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1

Gulf of Maine Research Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Teaching about aquatic environments, serving as neutral conveners, and facilitating marine research is the mission of the Gulf of Maine Research Institute. Features hundreds of web pages with information and classroom activities covering: oceans, human impact, weather, satellite imagery, remote sensing, Antarctica, global climate change, lobsters, turtles, marine, freshwater issues and more. The project of building the new aquarium at Portland is specially considered.

2

Gulf of Maine Research Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Maine's oceanic shoreline has long been one of the richest in North America, both in terms of natural resources and its importance to the local economy. One important organization that is committed to this valued ecosystem is the Gulf of Maine Research Institute. Based in Portland, the Institute is designed to educate Maine residents and visitors about Maine's fresh and saltwater resources and to "facilitate and conduct collaborative research.� Their website contains some of these resources, and first-time visitors should start their journey here at the "Science" section. As might be expected, visitors will be able to learn about some of the Institute's ongoing survey work, including their comprehensive survey of the region's shrimp stocks, the impacts of mobile fishing gear, and cod-tagging. Every good institute worth its salt has a strong education component, and this institute has got the web-browsing public's best interests in mind. In their "Education" section, they have placed a number of interactive and multimedia features, including such areas as "All About Lobsters" and "Undersea Landscapes".

3

Measurement and Research Tools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains four papers from a symposium on measurement and research tools for human resource development (HRD). "The 'Best Fit' Training: Measure Employee Learning Style Strengths" (Daniel L. Parry) discusses a study of the physiological aspect of sensory intake known as modality, more specifically, modality as measured by the

1997

4

Measurement and Research Tools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains four symposium papers on measurement and research tools. "Income Effects of Human Resource Development for Higher Educated Professionals" (Martin Mulder, Bob Witziers) reports on a study of 1,876 higher-educated professionals that found no correlation between participation in human resource development activities and

1999

5

Semantic Web Research anno 2006: main streams,  

E-print Network

Semantic Web Research anno 2006: main streams, popular fallacies, current status and future. In this topical1 paper we try to give an analysis and overview of the current state of Semantic Web research. We point to different in- terpretations of the Semantic Web as the reason underlying many contro- versies

van Harmelen, Frank

6

Semantic Web research main streams, popular falacies,  

E-print Network

Semantic Web research anno 2006: main streams, popular falacies, current status, future challenges Frank van Harmelen Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam #12;2 This is NOT a Semantic Web evangelization talk (I of the day, of temporary interest" #12;Which Semantic Web are we talking about? Semantic Web research anno

van Harmelen, Frank

7

Protecting endangered species: do the main legislative tools work?  

PubMed

It is critical to assess the effectiveness of the tools used to protect endangered species. The main tools enabled under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA) to promote species recovery are funding, recovery plan development and critical habitat designation. Earlier studies sometimes found that statistically significant effects of these tools could be detected, but they have not answered the question of whether the effects were large enough to be biologically meaningful. Here, we ask: how much does the recovery status of ESA-listed species improve with the application of these tools? We used species' staus reports to Congress from 1988 to 2006 to quantify two measures of recovery for 1179 species. We related these to the amount of federal funding, years with a recovery plan, years with critical habitat designation, the amount of peer-reviewed scientific information, and time listed. We found that change in recovery status of listed species was, at best, only very weakly related to any of these tools. Recovery was positively related to the number of years listed, years with a recovery plan, and funding, however, these tools combined explain <13% of the variation in recovery status among species. Earlier studies that reported significant effects of these tools did not focus on effect sizes; however, they are in fact similarly small. One must conclude either that these tools are not very effective in promoting species' recovery, or (as we suspect) that species recovery data are so poor that it is impossible to tell whether the tools are effective or not. It is critically important to assess the effectiveness of tools used to promote species recovery; it is therefore also critically important to obtain population status data that are adequate to that task. PMID:22567111

Gibbs, Katherine E; Currie, David J

2012-01-01

8

Gulf of Maine Research Institute: Atlantic Herring  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by the Gulf of Maine Research Institute, this website offers several interesting perspectives on a very important fish in the food chain -- the Atlantic Herring (_Clupea harengus_). The website organizes information about the Atlantic Herring into three main categories: Biology; Harvest and Processing; and Research. The site utilizes beautiful photos, illustrations, and maps as it briefly describes herring life cycle, distribution, spawning research, mid-water trawling, processing, and much more. The website also provides a solid collection of herring resources and references.

9

HEI Tools for Researchers  

Cancer.gov

This page provides information about the basic steps for calculating HEI component and total scores and further details for calculating scores at different levels of analysis (i.e., national food supply, food processing, community food environment, and individual food intake). Refer to the Research Uses page for more details about these levels and the types of studies that can be conducted at each.

10

A Tool for Medical Research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

California Measurements, Inc.'s PC-2 Aerosol Particle Analyzer, developed by William Chiang, a former Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) engineer, was used in a study to measure the size of particles in the medical environment. Chiang has a NASA license for the JPL crystal oscillator technology and originally built the instrument for atmospheric research. In the operating room, it enabled researchers from the University of California to obtain multiple sets of data repeatedly and accurately. The study concluded that significant amounts of aerosols are generated during surgery when power tools are employed, and most of these are in the respirable size. Almost all contain blood and are small enough to pass through surgical masks. Research on the presence of blood aerosols during oral surgery had similar results. Further studies are planned to determine the possibility of HIV transmission during surgery, and the PC-2H will be used to quantify blood aerosols.

1992-01-01

11

Mobile user experience research: challenges, methods & tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are currently witnessing rapid innovation in mobile user experience (UX) research. The HCI community is creating and adapting research methods, tools, and infrastructure for mobile-specific challenges and opportunities. This workshop brings together researchers from industry and academia, designers, and creators of research tools, who faced the challenges of mobile UX research and responded with innovative approaches. We will examine

Yelena Nakhimovsky; Dean Eckles; Jens Riegelsberger

2009-01-01

12

Experimental investigation of the effect of cutting tool rake angle on main cutting force  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a study of the influence of tool rake angle on the main cutting force for machining rotational parts by sharp cutting tools. A special dynamometer was designed and produced to measure the forces for this purpose. Two strain gages were placed in the proper position onto machine tool and cutting tool. Replacements of the tool caused by

Mustafa Gnay; ?hsan Korkut; Ersan Aslan; Ulvi ?eker

2005-01-01

13

Ecosystem Indicators and Tools in the Gulf of Maine  

EPA Science Inventory

The Gulf of Maine Council on the Marine Environment is a U.S.-Canadian partnership of government and non-government organizations focused on the health, environmental quality and productivity of the Gulf of Maine. In 2006, the Ecosystem Indicator Partnership (ESIP) commenced acti...

14

Maine Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit and Department of Wildlife Ecology, University of Maine  

E-print Network

Maine Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit and Department of Wildlife Ecology, University Fisheries and Wildlife United States Geological Survey United States Fish and Wildlife Service Wildlife of this report in any way is withheld pending specific authorization from the Leader, Maine Cooperative Fish

Thomas, Andrew

15

Scalable Combinatorial Tools for Health Disparities Research  

PubMed Central

Despite staggering investments made in unraveling the human genome, current estimates suggest that as much as 90% of the variance in cancer and chronic diseases can be attributed to factors outside an individuals genetic endowment, particularly to environmental exposures experienced across his or her life course. New analytical approaches are clearly required as investigators turn to complicated systems theory and ecological, place-based and life-history perspectives in order to understand more clearly the relationships between social determinants, environmental exposures and health disparities. While traditional data analysis techniques remain foundational to health disparities research, they are easily overwhelmed by the ever-increasing size and heterogeneity of available data needed to illuminate latent gene x environment interactions. This has prompted the adaptation and application of scalable combinatorial methods, many from genome science research, to the study of population health. Most of these powerful tools are algorithmically sophisticated, highly automated and mathematically abstract. Their utility motivates the main theme of this paper, which is to describe real applications of innovative transdisciplinary models and analyses in an effort to help move the research community closer toward identifying the causal mechanisms and associated environmental contexts underlying health disparities. The public health exposome is used as a contemporary focus for addressing the complex nature of this subject. PMID:25310540

Langston, Michael A.; Levine, Robert S.; Kilbourne, Barbara J.; Rogers, Gary L.; Kershenbaum, Anne D.; Baktash, Suzanne H.; Coughlin, Steven S.; Saxton, Arnold M.; Agboto, Vincent K.; Hood, Darryl B.; Litchveld, Maureen Y.; Oyana, Tonny J.; Matthews-Juarez, Patricia; Juarez, Paul D.

2014-01-01

16

Observatory Bibliographies as Research Tools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditionally, observatory bibliographies were maintained to provide insight in how successful a observatory is as measured by its prominence in the (refereed) literature. When we set up the bibliographic database for the Chandra X-ray Observatory (http://cxc.harvard.edu/cgi-gen/cda/bibliography) as part of the Chandra Data Archive ((http://cxc.harvard.edu/cda/), very early in the mission, our objective was to make it primarily a useful tool for our user community. To achieve this we are: (1) casting a very wide net in collecting Chandra-related publications; (2) including for each literature reference in the database a wealth of metadata that is useful for the users; and (3) providing specific links between the articles and the datasets in the archive that they use. As a result our users are able to browse the literature and the data archive simultaneously. As an added bonus, the rich metadata content and data links have also allowed us to assemble more meaningful statistics about the scientific efficacy of the observatory. In all this we collaborate closely with the Astrophysics Data System (ADS). Among the plans for future enhancement are the inclusion of press releases and the Chandra image gallery, linking with ADS semantic searching tools, full-text metadata mining, and linking with other observatories' bibliographies. This work is supported by NASA contract NAS8-03060 (CXC) and depends critically on the services provided by the ADS.

Rots, Arnold H.; Winkelman, S. L.

2013-01-01

17

DCCPS: Behavioral Research Program: Research Tools  

Cancer.gov

Managed by the Basic and Biobehavioral Research Branch, BiMPED encourages mechanistic studies to identify biological signaling pathways that might inform how behavioral stress and other influences on tumorigenesis are mediated by the central nervous system.

18

Parallel software tools at Langley Research Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document gives a brief overview of parallel software tools available on the Intel iPSC/860 parallel computer at Langley Research Center. It is intended to provide a source of information that is somewhat more concise than vendor-supplied material on the purpose and use of various tools. Each of the chapters on tools is organized in a similar manner covering an overview of the functionality, access information, how to effectively use the tool, observations about the tool and how it compares to similar software, known problems or shortfalls with the software, and reference documentation. It is primarily intended for users of the iPSC/860 at Langley Research Center and is appropriate for both the experienced and novice user.

Moitra, Stuti; Tennille, Geoffrey M.; Lakeotes, Christopher D.; Randall, Donald P.; Arthur, Jarvis J.; Hammond, Dana P.; Mall, Gerald H.

1993-01-01

19

DCCPS: Behavioral Research Program: Research Tools  

Cancer.gov

Grid-Enabled Measures (GEM) Grid-Enabled Measures (GEM) is a dynamic web-based database that contains behavioral and social science measures organized by theoretical constructs. GEM is designed to enable researchers to use common measures with the goal of exchanging harmonized data. Through the use of these standardized measures and common elements, prospective meta-analyses will be possible.

20

Bringing Research Tools into the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The advancement of computer technology used for research is creating the need to change the way classes are taught in higher education. "Bringing Research Tools into the Classroom" has become a major focus of the work of the Office of Educational Innovation and Technology (OEIT) for the Dean of Undergraduate Education (DUE) at the Massachusetts

Shubert, Charles; Ceraj, Ivica; Riley, Justin

2009-01-01

21

The Maine Garlic Project: A Participatory Research and Education Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Participatory research is a useful technique for collecting basic data over a large geographic area. Garlic production was chosen as a participatory research study focus in Maine. Project participants (285) received bulbs to plant, monitored their crop, and reported data online. Participants received a monthly educational newsletter to improve

Fuller, David; Johnson, Steven B.

2013-01-01

22

Research as an educational tool  

SciTech Connect

Our students have participated in original group research projects focused on the natural environment which culminate in a written manuscript published in-house, and an oral presentation to peers, faculty, and the university community. Our goal has been to develop their critical thinking skills so that they will be more successful in high school and college. We have served ninety-three students (47.1% white, 44.1% black, 5.4% hispanic, 2.2% American Indian, 1.2% asian) from an eight state region in the southeast over the past three years. Thirty-one students have graduated from high school with over 70% enrolled in college and another thirty-four are seniors this year. We are tracking students` progress in college and are developing our own critical thinking test to measure the impact of our program. Although preliminary, the results from the critical thinking test indicated that students are often prone to logical errors; however, higher levels of critical thinking were observed on items which raised issues that conflicted with students` pre-existing beliefs.

Neff, R.; Perlmutter, D.; Klaczynski, P. [Western Carolina Univ., Cullowhee, NC (United States)] [and others

1994-12-31

23

Software tool for portal dosimetry research.  

PubMed

This paper describes a software tool developed for research into the use of an electronic portal imaging device (EPID) to verify dose for intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) beams. A portal dose image prediction (PDIP) model that predicts the EPID response to IMRT beams has been implemented into a commercially available treatment planning system (TPS). The software tool described in this work was developed to modify the TPS PDIP model by incorporating correction factors into the predicted EPID image to account for the difference in EPID response to open beam radiation and multileaf collimator (MLC) transmitted radiation. The processes performed by the software tool include; i) read the MLC file and the PDIP from the TPS, ii) calculate the fraction of beam-on time that each point in the IMRT beam is shielded by MLC leaves, iii) interpolate correction factors from look-up tables, iv) create a corrected PDIP image from the product of the original PDIP and the correction factors and write the corrected image to file, v) display, analyse, and export various image datasets. The software tool was developed using the Microsoft Visual Studio.NET framework with the C# compiler. The operation of the software tool was validated. This software provided useful tools for EPID dosimetry research, and it is being utilised and further developed in ongoing EPID dosimetry and IMRT dosimetry projects. PMID:18946980

Vial, P; Hunt, P; Greer, P B; Oliver, L; Baldock, C

2008-09-01

24

New Software Framework to Share Research Tools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solid Earth Teaching and Research Environment (SEATREE) is a modular and user-friendly software to facilitate the use of solid Earth research tools in the classroom and for interdisciplinary research collaboration. The software provides a stand-alone open-source package that allows users to operate in a black box mode, which hides implementation details, while also allowing them to dig deeper into the underlying source code. The overlying user interfaces are written in the Python programming language using a modern, object-oriented design, including graphical user interactions. SEATREE, which provides an interface to a range of new and existing lower level programs that can be written in any computer programming language, may in the long run contribute to new ways of sharing scientific research. By sharing both data and modeling tools in a consistent framework, published (numerical) experiments can be made truly reproducible again.

Milner, Kevin; Becker, Thorsten W.; Boschi, Lapo; Sain, Jared; Schorlemmer, Danijel; Waterhouse, Hannah

2009-03-01

25

GIS as a research tool Melinda Laituri  

E-print Network

1 GIS as a research tool Melinda Laituri Colorado State University Why use GIS? Spatial context? Organizational strengths of GIS for project management Ability to store large amounts of spatial data GIS plan Database design (linked to sampling strategy) Assessment of available resources Analysis

26

Tools for Finding Indexed Accounting Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The American Accounting Association (AAA) lists the print resources and electronic databases where AAA journals are indexed and abstracted at this Tools for Finding Indexed Accounting Research page. The detailed list includes indexing and abstracting devices for a number of journals -- Accounting Horizons, The Accounting Review, Auditing: A Journal of Practice & Theory, Behavioral Research in Accounting, Issues in Accounting Education, Journal of the American Taxation Association, Journal of Information Systems, and the Journal of Management Accounting Research -- with date coverage and full-text information included for each.

27

Web Based Tools for Research and Teaching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Solar System Collaboratory is a web based set of tools that has been used for the past seven years in introductory classes in Astronomy, Physics, Environmental Science, and Engineering. The present paper will discuss the integration into the tool set of a recently developed Magnetospheric package. The package is written in Java 3D, and has a modular design, so that different models and datasets, both real-time and historical, can be seamlessly compared using a variety of goodness-of-fit measures. The package is used both in research and education at the undergraduate as well as secondary level. In addition to the science components, the package includes web based tools for conceptual student assessment, as well as resources for teachers, and videotaped case studies of classroom interactions.

Svirsky, E.; Hijazi, A.; Betterton, D.; Doxas, I.

2005-05-01

28

Tools and collaborative environments for bioinformatics research  

PubMed Central

Advanced research requires intensive interaction among a multitude of actors, often possessing different expertise and usually working at a distance from each other. The field of collaborative research aims to establish suitable models and technologies to properly support these interactions. In this article, we first present the reasons for an interest of Bioinformatics in this context by also suggesting some research domains that could benefit from collaborative research. We then review the principles and some of the most relevant applications of social networking, with a special attention to networks supporting scientific collaboration, by also highlighting some critical issues, such as identification of users and standardization of formats. We then introduce some systems for collaborative document creation, including wiki systems and tools for ontology development, and review some of the most interesting biological wikis. We also review the principles of Collaborative Development Environments for software and show some examples in Bioinformatics. Finally, we present the principles and some examples of Learning Management Systems. In conclusion, we try to devise some of the goals to be achieved in the short term for the exploitation of these technologies. PMID:21984743

Giugno, Rosalba; Pulvirenti, Alfredo

2011-01-01

29

Tools and collaborative environments for bioinformatics research.  

PubMed

Advanced research requires intensive interaction among a multitude of actors, often possessing different expertise and usually working at a distance from each other. The field of collaborative research aims to establish suitable models and technologies to properly support these interactions. In this article, we first present the reasons for an interest of Bioinformatics in this context by also suggesting some research domains that could benefit from collaborative research. We then review the principles and some of the most relevant applications of social networking, with a special attention to networks supporting scientific collaboration, by also highlighting some critical issues, such as identification of users and standardization of formats. We then introduce some systems for collaborative document creation, including wiki systems and tools for ontology development, and review some of the most interesting biological wikis. We also review the principles of Collaborative Development Environments for software and show some examples in Bioinformatics. Finally, we present the principles and some examples of Learning Management Systems. In conclusion, we try to devise some of the goals to be achieved in the short term for the exploitation of these technologies. PMID:21984743

Romano, Paolo; Giugno, Rosalba; Pulvirenti, Alfredo

2011-11-01

30

Extremely high serum ferritin levels as a main diagnostic tool of adult-onset Still's disease.  

PubMed

Adult-onset Still's disease is a rare systemic inflammatory disease of unknown aetiology characterised by typical symptoms including daily high spiking fever, evanescent salmon-pink rash, sore throat, arthritis/arthralgias and polyserositis. The laboratory findings usually show neutrophilic leucocytosis, seronegativity and raised serum transaminases. We describe six typical cases. All of them had serum ferritin above 5,000 g/L. Although there are few theories about the origin of the high ferritin level, an extremely high serum ferritin above 5,000 g/L should be the main diagnostic tool of adult-onset Still's disease. PMID:21359498

Novak, Srdan; Anic, Felina; Luke-Vrbani?, Tea Schnurrerer

2012-04-01

31

Energy Survey of Machine Tools: Separating Power Information of the Main Transmission System During Machining Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The major power information of the main transmission system in machine tools (MTSMT) during machining process includes effective output power (i.e. cutting power), input power and power loss from the mechanical transmission system, and the main motor power loss. These information are easy to obtain in the lab but difficult to evaluate in a manufacturing process. To solve this problem, a separation method is proposed here to extract the MTSMT power information during machining process. In this method, the energy flow and the mathematical models of major power information of MTSMT during the machining process are set up first. Based on the mathematical models and the basic data tables obtained from experiments, the above mentioned power information during machining process can be separated just by measuring the real time total input power of the spindle motor. The operation program of this method is also given.

Liu, Shuang; Liu, Fei; Hu, Shaohua; Yin, Zhenbiao

32

Optical tools for ocean monitoring and research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Requirements for understanding the relationships between ocean color and suspended and dissolved materials within the water column, and a rapidly emerging photonics and materials technology base for performing optical based analytical techniques have generated a diverse offering of commercial sensors and research prototypes that perform optical measurements in water. Through inversion, these tools are now being used to determine a diverse set of related biogeochemical and physical parameters. Techniques engaged include measurement of the solar radiance distribution, absorption, scattering, stimulated fluorescence, flow cytometry, and various spectroscopy methods. Selective membranes and other techniques for material isolation further enhance specificity, leading to sensors for measurement of dissolved oxygen, methane, carbon dioxide, common nutrients and a variety of other parameters. Scientists are using these measurements to infer information related to an increasing set of parameters and wide range of applications over relevant scales in space and time.

Moore, C.; Barnard, A.; Fietzek, P.; Lewis, M. R.; Sosik, H. M.; White, S.; Zielinski, O.

2008-11-01

33

Optical tools for ocean monitoring and research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Requirements for understanding the relationships between ocean color and suspended and dissolved materials within the water column, and a rapidly emerging photonics and materials technology base for performing optical based analytical techniques have generated a diverse offering of commercial sensors and research prototypes that perform optical measurements in water. Through inversion, these tools are now being used to determine a diverse set of related biogeochemical and physical parameters. Techniques engaged include measurement of the solar radiance distribution, absorption, scattering, stimulated fluorescence, flow cytometry, and various spectroscopy methods. Selective membranes and other techniques for material isolation further enhance specificity, leading to sensors for measurement of dissolved oxygen, methane, carbon dioxide, common nutrients and a variety of other parameters. Scientists are using these measurements to infer information related to an increasing set of parameters and wide range of applications over relevant scales in space and time.

Moore, C.; Barnard, A.; Fietzek, P.; Lewis, M. R.; Sosik, H. M.; White, S.; Zielinski, O.

2009-12-01

34

Oakwood Main Oakwood Main is a major teaching and research hospital and home to three medical residency  

E-print Network

Oakwood Main Oakwood Main is a major teaching and research hospital and home to three year and sports during our 3rd and 4th year. It is a 145 bed hospital Hospital and Medical Center St John is a busy level 1 trauma center located

Finley Jr., Russell L.

35

Research pressure instrumentation for NASA Space Shuttle main engine, modification no. 5  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of the research project described is to define and demonstrate methods to advance the state of the art of pressure sensors for the space shuttle main engine (SSME). Silicon piezoresistive technology was utilized in completing tasks: generation and testing of three transducer design concepts for solid state applications; silicon resistor characterization at cryogenic temperatures; experimental chip mounting characterization; frequency response optimization and prototype design and fabrication. Excellent silicon sensor performance was demonstrated at liquid nitrogen temperature. A silicon resistor ion implant dose was customized for SSME temperature requirements. A basic acoustic modeling software program was developed as a design tool to evaluate frequency response characteristics.

Anderson, P. J.; Nussbaum, P.; Gustafson, G.

1984-01-01

36

VAO Tools Enhance CANDELS Research Productivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The formation of galaxies and their co-evolution with black holes through cosmic time are prominent areas in current extragalactic astronomy. New methods in science research are building upon collaborations between scientists and archive data centers which span large volumes of multi-wavelength and heterogeneous data. A successful example of this form of teamwork is demonstrated by the CANDELS (Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey) and the Virtual Astronomical Observatory (VAO) collaboration. The CANDELS project archive data provider services are registered and discoverable in the VAO through an innovative web based Data Discovery Tool, providing a drill down capability and cross-referencing with other co-spatially located astronomical catalogs, images and spectra. The CANDELS team is working together with the VAO to define new methods for analyzing Spectral Energy Distributions of galaxies containing active galactic nuclei, and helping to evolve advanced catalog matching methods for exploring images of variable depths, wavelengths and resolution. Through the publication of VOEvents, the CANDELS project is publishing data streams for newly discovered supernovae that are bright enough to be followed from the ground.

Greene, Gretchen; Donley, J.; Rodney, S.; LAZIO, J.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Busko, I.; Hanisch, R. J.; VAO Team; CANDELS Team

2013-01-01

37

New research tools for urogenital schistosomiasis.  

PubMed

Approximately 200,000,000 people have schistosomiasis (schistosome infection). Among the schistosomes, Schistosoma haematobium is responsible for the most infections, which are present in 110 million people globally, mostly in sub-Saharan Africa. This pathogen causes an astonishing breadth of sequelae: hematuria, anemia, dysuria, stunting, uremia, bladder cancer, urosepsis, and human immunodeficiency virus coinfection. Refined estimates of the impact of schistosomiasis on quality of life suggest that it rivals malaria. Despite S. haematobium's importance, relevant research has lagged. Here, we review advances that will deepen knowledge of S. haematobium. Three sets of breakthroughs will accelerate discoveries in the pathogenesis of urogenital schistosomiasis (UGS): (1) comparative genomics, (2) the development of functional genomic tools, and (3) the use of animal models to explore S. haematobium-host interactions. Comparative genomics for S. haematobium is feasible, given the sequencing of multiple schistosome genomes. Features of the S. haematobium genome that are conserved among platyhelminth species and others that are unique to S. haematobium may provide novel diagnostic and drug targets for UGS. Although there are technical hurdles, the integrated use of these approaches can elucidate host-pathogen interactions during this infection and can inform the development of techniques for investigating schistosomes in their human and snail hosts and the development of therapeutics and vaccines for the control of UGS. PMID:25240172

Rinaldi, Gabriel; Young, Neil D; Honeycutt, Jared D; Brindley, Paul J; Gasser, Robin B; Hsieh, Michael H

2015-03-15

38

SYNERGISTS AS RESEARCH TOOLS AND CONTROL AGENTS IN AGRICULTURE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential role of synergists in insecticide resistance management is examined. Their contributions as research tools and as control agents are quite different, and at times these approaches are conflicting. As research tools, synergists can help defiJ;e the potential toxicity of a compound, and they can also aid in determining the particular mechanisms of insecticide resistance encountered. A key, analogous

Kenneth F. Raffa; Thomas M. Priester

39

TECHNOLOGY & TEACHING Using Google Books as a Research Tool  

E-print Network

TECHNOLOGY & TEACHING · Using Google Books as a Research Tool Using Google Books as a Research Tool Google Books -- http://books.google.com -- is the world's largest digital library. As of this past June, Google has scanned approximately 12 million books, making its collection about half the size

Champagne, Frances A.

40

Research pressure instrumentation for NASA Space Shuttle main engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of prototype pressure transducers which are targeted to meet the Space Shuttle Main Engine SSME performance design goals is discussed. The fabrication, testing and delivery of 10 prototype units is examined. Silicon piezoresistive strain sensing technology is used to achieve the objectives of advanced state-of-the-art pressure sensors in terms of reliability, accuracy and ease of manufacture. Integration of multiple functions on a single chip is the key attribute of this technology.

Anderson, P. J.; Nussbaum, P.; Gustafson, G.

1984-01-01

41

Modeling as a research tool in poultry science.  

PubMed

The World's Poultry Science Association (WPSA) is a long-established and unique organization that strives to advance knowledge and understanding of all aspects of poultry science and the poultry industry. Its 3 main aims are education, organization, and research. The WPSA Keynote Lecture, titled "Modeling as a research tool in poultry science," addresses 2 of these aims, namely, the value of modeling in research and education. The role of scientists is to put forward and then to test theories. These theories, or models, may be simple or highly complex, but they are aimed at improving our understanding of a system or the interaction between systems. In developing a model, the scientist must take into account existing knowledge, and in this process gaps in our knowledge of a system are identified. Useful ideas for research are generated in this way, and experiments may be designed specifically to address these issues. The resultant models become more accurate and more useful, and can be used in education and extension as a means of explaining many of the complex issues that arise in poultry science. PMID:24570415

Gous, R M

2014-01-01

42

University of Maine Integrated Forest Product Refinery (IFPR) Technology Research  

SciTech Connect

This project supported research on science and technology that forms a basis for integrated forest product refinery for co-production of chemicals, fuels and materials using existing forest products industry infrastructure. Clear systems view of an Integrated Forest Product Refinery (IFPR) allowed development of a compelling business case for a small scale technology demonstration in Old Town ME for co-production of biofuels using cellulosic sugars along with pulp for the new owners of the facility resulting in an active project on Integrated Bio-Refinery (IBR) at the Old Town Fuel & Fiber. Work on production of advanced materials from woody biomass has led to active projects in bioplastics and carbon nanofibers. A lease for 40,000 sq. ft. high-bay space has been obtained to establish a Technology Research Center for IFPR technology validation on industrially relevant scale. UMaine forest bioproducts research initiative that began in April 2006 has led to establishment of a formal research institute beginning in March 2010.

Pendse, Hemant P.

2010-11-23

43

Worms' bacteria main cause of river blindness - Parasites - medical research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This news article reports that Wolbachia may play a role in river blindness, the second-leading infectious cause of blindness in the world. While the disease is caused by parasitic worms that burrow into the skin, researchers discovered that treating the worms of their Wolbachia infections with doxycycline led to significantly less thickening and haze of the eye's cornea.

USA Today (Society for the Advancement of Education)

44

Research pressure instrumentation for NASA space shuttle main engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The breadboard feasibility model of a silicon piezoresistive pressure transducer suitable for space shuttle main engine (SSME) applications was demonstrated. The development of pressure instrumentation for the SSME was examined. The objective is to develop prototype pressure transducers which are targeted to meet the SSME performance design goals and to fabricate, test and deliver a total of 10 prototype units. Effective utilization of the many advantages of silicon piezoresistive strain sensing technology to achieve the objectives of advanced state-of-the-art pressure sensors for reliability, accuracy and ease of manufacture is analyzed. Integration of multiple functions on a single chip is the key attribute of the technology.

Anderson, P. J.; Nussbaum, P.; Gustafson, G.

1985-01-01

45

Tools for Ephemeral Gully Erosion Process Research  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Techniques to quantify ephemeral gully erosion have been identified by USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) as one of gaps in current erosion assessment tools. One reason that may have contributed to this technology gap is the difficulty to quantify changes in channel geometry to asses...

46

Microfluidic tools for cell biological research  

PubMed Central

Summary Microfluidic technology is creating powerful tools for cell biologists to control the complete cellular microenvironment, leading to new questions and new discoveries. We review here the basic concepts and methodologies in designing microfluidic devices, and their diverse cell biological applications. PMID:21152269

Velve-Casquillas, Guilhem; Le Berre, Mal; Piel, Matthieu; Tran, Phong T.

2010-01-01

47

Visualization tools for comprehensive test ban treaty research  

SciTech Connect

This paper focuses on tools used in Data Visualization efforts at Sandia National Laboratories under the Department of Energy CTBT R&D program. These tools provide interactive techniques for the examination and interpretation of scientific data, and can be used for many types of CTBT research and development projects. We will discuss the benefits and drawbacks of using the tools to display and analyze CTBT scientific data. While the tools may be used for everyday applications, our discussion will focus on the use of these tools for visualization of data used in research and verification of new theories. Our examples focus on uses with seismic data, but the tools may also be used for other types of data sets. 5 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Edwards, T.L.; Harris, J.M.; Simons, R.W. [and others

1997-08-01

48

Annotating illuminated manuscripts: an effective tool for research and education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to report the research results of an ongoing project that deals with the exploitation of a digital archive of drawings and illustrations of historic documents for research and educational purposes. According to the results on a study of user requirements, we have designed tools to provide researchers with innovative ways for accessing the digital

Maristella Agosti; Nicola Ferro; Nicola Orio

2005-01-01

49

INCIDENCE OF CULL LOBSTERS, HOMARUS AMERICANUS, IN COMMERCIAL AND RESEARCH CATCHES OFF THE MAINE COASTI  

E-print Network

INCIDENCE OF CULL LOBSTERS, HOMARUS AMERICANUS, IN COMMERCIAL AND RESEARCH CATCHES OFF THE MAINE COASTI JAY S. KROUSE2 ABSTRACf Data obtained by port sampling the Maine commercial lobster catch (1968.74) and the natural lobster population near Boothbay Harbor, Maine, with research gear (1969-74) indicate that 6

50

Video Games: A Tool for Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Video games have a potential role in analysis of motor learning through laboratory tasks. This article discusses why games meet the requirements of laboratory tasks and suggests types of training and research that could be carried out using them. (PP)

Toole, Tonya; And Others

1983-01-01

51

Improving Teaching with Collaborative Action Research: An ASCD Action Tool  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Once you've established a professional learning community (PLC), you need to get this ASCD (Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development) action tool to ensure that your PLC stays focused on addressing teaching methods and student learning problems. This ASCD action tool explains how your PLC can use collaborative action research to

Cunningham, Diane

2011-01-01

52

Geographical Information Systems: A Tool for Institutional Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper addresses the application of Geographical Information Systems (GIS), a computerized tool for associating key information by geographical location, to the institutional research function at institutions of higher education. The first section investigates the potential of GIS as an analytical and planning tool for institutional

Prather, James E.; Carlson, Christina E.

53

Aligning Web-Based Tools to the Research Process Cycle: A Resource for Collaborative Research Projects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using John Creswell's Research Process Cycle as a framework, this article describes various web-based collaborative technologies useful for enhancing the organization and efficiency of educational research. Visualization tools (Cacoo) assist researchers in identifying a research problem. Resource storage tools (Delicious, Mendeley, EasyBib)

Price, Geoffrey P.; Wright, Vivian H.

2012-01-01

54

Using Wordle as a Supplementary Research Tool  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A word cloud is a special visualization of text in which the more frequently used words are effectively highlighted by occupying more prominence in the representation. We have used Wordle to produce word-cloud analyses of the spoken and written responses of informants in two research projects. The product demonstrates a fast and visually rich way

McNaught, Carmel; Lam, Paul

2010-01-01

55

The Invisible Researcher: Using Educational Technologies as Research Tools for Education Dwayne E. PAR  

E-print Network

The Invisible Researcher: Using Educational Technologies as Research Tools for Education Dwayne E Psychology, University of Toronto Scarborough Toronto, Ontario, Canada ABSTRACT As educational technologies also be realized that through the use of innovative technologies educators and researchers alike

Boonstra, Rudy

56

Practitioner-Oriented Research as a Tool for Professional Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to analyse how a model for practitioner-oriented research can be used as a tool for professional development in the preschool. The focus of interest is the type of knowledge that is formed when researchers and preschool staff cooperate on local projects, and what this new knowledge means for the images of professional

Johansson, Inge; Sandberg, Anette; Vuorinen, Tuula

2007-01-01

57

Finding Collaborators: Toward Interactive Discovery Tools for Research Network Systems  

PubMed Central

Background Research networking systems hold great promise for helping biomedical scientists identify collaborators with the expertise needed to build interdisciplinary teams. Although efforts to date have focused primarily on collecting and aggregating information, less attention has been paid to the design of end-user tools for using these collections to identify collaborators. To be effective, collaborator search tools must provide researchers with easy access to information relevant to their collaboration needs. Objective The aim was to study user requirements and preferences for research networking system collaborator search tools and to design and evaluate a functional prototype. Methods Paper prototypes exploring possible interface designs were presented to 18 participants in semistructured interviews aimed at eliciting collaborator search needs. Interview data were coded and analyzed to identify recurrent themes and related software requirements. Analysis results and elements from paper prototypes were used to design a Web-based prototype using the D3 JavaScript library and VIVO data. Preliminary usability studies asked 20 participants to use the tool and to provide feedback through semistructured interviews and completion of the System Usability Scale (SUS). Results Initial interviews identified consensus regarding several novel requirements for collaborator search tools, including chronological display of publication and research funding information, the need for conjunctive keyword searches, and tools for tracking candidate collaborators. Participant responses were positive (SUS score: mean 76.4%, SD 13.9). Opportunities for improving the interface design were identified. Conclusions Interactive, timeline-based displays that support comparison of researcher productivity in funding and publication have the potential to effectively support searching for collaborators. Further refinement and longitudinal studies may be needed to better understand the implications of collaborator search tools for researcher workflows. PMID:25370463

Schleyer, Titus K; Becich, Michael J; Hochheiser, Harry

2014-01-01

58

Overview of EPA Research On Condition Assessment of Drinking Water Mains  

EPA Science Inventory

This slide presentation provides an overview of condition assessment research that is part of EPA Office of Research and Development?s Aging Water Infrastructure Research Plan (AWIRP). The primary focus is on a water main condition assessment technology forum and associated whit...

59

Measurement and Research Tools. Symposium 37. [AHRD Conference, 2001].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This symposium on measurement and research tools consists of three presentations. "An Examination of the Multiple Intelligences Developmental Assessment Scales (MIDAS)" (Albert Wiswell et al.) explores MIDAS's psychometric saliency. Findings indicates this instrument represents an incomplete attempt to develop a valid assessment of multiple

2001

60

YACs, BACs, PACs and MACs: artificial chromosomes as research tools.  

PubMed

Yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) have become essential research tools as they enable large fragments of DNA to be cloned. In order to overcome several disadvantages of YACs, including chimaerism and instability, several complementary bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) vectors have been developed. More recently, attempts are being made to construct artificial chromosomes in mammalian cells (MACs). PMID:7765076

Monaco, A P; Larin, Z

1994-07-01

61

Analyzing Online Teacher Networks: Cyber Networks Require Cyber Research Tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

We argue that new frameworks, tools, and techniques are needed to understand and maximize the benefits of emerging online social networks of K-12 educators (and students). We base our argument on conceptual and methodological obstacles inherent in existing research approaches that severely limit theory building and empirical exploration of learning in online social networks. We present preliminary data exploring bridgesnetwork

Mark S. Schlager; Umer Farooq; Judith Fusco; Patricia Schank; Nathan Dwyer

2008-01-01

62

GEOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS TOOL FOR HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH (GATHER)  

EPA Science Inventory

GATHER, Geographic Analysis Tool for Health and Environmental Research, is an online spatial data access system that provides members of the public health community and general public access to spatial data that is pertinent to the analysis and exploration of public health issues...

63

RESEARCH TOOLS KNMI CLIMATE EXPLORER: A WEB-BASED RESEARCH TOOL FOR  

E-print Network

-RESOLUTION PALEOCLIMATOLOGY VALERIE TROUET1 and GEERT JAN VAN OLDENBORGH2 * 1 Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University such as climate change research (van Oldenborgh et al. 2009) and the paleoclimate research community current- ly. Throughout this paper, we use an Atlas cedar (Cedrus atlantica)*Corresponding author: oldenborgh@knmi.nl TREE-RING

Haak, Hein

64

Directions for future research in project management: The main findings of a UK government-funded research network  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2003 the UKs Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) agreed to fund a research network Rethinking Project Management to define a research agenda aimed at enriching and extending the subject of project management beyond its current conceptual foundations. The main argument for the proposed Network highlighted the growing critiques of project management theory and the need for

Mark Winter; Charles Smith; Peter Morris; Svetlana Cicmil

2006-01-01

65

Main Effects Analysis in Clinical Research: Statistical Guidelines for Disaggregating Treatment Groups.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Treatment outcome research generally relies on main effects analysis of variance to determine whether treatments are differentially effective. There is reason to consider disaggregating main effects even when conditions of heterogeneity of variance are not violated. Potential statistical significance of disaggregation can be shown to be function

Lyons, John S.; Howard, Kenneth I.

1991-01-01

66

On the corrections of tropospheric refractive delay (II): The recent main research topics and progress  

Microsoft Academic Search

In addition to paper (I) (see Abstr. 64.082.050) which has summarized the basic concepts and research methods of the corrections of tropospheric refractive delay, the main research topics and activities as well as the new achievements nowadays on the field of the atmospheric refraction delays have been reviewed in this paper. Meanwhile, the primary features of these studies and the

Haojian Yan

1996-01-01

67

Environmental equity research: review with focus on outdoor air pollution research methods and analytic tools.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to review environmental equity research on outdoor air pollution and, specifically, methods and tools used in research, published in English, with the aim of recommending the best methods and analytic tools. English language publications from 2000 to 2012 were identified in Google Scholar, Ovid MEDLINE, and PubMed. Research methodologies and results were reviewed and potential deficiencies and knowledge gaps identified. The publications show that exposure to outdoor air pollution differs by social factors, but findings are inconsistent in Canada. In terms of study designs, most were small and ecological and therefore prone to the ecological fallacy. Newer tools such as geographic information systems, modeling, and biomarkers offer improved precision in exposure measurement. Higher-quality research using large, individual-based samples and more precise analytic tools are needed to provide better evidence for policy-making to reduce environmental inequities. PMID:24972259

Miao, Qun; Chen, Dongmei; Buzzelli, Michael; Aronson, Kristan J

2015-01-01

68

CaMKII inhibitors: from research tools to therapeutic agents  

PubMed Central

The cardiac field has benefited from the availability of several CaMKII inhibitors serving as research tools to test putative CaMKII pathways associated with cardiovascular physiology and pathophysiology. Successful demonstrations of its critical pathophysiological roles have elevated CaMKII as a key target in heart failure, arrhythmia, and other forms of heart disease. This has caught the attention of the pharmaceutical industry, which is now racing to develop CaMKII inhibitors as safe and effective therapeutic agents. While the first generation of CaMKII inhibitor development is focused on blocking its activity based on ATP binding to its catalytic site, future inhibitors can also target sites affecting its regulation by Ca2+/CaM or translocation to some of its protein substrates. The recent availability of crystal structures of the kinase in the autoinhibited and activated state, and of the dodecameric holoenzyme, provides insights into the mechanism of action of existing inhibitors. It is also accelerating the design and development of better pharmacological inhibitors. This review examines the structure of the kinase and suggests possible sites for its inhibition. It also analyzes the uses and limitations of current research tools. Development of new inhibitors will enable preclinical proof of concept tests and clinical development of successful lead compounds, as well as improved research tools to more accurately examine and extend knowledge of the role of CaMKII in cardiac health and disease. PMID:24600394

Pellicena, Patricia; Schulman, Howard

2014-01-01

69

The Second Life Researcher Toolkit - An Exploration of Inworld Tools, Methods and Approaches for Researching Educational Projects in Second Life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Academics are beginning to explore the educational potential of Second LifeTM (SL) by setting up inworld educational activities and projects. Given the relative novelty of the use of virtual world environments in higher education many such projects are still at pilot stage. However the initial pilot and experimentation stage will have to be followed by a rigorous evaluation process as for more traditional teaching projects. The chapter addresses issues about SL research tools and research methods. It introduces a "researcher toolkit" that includes: the various stages in the evaluation of SL educational projects and the theoretical framework that can inform such projects; an outline of the inworld tools that can be utilised or customised for academic research purposes; a review of methods for collecting feedback from participants and of the main ethical issues involved in researching virtual world environments; a discussion on the technical skills required to operate a research project in SL. The chapter also offers an indication of the inworld opportunities for the dissemination of SL research findings.

Moschini, Elena

70

Scientific research tools as an aid to Antarctic logistics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Logistics have always been a vital part of polar exploration and research. The more efficient those logistics can be made, the greater the likelihood that research programmes will be delivered on time, safely and to maximum scientific effectiveness. Over the last decade, the potential for symbiosis between logistics and some of the scientific research methods themselves, has increased remarkably; suites of scientific tools can help to optimise logistic efforts, thereby enhancing the effectiveness of further scientific activity. We present one recent example of input to logistics from scientific activities, in support of the NERC iSTAR Programme, a major ice sheet research effort in West Antarctica. We used data output from a number of research tools, spanning a range of techniques and international agencies, to support the deployment of a tractor-traverse system into a remote area of mainland Antarctica. The tractor system was deployed from RRS Ernest Shackleton onto the Abbot Ice Shelf then driven inland to the research area in Pine Island Glacier Data from NASA ICEBRIDGE were used to determine the ice-front freeboard and surface gradients for the traverse route off the ice shelf and onwards into the continent. Quickbird high resolution satellite imagery provided clear images of route track and some insight into snow surface roughness. Polarview satellite data gave sea ice information in the Amundsen Sea, both the previous multi-annual historical characteristics and for real-time information during deployment. Likewise meteorological data contributed historical and information and was used during deployment. Finally, during the tractors' inland journey, ground-based high frequency radar was used to determine a safe, crevasse-free route.

Dinn, Michael; Rose, Mike; Smith, Andrew; Fleming, Andrew; Garrod, Simon

2013-04-01

71

The Research Tools of the Virtual Astronomical Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomy is being transformed by the vast quantities of data, models, and simulations that are becoming available to astronomers at an ever-accelerating rate. The U.S. Virtual Astronomical Observatory (VAO) has been funded to provide an operational facility that is intended to be a resource for discovery and access of data, and to provide science services that use these data. Over the course of the past year, the VAO has been developing and releasing for community use five science tools: 1) "Iris", for dynamically building and analyzing spectral energy distributions, 2) a web-based data discovery tool that allows astronomers to identify and retrieve catalog, image, and spectral data on sources of interest, 3) a scalable cross-comparison service that allows astronomers to conduct pair-wise positional matches between very large catalogs stored remotely as well as between remote and local catalogs, 4) time series tools that allow astronomers to compute periodograms of the public data held at the NASA Star and Exoplanet Database (NStED) and the Harvard Time Series Center, and 5) A VO-aware release of the Image Reduction and Analysis Facility (IRAF) that provides transparent access to VO-available data collections and is SAMP-enabled, so that IRAF users can easily use tools such as Aladin and Topcat in conjuction with IRAF tasks. Additional VAO services will be built to make it easy for researchers to provide access to their data in VO-compliant ways, to build VO-enabled custom applications in Python, and to respond generally to the growing size and complexity of astronomy data. Acknowledgements: The Virtual Astronomical Observatory (VAO) is managed by the VAO, LLC, a non-profit company established as a partnership of the Associated Universities, Inc. and the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. The VAO is sponsored by the National Science Foundation and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

Hanisch, Robert J.; Berriman, G. B.; Lazio, T. J.; Project, VAO

2013-01-01

72

Research gaps for three main tropical diseases in the People's Republic of China.  

PubMed

This scoping review analyzes the research gaps of three diseases: schistosomiasis japonica, malaria and echinococcosis. Based on available data in the P.R. China, we highlight the gaps between control capacity and prevalence levels, and between diagnostic/drug development and population need for treatment at different stages of the national control programme. After reviewing the literature from 848 original studies and consultations with experts in the field, the gaps were identified as follows. Firstly, the malaria research gaps include (i) deficiency of active testing in the public community and no appropriate technique to evaluate elimination, (ii) lack of sensitive diagnostic tools for asymptomatic patients, (iii) lack of safe drugs for mass administration. Secondly, gaps in research of schistosomiasis include (i) incongruent policy in the implementation of integrated control strategy for schistosomiasis, (ii) lack of effective tools for Oncomelania sp. snail control, (iii) lack of a more sensitive and cheaper diagnostic test for large population samples, (iv) lack of new drugs in addition to praziquantel. Thirdly, gaps in research of echinococcosis include (i) low capacity in field epidemiology studies, (ii) lack of sanitation improvement studies in epidemic areas, (iii) lack of a sensitivity test for early diagnosis, (iv) lack of more effective drugs for short-term treatment. We believe these three diseases can eventually be eliminated in mainland China if all the research gaps are abridged in a short period of time. PMID:23895635

Zheng, Qi; Vanderslott, Samantha; Jiang, Bin; Xu, Li-Li; Liu, Cong-Shan; Huo, Le-Le; Duan, Li-Ping; Wu, Ning-Bo; Li, Shi-Zhu; Xia, Zhi-Gui; Wu, Wei-Ping; Hu, Wei; Zhang, Hao-Bing

2013-01-01

73

Research gaps for three main tropical diseases in the Peoples Republic of China  

PubMed Central

This scoping review analyzes the research gaps of three diseases: schistosomiasis japonica, malaria and echinococcosis. Based on available data in the P.R. China, we highlight the gaps between control capacity and prevalence levels, and between diagnostic/drug development and population need for treatment at different stages of the national control programme. After reviewing the literature from 848 original studies and consultations with experts in the field, the gaps were identified as follows. Firstly, the malaria research gaps include (i) deficiency of active testing in the public community and no appropriate technique to evaluate elimination, (ii) lack of sensitive diagnostic tools for asymptomatic patients, (iii) lack of safe drugs for mass administration. Secondly, gaps in research of schistosomiasis include (i) incongruent policy in the implementation of integrated control strategy for schistosomiasis, (ii) lack of effective tools for Oncomelania sp. snail control, (iii) lack of a more sensitive and cheaper diagnostic test for large population samples, (iv) lack of new drugs in addition to praziquantel. Thirdly, gaps in research of echinococcosis include (i) low capacity in field epidemiology studies, (ii) lack of sanitation improvement studies in epidemic areas, (iii) lack of a sensitivity test for early diagnosis, (iv) lack of more effective drugs for short-term treatment. We believe these three diseases can eventually be eliminated in mainland China if all the research gaps are abridged in a short period of time. PMID:23895635

2013-01-01

74

Research pressure instrumentation for NASA Space Shuttle main engine, modification no. 5  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research concerning the development of pressure instrumentation for the space shuttle main engine is reported. The following specific topics were addressed: (1) transducer design and materials, (2) silicon piezoresistor characterization at cryogenic temperatures, (3) chip mounting characterization, and (4) frequency response optimization.

Anderson, P. J.; Nussbaum, P.; Gustafson, G.

1984-01-01

75

Research pressure instrumentation for NASA Space Shuttle main engine, modification no. 6  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research concerning the utilization of silicon piezoresistive strain sensing technology for space shuttle main engine applications is reported. The following specific topics were addressed: (1) transducer design and materials, (2) silicon piezoresistor characterization at cryogenic temperatures, (3) chip mounting characterization, and (4) frequency response optimization.

Anderson, P. J.; Johnson, R. L.

1984-01-01

76

MAIN RESEARCH ARTICLE Ectopic pregnancy: using the hCG ratio to select women  

E-print Network

MAIN RESEARCH ARTICLE Ectopic pregnancy: using the hCG ratio to select women for expectant GEVAERT2 , SABINE VAN HUFFEL2 , BART DE MOOR2 , DIRK TIMMERMAN5 & TOM BOURNE5,6 1 Early Pregnancy (ESAT-SCD), Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium, 3 Early Pregnancy Unit and Advanced Endosurgery

77

High School Accreditation in Maine: Perceptions of Costs and Benefits. Penquis Superintendents' Association Research Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents the findings of an exploratory study conducted by the Center for Research and Evaluation during the summer and fall of 2009, which focuses on perceptions of the costs and benefits of the accreditation process for high schools in Maine. The study was commissioned by the Penquis Superintendents' Association, a professional

Fairman, Janet; Peirce, Brenda; Harris, Walter

2009-01-01

78

Main Trends of Research in the Social and Human Sciences, Part 1: Social Sciences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume is the result of a study, initiated by United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), to report on the main trends of social sciences research, not on the results achieved. Part I contains an examination of the present state and perspectives for development of the disciplines of sociology (Lazarsfeld),

United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

79

STEAM ENHANCED REMEDIATION RESEARCH FOR DNAPL IN FRACTURED ROCK, LORING AIR FORCE BASE, LIMESTONE, MAINE  

EPA Science Inventory

This report details a research project on Steam Enhanced Remediation (SER) for the recovery of volatile organic compounds from fractured limestone that was carried out at the Quarry at the former Loring Air Force Base in Limestone, Maine. This project was carried out by USEPA, Ma...

80

Collaborative decision process support tools from global change research  

SciTech Connect

Global change research attempts to develop a predictive understanding of ecosystems, especially their response to a host of anthropogenic stressors. In particular, the forest Service component of this program is concerned with how forest and related ecosystems should be managed in view of this understanding. Collaboration among scientists, managers and resource stakeholders is a key requirement for achieving improved management. This paper discusses a set of tools currently under development, that are capable of assisting people in conducting collaborative decision processes. It reviews recent advances in collaborative GIS techniques, describes an application of collaborative GIS with the Arapaho-Roosevelt National Forest, and discusses future development efforts.

Fox, D.G. [Forest Service, Fort Collins, CO (United States). Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station; Faber, B.G. [CIESIN/TERRA, Fort Collins, CO (United States)

1995-12-31

81

Tissue fluid pressures - From basic research tools to clinical applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes clinical applications of two basic research tools developed and refined in the past 20 years: the wick catheter (for measuring tissue fluid pressure) and the colloid osmometer (for measuring osmotic pressure). Applications of the osmometer include estimations of the reduced osmotic pressure of sickle-cell hemoglobin with deoxygenation, and of reduced swelling pressure of human nucleus pulposus with hydration or upon action of certain enzymes. Clinical uses of the wick-catheter technique include an improvement of diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic compartment syndromes, the elucidation of the tissue pressure thresholds for neuromuscular dysfunction, and the development of a better tourniquet for orthopedics.

Hargens, Alan R.; Akeson, Wayne H.; Mubarak, Scott J.; Owen, Charles A.; Gershuni, David H.

1989-01-01

82

Vaccinia Virus: A Tool for Research and Vaccine Development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vaccinia virus is no longer needed for smallpox immunization, but now serves as a useful vector for expressing genes within the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. As a research tool, recombinant vaccinia viruses are used to synthesize biologically active proteins and analyze structure-function relations, determine the targets of humoral- and cell-mediated immunity, and investigate the immune responses needed for protection against specific infectious diseases. When more data on safety and efficacy are available, recombinant vaccinia and related poxviruses may be candidates for live vaccines and for cancer immunotherapy.

Moss, Bernard

1991-06-01

83

MRC: Research Tools and Skills Grade 3-5  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lesson about research tools and skills. Learners will explore the features of Mars through a demonstration of Google Earth Mars, gather, and analyze data from multiple sources on the internet as well as print sources, develop and use strategies for reading informational text to systematically find information, understand that Earth and Mars have similar geological features. The lesson uses the 5E instructional model and includes: TEKS Details (Texas Standards alignment), Essential Question, Science Notebook, Vocabulary Definitions for Students, Vocabulary Definitions for Teachers, two Vocabulary Cards, and a reading strategy supplement. This is lesson 3 as part of the Mars Rover Celebration Unit, a six week long curriculum.

2014-02-28

84

Analysis of Cross-Disciplinary Research Through Bibliometric Tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of interdisciplinarity in science is presented from the point of view of quantitative studies of science. The main objectives pursued and methodologies used in publications on cross-disciplinary research are pointed out, as well as the most relevant results obtained. The study of cross-disciplinary collaboration between authors, co-classification analysis, interdisciplinary nature of publication journals and cross-disciplinary references and\\/or citations

Mara Bordons; Fernanda Morillo; Isabel Gmez

85

Researchers develop new search tool to help fight child porn, catch cyber  

E-print Network

Researchers develop new search tool to help fight child porn, catch cyber thieves Canada Standard a comment... Post to Facebook 0 0 New #12;Researchers develop new search tool to help fight child porn

Fung, Benjamin C. M.

86

Data Ferret: Federal Electronic Research and Review Extraction Tool  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This new service of the US Census Bureau allows researchers to extract information from the Current Population Surveys March 1995 and 1996 supplements and CPS Displaced Workers 1996 data. For CPS March supplements, pre-formatted macrodata tables are available in nine categories at present, including health insurance, family income, and poverty. But the real power of the site, especially for researchers, is the ability to query and extract microdata records from both datasets, and either view this microdata or download it as ASCII text (user's choice as to delimiter format), with crosstabs or frequencies, or as SAS datasets. Presently available datasets are just the beginning of what will be a much larger searchable statistics database, and "FERRET will be one of the tools in the Census Bureau's Data Access and Dissemination System (DADS)," a data retrieval system "being developed to provide better access to all census data." Note that users must supply an email address before using the system.

87

Article A10.4 Introduction to the Research Tools Mind Map  

E-print Network

) Compare resources: Top 30 Web Tools to Search, 100 Useful Tips and Tools to Research the Deep Web (g do their work efficiently. It is assembled as an interactive Web-based mind map, titled Research Adcenter Lab, keyword density analyser, Free Keyword Tool (c) Find research materials: Web of Science

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

88

Intellectual Property: a powerful tool to develop biotech research  

PubMed Central

Summary Today biotechnology is perhaps the most important technology field because of the strong health and food implications. However, due to the nature of said technology, there is the need of a huge amount of investments to sustain the experimentation costs. Consequently, investors aim to safeguard as much as possible their investments. Intellectual Property, and in particular patents, has been demonstrated to actually constitute a powerful tool to help them. Moreover, patents represent an extremely important means to disclose biotechnology inventions. Patentable biotechnology inventions involve products as nucleotide and amino acid sequences, microorganisms, processes or methods for modifying said products, uses for the manufacture of medicaments, etc. There are several ways to protect inventions, but all follow the three main patentability requirements: novelty, inventive step and industrial application. PMID:21255349

Giugni, Diego; Giugni, Valter

2010-01-01

89

NASA Human Research Wiki - An Online Collaboration Tool  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In preparation for exploration-class missions, the Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) element of NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) has compiled a large evidence base, which previously was available only to persons within the NASA community. The evidence base is comprised of several types of data, for example: information on more than 80 medical conditions which could occur during space flight, derived from several sources (including data on incidence and potential outcomes of these medical conditions, as captured in the Integrated Medical Model's Clinical Finding Forms). In addition, approximately 35 gap reports are included in the evidence base, identifying current understanding of the medical challenges for exploration, as well as any gaps in knowledge and/or technology that would need to be addressed in order to provide adequate medical support for these novel missions. In an effort to make the ExMC information available to the general public and increase collaboration with subject matter experts within and outside of NASA, ExMC has developed an online collaboration tool, very similar to a wiki, titled the NASA Human Research Wiki. The platform chosen for this data sharing, and the potential collaboration it could generate, is a MediaWiki-based application that would house the evidence, allow "read only" access to all visitors to the website, and editorial access to credentialed subject matter experts who have been approved by the Wiki's editorial board. Although traditional wikis allow users to edit information in real time, the NASA Human Research Wiki includes a peer review process to ensure quality and validity of information. The wiki is also intended to be a pathfinder project for other HRP elements that may want to use this type of web-based tool. The wiki website will be released with a subset of the data described and will continue to be populated throughout the year.

Barr, Y. R.; Rasbury, J.; Johnson, J.; Barsten, K.; Saile, L.; Watkins, S. D.

2011-01-01

90

Technology, safety, and costs of decommissioning reference nuclear research and test reactors. Main report  

SciTech Connect

Safety and Cost Information is developed for the conceptual decommissioning of two representative licensed nuclear research and test reactors. Three decommissioning alternatives are studied to obtain comparisons between costs (in 1981 dollars), occupational radiation doses, potential radiation dose to the public, and other safety impacts. The alternatives considered are: DECON (immediate decontamination), SAFSTOR (safe storage followed by deferred decontamination), and ENTOMB (entombment). The study results are presented in two volumes. Volume 1 (Main Report) contains the results in summary form.

Konzek, G.J.; Ludwick, J.D.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Smith, R.I.

1982-03-01

91

The Canadian Light Source A new tool for industrial research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As applied research moves into the 21st century, industry is discovering that traditional analytical techniques are not answering all of their questions. For example, new materials are being developed daily that may have significantly different properties but are chemical indistinguishable using current analysis techniques. It is important for industry to understand these differences and develop those unique properties into a new product. Therefore, today, industry is turning to new tools to shed light on old and new questions. The Canadian Light Source Inc. has assembled an industrial science team and business development office to make synchrotron-based techniques available to pay-for-service clients which range from academia to industry. Since 2000, the industrial science group has conducted approximately 60 projects with a majority coming from the environmental sector with marked increases in the life science sector. In the future, the demand for full client services at synchrotron sources will increase as facilities develop client-friendly access mechanisms.

Cutler, J. N.; Christensen, C.; Kotzer, T. G.; Ogunremi, T.; Pushparajah, T.; Warner, J.

2007-08-01

92

Concept Mapping as a Research Tool to Evaluate Conceptual Change Related to Instructional Methods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Concept maps are commonly used in a variety of educational settings as a learning aid or instructional tool. Additionally, their potential as a research tool has been recognized. This article defines features of concept maps, describes the use of pre- and postconcept maps as a research tool, and offers a protocol for employing concept maps as an

Miller, Kevin J.; Koury, Kevin A.; Fitzgerald, Gail E.; Hollingsead, Candice; Mitchem, Katherine J.; Tsai, Hui-Hsien; Park, Meeaeng Ko

2009-01-01

93

Voice recognition technology as a tool for behavioral research.  

PubMed

Behavioral research often requires the acquisition and processing of large volumes of data. Most current techniques for recording behavior constrain the amount and type of data that can be measured. We developed and tested a system that uses voice recognition technology to collect data on the social interactions and singing patterns of cowbirds (Molothrus ater) living outdoors in a semi-natural environment. We spoke observation data into a wireless microphone that transmitted the data to a computer in the laboratory. After collection, the data were automatically checked for errors and then were entered into a database. Overall, the system performed at extremely high levels of accuracy. Furthermore, owing to the removal of constraints on observers such as breaking visual contact with subjects and manual data entry into a database, we were able to increase the amount of data collected and to collect new measures of social interactions that have not been available to us in the past. We tested the system under the challenging circumstances of field observation, and it performed above our expectations. In a laboratory setting, if transmission difficulties are removed, voice recognition could be even more accurate. We recommend voice recognition as a powerful new tool for the variety of research fields in which measuring behavior is involved. PMID:12060983

White, David J; King, Andrew P; Duncan, Shan D

2002-02-01

94

Haystack, a web-based tool for metabolomics research  

PubMed Central

Background Liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LCMS) has become a widely used technique in metabolomics research for differential profiling, the broad screening of biomolecular constituents across multiple samples to diagnose phenotypic differences and elucidate relevant features. However, a significant limitation in LCMS-based metabolomics is the high-throughput data processing required for robust statistical analysis and data modeling for large numbers of samples with hundreds of unique chemical species. Results To address this problem, we developed Haystack, a web-based tool designed to visualize, parse, filter, and extract significant features from LCMS datasets rapidly and efficiently. Haystack runs in a browser environment with an intuitive graphical user interface that provides both display and data processing options. Total ion chromatograms (TICs) and base peak chromatograms (BPCs) are automatically displayed, along with time-resolved mass spectra and extracted ion chromatograms (EICs) over any mass range. Output files in the common .csv format can be saved for further statistical analysis or customized graphing. Haystack's core function is a flexible binning procedure that converts the mass dimension of the chromatogram into a set of interval variables that can uniquely identify a sample. Binned mass data can be analyzed by exploratory methods such as principal component analysis (PCA) to model class assignment and identify discriminatory features. The validity of this approach is demonstrated by comparison of a dataset from plants grown at two light conditions with manual and automated peak detection methods. Haystack successfully predicted class assignment based on PCA and cluster analysis, and identified discriminatory features based on analysis of EICs of significant bins. Conclusion Haystack, a new online tool for rapid processing and analysis of LCMS-based metabolomics data is described. It offers users a range of data visualization options and supports non-biased differential profiling studies through a unique and flexible binning function that provides an alternative to conventional peak deconvolution analysis methods. PMID:25350247

2014-01-01

95

Science in the Eyes of Preschool Children: Findings from an Innovative Research Tool  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

How do young children view science? Do these views reflect cultural stereotypes? When do these views develop? These fundamental questions in the field of science education have rarely been studied with the population of preschool children. One main reason is the lack of an appropriate research instrument that addresses preschool children's developmental competencies. Extensive body of research has pointed at the significance of early childhood experiences in developing positive attitudes and interests toward learning in general and the learning of science in particular. Theoretical and empirical research suggests that stereotypical views of science may be replaced by authentic views following inquiry science experience. However, no preschool science intervention program could be designed without a reliable instrument that provides baseline information about preschool children's current views of science. The current study presents preschool children's views of science as gathered from a pioneering research tool. This tool, in the form of a computer "game," does not require reading, writing, or expressive language skills and is operated by the children. The program engages children in several simple tasks involving picture recognition and yes/no answers in order to reveal their views about science. The study was conducted with 120 preschool children in two phases and found that by the age of 4 years, participants possess an emergent concept of science. Gender and school differences were detected. Findings from this interdisciplinary study will contribute to the fields of early childhood, science education, learning technologies, program evaluation, and early childhood curriculum development.

Dubosarsky, Mia D.

96

IT Tools for Teachers and Scientists, Created by Undergraduate Researchers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interns in the Southern California Earthquake Center/Undergraduate Studies in Earthquake Information Technology (SCEC/UseIT) program conduct computer science research for the benefit of earthquake scientists and have created products in growing use within the SCEC education and research communities. SCEC/UseIT comprises some twenty undergraduates who combine their varied talents and academic backgrounds to achieve a Grand Challenge that is formulated around needs of SCEC scientists and educators and that reflects the value SCEC places on the integration of computer science and the geosciences. In meeting the challenge, students learn to work on multidisciplinary teams and to tackle complex problems with no guaranteed solutions. Meantime, their efforts bring fresh perspectives and insight to the professionals with whom they collaborate, and consistently produces innovative, useful tools for research and education. The 2007 Grand Challenge was to design and prototype serious games to communicate important earthquake science concepts. Interns broke themselves into four game teams, the Educational Game, the Training Game, the Mitigation Game and the Decision-Making Game, and created four diverse games with topics from elementary plate tectonics to earthquake risk mitigation, with intended players ranging from elementary students to city planners. The games were designed to be versatile, to accommodate variation in the knowledge base of the player; and extensible, to accommodate future additions. The games are played on a web browser or from within SCEC-VDO (Virtual Display of Objects). SCEC-VDO, also engineered by UseIT interns, is a 4D, interactive, visualization software that enables integration and exploration of datasets and models such as faults, earthquake hypocenters and ruptures, digital elevation models, satellite imagery, global isochrons, and earthquake prediction schemes. SCEC-VDO enables the user to create animated movies during a session, and is now part of a multi-media, general education curriculum at University of Southern California. Throughout this meeting, at the SCEC booth, UseIT interns will be demonstrating both the serious games and SCEC-VDO. SCEC/UseIT is a National Science Foundation Research Experience for Undergraduates site.

Millar, A. Z.; Perry, S.

2007-12-01

97

Research on visual collaborative design platform for CNC machine tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

Building the virtual visual design platform is the basis to implement collaborative design for NC machine tools. The platform constructed the globally shared information model based on the STEP Standard, and used PDM system to integrate and encapsulate CAD\\/CAE and other application software for the product development. The platform also integrated the expert system of NC machine tools design, analysis

Hong-wu Ye; Ru-fu Hu

2008-01-01

98

Workplace Basic Skills Assessment Tools. Library Research Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined the relationships between the skills measured by basic skills assessment tools and the competencies that U.S. employers desire of their hourly employees. The basic skills desired by employers were identified through a literature review. Tools for assessing adult basic/employability skills that are currently available from a total

Grace, Evelyn Southwood

99

Is research working for you? validating a tool to examine the capacity of health organizations to use research  

PubMed Central

Background 'Is research working for you? A self-assessment tool and discussion guide for health services management and policy organizations', developed by the Canadian Health Services Research Foundation, is a tool that can help organizations understand their capacity to acquire, assess, adapt, and apply research. Objectives were to: determine whether the tool demonstrated response variability; describe how the tool differentiated between organizations that were known to be lower-end or higher-end research users; and describe the potential usability of the tool. Methods Thirty-two focus groups were conducted among four sectors of Canadian health organizations. In the first hour of the focus group, participants individually completed the tool and then derived a group consensus ranking on items. In the second hour, the facilitator asked about overall impressions of the tool, to identify insights that emerged during the review of items on the tool and to elicit comments on research utilization. Discussion data were analyzed qualitatively, and individual and consensus item scores were analyzed using descriptive and non-parametric statistics. Results The tool demonstrated good usability and strong response variability. Differences between higher-end and lower-end research use organizations on scores suggested that this tool has adequate discriminant validity. The group discussion based on the tool was the more useful aspect of the exercise, rather than the actual score assigned. Conclusion The tool can serve as a catalyst for an important discussion about research use at the organizational level; such a discussion, in and of itself, demonstrates potential as an intervention to encourage processes and supports for research translation. PMID:19627601

Kothari, Anita; Edwards, Nancy; Hamel, Nadia; Judd, Maria

2009-01-01

100

Dynamic Visual Acuity: a Functionally Relevant Research Tool  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Coordinated movements between the eyes and head are required to maintain a stable retinal image during head and body motion. The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) plays a significant role in this gaze control system that functions well for most daily activities. However, certain environmental conditions or interruptions in normal VOR function can lead to inadequate ocular compensation, resulting in oscillopsia, or blurred vision. It is therefore possible to use acuity to determine when the environmental conditions, VOR function, or the combination of the two is not conductive for maintaining clear vision. Over several years we have designed and tested several tests of dynamic visual acuity (DVA). Early tests used the difference between standing and walking acuity to assess decrements in the gaze stabilization system after spaceflight. Supporting ground-based studies measured the responses from patients with bilateral vestibular dysfunction and explored the effects of visual target viewing distance and gait cycle events on walking acuity. Results from these studies show that DVA is affected by spaceflight, is degraded in patients with vestibular dysfunction, changes with target distance, and is not consistent across the gait cycle. We have recently expanded our research to include studies in which seated subjects are translated or rotated passively. Preliminary results from this work indicate that gaze stabilization ability may differ between similar active and passive conditions, may change with age, and can be affected by the location of the visual target with respect to the axis of motion. Use of DVA as a diagnostic tool is becoming more popular but the functional nature of the acuity outcome measure also makes it ideal for identifying conditions that could lead to degraded vision. By doing so, steps can be taken to alter the problematic environments to improve the man-machine interface and optimize performance.

Peters, Brian T.; Brady, Rachel A.; Miller, Chris A.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Wood, Scott J.; Cohen, Helen S.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

2010-01-01

101

Tools  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The goal of the lesson is not for students to learn what the simple machines are, even though this is an underlying theme. Students will approach the lesson in a much more open-minded fashion. They will discuss tools and how they function. This will naturally lead to acknowledgment of how tools make our lives easier. By categorizing everyday items, students will come to understand the natural functions of tools. This base of knowledge will lead into exercises and discussions about how complex machines are a conglomerate of simpler tools and motions, as well as how tools have changed and become more sophisticated throughout history. At the end of the lesson to reemphasize the importance of tools in human society, students will write a paper in which they imagine a world without a particular tool.

Science Netlinks

2005-06-13

102

Edinburgh Research Explorer Design and Development of Software Tools for Bio-PEPA  

E-print Network

Edinburgh Research Explorer Design and Development of Software Tools for Bio-PEPA Citation of Software Tools for Bio-PEPA'. in Proceedings of the Winter Simulation Conference 2009. ACM, pp. 956 AND DEVELOPMENT OF SOFTWARE TOOLS FOR BIO-PEPA Adam Duguid Stephen Gilmore Maria Luisa Guerriero School

Millar, Andrew J.

103

Improving Students' Understanding of Quantum Measurement. II. Development of Research-Based Learning Tools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We describe the development and implementation of research-based learning tools such as the Quantum Interactive Learning Tutorials and peer-instruction tools to reduce students' common difficulties with issues related to measurement in quantum mechanics. A preliminary evaluation shows that these learning tools are effective in improving students'

Zhu, Guangtian; Singh, Chandralekha

2012-01-01

104

Online Tools for Evaluating Patient Change: Statistical Foundations, Clinical Applications, Research Relevance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To present Internet-based tools for evaluating whether meaningful change has occurred in individual patients across time. These tools were developed to make empirically based analyses of clinical change readily available to clinicians and clinical researchers. Method: Tools were developed on the basis of 4 statistical paradigms, including (a) the Reliable Change Index, (b) the Reliable Change Index with an

Richard H. Bost; Frances K. Wen; Michael R. Basso; Gerald R. Cates

2008-01-01

105

Physics Education Research at the Upper Division at the University of Maine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Researchers from the University of Maine Physics Education Research Laboratory are conducting several investigations of the learning and teaching of physics beyond the introductory level. Content topics include intermediate mechanics, electronics, thermodynamics and statistical mechanics. One focus of our work is the identification and addressing of specific student difficulties with topics such as damped harmonic motion, bipolar junction transistor (BJT) circuits, work, entropy, and the Boltzmann factor. Student understanding and use of the underlying mathematics has been one important emerging theme, including definite integrals, partial derivatives, and linear differential equations. Recent work in mechanics has focused on understanding the interplay of mathematical and physical reasoning when describing damped harmonic motion, including framing and representational issues. In electronics, there has been an ongoing investigation of student understanding of the behavior of basic BJT follower and amplifier circuits as well as related issues of signal and bias. In thermal physics, student understanding of state functions, heat engines and the Carnot cycle, the First and Second Laws of thermodynamics, and the macroscopic and microscopic perspectives on entropy have been investigated. The greater content sophistication in these courses has drawn attention to the specific needs, constraints, and advantages of instructional materials tailored to the upper division. Future directions include more attention to interdisciplinary topics across mathematics, physics, and engineering in particular, as well as metacognition in the laboratory.

Thompson, John

2013-04-01

106

Purdue study finds "label-free" imaging tool tracks nanotubes in cells, blood for biomedical research:  

Cancer.gov

Purdue University researchers have demonstrated a new imaging tool for tracking structures called carbon nanotubes in living cells and the bloodstream, which could aid efforts to perfect their use in biomedical research and clinical medicine.

107

Software Tools to Support Research on Airport Departure Planning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A simple, portable and useful collection of software tools has been developed for the analysis of airport surface traffic. The tools are based on a flexible and robust traffic-flow model, and include calibration, validation and simulation functionality for this model. Several different interfaces have been developed to help promote usage of these tools, including a portable Matlab(TM) implementation of the basic algorithms; a web-based interface which provides online access to automated analyses of airport traffic based on a database of real-world operations data which covers over 250 U.S. airports over a 5-year period; and an interactive simulation-based tool currently in use as part of a college-level educational module. More advanced applications for airport departure traffic include taxi-time prediction and evaluation of "windowing" congestion control.

Carr, Francis; Evans, Antony; Feron, Eric; Clarke, John-Paul

2003-01-01

108

GENOME RESOURCES AND COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS TOOLS FOR CARDIOVASCULAR RESEARCH  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Disorders of the cardiovascular (CV) system are often caused by the interaction of genetic and environmental factors that jointly contribute to individual susceptibility. Genomic data and bioinformatics tools generated from genome projects, coupled with functional verification, offer novel approache...

109

METABOLOMICS AS A DIAGNOSTIC TOOL FOR SMALL FISH TOXICOLOGY RESEARCH  

EPA Science Inventory

Metabolomics involves the application of advanced analytical and statistical tools to profile changes in levels of endogenous metabolites in tissues and biofluids resulting from disease onset or stress. While certain metabolites are being specifically targeted in these studies, w...

110

The Critical Incident Technique: A Tool for Qualitative Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares qualitative and quantitative methods. Proposes critical incident technique as an appropriate tool for workplace and classroom settings. Describes its components, including interview techniques, coding of interview themes, data analysis, and drawing conclusions. (Contains 28 references.) (SK)

Redmann, Donna H.; Stitt-Gohdes, Wanda L.; Lambrecht, Judith J.

2000-01-01

111

Towards a Tool for Characterizing the Progression of Academic Research  

E-print Network

The importance of process in successful and effective technology and product development is widely recognized in industry. Tools, such as Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs) and various metrics, have been developed and ...

Leong, Ming

2011-01-01

112

Research Tool Patents--Rumours of their Death are Greatly Exaggerated  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a patented drug during clinical trials is not infringement [35 U.S.C. 271(e)(1)]. Merck v Integra enlarged this "safe harbour" to accommodate preclinical use of drugs and patented "research tools" if "reasonably related" to FDA approval. The decision allowed lower courts, should they wish, to find any use of a research tool, except for

Carroll, Peter G.; Roberts, John S.

2006-01-01

113

CORE SIM: A multi-purpose neutronic tool for research and education Christophe Demazire  

E-print Network

CORE SIM: A multi-purpose neutronic tool for research and education Christophe Demazière Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Applied Physics, Division of Nuclear Engineering, SE-412 96 suited for research and education. Some of the many benchmark cases used to validate the tool are briefly

Demazière, Christophe

114

SSB Training: SSB Basic Querying Tools Self Service Banner Finance Queries for Grants/Sponsored Research  

E-print Network

SSB Training: SSB Basic Querying Tools Self Service Banner Finance Queries for Grants you are logged into Trailhead. Revision Date: 11/01/2013 #12;SSB Training: SSB Basic Querying Tools From the Main menu you can access the Personal Information, Employee and Finance menus: 4. Click

115

Advances in the Research and Development of Natural Health Products as Main Stream Cancer Therapeutics  

PubMed Central

Natural health products (NHPs) are defined as natural extracts containing polychemical mixtures; they play a leading role in the discovery and development of drugs, for disease treatment. More than 50% of current cancer therapeutics are derived from natural sources. However, the efficacy of natural extracts in treating cancer has not been explored extensively. Scientific research into the validity and mechanism of action of these products is needed to develop NHPs as main stream cancer therapy. The preclinical and clinical validation of NHPs would be essential for this development. This review summarizes some of the recent advancements in the area of NHPs with anticancer effects. This review also focuses on various NHPs that have been studied to scientifically validate their claims as anticancer agents. Furthermore, this review emphasizes the efficacy of these NHPs in targeting the multiple vulnerabilities of cancer cells for a more selective efficacious treatment. The studies reviewed here have paved the way for the introduction of more NHPs from traditional medicine to the forefront of modern medicine, in order to provide alternative, safer, and cheaper complementary treatments for cancer therapy and possibly improve the quality of life of cancer patients.

Ovadje, Pamela; Roma, Alessia; Steckle, Matthew; Nicoletti, Leah; Arnason, John Thor; Pandey, Siyaram

2015-01-01

116

"Mythbusters": A Tool for Teaching Research Methods in Psychology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Mythbusters" uses multiple research methods to test interesting topics, offering research methods students an entertaining review of course material. To test the effectiveness of "Mythbusters" clips in a psychology research methods course, we systematically selected and showed 4 clips. Students answered questions about the clips, offered their

Burkley, Edward; Burkley, Melissa

2009-01-01

117

Tools for Monitoring Social Media: A Marketing Research Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Knowledge of how to effectively monitor social media is an increasingly valued marketing research skill. This study tests an approach for adding social media content to an undergraduate marketing research class team project. The revised project maintains the expected objectives and parameters of a traditional research project, while integrating

Veeck, Ann; Hoger, Beth

2014-01-01

118

Sandmark--A Tool for Software Protection Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sandmark is a tool that measures the effectiveness of software-based methods for protecting software from piracy, tampering, and reverse engineering. The Sandmark team's goal is to develop techniques that will let users determine empirically which algorithms have the least performance overhead and the highest resilience to attacks.

Christian S. Collberg; Ginger Myles; Andrew Huntwork

2003-01-01

119

Exploiting the Brachypodium Tool Box in cereal and grass research  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

It is now a decade since Brachypodium distachyon was suggested as a model species for temperate grasses and cereals. Since then transformation protocols, large expressed sequence tag (EST) populations, tools for forward and reverse genetic screens, highly refined cytogenetic probes, germplasm coll...

120

Specially Made for Science: Researchers Develop Online Tools For Collaborations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Blogs, wikis, and social-networking sites such as Facebook may get media buzz these days, but for scientists, engineers, and doctors, they are not even on the radar. The most effective tools of the Internet for such people tend to be efforts more narrowly aimed at their needs, such as software that helps geneticists replicate one another's

Guterman, Lila

2008-01-01

121

Life-cycle engineering: issues, tools and research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Life-cycle engineering (LCE) is a decision-making methodology that considers performance, environmental and cost requirements for the duration of a product. This methodology is becoming a norm for global companies that want to remain competitive. To facilitate and enhance the application of LCE methodology to industrial products, a number of computer tools or utilities that require minimal user input, and hence

W. Wanyama; A. Ertas; H.-C. Zhang; S. Ekwaro-osire

2003-01-01

122

Research SummaryForest Research Engaging with rivers: using imaginative and creative approaches as a learning tool  

E-print Network

Research SummaryForest Research Engaging with rivers: using imaginative and creative approaches communities. In the RIVERS project we tested the use of creative writing as a tool to engage with river but systematic review of research evidence on innovative approaches to participatory river basin planning m

123

Practical library research: a tool for effective library management.  

PubMed

Librarians are being urged to conduct research as one of their professional responsibilities. Many librarians, however, avoid research, because they believe it is beyond their capabilities or resources. This paper discusses the importance of conducting applied research-research directed toward solving practical problems. The paper describes how one library conducted practical research projects, including use studies and surveys, over an eighteen-year period. These projects produced objective data that were used by the library to make management decisions that benefited both the library and its parent institution. This paper encourages other librarians to conduct practical research projects and to share the results with their colleagues through publication in the professional literature. PMID:7703934

Schneider, E; Mankin, C J; Bastille, J D

1995-01-01

124

Research investigation of helicopter main rotor/tail rotor interaction noise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Acoustic measurements were obtained in a Langley 14 x 22 foot Subsonic Wind Tunnel to study the aeroacoustic interaction of 1/5th scale main rotor, tail rotor, and fuselage models. An extensive aeroacoustic data base was acquired for main rotor, tail rotor, fuselage aerodynamic interaction for moderate forward speed flight conditions. The details of the rotor models, experimental design and procedure, aerodynamic and acoustic data acquisition and reduction are presented. The model was initially operated in trim for selected fuselage angle of attack, main rotor tip-path-plane angle, and main rotor thrust combinations. The effects of repositioning the tail rotor in the main rotor wake and the corresponding tail rotor countertorque requirements were determined. Each rotor was subsequently tested in isolation at the thrust and angle of attack combinations for trim. The acoustic data indicated that the noise was primarily dominated by the main rotor, especially for moderate speed main rotor blade-vortex interaction conditions. The tail rotor noise increased when the main rotor was removed indicating that tail rotor inflow was improved with the main rotor present.

Fitzgerald, J.; Kohlhepp, F.

1988-01-01

125

Virtual urban A scientific tool and platform for urban research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virtual reality is one of the earliest dreams human owns; nowadays, people are still making further research and attempts in this field and accumulating a lot. Virtual urban is one formation of virtual reality, researches were making experiments of urban on the platform of virtual urban through construction of all kinds of urban models. These experiments not only offered incredible

Jing Deng; Xinqi Zheng; Lina Lv

2010-01-01

126

Recent and Potential Application of Engineering Tools to Educational Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a summary of some recent engineering research in education and identifies some research areas with high payoff potential. The underlying assumption is that a school is a system with a set of subsystems which is potentially susceptible to analysis, design, and eventually some sort of optimization. This assumption leads to the

Taft, Martin I.

127

A validated set of tool pictures with matched objects and non-objects for laterality research.  

PubMed

Neuropsychological and neuroimaging research has established that knowledge related to tool use and tool recognition is lateralized to the left cerebral hemisphere. Recently, behavioural studies with the visual half-field technique have confirmed the lateralization. A limitation of this research was that different sets of stimuli had to be used for the comparison of tools to other objects and objects to non-objects. Therefore, we developed a new set of stimuli containing matched triplets of tools, other objects and non-objects. With the new stimulus set, we successfully replicated the findings of no visual field advantage for objects in an object recognition task combined with a significant right visual field advantage for tools in a tool recognition task. The set of stimuli is available as supplemental data to this article. PMID:24821308

Verma, Ark; Brysbaert, Marc

2015-01-01

128

Market research for requirements analysis using linguistic tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous studies in recent months have proposed the use of linguistic instruments to support requirements analysis. There are two main reasons for this: (i) the progress made in natural language processing, (ii) the need to provide the developers of software systems with support in the early phases of requirements definition and conceptual modelling. This paper presents the results of an

Luisa Mich; Mariangela Franch; Pierluigi Novi Inverardi

2004-01-01

129

Conceptualising the Use of Facebook in Ethnographic Research: As Tool, as Data and as Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article proposes a three-part conceptualisation of the use of Facebook in ethnographic research: as a tool, as data and as context. Longitudinal research with young adults at a time of significant change provides many challenges for the ethnographic researcher, such as maintaining channels of communication and high rates of participant

Baker, Sally

2013-01-01

130

Applying Web-Based Tools for Research, Engineering, and Operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Personnel in the NASA Glenn Research Center Network and Architectures branch have performed a variety of research related to space-based sensor webs, network centric operations, security and delay tolerant networking (DTN). Quality documentation and communications, real-time monitoring and information dissemination are critical in order to perform quality research while maintaining low cost and utilizing multiple remote systems. This has been accomplished using a variety of Internet technologies often operating simultaneously. This paper describes important features of various technologies and provides a number of real-world examples of how combining Internet technologies can enable a virtual team to act efficiently as one unit to perform advanced research in operational systems. Finally, real and potential abuses of power and manipulation of information and information access is addressed.

Ivancic, William D.

2011-01-01

131

Introduction: new tools for enhancing collaborative endometriosis research.  

PubMed

This issue of Fertility and Sterility contains four articles by the World Endometriosis Research Foundation whose present objective is global standardization of the collection of phenotypic data and biological samples, designated as the Endometriosis Phenome and Biobanking Harmonisation Project. The aim is to facilitate large-scale international, multicenter trials that are robust, and will result in biomarker and treatment targets to advance research in endometriosis. PMID:25154678

Casper, Robert F

2014-11-01

132

Soil and Water Assessment Tool: Historical Development, Applications, and Future Research Directions, The  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model is a continuation of nearly 30 years of modeling efforts conducted by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Agricultural Research Service. SWAT has gained international acceptance as a robust interdisciplinary watershed modeling tool, as evidenced by international SWAT conferences, hundreds of SWAT-related papers presented at numerous scientific meetings, and dozens of articles

Philip W. Gassman; Manuel R. Reyes; Colleen H. Green; Jeffrey G. Arnold

2007-01-01

133

An Evaluation Tool for Machine Translation: Fast Evaluation for MT Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a tool for the evaluation of translat ion quality. First, the typical requirements of such a tool i n the framework of machine translation (MT) research are discussed. We define e valuation criteria which are more adequate than pure edit distance and we describe how the measurement along these quality criteria is performed semi-automaticallyin a

Gregor Leusch; Hermann Ney; RWTH Aachen

2000-01-01

134

Stone Tool Research at the End of the Millennium: Classification, Function, and Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the second of the two papers that review the literature of archaeological lithic analysis over the last decade. This paper concentrates on aspects of stone tool research that are not directly related to the production or procurement of the tools themselves. It is divided into classification, functional analyses, behavioral processes, and approaches to the subject currently popular among

George H. Odell

2001-01-01

135

Friending Adolescents on Social Networking Websites: A Feasible Research Tool  

PubMed Central

Objective Social networking sites (SNSs) are increasingly used for research. This paper reports on two studies examining the feasibility of friending adolescents on SNSs for research purposes. Methods Study 1 took place on www.MySpace.com where public profiles belonging to 18-year-old adolescents received a friend request from an unknown physician. Study 2 took place on www.Facebook.com where college freshmen from two US universities, enrolled in an ongoing research study, received a friend request from a known researchers profile. Acceptance and retention rates of friend requests were calculated for both studies. Results Study 1: 127 participants received a friend request; participants were 18 years-old, 62.2% male and 51.8% Caucasian. 49.6% accepted the friend request. After 9 months, 76% maintained the online friendship, 12.7% defriended the study profile and 11% deactivated their profile. Study 2: 338 participants received a friend request; participants were 18 years-old, 56.5% female and 75.1% Caucasian. 99.7% accepted the friend request. Over 12 months, 3.3% defriended the study profile and 4.1% deactivated their profile. These actions were often temporary; the overall 12-month friendship retention rate was 96.1%. Conclusion Friending adolescents on SNSs is feasible and friending adolescents from a familiar profile may be more effective for maintaining online friendship with research participants over time. PMID:25485226

Brockman, Libby N.; Christakis, Dimitri A.; Moreno, Megan A.

2014-01-01

136

Inhibitory RNA in epilepsy: research tools and therapeutic perspectives.  

PubMed

Since its discovery a decade ago, RNA interference (RNAi) has been developed not only into powerful experimental tools but also into promising novel therapeutics. In contrast to conventional antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) that target specific proteins such as ion channels or receptors, RNAi-based therapeutics exploit an endogenous regulatory mechanism of gene expression and thereby are poised to prevent or reverse pathogenetic mechanisms involved in seizure development. Therapeutic RNAi has been widely explored for dominant targets involved in neurodegenerative diseases; however, their use for epilepsy therapy has received less attention. This review discusses potential RNAi-based targets that are of interest for epilepsy therapy, including adenosine kinase (ADK), the key negative regulator of the brain's endogenous anticonvulsant adenosine. Overexpression of ADK, and the resulting adenosine deficiency, are pathologic hallmarks of the sclerotic epileptic brain, and have been implicated in seizure generation. Therefore, RNAi-strategies aimed at reducing ADK (and increasing adenosine) are based on a direct neurochemical rationale that has recently been explored experimentally using ex vivo and in vivo gene therapy approaches. Technical issues and challenges remain before those promising tools can be developed into future therapeutics for epilepsy. PMID:20633035

Boison, Detlev

2010-09-01

137

Main trends in experimental morphological research in angiology and outlook for its development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The main prospective trends in the problem of collateral circulation and new trends in experimental angiology with respect to the effect of gravitational forces, hypodynamia and hypokinesia on the vascular bed are discussed.

Dzhavakhishvili, N. A.; Melman, Y. P.

1980-01-01

138

Hopkins researchers find cancer is caused mainly by random mutations that occur during cell division  

Cancer.gov

Scientists from the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center have created a statistical model that measures the proportion of cancer incidence, across many tissue types, caused mainly by random mutations that occur when stem cells divide.

139

Examinations of redundancy in audio messages and programmed texts as research tools  

E-print Network

EXAMINATIONS OF REDUNDANCY IN AUDIO MESSAGES AND PROGRAMMED TEXTS AS RESEARCH TOOLS A Thesis by CAROL ANN CONWAY ADAMS Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 197B Major Subject: Industrial Engineering EXAMINATIONS OF REDUNDANCY IN AUDIO MESSAGES AND PROGRAMMED TEXTS AS RESEARCH TOOLS A Thesis by CAROL ANN CONWAY ADAMS Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of C ittee...

Adams, Carol Ann Conway

1978-01-01

140

The airborne infrared scanner as a geophysical research tool  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The infrared scanner is proving to be an effective anomaly-mapping tool, albeit one which depicts surface emission directly and heat mass transfer from depths only indirectly and at a threshold level 50 to 100 times the normal conductive heat flow of the earth. Moreover, successive terrain observations are affected by time-dependent variables such as the diurnal and seasonal warming and cooling cycle of a point on the earth's surface. In planning precise air borne surveys of radiant flux from the earth's surface, account must be taken of background noise created by variations in micrometeorological factors and emissivity of surface materials, as well as the diurnal temperature cycle. The effect of the diurnal cycle may be minimized by planning predawn aerial surveys. In fact, the diurnal change is very small for most water bodies and the emissivity factor for water (e) =~ 1 so a minimum background noise is characteristic of scanner records of calm water surfaces.

Friedman, Jules D.

1970-01-01

141

Multicenter Patient Records Research : Security Policies and Tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

The expanding health information infrastructure offers the promise of new medical knowledge drawn from patient records. Such promise will never be fulfilled, however, unless researchers first address policy issues regarding the rights and interests of both the patients and the institutions who hold their records. In this article, the authors analyze the interests of patients and institutions in light of

Fred M Behlen; Stephen B Johnson

1999-01-01

142

The Portable Usability Testing Lab: A Flexible Research Tool.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A group of faculty at the University of Georgia obtained funding for a research and development facility called the Learning and Performance Support Laboratory (LPSL). One of the LPSL's primary needs was obtaining a portable usability lab for software testing, so the facility obtained the "Luggage Lab 2000." The lab is transportable to any site

Hale, Michael E.; And Others

143

Research, development, and production of information resources and tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose The Health Information Research Unit (HIRU) at McMaster University in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, was founded to meet the information needs that were quickly becoming apparent in the course of teaching critical appraisal methods for the practice of evidence-based medicine. Librarians have worked in HIRU from its inception and their activities include teaching searching skills to clinicians, collecting and

K. Ann McKibbon; Angela Eady; Cindy J. Walker-Dilks

2005-01-01

144

Zebrafish as a tool in Alzheimer's disease research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alzheimer's disease is the most prevalent form of neurodegenerative disease. Despite many years of intensive research our understanding of the molecular events leading to this pathology is far from complete. No effective treatments have been defined and questions surround the validity and utility of existing animal models. The zebrafish (and, in particular, its embryos) is a malleable and accessible model

Morgan Newman; Giuseppe Verdile; Ralph N. Martins; Michael Lardelli

2011-01-01

145

Online Tools Allow Distant Students to Collaborate on Research Projects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Wesleyan Academy and Moravian School in St. Thomas, Virgin Islands, recently joined forces with Evergreen Elementary in Fort Lewis, Wash., to collaborate on a research project using My eCoach Online (http://myecoach.com) as the primary medium to share information, post ideas and findings, and develop inquiry projects on 10 topics about water.

T.H.E. Journal, 2005

2005-01-01

146

New research and tools lead to improved earthquake alerting protocols  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Whats the best way to get alerted about the occurrence and potential impact of an earthquake? The answer to that question has changed dramatically of late, in part due to improvements in earthquake science, and in part by the implementation of new research in the delivery of earthquake information

Wald, David J.

2009-01-01

147

TPACK: An Emerging Research and Development Tool for Teacher Educators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

TPACK (technological pedagogical content knowledge) has emerged as a clear and useful construct for researchers working to understand technology integration in learning and teaching. Whereas first generation TPACK work focused upon explaining and interpreting the construct, TPACK has now entered a second generation where the focus is upon using

Baran, Evrim; Chuang, Hsueh-Hua; Thompson, Ann

2011-01-01

148

Stephenson's Q Methodology: A Unique Tool for Research and Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Q methodology, a theory-based research technique begun by William Stephenson, permits a scientific approach to the study of subjective ideas, and proves useful in studying intrapersonal communication processes in a variety of contexts. The Q-sort, which incorporates Q methodology into a measure, allows respondents to sort statements (pictures or

Aitken, Joan E.

149

Ready Reference Tools: EBSCO Topic Search and SIRS Researcher.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of ready reference and current events collections in high school libraries focuses on a comparison of two CD-ROM services, EBSCO Topic Search and the SIRS Researcher. Considers licensing; access; search strategies; viewing articles; currency; printing; added value features; and advantages of CD-ROMs. (LRW)

Goins, Sharon; Dayment, Lu

1998-01-01

150

Nucleic acid vaccines: research tool or commercial reality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polynucleotide immunization has captured the imagination of numerous researchers and commercial companies around the world as a novel approach for inducing immunity in animals. Clearly, the proof-of-principle has been demonstrated both in rodents and various animal species. However, to date, no commercial veterinary vaccine has been developed, or to our knowledge, is in the licensing phase. The present review summarizes

Lorne A Babiuk; Shawn L Babiuk; Bianca I Loehr; Sylvia van Drunnen Littel-van den Hurk

2000-01-01

151

From research to management: A suite of GIS-based watershed modeling, assessment and planning tools 1889  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment (AGWA) tool is a GIS-based hydrologic modeling tool developed jointly by the U.S. EPA Office of Research and Development, USDA Agricultural Research Service, and University of Arizona. It was initially designed as a research tool for assessing the hydro...

152

Main differences between volatiles of sparkling and base wines accessed through comprehensive two dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometric detection and chemometric tools.  

PubMed

The main changes in the volatile profile of base wines and their corresponding sparkling wines produced by traditional method were evaluated and investigated for the first time using headspace solid-phase microextraction combined with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry detection (GCGC/TOFMS) and chemometric tools. Fisher ratios helped to find the 119 analytes that were responsible for the main differences between base and sparkling wines and principal component analysis explained 93.1% of the total variance related to the selected 78 compounds. It was also possible to observe five subclusters in base wines and four subclusters in sparkling wines samples through hierarchical cluster analysis, which seemed to have an organised distribution according to the regions where the wines came from. Twenty of the most important volatile compounds co-eluted with other components and separation of some of them was possible due to GCGC/TOFMS performance. PMID:24996354

Welke, Juliane Elisa; Zanus, Mauro; Lazzarotto, Marcelo; Pulgati, Fernando Hepp; Zini, Cludia Alcaraz

2014-12-01

153

NASA Global Hawk: A New Tool for Earth Science Research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the Global Hawk, a unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) that NASA plans to use for Earth Sciences research. The Global Hawk is the world's first fully autonomous high-altitude, long-endurance aircraft, and is capable of conducting long duration missions. Plans are being made for the use of the aircraft on missions in the Arctic, Pacific and Western Atlantic Oceans. There are slides showing the Global Hawk Operations Center (GHOC), Flight Control and Air Traffic Control Communications Architecture, and Payload Integration and Accommodations on the Global Hawk. The first science campaign, planned for a study of the Pacific Ocean, is reviewed.

Hall, Phill

2009-01-01

154

Digital storytelling: an innovative tool for practice, education, and research.  

PubMed

Digital storytelling is a method of using storytelling, group work, and modern technology to facilitate the creation of 2-3 minute multi-media video clips to convey personal or community stories. Digital storytelling is being used within the health care field; however, there has been limited documentation of its application within occupational therapy. This paper introduces digital storytelling and proposes how it can be applied in occupational therapy clinical practice, education, and research. The ethical and methodological challenges in relation to using the method are also discussed. PMID:25338054

Lal, Shalini; Donnelly, Catherine; Shin, Jennifer

2015-01-01

155

Electromagnetic Levitation: A Useful Tool in Microgravity Research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electromagnetic levitation is one area of the electromagnetic processing of materials that has uses for both fundamental research and practical applications. This technique was successfully used on the Space Shuttle Columbia during the Spacelab IML-2 mission in July 1994 as a platform for accurately measuring the surface tensions of liquid metals and alloys. In this article, we discuss the key transport phenomena associated with electromagnetic levitation, the fundamental relationships associated with thermophysical property measurement that can be made using this technique, reasons for working in microgravity, and some of the results obtained from the microgravity experiments.

Szekely, Julian; Schwartz, Elliot; Hyers, Robert

1995-01-01

156

The NASA Human Research Wiki - An Online Collaboration Tool  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) element is one of six elements of the Human Research Program (HRP). ExMC is charged with decreasing the risk of: "Inability to adequately recognize or treat an ill or injured crew member" for exploration-class missions In preparation for exploration-class missions, ExMC has compiled a large evidence base, previously available only to persons within the NASA community. ExMC has developed the "NASA Human Research Wiki" in an effort to make the ExMC information available to the general public and increase collaboration within and outside of NASA. The ExMC evidence base is comprised of several types of data, including: (1)Information on more than 80 medical conditions which could occur during space flight (a)Derived from several sources (b)Including data on incidence and potential outcomes, as captured in the Integrated Medical Model s (IMM) Clinical Finding Forms (CliFFs). (2)Approximately 25 gap reports (a)Identify any "gaps" in knowledge and/or technology that would need to be addressed in order to provide adequate medical support for these novel missions.

Barr, Yael; Rasbury, Jack; Johnson, Jordan; Barstend, Kristina; Saile, Lynn; Watkins, Sharmi

2012-01-01

157

From Causes to Consequences: A Critical History of Divorce as a Study Object and the Main Orientations of French Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article presents a critical history of divorce as an object of sociological study and describes the main directions of current research in France on the subject. Sensitive to the political context in which it developed, the sociology of divorce was for many years influenced by ideological considerations, as evidenced by Durkheim's opposition to the reintroduction of divorce by mutual

Harriet Coleman

2009-01-01

158

EOS Data Usability Tools for Support of Science Research and Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Earth Observing System (EOS) Data and Information System (EOSDIS), as NASA's overall Earth Science discipline data system, presently holds nearly two petabytes of Earth observation data products. The data format standard used for EOS standard products is Hierarchical Data Format (HDF) for EOS (HDF-EOS) or HDF-EOS 5 for future missions, and the metadata format used is Object Description Language (ODL). To facilitate the use of EOS data for different scientific research and applications, we have developed a series of data and metadata tools to enhance the usability of EOSDIS data products. These tools can be categorized as 1) data format conversion tools, 2) an XML representation of HDF-EOS5 with related utility tools, 3) an XML representation of ODL metadata with viewing tools, and 4) data and metadata standard validation and update tools. This poster presents different usability tools we have developed for EOS data products. Use cases of these tools for support of the research and application community and EOS missions are illustrated.

Yang, J.; Bane, R.; Yin, Z.; Rabi, M.; Ullman, R.

2003-12-01

159

Operations Research Tools for Addressing Current Challenges in Emergency Medical Services  

E-print Network

Operations Research Tools for Addressing Current Challenges in Emergency Medical Services Shane G. Henderson March 26, 2009 Abstract Emergency Medical Service (EMS) providers face a host of significant research techniques in conjunction with EMS expertise. The pur- pose of this article is to outline some

Henderson, Shane

160

Artificial Exo-Society Modeling: a New Tool for SETI Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the newest fields of complexity research is artificial society modeling. Methodologically related to artificial life research, artificial society modeling utilizes agent-based computer simulation tools like SWARM and SUGARSCAPE developed by the Santa Fe Institute, Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Bookings Institution in an effort to introduce an unprecedented degree of rigor and quantitative sophistication into social science

James N. Gardner

2002-01-01

161

The Notion of the Relationship to Knowledge: A Theoretical Tool for Research in Science Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article pursues a dual objective. First, it seeks to present the notion of the relationship to knowledge as a valuable theoretical tool for science education research. Secondly, it aims to illustrate how this notion has been operationalized in recent research conducted in Quebec (Canada) that focuses on teachers' and students' relationship to

Pouliot, Chantal; Bader, Barbara; Therriault, Genevieve

2010-01-01

162

New Tools for New Literacies Research: An Exploration of Usability Testing Software  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Competency in the new literacies of the Internet is essential for participating in contemporary society. Researchers studying these new literacies are recognizing the limitations of traditional methodological tools and adapting new technologies and new media for use in research. This paper reports our exploration of usability testing software to

Asselin, Marlene; Moayeri, Maryam

2010-01-01

163

Pancreatic Cancer Center: Providing the Research Tools Necessary to Advance Pancreatic Cancer Patient Care  

E-print Network

Pancreatic Cancer Center: Providing the Research Tools Necessary to Advance Pancreatic Cancer number of NCI-designated cancer centers have a specialized pancreatic cancer program. The creation of the IUPUI Signature Center for Pancreatic Cancer Research has been the foundation for putting IUPUI, the IU

Zhou, Yaoqi

164

Nucleic acid aptamers: research tools in disease diagnostics and therapeutics.  

PubMed

Aptamers are short sequences of nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) or peptide molecules which adopt a conformation and bind cognate ligands with high affinity and specificity in a manner akin to antibody-antigen interactions. It has been globally acknowledged that aptamers promise a plethora of diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Although use of nucleic acid aptamers as targeted therapeutics or mediators of targeted drug delivery is a relatively new avenue of research, one aptamer-based drug "Macugen" is FDA approved and a series of aptamer-based drugs are in clinical pipelines. The present review discusses the aspects of design, unique properties, applications, and development of different aptamers to aid in cancer diagnosis, prevention, and/or treatment under defined conditions. PMID:25050359

Santosh, Baby; Yadava, Pramod K

2014-01-01

165

The Spallation Neutron Source: A powerful tool for materials research  

SciTech Connect

When completed in 2006, the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) will use an accelerator to produce the most intense beams of pulsed neutrons in the world. This unique facility is being built by a collaboration of six US Department of Energy laboratories and will serve a diverse community of users drawn from academia, industry, and government labs. The project continues on schedule and within budget, with commissioning and installation of all systems going well. Installation of 14 state-of-the-art instruments is under way, and design work is being completed for several others. These new instruments will enable inelastic and elastic-scattering measurements across a broad range of science such as condensed-matter physics, chemistry, engineering materials, biology, and beyond. Neutron Science at SNS will be complemented by research opportunities at several other facilities under way at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

Mason, Thom [ORNL; Anderson, Ian S [ORNL; Ankner, John Francis [ORNL; Egami, Takeshi [ORNL; Ekkebus, Allen E [ORNL; Herwig, Kenneth W [ORNL; Hodges, Jason P [ORNL; Horak, Charlie M [ORNL; Horton, Linda L [ORNL; Klose, Frank Richard [ORNL; Mesecar, Andrew D. [University of Illinois, Chicago; Myles, Dean A A [ORNL; Ohl, M. [Forschungszentrum Julich, Julich, Germany; Zhao, Jinkui [ORNL

2006-01-01

166

Electrostatic Levitation: A Tool to Support Materials Research in Microgravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Containerless processing represents an important topic for materials research in microgravity. Levitated specimens are free from contact with a container, which permits studies of deeply undercooled melts, and high-temperature, highly reactive materials. Containerless processing provides data for studies of thermophysical properties, phase equilibria, metastable state formation, microstructure formation, undercooling, and nucleation. The European Space Agency (ESA) and the German Aerospace Center (DLR) jointly developed an electromagnetic levitator facility (MSL-EML) for containerless materials processing in space. The electrostatic levitator (ESL) facility at the Marshall Space Flight Center provides support for the development of containerless processing studies for the ISS. Apparatus and techniques have been developed to use the ESL to provide data for phase diagram determination, creep resistance, emissivity, specific heat, density/thermal expansion, viscosity, surface tension and triggered nucleation of melts. The capabilities and results from selected ESL-based characterization studies performed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center will be presented.

Rogers, Jan; SanSoucie, Mike

2012-01-01

167

Pedometers as measurement tools and motivational devices: new insights for researchers and practitioners.  

PubMed

Pedometers are increasingly used in physical activity research and health promotion initiatives. This pilot study examines the efficacy of pedometers as motivational tools for increasing daily physical activity and exploring the practical issues related to pedometer use in research and intervention studies. A mixed-method design is used to collect data on the level of activity and in-depth information about participants' experiences wearing the pedometers. Participants are 10 midlife women between the ages of 45 and 64 (mean age = 52.9). Analysis indicates pedometers function as important motivational tools for increasing daily physical activity and improving the awareness of activity patterns for participants. Findings provide new insights into participants' experiences using the pedometers and understanding how these devices function as research tools. Several important methodological considerations for future research and intervention designs using pedometers are discussed. PMID:19515864

Gardner, Paula J; Campagna, Phil D

2011-01-01

168

Three-component seismic data: researcher's toy or interpreter's tool  

SciTech Connect

Three-component seismic data have been recorded, analyzed, and studied by research groups for the last 10 years. However, the cost of acquisition and the difficulty in tying the P-wave reflections to the S-wave reflections have made three-component data nearly useless to the interpreter. Instead of solving interpretation problems, three-component data added a whole new set without providing any answers. These problems will be solved through the help of two recent developments: the three-component geophone with polarization filter (OMNIPHONE) and three-component amplitude-vs-offset (AVO) analysis. The OMNIPHONE can eliminate the need for geophone arrays by removing ground roll from the data without affecting the body waves. Waveform distortions caused by geophone arrays are attenuated, allowing for recovery of a greater bandwidth of signal. The OMNIPHONE also sends all three signal components to the recorder on a single channel in a format compatible with current field systems. The need for three channels per geophone station is thereby eliminated. Because three-component data can be recorded with fewer geophones and recording channels, field operations using OMNIPHONES are more efficient and less expensive than when using conventional three-component geophones. Three-component (AVO) analysis can provide the interpreter with a tie between the P-wave, S-wave, and converted-wave reflections, as well as a means of calculating corresponding velocities. Current technology calls for stacking the S-wave data with the converted-wave data. However, AVO analysis identifies the S-wave and converted-wave portions of the radial gather, thus providing the processor with the information necessary to produce stacked S-wave and converted-wave sections of superior quality.

Miles, D.R.; Gassaway, G.S.

1988-03-01

169

Emerging Imaging Tools for Use with Traumatic Brain Injury Research  

PubMed Central

Abstract This article identifies emerging neuroimaging measures considered by the inter-agency Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) Neuroimaging Workgroup. This article attempts to address some of the potential uses of more advanced forms of imaging in TBI as well as highlight some of the current considerations and unresolved challenges of using them. We summarize emerging elements likely to gain more widespread use in the coming years, because of 1) their utility in diagnosis, prognosis, and understanding the natural course of degeneration or recovery following TBI, and potential for evaluating treatment strategies; 2) the ability of many centers to acquire these data with scanners and equipment that are readily available in existing clinical and research settings; and 3) advances in software that provide more automated, readily available, and cost-effective analysis methods for large scale data image analysis. These include multi-slice CT, volumetric MRI analysis, susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), magnetization transfer imaging (MTI), arterial spin tag labeling (ASL), functional MRI (fMRI), including resting state and connectivity MRI, MR spectroscopy (MRS), and hyperpolarization scanning. However, we also include brief introductions to other specialized forms of advanced imaging that currently do require specialized equipment, for example, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), positron emission tomography (PET), encephalography (EEG), and magnetoencephalography (MEG)/magnetic source imaging (MSI). Finally, we identify some of the challenges that users of the emerging imaging CDEs may wish to consider, including quality control, performing multi-site and longitudinal imaging studies, and MR scanning in infants and children. PMID:21787167

Wilde, Elisabeth A.; Tong, Karen A.; Holshouser, Barbara A.

2012-01-01

170

Research on efficient and stable milling using CNC small size tool  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to mill efficiently and stably using small size tool on computer numerical control machine(CNC machine), the paper establishes dual-objective function on the basis of the minimum tool wear and the largest cutting efficiency. Meanwhile, the influence of diameter and length of tool suspended on stability is considered under the guidance of chatter stability analysis relationship. Research results show that, Pareto solution set which has two factors into account conflicting can be obtained by Genetic Algorithms, combined Pareto solution set with the frequency response function (FRF) chatter stability diagram, Pareto solutions of the smaller range of options, the milling parameters which meet the requirements of efficient and stable milling of CNC machine tools can be optimized conveniently and accurately. When the tool suspended length increases, the system stiffness decreases and the chatter stability domain graphic drops down, Stability region narrows.

Luo, Yongxin; Zhao, Beichen; Long, Hua; Yu, Nanlin

2010-12-01

171

Research on efficient and stable milling using CNC small size tool  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to mill efficiently and stably using small size tool on computer numerical control machine(CNC machine), the paper establishes dual-objective function on the basis of the minimum tool wear and the largest cutting efficiency. Meanwhile, the influence of diameter and length of tool suspended on stability is considered under the guidance of chatter stability analysis relationship. Research results show that, Pareto solution set which has two factors into account conflicting can be obtained by Genetic Algorithms, combined Pareto solution set with the frequency response function (FRF) chatter stability diagram, Pareto solutions of the smaller range of options, the milling parameters which meet the requirements of efficient and stable milling of CNC machine tools can be optimized conveniently and accurately. When the tool suspended length increases, the system stiffness decreases and the chatter stability domain graphic drops down, Stability region narrows.

Luo, Yongxin; Zhao, Beichen; Long, Hua; Yu, Nanlin

2011-05-01

172

Research pressure instrumentation for NASA Space Shuttle main engine, modification no. 5  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of Modification No. 5 of this contract is to expand the scope of work (Task C) of this research study effort to develop pressure instrumentation for the SSME. The objective of this contract (Task C) is to direct Honeywell's Solid State Electronics Division's (SSED) extensive experience and expertise in solid state sensor technology to develop prototype pressure transducers which are targeted to meet the SSME performance design goals and to fabricate, test and deliver a total of 10 prototype units. SSED's basic approach is to effectively utilize the many advantages of silicon piezoresistive strain sensing technology to achieve the objectives of advanced state-of-the-art pressure sensors in terms of reliability, accuracy and ease of manufacture. More specifically, integration of multiple functions on a single chip is the key attribute of this technology which will be exploited during this research study.

Anderson, P. J.; Nussbaum, P.; Gustafson, G.

1984-01-01

173

2011 Raditation & Climate Gordon Research Conference (July 10-15 2011- Colby College, Waterville, Maine)  

SciTech Connect

The 2011 Gordon Research Conference on Radiation and Climate will present cutting-edge research on outstanding issues in climate change, particularly those in which the interactions between clouds, aerosols, and precipitation play a major role. The Conference will feature a broad range of topics, including grand challenges in atmospheric radiation and climate, cloud and water vapor feedbacks, aerosol-cloud-precipitation-climate interactions across scales, new approaches for remote sensing and in-situ observations of clouds, aerosols and precipitation, and multi-scale modeling challenges. The invited speakers will present the most important recent advances and future challenges in these areas. The Conference will bring together a collection of leading investigators who are at the forefront of their field, and will provide opportunities for scientists, especially junior scientists and graduate students, to present their work in poster format and exchange ideas with leaders in the field. The collegial atmosphere of this Conference, with programmed discussion sessions as well as opportunities for informal gatherings in the afternoons and evenings, provides an avenue for scientists from different disciplines to brainstorm and promotes cross-disciplinary collaborations in the various research areas represented.

Prof. Max Hoggblom

2012-02-09

174

Development of Advanced Computational Aeroelasticity Tools at NASA Langley Research Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA Langley Research Center has continued to develop its long standing computational tools to address new challenges in aircraft and launch vehicle design. This paper discusses the application and development of those computational aeroelastic tools. Four topic areas will be discussed: 1) Modeling structural and flow field nonlinearities; 2) Integrated and modular approaches to nonlinear multidisciplinary analysis; 3) Simulating flight dynamics of flexible vehicles; and 4) Applications that support both aeronautics and space exploration.

Bartels, R. E.

2008-01-01

175

Breastfeeding and lactation research: exploring a tool to measure infant feeding patterns  

PubMed Central

Background Infant feeding categories, often referred to as breastfeeding definitions, form the basis to describe infant feeding patterns; especially, breastfeeding duration and degree of breastfeeding exclusivity. Researchers use a variety of algorithms and no validated tool exists to measure feeding patterns for research purposes. The goal of this research project was to develop and test a tool to measure patterns of infant feeding for breastfeeding and lactation research. Methods We used a literature review, survey methods, and statistical analysis to develop and test this health measurement tool. The work was completed in three phases: 1) development of the tool; 2) assessment of content validity with a panel of experts; and 3) testing for inter-rater reliability by comparing the conclusions of 2 independent research assistants (RAs) and by comparing mothers feeding diaries with the RAs findings. For the third phase, an a priori analysis determined we needed to recruit 75 participants. Inclusion criteria were women who had given birth to a single healthy newborn, planned to breastfeed and were able to breastfeed freely, were able to read and write in English or French, were willing and able to maintain a weekly feeding diary for 6weeks and to answer 6 English telephone questionnaires (twice within 24hrs x 3 times over 6months. To measure inter-rater reliability, we used intraclass correlation coefficient. Results The final tool, The FeedCat Tool, contains two parts: 1) questions asked to determine what and how the baby was fed and 2) a chart to indicate the feeding category for each time point and recall period. We recruited 75 breastfeeding mothers to measure inter-rater reliability. Inter-rater reliability for classification of feeding categories by the two RAs and for agreement between the RAs findings at 1month and mothers diaries at 4weeks indicated excellent agreement. Conclusion We produced a feeding categories tool that can be used by researchers to describe the type, amount, and mode of feeding, and we tested the tool for content validity and reliability. Researchers should consider The FeedCat Tool for lactation and research projects requiring data about infant feeding patterns. PMID:24834106

2014-01-01

176

Research Report on Feasibility Study of Building a QT Gui Testing Tool, AX Program Code Group Computer Science R&D Project  

SciTech Connect

The main goal of this project was to determine if a tool could be built to test Qt. In determining the feasibility of building a tool the following requirements needed to be researched: (1) Determine if the underlying Qt signal/slot architecture could be leveraged. (2) Research how much impact implementing such a tool would have on existing code, i.e. how much extra code would need to be inserted to use the tool. (3) Determine with the above information if a tool could be built. With the above steps completed, the information needed to make a decision on building a tool could be made. Armed with this information I felt I could make a more educated decision on the possibility of building a tool. This project was divided into two main steps. The first step was to understand the underlying Qt source code much better. The second step was to build a small prototype that I could use to test ideas. The first step was actually much shorter than I had originally anticipated. Understanding the underlying architecture of Qt only took about two weeks. After studying the architecture of qt and working with the support people at Trolltech, the company that develops Qt, I found a way to test Qt. This project was very successful. I accomplished everything I intended to do. I learned and understood the inner workings of the Qt library enough that I could build a simple tool that could leverage some of the information in Qt to test the GUI. I was also able to find a tool that was commercially available to test Qt GUI's. These two things were the main goals of this project. Therefore I consider it a success. In fact I was able to progress farther with my prototype testing then I had originally planned.

Grover, B T

2003-05-05

177

Composition and emissions of VOCs in main- and side-stream smoke of research cigarettes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well known that mainstream (MS) and sidestream (SS) cigarette smoke contains a vast number of chemical substances. Previous studies have emphasized SS smoke rather than MS smoke to which smokers are exposed, and most have used chamber tests that have several disadvantages such as wall losses. Emissions from standard research cigarettes have been measured, but relatively few constituents have been reported, and only the 1R4F (low nicotine) cigarette type has been tested. This study provides a comprehensive characterization of total, MS and SS smoke emissions for the 1R5F (ultra low nicotine), 2R4F (low nicotine), and 1R3F (standard nicotine) research cigarettes research cigarettes, including emission factors for a number of toxic compounds (e.g., benzene) and tobacco smoke tracers (e.g., 2,5-dimethyl furan). Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and particulate matter (PM) are quantified using a dynamic dilution emission measurement system that is shown to produce accurate, rapid and reproducible results for over 30 VOCs and PM. SS and MS emissions were accurately apportioned based on a mass balance of total emissions. As expected, SS emissions greatly exceeded MS emissions. The ultra low nicotine cigarette had lower emissions of most VOCs compared to low and standard nicotine cigarettes, which had similar emissions. Across the three types of cigarettes, emissions of benzene (296-535 ?g cig -1), toluene (541-1003 ?g cig -1), styrene (90-162 ?g cig -1), 2-dimethyl furan (71-244 ?g cig -1), naphthalene (15-18 ?g cig -1) and other VOCs were generally comparable to or somewhat higher than literature estimates using chamber tests.

Charles, Simone M.; Batterman, S. A.; Jia, Chunrong

178

Isotope pattern deconvolution as rising tool for isotope tracer studies in environmental research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last decade stable isotope tracers have emerged as versatile tool in ecological research. Besides 'intrinsic' isotope tracers caused by the natural variation of isotopes, the intentional introduction of 'extrinsic' enriched stable isotope tracers into biological systems has gained significant interest. Hereby the induced change in the natural isotopic composition of an element allows amongst others for studying the fate and fluxes of metals, trace elements and species in organisms or provides an intrinsic marker or tag of particular biological samples. Due to the shoreless potential of this methodology, the number of publications dealing with applications of isotope (double) spikes as tracers to address research questions in 'real world systems' is constantly increasing. However, some isotope systems like the natural Sr isotopic system, although potentially very powerful for this type of application, are still rarely used, mainly because their adequate measurement/determination poses major analytical challenges; as e.g. Sr is available in significant amounts in natural samples. In addition, biological systems underlie complex processes such as metabolism, adsorption/desorption or oxidation/reduction. As a consequence, classic evaluation approaches such as the isotope dilution mass spectrometry equation are often not applicable because of the unknown amount of tracer finally present in the sample. Isotope pattern deconvolution (IPD), based on multiple linear regression, serves as simplified alternative data processing strategy to double spike isotope dilution calculations. The outstanding advantage of this mathematical tool lies in the possibility of deconvolving the isotope pattern in a spiked sample without knowing the quantities of enriched isotope tracer being incorporated into the natural sample matrix as well as the degree of impurities and species-interconversion (e.g. from sample preparation). Here, the potential of IPD for environmental tracer studies is critically discussed, where special emphasis is set on evaluating different data processing strategies on the example of enriched stable Sr isotopes.1 The analytical key parameters such as blank (Kr, Sr and Rb), variation of the natural Sr isotopic composition in the sample, mass bias, interferences (Rb) and total combined uncertainty are considered. A full metrological protocol for data processing using IPD is presented based on data gained during two transgenerational marking studies of fish, where the transfer of a Sr isotope double spike (84Sr and 86Sr) from female spawners of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) and brown trout (Salmo trutta f.f.)2 to the centre of the otoliths of their offspring was studied by (LA)-MC-ICP-MS. 1J. Irrgeher, A. Zitek, M. Cervicek and T. Prohaska, J. Anal. At. Spectrom., 2014, 29, 193-200. 2A. Zitek, J. Irrgeher, M. Kletzl, T. Weismann and T. Prohaska, Fish. Manage. Ecol., 2013, 20, 654-361.

Irrgeher, Johanna; Zitek, Andreas; Prohaska, Thomas

2014-05-01

179

Research on bait resources in the Main Stream of Wulie River  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wulie river is the first branch of Luanhe river, and most of the water use for industrial, agricultural and living of the Chengde city is coming from it. The investigation results of 8 monitoring sections in July, 2009 show that there are 44 species of phytoplankton belonging to 7 phylum in the Main stream of Wulie river. The Bacillariophyta has the most species comparing with other species, and is the dominant species. The phytoplankton species is more in the lower reach than that in the upper reach which is relevant to the intensity of the human disturbance. There are 28 kinds of zooplanktons in the river, in which the protozoa and rotatoria are the dominant species. The zooplankton species in the lower reach show the lake characteristics which is relevant to the 12 rubber dams. There are 18 macrozoobenthos in the river, and Hydropyche, Ephemera, Baetidae and Caenis are the dominant genus. The macrozoobenthos community is simple and most of them belong to the species fond of rapids and oxygen. Investigation of the bait resources show that the water quality is good in this river, but the lower reach has appeared the lake characteristics because of the water intercepting and impounding by the rubber dams. The establishment of water conservancy engineering has changed the hydrology and river morphology, which as a result altered the bait resources of the fishes living in the rivers.

Wang, Lin; Yan, Denghua; Gan, Hong; Fu, Xiaocheng; Sun, Xiumin

2010-05-01

180

Scientific Mobility and International Research Networks: Trends and Policy Tools for Promoting Research Excellence and Capacity Building  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the ways in which globalization is manifesting itself in higher education and research is through the increasing importance and emphasis on scientific mobility. This article seeks to provide an overview and analysis of current trends and policy tools for promoting mobility. The article argues that the mobility of scientific labour is an

Jacob, Merle; Meek, V. Lynn

2013-01-01

181

Cephalopod culture: current status of main biological models and research priorities.  

PubMed

A recent revival in using cephalopods as experimental animals has rekindled interest in their biology and life cycles, information with direct applications also in the rapidly growing ornamental aquarium species trade and in commercial aquaculture production for human consumption. Cephalopods have high rates of growth and food conversion, which for aquaculture translates into short culture cycles, high ratios of production to biomass and high cost-effectiveness. However, at present, only small-scale culture is possible and only for a few species: the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis, the loliginid squid Sepioteuthis lessoniana and the octopuses Octopus maya and O. vulgaris. These four species are the focus of this chapter, the aims of which are as follows: (1) to provide an overview of the culture requirements of cephalopods, (2) to highlight the physical and nutritional requirements at each phase of the life cycle regarded as essential for successful full-scale culture and (3) to identify current limitations and the topics on which further research is required. Knowledge of cephalopod culture methods is advanced, but commercialization is still constrained by the highly selective feeding habits of cephalopods and their requirement for large quantities of high-quality (preferably live) feed, particularly in the early stages of development. Future research should focus on problems related to the consistent production of viable numbers of juveniles, the resolution of which requires a better understanding of nutrition at all phases of the life cycle and better broodstock management, particularly regarding developments in genetic selection, control of reproduction and quality of eggs and offspring. PMID:24880794

Vidal, Erica A G; Villanueva, Roger; Andrade, Jos P; Gleadall, Ian G; Iglesias, Jos; Koueta, Noussith; Rosas, Carlos; Segawa, Susumu; Grasse, Bret; Franco-Santos, Rita M; Albertin, Caroline B; Caamal-Monsreal, Claudia; Chimal, Maria E; Edsinger-Gonzales, Eric; Gallardo, Pedro; Le Pabic, Charles; Pascual, Cristina; Roumbedakis, Katina; Wood, James

2014-01-01

182

Research-tool patents: issues for health in the developing world.  

PubMed Central

The patent system is now reaching into the tools of medical research, including gene sequences themselves. Many of the new patents can potentially preempt large areas of medical research and lay down legal barriers to the development of a broad category of products. Researchers must therefore consider redesigning their research to avoid use of patented techniques, or expending the effort to obtain licences from those who hold the patents. Even if total licence fees can be kept low, there are enormous negotiation costs, and one "hold-out" may be enough to lead to project cancellation. This is making it more difficult to conduct research within the developed world, and poses important questions for the future of medical research for the benefit of the developing world. Probably the most important implication for health in the developing world is the possible general slowing down and complication of medical research. To the extent that these patents do slow down research, they weaken the contribution of the global research community to the creation and application of medical technology for the benefit of developing nations. The patents may also complicate the granting of concessional prices to developing nations - for pharmaceutical firms that seek to offer a concessional price may have to negotiate arrangements with research-tool firms, which may lose royalties as a result. Three kinds of response are plausible. One is to develop a broad or global licence to permit the patented technologies to be used for important applications in the developing world. The second is to change technical patent law doctrines. Such changes could be implemented in developed and developing nations and could be quite helpful while remaining consistent with TRIPS. The third is to negotiate specific licence arrangements, under which specific research tools are used on an agreed basis for specific applications. These negotiations are difficult and expensive, requiring both scientific and legal skills. But they will be an unavoidable part of international medical research. PMID:11953790

Barton, John H.

2002-01-01

183

Quantitative Risk reduction estimation Tool For Control Systems, Suggested Approach and Research Needs  

SciTech Connect

For the past year we have applied a variety of risk assessment technologies to evaluate the risk to critical infrastructure from cyber attacks on control systems. More recently, we identified the need for a stand alone control system risk reduction estimation tool to provide owners and operators of control systems with a more useable, reliable, and credible method for managing the risks from cyber attack. Risk is defined as the probability of a successful attack times the value of the resulting loss, typically measured in lives and dollars. Qualitative and ad hoc techniques for measuring risk do not provide sufficient support for cost benefit analyses associated with cyber security mitigation actions. To address the need for better quantitative risk reduction models we surveyed previous quantitative risk assessment research; evaluated currently available tools; developed new quantitative techniques [17] [18]; implemented a prototype analysis tool to demonstrate how such a tool might be used; used the prototype to test a variety of underlying risk calculational engines (e.g. attack tree, attack graph); and identified technical and research needs. We concluded that significant gaps still exist and difficult research problems remain for quantitatively assessing the risk to control system components and networks, but that a useable quantitative risk reduction estimation tool is not beyond reach.

Miles McQueen; Wayne Boyer; Mark Flynn; Sam Alessi

2006-03-01

184

Research-IQ: Development and Evaluation of an Ontology-anchored Integrative Query Tool  

PubMed Central

Investigators in the translational research and systems medicine domains require highly usable, efficient and integrative tools and methods that allow for the navigation of and reasoning over emerging large-scale data sets. Such resources must cover a spectrum of granularity from bio-molecules to population phenotypes. Given such information needs, we report upon the initial design and evaluation of an ontology-anchored integrative query tool, Research-IQ, which employs a combination of conceptual knowledge engineering and information retrieval techniques to enable the intuitive and rapid construction of queries, in terms of semi-structured textual propositions, that can subsequently be applied to integrative data sets. Our initial results, based upon both quantitative and qualitative evaluations of the efficacy and usability of Research-IQ, demonstrate its potential to increase clinical and translational research throughput. PMID:21821150

Borlawsky, Tara B.; Lele, Omkar; Payne, Philip R. O.

2011-01-01

185

SOLID/GAS BIOREACTORS: POWERFUL TOOLS FOR FUNDAMENTAL RESEARCH AND EFFICIENT  

E-print Network

SOLID/GAS BIOREACTORS: POWERFUL TOOLS FOR FUNDAMENTAL RESEARCH AND EFFICIENT TECHNOLOGY, F-17042 cedex 1. Email : slamare@univ-lr.fr ILLUSTRATED CONTENTS. Solid/gas biocatalysis, is based a biocatalyst as a solid phase acting on gaseous substrates, it is possible to modulate and to study the effect

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

186

Single Molecule Analysis Research Tool (SMART): An Integrated Approach for Analyzing Single Molecule Data  

E-print Network

Single Molecule Analysis Research Tool (SMART): An Integrated Approach for Analyzing Single Molecule Data Max Greenfeld1,2. , Dmitri S. Pavlichin3. , Hideo Mabuchi4 *, Daniel Herschlag1,2 * 1, Stanford University, Stanford, California, United States of America Abstract Single molecule studies have

Herschlag, Dan

187

Qualitative and Quantitative Management Tools Used by Financial Officers in Public Research Universities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation set out to identify effective qualitative and quantitative management tools used by financial officers (CFOs) in carrying out their management functions of planning, decision making, organizing, staffing, communicating, motivating, leading and controlling at a public research university. In addition, impediments to the use of

Trexler, Grant Lewis

2012-01-01

188

Managing complex research datasets using electronic tools: A meta-analysis exemplar  

PubMed Central

Meta-analyses of broad scope and complexity require investigators to organize many study documents and manage communication among several research staff. Commercially available electronic tools, e.g., EndNote, Adobe Acrobat Pro, Blackboard, Excel, and IBM SPSS Statistics (SPSS), are useful for organizing and tracking the meta-analytic process, as well as enhancing communication among research team members. The purpose of this paper is to describe the electronic processes we designed, using commercially available software, for an extensive quantitative model-testing meta-analysis we are conducting. Specific electronic tools improved the efficiency of (a) locating and screening studies, (b) screening and organizing studies and other project documents, (c) extracting data from primary studies, (d) checking data accuracy and analyses, and (e) communication among team members. The major limitation in designing and implementing a fully electronic system for meta-analysis was the requisite upfront time to: decide on which electronic tools to use, determine how these tools would be employed, develop clear guidelines for their use, and train members of the research team. The electronic process described here has been useful in streamlining the process of conducting this complex meta-analysis and enhancing communication and sharing documents among research team members. PMID:23681256

Brown, Sharon A.; Martin, Ellen E.; Garcia, Theresa J.; Winter, Mary A.; Garca, Alexandra A.; Brown, Adama; Cuevas, Heather E.; Sumlin, Lisa L.

2013-01-01

189

bioinformatics: The research, development, or application of computational tools and approaches for  

E-print Network

bio·in·for·mat·ics: The research, development, or application of computational tools and approaches to establish the university as a national leader in Bioinformatics. Two Board of Regents Enhancement Grants have been obtained by the department for purposes of enhancing the curriculum in bioinformatics and its

Li, X. Rong

190

The Ned Davis Research Evolutionary Optimizer (NEO) is a tool that performs  

E-print Network

ABSTRACT The Ned Davis Research Evolutionary Optimizer (NEO) is a tool that performs that form nearly optimal pro- grams for investment timing or asset allo- cation. The primary inputs to NEO- ing signals or asset allocation recommen- dations. 1. Introduction NEO is an efficient generator

Fernandez, Thomas

191

Pr ecis: Research on Techniques and Tools for Computer Security: The COAST Project and Laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of the COAST project is to establish a long-term research program exploring new approaches to computer security and computer system management. The principal focus will be on techniques and tools for common, non-trusted (in the DoD TCSEC, \\

Eugene H. Spafford

1998-01-01

192

Community College Fundraising: The Voluntary Support of Education Survey as a Sampling Tool for Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the Voluntary Support for Education (VSE) Survey, an instrument created by the Council for Aid to Education. Our objective is to explain VSE's potential value as a tool to inform both institutional and academic research regarding fund-raising activities at community colleges. Of particular interest is how the data available

Wagoner, Richard L.; Besikof, Rudolph J.

2011-01-01

193

Reactive transport modeling: An essential tool and a new research approach for the Earth sciences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reactive transport modeling is an essential tool for the analysis of coupled physical, chemical, and biological processes in Earth systems, and has additional potential to better integrate the results from focused fundamental research on Earth materials. Appropriately designed models can describe the interactions of competing processes at a range of spatial and time scales, and hence are critical for connecting

Carl I. Steefel; Donald J. DePaolo; Peter C. Lichtner

2005-01-01

194

FULLANALYZE: A RESEARCH TOOL FOR HANDLING, PROCESSING AND ANALYZING FULL-WAVEFORM LIDAR DATA  

E-print Network

FULLANALYZE: A RESEARCH TOOL FOR HANDLING, PROCESSING AND ANALYZING FULL-WAVEFORM LIDAR DATA A ON FULL-WAVEFORM LIDAR DATA Airborne lidar systems (ALS) provide 3D point clouds of the topography prevention and natural ressource management. Moreover, such active systems, also called "multiple echo lidar

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

195

FULLANALYZE: A RESEARCH TOOL FOR HANDLING, PROCESSING AND ANALYZING FULL-WAVEFORM LIDAR DATA  

E-print Network

FULLANALYZE: A RESEARCH TOOL FOR HANDLING, PROCESSING AND ANALYZING FULL-WAVEFORM LIDAR DATA A) lidar systems provide range profiles of the Earth topography. They are acquired from airborne plat on the 2D/3D interface that gives the possibility to visualize the interaction between the lidar

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

196

Hyperpolarized 3He magnetic resonance pulmonary imaging: Image processing tools for clinical research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hyperpolarized 3He magnetic resonance imaging has emerged as an in vivo imaging pulmonary research tool. It is unique among imaging methods in that it provides simultaneous lung structural and functional information at high resolution without the use of ionizing radiation, and thus is ideally suited for intensive serial longitudinal studies and for examining treatment effects. Despite the great promise of

Lindsay Mathew; Andrew Wheatley; David G. McCormack; Grace Parraga

2008-01-01

197

Q-Methodology as a Research and Design Tool for HCI Katie O'Leary  

E-print Network

critically reflect on their own assumptions about how a design may affect social and individual behaviorQ-Methodology as a Research and Design Tool for HCI Katie O'Leary The Information School | DUB-methodology for HCI, called "HCI-Q," can be used in iterative design cycles to explore, from the point of view

Wobbrock, Jacob O.

198

Research maturity levels : implementation and refinement of an online tool for characterizing the progression of research  

E-print Network

Technology Readiness Levels are used in industry to help allocate resources, plan research and development, and clarify communication. Research Maturity Levels, proposed by Ming Leong in 2011, are designed to bring these ...

Liggett, Melinda L. (Melinda Lois)

2014-01-01

199

New method development in prehistoric stone tool research: evaluating use duration and data analysis protocols.  

PubMed

Lithic microwear is a research field of prehistoric stone tool (lithic) analysis that has been developed with the aim to identify how stone tools were used. It has been shown that laser scanning confocal microscopy has the potential to be a useful quantitative tool in the study of prehistoric stone tool function. In this paper, two important lines of inquiry are investigated: (1) whether the texture of worn surfaces is constant under varying durations of tool use, and (2) the development of rapid objective data analysis protocols. This study reports on the attempt to further develop these areas of study and results in a better understanding of the complexities underlying the development of flexible analytical algorithms for surface analysis. The results show that when sampling is optimised, surface texture may be linked to contact material type, independent of use duration. Further research is needed to validate this finding and test an expanded range of contact materials. The use of automated analytical protocols has shown promise but is only reliable if sampling location and scale are defined. Results suggest that the sampling protocol reports on the degree of worn surface invasiveness, complicating the ability to investigate duration related textural characterisation. PMID:25041833

Evans, Adrian A; Macdonald, Danielle A; Giusca, Claudiu L; Leach, Richard K

2014-10-01

200

Development of -omics research in Schistosoma spp. and -omics-based new diagnostic tools for schistosomiasis  

PubMed Central

Schistosomiasis, caused by dioecious flatworms in the genus Schistosoma, is torturing people from many developing countries nowadays and frequently leads to severe morbidity and mortality of the patients. Praziquantel based chemotherapy and morbidity control for this disease adopted currently necessitate viable and efficient diagnostic technologies. Fortunately, those -omics researches, which rely on high-throughput experimental technologies to produce massive amounts of informative data, have substantially contributed to the exploitation and innovation of diagnostic tools of schistosomiasis. In its first section, this review provides a concise conclusion on the progresses pertaining to schistosomal -omics researches to date, followed by a comprehensive section on the diagnostic methods of schistosomiasis, especially those innovative ones based on the detection of antibodies, antigens, nucleic acids, and metabolites with a focus on those achievements inspired by -omics researches. Finally, suggestions about the design of future diagnostic tools of schistosomiasis are proposed, in order to better harness those data produced by -omics studies. PMID:25018752

Wang, Shuqi; Hu, Wei

2014-01-01

201

Information Technology Research Services: Powerful Tools to Keep Up with a Rapidly Moving Field  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Marty firms offer Information Technology Research reports, analyst calls, conferences, seminars, tools, leadership development, etc. These entities include Gartner, Forrester Research, IDC, The Burton Group, Society for Information Management, 1nfoTech Research, The Corporate Executive Board, and so on. This talk will cover how a number of such services are being used at the Goddard Space Flight Center to improve our IT management practices, workforce skills, approach to innovation, and service delivery. These tools and services are used across the workforce, from the executive leadership to the IT worker. The presentation will cover the types of services each vendor provides and their primary engagement model. The use of these services at other NASA Centers and Headquarters will be included. In addition, I will explain how two of these services are available now to the entire NASA IT workforce through enterprise-wide subscriptions.

Hunter, Paul

2010-01-01

202

The Association of Religion Data Archives (ARDA): Online Research Data, Tools, and References.  

PubMed

The Association of Religion Data Archives (ARDA) currently archives over 400 local, national, and international data files, and offers a wide range of research tools to build surveys, preview data on-line, develop customized maps and reports of U.S. church membership, and examine religion differences across nations and regions of the world. The ARDA also supports reference and teaching tools that draw on the rich data archive. This research note offers a brief introduction to the quantitative data available for exploration or download, and a few of the website features most useful for research and teaching. Supported by the Lilly Endowment, the John Templeton Foundation, the Pennsylvania State University, and the Baylor Institute for Studies of Religion, all data downloads and online services are free of charge. PMID:25484914

Finke, Roger; Adamczyk, Amy

2008-12-01

203

Development of an Accessible Self-Assessment Tool for Research Ethics Committees in Developing Countries  

PubMed Central

In response to increased research being performed in developing countries, many research ethics committees (RECs) have been established, but the quality of their ethics review systems remains unknown. Evaluating the performance of an REC remains a challenging task. Absent an accreditation process, a self-assessment mechanism would provide RECs a way to review their policies and processes against recognized international standards. We describe a self-assessment tool that was developed and reviewed by REC members and researchers from the Middle East. This tool reflects pragmatic aspects of human subjects protection, is based on international standards, is straightforward in its completion, and its items are relevant to the administrative processes that exist in many RECs in the developing world. PMID:20831423

Sleem, Hany; Abdelhai, Rehab Abdelhai Ahmed; Al-Abdallat, Imad; Al-Naif, Mohammed; Gabr, Hala Mansour; Kehil, Et-taher; Sadiq, Bakr Bin; Yousri, Reham; Elsayed, Dyaeldin; Sulaiman, Suad; Silverman, Henry

2011-01-01

204

Researchers develop tool to determine individual risk of prostate cancer overdiagnosis  

Cancer.gov

Researchers at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center and the University of Washington have developed a personalized tool that can predict the likelihood of prostate cancer overdiagnosis. They announced their findings this week in the online issue of the Journal of the National Cancer Institute. The researchers created a nomogram, a graphical calculating device, that incorporates a patients age, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level and Gleason score which grades prostate cancer tissue based on how it looks under a microscope to determine the likelihood that screening-detected prostate cancer has been overdiagnosed.

205

The main purpose of this paper is to illustrate the characteristics of ontologybased authoring tools for Computer Based Training (CBT) systems. It has two major advantages as follows.  

E-print Network

­based authoring tools for Computer Based Training (CBT) systems. It has two major advantages as follows. (A Training (CBT) systems. Task Ontology Makes It Easier To Use Authoring Tools Mitsuru Ikeda, Kazuhisa Seta

Mizoguchi, Riichiro

206

Researchers Needs for Resource Discovery and Collaboration Tools: A Qualitative Investigation of Translational Scientists  

PubMed Central

Background A critical aspect of clinical and translational science (CTS) is interdisciplinary and collaborative research, which increasingly requires a wide range of computational and human resources. However, few studies have systematically analyzed such resource needs of CTS researchers. Objective To improve our understanding of CTS researchers needs for computational and human resources in order to build useful and useable supporting informatics tools. Methods We conducted semistructured interviews of 30 CTS researchers from the University of Michigan, followed by qualitative analysis of the interview transcripts. Results The analysis identified three recurring themes: the need for the federation of information, the need to address information overload, and the need to humanize computing, including strong and well-informed views about the use of social networking tools for research collaboration. These findings helped us to narrow down the available design choices for assisting CTS researchers, and helped to identify potential deficiencies of well-known theoretical frameworks used to guide our study, with suggestions for future remedies. Conclusions The user needs identified through the study, along with concrete design suggestions, provided key design, methodological, and theoretical insights, which are being used to guide the design and development of a CTS resource portal. The results and interview instrument should be useful to other institutions with Clinical and Translational Science Awards that face similar challenges related to helping CTS researchers make more effective use of computational and human resources. PMID:22668750

Warden, Michael; Zheng, Kai; Hill, Mary; Athey, Brian D

2012-01-01

207

Multimedia Informed Consent Tool for a Low Literacy African Research Population: Development and Pilot-Testing  

PubMed Central

Background International guidelines recommend the use of appropriate informed consent procedures in low literacy research settings because written information is not known to guarantee comprehension of study information. Objectives This study developed and evaluated a multimedia informed consent tool for people with low literacy in an area where a malaria treatment trial was being planned in The Gambia. Methods We developed the informed consent document of the malaria treatment trial into a multimedia tool integrating video, animations and audio narrations in three major Gambian languages. Acceptability and ease of use of the multimedia tool were assessed using quantitative and qualitative methods. In two separate visits, the participants comprehension of the study information was measured by using a validated digitised audio questionnaire. Results The majority of participants (70%) reported that the multimedia tool was clear and easy to understand. Participants had high scores on the domains of adverse events/risk, voluntary participation, study procedures while lowest scores were recorded on the question items on randomisation. The differences in mean scores for participants recall and understanding between first and second visits were statistically significant (F (1,41)=25.38, p<0.00001 and (F (1, 41) = 31.61, p<0.00001 respectively. Conclusions Our locally developed multimedia tool was acceptable and easy to administer among low literacy participants in The Gambia. It also proved to be effective in delivering and sustaining comprehension of study information across a diverse group of participants. Additional research is needed to compare the tool to the traditional consent interview, both in The Gambia and in other sub-Saharan settings. PMID:25133065

Afolabi, Muhammed Olanrewaju; Bojang, Kalifa; DAlessandro, Umberto; Imoukhuede, Egeruan Babatunde; Ravinetto, Raffaella M; Larson, Heidi Jane; McGrath, Nuala; Chandramohan, Daniel

2014-01-01

208

A Runtime Environment for Supporting Research in Resilient HPC System Software & Tools  

SciTech Connect

The high-performance computing (HPC) community continues to increase the size and complexity of hardware platforms that support advanced scientific workloads. The runtime environment (RTE) is a crucial layer in the software stack for these large-scale systems. The RTE manages the interface between the operating system and the application running in parallel on the machine. The deployment of applications and tools on large-scale HPC computing systems requires the RTE to manage process creation in a scalable manner, support sparse connectivity, and provide fault tolerance. We have developed a new RTE that provides a basis for building distributed execution environments and developing tools for HPC to aid research in system software and resilience. This paper describes the software architecture of the Scalable runTime Component Infrastructure (STCI), which is intended to provide a complete infrastructure for scalable start-up and management of many processes in large-scale HPC systems. We highlight features of the current implementation, which is provided as a system library that allows developers to easily use and integrate STCI in their tools and/or applications. The motivation for this work has been to support ongoing research activities in fault-tolerance for large-scale systems. We discuss the advantages of the modular framework employed and describe two use cases that demonstrate its capabilities: (i) an alternate runtime for a Message Passing Interface (MPI) stack, and (ii) a distributed control and communication substrate for a fault-injection tool.

Vallee, Geoffroy R [ORNL] [ORNL; Naughton, III, Thomas J [ORNL; Boehm, Swen [ORNL] [ORNL; Engelmann, Christian [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01

209

A new research tool for hybrid Bayesian networks using script language  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While continuous variables become more and more inevitable in Bayesian networks for modeling real-life applications in complex systems, there are not much software tools to support it. Popular commercial Bayesian network tools such as Hugin, and Netica etc., are either expensive or have to discretize continuous variables. In addition, some free programs existing in the literature, commonly known as BNT, GeNie/SMILE, etc, have their own advantages and disadvantages respectively. In this paper, we introduce a newly developed Java tool for model construction and inference for hybrid Bayesian networks. Via the representation power of the script language, this tool can build the hybrid model automatically based on a well defined string that follows the specific grammars. Furthermore, it implements several inference algorithms capable to accommodate hybrid Bayesian networks, including Junction Tree algorithm (JT) for conditional linear Gaussian model (CLG), and Direct Message Passing (DMP) for general hybrid Bayesian networks with CLG structure. We believe this tool will be useful for researchers in the field.

Sun, Wei; Park, Cheol Young; Carvalho, Rommel

2011-06-01

210

Social networks, web-based tools and diseases: implications for biomedical research.  

PubMed

Advances in information technology have improved our ability to gather, collect and analyze information from individuals online. Social networks can be seen as a nonlinear superposition of a multitude of complex connections between people where the nodes represent individuals and the links between them capture a variety of different social interactions. The emergence of different types of social networks has fostered connections between individuals, thus facilitating data exchange in a variety of fields. Therefore, the question posed now is "can these same tools be applied to life sciences in order to improve scientific and medical research?" In this article, I will review how social networks and other web-based tools are changing the way we approach and track diseases in biomedical research. PMID:23103282

Costa, Fabricio F

2013-03-01

211

Accumulating Evidence and Research Organization (AERO) model: a new tool for representing, analyzing, and planning a translational research program  

PubMed Central

Background Maximizing efficiency in drug development is important for drug developers, policymakers, and human subjects. Limited funds and the ethical imperative of risk minimization demand that researchers maximize the knowledge gained per patient-subject enrolled. Yet, despite a common perception that the current system of drug development is beset by inefficiencies, there remain few approaches for systematically representing, analyzing, and communicating the efficiency and coordination of the research enterprise. In this paper, we present the first steps toward developing such an approach: a graph-theoretic tool for representing the Accumulating Evidence and Research Organization (AERO) across a translational trajectory. Methods This initial version of the AERO model focuses on elucidating two dimensions of robustness: (1) the consistency of results among studies with an identical or similar outcome metric; and (2) the concordance of results among studies with qualitatively different outcome metrics. The visual structure of the model is a directed acyclic graph, designed to capture these two dimensions of robustness and their relationship to three basic questions that underlie the planning of a translational research program: What is the accumulating state of total evidence? What has been the translational trajectory? What studies should be done next? Results We demonstrate the utility of the AERO model with an application to a case study involving the antibacterial agent, moxifloxacin, for the treatment of drug-susceptible tuberculosis. We then consider some possible elaborations for the AERO model and propose a number of ways in which the tool could be used to enhance the planning, reporting, and analysis of clinical trials. Conclusion The AERO model provides an immediate visual representation of the number of studies done at any stage of research, depicting both the robustness of evidence and the relationship of each study to the larger translational trajectory. In so doing, it makes some of the invisible or inchoate properties of the research system explicit helping to elucidate judgments about the accumulating state of evidence and supporting decision-making for future research. PMID:23721523

2013-01-01

212

Open Virtual Worlds as Pedagogical Research Tools: Learning from the Schome Park Programme  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper introduces the term Open Virtual Worlds and argues that they are unclaimed educational spaces, which provide a valuable tool for researching pedagogy. Having explored these claims the way in which Teen Second Life virtual world was used for pedagogical experimentation in the initial phases of the Schome Park Programme is described. Four sets of pedagogical dimensions that emerged are presented and illustrated with examples from the Schome Park Programme.

Twining, Peter; Peachey, Anna

213

Informatics tools to improve clinical research study implementation. | accrualnet.cancer.gov  

Cancer.gov

In complex multisite clinical research trials, potential problems are compounded when multiple personnel at different sites are responsible for primary data collection, data entry, report form design, etc. This article describes how informatics tools can help identify and correct flawed procedures and data problems early, contributing to overall study success. For example, a value that is flagged as bad soon after data entry is more likely to be correctable because source documents and data originators are more readily available.

214

DataUp: A tool to help researchers describe and share tabular data.  

PubMed

Scientific datasets have immeasurable value, but they lose their value over timewithout proper documentation, long-term storage, and easy discovery and access.Across disciplines as diverse as astronomy, demography, archeology, and ecology,large numbers of small heterogeneous datasets (i.e., the long tail of data) are especially at risk unless they are properly documented, saved, and shared. One unifyingfactor for many of these at-risk datasets is that they reside in spreadsheets. In response to this need, the California Digital Library (CDL) partnered withMicrosoft Research Connections and the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation tocreate the DataUp data management tool for Microsoft Excel. Many researcherscreating these small, heterogeneous datasets use Excel at some point in their datacollection and analysis workflow, so we were interested in developing a data management tool that fits easily into those work flows and minimizes the learning curvefor researchers. The DataUp project began in August 2011. We first formally assessed theneeds of researchers by conducting surveys and interviews of our target research groups: earth, environmental, and ecological scientists. We found that, on average, researchers had very poor data management practices, were not aware of datacenters or metadata standards, and did not understand the benefits of data management or sharing. Based on our survey results, we composed a list of desirablecomponents and requirements and solicited feedback from the community to prioritize potential features of the DataUp tool. These requirements were then relayedto the software developers, and DataUp was successfully launched in October 2012. PMID:25653834

Strasser, Carly; Kunze, John; Abrams, Stephen; Cruse, Patricia

2014-01-01

215

DataUp: A tool to help researchers describe and share tabular data  

PubMed Central

Scientific datasets have immeasurable value, but they lose their value over timewithout proper documentation, long-term storage, and easy discovery and access.Across disciplines as diverse as astronomy, demography, archeology, and ecology,large numbers of small heterogeneous datasets (i.e., the long tail of data) are especially at risk unless they are properly documented, saved, and shared. One unifyingfactor for many of these at-risk datasets is that they reside in spreadsheets. In response to this need, the California Digital Library (CDL) partnered withMicrosoft Research Connections and the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation tocreate the DataUp data management tool for Microsoft Excel. Many researcherscreating these small, heterogeneous datasets use Excel at some point in their datacollection and analysis workflow, so we were interested in developing a data management tool that fits easily into those work flows and minimizes the learning curvefor researchers. The DataUp project began in August 2011. We first formally assessed theneeds of researchers by conducting surveys and interviews of our target research groups: earth, environmental, and ecological scientists. We found that, on average, researchers had very poor data management practices, were not aware of datacenters or metadata standards, and did not understand the benefits of data management or sharing. Based on our survey results, we composed a list of desirablecomponents and requirements and solicited feedback from the community to prioritize potential features of the DataUp tool. These requirements were then relayedto the software developers, and DataUp was successfully launched in October 2012. PMID:25653834

Strasser, Carly; Kunze, John; Abrams, Stephen; Cruse, Patricia

2014-01-01

216

Easily configured real-time CPOE Pick Off Tool supporting focused clinical research and quality improvement.  

PubMed

Real-time alerting systems typically warn providers about abnormal laboratory results or medication interactions. For more complex tasks, institutions create site-wide 'data warehouses' to support quality audits and longitudinal research. Sophisticated systems like i2b2 or Stanford's STRIDE utilize data warehouses to identify cohorts for research and quality monitoring. However, substantial resources are required to install and maintain such systems. For more modest goals, an organization desiring merely to identify patients with 'isolation' orders, or to determine patients' eligibility for clinical trials, may adopt a simpler, limited approach based on processing the output of one clinical system, and not a data warehouse. We describe a limited, order-entry-based, real-time 'pick off' tool, utilizing public domain software (PHP, MySQL). Through a web interface the tool assists users in constructing complex order-related queries and auto-generates corresponding database queries that can be executed at recurring intervals. We describe successful application of the tool for research and quality monitoring. PMID:24287172

Rosenbaum, Benjamin P; Silkin, Nikolay; Miller, Randolph A

2014-01-01

217

CCMC: Serving research and space weather communities with unique space weather services, innovative tools and resources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the addition of Space Weather Research Center (a sub-team within CCMC) in 2010 to address NASAs own space weather needs, CCMC has become a unique entity that not only facilitates research through providing access to the state-of-the-art space science and space weather models, but also plays a critical role in providing unique space weather services to NASA robotic missions, developing innovative tools and transitioning research to operations via user feedback. With scientists, forecasters and software developers working together within one team, through close and direct connection with space weather customers and trusted relationship with model developers, CCMC is flexible, nimble and effective to meet customer needs. In this presentation, we highlight a few unique aspects of CCMC/SWRCs space weather services, such as addressing space weather throughout the solar system, pushing the frontier of space weather forecasting via the ensemble approach, providing direct personnel and tool support for spacecraft anomaly resolution, prompting development of multi-purpose tools and knowledge bases, and educating and engaging the next generation of space weather scientists.

Zheng, Yihua; Kuznetsova, Maria M.; Pulkkinen, Antti; Maddox, Marlo

2015-04-01

218

The virtual supermarket: An innovative research tool to study consumer food purchasing behaviour  

PubMed Central

Background Economic interventions in the food environment are expected to effectively promote healthier food choices. However, before introducing them on a large scale, it is important to gain insight into the effectiveness of economic interventions and peoples' genuine reactions to price changes. Nonetheless, because of complex implementation issues, studies on price interventions are virtually non-existent. This is especially true for experiments undertaken in a retail setting. We have developed a research tool to study the effects of retail price interventions in a virtual-reality setting: the Virtual Supermarket. This paper aims to inform researchers about the features and utilization of this new software application. Results The Virtual Supermarket is a Dutch-developed three-dimensional software application in which study participants can shop in a manner comparable to a real supermarket. The tool can be used to study several food pricing and labelling strategies. The application base can be used to build future extensions and could be translated into, for example, an English-language version. The Virtual Supermarket contains a front-end which is seen by the participants, and a back-end that enables researchers to easily manipulate research conditions. The application keeps track of time spent shopping, number of products purchased, shopping budget, total expenditures and answers on configurable questionnaires. All data is digitally stored and automatically sent to a web server. A pilot study among Dutch consumers (n = 66) revealed that the application accurately collected and stored all data. Results from participant feedback revealed that 83% of the respondents considered the Virtual Supermarket easy to understand and 79% found that their virtual grocery purchases resembled their regular groceries. Conclusions The Virtual Supermarket is an innovative research tool with a great potential to assist in gaining insight into food purchasing behaviour. The application can be obtained via an URL and is freely available for academic use. The unique features of the tool include the fact that it enables researchers to easily modify research conditions and in this way study different types of interventions in a retail environment without a complex implementation process. Finally, it also maintains researcher independence and avoids conflicts of interest that may arise from industry collaboration. PMID:21787391

2011-01-01

219

Low Cost Electroencephalographic Acquisition Amplifier to serve as Teaching and Research Tool  

PubMed Central

We describe the development and testing of a low cost, easily constructed electroencephalographic acquisition amplifier for noninvasive Brain Computer Interface (BCI) education and research. The acquisition amplifier is constructed from newly available off-the-shelf integrated circuit components, and readily sends a 24-bit data stream via USB bus to a computer platform. We demonstrate here the hardwares use in the analysis of a visually evoked P300 paradigm for a choose one-of-eight task. This clearly shows the applicability of this system as a low cost teaching and research tool. PMID:22254699

Jain, Ankit; Kim, Insoo; Gluckman, Bruce J.

2012-01-01

220

Research and experimental testing of a new kind electrokinetic logging tool  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We designed a new downhole electrokinetic logging tool based on numerical simulations and petrophysical experiments. Acoustic and electric receivers cannot be arranged at the same depth, and the proposed composite electrokinetic logging tool offers a solution to this problem. The sound field characteristics of the detectors were tested in a water tank in the laboratory. Then, we calculated the sound pressure of the radiated acoustic field and the transmitting voltage response of the transmitting transducers; in addition, we analyzed the directivity and application of the acoustic transmitting probe based on linear phased array. The results suggest that the sound pressure generated at 1500 mm spacing reaches up to 47.2 kPa and decreases with increasing acoustic source frequency. When the excitation signals delay time of adjacent acoustic transmitting subarrays increases, the radiation beam of the main lobe is deflected and its energy gradually increases, which presumably enhances the acoustoelectric conversion efficiency.

Li, Feng-Bo; Ju, Xiao-Dong; Qiao, Wen-Xiao; Lu, Jun-Qiang; Men, Bai-Rong

2014-12-01

221

NASA System-Level Design, Analysis and Simulation Tools Research on NextGen  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A review of the research accomplished in 2009 in the System-Level Design, Analysis and Simulation Tools (SLDAST) of the NASA's Airspace Systems Program is presented. This research thrust focuses on the integrated system-level assessment of component level innovations, concepts and technologies of the Next Generation Air Traffic System (NextGen) under research in the ASP program to enable the development of revolutionary improvements and modernization of the National Airspace System. The review includes the accomplishments on baseline research and the advancements on design studies and system-level assessment, including the cluster analysis as an annualization standard of the air traffic in the U.S. National Airspace, and the ACES-Air MIDAS integration for human-in-the-loop analyzes within the NAS air traffic simulation.

Bardina, Jorge

2011-01-01

222

THE UK ENERGY RESEARCH ATLAS: A TOOL FOR PRIORITISING AND PLANNING Prof Jim Skea  

E-print Network

, Office of Science and Technology, London, http://www.dti.gov.uk/files/file25485.pdf, last accessed 11 May Atlas" which maps out energy-related research, development and demonstration (RD&D) activities and capabilities in the UK and relates these to wider international developments. The Atlas has two main purposes

223

Edinburgh Research Explorer A research tool for long-term and continuous analysis of fish  

E-print Network

' research by allowing analysis of long-term and continuous fish monitoring video content. The analysis can, no automatic video analysis method is perfect, so the user interface provides marine ecologists with multiple of automatic video analysis at different certainty levels computed by our system, and compare results generated

Millar, Andrew J.

224

A New Tool for Identifying Research Standards and Evaluating Research Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Much has been written about the evaluation of faculty research productivity in promotion and tenure decisions, including many articles that seek to determine the rank of various marketing journals. Yet how faculty evaluators combine journal quality, quantity, and author contribution to form judgments of a scholar's performance is unclear. A

Bacon, Donald R.; Paul, Pallab; Stewart, Kim A.; Mukhopadhyay, Kausiki

2012-01-01

225

Extending the XNAT archive tool for image and analysis management in ophthalmology research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In ophthalmology, various modalities and tests are utilized to obtain vital information on the eye's structure and function. For example, optical coherence tomography (OCT) is utilized to diagnose, screen, and aid treatment of eye diseases like macular degeneration or glaucoma. Such data are complemented by photographic retinal fundus images and functional tests on the visual field. DICOM isn't widely used yet, though, and frequently images are encoded in proprietary formats. The eXtensible Neuroimaging Archive Tool (XNAT) is an open-source NIH-funded framework for research PACS and is in use at the University of Iowa for neurological research applications. Its use for ophthalmology was hence desirable but posed new challenges due to data types thus far not considered and the lack of standardized formats. We developed custom tools for data types not natively recognized by XNAT itself using XNAT's low-level REST API. Vendor-provided tools can be included as necessary to convert proprietary data sets into valid DICOM. Clients can access the data in a standardized format while still retaining the original format if needed by specific analysis tools. With respective project-specific permissions, results like segmentations or quantitative evaluations can be stored as additional resources to previously uploaded datasets. Applications can use our abstract-level Python or C/C++ API to communicate with the XNAT instance. This paper describes concepts and details of the designed upload script templates, which can be customized to the needs of specific projects, and the novel client-side communication API which allows integration into new or existing research applications.

Wahle, Andreas; Lee, Kyungmoo; Harding, Adam T.; Garvin, Mona K.; Niemeijer, Meindert; Sonka, Milan; Abrmoff, Michael D.

2013-03-01

226

VoiceThread as a Peer Review and Dissemination Tool for Undergraduate Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

VoiceThread has been utilized in an undergraduate research methods course for peer review and final research project dissemination. VoiceThread (http://www.voicethread.com) can be considered a social media tool, as it is a web-based technology with the capacity to enable interactive dialogue. VoiceThread is an application that allows a user to place a media collection online containing images, audio, videos, documents, and/or presentations in an interface that facilitates asynchronous communication. Participants in a VoiceThread can be passive viewers of the online content or engaged commenters via text, audio, video, with slide annotations via a doodle tool. The VoiceThread, which runs across browsers and operating systems, can be public or private for viewing and commenting and can be embedded into any website. Although few university students are aware of the VoiceThread platform (only 10% of the students surveyed by Ng (2012)), the 2009 K-12 edition of The Horizon Report (Johnson et al., 2009) lists VoiceThread as a tool to watch because of the opportunities it provides as a collaborative learning environment. In Fall 2011, eleven students enrolled in an undergraduate research methods course at Penn State Brandywine each conducted their own small-scale research project. Upon conclusion of the projects, students were required to create a poster summarizing their work for peer review. To facilitate the peer review process outside of class, each student-created PowerPoint file was placed in a VoiceThread with private access to only the class members and instructor. Each student was assigned to peer review five different student posters (i.e., VoiceThread images) with the audio and doodle tools to comment on formatting, clarity of content, etc. After the peer reviews were complete, the students were allowed to edit their PowerPoint poster files for a new VoiceThread. In the new VoiceThread, students were required to video record themselves describing their research and taking the viewer through their poster in the VoiceThread. This new VoiceThread with their final presentations was open for public viewing but not public commenting. A formal assessment was not conducted on the student impact of using VoiceThread for peer review and final research presentations. From an instructional standpoint, requiring students to use audio for the peer review commenting seemed to result in lengthier and more detailed reviews, connected with specific poster features when the doodle tool was utilized. By recording themselves as a "talking head" for the final product, students were required to be comfortable and confident with presenting their research, similar to what would be expected at a conference presentation. VoiceThread is currently being tested in general education Earth science courses at Penn State Brandywine as a dissemination tool for classroom-based inquiry projects and recruitment tool for Earth & Mineral Science majors.

Guertin, L. A.

2012-12-01

227

Tool for evaluating research implementation challenges: A sense-making protocol for addressing implementation challenges in complex research settings  

PubMed Central

Background Many challenges arise in complex organizational interventions that threaten research integrity. This article describes a Tool for Evaluating Research Implementation Challenges (TECH), developed using a complexity science framework to assist research teams in assessing and managing these challenges. Methods During the implementation of a multi-site, randomized controlled trial (RCT) of organizational interventions to reduce resident falls in eight nursing homes, we inductively developed, and later codified the TECH. The TECH was developed through processes that emerged from interactions among research team members and nursing home staff participants, including a purposive use of complexity science principles. Results The TECH provided a structure to assess challenges systematically, consider their potential impact on intervention feasibility and fidelity, and determine actions to take. We codified the process into an algorithm that can be adopted or adapted for other research projects. We present selected examples of the use of the TECH that are relevant to many complex interventions. Conclusions Complexity theory provides a useful lens through which research procedures can be developed to address implementation challenges that emerge from complex organizations and research designs. Sense-making is a group process in which diverse members interpret challenges when available information is ambiguous; the groups interpretations provide cues for taking action. Sense-making facilitates the creation of safe environments for generating innovative solutions that balance research integrity and practical issues. The challenges encountered during implementation of complex interventions are often unpredictable; however, adoption of a systematic process will allow investigators to address them in a consistent yet flexible manner, protecting fidelity. Research integrity is also protected by allowing for appropriate adaptations to intervention protocols that preserve the feasibility of real world interventions. PMID:23281623

2013-01-01

228

Exploration tools for drug discovery and beyond: applying SciFinder to interdisciplinary research.  

PubMed

Chemists have long recognized the value of online databases for surveying the literature of their field. Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) databases covering almost a century's worth of journal articles and patent documents are among the best known and widely used for searching information on compounds. Today's research presents a new challenge, however, as the boundaries of chemistry and biological sciences overlap increasingly. This trend is especially true in the drug discovery field where published findings relating to both chemical and biological entities and their interactions are examined. CAS has expanded its resources to meet the requirements of the new, interdisciplinary challenges faced by today's researchers. This is evident both in the content of CAS databases, which have been expanded to include more biology-related information, and in the technology of the search tools now available to researchers on their desktop. It is the integration of content and search-and-retrieval technology that enables new insights to be made in the vast body of accumulated information. CAS's SciFinder is a widely used research tool for this purpose. PMID:16472231

Haldeman, Margaret; Vieira, Barbara; Winer, Fred; Knutsen, Lars J S

2005-06-01

229

Application of a tool for the evaluation of public and patient involvement in research  

PubMed Central

Objectives Public and patient involvement (PPI) is required at all stages of research by many funding bodies such as the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR). Given the high priority of PPI within NIHR programmes and the associated costs, it is important that the process of involvement and impact of PPI on health services research is evaluated. We aimed to develop a tool to quantitatively evaluate the quality of PPI in research from a PPI participant's perspective in order to inform the researchers about absolute level of quality (cross-sectional aspect) and changes in quality over time (longitudinal aspect). Setting A primary care patient safety translational research centre. Participants The 12 members of the Research User Group (RUG) of Greater Manchester Primary Care Patient Safety Translational Research Centre. Interventions By their own choice each RUG member supported a specific research theme. The level of involvement varied from commenting on documents through to designing their own research projects. Primary and secondary outcome measures planned Measure absolute score and change in score over time in a nine-point Likert score within individuals. Compare Likert scores before undertaking PPI with scores after PPI activities. Evaluate the usefulness of a questionnaire based on a theoretical framework of personal and research factors. Results The questionnaire had an acceptable to good level of internal consistency (Cronbach's ? 0.740.81). The majority of the individuals met their initial expectations (11/12) and scored high across all factors. There was no significant change over time in the aggregate score over all factors and all individuals, but there were differences within individuals and factors. A ceiling effect limited the questionnaire's usefulness to measure increasing scores. Conclusions The questionnaire has been useful in evaluating the early stages of a PPI group and may be generalisable to another setting. PMID:25770228

Stocks, Susan Jill; Giles, Sally J; Cheraghi-Sohi, Sudeh; Campbell, Stephen M

2015-01-01

230

High integrity software for nuclear power plants: Candidate guidelines, technical basis and research needs. Main report, Volume 2  

SciTech Connect

The work documented in this report was performed in support of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to examine the technical basis for candidate guidelines that could be considered in reviewing and evaluating high integrity computer e following software development and assurance activities: Requirements specification; design; coding; verification and validation, inclukding static analysis and dynamic testing; safety analysis; operation and maintenance; configuration management; quality assurance; and planning and management. Each activity (framework element) was subdivided into technical areas (framework subelements). The report describes the development of approximately 200 candidate guidelines that span the entire ran e identification, categorization and prioritization of technical basis for those candidate guidelines; and the identification, categorization and prioritization of research needs for improving the technical basis. The report has two volumes: Volume 1, Executive Summary includes an overview of the framwork and of each framework element, the complete set of candidate guidelines, the results of the assessment of the technical basis for each candidate guideline, and a discussion of research needs that support the regulatory function; this document, Volume 2, is the main report.

Seth, S.; Bail, W.; Cleaves, D.; Cohen, H.; Hybertson, D.; Schaefer, C.; Stark, G.; Ta, A.; Ulery, B. [Mitre Corp., McLean, VA (United States)

1995-06-01

231

PathCase-SB: integrating data sources and providing tools for systems biology research  

PubMed Central

Background Integration of metabolic pathways resources and metabolic network models, and deploying new tools on the integrated platform can help perform more effective and more efficient systems biology research on understanding the regulation of metabolic networks. Therefore, the tasks of (a) integrating under a single database environment regulatory metabolic networks and existing models, and (b) building tools to help with modeling and analysis are desirable and intellectually challenging computational tasks. Results PathCase Systems Biology (PathCase-SB) is built and released. This paper describes PathCase-SB user interfaces developed to date. The current PathCase-SB system provides a database-enabled framework and web-based computational tools towards facilitating the development of kinetic models for biological systems. PathCase-SB aims to integrate systems biology models data and metabolic network data of selected biological data sources on the web (currently, BioModels Database and KEGG, respectively), and to provide more powerful and/or new capabilities via the new web-based integrative framework. Conclusions Each of the current four PathCase-SB interfaces, namely, Browser, Visualization, Querying, and Simulation interfaces, have expanded and new capabilities as compared with the original data sources. PathCase-SB is already available on the web and being used by researchers across the globe. PMID:22697505

2012-01-01

232

Cloud-enabling Scientific Tools and Computational Methods for Invigorating STEM Learning and Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We present a cloud-enabled comprehensive platform (Pop!World) for experiential learning, education, training and research in population genetics and evolutionary biology. The major goal of Pop!World is to leverage the advances in cyber-infrastructure to improve accessibility of important biological concepts to students at all levels. It is designed to empower a broad spectrum of users with access to cyber-enabled scientific resources, tools and platforms, thus, preparing the next generation of scientists. Pop!World offers a highly engaging alternative to currently prevalent textual environments that fail to captivate net-generation audiences. It is also more mathematically focused than currently available tools, allowing it to be used as a basic teaching tool and expanded to higher education levels and collaborative research platforms. The project is a synergistic inter-disciplinary collaboration among investigators from Computer Science & Engineering and Biological Sciences. In this paper we share our invaluable multi-disciplinary experience (CSE and BIO) in the design and deployment of the Pop!World platform and its successful integration into the introductory biological sciences course offerings over the past two years. We expect our project to serve as a model for creative use of advances in cyber-infrastructure for engaging the cyber-savvy net-generation [11] students and invigorating STEM education.

Bina Ramamurthy

233

Surface Texture Indicators of Tool Wear - A Machine Vision Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been much research on the automated monitoring of cutting tool wear. This research has tended to focus on three\\u000a main areas that attempt to quantify the cutting tool condition: monitoring of specific machine tool parameters in order to\\u000a infer tool condition, direct observations made on the cutting tool; and measurements taken from the chips produced by the\\u000a tool.

C. Bradley; Y. S. Wong

2001-01-01

234

Systems thinking tools as applied to community-based participatory research: a case study.  

PubMed

Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is being used increasingly to address health disparities and complex health issues. The authors propose that CBPR can benefit from a systems science framework to represent the complex and dynamic characteristics of a community and identify intervention points and potential "tipping points." Systems science refers to a field of study that posits a holistic framework that is focused on component parts of a system in the context of relationships with each other and with other systems. Systems thinking tools can assist in intervention planning by allowing all CBPR stakeholders to visualize how community factors are interrelated and by potentially identifying the most salient intervention points. To demonstrate the potential utility of systems science tools in CBPR, the authors show the use of causal loop diagrams by a community coalition engaged in CBPR activities regarding youth drinking reduction and prevention. PMID:22467637

BeLue, Rhonda; Carmack, Chakema; Myers, Kyle R; Weinreb-Welch, Laurie; Lengerich, Eugene J

2012-12-01

235

10/6/13 Researchers develop new search tool to help fight child porn, catch cyber thieves -Yahoo India Finance in.finance.yahoo.com/news/researchers-develop-search-tool-help-091916114.html 1/1  

E-print Network

10/6/13 Researchers develop new search tool to help fight child porn, catch cyber thieves - Yahoo porn, catch cyber thieves ANI ­ Thu 6 Jun, 2013 2:49 PM IST Montreal, June 6 (ANI): A new search tool

Fung, Benjamin C. M.

236

Research on test techniques of fault forewarning and diagnosis for high-end CNC machine tool  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the progress of modern science and technique, the manufacturing industry becomes more and more complex and intelligent. It is the challenge for stable, safe running and economical efficiency of machining equipment such as high-quality numerical control because of its complex structure and integrated functions, and the potential faults are easy to happen. How to ensure the equipment runs stably and reliably becomes the key problem to improve the machining precision and efficiency. In order to prolong the average no-fault time, stable running and machining precision of numerical control, it is very important to make relative test and research on acquisition of data of numerical control sample and establishment of sample database. Take high-end CNC Machine Tool for example, the research on test techniques for data acquisition of sample of typical functional parts in CNC Machine Tool will be made and test condition will be set up; the test methods for sample acquisition on running state monitoring and fault forewarning and diagnosis of numerical control is determined; the test platform for typical functional parts of numerical control is established; the sample database is designed and the sample base and knowledge mode is made. The test and research provide key test techniques to disclosure dynamic performance of fault and precision degeneration, and analyze the impact factors to fault.

Ren, Bin; Xu, Xiaoli

2010-12-01

237

The DEDUCE Guided Query Tool: Providing Simplified Access to Clinical Data for Research and Quality Improvement  

PubMed Central

In many healthcare organizations, comparative effectiveness research and quality improvement (QI) investigations are hampered by a lack of access to data created as a byproduct of patient care. Data collection often hinges upon either manual chart review or ad hoc requests to technical experts who support legacy clinical systems. In order to facilitate this needed capacity for data exploration at our institution (Duke University Health System), we have designed and deployed a robust Web application for cohort identification and data extractionthe Duke Enterprise Data Unified Content Explorer (DEDUCE). DEDUCE is envisioned as a simple, web-based environment that allows investigators access to administrative, financial, and clinical information generated during patient care. By using business intelligence tools to create a view into Duke Medicine's enterprise data warehouse, DEDUCE provides a guided query functionality using a wizard-like interface that lets users filter through millions of clinical records, explore aggregate reports, and, export extracts. Researchers and QI specialists can obtain detailed patient- and observation-level extracts without needing to understand structured query language or the underlying database model. Developers designing such tools must devote sufficient training and develop application safeguards to ensure that patient-centered clinical researchers understand when observation-level extracts should be used. This may mitigate the risk of data being misunderstood and consequently used in an improper fashion. PMID:21130181

Horvath, Monica M.; Winfield, Stephanie; Evans, Steve; Slopek, Steve; Shang, Howard; Ferranti, Jeffrey

2011-01-01

238

The DEDUCE Guided Query tool: providing simplified access to clinical data for research and quality improvement.  

PubMed

In many healthcare organizations, comparative effectiveness research and quality improvement (QI) investigations are hampered by a lack of access to data created as a byproduct of patient care. Data collection often hinges upon either manual chart review or ad hoc requests to technical experts who support legacy clinical systems. In order to facilitate this needed capacity for data exploration at our institution (Duke University Health System), we have designed and deployed a robust Web application for cohort identification and data extraction--the Duke Enterprise Data Unified Content Explorer (DEDUCE). DEDUCE is envisioned as a simple, web-based environment that allows investigators access to administrative, financial, and clinical information generated during patient care. By using business intelligence tools to create a view into Duke Medicine's enterprise data warehouse, DEDUCE provides a Guided Query functionality using a wizard-like interface that lets users filter through millions of clinical records, explore aggregate reports, and, export extracts. Researchers and QI specialists can obtain detailed patient- and observation-level extracts without needing to understand structured query language or the underlying database model. Developers designing such tools must devote sufficient training and develop application safeguards to ensure that patient-centered clinical researchers understand when observation-level extracts should be used. This may mitigate the risk of data being misunderstood and consequently used in an improper fashion. PMID:21130181

Horvath, Monica M; Winfield, Stephanie; Evans, Steve; Slopek, Steve; Shang, Howard; Ferranti, Jeffrey

2011-04-01

239

Oxytocin and Vasopressin Agonists and Antagonists as Research Tools and Potential Therapeutics  

PubMed Central

We recently reviewed the status of peptide and nonpeptide agonists and antagonists for the V1a, V1b and V2 receptors for arginine vasopressin (AVP) and the oxytocin receptor for oxytocin (OT). In the present review, we update the status of peptides and nonpeptides as: (i) research tools and (ii) therapeutic agents. We also present our recent findings on the design of fluorescent ligands for V1b receptor localisation and for OT receptor dimerisation. We note the exciting discoveries regarding two novel naturally occurring analogues of OT. Recent reports of a selective VP V1a agonist and a selective OT agonist point to the continued therapeutic potential of peptides in this field. To date, only two nonpeptides, the V2/V1a antagonist, conivaptan and the V2 antagonist tolvaptan have received Food and Drug Administration approval for clinical use. The development of nonpeptide AVP V1a, V1b and V2 antagonists and OT agonists and antagonists has recently been abandoned by Merck, Sanofi and Pfizer. A promising OT antagonist, Retosiban, developed at Glaxo SmithKline is currently in a Phase II clinical trial for the prevention of premature labour. A number of the nonpeptide ligands that were not successful in clinical trials are proving to be valuable as research tools. Peptide agonists and antagonists continue to be very widely used as research tools in this field. In this regard, we present receptor data on some of the most widely used peptide and nonpeptide ligands, as a guide for their use, especially with regard to receptor selectivity and species differences. PMID:22375852

Manning, M; Misicka, A; Olma, A; Bankowski, K; Stoev, S; Chini, B; Durroux, T; Mouillac, B; Corbani, M; Guillon, G

2012-01-01

240

High throughput tools to access images from clinical archives for research.  

PubMed

Historically, medical images collected in the course of clinical care have been difficult to access for secondary research studies. While there is a tremendous potential value in the large volume of studies contained in clinical image archives, Picture Archiving and Communication Systems (PACS) are designed to optimize clinical operations and workflow. Search capabilities in PACS are basic, limiting their use for population studies, and duplication of archives for research is costly. To address this need, we augment the Informatics for Integrating Biology and the Bedside (i2b2) open source software, providing investigators with the tools necessary to query and integrate medical record and clinical research data. Over 100 healthcare institutions have installed this suite of software tools that allows investigators to search medical record metadata including images for specific types of patients. In this report, we describe a new Medical Imaging Informatics Bench to Bedside (mi2b2) module ( www.mi2b2.org ), available now as an open source addition to the i2b2 software platform that allows medical imaging examinations collected during routine clinical care to be made available to translational investigators directly from their institution's clinical PACS for research and educational use in compliance with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) Omnibus Rule. Access governance within the mi2b2 module is customizable per institution and PACS minimizing impact on clinical systems. Currently in active use at our institutions, this new technology has already been used to facilitate access to thousands of clinical MRI brain studies representing specific patient phenotypes for use in research. PMID:25316195

Murphy, Shawn N; Herrick, Christopher; Wang, Yanbing; Wang, Taowei David; Sack, Darren; Andriole, Katherine P; Wei, Jesse; Reynolds, Nathaniel; Plesniak, Wendy; Rosen, Bruce R; Pieper, Steven; Gollub, Randy L

2015-04-01

241

Synthetic biology in mammalian cells: Next generation research tools and therapeutics  

PubMed Central

Recent progress in DNA manipulation and gene circuit engineering has greatly improved our ability to programme and probe mammalian cell behaviour. These advances have led to a new generation of synthetic biology research tools and potential therapeutic applications. Programmable DNA-binding domains and RNA regulators are leading to unprecedented control of gene expression and elucidation of gene function. Rebuilding complex biological circuits such as T cell receptor signalling in isolation from their natural context has deepened our understanding of network motifs and signalling pathways. Synthetic biology is also leading to innovative therapeutic interventions based on cell-based therapies, protein drugs, vaccines and gene therapies. PMID:24434884

Lienert, Florian; Lohmueller, Jason J; Garg, Abhishek; Silver, Pamela A

2014-01-01

242

Solid Modeling Aerospace Research Tool (SMART) user's guide, version 2.0  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Solid Modeling Aerospace Research Tool (SMART) software package is used in the conceptual design of aerospace vehicles. It provides a highly interactive and dynamic capability for generating geometries with Bezier cubic patches. Features include automatic generation of commonly used aerospace constructs (e.g., wings and multilobed tanks); cross-section skinning; wireframe and shaded presentation; area, volume, inertia, and center-of-gravity calculations; and interfaces to various aerodynamic and structural analysis programs. A comprehensive description of SMART and how to use it is provided.

Mcmillin, Mark L.; Spangler, Jan L.; Dahmen, Stephen M.; Rehder, John J.

1993-01-01

243

Ocular static and dynamic light scattering: a noninvasive diagnostic tool for eye research and clinical practice  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The noninvasive techniques of static and dynamic light scattering are emerging as valuable diagnostic tools for the early detection of ocular and systemic diseases. These include corneal abnormalities, pigmentary dispersion syndrome, glaucoma, cataract, diabetic vitreopathy, and possibly macular degeneration. Systemic conditions such as diabetes and possibly Alzheimer's disease can potentially be detected early via ocular tissues. The current state of development of these techniques for application to ophthalmic research and ultimately clinical practice is reviewed. (c) 2004 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers.

Ansari, Rafat R.

2004-01-01

244

Frontal affinity chromatography: A unique research tool for biospecific interaction that promotes glycobiology  

PubMed Central

Combination of bioaffinity and chromatography gave birth to affinity chromatography. A further combination with frontal analysis resulted in creation of frontal affinity chromatography (FAC). This new versatile research tool enabled detailed analysis of weak interactions that play essential roles in living systems, especially those between complex saccharides and saccharide-binding proteins. FAC now becomes the best method for the investigation of saccharide-binding proteins (lectins) from viewpoints of sensitivity, accuracy, and efficiency, and is contributing greatly to the development of glycobiology. It opened a door leading to deeper understanding of the significance of saccharide recognition in life. The theory is also concisely described. PMID:25169774

KASAI, Kenichi

2014-01-01

245

Laboratory directed research and development final report: Intelligent tools for on-machine acceptance of precision machined components  

SciTech Connect

On-Machine Acceptance (OMA) is an agile manufacturing concept being developed for machine tools at SNL. The concept behind OMA is the integration of product design, fabrication, and qualification processes by using the machining center as a fabrication and inspection tool. This report documents the final results of a Laboratory Directed Research and Development effort to qualify OMA.

Christensen, N.G.; Harwell, L.D.; Hazelton, A.

1997-02-01

246

Action-Research and Food and Nutrition Security: A School Experience Mediated by Conceptual Graphic Representation Tool  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study deals with the development of a graphic representation tool as a way to support educational planning in an elementary school in the rural area of Brasilia (Brazil's capital), aiming at the implementation of an integrated action-research project focusing on hunger and nutrition. The graphic tool made it possible to promote

Graebner, Ivete Teresinha; de Souza, Elizabeth Maria Tala; Saito, Carlos Hiroo

2009-01-01

247

Toole 8/28/2007 page 1 A Primer on Social Science Research Methods in Construction1  

E-print Network

the construction industry. It is the author's opinion that some construction graduate students and faculty pursueToole 8/28/2007 page 1 A Primer on Social Science Research Methods in Construction1 T. Michael Toole2 Abstract The fact that people play key roles in nearly all aspects of construction suggests

Toole, T. Michael

248

76 FR 47216 - Expediting Research Tools to NIH Licensees Through the Use of Pay.gov for Rapid Processing of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...research tool and other license agreements from several months down to a day or less. For example, a recent transaction for baculovirus vectors at NIH was indeed processed in a single afternoon allowing for almost instantaneous release of the licensed...

2011-08-04

249

Research priorities for the development and implementation of serological tools for malaria surveillance  

PubMed Central

Surveillance is a key component of control and elimination programs. Malaria surveillance has been typically reliant on case reporting by health services, entomological estimates and parasitemia (Plasmodium species) point prevalence. However, these techniques become less sensitive and relatively costly as transmission declines. There is great potential for the development and application of serological biomarkers of malaria exposure as sero-surveillance tools to strengthen malaria control and elimination. Antibodies to malaria antigens are sensitive biomarkers of population-level malaria exposure and can be used to identify hotspots of malaria transmission, estimate transmission levels, monitor changes over time or the impact of interventions on transmission, confirm malaria elimination, and monitor re-emergence of malaria. Sero-surveillance tools could be used in reference laboratories or developed as simple point-of-care tests for community-based surveillance, and different applications and target populations dictate the technical performance required from assays that are determined by properties of antigens and antibody responses. To advance the development of sero-surveillance tools for malaria elimination, major gaps in our knowledge need to be addressed through further research. These include greater knowledge of potential antigens, the sensitivity and specificity of antibody responses, and the longevity of these responses and defining antigens and antibodies that differentiate between exposure to Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax. Additionally, a better understanding of the influence of host factors, such as age, genetics, and comorbidities on antibody responses in different populations is needed. PMID:25580254

Elliott, Salenna R.; Fowkes, Freya J.I.; Richards, Jack S.; Reiling, Linda; Drew, Damien R.

2014-01-01

250

Nuclear imaging in three dimensions: a unique tool in cancer research.  

PubMed

Tumorigenesis includes alterations in the three-dimensional (3D) nuclear organization of the genome. The combination of sensitive quantitative fluorescent in situ hybridization (Q-FISH) and three-dimensional (3D) microscopy have evolved as powerful tools in studying the dynamic 3D organization of telomeres and chromosomes in the interphase nucleus of individual normal and tumor cells. Tumor-specific alterations in 3D telomere architecture, particularly the appearance of telomeric aggregates, are early events in tumorigenesis and have diagnostic and prognostic value. Novel tools in the 3D nuclear imaging arsenal now include high-throughput scanning capabilities and new 3D nano-resolution microscopy of tissues and cells. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of the biology of telomeres in the context of tumorigenesis and elucidate the important integrating function of advanced 3D imaging technologies in translating new discoveries in basic cancer research into new diagnostic tools for clinical oncologists to improve patient care. PMID:20800459

Klonisch, Thomas; Wark, Landon; Hombach-Klonisch, Sabine; Mai, Sabine

2010-09-20

251

Designing simulator tools for rail research: the case study of a train driving microworld.  

PubMed

The microworld simulator paradigm is well established in the areas of ship-navigation and spaceflight, but has yet to be applied to rail. This paper presents a case study aiming to address this research gap, and describes the development of a train driving microworld as a tool to overcome some common research barriers. A theoretical framework for microworld design is tested and used to explore some key methodological issues and characteristics of train driving, enhancing theory development and providing a useful guideline for the designers of other collision-avoidance systems. A detailed description is given of the ATREIDES (Adaptive Train Research Enhanced Information Display & Environment Simulator) microworld, which simulates the work environment of a train driver in a high-speed passenger train. General indications of the testable driving scenarios that may be simulated are given, and an example of an ATREIDES-based study is presented to illustrate its applied research potential. The article concludes with a review of the design process, considers some strengths and limitations, and explores some future initiatives towards enhancing the systematic study of rail research in the human factors community. PMID:23107003

Naweed, A; Hockey, G R J; Clarke, S D

2013-05-01

252

60 Years of Research and Demonstration in Maine, 1950-2010 103GTR-NRS-P-123 Vascular Flora oF the Penobscot exPerimental Forest,  

E-print Network

Experimental Forest (PEF), Bradley, Maine. More than 300 taxa of vascular plants in 71 families and 186 genera of an area, among many other uses (Palmer et al. 1995). This report is the first comprehensive vascular plant60 Years of Research and Demonstration in Maine, 1950-2010 103GTR-NRS-P-123 Vascular Flora

253

Rapidly Re-Configurable Flight Simulator Tools for Crew Vehicle Integration Research and Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

While simulation is a valuable research and design tool, the time and difficulty required to create new simulations (or re-use existing simulations) often limits their application. This report describes the design of the software architecture for the Reconfigurable Flight Simulator (RFS), which provides a robust simulation framework that allows the simulator to fulfill multiple research and development goals. The core of the architecture provides the interface standards for simulation components, registers and initializes components, and handles the communication between simulation components. The simulation components are each a pre-compiled library 'plug-in' module. This modularity allows independent development and sharing of individual simulation components. Additional interfaces can be provided through the use of Object Data/Method Extensions (OD/ME). RFS provides a programmable run-time environment for real-time access and manipulation, and has networking capabilities using the High Level Architecture (HLA).

Schutte, Paul C.; Trujillo, Anna; Pritchett, Amy R.

2000-01-01

254

Genome Elimination: Translating Basic Research into a Future Tool for Plant Breeding  

PubMed Central

During the course of our history, humankind has been through different periods of agricultural improvement aimed at enhancing our food supply and the performance of food crops. In recent years, it has become apparent that future crop improvement efforts will require new approaches to address the local challenges of farmers while empowering discovery across industry and academia. New plant breeding approaches are needed to meet this challenge to help feed a growing world population. Here I discuss how a basic research discovery is being translated into a potential future tool for plant breeding, and share the story of researcher Simon Chan, who recognized the potential application of this new approachgenome eliminationfor the breeding of staple food crops in Africa and South America. PMID:24915001

Comai, Luca

2014-01-01

255

Lower body negative pressure as a tool for research in aerospace physiology and military medicine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lower body negative pressure (LBNP) has been extensively used for decades in aerospace physiological research as a tool to investigate cardiovascular mechanisms that are associated with or underlie performance in aerospace and military environments. In comparison with clinical stand and tilt tests, LBNP represents a relatively safe methodology for inducing highly reproducible hemodynamic responses during exposure to footward fluid shifts similar to those experienced under orthostatic challenge. By maintaining an orthostatic challenge in a supine posture, removal of leg support (muscle pump) and head motion (vestibular stimuli) during LBNP provides the capability to isolate cardiovascular mechanisms that regulate blood pressure. LBNP can be used for physiological measurements, clinical diagnoses and investigational research comparisons of subject populations and alterations in physiological status. The applications of LBNP to the study of blood pressure regulation in spaceflight, groundbased simulations of low gravity, and hemorrhage have provided unique insights and understanding for development of countermeasures based on physiological mechanisms underlying the operational problems.

Convertino, V. A.

2001-01-01

256

Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) as a new tool for neuroeconomic research  

PubMed Central

Over the last decade, the application of neuroscience to economic research has gained in importance and the number of neuroeconomic studies has grown extensively. The most common method for these investigations is fMRI. However, fMRI has limitations (particularly concerning situational factors) that should be countered with other methods. This review elaborates on the use of functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) as a new and promising tool for investigating economic decision making both in field experiments and outside the laboratory. We describe results of studies investigating the reliability of prototype NIRS studies, as well as detailing experiments using conventional and stationary fNIRS devices to analyze this potential. This review article shows that further research using mobile fNIRS for studies on economic decision making outside the laboratory could be a fruitful avenue helping to develop the potential of a new method for field experiments outside the laboratory. PMID:25147517

Kopton, Isabella M.; Kenning, Peter

2014-01-01

257

Applications of 'TissueQuant'- a color intensity quantification tool for medical research.  

PubMed

This paper demonstrates the use of TissueQuant - an image analysis tool for quantification of color intensities which was developed for use in medical research where the stained biological specimen such as tissue or antigen needs to be quantified. TissueQuant provides facilities for user interaction to choose and quantify the color of interest and its shades. Gaussian weighting functions are used to provide a color score which quantifies how close the shade is to the user specified reference color. We describe two studies in medical research which use TissueQuant for quantification. The first study evaluated the effect of petroleum-ether extract of Cissus quadrangularis (CQ) on osteoporotic rats. It was found that the analysis results correlated well with the manual evaluation, p < 0.001. The second study evaluated the nerve morphometry and it was found that the adipose and non adipose tissue content was maximum in radial nerve among the five nerves studied. PMID:21924792

Prasad, Keerthana; P, Bhagath Kumar; Chakravarthy, Marx; Prabhu, Gopalakrishna

2012-04-01

258

Genome elimination: translating basic research into a future tool for plant breeding.  

PubMed

During the course of our history, humankind has been through different periods of agricultural improvement aimed at enhancing our food supply and the performance of food crops. In recent years, it has become apparent that future crop improvement efforts will require new approaches to address the local challenges of farmers while empowering discovery across industry and academia. New plant breeding approaches are needed to meet this challenge to help feed a growing world population. Here I discuss how a basic research discovery is being translated into a potential future tool for plant breeding, and share the story of researcher Simon Chan, who recognized the potential application of this new approach--genome elimination--for the breeding of staple food crops in Africa and South America. PMID:24915001

Comai, Luca

2014-06-01

259

DataUp 2.0: Improving On a Tool For Helping Researchers Archive, Manage, and Share Their Tabular Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are many barriers to data management and sharing among earth and environmental scientists; among the most significant are a lack of knowledge about best practices for data management, metadata standards, or appropriate data repositories for archiving and sharing data. Last year we developed an open source web application, DataUp, to help researchers overcome these barriers. DataUp helps scientists to (1) determine whether their file is CSV compatible, (2) generate metadata in a standard format, (3) retrieve an identifier to facilitate data citation, and (4) deposit their data into a repository. With funding from the NSF via a supplemental grant to the DataONE project, we are working to improve upon DataUp. Our main goal for DataUp 2.0 is to ensure organizations and repositories are able to adopt and adapt DataUp to meet their unique needs, including connecting to analytical tools, adding new metadata schema, and expanding the list of connected data repositories. DataUp is a collaborative project between the California Digital Library, DataONE, the San Diego Supercomputing Center, and Microsoft Research Connections.

Strasser, C.; Borda, S.; Cruse, P.; Kunze, J.

2013-12-01

260

The Virtual Museum for Meteorites: an Online Tool for Researchers Educators and Students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Virtual Museum for Meteorites (Figure 1) was created as a tool for students, educators and researchers [1, 2]. One of the aims of this online resource is to promote the interest in meteorites. Thus, the role of meteorites in education and outreach is fundamental, as these are very valuable tools to promote the public's interest in Astronomy and Planetary Sciences. Meteorite exhibitions reveal the fascination of students, educators and even researchers for these extraterrestrial rocks and how these can explain many key questions origin and evolution of our Solar System. However, despite the efforts related to the origin and evolution of our Solar System. However, despite the efforts of private collectors, museums and other institutions to organize meteorite exhibitions, the reach of these is usually limited. The Virtual Museum for Meteorites takes advantage of HTML and related technologies to overcome local boundaries and offer its contents for a global audience. A description of the recent developments performed in the framework of this virtual museum is given in this work.

Madiedo, J. M.

2013-09-01

261

miRspring: a compact standalone research tool for analyzing miRNA-seq data  

PubMed Central

High-throughput sequencing for microRNA (miRNA) profiling has revealed a vast complexity of miRNA processing variants, but these are difficult to discern for those without bioinformatics expertise and large computing capability. In this article, we present miRNA Sequence Profiling (miRspring) (http://mirspring.victorchang.edu.au), a software solution that creates a small portable research document that visualizes, calculates and reports on the complexities of miRNA processing. We designed an index-compression algorithm that allows the miRspring document to reproduce a complete miRNA sequence data set while retaining a small file size (typically <3 MB). Through analysis of 73 public data sets, we demonstrate miRsprings features in assessing quality parameters, miRNA cluster expression levels and miRNA processing. Additionally, we report on a new class of miRNA variants, which we term seed-isomiRs, identified through the novel visualization tools of the miRspring document. Further investigation identified that ?30% of human miRBase entries are likely to have a seed-isomiR. We believe that miRspring will be a highly useful research tool that will enhance the analysis of miRNA data sets and thus increase our understanding of miRNA biology. PMID:23775795

Humphreys, David T.; Suter, Catherine M.

2013-01-01

262

Build your own social network laboratory with Social Lab: a tool for research in social media.  

PubMed

Social networking has surpassed e-mail and instant messaging as the dominant form of online communication (Meeker, Devitt, & Wu, 2010). Currently, all large social networks are proprietary, making it difficult to impossible for researchers to make changes to such networks for the purpose of study design and access to user-generated data from the networks. To address this issue, the authors have developed and present Social Lab, an Internet-based free and open-source social network software system available from http://www.sociallab.es . Having full availability of navigation and communication data in Social Lab allows researchers to investigate behavior in social media on an individual and group level. Automated artificial users ("bots") are available to the researcher to simulate and stimulate social networking situations. These bots respond dynamically to situations as they unfold. The bots can easily be configured with scripts and can be used to experimentally manipulate social networking situations in Social Lab. Examples for setting up, configuring, and using Social Lab as a tool for research in social media are provided. PMID:24061930

Garaizar, Pablo; Reips, Ulf-Dietrich

2014-06-01

263

State legislation savvy: a primer and tools for online legislative research in the United States.  

PubMed

We describe sources and methods for state legislative research and provide access to the State Legislative Search Guide tool. State legislation creates and regulates chronic disease prevention interventions both directly through programs targeted to reduce the chronic disease burden and legislation affecting environments such as parks and trails that support health behaviors. Researching state legislation helps advocates, policy makers, researchers, and practitioners make informed recommendations to improve chronic disease prevention policies. Several online sources exist for state legislative information, including subscription databases that cover all 50 US states, single-state subscription databases, and public domain state legislative databases administered by each state. The State Legislative Search Guide, in full-length and condensed versions, uses free public domain databases to facilitate comparison of state legislation for all US states. Links to both versions are provided in the article. Legislative research tips on creating search phrases, searching bill content, bill tracking, and selecting databases and also a table of major subscription databases are provided. PMID:22172187

Nguyen, Leah M; Eyler, Amy A; Kong, Jooyoung; Brownson, Ross C

2012-01-01

264

Implementing an International Consultation on Earth System Research Priorities Using Web 2.0 Tools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Leah Goldfarb, Paul Cutler, Andrew Yang*, Mustapha Mokrane, Jacinta Legg and Deliang Chen The scientific community has been engaged in developing an international strategy on Earth system research. The initial consultation in this visioning process focused on gathering suggestions for Earth system research priorities that are interdisciplinary and address the most pressing societal issues. It was implemented this through a website that utilized Web 2.0 capabilities. The website (http://www.icsu-visioning.org/) collected input from 15 July to 1 September 2009. This consultation was the first in which the international scientific community was asked to help shape the future of a research theme. The site attracted over 7000 visitors from 133 countries, more than 1000 of whom registered and took advantage of the sites functionality to contribute research questions (~300 questions), comment on posts, and/or vote on questions. To facilitate analysis of results, the site captured a small set of voluntary information about each contributor and their contribution. A group of ~50 international experts were invited to analyze the inputs at a Visioning Earth System Research meeting held in September 2009. The outcome of this meetinga prioritized list of research questions to be investigated over the next decadewas then posted on the visioning website for additional comment from the community through an online survey tool. In general, many lessons were learned in the development and implementation of this website, both in terms of the opportunities offered by Web 2.0 capabilities and the application of these capabilities. It is hoped that this process may serve as a model for other scientific communities. The International Council for Science (ICSU) in cooperation with the International Social Science Council (ISSC) is responsible for organizing this Earth system visioning process.

Goldfarb, L.; Yang, A.

2009-12-01

265

A tool for exploring space-time patterns : an animation user research  

PubMed Central

Background Ever since Dr. John Snow (18131854) used a case map to identify water well as the source of a cholera outbreak in London in the 1800s, the use of spatio-temporal maps have become vital tools in a wide range of disease mapping and control initiatives. The increasing use of spatio-temporal maps in these life-threatening sectors warrants that they are accurate, and easy to interpret to enable prompt decision making by health experts. Similar spatio-temporal maps are observed in urban growth and census mapping all critical aspects a of a country's socio-economic development. In this paper, a user test research was carried out to determine the effectiveness of spatio-temporal maps (animation) in exploring geospatial structures encompassing disease, urban and census mapping. Results Three types of animation were used, namely; passive, interactive and inference-based animation, with the key differences between them being on the level of interactivity and complementary domain knowledge that each offers to the user. Passive animation maintains the view only status. The user has no control over its contents and dynamic variables. Interactive animation provides users with the basic media player controls, navigation and orientation tools. Inference-based animation incorporates these interactive capabilities together with a complementary automated intelligent view that alerts users to interesting patterns, trends or anomalies that may be inherent in the data sets. The test focussed on the role of animation passive and interactive capabilities in exploring space-time patterns by engaging test-subjects in thinking aloud evaluation protocol. The test subjects were selected from a geoinformatics (map reading, interpretation and analysis abilities) background. Every test-subject used each of the three types of animation and their performances for each session assessed. The results show that interactivity in animation is a preferred exploratory tool in identifying, interpreting and providing explanations about observed geospatial phenomena. Also, exploring geospatial data structures using animation is best achieved using provocative interactive tools such as was seen with the inference-based animation. The visual methods employed using the three types of animation are all related and together these patterns confirm the exploratory cognitive structure and processes for visualization tools. Conclusion The generic types of animation as defined in this paper play a crucial role in facilitating the visualization of geospatial data. These animations can be created and their contents defined based on the user's presentational and exploratory needs. For highly explorative tasks, maintaining a link between the data sets and the animation is crucial to enabling a rich and effective knowledge discovery environment. PMID:16938138

Ogao, Patrick J

2006-01-01

266

On the use of EEG or MEG brain imaging tools in neuromarketing research.  

PubMed

Here we present an overview of some published papers of interest for the marketing research employing electroencephalogram (EEG) and magnetoencephalogram (MEG) methods. The interest for these methodologies relies in their high-temporal resolution as opposed to the investigation of such problem with the functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) methodology, also largely used in the marketing research. In addition, EEG and MEG technologies have greatly improved their spatial resolution in the last decades with the introduction of advanced signal processing methodologies. By presenting data gathered through MEG and high resolution EEG we will show which kind of information it is possible to gather with these methodologies while the persons are watching marketing relevant stimuli. Such information will be related to the memorization and pleasantness related to such stimuli. We noted that temporal and frequency patterns of brain signals are able to provide possible descriptors conveying information about the cognitive and emotional processes in subjects observing commercial advertisements. These information could be unobtainable through common tools used in standard marketing research. We also show an example of how an EEG methodology could be used to analyze cultural differences between fruition of video commercials of carbonated beverages in Western and Eastern countries. PMID:21960996

Vecchiato, Giovanni; Astolfi, Laura; De Vico Fallani, Fabrizio; Toppi, Jlenia; Aloise, Fabio; Bez, Francesco; Wei, Daming; Kong, Wanzeng; Dai, Jounging; Cincotti, Febo; Mattia, Donatella; Babiloni, Fabio

2011-01-01

267

On the Use of EEG or MEG Brain Imaging Tools in Neuromarketing Research  

PubMed Central

Here we present an overview of some published papers of interest for the marketing research employing electroencephalogram (EEG) and magnetoencephalogram (MEG) methods. The interest for these methodologies relies in their high-temporal resolution as opposed to the investigation of such problem with the functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) methodology, also largely used in the marketing research. In addition, EEG and MEG technologies have greatly improved their spatial resolution in the last decades with the introduction of advanced signal processing methodologies. By presenting data gathered through MEG and high resolution EEG we will show which kind of information it is possible to gather with these methodologies while the persons are watching marketing relevant stimuli. Such information will be related to the memorization and pleasantness related to such stimuli. We noted that temporal and frequency patterns of brain signals are able to provide possible descriptors conveying information about the cognitive and emotional processes in subjects observing commercial advertisements. These information could be unobtainable through common tools used in standard marketing research. We also show an example of how an EEG methodology could be used to analyze cultural differences between fruition of video commercials of carbonated beverages in Western and Eastern countries. PMID:21960996

Vecchiato, Giovanni; Astolfi, Laura; De Vico Fallani, Fabrizio; Toppi, Jlenia; Aloise, Fabio; Bez, Francesco; Wei, Daming; Kong, Wanzeng; Dai, Jounging; Cincotti, Febo; Mattia, Donatella; Babiloni, Fabio

2011-01-01

268

Benchmark and Framework for Encouraging Research on Multi-Threaded Testing Tools  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A problem that has been getting prominence in testing is that of looking for intermittent bugs. Multi-threaded code is becoming very common, mostly on the server side. As there is no silver bullet solution, research focuses on a variety of partial solutions. In this paper (invited by PADTAD 2003) we outline a proposed project to facilitate research. The project goals are as follows. The first goal is to create a benchmark that can be used to evaluate different solutions. The benchmark, apart from containing programs with documented bugs, will include other artifacts, such as traces, that are useful for evaluating some of the technologies. The second goal is to create a set of tools with open API s that can be used to check ideas without building a large system. For example an instrumentor will be available, that could be used to test temporal noise making heuristics. The third goal is to create a focus for the research in this area around which a community of people who try to solve similar problems with different techniques, could congregate.

Havelund, Klaus; Stoller, Scott D.; Ur, Shmuel

2003-01-01

269

Reactive Transport Modeling: An Essential Tool and a New ResearchApproach for the Earth Sciences  

SciTech Connect

Reactive transport modeling is an essential tool for the analysis of coupled physical, chemical, and biological processes in Earth systems, and has additional potential to better integrate the results from focused fundamental research on Earth materials. Appropriately designed models can describe the interactions of competing processes at a range of spatial and time scales, and hence are critical for connecting the advancing capabilities for materials characterization at the atomic scale with the macroscopic behavior of complex Earth systems. Reactive transport modeling has had a significant impact on the treatment of contaminant retardation in the subsurface, the description of elemental and nutrient fluxes between major Earth reservoirs, and in the treatment of deep Earth processes such as metamorphism and magma transport. Active topics of research include the development of pore scale and hybrid, or multiple continua, models to capture the scale dependence of coupled reactive transport processes. Frontier research questions, that are only now being addressed, include the effects of chemical microenvironments, coupled thermal mechanical chemical processes, controls on mineral fluid reaction rates in natural media, and scaling of reactive transport processes from the microscopic to pore to field scale.

Steefel, Carl I.; DePaolo, Donald J.; Lichtner, Peter C.

2005-08-25

270

From gross anatomy to the nanomorphome: stereological tools provide a paradigm for advancing research in quantitative morphomics.  

PubMed

The terms morphome and morphomics are not new but, recently, a group of morphologists and cell biologists has given them clear definitions and emphasised their integral importance in systems biology. By analogy to other '-omes', the morphome refers to the distribution of matter within 3-dimensional (3D) space. It equates to the totality of morphological features within a biological system (virus, single cell, multicellular organism or populations thereof) and morphomics is the systematic study of those structures. Morphomics research has the potential to generate 'big data' because it includes all imaging techniques at all levels of achievable resolution and all structural scales from gross anatomy and medical imaging, via optical and electron microscopy, to molecular characterisation. As with other '-omics', quantification is an important part of morphomics and, because biological systems exist and operate in 3D space, precise descriptions of form, content and spatial relationships require the quantification of structure in 3D. Revealing and quantifying structural detail inside the specimen is achieved currently in two main ways: (i) by some form of reconstruction from serial physical or tomographic slices or (ii) by using randomly-sampled sections and simple test probes (points, lines, areas, volumes) to derive stereological estimates of global and/or individual quantities. The latter include volumes, surfaces, lengths and numbers of interesting features and spatial relationships between them. This article emphasises the value of stereological design, sampling principles and estimation tools as a template for combining with alternative imaging techniques to tackle the 'big data' issue and advance knowledge and understanding of the morphome. The combination of stereology, TEM and immunogold cytochemistry provides a practical illustration of how this has been achieved in the sub-field of nanomorphomics. Applying these quantitative tools/techniques in a carefully managed study design offers us a deeper appreciation of the spatiotemporal relationships between the genome, metabolome and morphome which are integral to systems biology. PMID:25753334

Mayhew, Terry M; Lucocq, John M

2015-04-01

271

Curvature continuity of cubic Bezier curves in the solid modeling aerospace research tools design software  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Preliminary results are presented of an investigation into the development of a procedure to provide curvature continuity between biparametric cubic Bezier surface patches in the computer-aided design package known as SMART (Solid Modeling Aerospace Research Tools). This initial effort was aimed at providing the designer with the ability to locally impose curvature continuity at the intersection of two Bezier curves without disrupting either the curvature or slope continuity that may exist at the ends of these curves. Such a method was found if the original Bezier control points are all coplanar. If they are not, then it is possible to find a minimum deviation from exact curvature continuity. In cases where this is not sufficient, then an entire piecewise curve must be made curvature continuous simultaneously. A method was developed based on cubic splines which is very fast. The procedure returns new Bezier control points which have both slope and curvature continuity.

Roach, Robert L.; Forrest, John R.

1990-01-01

272

Microbeam methodologies as powerful tools in manganese hyperaccumulation research: present status and future directions.  

PubMed

Microbeam studies over the past decade have garnered unique insight into manganese (Mn) homeostasis in plant species that hyperaccumulate this essential mineral micronutrient. Electron- and/or proton-probe methodologies employed to examine tissue elemental distributions have proven highly effective in illuminating excess foliar Mn disposal strategies, some apparently unique to Mn hyperaccumulating plants. When applied to samples prepared with minimal artefacts, these are powerful tools for extracting true 'snapshot' data of living systems. For a range of reasons, Mn hyperaccumulation is particularly suited to in vivo interrogation by this approach. Whilst microbeam investigation of metallophytes is well documented, certain methods originally intended for non-biological samples are now widely applied in biology. This review examines current knowledge about Mn hyperaccumulators with reference to microbeam methodologies, and discusses implications for future research into metal transporters. PMID:23970891

Fernando, Denise R; Marshall, Alan; Baker, Alan J M; Mizuno, Takafumi

2013-01-01

273

Consumption value theory and the marketing of public health: an effective formative research tool.  

PubMed

Contemporary public health requires the support and participation of its constituency. This study assesses the capacity of consumption value theory to identify the basis of this support. A telephone survey design used simple random sampling of adult residents of Cherokee County, Oklahoma. Factor analysis and stepwise discriminant analysis was used to identify and classify personal and societal level support variables. Most residents base societal level support on epistemic values. Direct services clientele base their support on positive emotional values derived from personal contact and attractive programs. Residents are curious about public health and want to know more about the health department. Where marketing the effectiveness of public health programs would yield relatively little support, marketing health promotion activities may attract public opposition. This formative research tool suggests a marketing strategy for public health practitioners. PMID:12557990

Nelson, Douglas G; Byus, Kent

2002-01-01

274

Human Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes as Research and Therapeutic Tools  

PubMed Central

Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), namely, embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), with their ability of indefinite self-renewal and capability to differentiate into cell types derivatives of all three germ layers, represent a powerful research tool in developmental biology, for drug screening, disease modelling, and potentially cell replacement therapy. Efficient differentiation protocols that would result in the cell type of our interest are needed for maximal exploitation of these cells. In the present work, we aim at focusing on the protocols for differentiation of hPSCs into functional cardiomyocytes in vitro as well as achievements in the heart disease modelling and drug testing on the patient-specific iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes (iPSC-CMs). PMID:24800237

Pesl, Martin; Lacampagne, Alain; Dvorak, Petr; Rotrekl, Vladimir; Meli, Albano C.

2014-01-01

275

Microbeam methodologies as powerful tools in manganese hyperaccumulation research: present status and future directions  

PubMed Central

Microbeam studies over the past decade have garnered unique insight into manganese (Mn) homeostasis in plant species that hyperaccumulate this essential mineral micronutrient. Electron- and/or proton-probe methodologies employed to examine tissue elemental distributions have proven highly effective in illuminating excess foliar Mn disposal strategies, some apparently unique to Mn hyperaccumulating plants. When applied to samples prepared with minimal artefacts, these are powerful tools for extracting true snapshot data of living systems. For a range of reasons, Mn hyperaccumulation is particularly suited to in vivo interrogation by this approach. Whilst microbeam investigation of metallophytes is well documented, certain methods originally intended for non-biological samples are now widely applied in biology. This review examines current knowledge about Mn hyperaccumulators with reference to microbeam methodologies, and discusses implications for future research into metal transporters. PMID:23970891

Fernando, Denise R.; Marshall, Alan; Baker, Alan J. M.; Mizuno, Takafumi

2013-01-01

276

An informatics supported web-based data annotation and query tool to expedite translational research for head and neck malignancies  

PubMed Central

Background The Specialized Program of Research Excellence (SPORE) in Head and Neck Cancer neoplasm virtual biorepository is a bioinformatics-supported system to incorporate data from various clinical, pathological, and molecular systems into a single architecture based on a set of common data elements (CDEs) that provides semantic and syntactic interoperability of data sets. Results The various components of this annotation tool include the Development of Common Data Elements (CDEs) that are derived from College of American Pathologists (CAP) Checklist and North American Association of Central Cancer Registries (NAACR) standards. The Data Entry Tool is a portable and flexible Oracle-based data entry device, which is an easily mastered web-based tool. The Data Query Tool helps investigators and researchers to search de-identified information within the warehouse/resource through a "point and click" interface, thus enabling only the selected data elements to be essentially copied into a data mart using a multi dimensional model from the warehouse's relational structure. The SPORE Head and Neck Neoplasm Database contains multimodal datasets that are accessible to investigators via an easy to use query tool. The database currently holds 6553 cases and 10607 tumor accessions. Among these, there are 965 metastatic, 4227 primary, 1369 recurrent, and 483 new primary cases. The data disclosure is strictly regulated by user's authorization. Conclusion The SPORE Head and Neck Neoplasm Virtual Biorepository is a robust translational biomedical informatics tool that can facilitate basic science, clinical, and translational research. The Data Query Tool acts as a central source providing a mechanism for researchers to efficiently find clinically annotated datasets and biospecimens that are relevant to their research areas. The tool protects patient privacy by revealing only de-identified data in accordance with regulations and approvals of the IRB and scientific review committee. PMID:19912644

2009-01-01

277

Ambient Particulate Matter during MILAGRO in Mexico City: Main Findings, Impacts (on AQ and Climate), and Future Research Needs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The MILAGRO campaign was a large international field experiments conduced in Mexico City and Central Mexico during March 2006. We present an overview of the main findings related to particulate matter and aerosol radiative properties. PM levels inside Mexico City were similar or higher than those in the most polluted North American cities, but ~5 times lower than levels in the most polluted Asian megacities During the study, PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations in the urban area of were about double the concentrations in the rural areas surrounding Mexico City. PM2.5 made up about half of the PM10 concentrations, with small amounts of mass in the PM2.5-PM1.0 range. Mineral matter made up approximately 25% of the PM10 and on average 15% and 28% of the PM2.5 in the urban and rural areas, respectively. Approximately 25% of the PM2.5 was secondary inorganic ions with the remaining PM2.5 mass being comprised of largely carbonaceous aerosol. Except for surface measurements at the central sampling sites in Mexico city, the elemental carbon mass absorption efficiency was relatively constant for aircraft and surface measurements throughout the study, contrary to expectations. Although different organic aerosol (OA) source apportionment methods had some differences, there was agreement that the dominant sources of carbonaceous aerosol were secondary OA (SOA), biomass burning, and mobile sources. The impact of biomass burning to the aerosol outflow from the region was much larger than to the surface concentrations inside the city. SOA formation from primary semivolatile and intermediate volatility precursors has the potential to close the gap in predicted vs. measured SOA, while formation from glyoxal also makes an important contribution, especially to organic oxygen. Biogenic SOA advected from the coastal mountain ranges contributes about 1 ?g m-3 to concentrations in the MCMA. Primary OA from anthropogenic and biomass burning sources was found to be semivolatile, while secondary OA was less volatile than POA and aged SOA was essentially non-volatile, in contradiction with current models. Growth rates of new particle formation in Mexico City was very large and found to be impacted by nitrogen containing organic compounds, organic acids, and hydroxyl organic acids, with only a smaller fraction of sulfate aerosol. Some open research questions include the following: additional work is needed to fully quantify the sources of substantial (30-45%) modern carbon in organic aerosols during low biomass burning periods. Discrepancies between the two modern carbon datasets deserve further study. The impact of regional dust vs. road resuspension, as well as heterogeneous reactions of HNO3 with dust need to be quantified. The impact of some POA sources such as food cooking, biofuel use, and open trash burning may be important, but remains poorly characterized. Some differences in the apportionment of biomass burning PM between different approaches were observed and need further research, as these techniques together represent the state of the art for source apportionment. Anthropogenic SOA predictions are improving in terms of magnitude but are poorly constrained by the data. More specific precursor, intermediate, and tracer measurements are needed in future campaigns. SOA from biomass burning sources, although not dominant in the city, remains poorly characterized and appears to be underpredicted by traditional models.

Jimenez, Jose-Luis; Schauer, James J.; Molina, Luisa T.; MILAGRO Pm Team

2010-05-01

278

URSSA, the Undergraduate Research Student Self-Assessment: A Tool for Assessing Student Outcomes of Undergraduate Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evidence-based thinking is essential both to science and to the development of effective educational programs. Thus assessment of student learninggathering evidence about the nature and depth of students learning gains, and about how they ariseis a centerpiece of any effective undergraduate research (UR) program. Assessment data can be used to monitor progress, to diagnose problems, to strengthen program designs, and to report both good outcomes and strategies to improve them to institutional and financial stakeholders in UR programs. While the positive impact of UR on students educational, personal and professional development has long been a matter of faith, only recently have researchers and evaluators developed an empirical basis by which to identify and explain these outcomes. Based on this growing body of evidence, URSSA, the Undergraduate Research Student Self-Assessment, is a survey tool that departments and programs can use to assess student outcomes of UR. URSSA focuses on what students learn from their UR experience, rather than whether they liked it. Both multiple-choice and open-ended items focus on students gains from UR, including: (1) skills such as lab work and communication; (2) conceptual knowledge and linkages among ideas in their field and with other fields; (3) deepened understanding of the intellectual and practical work of science; (4) growth in confidence and adoption of the identity of scientist; (5) preparation for a career or graduate school in science; and (6) greater clarity in understanding what career or educational path they might wish to pursue. Other items probe students participation in important activities that have been shown to lead to these gains; and a set of optional items can be included to probe specific program features that may supplement UR (e.g. field trips, career seminars, housing arrangements). The poster will describe URSSA's content, development, validation, and use. For more information about URSSA and how to use it, visit our web site.

Laursen, S. L.; Hunter, A.; Weston, T.; Thiry, H.

2009-12-01

279

The Right Tools for the Job: The Challenges of Theory and Method in Geoscience Education Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As geoscience education has matured as a research field over the last decade, workers in this area have been challenged to adapt methodologies and theoretical approaches to study design and data collection. These techniques are as diverse as the earth sciences themselves, and researchers have drawn on established methods and traditions from science education research, social science research, and the cognitive and learning sciences. While the diversity of methodological and theoretical approaches is powerful, the challenge is to ground geoscience education research in rigorous methodologies that are appropriate for the epistemological and functional realities of the content area and the environment in which the research is conducted. The issue of theory is the first hurdle. After techniques are proven, earth scientists typically need not worry much about the theoretical value or theory-laden nature of measurements they make in the field or laboratory. As an example, a field geologist does not question the validity of the gravitational field that levels the spirit level within a Brunton compass. However, in earth science education research, these issues are magnified because a theoretical approach to a study affects what is admitted as data and the weight that can be given to conclusions. Not only must one be concerned about the validity of measurements and observations, but also the value of this information from an epistemological standpoint. The assigning of meaning to student gestures, utterances, writing and actions all carries theoretical implications. For example, working with geologists learning or working in the field, purely experimental research designs are very difficult, and the majority of the work must be conducted in a naturalistic environment. In fact dealing with time pressure, distractions, and complexity of a field environment is part of intellectual backdrop for field geology that separates experts from novices and advanced students from beginners. Thus researchers must embrace the uncontrolled nature of the setting, the qualitative nature of the data collected, and the researcher's role in interpreting geologically appropriate actions as evidence of successful problem solving and investigation. Working to understand the role of diversity and culture in the geosciences also involves a wide array of theory, from affective issues through culturally and linguistically-influenced cognition, through gender, self-efficacy, and many other areas of inquiry. Research in understanding spatial skills draws heavily on techniques from cognition research but also must involve the field-specific knowledge of geoscientists to infuse these techniques with exemplars, a catalog of meaningful actions by students, and an understanding of how to recognize success. These examples illustrate briefly the wide array of tools from other fields that is being brought to bear to advance rigorous geoscience education research. We will illustrate a few of these and the insights we have gained, and the power of theory and method from other fields to enlighten us as we attempt to educate a broader array of earth scientists.

Riggs, E. M.

2011-12-01

280

Artificial Exo-Society Modeling: a New Tool for SETI Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the newest fields of complexity research is artificial society modeling. Methodologically related to artificial life research, artificial society modeling utilizes agent-based computer simulation tools like SWARM and SUGARSCAPE developed by the Santa Fe Institute, Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Bookings Institution in an effort to introduce an unprecedented degree of rigor and quantitative sophistication into social science research. The broad aim of artificial society modeling is to begin the development of a more unified social science that embeds cultural evolutionary processes in a computational environment that simulates demographics, the transmission of culture, conflict, economics, disease, the emergence of groups and coadaptation with an environment in a bottom-up fashion. When an artificial society computer model is run, artificial societal patterns emerge from the interaction of autonomous software agents (the "inhabitants" of the artificial society). Artificial society modeling invites the interpretation of society as a distributed computational system and the interpretation of social dynamics as a specialized category of computation. Artificial society modeling techniques offer the potential of computational simulation of hypothetical alien societies in much the same way that artificial life modeling techniques offer the potential to model hypothetical exobiological phenomena. NASA recently announced its intention to begin exploring the possibility of including artificial life research within the broad portfolio of scientific fields comprised by the interdisciplinary astrobiology research endeavor. It may be appropriate for SETI researchers to likewise commence an exploration of the possible inclusion of artificial exo-society modeling within the SETI research endeavor. Artificial exo-society modeling might be particularly useful in a post-detection environment by (1) coherently organizing the set of data points derived from a detected ETI signal, (2) mapping trends in the data points over time (assuming receipt of an extended ETI signal), and (3) projecting such trends forward to derive alternative cultural evolutionary scenarios for the exo-society under analysis. The latter exercise might be particularly useful to compensate for the inevitable time lag between generation of an ETI signal and receipt of an ETI signal on Earth. For this reason, such an exercise might be a helpful adjunct to the decisional process contemplated by Paragraph 9 of the Declaration of Principles Concerning Activities Following the Detection of Extraterrestrial Intelligence.

Gardner, James N.

2002-01-01

281

A Tropical Marine Microbial Natural Products Geobibliography as an Example of Desktop Exploration of Current Research Using Web Visualisation Tools  

PubMed Central

Microbial marine biodiscovery is a recent scientific endeavour developing at a time when information and other technologies are also undergoing great technical strides. Global visualisation of datasets is now becoming available to the world through powerful and readily available software such as Worldwind, ArcGIS Explorer and Google Earth. Overlaying custom information upon these tools is within the hands of every scientist and more and more scientific organisations are making data available that can also be integrated into these global visualisation tools. The integrated global view that these tools enable provides a powerful desktop exploration tool. Here we demonstrate the value of this approach to marine microbial biodiscovery by developing a geobibliography that incorporates citations on tropical and near-tropical marine microbial natural products research with Google Earth and additional ancillary global data sets. The tools and software used are all readily available and the reader is able to use and install the material described in this article. PMID:19172194

Mukherjee, Joydeep; Llewellyn, Lyndon E; Evans-Illidge, Elizabeth A

2008-01-01

282

A Microsoft Excel interface for rhyolite-MELTS: a tool for research and teaching of magma properties and evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thermodynamic modeling software MELTS (and its derivatives) is a powerful and much utilized tool for investigating crystallization and melting in natural magmatic systems. Rhyolite-MELTS (Gualda et al. 2012, J. Petrol. 53:875-890) is a recent recalibration of MELTS aimed at better capturing the evolution of magmas present in the upper crust (up to ~400 MPa pressure). Currently, most users of rhyolite-MELTS rely on a graphical user interface (GUI), which can be run on UNIX/LINUX and Mac OS X computers. While the interface is powerful and flexible, it can be somewhat cumbersome for the novice and the output is in the form of text files that need to be processed offline. This situation is probably the main reason why MELTS - despite great potential - has not been used more frequently for teaching purposes. We are currently developing an alternative GUI for rhyolite-MELTS using web services consumed by a VBA backend in Microsoft Excel. The goal is to create a much more interactive tool, that is easy to use that can be made available to a widespread audience, and that will be useful for both research and teaching. The interface is contained within a macro-enabled workbook, which includes editable cells where the user can insert the model input information. Interface buttons initiate computations that are executed on a central server at OFM Research in Seattle (WA). Results of simple calculations are shown immediately within the interface itself. For instance, a user can very rapidly determine the temperature at which a magma of a given composition is completely molten (i.e. find the liquidus); or determine which phases are present, in what abundances, their compositions, and their physical properties (e.g. density, viscosity) at any given combination of temperature, pressure and oxygen fugacity. We expect that using the interface in this mode will greatly facilitate building intuition about magmas and their properties. It is also possible to combine a sequence of calculations into an evolutionary path. The user can input starting and ending temperatures and pressures, temperature and pressure steps, and the prevailing oxidation conditions, and the program will perform the calculations showing the magma properties at every step; at the conclusion of the calculations, a series of data sheets and diagrams are created in a separate workbook, which can be saved independently of the interface. Additionally, the user can specify a grid of temperatures and pressures and calculate a phase diagram showing the conditions at which different phases are present. We envision a host of exercises that can be tackled by students of all levels exploring the varied evolution of natural magma compositions. The main advantages of this new platform are that it is simple to use and flexible. Workbooks can be created for specific exercises, facilitating their use in classroom assignments. The Excel GUI interface is built on a popular platform, which is widely available, requires no installation, and is distributed for free from melts.ofm-research.org. The main drawback is that operation of the workbook requires an internet connection. The web services used are currently only accessible by Excel 2010 and 2013 for Windows.

Gualda, G. A.; Ghiorso, M. S.

2013-12-01

283

Development of Complexity Science and Technology Tools for NextGen Airspace Research and Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this research by NextGen AeroSciences, LLC is twofold: 1) to deliver an initial "toolbox" of algorithms, agent-based structures, and method descriptions for introducing trajectory agency as a methodology for simulating and analyzing airspace states, including bulk properties of large numbers of heterogeneous 4D aircraft trajectories in a test airspace -- while maintaining or increasing system safety; and 2) to use these tools in a test airspace to identify possible phase transition structure to predict when an airspace will approach the limits of its capacity. These 4D trajectories continuously replan their paths in the presence of noise and uncertainty while optimizing performance measures and performing conflict detection and resolution. In this approach, trajectories are represented as extended objects endowed with pseudopotential, maintaining time and fuel-efficient paths by bending just enough to accommodate separation while remaining inside of performance envelopes. This trajectory-centric approach differs from previous aircraft-centric distributed approaches to deconfliction. The results of this project are the following: 1) we delivered a toolbox of algorithms, agent-based structures and method descriptions as pseudocode; and 2) we corroborated the existence of phase transition structure in simulation with the addition of "early warning" detected prior to "full" airspace. This research suggests that airspace "fullness" can be anticipated and remedied before the airspace becomes unsafe.

Holmes, Bruce J.; Sawhill, Bruce K.; Herriot, James; Seehart, Ken; Zellweger, Dres; Shay, Rick

2012-01-01

284

X-15s, HL-10, M2-F1, and M2-F2 Lifting Body research aircraft in main NASA hangar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hangar 4802 at the NASA Flight Research Center in 1966. Aircraft on left include (left to right): HL-10, M2-F2, M2-F1, F-4A, F5D-1, F-104 (barely visible) and C-47. Aircraft on the right side (left to right) include: X-15-1 (56-6670), X-15-3 (56-6672), and X-15-2 (56-6671). Hangar 4802 had been the main hangar at the Flight Research Center (FRC--now the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA) and before that, the High-Speed Flight Station, since 1954. During 1966, the two main flight research projects at the FRC were the lifting bodies (including the M2-F1, M2-F2, and HL-10) and the X-15.

1966-01-01

285

MAINE AQUIFERS  

EPA Science Inventory

AQFRS24 contains polygons of significant aquifers in Maine (glacial deposits that are a significant ground water resource) mapped at a scale 1:24,000. This statewide coverage was derived from aquifer boundaries delineated and digitized by the Maine Geological Survey from data com...

286

Adventures in the microlensing cloud: Large datasets, eResearch tools, and GPUs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As astronomy enters the petascale data era, astronomers are faced with new challenges relating to storage, access and management of data. A shift from the traditional approach of combining data and analysis at the desktop to the use of remote services, pushing the computation to the data, is now underway. In the field of cosmological gravitational microlensing, future synoptic all-sky surveys are expected to bring the number of multiply imaged quasars from the few tens that are currently known to a few thousands. This inflow of observational data, together with computationally demanding theoretical modeling via the production of microlensing magnification maps, requires a new approach. We present our technical solutions to supporting the GPU-Enabled, High Resolution cosmological MicroLensing parameter survey (GERLUMPH). This extensive dataset for cosmological microlensing modeling comprises over 70 000 individual magnification maps and 106 related results. We describe our approaches to hosting, organizing, and serving 30 TB of data and metadata products. We present a set of online analysis tools developed with PHP, JavaScript and WebGL to support access and analysis of GELRUMPH data in a Web browser. We discuss our use of graphics processing units (GPUs) to accelerate data production, and we release the core of the GPU-D direct inverse ray-shooting code (Thompson et al., 2010, 2014) used to generate the magnification maps. All of the GERLUMPH data and tools are available online from http://gerlumph.swin.edu.au. This project made use of gSTAR, the GPU Supercomputer for Theoretical Astrophysical Research.

Vernardos, G.; Fluke, C. J.

2014-10-01

287

CROSSBREEDING IN SHEEP FOR MEAT PRODUCTION G. WIENER. Animal Breeding Research Organisation, West Mains Road, Edinburgh, EH9 3JX.  

E-print Network

CROSSBREEDING IN SHEEP FOR MEAT PRODUCTION G. WIENER. Animal Breeding Research Organisation, West of crossbreeding in a farming system should not be assessed only in relation to single traits, but should

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

288

ReliefSeq: A Gene-Wise Adaptive-K Nearest-Neighbor Feature Selection Tool for Finding Gene-Gene Interactions and Main Effects in mRNA-Seq Gene Expression Data  

PubMed Central

Relief-F is a nonparametric, nearest-neighbor machine learning method that has been successfully used to identify relevant variables that may interact in complex multivariate models to explain phenotypic variation. While several tools have been developed for assessing differential expression in sequence-based transcriptomics, the detection of statistical interactions between transcripts has received less attention in the area of RNA-seq analysis. We describe a new extension and assessment of Relief-F for feature selection in RNA-seq data. The ReliefSeq implementation adapts the number of nearest neighbors (k) for each gene to optimize the Relief-F test statistics (importance scores) for finding both main effects and interactions. We compare this gene-wise adaptive-k (gwak) Relief-F method with standard RNA-seq feature selection tools, such as DESeq and edgeR, and with the popular machine learning method Random Forests. We demonstrate performance on a panel of simulated data that have a range of distributional properties reflected in real mRNA-seq data including multiple transcripts with varying sizes of main effects and interaction effects. For simulated main effects, gwak-Relief-F feature selection performs comparably to standard tools DESeq and edgeR for ranking relevant transcripts. For gene-gene interactions, gwak-Relief-F outperforms all comparison methods at ranking relevant genes in all but the highest fold change/highest signal situations where it performs similarly. The gwak-Relief-F algorithm outperforms Random Forests for detecting relevant genes in all simulation experiments. In addition, Relief-F is comparable to the other methods based on computational time. We also apply ReliefSeq to an RNA-Seq study of smallpox vaccine to identify gene expression changes between vaccinia virus-stimulated and unstimulated samples. ReliefSeq is an attractive tool for inclusion in the suite of tools used for analysis of mRNA-Seq data; it has power to detect both main effects and interaction effects. Software Availability: http://insilico.utulsa.edu/ReliefSeq.php. PMID:24339943

McKinney, Brett A.; White, Bill C.; Grill, Diane E.; Li, Peter W.; Kennedy, Richard B.; Poland, Gregory A.; Oberg, Ann L.

2013-01-01

289

ReliefSeq: a gene-wise adaptive-K nearest-neighbor feature selection tool for finding gene-gene interactions and main effects in mRNA-Seq gene expression data.  

PubMed

Relief-F is a nonparametric, nearest-neighbor machine learning method that has been successfully used to identify relevant variables that may interact in complex multivariate models to explain phenotypic variation. While several tools have been developed for assessing differential expression in sequence-based transcriptomics, the detection of statistical interactions between transcripts has received less attention in the area of RNA-seq analysis. We describe a new extension and assessment of Relief-F for feature selection in RNA-seq data. The ReliefSeq implementation adapts the number of nearest neighbors (k) for each gene to optimize the Relief-F test statistics (importance scores) for finding both main effects and interactions. We compare this gene-wise adaptive-k (gwak) Relief-F method with standard RNA-seq feature selection tools, such as DESeq and edgeR, and with the popular machine learning method Random Forests. We demonstrate performance on a panel of simulated data that have a range of distributional properties reflected in real mRNA-seq data including multiple transcripts with varying sizes of main effects and interaction effects. For simulated main effects, gwak-Relief-F feature selection performs comparably to standard tools DESeq and edgeR for ranking relevant transcripts. For gene-gene interactions, gwak-Relief-F outperforms all comparison methods at ranking relevant genes in all but the highest fold change/highest signal situations where it performs similarly. The gwak-Relief-F algorithm outperforms Random Forests for detecting relevant genes in all simulation experiments. In addition, Relief-F is comparable to the other methods based on computational time. We also apply ReliefSeq to an RNA-Seq study of smallpox vaccine to identify gene expression changes between vaccinia virus-stimulated and unstimulated samples. ReliefSeq is an attractive tool for inclusion in the suite of tools used for analysis of mRNA-Seq data; it has power to detect both main effects and interaction effects. Software Availability: http://insilico.utulsa.edu/ReliefSeq.php. PMID:24339943

McKinney, Brett A; White, Bill C; Grill, Diane E; Li, Peter W; Kennedy, Richard B; Poland, Gregory A; Oberg, Ann L

2013-01-01

290

A decade of experience in the development and implementation of tissue banking informatics tools for intra and inter-institutional translational research  

PubMed Central

Context: Tissue banking informatics deals with standardized annotation, collection and storage of biospecimens that can further be shared by researchers. Over the last decade, the Department of Biomedical Informatics (DBMI) at the University of Pittsburgh has developed various tissue banking informatics tools to expedite translational medicine research. In this review, we describe the technical approach and capabilities of these models. Design: Clinical annotation of biospecimens requires data retrieval from various clinical information systems and the de-identification of the data by an honest broker. Based upon these requirements, DBMI, with its collaborators, has developed both Oracle-based organ-specific data marts and a more generic, model-driven architecture for biorepositories. The organ-specific models are developed utilizing Oracle 9.2.0.1 server tools and software applications and the model-driven architecture is implemented in a J2EE framework. Result: The organ-specific biorepositories implemented by DBMI include the Cooperative Prostate Cancer Tissue Resource (http://www.cpctr.info/), Pennsylvania Cancer Alliance Bioinformatics Consortium (http://pcabc.upmc.edu/main.cfm), EDRN Colorectal and Pancreatic Neoplasm Database (http://edrn.nci.nih.gov/) and Specialized Programs of Research Excellence (SPORE) Head and Neck Neoplasm Database (http://spores.nci.nih.gov/current/hn/index.htm). The model-based architecture is represented by the National Mesothelioma Virtual Bank (http://mesotissue.org/). These biorepositories provide thousands of well annotated biospecimens for the researchers that are searchable through query interfaces available via the Internet. Conclusion: These systems, developed and supported by our institute, serve to form a common platform for cancer research to accelerate progress in clinical and translational research. In addition, they provide a tangible infrastructure and resource for exposing research resources and biospecimen services in collaboration with the clinical anatomic pathology laboratory information system (APLIS) and the cancer registry information systems. PMID:20922029

Amin, Waqas; Singh, Harpreet; Pople, Andre K.; Winters, Sharon; Dhir, Rajiv; Parwani, Anil V.; Becich, Michael J.

2010-01-01

291

Adventures in the microlensing cloud: eResearch tools for zooming into the heart of quasars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gravitational cosmological microlensing is an established technique for exploring the structure of the inner parts of a quasar, especially the accretion disc and the central supermassive black hole.Results from studies on ~20 of the ~90 known lensed systems, indicate the presence of a thin Shakura- Sunyaev disc (Eigenbrod et al. 2008, Blackburne et al. 2011, Mediavilla et al. 2011), although this is not always the case (Floyd et al. 2009, Morgan et al. 2010). Upcoming all-sky synoptic surveys are expected to discover, and monitor regularly, thousands of new microlensed systems. The GPUEnabled, High-Resolution cosmological MicroLensing parameter survey (GERLUMPH) can be thought of as a theoretical counterpart of an all-sky survey, which explores the microlensing parameter space in preparation for these new discoveries. GERLUMPH's high resolution magnification maps, the basic tool for quasar microlensing, allow for statistical studies of accretion disc models and comparisons to observations. As the volume of astronomical data sets continues to increase, there is a growing need to move more analysis tasks to a remote service model on cloud-like architectures. I will describe how the GERLUMPH data form a computationally demanding part of the microlensing eResearch cloud, and what are the interactions between its various constituents.

Vernardos, G.

2013-09-01

292

Engineering Plastid Genomes: Methods, Tools, and Applications in Basic Research and Biotechnology.  

PubMed

The small bacterial-type genome of the plastid (chloroplast) can be engineered by genetic transformation, generating cells and plants with transgenic plastid genomes, also referred to as transplastomic plants. The transformation process relies on homologous recombination, thereby facilitating the site-specific alteration of endogenous plastid genes as well as the precisely targeted insertion of foreign genes into the plastid DNA. The technology has been used extensively to analyze chloroplast gene functions and study plastid gene expression at all levels in vivo. Over the years, a large toolbox has been assembled that is now nearly comparable to the techniques available for plant nuclear transformation and that has enabled new applications of transplastomic technology in basic and applied research. This review describes the state of the art in engineering the plastid genomes of algae and land plants (Embryophyta). It provides an overview of the existing tools for plastid genome engineering, discusses current technological limitations, and highlights selected applications that demonstrate the immense potential of chloroplast transformation in several key areas of plant biotechnology. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Plant Biology Volume 66 is April 29, 2015. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/catalog/pubdates.aspx for revised estimates. PMID:25494465

Bock, Ralph

2014-12-01

293

Neutron tomography of particulate filters: a non-destructive investigation tool for applied and industrial research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research describes the development and implementation of high-fidelity neutron imaging and the associated analysis of the images. This advanced capability allows the non-destructive, non-invasive imaging of particulate filters (PFs) and how the deposition of particulate and catalytic washcoat occurs within the filter. The majority of the efforts described here were performed at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) CG-1D neutron imaging beamline at Oak Ridge National Laboratory; the current spatial resolution is approximately 50 ?m. The sample holder is equipped with a high-precision rotation stage that allows 3D imaging (i.e., computed tomography) of the sample when combined with computerized reconstruction tools. What enables the neutron-based image is the ability of some elements to absorb or scatter neutrons where other elements allow the neutron to pass through them with negligible interaction. Of particular interest in this study is the scattering of neutrons by hydrogen-containing molecules, such as hydrocarbons (HCs) and/or water, which are adsorbed to the surface of soot, ash and catalytic washcoat. Even so, the interactions with this adsorbed water/HC is low and computational techniques were required to enhance the contrast, primarily a modified simultaneous iterative reconstruction technique (SIRT). This effort describes the following systems: particulate randomly distributed in a PF, ash deposition in PFs, a catalyzed washcoat layer in a PF, and three particulate loadings in a SiC PF.

Toops, Todd J.; Bilheux, Hassina Z.; Voisin, Sophie; Gregor, Jens; Walker, Lakeisha; Strzelec, Andrea; Finney, Charles E. A.; Pihl, Josh A.

2013-11-01

294

GERLUMPH Data Release 1: High-resolution Cosmological Microlensing Magnification Maps and eResearch Tools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As synoptic all-sky surveys begin to discover new multiply lensed quasars, the flow of data will enable statistical cosmological microlensing studies of sufficient size to constrain quasar accretion disk and supermassive black hole properties. In preparation for this new era, we are undertaking the GPU-Enabled, High Resolution cosmological MicroLensing parameter survey (GERLUMPH). We present here the GERLUMPH Data Release 1, which consists of 12,342 high resolution cosmological microlensing magnification maps and provides the first uniform coverage of the convergence, shear, and smooth matter fraction parameter space. We use these maps to perform a comprehensive numerical investigation of the mass-sheet degeneracy, finding excellent agreement with its predictions. We study the effect of smooth matter on microlensing induced magnification fluctuations. In particular, in the minima and saddle-point regions, fluctuations are enhanced only along the critical line, while in the maxima region they are always enhanced for high smooth matter fractions (?0.9). We describe our approach to data management, including the use of an SQL database with a Web interface for data access and online analysis, obviating the need for individuals to download large volumes of data. In combination with existing observational databases and online applications, the GERLUMPH archive represents a fundamental component of a new microlensing eResearch cloud. Our maps and tools are publicly available at http://gerlumph.swin.edu.au/.

Vernardos, G.; Fluke, C. J.; Bate, N. F.; Croton, D.

2014-03-01

295

Lunar e-Library: A Research Tool Focused on the Lunar Environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As NASA plans and implements the Vision for Space Exploration, managers, engineers, and scientists need lunar environment information that is readily available and easily accessed. For this effort, lunar environment data was compiled from a variety of missions from Apollo to more recent remote sensing missions, such as Clementine. This valuable information comes not only in the form of measurements and images but also from the observations of astronauts who have visited the Moon and people who have designed spacecraft for lunar missions. To provide a research tool that makes the voluminous lunar data more accessible, the Space Environments and Effects (SEE) Program, managed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, AL, organized the data into a DVD knowledgebase: the Lunar e-Library. This searchable collection of 1100 electronic (.PDF) documents and abstracts makes it easy to find critical technical data and lessons learned from past lunar missions and exploration studies. The SEE Program began distributing the Lunar e-Library DVD in 2006. This paper describes the Lunar e-Library development process (including a description of the databases and resources used to acquire the documents) and the contents of the DVD product, demonstrates its usefulness with focused searches, and provides information on how to obtain this free resource.

McMahan, Tracy A.; Shea, Charlotte A.; Finckenor, Miria; Ferguson, Dale

2007-01-01

296

Archive eggs: a research and management tool for avian conservation breeding  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Worldwide, approximately 168 bird species are captive-bred for reintroduction into the wild. Programs tend to be initiated for species with a high level of endangerment. Depressed hatching success can be a problem for such programs and has been linked to artificial incubation. The need for artificial incubation is driven by the practice of multiclutching to increase egg production or by uncertainty over the incubation abilities of captive birds. There has been little attempt to determine how artificial incubation differs from bird-contact incubation. We describe a novel archive (data-logger) egg and use it to compare temperature, humidity, and egg-turning in 5 whooping crane (Grus americana) nests, 4 sandhill crane (G. canadensis) nests, and 3 models of artificial incubator; each of which are used to incubate eggs in whooping crane captive-breeding programs. Mean incubation temperature was 31.7 C for whooping cranes and 32.83 C for sandhill cranes. This is well below that of the artificial incubators (which were set based on a protocol of 37.6 C). Humidity in crane nests varied considerably, but median humidity in all 3 artificial incubators was substantially different from that in the crane nests. Two artificial incubators failed to turn the eggs in a way that mimicked crane egg-turning. Archive eggs are an effective tool for guiding the management of avian conservation breeding programs, and can be custom-made for other species. They also have potential to be applied to research on wild populations.

Smith, Des H.V.; Moehrenschlager, Axel; Christensen, Nancy; Knapik, Dwight; Gibson, Keith; Converse, Sarah J.

2012-01-01

297

SMART II : the spot market agent research tool version 2.0.  

SciTech Connect

Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has worked closely with Western Area Power Administration (Western) over many years to develop a variety of electric power marketing and transmission system models that are being used for ongoing system planning and operation as well as analytic studies. Western markets and delivers reliable, cost-based electric power from 56 power plants to millions of consumers in 15 states. The Spot Market Agent Research Tool Version 2.0 (SMART II) is an investigative system that partially implements some important components of several existing ANL linear programming models, including some used by Western. SMART II does not implement a complete model of the Western utility system but it does include several salient features of this network for exploratory purposes. SMART II uses a Swarm agent-based framework. SMART II agents model bulk electric power transaction dynamics with recognition for marginal costs as well as transmission and generation constraints. SMART II uses a sparse graph of nodes and links to model the electric power spot market. The nodes represent power generators and consumers with distinct marginal decision curves and varying investment capital as well individual learning parameters. The links represent transmission lines with individual capacities taken from a range of central distribution, outlying distribution and feeder line types. The application of SMART II to electric power systems studies has produced useful results different from those often found using more traditional techniques. Use of the advanced features offered by the Swarm modeling environment simplified the creation of the SMART II model.

North, M. J. N.

2000-12-14

298

Statistical process control as a tool for research and healthcare improvement.  

PubMed

Improvement of health care requires making changes in processes of care and service delivery. Although process performance is measured to determine if these changes are having the desired beneficial effects, this analysis is complicated by the existence of natural variation-that is, repeated measurements naturally yield different values and, even if nothing was done, a subsequent measurement might seem to indicate a better or worse performance. Traditional statistical analysis methods account for natural variation but require aggregation of measurements over time, which can delay decision making. Statistical process control (SPC) is a branch of statistics that combines rigorous time series analysis methods with graphical presentation of data, often yielding insights into the data more quickly and in a way more understandable to lay decision makers. SPC and its primary tool-the control chart-provide researchers and practitioners with a method of better understanding and communicating data from healthcare improvement efforts. This paper provides an overview of SPC and several practical examples of the healthcare applications of control charts. PMID:14645763

Benneyan, J C; Lloyd, R C; Plsek, P E

2003-12-01

299

Genetic improvement of reproduction : time for deeds A.R.C. Animal Breeding Research Organisation, West Mains Road,  

E-print Network

Genetic improvement of reproduction : time for deeds R.B. LAND A.R.C. Animal Breeding Research between ram testes weight and ewe fertility S.S. THORSTEINSSON S. THORGEIRSSON O.R. DYRMUNSSON (l a ram progeny testing program were analysed to estimate the heritability of testes weight

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

300

TOOLS FOR DETERMINING SUSTAINABLE WASTE MANAGEMENT THROUGH APPLICATION OF LIFE-CYCLE ASSESSMENT: UPDATE ON U.S. RESEARCH  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper is an update on U.S. research to develop tools and information for evaluating integrated solid waste management strategies. In the past, waste management systems consisted primarily of waste collection and disposal at a local landfill. Today's municipal solid waste ma...

301

Research and Teaching: Photovoice as a Pedagogical Tool--Student Engagement in Undergraduate Introductory Chemistry for Nonscience Majors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores the use of Photovoice as a pedagogical tool in two introductory undergraduate chemistry courses for nonscience majors. Photovoice, historically linked to participatory action research, is a qualitative mode of inquiry in which the perspectives provided in narratives and pictures are generally personal, subjective, and unique.

Stroud, Mary W.

2014-01-01

302

Students' Perceptions of the Effectiveness of the World Wide Web as a Research and Teaching Tool in Science Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates the use of the World Wide Web (WWW) as a research and teaching tool in promoting self-directed learning groups of 15-year-old students. Discusses the perceptions of students of the effectiveness of the WWW in assisting them with the construction of knowledge on photosynthesis and respiration. (Contains 33 references.) (Author/YDS)

Ng, Wan; Gunstone, Richard

2002-01-01

303

MAINE HYDROGRAPHY  

EPA Science Inventory

Hydronet_me24 and Hydropoly_me24 depict Maine's hydrography data, based on 8-digit hydrological unit codes (HUC's) at the 1:24,000 scale. Some New Hampshire and New Brunswick hydrography data are also included. The NHD hydrography data was compiled from previous ArcIn...

304

Maine Ingredients  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article features Maine Learning Technology Initiative (MLTI), the nation's first-ever statewide 1-to-1 laptop program which marks its seventh birthday by expanding into high schools, providing an occasion to celebrate--and to examine the components of its success. The plan to put laptops into the hands of every teacher and student in grades 7

Waters, John K.

2009-01-01

305

Main Winners.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the main winners of a competition which judged the most outstanding learning environments at educational institutions nationwide. Jurors spent 2 days reviewing projects, focusing on concepts and ideas that made them exceptional. The top K-12 honor went to Century High School, Sykesville, Maryland. The higher education honor went to Wright

American School & University, 2003

2003-01-01

306

MARSTHERM: A Web-based System Providing Thermophysical Analysis Tools for Mars Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce MARSTHERM, a web-based system that will allow researchers access to a standard numerical thermal model of the Martian near-surface and atmosphere. In addition, the system will provide tools for the derivation, mapping, and analysis of apparent thermal inertia from temperature observations by the Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) and the Mars Odyssey Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS). Adjustable parameters for the thermal model include thermal inertia, albedo, surface pressure, surface emissivity, atmospheric dust opacity, latitude, surface slope angle and azimuth, season (solar longitude), and time steps for calculations and output. The model computes diurnal surface and brightness temperatures for either a single day or a full Mars year. Output options include text files and plots of seasonal and diurnal surface, brightness, and atmospheric temperatures. The tools for the derivation and mapping of apparent thermal inertia from spacecraft data are project-based, wherein the user provides an area of interest (AOI) by specifying latitude and longitude ranges. The system will then extract results within the AOI from prior global mapping of elevation (from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter, for calculating surface pressure), TES annual albedo, and TES seasonal and annual-mean 2AM and 2PM apparent thermal inertia (Putzig and Mellon, 2007, Icarus 191, 68-94). In addition, a history of TES dust opacity within the AOI is computed. For each project, users may then provide a list of THEMIS images to process for apparent thermal inertia, optionally overriding the TES-derived dust opacity with a fixed value. Output from the THEMIS derivation process includes thumbnail and context images, GeoTIFF raster data, and HDF5 files containing arrays of input and output data (radiance, brightness temperature, apparent thermal inertia, elevation, quality flag, latitude, and longitude) and ancillary information. As a demonstration of capabilities, we will present results from a thermophysical study of Gale Crater (Barratt and Putzig, 2013, EPSC abstract 613), for which TES and THEMIS mapping has been carried out during system development. Public access to the MARSTHERM system will be provided in conjunction with the 2013 AGU Fall Meeting and will feature the numerical thermal model and thermal-inertia derivation algorithm developed by Mellon et al. (2000, Icarus 148, 437-455) as modified by Putzig and Mellon (2007, Icarus 191, 68-94). Updates to the thermal model and derivation algorithm that include a more sophisticated representation of the atmosphere and a layered subsurface are presently in development, and these will be incorporated into the system when they are available. Other planned enhancements include tools for modeling temperatures from horizontal mixtures of materials and slope facets, for comparing heterogeneity modeling results to TES and THEMIS results, and for mosaicking THEMIS images.

Putzig, N. E.; Barratt, E. M.; Mellon, M. T.; Michaels, T. I.

2013-12-01

307

The IHMC CmapTools software in research and education: a multi-level use case in Space Meteorology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The IHMC (Institute for Human and Machine Cognition, Florida University System, USA) CmapTools software is a powerful multi-platform tool for knowledge modelling in graphical form based on concept maps. In this work we present its application for the high-level development of a set of multi-level concept maps in the framework of Space Meteorology to act as the kernel of a space meteorology domain ontology. This is an example of a research use case, as a domain ontology coded in machine-readable form via e.g. OWL (Web Ontology Language) is suitable to be an active layer of any knowledge management system embedded in a Virtual Observatory (VO). Apart from being manageable at machine level, concept maps developed via CmapTools are intrinsically human-readable and can embed hyperlinks and objects of many kinds. Therefore they are suitable to be published on the web: the coded knowledge can be exploited for educational purposes by the students and the public, as the level of information can be naturally organized among linked concept maps in progressively increasing complexity levels. Hence CmapTools and its advanced version COE (Concept-map Ontology Editor) represent effective and user-friendly software tools for high-level knowledge represention in research and education.

Messerotti, Mauro

2010-05-01

308

The Banshee Multivariable Workstation: A Tool for Disk Drive Servo Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The servo design problems for both magnetic and optical drives have become more complicatedas performance requirements for these drives get pushed higher. In order to easily trysophisticated control algorithms on these problems, a tool that makes the path between designand implementation an easy one would be useful. The Banshee Multivariable Workstation(BMW) is such a tool. The Banshee Multivariable Workstation is

Daniel Y. Abramovitch

1993-01-01

309

Research of high performance AC servo feed system for NC machine tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

The servo feed system is an important factor affecting the performance of NC (numerical control) machine tool. A high performance permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) servo feed system of NC machine tool based vector control is introduced in this paper, and a double closed-loop control system with the speed and current loop is applied. The speed regulator adopts PI control,

Tao Zhao; Mulan Wang; Chao Pan; Youbin Wang

2010-01-01

310

VPR: A new packing, placement and routing tool for FPGA research  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the capabilities of and algorithms used in a ne w FPGA CAD tool, Versatile Place and Route (VPR). In terms of minimizing routing area, VPR outper- forms all published FPGA place and route tools to which we can compare. Although the algorithms used are based on pre viously known approaches, we present several enhancements that improve run-time and

Vaughn Betz; Jonathan Rose

1997-01-01

311

Unmanned Aerial Systems as Versatile Tools for Atmospheric and Environmental Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unmanned Aerial Systems (UASs) are increasingly recognized as versatile tools for different earth-sciences applications providing chiefly a link between in-situ ground based measurements and satellite remote sensing observations. Based on the Autonomous Flying Platforms for Atmospheric and Earth Surface Observations project (APAESO) of the Energy, Environment and Water Research Center (EEWRC) at the Cyprus Institute (APAESO is co-financed by the European Development Fund and the Republic of Cyprus through the Cyprus Research Promotion Foundation: ??? ???????/?????/0308/09), we have acquired four CRUISERS (ET-Air, Slovakia) as UAS platforms and a substantial range of scientific instruments to be employed on these platforms. The APAESO platforms are aimed at the dual purpose of carrying out atmospheric and earth-surface observations in the (Eastern) Mediterranean They will enable 3D measurements for determining physical, chemical and radiative atmospheric properties, aerosol and dust concentrations and atmospheric dynamics as well as 2D investigations into land management practices, vegetation and agricultural mapping, contaminant detection and the monitoring and assessment of hydrological parameters and processes of a given region at high spatial resolution. Currently, we are building up an Unmanned Airplane Facility at CyI. In the process of reaching full operational capacity, we have initiated and carried out first test missions involving highly specialized and specifically adapted instrumentation for atmospheric investigations. The first scientific mission involves the employment of a DOAS-system (Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy) in cooperation with colleagues from Heidelberg and Mainz, Germany and has been successfully completed. More recently, we started work on a new collaborative project aimed at measuring vertical profiles of aerosols in the Eastern Mediterranean. The project involves colleagues from the University of Frankfurt, Germany as well as from the University of Tel Aviv and the Weizmann Institute, both in Israel. For this project, a specially designed multi-stage electrostatic aerosol collector is being placed on one of the APAESO UAS. Simultaneously, atmospheric aerosols size and concentrations will be measured with an optical aerosol spectrometer, mounted on the same platform. The collected samples will be divided into two parts for analysis in both the University of Frankfurt and the Weizmann Institute

Lange, Manfred; Argyrides, Marios; Ioannou, Stelios; Keleshis, Christos; Levin, Zev

2013-04-01

312

Discrepancies between metabolic activity and DNA content as tool to assess cell proliferation in cancer research  

PubMed Central

Abstract Cell proliferation is a critical and frequently studied feature of molecular biology in cancer research. Therefore, various assays are available using different strategies to measure cell proliferation. Metabolic assays such as AlamarBlue, water-soluble tetrazolium salt and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide, which were originally developed to determine cell toxicity, are used to assess cell numbers. Additionally, proliferative activity can be determined by quantification of DNA content using fluorophores such as CyQuant and PicoGreen. Referring to data published in high ranking cancer journals, these assays were applied in 945 publications over the past 14 years to examine the proliferative behaviour of diverse cell types. In these studies, however, mainly metabolic assays were used to quantify changes in cell growth yet these assays may not accurately reflect cellular proliferation rates due to a miscorrelation of metabolic activity and cell number. Testing this hypothesis, we compared the metabolic activity of different cell types, human cancer cells and primary cells, over a time period of 4 days using AlamarBlue and the fluorometric assays CyQuant and PicoGreen to determine their DNA content. Our results show certain discrepancies in terms of over-estimation of cell proliferation with respect to the metabolic assay in comparison to DNA binding fluorophores. PMID:20082656

Quent, Verena MC; Loessner, Daniela; Friis, Thor; Reichert, Johannes C; Hutmacher, Dietmar W

2010-01-01

313

The Remodeling and Basic Characteristics of the Heavy Water Neutron Irradiation Facility of the Kyoto University Research Reactor, Mainly for Neutron Capture Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Heavy Water Thermal Neutron Facility of the Kyoto University Research Reactor (KUR) was wholly updated in March 1996 mainly for neutron capture therapy. The performance as a neutron irradiation facility was improved using the epithermal neutron moderator of the aluminum-heavy water mixture (Al\\/DO = 80\\/20 vol%), the neutron energy spectrum shifter of heavy water, and the thermal neutron filters

Tooru Kobayashi; Yoshinori Sakurai; Keiji Kanda; Yoshiaki Fujita; Koji Ono

2000-01-01

314

The Main Pillar: Assessment of Space Weather Observational Asset Performance Supporting Nowcasting, Forecasting and Research to Operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sporadically, the Sun unleashes severe magnetic activity into the heliosphere. The specific solar/heliospheric phenomena and their effects on humans, technology and the wider geospace environment include a) high-intensity emissions from the Sun causing radio blackouts and (surface) charging, b) particle acceleration in the solar corona leading to high dose rates of ionizing radiation in exposed materials that can trigger single event upsets in electronic components of space hardware, or temporal/permanent damage in tissue, c) arrivals of fast-moving coronal mass ejections with embedded enhancements of magnetic fields that can cause strong ionospheric disturbances affecting radio communications and induce out-of-spec currents in power lines near the surface. Many of the effects could now be forecast with higher fidelity than ever before. However, forecasting critically depends upon availability of timely and reliable observational data. It is therefore crucial to understand how observational assets perform during periods of severe space weather. This paper analyzes and documents the status of the existing and upcoming observational capabilities for forecasting, and discusses how the findings may impact space weather research and its transition to operations.

Posner, A.; Hesse, M.; St. Cyr, C.

2012-12-01

315

Gulf of Maine: Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Lessons and activities from the Gulf of Maine Research Institute (formerly Gulf of Maine Aquarium), focused on hurricanes, El Nino, fog, and volcanic eruptions. Emphasis on important hurricanes of the past. Resources include lessons, guides for simple experiments, and a student weather network. Downloadable materials and additional webpages also provided.

316

Aristotle: A System for Research on and Development of Program-Analysis-Based Tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

this paper,we first describe the current Aristotle system, including its overall architecture and the tools and componentsthat constitute its forthcoming release. We then discuss lessons that we have learned about system1

Mary Jean Harrold; Gregg Rothermel

1997-01-01

317

Aristotle: A System for Research on and Development of Program-Analysis-Based Tools  

E-print Network

this paper, we first describe the current Aristotle system, including its overall architecture and the tools and components that constitute its forthcoming release. We then discuss lessons that we have learned about system 1

Mary Jean Harrold; Gregg Rothermel

1997-01-01

318

6/16/13 Researchers develop new tool to fight child porn -Times Of India articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2013-06-06/computing/39787435_1_researchers-law-enforcement-personal-data 1/2  

E-print Network

6/16/13 Researchers develop new tool to fight child porn - Times Of India articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2013-06-06/computing/39787435_1_researchers-law-enforcement-personal-data 1/2 Tags: Porn | Child pornography | child porn Researchers develop new tool to fight child porn ANI Jun 6, 2013, 05.31PM IST

Fung, Benjamin C. M.

319

Promises and Challenges in Developing RNAi as a Research Tool and Therapy for Neurodegenerative Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

RNA interference (RNAi) is a recently discovered mechanism that is conserved in a wide range of eukaryotic species. Triggered by double-stranded RNA, RNAi identifies and destroys the mRNA that shares homology with the double-stranded RNA. Because of its specificity, RNAi has a high potential for being a powerful investigative and therapeutic tool. Indeed, its use as a reverse genetics tool

Xu Gang Xia; Hongxia Zhou; Zuoshang Xu

2005-01-01

320

The Main Pillar: Assessment of Space Weather Observational Asset Performance Supporting Nowcasting, Forecasting and Research to Operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space weather forecasting critically depends upon availability of timely and reliable observational data. It is therefore particularly important to understand how existing and newly planned observational assets perform during periods of severe space weather. Extreme space weather creates challenging conditions under which instrumentation and spacecraft may be impeded or in which parameters reach values that are outside the nominal observational range. This paper analyzes existing and upcoming observational capabilities for forecasting, and discusses how the findings may impact space weather research and its transition to operations. A single limitation to the assessment is lack of information provided to us on radiation monitor performance, which caused us not to fully assess (i.e., not assess short term) radiation storm forecasting. The assessment finds that at least two widely spaced coronagraphs including L4 would provide reliability for Earth-bound CMEs. Furthermore, all magnetic field measurements assessed fully meet requirements. However, with current or even with near term new assets in place, in the worst-case scenario there could be a near-complete lack of key near-real-time solar wind plasma data of severe disturbances heading toward and impacting Earth's magnetosphere. Models that attempt to simulate the effects of these disturbances in near real time or with archival data require solar wind plasma observations as input. Moreover, the study finds that near-future observational assets will be less capable of advancing the understanding of extreme geomagnetic disturbances at Earth, which might make the resulting space weather models unsuitable for transition to operations.

Posner, Arik; Hesse, Michael; SaintCyr, Chris

2014-01-01

321

Photovoice as Participatory Action Research Tool for Engaging People with Intellectual Disabilities in Research and Program Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

People with intellectual disabilities have few opportunities to actively participate in research affecting programs and policies. Employment of participatory action research has been recommended. Although use of this approach with people who have intellectual disabilities is growing, articles on specific participatory research methods are rare.

Jurkowski, Janine M.

2008-01-01

322

Linguistic validation of the Alberta Context Tool and two measures of research use, for German residential long term care  

PubMed Central

Background To study the association between organizational context and research utilization in German residential long term care (LTC), we translated three Canadian assessment instruments: the Alberta Context Tool (ACT), Estabrooks Kinds of Research Utilization (RU) items and the Conceptual Research Utilization Scale. Target groups for the tools were health care aides (HCAs), registered nurses (RNs), allied health professionals (AHPs), clinical specialists and care managers. Through a cognitive debriefing process, we assessed response processes validityan initial stage of validity, necessary before more advanced validity assessment. Methods We included 39 participants (16 HCAs, 5 RNs, 7 AHPs, 5 specialists and 6 managers) from five residential LTC facilities. We created lists of questionnaire items containing problematic items plus items randomly selected from the pool of remaining items. After participants completed the questionnaires, we conducted individual semi-structured cognitive interviews using verbal probing. We asked participants to reflect on their answers for list items in detail. Participants answers were compared to concept maps defining the instrument concepts in detail. If at least two participants gave answers not matching concept map definitions, items were revised and re-tested with new target group participants. Results Cognitive debriefings started with HCAs. Based on the first round, we modified 4 of 58 ACT items, 1 ACT item stem and all 8 items of the RU tools. All items were understood by participants after another two rounds. We included revised HCA ACT items in the questionnaires for the other provider groups. In the RU tools for the other provider groups, we used different wording than the HCA version, as was done in the original English instruments. Only one cognitive debriefing round was needed with each of the other provider groups. Conclusion Cognitive debriefing is essential to detect and respond to problematic instrument items, particularly when translating instruments for heterogeneous, less well educated provider groups such as HCAs. Cognitive debriefing is an important step in research tool development and a vital component of establishing response process validity evidence. Publishing cognitive debriefing results helps researchers to determine potentially critical elements of the translated tools and assists with interpreting scores. PMID:24479645

2014-01-01

323

Funding acknowledgement analysis: an enhanced tool to investigate research sponsorship impacts: the case of nanotechnology  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is increasing interest in assessing how sponsored research funding influences the development and trajectory of science\\u000a and technology. Traditionally, linkages between research funding and subsequent results are hard to track, often requiring\\u000a access to separate funding or performance reports released by researchers or sponsors. Tracing research sponsorship and output\\u000a linkages is even more challenging when researchers receive multiple funding

Jue Wang; Philip Shapira

2011-01-01

324

SignStream: A tool for linguistic and computer vision research on visual-gestural language data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on recognition and generation of signed languages and the gestural component of spoken languages has been held back\\u000a by the unavailability of large-scale linguistically annotated corpora of the kind that led to significant advances in the\\u000a area of spoken language. A major obstacle has been the lack of computational tools to assist in efficient analysis and transcription\\u000a of visual

Carol Neidle; Stan Sclaroff; Vassilis Athitsos

2001-01-01

325

Relating Science and Religion: An Ontology of Taxonomies and Development of a Research Tool for Identifying Individual Views  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding how individuals view the relationship between science and religion shows promise for explaining a range of aspects of teaching and learning in science. Several taxonomies, consisting of different views by which people relate science and religion, can be found in the philosophical literature. However, most of the science education literature uses these taxonomies selectively and with limited justification, hindering comparison between existing and future studies. The first aim of this paper is therefore to provide a comprehensive review of the different taxonomies described in the literature and to organise the different views according to their similarities and differences. The second aim of the paper is to present a new research tool developed on the basis of the findings of the literature review. This tool consists of a short questionnaire allowing educational researchers to identify the different viewpoints held by pre-service teachers, undergraduates majoring in biology and school learners. We present the tool itself and demonstrate its usefulness and versatility for future science education research based on three empirical studies covering a range of geographical areas, religious backgrounds, educational levels, age groups and genders.

Yasri, Pratchayapong; Arthur, Shagufta; Smith, Mike U.; Mancy, Rebecca

2013-10-01

326

A new tool for converting food frequency questionnaire data into nutrient and food group values: FETA research methods and availability  

PubMed Central

Objectives To describe the research methods for the development of a new open source, cross-platform tool which processes data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Norfolk Food Frequency Questionnaire (EPIC-Norfolk FFQ). A further aim was to compare nutrient and food group values derived from the current tool (FETA, FFQ EPIC Tool for Analysis) with the previously validated but less accessible tool, CAF (Compositional Analyses from Frequency Estimates). The effect of text matching on intake data was also investigated. Design Cross-sectional analysis of a prospective cohort studyEPIC-Norfolk. Setting East England population (city of Norwich and its surrounding small towns and rural areas). Participants Complete FFQ data from 11?250 men and 13?602 women (mean age 59?years; range 4079?years). Outcome measures Nutrient and food group intakes derived from FETA and CAF analyses of EPIC-Norfolk FFQ data. Results Nutrient outputs from FETA and CAF were similar; mean (SD) energy intake from FETA was 9222 kJ (2633) in men, 8113?kJ (2296) in women, compared with CAF intakes of 9175?kJ (2630) in men, 8091?kJ (2298) in women. The majority of differences resulted in one or less quintile change (98.7%). Only mean daily fruit and vegetable food group intakes were higher in women than in men (278 vs 212 and 284 vs 255?g, respectively). Quintile changes were evident for all nutrients, with the exception of alcohol, when text matching was not executed; however, only the cereals food group was affected. Conclusions FETA produces similar nutrient and food group values to the previously validated CAF but has the advantages of being open source, cross-platform and complete with a data-entry form directly compatible with the software. The tool will facilitate research using the EPIC-Norfolk FFQ, and can be customised for different study populations. PMID:24674997

Mulligan, Angela A; Luben, Robert N; Bhaniani, Amit; Parry-Smith, David J; O'Connor, Laura; Khawaja, Anthony P; Forouhi, Nita G; Khaw, Kay-Tee

2014-01-01

327

MEASUREMENT INSTRUMENTS AS A TOOL FOR ADVANCING RESEARCH IN ORGANIZATIONAL LEARNING. 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

We critically reflect on the field of organizational learning and present one way to advance this important area of research. We propose theory explication and empirical research - in particular research aimed at model testing and refinement - as viable avenues for addressing the fragmentation of the field. We identify the lack of measurement instruments for organizational learning as a

Ashley Gallagher; Martin R. Fellenz

328

Action Research as a Tool of Professional Development of Advisers and Teachers in Croatia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Whilst educational action research is not unknown in Croatia, its use is not widespread. In part, this might be because action research assumes a high level of autonomy for practitioner-researchers, and a constructivist view of knowledge, neither of which are traditional characteristics of the Croatian system. This article reports on a capacity

Cain, Tim; Milovic, Sanja

2010-01-01

329

PIN: a binary instrumentation tool for computer architecture research and education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer architecture embraces a tremendous number of ever-changing inter-connected concepts and information, yet computer architecture education is very often static, seemingly motionless. Computer architecture is commonly taught using simple piecewise methods of explaining how the hardware performs a given task, rather than characterizing the interaction of software and hardware. Visualization tools allow students to interactively explore basic concepts in computer

Vijay Janapa Reddi; Alex Settle; Daniel A. Connors; Robert S. Cohn

2004-01-01

330

Stone Tool Research at the End of the Millennium: Procurement and Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature of stone tool procurement and technology published in the past decade is reviewed in this article. The presentation attempts to be geographically comprehensive but, because of where it was written, it provides fuller coverage of New World publications, particularly those from North America, than of literature from the rest of the world. Topics covered include raw materials and

George H. Odell

2000-01-01

331

Research on dynamic tools integration model for sea battlefield environmental analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dynamic analysis tools integration model based on geo-workflow is presented, through the analysis of the sea battlefield environmental analysis process. Geo-workflow is a new technology to manage spatial processes, but its methodology, especially scheduling of data flow, is till weak. In the paper, the traditional workflow model is extended and a modeling method of environmental analysis data flow is

Zhe Gan; Xiaoan Tang; Boning Ma; Huan Li; Hong Chen

2008-01-01

332

FDA Bioinformatics Tool for Microbial Genomics Research on Molecular Characterization of Bacterial Foodborne Pathogens Using Microarrays  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Background: Advances in microbial genomics and bioinformatics are offering greater insights into the emergence and spread of foodborne pathogens in outbreak scenarios. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has developed the genomics tool ArrayTrackTM, which provides extensive functionalities to man...

333

Research Notes. Archimedes: Analysis of a HyperCard Reference Tool.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a study of Archimedes as a HyperCard reference tool at the University of Michigan, and compares uses to similar projects. Results from studied points (i.e., system design and use statistics) support Archimedes: the system sees more use during reference hours when a librarian is unavailable, and user time is comparable to time spent with a

Ottaviani, J. S.

1995-01-01

334

Research on contactless power transfer efficiency of rotary steerable drilling tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, according to the structure and the principle of supply power of rotary steerable drilling system, the method of contactless power transfer is presented, which is used to transfer power from rotary steerable drilling tool to the guidance system. Resolver is a vital part of contactless power transfer system. Power frequency is one of the important parameters, which

Guobin Tao; Jinfeng Xu; Guangjie Fu; Zhongyu Wang

2011-01-01

335

James Kidder Main Research Library  

E-print Network

of chemical warfare agents in the environment. In T. Marrs, R. L. Maynard & F. R. Sidell (Eds.), Chemical Warfare Agents: Toxicology and Treatment (pp. 89-125). Chichester, West Sussex: John Wiley and Sons, Ltd

336

Main Report  

PubMed Central

Background: States vary widely in their use of newborn screening tests, with some mandating screening for as few as three conditions and others mandating as many as 43 conditions, including varying numbers of the 40+ conditions that can be detected by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). There has been no national guidance on the best candidate conditions for newborn screening since the National Academy of Sciences report of 19751 and the United States Congress Office of Technology Assessment report of 1988,2 despite rapid developments since then in genetics, in screening technologies, and in some treatments. Objectives: In 2002, the Maternal and Child Health Bureau (MCHB) of the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) of the United States Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) commissioned the American College of Medical Genetics (ACMG) to: Conduct an analysis of the scientific literature on the effectiveness of newborn screening.Gather expert opinion to delineate the best evidence for screening for specified conditions and develop recommendations focused on newborn screening, including but not limited to the development of a uniform condition panel.Consider other components of the newborn screening system that are critical to achieving the expected outcomes in those screened. Methods: A group of experts in various areas of subspecialty medicine and primary care, health policy, law, public health, and consumers worked with a steering committee and several expert work groups, using a two-tiered approach to assess and rank conditions. A first step was developing a set of principles to guide the analysis. This was followed by developing criteria by which conditions could be evaluated, and then identifying the conditions to be evaluated. A large and broadly representative group of experts was asked to provide their opinions on the extent to which particular conditions met the selected criteria, relying on supporting evidence and references from the scientific literature. The criteria were distributed among three main categories for each condition: The availability and characteristics of the screening test;The availability and complexity of diagnostic services; andThe availability and efficacy of treatments related to the conditions. A survey process utilizing a data collection instrument was used to gather expert opinion on the conditions in the first tier of the assessment. The data collection format and survey provided the opportunity to quantify expert opinion and to obtain the views of a diverse set of interest groups (necessary due to the subjective nature of some of the criteria). Statistical analysis of data produced a score for each condition, which determined its ranking and initial placement in one of three categories (high scoring, moderately scoring, or low scoring/absence of a newborn screening test). In the second tier of these analyses, the evidence base related to each condition was assessed in depth (e.g., via systematic reviews of reference lists including MedLine, PubMed and others; books; Internet searches; professional guidelines; clinical evidence; and cost/economic evidence and modeling). The fact sheets reflecting these analyses were evaluated by at least two acknowledged experts for each condition. These experts assessed the data and the associated references related to each criterion and provided corrections where appropriate, assigned a value to the level of evidence and the quality of the studies that established the evidence base, and determined whether there were significant variances from the survey data. Survey results were subsequently realigned with the evidence obtained from the scientific literature during the second-tier analysis for all objective criteria, based on input from at least three acknowledged experts in each condition. The information from these two tiers of assessment was then considered with regard to the overriding principles and other technology or condition-specific recommendations. On the basis of this information, conditions were assigned to one of thr

2006-01-01

337

Action-research: a methodological tool for qualitative research Investigacin-accin: herramienta metodolgica para la investigacin cualitativa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Action-research is a type of interpretative research that involves an empirical methodological process that comprehends the identification of the problem within a social and\\/or institutional context, the collection of data related to the problem, the analysis and signifying of the data collected, the identification of the need for change, the raising of possible solutions and the actual intervention and\\/or action

Magda Santos; Francisca Georgina; Alacoque Lorenzini

338

Community-based participatory research and user-centered design in a diabetes medication information and decision tool  

PubMed Central

Background Together, community-based participatory research (CBPR), usercentered design (UCD) and health information technology (HIT) offer promising approaches to improve health disparities in low-resource settings. Objectives This article describes the application of CBPR and UCD principles to the development of iDecide/Decido, an interactive, tailored, web-based diabetes medication education and decision support tool delivered by community health workers (CHWs) to African-American and Latino participants with diabetes in Southwest and Eastside Detroit. The decision aid is offered in English or Spanish and is delivered on an iPad in participants homes. Methods The overlapping principles of CBPR and UCD used to develop iDecide/Decido include: a user-focused or community approach; equitable academic and community partnership in all study phases; an iterative development process that relies on input from all stakeholders; and a program experience that is specified, adapted, and implemented with the target community. Results Collaboration between community members, researchers, and developers is especially evident in the programs design concept, animations, pictographs, issue cards, goal setting, tailoring, and additional CHW tools. Conclusions Applying the principles of CBPR and UCD can be successfully employed in developing health information tools that are easy to use and understand, interactive, and target health disparities. PMID:23793248

Henderson, Vida A; Barr, Kathryn LC; An, Lawrence C; Guajardo, Claudia; Newhouse, William; Mase, Rebecca; Heisler, Michele

2014-01-01

339

Software Tools  

Cancer.gov

Software Tools What is caBIG? NCI's Cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid (caBIG) is a virtual network of interconnected data, individuals, and organizations that redefines how research is conducted, care is provided, and patients/participants interact

340

Using animation as an information tool to advance health research literacy among minority participants.  

PubMed

Lack of adequate consumer health information about clinical research contributes to health disparities among low health literate minority multicultural populations and requires appropriate methods for making information accessible. Enhancing understanding of health research can enable such minority multicultural consumers to make informed, active decisions about their own health and research participation. This qualitative study examines the effectiveness and acceptability of an animated video to enhance what we call health research literacy among minority multicultural populations. A team analyzed the transcripts of 58 focus groups of African Americans, Latinos, Native Hawaiians, and Filipinos in Los Angeles/Hawaii. Participants were accepting of animation and the video's cultural appropriateness. Communicating information about health research via animation improved participants' ability to identify personal information-gaps, engage in meaningful community-level dialogue, and ask questions about health research. PMID:24551351

George, Sheba; Moran, Erin; Duran, Nelida; Jenders, Robert A

2013-01-01

341

Using Animation as an Information Tool to Advance Health Research Literacy among Minority Participants  

PubMed Central

Lack of adequate consumer health information about clinical research contributes to health disparities among low health literate minority multicultural populations and requires appropriate methods for making information accessible. Enhancing understanding of health research can enable such minority multicultural consumers to make informed, active decisions about their own health and research participation. This qualitative study examines the effectiveness and acceptability of an animated video to enhance what we call health research literacy among minority multicultural populations. A team analyzed the transcripts of 58 focus groups of African Americans, Latinos, Native Hawaiians, and Filipinos in Los Angeles/Hawaii. Participants were accepting of animation and the videos cultural appropriateness. Communicating information about health research via animation improved participants ability to identify personal information-gaps, engage in meaningful community-level dialogue, and ask questions about health research. PMID:24551351

George, Sheba; Moran, Erin; Duran, Nelida; Jenders, Robert A

2013-01-01

342

Ethnobotany as a Pharmacological Research Tool and Recent Developments in CNS-active Natural Products from Ethnobotanical Sources  

PubMed Central

The science of ethnobotany is reviewed in light of its multidisciplinary contributions to natural product research for the development of pharmaceuticals and pharmacological tools. Some of the issues reviewed involve ethical and cultural perspectives of healthcare and medicinal plants. While these are not usually part of the discussion of pharmacology, cultural concerns potentially provide both challenges and insight for field and laboratory researchers. Plant evolutionary issues are also considered as they relate to development of plant chemistry and accessing this through ethnobotanical methods. The discussion includes presentation of a range of CNS-active medicinal plants that have been recently examined in the field, laboratory and/or clinic. Each of these plants is used to illustrate one or more aspects about the valuable roles of ethnobotany in pharmacological research. We conclude with consideration of mutually beneficial future collaborations between field ethnobotanists and pharmacologists. PMID:19422851

McClatchey, Will C.; Mahady, Gail B.; Bennett, Bradley C.; Shiels, Laura; Savo, Valentina

2009-01-01

343

NMR spectroscopy in drug discovery: Tools for combinatorial chemistry, natural products, and metabolism research  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a NMR spectroscopy has enjoyed many advances recently, and the pace of development shows no signs of slowing. This article focuses\\u000a on advances that have affected solution-state NMR. These advances fall into three general categories: new experimental techniques\\u000a (new pulse sequence tools), improved hardware and more powerful software.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a These advances are allowing NMR to help solve important problems in the field

Paul A. Keifer

344

Antibodies and Protein Misfolding: From Structural Research Tools to Therapeutic Strategies  

E-print Network

these species invaluable and unique tools for a vast range of biotechnological and pharmaceutical applications. Before the development of hybridoma technology,[64] antibodies had to be produced as polyclonal anti-sera in immunized animals, but there were... systems allow easy and cheap production of specific antibody fragments and efficient protein engineering, including in vitro 11 affinity maturation and the generation of manifold constructs containing new functionalities.[72] Antibody fragments...

De Genst, Erwin; Messer, Anne; Dobson, Christopher M.

2014-09-04

345

DIP, the Database of Interacting Proteins: a research tool for studying cellular networks of protein interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Database of Interacting Proteins (DIP: http:\\/\\/ dip.doe-mbi.ucla.edu) is a database that documents experimentally determined protein-protein inter- actions. It provides the scientific community with an integrated set of tools for browsing and extracting information about protein interaction networks. As of September 2001, the DIP catalogs ?11 000 unique inter- actions among 5900 proteins from >80 organisms; the vast majority from

Ioannis Xenarios; Lukasz Salwnski; Xiaoqun Joyce Duan; Patrick Higney; Sul-min Kim; David Eisenberg

2002-01-01

346

Tick cell lines: tools for tick and tick-borne disease research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over 40 cell lines are currently available from 13 ixodid\\u000aand one argasid tick species. The successful isolation\\u000aand propagation of several economically important tickborne\\u000apathogens in tick cell lines has created a useful\\u000amodel to study interactions between tick cells and\\u000athese viral and bacterial disease agents. Tick cell lines\\u000ahave already proved to be a useful tool in

Lesley Bell-Sakyi; Erich Zweygarth; Edmour F. Blouin; Ernest A. Gould; Frans Jongejan

2007-01-01

347

The Solid Earth Research and Teaching Environment, a new software framework to share research tools in the classroom and across disciplines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Solid Earth Teaching and Research Environment (SEATREE) is a modular and user-friendly software framework to facilitate the use of solid Earth research tools in the classroom and for interdisciplinary research collaboration. SEATREE is open source and community developed, distributed freely under the GNU General Public License. It is a fully contained package that lets users operate in a graphical mode, while giving more advanced users the opportunity to view and modify the source code. Top level graphical user interfaces which initiate the calculations and visualize results, are written in the Python programming language using an object-oriented, modern design. Results are plotted with either Matlab-like Python libraries, or SEATREEs own Generic Mapping Tools wrapper. The underlying computational codes used to produce the results can be written in any programming language and accessed through Python wrappers. There are currently four fully developed science modules for SEATREE: (1) HC is a global geodynamics tool based on a semi-analytical mantle-circulation program based on work by B. Steinberger, Becker, and C. O'Neill. HC can compute velocities and tractions for global, spherical Stokes flow and radial viscosity variations. HC is fast enough to be used for classroom instruction, for example to let students interactively explore the role of radial viscosity variations for global geopotential (geoid) anomalies. (2) ConMan wraps Scott Kings 2D finite element mantle convection code, allowing users to quickly observe how modifications to input parameters affect heat flow over time. As seismology modules, SEATREE includes, (3), Larry, a global, surface wave phase-velocity inversion tool and, (4), Syn2D, a Cartesian tomography teaching tool for ray-theory wave propagation in synthetic, arbitrary velocity structure in the presence of noise. Both underlying programs were contributed by Boschi. Using Syn2D, students can explore, for example, how well a given input structure (e.g., a checkerboard pattern) will be resolved by data for different types of earthquake-receiver geometries. Additionally, Larry3D, a three-dimensional seismic tomography tool contributed by Boschi, and NonLinLoc, a nonlinear earthquake relocation tool by Anthony Lomax, are both under development. The goal of all of the implemented modules is to aid in teaching research techniques, while remaining flexible enough for use in true research applications. In the long run, SEATREE may contribute to new ways of sharing scientific research, making published (numerical) experiments truly reproducible again. SEATREE can be downloaded as a package from http://geosys.usc.edu/projects/seatree/wiki/, and users can also subscribe to our Subversion project page. The software is designed to run on GNU/Linux based platforms and has also been successfully run on Mac OS-X. Our poster will present the four currently implemented modules, along with our design philosophies and implementation details.

Milner, K.; Becker, T. W.; Boschi, L.; Sain, J.; Schorlemmer, D.; Waterhouse, H.

2009-12-01

348

A software tool for research in linguistics and lexicography: Application to Somali  

Microsoft Academic Search

General-purpose database management systems, whose structure is built in, are not an appropriate solution to situations where problems of translation or areas of research cannot be bounded in advance, for example, when lexicography and linguistic research are closely related. Consequently, an original system has been developed, and is being applied to linguistic and lexicographical data on the Somali language.

Jacqueline Lecarme; Carole Maury

1987-01-01

349

Research Summary Sustainability impact assessment: tools for environmental, social and economic  

E-print Network

, defined as a knowledge-based model that integrates a range of ex-ante model results to assess the impacts, as a complement to the model-based analyses of impacts on the European scale Objectives This research aimed to: m impacts of European policies Methods Research at European level (end-user and institutional analysis

350

Risk Factor Monitoring and Methods Branch | Tools Support Faster, More Efficient Research on Childhood Obesity  

Cancer.gov

Through its multiyear collaboration with the National Collaborative on Childhood Obesity Research (NCCOR), Drs. Susan Krebs-Smith and Robin McKinnon led the development and oversight of the Catalogue of Surveillance Systems, which provides one-stop access to more than 100 publicly available datasets relevant to childhood obesity research. The CSS averages more than 1000 unique visitors per month.

351

Maine Folklife Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Located at the University of Maine, the Maine Folklife Center is committed to documenting and understanding the folklore, folklife, and history of Maine and Atlantic Canada. Along with its various scholarly activities, the Center sponsors a number of festivals, lectures, and like-minded programs that encourage appreciation of the diverse cultural traditions within the region. The site will be useful to researchers with a penchant in these fields, as it contains information about the collections, including a rather extensive oral history collection (with work that documenting the cranberry culture of Massachusetts and the traditional music of Maine). There is also material on the public programs and exhibits sponsored by the center, and a set of external links that lead to other sites dealing with oral history, folklore, and Maine. While the Center's site does not have a great deal of online material for consideration, the center has transcribed the sixth volume of Northeast Folklore (originally published in 1964) and placed them online.

352

Staging data: theatre as a tool for analysis and knowledge transfer in health research.  

PubMed

Over the past several decades, researchers have taken an interest in theatre as a unique method of analysing data and translating findings. Because of its ability to communicate research findings in an emotive and embodied manner, theatre holds particular potential for health research, which often engages complex questions of the human condition. In order to evaluate the research potential of theatre, this article critically examines examples of evaluated health research studies that have used theatre for the purposes of data analysis or translation. We examine these studies from two perspectives. First, the literature is divided and categorized into four theatre genres: (1) non-theatrical performances; (2) ethnodramas, which can be interactive or non-interactive; (3) theatrical research-based performances; and (4) fictional theatrical performances. This categorization highlights the importance of these genres of theatre and provides an analysis of the benefits and disadvantages of each, thus providing insight into how theatre may be most effectively utilized in health research. Second, we explore the efficacy of using theatre for the purposes of data analysis and knowledge transfer, and critically examine potential approaches to the evaluation of such endeavours. PMID:17850943

Rossiter, Kate; Kontos, Pia; Colantonio, Angela; Gilbert, Julie; Gray, Julia; Keightley, Michelle

2008-01-01

353

Collection of Practical Tips and Tools for Conducting Clinical Research | accrualnet.cancer.gov  

Cancer.gov

The link to the samples, forms, and worksheets is extremely helpful. I am a cancer program consultant assisting a hospital program in building their cancer-related clinical trials accrual. One barrier has been the hesitancy of IRB and other staff to utilize the cancer registry in a planned screening process to identify patients who may be eligible for some studies. The tools in the link yielded several explanations and samples that will be of great benefit in the education process to move forward.

354

Solar Flares and Coronal Physics Using P/OF as a Research Tool  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This NASA Conference Publication contains the proceedings of the Workshop on Solar High-Resolution Astrophysics Using the Pinhole/Occulter Facility held at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Alabama, on May 8 to 10, 1985. These proceedings include primarily the invited tutorial papers, extended abstracts of contributed poster papers, and summaries of subpanel (X-Ray and Coronal Physics) discussions. Both observational and theoretical results are presented. Although the emphasis of the Workshop was focused primarily on topics peculiar to solar physics, one paper is included that discusses the P/0F as a tool for X-ray astronomy.

Tandberg, E. (editor); Wilson, R. M. (editor); Hudson, R. M. (editor)

1986-01-01

355

ModelDB in computational neuroscience education - a research tool as interactive educational media.  

PubMed

ModelDB's mission is to link computational models and publications, supporting the field of computational neuroscience (CNS) by making model source code readily available. It is continually expanding, and currently contains source code for more than 300 models that cover more than 41 topics. Investigators, educators, and students can use it to obtain working models that reproduce published results and can be modified to test for new domains of applicability. Users can browse ModelDB to survey the field of computational neuroscience, or pursue more focused explorations of specific topics. Here we describe tutorials and initial experiences with ModelDB as an interactive educational tool. PMID:25089156

Morse, Thomas M

2008-05-19

356

MEDES clinical research facility as a tool to prepare ISSA space flights  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This new multi-disciplinary medical experimentation center provides the ideal scientific, medical and technical environment required for research programs and to prepare international space station Alpha (ISSA) missions, where space and healthcare industries can share their expertise. Different models are available to simulate space flight effects (bed-rest, confinement,). This is of particular interest for research in Human psychology, physiology, physiopathology and ergonomics, validation of biomedical materials and procedures, testing of drugs, and other healthcare related products. This clinical research facility (CRF) provides valuable services in various fields of Human research requiring healthy volunteers. CRF is widely accessible to national and international, scientific, medical and industrial organisations. Furthermore, users have at their disposal the multi-disciplinary skills of MEDES staff and all MEDES partners on a single site.

Maillet, A.; Traon, A. Pavy-Le

357

U Chicago researchers describe new screening tool that could speed development of ovarian cancer drugs  

Cancer.gov

University of Chicago Medicine researchers have built a model system that uses multiple cell types from patients to rapidly test compounds that could block the early steps in ovarian cancer metastasis.

358

Microgravity: A New Tool for Basic and Applied Research in Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This brochure highlights selected aspects of the NASA Microgravity Science and Applications program. So that we can expand our understanding and control of physical processes, this program supports basic and applied research in electronic materials, metals, glasses and ceramics, biological materials, combustion and fluids and chemicals. NASA facilities that provide weightless environments on the ground, in the air, and in space are available to U.S. and foreign investigators representing the academic and industrial communities. After a brief history of microgravity research, the text explains the advantages and methods of performing microgravity research. Illustrations follow of equipment used and experiments preformed aboard the Shuttle and of prospects for future research. The brochure concludes be describing the program goals and the opportunities for participation.

1985-01-01

359

U of Chicago researchers develop new tool that predicts financial pain for cancer patients  

Cancer.gov

Researchers have found that cancer care has a new side effect. Along with the distress that comes with a cancer diagnosis and the discomforts of treatment, more patients now have to deal with "financial toxicity".

360

Russian roulette or Pandora's box: Use of the Internet as a research tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: The Internet has become,an integral element of academic research and study. As information specialists are we really aware,of how university students and academic,staff perceive the information on the Internet and how,they use it for research and study? This paper outlines the findings of an investigation undertaken,at La Trobe University Library to gain critical information from users on their practice

Lorraine Chapman

361

Annual Spring Experiments aim to accelerate the transfer of promising new concepts and tools from research to operations through intensive real-time forecasts and evaluations.  

E-print Network

Annual Spring Experiments aim to accelerate the transfer of promising new concepts and tools from research to operations through intensive real-time forecasts and evaluations. B ackground. Each spring of hazardous mesoscale weather. A primary goal is to accelerate the transfer of promising new tools from

Xue, Ming

362

PDB-Metrics: a Web tool for exploring the PDB contents 333 Genetics and Molecular Research 5 (2): 333-341 (2006) www.funpecrp.com.br  

E-print Network

PDB-Metrics: a Web tool for exploring the PDB contents 333 Genetics and Molecular Research 5 (2): 333-341 (2006) www.funpecrp.com.br PDB-Metrics: a Web tool for exploring the PDB contents Renato November 4, 2005 Accepted March 14, 2006 Published June 8, 2006 ABSTRACT. PDB-Metrics (http

Neshich, Goran

2006-01-01

363

Calibration of self-report tools for physical activity research: the Physical Activity Questionnaire (PAQ)  

PubMed Central

Background The utility of self-report measures of physical activity (PA) in youth can be greatly enhanced by calibrating self-report output against objectively measured PA data. This study demonstrates the potential of calibrating self-report output against objectively measured physical activity (PA) in youth by using a commonly used self-report tool called the Physical Activity Questionnaire (PAQ). Methods A total of 148 participants (grades 4 through 12) from 9 schools (during the 20092010 school year) wore an Actigraph accelerometer for 7days and then completed the PAQ. Multiple linear regression modeling was used on 70% of the available sample to develop a calibration equation and this was cross validated on an independent sample of participants (30% of sample). Results A calibration model with age, gender, and PAQ scores explained 40% of the variance in values for the percentage of time in moderate-to-vigorous PA (%MVPA) measured from the accelerometers (%MVPA?=?14.56 - (sex*0.98) - (0.84*age)?+?(1.01*PAQ)). When tested on an independent, hold-out sample, the model estimated %MVPA values that were highly correlated with the recorded accelerometer values (r?=?.63) and there was no significant difference between the estimated and recorded activity values (mean diff. = 25.3??18.1min; p?=?.17). Conclusions These results suggest that the calibrated PAQ may be a valid alternative tool to activity monitoring instruments for estimating %MVPA in groups of youth. PMID:24886625

2014-01-01

364

COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH: Parallel Analysis Tools and New Visualization Techniques for Ultra-Large Climate Data Set  

SciTech Connect

ParVis was a project funded under LAB 10-05: Earth System Modeling: Advanced Scientific Visualization of Ultra-Large Climate Data Sets. Argonne was the lead lab with partners at PNNL, SNL, NCAR and UC-Davis. This report covers progress from January 1st, 2013 through Dec 1st, 2014. Two previous reports covered the period from Summer, 2010, through September 2011 and October 2011 through December 2012, respectively. While the project was originally planned to end on April 30, 2013, personnel and priority changes allowed many of the institutions to continue work through FY14 using existing funds. A primary focus of ParVis was introducing parallelism to climate model analysis to greatly reduce the time-to-visualization for ultra-large climate data sets. Work in the first two years was conducted on two tracks with different time horizons: one track to provide immediate help to climate scientists already struggling to apply their analysis to existing large data sets and another focused on building a new data-parallel library and tool for climate analysis and visualization that will give the field a platform for performing analysis and visualization on ultra-large datasets for the foreseeable future. In the final 2 years of the project, we focused mostly on the new data-parallel library and associated tools for climate analysis and visualization.

middleton, Don [Co-PI; Haley, Mary

2014-12-10

365

Development of ITSASGIS-5D: seeking interoperability between Marine GIS layers and scientific multidimensional data using open source tools and OGC services for multidisciplinary research.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 2000, an intense effort was conducted in AZTI's Marine Research Division to set up a data management system which could gather all the marine datasets that were being produced by different in-house research projects. For that, a corporative GIS was designed that included a data and metadata repository, a database, a layer catalog & search application and an internet map viewer. Several layers, mostly dealing with physical, chemical and biological in-situ sampling, and basic and thematic cartography including bathymetry, geomorphology, different species habitat maps, and human pressure and activities maps, were successfully gathered in this system. Very soon, it was realised that new marine technologies yielding continuous multidimensional data, sometimes called FES (Fluid Earth System) data, were difficult to handle in this structure. The data affected, mainly included numerical oceanographic and meteorological models, remote sensing data, coastal RADAR data, and some in-situ observational systems such as CTD's casts, moored or lagrangian buoys, etc. A management system for gridded multidimensional data was developed using standardized formats (netcdf using CF conventions) and tools such as THREDDS catalog (UNIDATA/UCAR) providing web services such as OPENDAP, NCSS, and WCS, as well as ncWMS service developed by the Reading e-science Center. At present, a system (ITSASGIS-5D) is being developed, based on OGC standards and open-source tools to allow interoperability between all the data types mentioned before. This system includes, in the server side, postgresql/postgis databases and geoserver for GIS layers, and THREDDS/Opendap and ncWMS services for FES gridded data. Moreover, an on-line client is being developed to allow joint access, user configuration, data visualisation & query and data distribution. This client is using mapfish, ExtJS - GeoEXT, and openlayers libraries. Through this presentation the elements of the first released version of this system will be described and showed, together with the new topics to be developed in new versions that include among others, the integration of geoNetwork libraries and tools for both FES and GIS metadata management, and the use of new OGC Sensor Observation Services (SOS) to integrate non gridded multidimensional data such as time series, depth profiles or trajectories provided by different observational systems. The final aim of this approach is to contribute to the multidisciplinary access and use of marine data for management and research activities, and facilitate the implementation of integrated ecosystem based approaches in the fields of fisheries advice and management, marine spatial planning, or the implementation of the European policies such as the Water Framework Directive, the Marine Strategy Framework Directive or the Habitat Framework Directive.

Sagarminaga, Y.; Galparsoro, I.; Reig, R.; Snchez, J. A.

2012-04-01

366

Biomedical research, a tool to address the health issues that affect African populations  

PubMed Central

Traditionally, biomedical research endeavors in low to middle resources countries have focused on communicable diseases. However, data collected over the past 20years by the World Health Organization (WHO) show a significant increase in the number of people suffering from non-communicable diseases (e.g. heart disease, diabetes, cancer and pulmonary diseases). Within the coming years, WHO predicts significant decreases in communicable diseases while non-communicable diseases are expected to double in low and middle income countries in sub-Saharan Africa. The predicted increase in the non-communicable diseases population could be economically burdensome for the basic healthcare infrastructure of countries that lack resources to address this emerging disease burden. Biomedical research could stimulate development of healthcare and biomedical infrastructure. If this development is sustainable, it provides an opportunity to alleviate the burden of both communicable and non-communicable diseases through diagnosis, prevention and treatment. In this paper, we discuss how research using biomedical technology, especially genomics, has produced data that enhances the understanding and treatment of both communicable and non-communicable diseases in sub-Saharan Africa. We further discuss how scientific development can provide opportunities to pursue research areas responsive to the African populations. We limit our discussion to biomedical research in the areas of genomics due to its substantial impact on the scientific community in recent years however, we also recognize that targeted investments in other scientific disciplines could also foster further development in African countries. PMID:24143865

2013-01-01

367

pClone: Synthetic Biology Tool Makes Promoter Research Accessible to Beginning Biology Students  

PubMed Central

The Vision and Change report recommended genuine research experiences for undergraduate biology students. Authentic research improves science education, increases the number of scientifically literate citizens, and encourages students to pursue research. Synthetic biology is well suited for undergraduate research and is a growing area of science. We developed a laboratory module called pClone that empowers students to use advances in molecular cloning methods to discover new promoters for use by synthetic biologists. Our educational goals are consistent with Vision and Change and emphasize core concepts and competencies. pClone is a family of three plasmids that students use to clone a new transcriptional promoter or mutate a canonical promoter and measure promoter activity in Escherichia coli. We also developed the Registry of Functional Promoters, an open-access database of student promoter research results. Using pre- and posttests, we measured significant learning gains among students using pClone in introductory biology and genetics classes. Student posttest scores were significantly better than scores of students who did not use pClone. pClone is an easy and affordable mechanism for large-enrollment labs to meet the high standards of Vision and Change.

Eckdahl, Todd; Cronk, Brian; Andresen, Corinne; Frederick, Paul; Huckuntod, Samantha; Shinneman, Claire; Wacker, Annie; Yuan, Jason

2014-01-01

368

Directing the evolution of Rubisco and Rubisco activase: first impressions of a new tool for photosynthesis research.  

PubMed

During the last decade the practice of laboratory-directed protein evolution has become firmly established as a versatile tool in biochemical research by enabling molecular evolution toward desirable phenotypes or detection of novel structure-function interactions. Applications of this technique in the field of photosynthesis research are still in their infancy, but recently first steps have been reported in the directed evolution of the CO(2)-fixing enzyme Rubisco and its helper protein Rubisco activase. Here we summarize directed protein evolution strategies and review the progressive advances that have been made to develop and apply suitable selection systems for screening mutant forms of these enzymes that improve the fitness of the host organism. The goal of increasing photosynthetic efficiency of plants by improving the kinetics of Rubisco has been a long-term goal scoring modest successes. We discuss how directed evolution methodologies may one day be able to circumvent the problems encountered during this venture. PMID:18626786

Mueller-Cajar, Oliver; Whitney, Spencer M

2008-01-01

369

Geothermal Electricity Technologies Evaluation Model DOE Tool for Assessing Impact of Research on Cost of Power  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a spreadsheet model to provide insight as to how its research activities can impact of cost of producing power from geothermal energy. This model is referred to as GETEM, which stands for Geothermal Electricity Technologies Evaluation Model. Based on user input, the model develops estimates of costs associated with exploration, well field development, and power plant construction that are used along with estimated operating costs to provide a predicted power generation cost. The model allows the user to evaluate how reductions in cost, or increases in performance or productivity will impact the predicted power generation cost. This feature provides a means of determining how specific technology improvements can impact generation costs, and as such assists DOE in both prioritizing research areas and identifying where research is needed.

Greg Mines

2008-01-01

370

Tools for 3D scientific visualization in computational aerodynamics at NASA Ames Research Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hardware, software, and techniques used by the Fluid Dynamics Division (NASA) for performing visualization of computational aerodynamics, which can be applied to the visualization of flow fields from computer simulations of fluid dynamics about the Space Shuttle, are discussed. Three visualization techniques applied, post-processing, tracking, and steering, are described, as well as the post-processing software packages used, PLOT3D, SURF (Surface Modeller), GAS (Graphical Animation System), and FAST (Flow Analysis software Toolkit). Using post-processing methods a flow simulation was executed on a supercomputer and, after the simulation was complete, the results were processed for viewing. It is shown that the high-resolution, high-performance three-dimensional workstation combined with specially developed display and animation software provides a good tool for analyzing flow field solutions obtained from supercomputers.

Bancroft, Gordon; Plessel, Todd; Merritt, Fergus; Watson, Val

1989-01-01

371

Thermonuclear Reaction Rate Libraries and Software Tools for Nuclear Astrophysics Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermonuclear reaction rates are a crucial input for simulating a wide variety of astrophysical environments. A new collaboration has been formed to ensure that astrophysical modelers have access to reaction rates based on the most recent experimental and theoretical nuclear physics information. To reach this goal, a new version of the REACLIB library has been created by the Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics (JINA), now available online at http://www.nscl.msu.edu/~nero/db. A complementary effort is the development of software tools in the Computational Infrastructure for Nuclear Astrophysics, online at nucastrodata.org, to streamline, manage, and access the workflow of the reaction evaluations from their initiation to peer review to incorporation into the library. Details of these new projects will be described.

Smith, Michael S.; Cyburt, Richard; Schatz, Hendrik; Wiescher, Michael; Smith, Karl; Warren, Scott; Ferguson, Ryan; Lingerfelt, Eric; Buckner, Kim; Nesaraja, Caroline D.

2008-05-01

372

Research and Teaching: Two-Dimensional, Implicit Confidence Tests as a Tool for Recognizing Student Misconceptions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The misconceptions that students bring with them, or that arise during instruction, are a critical barrier to learning. Implicit-confidence tests, a simple modification of the multiple-choice test, can be used as a strategy for recognizing student misconceptions. An important issue, however, is whether such tests are gender-neutral. We analyzed the results of exams administered to students (both majors and nonmajors) in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology (MCDB) 1111: Biofundamentals at the University of Colorado at Boulder. At a statistically significant level ( 95%), there was no difference between women and men regardless of whether their answers were confidently correct or incorrect, suggesting that such two-dimensional tests are a gender-neutral tool.

Linda B. Taylor

2006-11-01

373

[The international man-media Tesskr (OHMi) Observatory: a research tool to study the complexity of arid ecosystems in Sahel].  

PubMed

In the Sahelian zone, the drought phenomenon, combined with anthropic factors (monoculture, bush fires, defect or deficit of manure, overgrazing, etc.), has seriously affected ecological great balances, involving a degradation of the natural resources as well as a fall in agricultural productions, pointing to a process of desertification. To face these challenges, in the course of the 8th ordinary session of the conference of the Heads of States of the African Union held in January 2007 in Addis Ababa (Ethiopia), 11 countries adopted the Panafrican project called the Green Great Wall (GGW). The total objective of the GGW is to contribute i) to the fight against the desert's advance, ii) to the development of the Saharan-Sahelian zones toward a durable management of the natural resources, and iii) to the fight against poverty. It deals with the construction of a set of zones of afforestation crossing the whole African continent in the long term (7000km of which are in the west). Even if some decisions in the launching phase the GGW must be taken quickly, one cannot do without investment in interdisciplinary research. In particular, associating fundamental research and applied research will allow us to ensure the success in the medium and long term of such a large-scale reforestation project. Research segmented in compartmentalized knowledge fields needed to get adequate tools, among which OHMi Tesskr, initiated by INNEE (Centre national de la recherche scientifique [CNRS]), in partnership with UCAD, constitutes an example. This suitable scientific tool, capable of action flexibility, of self-financing capacity, anchored in civil society, ready to implement a pragmatic and local interdisciplinarity founded currently on the concept of socio-ecological system (SES), is the one we chose to conduct our studies on the Ferlo arid ecosystems. PMID:23916202

Guiss, Aliou; Botsch, Gilles; Ducourneau, Axel; Goffner, Deborah; Gueye, Lamine

2013-01-01

374

California Levee Risk, Now and in the Future:Identifying Research and Tool Development Needs  

SciTech Connect

The Center for Catastrophic Risk Management (CCRM) and the California Center for Environmental Law and Policy (CCELP) at UC Berkeley and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) joined together to cosponsor a workshop to define research requirements to mitigate the hazards facing the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta Levee system. The Workshop was intended to provide a forum to (1) Report assessments of current vulnerabilities facing the levees, such as structural failure, seismic loading, flooding, terrorism; (2) Consider longer term challenges such as climate change, sea level rise; and (3) Define research requirements to fill gaps in knowledge and reduce uncertainties in hazard assessments.

Newmark, R L; Hanemann, M; Farber, D

2006-11-28

375

S.O.S. for Information Literacy: A Tool for Improving Research and Information Skills Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At no time in history has the ability to locate, organize, evaluate, manage and use information, skills collectively referred to as information literacy, been more important to today's learners. Classroom and technology teachers and library media specialists are challenged to find effective, innovative techniques for teaching research and

Arnone, Marilyn P.; Small, Ruth V.

376

Inexpensive Tools To Quantify And Map Vegetative Cover For Large-Scale Research Or Management Decisions.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Vegetative cover can be quantified quickly and consistently and often at lower cost with image analysis of color digital images than with visual assessments. Image-based mapping of vegetative cover for large-scale research and management decisions can now be considered with the accuracy of these met...

377

Agent-Based Learning Environments as a Research Tool for Investigating Teaching and Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses intelligent learning environments for computer-based learning, such as agent-based learning environments, and their advantages over human-based instruction. Considers the effects of multiple agents; agents and research design; the use of Multiple Intelligent Mentors Instructing Collaboratively (MIMIC) for instructional design for

Baylor, Amy L.

2002-01-01

378

Automated riverine landscape characterization: GIS-based tools for watershed-scale research, assessment, and management  

EPA Science Inventory

River systems consist of hydrogeomorphic patches (HPs) that emerge at multiple spatiotemporal scales. Functional process zones (FPZs) are HPs that exist at the river valley scae and are important strata for fraing whole-watershed research questions and management plans. Hierarchi...

379

Environmental History, Political Economy and Change: Frameworks and Tools for Research and Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article addresses questions of method, focus and research strategy in environmental history and political economy for policy analysis and policy-making. While most environmental history is seen as having to do with landscapes past and how they got that way, environmental history can also have practical contemporary applications. By coming to understand the sources and origins of environmental degradation, and

Ronnie D. Lipschutz

2001-01-01

380

Assessing Customer Satisfaction at the NIST Research Library: Essential Tool for Future Planning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a campus-wide customer satisfaction survey undertaken by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Research Library in 2007. The methodology, survey instrument, data analysis, results, and actions taken in response to the survey are described. The outcome and recommendations will guide the library both

Liu, Rosa; Allmang, Nancy

2008-01-01

381

The Biobanking Analysis Resource Catalogue (BARCdb): a new research tool for the analysis of biobank samples  

PubMed Central

We report the development of a new database of technology services and products for analysis of biobank samples in biomedical research. BARCdb, the Biobanking Analysis Resource Catalogue (http://www.barcdb.org), is a freely available web resource, listing expertise and molecular resource capabilities of research centres and biotechnology companies. The database is designed for researchers who require information on how to make best use of valuable biospecimens from biobanks and other sample collections, focusing on the choice of analytical techniques and the demands they make on the type of samples, pre-analytical sample preparation and amounts needed. BARCdb has been developed as part of the Swedish biobanking infrastructure (BBMRI.se), but now welcomes submissions from service providers throughout Europe. BARCdb can help match resource providers with potential users, stimulating transnational collaborations and ensuring compatibility of results from different labs. It can promote a more optimal use of European resources in general, both with respect to standard and more experimental technologies, as well as for valuable biobank samples. This article describes how information on service and reagent providers of relevant technologies is made available on BARCdb, and how this resource may contribute to strengthening biomedical research in academia and in the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:25336620

Galli, Joakim; Oelrich, Johan; Taussig, Michael J.; Andreasson, Ulrika; Ortega-Paino, Eva; Landegren, Ulf

2015-01-01

382

Image Processing for Teaching: Transforming a Scientific Research Tool into an Educational Technology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Image Processing for Teaching (IPT) project which provides digital image processing to excite students about science and mathematics as they use research-quality software on microcomputers. Provides information on IPT whose components of this dissemination project have been widespread teacher education, curriculum-based materials

Greenberg, Richard

1998-01-01

383

Using informatics principles and tools to harness research evidence for patient care: evidence-based informatics.  

PubMed

With the huge worldwide investment in biomedical research during the past 50 years, there are many important advances in health care knowledge each year. Unfortunately, it commonly takes over 20 years for even the most important of these advances to be widely integrated into clinical practice. Many potentially remediable factors are responsible for this dilemma in research transfer, including defective continuing education for health professionals and patients; increasingly complex medical regimens; diminishing resources for health care; and inadequate evidence management. The principles and procedures of health informatics can help overcome some of these barriers to research transfer, particularly such evidence management tasks as retrieving, processing, summarizing, disseminating and applying evidence for clinical care. Evidence retrieval has been improved by better indexing and electronic search engines, by improved access from clinical and other settings, and by integration of evidence into clinical decision support systems. Evidence processing has been greatly accelerated by streamlined methods of critical appraisal of research and by centralization of these procedures for the development of current awareness publications and cumulative "best evidence" databases. The Cochrane Collaboration has revolutionized the summarization (systematic review) of evidence. The internet has provided access to patients, practitioners, and policy makers, alike. Direct-from-patient automated data collection promises to move the connection between evidence and practice to a higher level. In all of these innovations, health care practice is most likely to be enhanced by intertwining best evidence with best informatics techniques. PMID:10384550

Haynes, R B

1998-01-01

384

Prospective, randomized evaluation of a personal digital assistant-based research tool in the emergency department  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Personal digital assistants (PDA) offer putative advantages over paper for collecting research data. However, there are no data prospectively comparing PDA and paper in the emergency department. The aim of this study was to prospectively compare the performance of PDA and paper enrollment instruments with respect to time required and errors generated. METHODS: We randomized consecutive patients enrolled in

Morris L Rivera; Jason Donnelly; Blair A Parry; Anthony Dinizio; Charles L Johnson; Jeffrey A Kline; Christopher Kabrhel

2008-01-01

385

The Electronic Survey as a Research Tool: A Case Study of BALT-L.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this research study was to compose a user profile of one specific electronic conference/electronic mail (e-conference/e-mail) discussion group through an in-depth case study, using a survey administered, collected, and tabulated electronically. The BALT-L is an online forum devoted to communication to and about the Baltic republics

Sudmalis, Linda

386

NREL researchers discover ways to increase accuracy in building energy simulations tools to improve predictions of  

E-print Network

regimes within the uninsulated cavities. The effects of ambient outdoor temperature, the radia- tive properties of building materials, insulation levels, and the temperature dependence of conduction through framing members were considered. The research showed that the temperature dependence of conduction through

387

The Ground-based Scanning Radiometer: A tool for arctic atmospheric research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The University of Colorado (CU) Center for Environmental Technology (CET) has developed a Ground- Based Scanning Radiometer (GSR) and deployed it during two important Arctic Experiments relevant to climate research. The first was the Arctic Winter Radiometric Experiment during March-April 2004 and the second was the Radiative Heating in Underexplored Bands Campaign (RHUBC) in February-March 2007. This paper summarizes some

E. R. Westwater; D. Cimini; A. J. Gasiewski; M. Klein; V. Leuski

2007-01-01

388

Telling the stories of South African Hindu women: Participatory video as a tool for feminist research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This briefing starts with a self-reflexive discussion of the transition between two research efforts: a Masters study completed in 2004, which argued for a postcolonial feminist film practice, and a PhD study currently in progress. Analysing the process of this transition (which involved the production of a short film as a test study of the postcolonial feminist film practice that

Subeshini Moodley

2008-01-01

389

Issues Related to Student Persistence toward Graduation in Public Schools: A Research Based Tool for Educators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This abstract focuses on a project report addressing persistence toward graduation. The product will provide a comprehensive resource for school district leaders to use in the identification of at-risk students and research based dropout prevention programs. With the passage of "No Child Left Behind" in 2002 legislation has put a greater

Fisher, Deanne L.; Fritz, Ronald D.; Scott, Nancy L.

2012-01-01

390

Fitts''law as a research and design tool in human-computer interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to Fitts' law, human movement can be modeled by analogy to the transmission of information. Fitts' popular model has been widely adopted in numerous research areas, including kinematics, human factors, and (recently) human-computer interaction (HCI). The present study provides a historical and theoretical context for the model, including an analysis of problems that have emerged through the systematic deviation

I. Scott Mackenzie

1992-01-01

391

Handbook of Research on Hybrid Learning Models: Advanced Tools, Technologies, and Applications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hybrid learning is now the single-greatest trend in education today due to the numerous educational advantages when both traditional classroom learning and e-learning are implemented collectively. This handbook collects emerging research and pedagogies related to the convergence of teaching and learning methods. This significant "Handbook of

Wang, Fu Lee, Ed.; Fong, Joseph, Ed.; Kwan, Reggie, Ed.

2010-01-01

392

System for Observing Family Therapy Alliances: A Tool for Research and Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To advance research and inform practice, the authors developed an observational rating system of client behavior reflecting strong and weak therapeutic alliances in couple and family therapy. The System for Observing Family Therapy Alliances (SOFTA), in both English and Spanish, has 2 dimensions that are common across therapy modalities

Friedlander, Myrna L.; Escudero, Valentin; Horvath, Adam O.; Heatherington, Laurie; Cabero, Andres; Martens, Matthew P.

2006-01-01

393

Swimming Simulation: A New Tool for Swimming Research and Practical Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter covers topics in swimming simulation from a computational fluid dynamics perspective. This perspective means\\u000a emphasis on the fluid mechanics and CFD methodology applied in swimming research. We concentrated on numerical simulation\\u000a results, considering the scientific simulation point-of-view and especially the practical implications with swimmers.

Daniel A. Marinho; Tiago M. Barbosa; Per L. Kjendlie; Joo P. Vilas-Boas; Francisco B. Alves; Abel I. Rouboa; Antnio J. Silva

394

Unmanned Aerial Vehicle - A Good Tool for Aerospace Engineering Education and Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aerospace engineering is a vehicle-oriented discipline, which commonly incorporates a very wide variety of curricular subjects but with a hands -on training as an ultimate goal of education and research for the young students. The aerospace engineering education starts as a system approach, which shall, at least, include the design, manufacturing and maintenance of aerospace vehicles. It is essential to

Fei-Bin HSIAO; Ying-Chih LAI; Meng-Tse LEE; Tsong-Liang LIU; Woei-Leong CHAN; Sheng-Yen HSIEH; Chun-Chih CHEN

2005-01-01

395

``Underground Safari'' and other outreach tools for dissemination of root and soil science research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Kalahari Transect encompasses the sandy savanna biome of southern Africa and provides a compelling setting for studying the influence of climate change on soil and plant dynamics in a water stressed environment. NSF funding for the Research Experience for Teachers (RET) Program made it possible for a high school science teacher to visit field sites in Botswana, interact with

N. Mladenov; H. Riffel; P. D'Odorico

2009-01-01

396

Systems Thinking Tools as Applied to Community-Based Participatory Research: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is being used increasingly to address health disparities and complex health issues. The authors propose that CBPR can benefit from a systems science framework to represent the complex and dynamic characteristics of a community and identify intervention points and potential "tipping points." Systems

BeLue, Rhonda; Carmack, Chakema; Myers, Kyle R.; Weinreb-Welch, Laurie; Lengerich, Eugene J.

2012-01-01

397

Underground Safari and other outreach tools for dissemination of root and soil science research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Kalahari Transect encompasses the sandy savanna biome of southern Africa and provides a compelling setting for studying the influence of climate change on soil and plant dynamics in a water stressed environment. NSF funding for the Research Experience for Teachers (RET) Program made it possible for a high school science teacher to visit field sites in Botswana, interact with Botswana high school teachers and students, and collaborate with scientists to develop web-based science teacher education modules on the topic of roots and belowground carbon storage. The Underground Safari website for K-12 teachers and students was constructed to infuse middle and high school level standards-based soil science curricula with outdoor activities, international field research videos, lab demos, printable handouts, and stimulating real-world applications. This presentation highlights the Underground Safari website design, the wiki page used by the RET teacher to communicate with her students on-line and take them on science adventures during the international field research, and other educational outreach activities resulting from this international research experience. Figure 1. Wiki page used by RET teacher to communicate with her students while in the field in Botswana, Africa.

Mladenov, N.; Riffel, H.; D'Odorico, P.

2009-12-01

398

Using Research Based Assessment Tools in Professional Development in Current Electricity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We present a practical way of adapting and using four research-based assessments for different purposes in an electricity and magnetism course for K-8 science teachers. The course is designed to accomplish conceptual change toward accepted scientific conceptions as well as introducing teachers to materials and activities appropriate for their

Shen, Ji; Gibbons, Patrick C.; Wiegers, John F.; McMahon, Ann P.

2007-01-01

399

Teacher Rating of Oral Language and Literacy (TROLL): A Research-Based Tool. CIERA Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Teacher Rating of Oral Language and Literacy (TROLL) is an instrument that measures skills identified as critical in the New Standards for Speaking and Listening. In 5 to 10 minutes and without prior training, teachers can assess an individual child's current standing with respect to skills that research has identified as critical for literary

Dickinson, David K.; McCabe, Allyssa; Sprague, Kim

400

User Interface Design for Virtual Reality: A Research Tool for Tracking Navigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the rapidly developing area of User Interface Design (UID), the existing knowledge and understanding of UID serves as a basis for further research and study of factors affecting users as they interact with interfaces that utilize the technology of multimedia, virtual reality and intelligent agents. Navigation is one of the factors that is being investigated to help designers develop

Joaquin Vila; Barbara Beccue; Greg Furness

1998-01-01

401

ERTS-A data as a teaching and research tool in the Department of Geology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. The project was an attempt to integrate ERTS-1 data into teaching introductory, specialized, and graduate courses in the Department of Geology, University of Alaska. This data was to be utilized principally through a specially selected, high quality collection of black and white, and color 9.5 mosaics of the State of Alaska. In completing these tasks, the data accumulated has proved highly useful in a variety of ways including: (1) discussions of the uses and availability of ERTS imagery; (2) as a medium for talking about and showing various areas of Alaska; (3) in discussing geology in general; and (4) as an aid in doing research and as possible research topics themselves. Use of ERTS-1 imagery in geology proved highly successful and its use is now an integral part of many courses.

Grybeck, D. (principal investigator)

1974-01-01

402

Wild-derived mouse stocks: an underappreciated tool for aging research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virtually all biomedical research makes use of a relatively small pool of laboratory-adapted, inbred, isogenic stocks of mice.\\u000a Although the advantages of these models are many, there are a number of disadvantages as well. When studying a multifaceted\\u000a process such as aging, the problems associated with using laboratory stocks are greatly inflated. On the other hand, wild-derived\\u000a mouse stocks, loosely

James M. Harper

2008-01-01

403

NASA Global Hawk Project Update and Future Plans: A New Tool for Earth Science Research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Science objectives include: First demonstration of the Global Hawk unmanned aircraft system (UAS) for NASA and NOAA Earth science research and applications; Validation of instruments on-board the Aura satellite; Exploration of trace gases, aerosols, and dynamics of remote upper Troposphere/lower Stratosphere regions; Sample polar vortex fragments and atmospheric rivers; Risk reduction for future missions that will study hurricanes and atmospheric rivers.

Naftel, Chris

2009-01-01

404

IT Research Services: Powerful Tools to Track a Fast Moving Industry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research services change and evolve over time, sometimes suddenly, in their focus, topics, formats, service model, etc. You have to check in often. Some offer products that you can customize to your environment, others not so much. You will find a variation in customer management practices (e.g., when and how they share information) ...can sometimes be annoying. Assess your needs carefully. Each research service has a very different service model. Explore ways to share or lower the cost. Someone out there may share the expense when that is an option. Make sure you read the small print. It can work for you as well as against you. When in doubt, ask your Vendor's POC. Set up Research Service "gurus or SME's." Not to violate the copyright agreement of course, just have someone who knows what's there. After you subscribe, reassess.Get the most out of your investment. Some early enthusiasts will fade, and there will be others who don't know it's there and can use it.

Hunter, Paul

2010-01-01

405

Miniaturized pre-clinical cancer models as research and diagnostic tools  

PubMed Central

Cancer is one of the most common causes of death worldwide. Consequently, important resources are directed towards bettering treatments and outcomes. Cancer is difficult to treat due to its heterogeneity, plasticity and frequent drug resistance. New treatment strategies should strive for personalized approaches. These should target neoplastic and/or activated microenvironmental heterogeneity and plasticity without triggering resistance and spare host cells. In this review, the putative use of increasingly physiologically relevant microfabricated cell-culturing systems intended for drug development is discussed. There are two main reasons for the use of miniaturized systems. First, scaling down model size allows for high control of microenvironmental cues enabling more predictive outcomes. Second, miniaturization reduces reagent consumption, thus facilitating combinatorial approaches with little effort and enables the application of scarce materials, such as patient-derived samples. This review aims to give an overview of the state-of-the-art of such systems while predicting their application in cancer drug development. PMID:24295904

Hkanson, Maria; Cukierman, Edna; Charnley, Mirren

2014-01-01

406

V/STOL systems research aircraft: A tool for cockpit integration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The next generation ASTOVL aircraft will have a complicated propulsion system. The configuration choices include Direct Lift, Lift-Fan and Lift + Lift/Cruise but the aircraft must also have supersonic performance and low-observable characteristics. The propulsion system may have features such as flow blockers, vectoring nozzles and flow transfer schemes. The flight control system will necessarily fully integrate the aerodynamic surfaces and the propulsive elements. With a fully integrated, fly-by-wire flight/propulsion control system, the options for cockpit integration are interesting and varied. It is possible to de-couple longitudinal and vertical responses allowing the pilot to close the loop on flightpath and flightpath acceleration directly. In the hover, the pilot can control the translational rate directly without having to stabilize the inner rate and attitude loops. The benefit of this approach, reduced workload and increased precision, has previously been demonstrated through several motion-based simulations. In order to prove the results in flight, the V/STOL System Research Aircraft (VSRA) was developed at the NASA Ames Research Center. The VSRA is the YAV-8B Prototype modified with a research flight control system using a series-parallel servo configuration in all the longitudinal degrees of freedom (including thrust and thrust vector angle) to provide an integrated flight and propulsion control system in a limited envelope. Development of the system has been completed and flight evaluations of the response types have been performed. In this paper we will discuss the development of the VSRA, the evolution of the flightpath command and translational rate command response types and the Guest Pilot evaluations of the system. Pilot evaluation results are used to draw conclusions regarding the suitability of the system to satisfy V/STOL requirements.

Stortz, Michael W.; ODonoghue, Dennis P.

1995-01-01

407

Mitochondrial replacement: from basic research to assisted reproductive technology portfolio tool-technicalities and possible risks.  

PubMed

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations are a relatively common cause of progressive disorders that can be severe or even life-threatening. There is currently no cure for these disorders; therefore recent research has been focused on attempting to prevent the transmission of these maternally inherited mutations. Here we highlight the challenges of understanding the transmission of mtDNA diseases, discuss current genetic management options and explore the use of germ-line reconstruction technologies to prevent mtDNA diseases. In particular we discuss their potential, indications, limitations and possible safety concerns. PMID:25425606

Cree, Lynsey; Loi, Pasqualino

2015-01-01

408

Infrared thermography as a high-throughput tool in catalysis research.  

PubMed

The so-called "emissivity corrected infrared thermography" (ecIRT) has been successfully developed and used to great effect in the field of combinatorial high-throughput studies in catalysis. A short introduction to the basics of ecIRT and the description of a typical setup is given. Research efforts from 1998 until present are summarized and selected publications with IRT applications in catalysis are highlighted. The last section of the article covers potential problems, which the observant may misinterpret as activity of the materials. The effects are classified and it is explained why they occur and what can be done to bypass them. PMID:22432458

Loskyll, Jonas; Stoewe, Klaus; Maier, Wilhelm F

2012-05-14

409

The conversion of claims files to an episode data base: a tool for management and research.  

PubMed

The construction of an episode-of-care file based on utilization data from the insurance claims system of Blue Cross and Blue Shield of North Carolina was undertaken for its subscribers and Medicare beneficiaries, a data base that includes 60% of the hospital days in North Carolina. The conversion was accomplished without interfering with the integrity of the accounting system, and the resulting file provides essential data for management decisions and epidemiological research. Among the uses to which the information in the file can be put are the promotion of ambulatory surgery, the redesign of group insurance benefits by employers, and the support of statewide health planning programs. PMID:6237999

Greene, S B; Gunselman, D L

1984-01-01

410

The Use if GIS Tools in Tourism Research on the Example of Wodzislaw Poviat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The activities in name of tourist development in Wodzislaw poviat are the reason to evaluate the tourist land development. The evaluation was prepared on the basis of selected indexes characterizing the level of tourist infrastructure development. It considered: the number of lodgings per km2, the number of restaurants per km2, the amount of additional attractions per km2 and the density of tourist tracks. This database was analyzed by the use of GIS tools. Using GIS software allowed working with large databases and provided the possibility to create a graphic representation of the results. The level of tourist land development is diversified and depends on it function. The cities with the best developed tourist infrastructure are Wodzislaw Slaski, Radlin, Pszow, Rydultowy and town in Odra Valley: Olza, Bukow and Nieboczowy. Pszow, Gorzyce and Godow commons have the biggest density of tourist tracks. Dzia?ania na rzecz rozwoju turystyki w powiecie wodzis?awskim s? powodem do oceny zagospodarowania turystycznego obszaru. Ocen? wykonano w oparciu o wybrane wska?niki, charakteryzuj?ce stopie? rozwoju infrastruktury turystycznej. Uwzgl?dniono: liczb? miejsc noclegowych/km2, liczb? lokali gastronomicznych/km2, liczb? atrakcji dodatkowych/km2 oraz g?sto?? szlakw turystycznych. Baz? danych o zapleczu noclegowym, gastronomicznym, atrakcjach towarzysz?cych i szlakach turystycznych poddano analizom przy u?yciu narz?dzi GIS. Wykorzystanie oprogramowania GIS umo?liwi?o prac? z du?ymi bazami danych i pozwoli?o na graficzn? prezentacj? wynikw. Stopie? zagospodarowania turystycznego obszaru jest zr?nicowany i zale?y od pe?nionej przez niego funkcji. Najlepiej rozwini?t? baz? turystyczn? posiadaj? miasta Wodzis?aw ?l?ski, Radlin, Pszw i Rydu?towy oraz miejscowo?ci w Dolinie Odry: Olza, Bukw i Nieboczowy. Najwi?ksza g?sto?? szlakw turystycznych wyst?puje w Pszowie oraz w gminach Gorzyce i Godw.

Pukowiec, Katarzyna

2012-01-01

411

Next-Generation Sequencing: A Review of Technologies and Tools for Wound Microbiome Research  

PubMed Central

Significance: The colonization of wounds by specific microbes or communities of microbes may delay healing and/or lead to infection-related complication. Studies of wound-associated microbial communities (microbiomes) to date have primarily relied upon culture-based methods, which are known to have extreme biases and are not reliable for the characterization of microbiomes. Biofilms are very resistant to culture and are therefore especially difficult to study with techniques that remain standard in clinical settings. Recent Advances: Culture-independent approaches employing next-generation DNA sequencing have provided researchers and clinicians a window into wound-associated microbiomes that could not be achieved before and has begun to transform our view of wound-associated biodiversity. Within the past decade, many platforms have arisen for performing this type of sequencing, with various types of applications for microbiome research being possible on each. Critical Issues: Wound care incorporating knowledge of microbiomes gained from next-generation sequencing could guide clinical management and treatments. The purpose of this review is to outline the current platforms, their applications, and the steps necessary to undertake microbiome studies using next-generation sequencing. Future Directions: As DNA sequencing technology progresses, platforms will continue to produce longer reads and more reads per run at lower costs. A major future challenge is to implement these technologies in clinical settings for more precise and rapid identification of wound bioburden. PMID:25566414

Hodkinson, Brendan P.; Grice, Elizabeth A.

2015-01-01

412

Web 2.0 collaboration tools to support student research in hydrology - an opinion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A growing body of evidence suggests that it is unwise to make the a-priori assumption that university students are ready and eager to embrace modern online technologies employed to enhance the educational experience. We present an opinion on employing Wiki, a popular Web 2.0 technology, in small student groups, based on a case-study of using it customized as a personal learning environment (PLE) for supporting thesis research in hydrology. Since inception in 2006 the system presented has proven to facilitate knowledge construction and peer-communication within and across groups of students of different academic years and to stimulate learning. Being an open ended and egalitarian system, it was a minimal burden to maintain, as all students became content authors and shared responsibility. A number of unintended uses of the system were also observed, like using it as a backup medium and mobile storage. We attribute the success and sustainability of the proposed web 2.0-based approach to the fact that the efforts were not limited to the application of the technology, but comprised the creation of a supporting environment with educational activities organized around it. We propose that Wiki-based PLEs are much more suitable than traditional learning management systems for supporting non-classroom education activities like thesis research in hydrology.

Pathirana, A.; Gersonius, B.; Radhakrishnan, M.

2012-02-01

413

Class Evolution Tree: A Graphical Tool to Support Decisions on the Number of Classes in Exploratory Categorical Latent Variable Modeling for Rehabilitation Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of our study was to develop a graphical tool that can be used in addition to standard statistical criteria to support decisions on the number of classes in explorative categorical latent variable modeling for rehabilitation research. Data from two rehabilitation research projects were used. In the first study, a latent profile analysis was

Kriston, Levente; Melchior, Hanne; Hergert, Anika; Bergelt, Corinna; Watzke, Birgit; Schulz, Holger; von Wolff, Alessa

2011-01-01

414

Development of a community sustainability visualization tool through integration of US EPA?s Sustainable and Health Community Research Program tasks  

EPA Science Inventory

We propose a 2-day session combining multiple components of an ongoing integrative research program in USEPA?s Office of Research and Development into a functional community sustainability visualization and assessment tool. The working group will include project leads for a US H...

415

U.S.-GERMAN BILATERAL WORKING GROUP: International Research Cooperation to Develop and Evaluate Tools and Techniques for Revitalization of Potentially Contaminated Sites  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. German Bilateral Working Group originated in 1990 in order to share and transfer information, ideas, tools and techniques regarding environmental research. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)/Office of Research and Development (ORD) and the German Federal Mini...

416

Example Curriculum Plan Neuromotor control and rehabilitation concentration area Requirements: 10 credits of rehabilitation science coursework, 12 credits of research tools  

E-print Network

Example Curriculum Plan ­ Neuromotor control and rehabilitation concentration area Requirements: 10 credits of rehabilitation science coursework, 12 credits of research tools coursework and 22 credits Rehabilitation Science I,II 6 PTRS689 (2 semesters) Research Seminar: I-IV (4 semesters) 4 PTRS788 Total: 10

Weber, David J.

417

Autoethnography, a Chicana's Methodological Research Tool: The Role of Storytelling for Those Who Have No Choice but to Do Critical Race Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article investigates the role of autoethnographic research as the methodological tool of choice for a Chicana who positions herself along the liminal perspective. I posit that "testimonios", autobiographical educational experiences, must be used as valid ethnographic research to contribute to existing knowledge around issues of educational

Chavez, Minerva S.

2012-01-01

418

C-ME: A 3D Community-Based, Real-Time Collaboration Tool for Scientific Research and Training  

PubMed Central

The need for effective collaboration tools is growing as multidisciplinary proteome-wide projects and distributed research teams become more common. The resulting data is often quite disparate, stored in separate locations, and not contextually related. Collaborative Molecular Modeling Environment (C-ME) is an interactive community-based collaboration system that allows researchers to organize information, visualize data on a two-dimensional (2-D) or three-dimensional (3-D) basis, and share and manage that information with collaborators in real time. C-ME stores the information in industry-standard databases that are immediately accessible by appropriate permission within the computer network directory service or anonymously across the internet through the C-ME application or through a web browser. The system addresses two important aspects of collaboration: context and information management. C-ME allows a researcher to use a 3-D atomic structure model or a 2-D image as a contextual basis on which to attach and share annotations to specific atoms or molecules or to specific regions of a 2-D image. These annotations provide additional information about the atomic structure or image data that can then be evaluated, amended or added to by other project members. PMID:18286178

Kolatkar, Anand; Kennedy, Kevin; Halabuk, Dan; Kunken, Josh; Marrinucci, Dena; Bethel, Kelly; Guzman, Rodney; Huckaby, Tim; Kuhn, Peter

2008-01-01

419

[The use of operation research tools as a way of more effective utilization of the resources of health service institutions].  

PubMed

In all aspects of human life including medical we can find planning, organizing and controlling of activity. We aim at the proper goal supported by our resources and knowledge. Often we cannot make a decision freely because of surrounding circumstances: economic, organizational, political and others. Taking into account our goals some decisions are good, others are bad. The problem is how to make the best decision. Nowadays, statistical and mathematical tests are widely used in economy. One of the sciences concerned with in evaluating managers' decisions is operations research. Summing up, operations research deals with the problem of how to gain means and use resources in the most effective way taking into account surrounding limitations. As an example of a place where one of the operations research tools (linear programming) is used as a way of work optimalization is Medical Rehabilitation Unit in John Paul II Hospital in Zamo??. It is a method in which goal function (that is criterion of optimalization) and limitations are linear functions. The problem is to find a solution (regarding limitations) so that the goal function has the greatest value. The aim of the study is to present and encourage managers to use linear programming as a way of improving effectiveness and disclosing weak points of organization. PMID:15002281

Sapu?a, Rafa? A

2002-01-01

420

EXPLORATORY FISHING FOR MAINE HERRING  

E-print Network

of Maine waters were sounded and fished with a lampara seine, gill nets, midwater trawls, and otter trawls for Atlantic herring and to carry on research and developmental work on sardine fishing gear. Original efforts sought along the Maine coast and in the Gulf of Maine. Otter trawl surveys were made during the winters

421

fMRI Brain-Computer Interface: A Tool for Neuroscientific Research and Treatment  

PubMed Central

Brain-computer interfaces based on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI-BCI) allow volitional control of anatomically specific regions of the brain. Technological advancement in higher field MRI scanners, fast data acquisition sequences, preprocessing algorithms, and robust statistical analysis are anticipated to make fMRI-BCI more widely available and applicable. This noninvasive technique could potentially complement the traditional neuroscientific experimental methods by varying the activity of the neural substrates of a region of interest as an independent variable to study its effects on behavior. If the neurobiological basis of a disorder (e.g., chronic pain, motor diseases, psychopathy, social phobia, depression) is known in terms of abnormal activity in certain regions of the brain, fMRI-BCI can be targeted to modify activity in those regions with high specificity for treatment. In this paper, we review recent results of the application of fMRI-BCI to neuroscientific research and psychophysiological treatment. PMID:18274615

Sitaram, Ranganatha; Caria, Andrea; Veit, Ralf; Gaber, Tilman; Rota, Giuseppina; Kuebler, Andrea; Birbaumer, Niels

2007-01-01

422

Pharmacological tools for hydrogen sulphide research: a brief, introductory guide for beginners.  

PubMed

The purpose of this brief review is to help researchers in their initial approach to the H2 S field and to provide answers for the most frequently posed questions by newcomers to the topic related to H2 S donors and inhibitors of H2 S synthesis, as well as methods to measure H2 S production. Here the reader will find a practical guide that provides fast and to the point information on how to (i) deliver H2 S to cells; (ii) modulate its endogenous production; and (iii) measure its levels in fluids, cells and tissues in order to gain an understanding of its role in health and disease. PMID:24909294

Papapetropoulos, Andreas; Whiteman, Matthew; Cirino, Giuseppe

2014-06-01

423

INFRAFRONTIER--providing mutant mouse resources as research tools for the international scientific community.  

PubMed

The laboratory mouse is a key model organism to investigate mechanism and therapeutics of human disease. The number of targeted genetic mouse models of disease is growing rapidly due to high-throughput production strategies employed by the International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium (IMPC) and the development of new, more efficient genome engineering techniques such as CRISPR based systems. We have previously described the European Mouse Mutant Archive (EMMA) resource and how this international infrastructure provides archiving and distribution worldwide for mutant mouse strains. EMMA has since evolved into INFRAFRONTIER (http://www.infrafrontier.eu), the pan-European research infrastructure for the systemic phenotyping, archiving and distribution of mouse disease models. Here we describe new features including improved search for mouse strains, support for new embryonic stem cell resources, access to training materials via a comprehensive knowledgebase and the promotion of innovative analytical and diagnostic techniques. PMID:25414328

2015-01-01

424

RenderToolbox3: MATLAB tools that facilitate physically based stimulus rendering for vision research  

PubMed Central

RenderToolbox3 provides MATLAB utilities and prescribes a workflow that should be useful to researchers who want to employ graphics in the study of vision and perhaps in other endeavors as well. In particular, RenderToolbox3 facilitates rendering scene families in which various scene attributes and renderer behaviors are manipulated parametrically, enables spectral specification of object reflectance and illuminant spectra, enables the use of physically based material specifications, helps validate renderer output, and converts renderer output to physical units of radiance. This paper describes the design and functionality of the toolbox and discusses several examples that demonstrate its use. We have designed RenderToolbox3 to be portable across computer hardware and operating systems and to be free and open source (except for MATLAB itself). RenderToolbox3 is available at https://github.com/DavidBrainard/RenderToolbox3. PMID:24403392

Heasly, Benjamin S.; Cottaris, Nicolas P.; Lichtman, Daniel P.; Xiao, Bei; Brainard, David H.

2014-01-01

425

INFRAFRONTIERproviding mutant mouse resources as research tools for the international scientific community  

PubMed Central

The laboratory mouse is a key model organism to investigate mechanism and therapeutics of human disease. The number of targeted genetic mouse models of disease is growing rapidly due to high-throughput production strategies employed by the International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium (IMPC) and the development of new, more efficient genome engineering techniques such as CRISPR based systems. We have previously described the European Mouse Mutant Archive (EMMA) resource and how this international infrastructure provides archiving and distribution worldwide for mutant mouse strains. EMMA has since evolved into INFRAFRONTIER (http://www.infrafrontier.eu), the pan-European research infrastructure for the systemic phenotyping, archiving and distribution of mouse disease models. Here we describe new features including improved search for mouse strains, support for new embryonic stem cell resources, access to training materials via a comprehensive knowledgebase and the promotion of innovative analytical and diagnostic techniques. PMID:25414328

2015-01-01

426

EdGCM: Research Tools for Training the Climate Change Generation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate scientists employ complex computer simulations of the Earth's physical systems to prepare climate change forecasts, study the physical mechanisms of climate, and to test scientific hypotheses and computer parameterizations. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 4th Assessment Report (2007) demonstrates unequivocally that policy makers rely heavily on such Global Climate Models (GCMs) to assess the impacts of potential economic and emissions scenarios. However, true climate modeling capabilities are not disseminated to the majority of world governments or U.S. researchers - let alone to the educators who will be training the students who are about to be presented with a world full of climate change stakeholders. The goal is not entirely quixotic; in fact, by the mid-1990's prominent climate scientists were predicting with certainty that schools and politicians would "soon" be running GCMs on laptops [Randall, 1996]. For a variety of reasons this goal was never achieved (nor even really attempted). However, around the same time NASA and the National Science Foundation supported a small pilot project at Columbia University to show the potential of putting sophisticated computer climate models - not just "demos" or "toy models" - into the hands of non-specialists. The Educational Global Climate Modeling Project (EdGCM) gave users access to a real global climate model and provided them with the opportunity to experience the details of climate model setup, model operation, post-processing and scientific visualization. EdGCM was designed for use in both research and education - it is a full-blown research GCM, but the ultimate goal is to develop a capability to embed these crucial technologies across disciplines, networks, platforms, and even across academia and industry. With this capability in place we can begin training the skilled workforce that is necessary to deal with the multitude of climate impacts that will occur over the coming decades. To further increase the educational potential of climate models, the EdGCM project has also created "EZgcm". Through a joint venture of NASA, Columbia University and McGill University EZgcm moves the focus toward a greater use of Web 1.0 and Web 2.0-based technologies. It shifts the educational objectives towards a greater emphasis on teaching students how science is conducted and what role science plays in assessing climate change. That is, students learn about the steps of the scientific process as conveyed by climate modeling research: constructing a hypothesis, designing an experiment, running a computer model, using scientific visualization to support analysis, communicating the results of that analysis, and role playing the scientific peer review process. This is in stark contrast to what they learn from the political debate over climate change, which they often confuse with a scientific debate.

Chandler, M. A.; Sohl, L. E.; Zhou, J.; Sieber, R.

2011-12-01

427

The new Metals and Alloys Indexes -- Search Manual: A phase diagram research tool  

SciTech Connect

A new Metals and Alloys (M&A) Indexes to the Powder Diffraction File (PDF) has been developed. These indexes will be immediately useful to material scientists because the indexes share many features with references such as Hansen, Elliot, Shunk, Pearson, and Villars and Calvert. These indexes, as contained in the Search Manual, may be used independently or in conjunction with the Powder Diffraction File. The book contains four indexes: two contain data for all materials in the M&A PDF, and two contain supporting data. The permuted-sort Alphabetical Formula Index brings together all entries containing a given element in alphabetical formula order. It has n entries for an n-component material and a straight-line format for the element being sorted to simplify reading the index. Thus, chemical knowledge can make identifications easier. Further, within binary and ternary phase diagrams, phases are listed in compositional order to facilitate direct use in phase diagram research. The Pearson Symbol Code Index has entries arranged in order of the Pearson Symbol Code, hence one can find all the materials with a given structure, and if desired, compare their atomic contents and lattice parameters. The latter are in the standard Crystal Data setting to aid in structural comparisons. The Common Names Index cross-references common metallurgical names, such as austenite or cementite, to the appropriate PDF data. The Strukturbericht Symbol Index cross-references Strukturbericht Symbols and the equivalent Pearson Symbols and Structure Prototypes. Examples of the uses of this index in phase diagram research are given.

Mueller, M.H. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Wallace, P.L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Huang, T.C. [IBM Research Division, San Jose, CA (United States); Dann, J.N. [OSRAM Sylvania, Towanda, PA (United States)

1993-12-31

428

Development of a tool to manage patient health records in support of burn injury research.  

PubMed

Data captured in electronic medical records (EMRs) and paper charts have enormous potential for clinical research and to improve the quality of health care; however, accessing, organizing, and analyzing these data pose significant challenges. To address these challenges, this article reports development of a web-based application that provides for local clinical data capture as well as integration of patient data directly from an institutional EMR. A web-based system was created using an existing institutional application development framework. The application consists of a local clinical data repository, processes that integrate data from an EMR, and programs that enable end-user access, manual data capture, and analysis. Data are maintained in a relational database at the patient level in a time- oriented manner and by clinical data type. The application and data repository have been used to integrate and analyze a broad range of clinical data of 637 patients with burn injury. Research findings have shown that in addition to tracking clinical outcomes, laboratory data provide the ability to risk stratify patient populations to target high-risk individuals for case management and interventions. This effort validates the utility of web-based applications to collect local clinical data and integrate clinical data directly from an institutional EMR. This approach leverages institutionally collected clinical information and provides the flexibility to incorporate disparate data and accommodate system modifications as needed. Although the current efforts have focused on a cohort of patients with burn injury, the approach and system design are extendable to other patient types. PMID:21934627

Price, Ron; Hicks, Chindo; Zelisko, Susan; Halerz, Marcia; Conrad, Peggie; Halerz, John; Gamelli, Richard L

2011-01-01

429

Web 2.0 collaboration tool to support student research in hydrology - an opinion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A growing body of evidence suggests that it is unwise to make the a-priori assumption that university students are ready and eager to embrace modern online technologies employed to enhance the educational experience. We present our opinion on employing Wiki, a popular Web 2.0 technology, in small student groups, based on a case-study of using it customized to work as a personal learning environment (PLE1) (Fiedler and Vljataga, 2011) for supporting thesis research in hydrology. Since inception in 2006, the system presented has proven to facilitate knowledge construction and peer-communication within and across groups of students of different academic years and to stimulate learning. Being an open ended and egalitarian system, it was a minimal burden to maintain, as all students became content authors and shared responsibility. A number of unintended uses of the system were also observed, like using it as a backup medium and mobile storage. We attribute the success and sustainability of the proposed Web 2.0-based approach to the fact that the efforts were not limited to the application of the technology, but comprised the creation of a supporting environment with educational activities organized around it. We propose that Wiki-based PLEs are much more suitable than traditional learning management systems for supporting non-classroom education activities like thesis research in hydrology. 1Here we use the term PLE to refer to the conceptual framework to make the process of knowledge construction a personalized experience - rather than to refer to the technology (in this case Wiki) used to attempt implementing such a system.

Pathirana, A.; Gersonius, B.; Radhakrishnan, M.

2012-08-01

430

The Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP) Mission: Improving Science Application Tools and Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA depends on the science community to identify and prioritize leading-edge scientific questions and the observations required to answer them. The Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP) Mission has been identified as a priority for NASA's Science Mission Directorate through the most recent decadal survey. Following launch in 2014, SMAP will deliver global maps of soil moisture content and surface freeze/thaw state. Global measurements of these variables are critical for terrestrial hydrologic and carbon cycle applications. The SMAP observatory consists of two multipolarization L-band sensors, a radar and radiometer that share a deployable mesh reflector antenna. The combined observations from the two sensors will allow accurate estimation of soil moisture at spatial scales. The wide-swath (1000 km) measurements will allow global mapping of soil moisture and freeze/thaw state with a 2-3 day revisit frequency and 1-2 day revisit in boreal latitudes. The synergy of active and passive observations enables measurements of soil moisture and freeze/thaw state with unprecedented resolution, sensitivity, area coverage and revisit frequency. SMAP data are valuable for both scientific research and practical applications. SMAP has the potential to drive a diverse range of novel research in drought and flood guidance, agricultural productivity estimation, weather forecasting, climate prediction, human health risk analysis and defense systems. The accuracy, resolution, and global coverage of SMAP soil moisture and freeze/thaw measurements will provide new information for many science and applications disciplines. A SMAP Applications Team will explore ways to measure interaction and integration of SMAP data with the Emergency Management User community of Maryland in order to produce quantitative metrics related to long-term projects, milestone completion, and movement of SMAP products into routine operations for emergency response.

Escobar, V. M.; Brown, M. E.; Moran, S. M.

2011-12-01

431

A new DoD initiative: the Computational Research and Engineering Acquisition Tools and Environments (CREATE) program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In FY2008, the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) initiated the Computational Research and Engineering Acquisition Tools and Environments (CREATE) program, a 360M program with a two-year planning phase and a ten-year execution phase. CREATE will develop and deploy three computational engineering tool sets for DoD acquisition programs to use to design aircraft, ships and radio-frequency antennas. The planning and execution of CREATE are based on the 'lessons learned' from case studies of large-scale computational science and engineering projects. The case studies stress the importance of a stable, close-knit development team; a focus on customer needs and requirements; verification and validation; flexible and agile planning, management, and development processes; risk management; realistic schedules and resource levels; balanced short- and long-term goals and deliverables; and stable, long-term support by the program sponsor. Since it began in FY2008, the CREATE program has built a team and project structure, developed requirements and begun validating them, identified candidate products, established initial connections with the acquisition programs, begun detailed project planning and development, and generated the initial collaboration infrastructure necessary for success by its multi-institutional, multidisciplinary teams.

Arevalo, S.; Atwood, C.; Bell, P.; Blacker, T. D.; Dey, S.; Fisher, D.; Fisher, D. A.; Genalis, P.; Gorski, J.; Harris, A.; Hill, K.; Hurwitz, M.; Kendall, R. P.; Meakin, R. L.; Morton, S.; Moyer, E. T.; Post, D. E.; Strawn, R.; Veldhuizen, D. v.; Votta, L. G.; Wynn, S.; Zelinski, G.

2008-07-01

432

A multimedia comprehensive informatics system with decision support tools for a multi-site collaboration research of stroke rehabilitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stroke is a major cause of adult disability. The Interdisciplinary Comprehensive Arm Rehabilitation Evaluation (I-CARE) clinical trial aims to evaluate a therapy for arm rehabilitation after stroke. A primary outcome measure is correlative analysis between stroke lesion characteristics and standard measures of rehabilitation progress, from data collected at seven research facilities across the country. Sharing and communication of brain imaging and behavioral data is thus a challenge for collaboration. A solution is proposed as a web-based system with tools supporting imaging and informatics related data. In this system, users may upload anonymized brain images through a secure internet connection and the system will sort the imaging data for storage in a centralized database. Users may utilize an annotation tool to mark up images. In addition to imaging informatics, electronic data forms, for example, clinical data forms, are also integrated. Clinical information is processed and stored in the database to enable future data mining related development. Tele-consultation is facilitated through the development of a thin-client image viewing application. For convenience, the system supports access through desktop PC, laptops, and iPAD. Thus, clinicians may enter data directly into the system via iPAD while working with participants in the study. Overall, this comprehensive imaging informatics system enables users to collect, organize and analyze stroke cases efficiently.

Wang, Ximing; Documet, Jorge; Garrison, Kathleen A.; Winstein, Carolee J.; Liu, Brent

2012-02-01

433

Pyrene-functionalized oligonucleotides and locked nucleic acids (LNAs): Tools for fundamental research, diagnostics, and materials science  

PubMed Central

Pyrene-functionalized oligonucleotides (PFOs) are increasingly explored as tools in fundamental research, diagnostics and materials science. Their popularity is linked to the ability of pyrenes to function as polarity-sensitive and quenchable fluorophores, excimer-generating units, aromatic stacking moieties and nucleic acid duplex intercalators. These characteristics have motivated development of PFOs for detection of complementary DNA/RNA targets, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and generation of ?-arrays on nucleic acid scaffolds. This Review will highlight the physical properties and applications of PFOs that are likely to provide high degree of positional control of the chromophore in nucleic acid complexes. Particular emphasis will be placed on pyrene-functionalized Locked Nucleic Acids (LNAs) since these materials display distinctive properties such as large fluorescence quantum yields, efficient discrimination of SNPs, and recognition of mixed-sequence double stranded DNA. PMID:21487621

stergaard, Michael E.; Hrdlicka, Patrick J.

2013-01-01

434

Event detection using population-based health care databases in randomized clinical trials: a novel research tool in interventional cardiology  

PubMed Central

Aim To describe a new research tool, designed to reflect routine clinical practice and relying on population-based health care databases to detect clinical events in randomized clinical trials. Background Randomized clinical trials often focus on short-term efficacy and safety in a controlled environment. Trial follow-up may be linked with study-related investigations and differ from routine clinical practice. Because treatment and control in randomized trials differ from daily practice, trial results may have reduced general applicability and may be of limited value in clinical decision-making. Further, it is economically very costly to conduct randomized clinical trials. Methods and results Population-based health care databases collect data continuously and prospectively, and make it possible to monitor lifelong outcomes of cardiac interventions in large numbers of patients. This strengthens external validity by eliminating the effects of study-related monitoring or diagnostic tests. Further, follow-up data can be obtained at low expense. Importantly, data sources encompassing a complete population are likely to reflect clinical practice. Because population-based health care databases collect data for quality-control and administrative purposes unrelated to scientific investigations, certain biases, such as nonresponse bias, recall bias, and bias from losses to follow-up, can be avoided. Conclusion Event detection using population-based health care databases is a new research tool in interventional cardiology that may allow large, low-cost, randomized clinical trials to reflect daily clinical practice, covering a broad range of patients and end points with complete lifelong follow-up. PMID:24068874

Thuesen, Leif; Jensen, Lisette Okkels; Tilsted, Hans Henrik; Mng, Michael; Terkelsen, Christian; Thayssen, Per; Ravkilde, Jan; Christiansen, Evald Hj; Btker, Hans Erik; Madsen, Morten; Lassen, Jens F

2013-01-01

435

Tools for Integrating Data Access from the IRIS DMC into Research Workflows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Web service interfaces at the IRIS Data Management Center (DMC) provide access to a vast archive of seismological and related geophysical data. These interfaces are designed to easily incorporate data access into data processing workflows. Examples of data that may be accessed include: time series data, related metadata, and earthquake information. The DMC has developed command line scripts, MATLAB interfaces and a Java library to support a wide variety of data access needs. Users of these interfaces do not need to concern themselves with web service details, networking, or even (in most cases) data conversion. Fetch scripts allow access to the DMC archive and are a comfortable fit for command line users. These scripts are written in Perl and are well suited for automation and integration into existing workflows on most operating systems. For metdata and event information, the Fetch scripts even parse the returned data into simple text summaries. The IRIS Java Web Services Library (IRIS-WS Library) allows Java developers the ability to create programs that access the DMC archives seamlessly. By returning the data and information as native Java objects the Library insulates the developer from data formats, network programming and web service details. The MATLAB interfaces leverage this library to allow users access to the DMC archive directly from within MATLAB (r2009b or newer), returning data into variables for immediate use. Data users and research groups are developing other toolkits that use the DMC's web services. Notably, the ObsPy framework developed at LMU Munich is a Python Toolbox that allows seamless access to data and information via the DMC services. Another example is the MATLAB-based GISMO and Waveform Suite developments that can now access data via web services. In summary, there now exist a host of ways that researchers can bring IRIS DMC data directly into their workflows. MATLAB users can use irisFetch.m, command line users can use the various Fetch scripts, Java users can use the IRIS-WS library, and Python users may request data through ObsPy. To learn more about any of these clients see http://www.iris.edu/ws/wsclients/.

Reyes, C. G.; Suleiman, Y. Y.; Trabant, C.; Karstens, R.; Weertman, B. R.

2012-12-01

436

Ivermectin to reduce malaria transmission: a research agenda for a promising new tool for elimination  

PubMed Central

Background The heterogeneity of malaria transmission makes widespread elimination a difficult goal to achieve. Most of the current vector control measures insufficiently target outdoor transmission. Also, insecticide resistance threatens to diminish the efficacy of the most prevalent measures, indoor residual spray and insecticide treated nets. Innovative approaches are needed. The use of endectocides, such as ivermectin, could be an important new addition to the toolbox of anti-malarial measures. Ivermectin effectively targets outdoor transmission, has a novel mechanism of action that could circumvent resistance and might be distributed over the channels already in place for the control of onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis. Methods The previous works involving ivermectin and Anopheles vectors are reviewed and summarized. A review of ivermectins safety profile is also provided. Finally three definitive clinical trials are described in detail and proposed as the evidence needed for implementation. Several smaller and specific supportive studies are also proposed. Conclusions The use of ivermectin solves many challenges identified for future vector control strategies. It is an effective and safe endectocide that was approved for human use more than 25 years ago. Recent studies suggest it might become an effective and complementary strategy in malaria elimination and eradication efforts; however, intensive research will be needed to make this a reality. PMID:23647969

2013-01-01

437

Barley whole exome capture: a tool for genomic research in the genus Hordeum and beyond  

PubMed Central

Advanced resources for genome-assisted research in barley (Hordeum vulgare) including a whole-genome shotgun assembly and an integrated physical map have recently become available. These have made possible studies that aim to assess genetic diversity or to isolate single genes by whole-genome resequencing and in silico variant detection. However such an approach remains expensive given the 5Gb size of the barley genome. Targeted sequencing of the mRNA-coding exome reduces barley genomic complexity more than 50-fold, thus dramatically reducing this heavy sequencing and analysis load. We have developed and employed an in-solution hybridization-based sequence capture platform to selectively enrich for a 61.6 megabase coding sequence target that includes predicted genes from the genome assembly of the cultivar Morex as well as publicly available full-length cDNAs and de novo assembled RNA-Seq consensus sequence contigs. The platform provides a highly specific capture with substantial and reproducible enrichment of targeted exons, both for cultivated barley and related species. We show that this exome capture platform provides a clear path towards a broader and deeper understanding of the natural variation residing in the mRNA-coding part of the barley genome and will thus constitute a valuable resource for applications such as mapping-by-sequencing and genetic diversity analyzes. PMID:23889683

Mascher, Martin; Richmond, Todd A; Gerhardt, Daniel J; Himmelbach, Axel; Clissold, Leah; Sampath, Dharanya; Ayling, Sarah; Steuernagel, Burkhard; Pfeifer, Matthias; D'Ascenzo, Mark; Akhunov, Eduard D; Hedley, Pete E; Gonzales, Ana M; Morrell, Peter L; Kilian, Benjamin; Blattner, Frank R; Scholz, Uwe; Mayer, Klaus FX; Flavell, Andrew J; Muehlbauer, Gary J; Waugh, Robbie; Jeddeloh, Jeffrey A; Stein, Nils

2013-01-01

438

Cognitive avionics and watching spaceflight crews think: generation-after-next research tools in functional neuroimaging.  

PubMed

Confinement and isolation have always confounded the extraordinary endeavor of human spaceflight. Psychosocial health is at the forefront in considering risk factors that imperil missions of 1- to 2-yr duration. Current crewmember selection metrics restricted to behavioral observation by definition observe rather than prevent performance degradation and are thus inadequate when preflight training cannot simulate an entire journey. Nascent techniques to monitor functional and task-related cortical neural activity show promise and can be extended to include whole-brain monitoring. Watching spaceflight crews think can reveal the efficiency of training procedures. Moreover, observing subcortical emotion centers may provide early detection of developing neuropsychiatric disorders. The non-invasive functional neuroimaging modalities electroencephalography (EEG), magnetoencephalography (MEG), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), and highlights of how they may be engineered for spacecraft are detailed. Preflight and in-flight applications to crewmember behavioral health from current generation, next generation, and generation-after-next neuroscience research studies are also described. The emphasis is on preventing the onset of neuropsychiatric dysfunctions, thus reducing the risk of mission failure due to human error. PMID:15943214

Genik, Richard J; Green, Christopher C; Graydon, Francis X; Armstrong, Robert E

2005-06-01

439

Human Engineered Heart Tissue as a Versatile Tool in Basic Research and Preclinical Toxicology  

PubMed Central

Human embryonic stem cell (hESC) progenies hold great promise as surrogates for human primary cells, particularly if the latter are not available as in the case of cardiomyocytes. However, high content experimental platforms are lacking that allow the function of hESC-derived cardiomyocytes to be studied under relatively physiological and standardized conditions. Here we describe a simple and robust protocol for the generation of fibrin-based human engineered heart tissue (hEHT) in a 24-well format using an unselected population of differentiated human embryonic stem cells containing 3040% ?-actinin-positive cardiac myocytes. Human EHTs started to show coherent contractions 510 days after casting, reached regular (mean 0.5 Hz) and strong (mean 100 N) contractions for up to 8 weeks. They displayed a dense network of longitudinally oriented, interconnected and cross-striated cardiomyocytes. Spontaneous hEHT contractions were analyzed by automated video-optical recording and showed chronotropic responses to calcium and the ?-adrenergic agonist isoprenaline. The proarrhythmic compounds E-4031, quinidine, procainamide, cisapride, and sertindole exerted robust, concentration-dependent and reversible decreases in relaxation velocity and irregular beating at concentrations that recapitulate findings in hERG channel assays. In conclusion this study establishes hEHT as a simple in vitro model for heart research. PMID:22028871

Schaaf, Sebastian; Shibamiya, Aya; Mewe, Marco; Eder, Alexandra; Sthr, Andrea; Hirt, Marc N.; Rau, Thomas; Zimmermann, Wolfram-Hubertus; Conradi, Lenard

2011-01-01

440

ERTS-A data as a teaching and research tool in the Department of Geology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS-1 prints have been used extensively in a geology of Alaska class to give a basic framework of the geology of the state. In addition, they have been intermittantly used in such diverse classes as: (1) Economic Geology (e.g. the Sn-bearing granites of the Seward Peninsula are particularly noticeable due to their wide contact metamorphic aureoles.) (2) A canned geology of Alaska lecture which has been given to two different introductory geology courses. (3) Structural Geology (e.g. the Fairweather and Denali faults are striking obvious). It was found most convenient for larger classes to prepare 35mm slides of the ERTS-1 prints that are used in conjunction with slides of the topographic and geologic maps at about the same scale. Thus the emphasis has been in integration of the ERTS-1 material into existing courses. As such, the ERTS-1 data has provided a unique and striking viewpoint that never fails to initiate favorable comment. In addition, prints have been examined by numerous researchers to develop a regional, integrated overview of such varied topics as regional geology to a background for local geologic mapping to studies of ore deposits and to the definition of a formation to be studied in detail at its type locality.

Grybeck, D. (principal investigator)

1973-01-01

441

Central nervous system remyelination in culture--a tool for multiple sclerosis research.  

PubMed

Multiple sclerosis is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system which only affects humans. This makes it difficult to study at a molecular level, and to develop and test potential therapies that may change the course of the disease. The development of therapies to promote remyelination in multiple sclerosis is a key research aim, to both aid restoration of electrical impulse conduction in nerves and provide neuroprotection, reducing disability in patients. Testing a remyelination therapy in the many and various in vivo models of multiple sclerosis is expensive in terms of time, animals and money. We report the development and characterisation of an ex vivo slice culture system using mouse brain and spinal cord, allowing investigation of myelination, demyelination and remyelination, which can be used as an initial reliable screen to select the most promising remyelination strategies. We have automated the quantification of myelin to provide a high content and moderately-high-throughput screen for testing therapies for remyelination both by endogenous and exogenous means and as an invaluable way of studying the biology of remyelination. PMID:21515259

Zhang, Hui; Jarjour, Andrew A; Boyd, Amanda; Williams, Anna

2011-07-01

442

Polymyxin B-horseradish peroxidase conjugates as tools in endotoxin research.  

PubMed

The peptide antibiotic Polymyxin B (PMB) binds to bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS). We prepared covalent conjugates of PMB and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) by periodation of HRP-linked oligosaccharides followed by direct condensation with PMB. In addition we prepared monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) to PMB. The PMB-HRP conjugates and anti-PMB Mabs were used to study in ELISA the binding of PMB to LPS from Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In addition, PMB-HRP was used to quantify lipid A in ELISA, and to stain gram-negative bacteria histochemically. For the study of PMB-LPS interaction, PMB-HRP proved to be superior to the anti-PMB Mabs. PMB-HRP conjugates are useful general probes to detect or measure lipid A and LPS of various species using very simple methods and to stain bacteria, and they may obviate the need for many specific antisera. Thus, PMB-HRP conjugates are useful probes for endotoxin research. PMID:1481986

Appelmelk, B J; Su, D; Verweij-van Vught, A M; Thijs, B G; MacLaren, D M

1992-12-01

443

Evaluating Amazon's Mechanical Turk as a tool for experimental behavioral research.  

PubMed

Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT) is an online crowdsourcing service where anonymous online workers complete web-based tasks for small sums of money. The service has attracted attention from experimental psychologists interested in gathering human subject data more efficiently. However, relative to traditional laboratory studies, many aspects of the testing environment are not under the experimenter's control. In this paper, we attempt to empirically evaluate the fidelity of the AMT system for use in cognitive behavioral experiments. These types of experiment differ from simple surveys in that they require multiple trials, sustained attention from participants, comprehension of complex instructions, and millisecond accuracy for response recording and stimulus presentation. We replicate a diverse body of tasks from experimental psychology including the Stroop, Switching, Flanker, Simon, Posner Cuing, attentional blink, subliminal priming, and category learning tasks using participants recruited using AMT. While most of replications were qualitatively successful and validated the approach of collecting data anonymously online using a web-browser, others revealed disparity between laboratory results and online results. A number of important lessons were encountered in the process of conducting these replications that should be of value to other researchers. PMID:23516406

Crump, Matthew J C; McDonnell, John V; Gureckis, Todd M

2013-01-01

444

Evaluating Amazon's Mechanical Turk as a Tool for Experimental Behavioral Research  

PubMed Central

Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT) is an online crowdsourcing service where anonymous online workers complete web-based tasks for small sums of money. The service has attracted attention from experimental psychologists interested in gathering human subject data more efficiently. However, relative to traditional laboratory studies, many aspects of the testing environment are not under the experimenter's control. In this paper, we attempt to empirically evaluate the fidelity of the AMT system for use in cognitive behavioral experiments. These types of experiment differ from simple surveys in that they require multiple trials, sustained attention from participants, comprehension of complex instructions, and millisecond accuracy for response recording and stimulus presentation. We replicate a diverse body of tasks from experimental psychology including the Stroop, Switching, Flanker, Simon, Posner Cuing, attentional blink, subliminal priming, and category learning tasks using participants recruited using AMT. While most of replications were qualitatively successful and validated the approach of collecting data anonymously online using a web-browser, others revealed disparity between laboratory results and online results. A number of important lessons were encountered in the process of conducting these replications that should be of value to other researchers. PMID:23516406

Crump, Matthew J. C.; McDonnell, John V.; Gureckis, Todd M.

2013-01-01

445

Invasive Species Science Branch: research and management tools for controlling invasive species  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Invasive, nonnative species of plants, animals, and disease organisms adversely affect the ecosystems they enter. Like biological wildfires, they can quickly spread and affect nearly all terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Invasive species have become one of the greatest environmental challenges of the 21st century in economic, environmental, and human health costs, with an estimated effect in the United States of more than $120 billion per year. Managers of the Department of the Interior and other public and private lands often rank invasive species as their top resource management problem. The Invasive Species Science Branch of the Fort Collins Science Center provides research and technical assistance relating to management concerns for invasive species, including understanding how these species are introduced, identifying areas vulnerable to invasion, forecasting invasions, and developing control methods. To disseminate this information, branch scientists are developing platforms to share invasive species information with DOI cooperators, other agency partners, and the public. From these and other data, branch scientists are constructing models to understand and predict invasive species distributions for more effective management. The branch also has extensive herpetological and population biology expertise that is applied to harmful reptile invaders such as the Brown Treesnake on Guam and Burmese Python in Florida.

Reed, Robert N.; Walters, Katie D.

2015-01-01

446

Automatic, Satellite-Linked "Webcams" as a Tool in Ice-Shelf and Iceberg Research.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Important dynamic events governing the behavior of ice shelves and icebergs are episodic in time and small in scale, making them difficult to observe. Traditional satellite imagery is acquired on a rigid schedule with coarse spatial resolution and this means that collisions between icebergs or the processes which create ice "mlange" that fills detachment rifts leading to ice-shelf calving, to give examples, cannot be readily observed. To overcome the temporal and spatial gaps in traditional remote sensing, we have deployed cameras at locations in Antarctica where research is conducted on the calving and subsequent evolution of icebergs. One camera is located at the edge of iceberg C16 in the Ross Sea, and is positioned to capture visual imagery of collisions between C16 and neighboring B15A. The second camera is located within the anticipated detachment rift of a "nascent" iceberg on the Ross Ice Shelf. The second camera is positioned to capture visual imagery of the rift's propagation and the in-fill of ice mlange, which constrains the mechanical influence of such rifts on the surrounding ice shelf. Both cameras are designed for connection to the internet (hence are referred to as "webcams") and possess variable image qualities and image-control technology. The cameras are also connected to data servers via the Iridium satellite telephone network and produce a daily image that is transmitted to the internet through the Iridium connection. Results of the initial trial deployments will be presented as a means of assessing both the techniques involved and the value of the scientific information acquired by these webcams. In the case of the iceberg webcam, several collisions between B15A and C16 were monitored over the period between January, 2003 and December, 2004. The time-lapse imagery obtained through this period showed giant "push mounds" of damaged firn on the edge and surface of the icebergs within the zones of contact as a consequence of the collisions. The push mounds were subsequently unstable, and calved as small scale ice debris soon after the collision, thereby returning the iceberg edge to a clean, vertical cliff-like appearance. A correlation between the iceberg collision record available from the webcam and data from a seismometer located on C16 is anticipated once the seismometer data is recovered. The webcam associated with the detachment rift of the nascent iceberg on the Ross Ice Shelf is planned to be deployed in early November, 2004. If results are available from this deployment, they too will be discussed.

Ross, R.; Okal, M. H.; Thom, J. E.; Macayeal, D. R.

2004-12-01

447

RESEARCH PROJECTS A Basic research  

E-print Network

Pentti Lautala, Tomas Björkqvist Funding: The Finnish Pulp and Paper Research Institute, Tekes Duration completely the pulp properties and process variables. The last main development step in wood grinding of wood fibers and fines are allowed to happen. The tool for this progress is purely grinding material

448

Tissue-Level Modeling of Xenobiotic Metabolism in Liver: An Emerging Tool for Enabling Clinical Translational Research  

PubMed Central

This review summarizes some of the recent developments and identifies critical challenges associated with in vitro and in silico representations of the liver and assesses the translational potential of these models in the quest of rationalizing the process of evaluating drug efficacy and toxicity. It discusses a wide range of research efforts that have produced, during recent years, quantitative descriptions and conceptual as well as computational models of hepatic processes such as biotransport and biotransformation, intra- and intercellular signal transduction, detoxification, etc. The abovementioned research efforts cover multiple scales of biological organization, from moleculemolecule interactions to reaction network and cellular and histological dynamics, and have resulted in a rapidly evolving knowledge base for a systems biology of the liver. Virtual organ/organism formulations represent integrative implementations of particular elements of this knowledge base, usually oriented toward the study of specific biological endpoints, and provide frameworks for translating the systems biology concepts into computational tools for quantitative prediction of responses to stressors and hypothesis generation for experimental design. PMID:20443896

Ierapetritou, Marianthi G.; Georgopoulos, Panos G.; Roth, Charles M.; Androulakis, Ioannis P.

2011-01-01

449

Increasing User Involvement in Health Care and Health Research Simultaneously: A Proto-Protocol for "Person-as-Researcher" and Online Decision Support Tools  

PubMed Central

Background User involvement is appearing increasingly on policy agendas in many countries, with a variety of proposals for facilitating it. The belief is that it will produce better health for individuals and community, as well as demonstrate greater respect for the basic principles of autonomy and democracy. Objective Our Web-based project aims to increase involvement in health care and health research and is presented in the form of an umbrella protocol for a set of project-specific protocols. We conceptualize the person as a researcher engaged in a continual, living, informal n-of-1-type study of the effects of different actions and interventions on their health, including those implying contact with health care services. We see their research as primarily carried out in order to make better decisions for themselves, but they can offer to contribute the results to the wider population. We see the efforts of the "person-as-researcher" as contributing to the total amount of research undertaken in the community, with research not being confined to that undertaken by professional researchers and institutions. This view is fundamentally compatible with both the emancipatory and conventional approaches to increased user involvement, though somewhat more aligned with the former. Methods Our online decision support tools, delivered directly to the person in the community and openly accessible, are to be seen as research resources. They will take the form of interactive decision aids for a variety of specific health conditions, as well as a generic one that supports all health and health care decisions through its focus on key aspects of decision quality. We present a high-level protocol for the condition-specific studies that will implement our approach, organized within the Populations, Interventions, Comparators, Outcomes, Timings, and Settings (PICOTS) framework. Results Our underlying hypothesis concerns the person-as-researcher who is equipped with a prescriptive, transparent, expected value-based opinionan opinion that combines their criterion importance weights with the Best Estimates Available Now for how well each of the available options performs on each of those outcomes. The hypothesis is that this person-as-researcher is more likely to be able to position themselves as an active participant in a clinical encounter, if they wish, than someone who has engaged with a descriptive decision aid that attempts to work with their existing cognitive processes and stresses the importance of information. The precise way this is hypothesis tested will be setting-specific and condition-specific and will be spelled out in the individual project protocols. Conclusions Decision resources that provide fast access to the results of slower thinking can provide the stimulus that many individuals need to take a more involved role in their own health. Our project, advanced simply as one approach to increased user involvement, is designed to make progress in the short term with minimal resources and to do so at the point of decision need, when motivation is highest. Some basic distinctions, such as those between science and non-science, research and practice, community and individual, and lay and professional become somewhat blurred and may need to be rethought in light of this approach. PMID:25424354

Kaltoft, Mette Kjer; Nielsen, Jesper Bo; Salkeld, Glenn

2014-01-01

450

Computational challenges and human factors influencing the design and use of clinical research participant eligibility pre-screening tools  

PubMed Central

Background Clinical trials are the primary mechanism for advancing clinical care and evidenced-based practice, yet challenges with the recruitment of participants for such trials are widely recognized as a major barrier to these types of studies. Data warehouses (DW) store large amounts of heterogenous clinical data that can be used to enhance recruitment practices, but multiple challenges exist when using a data warehouse for such activities, due to the manner of collection, management, integration, analysis, and dissemination of the data. A critical step in leveraging the DW for recruitment purposes is being able to match trial eligibility criteria to discrete and semi-structured data types in the data warehouse, though trial eligibility criteria tend to be written without concern for their computability. We present the multi-modal evaluation of a web-based tool that can be used for pre-screening patients for clinical trial eligibility and assess the ability of this tool to be practically used for clinical research pre-screening and recruitment. Methods The study used a validation study, usability testing, and a heuristic evaluation to evaluate and characterize the operational characteristics of the software as well as human factors affecting its use. Results Clinical trials from the Division of Cardiology and the Department of Family Medicine were used for this multi-modal evaluation, which included a validation study, usability study, and a heuristic evaluation. From the results of the validation study, the software demonstrated a positive predictive value (PPV) of 54.12% and 0.7%, respectively, and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 73.3% and 87.5%, respectively, for two types of clinical trials. Heuristic principles concerning error prevention and documentation were characterized as the major usability issues during the heuristic evaluation. Conclusions This software is intended to provide an initial list of eligible patients to a clinical study coordinators, which provides a starting point for further eligibility screening by the coordinator. Because this software has a high rule in ability, meaning that it is able to remove patients who are not eligible for the study, the use of an automated tool built to leverage an existing enterprise DW can be beneficial to determining eligibility and facilitating clinical trial recruitment through pre-screening. While the results of this study are promising, further refinement and study of this and related approaches to automated eligibility screening, including comparison to other approaches and stakeholder perceptions, are needed and future studies are planned to address these needs. PMID:22646313

2012-01-01