary information play and how they affect the results of parameter identification. The main theme of this article is to investigate how the results of identification are affected by head observations quantitatively and qualitatively. The cokriging technique is used as an interpolation tool for estimating unknown parameters in the system. Through several numerical examples the paper demonstrates and answers this question. Keywords: inverse problem, primary information, secondary information, cokriging technique

Wu, C.; Wen, J.; Tsai, M.

2007-12-01

7

Parameters affecting long-term performance of painted galvanised steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to investigate which parameters affect the long-term performance of coil coated galvanised steel sheet. Therefore, the paint adhesion and corrosion resistance of selected painted pre-treated galvanised steel substrates were studied. The systems investigated included chromate-free pre-treatments and primers. The polymer coated panels were tested by using: T-bend, combined cross cut and adhesion, prohesion and

P. Puomi; H. M. Fagerholm; A. Sopanen

2001-01-01

8

Parameters affecting solvent production by Clostridium acetobutylicum in continuous culture  

SciTech Connect

Parameters affecting the production of acetone and butanol by Clostridium acetobutylicum have been studied using chemostats with phosphate, sulfate, or magnesium as growth-limiting factors.Only under phosphate and sulfate limitation and at a pH below 5.0 were the solvents found to be the major fermentation products. Lactate was produced under sulfate limitation above pH 5.0. Magnesium limitation was not appropriate for continuous solvent formation. It was found that a threshold concentration of acid products was required for solvent production. The concentration of the suitable growth-limiting factor had to be in a range which allowed sufficient growth and substrate consumption to obtain these threshold concentrations of butyrate and/or acetate.

Bahl, H.; Gottschalk, G.

1984-01-01

9

Does Cigarette Smoking Affect Seminal Fluid Parameters? A Comparative Study  

PubMed Central

Objective To study the effect of cigarette smoking on seminal fluid parameters, namely; volume, sperm concentration, and motility, as well as morphology, leukocyte infiltration, among males complaining of infertility. Methods Between August 2010 and July 2011, seminal fluid analysis was done for 1438 males who are partners of couples who visited the infertility clinic at Prince Rashid Ben Al Hassan Hospital (PRH) for infertility. The men who fit the inclusion criteria (n=960) were classified into two groups: group a (non-smokers; n=564) and group B (smokers; n=396), which represents 41.25% of the study group. Seminal fluid was collected using masturbation after 3-5 days of abstinence then analyzed for volume, sperm count, sperm concentration, motility and morphology. In order to analyze whether the number of cigarettes smoked per day has an effect on the spermatogram; the smoking men were divided into two subgroups: the heavy smokers (n=266) and non-heavy smokers (n=130). Results A total of 960 adult males were enrolled. Their age ranged between 21 and 76 years, 564 were non-smokers with mean age of 36. 45±6.27 (Mean±SD). Three-hundred-and-ninety-six were smokers with a mean age of 34.35±4.25 (Mean±SD). There was a significant effect of smoking on the motility of sperms and the ratios of abnormality (p<0.005). Concentration appeared not to be affected by smoking. Furthermore, the group of heavy smokers were found to have lower sperm concentrations and a higher percentage of abnormal sperms compared to the non-heavy smokers. Conclusion Cigarette smoking has a deleterious effect on some of the seminal fluid parameters (motility, morphology and leukocyte count) which in turn may result in male subfertility.

Meri, Zakarya Bani; Irshid, Ibrahim Bani; Migdadi, Mohammad; Irshid, Ayat Bani; Mhanna, Somia A.

2013-01-01

10

[Litter decomposition and its main affecting factors in tidal marshes of Minjiang River Estuary, East China].  

PubMed

By using litterbag method, this paper studied the decomposition of the leaf- and flower litters of two emergent macrophytes, native species Phragmites australis and invasive species Spartina alterniflora, and related affecting factors in the Minjiang River estuary of East China. In the decomposition process of the litters, the decay of standing litter (0-90 days) was an important period, and the loss rate of the flower- and leaf litters dry mass of P. australis and S. alterniflora was 15.0 +/- 3.5% and 13.3 +/- 1.1%, and 31.9 +/- 1.1% and 20.8 +/- 1.4%, respectively. During lodging decay period (91-210 days), the loss rate of the flower- and leaf litters dry mass of P. australis and S. alterniflora was 69.5 +/- 0.6% and 71.5 +/- 2.5%, and 76.8 +/- 1.9% and 67.5 +/- 2.1%, respectively. In standing decay period, the decomposition rate of the two plants litters was positively correlated with the litters C/N but negatively correlated to the litters N/P, and the litters P was an important factor limiting the litters decay. In lodging decay period, the effects of the litters C/N, C/P, and N/P decreased, while the environment factors (climate, soil moisture, soil acidity and salinity, and sediment properties) acted more important roles. The differences in the factors affecting the decay of the litters in different decomposition periods were mainly related to the micro-environment and tidal process for the two plant communities. PMID:23285995

Zhang, Lin-Hai; Zeng, Cong-Sheng; Zhang, Wen-Juan; Wang, Tian-E; Tong, Chuan

2012-09-01

11

Importance and sensitivity of parameters affecting the Zion Seismic Risk  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of a study on the importance and sensitivity of structures, systems, equipment, components and design parameters used in the Zion Seismic Risk Calculations. This study is part of the Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP) supported by the NRC Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. The objective of this study is to provide the NRC with results on the importance and sensitivity of parameters used to evaluate seismic risk. These results can assist the NRC in making decisions dealing with the allocation of research resources on seismic issues. This study uses marginal analysis in addition to importance and sensitivity analysis to identify subject areas (input parameter areas) for improvements that reduce risk, estimate how much the improvement dfforts reduce risk, and rank the subject areas for improvements. Importance analysis identifies the systems, components, and parameters that are important to risk. Sensitivity analysis estimates the change in risk per unit improvement. Marginal analysis indicates the reduction in risk or uncertainty for improvement effort made in each subject area. The results described in this study were generated using the SEISIM (Systematic Evaluation of Important Safety Improvement Measures) and CHAIN computer codes. Part 1 of the SEISIM computer code generated the failure probabilities and risk values. Part 2 of SEISIM, along with the CHAIN computer code, generated the importance and sensitivity measures.

George, L.L.; O'Connell, W.J.

1985-06-01

12

The investigation of parameters affecting boron removal by electrocoagulation method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Boron removal from wastewaters by electrocoagulation using aluminum electrode material was investigated in this paper. Several working parameters, such as pH, current density, boron concentration and type and concentration of supporting electrolyte were studied in an attempt to achieve a higher removal capacity. The experiments were carried out by keeping the pH of solution constant and optimum pH of solution

A. Erdem Yilmaz; Recep Boncukcuo?lu; M. Muhtar Kocakerim; Bülent Keskinler

2005-01-01

13

Parameters Affecting Fluidized Motion Conveying of Fly Ash  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fluidized motion conveying system (FMCS) that conveys particulate material over a distance of 7.5 m was developed to investigate the influence of operating parameters on the material mass flow rate and bed depth. The effect of channel length (varied over 7.5 m, 5.5 m, and 3.7 m) was also investigated in relation to the observed variables. It is found that, for a given

S. K. Gupta; V. K. Agarwal; S. N. Singh; V. Seshadri; David Mills

2009-01-01

14

Sensitivity analysis on parameters and processes affecting vapor intrusion risk.  

PubMed

A one-dimensional numerical model was developed and used to identify the key processes controlling vapor intrusion risks by means of a sensitivity analysis. The model simulates the fate of a dissolved volatile organic compound present below the ventilated crawl space of a house. In contrast to the vast majority of previous studies, this model accounts for vertical variation of soil water saturation and includes aerobic biodegradation. The attenuation factor (ratio between concentration in the crawl space and source concentration) and the characteristic time to approach maximum concentrations were calculated and compared for a variety of scenarios. These concepts allow an understanding of controlling mechanisms and aid in the identification of critical parameters to be collected for field situations. The relative distance of the source to the nearest gas-filled pores of the unsaturated zone is the most critical parameter because diffusive contaminant transport is significantly slower in water-filled pores than in gas-filled pores. Therefore, attenuation factors decrease and characteristic times increase with increasing relative distance of the contaminant dissolved source to the nearest gas diffusion front. Aerobic biodegradation may decrease the attenuation factor by up to three orders of magnitude. Moreover, the occurrence of water table oscillations is of importance. Dynamic processes leading to a retreating water table increase the attenuation factor by two orders of magnitude because of the enhanced gas phase diffusion. PMID:22392684

Picone, Sara; Valstar, Johan; van Gaans, Pauline; Grotenhuis, Tim; Rijnaarts, Huub

2012-03-30

15

Visual display of reservoir parameters affecting enhanced oil recovery  

SciTech Connect

This project consists of two parts. In Part 1, well logs, other well data, drilling, and production data for the Pioneer Field in the southern San Joaquin Valley of California were obtained, assembled, and input to a commercial relational database manager. These data are being used in PC-based geologic mapping, evaluation, and visualization software programs to produce 2-D and 3-D representations of the reservoir geometry, facies and subfacies, stratigraphy, porosity, oil saturation, and other measured and model parameters. Petrographic and petrophysical measurements made on samples from Pioneer Field, including core, cuttings and liquids, are being used to calibrate the log suite. In Part 2, these data sets are being used to develop algorithms to correlate log response to geologic and engineering measurements. Rock alteration due to interactions with hot fluids are being quantitatively modeled and used to predict the reservoir response if the rock were subjected to thermally enhanced oil recovery (TEOR).

Wood, J.R.

1996-04-30

16

Modeling of parameters affecting phytate phosphorus bioavailability in growing birds.  

PubMed

The current study was undertaken to establish a population from an unselected random-mating chicken population for the development of a model to predict factors that affect phytate P utilization in growing birds. A population was established from a mating of 40 male and 200 female chickens from the Athens Canadian randombred population. At 4 wk of age, birds were housed in individual metabolic cages and fed a diet containing 1.06% Ca, 0.35% total P, and 0.03% available P. After 3 d of acclimatization, feed consumption (FC) was measured and excreta produced in 3 consecutive d were collected. Individual 4-wk BW, BW gain (BWG), phytate P intake (PPI), inorganic P intake (IPI), Ca intake (CaI), N intake (NI), and energy intake (EI) during the 3 d excreta collection period were also measured. Feed conversion ratios (FCR) and relative growth rate were calculated. Phytate P bioavailability (PPB), Ca bioavailability (CaB), and N bioavailability (NB) were estimated from the disappearance of the nutrients during the passage of feed through the gastrointestinal tract. Energy bioavailability (EB) was measured by bomb calorimetry as the difference in the gross energy of the feed and the energy of the excreta. The major factors affecting PPB were CaB and EB for both sexes. In the males, BW contributed significantly to PPB. However, in the females, NB also contributed significantly to PPB. Faster growing birds tended to have a reduced retention time of feed compared with slow growing birds, and as a result utilized phytate P less. Birds that are able to utilize phytate P better are putatively able to release P for energy utilization. Therefore, the birds that were able to utilize phytate P better were also better energy utilizers. PMID:15285496

Ankra-Badu, G A; Aggrey, S E; Pesti, G M; Bakalli, R I; Edwards, H M

2004-07-01

17

Zirconium oxides formed by hydrolytic condensation of alkoxides and parameters that affect their morphology  

Microsoft Academic Search

When zirconium oxides are formed via hydrolytic condensation of zirconium alkoxides, the particle size and morphology of the resultant zirconia is strongly affected by certain parameters during the condensation. These parameters include: the type of alkyl group in the alkoxide, water\\/alkoxide ratio, molecular separation of species, and the reaction temperature. The particle size and the morphology in turn affect the

Bulent E. Yoldas

1986-01-01

18

Affective State Influences Perception by Affecting Decision Parameters Underlying Bias and Sensitivity  

PubMed Central

Studies of the effect of affect on perception often show consistent directional effects of a person’s affective state on perception. Unpleasant emotions have been associated with a “locally focused” style of stimulus evaluation, and positive emotions with a “globally focused” style. Typically, however, studies of affect and perception have not been conducted under the conditions of perceptual uncertainty and behavioral risk inherent to perceptual judgments outside the laboratory. We investigated the influence of perceivers’ experience affect (valence and arousal) on the utility of social threat perception by combining signal detection theory and behavioral economics. We created three perceptual decision environments that systematically differed with respect to factors that underlie uncertainty and risk: the base rate of threat, the costs of incorrect identification threat, and the perceptual similarity of threats and non-threats. We found that no single affective state yielded the best performance on the threat perception task across the three environments. Unpleasant valence promoted calibration of response bias to base rate and costs, high arousal promoted calibration of perceptual sensitivity to perceptual similarity, and low arousal was associated with an optimal adjustment of bias to sensitivity. However, the strength of these associations was conditional upon the difficulty of attaining optimal bias and high sensitivity, such that the effect of the perceiver’s affective state on perception differed with the cause and/or level of uncertainty and risk.

Lynn, Spencer K.; Zhang, Xuan; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

2012-01-01

19

Simulation and prediction of main rotor, tail rotor, and engine parameters from flight tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the framework of this research project, the main rotor torque, tail rotor torque, engine torque, and main rotor speed of a helicopter in forward flight are estimated by using a state-space model from flight tests data. The state-space model inputs are non-linear terms made of combinations of pilot controls and helicopter states. The model simulates the helicopter out- puts

M N Beaulieu; R M Botez

2008-01-01

20

The Experience of Loneliness: Main and Interactive Effects of Interpersonal Stress, Social Support and Positive Affect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic interpersonal stress is significantly related to psychological distress, loneliness being a critical mediating factor, so alleviating loneliness could reduce psychological distress even in the face of chronic interpersonal stress. It is plausible that positive affect and social support may moderate chronic interpersonal stress-loneliness, as well as having direct effects on loneliness. If so, health promotion interventions to raise positive

Mette M. Aanes; Maurice B. Mittelmark; Jørn Hetland

2009-01-01

21

Macroinvertebrate abundance, water chemistry, and wetland characteristics affect use of wetlands by avian species in Maine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our objective was to determine use by avian species (e.g., piscivores, marsh birds, waterfowl, selected passerines) of 29\\u000a wetlands in areas with low (?1) acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC) in south-eastern Maine. We documented bird, pair, and brood use during 1982– 1984 and in\\u000a 1982 we sampled 10 wetlands with a sweep net to collect invertebrates. We related mean numbers of invertebrates

Jerry R. Longcore; Daniel G. McAuley; Grey W. Pendelton; Carolyn Reid Bennatti; Terry M. Mingo; Kenneth L. Stromborg

22

Macroinvertebrate abundance, water chemistry, and wetland characteristics affect use of wetlands by avian species in Maine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our objective was to determine use by avian species (e.g., piscivores, marsh birds, waterfowl, selected passerines) of 29\\u000a wetlands in areas with low (?1) acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC) in southeastern Maine. We documented bird, pair, and brood use during 1982–1984 and in\\u000a 1982 we sampled 10 wetlands with a sweep net to collect invertebrates. We related mean numbers of invertebrates per

Jerry R. Longcore; Daniel G. McAuley; Grey W. Pendelton; Carolyn Reid Bennatti; Terry M. Mingo; Kenneth L. Stromborg

2006-01-01

23

Effect of the geometric parameters of the EAF bath on the main characteristics of furnace operation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The models of melting a semiproduct in an electric arc furnace (EAF) and metal mixing developed earlier are used to study the effect of the proportion of the bath sizes on the following main technicaleconomic characteristics of a heat: the expenditure of electric energy, the heat time, and the operating time under electric current. The range of the optimal values of the proportion of the EAF bath sizes is determined with allowance for bath stirring with CO bubbles during decarburization. It is useful to increase the bath depth of EAFs operating according to single-slag technology and to classify furnaces according to the type of charge and the method of its loading.

Belkovskii, A. G.; Kats, Ya. L.

2013-06-01

24

Earthquake source parameters for the 2010 January Haiti main shock and aftershock sequence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous analyses of geological and geodetic data suggest that the obliquely compressive relative motion across the Caribbean-North America plate boundary in Hispaniola is accommodated through strain partitioning between near-vertical transcurrent faults on land and low-angle thrust faults offshore. In the Dominican Republic, earthquake focal-mechanism geometries generally support this interpretation. Little information has been available about patterns of seismic strain release in Haiti, however, due to the small numbers of moderate-to-large earthquakes occurring in western Hispaniola during the modern instrumental era. Here, we analyse the damaging MW = 7.0 earthquake that occurred near Port au Prince on 2010 January 12 and aftershocks occurring in the four months following this event, to obtain centroid-moment-tensor (CMT) solutions for 50 earthquakes with magnitudes as small as MW = 4.0. While the 2010 January main shock exhibited primarily strike-slip motion on a steeply dipping nodal plane (strike=250°, dip=71° and rake=22°), we find that nearly all of the aftershocks show reverse-faulting motion, typically on high-angle (30°-45°) nodal planes. Two small aftershocks (MW 4.5 and 4.6), located very close to the main shock epicentre, show strike-slip faulting with geometries similar to the main shock. One aftershock located off the south coast of Haiti shows low-angle thrust faulting. We also examine earthquakes occurring in this region from 1977-2009 successful analysis of four such events provides evidence for both strike-slip and reverse faulting. The pattern of seismic strain release in southern Haiti thus indicates that partitioning of plate motion between transcurrent and reverse structures extends far west within Hispaniola. While we see limited evidence for low-angle underthrusting offshore, most reverse motion appears to occur on high-angle fault structures adjacent to the Enriquillo fault. Our results highlight the need to incorporate seismogenic slip on compressional structures into hazard assessments for southern Haiti.

Nettles, Meredith; Hjörleifsdóttir, Vala

2010-10-01

25

LARGE SCALE DISTRIBUTED PARAMETER MODEL OF MAIN MAGNET SYSTEM AND FREQUENCY DECOMPOSITION ANALYSIS  

SciTech Connect

Large accelerator main magnet system consists of hundreds, even thousands, of dipole magnets. They are linked together under selected configurations to provide highly uniform dipole fields when powered. Distributed capacitance, insulation resistance, coil resistance, magnet inductance, and coupling inductance of upper and lower pancakes make each magnet a complex network. When all dipole magnets are chained together in a circle, they become a coupled pair of very high order complex ladder networks. In this study, a network of more than thousand inductive, capacitive or resistive elements are used to model an actual system. The circuit is a large-scale network. Its equivalent polynomial form has several hundred degrees. Analysis of this high order circuit and simulation of the response of any or all components is often computationally infeasible. We present methods to use frequency decomposition approach to effectively simulate and analyze magnet configuration and power supply topologies.

ZHANG,W.; MARNERIS, I.; SANDBERG, J.

2007-06-25

26

Patients with uncomplicated coronary artery disease have reduced heart rate variability mainly affecting vagal tone  

PubMed Central

AIM—To investigate whether uncomplicated chronic coronary artery disease causes changes in heart rate variability and if so, whether the heart rate variability pattern is different from that described in patients with acute myocardial infarction.?METHODS—Heart rate variability was studied in 65 patients with angina who had no previous myocardial infarcts, no other diseases, and were on no drug that could influence the sinus node. Results were compared with 33 age matched healthy subjects. The diagnosis of coronary artery disease in angina patients was established by coronary angiography in 58, by thallium scintigraphy in six, and by exercise test only in one. Patients and controls were Holter monitored 24 hours outside hospital, and heart rate variability was calculated in the frequency domain as global power (GP: 0.01-1.00 Hz), low frequency peak (LF: 0.04-0.15 Hz), high frequency peak (HF: 0.15-0.40 Hz), LF/HF in ms2, and in the time domain as SDNN (SD of normal RR intervals), SDANN (SD of all five minute mean normal RR intervals), SD (mean of all five minute SDs of mean RR intervals), rMSSD (root mean square of differences of successive normal RR intervals) (all in ms), and pNN50 (proportion of adjacent normal RR intervals differing more than 50 ms from the preceding RR interval) as per cent.?RESULTS—The mean age in patients and controls was 60.4 (range 32-81) and 59.1 (32-77) years, respectively (NS), the male/female ratio, 57/65 and 24/33 (NS), and the mean time of Holter monitoring, 23.0 (18-24) and 22.8 (18-24) hours (NS). Mortality in angina patients was 0% (0/65) at one year, 0% (0/56) at two years, and 3% (1/33) at three years. Compared with healthy subjects angina patients showed a reduction in GP (p = 0.007), HF (p = 0.02), LF (p = 0.02), SD (p = 0.02), rMSSD (p = 0.01), and pNN50 (p = 0.01). No significant difference was found in RR, LF/HF, SDNN, or SDANN.?CONCLUSIONS—Uncomplicated coronary artery disease without previous acute myocardial infarction was associated with reduced high and low frequency heart rate variability, including vagal tone. SDANN and SDNN, expressing ultra low and very low frequencies which are known to reflect prognosis after acute myocardial infarction, were less affected. This is in agreement with the good prognosis in uncomplicated angina in this study.???Keywords: heart rate variability; angina pectoris; coronary artery disease; myocardial infarction; prognosis

Wennerblom, B; Lurje, L; Tygesen, H; Vahisalo, R; Hjalmarson, A

2000-01-01

27

Analysis of site parameters affecting natural attenuation in saturated soil. Master's thesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the natural attenuation mechanisms and some of the parameters affecting those mechanisms in the saturated zone. A literature search revealed numerous studies of various attenuation and the associated parameters. Much of the literature emphasized biodegradation as the most promising attenuation mechanism. BIOPLUME II(TM), a fate and transport model, was used to simulate the fate and transport of

1993-01-01

28

A Method to Relate the Affecting Parameters and Estimate Dilution in Coal Mines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study provides an overview of the various issues influencing Out-of-Seam Dilution (OSD) in longwall mining method. The collected data has been statistically analyzed to examine the effect of the some factors causing OSD in front of the longwall mining face. Multiple parameter regression analysis was conducted on affecting parameters and the OSD. The SPSS (Statistics Package for Social Sciences)

Gholamreza Saeedi; Bahram Rezai; Koroush Shariar; Kazem Oraee; C. Karpuz

2009-01-01

29

Parameters affecting water-hammer wave attenuation, shape and timing—Part 1: Mathematical tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

This two-part paper investigates key parameters that may affect the pressurewaveform predicted by the classical theory ofwater-hammer. Shortcomings in the prediction of pressure wave attenuation, shape and timing originate from violation of assumptions made in the derivation of the classical waterhammer equations. Possible mechanisms that may significantly affect pressure waveforms include unsteady friction, cavitation (including column separation and trapped air

Anton Bergant; Arris S. Tijsseling; John P. Vítkovský; Dídia I. C. Covas; Angus R. Simpson; Martin F. Lambert

2008-01-01

30

Main Parameters of Soil Quality and it's Management Under Changing Climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reviewing Paper Introduction: Malcolm summarised the topic of soil quality and it's management in a well synthetized form in 2000. So, the soils are fundamental to the well-being and productivity of agricultural and natural ecosystems. Soil quality is a concept being developed to characterize the usefulness and health of soils. Soil quality includes soil fertility, potential productivity, contaminant levels and their effects, resource sustainability and environmental quality. A general definition of soil quality is the degree of fitness of a soil for a specific use. The existence of multiple definitions suggests that the soil quality concept continues to evolve (Kádár, 1992; Várallyay, 1992, 1994, 2005; Németh, 1996; Malcolm, 2000; Márton, 2005; Márton et al. 2007). Recent attention has focused on the sustainability of human uses of soil, based on concerns that soil quality may be declining (Boehn and Anderson, 1997). We use sustainable to mean that a use or management of soil will sustain human well-being over time. Lal (1995) described the land resources of the world (of which soil is one component) as "finite, fragile, and nonrenewable," and reported that only about 22% (3.26 billion ha) of the total land area on the globe is suitable for cultivation and at present, only about 3% (450 million ha) has a high agricultural production capacity. Because soil is in large but finite supply, and some soil components cannot be renewed within a human time frame, the condition of soils in agriculture and the environment is an issue of global concern (Howard, 1993; FAO, 1997). Concerns include soil losses from erosion, maintaining agricultural productivity and system sustainability, protecting natural areas, and adverse effects of soil contamination on human health (Haberern, 1992; Howard, 1993; Sims et al., 1997). Parr et al. (1992) state, "...soil degradation is the single most destructive force diminishing the world's soil resource base." Soil quality guidelines are intended to protect the ability of ecosystems to function properly (Kádár, 1992; Várallyay, 1992, 1994, 2005; Cook and Hendershot, 1996; Németh, 1996; Malcolm, 2000; Márton, 2005; Márton et al. 2007). The Hungarian Ministry of Environment and Water (HMEW, 2004) suggests that the Hungarian Regions should adopt a national policy "...that seeks to conserve and enhance soil quality...". Useful evaluation of soil quality requires agreement about why soil quality is important, how it is defined, how it should be measured, and how to respond to measurements with management, restoration, or conservation practices. Because determining soil quality requires one or more value judgments and because we have much to learn about soil, these issues are not easily addressed (Várallyay, 1992, 1994, 2005; Cook and Hendershot, 1996; Németh, 1996; Malcolm, 2000). Definitions of soil quality have been based both on human uses of soil and on the functions of soil within natural and agricultural ecosystems. For purposes of this work, we are showing soil quality within the context of managed agricultural ecosystems. To many in agriculture and agricultural research, productivity is analogous to soil quality. Maintaining soil quality is also a human health concern because air, groundwater and surface water consumed by humans can be adversely affected by mismanaged and contaminated soils, and because humans may be exposed to contaminated soils in residential areas (Kádár, 1992; Várallyay, 2005; Cook and Hendershot, 1996; Németh, 1996; Malcolm, 2000; Márton et al. 2007). Contamination may include heavy metals, toxic elements, excess nutrients, volatile and nonvolatile organics, explosives, radioactive isotopes and inhalable fibers (Sheppard et al., 1992; Cook and Hendershot, 1996). Soil quality is not determined by any single conserving or degrading process or property, and soil has both dynamic and relatively static properties that also vary spatially (Carter et al., 1997). Gregorich et al. (1994) state that "soil quality is a composite me

László Phd, M., ,, Dr.

2009-04-01

31

Correlation between nitrate concentration in groundwater and parameters affecting aquifer intrinsic vulnerability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is the result of a study which was carried out in order to verify if the traditional methods to evaluate the intrinsic vulnerability or vulnerability related parameters, are able to clarify the problem of nitrate pollution in groundwater. In particular, the aim was to evaluate limitations and problems connected to aquifer vulnerability methods applied to nitrate contamination prevision in groundwater. The investigation was carried out by comparing NO3 - concentrations, measured in March and November 2004 in the shallow aquifer, and the vulnerability classes, obtained by using GOD and TOT methods. Moreover, it deals with a comparison between NO3 - concentrations and single parameters (depth to water table, land use and nitrogen input). The study area is the plain sector of Piemonte (Northern Italy), where an unconfined aquifer nitrate contamination exists. In this area the anthropogenic presence is remarkable and the input of N-fertilizers and zootechnical effluents to the soil cause a growing amount of nitrates in groundwater. This approach, used in a large area (about 10,000 km2) and in several monitoring wells (about 500), allowed to compare the efficiency of different vulnerability methods and to verify the importance of every parameter on the nitrate concentrations in the aquifer. Furthermore it allowed to obtain interesting correlations in different hydrogeological situations. Correlations between depth to water table, land use and nitrogen input to the soil with nitrate concentrations in groundwater show unclear situations: in fact these comparisons describe the phenomenon trend and highlight the maximum nitrate concentrations for each circumstance but often show wide ranges of possible nitrate concentrations. The same situation could be observed by comparing vulnerability indexes and nitrate concentrations in groundwater. These results suggest that neither single parameters nor vulnerability methods (GOD and TOT) are able to describe individually the complex phenomena affecting nitrate concentrations in soil, subsoil and groundwater. In particular, the traditional methods for vulnerability analysis do not analyze physical processes in aquifers, such as denitrification and nitrate dilution. According to a recent study in the shallow unconfined aquifer of the Piemonte plain, dilution can be considered as the main cause for nitrate attenuation in groundwater.

Debernardi, Laura; de Luca, Domenico Antonio; Lasagna, Manuela

2008-08-01

32

Parameters affecting water-hammer wave attenuation, shape and timing—Part 2: Case studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This two-part paper investigates parameters that may significantly affect water-hammer wave attenuation, shape and timing. Possible sources that may affect the waveform predicted by classical water-hammer theory include unsteady friction, cavitation (including column separation and trapped air pockets), a number of fluid–structure interaction effects, viscoelastic behaviour of the pipe-wall material, leakages and blockages. Part 1 of this two-part paper presents

Anton Bergant; Arris S. Tijsseling; John P. Vítkovský; Dídia I. C. Covas; Angus R. Simpson; Martin F. Lambert

2008-01-01

33

Measures of GCM Performance as Functions of Model Parameters Affecting Clouds and Radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This abstract is one of three related presentations at this meeting dealing with several issues surrounding optimal parameter and uncertainty estimation of model predictions of climate. Uncertainty in model predictions of climate depends in part on the uncertainty produced by model approximations or parameterizations of unresolved physics. Evaluating these uncertainties is computationally expensive because one needs to evaluate how arbitrary choices for any given combination of model parameters affects model performance. Because the computational effort grows exponentially with the number of parameters being investigated, it is important to choose parameters carefully. Evaluating whether a parameter is worth investigating depends on two considerations: 1) does reasonable choices of parameter values produce a large range in model response relative to observational uncertainty? and 2) does the model response depend non-linearly on various combinations of model parameters? We have decided to narrow our attention to selecting parameters that affect clouds and radiation, as it is likely that these parameters will dominate uncertainties in model predictions of future climate. We present preliminary results of ~20 to 30 AMIPII style climate model integrations using NCAR's CCM3.10 that show model performance as functions of individual parameters controlling 1) critical relative humidity for cloud formation (RHMIN), and 2) boundary layer critical Richardson number (RICR). We also explore various definitions of model performance that include some or all observational data sources (surface air temperature and pressure, meridional and zonal winds, clouds, long and short-wave cloud forcings, etc...) and evaluate in a few select cases whether the model's response depends non-linearly on the parameter values we have selected.

Jackson, C.; Mu, Q.; Sen, M.; Stoffa, P.

2002-05-01

34

How does the host population's network structure affect the estimation accuracy of epidemic parameters?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When an Infectious disease where to prevail throughout the population, epidemic parameters such as the basic reproduction ratio, initial point of infection etc. are estimated from the time series data of infected population. However, it is unclear how does the structure of host population affects this estimation accuracy. In other words, what kind of city is difficult to estimate its epidemic parameters? To answer this question, epidemic data are simulated by constructing a commuting network with different network structure and running the infection process over this network. From the given time series data for each network structure, we would like to analyzed estimation accuracy of epidemic parameters.

Yashima, Kenta; Ito, Kana; Nakamura, Kazuyuki

2013-03-01

35

Analysis of site parameters affecting natural attenuation in saturated soil. Master's thesis  

SciTech Connect

This study investigated the natural attenuation mechanisms and some of the parameters affecting those mechanisms in the saturated zone. A literature search revealed numerous studies of various attenuation and the associated parameters. Much of the literature emphasized biodegradation as the most promising attenuation mechanism. BIOPLUME II(TM), a fate and transport model, was used to simulate the fate and transport of contaminant plume. The effects of the model parameters were investigated by observing the distance a contaminant plume was expected to migrate over a fifty year period. The investigation was limited by the model which excludes chemical reactions and some physical and physiochemical reactions. The model simulations indicated that parameters which exhibited significant influence on natural attenuation include hydraulic conductivity, reaeration, and coefficient of anaerobic biodegradation.

Potts, W.H.

1993-09-01

36

Transfecting mammalian cells: optimization of critical parameters affecting calcium-phosphate precipitate formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA-calcium phosphate co-precipitates arise spontaneously in supersaturated solutions. Highly effective precipitates for transfection purposes, however, can be generated only in a very narrow range of physico-chemical conditions that control the initiation and growth of precipitate complexes. The concentrations of calcium and phosphate are the main factors influencing characteristics of the precipitate complex, but other parameters, such as temperature, DNA concentration

Martin Jordan; Annette Schallhorn; Florian M. Wurm

1996-01-01

37

Multivariate analysis of respiratory problems and their connection with meteorological parameters and the main biological and chemical air pollutants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of the study is to analyse the joint effect of biological (pollen) and chemical air pollutants, as well as meteorological variables, on the hospital admissions of respiratory problems for the Szeged region in Southern Hungary. The data set used covers a nine-year period (1999-2007) and is unique in the sense that it includes—besides the daily number of respiratory hospital admissions—not just the hourly mean concentrations of CO, PM10, NO, NO2, O3 and SO2 with meteorological variables (temperature, global solar flux, relative humidity, air pressure and wind speed), but two pollen variables (Ambrosia and total pollen excluding Ambrosia) as well. The analysis was performed using three age categories for the pollen season of Ambrosia and the pollen-free season. Meteorological elements and air pollutants are clustered in order to define optimum environmental conditions of high patient numbers. ANOVA was then used to determine whether cluster-related mean patient numbers differ significantly. Furthermore, two novel procedures are applied here: factor analysis including a special transformation and a time-varying multivariate linear regression that makes it possible to determine the rank of importance of the influencing variables in respiratory hospital admissions, and also compute the relative importance of the parameters affecting respiratory disorders. Both techniques revealed that Ambrosia pollen is an important variable that influences hospital admissions (an increase of 10 pollen grains m-3 can imply an increase of around 24% in patient numbers). The role of chemical and meteorological parameters is also significant, but their weights vary according to the seasons and the methods. Clearer results are obtained for the pollination season of Ambrosia. Here, a 10 ?g m-3 increase in O3 implies a patient number response from -17% to +11%. Wind speed is a surprisingly important variable, where a 1 m s-1 rise may result in a hospital admission reduction of up to 42-45%.

Matyasovszky, István; Makra, László; Bálint, Beatrix; Guba, Zoltán; Sümeghy, Zoltán

2011-08-01

38

Identifying Critical Road Geometry Parameters Affecting Crash Rate and Crash Type  

PubMed Central

The objective of this traffic safety investigation was to find critical road parameters affecting crash rate (CR). The study was based on crash and road maintenance data from Western Sweden. More than 3000 crashes, reported from 2000 to 2005 on median-separated roads, were collected and combined with road geometric and surface data. The statistical analysis showed variations in CR when road elements changed confirming that road characteristics affect CR. The findings indicated that large radii right-turn curves were more dangerous than left curves, in particular, during lane changing manoeuvres. However sharper curves are more dangerous in both left and right curves. Moreover, motorway carriageways with no or limited shoulders have the highest CR when compared to other carriageway widths, while one lane carriageway sections on 2+1 roads were the safest. Road surface results showed that both wheel rut depth and road roughness have negative impacts on traffic safety.

Othman, Sarbaz; Thomson, Robert; Lanner, Gunnar

2009-01-01

39

A study of factors affecting highway accident rates using the random-parameters tobit model.  

PubMed

A large body of previous literature has used a variety of count-data modeling techniques to study factors that affect the frequency of highway accidents over some time period on roadway segments of a specified length. An alternative approach to this problem views vehicle accident rates (accidents per mile driven) directly instead of their frequencies. Viewing the problem as continuous data instead of count data creates a problem in that roadway segments that do not have any observed accidents over the identified time period create continuous data that are left-censored at zero. Past research has appropriately applied a tobit regression model to address this censoring problem, but this research has been limited in accounting for unobserved heterogeneity because it has been assumed that the parameter estimates are fixed over roadway-segment observations. Using 9-year data from urban interstates in Indiana, this paper employs a random-parameters tobit regression to account for unobserved heterogeneity in the study of motor-vehicle accident rates. The empirical results show that the random-parameters tobit model outperforms its fixed-parameters counterpart and has the potential to provide a fuller understanding of the factors determining accident rates on specific roadway segments. PMID:22269550

Anastasopoulos, Panagiotis Ch; Mannering, Fred L; Shankar, Venky N; Haddock, John E

2011-10-10

40

Parameters affecting thermal fatigue behavior of 60Sn-40Pb solder joints  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solder joints in electronic packages experience cyclical thermally induced strain when temperature fluctuations are encountered in service. This study investigates three parameters that affect the microstructure and therefore the thermal fatigue behavior of 60Sn-40Pb solder joints. These parameters are: 1) the effect of a tensile component in thermal fatigue, 2) solder joint thickness variations, and 3) hold time variations at the elevated temperature portion of the thermal cycle. Solder joints were thermally fatigued in a tension/compression deformation mode. Cracks developed both in the interfacial intermetallic layer (early in thermal fatigue) and in the coarsened regions of the microstructure of the solder joint (after many more cycles). The effect of joint thickness on solder joints thermally fatigued in shear was also explored. Solder joint thickness was found not to significantly affect fatigue lifetimes. The effect of an increase in the hold time at the elevated temperature portion of the thermal fatigue cycle was also investigated. It was found that time spent at the high temperature end of the fatigue cycle does not determine solder joint lifetime, rather it is the combination of the amount of deformation induced during thermal fatigue in concert with the elevated temperature.

Frear, D.; Grivas, D.; Morris, J. W.

1989-11-01

41

Guidebook for performance assessment parameters used in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant compliance certification application. Volume 1: Main report  

SciTech Connect

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Compliance Certification Application (CCA) Performance Assessment (PA) Parameter Database and its ties to supporting information evolved over the course of two years. When the CCA was submitted to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in October 1996, information such as identification of parameter value or distribution source was documented using processes established by Sandia National Laboratories WIPP Quality Assurance Procedures. Reviewers later requested additional supporting documentation, links to supporting information, and/or clarification for many parameters. This guidebook is designed to document a pathway through the complex parameter process and help delineate flow paths to supporting information for all WIPP CCA parameters. In addition, this report is an aid for understanding how model parameters used in the WIPP CCA were developed and qualified. To trace the source information for a particular parameter, a dual-route system was established. The first route uses information from the Parameter Records Package as it existed when the CCA calculations were run. The second route leads from the EPA Parameter Database to additional supporting information.

Howarth, S.M.; Martell, M.A.; Weiner, R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lattier, C. [GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1998-06-01

42

Hippocampal damage impairs recognition memory broadly, affecting both parameters in two prominent models of memory  

PubMed Central

Declarative memory is thought to rely on two processes: recollection and familiarity. Recollection involves remembering specific details about the episode in which an item was encountered, and familiarity involves simply knowing that an item was presented even when no information can be recalled about the episode itself. There has been debate whether the hippocampus supports only recollection or whether it supports both processes. We approached this issue in a relatively theory-neutral way by fitting two prominent models that have been used to describe recognition memory: dual process signal detection and unequal variance signal detection. Both models yield two parameters of interest when fit to recognition memory data. The dual process signal detection model yields estimates of recollection (r) and familiarity (d?). The unequal variance signal detection model yields estimates of the ratio of the variance of target and foil memory strength distributions (?target/?foil) and the difference in the means of the two distributions (d). We asked how the two parameters of each model were affected by hippocampal damage. We tested five patients with well-characterized bilateral lesions thought to be limited to the hippocampus and age-matched controls. The patients exhibited a broad memory deficit that markedly reduced the value of both parameters in both models. In addition, the pattern of results exhibited by the patients was recapitulated in healthy controls as the delay between learning and testing was extended. Thus, hippocampal damage impairs both component processes of recognition memory.

Dede, Adam J. O.; Wixted, John T.; Hopkins, Ramona O.; Squire, Larry R.

2013-01-01

43

Analysis of Process Parameters Affecting Spray-Dried Oily Core Nanocapsules Using Factorial Design  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this work was to optimize the process parameters required for the production of spray-dried oily core nanocapsules (NCs) with targeted size and drug yield using a two-level four-factor fractional factorial experimental design (FFED). The coded process parameters chosen were inlet temperature (X1), feed flow rate (X2), atomizing air flow (X3), and aspiration rate (X4). The produced NCs were characterized for size, yield, morphology, and powder flowability by dynamic light scattering, electron microscope, Carr’s index, and Hausner ratio measurement, respectively. The mean size of produced NCs ranged from 129.5 to 444.8 nm, with yield varying from 14.1% to 31.1%. The statistical analysis indicated an adequate model fit in predicting the effect of process parameters affecting yield. Predicted condition for maximum yield was: inlet temperature 140°C, atomizing air flow 600 L/h, feed flow rate 0.18 L/h, and aspiration air flow set at 100%, which led to a yield of 30.8%. The morphological analysis showed the existence of oily core and spherical nanostructure. The results from powder flowability analysis indicated average Carr’s index and Hausner ratio of 42.77% and 1.76, respectively. Spray-dried oily core NCs with size lower than 200 nm were successfully produced, and the FFED proved to be an effective approach in predicting the production of spray-dried NCs of targeted yield.

Zhang, Tao

2010-01-01

44

Model parameter uncertainties in a dual-species biofilm competition model affect ecological output parameters much stronger than morphological ones.  

PubMed

Bacterial biofilms are complex microbial depositions on immersed interfaces that form wherever the environmental conditions sustain microbial growth. Despite their name, biofilms can develop in highly irregular structures. Recently several mathematical concepts have been introduced to model these spatially structured microbial populations. Regardless of the type of model, they all have, even for microbially relatively simple systems, many parameters which generally are known at most approximately. We investigate the effect of uncertainties in model parameters on four morphological and four ecological output parameters using a nonlinear diffusion model for a biofilm in which two species compete for a shared nutrient. To this end we conduct an extensive computer simulation experiment for two different levels of data uncertainty, three different hydrodynamic conditions, and two different scenarios of bulk substrate availability. Our results indicate that input model parameter uncertainties have a much larger effect on ecological than on morphological output parameters. PMID:21669210

Muhammad, Nasim; Eberl, Hermann J

2011-06-06

45

Maternal body mass index does not affect neonatal umbilical artery blood gas parameters.  

PubMed

This study was undertaken to assess the impact of obesity on fetal well-being in glucose-tolerant and nonhypertensive women. Medical charts of all patients admitted to the labor and delivery department at our institution between January, 2011 and July, 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with diabetes/impaired glucose tolerance or hypertension were excluded. A total of 100 women, 50 lean and 50 obese, were included. Umbilical artery blood gas parameters (BGPs) were compared in lean (<25 kg/m(2)) and obese (? 30 kg/m(2)) women. Obese and lean women were comparable with respect to all baseline characteristics. There was no difference in any of the BGP or Apgar scores between obese and lean patients. Pearson's correlation coefficient found no significant correlation between BMI and BGP/Apgar scores. Maternal obesity does not seem to affect BGP and fetal well-being in glucose-tolerant and nonhypertensive women. PMID:23533761

Chalouhi, Salam E; Salafia, Caroline; Mikhail, Magdy; Hecht, Robert

2013-02-21

46

Maternal Body Mass Index Does Not Affect Neonatal Umbilical Artery Blood Gas Parameters  

PubMed Central

This study was undertaken to assess the impact of obesity on fetal well-being in glucose-tolerant and nonhypertensive women. Medical charts of all patients admitted to the labor and delivery department at our institution between January, 2011 and July, 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with diabetes/impaired glucose tolerance or hypertension were excluded. A total of 100 women, 50 lean and 50 obese, were included. Umbilical artery blood gas parameters (BGPs) were compared in lean (<25?kg/m2) and obese (?30?kg/m2) women. Obese and lean women were comparable with respect to all baseline characteristics. There was no difference in any of the BGP or Apgar scores between obese and lean patients. Pearson's correlation coefficient found no significant correlation between BMI and BGP/Apgar scores. Maternal obesity does not seem to affect BGP and fetal well-being in glucose-tolerant and nonhypertensive women.

Chalouhi, Salam E.; Salafia, Caroline; Mikhail, Magdy

2013-01-01

47

Key Parameters Affecting Quantitative Analysis of STEM-EDS Spectrum Images  

SciTech Connect

In this article, we use simulated and experimental data to explore how three operator-controllable parameters - (1) signal level, (2) detector resolution, and (3) number of factors chosen for analysis - affect quantitative analyses of scanning transmission electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy spectrum images processed by principal component analysis (PCA). We find that improvements in both signal level and detector resolution improve the precision of quantitative analyses, but that signal level is the most important. We also find that if the rank of the PCA solution is not chosen properly, it may be possible to improperly fit the underlying data and degrade the accuracy of results. Additionally, precision is degraded in the case when too many factors are included in the model.

Brewer, Luke [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); Parish, Chad M [ORNL

2010-06-01

48

Approximation of Added Resistance in Waves Based on Ro-Ro Ferry Main Dimensions and Wave Parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The methods herein described deal with predicting the added resistance in waves and may be useful in the preliminary stage of ro-ro ferry design. The research was aimed at replacing the complex numerical model with an approximating model based on the principal design parameters. To achieve this aim the author uses the methods of linear regression and theory of artificial neural networks. The resulting mathematical relationships allow to predict the added resistance in waves by utilizing the basic design parameters of the ship and wave parameters. The research results lead to a comparison of applicability of the linear regression and artificial neural networks theory in prediction of the added resistance in waves at the stage of ship parameters design.

Cepowski, Tomasz

2012-02-01

49

Relative importance of parameters affecting wind speed prediction using artificial neural networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In traditional artificial neural networks (ANN) models, the relative importance of the individual meteorological input variables is often overlooked. A case study is presented in this paper to model monthly wind speed values using meteorological data (air pressure, air temperature, relative humidity, and precipitation), where the study also includes an estimate of the relative importance of these variables. Recorded monthly mean data are available at a gauging site in Tabriz, Azerbaijan, Iran, for the period from 2000 to 2005, gauged in the city at the outskirt of alluvial funneling mountains with an established microclimatic conditions and a diurnal wind regime. This provides a sufficiently severe test for the ANN model with a good predictive capability of 1 year of lead time but without any direct approach to refer the predicted results to local microclimatic conditions. A method is used in this paper to calculate the relative importance of each meteorological input parameters affecting wind speed, showing that air pressure and precipitation are the most and least influential parameters with approximate values of 40 and 10 %, respectively. This gained knowledge corresponds to the local knowledge of the microclimatic and geomorphologic conditions surrounding Tabriz.

Ghorbani, M. A.; Khatibi, R.; Hosseini, B.; Bilgili, M.

2013-10-01

50

Relative importance of parameters affecting wind speed prediction using artificial neural networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In traditional artificial neural networks (ANN) models, the relative importance of the individual meteorological input variables is often overlooked. A case study is presented in this paper to model monthly wind speed values using meteorological data (air pressure, air temperature, relative humidity, and precipitation), where the study also includes an estimate of the relative importance of these variables. Recorded monthly mean data are available at a gauging site in Tabriz, Azerbaijan, Iran, for the period from 2000 to 2005, gauged in the city at the outskirt of alluvial funneling mountains with an established microclimatic conditions and a diurnal wind regime. This provides a sufficiently severe test for the ANN model with a good predictive capability of 1 year of lead time but without any direct approach to refer the predicted results to local microclimatic conditions. A method is used in this paper to calculate the relative importance of each meteorological input parameters affecting wind speed, showing that air pressure and precipitation are the most and least influential parameters with approximate values of 40 and 10 %, respectively. This gained knowledge corresponds to the local knowledge of the microclimatic and geomorphologic conditions surrounding Tabriz.

Ghorbani, M. A.; Khatibi, R.; Hosseini, B.; Bilgili, M.

2013-01-01

51

Study of Parameters Affecting the Level of Ultrasound Exposure with In Vitro Set-Ups  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultrasound (US) exposures are widely used with in vitro cell systems e.g. in stem cell and tissue engineering research. However, without the knowledge of factors affecting the level of US exposure, the outcome of the biological result may vary from test to test or even be misinterpreted. Thereby, some of the factors affecting in vitro US exposures were studied. The level of US exposure was characterized in standard commercial cell culturing plates. The temperature distributions were measured inside the wells using infrared camera and fine wire thermocouples, and pressure and intensity distributions using a laser vibrometer and a schlieren system. The measurements were made at operating frequency of around 1 MHz with varying temporal parameters and powers (up to 2 W of acoustic power). Heat accumulation between the wells varied up to 40-50% depending on the location of the well on the plate. This well-to-well variation was be linked to the activity of reporter plasmid on osteoblastic cells. Similar temperature variations within the wells were also measured. Small sub-wavelength change in the exposure distance or, respectively, liquid volume inside the well was found to alter the acoustic field in both magnitude and shape due the standing waves. The gathered data reveals the complexity of the acoustic field in a typical in vitro set-up and gives new information about the environment of the in vitro cells during US exposures. This data may be especially useful when US set-ups are designed or characterized.

Leskinen, Jarkko J.; Hynynen, Kullervo

2010-03-01

52

Ibuprofen reduces zebrafish PGE(2) levels but steroid hormone levels and reproductive parameters are not affected.  

PubMed

Prostaglandins are important regulators of reproductive function in fish. Analgesics like aspirin and ibuprofen are prostaglandin inhibitors and have been detected in freshwater systems at ng/L-?g/L levels. We investigated whether ibuprofen would affect prostaglandin and sex steroid hormone levels in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) and if expression levels of genes involved in steroidogenesis and prostaglandin synthesis were affected. Zebrafish were exposed to moderate concentrations of ibuprofen (21, 201 or 506 ?g/L) for 7 days in a semi-static test system. Ibuprofen concentrations were close to nominal levels and decreased by a maximum of 12-13% over 24 h. Prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) levels in whole body homogenates of males and ovaries of females decreased in a monotonic dose-response relationship whereas male 11-ketotestosterone levels and ovarian 17?-estradiol levels remained unchanged. Ibuprofen did not have an influence on vitellogenin levels, female gonadosomatic index or cumulative egg production and no dose-response relationship in ovarian and testicular expression levels of the investigated genes was observed. This study shows that ibuprofen reduces PGE(2) levels in male and female zebrafish but has no consistent effects on other investigated reproductive parameters. PMID:23247296

Morthorst, Jane E; Lister, Andrea; Bjerregaard, Poul; Van Der Kraak, Glen

2012-12-13

53

A review of the main parameters influencing long-term performance and durability of PEM fuel cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an overview of issues affecting the life and the long-term performance of proton exchange membrane fuel cells based on a survey of existing literature. We hope that this brief overview provides the engineers and researchers in the field with a perspective of the important issues that should be addressed to extend the life of next-generation fuel cells.

Wolfgang Schmittinger; Ardalan Vahidi

2008-01-01

54

Abundance and demographic parameters of humpback whales from the Gulf of Maine, and stock definition relative to the Scotian Shelf  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Gulf of Maine is one of the principal summer feeding grounds for humpback whales ( Megaptera novaeangliae ) in the North Atlantic, and was one focus of effort in an ocean-basin-wide study known as the Years of the North Atlantic Humpback (YoNAH) project. Dat a from that project and from subsequent surveys were used to assess stock boundaries, abundance

Phil Clapham; Jay Barlow; Moriah Bessinger; Tim Cole; David Mattila; Richard Pace; Debra Palka; Jooke Robbins; Rosemary Seton

2003-01-01

55

Model parameter uncertainties in a dual-species biofilm competition model affect ecological output parameters much stronger than morphological ones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial biofilms are complex microbial depositions on immersed interfaces that form wherever the environmental conditions sustain microbial growth. Despite their name, biofilms can develop in highly irregular structures. Recently several mathematical concepts have been introduced to model these spatially structured microbial populations. Regardless of the type of model, they all have, even for microbially relatively simple systems, many parameters which

Nasim Muhammad; Hermann J. Eberl

2011-01-01

56

Parameters affecting in vitro oxidation/folding of maurotoxin, a four-disulphide-bridged scorpion toxin.  

PubMed Central

Maurotoxin (MTX) is a 34-mer scorpion toxin cross-linked by four disulphide bridges that acts on various K(+) channel subtypes. MTX adopts a disulphide bridge organization of the type C1-C5, C2-C6, C3-C4 and C7-C8, and folds according to the common alpha/beta scaffold reported for other known scorpion toxins. Here we have investigated the process and kinetics of the in vitro oxidation/folding of reduced synthetic L-MTX (L-sMTX, where L-MTX contains only L-amino acid residues). During the oxidation/folding of reduced L-sMTX, the oxidation intermediates were blocked by iodoacetamide alkylation of free cysteine residues, and analysed by MS. The L-sMTX intermediates appeared sequentially over time from the least (intermediates with one disulphide bridge) to the most oxidized species (native-like, four-disulphide-bridged L-sMTX). The mathematical formulation of the diffusion-collision model being inadequate to accurately describe the kinetics of oxidation/folding of L-sMTX, we have formulated a derived mathematical description that better fits the experimental data. Using this mathematical description, we have compared for the first time the oxidation/folding of L-sMTX with that of D-sMTX, its stereoisomer that contains only D-amino acid residues. Several experimental parameters, likely to affect the oxidation/folding process, were studied further; these included temperature, pH, ionic strength, redox potential and concentration of reduced toxin. We also assessed the effects of some cellular enzymes, peptidylprolyl cis-trans isomerase (PPIase) and protein disulphide isomerase (PDI), on the folding pathways of reduced L-sMTX and D-sMTX. All the parameters tested affect the oxidative folding of sMTX, and the kinetics of this process were indistinguishable for L-sMTX and D-sMTX, except when stereospecific enzymes were used. The most efficient conditions were found to be: 50 mM Tris/HCl/1.4 mM EDTA, pH 7.5, supplemented by 0.5 mM PPIase and 50 units/ml PDI for 0.1 mM reduced compound. These data represent the first report of potent stereoselective effects of cellular enzymes on the oxidation/folding of a scorpion toxin.

di Luccio, E; Azulay, D O; Regaya, I; Fajloun, Z; Sandoz, G; Mansuelle, P; Kharrat, R; Fathallah, M; Carrega, L; Esteve, E; Rochat, H; De Waard, M; Sabatier, J M

2001-01-01

57

Parameters of variable reward distributions that affect risk sensitivity of honey bees.  

PubMed

We investigated risk sensitivity with harnessed honey bees in a proboscis-extension conditioning paradigm. We conditioned each subject to turn its head and extend its proboscis towards one of two presented odors; one odor was associated with a constant reward and the other with a variable reward that was either low or high, with probabilities P and (1-P), respectively. Reward values and probabilities were set so that the expected value of the variable alternative was equal to that of the constant one. We performed six experimental conditions in which variability was in reward volume and three conditions in which variability was in reward concentration. The experiments were designed to systematically test the effect of various parameters that describe the reward distributions on levels of risk sensitivity. Risk aversion was greatest when variability was in reward volume, and the variable distribution included zero rewards and had a high coefficient of variation (CV=s.d./mean). The variance itself did not affect risk sensitivity. Subjects were risk indifferent when the variable distribution did not include zero rewards, however these distributions were positively skewed. The independent effects of zero rewards and distribution skew remain to be tested. Subjects were risk indifferent in conditions where variability was in reward concentration, but concentration range was limited and these distributions did not include zero rewards and were skewed. We conclude that risk aversion to variability in reward amount is a robust phenomenon for some reward distributions. A systematic evaluation of the effect of various reward distribution parameters on choice behavior should complement functional and mechanistic approaches. PMID:17210963

Drezner-Levy, Tamar; Shafir, Sharoni

2007-01-01

58

The assay design used for measurement of therapeutic antibody concentrations can affect pharmacokinetic parameters  

PubMed Central

To interpret pharmacokinetic (PK) data of biotherapeutics, it is critical to understand which drug species is being measured by the PK assay. For therapeutic antibodies, it is generally accepted that “free” circulating antibodies are the pharmacologically active form needed to determine the PK/ pharmacodynamic (PD) relationship, safety margin calculations, and dose projections from animals to humans and the eventual characterization of the exposure in the clinic. However, “total” drug may be important in evaluating the dynamic interaction between the drug and the target, as well as the total drug exposure. In the absence of or with low amounts of soluble ligand /shed receptor, total and free drug species are often equivalent and their detection is less sensitive to assay formats or reagent choices. In contrast, in the presence of a significant amount of ligand, assay design and characterization of assay reagents are critical to understanding the PK profiles. Here, we present case studies where different assay formats affected measured PK profiles and data interpretation. The results from reagent characterizations provide a potential explanation for the observed discrepancies and highlight the importance of reagent characterization in understanding which drug species are being measured to accurately interpret PK parameters.

Fischer, Saloumeh K.; Yang, Jihong; Anand, Banmeet; Cowan, Kyra; Hendricks, Robert; Li, Jing; Nakamura, Gerald; Song, An

2012-01-01

59

Effect of phenolic cosolutes on the main parameters, phase separation and theta temperature of dilute aqueous poly( N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of phenolic cosolutes (phenol, catechol, resorcinol, hydroquinone and phloroglucinol) on the main physicochemical parameters, cloud points (Tcp), phase diagram and theta temperature (?) of dilute aqueous poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) (PVP) solutions was studied experimentally using various concentrations of cosolutes and polymers at different temperatures. The resulting dependence of Tcp and ? temperatures (between 300 and 343 K) on the molar

Betül K?rc?; Ali Güner

2001-01-01

60

Sensitivity analysis of hydrogeological parameters affecting groundwater storage change caused by sea level rise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sea level rise, which is one of the representative phenomena of climate changes caused by global warming, can affect groundwater system. The rising trend of the sea level caused by the global warming is reported to be about 3 mm/year for the most recent 10 year average (IPCC, 2007). The rate of sea level rise around the Korean peninsula is reported to be 2.30±2.22 mm/yr during the 1960-1999 period (Cho, 2002) and 2.16±1.77 mm/yr (Kim et al., 2009) during the 1968-2007 period. Both of these rates are faster than the 1.8±0.5 mm/yr global average for the similar 1961-2003 period (IPCC, 2007). In this study, we analyzed changes in the groundwater environment affected by the sea level rise by using an analytical methodology. We tried to find the most effective parameters of groundwater amount change in order to estimate the change in fresh water amount in coastal groundwater. A hypothetical island model of a cylindrical shape in considered. The groundwater storage change is bi-directional as the sea level rises according to the natural and hydrogeological conditions. Analysis of the computation results shows that topographic slope and hydraulic conductivity are the most sensitive factors. The contributions of the groundwater recharge rate and the thickness of aquifer below sea level are relatively less effective. In the island with steep seashore slopes larger than 1~2 degrees or so, the storage amount of fresh water in a coastal area increases as sea level rises. On the other hand, when sea level drops, the storage amount decreases. This is because the groundwater level also rises with the rising sea level in steep seashores. For relatively flat seashores, where the slope is smaller than around 1-2 degrees, the storage amount of coastal fresh water decreases when the sea level rises because the area flooded by the rising sea water is increased. The volume of aquifer fresh water in this circumstance is greatly reduced in proportion to the flooded area with the sea level rising. Since relatively flat seashores where the slope is less than 1-2 degrees are much more common in Korea, it is expected that the quantity of fresh groundwater storage in most of the coastal region in Korea will be greatly reduced with sea level rise. Acknowledgement: This study is financially supported by BK21.

Shin, J.; Kim, K.-H.; Lee, K.-K.

2012-04-01

61

A Lagrangian identification of the main sources of moisture affecting northeastern Brazil during its pre-rainy and rainy seasons.  

PubMed

This work examines the sources of moisture affecting the semi-arid Brazilian Northeast (NEB) during its pre-rainy and rainy season (JFMAM) through a Lagrangian diagnosis method. The FLEXPART model identifies the humidity contributions to the moisture budget over a region through the continuous computation of changes in the specific humidity along back or forward trajectories up to 10 days period. The numerical experiments were done for the period that spans between 2000 and 2004 and results were aggregated on a monthly basis. Results show that besides a minor local recycling component, the vast majority of moisture reaching NEB area is originated in the south Atlantic basin and that the nearby wet Amazon basin bears almost no impact. Moreover, although the maximum precipitation in the "Poligono das Secas" region (PS) occurs in March and the maximum precipitation associated with air parcels emanating from the South Atlantic towards PS is observed along January to March, the highest moisture contribution from this oceanic region occurs slightly later (April). A dynamical analysis suggests that the maximum precipitation observed in the PS sector does not coincide with the maximum moisture supply probably due to the combined effect of the Walker and Hadley cells in inhibiting the rising motions over the region in the months following April. PMID:20585458

Drumond, Anita; Nieto, Raquel; Trigo, Ricardo; Ambrizzi, Tercio; Souza, Everaldo; Gimeno, Luis

2010-06-18

62

Evaluation of parameters that affect the 4-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde assay for flavanols and proanthocyanidins.  

PubMed

Proanthocyanidins are widely distributed in nature and represent the most abundant flavonoids consumed in the diet. Recent attention has been given to these compounds because of their health-promoting properties toward chronic diseases. Because of their large degrees of chemical variation and stereochemistry, isolation/quantification is difficult. The 4-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde (DMAC) spectrophotometric assay has become increasingly popular as a rapid technique to quantify the amount of proanthocyanidins present in foods and beverages; however, there is no current industry standard. In this study, several parameters affecting the DMAC reaction with catechin were examined. Effects of acid nature (hydrochloric acid [HCl] and sulfuric acid [H(2)SO(4)]) and concentration (2 to 10 N), temperature (5 to 45 °C), reaction time (2 to 35 min), sample water content (1 to 100%), DMAC concentration (1 to 3%), and interference of 8 different substances were evaluated. A mixture of 2% DMAC in methanol (w/v) in 6 N H(2)SO(4) (50:50 v/v) showed the highest slope in the standard curve when allowed to react for 15 to 35 min prior to analysis. For samples containing high concentrations of oligomeric proanthocyanidins, a reaction time of 20 to 35 min is recommended. The reaction of catechin with DMAC at constant room temperature (21 to 25 °C), with a sample water content of less than 1% was found to increase reproducibility and better assess the amount of catechin. Sample water contents higher than 1% showed significant bleaching effects on the color produced, when catechin concentrations were high (lower levels showed no significant differences). None of the substances examined in this study interfered with the assay; however, other compounds present in various food matrices may have an effect on color development. PMID:21535528

Wallace, Taylor C; Giusti, M Monica

2010-08-23

63

Parameters affecting spore recovery from wipes used in biological surface sampling.  

PubMed

The need for the precise and reliable collection of potential biothreat contaminants has motivated research in developing a better understanding of the variability in biological surface sampling methods. In this context, the objective of this work was to determine parameters affecting the efficiency of extracting Bacillus anthracis Sterne spores from commonly used wipe sampling materials and to describe performance using the interfacial energy concept. In addition, surface thermodynamics was applied to understand and predict surface sampling performance. Wipe materials were directly inoculated with known concentrations of B. anthracis spores and placed into extraction solutions, followed by sonication or vortexing. Experimental factors investigated included wipe material (polyester, cotton, and polyester-rayon), extraction solution (sterile deionized water [H(2)O], deionized water with 0.04% Tween 80 [H(2)O-T], phosphate-buffered saline [PBS], and PBS with 0.04% Tween 80 [PBST]), and physical dissociation method (vortexing or sonication). The most efficient extraction from wipes was observed for solutions containing the nonionic surfactant Tween 80. The increase in extraction efficiency due to surfactant addition was attributed to an attractive interfacial energy between Tween 80 and the centrifuge tube wall, which prevented spore adhesion. Extraction solution significantly impacted the extraction efficiency, as determined by statistical analysis (P < 0.05). Moreover, the extraction solution was the most important factor in extraction performance, followed by the wipe material. Polyester-rayon was the most efficient wipe material for releasing spores into solution by rank; however, no statistically significant difference between polyester-rayon and cotton was observed (P > 0.05). Vortexing provided higher spore recovery in H(2)O and H(2)O-T than sonication, when all three wipe materials and the reference control were considered (P < 0.05). PMID:21296945

Da Silva, Sandra M; Filliben, James J; Morrow, Jayne B

2011-02-04

64

In silico prediction of blood-brain barrier permeation using the calculated molecular cross-sectional area as main parameter.  

PubMed

The cross-sectional area, AD, of a compound oriented in an amphiphilic gradient such as the air-water or lipid-water interface has previously been shown to be crucial for membrane partitioning and permeation, respectively. Here, we developed an algorithm that determines the molecular axis of amphiphilicity and the cross-sectional area, ADcalc, perpendicular to this axis. Starting from the conformational ensemble of each molecule, the three-dimensional conformation selected as the membrane-binding conformation was the one with the smallest cross-sectional area, ADcalcM, and the strongest amphiphilicity. The calculated, ADcalcM, and the measured, AD, cross-sectional areas correlated linearly (n=55, slope, m=1.04, determination coefficient, r2=0.95). The calculated cross-sectional areas, ADcalcM, were then used together with the calculated octanol-water distribution coefficients, log D7.4, of the 55 compounds (with a known ability to permeate the blood-brain barrier) to establish a calibration diagram for the prediction of blood-brain barrier permeation. It yielded a limiting cross-sectional area (ADcalcM=70 A2) and an optimal range of octanol-water distribution coefficients (-1.4parameters, ADcalcM and log D7.4, thus allow for a fast and accurate prediction of blood-brain barrier permeation. Analogous calibration diagrams can be established for other membrane barriers. PMID:17125204

Gerebtzoff, Grégori; Seelig, Anna

65

Homocysteine, glutathione and related thiols affect fertility parameters in the (sub)fertile couple  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Thiols are scavengers of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We aim to investigate associations between thiols in various fluids in (sub)fertile couples and fertility outcome parameters. METHODS: In 156 couples undergoing assisted reproduction techniques (ART), we measured the concentrations of glutathione (GSH), cysteine (Cys), homocysteine (Hcy) and cysteinylglycine (CGS) and fertility outcome parameters in the ejaculate, purified spermatozoa and follicular

I. M. W. Ebisch; W. H. M. Peters; C. M. G. Thomas; A. M. M. Wetzels; P. G. M. Peer; R. P. M. Steegers-Theunissen

2006-01-01

66

Analysis of parameters affecting engraftment in children undergoing autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eighty-three pediatric patients underwent autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplants at a single institution and were included in a study evaluating the correlations between five engraftment parameters and the time to both neutrophil and platelet recovery. The parameters included: the number of nucleated cells per kg (TNC\\/kg), the absolute CD34+ cell content per kg (CD34+\\/kg), the number of mononuclear cells

E Figuerres; PR Haut; M Olzewski; M Kletzel

2000-01-01

67

Fuzzy logic controller to improve parameters affecting gas turbines power generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to improve the performance of the gas turbine power plant and to generate electricity at the best cost, a fuzzy logic\\u000a controller model was used to show the effect of different parameters on the power generation output of gas turbines. The proposed\\u000a methodology was applied to certain parameter values collected from Rehab power station in Jordan—as a case

Rustom Mamlook; Omar Badran; Abdullah Aljumah; Abdulaziz S. Almazyad; Taisir Eldos; Emad Abdulhadi

68

Parameters affecting the growth and hydrogen production of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii  

Microsoft Academic Search

The green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has the ability to photosynthetically produce molecular hydrogen (H2) under anaerobic conditions. It offers a biological route to renewable H2 production from sunlight and water. Algal growth and H2 production kinetics must be understood in order to determine appropriate system parameters and develop photobioreactors. Algal biomass should be grown efficiently and economically to attain the

Bojan Tamburic; Fessehaye W. Zemichael; Geoffrey C. Maitland; Klaus Hellgardt

2011-01-01

69

Factors affecting the selection of parameters for low temperature heat pipes for spacecraft thermal control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various aspects of heat pipe behavior were studied both theoretically and experimentally. Useful results are presented for a variety of wick structures and working fluids. Both static and dynamic behaviors are covered. This treatment leads to a discussion of how to determine appropriate heat pipe design parameters for space applications.

V. F. Prisniakov; Iu. K. Gontarev; Iu. V. Navruzov; V. N. Serebrianskii

1990-01-01

70

Factors Affecting the Item Parameter Estimation and Classification Accuracy of the DINA Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To better understand the statistical properties of the deterministic inputs, noisy "and" gate cognitive diagnosis (DINA) model, the impact of several factors on the quality of the item parameter estimates and classification accuracy was investigated. Results of the simulation study indicate that the fully Bayes approach is most accurate when the…

de la Torre, Jimmy; Hong, Yuan; Deng, Weiling

2010-01-01

71

An investigation into welding parameters affecting the tensile properties of titanium welds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grain size and amount of martensite formation affect the tensile strength of the alloy and these two factors are in turns related to the cooling rate of the welding process. There was found a trend of decreased tensile strength with the increase of welding heat input and a trend of increased tensile strength with the increase of welding cooling rate.

Winco K. C. Yung; B. Ralph; W. B. Lee; R. Fenn

1997-01-01

72

Analysis of the parameters of structural geology that affect gas production from the Devonian shale  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report summarizes the results of five years' effort directed toward understanding the importance of geologic structure to Devonian gas production in eastern Kentucky and West Virginia. This study was designed to: (1) collect, compile, and analyze geologic data to construct regional structural maps of eastern Kentucky and West Virginia; (2) determine if structural types and styles affect production, and

B. Bebee; P. Berger; J. M. Dixon

1982-01-01

73

A study of the parameters affecting minimum detectable activity concentration level of clinical LSO PET scanners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies in the field of molecular imaging have demonstrated the need for PET probes capable of imaging very weak activity distributions. Over this range of applications the sensitivity and the energy resolution of a PET system can be critical, as it can possibly affect the minimum amount of activity which can be reliably detected. Clinical PET systems, as opposed

Nicolas A. Karakatsanis; Konstantina S. Nikita

2008-01-01

74

Investigation of parameters affecting treatment time in MRI-guided transurethral ultrasound therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MRI-guided transurethral ultrasound therapy shows promise for minimally invasive treatment of localized prostate cancer. Real-time MR temperature feedback enables the 3D control of thermal therapy to define an accurate region within the prostate. Previous in-vivo canine studies showed the feasibility of this method using transurethral planar transducers. The aim of this simulation study was to reduce the procedure time, while maintaining treatment accuracy by investigating new combinations of treatment parameters. A numerical model was used to simulate a multi-element heating applicator rotating inside the urethra in 10 human prostates. Acoustic power and rotation rate were varied based on the feedback of the temperature in the prostate. Several parameters were investigated for improving the treatment time. Maximum acoustic power and rotation rate were optimized interdependently as a function of prostate radius and transducer operating frequency, while avoiding temperatures >90° C in the prostate. Other trials were performed on each parameter separately, with the other parameter fixed. The concept of using dual-frequency transducers was studied, using the fundamental frequency or the 3rd harmonic component depending on the prostate radius. The maximum acoustic power which could be used decreased as a function of the prostate radius and the frequency. Decreasing the frequency (9.7-3.0 MHz) or increasing the power (10-20 W.cm-2) led to treatment times shorter by up to 50% under appropriate conditions. Dual-frequency configurations, while helpful, tended to have less impact on treatment times. Treatment accuracy was maintained and critical adjacent tissues like the rectal wall remained protected. The interdependence between power and frequency may require integrating multi-parametric functions inside the controller for future optimizations. As a first approach, however, even slight modifications of key parameters can be sufficient to reduce treatment time.

N'djin, W. A.; Burtnyk, M.; Chopra, R.; Bronskill, M. J.

2010-03-01

75

How will mandibular third molar surgery affect mandibular second molar periodontal parameters?  

PubMed Central

Background: Several conflicting findings have been published in the previous literature regarding the effects of impacted third molar surgery on the periodontal parameters of the adjacent second molar; some authors have shown improvement of periodontal health distal to the adjacent second molar, whilst others have demonstrated loss of attachment level (AL) and reduction of alveolar bone height. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the changes in periodontal health parameters distal to the adjacent second molar following extraction of an impacted third molar. Materials and Methods: Out of 50 patients participated in the study, 42 patients completed the study. The mean age of the sample was 20.9 (range, 18-25) years. All teeth were mesioangular impacted mandibular third molars categorized at C1 class based on the Pell and Gregory classification. All surgeries were performed by one surgeon and the same surgeon recorded the pre-operative and post-operative measurements of probing depth (PD) and AL on the distobuccal aspect of the second molars. Data analysis were carried out with the SPSS software (version 19), using the paired-samples t-test and one sample t-test. Results: Surgical extraction of impacted mandibular third molar resulted in a significant increase of PD on the distobuccal aspect of the second molars, whereas AL was decreased significantly after surgery (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Unlike plenty of researches that have shown improvement of periodontal parameters of the second molar after extraction of impacted third molar, our study showed a significant increase in PD at the distal aspect of the second molar. Further follow-up on clinical and radiological parameters are required for more profound understanding of the long-term effects of third molar extraction on the periodontal parameters of the adjacent second molar.

Tabrizi, Reza; Arabion, Hamidreza; Gholami, Mehdi

2013-01-01

76

Probiotics affect the clinical inflammatory parameters of experimental gingivitis in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives:To determine the effects of a probiotic milk drink consumed over a period of 28 days, regarding the expression of clinical inflammatory parameters of the oral gingiva during various phases of plaque-induced gingivitis.Methods:Twenty-eight adults with healthy gingiva took part in a prospective and clinical-controlled study. The test group was advised to consume a probiotic milk drink (Yacult) daily during a

S Slawik; I Staufenbiel; R Schilke; S Nicksch; K Weinspach; M Stiesch; J Eberhard

2011-01-01

77

Processing parameters affecting the properties of sol-gel-derived modified lead titanate thin films  

SciTech Connect

Calcium modified lead titanate thin films have been prepared by spin-coating of aquo-diol solutions on platinized silicon substrates. The influence of the chemical processing parameters and of the heating rates on the crystallization of the films is studied. Different ferroelectric properties are measured in films prepared under different conditions. These differences are related to the crystalline phases and structural characteristics developed in the films during their preparation.

Calzada, M.L.; Mendiola, J.; Carmona, F.; Ramos, P.; Sirera, R. [C.S.I.C., Madrid (Spain). Inst. Ciencia de Materials

1996-04-01

78

How do population genetic parameters affect germination of the heterocarpic species Atriplex tatarica (Amaranthaceae)?  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The heterocarpic species Atriplex tatarica produces two types of seeds. In this study, how basic population genetic parameters correlate with seed germinability under various experimental conditions was tested. Methods Population genetic diversity was ascertained in eight populations of A. tatarica by assessing patterns of variation at nine allozyme loci. Germinability of both seed types from all sampled populations was determined by a common laboratory experiment under different salinity levels. Basic population genetic parameters, i.e. percentage of polymorphic loci, average number of alleles per locus and observed heterozygosity were correlated with observed population germination characteristics. Key Results Atriplex tatarica possesses a remarkable heterocarpy, i.e. one type of seed is non-dormant and the other shows different dormancy levels in relation to experimental conditions. Significant negative correlations have been detected between germination of both seed types and the coefficient of inbreeding, and a significant negative correlation between germination of dormant seeds and other population genetic parameters, i.e. percentage of polymorphic loci and average number of alleles per polymorphic locus. Moreover, populations from the region characterized by a shorter growing season manifested higher germinability, i.e. had lower dormancy, than those from the lower-latitude one. Conclusions In general, germination of non-dormant seeds is probably not under strong genetic control. Hence, they germinate as soon as conditions are favourable, thus ensuring survival in the short term, but populations risk local extinction if conditions become adverse (i.e. a high-risk strategy). In contrast, germination of the dormant type of seeds is under stronger genetic control and is significantly correlated with basic population genetic parameters. These seeds ensure long-term reproduction and survival in the field by protracted germination, albeit in low quantities (i.e. A. tatarica also adopts a low-risk strategy).

Kochankova, Jana; Mandak, Bohumil

2009-01-01

79

Parameters affecting the efficiency of Agrobacterium tumefaciens -mediated transformation of Colletotrichum graminicola  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed an Agrobacterium\\u000a tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT) protocol for the plant pathogenic fungus Colletotrichum graminicola, the cause of anthracnose leaf blight and stalk rot of corn. The ATMT results in higher transformation efficiencies than\\u000a previously available polyethylene glycol-mediated protocols, and falcate spores can be used instead of protoplasts for transformation.\\u000a Various experimental parameters were tested for their effects on

Jennifer L. Flowers; Lisa J. Vaillancourt

2005-01-01

80

Parameters affecting the performance of a RF excited CO2 waveguide laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper summarizes the results of a series of RF gas discharge experiments which were performed to assess the factors which influence the efficient operation of a transversely excited CO2 waveguide laser. Using multiple resonating inductors for impedance matching, the longitudinal voltage variations are shown to be affected by the RF operation frequency and the discharge geometry. The effect of the gas mixture and the RF input power density upon the discharge field to pressure ratio is also investigated.

Sinclair, R. L.; Tulip, J.

1984-11-01

81

Parameters affecting the synthesis of geranyl butyrate by esterase 30,000 from Mucor miehei  

Microsoft Academic Search

The factors affecting the synthesis of geranyl butyrate by esterase 30,000 of Mucor miehei were studied in a solvent-free system. The effects of substrate molar ratio, temperature, agitation speed, and initial addition\\u000a of water were investigated. The equimolar ratio was most interesting for ester production in batch. There were no diffusion\\u000a limitations, and the reaction could be realized at low

Maha Karra-Chaabouni; Sylviane Pulvin; Didier Touraud; Daniel Thomas

1998-01-01

82

Soil compaction and root distribution for okra as affected by tillage and vehicle parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many soil physical properties and crop yield are affected by compaction and tillage systems. The effect of three different factors, i.e. tillage treatments (no-tillage, chisel plowing, and moldboard plowing), axle load (6 and 16t\\/axle vehicle), and tire inflation pressure (120 and 350kPa inflation pressures) on okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) root density and soil physical properties (bulk density and cone penetration resistance)

Nidal H Abu-Hamdeh

2003-01-01

83

Parameters Affecting Image-guided, Hydrodynamic Gene Delivery to Swine Liver.  

PubMed

Development of a safe and effective method for gene delivery to hepatocytes is a critical step toward gene therapy for liver diseases. Here, we assessed the parameters for gene delivery to the livers of large animals (pigs, 40-65?kg) using an image-guided hydrodynamics-based procedure that involves image-guided catheter insertion into the lobular hepatic vein and hydrodynamic injection of reporter plasmids using a computer-controlled injector. We demonstrated that injection parameters (relative position of the catheter in the hepatic vasculature, intravascular pressure upon injection, and injection volume) are directly related to the safety and efficiency of the procedure. By optimizing these parameters, we explored for the first time, the advantage of the procedure for sequential injections to multiple lobes in human-sized pigs. The optimized procedure resulted in sustained expression of the human ?-1 antitrypsin gene in livers for more than 2 months after gene delivery. In addition, repeated hydrodynamic gene delivery was safely conducted and no adverse events were seen in the entire period of the study. Our results support the clinical applicability of the image-guided hydrodynamic gene delivery method for the treatment of liver diseases.Molecular Therapy-Nucleic Acids (2013) 2, e128; doi:10.1038/mtna.2013.52; published online 15 October 2013. PMID:24129227

Kamimura, Kenya; Suda, Takeshi; Zhang, Guisheng; Aoyagi, Yutaka; Liu, Dexi

2013-10-15

84

Experimental parameters affecting sensitivity and specificity of a yeast assay for estrogenic compounds: results of an interlaboratory validation exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

In vitro assays are considered as the first step in a tiered approach to compound screening for hormonal activity. Although\\u000a many new assays have been developed in recent years, little attention has been paid towards assay validation. Our objective\\u000a was to identify critical experimental parameters in a yeast estrogen screen (YES) that affect its sensitivity and specificity.\\u000a We investigated the

Willem Dhooge; Katrien Arijs; Isabel D’Haese; Sabrina Stuyvaert; Bram Versonnen; Colin Janssen; Willy Verstraete; Frank Comhaire

2006-01-01

85

Parameter sensitivities affecting the flutter speed of a MW-sized blade.  

SciTech Connect

With the current trend toward larger and larger horizontal axis wind turbines, classical flutter is becoming a more critical issue. Recent studies have indicated that for a single blade turning in still air the flutter speed for a modern 35 m blade occurs at approximately twice its operating speed (2 per rev), whereas for smaller blades (5-9 m), both modern and early designs, the flutter speeds are in the range of 3.5-6 per rev. Scaling studies demonstrate that the per rev flutter speed should not change with scale. Thus, design requirements that change with increasing blade size are producing the concurrent reduction in per rev flutter speeds. In comparison with an early small blade design (5 m blade), flutter computations indicate that the non rotating modes which combine to create the flutter mode change as the blade becomes larger (i.e., for the larger blade the second flapwise mode, as opposed to the first flapwise mode for the smaller blade, combines with the first torsional mode to produce the flutter mode). For the more modern smaller blade design (9 m blade), results show that the non rotating modes that couple are similar to those of the larger blade. For the wings of fixed-wing aircraft, it is common knowledge that judicious selection of certain design parameters can increase the airspeed associated with the onset of flutter. Two parameters, the chordwise location of the center of mass and the ratio of the flapwise natural frequency to the torsional natural frequency, are especially significant. In this paper studies are performed to determine the sensitivity of the per rev flutter speed to these parameters for a 35 m wind turbine blade. Additional studies are performed to determine which structural characteristics of the blade are most significant in explaining the previously mentioned per rev flutter speed differences. As a point of interest, flutter results are also reported for two recently designed 9 m twist/coupled blades.

Lobitz, Donald Wayne, Jr.

2004-10-01

86

Parameter sensitivities affecting the flutter speed of a MW-sized blade.  

SciTech Connect

With the current trend toward larger and larger horizontal axis wind turbines, classical flutter is becoming a more critical issue. Recent studies have indicated that for a single blade turning in still air the flutter speed for a modern 35 m blade occurs at approximately twice its operating speed (2 per rev), whereas for smaller blades (5-9 m), both modern and early designs, the flutter speeds are in the range of 3.5-6 per rev. Scaling studies demonstrate that the per rev flutter speed should not change with scale. Thus, design requirements that change with increasing blade size are producing the concurrent reduction in per rev flutter speeds. In comparison with an early small blade design (5 m blade), flutter computations indicate that the non rotating modes which combine to create the flutter mode change as the blade becomes larger (i.e., for the larger blade the second flapwise mode, as opposed to the first flapwise mode for the smaller blade, combines with the first torsional mode to produce the flutter mode). For the more modern smaller blade design (9 m blade), results show that the non rotating modes that couple are similar to those of the larger blade. For the wings of fixed-wing aircraft, it is common knowledge that judicious selection of certain design parameters can increase the airspeed associated with the onset of flutter. Two parameters, the chordwise location of the center of mass and the ratio of the flapwise natural frequency to the torsional natural frequency, are especially significant. In this paper studies are performed to determine the sensitivity of the per rev flutter speed to these parameters for a 35 m wind turbine blade. Additional studies are performed to determine which structural characteristics of the blade are most significant in explaining the previously mentioned per rev flutter speed differences. As a point of interest, flutter results are also reported for two recently designed 9 m twist/coupled blades.

Lobitz, Donald Wayne, Jr.

2005-08-01

87

Homocysteine exposure affects early hemodynamic parameters of embryonic chicken heart function.  

PubMed

Maternal hyperhomocysteinemia has been associated with an increased risk of newborns with a congenital heart defect. This has been substantiated in the chicken embryo, as congenital heart defects have been induced after homocysteine treatment. Comparable heart defects are observed in venous clipping studies, a model of altered embryonic blood flow. Because of this overlap in heart defects, our aim was to test the hypothesis that homocysteine would cause alterations in embryonic heart function that precede the structural malformations previously described. Therefore, Doppler flow velocity waveforms were recorded in both primitive ventricles and the outflow tract of the embryonic heart of homocysteine treated and control chicken embryos at embryonic day 3.5. Homocysteine treatment consisted of 50 ?L 0.05 M L-homocysteine thiolactone at 24, 48, and 72 hr. Homocysteine-treated embryos displayed significantly lower mean heart rates of 134 (SD 22) bpm, compared to 150 (14) bpm in control embryos. Homocysteine treatment caused an inhibiting effect on hemodynamic parameters, and altered heart function was presented by a shift in the proportions of the different wave times in percentage of total cycle time. Homocysteine induces changes in hemodynamic parameters of early embryonic chicken heart function. These changes may precede morphological changes and contribute to the development of CHD defects through alterations in shear stress and shear stress related genes, as seen before in venous clipping studies. PMID:22528512

Oosterbaan, Annelien M; Bon, Els; Steegers-Theunissen, Regine P M; Van Der Steen, Anton F W; Ursem, Nicolette T C

2012-04-24

88

The nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, ibuprofen, affects the immune parameters in the clam Ruditapes philippinarum.  

PubMed

The effects of ibuprofen (IBU) on the immune parameters of the clam Ruditapes philippinarum were investigated after a 7-day exposure to sublethal IBU concentrations (0, 0 + ethanol, 100, 500, and 1000 ?g/L). Total haemocyte count (THC), haemocyte diameter and volume, haemocyte proliferation and uptake of the vital dye Neutral Red (NR) were measured. The cytotoxicity (assessed by the lactate dehydrogenase assay, LDH) and the capability of IBU to induce DNA fragmentation (indicative of apoptosis) were also investigated. The exposure of clams to the highest IBU concentration significantly reduced their THC, whereas no significant changes were observed in either the diameter or volume of haemocytes. Significant increases in haemocyte proliferation were recorded in clams that were exposed to the two highest tested concentrations of IBU. Exposure of clams to 1000 ?g IBU/L significantly reduced NR uptake and increased haemolymph LDH activity. Conversely, IBU did not induce DNA fragmentation in haemocytes. Although the IBU concentrations tested in this study were higher than those generally recorded in aquatic environments, results obtained indicate that exposure of clams to IBU induces significant alterations in the immune parameters and suggest potential immunosuppression in treated clams. PMID:22727203

Matozzo, Valerio; Rova, Silvia; Marin, Maria Gabriella

2012-06-13

89

A theoretical and experimental analysis of formulation and device parameters affecting solution MDI size distributions.  

PubMed

The influence of formulation and device configurations on the initial droplet and residual particle size distribution from solution MDIs was theoretically and experimentally examined. Aerodynamic size distribution tests were conducted to characterize the size distribution of the residual particles formed when a solution MDI is actuated. The measured size distributions were approximately log-normally distributed, and did not show evidence of a secondary large particle mode. Theoretical relationships were developed to relate the residual particle size distribution to the initial size distribution of the atomized droplets. The residual particle size distribution was shown to be proportional to the nonvolatile concentration to the one-third power. Ethanol concentration, propellant type, valve size, and actuator orifice diameter were all shown to affect the initial droplet size distribution. Deposition of drug in the mouthpiece and USP inlet affect the measured size distribution during aerodynamic particle size measurements. Although there is a significant increase in the size of initial droplets as ethanol concentration increases, there is only a minor increase in the size of the residual particles measured when the USP Inlet is used due to size dependent deposition in the USP inlet and actuator mouthpiece. Vapor pressure was shown to explain only part of the differences in the size of the atomized droplets for various formulations. Theoretical and empirical equations were developed that make it possible to predict the residual particle size distribution for solution MDIs. PMID:15236462

Stein, Stephen W; Myrdal, Paul B

2004-08-01

90

Prediction of the date, magnitude and affected area of impending strong earthquakes using integration of multi precursors earthquake parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Usually a precursor alone might not be useful as an accurate, precise, and stand-alone criteria for the earthquake parameters prediction. Therefore it is more appropriate to exploit parameters extracted from a variety of individual precursors so that their simultaneous integration would reduce the parameters's uncertainty. In our previous studies, five strong earthquakes which happened in the Samoa Islands, Sichuan (China), L'Aquila (Italy), Borujerd (Iran) and Zarand (Iran) have been analyzed to locate unusual variations in the time series of the different earthquake precursors. In this study, we have attempted to estimate earthquake parameters using the detected anomalies in the mentioned case studies. Using remote sensing observations, this study examines variations of electron and ion density, electron temperature, total electron content (TEC), electric and magnetic fields and land surface temperature (LST) several days before the studied earthquakes. Regarding the ionospheric precursors, the geomagnetic indices Dst and Kp were used to distinguish pre-earthquake disturbed states from the other anomalies related to the geomagnetic activities. The inter-quartile range of data was utilized to construct their upper and lower bound to detect disturbed states outsides the bounds which might be associated with impending earthquakes. When the disturbed state associated with an impending earthquake is detected, based on the type of precursor, the number of days relative to the earthquake day is estimated. Then regarding the deviation value of the precursor from the undisturbed state the magnitude of the impending earthquake is estimated. The radius of the affected area is calculated using the estimated magnitude and Dobrovolsky formula. In order to assess final earthquake parameters (i.e. date, magnitude and radius of the affected area) for each case study, the earthquake parameters obtained from different earthquake precursors were integrated. In other words, for each case study using the median and inter-quartile range of earthquake parameters, the bounds of the final earthquake parameters were defined. For each studied case, a close agreement was found between the estimated and registered earthquake parameters.

Saradjian, M. R.; Akhoondzadeh, M.

2011-04-01

91

Parameters affecting the efficacy of a sustained release polymeric implant of leuprolide.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the formulation parameters critical to the efficacy of an injectable polymeric implant of leuprolide acetate, formed in situ, in suppressing and maintaining serum testosterone levels of animals in the range 0.5 ng/ml for over 90 days. The formulation evaluated contained 45% (w/w) 75/25 poly (DL-lactide-co-glycolide) polymer having an intrinsic viscosity of 0.20 dl/g, dissolved in 55% (w/w) N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone with 3% (w/w) leuprolide acetate added either as a homogeneous solution or a two-part suspension (A/B) system, in which the drug was dispersed within the polymer solution immediately prior to use. The formulation parameters evaluated in this study included polymer molecular weight, polymer concentration, and drug loading. Both rat and dog models were used to evaluate efficacy. Serum testosterone was assayed by radioimmunoassay to determine efficacy, and retrieved implants from the rats at the termination of the study were analyzed by HPLC for residual drug content to determine the extent of drug release. With the candidate formulation, testosterone levels in dogs diminished to the targeted levels of 0. 5 ng/ml by day 14 and remained suppressed up to day 91, reproducing the results seen in rats. Variations in polymer concentration (40-50%), and drug load (3-6% (w/w)) did not have a significant effect on the apparent level and duration of efficacy. However, employing lower molecular weight polymer decreased the duration of efficacy of the formulation. PMID:10692642

Ravivarapu, H B; Moyer, K L; Dunn, R L

2000-01-25

92

Potato Production as Affected by Crop Parameters and Meteoro Logical Elements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Meteorological elements directly influence crop potential productivity, regulating its transpiration, photosynthesis, and respiration processes in such a way as to control the growth and development of the plants throughout their physiological mechanisms at a given site. The interaction of the meteorological factors with crop responses is complex and has been the target of attention of many researchers from all over the world. There is currently a great deal of interest in estimating crop productivity as a function of climate by means of different crop weather models in order to help growers choose planting locations and timing to produce high yields with good tuber quality under site-specific atmospheric conditions. In this manuscript an agrometeorological model based on maximum carbon dioxide assimilation rates for C3 plants, fraction of photosynthetically active radiation, air temperature, photoperiod duration, and crop parameters is assessed as to its performance under tropical conditions. Crop parameters include leaf areaand harvest indexes, dry matter content of potato tubers, and crop cycles to estimate potato potential yields. Productivity obtained with the cultivar Itararé, grown with adequate soil water supply conditions at four different sites in the State of São Paulo (Itararé, Piracicaba, TatuÍ, and São Manuel), Brazil, were used to test the model. The results showed thatthe agrometeorological model tested under the climatic conditions of the State of São Paulo in general underestimated irrigated potato yield by less than 10%.This justifies the recommendation to test the performance of the model in study in other climaticregions for different crops and genotypes under optimal irrigationconditions in further scientific investigations. We reached the conclusion that the agrometeorological model taking into account information on leaf area index, photoperiod duration, photosynthetically active radiation and air temperature is feasible to estimate potential tuber yield at a commercial scale. The performance test shows that it can then be used to forecast harvest time, and also as an effective tool to predict the suitability of potential regions to the cultivation of potato crop, cultivar Itararé, at the State of São Paulo, Brazil.

Pereira, André B.; Villa Nova, Nilson A.; Pereira, Antonio R.

93

Does kidney transplantation onto the external iliac artery affect the haemodynamic parameters of the cavernosal arteries?  

PubMed

Reduced cavernosal arterial inflow has been hypothesized to be the likely cause of erectile dysfunction after kidney transplants in recipients revascularized through end-to-end anastomosis to the internal iliac artery, suggesting that end-to-side anastomosis at the external iliac artery is preferable. The aim of this study was to prospectively evaluate the effect of the use of the external iliac artery on erectile function, hormone profiles and penile blood flow by evaluating changes in penile colour Doppler ultrasound parameters in a consecutive series of 22 recipients before and after end-to-side external iliac artery transplantation. The mean International Index of Erectile Function-Erectile Function (IIEF-EF) domain score decreased significantly 3 months after transplant (18.09±6.33 vs. 22.50±7.09, P=0.01). The reduction in peak systolic velocity (PSV) was significant for the cavernous artery homolateral to the side of transplant (42.60±18.77 vs. 52.01±19.91, P=0.01). The mean postoperative end diastolic velocity (EDV) did not differ significantly from the preoperative value (P=0.74). No statistical differences were found in the serum levels of testosterone or prolactin. Kidney grafts anastomosed at the external iliac artery produced significant (P=0.01) reductions in arterial inflow at the homolateral cavernosal artery that remained above the normal threshold. Whether these haemodynamic changes can explain the worsening of postoperative erectile function remains to be proven. PMID:22198628

Gontero, Paolo; Oderda, Marco; Filippini, Claudia; Fontana, Francesco; Lazzarich, Elisa; Stratta, Piero; Turello, Ernesto; Tizzani, Alessandro; Frea, Bruno

2011-12-26

94

Parameters affecting the X-ray dose absorbed by macromolecular crystals.  

PubMed

The lifetime of a macromolecular crystal in an X-ray beam is assumed to be limited by the absorbed dose. This dose, expressed in Gray (Gy = J kg(-1)), is a function of a number of parameters: the absorption coefficients of the constituent atoms of the crystal, the number of molecules per asymmetric unit, the beam energy, flux, size and profile, the crystal size, and the total irradiation time. The effects of these variables on the predicted absorbed dose, calculated using the program RADDOSE, are discussed and are illustrated with reference to the irradiation of a selenomethionine protein crystal of unknown structure. The results of RADDOSE can and will in the future be used to inform the data collection procedure as it sets a theoretical upper limit on the total exposure time at a certain X-ray source. However, as illustrated with an example for which the experimental data are compared with prediction, the actual lifetime of a crystal could become shorter in those cases where specific damage breaks down crucial crystal contacts. PMID:15840910

Murray, James W; Rudiño-Piñera, Enrique; Owen, Robin Leslie; Grininger, Martin; Ravelli, Raimond B G; Garman, Elspeth F

2005-04-14

95

Electrochemistry of Coal Slurries; II: studies on various experimental parameters affecting oxidation of coal slurries  

SciTech Connect

The anodic oxidation of coal slurries has been studied under various experimental conditions. Results obtained from various experiments support the mechanism of the catalytic oxidation of coal slurries by iron (III in solution, followed by the oxidation of reduced iron (II) to iron (III) at the electrode. The oxidation of coal slurries by iron (III) in solution is found to be a first-order process with respect to both reactants, i.e., coal and iron (III), from concentration dependency studies, indicating that the overall reaction may consist of a sequence of one-election transfers. It may also be concluded from various experimental results that the electrolysis reaction proceeds through the sequential formation, first of carbon oxides on the coal surface, and then of carbon dioxide as a final product. Of various catalyst oxidants studied, bromine and cerium (IV) appear to have the largest pseudo first-order catalytic rate constants with 1.1 X 10/sup -3/sec/sup -1/ and 4.1 X 10/sup -4/sec/sup -1/, respectively. Redox potentials of the catalyst pairs appear to be the most important parameter in determining catalytic reaction rates.

Dhooge, P.M.; Su-Moon Park

1983-05-01

96

Developmental methoxychlor exposure affects multiple reproductive parameters and ovarian folliculogenesis and gene expression in adult rats  

SciTech Connect

Methoxychlor (MXC) is an organochlorine pesticide with estrogenic, anti-estrogenic, and anti-androgenic properties. To investigate whether transient developmental exposure to MXC could cause adult ovarian dysfunction, we exposed Fischer rats to 20 {mu}g/kg/day (low dose; environmentally relevant dose) or 100 mg/kg/day (high dose) MXC between 19 days post coitum and postnatal day 7. Multiple reproductive parameters, serum hormone levels, and ovarian morphology and molecular markers were examined from prepubertal through adult stages. High dose MXC accelerated pubertal onset and first estrus, reduced litter size, and increased irregular cyclicity (P < 0.05). MXC reduced superovulatory response to exogenous gonadotropins in prepubertal females (P < 0.05). Rats exposed to high dose MXC had increasing irregular estrous cyclicity beginning at 4 months of age, with all animals showing abnormal cycles by 6 months. High dose MXC reduced serum progesterone, but increased luteinizing hormone (LH). Follicular composition analysis revealed an increase in the percentage of preantral and early antral follicles and a reduction in the percentage of corpora lutea in high dose MXC-treated ovaries (P < 0.05). Immunohistochemical staining and quantification of the staining intensity showed that estrogen receptor {beta} was reduced by high dose MXC while anti-Mullerian hormone was upregulated by both low- and high dose MXC in preantral and early antral follicles (P < 0.05). High dose MXC significantly reduced LH receptor expression in large antral follicles (P < 0.01), and down-regulated cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage. These results demonstrated that developmental MXC exposure results in reduced ovulation and fertility and premature aging, possibly by altering ovarian gene expression and folliculogenesis.

Armenti, AnnMarie E.; Zama, Aparna Mahakali; Passantino, Lisa [Department of Animal Sciences School of Environmental and Biological Sciences Rutgers, State 84 Lipman Drive University of New Jersey New Brunswick, NJ 08901-8525 (United States); Uzumcu, Mehmet [Department of Animal Sciences School of Environmental and Biological Sciences Rutgers, State 84 Lipman Drive University of New Jersey New Brunswick, NJ 08901-8525 (United States)], E-mail: uzumcu@aesop.rutgers.edu

2008-12-01

97

Visual display of reservoir parameters affecting enhanced oil recovery. Quarterly report, April 1--June 30, 1996  

SciTech Connect

This project consists of two parts. In Part 1, well logs, other well data, drilling, and production data for the Pioneer Field in the southern San Joaquin Valley of California were obtained, assembled, and input to a commercial relational database manager. These data are being used in PC-based geologic mapping,e valuation, and visualization software programs to produce 2-D and 3-D representations of the reservoir geometry, facies and subfacies, stratigraphy, porosity, oil saturation, and other measured and model parameters. Petrographic and petrophysical measurements made on samples from Pioneer Field, including core, cuttings, and liquids, are being used to calibrate the log suite. In Part 2, these data sets are being used to develop algorithms to correlate log response to geologic and engineering measurements. This project provides a detailed example, based on a field trial, of how to evaluate a field for EOR operations utilizing data typically available in older fields which have undergone primary development. The approach utilizes readily available, affordable PC-based computer software and analytical services. This study will illustrate the steps involved in: (1) setting up a relational database to store geologic, well-log, engineering, and production data; (2) integration of data typically available for oil and gas fields with predictive models for reservoir alteration; and (3) linking these data and models with modern computer software to provide 2-D and 3-D visualizations of the reservoir and its attributes. The techniques are being demonstrated through a field trial in Pioneer Field, that produces from the Monterey Formation, a reservoir which is a candidate for thermal EOR.

Wood, J.R.

1996-07-31

98

Metabolic Parameters and Emotionality Are Little Affected in G-Protein Coupled Receptor 12 (Gpr12) Mutant Mice  

PubMed Central

Background G-protein coupled receptors (GPR) bear the potential to serve as yet unidentified drug targets for psychiatric and metabolic disorders. GPR12 is of major interest given its putative role in metabolic function and its unique brain distribution, which suggests a role in emotionality and affect. We tested Gpr12 deficient mice in a series of metabolic and behavioural tests and subjected them to a well-established high-fat diet feeding protocol. Methodology/Principal Findings Comparing the mutant mice with wild type littermates, no significant differences were seen in body weight, fatness or weight gain induced by a high-fat diet. The Gpr12 mutant mice displayed a modest but significant lowering of energy expenditure and a trend to lower food intake on a chow diet, but no other metabolic parameters, including respiratory rate, were altered. No emotionality-related behaviours (assessed by light-dark box, tail suspension, and open field tests) were affected by the Gpr12 gene mutation. Conclusions/Significance Studying metabolic and emotionality parameters in Gpr12 mutant mice did not reveal a major phenotypic impact of the gene mutation. Compared to previous results showing a metabolic phenotype in Gpr12 mice with a mixed 129 and C57Bl6 background, we suggest that a more pure C57Bl/6 background due to further backcrossing might have reduced the phenotypic penetrance.

Frank, Elisabeth; Wu, Yizhen; Piyaratna, Naomi; Body, William James; Snikeris, Peta; South, Timothy; Gerdin, Anna-Karin; Bjursell, Mikael; Bohlooly-Y, Mohammad; Storlien, Leonard; Huang, Xu-Feng

2012-01-01

99

Altered membrane lipid composition and functional parameters of circulating cells in cockles (Cerastoderma edule) affected by disseminated neoplasia.  

PubMed

Membrane lipid composition and morpho-functional parameters were investigated in circulating cells of the edible cockle (Cerastoderma edule) affected by disseminated neoplasia (neoplastic cells) and compared to those from healthy cockles (hemocytes). Membrane sterol levels, phospholipid (PL) class and subclass proportions and their respective fatty acid (FA) compositions were determined. Morpho-functional parameters were evaluated through total hemocyte count (THC), mortality rate, phagocytosis ability and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Both morpho-functional parameters and lipid composition were profoundly affected in neoplastic cells. These dedifferentiated cells displayed higher THC (5×), mortality rate (3×) and ROS production with addition of carbonyl cyanide m-chloro phenylhydrazone (1.7×) but lower phagocytosis ability (½×), than unaffected hemocytes. Total PL amounts were higher in neoplastic cells than in hemocytes (12.3 and 5.1 nmol×10(-6) cells, respectively). However, sterols and a particular subclass of PL (plasmalogens; 1-alkenyl-2-acyl PL) were present in similar amounts in both cell type membranes. This led to a two times lower proportion of these membrane lipid constituents in neoplastic cells when compared to hemocytes (20.5% vs. 42.1% of sterols in total membrane lipids and 21.7% vs. 44.2% of plasmalogens among total PL, respectively). Proportions of non-methylene interrupted FA- and 20:1n-11-plasmalogen molecular species were the most impacted in neoplastic cells when compared to hemocytes (?× and ¼×, respectively). These changes in response to this leukemia-like disease in bivalves highlight the specific imbalance of plasmalogens and sterols in neoplastic cells, in comparison to the greater stability of other membrane lipid components. PMID:23333874

Le Grand, Fabienne; Soudant, Philippe; Marty, Yanic; Le Goïc, Nelly; Kraffe, Edouard

2013-01-17

100

Knockout of cellular glutathione peroxidase affects selenium-dependent parameters similarly in mice fed adequate and excessive dietary selenium.  

PubMed

This study was to determine whether or not effects of the cellular glutathione peroxidase (GPX1) knockout on several Se-dependent parameters in mice were tissue, dietary Se concentration, and selenoprotein specific. A 2 x 3 factorial experiment was conducted with 18 GPX1 knockout mice [GPX1(-)] and 18 controls (3 weeks old, half males and females). These mice were fed a torula yeast diet supplemented with all-rac-alpha-tocopheryl acetate (50 mg/kg of feed) and Se (sodium selenite) at 0, 0.5, or 3.0 mg/kg of feed for 6 weeks. Both kidney GPX1 mRNA levels and liver, kidney, lung, and testis total GPX activities, assayed using hydrogen peroxide, were affected (p < 0.001) by the GPX1 knockout and dietary Se concentrations, whereas kidney extracellular or plasma GPX (GPX3) mRNA levels and phospholipid hydroperoxide GPX (GPX4) activities in the four tissues were affected (p < 0.001) by only dietary Se concentrations. Total GPX activity in testis was reduced approximately 90% (p < 0.01) by the GPX1 knockout. Neither the GPX1 knockout nor the dietary Se concentrations affected mRNA levels of GPX4 in testis or selenoprotein P in kidney. Total liver Se concentrations were not different between the GPX1(-) and control mice at 0 mg Se/kg of feed, but were reduced (p < 0.01) by 61 and 64% in the GPX1(-) mice at 0.5 and 3.0 mg Se/kg of feed, respectively. These results not only confirm the independent expression of GPX3, GPX4, and selenoprotein P from that of GPX1, but also show similar effects of the GPX1 knockout on Se-dependent parameters in mice between different dietary Se concentrations, tissues, and selenoproteins. PMID:9666319

Cheng, W H; Combs, G F; Lei, X G

1998-01-01

101

Tremelimumab (anti-CTLA4) mediates immune responses mainly by direct activation of T effector cells rather than by affecting T regulatory cells.  

PubMed

Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Antigen 4 (CTLA4) blockade has shown antitumor activity against common cancers. However, the exact mechanism of immune mediation by anti-CTLA4 remains to be elucidated. Further understanding of how CTLA4 blockade with tremelimumab mediates immune responses may allow a more effective selection of responsive patients. Our results show that tremelimumab enhanced the proliferative response of T effector cells (Teff) upon TCR stimulation, and abrogated Treg suppressive ability. In the presence of tremelimumab, frequencies of IL-2-secreting CD4(+) T cells and IFN-?-secreting CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells were increased in response to polyclonal activation and tumor antigens. Importantly, Treg frequency was not reduced in the presence of tremelimumab, and expanded Tregs in cancer patients treated with tremelimumab expressed FoxP3 with no IL-2 release, confirming them as bona fide Tregs. Taken together, this data indicates that tremelimumab induces immune responses mainly by direct activation of Teff rather than by affecting Tregs. PMID:21056008

Khan, Sameena; Burt, Deborah J; Ralph, Christy; Thistlethwaite, Fiona C; Hawkins, Robert E; Elkord, Eyad

2010-11-05

102

Parameters affecting MOV performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the background status and current research on the motor-operated valve (MOV) disc and stem factor loads. Generic Safety Issue (GSI)-87 ``Failure of HPCI Steam Line Without Isolation`` and Generic Letter (GL) 89-10 ``Safety-Related Motor-Operated Valve Testing and Surveillance`` have initiated a great deal of research on MOVs in a relatively short time. Most of this research has

J. C. Watkins; K. G. DeWall; R. Jr. Steele

1992-01-01

103

Parameters affecting MOV performance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper presents the background status and current research on the motor-operated valve (MOV) disc and stem factor loads. Generic Safety Issue (GSI)-87 ''Failure of HPCI Steam Line Without Isolation'' and Generic Letter (GL) 89-10 ''Safety-Related Moto...

J. C. Watkins K. G. DeWall R. Steele

1992-01-01

104

Parameters affecting MOV performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the background status and current research on the motor-operated valve (MOV) disc and stem factor loads. Generic Safety Issue (GSI)-87 Failure of HPCI Steam Line Without Isolation'' and Generic Letter (GL) 89-10 Safety-Related Motor-Operated Valve Testing and Surveillance'' have initiated a great deal of research on MOVs in a relatively short time. Most of this research has

J. C. Watkins; K. G. DeWall; R. Jr. Steele

1992-01-01

105

Parameters affecting the quality of acquired signals for the global health monitoring of mobile bridges using fiber optic polarimetric sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fiber Optic Polarimetric Sensors (FOPS) can be used for static and dynamic integrated deformation/strain measurement. It has also been shown to capture natural and excited frequency response spectra for structural health assessment. This is achieved by relating vibrational frequency changes to structural stiffness variations caused by damage. The deployment of the FOPS for this purpose is a relatively new endeavor and many factors pertaining to its use have yet to be investigated in detail -- including the parameters affecting its signal acquisition and the subsequent interpretation of acquired signals. Using a military mobile bridge as the test specimen, it is found that the FOPS yields a unique frequency spectrum containing information on damage severity and location for each specimen. The reliability of this signature frequency spectrum depends primarily on empirical parameters such as mounting location, method of bonding, type of structural supports used, strength of excitation impact and location of impact. Further, owing to the FOPS' unique global sensing nature, a new damage quantification system has to be used, which is also dependent on the consistency of the signal acquisition process for accuracy. Both finite element and experimental modal analyses were used in the development of an optimal FOPS configuration for signal reliability.

Asundi, Anand K.; Neo Tien Song, Paul

2003-08-01

106

Key parameters affecting the initial release (burst) and encapsulation efficiency of peptide-containing poly(lactide-co-glycolide) microparticles.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to identify key variables affecting the initial release (burst) and the encapsulation of leuprolide acetate-containing poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microparticles, which were prepared by the cosolvent evaporation method. Adjusting parameters, which affected the PLGA precipitation kinetics, provided efficient ways to increase the encapsulation efficiency and to control the initial release. Addition of 0.05M NaCl to the external aqueous phase increased the encapsulation efficiency and the initial release; in contrast, NaCl at high concentration (0.5M) delayed polymer precipitation and resulted in non-porous microparticles with a low initial release. The presence of ethanol in the external phase led to porous microparticles with an increased initial release but a decreased encapsulation efficiency. The initial release also decreased with decreasing volume of the external phase and homogenization speed, as well as with covering the preparation apparatus; however, these variations had no significant effect on the encapsulation efficiency. Scale-up of the laboratory size by a factor of 5 and 25 showed insignificant influence on the encapsulation efficiency, particle size, and drug release. PMID:16854540

Luan, Xiaosong; Skupin, Marc; Siepmann, Jürgen; Bodmeier, Roland

2006-06-09

107

REM near-IR and optical photometric monitoring of pre-main sequence stars in Orion. Rotation periods and starspot parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aims. We aim at determining the rotational periods and the starspot properties in very young low-mass stars belonging to the Ori OB1c star forming region, contributing to the study of the angular momentum and magnetic activity evolution in these objects. Methods: We performed an intensive photometric monitoring of the PMS stars falling in a field of about 10 arcmin× 10 arcmin in the vicinity of the Orion nebula cluster (ONC), also containing the BD eclipsing system 2MASS J05352184-0546085. Photometric data were collected between November 2006 and January 2007 with the REM telescope in the {VRIJHK}' bands. The largest number of observations is in the I band (about 2700 images) and in J and H bands (about 500 images in each filter). From the observed rotational modulation, induced by the presence of surface inhomogeneities, we derived the rotation periods. The long time-baseline (nearly three months) allowed us to detect rotation periods, also for the slowest rotators, with sufficient accuracy (? P/P<2%). The analysis of the spectral energy distributions and, for some stars, of high-resolution spectra provided us with the main stellar parameters (luminosity, effective temperature, mass, age, and v sin i) which are essential for the discussion of our results. Moreover, the simultaneous observations in six bands, spanning from optical to near-infrared wavelengths, enabled us to derive the starspot properties for these very young low-mass stars. Results: In total, we were able to determine the rotation periods for 29 stars, spanning from about 0.6 to 20 days. Thanks to the relatively long time-baseline of our photometry, we derived periods for 16 stars and improved previous determinations for the other 13. We also report the serendipitous detection of two strong flares in two of these objects. In most cases, the light-curve amplitudes decrease progressively from the R to H band as expected for cool starspots, while in a few cases, they can only be modelled by the presence of hot spots, presumably ascribable to magnetospheric accretion. The application of our own spot model to the simultaneous light curves in different bands allowed us to deduce the spot parameters and particularly to disentangle the spot temperature and size effects on the observed light curves. Based on observations collected at the ESO REM telescope (La Silla, Chile) and at the MMT Observatory, a joint facility of the Smithsonian Institution and the University of Arizona. Tables 6, 7 and the light curves of the variable stars are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/508/1313 Figures 21-24 are only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

Frasca, A.; Covino, E.; Spezzi, L.; Alcalá, J. M.; Marilli, E.; F?rész, G.; Gandolfi, D.

2009-12-01

108

MAINE POPULATION  

EPA Science Inventory

MEPOP250 depicts Maine's 1950-1990 population data by town or Census in unorganized territories. Populations were compiled from US Census Bureau data where available or from Maine Municipal Information (mainly for older records). Unorganized towns with very low or zero pop...

109

Dissecting Systemic RNA Interference in the Red Flour Beetle Tribolium castaneum: Parameters Affecting the Efficiency of RNAi  

PubMed Central

The phenomenon of RNAi, in which the introduction of dsRNA into a cell triggers the destruction of the corresponding mRNA resulting in a gene silencing effect, is conserved across a wide array of plant and animal phyla. However, the mechanism by which the dsRNA enters a cell, allowing the RNAi effect to occur throughout a multicellular organism (systemic RNAi), has only been studied extensively in certain plants and the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. In recent years, RNAi has become a popular reverse genetic technique for gene silencing in many organisms. Although many RNAi techniques in non-traditional model organisms rely on the systemic nature of RNAi, little has been done to analyze the parameters required to obtain a robust systemic RNAi response. The data provided here show that the concentration and length of dsRNA have profound effects on the efficacy of the RNAi response both in regard to initial efficiency and duration of the effect in Tribolium castaneum. In addition, our analyses using a series of short dsRNAs and chimeric dsRNA provide evidence that dsRNA cellular uptake (and not the RNAi response itself) is the major step affected by dsRNA size in Tribolium. We also demonstrate that competitive inhibition of dsRNA can occur when multiple dsRNAs are injected together, influencing the effectiveness of RNAi. These data provide specific information essential to the design and implementation of RNAi based studies, and may provide insight into the molecular basis of the systemic RNAi response in insects.

Miller, Sherry C.; Miyata, Keita; Brown, Susan J.; Tomoyasu, Yoshinori

2012-01-01

110

Acclimatory responses of the Daphnia pulex proteome to environmental changes. II. Chronic exposure to different temperatures (10 and 20°C) mainly affects protein metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Temperature affects essentially every aspect of the biology of poikilothermic animals including the energy and mass budgets, activity, growth, and reproduction. While thermal effects in ecologically important groups such as daphnids have been intensively studied at the ecosystem level and at least partly at the organismic level, much less is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying the acclimation to

Susanne Schwerin; Bettina Zeis; Tobias Lamkemeyer; Rüdiger J Paul; Marita Koch; Johannes Madlung; Claudia Fladerer; Ralph Pirow

2009-01-01

111

The Transiting Exoplanet Host Star GJ 436: A Test of Stellar Evolution Models in the Lower Main Sequence, and Revised Planetary Parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of the stellar parameters for the parent stars of transiting exoplanets is a prerequisite for establishing the planet properties themselves, and often relies on stellar evolution models. GJ 436, which is orbited by a transiting Neptune-mass object, presents a difficult case because it is an M dwarf. Stellar models in this mass regime are not as reliable as for

Guillermo Torres

2007-01-01

112

Effect of electronic flame off parameters on copper bonding wire: Free-air ball deformability, heat affected zone length, heat affected zone breaking force  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cu bonding wire is more and more used for interconnections to integrated circuits (ICs) to reduce cost and increase performance compared to Au wire. To eliminate underpad damage for Cu wire applications, it is worthwhile to reduce the hardness of the free-air ball (FAB). Short heat affected zone (HAZ) and high HAZ breaking load are often required for advanced microelectronics

C. J. Hang; W. H. Song; I. Lum; M. Mayer; Y. Zhou; C. Q. Wang; J. T. Moon; J. Persic

2009-01-01

113

MAINE AQUIFERS  

EPA Science Inventory

AQFRS24 contains polygons of significant aquifers in Maine (glacial deposits that are a significant ground water resource) mapped at a scale 1:24,000. This statewide coverage was derived from aquifer boundaries delineated and digitized by the Maine Geological Survey from data com...

114

ESTIMATION OF THE MAIN DYNAMIC PARAMETERS OF THE PROTOSATELLITE ACCRETION DISKS USING COMPUTER MODELS OF THERMAL STRUCTURE OF SUBNEBULARS OF SATURN AND JUPITER  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerical models of the protosatellite accretion disks of Saturn and Jupiter are developed. The new models substantially based on methods of modelling circumstellar accretion disk and develops our preceding studies concerning conditions of formation of Galilean satellites in the Jovian subnebula. Two- dimensional temperature, pressure, and density distributions are calculated for the protosatellite disks. The probable interval variations the main

V. A. Dorofeeva; A. B. Makalkin

115

The carina angle-new geometrical parameter associated with periprocedural side branch compromise and the long-term results in coronary bifurcation lesions with main vessel stenting only.  

PubMed

Background:The two main problems unresolved in coronary bifurcation stenting are periprocedural side branch compromise and higher restenosis at long term. The purpose of this study is to reveal the link between periprocedural side branch compromise and long-term results after main vessel stenting only in coronary bifurcations. Methods:Eighty-four patients formed the study population. The inclusion criteria were good-quality angiograms, with maximal between-branch angle opening, no overlap, permitting accurate angiographic analysis. Carina angle (alpha)-the distal angle between main vessel (MV) before bifurcation and side branch (SB)-was measured pre- and poststenting. Clinical follow-up 9-12 months was obtained with coronary angiography if needed. Results:The patient population was high-risk with 33% diabetics and 84% two- and three-vessel disease. Ninety-five stents were implanted in 92 lesions, with three T-stenting cases. Drug-eluting stents were implanted in 54%. Kissing-balloon (KBI) or sequential inflation was performed in 35%. SB functional closure occurred in 17.4%, with independent predictors alpha < 40 degrees and diameter ratio MB/SB >1.22. After 12+/-4 months there were five myocardial infarctions (6%) and 13 (15%) target lesion revascularization procedures. Independent predictors of major cardiovascular events were carina angle <40 degrees , MB lesion length >8 mm, negative change of between-branch angle, DES usage, and KBI. Conclusions:Smaller carina angle with straightening of MV-main branch from stent implantation in coronary bifurcations predicted higher SB compromise, restenosis, and MACE rates during follow-up of 1 year. PMID:19702678

Gil, Robert J; Vassilev, Dobrin; Formuszewicz, Radoslaw; Rusicka-Piekarz, Teresa; Doganov, Alexander

2009-08-20

116

Phagocytosis Is the Main CR3-Mediated Function Affected by the Lupus-Associated Variant of CD11b in Human Myeloid Cells  

PubMed Central

The CD11b/CD18 integrin (complement receptor 3, CR3) is a surface receptor on monocytes, neutrophils, macrophages and dendritic cells that plays a crucial role in several immunological processes including leukocyte extravasation and phagocytosis. The minor allele of a non-synonymous CR3 polymorphism (rs1143679, conversation of arginine to histidine at position 77: R77H) represents one of the strongest genetic risk factor in human systemic lupus erythematosus, with heterozygosity (77R/H) being the most common disease associated genotype. Homozygosity for the 77H allele has been reported to reduce adhesion and phagocytosis in human monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages, respectively, without affecting surface expression of CD11b. Herein we comprehensively assessed the influence of R77H on different CR3-mediated activities in monocytes, neutrophils, macrophages and dendritic cells. R77H did not alter surface expression of CD11b including its active form in any of these cell types. Using two different iC3b-coated targets we found that the uptake by heterozygous 77R/H macrophages, monocytes and neutrophils was significantly reduced compared to 77R/R cells. Allele-specific transduced immortalized macrophage cell lines demonstrated that the minor allele, 77H, was responsible for the impaired phagocytosis. R77H did not affect neutrophil adhesion, neutrophil transmigration in vivo or Toll-like receptor 7/8-mediated cytokine release by monocytes or dendritic cells with or without CR3 pre-engagement by iC3b-coated targets. Our findings demonstrate that the reduction in CR3-mediated phagocytosis associated with the 77H CD11b variant is not macrophage-restricted but demonstrable in other CR3-expressing professional phagocytic cells. The association between 77H and susceptibility to systemic lupus erythematosus most likely relates to impaired waste disposal, a key component of lupus pathogenesis.

Cortini, Andrea; Szajna, Marta; Malik, Talat H.; McDonald, Jacqueline U.; Pickering, Matthew C.; Cook, H. Terence; Taylor, Philip R.; Botto, Marina

2013-01-01

117

[Main affecting factors of soil wind erosion under different land use patterns--a case study in Wuchuan County, Inner Mongolia].  

PubMed

Field investigation, laboratory analysis and wind tunnel simulation showed that in Wuchuan County of Inner Mongolia, low precipitation, frequent and high wind velocity, coarse soil texture, and thawing and freezing were the main causes of soil wind erosion happened very easily in spring. In late winter and early spring, the vegetation coverage was in order of shrub-land>natural grassland>rainfed farmland, and thus, increasing the surface cover of rainfed farmland should be an urgent need to control the wind erosion in Wuchuan County. The soil wind erosion rate decreased exponentially with increasing soil moisture content, and 6% soil moisture content was a turning point from severe to light. The topsoil moisture content under different land use patterns was in order of natural grassland> rainfed farmland >shrub-land. With increasing wind velocity, soil wind erosion rate increased by power function, and 18 m x s(-1) wind velocity was a switching point to aggravate the wind erosion. PMID:16471345

He, Wenqing; Zhao, Caixia; Gao, Wangsheng; Chen, Yuanquan; Qin, Hongling; Fan, Xiurong

2005-11-01

118

Flu vaccination with a virosomal vaccine does not affect clinical course and immunological parameters in scleroderma patients.  

PubMed

Safety and efficacy of adjuvanted vaccines in autoimmune individuals raises growing clinical and scientific interest. Protection from influenza would bring particular benefits in these patients with common cardiac and respiratory impairment. This study evaluates efficacy, clinical safety and immune effects of the administration of a single dose of a virosomal flu vaccine in 46 scleroderma patients. The following parameters were evaluated before and after administration of Inflexal: clinical conditions, inflammation and autoimmunity parameters, humoral response, lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine production upon flu antigen stimulation by specific and non-specific cells. Inflexal was found effective in scleroderma patients. In no subject was worsening of clinical conditions, inflammation and immunological parameters observed. PMID:19200840

Setti, Maurizio; Fenoglio, Daniela; Ansaldi, Filippo; Filaci, Gilberto; Bacilieri, Sabrina; Sticchi, Laura; Ferrera, Alessandra; Indiveri, Francesco; Ghio, Massimo

2009-02-05

119

MAINE WOODLOTS  

EPA Science Inventory

MEOWN250 describes industrial, non-industrial, and public woodlot ownership in Maine at 1:250,000 scale. Industrial owners are those having at least one primary wood processing facility. Non-industrial owners are those with no primary wood processing facility. Public ownership...

120

MAINE HYDROGRAPHY  

EPA Science Inventory

Hydronet_me24 and Hydropoly_me24 depict Maine's hydrography data, based on 8-digit hydrological unit codes (HUC's) at the 1:24,000 scale. Some New Hampshire and New Brunswick hydrography data are also included. The NHD hydrography data was compiled from previous ArcIn...

121

Acclimatory responses of the Daphnia pulex proteome to environmental changes. II. Chronic exposure to different temperatures (10 and 20?C) mainly affects protein metabolism  

PubMed Central

Background Temperature affects essentially every aspect of the biology of poikilothermic animals including the energy and mass budgets, activity, growth, and reproduction. While thermal effects in ecologically important groups such as daphnids have been intensively studied at the ecosystem level and at least partly at the organismic level, much less is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying the acclimation to different temperatures. By using 2D gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, the present study identified the major elements of the temperature-induced subset of the proteome from differently acclimated Daphnia pulex. Results Specific sets of proteins were found to be differentially expressed in 10°C or 20°C acclimated D. pulex. Most cold-repressed proteins comprised secretory enzymes which are involved in protein digestion (trypsins, chymotrypsins, astacin, carboxypeptidases). The cold-induced sets of proteins included several vitellogenin and actin isoforms (cytoplasmic and muscle-specific), and an AAA+ ATPase. Carbohydrate-modifying enzymes were constitutively expressed or down-regulated in the cold. Conclusion Specific sets of cold-repressed and cold-induced proteins in D. pulex can be related to changes in the cellular demand for amino acids or to the compensatory control of physiological processes. The increase of proteolytic enzyme concentration and the decrease of vitellogenin, actin and total protein concentration between 10°C and 20°C acclimated animals reflect the increased amino-acids demand and the reduced protein reserves in the animal's body. Conversely, the increase of actin concentration in cold-acclimated animals may contribute to a compensatory mechanism which ensures the relative constancy of muscular performance. The sheer number of peptidase genes (serine-peptidase-like: > 200, astacin-like: 36, carboxypeptidase-like: 30) in the D. pulex genome suggests large-scaled gene family expansions that might reflect specific adaptations to the lifestyle of a planktonic filter feeder in a highly variable aquatic environment.

Schwerin, Susanne; Zeis, Bettina; Lamkemeyer, Tobias; Paul, Rudiger J; Koch, Marita; Madlung, Johannes; Fladerer, Claudia; Pirow, Ralph

2009-01-01

122

Factors affecting the accuracy of determining the saturated synchronous machines cross-magnetizing parameters by the Finite Element Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cross-magnetizing phenomenon of saturated synchronous machines plays an important role in their analysis using the two-axis frame models. To determine the parameters representing this phenomenon by the finite element method (FEM), the analysis has to be performed for excitations in the direct, quadrature and intermediate axes of the synchronous machines. This paper presents some investigations of the effect of

A. M. El-Serafi; X. Liang; S. O. Faried

2008-01-01

123

Flu vaccination with a virosomal vaccine does not affect clinical course and immunological parameters in scleroderma patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Safety and efficacy of adjuvanted vaccines in autoimmune individuals raises growing clinical and scientific interest. Protection from influenza would bring particular benefits in these patients with common cardiac and respiratory impairment. This study evaluates efficacy, clinical safety and immune effects of the administration of a single dose of a virosomal flu vaccine in 46 scleroderma patients. The following parameters were

Maurizio Setti; Daniela Fenoglio; Filippo Ansaldi; Gilberto Filaci; Sabrina Bacilieri; Laura Sticchi; Alessandra Ferrera; Francesco Indiveri; Massimo Ghio

2009-01-01

124

Technical parameters influencing the severity of injury of front-seat, belt-protected car passengers on the impact side in car-to-car side collisions with the main impact between the front and rear seats (B-pillars)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Authentic car-to-car side collisions (n = 30) with the main impact area at the B-pillar were analyzed to find technical parameters corresponding with the injury severities of the front seat, belt-protected car passengers on the impact side. EES (Energy Equivalent Speed) and Av (delta v, change in velocity) were highly significant predictors of the severity of thoracic and abdominal

E. Miltner; H. P. Wiedmann; B. Leutwein; H.-P. Hepp; R. Fischer; H. J. Salwender; H. Frobenius; D. Kallieris

1992-01-01

125

Microstructural parameters affecting creep induced load shedding in Ti6242 by a size dependent crystal plasticity FE model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is aimed at identifying critical microstructural parameters that cause local stress concentration due to load shedding between microstructural regions of varying strengths. This stress is viewed as one of the fundamental reasons for crack initiation in Ti-6242. A rate dependent, anisotropic, elasto-crystal plasticity based finite element model (CPFEM) for poly-phase Ti-6242 is used in this study to identify

Gayathri Venkataramani; Kedar Kirane; Somnath Ghosh

2008-01-01

126

The parameters of reproduction, sizes, and activities of hydrolases in Daphnia magna straus of successive generations affected by Roundup herbicide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of sublethal concentrations of Roundup (25 and 50 mg\\/l of the active compound glyphosate) was studied in the\\u000a Daphnia magna Straus of successive generations. The toxic effects were assessed by the parameters of fecundity, quality of progeny, and\\u000a linear sizes of daphnia, as well as by the activities of carbohydrases and proteases. The effect of the toxicant may

G. A. Papchenkova; I. L. Golovanova; N. V. Ushakova

2009-01-01

127

Both aluminum and polyphenols in green tea decoction ( Camellia sinensis ) affect iron status and hematological parameters in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Green tea leaves naturally contain high levels of polyphenols and aluminum (Al). Polyphenols in green tea decoction are considered\\u000a to be one of the major factors responsible of low iron status. However, the effects of Al from green tea decoction on iron\\u000a status and hematological parameters remained unclear.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Aim of the study  The objective was to investigate the Al absorption from

Neila Marouani; Adel Chahed; Abderrazek Hédhili; Mohamed Hédi Hamdaoui

2007-01-01

128

Investigation of Parameters that Affect the Success Rate of Microarray-Based Allele-Specific Hybridization Assays  

PubMed Central

Background The development of microarray-based genetic tests for diseases that are caused by known mutations is becoming increasingly important. The key obstacle to developing functional genotyping assays is that such mutations need to be genotyped regardless of their location in genomic regions. These regions include large variations in G+C content, and structural features like hairpins. Methods/Findings We describe a rational, stable method for screening and combining assay conditions for the genetic analysis of 42 Phenylketonuria-associated mutations in the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene. The mutations are located in regions with large variations in G+C content (20–75%). Custom-made microarrays with different lengths of complementary probe sequences and spacers were hybridized with pooled PCR products of 12 exons from each of 38 individual patient DNA samples. The arrays were washed with eight buffers with different stringencies in a custom-made microfluidic system. The data were used to assess which parameters play significant roles in assay development. Conclusions Several assay development methods found suitable probes and assay conditions for a functional test for all investigated mutation sites. Probe length, probe spacer length, and assay stringency sufficed as variable parameters in the search for a functional multiplex assay. We discuss the optimal assay development methods for several different scenarios.

Poulsen, Lena; S?e, Martin Jensen; M?ller, Lisbeth Birk; Dufva, Martin

2011-01-01

129

Main parameters of a coaxial electrostatic lens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coaxial electrostatic lenses are used in combination with a magnetic field in plasma-optical and manometric devices [A. I.\\u000a Morozov and S. V. Lebedev, in Reviews of Plasma Physics, Vol. 8, M. A. Leontovich (ed.), Consultants Bureau, New York (1980); V. P. Afanas’ev, A. A. Vydrik, L. P. Ovsyannikova, and E. V.\\u000a Shpak, Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 25, 1049 (1980)]. Their

L. P. Ovsyannikova; T. Ya. Fishkova

1997-01-01

130

Main Report  

PubMed Central

Background: States vary widely in their use of newborn screening tests, with some mandating screening for as few as three conditions and others mandating as many as 43 conditions, including varying numbers of the 40+ conditions that can be detected by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). There has been no national guidance on the best candidate conditions for newborn screening since the National Academy of Sciences report of 19751 and the United States Congress Office of Technology Assessment report of 1988,2 despite rapid developments since then in genetics, in screening technologies, and in some treatments. Objectives: In 2002, the Maternal and Child Health Bureau (MCHB) of the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) of the United States Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) commissioned the American College of Medical Genetics (ACMG) to: Conduct an analysis of the scientific literature on the effectiveness of newborn screening.Gather expert opinion to delineate the best evidence for screening for specified conditions and develop recommendations focused on newborn screening, including but not limited to the development of a uniform condition panel.Consider other components of the newborn screening system that are critical to achieving the expected outcomes in those screened. Methods: A group of experts in various areas of subspecialty medicine and primary care, health policy, law, public health, and consumers worked with a steering committee and several expert work groups, using a two-tiered approach to assess and rank conditions. A first step was developing a set of principles to guide the analysis. This was followed by developing criteria by which conditions could be evaluated, and then identifying the conditions to be evaluated. A large and broadly representative group of experts was asked to provide their opinions on the extent to which particular conditions met the selected criteria, relying on supporting evidence and references from the scientific literature. The criteria were distributed among three main categories for each condition: The availability and characteristics of the screening test;The availability and complexity of diagnostic services; andThe availability and efficacy of treatments related to the conditions. A survey process utilizing a data collection instrument was used to gather expert opinion on the conditions in the first tier of the assessment. The data collection format and survey provided the opportunity to quantify expert opinion and to obtain the views of a diverse set of interest groups (necessary due to the subjective nature of some of the criteria). Statistical analysis of data produced a score for each condition, which determined its ranking and initial placement in one of three categories (high scoring, moderately scoring, or low scoring/absence of a newborn screening test). In the second tier of these analyses, the evidence base related to each condition was assessed in depth (e.g., via systematic reviews of reference lists including MedLine, PubMed and others; books; Internet searches; professional guidelines; clinical evidence; and cost/economic evidence and modeling). The fact sheets reflecting these analyses were evaluated by at least two acknowledged experts for each condition. These experts assessed the data and the associated references related to each criterion and provided corrections where appropriate, assigned a value to the level of evidence and the quality of the studies that established the evidence base, and determined whether there were significant variances from the survey data. Survey results were subsequently realigned with the evidence obtained from the scientific literature during the second-tier analysis for all objective criteria, based on input from at least three acknowledged experts in each condition. The information from these two tiers of assessment was then considered with regard to the overriding principles and other technology or condition-specific recommendations. On the basis of this information, conditions were assigned to one of thr

2006-01-01

131

Critical rearing parameters of Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) as affected by host plant substrate and host-parasitoid group structure.  

PubMed

In laboratory assays, we evaluated the potential impact of host plant substrate types, host-parasitoid group sizes (densities), and parasitoid-to-host ratios on select fitness parameters of the larval endoparasitoid Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), newly introduced for biological control of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), in the United States. Results from our study showed that offspring production and critical fitness parameters (body size and sex ratio) of T. planipennisi from parasitized emerald ash borer larvae are significantly influenced by host plant substrate type, host-parasitoid group size, parasitoid-to-host ratio, or a combination in the primary exposure assay. The number of both female and male T. planipennisi progeny was significantly greater when emerald ash borer larvae were inserted into tropical ash [Fraxinus uhdei (Wenz.) Lingelsh.] logs rather than green ash (Fraxinus pensylvanica Marshall). When maintained at a constant 1:1 parasitoid-to-host ratio, assays with larger host-parasitoid group sizes (3:3-12:12) produced significantly greater numbers of both male and female offspring per parental wasp compared with those with the single host-parasitoid (1:1) group treatment. As the parasitoid-to-host ratio increased from 1:1 to 8:1 in the assay, the average brood size (number of offspring per parasitized emerald ash borer larva) increased significantly, whereas the average brood sex ratio (female to male) changed from being female-biased (6:1) to male-biased (1:2); body size of female offspring as measured by the length of ovipositor and left hind tibia also was reduced significantly. Based on these findings, we suggest that the current method of rearing T. planipennisi with artificially infested-emerald ash borer larvae use the tropical ash logs for emerald ash borer insertion, a larger (> or = 3:3) host-parasitoid group size and 1:1 parasitoid-to-host ratio in the primary parasitoid exposure assays. PMID:22812114

Duan, Jian J; Oppel, Craig

2012-06-01

132

Investigating the parameters affecting the adsorption of amino acids onto AgCl nanoparticles with different surface charges.  

PubMed

In this paper, adsorption behaviors of typical neutral (alanine), acidic (glutamic acid) and basic (lysine) amino acids onto the surfaces of neutral as well as positively and negatively charged silver chloride nanoparticles were examined. Silver chloride nanoparticles with different charges and different water content were synthesized by reverse micelle method. The adsorptions of the above mentioned amino acids onto the surfaces of differently charged silver chloride nanoparticles were found to depend strongly on various parameters including pH of the aqueous solution, type of amino acid, water to surfactant mole ratio, and type of charges on the surfaces of silver chloride nanoparticles. It was found that the interaction of -NH(3) (+) groups of the amino acids with silver ion could be a driving force for adsorption of amino acids. Alanine and Glutamic acid showed almost similar trend for being adsorbed on the surface of silver chloride nanoparticles. Electrostatic interaction, hydrophobicity of both nanoparticle and amino acid, complex formation between amine group and silver ion, interaction between protonated amine and silver ion as well as the number of nanoparticles per unit volume of solution were considered for interpreting the observed results. PMID:22491826

Absalan, Ghodratollah; Ghaemi, Maryam

2012-04-11

133

Lycopene, vitamin C, and antioxidant capacity of tomato juice as affected by high-intensity pulsed electric fields critical parameters.  

PubMed

The effects of high-intensity pulsed electric field (HIPEF) treatment variables (frequency, pulse width, and pulse polarity) on the lycopene, vitamin C, and antioxidant capacities of tomato juice were evaluated using a response surface methodology. An optimization of the HIPEF treatment conditions was carried out to obtain tomato juice with the highest content of bioactive compounds possible. Samples were subjected to an electric field intensity set at 35 kV/cm for 1000 micros using squared wave pulses, frequencies from 50 to 250 Hz, and a pulse width from 1 to 7 micros, in monopolar or bipolar mode. Data significantly fit (P < 0.001) the proposed second-order response functions. Pulse frequency, width, and polarity significantly affected the lycopene, vitamin C, and antioxidant capacities of HIPEF-treated tomato juice. Maximal relative lycopene content (131.8%), vitamin C content (90.2%), and antioxidant capacity retention (89.4%) were attained with HIPEF treatments of a 1 micros pulse duration applied at 250 Hz in bipolar mode. Therefore, the application of HIPEF may be appropriate to achieve nutritious tomato juice. PMID:17907773

Odriozola-Serrano, Isabel; Aguiló-Aguayo, Ingrid; Soliva-Fortuny, Robert; Gimeno-Añó, Vicente; Martín-Belloso, Olga

2007-10-02

134

Visual display of reservoir parameters affecting enhanced oil recovery. Annual report, October 1, 1995--September 30, 1996  

SciTech Connect

The Multimedia Database Management System (MDMS) has been developed in the commercial software package Toolbook. Design and implementation, which was carried out by C. Asiala, is now essentially complete. Regional location maps of southern San Joaquin Valley oil fields, structure contour maps of the Pioneer area, core photos, core data, thin-section and SEM photomicrographs of core materials, structural cross sections through Pioneer Anticline, an atlas of photomicrographs; illustrating typical diagenetic features observed in San Joaquin Valley petroleum reservoirs, elemental and spectral data collected on Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) standards, and all quarterly and annual reports submitted to DOE for this project were scanned into the MDMS. All data and information are accessible through dropdown menus and hotlinks in a Table of Contents. A tutorial is presented up front to guide users through the MDMS and instruct them on the various ways in which data can be viewed and retrieved. Version 1.0 of the MDMS was written to CD ROM and distributed to participants in a Technology Transfer Workshop in Bakersfield, CA, in September, 1996. Version 1.1, which contains additional information and has been reorganized for easier use, is nearing completion. All measured and computed log curves (computed curves represent parameters such as porosity, water saturation, and clay content, which were calculated from the measured log traces using specially developed algorithms) for the 45+ project wells on Pioneer Anticline are now in the MDMS in LAS (log ASCII) format, and can be exported to any commercial log evaluation program for manipulation and analysis. All log curves were written to the CD ROM in digital format.

Wood, J.R.

1997-04-01

135

Alternating temperatures affect life table parameters of Phytoseiulus persimilis, Neoseiulus californicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae) and their prey Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae).  

PubMed

Increasing energy costs force glasshouse growers to switch to energy saving strategies. In the temperature integration approach, considerable daily temperature variations are allowed, which not only have an important influence on plant growth but also on the development rate of arthropods in the crop. Therefore, we examined the influence of two constant temperature regimes (15 °C/15 °C and 20 °C/20 °C) and one alternating temperature regime (20 °C/5 °C, with an average of 15 °C) on life table parameters of Phytoseiulus persimilis and Neoseiulus californicus and their target pest, the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae at a 16:8 (L:D) h photoperiod and 65 ± 5 % RH. For females of both predatory mites the alternating temperature regime resulted in a 25-30 % shorter developmental time as compared to the corresponding mean constant temperature regime of 15 °C/15 °C. The immature development of female spider mites was prolonged for 7 days at 15 °C/15 °C as compared to 20 °C/5 °C. With a daytime temperature of 20 °C, no differences in lifetime fecundity were observed between a nighttime temperature of 20 and 5 °C for P. persimilis and T. urticae. The two latter species did show a higher lifetime fecundity at 20 °C/5 °C than at 15 °C/15 °C, and their daily fecundity at the alternating regime was about 30 % higher than at the corresponding mean constant temperature. P. persimilis and T. urticae showed no differences in sex ratio between the three temperature regimes, whereas the proportion of N. californicus females at 15 °C/15 °C (54.2 %) was significantly lower than that at 20 °C/5 °C (69.4 %) and 20 °C/20 °C (67.2 %). Intrinsic rates of increase were higher at the alternating temperature than at the corresponding mean constant temperature for both pest and predators. Our results indicate that thermal responses of the studied phytoseiid predators to alternating temperature regimes used in energy saving strategies in glasshouse crops may have consequences for their efficacy in biological control programs. PMID:23661271

Vangansbeke, Dominiek; De Schrijver, Lien; Spranghers, Thomas; Audenaert, Joachim; Verhoeven, Ruth; Nguyen, Duc Tung; Gobin, Bruno; Tirry, Luc; De Clercq, Patrick

2013-05-10

136

The change of chlorophyll fluorescence parameters in winter barley during recovery after freezing shock and as affected by cold acclimation and irradiance.  

PubMed

The change of chlorophyll fluorescence parameters in froze leaves of 3 leaf-age seedlings were examined using two winter barley cultivars (Chumai 1 and Mo 103) differing in cold tolerance to investigate physiological response to low temperature as affected by cold acclimation (under 3/1 degrees C, day/night for 5 days before freezing treatment) and irradiation size (high irradiance: 380+/-25 micromol m(-2)s(-1) and low irradiance: 60+/-25 micromol m(-2)s(-1)) during recovery. The results showed that non-lethal freezing shock (exposed to -8 degrees C for 18 h) did not obviously affect maximum quantum efficiency in photosystem II (PSII), but dramatically increased non-photochemical quenching and reduced effective quantum yield in PSII. Cold acclimation significantly improved stability of photosynthetic function of leaves after freezing stress through buffering excessive energy and alleviating photoinhibition during recovery, indicating it increased recovery ability of barley plants from freezing injury. High irradiance was quite harmful to the stability of PSII in barley plants during recovery from freezing injury. The electron transport rate of PSII varied with cold-acclimation, irradiance and genotype. Cold acclimation caused significant increase in electron transport rate of PSII for relatively tolerant cultivar Mo 103, but not for relatively sensitive cultivar Chumai 1. It can be concluded that some chlorophyll fluorescence parameters during recovery from freezing shock may be used as the indicators in identification and evaluation of cold tolerance in barley. PMID:17977737

Dai, Fei; Zhou, Meixue; Zhang, Guoping

2007-10-15

137

Impact of critical process and formulation parameters affecting in-process stability of lactate dehydrogenase during the secondary drying stage of lyophilization: a mini freeze dryer study.  

PubMed

The stresses during the secondary-drying stage of lyophilization were investigated using a controlled humidity mini-freeze-dryer [Luthra S, Obert J-P, Kalonia DS, Pikal MJ. 2007. Investigation of drying stresses on proteins during lyophilization: Differentiation between primary and secondary-drying stresses on lactate dehydrogenase using a humidity controlled mini freeze-dryer. J Pharm Sci 96: 61-70.]. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), was formulated in: (1) Tween 80, (2) citrate buffer, and (3) both Tween 80 and citrate buffer. Protein activity recovery was measured as a function of relative humidity (RH), product temperature, and drying duration. Studies were also conducted with different concentrations of sucrose, sorbitol, and poly (vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP). LDH stability was affected to a small extent by RH and significantly by drying temperature and duration. Complete stabilization of LDH was observed when lyophilized with sucrose and PVP but only a partial stabilization was observed with sorbitol. The mini-freeze-dryer enabled studying the process parameters independently, unlike a conventional study where these effects are generally convoluted. The results suggest that the stability of the protein is a function of the dynamics of the system during lyophilization. The origin of the stabilization effect of sucrose, which could, in principle, be attributed both to direct interaction with the protein or vitrification of the protein was elucidated using lyoprotectants that can either hydrogen bond well with the protein (sorbitol) or form a good glass (PVP). It appears both effects are required for complete stabilization of the protein. PMID:17621675

Luthra, Sumit; Obert, Jean-Philippe; Kalonia, Devendra S; Pikal, Michael J

2007-09-01

138

The Assessment of Parameters Affecting the Quality of Cord Blood by the Appliance of the Annexin V Staining Method and Correlation with CFU Assays  

PubMed Central

The assessment of nonviable haematopoietic cells by Annexin V staining method in flow cytometry has recently been published by Duggleby et al. Resulting in a better correlation with the observed colony formation in methylcellulose assays than the standard ISHAGE protocol, it presents a promising method to predict cord blood potency. Herein, we applied this method for examining the parameters during processing which potentially could affect cord blood viability. We could verify that the current standards regarding time and temperature are sufficient, since no significant difference was observed within 48 hours or in storage at 4°C up to 26°C. However, the addition of DMSO for cryopreservation alone leads to an inevitable increase in nonviable haematopoietic stem cells from initially 14.8% ± 4.3% to at least 30.6% ± 5.5%. Furthermore, CFU-assays with varied seeding density were performed in order to evaluate the applicability as a quantitative method. The results revealed that only in a narrow range reproducible clonogenic efficiency (ClonE) could be assessed, giving at least a semiquantitative estimation. We conclude that both Annexin V staining method and CFU-assays with defined seeding density are reliable means leading to a better prediction of the final potency. Especially Annexin V, due to its fast readout, is a practical tool for examining and optimising specific steps in processing, while CFU-assays add a functional confirmation.

Radke, Teja Falk; Barbosa, David; Duggleby, Richard Charles; Saccardi, Riccardo; Querol, Sergio; Kogler, Gesine

2013-01-01

139

Comparison of creep crack growth rate in heat affected zone of welded joint for 9%Cr ferritic heat resistant steel based on C ?, d ?\\/d t, K and Q ? parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Creep crack growth behavior is very sensitive to the materials’ micro-structures such as the heat affected zone of a weld joint. This is a main issue to be clarified for 9%Cr ferritic heat resistant steel for their application in structural components. In this paper, high temperature creep crack growth tests were conducted on CT specimens with cracks in the heat

R. Sugiura; A YOKOBORIJR; M. Tabuchi; T. Yokobori

2007-01-01

140

The EMMA Main Ring Lattice.  

SciTech Connect

I give a brief introduction to the purpose and goals of the EMMA experiment and describe how they will impact the design of the main EMMA ring. I then describe the mathematical model that is used to describe the EMMA lattice. Finally, I show how the different lattice configurations were obtained and list their parameters.

Berg,J.S.

2008-02-21

141

On the factors affecting the dissolution of copper in molten lead-free solders and development of a method to assess the soldering parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the various factors that influence the dissolution of copper in molten solder, paying particular attention to important parameters: temperature, solder composition and flow rate. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – To determine the dissolution rate of copper in lead-free solders, a simple and automated technique is developed. This methodology provides repeatable measurements that allow

D. Di Maio; C. P. Hunt

2009-01-01

142

Body mass index, calcium intake, and physical activity affect calcaneal ultrasound in healthy Greek males in an age-dependent and parameter-specific manner  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) is a peripheral bone densitometry technique that is rapidly gaining in popularity for the assessment of skeletal status. This study was carried out to examine the effect of anthropometric, dietary, physical activity, and other lifestyle factors on QUS parameters in healthy Greek males of various ages, including children (n = 192), adults (n = 106), and elderly

Eirini Babaroutsi; Faidon Magkos; Yannis Manios; Labros S. Sidossis

2005-01-01

143

History of Maine Fisheries Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A number of institutions have begun to expand their digital collections in order to include lesser-known subjects, and the University of Maine's Raymond H. Fogler Library continues to expand their online offerings with this intriguing collection. Drawing on the holdings of institutions like the Machias Historical Society, the Maine Maritime Museum, and the Maine State Archives, their digital collections team has created this History of Maine Fisheries database. There aren't any subject headings or sample searches on the site, but it is still quite easy to use. Visitors can use the keyword search to locate materials of interest, and they can also set date parameters to look for materials from a given time period. To get started, visitors might try typing in words like "lobster", "fleet", and "Bangor".

144

Particle and nuclear physics parameters—how do they affect the tracks of double beta events in a germanium detector, and their separation from gamma events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sizes of tracks of events of neutrinoless double beta decay in a germanium detector depend on particle physics and nuclear physics parameters such as neutrino mass, right-handed current parameters, etc., and nuclear matrix elements. The knowledge of this dependence is of importance, since the key to probe the existence of 0??? decay beyond observation of a signal at the Q value of the process, Q, is the discrimination of ?? events from background ? events (or other events), in almost any double beta decay experiment (see [H.V. Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, I.V. Krivosheina, A. Dietz, et al., Phys. Lett. B 586 (2004) 198; H.V. Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, A. Dietz, I.V. Krivosheina, et al., Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 522 (2004) 371]). In this Letter for the first time Monte Carlo simulations of neutrino-accompanied (2???) and neutrinoless double beta decay (0???) events, and of various kinds of background processes such as multiple and other ? interactions are reported for a Ge detector. The time history of the evolution of the individual events is followed and a systematic study has been performed of the sizes of the events (volumes in the detector inside which the energy of the event is released which determine the observed signals). Effects of the angular correlations of the two electrons in ?? decay, which again depend on the above nuclear and (for 0??? decay) particle physics parameters, are taken into account and have been calculated for this purpose for 76Ge for the first time on basis of the experimental half-life and of realistic nuclear matrix elements. A brief outlook is given on the potential of future experiments with respect to determination of the particle physics parameters , , .

Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, H. V.; Krivosheina, I. V.; Titkova, I. V.

2006-01-01

145

Total and transition zone prostate volume and age: how do they affect the utility of PSA-based diagnostic parameters for early prostate cancer detection?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. To define the role of total prostate (TP) volume, transition zone (TZ) volume, and age as determinants of the utility of prostate-specific antigen (PSA)-based diagnostic parameters for early detection of prostate cancer (PCa) in a prospective multicenter study.Methods. The study participants were 974 consecutive men with serum total PSA (tPSA) levels of 4 to 10 ng\\/mL who were referred

Bob Djavan; Alexandre R Zlotta; Mesut Remzi; Keywan Ghawidel; Bernd Bursa; Stephan Hruby; Roswitha Wolfram; Claude C Schulman; Michael Marberger

1999-01-01

146

Using Taguchi experimental design to reveal the impact of parameters affecting the abrasion resistance of sol–gel based UV curable nanocomposite films on polycarbonate  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work aims at studying the abrasion resistance of differently formulated organic–inorganic hybrid coatings prepared by\\u000a sol–gel method. The organic phase contained UV curable urethane acrylate oligomers and monomers having different functionalities.\\u000a The inorganic phase was composed of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and 3-methacryloxy propyltrimethoxy silane (MEMO). Through\\u000a a Taguchi experimental design, the impact of influencing parameters such as molar ratio

H. Yahyaei; M. Mohseni; S. Bastani

147

Biochemical signs of impaired cobalamin function do not affect hematological parameters in young infants: results from a double-blind randomized controlled trial.  

PubMed

Background:Whereas iron deficiency is considered the leading cause of anemia in infants, cobalamin deficiency is foremost characterized by developmental delay, and the typical macrocytic anemia is confined to severe and longstanding cobalamin deficiency in this age group. Hematological parameters were investigated in 4-mo-old infants with biochemical signs of impaired cobalamin function who participated in a randomized controlled cobalamin intervention study at 6?wk.Methods:One hundred and seven infants were randomly assigned to receive either an intramuscular injection with 400 ?g cobalamin or no intervention at 6?wk. Hematological parameters, and cobalamin and folate status were determined at inclusion and 4 mo.Results:Cobalamin supplementation improved all markers of impaired cobalamin function but had no effect on hematological cell counts at 4 mo (P > 0.18). Signs indicative of an iron-restricted erythropoiesis were observed at 6?wk and 4 mo. At 4 mo, the strongest predictors of low iron status were male gender and a high percentage weight increase from birth.Conclusion:In infants with biochemical signs of impaired cobalamin function, supplementation does not improve hematological cell counts. Variations in erythrocyte parameters seem to be foremost associated with iron status in this age group. PMID:23770919

Jenssen, Håvard Bjørke; Torsvik, Ingrid; Ueland, Per Magne; Midttun, Oivind; Bjørke-Monsen, Anne-Lise

2013-06-14

148

Relationship between blood concentrations of heavy metals and cytogenetic and endocrine parameters among subjects involved in cleaning coastal areas affected by the 'Prestige' tanker oil spill.  

PubMed

The sinking of the 'Prestige' oil tanker in front of the Galician coast (NW of Spain) in November 2002 offered a unique opportunity to analyze intermediate cytogenetic and endocrine effects among people exposed to the complex mixture of substances that oil constitutes, including several toxic heavy metals. In this work we evaluated the relationship between exposure to heavy metals (blood concentrations of aluminium, cadmium, nickel, lead and zinc) and genotoxic parameters (sister chromatid exchanges, micronucleus test and comet assay) or endocrine parameters (plasmatic concentrations of prolactin and cortisol) in subjects exposed to 'Prestige' oil during cleaning tasks developed after the spillage. Concentrations of lead were significantly related to the comet assay even after adjusting by age, sex and smoking. Cortisol concentrations were significantly influenced by aluminium, nickel (both, inversely) and cadmium (positively). Women had clearly higher concentrations of prolactin and cortisol, even when adjusting by age, smoking, cadmium, aluminium or nickel. Plasmatic cortisol was jointly influenced by gender, smoking and aluminium or nickel (all p<0.05). In women there was a strong relationship between concentrations of cadmium and prolactin (beta=0.37, p=0.031). When the effects of cadmium, aluminium and nickel on cortisol were simultaneously assessed, only the latter two metals remained statistically significant. Among parameters analysed, cortisol appeared to be the most sensitive to the effects of metal exposure. Plasma levels of cortisol deserve further evaluation as a potentially relevant biomarker to assess the effects of exposure to heavy metals. PMID:18221981

Pérez-Cadahía, Beatriz; Laffon, Blanca; Porta, Miquel; Lafuente, Anunciación; Cabaleiro, Teresa; López, Tomàs; Caride, Ana; Pumarega, José; Romero, Alejandro; Pásaro, Eduardo; Méndez, Josefina

2008-01-25

149

Macroalgae Industry in Maine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Physical description and climate of the Maine coast; Seaweed biology; Some uses of macroalgae; Determination of candidates for aquaculture; Economically important macroalgae in Maine--Porphyra; Chondrus crispus; Mastocarpus stellata; Palmaria pa...

S. Crawford

1991-01-01

150

The Fabled Maine Winter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

No study of Maine weather would be complete without analysis of the year of 1816 - the year with no summer in an area from western Pennsylvania and New York, up through Quebec and across to Maine and the Canadian maritimes. In this five-unit lesson, students will investigate the causes and effects of the Fabled Maine Winter by exploring a variety of data sources. They will locate, graph, and analyze meteorological and climatological data for Portland, Maine, for more recent years to try to find one that most closely resembles the fabled Maine winter of 1816.

151

Exploring Main Belt Asteroids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Terrestrial planet formation in the main asteroid belt was interrupted when growing protoplanets became sufficiently massive to gravitationally perturb the local population, causing bodies to collide with increased energy, thus ending accretion and commencing fragmentation and disruption. Few of these protoplanets are thought to have survived unshattered (e.g., Ceres, Vesta, Pallas), leaving a main belt population dominated by fragments of

M. V. Sykes; S. M. Larson; R. Whiteley; U. Fink; R. Jedicke; J. Emery; R. Fevig; M. Kelley; A. W. Harris; S. Ostro; K. Reed; R. P. Binzel; A. Rivkin; C. Magri; W. Bottke; D. Durda; R. Walker; D. Davis; W. K. Hartmann; D. Sears; H. Yano; J. Granahan; A. Storrs; S. J. Bus; J. F. Bell; D. Tholen; A. Cellino

2001-01-01

152

MAINE MARINE WORM HABITAT  

EPA Science Inventory

WORM provides a generalized representation at 1:24,000 scale of commercially harvested marine worm habitat in Maine, based on Maine Department of Marine Resources data from 1970's. Original maps were created by MDMR and published by USF&WS as part of the ""&quo...

153

Gulf of Maine: Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Lessons and activities from the Gulf of Maine Research Institute (formerly Gulf of Maine Aquarium), focused on hurricanes, El Nino, fog, and volcanic eruptions. Emphasis on important hurricanes of the past. Resources include lessons, guides for simple experiments, and a student weather network. Downloadable materials and additional webpages also provided.

154

Main Belt Comets  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have identified objects which are physically comets but which occupy orbits within the main belt of asteroids No dynamical routes from the Kuiper belt or Oort Cloud cometary reservoirs have been identified Therefore we conclude that these are true comets formed in-place and constituting a new type of comet from a previously unobserved reservoir The main belt comets MBCs

D. Jewitt; H. Hsieh

2006-01-01

155

Feed gas humidity: a vital parameter affecting a cold atmospheric-pressure plasma jet and plasma-treated human skin cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the effect of feed gas humidity on the reactive component generation of an atmospheric-pressure argon plasma jet and its effect on human skin cells are investigated. Feed gas humidity is identified as one key parameter that strongly influences stability and reproducibility of plasma medical studies. The plasma jet is investigated by absorption spectroscopy in the ultraviolet and infrared spectral region for its ozone production depending on the humidity concentration in the feed gas. By optical emission spectroscopy the dependence of present excited plasma species such as hydroxyl radicals, molecular nitrogen, argon and atomic oxygen on the feed gas humidity is investigated. As an interface layer between the plasma jet effluent and the biological cell, a buffer solution is treated and the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production is studied with two independent colorimetric assays as a function of humidity admixture to the feed gas. Ultimately, the effect of varying feed gas humidity on the cell viability of indirect plasma treated adherent HaCAT cells is investigated. The highest viability is found for the driest feed gas condition. Furthermore, this work shows answers for the relevance of unwanted—or intended—feed gas humidity in plasma medical experiments and their comparatively large relevance with respect to ambient humidity. The findings will lead to more reproducible experiments in the field of plasma medicine.

Winter, J.; Wende, K.; Masur, K.; Iseni, S.; Dünnbier, M.; Hammer, M. U.; Tresp, H.; Weltmann, K.-D.; Reuter, S.

2013-07-01

156

Parameters affecting the stability of the digestate from a two-stage anaerobic process treating the organic fraction of municipal solid waste.  

PubMed

This paper focused on the factors affecting the respiration rate of the digestate taken from a continuous anaerobic two-stage process treating the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW). The process involved a hydrolytic reactor (HR) that produced a leachate fed to a submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor (SAMBR). It was found that a volatile solids (VS) removal in the range 40-75% and an operating temperature in the HR between 21 and 35 °C resulted in digestates with similar respiration rates, with all digestates requiring 17 days of aeration before satisfying the British Standard Institution stability threshold of 16 mg CO(2) g VS(-1) day(-1). Sanitization of the digestate at 65 °C for 7 days allowed a mature digestate to be obtained. At 4 g VS L(-1) d(-1) and Solid Retention Times (SRT) greater than 70 days, all the digestates emitted CO(2) at a rate lower than 25 mg CO(2) g VS(-1) d(-1) after 3 days of aeration, while at SRT lower than 20 days all the digestates displayed a respiration rate greater than 25 mg CO(2) g VS(-1) d(-1). The compliance criteria for Class I digestate set by the European Commission (EC) and British Standard Institution (BSI) could not be met because of nickel and chromium contamination, which was probably due to attrition of the stainless steel stirrer in the HR. PMID:21419612

Trzcinski, Antoine P; Stuckey, David C

2011-03-17

157

Blood parameters and corneal-reflex of finishing pigs with and without lung affections observed post mortem in two abattoirs stunning with CO?.  

PubMed

In two pig abattoirs of different slaughter capacities, the stunning efficacy of CO2 on finishing pigs with and without pneumonic lesions (observed post mortem) was reflected against the corneal-reflex and blood parameters (blood pH, pCO2 and pO2) from individual finishers. Stunning duration was 120 s (abattoir A) and 90 s (abattoir B), respectively. Pneumonia in finisher pigs is frequently observed during post mortem inspection, which may raise concerns about a delay of unconsciousness because of hampered gas exchange in the lungs. The aim of this study was to examine possible pneumonia consequences for stunning efficacy under commercial conditions. For that, corneal reflex, O2 and CO2 partial pressure in the blood as well as blood pH were measured in 2650 finishers from abattoir A and 2100 from abattoir B. The partial pressure of O2 after stunning accounted to about 3 kPa, the partial pressure of CO2 was found at levels of about 24 kPa in abattoir A (after 120 s CO2 exposure) and 17.5 kPa in abattoir B (after 90 s CO2 exposure). In abattoir A, the blood pH was at 6.9, and at 7.0 in abattoir B. The corneal reflex was observed in 6.2% of pigs in abattoir A and 17.1% of pigs in abattoir B. A correlation between pneumonic lesions and blood status was not observed. However, for some individual farms, a significant correlation between pneumonia and corneal reflex was observed. PMID:22898535

Fries, R; Rindermann, G; Siegling-Vlitakis, C; Bandick, N; Bräutigam, L; Buschulte, A; Irsigler, H; Wolf, K; Hartmann, H

2012-08-14

158

An evaluation of effective design parameters on earthquake performance of RC buildings using neural networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extent of building damage is related to the features of the structural system, which have many parameters. In particular, it is difficult to determine the extent to which structural parameters affect structural performance to identify the main parameters that may cause damage. In the present study, changes in the quality of a load-bearing system and reinforced concrete (RC) structure

M. Hakan Arslan

2010-01-01

159

Study of various clinical and laboratory parameters among 178 patients affected by hooch tragedy in Ahmedabad, Gujarat (India): A single center experience  

PubMed Central

Introduction/Purpose: The outbreak of methanol poisoning described in this paper occurred in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India in July 2009. Our intention is to share the experience of clinical features, laboratory investigations and their relation during this tragedy. Materials and Methods: Single center, retrospective study of clinical features and laboratory parameters of 178 cases of methanol toxicity treated at tertiary care hospital in Ahmedabad, Gujarat. Results: Maximum patients (39.8%, n = 45) were received in 48 h; Mean age of presentation was 41.9 ± 10.2 years. Most of them were men (175 out of 178). On presentation, 83% patients had gastro-intestinal symptoms, 46% had neurological symptoms, 73% had visual symptoms and 32% had dyspnoea. 62% had blurred vision, 10.5% had blindness. Patients with visual symptoms had high mean level of methanol (120.12 ± 23.12 vs. 55.43 ± 29.24, P = 0.014). On fundus examination 52.8% (n = 62) had bilateral hyperaemia of discs, 8.4% (n = 12) had bilateral disc pallor and 4.5% had papilledema (n = 5). Patients with hyperaemia of discs, discs pallor or papilledema, had higher mean methanol level (121.1 ± 32.2 mg% v/s 70.1 ± 23.2 mg%, P = 0.032). Mean of pH values was 7.17 ± 0.22 and bicarbonate was 12.3 ± 7.3 mmol/L. Both pH and bicarbonate levels correlated well with mortality and serum methanol level. Mean serum methanol level was 87.1 mg/dL, and correlated significantly with the mortality (53.1 ± 41 mg/dL v/s 121 ± 92 mg/dL, P value < 0.05). Conclusion: GI symptoms, neurological symptoms and breathlessness are important clue to ED physician for diagnose methanol poisoning. Visual symptoms and fundus findings correlate well with the methanol level. Arterial Blood Gas derived pH and bicarbonate levels correlate significantly with the methanol level and mortality.

Jarwani, Bhavesh S; Motiani, Puja D; Sachdev, Sachin

2013-01-01

160

Measurements of IL-6, soluble IL-6 receptor and soluble gp130 in sera of B-cell lymphoma patients. Does viscum album treatment affect these parameters?  

PubMed

Interleukin-6 (IL-6) can be involved in several diseases including lymphoid malignancies. This cytokine binds to soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R) circulating in blood, leading to signal transduction via gp130. Soluble IL-6R shows agonistic activity for IL-6, and the soluble form of gp130 (sgp130) an antagonistic effect against the complex IL-6/sIL-6R. Viscum album extract (Iscador) as an immunomodulator is used in the treatment of malignant disorders. In this study we investigated the effect of this treatment on the serum levels of IL-6, sIL-6R and sgp130 in B-cell lymphoma patients (n = 27), in comparison to healthy controls (n = 28). Twenty-one of 27 patients had been treated previously with chemo/radiotherapy. The patients were divided into two groups; those with short-term (investigated before and during treatment) or those with long-term Viscum album (VA) therapy (investigated during therapy). The serum levels of the three parameters were determined by ELISA. In patients having short-term treatment IL-6 values were similar to those of controls. During long-term therapy the values were significantly lower (P<0.05). The values of sIL-6R were elevated only in long-term treated patients (P<0.05), the values of sgp130 in both short-term (P<0.05) and in long-term treated patients (P=0.001). There is a significant correlation (P<0.05) between levels of sIL-6R and sgp130 in both therapy groups at 24 hours after injection. This indicates that the potent effect of sIL-6R on the biological activity of IL-6 could be inhibited by sgp130 as antagonist. Clinical data show that half of the patients (6/12) with long-term treatment had a continuous complete remission, whereas only 2/15 patients with short-term treatment had a complete remission. PMID:12046687

Kovacs, E; Kuehn, J J

2002-05-01

161

MAINE WEIRS 1990  

EPA Science Inventory

WEIR90 shows point locations of herring weirs in Maine based on 1990 overflight by MDMR Marine Patrol, mapped at an approximate scale of 1:100,000. Data were screen digitized from paper maps used during the overflight....

162

Space Shuttle Main Engine. Overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An overview of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) is presented. The Space Shuttle propulsion system consists of two large solid booster motors, three SSME's, two orbital maneuvering system engines, and 44 reaction control system thrusters. The three SSME's burn liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen from the external tank and are sequentially started at launch. Engine thrust is throttleable. The major components and some of their key features and operational parameters are outlined. The life and reliability being achieved by the SSME are presented.

Jackson, Eugene D.

163

The Maine Memory Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Once you have visited Maine, it is most certainly not a place that you will soon forget. This website is designed to make sure longtime residents and visitors alike will not forget this tranquil state, as it brings together a very wide range of historical documents and memories from around the state. The site itself was created by the Maine Historical Society, and is supported by monies from the Institute of Museum and Library Services and several other partners. Within the site, visitors can search for historical items and documents, view thematic online exhibits, and learn about how the site may be used effectively in classroom settings. One particularly fine exhibit is the one that offers some visual documentation of rural Aroostook County around the year 1900. In this exhibit, visitors can experience the dense forests and rugged terrain that dominate the landscape of this part of Maine.

164

Main sequence mass loss  

SciTech Connect

It has been hypothesized that variable stars may experience mass loss, driven, at least in part, by oscillations. The class of stars we are discussing here are the delta Scuti variables. These are variable stars with masses between about 1.2 and 2.25 M/sub theta/, lying on or very near the main sequence. According to this theory, high rotation rates enhance the rate of mass loss, so main sequence stars born in this mass range would have a range of mass loss rates, depending on their initial rotation velocity and the amplitude of the oscillations. The stars would evolve rapidly down the main sequence until (at about 1.25 M/sub theta/) a surface convection zone began to form. The presence of this convective region would slow the rotation, perhaps allowing magnetic braking to occur, and thus sharply reduce the mass loss rate. 7 refs.

Brunish, W.M.; Guzik, J.A.; Willson, L.A.; Bowen, G.

1987-01-01

165

MAINE SCHOOLS AND LIBRARIES  

EPA Science Inventory

SCHLIB shows point locations of libraries and educational institutions in Maine at 1:24,000 scale. Colleges, universities, technical colleges, high schools, middle schools, elementary schools, kindergarten/sub-primary and other special schools are included. The data was developed...

166

Newbury Neck Quadrangle, Maine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ellsworth Schist has been deformed at least three times, steeply inclined faults approximately parallel to the length of Patten Bay producing a highly contorted rock structure. In the main stage of (Photo 9). The orientation of these minor faults suggests that an old fault deformation, wet sediments together with the interlayered volcanic trace may lie beneath Patten Bay. Another

Douglas N. Reusch; John P. Hogan; Robert G. Marvinney; Susan S. Tolman; Robert D. Tucker; Henry N. Berry

2002-01-01

167

Windows on Maine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created with funds provided by the Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS), Windows on Maine contains interesting and informative programs and video clips from Maine Public Broadcasting and other partners. On their homepage, visitors can use their interactive map and timeline to locate video clips of interest, and they can also search the entire collection for specific items. Visitors can also use the subject category menu to look over 25 different headings, including "earth sciences", "land disputes", and "Penobscot tribe". The map feature is a real pip, and visitors can customize their search by location and date, and it's a great way to learn about different regions, including Aroostook County (also known as "the County") and Downeast. Also, many of the videos also have additional resources attached to them, such as railroad timetables, historic photographs, and so on.

168

Main roads to melanoma  

PubMed Central

The characterization of the molecular mechanisms involved in development and progression of melanoma could be helpful to identify the molecular profiles underlying aggressiveness, clinical behavior, and response to therapy as well as to better classify the subsets of melanoma patients with different prognosis and/or clinical outcome. Actually, some aspects regarding the main molecular changes responsible for the onset as well as the progression of melanoma toward a more aggressive phenotype have been described. Genes and molecules which control either cell proliferation, apoptosis, or cell senescence have been implicated. Here we provided an overview of the main molecular changes underlying the pathogenesis of melanoma. All evidence clearly indicates the existence of a complex molecular machinery that provides checks and balances in normal melanocytes. Progression from normal melanocytes to malignant metastatic cells in melanoma patients is the result of a combination of down- or up-regulation of various effectors acting on different molecular pathways.

Palmieri, Giuseppe; Capone, Mariaelena; Ascierto, Maria Libera; Gentilcore, Giusy; Stroncek, David F; Casula, Milena; Sini, Maria Cristina; Palla, Marco; Mozzillo, Nicola; Ascierto, Paolo A

2009-01-01

169

Stars main sequence  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What happens during most of a star's life? This activity page, part of an interactive laboratory series for grades 8-12, introduces students to the main sequence phase of a star's existence. This phase is where a star lives out the majority of its life. In an interactive lab activity, students predict the length of the main sequence for four different stars. The predictions can be printed for later evaluation. Students view diagrams that compare the size and color of stars to human lives, and equilibrium within a star is stressed. Finally, students choose between two hypotheses about the length of life of a star. Students write a one- to three-sentence explanation for their hypotheses. The correct answer is provided. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

University of Utah. Astrophysics Science Project Integrating Research and Education (ASPIRE)

2003-01-01

170

Maine coast winds  

SciTech Connect

The Maine Coast Winds Project was proposed for four possible turbine locations. Significant progress has been made at the prime location, with a lease-power purchase contract for ten years for the installation of turbine equipment having been obtained. Most of the site planning and permitting have been completed. It is expect that the turbine will be installed in early May. The other three locations are less suitable for the project, and new locations are being considered.

Avery, Richard

2000-01-28

171

Does Position Affect Uroflowmetry Parameters in Women?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To investigate the effect of position on voiding using uroflowmetric variables and postvoid residual urine volume assessment in healthy normal women. Materials and Methods: 67 healthy females volunteered to participate in this study. Their mean age was 32 years. Each female attended the urodynamic suite on 2 separate days. They performed 2 voids, 1 in a sitting and another

Narmada P. Gupta; Atul Kumar; Rajeev Kumar

2008-01-01

172

Parameters affecting solvent production by Clostridium pasteurianum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of pH, growth rate, phosphate and iron limitation, carbon monoxide, and carbon source on product formation by Clostridium pasteurianum was determined. Under phosphate limitation, glucose was fermented almost exclusively to acetate and butyrate independently of the pH and growth rate. Iron limitation caused lactate production (38 mol\\/100 mol) from glucose in batch and continuous culture. At 15% (vol\\/vol)

B. Dabrock; H. Bahl; G. Gottschalk

1992-01-01

173

Parameters Affecting Solvent Production by Clostridium pasteurianum.  

PubMed

The effect of pH, growth rate, phosphate and iron limitation, carbon monoxide, and carbon source on product formation by Clostridium pasteurianum was determined. Under phosphate limitation, glucose was fermented almost exclusively to acetate and butyrate independently of the pH and growth rate. Iron limitation caused lactate production (38 mol/100 mol) from glucose in batch and continuous culture. At 15% (vol/vol) carbon monoxide in the atmosphere, glucose was fermented to ethanol (24 mol/100 mol), lactate (32 mol/100 mol), and butanol (36 mol/100 mol) in addition to the usual products, acetate (38 mol/100 mol) and butyrate (17 mol/100 mol). During glycerol fermentation, a completely different product pattern was found. In continuous culture under phosphate limitation, acetate and butyrate were produced only in trace amounts, whereas ethanol (30 mol/100 mol), butanol (18 mol/100 mol), and 1,3-propanediol (18 mol/100 mol) were the major products. Under iron limitation, the ratio of these products could be changed in favor of 1,3-propanediol (34 mol/100 mol). In addition, lactate was produced in significant amounts (25 mol/100 mol). The tolerance of C. pasteurianum to glycerol was remarkably high; growth was not inhibited by glycerol concentrations up to 17% (wt/vol). Increasing glycerol concentrations favored the production of 1,3-propanediol. PMID:16348691

Dabrock, B; Bahl, H; Gottschalk, G

1992-04-01

174

Parameters Affecting Solvent Production by Clostridium pasteurianum  

PubMed Central

The effect of pH, growth rate, phosphate and iron limitation, carbon monoxide, and carbon source on product formation by Clostridium pasteurianum was determined. Under phosphate limitation, glucose was fermented almost exclusively to acetate and butyrate independently of the pH and growth rate. Iron limitation caused lactate production (38 mol/100 mol) from glucose in batch and continuous culture. At 15% (vol/vol) carbon monoxide in the atmosphere, glucose was fermented to ethanol (24 mol/100 mol), lactate (32 mol/100 mol), and butanol (36 mol/100 mol) in addition to the usual products, acetate (38 mol/100 mol) and butyrate (17 mol/100 mol). During glycerol fermentation, a completely different product pattern was found. In continuous culture under phosphate limitation, acetate and butyrate were produced only in trace amounts, whereas ethanol (30 mol/100 mol), butanol (18 mol/100 mol), and 1,3-propanediol (18 mol/100 mol) were the major products. Under iron limitation, the ratio of these products could be changed in favor of 1,3-propanediol (34 mol/100 mol). In addition, lactate was produced in significant amounts (25 mol/100 mol). The tolerance of C. pasteurianum to glycerol was remarkably high; growth was not inhibited by glycerol concentrations up to 17% (wt/vol). Increasing glycerol concentrations favored the production of 1,3-propanediol.

Dabrock, Birgit; Bahl, Hubert; Gottschalk, Gerhard

1992-01-01

175

Parameters affecting solvent production by Clostridium pasteurianum  

SciTech Connect

The effect of pH, growth rate, phosphate and iron limitation, carbon monoxide, and carbon source on product formation by Clostridium pasteurianum was determined. Under phosphate limitation, glucose was fermented almost exclusively to acetate and butyrate independently of the pH and growth rate. Iron limitation caused lactate production (38 mol/100 mol) from glucose in batch and continuous culture. At 15% (vol/vol) carbon monoxide in the atmosphere, glucose was fermented to ethanol (24 mol/100 mol), lactate (32 mol/100 mol), and butanol (36 mol/100 mol) in addition to the usual products, acetate (38 mol/100 mol) and butyrate (17 mol/100 mol). During glycerol fermentation, a completely different product pattern was found. In continuous culture under phosphate limitation, acetate and butyrate were produced only in trace amounts, whereas ethanol (30 mol/10 mol), butanol (18 mol/100 mol), and 1,3-propanediol (18 mol/100 mol) were the major products. Under iron limitation, the ratio of these products could be changed in favor of 1,3-propanediol (34 mol/100 mol). In addition, lactate was produced in significant amounts (25 mol/100 mol). The tolerance of C. pasteurianum to glycerol was remarkably high; growth was not inhibited by glycerol concentrations up to 17% (wt/vol). Increasing glycerol concentrations favored the production of 1,3-propanediol.

Dabrock, B.; Bahl, H.; Gottschalk, G. (Georg-August-Univ. Goettingen (Germany))

1992-04-01

176

Parameters influencing flotation in removal of metal ions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the main parameters affecting the flotation process, like reagents (collector, frother, flocculant, etc.) and feed concentrations, pH value of the solution, ionic strength, gas flowrate and bubbles size, as applied to the separation of heavy metals and from dilute aqueous solutions, hydro?metallurgical or environmental origin, are examined. The flotation methods used, in laboratory scale, were ion, precipitate

A. I. Zouboulis; K. A. Matis; G. A. Stalidis

1990-01-01

177

Alongshore transport of a toxic phytoplankton bloom in a buoyancy current: Alexandrium tamarense in the Gulf of Maine  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the mechanisms controlling blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense Lebour and the concomintant patterns of shellfish toxicity in the southwestern Gulf of Maine, USA. During a series of cruises from 1987 to 1989, hydrographic parameters were measured to elucidate the physical factors affecting the distribution and abundance of dinoflagellates along this coast. In 1988 and 1989 when

P. J. S. Franks; D. M. Anderson

1992-01-01

178

Reionization history and CMB parameter estimation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study how uncertainty in the reionization history of the universe affects estimates of other cosmological parameters from the Cosmic Microwave Background. We analyze WMAP7 data and synthetic Planck-quality data generated using a realistic scenario for the reionization history of the universe obtained from high-resolution numerical simulation. We perform parameter estimation using a simple sudden reionization approximation, and using the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) technique proposed by Mortonson and Hu. We reach two main conclusions: (1) Adopting a simple sudden reionization model does not introduce measurable bias into values for other parameters, indicating that detailed modeling of reionization is not necessary for the purpose of parameter estimation from future CMB data sets such as Planck. (2) PCA analysis does not allow accurate reconstruction of the actual reionization history of the universe in a realistic case.

Moradinezhad Dizgah, Azadeh; Gnedin, Nickolay Y.; Kinney, William H.

2013-05-01

179

Main Propulsion Test Article (MPTA).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Scope: The Main Propulsion Test Article integrated the main propulsion subsystem with the clustered Space Shuttle Main Engines, the External Tank and associated GSE. The test program consisted of cryogenic tanking tests and short- and long duration static...

C. Snoddy

2010-01-01

180

The CLIC Main Linac Bunch Compressor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The latest version of the CLIC parameters implies the acceleration in the main linac of a train of bunches with a very short bunch length, around 50 m rms and an uncorrelated fractional energy spread at injection of about 1%. On the other hand, the damping ring design imposes a starting bunch length of 3 mm and a fractional energy

T. E. d'Amico; Gilbert Guignard; T O Raubenheimer

1998-01-01

181

Terminal and Main Station Functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are three types of main stations associated with the L5 system. Power feed main stations provide the dc power required by the line repeaters. Switching power feed main stations add the automatic line protection switching equipment for the L5 system. Terminal main stations provide the equipment for multiplex and related functions. This equipment includes the jumbogroup multiplex (JMX), which

R. Maurer

1974-01-01

182

State of Maine's Environment 2010  

Microsoft Academic Search

The State of Maine's Environment is a regular series of reports written by senior environmental policy majors at Colby College in Waterville, Maine. The State of Maine's Environment 2010 is the sixth State of Maine's Environment report created by students enrolled in ES 493: Environmental Policy Practicum taught by Philip J. Nyhus, Environmental Studies Program. Topics in this report include

Philip J. Nyhus

2010-01-01

183

Affective Wearables  

Microsoft Academic Search

An "affective wearable" is a wearable systemequipped with sensors and tools which enablesrecognition of its wearer's affective patterns. Affectivepatterns include expressions of emotionsuch as a joyful smile, an angry gesture, astrained voice or a change in autonomic nervoussystem activity such as accelerated heart rateor increasing skin conductivity. This paper describesnew applications of affective wearables,and presents a prototype which gathers physiologicalsignals

Rosalind W. Picard; Jennifer Healey

1997-01-01

184

Affective Objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper will attempt t o d efine a new area of research: affective c ommunication through the use of affective objects. An affective object may be defined as any physical object which has the ability to sense emotional data from a person, map that information to an abstract form of expression and communicate that information expressively, either back to

Jocelyn Scheirer; Rosalind W. Picard

185

6. MAIN AND SOUTH BAYS. DETAIL OF TOP OF MAIN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. MAIN AND SOUTH BAYS. DETAIL OF TOP OF MAIN BAY COLUMN, GIRDER FOR ELECTRIC OVERHEAD TRAVEL CRANE, AND ROOF GIRDERS - Oldman Boiler Works, Fabricating Shop, 32 Illinois Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

186

37. Fore and main masts, and main boom lying in ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

37. Fore and main masts, and main boom lying in storage yard. Stern of Museum Ship Wavetreet to left in photograph. - Schooner "Lettie G. Howard", South Street Seaport Museum, New York, New York County, NY

187

22. View showing main anchor arm, as viewed from main ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

22. View showing main anchor arm, as viewed from main cantilever arm looking south. Note upper chord eyebar arrangement. - Williamstown-Marietta Bridge, Spanning Ohio River between Williamstown & Marietta, Williamstown, Wood County, WV

188

Polycystic ovary syndrome and obesity do not affect vascular parameters related to early atherosclerosis in young women without glucose metabolism disturbances, arterial hypertension and severe abnormalities of lipid profile.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and obesity on vascular parameters related to early atherosclerosis (VP-EA) [brachial flow-mediated dilation (FMD), carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and carotid arterial compliance (CAC)] in women with minor cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs). Twenty-five young women with PCOS and 23 eumenorrheic women matched for body mass index (BMI) were studied. The women were subdivided according to BMI and PCOS status, and comparisons were done between PCOS and Control group, regardless of BMI, and between Obese and Lean group, regardless of the presence of PCOS. Insulin resistance was higher in PCOS-group than in control-group and in obese-group than in lean-group. The median of all VP-EA evaluated were similar between PCOS-group and Control-group [FMD: 6.6 versus 8.4% (p = NS); CIMT: 48.0 versus 47.0 mm.10-2 (p = NS); CAC: 6.2 versus 5.6N-1.m4.10-10 (p = NS)] and between obese-group and lean-group [FMD: 7.8 versus 6.6% (p = NS); CIMT: 48.0 versus 47.0 mm.10-2 (p = NS); CAC: 5.7 versus 6.3N-1.m4.10-10 (p = NS)]. These results suggest that PCOS and obesity do not affect VP-EA in women with minor CVRFs. PMID:23327607

Barcellos, Cristiano Roberto Grimaldi; Lage, Silvia Helena Gelás; Rocha, Michelle Patrocínio; Hayashida, Sylvia Asaka Yamashita; Baracat, Edmund Chade; Romano, Angela; Brito, Vinicius Nahime; Marcondes, José Antonio Miguel

2013-01-18

189

MAINE MUSSEL SEED CONSERVATION AREAS  

EPA Science Inventory

SEED shows point locations of Maine mussel seed conservation areas at 1:24,000 scale. Data for this coverage were screen digitized on a 1:24000 scale base using descriptions contained in Maine Department of Marine Resources (MDMR) rules. Coastal arcs from Maine Office of GIS 1:24...

190

Relative Partial Cross Sections and Angular Distribution Parameters of the Li 1s2s(^3,1S) Main and 1s2p(^3,1P) Conjugate Shake-up Lines in the Region of the 1s n? n'?' Autoionizing Resonances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atomic Li is the simplest open-subshell atom, and is therefore an ideal candidate for detailed experimental and theoretical studies. Despite the extensive experimental work which has been carried out on atomic Li, there is only one rather old measurement(T. A. Ferrett, D. W. Lindle, P. A. Heimann, W. D. Brewer, U. Becker, H. G. Kerhoff, and D. A. Shirley, Phys. Rev. A 36), 3172 (1987). of the 1s2s(^1,3S) main and 1s2p(^1,3P) conjugate shake-up photolines in the region of the strong 1s n? n'?' autoionizing resonances. We will present recent measurements of both the relative partial cross sections, ?, and angular distribution parameters, ?, of these photoelectron lines in this resonance region. Our high resolution constant-ionic state spectra completely separate the dynamic behavior of all four photolines allowing a detailed comparison to a state-of-the-art R-matrix calculation(L. Vo Ky, P. Faucher, A. Hibbert, J.-M. Li, Y.-Z. Qu, J. Yan, J. C. Chang, and F. Bely-Dubau, Phys. Rev. A 57), 1045 (1998).. The strong variations of both ? and ? of these lines across the 1s n? n'?' autoionizing resonances are in generally good accord with theory.

Whitfield, S. B.; Wehlitz, R.

2003-05-01

191

INVOKING AFFECT  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article interrogates the contemporary emergence of affect as critical object and perspective through which to understand the social world and our place within it. Emphasising the unexpected, the singular or the quirky over the generally applicable, the turn to affect builds on important work in cultural studies on the pitfalls of writing the body out of theory. More importantly

Clare Hemmings

2005-01-01

192

View of the main interior space facing east. The main ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of the main interior space facing east. The main entry is on the left hand side at the rear. The exit to the deck is to the right. - San Luis Yacht Club, Avila Pier, South of Front Street, Avila Beach, San Luis Obispo County, CA

193

Sensitivity analysis of an Ocean Carbon Cycle Model in the North Atlantic: an investigation of parameters affecting the air-sea CO2 flux, primary production and export of detritus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sensitivity of the biological parameters in a nutrient-phytoplankton-zooplankton-detritus (NPZD) model in the calculation of the air-sea CO2 flux, primary production and detrital export is analysed. The NPZD model is the Hadley Centre Ocean Carbon Cycle model (HadOCC) from the UK Met Office, used in the Hadley Centre Coupled Model 3 (HadCM3) and FAst Met Office and Universities Simulator (FAMOUS) GCMs. Here, HadOCC is coupled to the 1-D General Ocean Turbulence Model (GOTM) and forced with European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasting meteorology to undertake a sensitivity analysis of its twenty biological parameters. Analyses are performed at three sites in the EuroSITES European Ocean Observatory Network: the Central Irminger Sea (60° N 40° W), the Porcupine Abyssal Plain (49° N 16° W) and the European Station for Time series in the Ocean Canary Islands (29° N 15° W) to assess variability in parameter sensitivities at different locations in the North Atlantic Ocean. Reasonable changes to the values of key parameters are shown to have a large effect on the calculation of the air-sea CO2 flux, primary production, and export of biological detritus to the deep ocean. Changes in the values of key parameters have a greater effect in more productive regions than in less productive areas. We perform the analysis using one-at-a-time perturbations and using a statistical emulator, and compare results. The most sensitive parameters are generic to many NPZD ocean ecosystem models. The air-sea CO2 flux is most influenced by variation in the parameters that control phytoplankton growth, detrital sinking and carbonate production by phytoplankton (the rain ratio). Primary production is most sensitive to the parameters that define the shape of the photosythesis-irradiance curve. Export production is most sensitive to the parameters that control the rate of detrital sinking and the remineralisation of detritus.

Scott, V.; Kettle, H.; Merchant, C. J.

2010-12-01

194

MAINE ATLANTIC SALMON HABITAT - GENERAL  

EPA Science Inventory

ASDENN00 describes, at 1:24,000 scale, important Atlantic salmon habitat of the Dennys River in Maine. The coverage was developed from field surveys conducted on the Dennys River in Maine by staff of the Atlantic Salmon Authority and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. This survey wa...

195

Main Injector power distribution system  

SciTech Connect

The paper describes a new power distribution system for Fermilab's Main Injector. The system provides 13.8 kV power to Main Injector accelerator (accelerator and conventional loads) and is capable of providing power to the rest of the laboratory (backfeed system). Design criteria, and features including simulation results are given.

Cezary Jach and Daniel Wolff

2002-06-03

196

Maine Agricultural Foods. Project SEED.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper describes an activity-based program that teaches students in grades 4-12 about the importance of Maine agriculture in their lives. Specifically, the goal is to increase student awareness of how the foods they eat are planted, harvested, and processed. The emphasis is on crops grown in Maine such as potatoes, broccoli, peas,…

Beaulieu, Peter; Ossenfort, Pat

197

Sensitivity analysis of an ocean carbon cycle model in the North Atlantic: an investigation of parameters affecting the air-sea CO2 flux, primary production and export of detritus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sensitivity of the biological parameters in a nutrient-phytoplankton-zooplankton-detritus (NPZD) model in the calculation of the air-sea CO2 flux, primary production and detrital export is analysed. We explore the effect on these outputs of variation in the values of the twenty parameters that control ocean ecosystem growth in a 1-D formulation of the UK Met Office HadOCC NPZD model used in GCMs. We use and compare the results from one-at-a-time and all-at-a-time perturbations performed at three sites in the EuroSITES European Ocean Observatory Network: the Central Irminger Sea (60° N 40° W), the Porcupine Abyssal Plain (49° N 16° W) and the European Station for Time series in the Ocean Canary Islands (29° N 15° W). Reasonable changes to the values of key parameters are shown to have a large effect on the calculation of the air-sea CO2 flux, primary production, and export of biological detritus to the deep ocean. Changes in the values of key parameters have a greater effect in more productive regions than in less productive areas. The most sensitive parameters are generally found to be those controlling well-established ocean ecosystem parameterisations widely used in many NPZD-type models. The air-sea CO2 flux is most influenced by variation in the parameters that control phytoplankton growth, detrital sinking and carbonate production by phytoplankton (the rain ratio). Primary production is most sensitive to the parameters that define the shape of the photosynthesis-irradiance curve. Export production is most sensitive to the parameters that control the rate of detrital sinking and the remineralisation of detritus.

Scott, V.; Kettle, H.; Merchant, C. J.

2011-06-01

198

Geology of Gulf of Maine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The extensively folded, faulted, and regionally metamorphosed rocks contained within the Avalon platform, Appalachian geosyncline, and Meguma geosyncline are the foundation for the Gulf of Maine. Within the Avalon platform, which makes up most of the Gulf...

R. D. Ballard E. Uchupi

1974-01-01

199

Bucks Harbor Study, Machiasport, Maine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Buck Harbor study has investigated the history and existing conditions at Bucks Harbor, located at Machiasport, Maine. The study has addressed and evaluated several options for the future development of Bucks Harbor. One of the key factors recognized ...

1986-01-01

200

A Literary Map of Maine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sure, you might know that Longfellow was a member of the literati who called Maine home, but did you know that Robert McCloskey was one as well? In case you might have forgotten, McCloskey was the author and illustrator of those children's classics "Make Way for Ducklings" and "Blueberries for Sal". It's easy to learn about dozens of Maine authors via this delightful website created as part of a partnership between the Maine Sunday Telegram and a number of library and humanities groups in Maine. Currently, the map features over 50 sites, and visitors can browse around at their leisure to learn about authors like Longfellow, Stephen King, and Richard Russo. Clicking on each site will pull up a brief excerpt of each author's work, along with a brief bio.

201

Humboldt River main stem, Nevada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This data set contains the main stem of the Humboldt River as defined by Humboldt Project personnel of the U.S. Geological Survey Nevada District, 2001. The data set was digitized on screen using digital orthophoto quadrangles from 1994.

Warmath, Eric; Medina, Rose L.

2001-01-01

202

Photometry: Main Mission and Tycho.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The photometric reductions and calibrations of the Hipparcos satellite, for both the main mission and the star mapper data, are described. The principles of the Hipparcos and Tycho photometric systems are presented along with their relation to those in gr...

F. Mignard M. Froeschle J. L. Falin G. K. Andreasen E. Hog

1989-01-01

203

30 CFR 75.310 - Installation of main mine fans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...enclosure. (c) If a main mine fan monitoring system is used...paragraph (a)(4) the mine ventilating pressure; (2) Monitor bearing temperature, revolutions per minute...parameters, including the mine ventilating pressure...

2010-07-01

204

30 CFR 75.310 - Installation of main mine fans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...enclosure. (c) If a main mine fan monitoring system is used...paragraph (a)(4) the mine ventilating pressure; (2) Monitor bearing temperature, revolutions per minute...parameters, including the mine ventilating pressure...

2009-07-01

205

30 CFR 75.310 - Installation of main mine fans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...enclosure. (c) If a main mine fan monitoring system is used...paragraph (a)(4) the mine ventilating pressure; (2) Monitor bearing temperature, revolutions per minute...parameters, including the mine ventilating pressure...

2013-07-01

206

World Energy Projection System Plus Model Documentation: Main Model  

EIA Publications

This report documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the World Energy Projection System Plus (WEPS+) Main Model. It also catalogues and describes critical assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and model source code.

Information Center

2011-01-20

207

ANALYSIS AND SIMULATION OF MAIN MAGNET TRANSMISSION LINE EFFECT  

SciTech Connect

A main magnet chain forms a pair of transmission lines. Pulse-reflection-caused voltage and current differentiation throughout the magnet chain can have adverse effect on main magnet field quality. This effect is associated with magnet system configuration, coupling efficiency, and parasitic parameters. A better understanding of this phenomenon will help us in new design and existing system upgrade. In this paper, we exam the transmission line effect due to different input functions as well as configuration, coupling, and other parameters.

ZHANG,W.; MARNERIS, I.; SANDBERG, J.

2007-06-25

208

DISINFECTION OF NEW WATER MAINS  

EPA Science Inventory

The 'AWWA Standard for Disinfecting Water Mains' (AWWA C601-68) has fallen into disuse by a number of water utilities because of repeated bacteriological failures following initial disinfection with the recommended high-dose chlorination. Other methods of disinfection, including ...

209

Gulf of Maine Research Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Teaching about aquatic environments, serving as neutral conveners, and facilitating marine research is the mission of the Gulf of Maine Research Institute. Features hundreds of web pages with information and classroom activities covering: oceans, human impact, weather, satellite imagery, remote sensing, Antarctica, global climate change, lobsters, turtles, marine, freshwater issues and more. The project of building the new aquarium at Portland is specially considered.

210

Architectural Portfolio 2001: Main Winners.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents descriptions and photographs of the following two American School and University Architectural Portfolio main winners for 2001: Chesterton, Indiana's Chesterton High School and Lied Library at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas. Included are each project's vital statistics, the architectural firm involved, and a list of designers.(GR)

American School & University, 2001

2001-01-01

211

Maine's Occupational Needs to 1975.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A survey of Maine industries provides information on occupational growth so that educators, guidance counselors, and directors of educational and training institutions can make assessments of future manpower needs. Projections are made for all segments of the economy which are covered by the Federal Insurance Contributions Act, or about 75…

Clark, David H.

212

MAINE CONTOUR LINES 60 FEET  

EPA Science Inventory

MECON60 contains contours at 60 foot intervals for the entire state of Maine as generated from USGS 1:250,000 scale digital elevation models using ARC/INFO software. Arcs are coded by elevation. Due to the nature of the source data, the positional accuracy of these contour line...

213

MAINE CONTOUR LINES 500 FEET  

EPA Science Inventory

MECON500 contains 500 foot contour intervals for Maine, generated from USGS 1:250,000 DEMs. Arcs are coded by elevation. Due to the nature of the source data, the positional accuracy of these contour lines varies from good to poor. Use of these data at scales of greater then 1:2...

214

Factors Affecting the Distribution and Abundance of Two Prosobranch Snails in a Thermal Spring  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the distribuiton and abundance of two prosobranch snails (Melanopsis praemorsa and Melanoides tuberculata) in a thermal spring (27°C) in southeast Morocco. Of the physicochemical and ecological parameters measured, food availability and water velocity appeared to be the main factors affecting the spatial distribution of these snails.

Hammou Laamrani; Khalid Khallayoune; Bernard Delay; Jean-Pierre Pointier

1997-01-01

215

Factors affecting the take-off of innovative technologies: evidence from digital cameras  

Microsoft Academic Search

While technological innovations are important for many industries, take-off sales for innovative products can have long lead times due to a variety of factors. This article identifies the main parameters affecting digital camera take-off sales in the US between 2001 and 2004. The study constructs an empirical model for film and digital camera shipments and finds that digital cameras primarily

L. Wei; J. Xiao

2012-01-01

216

Factors affecting the take-off of innovative technologies: evidence from digital cameras  

Microsoft Academic Search

While technological innovations are important for many industries, take-off sales for innovative products can have long lead times due to a variety of factors. This article identifies the main parameters affecting digital camera take-off sales in the US between 2001 and 2004. The study constructs an empirical model for film and digital camera shipments and finds that digital cameras primarily

L. Wei; J. Xiao

2011-01-01

217

Microstructural study of CO 2 laser machined heat affected zone of 2024 aluminum alloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laser machining is an attractive alternative to traditional machining of Al 2024 because critical operation parameters in aeronautic industry like processing time, versatility, contamination and finish can be improved. The main disadvantage of laser machining is the high temperatures reached by the studied material during the laser processing. A heat affected zone (HAZ) extension lower than 5?m is observed. The

D. Araújo; F. J. Carpio; D. Méndez; A. J. Garc??a; M. P. Villar; R. Garc??a; D. Jiménez; L. Rubio

2003-01-01

218

Sensitivity analysis of an Ocean Carbon Cycle Model in the North Atlantic: an investigation of parameters affecting the air-sea CO2 flux, primary production and export of detritus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sensitivity of the biological parameters in a nutrient-phytoplankton-zooplankton-detritus (NPZD) model in the calculation of the air-sea CO2 flux, primary production and detrital export is analysed. The NPZD model is the Hadley Centre Ocean Carbon Cycle model (HadOCC) from the UK Met Office, used in the Hadley Centre Coupled Model 3 (HadCM3) and FAst Met Office and Universities Simulator (FAMOUS)

V. Scott; H. Kettle; C. J. Merchant

2010-01-01

219

The effects of processing bath parameters on the quality and performance of zinc phosphate stearate coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

In cold metal-forging processes, low-friction coatings often provide the main part of the lubrication. In many cases, zinc phosphate stearate (ZPS) coatings are used. Many parameters affect the coatings' quality and performance. In this paper the typical Brinell indentation test is used to answer two industrial requirements: first, to reveal the sensitivity of the coating with regard to the ageing

L Lazzarotto; C Maréchal; L Dubar; A Dubois; J Oudin

1999-01-01

220

Surficial Geologic Map of Maine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students become familiar with the nature and use of the Surficial Geologic Map of Maine and gain practice in using maps other than topographic maps. They will discover that surficial geology deals primarily with the geologically youthful, unconsolidated sedimentary materials that exist at, or close to the surface of a specific area and are important because the surface deposits filter and control the access of water to the water table. Students also learn that the study of surficial geology is important for siting of waste disposal facilities and for resources such as sand, gravel, and clay. Although this activity was written for a map of Maine, it will work in any state where surficial geological maps are available.

221

CORRELATIONS BETWEEN PLANETARY MICROLENSING PARAMETERS  

SciTech Connect

Characterization of microlensing planets requires modeling of observed light curves including many parameters. Studying the dependency of the pattern of light curves on the lensing parameters and the correlations between the parameters is important to understand how the uncertainties of the planetary parameters are propagated from other parameters. In this paper, we show that despite the apparent complexity of the pattern of light curves of planetary lensing events, the correlations between the lensing parameters can be understood by studying how the parameters affect the characteristics of lensing light curves such as the height and width, the caustic-crossing time scale, and the location and duration of planetary perturbations. Based on analytic arguments about the dependency of light curve features on the parameters, we obtain the correlations for the two representative cases of planetary events. We also demonstrate the applicability of the correlations to general planetary events by actually obtaining the correlations from modelings of light curves produced by simulations.

Han, Cheongho; Hwang, Kyu-Ha; Ryu, Yoon-Hyun, E-mail: cheongho@astroph.chungbuk.ac.k, E-mail: kyuha@astroph.chungbuk.ac.k, E-mail: yhryu@astroph.chungbuk.ac.k [Department of Physics, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of)

2010-09-01

222

Ephemerides of the main Uranian satellites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new model of motions of the five main Uranian satellites is developed. The model is based on all published observations made since the dates of the satellites' discoveries until 2008. The corresponding periods are 220 yr for Titania and Oberon, 160 yr for Ariel and Umbriel and 60 yr for Miranda. To fit the parameters of the satellites' motion, 30 139 observations were used, including those made by the Voyager 2 spacecraft as well as astrometric results of the photometric observations of mutual occultations and eclipses of the main Uranian satellites in 2007-2008. The model is elaborated by the numerical integration of equations of motions of the satellites where all necessary perturbating factors were taken into consideration. Basing on the model, new ephemerides of the main Uranian satellites were generated for the period from 1787 to 2031. The ephemerides are put to the MULTI-SAT ephemeris server. The root-mean-square residual of observed topocentric positions of the satellites and their ephemeris positions is 0.43 arcsec. Taking into account the weighting factors of the observations, this value is 0.12 arcsec. An attempt is also made to define from observations the parameters of the mechanical energy dissipation of the satellites' motion. The dissipation can be caused by both tides in the planet and by the tides in the satellites' bodies. Approximate values of the quadratic terms in the orbital longitudes are obtained. These values are equal to -(0.64 ± 0.11) × 10-11 d-2 for Ariel, -(0.08 ± 0.24) × 10-11 d-2 for Umbriel, -(0.29 ± 0.09) × 10-11 d-2 for Titania, -(0.32 ± 0.07) × 10-11 d-2 for Oberon and -(7.56 ± 1.15) × 10-11 d-2 for Miranda. The obtained parameters reveal deceleration in the orbital motion of the satellites, which results from the influence of the tides raised on the interior of Uranus that is rotating faster than the satellites.

Emelyanov, N. V.; Nikonchuk, D. V.

2013-10-01

223

Characteristic jet engine parameters for project comparisons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Characteristic parameters for 98 jet engines are depicted in graphs and listed in tables. The main parameters considered are thrust, weight, specific fuel consumption, air mass flow rate, compression, pressure, ratio, diameter, and length.

Licklederer

1974-01-01

224

Bedrock Geologic Map of Maine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students study a map of bedrock geology which describes the types of rocks that exist in a given area. It shows these rock units as well as their known and inferred contacts. Consideration is also given to folding, faulting, unconformities, and similar rock relationships. These features are often included in bedrock geology maps. Students study the legend and scale and become aware of the other information that is included on the map such as the stratigraphic column, list of formations, and inset map of metamorphic grade. Students then locate their city or town and draw a 40-mile diameter circle around it and identify all the symbols inside the circle and the age of the various rocks. Student question sheets are available at this site. Although this activity was written for a map of Maine, it will work in any state where geological maps are available.

225

How does real affect affect affect recognition in speech?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the research described in this thesis was to develop speech-based affect recognition systems that can deal with spontaneous (‘real’) affect instead of acted affect. Several affect recognition experiments with spontaneous affective speech data were carried out to investigate what combination of acoustic (and also lexical) features and classifier yields best performance. Laughter and subjectivity in meetings, and

Khiet Phuong Truong

2009-01-01

226

Superprotonic phase transitions in solid acids: Parameters affecting the presence and stability of superprotonic transitions in the MH(n)XO(4) family of compounds (X = sulfur, selenium, phosphorus, arsenic; M = lithium, sodium, potassium,ammonium, rubidium, cesium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present work attempted to uncover the structural and chemical parameters that favor superprotonic phase transitions over melting or decomposition in the MHXO4, MH2ZO4, and mixed MHXO4-MH 2ZO4 classes of compounds (X = S, Se; Z = P, As; M = Li, Na, K, NH4, Rb, Cs) and to thereby gain some ability to "engineer" the properties of solid acids for applications. Three approaches are described. First, the general observation that larger cations enable superprotonic transitions was investigated in both the isostructural M2(HSO4)(H2PO4) and non-isostructural MHSO4 family of compounds. The results of these studies confirmed and explained such a cation size effect, and also supplied a crystal-chemical measure for determining the likelihood of a compound undergoing a phase transition. Second, the entropic driving force behind the transitions was explored in the mixed CsHSO4-CsH2PO4 system of compounds. From these investigations, a general set of rules for calculating the entropy change of a superprotonic transition was established and the role of entropy in the transitions illuminated. Finally, the superprotonic phase transition of CsHSO4 was simulated by molecular dynamics, with which means the transition was probed in ways not possible through experimental methods. A sufficiently general approach was utilized so as to be applicable to other (as yet un-synthesized) compounds, thereby speeding up the process of discovering novel superprotonic solid acids. All three approaches increase the fundamental understanding of which chemical/structural features facilitate superprotonic transitions and should aid attempts to create new solid acids with properties ideal for application.

Chisholm, Calum Ronald Inneas

227

Main Dangers of Our Times.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terrorism and threatening dictatorships are the main, man-made, dangers of our times. They are run by master demagogues, or, brain-washing manipulators. ----- Our next step in coping with terrorism is to counter master demagoguery. Therefore, supporting EDUCATION that would emphasize the most unifying (and the least controversial), yet, BASIC CIVIC RESPECT for lives of people in a civilian human society, is a priority everywhere on our planet. ----- At the same time we start facing mostly small, threatening, dictatorships, capable of producing weapons of mass destruction. Therefore, we have to try to contribute to developing systems of FREE ELECTIONS, controlling weapons of mass destruction, wherever such dangers exist. ----- In a foreseeable future, unfortunately, we are facing a danger even by orders of magnitude greater. We are facing a possibility of a mass-produced heavy accumulation of inter-continental nuclear missiles, on a computerized "push-button" control, by a very powerful (and, quite possibly, miscalculating, or, suicidal) dictator, dangerous to the very existence of humanity on our planet. Therefore, it is a historical urgency that such a technological power be under the control by a government of the people, by the people and for the people, based on a sufficiently reliable system of FREE ELECTIONS, wherever, on our planet, such a potential danger may originate.

Synek, Miroslav

2003-03-01

228

75 FR 27863 - Savings Bank of Maine, MHC and Savings Bank of Maine, Gardiner, Maine; Approval of Conversion...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Supervision [AC-38: OTS Nos. 06947 and H 4709] Savings Bank of Maine, MHC and Savings Bank of Maine, Gardiner, Maine; Approval of Conversion Application Notice is hereby given...of Savings Bank of Maine, MHC and Savings Bank of Maine,...

2010-05-18

229

Affect Dynamics, Affective Forecasting, and Aging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Affective forecasting, experienced affect, and recalled affect were compared in younger and older adults during a task in which participants worked to win and avoid losing small monetary sums. Dynamic changes in affect were measured along valence and arousal dimensions, with probes during both anticipatory and consummatory task phases. Older and younger adults displayed distinct patterns of affect dynamics. Younger

Lisbeth Nielsen; Brian Knutson; Laura L. Carstensen

2008-01-01

230

Why People Vote? Rationality or Affect  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to examine whether voters mainly depend on rationality or affect to make their turnout decisions. By utilizing the data of ANES 1976, 1988 and 2008, we find that in the 1976 presidential election, it is mainly affect to have an influence on people’s decision on whether to vote. However, in the 1988 and 2008

Ching-Hsing Wang

231

Characterization of Transient Effects in the S-Parameters of GaAs MESFETs by Means of Pulsed Measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a characterization of the main transient phenomena affecting the S-parameters of GaAs MESFETs, carried out by means of an innovative Six Port Network Analyzer operated in burst mode. The results, interpreted using established models of the small signal MESFET behavior, indicate that the transient effects observed in the S-parameters must be attributed to changes in the device

M. Begin; F. M. Ghannouchi; F. Beauregard; L. Selmi; B. Ricco; V. Borelli

1994-01-01

232

Tinkering at the main-ring lattice  

SciTech Connect

To improve production of usable antiprotons using the proton beam from the main ring and the lossless injection of cooled antiprotons into the main ring, modifications of the main ring lattice are recommended.

Ohnuma, S.

1982-08-23

233

Antiproton Accumulator in the Main Injector era (2)  

SciTech Connect

By adding a single quadrupole per sextant in the Antiproton Accumulator it is possible to obtain a lattice well suited for higher bandwidth stochastic cooling systems such as those anticipated for the Main Injector era. The lattice proposed here has excellent properties concerning both the lattice functions and the stochastic cooling parameters.

Visnjic, V.

1992-12-01

234

Analysis of Factors Affecting Employee's Occupational Commitment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research mainly examines the factors that affect an employee's occupational commitment. Respondents of the questionnaire were all insurance agents, and a total of 246 valid questionnaires were completed. After going through correlation and regression analysis of the collected data, it is implied that insurance agents' affective occupational commitment, is higher than their affective organizational commitment. Also, their organizational commitment

C. C. Chen; Y. H. Yang; S. T. Hsiung

2009-01-01

235

Parameters Affecting the Adherence and Tissue Tropisms of Streptococcus pyogenes  

PubMed Central

Virulent M protein-containing strains of Streptococcus pyogenes were found to adhere well to human pharyngeal cells in vitro. In contrast, an avirulent M - strain and an enteropathogenic Escherichia coli strain adhered feebly. When various rat tissues were exposed to mixtures of a virulent S. pyogenes strain and an enteropathogenic E. coli strain, the relative proportions of the two pathogenic strains recovered from mucosal surfaces differed among the sites studied. S. pyogenes cells were found to adhere in higher proportions than enteropathogenic E. coli cells to the mucosal surfaces of rat tongues, whereas on surfaces of the urinary bladder, their affinities were reversed. The data indicate that bacterial adherence is influenced by the specificity of both the bacterial and epithelial surfaces, and they suggest that adherence may influence the tissue tropisms of pathogens. Early stationary-phase cells of S. pyogenes attached better to epithelial cells than did bacteria in other growth phases. The adherence of S. pyogenes cells was impaired by pretreatment with trypsin, wheat germ lipase, Tween 80, Triton X-100, sodium lauryl sulfate, heat at 56 C, anti-group A antiserum, the presence of phospholipids, and preincubation of the epithelial cells with Streptococcus salivarius cell walls. Altering the pH or treatment with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid had no effect on the ability of S. pyogenes cells to adhere.

Ellen, Richard P.; Gibbons, Ronald J.

1974-01-01

236

Study of Parameters Affecting Enhanced Coal Bed Methane Recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory and field scale trials conducted so far indicate that injection of CO2 and N2 into deep coalbeds has the potential to enhance coalbed methane (ECBM) recovery while simultaneously sequestering CO2. The work has identified that the fundamental processes involved in CO2 sequestration\\/CBM recovery in deep coalbeds are not fully understood and further research is needed to advance this technology.

S. Katyal; M. Valix; K. Thambimuthu

2007-01-01

237

HYDRAULIC PARAMETERS AFFECTING CUTTINGS TRANSPORT FOR HORIZONTAL COILED TUBING DRILLING  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. SUMMARY A niche market for the exploration and development of oil and gas fields is drilling horizontal wells with continuous tubing, the coiled tubing. Among the many challenges that require engineering solutions is a fluid mechanics challenge, the effective transport of the solid particles from downhole to the surface. This is achieved with fluid circulation through the annulus and

V. C. Kelessidis

2004-01-01

238

Parameters affecting megasonic power transmittance in the megasonic cleaning process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presence of contaminants and particles on the surface has been long recognized as a cause of reduced wafer yields and delayed mask TAT. Especially, as the device pitch is continuously decreasing below submicron, the size of the contaminants and particles which must be controlled is decreasing below quarter-micron. It is believed that the megasonic process with the SC-1 chemical is the most important wet cleaning process in particle removal technology. The megasonic cleaning, which is dependent on the transmittance of megasonic power, is a commonly used technique for removing particles on the surface of a photomask. In this paper, in terms of both simulation and experiment, the transmittance of sound was obtained by varying the liquid temperature, the inclined angle, and the thickness of the bottom plate in the inner bath. Finally, after comparison of experimental results with simulation ones, we obtained the transmittance characteristics with similar tendency.

Kim, Yong H.; Park, Jin-Hong; Lee, Keumhee H.; Choi, Sung-Woon; Yoon, Hee-Sun; Sohn, Jung-Min

1998-09-01

239

Visual display of reservoir parameters affecting enhanced oil recovery  

SciTech Connect

This project will provide a detailed example, based on a field trial, of how to evaluate a field for EOR operations utilizing data typically available in an older field which has under gone primary development. The approach will utilize readily available, affordable PC-based computer software and analytical services. This study will illustrate the steps involved in: (1) setting up a relational database to store geologic, well-log, engineering, and production data, (2) integration of data typically available for oil and gas fields with predictive models for reservoir alteration, and (3) linking these data and models with modern computer software to provide 2-D and 3-D visualizations of the reservoir and its attributes. The techniques are being demonstrated through a field trial on a reservoir, Pioneer Field, a field that produces from the Monterey Formation, which is a candidate for thermal EOR. Technical progress is summarized for the following tasks: (1) project administration and management; (2) data collection; (3) data analysis and measurement; (4) modeling; and (5) technology transfer.

Wood, J.R.

1996-01-27

240

Implementation techniques for main memory database systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the availability of very large, relatively inexpensive main memories, it is becoming possible keep large databases resident in main memory In this paper we consider the changes necessary to permit a relational database system to take advantage of large amounts of main memory We evaluate AVL vs B+-tree access methods for main memory databases, hash-based query processing strategies vs

David J. DeWitt; Randy H. Katz; Frank Olken; Leonard D. Shapiro; David A. Wood

1984-01-01

241

Superconducting magnets for the LHC main lattice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main lattice of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) employs about 1600 main magnets and more than 4000 corrector magnets. All superconducting and working in pressurized superfluid helium bath, these impressive line of magnets fills more than 20 km of the underground tunnel. With almost 70 main dipoles already delivered and 10 main quadrupoles almost completed, we passed the 5%

Lucio Rossi

2004-01-01

242

Sleep restriction increases white blood cells, mainly neutrophil count, in young healthy men: A pilot study  

PubMed Central

Objectives: This study examines the effects of sleep restricted to four hours for three consecutive nights on blood parameters, known to be associated with cardiovascular risk, in young healthy men. Material and methods: Eight young healthy men (age 24.5 ± 3.3 years) were studied in the sleep restricted group. Nine young healthy men (age 24 ± 2 years) were included in the control group and spent the days and nights in the sleep lab, while sleeping eight hours/night. One baseline night was followed by three nights of sleep restriction to four hours and by one recovery night of eight hours. Blood samplings were performed after the baseline night and after the third night of sleep restriction or without restriction for the control group. Results: A significant increase in white blood cells (WBC) (5.79 ± 1.05 vs. 6.89 ± 1.31 103 cell/?l, p = 0.03), and neutrophils (3.17 ± 0.69 vs 4.24 ± 0.97 103 cell/?l, p = 0.01) was observed after the third night of sleep restriction. Other blood parameters were not affected. No significant variation was observed in the control group. Conclusion: Sleep restriction affected WBC count, mainly neutrophils, considered as risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Stress induced by the short term sleep restriction could be involved in this observation.

Boudjeltia, Karim Zouaoui; Faraut, Brice; Stenuit, Patricia; Esposito, Maria Jose; Dyzma, Michal; Brohee, Dany; Ducobu, Jean; Vanhaeverbeek, Michel; Kerkhofs, Myriam

2008-01-01

243

A direct determination of minimum inertial parameters of robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

A direct method is presented to determine the minimum set of inertial parameters of robots. The set consists of the classical parameters that affect the dynamic model and the regrouped parameters. The method permits to most of the regrouped parameters to be determined by means of a closed-form function of the geometric parameters of the robot. It is proved that

M. Gautier; W. Khalil

1988-01-01

244

Glyphosate affects lignin content and amino acid production in glyphosate-resistant soybean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Farmers report that some glyphosate-resistant soybean varieties are visually injured by glyphosate. Glyphosate is the main\\u000a herbicide that directly affects the synthesis of secondary compounds. In this work, we evaluated the effect of increasing\\u000a rates of glyphosate on lignin and amino acid content, photosynthetic parameters and dry biomass in the early maturity group\\u000a cultivar BRS 242 GR soybean. Plants were

Luiz Henrique Saes Zobiole; Edicléia Aparecida Bonini; Rubem Silvério de Oliveira; Robert John Kremer; Osvaldo Ferrarese-Filho

2010-01-01

245

The AGS main magnet power supply upgrade  

SciTech Connect

The AGS Main Magnet Power Supply consists of a group of thyristor controlled power converters that operate from full rectify to full invert. In order to minimize ripple during the critical periods of injection and extraction 24 pulse converters are used for these portions of the cycle. The maximum voltage available in this mode is nominally 2,000 volts. The converters that are functional during this portion of the cycle are called the flat-top bank or ``F`` bank modules. During acceleration and invert where voltages of up to 12,000 volts are needed and where the ripple requirements are less stringent, groups of twelve pulse converters are operational. These converters are called the Pulsed bank or ``P`` bank modules. The original controlled rectifier system consisted of 96 large mercury filled excitron tubes divided equally between the P bank and F bank converters. These devices were extremely durable and ran successfully for over twenty years. It was, decided to replace the excitron farm with multiple arrangements of three-phase, full-wave, bridge modules that utilize silicon controlled rectifiers (SCR`s or thyristors) as the switching element. In order to match the existing transformer connections and buswork, eight identical modules were required; four for the P bank system and four for the F bank system. In order to reduce noise pickup and provide electrical isolation the high level SCR gate triggers are provided via fiberoptic cable. The status of various parameters such as water flow, auxiliary power supply performance, trigger circuitry failure, over voltage, overcurrent, and loss of phase reference are monitored via a programmable logic controller (PLCs). The PLCs use isolated input and output modules for various voltage levels from TTL to 150 Vdc to 125 Vac. These devices are extremely flexible and have allowed modifications and improvements that have enhanced the performance over any equivalent hard wired system.

Sandberg, J.N.; Casella, R.; Geller, J.; Marneris, I.; Soukas, A.; Schumburg, N.

1995-05-01

246

Twin countershaft transmission with floating main shaft  

SciTech Connect

A multi-speed transmission is described comprising, in combination: a housing; a pair of spaced parallel main countershafts mounted for rotation within the housing and being spatially fixed therein; means for supplying input power to both of the main countershafts; a plurality of pairs of driving gears mounted on the main countershafts, each gear of a pair being substantially identical and positioned on a respective one of the main countershafts at axially aligned locations along a floating mainshaft; the floating main shaft having input and output ends, the main shaft being located within the housing between and parallel to the main countershafts and having its output end extending beyond the main countershafts with no internal or external bearings or other support at or adjacent its ends under torque delivering conditions.

Loeffler, J.M.

1989-02-28

247

Harmonic analysis of Fermilab main ring quadrupoles  

SciTech Connect

The Main Ring Quadrupoles have been used in the Fermilab Main Ring and will be utilized in the proposed Fermilab Main Injector. Utilizing a rotating coil harmonic measurement system, a sample of more than 35 Fermilab Main Ring Quadrupoles have been measured. The asymmetric design of these magnets provides many easily measured harmonic coefficients. Results for harmonic coefficients at various excitation levels are presented. 5 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Brown, B.C.; Mazur, P.O.; Ostiguy, J.F.; Pruss, S.M.; Turkot, F.

1991-05-01

248

Definition of main pollen season using a logistic model.  

PubMed

This paper proposes a method to unify the definition of the main pollen season based on statistical analysis. For this, an aerobiological study was carried out in Porto region (Portugal), from 2003-2005 using a 7-day Hirst-type volumetric spore trap. To define the main pollen season, a non-linear logistic regression model was fitted to the values of the accumulated sum of the daily airborne pollen concentration from several allergological species. An important feature of this method is that the main pollen season will be characterized by the model parameters calculated. These parameters are identifiable aspects of the flowering phenology, and determine not only the beginning and end of the main pollen season, but are also influenced by the meteorological conditions. The results obtained with the proposed methodology were also compared with two of the most used percentage methods. The logistic model fitted well with the sum of accumulated pollen. The explained variance was always higher than 97%, and the exponential part of the predicted curve was well adjusted to the time when higher atmospheric pollen concentration was sampled. The comparison between the different methods tested showed large divergence in the duration and end dates of the main pollen season of the studied species. PMID:18247462

Ribeiro, Helena; Cunha, Mário; Abreu, Ilda

2007-12-01

249

In Maine, Postsecondary Success Starts before College  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A 2008 report from the Joint Standing Committee on Education and Culture Affairs of the Maine Legislature indicates a quarter of those who enrolled at a public university in Maine required a remedial course to catch them up to the level where they should have been when they completed high school. Regardless of how hard Maine has tried and how…

LePage, Paul R.

2011-01-01

250

MAINE BEDROCK SOURCE WATER PROTECTION AREAS  

EPA Science Inventory

Bedrocksqpa_region_pws is a REGIONS SDE layer of bedrock source water protection areas in Maine with a high, moderate, or low probability of contributing water to community public water supplies. The Maine Drinking Water Program (MEDWP), in cooperation with the Maine Geological S...

251

Constraining the dark energy and smoothness parameter with supernovae  

SciTech Connect

The presence of inhomogeneities modifies the cosmic distances through the gravitational lensing effect, and, indirectly, must affect the main cosmological tests. Assuming that the dark energy is a smooth component, the simplest way to account for the influence of clustering is to suppose that the average evolution of the expanding Universe is governed by the total matter-energy density whereas the focusing of light is only affected by a fraction of the total matter density quantified by the {alpha} Dyer-Roeder parameter. By using two different samples of SNe type Ia data, the {omega}{sub m} and {alpha} parameters are constrained by applying the Zeldovich-Kantowski-Dyer-Roeder luminosity distance-redshift relation for a flat ({lambda}CDM) model. A {chi}{sup 2}-analysis using the 115 SNe Ia data of the Astier et al. sample (2006) constrains the density parameter to be {omega}{sub m}=0.26{sub -0.07}{sup +0.17} (2{sigma}) while the {alpha} parameter is weakly limited (all the values set-membership sign [0,1] are allowed even at 1{sigma}). However, a similar analysis based the 182 SNe Ia data of Riess et al. (2007) constrains the pair of parameters to be {omega}{sub m}=0.33{sub -0.07}{sup +0.09} and {alpha}{>=}0.42 (2{sigma}). Basically, this occurs because the Riess et al. sample extends to appreciably higher redshifts. As a general result, even considering the existence of inhomogeneities as described by the smoothness {alpha} parameter, the Einstein-de Sitter model is ruled out by the two samples with a high degree of statistical confidence (11.5{sigma} and 9.9{sigma}, respectively). The inhomogeneous Hubble-Sandage diagram discussed here highlights the necessity of the dark energy, and a transition deceleration/accelerating phase at z{approx}0.5 is also required.

Santos, R. C.; Cunha, J. V.; Lima, J. A. S. [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidade de Sao Paulo, 05508-900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

2008-01-15

252

From Wall Street to Main Street: Understanding How the Credit Crisis Affects You.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Overview; The Onset of the Credit Crisis (Securitization of Loans, Deflation of the Housing Bubble, Large Financial Institutions Fail Overnight, Confidence in the Health of Financial Institutions Drops, Causing Credit Freeze Among Banks, Other S...

2008-01-01

253

Dilemmas of Balancing Organizational and Public Interests:: How Environment Affects Strategy in Dutch Main Ports  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corporate social responsibility implies more attention to company relationships with governments and other stakeholders. The need for intensive interaction is most conspicuous when company activities come close to the provision of (former) public goods, which also have strong environmental and social implications. This article examines how ports deal with environmental issues in their strategies and relationships with other companies and

Ans Kolk; Mark Van der Veen

2002-01-01

254

A Historical Analysis of Three Main Issues Affecting United States Foreign Policy in the Middle East.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) is an instrument of foreign policy in the Middle East. The number of DOD personnel who are involved either directly or indirectly with the Middle East has grown significantly in recent years. These DOD personnel should...

J. C. Conlin J. R. Luce

1979-01-01

255

Experiencing affective interactive art  

Microsoft Academic Search

The progress in the field of affective computing enables the realization of affective art. This paper describes the affective interactive art system Mood Swings, which interprets and visualizes affect expressed by a person. Mood Swings is founded on the integration of a framework for\\u000aaffective movements and a color model. This enables Mood Swings to recognize affective movement characteristics as

Leticia S. S. Bialoskorski; Joyce H. D. M. Westerink; Broek van den Egon L

2010-01-01

256

Affective Social Competence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a theoretical model for affective social competence to include the three integrated and dynamic components of sending affective messages, receiving affective messages, and experiencing affect. Places the model within the context of previous research and theory related to affective social competence and, for each component, examines how…

Halberstadt, Amy G.; Denham, Susanne A.; Dunsmore, Julie C.

2001-01-01

257

Affective Audio-Visual Words and Latent Topic Driving Model for Realizing Movie Affective Scene Classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a novel method for movie affective scene classification that outputs the emotion (in the form of labels) that the scene is likely to arouse in viewers. Since the affective preferences of users play an important role in movie selection, affective scene classification has the potential to develop more attractive user-centric movie search and browsing applications. Two main

Go Irie; Takashi Satou; Akira Kojima; Toshihiko Yamasaki; Kiyoharu Aizawa

2010-01-01

258

Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect or not? Detecting the main foreground effect of most galaxy clusters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Galaxy clusters are the most massive objects in the Universe and comprise a high-temperature intracluster medium of about 107 K, believed to offer a main foreground effect for cosmic microwave background (CMB) data in the form of the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect. This assumption has been confirmed by SZ signal detection in hundreds of clusters but, in comparison with the huge numbers of clusters within optically selected samples from Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data, this only accounts for a few per cent of clusters. Here we introduce a model-independent new method to confirm the assumption that most galaxy clusters can offer the thermal SZ signal as their main foreground effect. For the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) seven-year data (and a given galaxy cluster sample), we introduced a parameter d1 as the nearest-neighbour cluster angular distance of each pixel, then we classified data pixels as `to be' (d1 ? 0 case) or `not to be' (d1 large enough) affected by the sample clusters. By comparing the statistical results of these two kinds of pixels, we can see how the sample clusters affect the CMB data directly. We find that the Planck Early Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (ESZ) sample and X-ray samples (˜102 clusters) can lead to obvious temperature depression in the WMAP seven-year data, which confirms the SZ effect prediction. However, each optically selected sample (>104 clusters) shows an opposite result: the mean temperature rises to about 10 ?K. This unexpected qualitative scenario implies that the main foreground effect of most clusters is not always the expected SZ effect. This may be the reason why the SZ signal detection result is lower than expected from the model.

Xiao, Weike; Chen, Chen; Zhang, Bin; Wu, Yongfeng; Dai, Mi

2013-05-01

259

Spectral dependence of the main parameters of ITE silicon avalanche photodiodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New applications for avalanche photodiodes (APDs) as in systems using visible radiation, have prompted the need for the evaluation of detection properties of ITE APDs in the 400 divided by 700 nm spectral range. The paper presents the method and result of studies on the spectral dependence of the gain, dark and noise currents, sensitivity and excess noise factor of ITE APDs. The studies have shown that ITE APDs optimized for the near IR radiation can be effectively applied in the detection of radiation above the 500 nm wavelength.

Wegrzecka, Iwona; Grynglas, Maria; Wegrzecki, Maciej

2001-08-01

260

Recovery of proteins from wastewater of tannery beamhouse operations: influence on the main pollution parameters.  

PubMed

The recovery of proteins from effluents of beamhouse operations in a hair-pulping process of hides is proposed. Precipitation with sulphuric acid at the isoelectric pH was chosen for protein recovery. The precipitates were characterized in order to study their potential uses. Apart from the protein nitrogen, the precipitate also contained a considerable content of fats resulting from the co-precipitation of natural fat of the hide in the wastewaters. The precipitation of the protein fraction resulted in a reduction of 80-85% of COD, whereas the protein content decreased 68-78%. This diminution of the contamination load led to a notable reduction of the tax on wastewater. The content of protein material in the precipitate varied from 15 to 44%. As expected, the protein in the precipitate did not result from the collagen decomposition of the hide but from soluble proteins such as albumin and globulin and remains of keratin. The precipitates obtained met the maximum limits of heavy metals according to legislation on organic fertilizers. The potential uses of the protein fraction recovered from tannery wastewaters are currently being investigated. PMID:20706013

Marsal, A; Hernández, E; Cuadros, S; Puig, R; Bautista, E; Font, J

2010-01-01

261

Determining the main thermodynamic parameters of caffeine melting by means of DSC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The temperature and enthalpy of the melting of caffeine, which are 235.5 ± 0.1°C and 19.6 ± 0.2 kJ/mol, respectively, are determined by DSC. The melting entropy and the cryoscopic constant of caffeine are calculated.

Agafonova, E. V.; Moshchenskii, Yu. V.; Tkachenko, M. L.

2012-06-01

262

Investigating dependence in the main sea state parameters with copula approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Emilia-Romagna coastal areas are exposed to a high level risk from marine inundation. The impacts and the consequences of sea storms depend both on contemporary wave characteristics and sea elevation and on storm duration. A bivariate model for each of the six pairs formed with the variables significant wave height, mean wave period, duration and direction is initially proposed for the marine storms identified from data recorded in a four years period, from May 2007 to June 2011, by the Nausicaa buoy, located 8 km offshore the town of Cesenatico, applying the copula approach. Analysis of the data set shows that there is significant correlation among the above indicated variables. The analysis of marine storms extracted from the time series reveals that, during the autumn and winter seasons of the period 2008-2010, events associated with Scirocco winds, generally accompanied by the highest water levels due to the major fetch in the Adriatic Sea, occurred with relatively limited wave heights respect to those measured during Bora conditions. The method is then extended in the attempt to capture the eventual dependence structure between wave height and sea level. Tidal observations are recorded approximatively 40 km northwards of Cesenatico by the Porto Corsini tide gauge managed by ISPRA. Several families of copulas featuring a wide range of dependence are tested for the different pairs. The copula that best fits the available data is selected by using several different goodness of fit criteria (Akaike's and Bayesian information criteria, root mean square error and construction of empirical copula). The marine storms analysis includes the bivariate return periods for the pairs significant wave height and duration, based on the selected copula. Future application to the available data at regional scale could provide useful indications for the vulnerability assessment of the Emilia-Romagna coast from marine flooding.

Lamberti, A.; Masina, M.; Archetti, R.

2012-04-01

263

ULTRA-WIDEBAND (UWB) RADAR FOR REMOTE MEASURING OF MAIN PARAMETERS OF PATIENT'S VITAL ACTIVITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility of UWB radar use in medicine for remote measuring of patient's heart activity and respiration is considered. The measuring method is described and practical results of tests are cited. The probability of radar implementation in the other fields is shown.

Igor Y. Immoreev; Sergey V. Samkov; V. Samkov

264

Tritium transfers and main operating parameters impact for demo lithium lead breeding blanket (HCLL)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an industrial fusion reactor, the daily tritium production is of several hundreds of grams. Because of the double function of the blankets: breeding the necessary tritium and efficiently extracting the deposited heat, the metallic surfaces used to promote the heat transfer lead also to a non-negligible mass transfer of hydrogen isotopes. In order to improve the management of tritium,

Olivier Gastaldi; Nicolas Ghirelli; Franck Gabriel; Luciano Giancarli; Jean François Salavy

2008-01-01

265

[Control of the main radiation parameters of a gamma teletherapy apparatus].  

PubMed

In radiotherapy a dosimetric method is used nowadays to control the magnitude of the radiation axis deviation from the isocenter (RL) of a gamma-beam therapeutic apparatus (gamma BTA). However, the use of the method requires special costly equipment. Besides, it is fairly laborious. The dosimetric method does not permit the measurement of the distance between the isocentre and the virtual source (DISvirt) A gamma-metric method of the RL and DISvirt control in the gamma BTA is described. It is based on the photogammametric treatment of a gamma-picture of a special test object. The method is marked by high accuracy and safety. In addition, the gamma BTA can also be used in operation of accelerating therapeutic units. PMID:2038255

Cherni?, A N; Va?nberg, M Sh

266

Wave Climatology in Coastal Maine for Aquaculture and Other Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wind waves represent a significant hydrodynamic factor affecting many oceanographic studies such as sediment transport, design\\u000a of structures, etc. In coastal Maine, wave information is needed, among other applications, for aquaculture-related activities.\\u000a As few data sources exist, a question that confronts scientists pertains to the magnitudes of typical and extreme wave conditions\\u000a at various times. To address this, numerical modeling

Vijay G. Panchang; Chankwon Jeong; Dongcheng Li

2008-01-01

267

Main ring lattice and beam dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main-ring lattice considered in this note is based on previous studies made for high-energy rings of the TRIUMF Kaon Factory as well as for the main ring and second-generation storage ring proposed for an advanced hadron facility at Los Alamos. The reason for further study of the design concepts is mainly to increase the dynamic aperture for coupled motion

Guignard

1989-01-01

268

Carbene-stabilized main group diatomic allotropes.  

PubMed

While transition metals are well known for assuming the formal oxidation state of zero in various compounds main group elements have rarely engaged in this practice. Recent reports of N-heterocyclic carbene-stabilized main group diatomic allotropes (i.e., Si(2), Ge(2), P(2), As(2)) denote a breakthrough of zero-oxidation state main group chemistry. This Perspective addresses the synthesis and characterization of these highly reactive main group molecules, with a particular emphasis on the very recent progress in the reactivity study of carbene-stabilized Si(2) and P(2). PMID:21904737

Wang, Yuzhong; Robinson, Gregory H

2011-09-09

269

77 FR 12909 - Eastern Maine Railway Company-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-Montreal, Maine & Atlantic...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Transportation Board [Docket No. FD 35588] Eastern Maine Railway Company--Acquisition and Operation Exemption--Montreal, Maine & Atlantic Railway, Ltd. Eastern Maine Railway Company (EMR), a Class III rail carrier,...

2012-03-02

270

Affective and social behavior in animated agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a model of interaction between users and animated agents as well as inter-agent interaction that supports basic features of affective conversation and social interaction. As essential requirements for animated agents' capability to engage in and exhibit affective and social communication we introduce reasoning about emotions and emotion expression, personality, and social role awareness. The main contribution of

Helmut Prendinger; Mitsuru Ishizuka

2001-01-01

271

EFL Teachers' Factors and Students' Affect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Individual learners' affective factors are very important for foreign language learning. In China foreign language learning mainly happens in the classroom. Foreign language teachers are the organizers and carriers of language classes, and thus they inevitably influence the students' affection. This study explores how EFL teachers influence…

Qin, Lei

2007-01-01

272

Optics Simulations for the NLC Main Linac.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Focusing in the NLC main linac will be provided mainly by hybrid permanent magnet quadrupoles which have limited variability in strength. When the energy profile of the linac changes, due to normal cycling of rf sources, mismatches in the beam optics can ...

M. D. Woodley

2001-01-01

273

Predicting Internal Roughness in Water Mains.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method is presented for predicting the Hazen-Williams C-factor for unlined metal water mains as a function of pipe age. The method has two steps: (a) finding the growth/rate of internal roughness, alpha, for the water main using either historical C-fact...

T. M. Walski W. W. Sharp F. D. Shields

1988-01-01

274

Head loss testing in transmission mains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurately measuring head loss in large-diameter transmission mains is difficult and is therefore seldom done at all. However, if a section of transmission main is installed with provisions for measuring flow and head loss, the testing can be done easily and accurately, allowing better monitoring of long-term trends in pipe roughness and carrying capacity.

Thomas M. Walski; Shaun J. O'Farrell

1994-01-01

275

Threats to Piping Plovers in Maine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Piping plovers are a shoreline bird found along the Atlantic coast. In the State of Maine, Plover populations are listed as endangered due to stressors like the development and human traffic that accompany the recreational use of beaches. The Maine Audubon Society is taking up efforts to protect piping plovers by setting up exclosures and erecting fence and twine on

Kyle Hutton

2010-01-01

276

Flood of April 2007 in Southern Maine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Up to 8.5 inches of rain fell from April 15 through 18, 2007, in southern Maine. The rainin combination with up to an inch of water from snowmelt--resulted in extensive flooding. York County, Maine, was declared a presidential disaster area following the ...

P. J. Lombard

2009-01-01

277

Corridors for Wolf Reintroduction to Maine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maine has been identified as holding potential for the reintroduction of wolves. Due to the long ranges of wolves, it is beneficial to map potential corridors of movement. This project analyzes the best routes for movement from suitable habitats in New York to suitable habitats in Maine. It shows the paths likely to be taken by wolves, based on their

Will Tyson

2008-01-01

278

Off-Reservation Indian Survey [Maine].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The needs of the off-reservation Indian population in Maine and recommendations for the correction of these needs are discussed. The program's objectives were (1) to determine the present level of services available to off-reservation Indians in Maine, (2) to determine present housing standards, educational levels, health programs, and geographic…

Sockabasin, Allen J., Comp; Stone, John G., Comp.

279

Evolution of Stars Toward the Main Sequence.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A review is presented on the knowledge of stellar evolution toward the main sequence. This is the period during which the stars evolve from the beginning of their formation to the phase of stabilization on the main sequence where nuclear reactions begin t...

B. Hidajat

1973-01-01

280

MAINE 1:24,000 HYDROLOGY POLYGONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The Maine 1:24,000 Hydrology Polygons SDE feature class depicts double line river features, single line streams, pond, lake and coastal outlines in Maine from USGS 1:24,000 scale quadrangles. Some New Hampshire and New Brunswick features are also included. Codes are included to ...

281

Distribution main rehabilitated with HDPE lining process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Innovative use of a new HDPE lining technology recently saved Brooklyn Union Gas Co. 30% over conventional replacement costs. The company chose lining technology from United Pipeline Systems called Tite Liner to rehabilitate 2,500 ft of 20-in., 15 psig, bare steel main in Brooklyn's Bay Ridge section, an area spanning six city blocks and crossing three major avenues. The main

Ruiz

1994-01-01

282

The Legal Rights of Maine Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This booklet is intended to help Maine women recognize and enforce their rights under Maine and federal law. It is not designed to be a substitute for lawyers' services, but to inform women of their legal rights so that they will know when to consult a lawyer or a governmental agency for assistance in enforcing these rights. Organized topically…

Potter, Judy R.; Marshall, Gail

283

The enigmatics of affect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Affective computation generally focuses on the informatics of affect: structuring, formalizing, and representing emotion as informational units. We propose instead an enigmatics of affect, a critical technical practice that respects the rich and undefinable complexities of human affective experience. Our interactive installation, the Influencing Machine, allows users to explore a dynamic landscape of emotionally expressive sound and child-like drawings, using

Phoebe Sengers; Rainer Liesendahi; Werner Magar; Christoph Seibert; Boris Müller; Thorston Joachims; Weidong Geng; Pia Mårtensson; Kristina Höök

2002-01-01

284

The Formal Definition of a Parameter Passing Language.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The formal definition of the syntax and semantics of A Parameter Passing Language (APPL) is presented. APPL is a simple, nested structure language which permits the communication of parameters between a main program and a subroutine using call by referenc...

R. E. Fairley

1972-01-01

285

Correction. "Affect dynamics, affective forecasting, and aging".  

PubMed

Reports an error in "Affect dynamics, affective forecasting, and aging" by Lisbeth Nielsen, Brian Knutson and Laura L. Carstensen (Emotion, 2008[Jun], Vol 8[3], 318-330). The first author of the article was listed as being affiliated with both the National Institute on Aging and the Department of Psychology, Stanford University. Dr. Nielsen would like to clarify that the research for this article was conducted while she was a postdoctoral fellow at Stanford University; her current affiliation is only with the National Institute on Aging. The copyright notice should also have been listed as "In the Public Domain." (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2008-06717-002.) [Correction Notice: The same erratum for this article was reported in Vol 8(5) of Emotion (see record 2008-13989-013).] Affective forecasting, experienced affect, and recalled affect were compared in younger and older adults during a task in which participants worked to win and avoid losing small monetary sums. Dynamic changes in affect were measured along valence and arousal dimensions, with probes during both anticipatory and consummatory task phases. Older and younger adults displayed distinct patterns of affect dynamics. Younger adults reported increased negative arousal during loss anticipation and positive arousal during gain anticipation. In contrast, older adults reported increased positive arousal during gain anticipation but showed no increase in negative arousal on trials involving loss anticipation. Additionally, younger adults reported large increases in valence after avoiding an anticipated loss, but older adults did not. Younger, but not older, adults exhibited forecasting errors on the arousal dimension, underestimating increases in arousal during anticipation of gains and losses and overestimating increases in arousal in response to gain outcomes. Overall, the findings are consistent with a growing literature suggesting that older people experience less negative emotion than their younger counterparts and further suggest that they may better predict dynamic changes in affect. PMID:19803581

Nielsen, Lisbeth; Knutson, Brain; Carstensen, Laura L

2009-10-01

286

Affect analysis of text using fuzzy semantic typing  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a convenient fusion of natural-language processing and fuzzy logic techniques for analyzing affect content in free text; our main goals are fast analysis and visualization of affect content for decision-making. The primary linguistic resource for fuzzy semantic typing is the fuzzy affect lexicon, from which other important resources are generated, notably the fuzzy thesaurus and affect category groups.

Pero Subasic; Alison Huettner

2000-01-01

287

Maine Geological Survey: Online Educational Materials  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Maine Geological Survey (MGS) has crafted a fine set of materials for those interested in learning more about the state's natural history via virtual tours, lesson plans, and maps. First up is the Virtual Tour of Maine Geology, which includes photographs of bedrock geology, geologic hazards, mineral collecting, and surficial geology. The Lesson Plans area contains 51 lessons, including "Igneous Rock Identification" and "Composition of Topsoil." A number of MGS maps are available online in the Maps and Publications area. The site includes a Bibliography of Maine Geology, which contains over 12,000 references. Additionally, the site contains a link to the MGS publications page, which has official state of Maine wall maps available for purchase.

2009-12-08

288

Teaching Case: Maine Turnpike Toll Discounts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a very short case about a coupon experiment on the Maine Turnpike that can be used very early in Micro Principles courses to motivate the introduction of demand curves, elasticity and externalities that comes later in the course.

Velenchik, Ann

289

Space Shuttle Main Engine Computed Tomography Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For the past two years the potential applications of computed tomography to the fabrication and overhaul of the Space Shuttle Main Engine were evaluated. Application tests were performed at various government and manufacturer facilities with equipment pro...

R. F. Sporny

1990-01-01

290

78 FR 20370 - Maine Disaster # ME-00035  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...disaster for Public Assistance Only for the State of Maine (FEMA-4108- DR), dated 03/25/2013. Incident: Severe Winter Storm, Snowstorm, and Flooding. Incident Period: 02/08/2013 through 02/09/2013. Effective Date:...

2013-04-04

291

Highway Beautification Study: Maine and New Hampshire.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study dealt with some potential effects of the Highway Beautification Act in Maine and New Hampshire. Findings are presented on the basis of personal interviews with outdoor advertising companies, advertisers, motorists and mail questionnaires to vari...

W. S. Smith

1966-01-01

292

[Correlations between wild Polygonatum odoratum quality and main ecological factors].  

PubMed

By the methods of stepwise regression, principal component analysis, and grey relational grade analysis, this paper studied the correlations between the effective components (polysaccharides and water- and alcohol-soluble substances) contents and antioxidant activity of wild Polygonatum odoratum in different places and the ecological factors. Among the test ecological factors, the mean air temperature in January and in July, mean annual precipitation, frost-free period, and soil pH and total potassium were the main factors affecting the effective component contents of P. odoratum, with a contribution rate of 99.0%. As compared with soil factors, climatic factors made more contribution to the effective component contents. Soil total potassium was the key factor controlling the effective component contents, mean annual precipitation was the main decision factor, and mean air temperature in January was the main limiting factor. The plant polysaccharides and water-soluble substance contents were the key factors affecting the antioxidant activity of P. odoratum, and the capability of P. odoratum in excavating DPPH free radical increased with increasing contents of polysaccharides and water-soluble substances. PMID:22937629

Bu, Jing; Li, Deng-Wu; Wang, Dong-Mei

2012-06-01

293

Extracting Material Constitutive Parameters from Scattering Parameters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the frequency domain all materials can be described electrically by their complex permittivity (micro) and permeability (micro). These constitutive parameters determine the response of the material to electromagnetic (EM) radiation. The precise knowled...

B. Feng

2006-01-01

294

Component temperature versus laser-welding parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The component temperature near a laser weld which is critical because of possible damage to the explosive powder adjacent to the member being welded was examined. The thermal excursion experienced at the powder cavity wall was evaluated. The affect of changes in the laser welding parameters on the powder cavity wall temperature was determined. The objective lens to work distance, pulse rate, and beam power parameters were varied and the peak temperature varied from 1170C to 3110C in response to welding parameter changes. It is concluded that by utilizing a selected set of welding parameters, the design requirement of a 1600C maximum powder cavity wall temperature can easily be satisfied.

Jones, W. H.

1983-09-01

295

Selection of a Prototype Engine Monitor for Coast Guard Main Diesel Propulsion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A diesel engine monitor system has been synthesized from several parameter measurement subsystems which employ measurement techniques suitable for use on the main propulsion engines in U.S. Coast Cutters. The primary functions of the system are to monitor...

R. N. Hambright J. O. Storment C. D. Wood

1979-01-01

296

Marine Occupations Conference (Southern Maine Vocational Technical Institute, South Portland, Maine, April 5, 1974). Maine Sea Grant Bulletin 9.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of speeches, presented as the 1974 Marine Occupations Conference in South Portland, Maine, provides an overview of information regarding availability and kinds of careers in, as well as the educational requirements for, marine occupations. Also reviewed are the problems of developing marine resources, such as those involving…

Coggins, Phyllis, Ed.; And Others

297

Marine Occupations Conference (Southern Maine Vocational Technical Institute, South Portland, Maine, April 5, 1974). Maine Sea Grant Bulletin 9.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This collection of speeches, presented as the 1974 Marine Occupations Conference in South Portland, Maine, provides an overview of information regarding availability and kinds of careers in, as well as the educational requirements for, marine occupations. Also reviewed are the problems of developing marine resources, such as those involving…

Coggins, Phyllis, Ed.; And Others

298

Guide to the Main Ring DO overpass  

SciTech Connect

The DO overpass is a modification of the beam orbit in Main Ring in order to better accommodate a Tevatron collider detector at DO. The orbit is moved up approx. 51 inches over most of the long straight section at DO, thus making the Main Ring the world's first non-planar proton synchrotron. A similar overpass, but with four times the displacement, is planned for the CDF detector at the BO straight section. The nominal separation between the beam orbit in the Main Ring and the orbit in the Tevatron is 25.5 inches. Early in the design study of a detector that would utilize the Tevatron is a anti pp collider, it was apparent that a larger separation at the detector was highly desirable. In 1981, Tom Collins proposed a specific lattice geometry in the Main Ring for achieving larger separation, called ''the screw beam''. His proposal has served as the basis for the design of both the BO and DO overpasses. The main purpose of this report is to describe in some detail the implementation of the DO overpass. Topics to be covered include: (a) geometry of the overpass orbit, (b) the new hardware in the tunnel, (c) the power supply system, (d) the control facility, (e) accelerator beam dynamics ramifications, and (f) commissioning experience. A secondary purpose is to provide a fairly complete ''bibliography'' to the sources of information on the overpass. 17 refs., 17 figs.

Turkot, F.

1985-03-20

299

Affective understanding in film  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—Affective understanding of film plays an important role in sophisticated movie analysis, ranking and indexing. How- ever, due to the seemingly inscrutable nature of emotions and the broad affective gap from low-level features, this problem is seldom addressed. In this paper, we develop a systematic approach grounded upon psychology and cinematography to address several important issues in affective understanding. An

Hee Lin Wang; Loong-Fah Cheong

2006-01-01

300

Affective Factors in Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A discussion of the role of affective factors in reading within the framework of the substrata factor theory is presented. The substrata factor theory and theories of the intellect are briefly discussed, and the absence of affective factors in these theories is pointed out. These affective factors are seen as influential in the individual's…

Athey, Irene

301

Affective Learning — A Manifesto  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of the computer as a model, metaphor, and modelling tool has tended to privilege the 'cognitive' over the 'affective' by engendering theories in which thinking and learning are viewed as information processing and affect is ignored or marginalised. In the last decade there has been an accelerated flow of findings in multiple disciplines supporting a view of affect

R W Picard; S Papert; W Bender; B Blumberg; C Breazeal; D Cavallo; T Machover; M Resnick; D Roy; C Strohecker

2004-01-01

302

Affecting qualitative health psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ‘affective turn’ is a contemporary movement within the humanities, social science, and psychology to investigate affect, emotion, and feeling as hybrid phenomena jointly constituted from both biological and social influences. Health and illness are themselves jointly constituted in this way, and many of the topics, concerns, and methods of health psychology are strongly permeated by affective phenomena. Qualitative research

John Cromby

2011-01-01

303

Intensity Inversion between Main and Satellite Lines in Atomic Photoionization  

SciTech Connect

The 1s photoionization of atomic Li was studied by photoelectron spectroscopy in the photon energy region between 85 and 140 eV for the ground state and the three lowest excited configurations Li* 1s{sup 2}nl, nl=2p, 3s, 3p. The importance of electron correlations was investigated by comparing the multielectron transitions, so-called shake-up and conjugate shake-up satellites, and the direct process, so-called main lines. The relative intensity of the satellites increases with the level of initial excitation of the Li atom. The shake-up process dominates for states with an n=3 valence electron and the satellites become stronger than the main lines. This spectacular effect can be explained by the spatial overlap of the initial and final state wave functions. Surprisingly, the spatial overlap affects shake-up and conjugate shake-up lines in the same way.

Cubaynes, D.; Diehl, S.; Wuilleumier, F. J.; Meyer, M.; Heinecke, E.; Richter, T.; Zimmermann, P. [LIXAM, UMR 8624, Universite Paris Sud, Batiment 350, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Institut fuer Optik und Atomare Physik, Technische Universitaet Berlin, Hardenbergstrasse 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany)

2007-11-23

304

Main Coast Winds - Final Scientific Report  

SciTech Connect

The Maine Coast Wind Project was developed to investigate the cost-effectiveness of small, distributed wind systems on coastal sites in Maine. The restructuring of Maine's electric grid to support net metering allowed for the installation of small wind installations across the state (up to 100kW). The study performed adds insight to the difficulties of developing cost-effective distributed systems in coastal environments. The technical hurdles encountered with the chosen wind turbine, combined with the lower than expected wind speeds, did not provide a cost-effective return to make a distributed wind program economically feasible. While the turbine was accepted within the community, the low availability has been a negative.

Jason Huckaby; Harley Lee

2006-03-15

305

Distribution main rehabilitated with HDPE lining process  

SciTech Connect

Innovative use of a new HDPE lining technology recently saved Brooklyn Union Gas Co. 30% over conventional replacement costs. The company chose lining technology from United Pipeline Systems called Tite Liner to rehabilitate 2,500 ft of 20-in., 15 psig, bare steel main in Brooklyn's Bay Ridge section, an area spanning six city blocks and crossing three major avenues. The main is mechanically joined with no offsets or service connections. Due to surface and subsurface working space restrictions and the impact on costs, the company elected to employ the liner system in which a specially designed HDPE liner pipe is reduced to a smaller diameter through a rolldown box for insertion into a steel or cast iron main. A tight fit is attained as the liner is allowed to expand against the pipe wall after pull through.

Ruiz, M. (Brooklyn Union Gas Co., NY (United States))

1994-08-01

306

Fuzzy Modal Parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to identify modal parameters with uncertain experimental data, a non-deterministic identification method based on fuzzy formalism is proposed. The aim is to provide a degree of confidence in the modal parameters identified.

Plessis, G.; Lallemand, B.; Tison, T.; Level, P.

2000-06-01

307

Airborne particulates and asthma: a Maine case study.  

PubMed

Maine currently has the second fastest growing asthma rate in the nation 9.4% of the adult population has asthma and one out of eight children is affected. The factors behind this increase are poorly understood, but previous reports suggest that biologically soluble metal ions from particulate matter (PM10) may play a role in asthma episodes. In an effort to study this issue, we first identified geographic and temporal trends in Maine asthma hospitalizations. Clinical data show a strong fall peak in asthma admissions with weaker peaks in January and May, and a summer low in asthma admissions. Asthma admissions are also higher in the cities than in the rural areas in Maine. We then analysed PM10 collected by the Maine Department of Environmental Protection in three different Maine locations in the years 2000 and 2001, at times when clinical asthma data showed peaks and during the summer low period. We also collected soil samples in the same locations. The PM10 and soils were analysed for 10 metals by acid extraction to determine total metal content and then with cell culture medium, DMEM/F12+CCS growth medium, to determine metal biosolubility. Our results showed that Mn, Cu, Pb, As, V, Ni and Al were present in the Maine PM samples. V, Ni and Pb showed seasonal variation, while the others were relatively constant throughout the year. Pb and Al did not appear to be soluble in the biological medium. There was also variation from location to location with the urban area showing the highest concentrations for most metals. Aluminium was present in the highest concentration in soil samples, followed by Mn and V. Only Cu was biologically available in soils. We determined from M/Al ratios that most of the PM10 did not originate from local crustal material. PMID:15986579

Langley-Turnbaugh, Samantha J; Gordon, Nancy R; Lambert, Thomas

2005-05-01

308

Relations between demographic parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mean life-expectancy \\u000a describes the average prospective life-time of an individual aged zero. This parameter can be explicitly described in terms\\u000a of the survivorship distribution of the population. The Malthusian parameter r represents the asymptotic growth rate of a population. This parameter can be implicitly expressed in terms of the net-maternity\\u000a distribution. The parameters \\u000a and r incompletely incorporate the age-specific

Lloyd Demetrius

1979-01-01

309

Unprotected Left Main PCI: Status Report 2013.  

PubMed

Unprotected left main coronary artery (ULMCA) disease is seen in 4% of patients who undergo angiography. Though coronary artery bypass graft surgery has traditionally been the preferred approach to revascularization, recent major society guidelines support the use of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in properly selected patients. This article provides an overview of recent studies evaluating the efficacy of ULMCA PCI and looking at contemporary approaches to the evaluation and percutaneous treatment of ULMCA disease. The ongoing EXCEL trial will help elucidate the role of ULMCA PCI in the treatment of left main disease compared with coronary artery bypass graft surgery. PMID:23995725

Oyama, Jared; Lee, Michael S

2013-09-01

310

125. Pre1911. Crew on main deck, starboard side at main ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

125. Pre-1911. Crew on main deck, starboard side at main hatch, looking aft. Note dark object in center of photo that may be original main deck capstan. Fred Heick collection. (K9.9571) - Ship BALCLUTHA, 2905 Hyde Street Pier, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

311

Maine's College Graduates: Where They Go and Why. Finding Maine's Future Workforce (Revisited)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In the knowledge-based economy of today, training and retaining a college educated workforce is crucial to the vitality of Maine. Approximately one-half of Maine's high school graduates who go on to college leave the State to do so. A previous study, "Maine's College Graduates: Where They Go and Why" (2003), looked at the factors that influenced…

Silvernail, David L.; Woodard, Brianne L.

2006-01-01

312

Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Maine  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Maine students had across-the-board gains. There were improvements in both reading and math at the basic, proficient and advanced levels for the subgroups large enough to count, which were white students, low income students, and boys and girls. Results on…

Center on Education Policy, 2010

2010-01-01

313

Penetration electric fields driving main phase Dst  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On the basis of three selection criteria we have analyzed the main phase electrodynamics of 17 magnetic storms that occurred between 1999 and mid-2005: (1) the availability of solar wind measurements from the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) satellite, (2) a minimum Dst ? -100 nT, and (3) no significant recovery episode between the beginning and maximum epoch of the main phase (dDst/dt > 0). We combined the Volland-Stern and Siscoe-Hill models to estimate the intensities of electric fields (EVS) in the equatorial plane as the polar cap potential divided by the width of the magnetosphere along the dawn-dusk axis. A survey of provisional Dst and EVS traces over the 5.5 years of interest shows that all sustained excursions of EVS above quiet time levels of 0.22 ± 0.08 mV/m were closely tied to the main phases of storms. In every instance, EVS returned to background at or near the beginning of the recovery phase. The data indicate very high correlations between Dst and IVS = ?EVSdt during the main phase of all selected storms.

Burke, William J.; Gentile, Louise C.; Huang, Cheryl Y.

2007-07-01

314

Space shuttle main engine failure detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of how to improve recognition of anomalous behavior in the Space Shuttle Main Engine is currently under study. The effort is planned to lead to an advanced real-time failure detection system for test stand application. This paper addresses motivation for the study, engine characteristics, failure detection problems, and the technical issues that are involved.

Harry A. Cikanek

1986-01-01

315

Comprehensive Community Environmental Inventory, Yarmouth, Maine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This manual is a compilation and evaluation of data gathered from an inventory of the natural and man-made features of a community (Yarmouth, Maine). It brings together comprehensive information which may help local governmental officials, citizens, and students gain a broad understanding of their environment and its associated problems.…

Bennett, Dean B.

316

Status of J-PARC Main Ring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The J-PARC (Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex) facility is under construction as a joint project of KEK and JAEA. In this paper, we present a construction status of slow cycling main ring synchrotron (MR) of J-PARC. Performance test and installation of accelerator components are now in progress. Beam commissioning is scheduled to start in May 2008.

Koseki, Tadashi

2008-02-01

317

SYNCHRONOUS REPRODUCTION BY MAINE BLACK BEARS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied reproduction by black bears (Ursus americanus) in 3 dissimilar Maine study areas from 1982 to 1991. Nuts of American beech (Fagus grandifolia) were the primary fall food source in Spectacle Pond, a major fall food in Stacyville, and rarely available in Bradford. We visited 396 dens, including 303 dens of 96 adult females, and examined 154 newborn litters.

CRAIG R. MCLAUGHLIN; GEORGE J. MATULA; RAYMOND J. O'CONNOR

318

Maine Kids Count 2003 Data Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This Kids Count data book details statewide trends in the well-being of Maine's children. The statistical portrait is based on indicators in the areas of physical and mental health, including insurance enrollment, adolescent health and safety, and child welfare; social and economic status, including poverty, unemployment, and teen pregnancies;…

Jelcich, Susan, Ed.

319

Maine Kids Count 1998 Data Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This Kids Count report details statewide trends in the well-being of Maine's children. The statistical portrait is based on indicators of children's well-being in four areas: (1) physical and mental health; (2) community and family environment; (3) social and economic opportunity; and (4) education and learning. The report's introduction…

Maine Children's Alliance, Augusta.

320

Mercury concentrations in Maine sport fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess mercury contamination of fish in Maine, fish were collected from 120 randomly selected lakes. The collection goal for each lake was five fish of the single most common sport fish species within the size range commonly harvested by anglers. Skinless, boneless fillets of fish from each lake were composited, homogenized, and analyzed for total mercury. The two most

C. P. Stafford; T. A. Haines

1997-01-01

321

Mercury Concentrations in Maine Sport Fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess mercury contamination of fish in Maine, fish were collected from 120 randomly selected lakes. The collection goal for each lake was five fish of the single most common sport fish species within the size range commonly harvested by anglers. Skinless, boneless fillets of fish from each lake were composited, homogenized, and analyzed for total mercury. The two most

Craig P. Stafford; Terry A. Haines

1997-01-01

322

Vacuum and beam transport lines: main principles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some details of vacuum system designs of beam transport lines are presented. The effect of gas desorption on vacuum equilibrium and stability and ion-induced pressure instability in the beam transport lines are discussed. Main vacuum relationships are also given as a basis for understanding the vacuum system configuration of beam transport lines. Residual gas spectra together with specific outgassing rates

J. Pivar?; K. D. Tumanov

1997-01-01

323

Reverse Performance Characteristics of Main Mine Fans.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During a mine fire or other emergency, it may be desirable to reverse the airflow in order to provide an escapeway or to isolate a fire. Also, in colder areas, the airflow may be reversed to prevent ice buildup. When reversing main mine fans, the mine ope...

M. F. Dunn S. Bhattacharya V. Rajaram

1983-01-01

324

Maine Kids Count 1998 Data Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count report details statewide trends in the well-being of Maine's children. The statistical portrait is based on indicators of children's well-being in four areas: (1) physical and mental health; (2) community and family environment; (3) social and economic opportunity; and (4) education and learning. The report's introduction describes…

Maine Children's Alliance, Augusta.

325

Intube nondestructive testing of main gas pipelines  

Microsoft Academic Search

A complex of auxiliary equipment for in-tube nondestructive testing of main gas pipelines (MGPs) via magnetic flaw detectors\\u000a is described. A list and schedule of procedures for in-tube inspection of MGPs are presented. Typical flaws in the tube metal\\u000a of MGPs are studied and classified by the degree of hazard.

V. A. Kanaikin; V. E. Loskutov; A. F. Matvienko; B. V. Patramanskii

2007-01-01

326

Maine Project against Bullying. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Noting that bullying among primary school-age children has become recognized as an antecedent to more violent behavior in later grades, the 3-year Maine Project Against Bullying examined currently available research on bullying and evaluated books, curricula, media materials, and programs to identify resources and strategies which can be applied…

Saufler, Chuck; Gagne, Cyndi

327

Maine KIDS COUNT 2002 Data Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This KIDS COUNT data book details statewide trends in the well-being of Maine's children. Following a brief overview of the data book and a summary of indicators, state trend data are presented in the areas of: (1) poverty; (2) child and adolescent suicide; (3) public high school dropouts; (4) teen pregnancy; (5) public high school graduates…

Maine Children's Alliance, Augusta.

328

Main posterior watershed zone of the choroid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main posterior watershed zone of the choroid is located between the nasal edge of the optic disc and the fovea and represents the area situated between the territories supplied by the temporal and nasal posterior ciliary arteries. In the fluorescein angiographies of 800 normal subjects a watershed zone was not observed in 33.1% due to technical reasons and in

GIUSEPPE GIUFFRI

1989-01-01

329

The main problem of external ballistics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is devoted to the main problem of external ballistics, i.e., the problem of finding a trajectory of a material point, which starts in the given initial set, reaches the given target set at time to be determined, and satisfies the dynamics law as well as some optimality constraint, while the absolute value of its initial velocity is given.

S. A. Vavilov

1997-01-01

330

Parameters Optimization for Operational Storm Surge/Tide Forecast Model using a Genetic Algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Typhoons generated in northwestern Pacific Ocean annually affect the Korean Peninsula and storm surges generated by strong low pressure and sea winds often cause serious damage to property in the coastal region. To predict storm surges, a lot of researches have been conducted by using numerical models for many years. Various parameters used for calculation of physics process are used in numerical models based on laws of physics, but they are not accurate values. Because those parameters affect to the model performance, these uncertain values can sensitively operate results of the model. Therefore, optimization of these parameters used in numerical model is essential for accurate storm surge predictions. A genetic algorithm (GA) is recently used to estimate optimized values of these parameters. The GA is a stochastic exploration modeling natural phenomenon named genetic heritance and competition for survival. To realize breeding of species and selection, the groups which may be harmed are kept and use genetic operators such as inheritance, mutation, selection and crossover. In this study, we have improved operational storm surge/tide forecast model(STORM) of NIMR/KMA (National Institute of Meteorological Research/Korea Meteorological Administration) that covers 115E - 150E, 20N - 52N based on POM (Princeton Ocean Model) with 8km horizontal resolutions using the GA. Optimized values have been estimated about main 4 parameters which are bottom drag coefficient, background horizontal diffusivity coefficient, Smagoranski’s horizontal viscosity coefficient and sea level pressure scaling coefficient within STORM. These optimized parameters were estimated on typhoon MAEMI in 2003 and 9 typhoons which have affected to Korea peninsula from 2005 to 2007. The 4 estimated parameters were also used to compare one-month predictions in February and August 2008. During the 48h forecast time, the mean and median model accuracies improved by 25 and 51%, respectively.

Lee, W.; You, S.; Ryoo, S.; Global Environment System Research Laboratory

2010-12-01

331

Three-dimensional simulations of near-surface convection in main-sequence stars. I. Overall structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. The near-surface layers of cool main-sequence stars are structured by convective flows, which are overshooting into the atmosphere. The flows and the associated spatio-temporal variations of density and temperature affect spectral line profiles and thus have an impact on estimates of stellar properties such as effective temperature, gravitational acceleration, and abundances. Aims: We aim at identifying distinctive properties of the thermodynamic structure of the atmospheres of different stars and understand their causes. Methods: We ran comprehensive 3D radiation hydrodynamics simulations of the near-surface layers of six simulated stars of spectral type F3V to M2V with the MURaM code. We carry out a systematic parameter study of the mean stratifications, flow structures, and the energy flux in these stars. Results: We find monotonic trends along the lower main sequence in granule size, flow velocity, and intensity contrast. The convection in the M-star models differs substantially from that of the hotter stars, mainly owing to the more gradual transition from convective to radiative energy transport. Conclusions: While the basic mechanisms driving surface convection in cool stars are the same, the properties of the convection vary along the main sequence. Apart from monotonic trends in rms velocity, intensity contrast, granule size, etc., there is a transition between "naked" and "hidden" granulation around spectral type K5V caused by the (highly non-linear) temperature dependence of the opacity. These variations have to be taken into account when stellar parameters are derived from spectra. Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

Beeck, B.; Cameron, R. H.; Reiners, A.; Schüssler, M.

2013-10-01

332

Radial transport within the Jovian main ring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to their fast transport times through the Jovian system, the dust-sized grains within Jupiter's main ring are thought to be continually replenished. A likely source for these particles is meteoroid bombardment into parent bodies within the main ring as well as the small moons Metis and Adrastea. The main ring appears distinctly different in low phase angle Galileo SSI images than at high phase angles. Low phase angle images reveal two bright bands at the outer egde of the main ring. These bands may represent the locations of macroscopic ring particles. Showalter et al. (1987, Icarus, 69, 458-498) found that the size distribution of micron-sized grains follows a power law distribution with an index of 2.5 + 0.5. Such a distribution is believed to be consistent with a meteoroid bombardment origin for the smaller ring particles. Using Galileo SSI and NIMS data, we have determined that the particles follow a broken power law size distribution between 0.1 and 100 microns: a relatively steep power law distribution above 15 microns and a shallower one at smaller sizes. Size-dependent particle loss and transport processes may explain this deviation from a simple power law distribution. Previous models have invoked such processes to explain other characteristics of the Jovian ring system. We have incorporated these results into a simple model of radial transport for the ring particles to determine which, if any, of the physical processes previously examined can explain our derived size distribution and resolve the differences between the ring's profile as seen at high and low phase angles. We will report on the initial results of our efforts to model radial transport in the Jovian main ring.

Brooks, S. M.; Esposito, L. W.; Showalter, M. R.; Throop, H. B.

2003-04-01

333

Evolutionary calculations of main sequence star -- white dwarf binary Type IA supernova progenitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Close binaries consisting of a main sequence star and a white dwarf are known as candidates for Type Ia supernova progenitors. We perform evolutionary calculations of such systems in the Roche approximation, in order to constrain possible initial main sequence star and white dwarf masses at different metallicities. We find that the allowed parameter space is much larger for Z=0.02

A. Deutschmann; S. Wellstein; N. Langer; Peter Hoeflich

1998-01-01

334

Object-oriented simulation research on components of inner fuel main pipe in aero-engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to find the control characteristics of fuel flow rate of inner fuel main pipe in aero-engines, the influences of parameters on the flow rate need to be studied systematically. This paper uses object-oriented AMESim to investigate modelling and simulation of the main control components. Modeling methods of components such as electrohydraulic servo valve, pressure difference valve and flow

Wang Bin; Zhou Lifeng; Yang Jinli; Ye Zhifeng

2010-01-01

335

Comprehensive review of structural deterioration of water mains: physically based models  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a comprehensive (although not exhaustive) overview of the physical\\/mechanical models that have been developed to improve the understanding of the structural performance of water mains. Several components have to be considered in modelling this structural behaviour. The residual structural capacity of water mains is affected by material deterioration due to environmental and operational conditions as well as

B. Rajani; Y. Kleiner

2001-01-01

336

Ventspils Radiotelescopes: History, Parameters, Possibilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After the withdrawal of the Russian army from Latvia, two fully steerable parabolic antennae of 32 m and 16 m in diameter were left near Ventspils, a port town on the shore of the Baltic sea. They have high surface accuracy and work in the centimeter and millimeter ranges. Their main mechanical and radiotechnical parameters, for example, a sensitivity of about 3--35 mJy in a wavelength range of 1--10 cm, allow their use as powerful middle class radiotelescopes for investigations of various cosmic radio sources. The antennae are open to international cooperation.

Balklavs, A.

337

Orbital evolution of the main Uranian satellites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since Voyager 2 space mission, we know some properties of the main Uranian satellites (Miranda, Ariel, Umbriel, Titania, Oberon): on the one hand, we observe an important resurfacing of both Miranda and Ariel, and on the other hand some strangenesses in the orbital elements such as the anomalously high inclinaison of Miranda or the anomalously high eccentricity of Ariel. The aim of this study is to use some modern methods including advances in computing resources to revise some studies developed in the last 20 years (see for instance [1], [2], [3], [4]). We therefore consider a model of a n-body problem which takes into account of the mutual perturbations of the five main satellites and of the planet Uranus and meet/improve some previous results.

Verheylewegen, E.; Noyelles, B.

2011-10-01

338

Challenges of the ILC Main Linac  

SciTech Connect

With the completion of the ILC Reference Design Report (RDR), we begin the next phase of the project - development of the Engineering Design. Our strategy and priorities come from the identification, contained in the RDR, of scientific and engineering challenges of the ILC. First among these is the cost of the main linac which, including the associated earthworks and cooling/power systems, amounts to 60% of the ILC total cost. Next is the challenge to reach the highest practical gradient since this R & D has the largest cost leverage of any of the ongoing programs. Finally, we have to understand the beam dynamics and beam tuning processes in the main linac, as we will not have the opportunity to do full (or even large) scale tests of these before the linac is constructed.

Ross, Marc

2007-07-25

339

Minerals yearbook, 1991: Maine. Annual report  

SciTech Connect

The report has been prepared under a Memorandum of Understanding between the U.S. Bureau of Mines, U.S. Department of the Interior, and the Maine Geological Survey for collecting information on all nonfuel minerals. The value of Maine's nonfuel mineral production in 1991 was $41.3 million, a $21.2 million decrease compared with that of 1990. Decreases in output and value were reported for most of the nonfuel minerals produced. The largest decreases in both production and value were for construction sand and gravel and dimension stone. Smaller decreases were estimated for both masonry and portland cement. Other mineral commodities produced in the State included common clay, gemstones, and peat. Perlite was shipped in from out-of-State and expanded at one plant in the State.

Harrison, D.K.; Anderson, W.; Foley, M.E.

1993-07-01

340

Nitrogen chronology of massive main sequence stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. Rotational mixing in massive main sequence stars is predicted to monotonically increase their surface nitrogen abundance with time. Aims: We use this effect to design a method for constraining the age and the inclination angle of massive main sequence stars, given their observed luminosity, effective temperature, projected rotational velocity and surface nitrogen abundance. Methods: This method relies on stellar evolution models for different metallicities, masses and rotation rates. We use the population synthesis code STARMAKER to show the range of applicability of our method. Results: We apply this method to 79 early B-type main sequence stars near the LMC clusters NGC 2004 and N 11 and the SMC clusters NGC 330 and NGC 346. From all stars within the sample, 17 were found to be suitable for an age analysis. For ten of them, which are rapidly rotating stars without a strong nitrogen enhancement, it has been previously concluded that they did not evolve as rotationally mixed single stars. This is confirmed by our analysis, which flags the age of these objects as highly discrepant with their isochrone ages. For the other seven stars, their nitrogen and isochrone ages are found to agree within error bars, what validates our method. Constraints on the inclination angle have been derived for the other 62 stars,with the implication that the nitrogen abundances of the SMC stars, for which mostly only upper limits are known, fall on average significantly below those limits. Conclusions: Nitrogen chronology is found to be a new useful tool for testing stellar evolution and to constrain fundamental properties of massive main sequence stars. A web version of this tool is provided. Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

Köhler, K.; Borzyszkowski, M.; Brott, I.; Langer, N.; de Koter, A.

2012-08-01

341

Particle Sizes of Saturn's Main Rings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radio occultations of Saturn's Main Rings by spacecraft provide a good view of the particle size-distribution down to sizes of the order of centimeters (Marouf et al., 1983; Zebker et al., 1985). The lack of optical depth variations between visible and longer wavelengths indicate a lack of micron-sized particles. Between these two regimes, the particle-size distribution is largely unknown. A

Rebecca A. Harbison; M. M. Hedman; P. D. Nicholson

2009-01-01

342

Darling Marine Center of University of Maine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Located in Walpole, Maine, the Center functions year round as a research and educational facility serving the marine interests of faculty, staff, students, and visiting investigators from around the world. Lab research interests range from microbial ecology, biogeochemistry and marine archaeology, to invertebrate taxonomy and ecology, deep-sea biology, and phytoplankton physiology. Undergraduate and K-12 opportunities are available both during the school year and summer. Species lists and downloadable data are also available.

343

VINCI \\/ VLTI observations of Main Sequence stars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Main Sequence (MS) stars are by far the most numerous class in the Universe.\\u000aThey are often somewhat neglected as they are relatively quiet objects (but\\u000aexceptions exist), though they bear testimony of the past and future of our\\u000aSun. An important characteristic of the MS stars, particularly the solar-type\\u000aones, is that they host the large majority of the

P. Kervella; F. Thevenin; P. Morel; J. Provost; G. Berthomieu; D. Segransan; D. Queloz; P. Borde; E. Di Folco; T. Forveille

2003-01-01

344

76 FR 59177 - Maine Disaster #ME-00029  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the State of Maine (FEMA-4032- DR), dated 09/13/2011. Incident: Tropical Storm Irene. Incident Period: 08/27/2011 through 08/29/2011. Effective Date: 09/13/2011. Physical Loan Application Deadline Date: 11/14/2011. Economic Injury (EIDL) Loan Application Deadline Date:...

2011-09-23

345

Dark current model for ILC main linac  

SciTech Connect

In the ILC Main Linac, the dark current electrons, generated in SRF cavity can be accelerated to hundreds of MeV before being kicked out by quadrupoles and thus will originate electromagnetic cascade showers in the surrounding materials. Some of the shower secondaries can return back into vacuum and be re-accelerated again. The preliminary results of simulation of the dark current generation in ILC cavity, its dynamics in linac are discussing in this paper.

Solyak, N.; Romanov, G.; Mokhov, N.V.; /Fermilab; Eidelman, Y.; /Novosibirsk, IYF; Tam, Wai-Ming; /Indiana U.

2008-06-01

346

Parameters Controlling Dimensional Accuracy of Aluminum Extrusions Formed in Stretch Bending  

SciTech Connect

For stretch formed components used in the automotive industry, such as bumper beams, it is of primary importance to control parameters affecting dimensional accuracy. The variations in geometry and mechanical properties induced in extrusion and stretch forming lead to subsequent dimensional inaccuracy of the final product. In this work, tensile and compression samples were taken at three different positions along AA7108W extruded profiles in order to determine material parameters for a constitutive model particularly suited for strong texture materials. In addition, geometry were measured and analyzed statistically in order to study its impact on local cross sectional distortions (sagging) and springback in stretch bending of a bumper beam. These full scale experiments were combined with analytical and numerical simulations to quantify the impact of each basic parameter on product quality. It is concluded that this methodology provides a means to systematically control the product quality by focusing on reducing the acceptance limits of the main parameters controlling basic mechanisms in stretch forming. Despite the assumptions and simplifications made in order to make the analytical expressions solvable, the approach has proven its capability in establishing accurate closed-form expressions including the main influential parameters.

Baringbing, Henry Ako [Department of Engineering Design and Materials, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), N-7491, Trondheim (Norway); Welo, Torgeir [Department of Engineering Design and Materials, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), N-7491, Trondheim (Norway); Hydro Aluminium Structures Raufoss AS, P.O. Box 15, N-2831, Raufoss (Norway)

2007-04-07

347

Timing of Acadian deformation in northeastern Maine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

40Ar/39Ar ages determined for 24 mineral separates from the Pleasant Lake, Hunt Ridge, and Cochrane Lake plutons bear on the timing of the main phase of the Acadian orogeny in northern Maine. Six hornblende samples and one clinopyroxene sample have only minor disturbances in their release spectra. The increments with concordant ages form overlapping plateaus at 403 ± 4 Ma. Many of the biotite samples have discordant release spectra. The average of their total gas ages is 400 ± 6 Ma. Calculated closure temperatures for the hornblendes and biotites are 550 °C and approximately 350 °C, respectively. The difference between closure temperatures and concordancy in ages demonstrates that the plutons cooled very rapidly upon emplacement. Therefore, the 40Ar/39Ar ages date both the time of argon retention in the minerals and the time of emplacement of the plutons. The best estimate for their time of emplacement is the average of the combined ages of the micas, hornblendes, and clinopyroxene, 402 ± 6 Ma. The plutons are undeformed and crosscut upright, open, Acadian folds in the Carys Mills, Smyrna Mills, and Madrid(?) Formations. The age of the Pleasant Lake, Hunt Ridge, and Cochrane Lake plutons therefore places a lower limit of 402 ± 6 Ma on the time of Acadian folding in northern Maine.

Hubacher, F. A.; Lux, D. R.

1987-01-01

348

Timing of Acadian deformation in northeastern Maine  

SciTech Connect

/sup 40/Ar//sup 39/Ar ages determined for 24 mineral separates from the Pleasant Lake, Hunt Ridge, and Cochrane Lake plutons bear on the timing of the main phase of the Acadian orogeny in northern Maine. Six hornblende samples and one clinopyroxene sample have only minor disturbances in their release spectra. The increments with concordant ages form overlapping plateaus at 403 +/- 4 Ma. Many of the biotite samples have discordant release spectra. The average of their total gas ages is 400 +/- 6 Ma. Calculated closure temperatures for the hornblendes and biotites are 550/sup 0/C and approximately 350/sup 0/C, respectively. The difference between closure temperatures and concordancy in ages demonstrates that the plutons cooled very rapidly upon emplacement. Therefore, the /sup 40/Ar//sup 39/Ar ages date both the time of argon retention in the minerals and the time of emplacement of the plutons. The best estimate for their time of emplacement is the average of the combined ages of the micas, hornblendes, and clinopyroxene, 402 +/- 6 Ma. The plutons are undeformed and crosscut upright, open, Acadian folds in the Carys Mills, Smyrna Mills, and Madrid(.) Formations. The age of the Pleasant Lake, Hunt Ridge, and Cochrane Lake plutons therefore places a lower limit of 402 +/- 6 Ma on the time of Acadian folding in northern Maine.

Hubacher, F.A.; Lux, D.R.

1987-01-01

349

A comparative study of seed yield parameters in Arabidopsis thaliana mutants and transgenics.  

PubMed

Because seed yield is the major factor determining the commercial success of grain crop cultivars, there is a large interest to obtain more understanding of the genetic factors underlying this trait. Despite many studies, mainly in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, have reported transgenes and mutants with effects on seed number and/or seed size, knowledge about seed yield parameters remains fragmented. This study investigated the effect of 46 genes, either in gain- and/or loss-of-function situations, with a total of 64 Arabidopsis lines being examined for seed phenotypes such as seed size, seed number per silique, number of inflorescences, number of branches on the main inflorescence and number of siliques. Sixteen of the 46 genes, examined in 14 Arabidopsis lines, were reported earlier to directly affect in seed size and/or seed number or to indirectly affect seed yield by their involvement in biomass production. Other genes involved in vegetative growth, flower or inflorescence development or cell division were hypothesized to potentially affect the final seed size and seed number. Analysis of this comprehensive data set shows that of the 14 lines previously described to be affected in seed size or seed number, only nine showed a comparable effect. Overall, this study provides the community with a useful resource for identifying genes with effects on seed yield and candidate genes underlying seed QTL. In addition, this study highlights the need for more thorough analysis of genes affecting seed yield. PMID:22332878

Van Daele, Inge; Gonzalez, Nathalie; Vercauteren, Ilse; de Smet, Lien; Inzé, Dirk; Roldán-Ruiz, Isabel; Vuylsteke, Marnik

2012-02-15

350

Non-linear equation: Energy conservation and impact parameter dependence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we address two questions: how energy conservation affects the solution to the non-linear equation, and how impact parameter dependence influences the inclusive production. Answering the first question we solve the modified BK equation which takes into account energy conservation. In spite of the fact that we used the simplified kernel, we believe that the main result of the paper: the small (?40%) suppression of the inclusive production due to energy conservation, reflects a general feature. This result leads us to believe that the small value of the nuclear modification factor is of a non-perturbative nature. In the solution a new scale appears Q=Qexp(-1/(2?)) and the production of dipoles with the size larger than 2/Q is suppressed. Therefore, we can expect that the typical temperature for hadron production is about Q (T?Q). The simplified equation allows us to obtain a solution to Balitsky-Kovchegov equation taking into account the impact parameter dependence. We show that the impact parameter (b) dependence can be absorbed into the non-perturbative b dependence of the saturation scale. The solution of the BK equation, as well as of the modified BK equation without b dependence, is only accurate up to ±25%.

Kormilitzin, Andrey; Levin, Eugene

2011-01-01

351

Influences of the guide bearing stiffness on the critical speed of rotation in the main shaft system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analysis is carried out on the natural vibration characteristics of the main shaft system of a hydro-turbine generating set. The critical speed of rotation in different orders are calculated based on simplified real parameters and the influences of different guide bearing stiffness on the critical speed are analyzed. The results show that the up guide bearing has little influence on the critical speed; however, the down and the water guide bearings strongly affect the critical speed and to a certain extent the "saturation" phenomenon happens; as all of these three bearings stiffness become larger at the same time, the critical speed also increases significantly. So it is necessary to consider the effect of the bearing stiffness when doing an estimation of the critical speed.

Bai, B.; Zhang, L. X.; Zhao, L.

2012-11-01

352

Controllability of vibrations of a net of coupled objects with distributed and lumped parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of damping vibration of a net consisting of m distributed parameter objects is solved. A lumped parameter controlled object affects the distributed parameter objects through boundary conditions.

Egorov, A. I.; Znamenskaya, L. N.

2009-05-01

353

Order Parameters in Liquid Crystals.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Available from UMI in association with The British Library. The extent to which an anisotropic dye dissolved in a liquid crystal host is ordered by the host and the effect of the dye upon the host, the Guest-Host interaction, is a matter of current interest. The Guest-Host interaction between two groups, one simple and one complex, of anthraquinone dyes with hydrogen- and non-hydrogen-bonding substituents dissolved in cyanobiphenyl or phenylcyclohexane/bicyclohexane hosts has been investigated by refractive index and absorption polarization techniques. A fluorescent dye in the same hosts has also been studied using these techniques and also using the method of fluorescence polarization. Results from refractive index measurements show that the inclusion of small amounts of dye in the liquid crystal host can significantly change the refractive indices and birefringence of the host material. It is found that some dyes in the cyanobiphenyl hosts changed the ordinary refractive index of the host such that the dyed host refractive index curves crossed the pure host curve and the mixtures which exhibited this crossing behaviour always have a higher order parameter than that of the pure host. This crossing behaviour is exhibited by both hydrogen-bonding and non -hydrogen-bonding dyes, but only occurs in the cyanobiphenyl hosts. Absorption polarization results reveal that dye order parameter is increased by increasing the length of the alkyl chain attached to the anthraquinone skeleton and also by the addition of thiophenyl groups to the anthraquinone molecule, whereas the methylation of amino groups attached to the anthraquinone skeleton significantly decreases the dye order parameter. Hydroxy groups attached to the dye molecule lower the dye order parameter in PCH/BCH hosts and also influence the shape of the order parameter curve. Results using a dye with two absorption maxima in the visible suggest that the molecular orientational distribution function of the dye is asymmetrical. It is noted that the dye order parameter is very sensitive to the chemical nature of the host. Order parameters determined from fluorescence polarization measurements are found to be lower than the corresponding values measured by absorption. The fourth rank order parameters measured by this method are found to be mainly negative and are thought to be due to neglecting the effect of rotational depolarization of the fluorescent dye molecules.

Davidson, Andre Noel

354

The main sequence of star clusters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel way of looking at the evolution of star clusters is presented here. With a dynamical temperature, given by the mean kinetic energy of the cluster stars, and a dynamical luminosity, which is defined as the kinetic energy of the stars leaving the cluster in analogy to the energy of photons emitted by a star, the dissolution of star clusters is studied using a new dynamical temperature-luminosity diagram for star clusters. The investigation contains a parameter-space study of open clusters of up to N = 32768 single-mass stars with different initial density distributions, half-mass radii, tidal conditions and binary fractions. The clusters show a strong correlation between dynamical temperature and dynamical luminosity and most of the investigated cluster families share a common sequence in such a dynamical temperature-luminosity diagram. Deviations from this sequence are analysed and discussed. After core collapse, the position of a cluster within this diagram can be defined by three parameters: the mass; the tidal conditions and the binary fraction. Due to core collapse all initial conditions are lost and the remaining stars adjust to the given tidal conditions. Binaries as internal energy sources influence this adjustment. A further finding concerns the Lagrange radii of star clusters: Throughout the investigated parameter space nearly all clusters show a constant half-mass radius for the time after core collapse until dissolution. Furthermore, the ratio of half-mass radius to tidal radius evolves on to a common sequence which only depends on the mass left in the cluster.

Küpper, Andreas H. W.; Kroupa, Pavel; Baumgardt, Holger

2008-09-01

355

Main Injector beam to the new muon and meson areas  

SciTech Connect

Measured beam parameters from the Main Injector are used to calculate the beam envelope from MI extraction to the Meson area. The primary beam is then transported to a straw-man experiment in the MP beamline. Secondary yields are also calculated for the MTest test beam. For this study, it was assumed that the A0 region was modified as per Switchyard in the Main Injector Era Technical Design Report, and that the cryogenic magnets in Switchyard had EPB type gaps. Under these assumptions, it is possible to transport 120 GeV/c protons from the Main Injector to the Meson and New Muon areas with minimal (on the order of 1%) scraping. Regarding the Meson area, this scraping occurs at the FSeps (which produce the three-way split to Meson). Regarding the New Muon area, the scraping occurs at the MuSeps, MuLams (both of which establish the Neutrino/Muon split), and the final focusing quadrupoles. Thus, multi-beam, high-intensity running to the Meson area is precluded, as is high intensity running to the New Muon area.

T. Kobilarcik

2000-04-18

356

Site testing parameters and their measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selecting a good site for ground-based astronomy is very important. This paper gives a summary of site testing parameters and their measurements. It mainly concentrates on the measurements of atmospheric seeing and integrated atmospheric water-vapour content since the quality of a site is mostly determined by these two parameters. The author also presents some care-must-be items in site-testing campaign.

Jinliang Hou

1994-01-01

357

Affective correlates of trichotillomania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Affective correlates of hair pulling were investigated in a sample of 44 participants diagnosed with trichotillomania (TM). Participants completed the Hair Pulling Survey on which they rated the intensity of ten different affective states across three different phases of hair pulling (before, during and after). Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to examine the change of emotional experience across

G. J Diefenbach; S Mouton-Odum; M. A Stanley

2002-01-01

358

Slip stacking experiments at Fermilab main injector  

SciTech Connect

In order to achieve an increase in proton intensity, Fermilab Main Injector will use a stacking process called ''slip stacking''. The intensity will be doubled by injecting one train of bunches at a slightly lower energy, another at a slightly higher energy, then bringing them together for the final capture. Beam studies have started for this process and we have already verified that, at least for a low beam intensity, the stacking procedure works as expected. For high intensity operation, development work of the feedback and feedforward systems is under way.

Kiyomi Koba et al.

2003-06-02

359

Phytoplankton in the Gulf of Maine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Phytoplankton, microscopic floating plant-like marine organisms (plankton means wanderer) are at the bottom of the marine food chain. They perform photosynthesis using water, carbon dioxide, and sunlight to produce glucose for their own use, as well as oxygen. Humans and all land animals and sea creatures are dependent on phytoplankton. The chlorophyll in phytoplankton can be observed by remote sensing instruments and is used by scientists as a measure of phytoplankton. In this lesson, students will use satellite data to explore and determine the correlation between sea surface temperature, sunlight, and the amount of chlorophyll (phytoplankton) in the Gulf of Maine at various times of year.

360

Spontaneous left main coronary artery dissection.  

PubMed

Spontaneous coronary artery dissection is a rare and generally fatal disease. A review of the literature demonstrates that the aetiopathogenesis of the disease is unknown and that the histology is rarely described. It usually occurs in young women during the post-partum period or while taking oral contraceptives. The treatment depends on the clinical presentation and the results of the angiography. We report here a case of spontaneous dissection of the left main stem coronary artery, with extension into the left coronary territory which which occurred in a 43-year-old woman. PMID:18614552

Cini, Roberto; Iezzi, Federica; Sordini, Paolo; Pasceri, Vincenzo

2008-07-09

361

Evaluation of main coolant pump shaft cracking  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a review of reactor main coolant pump shaft failures which have occurred in various types of plants and pump designs. The objective of the review was to identify common metallurgical, design and operational considerations which may have contributed to the failures, and which might provide insight into potential repairs and monitoring practices. The review considered Westinghouse PWR main coolant pumps, Byron-Jackson pumps for both BWR and PWR applications, KSB pumps in a US PWR, and Sulzer-Bingham pumps in a US BWR application. All of the above have experienced at least one shaft cracking event, and some have experienced multiple shaft cracking events or total shaft failures. Common factors involved in essentially all of the failures include thermal effects due to purge flow and/or seal cooling, and asymmetric (radial) impeller thrust loads. These have been aggravated in some instances by extended periods of off-design operation; holes, keyways and other stress concentration factors; and less-than-optimal manufacturing processes such as chrome plating and poor surface machining conditions. As a result of this review, several recommendations have been identified for potential industry programs to help resolve the shaft cracking problem and/or to qualify potential remedies. These include programs aimed at reducing the susceptibility of the shafts to the basic failure mechanisms identified as well as programs aimed at improving the industry's basic understanding of the primary loading conditions responsible for the failures.

Brose, W.R.; Chen, K.L.; Kuo, A.Y.; Riccardella, P.C. (Structural Integrity Associates, Inc., San Jose, CA (United States))

1992-02-01

362

Forensic entomology and main challenges in Brazil.  

PubMed

Apart from an early case report from China (13th century), the first observations on insects and other arthropods as forensic indicators were documented in Germany and France during mass exhumations in the 1880s by Reinhard, who is considered a co-founder of the discipline. After the French publication of Mégnin's popular book on the applied aspects of forensic entomology, the concept quickly spread to Canada and United States. At that time, researchers recognized that the lack of systematic observations of insects of forensic importance jeopardized their use as indicators of postmortem interval. General advances in insect taxonomy and ecology helped to fill this gap over the following decades. After World Wars, few forensic entomology cases were reported in the scientific literature. From 1960s to the 1980s, Leclercq and Nuorteva were primarily responsible for maintaining the method in Central Europe, reporting isolated cases. Since then, basic research in the USA, Russia and Canada opened the way to the routine use of Entomology in forensic investigations. Identifications of insects associated with human cadavers are relatively few in the literature of the Neotropical region and have received little attention in Brazil. This article brings an overview of historic developments in this field, the recent studies and the main problems and challenges in South America and mainly in Brazil. PMID:17352063

Gomes, Leonardo; Von Zuben, Cláudio J

363

[Ecosystem evolution: main stages and potential mechanisms].  

PubMed

Major differences between the Western and "Russian" (Zavarzin, 1995) paradigms in ecology and evolutionary biology are described. The "Russian" paradigm suggests that there exist two, rather than one, quite independent lineages--species evolution and ecosystem evolution. This is based on the idea that life may exist just as a nutrient cycle. The main terms and concepts of the "Russian" paradigm are defined more exactly. An attempt is made to develop this paradigm so that it would be possible to describe not only phenomenology, but also mechanisms of ecosystem evolution. To simplify evolutionary phenomena logically, it is suggested to use the concept of conditionally complete causal explanation (Lekevicius, 1984; 1985), i.e. deduce evolutionary mechanisms from major principles of functioning. This methodology is adapted to model the main stages of the evolution of nutrient cycles (3.8-2.0 bln. y.a.) and the appearance and evolution of biophagy (1.7-0 bln. y.a.). Based on a multitude of examples, it is shown that these are functional constraints that are the forces directing evolution; those constraints emerge during the interaction of organisms and while the latter interact with the abiotic environment. Since the structure of an ecosystem is non-rigid, each species is able to accumulate features useful to both an ecosystem and itself. Those are individuals that die and reproduce, whereas all structures, from macromolecules to ecosystems, evolve. PMID:14598527

Lekiavichius, E

364

[Metabolism and main effects of vitamin D].  

PubMed

Vitamin D is not a vitamin stricto sensu as its main source does not come from diet. Vitamin D should rather be considered as a prohormone. To become fully active, vitamin D must be hydroxylated into 25(OH)D in the liver and then into 1,25(OH)2D (also called calcitriol) in the kidney, but also in many other tissues. The main classical effects of vitamin D concern bone and calcium/phosphorus metabolism. Many non-classical effects of vitamin D are suggested by the quasi-ubiquitous presence of the vitamin D receptor and by myriads of studies showing an association between vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency and an increased incidence or a poor prognostic of many diseases. The 25(OH)D serum concentration is the biological index that defines vitamin D status. There is currently no absolute consensus on the definition of vitamin D deficiency. Many experts consider that a 25(OH)D level less than 50nmol/L corresponds to vitamin D deficiency whereas a concentration between 50 and 75nmol/L corresponds to vitamin D insufficiency. These definitions are mostly based on the musculoskeletal effects of vitamin D. PMID:24051166

Souberbielle, Jean-Claude; Maruani, Gérard; Courbebaisse, Marie

2013-09-17

365

Film Affective Content Recognition Based on Fuzzy Inference  

Microsoft Academic Search

Affective content plays an important role in film analysis and retrieval. However, the widely affective gap between the low-level features and the emotion recognition is still an unsolved problem. In order to recognize the affective type of a scene, a new algorithm is proposed based on fuzzy inference theory in this paper. It contains three main technologies. Firstly, two feature

Xinqi Lin; Xiangming Wen; Zhaoming Lu; Yong Sun

2008-01-01

366

FACTORS AFFECTING MITOGENIC RESPONSE OF TURKEY LYMPHOCYTES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Loa C. C., T. L. Lin, C. C. W u: Factors Affecting Mitogenic Response of Turkey Lymphocytes. Acta Vet. Brno 2001, 70: 433-442. The objective of the present study was to determine the parameters and conditions for measuring mitogenic response of turkey whole blood and spleen lymphocytes that may be useful in studying cellular immunity of turkeys. Heparinized whole blood

C. C. LOA; T. L. LIN; C. C. WU

2001-01-01

367

Parameter Estimation with Ignorance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Parameter estimation in nonlinear models is a common task, and one for which there is no general solution at present. In the case of linear models, the distribution of forecast errors provides a reliable guide to parameter estimation, but in nonlinear models the facts that (1) predictability may vary with location in state space, and that (2) the distribution of forecast errors is expected not to be Normal, suggests that parameter estimates based on least squares methods may be systematically biased. Parameter estimation for nonlinear systems based on variations in the accuracy of probability forecasts is considered. Empirical results for several chaotic systems (the Logistic Map, the Henon Map and the 12-D Lorenz96 flow) are presented at various noise levels and sampling rates. Selecting parameter values by minimizing Ignorance, a proper local skill score for continuous probability forecasts as a function of the parameter values is easier to implement in practice than alternative nonlinear methods based on the geometry of attractors, the ability of the model to shadow the observations or model synchronization. As expected, it is more effective when the forecast error distributions are non-Gaussian. The goal of parameter estimation is not defined uniquely when the model class is imperfect. In short, the desired parameter values can be expected to be a function of the application for which they are determined. Parameter estimation in this imperfect model scenario is also discussed. Initial experiments suggest that our approach is also useful for identifying "best" parameter in an imperfect model as long as the notion of "best" is well defined. The information deficit, defined as the difference between the Empirical Ignorance and Implied Ignorance can be used to identify remaining forecast system inadequacy, in both perfect and imperfect model scenario.

Du, H.; Smith, L. A.

2012-04-01

368

Developmental Potential of Prepubertal Mouse Oocytes Is Compromised Due Mainly to Their Impaired Synthesis of Glutathione  

PubMed Central

Although oocytes from prepubertal animals are found less competent than oocytes from adults, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Using the mouse oocyte model, this paper has tested the hypothesis that the developmental potential of prepubertal oocytes is compromised due mainly to their impaired potential for glutathione synthesis. Oocytes from prepubertal and adult mice, primed with or without eCG, were matured in vitro and assessed for glutathione synthesis potential, oxidative stress, Ca2+ reserves, fertilization and in vitro development potential. In unprimed mice, abilities for glutathione synthesis, activation, male pronuclear formation, blastocyst formation, cortical granule migration and polyspermic block were all compromised significantly in prepubertal compared to adult oocytes. Cysteamine and cystine supplementation to maturation medium significantly promoted oocyte glutathione synthesis and blastocyst development but difference due to maternal age remained. Whereas reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels increased, Ca2+ storage decreased significantly in prepubertal oocytes. Levels of both catalytic and modifier subunits of the ?-glutamylcysteine ligase were significantly lower in prepubertal than in adult oocytes. Maternal eCG priming improved all the parameters and eliminated the age difference. Together, the results have confirmed our hypothesis by showing that prepubertal oocytes have a decreased ability to synthesize glutathione leading to an impaired potential to reduce ROS and to form male pronuclei and blastocysts. The resulting oxidative stress decreases the intracellular Ca2+ store resulting in impaired activation at fertilization, and damages the microfilament network, which affects cortical granule redistribution leading to polyspermy.

Cui, Wei; Lian, Hua-Yu; Miao, Yi-Long; Wu, Xiu-Fen; Han, Dong; Tan, Jing-He

2013-01-01

369

[Affect and mimetic behavior].  

PubMed

The relationship between facial expression and experienced affect presents many problems. The two diametrically opposed positions proposing solutions to this problem are exemplified using the conceptions of Mandler u. Izard. The underlying premises of both conceptions still prevail in various forms. The authors reject the concepts according to which facial expression is merely correlated to the affects (see Mandler 1975) as well as the view that facial expression controls the affects (see Izard 1977). The relationship between affect and facial expression is reexamined, subjecting it to a semiotic, essentially semantic analysis similar to the Ogden and Richards' language and meaning approach. This analysis involves a critical discussion of Scherer's attempt of a purely communicational interpretation using Bühler's organon model. In the author's approach, facial expression is seen not simply as a system of signals, but as a system of representative signs which signify the affects and refer to the emotive meaning of things for the subject. The authors develop the thesis that human beings are not born simply with the ability to speak, but also with the abstract possibility of performing facial expressions. This ability develops by way of coordinating patterns of expressions, which are presumably phylogenetically determined, with affects that take on a socially determined individual form, similar to language acquisition during socialisation. The authors discuss the methodological implications arising for studies investigating the affective meaning of facial expressions. PMID:9632951

Zepf, S; Ullrich, B; Hartmann, S

1998-05-01

370

Effects of affective picture viewing on postural control in healthy male subjects.  

PubMed

Emotion theory holds that unpleasant events prime withdrawal actions, whereas pleasant events prime approach actions. Recent studies have suggested that passive viewing of emotion-eliciting images results in postural adjustments. The main objective of this research was to investigate the effects of emotional inputs on the postural control. Ten healthy young adults looked at a series of emotion-eliciting images while standing on a force plate. The images were taken from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS). The posture-stabilometric parameters were statistically analyzed (RM ANOVA on Ranks). The results showed that the emotional inputs might influence body balance. PMID:23971161

D'Attilio, Michele; Rodolfino, Daria; Abate, Michele; Festa, Felice; Merla, Arcangelo

2013-07-01

371

Main-Sequence Star Populations in the Virgo Overdensity Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present deep color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) for two Subaru Suprime-Cam fields in the Virgo Stellar Stream (VSS)/Virgo Overdensity (VOD) and compare them to a field centered on the highest concentration of Sagittarius (Sgr) Tidal Stream stars in the leading arm, Branch A of the bifurcation. A prominent population of main-sequence stars is detected in all three fields and can be traced as faint as g ? 24 mag. Using theoretical isochrone fitting, we derive an age of 9.1^{+1.0}_{-1.1} Gyr, a median abundance of [Fe/H] = -0.70^{+0.15}_{-0.20} dex, and a heliocentric distance of 30.9 ± 3.0 kpc for the main sequence of the Sgr Stream Branch A. The dominant main-sequence populations in the two VSS/VOD fields (?? ? 265°, B ? ? 13°) are located at a mean distance of 23.3 ± 1.6 kpc and have an age of ~8.2 Gyr, and an abundance of [Fe/H] = -0.67^{+0.16}_{-0.12} dex, similar to the Sgr Stream stars. These statistically robust parameters, derived from the photometry of 260 main-sequence stars, are also in good agreement with the age of the main population in the Sgr dwarf galaxy (8.0 ± 1.5 Gyr). They also agree with the peak in the metallicity distribution of 2-3 Gyr old M giants, [Fe/H] ?-0.6 dex, in the Sgr north leading arm. We then compare the results from the VSS/VOD fields with the Sgr Tidal Stream model by Law & Majewski based on a triaxial Galactic halo shape that is empirically calibrated with Sloan Digital Sky Survey Sgr A-branch and Two Micron All Sky Survey M-giant stars. We find that the most prominent feature in the CMDs, the main-sequence population at 23 kpc, is not explained by the model. Instead the model predicts in these directions a low-density filamentary structure of Sgr debris stars at ~9 kpc and a slightly higher concentration of Sgr stars spread over a heliocentric distance range of 42-53 kpc. At best there is only marginal evidence for the presence of these populations in our data. Our findings then suggest that while there are probably some Sgr debris stars present, the dominant stellar population in the VOD originates from a different halo structure that has an almost identical age and metallicity as some sections of the Sgr tidal stream. Based on data collected at Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.

Jerjen, H.; Da Costa, G. S.; Willman, B.; Tisserand, P.; Arimoto, N.; Okamoto, S.; Mateo, M.; Saviane, I.; Walsh, S.; Geha, M.; Jordán, A.; Olszewski, E.; Walker, M.; Zoccali, M.; Kroupa, P.

2013-05-01

372

Classification of Groundwater Quality Data using Hydrochemical Parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Almyros plain is located in the central eastern part of Greece, covering an area about of 110 km2, with a mean altitude of 30 m. The plain is formed of recent unconsolidated materials consisting of sands, pebbles, and fine clay to silty sand deposits. The main aquifer systems are developed in limestone (karst aquifer) and in coarse post alpine deposits. The area is characterized by intense agriculture, which consumes the major sector of water demands. The aquifer system shows signs of quality deterioration during the last decades. Degradation of groundwater quality is mainly caused by seawater intrusion and nitrate pollution. In order to classify the groundwater quality data, the following hydrochemical parameters are used: (1) The index of Revelle R=rCl-/(rHCO3-+rCO32-), where r=meq/L, (2) Ionic strength ?=0,5 , where ?i is the molar concentration of the i-th ion (mol/L) with charge Zi, (3) Base Exchange Index, BEX= (Na+ + K+ + Mg2+) -1,0716 Cl- (meq/L) and (4) Seawater Mixing Index (SMI) based on concentrations of Na+, Mg2+, Cl- and SO42-. For this reason, the results of chemical analyses from 63 samples, collected during the wet and dry periods of the years 2006 and 2007 were used. Based on the values of the aforementioned parameters maps showing their distribution were illustrated. Two main groundwater types may be identified: Ca-HCO3 (freshwater) and Na-Cl (water affected by seawater intrusion). Seawater intrusion phenomena are recorded in both, southern and northern part of the study area, due to overexploitation and low ability of refreshing. In the southern part the seawater intrusion phenomena are more intensive than the northern part, due to the hydraulic communication between alluvial and karstic aquifers. Finally, the results of the above methods are compared and their credibility is controlled.

Voudouris, K.; Myriounis, C.

2009-04-01

373

Parameter optimization in FCM clustering algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weighting exponent m is an important parameter in fuzzy c-means (FCM) clustering algorithm, which directly affects the performance of the algorithm and the validity of fuzzy cluster analysis. However, so far the optimal choice of m is still an open problem. A method of selecting the optimal m is proposed in this paper, which is based on the fuzzy decision

Gao Xinbo; Li Jie; Xie Weixin

2000-01-01

374

Component temperature versus laser-welding parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The component temperature near a laser weld which is critical because of possible damage to the explosive powder adjacent to the member being welded was examined. The thermal excursion experienced at the powder cavity wall was evaluated. The affect of changes in the laser welding parameters on the powder cavity wall temperature was determined. The objective lens to work distance,

W. H. Jones

1983-01-01

375

SYNCHRONIZATION EFFECTS ON PARAMETERS FOR DAYS OPEN  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The purpose of this research was to determine if synchronization affects parameters related to days open. If synchronization alters genetic or error variances, for example, adjustments could be made to the daughter pregnancy rate evaluations to account for these effects. Synchronization information ...

376

On Parameter Selection in Cold Spraying  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For cold spraying, a method for the construction of the window of deposition and the selection of optimum process parameters is presented. Initially, particle impact velocity and the critical particle velocity for bonding are worked out and expressed explicitly in terms of key process and material parameters. Subsequently, the influence of particle velocity on coating characteristics is examined in view of the results of experiments and simulations. It has been found that main coating characteristics can be described as a unique function of the ratio of particle velocity to critical velocity, here referred to as ?. Finally, coating properties are linked directly to primary process parameters via parameter selection maps, where contours of constant ? are plotted on a plane of gas temperature versus gas pressure. Inferences of the presented method and the resulting parameter selection maps are discussed for the example of copper as feedstock material.

Assadi, H.; Schmidt, T.; Richter, H.; Kliemann, J.-O.; Binder, K.; Gärtner, F.; Klassen, T.; Kreye, H.

2011-12-01

377

Siberian snakes for the Fermilab Main Injector  

SciTech Connect

Appropriate Siberian snakes were designed to maintain the proton beam polarization during acceleration in the Fermilab Main Injector from 8 to 150 GeV. Various snake designs were investigated to find one fitting into the 14 m straight section spaces with the required spin rotation axis and the minimum orbit excursion. The authors studied both cold and warm discrete magnet snakes as well as warm snakes with helical magnets. For the warm discrete magnet snake, obtaining small orbit excursions required a nearly longitudinal snake axis, while axes near {+-}45{degrees} are needed when using two snakes in a ring. The authors found acceptable snakes either by using superconducting magnets or by using warm magnets with a helical dipole field.

Anferov, V.A.; Baiod, R.; Courant, E.D. [and others

1993-04-01

378

Women's views of their main health problems.  

PubMed

Though there has been increased emphasis on women's health and on community participation in the development of health policy, 'ordinary women' have seldom been asked about their major health concerns. This paper reports on a survey of a stratified random sample of 356 women in Hamilton. Among their main worries regarding health were various cancers and heart disease. The health problems they had experienced in the previous six months which had bothered them most were stress, arthritis, being overweight, migraines/chronic headaches and tiredness. On the basis of these and similar data presented here, it is argued that such community surveys provide an important source of data. They identify somewhat different priorities than approaches which rely on the opinions of experts and other key informants. PMID:1473066

Walters, V

379

The Cms Magnet:. Main Technological Breakthroughs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CMS is a general purpose detector designed to run at the CERN Large Hadron Collider from April 2007. Its distinctive features include a 4 T superconducting solenoid with a 6 m diameter by 12.5 m long free bore, enclosed inside a 10,000 tons return yoke. The construction of the five modules composing the coil is presently under way in the Ansaldo workshop in Genoa (Italy). The methods for constructing large aluminum alloy mandrels, for winding the reinforced conductor and for impregnating the single large modules (up to 50 tons each) have been assessed through a long pre-industrialization activity. The paper describes the main technical issues related with the design and the construction of the coil modules, from the conductor to the winding pack.

Gaddi, A.; Campi, D.; Cure, B.; Fabbricatore, P.; Riboni, P.

2004-07-01

380

Remotely triggered earthquakes following moderate main shocks  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Since 1992, remotely triggered earthquakes have been identified following large (M > 7) earthquakes in California as well as in other regions. These events, which occur at much greater distances than classic aftershocks, occur predominantly in active geothermal or volcanic regions, leading to theories that the earthquakes are triggered when passing seismic waves cause disruptions in magmatic or other fluid systems. In this paper, I focus on observations of remotely triggered earthquakes following moderate main shocks in diverse tectonic settings. I summarize evidence that remotely triggered earthquakes occur commonly in mid-continent and collisional zones. This evidence is derived from analysis of both historic earthquake sequences and from instrumentally recorded M5-6 earthquakes in eastern Canada. The latter analysis suggests that, while remotely triggered earthquakes do not occur pervasively following moderate earthquakes in eastern North America, a low level of triggering often does occur at distances beyond conventional aftershock zones. The inferred triggered events occur at the distances at which SmS waves are known to significantly increase ground motions. A similar result was found for 28 recent M5.3-7.1 earthquakes in California. In California, seismicity is found to increase on average to a distance of at least 200 km following moderate main shocks. This supports the conclusion that, even at distances of ???100 km, dynamic stress changes control the occurrence of triggered events. There are two explanations that can account for the occurrence of remotely triggered earthquakes in intraplate settings: (1) they occur at local zones of weakness, or (2) they occur in zones of local stress concentration. ?? 2007 The Geological Society of America.

Hough, S. E.

2007-01-01

381

Nonlinearity parameters of polymers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three types of acoustic nonlinearity parameters for solids are discussed. The results of measurements of these parameters for three polymers - polymethyl methacrylate, Polystyrene, and polysulfone - are presented. A new technique was developed, using piezoelectric transducers directly bonded to the specimens, which allows the measurements of fundamental and second harmonics generated in the solids, and thereby the determination of nonlinearity parameter beta(sub 3), which is the ratio of a linear combination of second- and third-elastic coefficients to the second-order elastic coefficient. The second nonlinearity parameter, B/A can be determined from the temperature and pressure derivatives of the sound velocity. Its exact relationship for the case of solids was derived. The results from the two techniques are shown to be consistent. The pressure derivative of the sound velocity is also related to the Grueneisen parameter, which can be used to describe the anharmonicity of interactions in polymer molecules, especially of interchain vibrations. The interchain specific heat for these polymers is then calculated from the Grueneisen parameters; and the characterization of polymers by using these thermoacoustic parameters is discussed.

Wu, Meng-Chou

382

Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD)  

MedlinePLUS

... and winter, when there is less exposure to sunlight during the day. Depression symptoms can be mild ... by shorter daylight hours and a lack of sunlight in winter. Just as sunlight affects the seasonal ...

383

Factors affecting wear of ceramic balls  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of studies on the parameters influencing the rate of material removal from the surface of a silicon nitride ball are discussed. They indicate that the efficiency of grinding can be improved in a number of ways. These mainly include better management of the grinding fluid-abrasive particle system, as well as utilization of tribochemical effects.

C. Cirel; T. A. Stolarski

1994-01-01

384

Resistive Wall Instability in the NLC Main Damping Rings  

SciTech Connect

We study transverse coupled-bunch instabilities driven by the resistive-wall impedance in the NLC Main Damping Rings. We compare the growth rates of the different modes predicted by a simple theory using a simplified lattice model with the results of a detailed simulation that includes variation of the beta functions and the actual fill structure of the machine. We find that the results of the analytical calculations are in reasonable agreement with the simulations. We include a simple model of a bunch-by-bunch feedback system in the simulation to show that the instabilities can be damped by a feedback system having parameters that are realistic, and possibly conservative. The noise level on the feedback system pick-up must be low, to avoid driving random bunch-to-bunch jitter above the specified limit of 10 percent of the vertical beam size.

Wolski, Andrzej

2004-07-01

385

[Comparative study on chemical quality of main species of epimedium].  

PubMed

This study was to comprehensively evaluate the chemical quality of main species of epimedium planted in China. The contents of 5 marker compounds, epimedin A, epimedin B, epimedin C, icariin and baohuoside I, as well as total flavonoids of 22 samples of 8 officinal species of Epimedium were determined by HPLC and UV, separately. Some physical and chemical tests (H2O, total ash, acid-insoluble ash and EtOH extract) were also carried out to investigate their chemical qualities. There were significant differences in types and contents of prenyl-flavonoid glycosides such as epimedin A, epimedin B, epimedin C, icariin and baohuoside I in different species, meanwhile, the physical and chemical parameters results also showed that there were obvious differences in chemical quality among different species of epimedium herb. The results provide theoretical and experimental basis for the establishment of comprehensive quality assessment system of epimedium in China. PMID:22799034

Han, Sun; Xie, Yuan-Yuan; Wang, Yi-Ming; Liang, Qiong-Lin; Luo, Guo-An

2012-04-01

386

Magnetic field studies of massive main sequence stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the status of our spectropolarimetric observations of massive stars. During the last years, we have discovered magnetic fields in many objects of the upper main sequence, including Be stars, ? Cephei and Slowly Pulsating B stars, and a dozen O stars. Since the effects of those magnetic fields have been found to be substantial by recent models, we are looking into their impact on stellar rotation, pulsation, stellar winds, and chemical abundances. Accurate studies of the age, environment, and kinematic characteristics of the magnetic stars are also promising to give us new insight into the origin of the magnetic fields. Furthermore, longer time series of magnetic field measurements allow us to observe the temporal variability of the magnetic field and to deduce the stellar rotation period and the magnetic field geometry. Studies of the magnetic field in massive stars are indispensable to understand the conditions controlling the presence of those fields and their implications on the stellar physical parameters and evolution.

Schöller, M.; Hubrig, S.; Ilyin, I.; Kharchenko, N. V.; Briquet, M.; González, J. F.; Langer, N.; Oskinova, L. M.; MAGORI Collaboration

2011-12-01

387

Toward a Minimal Representation of Affective Gestures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a framework for analysis of affective behavior starting with a reduced amount of visual information related to human upper-body movements. The main goal is to individuate a minimal representation of emotional displays based on nonverbal gesture features. The GEMEP (Geneva multimodal emotion portrayals) corpus was used to validate this framework. Twelve emotions expressed by 10 actors form

Donald Glowinski; Nele Dael; Antonio Camurri; Gualtiero Volpe; Marcello Mortillaro; Klaus Scherer

2011-01-01

388

Reading Affective Companionship in the Prose Lancelot  

Microsoft Academic Search

In response to gay and queer criticism (Boswell, Burgwinkle, Mieszkowski, etc.), the article examines Lancelot and Galehout's affective compaignie and possible homoerotic desires in the Old French Lancelot (c. 1220) as a radical reinvention of romance conventions and types. Taking Le roman de Thèbes (c. 1150) as the main point of reference among several early romans, it argues that the

Reginald Hyatte

1999-01-01

389

Affective textile and costume museum website design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to identify and investigate the main factors involved in the affective design of textile and costume museum websites. The research was focused upon on the issues of visual assessment and the reasons why people visit and stay on a museum website. The study was carried out to develop an understanding of the factors that

Fang Suey Lin; Tom Cassidy

2008-01-01

390

A real time MPEG2 main profile, main level motion-estimator chipset  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motion estimation is a well-known bottleneck of real time image compression when using MPEG-like schemes. With digital TV formats - as in MPEG2 main profile, main level - it requires high computational power and I\\/O bandwidth. Classical approaches (systolic arrays implementing full search block matching algorithms) are not sufficient for such applications, where large search ranges are needed. Of course,

R. Pacalet; A. Lafage; N. Darbel; P. Tychon; A. Bellier; C. Dejean; C. Dutein; E. Feri; S. Haas; S. Laberl; B. Lievre; L. Simon; J. Talayssat

1997-01-01

391

Glacioisostasy and Lake-Level Change at Moosehead Lake, Maine  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Reconstructions of glacioisostatic rebound based on relative sea level in Maine and adjacent Canada do not agree well with existing geophysical models. In order to understand these discrepancies better, we investigated the lake-level history of 40-km-long Moosehead Lake in northwestern Maine. Glacioisostasy has affected the level of Moosehead Lake since deglaciation ca. 12,500 14C yr B.P. Lowstand features at the southeastern end and an abandoned outlet at the northwestern end of the lake indicate that the lake basin was tilted down to the northwest, toward the retreating ice sheet, by 0.7 m/km at 10,000 14C yr B.P. Water level then rose rapidly in the southeastern end of the lake, and the northwestern outlet was abandoned, indicating rapid relaxation of landscape tilt. Lowstand features at the northwestern end of the lake suggest that the lake basin was tilted to the southeast at ca. 8750 14C yr B.P., possibly as the result of a migrating isostatic forebulge. After 8000 14C yr B.P., water level at the southeastern end was again below present lake level and rose gradually thereafter. We found no evidence suggesting that postglacial climate change significantly affected lake level. The rebound history inferred from lake-level data is consistent with previous interpretations of nearby relative sealevel data, which indicate a significantly steeper and faster-moving ice-proximal depression and ice-distal forebulge than geophysical models predict. ?? 1998 University of Washington.

Balco, G.; Belknap, D. F.; Kelley, J. T.

1998-01-01

392

An induction motor parameter estimation method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The auxiliary systems of large thermal power plants are mainly driven by large induction motors. Their accurate modeling is essential for the analysis of black or emergency start procedures during power system restoration, where auxiliaries are started from relatively small diesel, hydro, or gas turbines, and where large voltage and frequency deviations occur. This paper proposes a new parameter estimation

D. Lindenmeyer; H. W. Dommel; A. Moshref; P. Kundur

2001-01-01

393

Identification Of Synchronous Reluctance Motor Parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The detection of the neutral point voltage of three-phase synchronous reluctance motors is useful for obtaining information on the operating conditions of the motor and also on the Fourier coeficients of the air gap permeance. It is known that these parameters are crucial for the accurate evaluation of the motor’s main quantities. Modelling the motor so as to take into

N. Locci; I. Marongiu

1992-01-01

394

Benchmarking System for QoS Parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the design and implementation of a benchmarking system for QoS (quality of service). The application generates traffic patterns, measures and computes the QoS parameters and stores and displays the results both in numerical and graphical form. The main advantages of this system are the traffic patterns complexity, the accuracy of the measurements and the user friendly interface.

A. Peculea; B. Iancu; V. Dadarlat; I. Ignat; E. Cebuc; Z. Baruch

2007-01-01

395

PREDICTION OF PSYCHROMETRIC PARAMETERS USING NEURAL NETWORKS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A neural network approach was used for the prediction of the psychrometric parameters in a non-iterative manner. Neural network models were developed for the each of the three main variables - dry bulb temperature, wet-bulb temperature and relative humidity - as a function of the other two variables. Models were also developed for the prediction of the dew point temperature

S. Sreekanth; H. S. Ramaswamy; S. Sablani

1998-01-01

396

Flood of April 2007 in Southern Maine  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Up to 8.5 inches of rain fell from April 15 through 18, 2007, in southern Maine. The rain - in combination with up to an inch of water from snowmelt - resulted in extensive flooding. York County, Maine, was declared a presidential disaster area following the event. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), determined peak streamflows and recurrence intervals at 24 locations and peak water-surface elevations at 63 sites following the April 2007 flood. Peak streamflows were determined with data from continuous-record streamflow-gaging stations where available and through hydraulic models where station data were not available. The flood resulted in peak streamflows with recurrence intervals greater than 100 years throughout most of York County, and recurrence intervals up to 50 years in Cumberland County. Peak flows for selected recurrence intervals varied from less than 10 percent to greater than 100 percent different than those in the current FEMA flood-insurance studies due to additional data or newer regression equations. Water-surface elevations observed during the April 2007 flood were bracketed by elevation profiles in FEMA flood-insurance studies with the same recurrence intervals as the recurrence intervals bracketing the observed peak streamflows at seven sites, with higher elevation-profile recurrence intervals than streamflow recurrence intervals at six sites, and with lower elevation-profile recurrence intervals than streamflow recurrence intervals at one site. The April 2007 flood resulted in higher peak flows and water-surface elevations than the flood of May 2006 in coastal locations in York County, and lower peak flows and water-surface elevations than the May 2006 flood further from the coast and in Cumberland County. The Mousam River watershed with over 13 dams and reservoirs was severely impacted by both events. Analyses indicate that the April 2007 peak streamflows in the Mousam River watershed occurred despite the fact that up to 287 million ft3 of runoff was stored by 13 dams and reservoirs.

Lombard, Pamela J.

2009-01-01

397

New schools design: Acoustics as main target  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of poor intelligibility and high background noise levels on the cognitive development of school children and on the dissatisfaction of teachers has been largely investigated. National standards have been implemented and attempts to harmonize these standards in international guidelines are ongoing. All these activities have led to the awareness that design of new schools must be centered on the achievement of a good acoustic environment. At this point a strong research effort to study and implement best solutions must be conducted, in collaboration, by architects, acousticians, pedagogues, psychologists, builders and acoustic materials producers. Recently an international competition for the planning of new primary schools in Rome, Italy has been announced. The aim of the competition is to study new architectural and running features of primary schools to obtain, among other parameters such as lighting, low cost energy solutions and air quality, the control of reverberation time, sound insulation and mechanical equipments noise. In these school buildings, as innovative requirement, children must be also able to elaborate interpretative hypothesis of physical phenomena such as sound emission and perception and be aware of their influence on these phenomena. Different possible solutions are presented.

Maffei, Luigi; Lembo, Paola

2005-04-01

398

Statistical correlation between flavanolic composition, colour and sensorial parameters in grape seed during ripening.  

PubMed

The aim of this work has been to determine the correlations between sensory analysis, colour and content of main flavanols present in seeds. For this, the flavanic composition of grape seeds with different degrees of maturity was analysed by HPLC-DAD-MS and the obtained results were correlated with CIELab colour parameters, perceived colour (C), hardness of the seed (HS), tannic intensity (TI) and astringency (A). Multiple linear regression analysis (MLR) with the variables showing significant correlations (p<0.05) was also performed. Grape seeds undergo important decreases in the content of catechins and procyanidin oligomers during ripening. Epicatechin-(4-8)-epicatechin-3-O-gallate (B2G) and (-)-epicatechin-3-O-gallate (ECG) are the flavanolic compounds whose contents decrease most. The changes in the phenolic composition accompany changes in TI, A and HS. The total content of flavanols in the seed is not the only factor affecting these attributes, since samples containing higher contents in flavanols can exhibit less astringency and tannic intensity than others with lower ones. The qualitative profile of the seeds is, therefore, also responsible for the sensations elicited in the mouth. A and HS parameters are more affected by the presence of galloylated dimeric procyanidins in the molecule than TI. CIELab colour parameters of seeds have high correlation coefficients with many flavanolic compounds. ECG was the compound most related to these parameters. PMID:20103139

Ferrer-Gallego, Raúl; García-Marino, Matilde; Hernández-Hierro, José Miguel; Rivas-Gonzalo, Julián C; Escribano-Bailón, M Teresa

2009-10-01

399

Reassessment of safeguards parameters  

SciTech Connect

The International Atomic Energy Agency is reassessing the timeliness and goal quantity parameters that are used in defining safeguards approaches. This study reviews technology developments since the parameters were established in the 1970s and concludes that there is no reason to relax goal quantity or conversion time for reactor-grade plutonium relative to weapons-grade plutonium. For low-enriched uranium, especially in countries with advanced enrichment capability there may be an incentive to shorten the detection time.

Hakkila, E.A.; Richter, J.L.; Mullen, M.F.

1994-07-01

400

MODELING PHYSICAL HABITAT PARAMETERS  

EPA Science Inventory

Salmonid populations can be affected by alterations in stream physical habitat. Fish productivity is determined by the stream's physical habitat structure ( channel form, substrate distribution, riparian vegetation), water quality, flow regime and inputs from the watershed (sedim...

401

Affective Intensity and its Effects.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new theory is proposed to account for the role of affect in understanding and evaluating performance under stress. There is no universal agreement on affect's conceptualization or role in performance. In Affective Skill Theory (AST), affect is conceptua...

J. Tichon

2010-01-01

402

Flood inundation map library, Fort Kent, Maine  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Severe flooding occurred in northern Maine from April 28 to May 1, 2008, and damage was extensive in the town of Fort Kent (Lombard, 2010). Aroostook County was declared a Federal disaster area on May 9, 2008. The extent of flooding on both the Fish and St. John Rivers during this event showed that the current Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Flood Insurance Study (FIS) and Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM) (Federal Emergency Management Agency, 1979) were out of date. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a study to develop a flood inundation map library showing the areas and depths for a range of flood stages from bankfull to the flood of record for Fort Kent to complement an updated FIS (Federal Emergency Management Agency, in press). Hydrologic analyses that support the maps include computer models with and without the levee and with various depths of backwater on the Fish River. This fact sheet describes the methods used to develop the maps and describes how the maps can be accessed.

Lombard, Pamela J.

2012-01-01

403

GAS MAIN SENSOR AND COMMUNICATIONS NETWORK SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

Automatika, Inc. was contracted by the Department of Energy (DOE) and with co-funding from the New York Gas Group (NYGAS), to develop an in-pipe natural gas prototype measurement and wireless communications system for assessing and monitoring distribution networks. A prototype system was built for low-pressure cast-iron mains and tested in a spider- and serial-network configuration in a live network in Long Island with the support of Keyspan Energy, Inc. The prototype unit combined sensors capable of monitoring pressure, flow, humidity, temperature and vibration, which were sampled and combined in data-packages in an in-pipe master-slave architecture to collect data from a distributed spider-arrangement, and in a master-repeater-slave configuration in serial or ladder-network arrangements. It was found that the system was capable of performing all data-sampling and collection as expected, yielding interesting results as to flow-dynamics and vibration-detection. Wireless in-pipe communications were shown to be feasible and valuable data was collected in order to determine how to improve on range and data-quality in the future.

Hagen Schempf, Ph.D.

2003-02-27

404

Emsian synorogenic paleogeography of the Maine Applachians  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Acadian deformation front in the northern Appalachians of Maine and New Hampshire can now be closely located during the early Emsian (Early Devonian; 408-406 Ma). Tight correlations between paleontologically and isotopically dated rocks are possible only because of a new 408-Ma time scale tie point for the early Emsian. The deformation front lay between a belt of Lower Devonian flysch and molasse that were deposited in an Acadian foreland basin and had not yet been folded and a belt of early Emsian plutons that intruded folded Lower Devonian rocks. This plutonic belt includes the newly dated Ore Mountain gabbro (U/Pb; 406 Ma), which hosts magmatic-sulfide mineralization. Along the deformation front, a 407-Ma pluton that locally truncates Acadian folds (Katahdin) was the feeder to volcanic rocks (Traveler Rhyolite; 406-407 Ma) that are part of the foreland-basin succession involved in these same folds. The Emsian igneous rocks thus define a syncollisional magmatic province that straddled the deformation front. These findings bear on three alternative subduction geometries for the Acadian collision.

Bradley, D.; Tucker, R.

2002-01-01

405

The two main theories on dental bruxism.  

PubMed

Bruxism is characterized by non-functional contact of mandibular and maxillary teeth resulting in clenching or grating of teeth. Theories on factors causing bruxism are a matter of controversy in current literature. The dental profession has predominantly viewed peripheral local morphological disorders, such as malocclusion, as the cause of clenching and gnashing. This etiological model is based on the theory that occlusal maladjustment results in reduced masticatory muscle tone. In the absence of occlusal equilibration, motor neuron activity of masticatory muscles is triggered by periodontal receptors. The second theory assumes that central disturbances in the area of the basal ganglia are the main cause of bruxism. An imbalance in the circuit processing of the basal ganglia is supposed to be responsible for muscle hyperactivity during nocturnal dyskinesia such as bruxism. Some authors assume that bruxism constitutes sleep-related parafunctional activity (parasomnia). A recent model, which may explain the potential imbalance of the basal ganglia, is neuroplasticity. Neural plasticity is based on the ability of synapses to change the way they work. Activation of neural plasticity can change the relationship between inhibitory and excitatory neurons. It seems obvious that bruxism is not a symptom specific to just one disease. Many forms (and causes) of bruxism may exist simultaneously, as, for example, peripheral or central forms. PMID:22035706

Behr, Michael; Hahnel, Sebastian; Faltermeier, Andreas; Bürgers, Ralf; Kolbeck, Carola; Handel, Gerhard; Proff, Peter

2011-10-05

406

The shortest period detached white dwarf + main-sequence binary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present high-speed ULTRACAM and SOFI photometry and X-shooter spectroscopy of the recently discovered 94-min orbital period eclipsing white dwarf/main-sequence binary SDSS J085746.18+034255.3 (CSS 03170) and use these observations to measure the system parameters. We detect a shallow secondary eclipse and hence are able to determine an orbital inclination of i = 85?5 ± 0?2. The white dwarf has a mass of 0.51 ± 0.05 M? and a radius of 0.0247 ± 0.0008 R?. With a temperature of 35 300 ± 400 K the white dwarf is highly overinflated if it has a carbon-oxygen core; however, if it has a helium core then its mass and radius are consistent with evolutionary models. Therefore, the white dwarf in SDSS J085746.18+034255.3 is most likely a helium core white dwarf with a mass close to the upper limit expected from evolution. The main-sequence star is an M8 dwarf with a mass of 0.09 ± 0.01 M? and a radius of 0.110 ± 0.004 R? placing it close to the hydrogen burning limit. The system emerged from a common envelope ˜20 million years ago and will reach a semidetached configuration in ˜400 million years, becoming a cataclysmic variable with a period of 66 min, below the period minimum.

Parsons, S. G.; Marsh, T. R.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Dhillon, V. S.; Copperwheat, C. M.; Littlefair, S. P.; Pyrzas, S.; Drake, A. J.; Koester, D.; Schreiber, M. R.; Rebassa-Mansergas, A.

2012-01-01

407

THE MANIPULATION OF AFFECTIVE CONTENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the impact of the affective content of imagery scripts used in an imagery paradigm designed to elicit smoking urges in a laboratoty setting. Sixty cigarette smokers were instructed to vividly imagine 10 imagery scripts that described negative affect and explicit smoking urges, positive affect and explicit smoking urges, negative affect alone, positive affect alone, and neutral affect

STEPHEN T. TIFFANY; DAVID J. DROBES

408

Geology of the Cupsuptic quadrangle, Maine  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Cupsuptic quadrangle, in west-central Maine, lies in a relatively narrow belt of pre-Silurian rocks extending from the Connecticut River valley across northern New Hampshire to north-central Maine. The Albee Formation, composed of green, purple, and black phyllite with interbedded-quartzite, is exposed in the core of a regional anticlinorium overlain to the southeast by greenstone of the Oquossoc Formation which in turn is overlain by black slate of the Kamankeag Formation. In the northern part of the quadrangle the Albee Formation is overlain by black slate, feldspathic graywacke, and minor greenstone of the Dixville Formation. The Kamankeag Formation is dated as 1-ate Middle Ordovician by graptolites (zone 12) found near the base of the unit. The Dixville Formation is correlated with the Kamankeag Formation and Oquossoc Formation and is considered to be Middle Ordovician. The Albee Formation is considered to be Middle to Lower Ordovician from correlations with similar rocks in northeastern and southwestern Vermont. The Oquossoc and Kamankeag Formations are correlated with the Amonoosuc and Partridge Formations of northern New Hampshire. The pre-Silurian rocks are unconformably overlain by unnamed rocks of Silurian age in the southeast, west-central, and northwest ninths of the quadrangle. The basal Silurian units are boulder to cobble polymict conglomerate and quartz-pebble conglomerate of late Lower Silurian (Upper Llandovery) age. The overlying rocks are either well-bedded slate and quartzite, silty limestone, or arenaceous limestone. Thearenaceous limestone contains Upper Silurian (Lower Ludlow) brachiopods. The stratified rocks have been intruded by three stocks of biotite-muscovite quartz monzonite, a large body of metadiorite and associated serpentinite, smaller bodies of gabbro, granodiorite, and intrusive felsite, as well as numerous diabase and quartz monzonite dikes. The metadiorite and serpentinite, and possibly the gabbro and granodiorite are Late Ordovician in age. The quartz monzonite is considered to be Late Devonian. Five tectonic events are inferred from the structural features in the area. The earliest was a period of folding producing tightly-appressed, northeast-trending folds in the rocks of pre-Silurian age. In the second stage the folded pre-Silurian rocks were uplifted, eroded, and truncated to produce a major unconformity between the Middle Ordovician and Lower Silurian rocks. These events constitute the Taconic orogeny. The third tectonic event was a period of folding, probably of Middle Devonian age, that warped the unconformity and overlying rocks into open, gently-plunging, east-trending folds. This period of folding undoubtedly changed the attitude of the early folds in the pre-Silurian units but it did not produce any recognizable, cross-cutting planar features in the older rocks. The fourth tectonic event was a period of igneous intrusion that locally deformed the northeast-trending folds in the pre-Silurian rocks into a macroscopic drag fold plunging at 80 degrees in a direction S.10?w. A north-trending, subvertical slip cleavage was produced locally during this period of Late Devonian (?) deformation. A period of faulting, possibly of Triassic age, dislocated some of the earlier features. The rocks are in the chlorite zone of regional metamorphism, but have been contact metamorphosed to sillimanite-bearing hornfels adjacent to the quartz monzonite stocks. The chemical changes in chlorite, biotite, garnet, cordierite, and muscovite in the chlorite, biotite, andalusite, and sillimanite zones have been-studied by optical and x-ray methods and by partial chemical analyses. The progressive changes in mineral assemblages have been graphically portrayed on quaternary diagrams and ternary projections.

Harwood, David S.

1966-01-01

409

Habitable zones around main sequence stars.  

PubMed

A one-dimensional climate model is used to estimate the width of the habitable zone (HZ) around our Sun and around other main sequence stars. Our basic premise is that we are dealing with Earth-like planets with CO2/H2O/N2 atmospheres and that habitability requires the presence of liquid water on the planet's surface. The inner edge of the HZ is determined in our model by loss of water via photolysis and hydrogen escape. The outer edge of the HZ is determined by the formation of CO2 clouds, which cool a planet's surface by increasing its albedo and by lowering the convective lapse rate. Conservative estimates for these distances in our own Solar System are 0.95 and 1.37 AU, respectively; the actual width of the present HZ could be much greater. Between these two limits, climate stability is ensured by a feedback mechanism in which atmospheric CO2 concentrations vary inversely with planetary surface temperature. The width of the HZ is slightly greater for planets that are larger than Earth and for planets which have higher N2 partial pressures. The HZ evolves outward in time because the Sun increases in luminosity as it ages. A conservative estimate for the width of the 4.6-Gyr continuously habitable zone (CHZ) is 0.95 to 1.15 AU. Stars later than F0 have main sequence lifetimes exceeding 2 Gyr and, so, are also potential candidates for harboring habitable planets. The HZ around an F star is larger and occurs farther out than for our Sun; the HZ around K and M stars is smaller and occurs farther in. Nevertheless, the widths of all of these HZs are approximately the same if distance is expressed on a logarithmic scale. A log distance scale is probably the appropriate scale for this problem because the planets in our own Solar System are spaced logarithmically and because the distance at which another star would be expected to form planets should be related to the star's mass. The width of the CHZ around other stars depends on the time that a planet is required to remain habitable and on whether a planet that is initially frozen can be thawed by modest increases in stellar luminosity. For a specified period of habitability, CHZs around K and M stars are wider (in log distance) than for our Sun because these stars evolve more slowly. Planets orbiting late K stars and M stars may not be habitable, however, b ecause they can become trapped in synchronous rotation as a consequence of tidal damping. F stars have narrower (log distance) CHZ's than our Sun because they evolve more rapidly. Our results suggest that mid-to-early K stars should be considered along with G stars as optimal candidates in the search for extraterrestrial life. PMID:11536936

Kasting, J F; Whitmire, D P; Reynolds, R T

1993-01-01

410

GAS MAIN SENSOR AND COMMUNICATIONS NETWORK SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

Automatika, Inc. was contracted by the Department of Energy (DOE) and with co-funding from the New York Gas Group (NYGAS), to develop an in-pipe natural gas prototype measurement and wireless communications system for assessing and monitoring distribution networks. In Phase II of this three-phase program, an improved prototype system was built for low-pressure cast-iron and high-pressure steel (including a no-blow installation system) mains and tested in a serial-network configuration in a live network in Long Island with the support of Keyspan Energy, Inc. The experiment was carried out in several open-hole excavations over a multi-day period. The prototype units (3 total) combined sensors capable of monitoring pressure, flow, humidity, temperature and vibration, which were sampled and combined in data-packages in an in-pipe master-repeater-slave configuration in serial or ladder-network arrangements. It was verified that the system was capable of performing all data-sampling, data-storage and collection as expected, yielding interesting results as to flow-dynamics and vibration-detection. Wireless in-pipe communications were shown to be feasible and the system was demonstrated to run off in-ground battery- and above-ground solar power. The remote datalogger access and storage-card features were demonstrated and used to log and post-process system data. Real-time data-display on an updated Phase-I GUI was used for in-field demonstration and troubleshooting.

Hagen Schempf

2004-09-30

411

Gas Main Sensor and Communications Network System  

SciTech Connect

Automatika, Inc. was contracted by the Department of Energy (DOE) and with co-funding from the Northeast Gas Association (NGA), to develop an in-pipe natural gas prototype measurement and wireless communications system for assessing and monitoring distribution networks. This projected was completed in April 2006, and culminated in the installation of more than 2 dozen GasNet nodes in both low- and high-pressure cast-iron and steel mains owned by multiple utilities in the northeastern US. Utilities are currently logging data (off-line) and monitoring data in real time from single and multiple networked sensors over cellular networks and collecting data using wireless bluetooth PDA systems. The system was designed to be modular, using in-pipe sensor-wands capable of measuring, flow, pressure, temperature, water-content and vibration. Internal antennae allowed for the use of the pipe-internals as a waveguide for setting up a sensor network to collect data from multiple nodes simultaneously. Sensor nodes were designed to be installed with low- and no-blow techniques and tools. Using a multi-drop bus technique with a custom protocol, all electronics were designed to be buriable and allow for on-board data-collection (SD-card), wireless relaying and cellular network forwarding. Installation options afforded by the design included direct-burial and external polemounted variants. Power was provided by one or more batteries, direct AC-power (Class I Div.2) and solar-array. The utilities are currently in a data-collection phase and intend to use the collected (and processed) data to make capital improvement decisions, compare it to Stoner model predictions and evaluate the use of such a system for future expansion, technology-improvement and commercialization starting later in 2006.

Hagen Schempf

2006-05-31

412

Stenting of a left main coronary artery compressed by a dilated main pulmonary artery.  

PubMed

Left main coronary artery (LMCA) disease caused by external compression by a dilated main pulmonary artery (MPA) is an uncommon clinical entity but is one of the reversible causes of chest pain in patients with pulmonary hypertension. Traditionally, treatment of LMCA disease involves coronary artery bypass graft surgery. However, for LMCA compression by a dilated MPA, coronary angioplasty with stenting has recently been reported to have good outcomes and might be more suitable in some patients with high risk associated with surgery. Herein, we describe a 54-year-old man with pulmonary arterial hypertension and external compression of the LMCA by the dilated main pulmonary artery that was treated with angiographic and intravascular ultrasound-guided coronary angioplasty and stenting. Also we briefly review current literatures about LMCA compression by a dilated MPA. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23804497

Chaikriangkrai, Kongkiat; Polsani, Venkateshwar; Wei, Liu; Kleiman, Neal; Chang, Su Min

2013-08-12

413

Parameter estimation through ignorance.  

PubMed

Dynamical modeling lies at the heart of our understanding of physical systems. Its role in science is deeper than mere operational forecasting, in that it allows us to evaluate the adequacy of the mathematical structure of our models. Despite the importance of model parameters, there is no general method of parameter estimation outside linear systems. A relatively simple method of parameter estimation for nonlinear systems is introduced, based on variations in the accuracy of probability forecasts. It is illustrated on the logistic map, the Henon map, and the 12-dimensional Lorenz96 flow, and its ability to outperform linear least squares in these systems is explored at various noise levels and sampling rates. As expected, it is more effective when the forecast error distributions are non-Gaussian. The method selects parameter values by minimizing a proper, local skill score for continuous probability forecasts as a function of the parameter values. This approach is easier to implement in practice than alternative nonlinear methods based on the geometry of attractors or the ability of the model to shadow the observations. Direct measures of inadequacy in the model, the "implied ignorance," and the information deficit are introduced. PMID:23005513

Du, Hailiang; Smith, Leonard A

2012-07-16

414

Parameter estimation through ignorance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamical modeling lies at the heart of our understanding of physical systems. Its role in science is deeper than mere operational forecasting, in that it allows us to evaluate the adequacy of the mathematical structure of our models. Despite the importance of model parameters, there is no general method of parameter estimation outside linear systems. A relatively simple method of parameter estimation for nonlinear systems is introduced, based on variations in the accuracy of probability forecasts. It is illustrated on the logistic map, the Henon map, and the 12-dimensional Lorenz96 flow, and its ability to outperform linear least squares in these systems is explored at various noise levels and sampling rates. As expected, it is more effective when the forecast error distributions are non-Gaussian. The method selects parameter values by minimizing a proper, local skill score for continuous probability forecasts as a function of the parameter values. This approach is easier to implement in practice than alternative nonlinear methods based on the geometry of attractors or the ability of the model to shadow the observations. Direct measures of inadequacy in the model, the “implied ignorance,” and the information deficit are introduced.

Du, Hailiang; Smith, Leonard A.

2012-07-01

415

Activity Cycles in Lower Main Sequence and POST Main Sequence Stars: The HK Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1966, Olin Wilson began making monthly measurements at Mount Wilson Observatory of the relative fluxes in the Ca II H (396.8 nm) and K (393.3 nm) emission cores of approximately 100 stars on or near the lower main sequence. In the late 1970's the Ca II fluxes of nearly 1,000 lower main-sequence stars were sampled, and by 1980 the program had expanded to include near-nightly observations of the stars in Wilson's sample. In 1984 the project was again extended to include the measurement of post-main sequence stars. Today, the project monitors the Ca II fluxes of 400 dwarf and giant stars, with great emphasis on stars close in mass and age to the Sun. The relative Ca II fluxes are thought to closely correspond to the strength and coverage of surface magnetism on such stars. Three general classes of long-term variations of surface magnetism have been seen in lower main sequence and post main sequence stars: 1. substantial fluctuations on time scales of a few years, with little observed repitition of periodicity; 2. nearly-periodic variations with time scales of a decade or more, with some variability in the amplitude, length and shape of each successive cycle; 3. either low-amplitude modulation on time scales of several decades or more, or essentially no long-term variability. In the lower main-sequence stars both the class of long-term variability and the time-averaged level of Ca II fluxes are influenced primarily by a star's angular momentum. In a related matter, most of the detected extra-solar planets (with orbital periods ranging from 3 to 1200 days) orbit sun-like stars with long-term Ca II flux records that are virtually flat (Class 3, above). The lack of variability is an observational bias that enhances detection of extra-solar planets orbiting sun-like stars.

Baliunas, Sallie L.; Donahue, Robert A.; Soon, Willie; Henry, Gregory W.

416

Ecological analysis of the association between high-risk population parameters and HIV prevalence among pregnant women enrolled in sentinel surveillance in four southern India states  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe HIV epidemic is very heterogeneous at the district level in the four Southern states of India most affected by the epidemic and where transmission is mainly heterosexual. The authors carried out an ecological study of the relationship between high-risk population parameters and HIV prevalence among pregnant women (ANC HIV prevalence).MethodsThe data used in this study included: ANC HIV prevalence

Michel Alary; A A Jayachandran; Catherine M Lowndes; Jan Bradley; Eric Demers; Rajatashuvra Adhikary; Mandar K Mainkar

2010-01-01

417

Unloading Performance Analysis of Main Generator in Aeronautic AC Power Supply Based on Ansoft  

Microsoft Academic Search

Equivalent magnet circuit method is adopted in investigating main generator in three-level synchronous generator system of aeronautic AC power supply. With RMxprt software of Ansoft corporation, it establishes geometrical model and computes primary electrical parameters. Furthermore, with Maxwell 2D software, it attains two-dimensional transient model and simulates magnetic spacial distributing, electromagnetic and circuit parameters under unloading. With contrast to actual

Gong Feng; Ma Zhen; Li Jianlei; Zhang Xianjiang

2008-01-01

418

Apparent Brecciation Gradient, Mount Desert Island, Maine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mount Desert Island, Maine, comprises a shallow level, Siluro-Devonian igneous complex surrounded by a distinctive breccia zone ("shatter zone" of Gilman and Chapman, 1988). The zone is very well exposed on the southern and eastern shores of the island and provides a unique opportunity to examine subvolcanic processes. The breccia of the Shatter Zone shows wide variation in percent matrix and clast, and may represent a spatial and temporal gradient in breccia formation due to a single eruptive or other catastrophic volcanic event. The shatter zone was divided into five developmental stages based on the extent of brecciation: Bar Harbor Formation, Sols Cliffs breccia, Seeley Road breccia, Dubois breccia, and Great Head breccia. A digital camera was employed to capture scale images of representative outcrops using a 0.5 m square Plexiglas frame. Individual images were joined in Adobe Photoshop to create a composite image of each outcrop. The composite photo was then exported to Adobe Illustrator, which was used to outline the clasts and produce a digital map of the outcrop for analysis. The fractal dimension (Fd) of each clast was calculated using NIH Image and a Euclidean distance mapping method described by Bérubé and Jébrak (1999) to quantify the morphology of the fragments, or the complexity of the outline. The more complex the fragment outline, the higher the fractal dimension, indicating that the fragment is less "mature" or has had less exposure to erosional processes, such as the injection of an igneous matrix. Sols Cliffs breccia has an average Fd of 1.125, whereas Great Head breccia has an average Fd of 1.040, with the stages between having intermediate values. The more complex clasts of the Sols Cliffs breccia with a small amount (26.38%) of matrix material suggests that it is the first stage in a sequence of brecciation ending at the more mature, matrix-supported (71.37%) breccia of Great Head. The results of this study will be used to guide isotopic and geochemical analysis of the matrix igneous material in the attempt to better understand the dynamic processes that occur in subvolcanic environments and the mechanisms involved in breccia formation.

Hawkins, A. T.; Johnson, S. E.

2004-05-01

419

Age Differences in Perceived Positive Affect, Negative Affect, and Affect Balance in Middle and Old Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Meta-analysis was used to synthesize findings from 125 studies on age differences in positive affect, negative affect, and affect balance. We found a small age-associated decline of positive affect and affect balance, and a small age-associated increase of negative affect. In addition, a quadratic age trend emerged, showing stronger declines of positive affect and stronger increases of negative affect in

Martin Pinquart

2001-01-01

420

Variations on tremor parameters.  

PubMed

This paper describes our analysis procedure for long-term tremor EMG recordings, as well as three examples of applications. The description of the method focuses on how characteristics of the tremor (e.g. frequency, intensity, agonist-antagonist interaction) can be defined and calculated based on surface EMG data. The resulting quantitative characteristics are called "tremor parameters." We discuss sinusoidally modulated, band-limited white noise as a model for pathological tremor-EMG, and show how the basic parameters can be extracted from this class of signals. The method is then applied to (1) estimate tremor severity in clinical studies, (2) quantify agonist-antagonist interaction, and (3) investigate the variations of the tremor parameters using simple methods from time-series analysis. (c) 1995 American Institute of Physics. PMID:12780155

Boose, A.; Jentgens, Ch.; Spieker, S.; Dichgans, J.

1995-03-01

421

Psychophysiological Signals Associated with Affective States  

PubMed Central

We present a preliminary quantitative study aimed at developing an optimal standard protocol for automatic classification of specific affective states as related to human- computer interactions. This goal is mainly achieved by comparing standard psychological test-reports to quantitative measures derived from simultaneous non-invasive acquisition of psychophysiological signals of interest, namely respiration, galvanic skin response, blood volume pulse, electrocardiogram and electroencephalogram. Forty-three healthy students were exposed to computer-mediated stimuli, while wearable non-invasive sensors were applied in order to collect the physiological data. The stimuli were designed to elicit three distinct affective states: relaxation, engagement and stress. In this work we report how our quantitative analysis has helped in redefining important aspects of the protocol, and we show preliminary findings related to the specific psychophysiological patterns correlating with the three target affective states. Results further suggest that some of the quantitative measures might be useful in characterizing specific affective states.

Mauri, M; Magagnin, V; Cipresso, P; Mainardi, L; Brown, EN; Cerutti, S; Villamira, M; Barbieri, R

2010-01-01

422

Magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling at Jupiter: A parameter space study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Jupiter's main auroral emission is a signature of the current system that transfers angular momentum from the planet to radially outward moving Iogenic plasma. Ray et al. (2010) developed a steady state model of this current system which self-consistently included the effects of a field-aligned potential, ??, and an ionospheric conductance modified by precipitating electrons. The presented parameter space study extends their model to explore how variations in the auroral cavity density and temperature, magnetospheric mass loading rate, and background ionospheric Pedersen conductance affect the current system and resulting auroral emission. We show that while the solutions found by Ray et al. (2010) vary with changes in the system parameters, the gross general trends remain similar to the original solutions. We find that, for an outer constraint of I100 = 86 MA, the high-latitude electron temperature and density have a lower limit of ˜1.5 keV and an upper limit of ˜0.01 cm-3, respectively, in order for solutions to be consistent with observations of Jupiter's auroral emission. For increases in the radial mass transport rate and an outer constraint of ??Max = 75 kV the auroral emission brightness increases.

Ray, L. C.; Ergun, R. E.; Delamere, P. A.; Bagenal, F.

2012-01-01

423

Food Affects Human Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A conference on whether food and nutrients affect human behavior was held on November 9, 1982 at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Various research studies on this topic are reviewed, including the effects of food on brain biochemistry (particularly sleep) and effects of tryptophane as a pain reducer. (JN)|

Kolata, Gina

1982-01-01

424

Food Affects Human Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A conference on whether food and nutrients affect human behavior was held on November 9, 1982 at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Various research studies on this topic are reviewed, including the effects of food on brain biochemistry (particularly sleep) and effects of tryptophane as a pain reducer. (JN)

Kolata, Gina

1982-01-01

425

When Affect Informs Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses instructional strategies that address five affective needs of middle school students: freedom of choice, appropriate peer interactions, instructional diversity, personal expression, and broadened perspectives. Suggests that when incorporated into existing curriculum and laced with relevant application, these strategies can lead to a…

Wood, Karen D.; Jones, Jeanneine P.

1997-01-01

426

How Fire Affects Wildlife  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is part of Planet Diary and is an online exploration on how wildfires affect animals and plants. Students each investigate one animal and one plant to see how well certain organisms have adapted to fire, and then compare survival strategies. This page is accompanied by a page of website links for further information.

427

Affect and altruism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigated the relationship between affect and altruism in 7- and 8-yr-old middle-class white children (N = 48 males and 24 females). Ss were asked to think of things that made them happy or sad, or they were assigned to control conditions. Ss were then given an opportunity to donate money to other children in the E's absence. In accord with

Bert S. Moore; Bill Underwood; D. L. Rosenhan

1973-01-01

428

Cholesterol and affective morbidity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Depression and mania have been linked with low cholesterol though there has been limited prospective study of cholesterol and subsequent course of affective illness. We studied the relationship between fasting total cholesterol and subsequent depressive and manic symptoms. A total of 131 participants from a prospective cohort study were identified as having had a fasting total cholesterol evaluation at intake.

Jess G. Fiedorowicz; Narasimha M. Palagummi; Ole Behrendtsen; William H. Coryell

2010-01-01

429

Intervention of stenosed right coronary artery and anomalous left main coronary artery: single main coronary trunk.  

PubMed

We present the case of an 86-year-old female with stenosis of the anomalous left main trunk originating from a stenosed ostial right coronary artery. She underwent successful percutaneous coronary intervention using simultaneous sirolimus-eluting kissing stents (SKS) for anomalous bifurcating lesions. PMID:18316835

Stevens, Gerin R; Kini, Annapoorna S; Sharma, Samin K

2008-03-01

430

DEB parameters estimation for Mytilus edulis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potential of DEB theory to simulate an organism life-cycle has been demonstrated at numerous occasions. However, its applicability requires parameter estimates that are not easily obtained by direct observations. During the last years various attempts were made to estimate the main DEB parameters for bivalve species. The estimation procedure was by then, however, rather ad-hoc and based on additional assumptions that were not always consistent with the DEB theory principles. A new approach has now been developed - the covariation method - based on simultaneous minimization of the weighted sum of squared deviations between data sets and model predictions in one single procedure. This paper presents the implementation of this method to estimate the DEB parameters for the blue mussel Mytilus edulis, using several data sets from the literature. After comparison with previous trials we conclude that the parameter set obtained by the covariation method leads to a better fit between model and observations, with potentially more consistency and robustness.

Saraiva, S.; der Meer, J. Van; Kooijman, S. A. L. M.; Sousa, T.

2011-11-01

431

A sensitivity study of radiative fluxes at the top of atmosphere to cloud-microphysics and aerosol parameters in the Community Atmosphere Model CAM5  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we investigated the sensitivity of net radiative fluxes (FNET) at the top of atmosphere (TOA) to 16 selected uncertain parameters mainly related to the cloud microphysics and aerosol schemes in the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5). We adopted a quasi-Monte Carlo (QMC) sampling approach to effectively explore the high dimensional parameter space. The output response variables (e.g., FNET) were simulated using CAM5 for each parameter set, and then evaluated using the generalized linear model analysis. In response to the perturbations of these 16 parameters, the CAM5-simulated global annual mean FNET ranges from -9.8 to 3.5 W m-2 compared to the CAM5-simulated FNET of 1.9 W m-2 with the default parameter values. Variance-based sensitivity analysis was conducted to show the relative contributions of individual parameter perturbation to the global FNET variance. The results indicate that the changes in the global mean FNET are dominated by those of net cloud forcing (CF) within the parameter ranges being investigated. The threshold size parameter related to auto-conversion of cloud ice to snow is identified as one of the most influential parameters for FNET in CAM5 simulations. The strong heterogeneous geographic distribution of FNET variance shows parameters have a clear localized effect over regions where they are acting. However, some parameters also have non-local impacts on FNET variance. Although external factors, such as perturbations of anthropogenic and natural emissions, largely affect FNET variance at the regional scale, their impact is weaker than that of model internal parameters in terms of simulating global mean FNET. The interactions among the 16 selected parameters contribute a relatively small portion to the total FNET variance over most regions of the globe. This study helps us better understand the parameter uncertainties in the CAM5 model, and thus provides information for further calibrating uncertain model parameters with the largest sensitivity.

Zhao, C.; Liu, X.; Qian, Y.; Yoon, J.; Hou, Z.; Lin, G.; McFarlane, S.; Wang, H.; Yang, B.; Ma, P.-L.; Yan, H.; Bao, J.

2013-05-01

432

Analysis of Earthquake Clustering in Parameter Space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The seismic event is described by a number of parameters whose values determine its location in a multidimensional parameter space. Studies of earthquake clustering involve an analysis of distances between the events. When such studies are to be done in the space constructed by any selected set of parameters they meet the essential problem of different scales of the parameters. To solve this problem with the measure of distance we make use of the property of probability distributions of random variables that the cumulative distribution function transforms the random variable of any distribution into the random variable of uniform distribution in [0,1] interval. The cumulative distribution functions of all parameters under study are estimated from parameter values of a set of earthquake by means of the non-parametric, kernel estimator. This transformation of values of parameters of events into values of their respective cumulative distributions equalizes all dimensions is such a way that the distance between points is Euclidean. The data for reconstructing the cumulative distributions can be any relevant for the investigated problem, i.e. a long event series that includes subseries under study, a series preceding the studied subseries, a background seismicity data etc. We apply this approach to analyze seismicity preceding Mw6.5 Kozani-Grevena (Greece) earthquake from 13/05/1995. The considered parameterizations are the interevent time, interevent distance, epicentral distance to the main shock and magnitude. The analysis in moving time windows reveals appearance of anomalous patterns of smaller events in the time - distance subspaces. Some four years before the main shock a simultaneous shortening of the interevent time and interevent distance becomes distinct. The anomalous patterns are less visible when magnitude complements the parameter space. This work was prepared within the framework of the research project No. PBS-Grecja/10/2007, financed by the Ministry of Education and Science of Poland during the period 2007 to 2009.

Lasocki, S.; Karakostas, V. G.

2008-12-01

433

The Parameters of Postmodernism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hypothesizing that the tendency to define postmodern culture negatively derives from overliteral and undercritical responses to European theorists, this book of essays identifies the wide parameters of postmodernism. The book demonstrates that the literary and artistic temper of the postmodern condition in Europe and America cannot adequately be…

Zurbrugg, Nicholas

434

9. SOUTH MAIN ST., LOT NO. 24 (COMMERCIAL BUILDING), WEST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. SOUTH MAIN ST., LOT NO. 24 (COMMERCIAL BUILDING), WEST FRONT, DETAIL OF CAPITALS AND ORNAMENTATION - South Main Street, Block 43 (Commercial Buildings), South Main & Washington Streets, South Norwalk, Fairfield County, CT

435

11. SOUTH MAIN ST., LOT NO. 22, (COMMERCIAL BUILDING), WEST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. SOUTH MAIN ST., LOT NO. 22, (COMMERCIAL BUILDING), WEST FRONT, DETAIL OF UPPER STORIES - South Main Street, Block 43 (Commercial Buildings), South Main & Washington Streets, South Norwalk, Fairfield County, CT

436

8. SOUTH MAIN ST., LOT NO. 24, (COMMERCIAL BUILDING). WEST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. SOUTH MAIN ST., LOT NO. 24, (COMMERCIAL BUILDING). WEST FRONT, DETAIL OF UPPER STORIES - South Main Street, Block 43 (Commercial Buildings), South Main & Washington Streets, South Norwalk, Fairfield County, CT

437

49 CFR 229.51 - Aluminum main reservoirs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Aluminum main reservoirs. 229.51 Section 229...Safety Requirements Brake System § 229.51 Aluminum main reservoirs. (a) Aluminum main reservoirs used on locomotives shall...

2012-10-01

438

22. View of Main Street, facing southeast from the George ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

22. View of Main Street, facing southeast from the George Hoxsie House, 1639 Main Street, toward curve in the road and open field. - Shannock Village, Main Street, North Shannock Road, & West Shannock Road, Richmond (historical), Providence County, RI

439

49 CFR 229.51 - Aluminum main reservoirs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Aluminum main reservoirs. 229.51 Section 229...Safety Requirements Brake System § 229.51 Aluminum main reservoirs. (a) Aluminum main reservoirs used on locomotives shall...

2011-10-01

440

30 CFR 75.519 - Main power circuits; disconnecting switches.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Main power circuits; disconnecting switches. 75.519 Section 75.519...Main power circuits; disconnecting switches. [Statutory Provision] In all main power circuits, disconnecting switches shall be installed underground...

2013-07-01

441

MAIN-BELT COMET P/2008 R1 (GARRADD)  

SciTech Connect

We present a study of the newly discovered main-belt comet P/2008 R1 (Garradd), an object with the dynamical characteristics of an asteroid and the physical characteristics of a comet. Photometry sets a limit to the effective radius of the nucleus at r{sub e} < 0.7 km (red geometric albedo 0.05 assumed). The coma shows a secular fading in our data caused by the escape of dust particles from the near-nucleus environment. The optical reflection spectrum is a nearly neutral continuum devoid of gaseous emission lines, from which we derive a limit to the cyanide (CN) radical production rate of Q {sub CN}< 1.4 x 10{sup 23} s{sup -1} and infer a mass-loss rate <1.5 kg s{sup -1} at the time of our observations. Unlike the first-reported main-belt comets, P/2008 R1 is not dynamically stable. The nearby 8:3 mean-motion resonance with Jupiter induces dynamical instability on timescales 20-30 Myr. Hence, we conclude that P/2008 R1 has recently arrived from a more stable source elsewhere. The high Tisserand parameter of the orbit (in fact, with T{sub J} = 3.216 it is the highest of any comet) points to a source in the asteroid belt itself, instead of in the Kuiper belt (putative source of the Jupiter family comets). We infer that P/2008 R1 is an icy body from the outer asteroid belt in which sublimation has been triggered by rising temperatures resulting from a decreasing perihelion distance.

Jewitt, David; Yang Bin; Haghighipour, Nader [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)], E-mail: jewitt@ifa.hawaii.edu, E-mail: yangbin@ifa.hawaii.edu, E-mail: nader@ifa.hawaii.edu

2009-05-15

442

Debris disks in main-sequence binary systems.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We observed 69 A3-F8 main-sequence binary star systems using the Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer on board the Spitzer Space Telescope. We find emission significantly in excess of predicted photospheric flux levels for 9+4-3% and 40+7-6% of these systems at 24 and 70 ?m, respectively. Twenty-two systems total have excess emission, including four systems that show excess emission at both wavelengths. A very large fraction (nearly 60%) of observed binary systems with small (<3 AU) separations have excess thermal emission. We interpret the observed infrared excesses as thermal emission from dust produced by collisions in planetesimal belts. The incidence of debris disks around main-sequence A3-F8 binaries is marginally higher than that for single old AFGK stars. Whatever combination of nature (birth conditions of binary systems) and nurture (interactions between the two stars) drives the evolution of debris disks in binary systems, it is clear that planetesimal formation is not inhibited to any great degree. We model these dust disks through fitting the spectral energy distributions and derive typical dust temperatures in the range 100-200 K and typical fractional luminosities around 10-5, with both parameters similar to other Spitzer-discovered debris disks. Our calculated dust temperatures suggest that about half the excesses we observe are derived from circumbinary planetesimal belts and around one-third of the excesses clearly suggest circumstellar material. Three systems with excesses have dust in dynamically unstable regions, and we discuss possible scenarios for the origin of this short-lived dust.

Trilling, D. E.; Stansberry, J. A.; Stapelfeldt, K. R.; Rieke, G. H.; Su, K. Y. L.; Gray, R. O.; Corbally, C. J.; Bryden, G.; Chen, C. H.; Boden, A.; Beichman, C. A.

2007-04-01

443

Effects of Primary Rotor Parameters on Flapping Dynamics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effects of flapping dynamics of four main rotor design features that influence the agility, stability, and operational safety of helicopters are studied. The parameters include flapping hinge offset, flapping hinge restraint, pitch-flap coupling, and ...

R. T. N. Chen

1980-01-01

444

Multispace Behavioral Model for Face-Based Affective Social Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a behavioural model for affective social agents based on three independent but interacting parameter spaces: Knowledge, Personality, and Mood. These spaces control a lower -level Geometry space that provides parameters at the facial feature level. Personality and Mood use findings in behavioural psychology to relate the perception of personality types and emotional states to the facial actions

Ali Arya; Steve DiPaola

2007-01-01

445

Geoengineering design parameters workshop  

SciTech Connect

A one-day workshop on the subject of the geotechnical design parameters, in situ stress and rock mass strength, for a nuclear waste repository in basalt was held in Rapid City, South Dakota, on June 25, 1989. A panel comprised of five widely recognized experts in the field of rock mechanics, met to discuss the state of stress at the Hanford Site and the strength of a basalt rock mass. This report summarizes the discussions that took place and presents a set of final position statements developed collaboratively by the panel and the workshop moderator. The report concludes with a set of specific recommendations for future actions considered necessary to adequately define the in situ stress and the rock mass strength at the Hanford Site and to document the position of the Basalt Waste Isolation Project in respect to these two critical design parameters.

St. John, C.M. (Agapito (J.F.T.) and Associates, Grand Junction, CO (USA)); Kim, Kunsoo (Rockwell International Corp., Richland, WA (USA). Rockwell Hanford Operations)

1985-12-12

446

Optomechanical parameter estimation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a statistical framework for the problem of parameter estimation from a noisy optomechanical system. The Cramér–Rao lower bound on the estimation errors in the long-time limit is derived and compared with the errors of radiometer and expectation–maximization (EM) algorithms in the estimation of the force noise power. When applied to experimental data, the EM estimator is found to have the lowest error and follow the Cramér–Rao bound most closely. Our analytic results are envisioned to be valuable to optomechanical experiment design, while the EM algorithm, with its ability to estimate most of the system parameters, is envisioned to be useful for optomechanical sensing, atomic magnetometry and fundamental tests of quantum mechanics.

Ang, Shan Zheng; Harris, Glen I.; Bowen, Warwick P.; Tsang, Mankei

2013-10-01

447

Topological parameters in gravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the Hamiltonian analysis of the theory of gravity based on a Lagrangian density containing the Hilbert-Palatini term along with three topological densities, Nieh-Yan, Pontryagin and Euler. The addition of these topological terms modifies the symplectic structure nontrivially. The resulting canonical theory develops a dependence on three parameters which are coefficients of these terms. In the time gauge, we obtain a real SU(2) gauge theoretic description with a set of seven first-class constraints corresponding to three SU(2) rotations, three spatial diffeomorphisms and one to evolution in a timelike direction. The inverse of the coefficient of the Nieh-Yan term, identified as the Barbero-Immirzi parameter, acts as the coupling constant of the gauge theory.

Kaul, Romesh K.; Sengupta, Sandipan

2012-01-01

448

Disguising the oblique parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We point out a set of operator identities that relate the operators corresponding to the oblique corrections to operators that modify fermion couplings to the gauge bosons as well as operators that modify triple gauge boson couplings. Such identities are simple consequences of the equations of motion. Therefore the contributions from new physics to the oblique parameters can be disguised as modifications of triple gauge boson couplings provided the fermion couplings to the gauge bosons are suitably modified by higher-dimensional operators. Since the experimental constraints on triple gauge boson couplings are much weaker than the constraints on the oblique parameters this observation allows extra room for model building. We derive operator relations in effective theories of the standard model with the electroweak symmetry either linearly or nonlinearly realized and discuss applications of our results.

Grojean, Christophe; Skiba, Witold; Terning, John

2006-04-01

449

Electroweak interaction parameters  

SciTech Connect

The parameters discussed include: the renormalized weak mixing angle, masses and widths of the W plus and minus and of the Z boson, radiative Z and W boson decays. The Higgs-top quark mass connection and the Grand Unification theories are briefly reviewed. It is suggested that a new pseudoscalar particle with a mass near 93 GeV could be produced by gluon-gluon fusion. 28 references. (LEW)

Marciano, W.J.

1984-04-01

450

Military display performance parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The military display market is analyzed in terms of four of its segments: avionics, vetronics, dismounted soldier, and command and control. Requirements are summarized for a number of technology-driving parameters, to include luminance, night vision imaging system compatibility, gray levels, resolution, dimming range, viewing angle, video capability, altitude, temperature, shock and vibration, etc., for direct-view and virtual-view displays in cockpits and crew stations. Technical specifications are discussed for selected programs.

Desjardins, Daniel D.; Meyer, Frederick

2012-05-01

451

High-pressure-shift freezing: Main factors implied in the phase transition time  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have studied the dynamics of the high-pressure-shift freezing (HPSF) process and the main parameters implied. Conventional freezing experiments at atmospheric conditions and HPSF experiments were carried out at identical temperatures and different pressures and the phase transition times compared. Phase transition times in HPSF experiments were lower than their homologues at atmospheric pressure in all cases. The reduction depends

Laura Otero; Pedro D. Sanz

2006-01-01

452

Schizophrenia - a parameters' game?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Schizophrenia is a severe, currently incurable, relatively common mental\\u000acondition. Its symptoms are complex and widespread. It structurally and\\u000afunctionally affects cortical and subcortical regions involved in cognitive,\\u000aemotional and motivational aspects of behavior. Its cause is unknown, its\\u000adiagnosis is based on statistical behavior and its treatment is elusive.\\u000a Our paradigm addresses the complexity of schizophrenic symptoms. Building\\u000aupon

Anca R. Radulescu

2007-01-01

453

Prediction of psychoacoustic parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Noise is defined as an audible sound which either disturbs the silence, or an intentional sound that listening to leads to annoyance. Thus, it is clearly defined that the assignment of noise cannot be reduced to simple determining objective parameters like the A-weighted SPL. The question whether a sound is judged as noise can only be answered after the transformation from the sound event into an hearing event has been accomplished. The evaluation of noise depends on the physical characteristics of the sound event, on the psychoacoustical features of the human ear as well as on the psychological aspects of men. The subjectively felt noise quality depends not only on the A-weighted sound-pressure level, but also on other psychoacoustical parameters such as loudness, roughness, sharpness, etc. The known methods for the prediction of the spatial A-weighted SPL distribution in dependence on the propagation are not suitable to predict psychoacoustic parameters in an adequate way. Especially, the roughness provoked by modulation or the sharpness generated by an accumulation of high, frequent sound energy cannot offhandedly be predicted as distance dependent.

Genuit, Klaus; Fiebig, Andre

2005-09-01

454

Why Would Social Networks Be Linked to Affect and Health Practices?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To examine the relation among social integration (SI), affect, and smoking and alcohol consumption. Design: The authors administered social network and psychological questionnaires to 193 adults and then interviewed them on 14 consecutive evenings about their daily social interactions, affect, and smoking and alcohol consumption. Main outcome measures: The main outcome measures were positive and negative affect, smoking, and

Sheldon Cohen; Edward P. Lemay

2007-01-01

455

Study on H-Infinity control for LAMOST main axes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The workshop test of mount drive for Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST) was completed in June of 2005. Now the giant mount has just been erected on Xinglong station, and is due to test in the summer of 2006. LAMOST mount mechanism features friction drive on both axes, and oil pad is employed specifically for the azimuth. For further improving the tracking accuracy in worse surroundings some nonlinear phenomena in the drive chain have to be addressed. Moreover, external uncertainties on Xinglong site, wind buffeting in particular, could affect load variation on the drive. The control system parameters would change with time, thus eventually degrade the tracking performance. All these reasonable assumptions call for a more robust controller than conventional PID approach to cope with. This is where H-Infinity controller comes in. This paper focuses on the mount drive of LAMOST by using H-Infinity technique and comparison with the PID servo. The load disturbance rejection is discussed, as well as transmission rigidity improvement is analyzed. Study and simulation are done in Matlab. The model test in our friction drive lab is presented.

Zhou, Wangping; Xu, Xinqi; Dong, Zhiming

2006-07-01

456

Navigation and Vessel Inspection Circular No. 7-73. Main Propulsion Boiler Automation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this circular is to draw the attention of all interest and affected members of the marine community to certain problems being encountered as the results of the automation of existing main propulsion boilers. Guidance for the avoidance of th...

1973-01-01

457

Field errors introduced by eddy currents in Fermilab main injector magnets  

SciTech Connect

The Fermilab Main Injector ramps from 8 GeV to 120 GeV in about half a second. The rapidly changing magnetic field induces eddy currents in the stainless steel vacuum tubes, which in turn produce error fields that can affect the beam. Field calculations and measurements are presented for the dipole and quadrupole magnets.

Walbridge, D.G.C.; Brown, B.C.; Dinanco, J.B.; Sharoran, S.A.; Sim, J.W.

1997-10-01

458

Mesoscale meteorology of the New England coast. Gulf of Maine, and Nova Scotia: Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

The North Atlantic Regional Experiment (NARE) domain includes the coastal and near-coastal areas of New England and Atlantic Canada, and the intervening Gulf of Maine. This area has a complex coastline on all scales. The meteorology of the region is affected by the contrasting properties of the land and ocean, especially the temperature contrast. This paper reviews the knowledge of

Wayne M. Angevine; Michael Trainer; Stuart A. McKeen; Carl M. Berkowitz

1996-01-01

459

Northeastern Ice Storm 1998: A Forest Damage Assessment for New York, Vermont, New Hampshire, and Maine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The ice storm of January 1998 affected 17 million acres of forestland in northern New York, Vermont, New Hampshire, and Maine, including parts of the Green Mountain National Forest and the White Mountain National Forest. Portions of eastern Canada were al...

M. Miller-Weeks C. Eagar C. M. Petersen

1998-01-01

460

Measurement of transmission line parameters from SCADA data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transmission line equivalent circuit parameters are often 25% to 30% in error compared to values measured by the SCADA system. These errors cause the economic dispatch to be wrong, and lead to increased costs or incorrect billing. The parameter errors also affect contingency analysis, short circuit analysis, distance relaying, machine stability calculations, transmission planning, and state estimator analysis. An economic

G. L. Kusic; D. L. Garrison

2004-01-01