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1

Gulf of Maine Research Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Maine's oceanic shoreline has long been one of the richest in North America, both in terms of natural resources and its importance to the local economy. One important organization that is committed to this valued ecosystem is the Gulf of Maine Research Institute. Based in Portland, the Institute is designed to educate Maine residents and visitors about Maine's fresh and saltwater resources and to "facilitate and conduct collaborative research.ïÿý Their website contains some of these resources, and first-time visitors should start their journey here at the "Science" section. As might be expected, visitors will be able to learn about some of the Institute's ongoing survey work, including their comprehensive survey of the region's shrimp stocks, the impacts of mobile fishing gear, and cod-tagging. Every good institute worth its salt has a strong education component, and this institute has got the web-browsing public's best interests in mind. In their "Education" section, they have placed a number of interactive and multimedia features, including such areas as "All About Lobsters" and "Undersea Landscapes".

2

Aircraft as Research Tools  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aeronautical research usually begins with computers, wind tunnels, and flight simulators, but eventually the theories must fly. This is when flight research begins, and aircraft are the primary tools of the trade. Flight research involves doing precision maneuvers in either a specially built experimental aircraft or an existing production airplane that has been modified. For example, the AD-1 was a unique airplane made only for flight research, while the NASA F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) was a standard fighter aircraft that was transformed into a one-of-a-kind aircraft as it was fitted with new propulsion systems, flight controls, and scientific equipment. All research aircraft are able to perform scientific experiments because of the onboard instruments that record data about its systems, aerodynamics, and the outside environment. Since the 1970's, NASA flight research has become more comprehensive, with flights involving everything form Space Shuttles to ultralights. NASA now flies not only the fastest airplanes, but some of the slowest. Flying machines continue to evolve with new wing designs, propulsion systems, and flight controls. As always, a look at today's experimental research aircraft is a preview of the future.

1999-01-01

3

Protecting Endangered Species: Do the Main Legislative Tools Work?  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is critical to assess the effectiveness of the tools used to protect endangered species. The main tools enabled under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA) to promote species recovery are funding, recovery plan development and critical habitat designation. Earlier studies sometimes found that statistically significant effects of these tools could be detected, but they have not answered the question

Katherine E. Gibbs; David J. Currie

2012-01-01

4

Protecting endangered species: do the main legislative tools work?  

PubMed

It is critical to assess the effectiveness of the tools used to protect endangered species. The main tools enabled under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA) to promote species recovery are funding, recovery plan development and critical habitat designation. Earlier studies sometimes found that statistically significant effects of these tools could be detected, but they have not answered the question of whether the effects were large enough to be biologically meaningful. Here, we ask: how much does the recovery status of ESA-listed species improve with the application of these tools? We used species' staus reports to Congress from 1988 to 2006 to quantify two measures of recovery for 1179 species. We related these to the amount of federal funding, years with a recovery plan, years with critical habitat designation, the amount of peer-reviewed scientific information, and time listed. We found that change in recovery status of listed species was, at best, only very weakly related to any of these tools. Recovery was positively related to the number of years listed, years with a recovery plan, and funding, however, these tools combined explain <13% of the variation in recovery status among species. Earlier studies that reported significant effects of these tools did not focus on effect sizes; however, they are in fact similarly small. One must conclude either that these tools are not very effective in promoting species' recovery, or (as we suspect) that species recovery data are so poor that it is impossible to tell whether the tools are effective or not. It is critically important to assess the effectiveness of tools used to promote species recovery; it is therefore also critically important to obtain population status data that are adequate to that task. PMID:22567111

Gibbs, Katherine E; Currie, David J

2012-01-01

5

Protecting Endangered Species: Do the Main Legislative Tools Work?  

PubMed Central

It is critical to assess the effectiveness of the tools used to protect endangered species. The main tools enabled under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA) to promote species recovery are funding, recovery plan development and critical habitat designation. Earlier studies sometimes found that statistically significant effects of these tools could be detected, but they have not answered the question of whether the effects were large enough to be biologically meaningful. Here, we ask: how much does the recovery status of ESA-listed species improve with the application of these tools? We used species' staus reports to Congress from 1988 to 2006 to quantify two measures of recovery for 1179 species. We related these to the amount of federal funding, years with a recovery plan, years with critical habitat designation, the amount of peer-reviewed scientific information, and time listed. We found that change in recovery status of listed species was, at best, only very weakly related to any of these tools. Recovery was positively related to the number of years listed, years with a recovery plan, and funding, however, these tools combined explain <13% of the variation in recovery status among species. Earlier studies that reported significant effects of these tools did not focus on effect sizes; however, they are in fact similarly small. One must conclude either that these tools are not very effective in promoting species' recovery, or (as we suspect) that species recovery data are so poor that it is impossible to tell whether the tools are effective or not. It is critically important to assess the effectiveness of tools used to promote species recovery; it is therefore also critically important to obtain population status data that are adequate to that task.

Gibbs, Katherine E.; Currie, David J.

2012-01-01

6

HEI Tools for Researchers  

Cancer.gov

This page provides information about the basic steps for calculating HEI component and total scores and further details for calculating scores at different levels of analysis (i.e., national food supply, food processing, community food environment, and individual food intake). Refer to the Research Uses page for more details about these levels and the types of studies that can be conducted at each.

7

Research Study: Space Shuttle Main Engine Plume Flowfield Model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The initial research effort was an in-depth analysis of the shuttle main engine plumes in an effort to improve the flowfield model and to enhance shuttle base heating equipment predictions during ascent. A prediction methodology code was developed incorporating the improved plume model into a predictive tool which could consider different trajectoreis and engine perfromance variables. Various plume flow model improvement studies were ongoing at the time of the 51-L accident. Since that time, base heating and plume methodology improvements have continued as part of the overall emphasis on Shuttle design assurance before resuming flight schedule.

Bender, Robert L.

1988-01-01

8

A Tool for Medical Research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

California Measurements, Inc.'s PC-2 Aerosol Particle Analyzer, developed by William Chiang, a former Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) engineer, was used in a study to measure the size of particles in the medical environment. Chiang has a NASA license for the JPL crystal oscillator technology and originally built the instrument for atmospheric research. In the operating room, it enabled researchers from the University of California to obtain multiple sets of data repeatedly and accurately. The study concluded that significant amounts of aerosols are generated during surgery when power tools are employed, and most of these are in the respirable size. Almost all contain blood and are small enough to pass through surgical masks. Research on the presence of blood aerosols during oral surgery had similar results. Further studies are planned to determine the possibility of HIV transmission during surgery, and the PC-2H will be used to quantify blood aerosols.

1992-01-01

9

Tool for Ranking Research Options  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tool for Research Enhancement Decision Support (TREDS) is a computer program developed to assist managers in ranking options for research aboard the International Space Station (ISS). It could likely also be adapted to perform similar decision-support functions in industrial and academic settings. TREDS provides a ranking of the options, based on a quantifiable assessment of all the relevant programmatic decision factors of benefit, cost, and risk. The computation of the benefit for each option is based on a figure of merit (FOM) for ISS research capacity that incorporates both quantitative and qualitative inputs. Qualitative inputs are gathered and partly quantified by use of the time-tested analytical hierarchical process and used to set weighting factors in the FOM corresponding to priorities determined by the cognizant decision maker(s). Then by use of algorithms developed specifically for this application, TREDS adjusts the projected benefit for each option on the basis of levels of technical implementation, cost, and schedule risk. Based partly on Excel spreadsheets, TREDS provides screens for entering cost, benefit, and risk information. Drop-down boxes are provided for entry of qualitative information. TREDS produces graphical output in multiple formats that can be tailored by users.

Ortiz, James N.; Scott, Kelly; Smith, Harold

2005-01-01

10

The Value of Open Source Software Tools in Qualitative Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an era of global networks, researchers using qualitative methods must consider the impact of any software they use on the sharing of data and findings. In this essay, I identify researchers' main areas of concern regarding the use of qualitative software packages for research. I then examine how open source software tools, wherein the publisher…

Greenberg, Gary

2011-01-01

11

Using Social Science Tools in Agroforestry Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recent innovations in agroforestry research indicate the need to elicit farmers' participation in technology adaptations. The paper is intended for non-social scientists who wish to use social science research tools in order to assess the role of multipur...

J. L. Marcucci

1990-01-01

12

Transcriptional tools for aging research.  

PubMed

The process of aging is controlled and influenced by genes and gene expression. Dissecting the roles individual genes play in aging requires molecular tools for manipulation of gene expression in a wide variety of experimental model systems. These tools include homologous recombination-based methods for the activation and repression of gene expression, gene activation by random insertion of strong promoters, the use of engineered dominant negative mutants, inhibition with antisense oligonucleotides, minor groove binding small molecules and via RNAi and the use of engineered transcription factors to either activate or repress endogenous gene expression. PMID:12618012

Case, Casey C

2003-01-01

13

Methylated polyamines as research tools.  

PubMed

Earlier unknown racemic ?-methylspermidine (?-MeSpd) and ?-methylspermidine (?-MeSpd) were -synthesized starting from crotononitrile or methacrylonitrile and putrescine. Lithium aluminum hydride reduction of the intermediate di-Boc-nitriles resulted in corresponding di-Boc-amines, which after deprotection gave target ?- and ?-MeSpd's. To prepare ?-MeSpd, the starting compound, 3-amino-1-butanol, was converted into N-Cbz-3-amino-1-butyl methanesulfonate, which alkylated putrescine to give (after deprotection of amino group) the required ?-MeSpd. Novel ?- and ?-MeSpd's in combination with earlier ?-MeSpd are useful tools for studying enzymology and cell biology of polyamines. PMID:21318892

Khomutov, Alex R; Weisell, Janne; Khomutov, Maxim A; Grigorenko, Nikolay A; Simonian, Alina R; Häkkinen, Merja R; Keinänen, Tuomo A; Hyvönen, Mervi T; Alhonen, Leena; Kochetkov, Sergey N; Vepsäläinen, Jouko

2011-01-01

14

Observatory Bibliographies as Research Tools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditionally, observatory bibliographies were maintained to provide insight in how successful a observatory is as measured by its prominence in the (refereed) literature. When we set up the bibliographic database for the Chandra X-ray Observatory (http://cxc.harvard.edu/cgi-gen/cda/bibliography) as part of the Chandra Data Archive ((http://cxc.harvard.edu/cda/), very early in the mission, our objective was to make it primarily a useful tool for our user community. To achieve this we are: (1) casting a very wide net in collecting Chandra-related publications; (2) including for each literature reference in the database a wealth of metadata that is useful for the users; and (3) providing specific links between the articles and the datasets in the archive that they use. As a result our users are able to browse the literature and the data archive simultaneously. As an added bonus, the rich metadata content and data links have also allowed us to assemble more meaningful statistics about the scientific efficacy of the observatory. In all this we collaborate closely with the Astrophysics Data System (ADS). Among the plans for future enhancement are the inclusion of press releases and the Chandra image gallery, linking with ADS semantic searching tools, full-text metadata mining, and linking with other observatories' bibliographies. This work is supported by NASA contract NAS8-03060 (CXC) and depends critically on the services provided by the ADS.

Rots, Arnold H.; Winkelman, S. L.

2013-01-01

15

Conference Support Video: A Tool for Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The conference on Video: 'A Tool for Research' was held to summarize research methodology for use of video recording and analysis to improve patient safety and outcomes and for human factors and ergonomic research. The Video attempts to examine the use of...

C. F. Mackenzie Y. Xiao F. J. Seagull

2003-01-01

16

Parallel software tools at Langley Research Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document gives a brief overview of parallel software tools available on the Intel iPSC/860 parallel computer at Langley Research Center. It is intended to provide a source of information that is somewhat more concise than vendor-supplied material on the purpose and use of various tools. Each of the chapters on tools is organized in a similar manner covering an overview of the functionality, access information, how to effectively use the tool, observations about the tool and how it compares to similar software, known problems or shortfalls with the software, and reference documentation. It is primarily intended for users of the iPSC/860 at Langley Research Center and is appropriate for both the experienced and novice user.

Moitra, Stuti; Tennille, Geoffrey M.; Lakeotes, Christopher D.; Randall, Donald P.; Arthur, Jarvis J.; Hammond, Dana P.; Mall, Gerald H.

1993-01-01

17

Streamlining research by using existing tools.  

PubMed

Over the past two decades, the health research enterprise has matured rapidly, and many recognize an urgent need to translate pertinent research results into practice, to help improve the quality, accessibility, and affordability of US healthcare. Streamlining research operations would speed translation, particularly for multisite collaborations. However, the culture of research discourages reusing or adapting existing resources or study materials. Too often, researchers start studies and multisite collaborations from scratch-reinventing the wheel. Our team developed a compendium of resources to address inefficiencies and researchers' unmet needs and compiled them in a research toolkit website (http://www.ResearchToolkit.org). Through our work, we identified philosophical and operational issues related to disseminating the tool kit to the research community. We explore these issues here, with implications for the nation's investment in biomedical research. PMID:21884513

Greene, Sarah M; Baldwin, Laura-Mae; Dolor, Rowena J; Thompson, Ella; Neale, Anne Victoria

2011-08-01

18

Evaluating the Performance of Calculus Classes Using Operational Research Tools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares the efficiency of calculus classes and evaluates two kinds of classes: traditional and others that use computational methods in teaching. Applies quantitative evaluation methods using two operational research tools, multicriteria decision aid methods (mainly using the MACBETH approach) and data development analysis. (Author/YDS)

Soares de Mello, Joao Carlos C. B.; Lins, Marcos P. E.; Soares de Mello, Maria Helena C.; Gomes, Eliane G.

2002-01-01

19

Augmenting Computational Research Tools in Observational Cosmology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present progress toward creating functional programs for data analysis to be used by cosmology researchers. Using Easy Java Simulations (EJS) to rewrite older code used in cosmology research, such as studying light intensity plots of supernovae (J. Moldenhauer & L. Engelhardt (2011)), should prove most beneficial since many computational research tools pertinent to the field are written in FORTRAN, which while useful in terms of computational speed can be limiting in terms of functionality and simplicity to the user.

Stone, Keenan; Moldenhauer, Jacob; Engelhardt, Larry

2012-03-01

20

Subject Specific Databases: A Powerful Research Tool  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Subject specific databases, or vortals (vertical portals), are databases that provide highly detailed research information on a particular topic. They are the smallest, most focused search tools on the Internet and, in recent years, they've been on the rise. Currently, more of the so-called "mainstream" search engines, subject directories, and…

Young, Terrence E., Jr.

2004-01-01

21

Tools for Finding Indexed Accounting Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The American Accounting Association (AAA) lists the print resources and electronic databases where AAA journals are indexed and abstracted at this Tools for Finding Indexed Accounting Research page. The detailed list includes indexing and abstracting devices for a number of journals -- Accounting Horizons, The Accounting Review, Auditing: A Journal of Practice & Theory, Behavioral Research in Accounting, Issues in Accounting Education, Journal of the American Taxation Association, Journal of Information Systems, and the Journal of Management Accounting Research -- with date coverage and full-text information included for each.

22

Microfluidics as a tool for C. elegans research.  

PubMed

Microfluidics has emerged as a set of powerful tools that have greatly advanced some areas of biological research, including research using C. elegans. The use of microfluidics has enabled many experiments that are otherwise impossible with conventional methods. Today there are many examples that demonstrate the main advantages of using microfluidics for C. elegans research, achieving precise environmental conditions and facilitating worm handling. Examples range from behavioral analysis under precise chemical or odor stimulation, locomotion studies in well-defined structural surroundings, and even long-term culture on chip. Moreover, microfluidics has enabled coupling worm handling and imaging thus facilitating genetic screens, optogenetic studies, and laser ablation experiments. In this article, we review some of the applications of microfluidics for C. elegans research and provide guides for the design, fabrication, and use of microfluidic devices for C. elegans research studies. PMID:24065448

San-Miguel, Adriana; Lu, Hang

2013-01-01

23

Tools and collaborative environments for bioinformatics research.  

PubMed

Advanced research requires intensive interaction among a multitude of actors, often possessing different expertise and usually working at a distance from each other. The field of collaborative research aims to establish suitable models and technologies to properly support these interactions. In this article, we first present the reasons for an interest of Bioinformatics in this context by also suggesting some research domains that could benefit from collaborative research. We then review the principles and some of the most relevant applications of social networking, with a special attention to networks supporting scientific collaboration, by also highlighting some critical issues, such as identification of users and standardization of formats. We then introduce some systems for collaborative document creation, including wiki systems and tools for ontology development, and review some of the most interesting biological wikis. We also review the principles of Collaborative Development Environments for software and show some examples in Bioinformatics. Finally, we present the principles and some examples of Learning Management Systems. In conclusion, we try to devise some of the goals to be achieved in the short term for the exploitation of these technologies. PMID:21984743

Romano, Paolo; Giugno, Rosalba; Pulvirenti, Alfredo

2011-11-01

24

Tools and collaborative environments for bioinformatics research  

PubMed Central

Advanced research requires intensive interaction among a multitude of actors, often possessing different expertise and usually working at a distance from each other. The field of collaborative research aims to establish suitable models and technologies to properly support these interactions. In this article, we first present the reasons for an interest of Bioinformatics in this context by also suggesting some research domains that could benefit from collaborative research. We then review the principles and some of the most relevant applications of social networking, with a special attention to networks supporting scientific collaboration, by also highlighting some critical issues, such as identification of users and standardization of formats. We then introduce some systems for collaborative document creation, including wiki systems and tools for ontology development, and review some of the most interesting biological wikis. We also review the principles of Collaborative Development Environments for software and show some examples in Bioinformatics. Finally, we present the principles and some examples of Learning Management Systems. In conclusion, we try to devise some of the goals to be achieved in the short term for the exploitation of these technologies.

Giugno, Rosalba; Pulvirenti, Alfredo

2011-01-01

25

Inductive knowledge acquisition experience with commercial tools for space shuttle main engine testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since 1984, an effort has been underway at Rocketdyne, manufacturer of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME), to automate much of the analysis procedure conducted after engine test firings. Previously published articles at national and international conferences have contained the context of and justification for this effort. Here, progress is reported in building the full system, including the extensions of integrating large databases with the system, known as Scotty. Inductive knowledge acquisition has proven itself to be a key factor in the success of Scotty. The combination of a powerful inductive expert system building tool (ExTran), a relational data base management system (Reliance), and software engineering principles and Computer-Assisted Software Engineering (CASE) tools makes for a practical, useful and state-of-the-art application of an expert system.

Modesitt, Kenneth L.

1990-01-01

26

Research Pressure Instrumentation for NASA Space Shuttle Main Engine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The development of prototype pressure transducers which are targeted to meet the Space Shuttle Main Engine SSME performance design goals is discussed. The fabrication, testing and delivery of 10 prototype units is examined. Silicon piezoresistive strain s...

P. J. Anderson P. Nussbaum G. Gustafson

1984-01-01

27

University of Maine Integrated Forest Product Refinery (IFPR) Technology Research  

SciTech Connect

This project supported research on science and technology that forms a basis for integrated forest product refinery for co-production of chemicals, fuels and materials using existing forest products industry infrastructure. Clear systems view of an Integrated Forest Product Refinery (IFPR) allowed development of a compelling business case for a small scale technology demonstration in Old Town ME for co-production of biofuels using cellulosic sugars along with pulp for the new owners of the facility resulting in an active project on Integrated Bio-Refinery (IBR) at the Old Town Fuel & Fiber. Work on production of advanced materials from woody biomass has led to active projects in bioplastics and carbon nanofibers. A lease for 40,000 sq. ft. high-bay space has been obtained to establish a Technology Research Center for IFPR technology validation on industrially relevant scale. UMaine forest bioproducts research initiative that began in April 2006 has led to establishment of a formal research institute beginning in March 2010.

Pendse, Hemant P.

2010-11-23

28

Worms' bacteria main cause of river blindness - Parasites - medical research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This news article reports that Wolbachia may play a role in river blindness, the second-leading infectious cause of blindness in the world. While the disease is caused by parasitic worms that burrow into the skin, researchers discovered that treating the worms of their Wolbachia infections with doxycycline led to significantly less thickening and haze of the eye's cornea.

USA Today (Society for the Advancement of Education); Network, Bnet B.

29

Research pressure instrumentation for NASA space shuttle main engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The breadboard feasibility model of a silicon piezoresistive pressure transducer suitable for space shuttle main engine (SSME) applications was demonstrated. The development of pressure instrumentation for the SSME was examined. The objective is to develop prototype pressure transducers which are targeted to meet the SSME performance design goals and to fabricate, test and deliver a total of 10 prototype units. Effective utilization of the many advantages of silicon piezoresistive strain sensing technology to achieve the objectives of advanced state-of-the-art pressure sensors for reliability, accuracy and ease of manufacture is analyzed. Integration of multiple functions on a single chip is the key attribute of the technology.

Anderson, P. J.; Nussbaum, P.; Gustafson, G.

1985-01-01

30

Sociometry: Tools for research and practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews basic sociometric tools and their analysis, provides information on computer programs to analyze sociornetric data, and briefly examines considerations in conducting sociometric investigations.

Thomas W. Treadwell; V. K. Kumar; Steven A. Stein; Kevin Prosnick

1997-01-01

31

LIPID MAPS online tools for lipid research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The LIPID MAPS consortium has developed a number of online tools for performing tasks such as drawing lipid structures and predicting possible structures from mass spectrometry (MS) data. A simple online interface has been developed to enable an end-user to rapidly generate a variety of lipid chemical structures, along with corresponding systematic names and ontological information. The structure-drawing tools are

Eoin Fahy; Manish Sud; Dawn Cotter; Shankar Subramaniam

2007-01-01

32

Publicly-accessible QSAR software tools developed by the Joint Research Centre  

Microsoft Academic Search

To promote the availability of reliable computer-based estimation methods for use in the regulatory assessment of chemicals, the European Chemicals Bureau (ECB) within the European Commission's Joint Research Centre (JRC) has developed a range of user-friendly and freely available software tools. The article gives an overview of four of these tools, explaining their main functionalities and applicability: Toxtree, Toxmatch, DART

M. Pavan; A. P. Worth

2008-01-01

33

Research on graphical workflow modeling tool  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Through the technical analysis of existing modeling tools, combined with Web technology, this paper presents a graphical workflow modeling tool design program, through which designers can draw process directly in the browser and automatically transform the drawn process description in XML description file, to facilitate the workflow engine analysis and barrier-free sharing of workflow data in a networked environment. The program has software reusability, cross-platform, scalability, and strong practicality.

Gu, Hongjiu

2013-07-01

34

Research on Tool Failure Mechanism of PRMMCs with Ultrasonic Assistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the experimental research on the tool failure mechanism using YG6 and PCD tool cutting Particular Reinforced Metal Matrix Composites (PRMMCs) with ultrasonic cutting and common cutting was carried out, and it was discovered that: (1) the tool wear of ultrasonic cutting is less than that of common cutting, the cutting speed and feed speed have greater effect

Xiao Ma; Xueli Cheng

2010-01-01

35

Research and Assessment: Tools for Change.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research serves several purposes in institutional renewal. Good research ideas can clarify questions, force issues, rationalize debate, vitalize the change process, and justify new departures. Successful tactics for change require clear definition of research activities and campuswide support. (Author/MSE)

Willingham, Warren W.

1989-01-01

36

Sociometry: Tools for Research and Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews basic sociometric tools and their analysis, provides information on computer programs to analyze sociometric data, and briefly examines considerations in conducting sociometric investigations. Looks at the social atom (significant others), constructing sociometry questions, and offers an analysis of individual status and interactional…

Treadwell, Thomas W.; Kumar, V. K.; Stein, Steven A.; Prosnick, Kevin

1997-01-01

37

Microfluidic tools for cell biological research  

PubMed Central

Summary Microfluidic technology is creating powerful tools for cell biologists to control the complete cellular microenvironment, leading to new questions and new discoveries. We review here the basic concepts and methodologies in designing microfluidic devices, and their diverse cell biological applications.

Velve-Casquillas, Guilhem; Le Berre, Mael; Piel, Matthieu; Tran, Phong T.

2010-01-01

38

The Child Diary as a Research Tool  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this article is to introduce the use of the child diary as a method in daily diary research. By describing the research process and detailing its structure, a child diary, a structured booklet in which children's parents and day-care personnel (N = 54 children) reported their observations, was evaluated. The participants reported the…

Lamsa, Tiina; Ronka, Anna; Poikonen, Pirjo-Liisa; Malinen, Kaisa

2012-01-01

39

Using Wordle as a Supplementary Research Tool  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A word cloud is a special visualization of text in which the more frequently used words are effectively highlighted by occupying more prominence in the representation. We have used Wordle to produce word-cloud analyses of the spoken and written responses of informants in two research projects. The product demonstrates a fast and visually rich way…

McNaught, Carmel; Lam, Paul

2010-01-01

40

Incorporating Research Design and Estimation Tools in the Finance Curriculum  

Microsoft Academic Search

To test for the effectiveness of instruction in research design and estimation in business curricula, a classroom exercise was developed that required students to estimate sales revenue for a small business. The exercise was administered to (a) marketing research students and (b) intermediate corporate finance students. By using a revenue estimation tool called the Buying Power Index, the marketing research

Mark J. Shrader; Carl S. Bozman; Kent A. Hickman

1997-01-01

41

Research on Computer Aided Industrial Design system for pneumatic tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are always some problems existed in traditional product development stage of pneumatic tool such as high cost, low efficiency, long developing period and so on. It can improve developing efficiency by using computer aided industrial design (CAID) technology in product development. How to use CAID technology in design of pneumatic tool is discussed in this paper. This research proposes

Lufang Zhang; Xianfeng Jiang; Ming Wu

2008-01-01

42

Research of SoPC-based reconfigurable machine tools controller  

Microsoft Academic Search

With open-architecture control as a basis, some researchers have proposed to develop reconfigurable machine tools controllers (RMTC), which can be reconfigured to control different types of machine tools. This in turn will allow end users to have even more flexible control systems on their factory floors. Utilizing the SoPC (system on a programmable chip) technology, we propose a novel architecture

Wei Hongxing; Wang Songbai; Sun Kai; Chen Youdong; Wang Tianmiao

2008-01-01

43

Patenting genome research tools and the law.  

PubMed

Patenting genes encoding therapeutic proteins was relatively uncontroversial in the early days of biotechnology. Controversy arose in the era of high-throughput DNA sequencing, when gene patents started to look less like patents on drugs and more like patents on scientific information. Evolving scientific and business strategies for exploiting genomic information raised concerns that patents might slow subsequent research. The trend towards stricter enforcement of the utility and disclosure requirements by the patent offices should help clarify the current confusion. PMID:14744122

Eisenberg, Rebecca

2003-01-01

44

Using Focus Groups in the Refinement of a Research Tool.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As part of a larger research study, two graduate students used focus groups to collect data to assist in the refinement of a tool (Patient Assessment Questionnaire, PAQ) to identify the sociodemographic characteristics associated with the presence of body...

T. N. Constantine J. Bourne S. Bibb L. Wanzer C. Reilly

2005-01-01

45

Lipidomics as a principal tool for advancing biomedical research.  

PubMed

Lipidomics, which targets at the construction of a comprehensive map of lipidome comprising the entire lipid pool within a cell or tissue, is currently emerging as an independent discipline at the interface of lipid biology, technology and medicine. The diversity and complexity of the biological lipidomes call for technical innovation and improvement to meet the needs of various biomedical studies. The recent wave of expansion in the field of lipidomic research is mainly attributed to advances in analytical technologies, in particular, the development of new mass spectrometric and chromatographic tools for the characterization and quantification of the wide array of diverse lipid species in the cellular lipidome. Here, we review some of the key technical advances in lipidome analysis and put forth the applications of lipidomics in addressing the biological roles of lipids in numerous disease models including the metabolic syndrome, neurodegenerative diseases and infectious diseases, as well as the increasing urgency to construct the lipidome inventory for various mammalian/organism models useful for biomedical research. PMID:23969247

Lam, Sin Man; Shui, Guanghou

2013-08-20

46

Prediction of cutting forces for the milling of plain carbon steel using chamfered main cutting edge tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new face milling model for tool geometries with a chamfered main cutting edge has been constructed. Theoretical values for cutting forces were calculated and compared to the experimental results with S45C medium carbon plate as the workpiece material. Force data from these tests were used to estimate the empirical constants of the mechanical model and to verify its prediction

Chung-Shin Chang

2000-01-01

47

Profiling Academic Research on Digital Games Using Text Mining Tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

Academic research on digital games has been conducted for over 30 years. However, the abundance of disciplines conducting research on the topic makes it challenging for the interested to get a holistic and comprehensive account of past digital game studies. Yet, sophisticated text mining tools designed for structured science information resources, such as the ISI Web of Science or INSPEC,

Johanna Bragge; Jan Storgårds

2007-01-01

48

Directions for future research in project management: The main findings of a UK government-funded research network  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2003 the UK’s Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) agreed to fund a research network –Rethinking Project Management – to define a research agenda aimed at enriching and extending the subject of project management beyond its current conceptual foundations. The main argument for the proposed Network highlighted the growing critiques of project management theory and the need for

Mark Winter; Charles Smith; Peter Morris; Svetlana Cicmil

2006-01-01

49

Main achievements in research on Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion in 2010 in Russia  

SciTech Connect

The key results presented at the XXXVIII International Zvenigorod Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, held February 14-18, 2011 are reviewed, and the main research directions are analyzed.

Grishina, I. A.; Ivanov, V. A.; Kovrizhnykh, L. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Prokhorov General Physics Institute (Russian Federation)

2011-12-15

50

Demonstrating the World Wide Web as an academic research tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

ACADEMIC LIBRARIANS, as experienced World Wide Web (WWW) users, are well-positioned to demonstrate the benefits of using the\\u000a Web to do scholarly research. College administrators and faculty may be skeptical about the usefulness of the Internet for\\u000a academic research and reluctant to use the tool as a way to enhance their traditional methods of professional inquiry. As\\u000a a means of

Beth Evans; Wilma Lesley Jones

1998-01-01

51

Exploring Ethical Issues When Using Visual Tools in Educational Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the visual as well as word-orientated world that the qualitative researcher increasingly finds herself in, a critical stance\\u000a about ethics and its relation to qualitative data-gathering methods is long overdue. The growing popularity of technology\\u000a and the user-friendliness of cameras and videos have led to an increase in the use of visual-oriented tools. Consequentially,\\u000a critical reflection by the researcher

Doria Daniels

52

Facilitating Metacognitive Talk: A Research and Learning Tool  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a research tool which aims to gather data about pupils' views of learning and teaching, with a particular focus on their thinking about their learning (metacognition). The approach has proved to be an adaptable and effective technique to examine different learning contexts from the pupils' perspective, while also acting as an…

Wall, Kate; Higgins, Steve

2006-01-01

53

The Use of Measurement Tools in Institutional Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes four measurement tools that are of potential value for institutional researchers as greater demands are being placed upon their work. The author describes scale development, select methods for setting passing scores, validating passing scores and the topic of equating--both equipercentile and linear. Not only should…

Secolsky, Charles

2009-01-01

54

GEOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS TOOL FOR HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH (GATHER)  

EPA Science Inventory

GATHER, Geographic Analysis Tool for Health and Environmental Research, is an online spatial data access system that provides members of the public health community and general public access to spatial data that is pertinent to the analysis and exploration of public health issues...

55

Measurement and Research Tools. Symposium 37. [AHRD Conference, 2001].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This symposium on measurement and research tools consists of three presentations. "An Examination of the Multiple Intelligences Developmental Assessment Scales (MIDAS)" (Albert Wiswell et al.) explores MIDAS's psychometric saliency. Findings indicates this instrument represents an incomplete attempt to develop a valid assessment of multiple…

2001

56

Research Collaboration Tools: A Resource Guide for Medical Librarians  

Microsoft Academic Search

As medical research becomes an increasingly complex process that often includes some form of collaboration, a number of online tools have emerged to help meet this need. This column aims to search broadly across a number of these resources and organize the findings into a list of examples tailored to the interests of medical librarians. Specific attention is paid to

Jennifer Staley; Vivian McCallum

2010-01-01

57

A Tool for Mapping Research Skills in Undergraduate Curricula  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There has been considerable interest recently in the teaching of skills to undergraduate students. However, existing methods for collating data on how much, where and when students are taught and assessed skills have often been shown to be time-consuming and ineffective. Here, we outline an electronic research skills audit tool that has been…

Fraser, Gillian A.; Crook, Anne C.; Park, Julian R.

2007-01-01

58

Analyzing Online Teacher Networks: Cyber Networks Require Cyber Research Tools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors argue that conceptual and methodological limitations in existing research approaches severely hamper theory building and empirical exploration of teacher learning and collaboration through cyber-enabled networks. They conclude that new frameworks, tools, and techniques are needed to understand and maximize the benefits of teacher…

Schlager, Mark S.; Farooq, Umer; Fusco, Judith; Schank, Patricia; Dwyer, Nathan

2009-01-01

59

SIGAPS: a prototype of bibliographic tool for medical research evaluation.  

PubMed

Evaluation of research activity is extremely important but remains a complex domain. There's no standardized methods and evaluation is often based on the scientific publications. It is easy to identify, for a researcher, all the publications realized over a given period of time. At the level of an important establishment like an University Hospital, with about 500 researchers, this sort of inventory is very difficult to realize: we have to list the researchers, to list their publications, to determine the quality of articles produced, to store retrieved data and to calculate summary statistics. We have developed a full-Web prototype, using free software which, for a given researchers' list, interrogates the Pubmed server, downloads the found references and stores them in a local database. They are then enriched with local data which allow the realization of more or less complex analyses, the automatic production of reports, or keyword search. This tool is very easy to use, allowing for immediate analysis of publications of a researcher or a research team. This tool will allow to identify those active teams to be maintained or emergent teams to be supported. It will also allow to compare candidate profiles for appointments to research posts. PMID:14664073

Devos, P; Dufresne, E; Renard, J M; Beuscart, R

2003-01-01

60

NoteStar: A Project Based Learning Research Tool  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource is a free tool that helps students organize data, notes, and citations obtained from project-based investigations and research. By dragging the NoteStar icon to the toolbar, users can save citations and other digital data with one click. The tool also allows them to create personal notations for future reference or sharing with partners. The tool is available only to registered teacher-users, who will do the initial set-up. Students use a password to access their accounts, but are not required to disclose personal information. The teacher can monitor any student's progress at any time. This resource was intended for use with ThinkTank, a related cost-free tool that helps students develop and narrow research questions. Outlines created in ThinkTank can be exported to NoteStar. NoteStar is part of the collection of online tools available through 4Teachers.org. ***PLEASE NOTE: Some of the pages within this resource are sponsored by commercial vendors. The Physics Front neither endorses nor recommends products for commercial sale.

2009-11-19

61

Research gaps for three main tropical diseases in the People's Republic of China  

PubMed Central

This scoping review analyzes the research gaps of three diseases: schistosomiasis japonica, malaria and echinococcosis. Based on available data in the P.R. China, we highlight the gaps between control capacity and prevalence levels, and between diagnostic/drug development and population need for treatment at different stages of the national control programme. After reviewing the literature from 848 original studies and consultations with experts in the field, the gaps were identified as follows. Firstly, the malaria research gaps include (i) deficiency of active testing in the public community and no appropriate technique to evaluate elimination, (ii) lack of sensitive diagnostic tools for asymptomatic patients, (iii) lack of safe drugs for mass administration. Secondly, gaps in research of schistosomiasis include (i) incongruent policy in the implementation of integrated control strategy for schistosomiasis, (ii) lack of effective tools for Oncomelania sp. snail control, (iii) lack of a more sensitive and cheaper diagnostic test for large population samples, (iv) lack of new drugs in addition to praziquantel. Thirdly, gaps in research of echinococcosis include (i) low capacity in field epidemiology studies, (ii) lack of sanitation improvement studies in epidemic areas, (iii) lack of a sensitivity test for early diagnosis, (iv) lack of more effective drugs for short-term treatment. We believe these three diseases can eventually be eliminated in mainland China if all the research gaps are abridged in a short period of time.

2013-01-01

62

Creativity Support Tools: A Grand Challenge for HCI Researchers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human-computer interaction researchers can play a key role in designing, implementing, and evaluating a new generation of\\u000a creativity support tools. Understanding creative processes, especially when mediated by user interfaces will remain a continuing\\u000a challenge, especially in dealing with novice and expert users, across a variety of disciplines. The expected outcomes include\\u000a (1) refined theories of technology-supported creative processes, (2) active

Ben Shneiderman

63

Pulsed laser deposition as a materials research tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) is currently being used to deposit a variety of multicomponent electronic ceramic thin films as a materials research tool for the development of next generation electronic devices. Examples include YBa2Cu3O7??\\/ferromagnetic multilayers, ferroelectrics and rare earth doped manganite thin films. In YBa2Cu3O7??\\/ferromagnetic multilayers, the injection of spin-polarized electrons from the ferromagnetic material into the superconductor produces a

J. S. Horwitz; D. B. Chrisey; R. M. Stroud; A. C. Carter; J. Kim; W. Chang; J. M. Pond; S. W. Kirchoefer; M. S. Osofsky; D. Koller

1998-01-01

64

Research pressure instrumentation for NASA Space Shuttle main engine, modification no. 5  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research concerning the development of pressure instrumentation for the space shuttle main engine is reported. The following specific topics were addressed: (1) transducer design and materials, (2) silicon piezoresistor characterization at cryogenic temperatures, (3) chip mounting characterization, and (4) frequency response optimization.

Anderson, P. J.; Nussbaum, P.; Gustafson, G.

1984-01-01

65

Bioinformatics: Tools to accelerate population science and disease control research.  

PubMed

Population science and disease control researchers can benefit from a more proactive approach to applying bioinformatics tools for clinical and public health research. Bioinformatics utilizes principles of information sciences and technologies to transform vast, diverse, and complex life sciences data into a more coherent format for wider application. Bioinformatics provides the means to collect and process data, enhance data standardization and harmonization for scientific discovery, and merge disparate data sources. Achieving interoperability (i.e. the development of an informatics system that provides access to and use of data from different systems) will facilitate scientific explorations and careers and opportunities for interventions in population health. The National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) interoperable Cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid (caBIG) is one of a number of illustrative tools in this report that are being mined by population scientists. Tools are not all that is needed for progress. Challenges persist, including a lack of common data standards, proprietary barriers to data access, and difficulties pooling data from studies. Population scientists and informaticists are developing promising and innovative solutions to these barriers. The purpose of this paper is to describe how the application of bioinformatics systems can accelerate population health research across the continuum from prevention to detection, diagnosis, treatment, and outcome. PMID:20494241

Forman, Michele R; Greene, Sarah M; Avis, Nancy E; Taplin, Stephen H; Courtney, Paul; Schad, Peter A; Hesse, Bradford W; Winn, Deborah M

2010-06-01

66

Genephony: a knowledge management tool for genome-wide research  

PubMed Central

Background One of the consequences of the rapid and widespread adoption of high-throughput experimental technologies is an exponential increase of the amount of data produced by genome-wide experiments. Researchers increasingly need to handle very large volumes of heterogeneous data, including both the data generated by their own experiments and the data retrieved from publicly available repositories of genomic knowledge. Integration, exploration, manipulation and interpretation of data and information therefore need to become as automated as possible, since their scale and breadth are, in general, beyond the limits of what individual researchers and the basic data management tools in normal use can handle. This paper describes Genephony, a tool we are developing to address these challenges. Results We describe how Genephony can be used to manage large datesets of genomic information, integrating them with existing knowledge repositories. We illustrate its functionalities with an example of a complex annotation task, in which a set of SNPs coming from a genotyping experiment is annotated with genes known to be associated to a phenotype of interest. We show how, thanks to the modular architecture of Genephony and its user-friendly interface, this task can be performed in a few simple steps. Conclusion Genephony is an online tool for the manipulation of large datasets of genomic information. It can be used as a browser for genomic data, as a high-throughput annotation tool, and as a knowledge discovery tool. It is designed to be easy to use, flexible and extensible. Its knowledge management engine provides fine-grained control over individual data elements, as well as efficient operations on large datasets.

Nuzzo, Angelo; Riva, Alberto

2009-01-01

67

A web service based tool to plan atmospheric research flights  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a web service based tool for the planning of atmospheric research flights. The tool, which we call the "Mission Support System" (MSS), provides online access to horizontal maps and vertical cross-sections of numerical weather prediction data and in particular allows the interactive design of a flight route in direct relation to the predictions. It thereby fills a crucial gap in the set of currently available tools for using data from numerical atmospheric models for research flight planning. A distinct feature of the tool is its lightweight, web service based architecture, requiring only commodity hardware and a basic Internet connection for deployment. Access to visualisations of prediction data is achieved by using an extended version of the Open Geospatial Consortium Web Map Service (WMS) standard. With the WMS approach, we avoid the transfer of large forecast model output datasets while enabling on-demand generated visualisations of the predictions at campaign sites with limited Internet bandwidth. Usage of the Web Map Service standard also enables access to third-party sources of georeferenced data. The MSS is focused on the primary needs of mission scientists responsible for planning a research flight, addressing in particular the following requirements: (1) interactive exploration of available atmospheric forecasts, (2) interactive flight planning in relation to these forecasts, (3) computation of expected flight performance to assess the technical feasibility (in terms of total distance and vertical profile) of a flight, (4) no transfer of large forecast data files to the campaign site to allow deployment at remote locations and (5) low demand on hardware resources. We have implemented the software using the open-source programming language Python.

Rautenhaus, M.; Dörnbrack, A.

2012-04-01

68

The Systems Biology Research Tool: evolvable open-source software  

PubMed Central

Background Research in the field of systems biology requires software for a variety of purposes. Software must be used to store, retrieve, analyze, and sometimes even to collect the data obtained from system-level (often high-throughput) experiments. Software must also be used to implement mathematical models and algorithms required for simulation and theoretical predictions on the system-level. Results We introduce a free, easy-to-use, open-source, integrated software platform called the Systems Biology Research Tool (SBRT) to facilitate the computational aspects of systems biology. The SBRT currently performs 35 methods for analyzing stoichiometric networks and 16 methods from fields such as graph theory, geometry, algebra, and combinatorics. New computational techniques can be added to the SBRT via process plug-ins, providing a high degree of evolvability and a unifying framework for software development in systems biology. Conclusion The Systems Biology Research Tool represents a technological advance for systems biology. This software can be used to make sophisticated computational techniques accessible to everyone (including those with no programming ability), to facilitate cooperation among researchers, and to expedite progress in the field of systems biology.

Wright, Jeremiah; Wagner, Andreas

2008-01-01

69

Scientific research tools as an aid to Antarctic logistics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Logistics have always been a vital part of polar exploration and research. The more efficient those logistics can be made, the greater the likelihood that research programmes will be delivered on time, safely and to maximum scientific effectiveness. Over the last decade, the potential for symbiosis between logistics and some of the scientific research methods themselves, has increased remarkably; suites of scientific tools can help to optimise logistic efforts, thereby enhancing the effectiveness of further scientific activity. We present one recent example of input to logistics from scientific activities, in support of the NERC iSTAR Programme, a major ice sheet research effort in West Antarctica. We used data output from a number of research tools, spanning a range of techniques and international agencies, to support the deployment of a tractor-traverse system into a remote area of mainland Antarctica. The tractor system was deployed from RRS Ernest Shackleton onto the Abbot Ice Shelf then driven inland to the research area in Pine Island Glacier Data from NASA ICEBRIDGE were used to determine the ice-front freeboard and surface gradients for the traverse route off the ice shelf and onwards into the continent. Quickbird high resolution satellite imagery provided clear images of route track and some insight into snow surface roughness. Polarview satellite data gave sea ice information in the Amundsen Sea, both the previous multi-annual historical characteristics and for real-time information during deployment. Likewise meteorological data contributed historical and information and was used during deployment. Finally, during the tractors' inland journey, ground-based high frequency radar was used to determine a safe, crevasse-free route.

Dinn, Michael; Rose, Mike; Smith, Andrew; Fleming, Andrew; Garrod, Simon

2013-04-01

70

The Research Tools of the Virtual Astronomical Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomy is being transformed by the vast quantities of data, models, and simulations that are becoming available to astronomers at an ever-accelerating rate. The U.S. Virtual Astronomical Observatory (VAO) has been funded to provide an operational facility that is intended to be a resource for discovery and access of data, and to provide science services that use these data. Over the course of the past year, the VAO has been developing and releasing for community use five science tools: 1) "Iris", for dynamically building and analyzing spectral energy distributions, 2) a web-based data discovery tool that allows astronomers to identify and retrieve catalog, image, and spectral data on sources of interest, 3) a scalable cross-comparison service that allows astronomers to conduct pair-wise positional matches between very large catalogs stored remotely as well as between remote and local catalogs, 4) time series tools that allow astronomers to compute periodograms of the public data held at the NASA Star and Exoplanet Database (NStED) and the Harvard Time Series Center, and 5) A VO-aware release of the Image Reduction and Analysis Facility (IRAF) that provides transparent access to VO-available data collections and is SAMP-enabled, so that IRAF users can easily use tools such as Aladin and Topcat in conjuction with IRAF tasks. Additional VAO services will be built to make it easy for researchers to provide access to their data in VO-compliant ways, to build VO-enabled custom applications in Python, and to respond generally to the growing size and complexity of astronomy data. Acknowledgements: The Virtual Astronomical Observatory (VAO) is managed by the VAO, LLC, a non-profit company established as a partnership of the Associated Universities, Inc. and the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. The VAO is sponsored by the National Science Foundation and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

Hanisch, Robert J.; Berriman, G. B.; Lazio, T. J.; Project, VAO

2013-01-01

71

Vaccinia Virus: A Tool for Research and Vaccine Development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vaccinia virus is no longer needed for smallpox immunization, but now serves as a useful vector for expressing genes within the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. As a research tool, recombinant vaccinia viruses are used to synthesize biologically active proteins and analyze structure-function relations, determine the targets of humoral- and cell-mediated immunity, and investigate the immune responses needed for protection against specific infectious diseases. When more data on safety and efficacy are available, recombinant vaccinia and related poxviruses may be candidates for live vaccines and for cancer immunotherapy.

Moss, Bernard

1991-06-01

72

MRC: Research Tools and Skills Grade 3-5  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lesson about research tools and skills. Learners will explore the features of Mars through a demonstration of Google Earth Mars, gather, and analyze data from multiple sources on the internet as well as print sources, develop and use strategies for reading informational text to systematically find information, understand that Earth and Mars have similar geological features. The lesson uses the 5E instructional model and includes: TEKS Details (Texas Standards alignment), Essential Question, Science Notebook, Vocabulary Definitions for Students, Vocabulary Definitions for Teachers, two Vocabulary Cards, and a reading strategy supplement. This is lesson 3 as part of the Mars Rover Celebration Unit, a six week long curriculum.

73

Tissue fluid pressures - From basic research tools to clinical applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes clinical applications of two basic research tools developed and refined in the past 20 years: the wick catheter (for measuring tissue fluid pressure) and the colloid osmometer (for measuring osmotic pressure). Applications of the osmometer include estimations of the reduced osmotic pressure of sickle-cell hemoglobin with deoxygenation, and of reduced swelling pressure of human nucleus pulposus with hydration or upon action of certain enzymes. Clinical uses of the wick-catheter technique include an improvement of diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic compartment syndromes, the elucidation of the tissue pressure thresholds for neuromuscular dysfunction, and the development of a better tourniquet for orthopedics.

Hargens, Alan R.; Akeson, Wayne H.; Mubarak, Scott J.; Owen, Charles A.; Gershuni, David H.

1989-01-01

74

Nanobody-based products as research and diagnostic tools.  

PubMed

Since the serendipitous discovery 20 years ago of bona fide camelid heavy-chain antibodies, their single-domain antigen-binding fragments, known as VHHs or nanobodies, have received a progressively growing interest. As a result of the beneficial properties of these stable recombinant entities, they are currently highly valued proteins for multiple applications, including fundamental research, diagnostics, and therapeutics. Today, with the original patents expiring, even more academic and industrial groups are expected to explore innovative VHH applications. Here, we provide a thorough overview of novel implementations of VHHs as research and diagnostic tools, and of the recently evaluated production platforms for several VHHs and VHH-derived antibody formats. PMID:24698358

De Meyer, Thomas; Muyldermans, Serge; Depicker, Ann

2014-05-01

75

Data Ferret: Federal Electronic Research and Review Extraction Tool  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This new service of the US Census Bureau allows researchers to extract information from the Current Population Surveys March 1995 and 1996 supplements and CPS Displaced Workers 1996 data. For CPS March supplements, pre-formatted macrodata tables are available in nine categories at present, including health insurance, family income, and poverty. But the real power of the site, especially for researchers, is the ability to query and extract microdata records from both datasets, and either view this microdata or download it as ASCII text (user's choice as to delimiter format), with crosstabs or frequencies, or as SAS datasets. Presently available datasets are just the beginning of what will be a much larger searchable statistics database, and "FERRET will be one of the tools in the Census Bureau's Data Access and Dissemination System (DADS)," a data retrieval system "being developed to provide better access to all census data." Note that users must supply an email address before using the system.

76

ARM Climate Research Facility: Outreach Tools and Strategies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sponsored by the Department of Energy, the ARM Climate Research Facility is a global scientific user facility for the study of climate change. To publicize progress and achievements and to reach new users, the ACRF uses a variety of Web 2.0 tools and strategies that build off of the program’s comprehensive and well established News Center (www.arm.gov/news). These strategies include: an RSS subscription service for specific news categories; an email “newsletter” distribution to the user community that compiles the latest News Center updates into a short summary with links; and a Facebook page that pulls information from the News Center and links to relevant information in other online venues, including those of our collaborators. The ACRF also interacts with users through field campaign blogs, like Discovery Channel’s EarthLive, to share research experiences from the field. Increasingly, field campaign Wikis are established to help ACRF researchers collaborate during the planning and implementation phases of their field studies and include easy to use logs and image libraries to help record the campaigns. This vital reference information is used in developing outreach material that is shared in highlights, news, and Facebook. Other Web 2.0 tools that ACRF uses include Google Maps to help users visualize facility locations and aircraft flight patterns. Easy-to-use comment boxes are also available on many of the data-related web pages on www.arm.gov to encourage feedback. To provide additional opportunities for increased interaction with the public and user community, future Web 2.0 plans under consideration for ACRF include: evaluating field campaigns for Twitter and microblogging opportunities, adding public discussion forums to research highlight web pages, moving existing photos into albums on FlickR or Facebook, and building online video archives through YouTube.

Roeder, L.; Jundt, R.

2009-12-01

77

An integrated research tool for X-ray imaging simulation.  

PubMed

This paper presents a software simulation package of the entire X-ray projection radiography process including beam generation, absorber structure and composition, irradiation set up, radiation transport through the absorbing medium, image formation and dose calculation. Phantoms are created as composite objects from geometrical or voxelized primitives and can be subjected to simulated irradiation process. The acquired projection images represent the two-dimensional spatial distribution of the energy absorbed in the detector and are formed at any geometry, taking into account energy spectrum, beam geometry and detector response. This software tool is the evolution of a previously presented system, with new functionalities, user interface and an expanded range of applications. This has been achieved mainly by the use of combinatorial geometry for phantom design and the implementation of a Monte Carlo code for the simulation of the radiation interaction at the absorber and the detector. PMID:12581556

Lazos, D; Bliznakova, K; Kolitsi, Z; Pallikarakis, N

2003-03-01

78

Main effects analysis in clinical research: statistical guidelines for disaggregating treatment groups.  

PubMed

Treatment outcome research generally relies on main effects analysis of variance to determine whether treatments are differentially effective. Bryk and Raudenbush (1988) developed a decision strategy for disaggregating treatment groups under conditions of heterogeneity of variance. There is, however, reason to consider disaggregating main effects even when this assumption is not violated. The potential statistical significance of disaggregation can be shown to be a function of the reliability of the dependent measure. With this reliability, residual variance can be partitioned into a systematic (individual differences) component and a random error component. It is then possible to calculate an F test of the ratio of these variances. When this F is statistically significant and the proportion of within-cell systematic variance to total variance is large, disaggregation should be undertaken to search for important individual or treatment difference variables (i.e., interactions). PMID:1955609

Lyons, J S; Howard, K I

1991-10-01

79

Interactive Publication: The document as a research tool  

PubMed Central

The increasing prevalence of multimedia and research data generated by scientific work affords an opportunity to reformulate the idea of a scientific article from the traditional static document, or even one with links to supplemental material in remote databases, to a self-contained, multimedia-rich interactive publication. This paper describes our concept of such a document, and the design of tools for authoring (Forge) and visualization/analysis (Panorama). They are platform-independent applications written in Java, and developed in Eclipse1 using its Rich Client Platform (RCP) framework. Both applications operate on PDF files with links to XML files that define the media type, location, and action to be performed. We also briefly cite the challenges posed by the potentially large size of interactive publications, the need for evaluating their value to improved comprehension and learning, and the need for their long-term preservation by the National Library of Medicine and other libraries.

Thoma, George R.; Ford, Glenn; Antani, Sameer; Demner-Fushman, Dina; Chung, Michael; Simpson, Matthew

2010-01-01

80

Exploiting natural peptide diversity: novel research tools and drug leads.  

PubMed

During the course of evolution, nature has developed a vast number of peptides in all living and past species that display an exceeding diversity of structure and biological effects, such as hormonal and enzyme-controlling activity, communication between cells, and participation in host defence. Sensitive mass spectrometric technologies have been introduced and facilitate access to new natural peptides, even in trace amounts, and allow the quantitative determination of the peptide status of cells, organs and whole organisms (peptidomics). Among the large number of new biologically active peptides identified from an increasing variety of natural sources, regulators of ion channels, chemoattractants, protease inhibitors, metabolism-related hormones, cytotoxins, and antimicrobials have been found. These novel peptides serve as research tools and have potential as diagnostic biomarkers and for the development of peptide and peptidometic drugs. PMID:15560988

Adermann, Knut; John, Harald; Ständker, Ludger; Forssmann, Wolf-Georg

2004-12-01

81

Direct writing of metal nanostructures: lithographic tools for nanoplasmonics research.  

PubMed

Continued progress in the fast-growing field of nanoplasmonics will require the development of new methods for the fabrication of metal nanostructures. Optical lithography provides a continually expanding tool box. Two-photon processes, as demonstrated by Shukla et al. (doi: 10.1021/nn103015g), enable the fabrication of gold nanostructures encapsulated in dielectric material in a simple, direct process and offer the prospect of three-dimensional fabrication. At higher resolution, scanning probe techniques enable nanoparticle particle placement by localized oxidation, and near-field sintering of nanoparticulate films enables direct writing of nanowires. Direct laser "printing" of single gold nanoparticles offers a remarkable capability for the controlled fabrication of model structures for fundamental studies, particle-by-particle. Optical methods continue to provide a powerful support for research into metamaterials. PMID:21417494

Leggett, Graham J

2011-03-22

82

THE LASER AS A POTENTIAL TOOL FOR CELL RESEARCH  

PubMed Central

Freshly prepared hemoglobin solutions were successively irradiated up to five times with 1 MW (monochromatic wavelength) of green (530 mµ) laser power. Oxygenated hemoglobin showed no detectable change, but the spectral absorption of reduced hemoglobin showed a shift toward the characteristic curve for the oxygenated form. Intact human erythrocytes exposed to a power density of 110 MW/cm2 of green laser radiation showed no appreciable change in diameter or mass, but they became transparent to a wavelength range from 400 to 600 mµ. A similar power density from a ruby laser failed to produce this bleaching effect. This response in the erythrocyte demonstrates a principle which suggests the laser as a tool for cell research: specific molecular components within a cell may be selectively altered by laser irradiation when an appropriate wavelength and a suitable power density are applied.

Rounds, Donald E.; Olson, Robert S.; Johnson, Fred M.

1965-01-01

83

Rethinking the Role of Information Technology-Based Research Tools in Students’ Development of Scientific Literacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the central place IT-based research tools take in scientific research, the marginal role such tools currently play in\\u000a science curricula is dissatisfying from the perspective of making students scientifically literate. To appropriately frame\\u000a the role of IT-based research tools in science curricula, we propose a framework that is developed to understand the use of\\u000a tools in human activity, namely

Michiel van Eijck; Wolff-Michael Roth

2007-01-01

84

The Use of NUDIST, a Computerized Analytical Tool, to Support Qualitative Information Systems Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discusses the use of software tools to support qualitative information systems research, and provides a practical example of how one tool, NUDIST, was used in a recent empirical study. Argues that greatest benefit can be gained from software tools when their use is based on sound theory of qualitative research. The analysis for the study was built on the concept

Anne Rouse; Martin Dick

1994-01-01

85

Concept Mapping as a Research Tool to Evaluate Conceptual Change Related to Instructional Methods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Concept maps are commonly used in a variety of educational settings as a learning aid or instructional tool. Additionally, their potential as a research tool has been recognized. This article defines features of concept maps, describes the use of pre- and postconcept maps as a research tool, and offers a protocol for employing concept maps as an…

Miller, Kevin J.; Koury, Kevin A.; Fitzgerald, Gail E.; Hollingsead, Candice; Mitchem, Katherine J.; Tsai, Hui-Hsien; Park, Meeaeng Ko

2009-01-01

86

Three Innovative Research Tools to Store, Visualize, and Analyze Data in and from the Field  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, the authors describe three research tools that have been prepared to store, visualize, and analyze data in and from the field. These tools are intended to be used for a research that investigates a hypothesized cultural model in Tonga, Polynesia. The three tools are (1) the Digitized Tonga database, (2) the interactive 3-D display of the island

Giovanni Bennardo; Kurt Schultz

2004-01-01

87

IT Tools for Teachers and Scientists, Created by Undergraduate Researchers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interns in the Southern California Earthquake Center/Undergraduate Studies in Earthquake Information Technology (SCEC/UseIT) program conduct computer science research for the benefit of earthquake scientists and have created products in growing use within the SCEC education and research communities. SCEC/UseIT comprises some twenty undergraduates who combine their varied talents and academic backgrounds to achieve a Grand Challenge that is formulated around needs of SCEC scientists and educators and that reflects the value SCEC places on the integration of computer science and the geosciences. In meeting the challenge, students learn to work on multidisciplinary teams and to tackle complex problems with no guaranteed solutions. Meantime, their efforts bring fresh perspectives and insight to the professionals with whom they collaborate, and consistently produces innovative, useful tools for research and education. The 2007 Grand Challenge was to design and prototype serious games to communicate important earthquake science concepts. Interns broke themselves into four game teams, the Educational Game, the Training Game, the Mitigation Game and the Decision-Making Game, and created four diverse games with topics from elementary plate tectonics to earthquake risk mitigation, with intended players ranging from elementary students to city planners. The games were designed to be versatile, to accommodate variation in the knowledge base of the player; and extensible, to accommodate future additions. The games are played on a web browser or from within SCEC-VDO (Virtual Display of Objects). SCEC-VDO, also engineered by UseIT interns, is a 4D, interactive, visualization software that enables integration and exploration of datasets and models such as faults, earthquake hypocenters and ruptures, digital elevation models, satellite imagery, global isochrons, and earthquake prediction schemes. SCEC-VDO enables the user to create animated movies during a session, and is now part of a multi-media, general education curriculum at University of Southern California. Throughout this meeting, at the SCEC booth, UseIT interns will be demonstrating both the serious games and SCEC-VDO. SCEC/UseIT is a National Science Foundation Research Experience for Undergraduates site.

Millar, A. Z.; Perry, S.

2007-12-01

88

Main topics in transcultural psychiatric research in the Netherlands during the past decade.  

PubMed

The population of the Netherlands has become increasingly diverse in terms of ethnicity and religion, and anti-immigrant attitudes have become more apparent. At the same time, interest in issues linked to transcultural psychiatry has grown steadily. The purpose of this article is to describe the most important results in Dutch transcultural psychiatric research in the last decade and to discuss their relationship with relevant social and political developments in the Netherlands. All relevant PhD theses (N?=?27) between 2000 and 2011 were selected. Screening of Dutch journals in the field of transcultural psychiatry and medical anthropology and a PubMed query yielded additional publications. Forensic and addiction psychiatry were excluded from this review. The results of the review indicate three main topics: (a) the prevalence of psychiatric disorders and their relation to migration issues as social defeat and ethnic density, showing considerable intra- and interethnic differences in predictors and prevalence rates, (b) the social position of refugees and asylum seekers, and its effect on mental health, showing especially high risk among asylum seekers, and (c) the patterns of health-seeking behaviour and use of mental health services, showing a differentiated picture among various migrant groups. Anthropological research brought additional knowledge on all the above topics. The overall conclusion is that transcultural psychiatric research in the Netherlands has made a giant leap since the turn of the century. The results are of international importance and invite redefinition of the relationship between migration and mental health, and reconsideration of its underlying mechanisms in multiethnic societies. PMID:24071745

Laban, Cornelis J; van Dijk, Rob

2013-12-01

89

Proteomics: a new tool in bovine claw disease research.  

PubMed

Claw horn disruption (CHD) is a common underlying cause of lameness in dairy cattle which leads to compromised animal welfare and production losses. Despite an intense research effort over the last two decades, progress in reducing the prevalence of lameness due to CHD has been limited. In addition to current research strategies there is a need to develop novel approaches and methods that expand understanding of the disease mechanisms involved in CHD. The objectives of the present study were to explore the potential of liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in mapping protein expression in three different bovine claw tissues, and to provide a relevant functional annotation of the proteins characterized in these tissues. LC-MS/MS was used to characterize protein expression in coronary band skin (C), claw dermal (D) and lamellar (L) tissues from two heifers. A total of 388 different proteins were identified, with 146 proteins available for identification in C, 279 proteins in D and 269 proteins in L. A functional annotation of the identified proteins was obtained using the on-line Blast2GO tool. Three hundred and sixteen of the identified proteins could be subsequently grouped manually to one or more of five major functional groups related to metabolism, cell structure, immunity, apoptosis and angiogenesis. These were chosen to represent basic cell functions and biological processes potentially involved in the pathogenesis of CHD. The LC-MS/MS-based proteomic analysis presented here is the largest published survey, so far, of the bovine claw tissue proteome. PMID:22884987

Tølbøll, Trine H; Danscher, Anne Mette; Andersen, Pia H; Codrea, Marius C; Bendixen, Emøke

2012-09-01

90

Tissue Microarray: A rapidly evolving diagnostic and research tool  

PubMed Central

Tissue microarray is a recent innovation in the field of pathology. A microarray contains many small representative tissue samples from hundreds of different cases assembled on a single histologic slide, and therefore allows high throughput analysis of multiple specimens at the same time. Tissue microarrays are paraffin blocks produced by extracting cylindrical tissue cores from different paraffin donor blocks and re-embedding these into a single recipient (microarray) block at defined array coordinates. Using this technique, up to 1000 or more tissue samples can be arrayed into a single paraffin block. It can permit simultaneous analysis of molecular targets at the DNA, mRNA, and protein levels under identical, standardized conditions on a single glass slide, and also provide maximal preservation and use of limited and irreplaceable archival tissue samples. This versatile technique, in which data analysis is automated facilitates retrospective and prospective human tissue studies. It is a practical and effective tool for high-throughput molecular analysis of tissues that is helping to identify new diagnostic and prognostic markers and targets in human cancers, and has a range of potential applications in basic research, prognostic oncology and drug discovery. This article summarizes the technical aspects of tissue microarray construction and sectioning, advantages, application, and limitations.

Jawhar, Nazar M.T.

2009-01-01

91

Microgravity as a research tool to improve US agriculture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Crop production and utilization are undergoing significant modifications and improvements that emanate from adaptation of recently developed plant biotechnologies. Several innovative technologies will impact US agriculture in the next century. One of these is the transfer of desirable genes from organisms to economically important crop species in a way that cannot be accomplished with traditional plant breeding techniques. Such plant genetic engineering offers opportunities to improve crop species for a number of characteristics as well as use as source materials for specific medical and industrial applications. Although plant genetic engineering is having an impact on development of new crop cultivars, several major constraints limit the application of this technology to selected crop species and genotypes. Consequently, gene transfer systems that overcome these constraints would greatly enhance development of new crop materials. If results of a recent gene transfer experiment conducted in microgravity during a Space Shuttle mission are confirmed, and with the availability of the International Space Station as a permanent space facility, commercial plant transformation activity in microgravity could become a new research tool to improve US agriculture. .

Bula, R. J.; Stankovic, Bratislav

2000-01-01

92

WEBDA - a tool for CP star research in open clusters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

WEBDA (http://www.univie.ac.at/webda) is a site devoted to stellar observational data, such as chemically peculiar stars, in stellar clusters in the Milky Way and the Small Magellanic Cloud. It is intended to provide a reliable synthesis of the available data and knowledge about these objects. The success of WEBDA is documented by its worldwide usage and the related acknowledgements in the literature: more than 450 refereed publications within the last seven years acknowledge its use. It collects all published data for stars in open clusters that may be useful either to determine membership, or to study the stellar content and properties of the clusters. The database content includes measurements in most photometric systems in which cluster stars have been observed, spectroscopic observations, astrometric data, miscellaneous other useful information, as well as an extensive bibliography. Several powerful tools help to plot, query and extract the data, which can be directly retrieved via http. At the time of writing, about four million individual measurements are included in the database. The Star Clusters Young & Old Newsletter (SCYON), a bi-monthly newsletter devoted to star cluster research with about 600 subscribers, is hosted in parallel with the database.

Paunzen, E.

2008-04-01

93

Science in the Eyes of Preschool Children: Findings from an Innovative Research Tool  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

How do young children view science? Do these views reflect cultural stereotypes? When do these views develop? These fundamental questions in the field of science education have rarely been studied with the population of preschool children. One main reason is the lack of an appropriate research instrument that addresses preschool children's developmental competencies. Extensive body of research has pointed at the significance of early childhood experiences in developing positive attitudes and interests toward learning in general and the learning of science in particular. Theoretical and empirical research suggests that stereotypical views of science may be replaced by authentic views following inquiry science experience. However, no preschool science intervention program could be designed without a reliable instrument that provides baseline information about preschool children's current views of science. The current study presents preschool children's views of science as gathered from a pioneering research tool. This tool, in the form of a computer "game," does not require reading, writing, or expressive language skills and is operated by the children. The program engages children in several simple tasks involving picture recognition and yes/no answers in order to reveal their views about science. The study was conducted with 120 preschool children in two phases and found that by the age of 4 years, participants possess an emergent concept of science. Gender and school differences were detected. Findings from this interdisciplinary study will contribute to the fields of early childhood, science education, learning technologies, program evaluation, and early childhood curriculum development.

Dubosarsky, Mia D.

94

Concept Maps as a Research and Evaluation Tool To Assess Conceptual Change in Quantum Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Informs teachers about using concept maps as a learning tool and alternative assessment tools in education. Presents research results of how students might use concept maps to communicate their cognitive structure. (Author/KHR)

Sen, Ahmet Ilhan

2002-01-01

95

International Cancer Research Portfolio: New On-Line Tool Will Aid in Cancer Research Collaboration and Planning  

Cancer.gov

Cancer researchers around the world now have a powerful new tool at their fingertips that provides instant access to information on ongoing cancer research supported by cancer funding organizations within the United States and the United Kingdom.

96

Market Research in the United States Navy: A Study of the Skills and Tools Required to Conduct Market Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis investigates the underlying policy guidance and the current skills and tools used in conducting market research within Department of the Navy procurement activities, and will explore the potential for future improvement in the market research ...

J. P. Polowczyk

1996-01-01

97

Dynamic Visual Acuity: a Functionally Relevant Research Tool  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Coordinated movements between the eyes and head are required to maintain a stable retinal image during head and body motion. The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) plays a significant role in this gaze control system that functions well for most daily activities. However, certain environmental conditions or interruptions in normal VOR function can lead to inadequate ocular compensation, resulting in oscillopsia, or blurred vision. It is therefore possible to use acuity to determine when the environmental conditions, VOR function, or the combination of the two is not conductive for maintaining clear vision. Over several years we have designed and tested several tests of dynamic visual acuity (DVA). Early tests used the difference between standing and walking acuity to assess decrements in the gaze stabilization system after spaceflight. Supporting ground-based studies measured the responses from patients with bilateral vestibular dysfunction and explored the effects of visual target viewing distance and gait cycle events on walking acuity. Results from these studies show that DVA is affected by spaceflight, is degraded in patients with vestibular dysfunction, changes with target distance, and is not consistent across the gait cycle. We have recently expanded our research to include studies in which seated subjects are translated or rotated passively. Preliminary results from this work indicate that gaze stabilization ability may differ between similar active and passive conditions, may change with age, and can be affected by the location of the visual target with respect to the axis of motion. Use of DVA as a diagnostic tool is becoming more popular but the functional nature of the acuity outcome measure also makes it ideal for identifying conditions that could lead to degraded vision. By doing so, steps can be taken to alter the problematic environments to improve the man-machine interface and optimize performance.

Peters, Brian T.; Brady, Rachel A.; Miller, Chris A.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Wood, Scott J.; Cohen, Helen S.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

2010-01-01

98

Is research working for you? validating a tool to examine the capacity of health organizations to use research  

PubMed Central

Background 'Is research working for you? A self-assessment tool and discussion guide for health services management and policy organizations', developed by the Canadian Health Services Research Foundation, is a tool that can help organizations understand their capacity to acquire, assess, adapt, and apply research. Objectives were to: determine whether the tool demonstrated response variability; describe how the tool differentiated between organizations that were known to be lower-end or higher-end research users; and describe the potential usability of the tool. Methods Thirty-two focus groups were conducted among four sectors of Canadian health organizations. In the first hour of the focus group, participants individually completed the tool and then derived a group consensus ranking on items. In the second hour, the facilitator asked about overall impressions of the tool, to identify insights that emerged during the review of items on the tool and to elicit comments on research utilization. Discussion data were analyzed qualitatively, and individual and consensus item scores were analyzed using descriptive and non-parametric statistics. Results The tool demonstrated good usability and strong response variability. Differences between higher-end and lower-end research use organizations on scores suggested that this tool has adequate discriminant validity. The group discussion based on the tool was the more useful aspect of the exercise, rather than the actual score assigned. Conclusion The tool can serve as a catalyst for an important discussion about research use at the organizational level; such a discussion, in and of itself, demonstrates potential as an intervention to encourage processes and supports for research translation.

Kothari, Anita; Edwards, Nancy; Hamel, Nadia; Judd, Maria

2009-01-01

99

Software Tools to Support Research on Airport Departure Planning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A simple, portable and useful collection of software tools has been developed for the analysis of airport surface traffic. The tools are based on a flexible and robust traffic-flow model, and include calibration, validation and simulation functionality for this model. Several different interfaces have been developed to help promote usage of these tools, including a portable Matlab(TM) implementation of the basic algorithms; a web-based interface which provides online access to automated analyses of airport traffic based on a database of real-world operations data which covers over 250 U.S. airports over a 5-year period; and an interactive simulation-based tool currently in use as part of a college-level educational module. More advanced applications for airport departure traffic include taxi-time prediction and evaluation of "windowing" congestion control.

Carr, Francis; Evans, Antony; Feron, Eric; Clarke, John-Paul

2003-01-01

100

METABOLOMICS AS A DIAGNOSTIC TOOL FOR SMALL FISH TOXICOLOGY RESEARCH  

EPA Science Inventory

Metabolomics involves the application of advanced analytical and statistical tools to profile changes in levels of endogenous metabolites in tissues and biofluids resulting from disease onset or stress. While certain metabolites are being specifically targeted in these studies, w...

101

Research investigation of helicopter main rotor/tail rotor interaction noise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Acoustic measurements were obtained in a Langley 14 x 22 foot Subsonic Wind Tunnel to study the aeroacoustic interaction of 1/5th scale main rotor, tail rotor, and fuselage models. An extensive aeroacoustic data base was acquired for main rotor, tail rotor, fuselage aerodynamic interaction for moderate forward speed flight conditions. The details of the rotor models, experimental design and procedure, aerodynamic and acoustic data acquisition and reduction are presented. The model was initially operated in trim for selected fuselage angle of attack, main rotor tip-path-plane angle, and main rotor thrust combinations. The effects of repositioning the tail rotor in the main rotor wake and the corresponding tail rotor countertorque requirements were determined. Each rotor was subsequently tested in isolation at the thrust and angle of attack combinations for trim. The acoustic data indicated that the noise was primarily dominated by the main rotor, especially for moderate speed main rotor blade-vortex interaction conditions. The tail rotor noise increased when the main rotor was removed indicating that tail rotor inflow was improved with the main rotor present.

Fitzgerald, J.; Kohlhepp, F.

1988-01-01

102

Improving studentsâ understanding of quantum measurement. II. Development of research-based learning tools  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We describe the development and implementation of research-based learning tools such as the Quantum Interactive Learning Tutorials and peer-instruction tools to reduce studentsâ common difficulties with issues related to measurement in quantum mechanics. A preliminary evaluation shows that these learning tools are effective in improving students' understanding of concepts related to quantum measurement.

Zhu, Guangtian; Singh, Chandralekha

2012-05-16

103

TB tools to tell the tale-molecular genetic methods for mycobacterial research.  

PubMed

In spite of the availability of drugs and a vaccine, tuberculosis--one of man's medical nemeses--remains a formidable public health problem, particularly in the developing world. The persistent nature of the tubercle bacillus, with one third of the world's population is estimated to be infected, combined with the emergence of multi drug-resistant strains and the exquisite susceptibility of HIV-positive individuals, has underscored the urgent need for in-depth study of the biology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis address the resurgence of TB. In aiming to understand the mechanisms by which mycobacteria react to their immediate environments, molecular genetic tools have been developed from naturally occurring genetic elements. These include protein expressing genes, and episomal and integrating elements, which have been derived mainly from prokaryotic but also from eukaryotic organisms. Molecular genetic tools that had been established as routine procedures in other prokaryotic genera were thus mimicked. Knowledge of the underlying mechanisms greatly expedited the harnessing of these elements for mycobacteriological research and has brought us to a point where these molecular genetic tools are now employed routinely in laboratories worldwide. PMID:15381150

Machowski, Edith E; Dawes, Stephanie; Mizrahi, Valerie

2005-01-01

104

Purdue study finds "label-free" imaging tool tracks nanotubes in cells, blood for biomedical research:  

Cancer.gov

Purdue University researchers have demonstrated a new imaging tool for tracking structures called carbon nanotubes in living cells and the bloodstream, which could aid efforts to perfect their use in biomedical research and clinical medicine.

105

Research Investigation of Helicopter Main Rotor/Tail Rotor Interaction Noise.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Acoustic measurements were obtained in a Langley 14 x 22 foot Subsonic Wind Tunnel to study the aeroacoustic interaction of 1/5th scale main rotor, tail rotor, and fuselage models. An extensive aeroacoustic data base was acquired for main rotor, tail roto...

J. Fitzgerald F. Kohlhepp

1988-01-01

106

[Research on infrared safety protection system for machine tool].  

PubMed

In order to ensure personal safety and prevent injury accident in machine tool operation, an infrared machine tool safety system was designed with infrared transmitting-receiving module, memory self-locked relay and voice recording-playing module. When the operator does not enter the danger area, the system has no response. Once the operator's whole or part of body enters the danger area and shades the infrared beam, the system will alarm and output an control signal to the machine tool executive element, and at the same time, the system makes the machine tool emergency stop to prevent equipment damaged and person injured. The system has a module framework, and has many advantages including safety, reliability, common use, circuit simplicity, maintenance convenience, low power consumption, low costs, working stability, easy debugging, vibration resistance and interference resistance. It is suitable for being installed and used in different machine tools such as punch machine, pour plastic machine, digital control machine, armor plate cutting machine, pipe bending machine, oil pressure machine etc. PMID:18619302

Zhang, Shuan-Ji; Zhang, Zhi-Ling; Yan, Hui-Ying; Wang, Song-De

2008-04-01

107

Practical library research: a tool for effective library management.  

PubMed Central

Librarians are being urged to conduct research as one of their professional responsibilities. Many librarians, however, avoid research, because they believe it is beyond their capabilities or resources. This paper discusses the importance of conducting applied research-research directed toward solving practical problems. The paper describes how one library conducted practical research projects, including use studies and surveys, over an eighteen-year period. These projects produced objective data that were used by the library to make management decisions that benefited both the library and its parent institution. This paper encourages other librarians to conduct practical research projects and to share the results with their colleagues through publication in the professional literature.

Schneider, E; Mankin, C J; Bastille, J D

1995-01-01

108

Research Tool Patents--Rumours of their Death are Greatly Exaggerated  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a patented drug during clinical trials is not infringement [35 U.S.C. 271(e)(1)]. Merck v Integra enlarged this "safe harbour" to accommodate preclinical use of drugs and patented "research tools" if "reasonably related" to FDA approval. The decision allowed lower courts, should they wish, to find any use of a research tool, except for…

Carroll, Peter G.; Roberts, John S.

2006-01-01

109

Capacity-to-Consent in Psychiatric Research: Development and Preliminary Testing of a Screening Tool  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Assuring research participants' capacity to provide informed consent has become increasingly important in health and mental health research, and each study faces unique capacity-assessment challenges, possibly requiring its own screening tool. This article describes the development and preliminary testing of a capacity-to-consent tool

Zayas, Luis H.; Cabassa, Leopoldo J.; Perez, M. Carmela

2005-01-01

110

"Mythbusters": A Tool for Teaching Research Methods in Psychology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Mythbusters" uses multiple research methods to test interesting topics, offering research methods students an entertaining review of course material. To test the effectiveness of "Mythbusters" clips in a psychology research methods course, we systematically selected and showed 4 clips. Students answered questions about the clips, offered their…

Burkley, Edward; Burkley, Melissa

2009-01-01

111

Main trends in experimental morphological research in angiology and outlook for its development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The main prospective trends in the problem of collateral circulation and new trends in experimental angiology with respect to the effect of gravitational forces, hypodynamia and hypokinesia on the vascular bed are discussed.

Dzhavakhishvili, N. A.; Melman, Y. P.

1980-01-01

112

Main Trends in Experimental Morphological Research in Angiology and Outlook for Its Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The main prospective trends in the problem of collateral circulation and new trends in experimental angiology with respect to the effect of gravitational forces, hypodynamia and hypokinesia on the vascular bed are discussed.

N. A. Dzhavakhishvili Y. P. Melman

1980-01-01

113

Empowering the Poor: Participatory Research as an Educational Tool.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Lindeman Center for Community Empowerment at Northern Illinois University is seeking to relate its resources to the "invisible poor." The Center works with minority and other poor communities and groups in Chicago to strengthen and support them in their self-help efforts. One of the tools for empowerment that the Center is using is…

Horton, Aimee I.; Zacharakis-Jutz, Jeff

114

Specially Made for Science: Researchers Develop Online Tools For Collaborations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Blogs, wikis, and social-networking sites such as Facebook may get media buzz these days, but for scientists, engineers, and doctors, they are not even on the radar. The most effective tools of the Internet for such people tend to be efforts more narrowly aimed at their needs, such as software that helps geneticists replicate one another's…

Guterman, Lila

2008-01-01

115

Preservice Teachers as Researchers: Using Ethnographic Tools To Interpret Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The structures of meaning preservice teachers perceived and interpreted as a result of field placements in a methods course and through the use of ethnographic tools were studied in an ethnographic design. The study involved 11 preservice teachers. It described how they shaped each other's thinking about teaching and it examined how ethnographic…

Christensen, Lois McFadyen

116

Chaos Modeling: Increasing Educational Researchers' Awareness of a New Tool.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Chaos theory is being used as a tool to study a wide variety of phenomena. It is a philosophical and empirical approach that attempts to explain relationships previously thought to be totally random. Although some relationships are truly random, many data appear to be random but reveal repeatable patterns of behavior under further investigation.…

Bobner, Ronald F.; And Others

117

The Area Resource File. A Manpower Planning and Research Tool.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Area Resource File is a computer-based county-specific health information system with broad analytical capabilities. It was originally designed as a tool to assist in the location of Area Health Education Centers (AHECs), and as a general purpose area...

1976-01-01

118

Research-tool patents: issues for health in the developing world  

Microsoft Academic Search

The patent system is now reaching into the tools of medical research, including gene sequences themselves. Many of the new patents can potentially preempt large areas of medical research and lay down legal barriers to the development of a broad category of products. Researchers must therefore consider redesigning their research to avoid use of patented techniques, or expending the effort

John H. Barton

119

TOOLS FOR RESEARCH AND EDUCATION IN SPEECH SCIENCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Center for Spoken Language Understanding (CSLU) provides free language resources to researchers and educators in all areas of speech and hearing science. These resources are of great potential value to speech scientists for analyzing speech, for diagnosing and treating speech and language problems, for researching and evaluating language technologies, and for training students in the theory and practice of

Ronald A. Cole

120

Focus groups: A new tool for qualitative research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Focus groups have received little attention from sociologists, although they are a commonly used qualitative technique in market research. The data collected in focus group sessions typically consist of tape-recorded group discussions among four to ten participants who share their thoughts and experiences on a set of topics selected by the researcher. We present a brief description of dimensions along

David L. Morgan; Margaret T. Spanish

1984-01-01

121

DCCPS: Cancer Control Research: Implementation Science: Interactive Tools and Resources  

Cancer.gov

The P.L.A.N.E.T. Follow-up Study on Usage Report describes opinions from focus group participants on the changes to Cancer Control P.L.A.N.E.T., Research-tested Intervention Programs, and Research to Reality, and their impressions of the new Webinars.

122

Using focus groups as a consumer research tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

Focus groups are an effective strategy in consumer research if conducted properly. Too often the meaning and origin of focus groups have been distorted by marketing and consumer researchers and the validity of retrieved data is questioned. By looking at the definition and evolution of focus groups, definitive advantages and disadvantages of the method emerge. Focus groups provide the collective

K. Denise Threlfall

123

Outline of Ongoing Research Activities of the Marine Ecology Research Institute, Mainly Regarding Thermal Issues in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The Marine Ecology Research Institute (MERI) was established in 1975 by an agreement among three government agencies, which\\u000a were then known as the Fisheries Agency, Energy Agency, and Environmental Agency. MERI is the only research organization in\\u000a Japan specialized in research to elucidate the effects of thermal power plant cooling systems on coastal fishery resources\\u000a and marine organisms. Most fossil

Michiyasu Kiyono; Katsutoshi Kido

124

REPRESENTATION OF NUMBERS BY QUADRATIC FORMS. MAIN RESULTS OF THE RESEARCH DONE IN GEORGIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a survey of the main results obtained by the mathemati- cians of Georgia on the representation of natural numbers by integral qua- dratic forms before 2000. 1. Throughout the 19th century mathematicians were assiduously study- ing the arithmetic function rs(n) - the number of representations of a natural number n as a sum of s squares of integers.

GEORGE LOMADZE

125

SPECIES PLANNING: AN APPROACH TO BLACK BEAR MANAGEMENT AND RESEARCH IN MAINE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Maine Department of Inland Fisheries and Wildlife began the active phase of comprehensive species planning in 1974 and implemented the resultant plan for black bears (Ursus americanus) in 1975. The black bear's past, present, and projected future status were evaluated in terms of interrelationships among population, density, distribution, habitat, use-demand, and use-opportunity. Alternate goals and objectives were formulated for

ROY D. HUGIE

126

Steam Enhanced Remediation Research for DNAPL in Fractured Rock, Loring Air Force Base, Limestone, Maine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report details a research project on Steam Enhanced Remediation (SER) for the recovery of volatile organic contaminants (VOCs) from fracture limestone that was carried out at an abandoned quarry at the former Loring Air Force Base (AFB) in Limestone,...

B. Brandon E. Davis G. Heron K. Novakowski K. Udell M. Nalipinski N. Akladiss R. Hoey S. Carroll

2005-01-01

127

Inconsistency in the items included in tools used in general health research and physical therapy to evaluate the methodological quality of randomized controlled trials: a descriptive analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Assessing the risk of bias of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) is crucial to understand how biases affect treatment effect estimates. A number of tools have been developed to evaluate risk of bias of RCTs; however, it is unknown how these tools compare to each other in the items included. The main objective of this study was to describe which individual items are included in RCT quality tools used in general health and physical therapy (PT) research, and how these items compare to those of the Cochrane Risk of Bias (RoB) tool. Methods We used comprehensive literature searches and a systematic approach to identify tools that evaluated the methodological quality or risk of bias of RCTs in general health and PT research. We extracted individual items from all quality tools. We calculated the frequency of quality items used across tools and compared them to those in the RoB tool. Comparisons were made between general health and PT quality tools using Chi-squared tests. Results In addition to the RoB tool, 26 quality tools were identified, with 19 being used in general health and seven in PT research. The total number of quality items included in general health research tools was 130, compared with 48 items across PT tools and seven items in the RoB tool. The most frequently included items in general health research tools (14/19, 74%) were inclusion and exclusion criteria, and appropriate statistical analysis. In contrast, the most frequent items included in PT tools (86%, 6/7) were: baseline comparability, blinding of investigator/assessor, and use of intention-to-treat analysis. Key items of the RoB tool (sequence generation and allocation concealment) were included in 71% (5/7) of PT tools, and 63% (12/19) and 37% (7/19) of general health research tools, respectively. Conclusions There is extensive item variation across tools that evaluate the risk of bias of RCTs in health research. Results call for an in-depth analysis of items that should be used to assess risk of bias of RCTs. Further empirical evidence on the use of individual items and the psychometric properties of risk of bias tools is needed.

2013-01-01

128

Market research for requirements analysis using linguistic tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous studies in recent months have proposed the use of linguistic instruments to support requirements analysis. There are two main reasons for this: (i) the progress made in natural language processing, (ii) the need to provide the developers of software systems with support in the early phases of requirements definition and conceptual modelling. This paper presents the results of an

Luisa Mich; Mariangela Franch; Pierluigi Novi Inverardi

2004-01-01

129

Applying Web-Based Tools for Research, Engineering, and Operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Personnel in the NASA Glenn Research Center Network and Architectures branch have performed a variety of research related to space-based sensor webs, network centric operations, security and delay tolerant networking (DTN). Quality documentation and communications, real-time monitoring and information dissemination are critical in order to perform quality research while maintaining low cost and utilizing multiple remote systems. This has been accomplished using a variety of Internet technologies often operating simultaneously. This paper describes important features of various technologies and provides a number of real-world examples of how combining Internet technologies can enable a virtual team to act efficiently as one unit to perform advanced research in operational systems. Finally, real and potential abuses of power and manipulation of information and information access is addressed.

Ivancic, William D.

2011-01-01

130

Transit Signal Priority Research Tools. (Report for 2005-2008).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the results of a research project that addresses Transit Signal Priority (TSP) deployment issues. The report reviews National Transportation Communications for ITS Protocol (NTCIP) 1211 Signal Control and Prioritization (SCP) standard...

M. Li P. Koonce S. Beaird Y. Li Y. Li

2008-01-01

131

Pain measurement tools for clinical practice and research.  

PubMed

An important component of effective postoperative pain management is a measure of the patient's pain intensity. This article examines three unidimensional pain measurement instruments and one multidimensional pain measurement instrument used in daily practice and clinical research. The strengths and weaknesses of the numerical rating scale, verbal descriptor scale, visual analogue scale, and the McGill Pain Questionnaire are discussed. Issues of validity and reliability, important in clinical research, are also presented. PMID:9095685

Flaherty, S A

1996-04-01

132

Component biomass equations for black spruce in Maine. Forest Service research paper (Final)  

SciTech Connect

Component biomass prediction equations are presented for young black spruce (Picea mariana B.S.P. (Mill.)) in northern Maine. A weighted least-squares model was used to construct the equations for small trees from 1 to 15 cm d.b.h., and an ordinary least-squares model for trees less than 2 m in height. A linearized allometric model was also tested but was not used. Equations were developed for over-dry needle, branch, bolewood, bolebark, above-ground, root, and complete tree biomass components.

Czapowskyj, M.M.; Robison, D.J.; Briggs, R.D.; White, E.H.

1985-01-01

133

The airborne infrared scanner as a geophysical research tool  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The infrared scanner is proving to be an effective anomaly-mapping tool, albeit one which depicts surface emission directly and heat mass transfer from depths only indirectly and at a threshold level 50 to 100 times the normal conductive heat flow of the earth. Moreover, successive terrain observations are affected by time-dependent variables such as the diurnal and seasonal warming and cooling cycle of a point on the earth's surface. In planning precise air borne surveys of radiant flux from the earth's surface, account must be taken of background noise created by variations in micrometeorological factors and emissivity of surface materials, as well as the diurnal temperature cycle. The effect of the diurnal cycle may be minimized by planning predawn aerial surveys. In fact, the diurnal change is very small for most water bodies and the emissivity factor for water (e) =~ 1 so a minimum background noise is characteristic of scanner records of calm water surfaces.

Friedman, J. D.

1970-01-01

134

The NASA Exoplanet Archive: Data and Tools for Exoplanet Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the contents and functionality of the NASA Exoplanet Archive, a database and toolset funded by NASA to support astronomers in the exoplanet community. The current content of the database includes interactive tables containing properties of all published exoplanets, Kepler planet candidates, threshold-crossing events, data validation reports and target stellar parameters, light curves from the Kepler and CoRoT missions and from several ground-based surveys, and spectra and radial velocity measurements from the literature. Tools provided to work with these data include a transit ephemeris predictor, both for single planets and for observing locations, light curve viewing and normalization utilities, and a periodogram and phased light curve service. The archive can be accessed at http://exoplanetarchive.ipac.caltech.edu.

Akeson, R. L.; Chen, X.; Ciardi, D.; Crane, M.; Good, J.; Harbut, M.; Jackson, E.; Kane, S. R.; Laity, A. C.; Leifer, S.; Lynn, M.; McElroy, D. L.; Papin, M.; Plavchan, P.; Ramírez, S. V.; Rey, R.; von Braun, K.; Wittman, M.; Abajian, M.; Ali, B.; Beichman, C.; Beekley, A.; Berriman, G. B.; Berukoff, S.; Bryden, G.; Chan, B.; Groom, S.; Lau, C.; Payne, A. N.; Regelson, M.; Saucedo, M.; Schmitz, M.; Stauffer, J.; Wyatt, P.; Zhang, A.

2013-08-01

135

Research pressure instrumentation for NASA Space Shuttle main engine, modification no. 5  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of Modification No. 5 of this contract is to expand the scope of work (Task C) of this research study effort to develop pressure instrumentation for the SSME. The objective of this contract (Task C) is to direct Honeywell's Solid State Electronics Division's (SSED) extensive experience and expertise in solid state sensor technology to develop prototype pressure transducers which are targeted to meet the SSME performance design goals and to fabricate, test and deliver a total of 10 prototype units. SSED's basic approach is to effectively utilize the many advantages of silicon piezoresistive strain sensing technology to achieve the objectives of advanced state-of-the-art pressure sensors in terms of reliability, accuracy and ease of manufacture. More specifically, integration of multiple functions on a single chip is the key attribute of this technology which will be exploited during this research study.

Anderson, P. J.; Nussbaum, P.; Gustafson, G.

1984-01-01

136

Genephony: a knowledge management tool for genome-wide research  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: One of the consequences of the rapid and widespread adoption of high-throughput experimental technologies is an exponential increase of the amount of data produced by genome-wide experiments. Researchers increasingly need to handle very large volumes of heterogeneous data, including both the data generated by their own experiments and the data retrieved from publicly available repositories of genomic knowledge. Integration,

Angelo Nuzzo; Alberto Riva

2009-01-01

137

Citizen Science as an Ecological Research Tool: Challenges and Benefits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citizen science, the involvement of volunteers in research, has increased the scale of ecological field studies with continent-wide, centralized monitoring efforts and, more rarely, tapping of volunteers to conduct large, coordinated, field experiments. The unique benefit for the field of ecology lies in understanding processes occurring at broad geographic scales and on private lands, which are impossible to sample extensively

Janis L. Dickinson; Benjamin Zuckerberg; David N. Bonter

138

TPACK: An Emerging Research and Development Tool for Teacher Educators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

TPACK (technological pedagogical content knowledge) has emerged as a clear and useful construct for researchers working to understand technology integration in learning and teaching. Whereas first generation TPACK work focused upon explaining and interpreting the construct, TPACK has now entered a second generation where the focus is upon using…

Baran, Evrim; Chuang, Hsueh-Hua; Thompson, Ann

2011-01-01

139

Administrative Data Linkage as a Tool for Child Maltreatment Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Linking administrative data records for the same individuals across services and over time offers a powerful, population-wide resource for child maltreatment research that can be used to identify risk and protective factors and to examine outcomes. Multistage de-identification processes have been developed to protect privacy and maintain…

Brownell, Marni D.; Jutte, Douglas P.

2013-01-01

140

NASA Human Research Wiki - An Online Collaboration Tool.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) element is one of six elements of the Human Research Program (HRP). ExMC is charged with decreasing the risk of: Inability to adequately recognize or treat an ill or injured crew member; for exploration-class miss...

J. Johnson J. Rasbury K. Barstend L. Saile S. Watkins Y. Barr

2012-01-01

141

Human Genome Project: New Tools for Tomorrow's Health Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Human Genome Project is discussed within the context of the benefits that can be derived from human biological and biomedical research in the 21st century. Explanations are given about what chromosome mapping is and the different kinds that exist. Nex...

1990-01-01

142

Computers, Laptops and Tools. ACER Research Monograph No. 56.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1997, Balwyn High School (Australia) instituted a class of 28 Year 7 students to use laptop computers across the curriculum. This report details findings from an action research project that monitored important aspects of what happened when this program was introduced. A range of measures was developed to assess the influence of the use of…

Ainley, Mary; Bourke, Valerie; Chatfield, Robert; Hillman, Kylie; Watkins, Ian

143

Configural Frequency Analysis as a Statistical Tool for Developmental Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Configural frequency analysis (CFA) is suggested as a technique for longitudinal research in developmental psychology. Stability and change in answers to multiple choice and yes-no item patterns obtained with repeated measurements are identified by CFA and illustrated by developmental analysis of an item from Gorham's Proverb Test. (Author/DWH)

Lienert, Gustav A.; Oeveste, Hans Zur

1985-01-01

144

Data Linkage: A powerful research tool with potential problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Policy makers, clinicians and researchers are demonstrating increasing interest in using data linked from multiple sources to support measurement of clinical performance and patient health outcomes. However, the utility of data linkage may be compromised by sub-optimal or incomplete linkage, leading to systematic bias. In this study, we synthesize the evidence identifying participant or population characteristics that can influence

Megan A Bohensky; Damien Jolley; Vijaya Sundararajan; Sue Evans; David V Pilcher; Ian Scott; Caroline A Brand

2010-01-01

145

Online Tools Allow Distant Students to Collaborate on Research Projects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Wesleyan Academy and Moravian School in St. Thomas, Virgin Islands, recently joined forces with Evergreen Elementary in Fort Lewis, Wash., to collaborate on a research project using My eCoach Online (http://myecoach.com) as the primary medium to share information, post ideas and findings, and develop inquiry projects on 10 topics about water.…

T.H.E. Journal, 2005

2005-01-01

146

Reimagining Science Education and Pedagogical Tools: Blending Research with Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The future of higher education in the sciences will be marked by programs that link skilled educators and research scientists from around the world with teachers for professional development and with students for high-impact learning--either virtually or physically in the field. These programs will use technology where possible to build new and…

McLaughlin, Jacqueline S.

2010-01-01

147

2011 Raditation & Climate Gordon Research Conference (July 10-15 2011- Colby College, Waterville, Maine)  

SciTech Connect

The 2011 Gordon Research Conference on Radiation and Climate will present cutting-edge research on outstanding issues in climate change, particularly those in which the interactions between clouds, aerosols, and precipitation play a major role. The Conference will feature a broad range of topics, including grand challenges in atmospheric radiation and climate, cloud and water vapor feedbacks, aerosol-cloud-precipitation-climate interactions across scales, new approaches for remote sensing and in-situ observations of clouds, aerosols and precipitation, and multi-scale modeling challenges. The invited speakers will present the most important recent advances and future challenges in these areas. The Conference will bring together a collection of leading investigators who are at the forefront of their field, and will provide opportunities for scientists, especially junior scientists and graduate students, to present their work in poster format and exchange ideas with leaders in the field. The collegial atmosphere of this Conference, with programmed discussion sessions as well as opportunities for informal gatherings in the afternoons and evenings, provides an avenue for scientists from different disciplines to brainstorm and promotes cross-disciplinary collaborations in the various research areas represented.

Prof. Max Hoggblom

2012-02-09

148

USE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH ORGANIZATIONS AS INNOVATION SUPPORT AND DECISION MAKING TOOLS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In some firms decision-making used by Information Technology (IT) professionals is influenced by IT research organizations. The more technology innovative or technology engaged the firm is found to be could indicate the technology orientation of the firm. Literature and examples point to specific tools developed by research organizations. Most of the research organizations are subscription oriented with basic to premium

Tom D. Burks

149

Attitudes toward search engines as a learning assisted tool: approach of Liaw and Huang's research model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this research is to develop new approach to investigate individual attitudes toward search engines as a learning assisted tool. This research is based on Liaw and Huang’s research model that included motivation perspective, social cognitive theory, and technology acceptance model. After factor analysis and regression analysis, the results show that the factor of perceived satisfaction of system’s

Shu-Sheng Liaw; Weng-Cheng Chang; Wu-Hsiung Hung; Hsiu-Mei Huang

2006-01-01

150

NASTRAN as an analytical research tool for composite mechanics and composite structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Selected examples are described in which NASTRAN is used as an analysis research tool for composite mechanics and for composite structural components. The examples were selected to illustrate the importance of using NASTRAN as an analysis tool in this rapidly advancing field.

Chamis, C. C.; Sinclair, J. H.; Sullivan, T. L.

1976-01-01

151

Composition and emissions of VOCs in main- and side-stream smoke of research cigarettes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well known that mainstream (MS) and sidestream (SS) cigarette smoke contains a vast number of chemical substances. Previous studies have emphasized SS smoke rather than MS smoke to which smokers are exposed, and most have used chamber tests that have several disadvantages such as wall losses. Emissions from standard research cigarettes have been measured, but relatively few constituents have been reported, and only the 1R4F (low nicotine) cigarette type has been tested. This study provides a comprehensive characterization of total, MS and SS smoke emissions for the 1R5F (ultra low nicotine), 2R4F (low nicotine), and 1R3F (standard nicotine) research cigarettes research cigarettes, including emission factors for a number of toxic compounds (e.g., benzene) and tobacco smoke tracers (e.g., 2,5-dimethyl furan). Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and particulate matter (PM) are quantified using a dynamic dilution emission measurement system that is shown to produce accurate, rapid and reproducible results for over 30 VOCs and PM. SS and MS emissions were accurately apportioned based on a mass balance of total emissions. As expected, SS emissions greatly exceeded MS emissions. The ultra low nicotine cigarette had lower emissions of most VOCs compared to low and standard nicotine cigarettes, which had similar emissions. Across the three types of cigarettes, emissions of benzene (296-535 ?g cig -1), toluene (541-1003 ?g cig -1), styrene (90-162 ?g cig -1), 2-dimethyl furan (71-244 ?g cig -1), naphthalene (15-18 ?g cig -1) and other VOCs were generally comparable to or somewhat higher than literature estimates using chamber tests.

Charles, Simone M.; Batterman, S. A.; Jia, Chunrong

152

Developing a Research Tool to Gauge Student Metacognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metacognition refers to the family of thought processes and skills used to evaluate and manage learning. A research and curriculum development project underway at Western Washington University uses introductory physics labs as a context to promote students' abilities to learn and apply metacognitive skills. A required ``narrative reflection'' has been incorporated as a weekly end-of-lab assignment. The goal of the narrative reflection is to encourage and support student metacognition while generating written artifacts that can be used by researchers to study metacognition in action. We have developed a Reflective Thinking Rubric (RTR) to analyze scanned narrative reflections. The RTR codes student writing for Metacognitive Elements, identifiable steps or aspects of metacognitive thinking at a variety of levels of sophistication. We hope to use the RTR to monitor the effect of weekly reflection on metacognitive ability and to search for correlations between metacognitive ability and conceptual understanding.

McInerny, Alistair; Boudreaux, Andrew; Rishal, Sepideh; Clare, Kelci

2012-10-01

153

Administrative data linkage as a tool for child maltreatment research.  

PubMed

Linking administrative data records for the same individuals across services and over time offers a powerful, population-wide resource for child maltreatment research that can be used to identify risk and protective factors and to examine outcomes. Multistage de-identification processes have been developed to protect privacy and maintain confidentiality of the datasets. Lack of information on those not coming to the attention of child protection agencies, and limited information on certain variables, such as individual-level SES and parenting practices, is outweighed by strengths that include large and unbiased samples, objective measures, comprehensive long-term follow-up, continuous data collection, and relatively low expense. Ever emerging methodologies and expanded holdings ensure that research using linked population-wide databases will make important contributions to the study of child maltreatment. PMID:23260116

Brownell, Marni D; Jutte, Douglas P

2013-01-01

154

Argus: A suite of tools for research in complex cognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Argus simulates a radar-like target classification task. It was developed to support research in measuring and modeling cognitive\\u000a work load. Argus is used in both single-subject and team modes. However, the Argus systemis more than just a simulated task\\u000a environment. Argus features flexible experimenter control over cognitive work load, as well as extensive data collection and\\u000a data playback facilities to

Michael J. Schoelles; Wayne D. Gray

2001-01-01

155

Bioinformatics resources for cancer research with an emphasis on gene function and structure prediction tools  

PubMed Central

The immensely popular fields of cancer research and bioinformatics overlap in many different areas, e.g. large data repositories that allow for users to analyze data from many experiments (data handling, databases), pattern mining, microarray data analysis, and interpretation of proteomics data. There are many newly available resources in these areas that may be unfamiliar to most cancer researchers wanting to incorporate bioinformatics tools and analyses into their work, and also to bioinformaticians looking for real data to develop and test algorithms. This review reveals the interdependence of cancer research and bioinformatics, and highlight the most appropriate and useful resources available to cancer researchers. These include not only public databases, but general and specific bioinformatics tools which can be useful to the cancer researcher. The primary foci are function and structure prediction tools of protein genes. The result is a useful reference to cancer researchers and bioinformaticians studying cancer alike.

Kihara, Daisuke; Yang, Yifeng David; Hawkins, Troy

2006-01-01

156

Research on bait resources in the Main Stream of Wulie River  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wulie river is the first branch of Luanhe river, and most of the water use for industrial, agricultural and living of the Chengde city is coming from it. The investigation results of 8 monitoring sections in July, 2009 show that there are 44 species of phytoplankton belonging to 7 phylum in the Main stream of Wulie river. The Bacillariophyta has the most species comparing with other species, and is the dominant species. The phytoplankton species is more in the lower reach than that in the upper reach which is relevant to the intensity of the human disturbance. There are 28 kinds of zooplanktons in the river, in which the protozoa and rotatoria are the dominant species. The zooplankton species in the lower reach show the lake characteristics which is relevant to the 12 rubber dams. There are 18 macrozoobenthos in the river, and Hydropyche, Ephemera, Baetidae and Caenis are the dominant genus. The macrozoobenthos community is simple and most of them belong to the species fond of rapids and oxygen. Investigation of the bait resources show that the water quality is good in this river, but the lower reach has appeared the lake characteristics because of the water intercepting and impounding by the rubber dams. The establishment of water conservancy engineering has changed the hydrology and river morphology, which as a result altered the bait resources of the fishes living in the rivers.

Wang, Lin; Yan, Denghua; Gan, Hong; Fu, Xiaocheng; Sun, Xiumin

2010-05-01

157

Cephalopod culture: current status of main biological models and research priorities.  

PubMed

A recent revival in using cephalopods as experimental animals has rekindled interest in their biology and life cycles, information with direct applications also in the rapidly growing ornamental aquarium species trade and in commercial aquaculture production for human consumption. Cephalopods have high rates of growth and food conversion, which for aquaculture translates into short culture cycles, high ratios of production to biomass and high cost-effectiveness. However, at present, only small-scale culture is possible and only for a few species: the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis, the loliginid squid Sepioteuthis lessoniana and the octopuses Octopus maya and O. vulgaris. These four species are the focus of this chapter, the aims of which are as follows: (1) to provide an overview of the culture requirements of cephalopods, (2) to highlight the physical and nutritional requirements at each phase of the life cycle regarded as essential for successful full-scale culture and (3) to identify current limitations and the topics on which further research is required. Knowledge of cephalopod culture methods is advanced, but commercialization is still constrained by the highly selective feeding habits of cephalopods and their requirement for large quantities of high-quality (preferably live) feed, particularly in the early stages of development. Future research should focus on problems related to the consistent production of viable numbers of juveniles, the resolution of which requires a better understanding of nutrition at all phases of the life cycle and better broodstock management, particularly regarding developments in genetic selection, control of reproduction and quality of eggs and offspring. PMID:24880794

Vidal, Erica A G; Villanueva, Roger; Andrade, José P; Gleadall, Ian G; Iglesias, José; Koueta, Noussithé; Rosas, Carlos; Segawa, Susumu; Grasse, Bret; Franco-Santos, Rita M; Albertin, Caroline B; Caamal-Monsreal, Claudia; Chimal, Maria E; Edsinger-Gonzales, Eric; Gallardo, Pedro; Le Pabic, Charles; Pascual, Cristina; Roumbedakis, Katina; Wood, James

2014-01-01

158

NASA Global Hawk: A New Tool for Earth Science Research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the Global Hawk, a unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) that NASA plans to use for Earth Sciences research. The Global Hawk is the world's first fully autonomous high-altitude, long-endurance aircraft, and is capable of conducting long duration missions. Plans are being made for the use of the aircraft on missions in the Arctic, Pacific and Western Atlantic Oceans. There are slides showing the Global Hawk Operations Center (GHOC), Flight Control and Air Traffic Control Communications Architecture, and Payload Integration and Accommodations on the Global Hawk. The first science campaign, planned for a study of the Pacific Ocean, is reviewed.

Hall, Phill

2009-01-01

159

The NASA Human Research Wiki - An Online Collaboration Tool  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) element is one of six elements of the Human Research Program (HRP). ExMC is charged with decreasing the risk of: "Inability to adequately recognize or treat an ill or injured crew member" for exploration-class missions In preparation for exploration-class missions, ExMC has compiled a large evidence base, previously available only to persons within the NASA community. ExMC has developed the "NASA Human Research Wiki" in an effort to make the ExMC information available to the general public and increase collaboration within and outside of NASA. The ExMC evidence base is comprised of several types of data, including: (1)Information on more than 80 medical conditions which could occur during space flight (a)Derived from several sources (b)Including data on incidence and potential outcomes, as captured in the Integrated Medical Model s (IMM) Clinical Finding Forms (CliFFs). (2)Approximately 25 gap reports (a)Identify any "gaps" in knowledge and/or technology that would need to be addressed in order to provide adequate medical support for these novel missions.

Barr, Yael; Rasbury, Jack; Johnson, Jordan; Barstend, Kristina; Saile, Lynn; Watkins, Sharmi

2012-01-01

160

[The main directions of research on the causes conditioning the occurrence of the borderline personality disorders].  

PubMed

Currently, there are two main directions of explaining the occurrence of the borderline personality disorders (BPD). The first of them attempts to explain them upon the constitutional basis, finding the causes in the genetic conditioning, biological and organic factors. The other one underline a role of the psychological developmental categories. A significant role is ascribed to traumatic childhood mental experiences such as: harassment and sexual abuse, as well as neglect of emotional and developmental needs of a child. About 40-71% of the infirm with the borderline personality admits to have been sexually abused. It was observed that there is a connection between the extent of sexual abuse of an individual in childhood and the intensification of the disorders proper for the borderline personality. One should, however, point out that sexual abuse, although they are regarded as a risk factor, are not seen as specific to the infirm with the borderline personality disorders. Moreover, there is a third direction referred to in the literature, seeking the causes of the occurrence of the borderline personality in a significant influence of social-cultural and environment factors. It was noticed that there is a significant correlation between the social situation and the degree of dissemination of those disorders. The borderline personality disorders are more frequent among the people of the low social status background and with relatively low level of education. More and more frequently, theorists and clinical personnel adhere to the view that the development of that disorder is caused by a combination of neurobiological and social factors, together with the pathological qualities of early-childhood development. PMID:22097186

Og?odek, Ewa; Araszkiewicz, Aleksander

2011-10-01

161

Static Analysis Tool Exposition (SATE) IV.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The NIST Software Assurance Metrics And Tool Evaluation (SAMATE) project conducted the fourth Static Analysis Tool Exposition (SATE IV) to advance research in static analysis tools that find security defects in source code. The main goals of SATE were to ...

A. Delaitre P. E. Black V. Okun

2013-01-01

162

Skype: a tool for functional assessment in orthopaedic research.  

PubMed

Skype is a free program which enables PC users to make video calls to other users with Internet access. We carried out a prospective review of all acromioclavicular joint hook plates for lateral-third clavicle fractures over a five-year period. Functional assessment with Oxford and Constant shoulder scores were carried out using Skype and compared to outpatient review using the Bland-Altman method. Of 36 patients (mean age 36 years), 33 had a computer with a video camera, all 33 had Internet access and 22 were already users of Skype. In total 29 patients were happy to take part in Skype assessment (83%). In comparison with outpatient review, there was a mean difference in the Oxford score of -0.48 (95% confidence interval -0.84, -0.12); the mean difference for the Constant score was -0.68 (95% confidence interval -1.08, -0.29). These differences were not clinically significant, confirming that Skype can be used as an alternative to goniometry in this clinical setting. A survey showed that 93% of 29 patients surveyed preferred the use of Skype for follow-up, mainly due to the convenience and cost-saving involved. The study demonstrates the potential for this new technique in providing patients with more options for follow-up. PMID:22247538

Good, Daniel W; Lui, Darren F; Leonard, Michael; Morris, Seamus; McElwain, John P

2012-03-01

163

Electrostatic Levitation: A Tool to Support Materials Research in Microgravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Containerless processing represents an important topic for materials research in microgravity. Levitated specimens are free from contact with a container, which permits studies of deeply undercooled melts, and high-temperature, highly reactive materials. Containerless processing provides data for studies of thermophysical properties, phase equilibria, metastable state formation, microstructure formation, undercooling, and nucleation. The European Space Agency (ESA) and the German Aerospace Center (DLR) jointly developed an electromagnetic levitator facility (MSL-EML) for containerless materials processing in space. The electrostatic levitator (ESL) facility at the Marshall Space Flight Center provides support for the development of containerless processing studies for the ISS. Apparatus and techniques have been developed to use the ESL to provide data for phase diagram determination, creep resistance, emissivity, specific heat, density/thermal expansion, viscosity, surface tension and triggered nucleation of melts. The capabilities and results from selected ESL-based characterization studies performed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center will be presented.

Rogers, Jan; SanSoucie, Mike

2012-01-01

164

Nucleic Acid Aptamers: Research Tools in Disease Diagnostics and Therapeutics  

PubMed Central

Aptamers are short sequences of nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) or peptide molecules which adopt a conformation and bind cognate ligands with high affinity and specificity in a manner akin to antibody-antigen interactions. It has been globally acknowledged that aptamers promise a plethora of diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Although use of nucleic acid aptamers as targeted therapeutics or mediators of targeted drug delivery is a relatively new avenue of research, one aptamer-based drug “Macugen” is FDA approved and a series of aptamer-based drugs are in clinical pipelines. The present review discusses the aspects of design, unique properties, applications, and development of different aptamers to aid in cancer diagnosis, prevention, and/or treatment under defined conditions.

Yadava, Pramod K.

2014-01-01

165

Advanced imaging microscope tools applied to microgravity research investigations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The inability to observe and interact with experiments on orbit has been an impediment for both basic research and commercial ventures using the shuttle. In order to open the frontiers of space, the Center for Microgravity Automation Technology has developed a unique and innovative system for conducting experiments at a distance, the ``Remote Scientist.'' The Remote Scientist extends laboratory automation capability to the microgravity environment. While the Remote Scientist conceptually encompasses a broad spectrum of elements and functionalities, the development approach taken is to: • establish a baseline capability that is both flexible and versatile • incrementally augment the baseline with additional functions over time. Since last year, the application of the Remote Scientist has changed from protein crystal growth to tissue culture, specifically, the development of skeletal muscle under varying levels of tension. This system includes a series of bioreactor chambers that allow for three-dimensional growth of muscle tissue on a membrane suspended between the two ends of a programmable force transducer that can provide automated or investigator-initiated tension on the developing tissue. A microscope objective mounted on a translation carriage allows for high-resolution microscopy along a large area of the tissue. These images will be mosaiced on orbit to detect features and structures that span multiple images. The use of fluorescence and pseudo-confocal microscopy will maximize the observational capabilities of this system. A series of ground-based experiments have been performed to validate the bioreactor, the force transducer, the translation carriage and the image acquisition capabilities of the Remote Scientist. • The bioreactor is capable of sustaining three dimensional tissue culture growth over time. • The force transducer can be programmed to provide static tension on cells or to simulate either slow or fast growth of underlying tissues in vivo, ranging from 0.2 mm per day to 32 mm per day. • The two-axis translation carriage is capable of scanning the camera along the bioreactor and adjusting the focus with 25 ?m resolution. • Time-lapse sequences of images have been acquired, stored and transmitted to a remote computer system. Although the current application of the Remote Scientist technology is the observation and manipulation of a tissue culture growth system, the hardware has been designed to be easily reconfigured to accommodate a multitude of experiments, including animal observation, combustion studies, protein crystal growth, plant growth and aquatic research.

Peterson, L.; Samson, J.; Conrad, D.; Clark, K.

1998-01-01

166

Main differences between volatiles of sparkling and base wines accessed through comprehensive two dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometric detection and chemometric tools.  

PubMed

The main changes in the volatile profile of base wines and their corresponding sparkling wines produced by traditional method were evaluated and investigated for the first time using headspace solid-phase microextraction combined with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry detection (GC×GC/TOFMS) and chemometric tools. Fisher ratios helped to find the 119 analytes that were responsible for the main differences between base and sparkling wines and principal component analysis explained 93.1% of the total variance related to the selected 78 compounds. It was also possible to observe five subclusters in base wines and four subclusters in sparkling wines samples through hierarchical cluster analysis, which seemed to have an organised distribution according to the regions where the wines came from. Twenty of the most important volatile compounds co-eluted with other components and separation of some of them was possible due to GC×GC/TOFMS performance. PMID:24996354

Welke, Juliane Elisa; Zanus, Mauro; Lazzarotto, Marcelo; Pulgati, Fernando Hepp; Zini, Cláudia Alcaraz

2014-12-01

167

New Tools for New Literacies Research: An Exploration of Usability Testing Software  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Competency in the new literacies of the Internet is essential for participating in contemporary society. Researchers studying these new literacies are recognizing the limitations of traditional methodological tools and adapting new technologies and new media for use in research. This paper reports our exploration of usability testing software to…

Asselin, Marlene; Moayeri, Maryam

2010-01-01

168

Pain Measurement Tools and Methods in Clinical Research in Palliative Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

An Expert Working Group was convened under the auspices of the Steering Committee of the Research Network of the European Association of Palliative Care to review the status of the use of pain measurement tools (PMTs) in palliative care research conducted in a multilingual-multicenter setting. Based on a literature review and on the experts' opinion, the present work recommends that

Augusto Caraceni; Nathan Cherny; Robin Fainsinger; Stein Kaasa; Philippe Poulain; Lukas Radbruch; Franco De Conno

2002-01-01

169

Community-based Participatory Research (CBPR) as a tool for empowerment and public policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Community-based Participatory Research (CBPR) is a collaborative approach involving community and partners in all phases of the research, aims to produce empowering outcomes including increased community capacities, broader stakeholder participation in decision-making and promotes social justice. This paper discusses CBPR as an effective vehicle for empowerment, and as a tool for engaging public policy dialogue. Through exploring concepts of participation

Crystal Tremblay

170

Development of Advanced Computational Aeroelasticity Tools at NASA Langley Research Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA Langley Research Center has continued to develop its long standing computational tools to address new challenges in aircraft and launch vehicle design. This paper discusses the application and development of those computational aeroelastic tools. Four topic areas will be discussed: 1) Modeling structural and flow field nonlinearities; 2) Integrated and modular approaches to nonlinear multidisciplinary analysis; 3) Simulating flight dynamics of flexible vehicles; and 4) Applications that support both aeronautics and space exploration.

Bartels, R. E.

2008-01-01

171

Breastfeeding and lactation research: exploring a tool to measure infant feeding patterns  

PubMed Central

Background Infant feeding categories, often referred to as breastfeeding definitions, form the basis to describe infant feeding patterns; especially, breastfeeding duration and degree of breastfeeding exclusivity. Researchers use a variety of algorithms and no validated tool exists to measure feeding patterns for research purposes. The goal of this research project was to develop and test a tool to measure patterns of infant feeding for breastfeeding and lactation research. Methods We used a literature review, survey methods, and statistical analysis to develop and test this health measurement tool. The work was completed in three phases: 1) development of the tool; 2) assessment of content validity with a panel of experts; and 3) testing for inter-rater reliability by comparing the conclusions of 2 independent research assistants (RAs) and by comparing mothers’ feeding diaries with the RAs’ findings. For the third phase, an a priori analysis determined we needed to recruit 75 participants. Inclusion criteria were women who had given birth to a single healthy newborn, planned to breastfeed and were able to breastfeed freely, were able to read and write in English or French, were willing and able to maintain a weekly feeding diary for 6 weeks and to answer 6 English telephone questionnaires (twice within 24 hrs x 3 times over 6 months. To measure inter-rater reliability, we used intraclass correlation coefficient. Results The final tool, The FeedCat Tool, contains two parts: 1) questions asked to determine what and how the baby was fed and 2) a chart to indicate the feeding category for each time point and recall period. We recruited 75 breastfeeding mothers to measure inter-rater reliability. Inter-rater reliability for classification of feeding categories by the two RAs and for agreement between the RAs’ findings at 1 month and mothers’ diaries at 4 weeks indicated excellent agreement. Conclusion We produced a feeding categories tool that can be used by researchers to describe the type, amount, and mode of feeding, and we tested the tool for content validity and reliability. Researchers should consider The FeedCat Tool for lactation and research projects requiring data about infant feeding patterns.

2014-01-01

172

Scientific Mobility and International Research Networks: Trends and Policy Tools for Promoting Research Excellence and Capacity Building  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the ways in which globalization is manifesting itself in higher education and research is through the increasing importance and emphasis on scientific mobility. This article seeks to provide an overview and analysis of current trends and policy tools for promoting mobility. The article argues that the mobility of scientific labour is an…

Jacob, Merle; Meek, V. Lynn

2013-01-01

173

Research on USMC Marksmanship Training Assessment Tools, Instructional Simulations, and Qualitative Field-Based Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Office of Naval Research (ONR) has funded the UCLA National Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing (CRESST) and its subcontractor, the University of Southern California Behavioral Technology Laboratories (BTL), to conduct re...

W. L. Bewley G. K. Chung G. C. Delacruz A. Munro J. Walker

2003-01-01

174

Isotope pattern deconvolution as rising tool for isotope tracer studies in environmental research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last decade stable isotope tracers have emerged as versatile tool in ecological research. Besides 'intrinsic' isotope tracers caused by the natural variation of isotopes, the intentional introduction of 'extrinsic' enriched stable isotope tracers into biological systems has gained significant interest. Hereby the induced change in the natural isotopic composition of an element allows amongst others for studying the fate and fluxes of metals, trace elements and species in organisms or provides an intrinsic marker or tag of particular biological samples. Due to the shoreless potential of this methodology, the number of publications dealing with applications of isotope (double) spikes as tracers to address research questions in 'real world systems' is constantly increasing. However, some isotope systems like the natural Sr isotopic system, although potentially very powerful for this type of application, are still rarely used, mainly because their adequate measurement/determination poses major analytical challenges; as e.g. Sr is available in significant amounts in natural samples. In addition, biological systems underlie complex processes such as metabolism, adsorption/desorption or oxidation/reduction. As a consequence, classic evaluation approaches such as the isotope dilution mass spectrometry equation are often not applicable because of the unknown amount of tracer finally present in the sample. Isotope pattern deconvolution (IPD), based on multiple linear regression, serves as simplified alternative data processing strategy to double spike isotope dilution calculations. The outstanding advantage of this mathematical tool lies in the possibility of deconvolving the isotope pattern in a spiked sample without knowing the quantities of enriched isotope tracer being incorporated into the natural sample matrix as well as the degree of impurities and species-interconversion (e.g. from sample preparation). Here, the potential of IPD for environmental tracer studies is critically discussed, where special emphasis is set on evaluating different data processing strategies on the example of enriched stable Sr isotopes.1 The analytical key parameters such as blank (Kr, Sr and Rb), variation of the natural Sr isotopic composition in the sample, mass bias, interferences (Rb) and total combined uncertainty are considered. A full metrological protocol for data processing using IPD is presented based on data gained during two transgenerational marking studies of fish, where the transfer of a Sr isotope double spike (84Sr and 86Sr) from female spawners of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) and brown trout (Salmo trutta f.f.)2 to the centre of the otoliths of their offspring was studied by (LA)-MC-ICP-MS. 1J. Irrgeher, A. Zitek, M. Cervicek and T. Prohaska, J. Anal. At. Spectrom., 2014, 29, 193-200. 2A. Zitek, J. Irrgeher, M. Kletzl, T. Weismann and T. Prohaska, Fish. Manage. Ecol., 2013, 20, 654-361.

Irrgeher, Johanna; Zitek, Andreas; Prohaska, Thomas

2014-05-01

175

The American Counseling Association Practice Research Network (ACA-PRN): A New Research Tool  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article features the American Counseling Association Practice Research Network (ACA-PRN). Without additional current and ongoing research data, ACA and the counseling profession are seriously hampered when they discuss counseling outcomes. Without a sound, dynamic research base that better articulates the characteristics of practicing…

Bradley, Loretta J.; Sexton, Thomas L.; Smith, Howard B.

2005-01-01

176

Research-tool patents: issues for health in the developing world.  

PubMed

The patent system is now reaching into the tools of medical research, including gene sequences themselves. Many of the new patents can potentially preempt large areas of medical research and lay down legal barriers to the development of a broad category of products. Researchers must therefore consider redesigning their research to avoid use of patented techniques, or expending the effort to obtain licences from those who hold the patents. Even if total licence fees can be kept low, there are enormous negotiation costs, and one "hold-out" may be enough to lead to project cancellation. This is making it more difficult to conduct research within the developed world, and poses important questions for the future of medical research for the benefit of the developing world. Probably the most important implication for health in the developing world is the possible general slowing down and complication of medical research. To the extent that these patents do slow down research, they weaken the contribution of the global research community to the creation and application of medical technology for the benefit of developing nations. The patents may also complicate the granting of concessional prices to developing nations - for pharmaceutical firms that seek to offer a concessional price may have to negotiate arrangements with research-tool firms, which may lose royalties as a result. Three kinds of response are plausible. One is to develop a broad or global licence to permit the patented technologies to be used for important applications in the developing world. The second is to change technical patent law doctrines. Such changes could be implemented in developed and developing nations and could be quite helpful while remaining consistent with TRIPS. The third is to negotiate specific licence arrangements, under which specific research tools are used on an agreed basis for specific applications. These negotiations are difficult and expensive, requiring both scientific and legal skills. But they will be an unavoidable part of international medical research. PMID:11953790

Barton, John H

2002-01-01

177

Knowledge Translation Tools are Emerging to Move Neck Pain Research into Practice.  

PubMed

Development or synthesis of the best clinical research is in itself insufficient to change practice. Knowledge translation (KT) is an emerging field focused on moving knowledge into practice, which is a non-linear, dynamic process that involves knowledge synthesis, transfer, adoption, implementation, and sustained use. Successful implementation requires using KT strategies based on theory, evidence, and best practice, including tools and processes that engage knowledge developers and knowledge users. Tools can provide instrumental help in implementing evidence. A variety of theoretical frameworks underlie KT and provide guidance on how tools should be developed or implemented. A taxonomy that outlines different purposes for engaging in KT and target audiences can also be useful in developing or implementing tools. Theoretical frameworks that underlie KT typically take different perspectives on KT with differential focus on the characteristics of the knowledge, knowledge users, context/environment, or the cognitive and social processes that are involved in change. Knowledge users include consumers, clinicians, and policymakers. A variety of KT tools have supporting evidence, including: clinical practice guidelines, patient decision aids, and evidence summaries or toolkits. Exemplars are provided of two KT tools to implement best practice in management of neck pain-a clinician implementation guide (toolkit) and a patient decision aid. KT frameworks, taxonomies, clinical expertise, and evidence must be integrated to develop clinical tools that implement best evidence in the management of neck pain. PMID:24155807

Macdermid, Joy C; Miller, Jordan; Gross, Anita R

2013-01-01

178

Green Fluorescent Protein-Transgenic Rat: A Tool for Organ Transplantation Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to evaluate green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic rats for use as a tool for organ transplantation research. The GFP gene construct was designed to express ubiquitously. By flow cytometry, the cells obtained from the bone marrow, spleen, and peripheral blood of the GFP transgenic rats consisted of 77, 91, and 75% GFP-positive cells, respectively.

Yoji Hakamata; Kazunori Tahara; Hiroo Uchida; Yasunaru Sakuma; Masahiko Nakamura; Akihiro Kume; Takashi Murakami; Masafumi Takahashi; Riichi Takahashi; Masumi Hirabayashi; Masatsugu Ueda; Ichiro Miyoshi; Noriyuki Kasai; Eiji Kobayashi

2001-01-01

179

Creating the Tools for Multilingualism: A School-Based Action Research Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on the small-scale evaluation of a school-based action research project, focusing on the creation of teaching materials aimed at developing tools for multilingualism for pupils aged 7-14. This three-year project was launched in September 2004 in 12 state primary schools and two secondary schools in two local authorities in the…

Martin, Cynthia

2010-01-01

180

Frontiers Reactive transport modeling: An essential tool and a new research approach for the Earth sciences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reactive transport modeling is an essential tool for the analysis of coupled physical, chemical, and biological processes in Earth systems, and has additional potential to better integrate the results from focused fundamental research on Earth materials. Appropriately designed models can describe the interactions of competing processes at a range of spatial and time scales, and hence are critical for connecting

Carl I. Steefel; Donald J. DePaolo; Peter C. Lichtner

2005-01-01

181

Managing complex research datasets using electronic tools: A meta-analysis exemplar  

PubMed Central

Meta-analyses of broad scope and complexity require investigators to organize many study documents and manage communication among several research staff. Commercially available electronic tools, e.g., EndNote, Adobe Acrobat Pro, Blackboard, Excel, and IBM SPSS Statistics (SPSS), are useful for organizing and tracking the meta-analytic process, as well as enhancing communication among research team members. The purpose of this paper is to describe the electronic processes we designed, using commercially available software, for an extensive quantitative model-testing meta-analysis we are conducting. Specific electronic tools improved the efficiency of (a) locating and screening studies, (b) screening and organizing studies and other project documents, (c) extracting data from primary studies, (d) checking data accuracy and analyses, and (e) communication among team members. The major limitation in designing and implementing a fully electronic system for meta-analysis was the requisite upfront time to: decide on which electronic tools to use, determine how these tools would be employed, develop clear guidelines for their use, and train members of the research team. The electronic process described here has been useful in streamlining the process of conducting this complex meta-analysis and enhancing communication and sharing documents among research team members.

Brown, Sharon A.; Martin, Ellen E.; Garcia, Theresa J.; Winter, Mary A.; Garcia, Alexandra A.; Brown, Adama; Cuevas, Heather E.; Sumlin, Lisa L.

2013-01-01

182

Reactive transport modeling: An essential tool and a new research approach for the Earth sciences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reactive transport modeling is an essential tool for the analysis of coupled physical, chemical, and biological processes in Earth systems, and has additional potential to better integrate the results from focused fundamental research on Earth materials. Appropriately designed models can describe the interactions of competing processes at a range of spatial and time scales, and hence are critical for connecting

Carl I. Steefel; Donald J. DePaolo; Peter C. Lichtner

2005-01-01

183

New Tools for Coast Guard Research of the Rough Water Performance of Personal Flotation Devices (PFDs).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents a progress overview of the joint U.S. Coast Guard and Transport Canada sponsored project to develop new research tools for evaluating personal flotation devices. The calm water method of testing has been a safe method for determining ...

B. Macesker G. Gareau

1997-01-01

184

MaSK: A visualization tool for teaching and research in computational chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The number of researchers using computational chemistry tools is growing every year. There are multiple programs used for calculation of various molecular and electronic properties such as optimized geometry, energy, vibrational spectra, and so forth. Another set of programs is used for the visualization of these properties. However, such programs are either too complex for a beginner or too simple

Yevgeniy Podolyan; Jerzy Leszczynski

2009-01-01

185

Improving the Usefulness of Concept Maps as a Research Tool for Science Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The search for authentic science research tools to evaluate student understanding in a hybrid learning environment with a large multimedia component has resulted in the use of concept maps as a representation of student's knowledge organization. One hundred and seventy third-semester introductory university-level engineering students represented…

Van Zele, Els; Lenaerts, Josephina; Wieme, Willem

2004-01-01

186

Managing complex research datasets using electronic tools: a meta-analysis exemplar.  

PubMed

Meta-analyses of broad scope and complexity require investigators to organize many study documents and manage communication among several research staff. Commercially available electronic tools, for example, EndNote, Adobe Acrobat Pro, Blackboard, Excel, and IBM SPSS Statistics (SPSS), are useful for organizing and tracking the meta-analytic process as well as enhancing communication among research team members. The purpose of this article is to describe the electronic processes designed, using commercially available software, for an extensive, quantitative model-testing meta-analysis. Specific electronic tools improved the efficiency of (a) locating and screening studies, (b) screening and organizing studies and other project documents, (c) extracting data from primary studies, (d) checking data accuracy and analyses, and (e) communication among team members. The major limitation in designing and implementing a fully electronic system for meta-analysis was the requisite upfront time to decide on which electronic tools to use, determine how these tools would be used, develop clear guidelines for their use, and train members of the research team. The electronic process described here has been useful in streamlining the process of conducting this complex meta-analysis and enhancing communication and sharing documents among research team members. PMID:23681256

Brown, Sharon A; Martin, Ellen E; Garcia, Theresa J; Winter, Mary A; García, Alexandra A; Brown, Adama; Cuevas, Heather E; Sumlin, Lisa L

2013-06-01

187

A Study of Work Family Integration Issues. Research of 1987 Sophomores from Eight Maine High Schools Conducted by the Maine Occupational Information Coordinating Committee and the Rural Career Development Group (Maine School Administrative District #44).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes an inquiry into the work attitudes and career decision making skills of 754 sophomores in seven rural and one urban high school in Maine. The study is the first part of a planned 7-year longitudinal study that will interview these students again when they are seniors and then again 5 years later. The eight papers in the…

Hoyt, Kenneth B.; And Others

188

New method development in prehistoric stone tool research: Evaluating use duration and data analysis protocols.  

PubMed

Lithic microwear is a research field of prehistoric stone tool (lithic) analysis that has been developed with the aim to identify how stone tools were used. It has been shown that laser scanning confocal microscopy has the potential to be a useful quantitative tool in the study of prehistoric stone tool function. In this paper, two important lines of inquiry are investigated: (1) whether the texture of worn surfaces is constant under varying durations of tool use, and (2) the development of rapid objective data analysis protocols. This study reports on the attempt to further develop these areas of study and results in a better understanding of the complexities underlying the development of flexible analytical algorithms for surface analysis. The results show that when sampling is optimised, surface texture may be linked to contact material type, independent of use duration. Further research is needed to validate this finding and test an expanded range of contact materials. The use of automated analytical protocols has shown promise but is only reliable if sampling location and scale are defined. Results suggest that the sampling protocol reports on the degree of worn surface invasiveness, complicating the ability to investigate duration related textural characterisation. PMID:25041833

Evans, Adrian A; Macdonald, Danielle A; Giusca, Claudiu L; Leach, Richard K

2014-10-01

189

Information Technology Research Services: Powerful Tools to Keep Up with a Rapidly Moving Field  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Marty firms offer Information Technology Research reports, analyst calls, conferences, seminars, tools, leadership development, etc. These entities include Gartner, Forrester Research, IDC, The Burton Group, Society for Information Management, 1nfoTech Research, The Corporate Executive Board, and so on. This talk will cover how a number of such services are being used at the Goddard Space Flight Center to improve our IT management practices, workforce skills, approach to innovation, and service delivery. These tools and services are used across the workforce, from the executive leadership to the IT worker. The presentation will cover the types of services each vendor provides and their primary engagement model. The use of these services at other NASA Centers and Headquarters will be included. In addition, I will explain how two of these services are available now to the entire NASA IT workforce through enterprise-wide subscriptions.

Hunter, Paul

2010-01-01

190

Development of an Accessible Self-Assessment Tool for Research Ethics Committees in Developing Countries  

PubMed Central

In response to increased research being performed in developing countries, many research ethics committees (RECs) have been established, but the quality of their ethics review systems remains unknown. Evaluating the performance of an REC remains a challenging task. Absent an accreditation process, a self-assessment mechanism would provide RECs a way to review their policies and processes against recognized international standards. We describe a self-assessment tool that was developed and reviewed by REC members and researchers from the Middle East. This tool reflects pragmatic aspects of human subjects protection, is based on international standards, is straightforward in its completion, and its items are relevant to the administrative processes that exist in many RECs in the developing world.

Sleem, Hany; Abdelhai, Rehab Abdelhai Ahmed; Al-Abdallat, Imad; Al-Naif, Mohammed; Gabr, Hala Mansour; Kehil, Et-taher; Sadiq, Bakr Bin; Yousri, Reham; Elsayed, Dyaeldin; Sulaiman, Suad; Silverman, Henry

2011-01-01

191

Development of "-omics" research in Schistosoma spp. and -omics-based new diagnostic tools for schistosomiasis  

PubMed Central

Schistosomiasis, caused by dioecious flatworms in the genus Schistosoma, is torturing people from many developing countries nowadays and frequently leads to severe morbidity and mortality of the patients. Praziquantel based chemotherapy and morbidity control for this disease adopted currently necessitate viable and efficient diagnostic technologies. Fortunately, those “-omics” researches, which rely on high-throughput experimental technologies to produce massive amounts of informative data, have substantially contributed to the exploitation and innovation of diagnostic tools of schistosomiasis. In its first section, this review provides a concise conclusion on the progresses pertaining to schistosomal “-omics” researches to date, followed by a comprehensive section on the diagnostic methods of schistosomiasis, especially those innovative ones based on the detection of antibodies, antigens, nucleic acids, and metabolites with a focus on those achievements inspired by “-omics” researches. Finally, suggestions about the design of future diagnostic tools of schistosomiasis are proposed, in order to better harness those data produced by “-omics” studies.

Wang, Shuqi; Hu, Wei

2014-01-01

192

Researchers develop tool to determine individual risk of prostate cancer overdiagnosis  

Cancer.gov

Researchers at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center and the University of Washington have developed a personalized tool that can predict the likelihood of prostate cancer overdiagnosis. They announced their findings this week in the online issue of the Journal of the National Cancer Institute. The researchers created a nomogram, a graphical calculating device, that incorporates a patient’s age, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level and Gleason score – which grades prostate cancer tissue based on how it looks under a microscope – to determine the likelihood that screening-detected prostate cancer has been overdiagnosed.

193

Open Support Platform for Environmental Research (OSPER) - tools for the discovery and exploitation of environmental data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Open Support Platform for Environmental Research (OSPER) has been launched to take forward key data management components developed under the Swiss Experiment platform project to achieve improved usability and a wider scope. With this project, we aim to connect users to data and their context, an area identified during SwissEx as having the greatest potential impact on the research community. OSPER has a clear focus on providing the technology for data storage, management and exploitation with a special focus on data interoperability and documentation. In this presentation, we will demonstrate the key aims of OSPER for the period 2012 - 2015. Inheriting the basic SwissEx functionality, OSPER provides an excellent method of making data accessible via their metadata. One of the biggest differences between the OSPER infrastructure and other data platforms is the level of interaction that one can have with the data and the level of integration with the analysis tools used in science. We wish to capitalise on this advantage by increasing this integration and working with environmental research projects to develop the tools that make a difference to their daily research. The new data infrastructure will serve the following purposes: ? Open documentation, archiving and discovery of datasets. ? Facilitation of data sharing and collaboration (especially inter-disciplinary) with data owner controlled access rights, particularly concentrating on providing as much contextual information as possible. ? Improvements in ease of data access and combination of data sources. ? Tools for data visualisation and statistical and numerical data analysis with a focus on spatial data and trends. Key areas identified for development during OSPER are: ? New infrastructure and content for current WebGIS-based data visualisation system to create a publicly available platform. ? Provision of data in standard formats using standard methods as well as the consumption of such data by the processing/visualisation tools. ? Provision of connected tools to provide commonly used functionality. ? Cloud compatibility. ? Greater integration of metadata and data. ? Integration of publications using advances made in the ScienceWise project. ? Advanced queries of 3- and 4-Dimensional data sources. ? Documented examples of spatio-temporal statistical tools. Each of the components of the infrastructure (database middleware, WebGIS, model interfaces and processing/visualization tools) will be designed for usage both within the OSPER system and standalone. They will provide standardized interfaces, such that they can be adapted for use with data from any compatible infrastructure, and such that the data held within OSPER can be visualized or processed using any compatible tools.

Dawes, N. M.; Lehning, M.; Bavay, M.; Sarni, S.; Iosifescu, I.; Gwadera, R.; Scipion, D. E.; Blanchet, J.; Davison, A.; Berne, A.; Hurni, L.; Parlange, M. B.; Aberer, K.

2012-12-01

194

A New Tool for Identifying Research Standards and Evaluating Research Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Much has been written about the evaluation of faculty research productivity in promotion and tenure decisions, including many articles that seek to determine the rank of various marketing journals. Yet how faculty evaluators combine journal quality, quantity, and author contribution to form judgments of a scholar's performance is unclear. A…

Bacon, Donald R.; Paul, Pallab; Stewart, Kim A.; Mukhopadhyay, Kausiki

2012-01-01

195

A Runtime Environment for Supporting Research in Resilient HPC System Software & Tools  

SciTech Connect

The high-performance computing (HPC) community continues to increase the size and complexity of hardware platforms that support advanced scientific workloads. The runtime environment (RTE) is a crucial layer in the software stack for these large-scale systems. The RTE manages the interface between the operating system and the application running in parallel on the machine. The deployment of applications and tools on large-scale HPC computing systems requires the RTE to manage process creation in a scalable manner, support sparse connectivity, and provide fault tolerance. We have developed a new RTE that provides a basis for building distributed execution environments and developing tools for HPC to aid research in system software and resilience. This paper describes the software architecture of the Scalable runTime Component Infrastructure (STCI), which is intended to provide a complete infrastructure for scalable start-up and management of many processes in large-scale HPC systems. We highlight features of the current implementation, which is provided as a system library that allows developers to easily use and integrate STCI in their tools and/or applications. The motivation for this work has been to support ongoing research activities in fault-tolerance for large-scale systems. We discuss the advantages of the modular framework employed and describe two use cases that demonstrate its capabilities: (i) an alternate runtime for a Message Passing Interface (MPI) stack, and (ii) a distributed control and communication substrate for a fault-injection tool.

Vallee, Geoffroy R [ORNL] [ORNL; Naughton, III, Thomas J [ORNL; Boehm, Swen [ORNL] [ORNL; Engelmann, Christian [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01

196

A new research tool for hybrid Bayesian networks using script language  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While continuous variables become more and more inevitable in Bayesian networks for modeling real-life applications in complex systems, there are not much software tools to support it. Popular commercial Bayesian network tools such as Hugin, and Netica etc., are either expensive or have to discretize continuous variables. In addition, some free programs existing in the literature, commonly known as BNT, GeNie/SMILE, etc, have their own advantages and disadvantages respectively. In this paper, we introduce a newly developed Java tool for model construction and inference for hybrid Bayesian networks. Via the representation power of the script language, this tool can build the hybrid model automatically based on a well defined string that follows the specific grammars. Furthermore, it implements several inference algorithms capable to accommodate hybrid Bayesian networks, including Junction Tree algorithm (JT) for conditional linear Gaussian model (CLG), and Direct Message Passing (DMP) for general hybrid Bayesian networks with CLG structure. We believe this tool will be useful for researchers in the field.

Sun, Wei; Park, Cheol Young; Carvalho, Rommel

2011-05-01

197

Informatics tools to improve clinical research study implementation. | accrualnet.cancer.gov  

Cancer.gov

In complex multisite clinical research trials, potential problems are compounded when multiple personnel at different sites are responsible for primary data collection, data entry, report form design, etc. This article describes how informatics tools can help identify and correct flawed procedures and data problems early, contributing to overall study success. For example, a value that is flagged as “bad” soon after data entry is more likely to be correctable because source documents and data originators are more readily available.

198

Transcript-based computer animation of movement: Evaluating a new tool for nonverbal behavior research  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new approach for the use of computer animation in experimental nonverbal research is introduced. The method was evaluated\\u000a in a pilot study comparing video recordings of movement in dyadic interactions with computer animations based on transcripts\\u000a of the behavior, to determine whether similar impression effects could be obtained. At the core of our development is a software\\u000a tool allowing

Gary Bente; Anita Petersen; Nicole C. Krämer; Jan Peter de Ruiter

2001-01-01

199

Open Virtual Worlds as Pedagogical Research Tools: Learning from the Schome Park Programme  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper introduces the term Open Virtual Worlds and argues that they are ‘unclaimed educational spaces’, which provide a valuable tool for researching pedagogy. Having explored these claims the way in which Teen Second Life® virtual world was used for pedagogical experimentation in the initial phases of the Schome Park Programme is described. Four sets of pedagogical dimensions that emerged are presented and illustrated with examples from the Schome Park Programme.

Twining, Peter; Peachey, Anna

200

The virtual supermarket: An innovative research tool to study consumer food purchasing behaviour  

PubMed Central

Background Economic interventions in the food environment are expected to effectively promote healthier food choices. However, before introducing them on a large scale, it is important to gain insight into the effectiveness of economic interventions and peoples' genuine reactions to price changes. Nonetheless, because of complex implementation issues, studies on price interventions are virtually non-existent. This is especially true for experiments undertaken in a retail setting. We have developed a research tool to study the effects of retail price interventions in a virtual-reality setting: the Virtual Supermarket. This paper aims to inform researchers about the features and utilization of this new software application. Results The Virtual Supermarket is a Dutch-developed three-dimensional software application in which study participants can shop in a manner comparable to a real supermarket. The tool can be used to study several food pricing and labelling strategies. The application base can be used to build future extensions and could be translated into, for example, an English-language version. The Virtual Supermarket contains a front-end which is seen by the participants, and a back-end that enables researchers to easily manipulate research conditions. The application keeps track of time spent shopping, number of products purchased, shopping budget, total expenditures and answers on configurable questionnaires. All data is digitally stored and automatically sent to a web server. A pilot study among Dutch consumers (n = 66) revealed that the application accurately collected and stored all data. Results from participant feedback revealed that 83% of the respondents considered the Virtual Supermarket easy to understand and 79% found that their virtual grocery purchases resembled their regular groceries. Conclusions The Virtual Supermarket is an innovative research tool with a great potential to assist in gaining insight into food purchasing behaviour. The application can be obtained via an URL and is freely available for academic use. The unique features of the tool include the fact that it enables researchers to easily modify research conditions and in this way study different types of interventions in a retail environment without a complex implementation process. Finally, it also maintains researcher independence and avoids conflicts of interest that may arise from industry collaboration.

2011-01-01

201

[EpiInfo as a research and teaching tool in epidemiology and statistics: strengths and weaknesses].  

PubMed

EpiInfo is a free software developed in 1988 by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta to facilitate field epidemiological investigations and statistical analysis. The aim of this study was to assess whether the software represents, in the Italian biomedical field, an effective analytical research tool and a practical and simple epidemiology and biostatistics teaching tool. A questionnaire consisting of 20 multiple-choice and open questions was administered to 300 healthcare workers, including doctors, biologists, nurses, medical students and interns, at the end of a CME course in epidemiology and biostatistics. Sixty-four percent of participants were aged between 26 and 45 years, 52% were women and 73% were unmarried. Results show that women are more likely to utilize EpiInfo in their research activities with respect to men (p = 0.023), as are individuals aged 26-45 years with respect to the older and younger age groups (p = 0.023) and unmarried participants with respect to those married (p = 0.010). Thirty-one percent of respondents consider EpiInfo to be more than adequate for analysis of their research data and 52% consider it to be sufficiently so. The inclusion of an EpiInfo course in statistics and epidemiology modules facilitates the understanding of theoretical concepts and allows researchers to more easily perform some of the clinical/epidemiological research activities. PMID:22507994

Mannocci, Alice; Bontempi, Claudio; Giraldi, Guglielmo; Chiaradia, Giacomina; de Waure, Chiara; Sferrazza, Antonella; Ricciardi, Walter; Boccia, Antonio; La Torre, Giuseppe

2012-01-01

202

NASA System-Level Design, Analysis and Simulation Tools Research on NextGen  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A review of the research accomplished in 2009 in the System-Level Design, Analysis and Simulation Tools (SLDAST) of the NASA's Airspace Systems Program is presented. This research thrust focuses on the integrated system-level assessment of component level innovations, concepts and technologies of the Next Generation Air Traffic System (NextGen) under research in the ASP program to enable the development of revolutionary improvements and modernization of the National Airspace System. The review includes the accomplishments on baseline research and the advancements on design studies and system-level assessment, including the cluster analysis as an annualization standard of the air traffic in the U.S. National Airspace, and the ACES-Air MIDAS integration for human-in-the-loop analyzes within the NAS air traffic simulation.

Bardina, Jorge

2011-01-01

203

VoiceThread as a Peer Review and Dissemination Tool for Undergraduate Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

VoiceThread has been utilized in an undergraduate research methods course for peer review and final research project dissemination. VoiceThread (http://www.voicethread.com) can be considered a social media tool, as it is a web-based technology with the capacity to enable interactive dialogue. VoiceThread is an application that allows a user to place a media collection online containing images, audio, videos, documents, and/or presentations in an interface that facilitates asynchronous communication. Participants in a VoiceThread can be passive viewers of the online content or engaged commenters via text, audio, video, with slide annotations via a doodle tool. The VoiceThread, which runs across browsers and operating systems, can be public or private for viewing and commenting and can be embedded into any website. Although few university students are aware of the VoiceThread platform (only 10% of the students surveyed by Ng (2012)), the 2009 K-12 edition of The Horizon Report (Johnson et al., 2009) lists VoiceThread as a tool to watch because of the opportunities it provides as a collaborative learning environment. In Fall 2011, eleven students enrolled in an undergraduate research methods course at Penn State Brandywine each conducted their own small-scale research project. Upon conclusion of the projects, students were required to create a poster summarizing their work for peer review. To facilitate the peer review process outside of class, each student-created PowerPoint file was placed in a VoiceThread with private access to only the class members and instructor. Each student was assigned to peer review five different student posters (i.e., VoiceThread images) with the audio and doodle tools to comment on formatting, clarity of content, etc. After the peer reviews were complete, the students were allowed to edit their PowerPoint poster files for a new VoiceThread. In the new VoiceThread, students were required to video record themselves describing their research and taking the viewer through their poster in the VoiceThread. This new VoiceThread with their final presentations was open for public viewing but not public commenting. A formal assessment was not conducted on the student impact of using VoiceThread for peer review and final research presentations. From an instructional standpoint, requiring students to use audio for the peer review commenting seemed to result in lengthier and more detailed reviews, connected with specific poster features when the doodle tool was utilized. By recording themselves as a "talking head" for the final product, students were required to be comfortable and confident with presenting their research, similar to what would be expected at a conference presentation. VoiceThread is currently being tested in general education Earth science courses at Penn State Brandywine as a dissemination tool for classroom-based inquiry projects and recruitment tool for Earth & Mineral Science majors.

Guertin, L. A.

2012-12-01

204

Exploration tools for drug discovery and beyond: applying SciFinder to interdisciplinary research.  

PubMed

Chemists have long recognized the value of online databases for surveying the literature of their field. Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) databases covering almost a century's worth of journal articles and patent documents are among the best known and widely used for searching information on compounds. Today's research presents a new challenge, however, as the boundaries of chemistry and biological sciences overlap increasingly. This trend is especially true in the drug discovery field where published findings relating to both chemical and biological entities and their interactions are examined. CAS has expanded its resources to meet the requirements of the new, interdisciplinary challenges faced by today's researchers. This is evident both in the content of CAS databases, which have been expanded to include more biology-related information, and in the technology of the search tools now available to researchers on their desktop. It is the integration of content and search-and-retrieval technology that enables new insights to be made in the vast body of accumulated information. CAS's SciFinder is a widely used research tool for this purpose. PMID:16472231

Haldeman, Margaret; Vieira, Barbara; Winer, Fred; Knutsen, Lars J S

2005-06-01

205

Advanced REACH Tool (ART): overview of version 1.0 and research needs.  

PubMed

This paper provides an outline of the Advanced REACH Tool (ART) version 1.0 and a discussion of how it could be further developed. ART is a higher tier exposure assessment tool that combines mechanistically modelled inhalation exposure predictions with available exposure data using a Bayesian approach. ART assesses exposure for scenarios across different plants and sites. Estimates are provided for different percentiles of the exposure distribution and confidence intervals around the estimate. It also produces exposure estimates in the absence of data, but uncertainty of the estimates will decrease when results of exposure measurements are included. The tool has been calibrated using a broad range of exposure data and provides estimates for exposure to vapours, mists, and dusts. ART has a robust and stable conceptual basis but will be refined in the future and should therefore be considered an evolving system. High-priority areas for future research are identified in this paper and include the integration of partially analogous measurement series, inclusion of company and site-specific assessments, user decision strategies linked to ART predictions, evaluation of validity and reliability of ART, exploring the possibilities for incorporating the dermal route and integration of ART predictions with tools for modelling internal dose. ART is initially developed in the scope of REACH but is equally useful for exposure assessment in other areas. PMID:22080161

Tielemans, Erik; Warren, Nick; Fransman, Wouter; Van Tongeren, Martie; McNally, Kevin; Tischer, Martin; Ritchie, Peter; Kromhout, Hans; Schinkel, Jody; Schneider, Thomas; Cherrie, John W

2011-11-01

206

The concept map as a research and evaluation tool: Further evidence of validity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study sought further evidence of the concurrent validity of concept mapping as a research and evaluation tool in science education. Specifically, the study examined the extent to which differences exist in the concept maps of advanced college biology majors (N = 25) and beginning nonmajors (N = 25) in the domain of mammals. Furthermore, it explored whether these differences are reflected in the way subjects assign class membership as revealed in a card sorting task. The results indicate that concept maps of biology majors are structurally more complex than those of nonmajors and that differences in the structural complexity and organizational patterns depicted in concept maps are reflected in the underlying dimensions used to assign class membership. Together, these findings suggest that the concept map provides a theoretically powerful and psychometrically sound tool for assessing conceptual change in experimental and classroom settings.

Markham, Kimberly M.; Mintzes, Joel J.; Jones, M. Gail

207

The Frequency and Placement of Main Ideas in Children's Social Studies Textbooks: A Modified Replication of Braddock's Research on Topic Sentences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Braddock (1974) evaluated adult, expository reading materials for the frequency and placement of topic sentences (main ideas). Results indicated that relatively infrequently were main ideas directly stated in expository prose, and that paragraphs opened with a simple topic sentence only 13% of the time. This study was a modified replication of Braddock's research in which second-, fourth-, sixth-, and eighth-grade

James F. Baumann; Judith K. Serra

1984-01-01

208

New 3D Tools Provide Insights for Earth Interior Research, Visualization, and Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Investigations of Earth's interior, from crust to core, inherently utilize spatially-based data and models. Examples include the distribution of earthquake hypocenters, seismic wave raypaths, and seismic velocity heterogeneity maps derived by methods such as forward modeling and travel-time tomography. Visualization of such information is generally limited to 2D maps and cross-sections, which ultimately can limit the interpretation of inherently 3D problems. While a wide range of images produced for the GeoWall has provided an immediate impact in the classroom, few software tools are available for educators and researchers to create new discipline-specific images without the aid of software developers or commercial software applications. In this work, we describe a new set of visualization construction tools tailored for the GeoWall and other VRML-based systems that is designed for broad use and free distribution. HoloDraw is a software suite that enables the transformation of 2D, 3D and 4D data sets into 3D stereo GeoWall images. These tools, which are currently in development, facilitate use of existing GMT (Wessel, P. and W. H. F. Smith, Free software helps map and display data, EOS Trans. AGU, 72, 441, 1991) scripts and their data sources, and produce 3D files for the GeoWall, suitably configured web browsers, and other software packages capable of viewing VRML files. HoloDraw runs on Unix, Macintosh, and Windows, using script files and command lines to create rectilinear or spherical projections of a wide range of data sets. We will present several images constructed with HoloDraw, including heterogeneity maps from global and regional seismic tomography, earthquake hypocentral locations, and source-receiver raypaths used for deducing D'' topography. We show that HoloDraw facilitates bringing new life to existing data sets through 3D visualization techniques that are easily transported to web browsers and the GeoWall. The two immediate benefits of HoloDraw are: (1) It allows researchers to view data and/or models from perspectives previously unavailable or impractical to create. In some cases this process facilitates important next-step research decisions that may have otherwise been obscured. (2) HoloDraw enables researchers to transport existing 2D image construction scripts (e.g., GMT tools) into 3D, providing a clear and comprehensible transfer of research knowledge and discovery to all levels of students and colleagues.

Simkin, M. V.; Garnero, E. J.; Fouch, M. J.

2003-12-01

209

The DEDUCE Guided Query Tool: Providing Simplified Access to Clinical Data for Research and Quality Improvement  

PubMed Central

In many healthcare organizations, comparative effectiveness research and quality improvement (QI) investigations are hampered by a lack of access to data created as a byproduct of patient care. Data collection often hinges upon either manual chart review or ad hoc requests to technical experts who support legacy clinical systems. In order to facilitate this needed capacity for data exploration at our institution (Duke University Health System), we have designed and deployed a robust Web application for cohort identification and data extraction—the Duke Enterprise Data Unified Content Explorer (DEDUCE). DEDUCE is envisioned as a simple, web-based environment that allows investigators access to administrative, financial, and clinical information generated during patient care. By using business intelligence tools to create a view into Duke Medicine's enterprise data warehouse, DEDUCE provides a guided query functionality using a wizard-like interface that lets users filter through millions of clinical records, explore aggregate reports, and, export extracts. Researchers and QI specialists can obtain detailed patient- and observation-level extracts without needing to understand structured query language or the underlying database model. Developers designing such tools must devote sufficient training and develop application safeguards to ensure that patient-centered clinical researchers understand when observation-level extracts should be used. This may mitigate the risk of data being misunderstood and consequently used in an improper fashion.

Horvath, Monica M.; Winfield, Stephanie; Evans, Steve; Slopek, Steve; Shang, Howard; Ferranti, Jeffrey

2011-01-01

210

The DEDUCE Guided Query tool: providing simplified access to clinical data for research and quality improvement.  

PubMed

In many healthcare organizations, comparative effectiveness research and quality improvement (QI) investigations are hampered by a lack of access to data created as a byproduct of patient care. Data collection often hinges upon either manual chart review or ad hoc requests to technical experts who support legacy clinical systems. In order to facilitate this needed capacity for data exploration at our institution (Duke University Health System), we have designed and deployed a robust Web application for cohort identification and data extraction--the Duke Enterprise Data Unified Content Explorer (DEDUCE). DEDUCE is envisioned as a simple, web-based environment that allows investigators access to administrative, financial, and clinical information generated during patient care. By using business intelligence tools to create a view into Duke Medicine's enterprise data warehouse, DEDUCE provides a Guided Query functionality using a wizard-like interface that lets users filter through millions of clinical records, explore aggregate reports, and, export extracts. Researchers and QI specialists can obtain detailed patient- and observation-level extracts without needing to understand structured query language or the underlying database model. Developers designing such tools must devote sufficient training and develop application safeguards to ensure that patient-centered clinical researchers understand when observation-level extracts should be used. This may mitigate the risk of data being misunderstood and consequently used in an improper fashion. PMID:21130181

Horvath, Monica M; Winfield, Stephanie; Evans, Steve; Slopek, Steve; Shang, Howard; Ferranti, Jeffrey

2011-04-01

211

Feasibility of a Single-Payer Health Plan Model for the State of Maine. Washington, DC: Mathematica Policy Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reports on the estimates produced by an interactive policy microsimulation model developed to help study the feasibility of a single-payer plan that would cover all Maine citizens and guarantee savings of 5 percent relative to existing health care costs. Notes that such a system appears to be economically feasible for Maine. Although the system would increase total health care spending,

Deborah Chollet; Glen Mays; January Angeles; Roland McDevitt; Ryan Lore

2002-01-01

212

Oxytocin and Vasopressin Agonists and Antagonists as Research Tools and Potential Therapeutics  

PubMed Central

We recently reviewed the status of peptide and nonpeptide agonists and antagonists for the V1a, V1b and V2 receptors for arginine vasopressin (AVP) and the oxytocin receptor for oxytocin (OT). In the present review, we update the status of peptides and nonpeptides as: (i) research tools and (ii) therapeutic agents. We also present our recent findings on the design of fluorescent ligands for V1b receptor localisation and for OT receptor dimerisation. We note the exciting discoveries regarding two novel naturally occurring analogues of OT. Recent reports of a selective VP V1a agonist and a selective OT agonist point to the continued therapeutic potential of peptides in this field. To date, only two nonpeptides, the V2/V1a antagonist, conivaptan and the V2 antagonist tolvaptan have received Food and Drug Administration approval for clinical use. The development of nonpeptide AVP V1a, V1b and V2 antagonists and OT agonists and antagonists has recently been abandoned by Merck, Sanofi and Pfizer. A promising OT antagonist, Retosiban, developed at Glaxo SmithKline is currently in a Phase II clinical trial for the prevention of premature labour. A number of the nonpeptide ligands that were not successful in clinical trials are proving to be valuable as research tools. Peptide agonists and antagonists continue to be very widely used as research tools in this field. In this regard, we present receptor data on some of the most widely used peptide and nonpeptide ligands, as a guide for their use, especially with regard to receptor selectivity and species differences.

Manning, M; Misicka, A; Olma, A; Bankowski, K; Stoev, S; Chini, B; Durroux, T; Mouillac, B; Corbani, M; Guillon, G

2012-01-01

213

Synthetic biology in mammalian cells: Next generation research tools and therapeutics  

PubMed Central

Recent progress in DNA manipulation and gene circuit engineering has greatly improved our ability to programme and probe mammalian cell behaviour. These advances have led to a new generation of synthetic biology research tools and potential therapeutic applications. Programmable DNA-binding domains and RNA regulators are leading to unprecedented control of gene expression and elucidation of gene function. Rebuilding complex biological circuits such as T cell receptor signalling in isolation from their natural context has deepened our understanding of network motifs and signalling pathways. Synthetic biology is also leading to innovative therapeutic interventions based on cell-based therapies, protein drugs, vaccines and gene therapies.

Lienert, Florian; Lohmueller, Jason J; Garg, Abhishek; Silver, Pamela A

2014-01-01

214

Meta-analysis: A tool for clinical and experimental research in psychiatry  

PubMed Central

The meta-analysis study is a type of systematic review with strong scientific rigor; it has a number of characteristics that makes it a very useful tool. However, performing and reading meta-analysis could be a challenge—the meta-analysis overcomes the limitation of small sample sizes or rare outcomes by pooling results from individual studies in order to generate a single and better estimate. It also increases statistical power and allows the evaluation of discrepancies among the results of different studies. In this paper, we will present examples to illustrate how psychiatrists can utilize a meta-analysis in clinical and experimental research.

2014-01-01

215

Meta-analysis: a tool for clinical and experimental research in psychiatry.  

PubMed

The meta-analysis study is a type of systematic review with strong scientific rigor; it has a number of characteristics that makes it a very useful tool. However, performing and reading meta-analysis could be a challenge-the meta-analysis overcomes the limitation of small sample sizes or rare outcomes by pooling results from individual studies in order to generate a single and better estimate. It also increases statistical power and allows the evaluation of discrepancies among the results of different studies. In this paper, we will present examples to illustrate how psychiatrists can utilize a meta-analysis in clinical and experimental research. PMID:24040998

González-Castro, Thelma Beatriz; Tovilla-Zárate, Carlos Alfonso

2014-05-01

216

Ocular static and dynamic light scattering: a noninvasive diagnostic tool for eye research and clinical practice  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The noninvasive techniques of static and dynamic light scattering are emerging as valuable diagnostic tools for the early detection of ocular and systemic diseases. These include corneal abnormalities, pigmentary dispersion syndrome, glaucoma, cataract, diabetic vitreopathy, and possibly macular degeneration. Systemic conditions such as diabetes and possibly Alzheimer's disease can potentially be detected early via ocular tissues. The current state of development of these techniques for application to ophthalmic research and ultimately clinical practice is reviewed. (c) 2004 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers.

Ansari, Rafat R.

2004-01-01

217

Synthetic biology in mammalian cells: next generation research tools and therapeutics.  

PubMed

Recent progress in DNA manipulation and gene circuit engineering has greatly improved our ability to programme and probe mammalian cell behaviour. These advances have led to a new generation of synthetic biology research tools and potential therapeutic applications. Programmable DNA-binding domains and RNA regulators are leading to unprecedented control of gene expression and elucidation of gene function. Rebuilding complex biological circuits such as T cell receptor signalling in isolation from their natural context has deepened our understanding of network motifs and signalling pathways. Synthetic biology is also leading to innovative therapeutic interventions based on cell-based therapies, protein drugs, vaccines and gene therapies. PMID:24434884

Lienert, Florian; Lohmueller, Jason J; Garg, Abhishek; Silver, Pamela A

2014-02-01

218

Ambient Particulate Matter during MILAGRO in Mexico City: Main Findings, Impacts (on AQ and Climate), and Future Research Needs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The MILAGRO campaign was a large international field experiments conduced in Mexico City and Central Mexico during March 2006. We present an overview of the main findings related to particulate matter and aerosol radiative properties. PM levels inside Mexico City were similar or higher than those in the most polluted North American cities, but ~5 times lower than levels in the most polluted Asian megacities During the study, PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations in the urban area of were about double the concentrations in the rural areas surrounding Mexico City. PM2.5 made up about half of the PM10 concentrations, with small amounts of mass in the PM2.5-PM1.0 range. Mineral matter made up approximately 25% of the PM10 and on average 15% and 28% of the PM2.5 in the urban and rural areas, respectively. Approximately 25% of the PM2.5 was secondary inorganic ions with the remaining PM2.5 mass being comprised of largely carbonaceous aerosol. Except for surface measurements at the central sampling sites in Mexico city, the elemental carbon mass absorption efficiency was relatively constant for aircraft and surface measurements throughout the study, contrary to expectations. Although different organic aerosol (OA) source apportionment methods had some differences, there was agreement that the dominant sources of carbonaceous aerosol were secondary OA (SOA), biomass burning, and mobile sources. The impact of biomass burning to the aerosol outflow from the region was much larger than to the surface concentrations inside the city. SOA formation from primary semivolatile and intermediate volatility precursors has the potential to close the gap in predicted vs. measured SOA, while formation from glyoxal also makes an important contribution, especially to organic oxygen. Biogenic SOA advected from the coastal mountain ranges contributes about 1 ?g m-3 to concentrations in the MCMA. Primary OA from anthropogenic and biomass burning sources was found to be semivolatile, while secondary OA was less volatile than POA and aged SOA was essentially non-volatile, in contradiction with current models. Growth rates of new particle formation in Mexico City was very large and found to be impacted by nitrogen containing organic compounds, organic acids, and hydroxyl organic acids, with only a smaller fraction of sulfate aerosol. Some open research questions include the following: additional work is needed to fully quantify the sources of substantial (30-45%) modern carbon in organic aerosols during low biomass burning periods. Discrepancies between the two modern carbon datasets deserve further study. The impact of regional dust vs. road resuspension, as well as heterogeneous reactions of HNO3 with dust need to be quantified. The impact of some POA sources such as food cooking, biofuel use, and open trash burning may be important, but remains poorly characterized. Some differences in the apportionment of biomass burning PM between different approaches were observed and need further research, as these techniques together represent the state of the art for source apportionment. Anthropogenic SOA predictions are improving in terms of magnitude but are poorly constrained by the data. More specific precursor, intermediate, and tracer measurements are needed in future campaigns. SOA from biomass burning sources, although not dominant in the city, remains poorly characterized and appears to be underpredicted by traditional models.

Jimenez, Jose-Luis; Schauer, James J.; Molina, Luisa T.; MILAGRO Pm Team

2010-05-01

219

Automated riverine landscape characterization: GIS-based tools for watershed-scale research, assessment, and management.  

PubMed

River systems consist of hydrogeomorphic patches (HPs) that emerge at multiple spatiotemporal scales. Functional process zones (FPZs) are HPs that exist at the river valley scale and are important strata for framing whole-watershed research questions and management plans. Hierarchical classification procedures aid in HP identification by grouping sections of river based on their hydrogeomorphic character; however, collecting data required for such procedures with field-based methods is often impractical. We developed a set of GIS-based tools that facilitate rapid, low cost riverine landscape characterization and FPZ classification. Our tools, termed RESonate, consist of a custom toolbox designed for ESRI ArcGIS®. RESonate automatically extracts 13 hydrogeomorphic variables from readily available geospatial datasets and datasets derived from modeling procedures. An advanced 2D flood model, FLDPLN, designed for MATLAB® is used to determine valley morphology by systematically flooding river networks. When used in conjunction with other modeling procedures, RESonate and FLDPLN can assess the character of large river networks quickly and at very low costs. Here we describe tool and model functions in addition to their benefits, limitations, and applications. PMID:23435849

Williams, Bradley S; D'Amico, Ellen; Kastens, Jude H; Thorp, James H; Flotemersch, Joseph E; Thoms, Martin C

2013-09-01

220

Assessing children's competence to consent in research by a standardized tool: a validity study  

PubMed Central

Background Currently over 50% of drugs prescribed to children have not been evaluated properly for use in their age group. One key reason why children have been excluded from clinical trials is that they are not considered able to exercise meaningful autonomy over the decision to participate. Dutch law states that competence to consent can be presumed present at the age of 12 and above; however, in pediatric practice children’s competence is not that clearly presented and the transition from assent to active consent is gradual. A gold standard for competence assessment in children does not exist. In this article we describe a study protocol on the development of a standardized tool for assessing competence to consent in research in children and adolescents. Methods/design In this study we modified the MacCAT-CR, the best evaluated competence assessment tool for adults, for use in children and adolescents. We will administer the tool prospectively to a cohort of pediatric patients from 6 to18 years during the selection stages of ongoing clinical trials. The outcomes of the MacCAT-CR interviews will be compared to a reference standard, established by the judgments of clinical investigators, and an expert panel consisting of child psychiatrists, child psychologists and medical ethicists. The reliability, criterion-related validity and reproducibility of the tool will be determined. As MacCAT-CR is a multi-item scale consisting of 13 items, power was justified at 130–190 subjects, providing a minimum of 10–15 observations per item. MacCAT-CR outcomes will be correlated with age, life experience, IQ, ethnicity, socio-economic status and competence judgment of the parent(s). It is anticipated that 160 participants will be recruited over 2 years to complete enrollment. Discussion A validity study on an assessment tool of competence to consent is strongly needed in research practice, particularly in the child and adolescent population. In this study we will establish a reference standard of children’s competence to consent, combined with validation of an assessment instrument. Results can facilitate responsible involvement of children in clinical trials by further development of guidelines, health-care policies and legal policies.

2012-01-01

221

Genome Elimination: Translating Basic Research into a Future Tool for Plant Breeding  

PubMed Central

During the course of our history, humankind has been through different periods of agricultural improvement aimed at enhancing our food supply and the performance of food crops. In recent years, it has become apparent that future crop improvement efforts will require new approaches to address the local challenges of farmers while empowering discovery across industry and academia. New plant breeding approaches are needed to meet this challenge to help feed a growing world population. Here I discuss how a basic research discovery is being translated into a potential future tool for plant breeding, and share the story of researcher Simon Chan, who recognized the potential application of this new approach—genome elimination—for the breeding of staple food crops in Africa and South America.

Comai, Luca

2014-01-01

222

Applications of 'TissueQuant'- a color intensity quantification tool for medical research.  

PubMed

This paper demonstrates the use of TissueQuant - an image analysis tool for quantification of color intensities which was developed for use in medical research where the stained biological specimen such as tissue or antigen needs to be quantified. TissueQuant provides facilities for user interaction to choose and quantify the color of interest and its shades. Gaussian weighting functions are used to provide a color score which quantifies how close the shade is to the user specified reference color. We describe two studies in medical research which use TissueQuant for quantification. The first study evaluated the effect of petroleum-ether extract of Cissus quadrangularis (CQ) on osteoporotic rats. It was found that the analysis results correlated well with the manual evaluation, p < 0.001. The second study evaluated the nerve morphometry and it was found that the adipose and non adipose tissue content was maximum in radial nerve among the five nerves studied. PMID:21924792

Prasad, Keerthana; P, Bhagath Kumar; Chakravarthy, Marx; Prabhu, Gopalakrishna

2012-04-01

223

Genome elimination: translating basic research into a future tool for plant breeding.  

PubMed

During the course of our history, humankind has been through different periods of agricultural improvement aimed at enhancing our food supply and the performance of food crops. In recent years, it has become apparent that future crop improvement efforts will require new approaches to address the local challenges of farmers while empowering discovery across industry and academia. New plant breeding approaches are needed to meet this challenge to help feed a growing world population. Here I discuss how a basic research discovery is being translated into a potential future tool for plant breeding, and share the story of researcher Simon Chan, who recognized the potential application of this new approach-genome elimination-for the breeding of staple food crops in Africa and South America. PMID:24915001

Comai, Luca

2014-06-01

224

Rapidly Re-Configurable Flight Simulator Tools for Crew Vehicle Integration Research and Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

While simulation is a valuable research and design tool, the time and difficulty required to create new simulations (or re-use existing simulations) often limits their application. This report describes the design of the software architecture for the Reconfigurable Flight Simulator (RFS), which provides a robust simulation framework that allows the simulator to fulfill multiple research and development goals. The core of the architecture provides the interface standards for simulation components, registers and initializes components, and handles the communication between simulation components. The simulation components are each a pre-compiled library 'plug-in' module. This modularity allows independent development and sharing of individual simulation components. Additional interfaces can be provided through the use of Object Data/Method Extensions (OD/ME). RFS provides a programmable run-time environment for real-time access and manipulation, and has networking capabilities using the High Level Architecture (HLA).

Schutte, Paul C.; Trujillo, Anna; Pritchett, Amy R.

2000-01-01

225

Rapidly Re-Configurable Flight Simulator Tools for Crew Vehicle Integration Research and Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

While simulation is a valuable research and design tool, the time and difficulty required to create new simulations (or re-use existing simulations) often limits their application. This report describes the design of the software architecture for the Reconfigurable Flight Simulator (RFS), which provides a robust simulation framework that allows the simulator to fulfill multiple research and development goals. The core of the architecture provides the interface standards for simulation components, registers and initializes components, and handles the communication between simulation components. The simulation components are each a pre-compiled library 'plugin' module. This modularity allows independent development and sharing of individual simulation components. Additional interfaces can be provided through the use of Object Data/Method Extensions (OD/ME). RFS provides a programmable run-time environment for real-time access and manipulation, and has networking capabilities using the High Level Architecture (HLA).

Pritchett, Amy R.

2002-01-01

226

Lower body negative pressure as a tool for research in aerospace physiology and military medicine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lower body negative pressure (LBNP) has been extensively used for decades in aerospace physiological research as a tool to investigate cardiovascular mechanisms that are associated with or underlie performance in aerospace and military environments. In comparison with clinical stand and tilt tests, LBNP represents a relatively safe methodology for inducing highly reproducible hemodynamic responses during exposure to footward fluid shifts similar to those experienced under orthostatic challenge. By maintaining an orthostatic challenge in a supine posture, removal of leg support (muscle pump) and head motion (vestibular stimuli) during LBNP provides the capability to isolate cardiovascular mechanisms that regulate blood pressure. LBNP can be used for physiological measurements, clinical diagnoses and investigational research comparisons of subject populations and alterations in physiological status. The applications of LBNP to the study of blood pressure regulation in spaceflight, groundbased simulations of low gravity, and hemorrhage have provided unique insights and understanding for development of countermeasures based on physiological mechanisms underlying the operational problems.

Convertino, V. A.

2001-01-01

227

Evaluation Procedure for Building Energy Performance Prediction Tools: Volume 2. Background Research Documentation: Appendix C, Development of Design Tool Categorization Method.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this report is to describe the development of a method for categorizing building energy design tools. The categorization method was created to be the first step in a research project for the US Department of Energy, the purpose of which is ...

1984-01-01

228

Action-Research and Food and Nutrition Security: A School Experience Mediated by Conceptual Graphic Representation Tool  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study deals with the development of a graphic representation tool as a way to support educational planning in an elementary school in the rural area of Brasilia (Brazil's capital), aiming at the implementation of an integrated action-research project focusing on hunger and nutrition. The graphic tool made it possible to promote…

Graebner, Ivete Teresinha; de Souza, Elizabeth Maria Tala; Saito, Carlos Hiroo

2009-01-01

229

Laboratory directed research and development final report: Intelligent tools for on-machine acceptance of precision machined components  

Microsoft Academic Search

On-Machine Acceptance (OMA) is an agile manufacturing concept being developed for machine tools at SNL. The concept behind OMA is the integration of product design, fabrication, and qualification processes by using the machining center as a fabrication and inspection tool. This report documents the final results of a Laboratory Directed Research and Development effort to qualify OMA.

N. G. Christensen; L. D. Harwell; A. Hazelton

1997-01-01

230

Laboratory directed research and development final report: Intelligent tools for on-machine acceptance of precision machined components  

SciTech Connect

On-Machine Acceptance (OMA) is an agile manufacturing concept being developed for machine tools at SNL. The concept behind OMA is the integration of product design, fabrication, and qualification processes by using the machining center as a fabrication and inspection tool. This report documents the final results of a Laboratory Directed Research and Development effort to qualify OMA.

Christensen, N.G.; Harwell, L.D.; Hazelton, A.

1997-02-01

231

Visualising the past: potential applications of Geospatial tools to paleoclimate research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent advances in geospatial data acquisition, analysis and web-based data sharing offer new possibilities for understanding and visualising past modes of change. The availability, accessibility and cost-effectiveness of data is better than ever. Researchers can access remotely sensed data including terrain models; use secondary data from large consolidated repositories; make more accurate field measurements and combine data from disparate sources to form a single asset. An increase in the quantity and consistency of data is coupled with subtle yet significant improvements to the way in which geospatial systems manage data interoperability, topological and textual integrity, resulting in more stable analytical and modelling environments. Essentially, researchers now have greater control and more confidence in analytical tools and outputs. Web-based data sharing is growing rapidly, enabling researchers to publish and consume data directly into their spatial systems through OGC-compliant Web Map Services (WMS), Web Feature Services (WFS) and Web Coverage Services (WCS). This has been implemented at institutional, organisational and project scale around the globe. Some institutions have gone one step further and established Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDI) based on Federated Data Structures where the participating data owners retain control over who has access to what. It is important that advances in knowledge are transferred to audiences outside the scientific community in a way that is interesting and meaningful. The visualisation of paleodata through multi-media offers significant opportunities to highlight the parallels and distinctions between past climate dynamics and the challenges of today and tomorrow. Here we present an assessment of key innovations that demonstrate how Geospatial tools can be applied to palaeo-research and used to communicate the results to a diverse array of audiences in the digital age.

Cook, A.; Turney, C. S.

2012-12-01

232

miRspring: a compact standalone research tool for analyzing miRNA-seq data.  

PubMed

High-throughput sequencing for microRNA (miRNA) profiling has revealed a vast complexity of miRNA processing variants, but these are difficult to discern for those without bioinformatics expertise and large computing capability. In this article, we present miRNA Sequence Profiling (miRspring) (http://mirspring.victorchang.edu.au), a software solution that creates a small portable research document that visualizes, calculates and reports on the complexities of miRNA processing. We designed an index-compression algorithm that allows the miRspring document to reproduce a complete miRNA sequence data set while retaining a small file size (typically <3 MB). Through analysis of 73 public data sets, we demonstrate miRspring's features in assessing quality parameters, miRNA cluster expression levels and miRNA processing. Additionally, we report on a new class of miRNA variants, which we term seed-isomiRs, identified through the novel visualization tools of the miRspring document. Further investigation identified that ?30% of human miRBase entries are likely to have a seed-isomiR. We believe that miRspring will be a highly useful research tool that will enhance the analysis of miRNA data sets and thus increase our understanding of miRNA biology. PMID:23775795

Humphreys, David T; Suter, Catherine M

2013-08-01

233

Nutriproteomics: a promising tool to link diet and diseases in nutritional research.  

PubMed

Nutriproteomics is a nascent research arena, exploiting the dynamics of proteomic tools to characterize molecular and cellular changes in protein expression and function on a global level as well as judging the interaction of proteins with food nutrients. As nutrients are present in complex mixtures, the bioavailability and functions of each nutrient can be influenced by the presence of other nutrients/compounds and interactions. The first half of this review focuses on the techniques used as nutriproteomic tools for identification, quantification, characterization and analyses of proteins including, two-dimensional polyacrylamide electrophoresis, chromatography, mass spectrometry, microarray and other emerging technologies involving visual proteomics. The second half narrates the potential of nutriproteomics in medical and nutritional research for revolutionizing biomarker and drug development, nutraceutical discovery, biological process modeling, preclinical nutrition linking diet and diseases and structuring ways to a personalized nutrition. Though several challenges such as protein dynamics, analytical complexity, cost and resolution still exist, the scope of applying proteomics to nutrition is rapidly expanding and promising as more holistic strategies are emerging. PMID:22732351

Ganesh, Vijayalakshmi; Hettiarachchy, Navam S

2012-10-01

234

The Virtual Museum for Meteorites: an Online Tool for Researchers Educators and Students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Virtual Museum for Meteorites (Figure 1) was created as a tool for students, educators and researchers [1, 2]. One of the aims of this online resource is to promote the interest in meteorites. Thus, the role of meteorites in education and outreach is fundamental, as these are very valuable tools to promote the public's interest in Astronomy and Planetary Sciences. Meteorite exhibitions reveal the fascination of students, educators and even researchers for these extraterrestrial rocks and how these can explain many key questions origin and evolution of our Solar System. However, despite the efforts related to the origin and evolution of our Solar System. However, despite the efforts of private collectors, museums and other institutions to organize meteorite exhibitions, the reach of these is usually limited. The Virtual Museum for Meteorites takes advantage of HTML and related technologies to overcome local boundaries and offer its contents for a global audience. A description of the recent developments performed in the framework of this virtual museum is given in this work.

Madiedo, J. M.

2013-09-01

235

Build your own social network laboratory with Social Lab: A tool for research in social media.  

PubMed

Social networking has surpassed e-mail and instant messaging as the dominant form of online communication (Meeker, Devitt, & Wu, 2010). Currently, all large social networks are proprietary, making it difficult to impossible for researchers to make changes to such networks for the purpose of study design and access to user-generated data from the networks. To address this issue, the authors have developed and present Social Lab, an Internet-based free and open-source social network software system available from http://www.sociallab.es . Having full availability of navigation and communication data in Social Lab allows researchers to investigate behavior in social media on an individual and group level. Automated artificial users ("bots") are available to the researcher to simulate and stimulate social networking situations. These bots respond dynamically to situations as they unfold. The bots can easily be configured with scripts and can be used to experimentally manipulate social networking situations in Social Lab. Examples for setting up, configuring, and using Social Lab as a tool for research in social media are provided. PMID:24061930

Garaizar, Pablo; Reips, Ulf-Dietrich

2014-06-01

236

MAINE POPULATION  

EPA Science Inventory

MEPOP250 depicts Maine's 1950-1990 population data by town or Census in unorganized territories. Populations were compiled from US Census Bureau data where available or from Maine Municipal Information (mainly for older records). Unorganized towns with very low or zero pop...

237

Implementing an International Consultation on Earth System Research Priorities Using Web 2.0 Tools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Leah Goldfarb, Paul Cutler, Andrew Yang*, Mustapha Mokrane, Jacinta Legg and Deliang Chen The scientific community has been engaged in developing an international strategy on Earth system research. The initial consultation in this “visioning” process focused on gathering suggestions for Earth system research priorities that are interdisciplinary and address the most pressing societal issues. It was implemented this through a website that utilized Web 2.0 capabilities. The website (http://www.icsu-visioning.org/) collected input from 15 July to 1 September 2009. This consultation was the first in which the international scientific community was asked to help shape the future of a research theme. The site attracted over 7000 visitors from 133 countries, more than 1000 of whom registered and took advantage of the site’s functionality to contribute research questions (~300 questions), comment on posts, and/or vote on questions. To facilitate analysis of results, the site captured a small set of voluntary information about each contributor and their contribution. A group of ~50 international experts were invited to analyze the inputs at a “Visioning Earth System Research” meeting held in September 2009. The outcome of this meeting—a prioritized list of research questions to be investigated over the next decade—was then posted on the visioning website for additional comment from the community through an online survey tool. In general, many lessons were learned in the development and implementation of this website, both in terms of the opportunities offered by Web 2.0 capabilities and the application of these capabilities. It is hoped that this process may serve as a model for other scientific communities. The International Council for Science (ICSU) in cooperation with the International Social Science Council (ISSC) is responsible for organizing this Earth system visioning process.

Goldfarb, L.; Yang, A.

2009-12-01

238

DataUp 2.0: Improving On a Tool For Helping Researchers Archive, Manage, and Share Their Tabular Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are many barriers to data management and sharing among earth and environmental scientists; among the most significant are a lack of knowledge about best practices for data management, metadata standards, or appropriate data repositories for archiving and sharing data. Last year we developed an open source web application, DataUp, to help researchers overcome these barriers. DataUp helps scientists to (1) determine whether their file is CSV compatible, (2) generate metadata in a standard format, (3) retrieve an identifier to facilitate data citation, and (4) deposit their data into a repository. With funding from the NSF via a supplemental grant to the DataONE project, we are working to improve upon DataUp. Our main goal for DataUp 2.0 is to ensure organizations and repositories are able to adopt and adapt DataUp to meet their unique needs, including connecting to analytical tools, adding new metadata schema, and expanding the list of connected data repositories. DataUp is a collaborative project between the California Digital Library, DataONE, the San Diego Supercomputing Center, and Microsoft Research Connections.

Strasser, C.; Borda, S.; Cruse, P.; Kunze, J.

2013-12-01

239

A tool for exploring space-time patterns : an animation user research  

PubMed Central

Background Ever since Dr. John Snow (1813–1854) used a case map to identify water well as the source of a cholera outbreak in London in the 1800s, the use of spatio-temporal maps have become vital tools in a wide range of disease mapping and control initiatives. The increasing use of spatio-temporal maps in these life-threatening sectors warrants that they are accurate, and easy to interpret to enable prompt decision making by health experts. Similar spatio-temporal maps are observed in urban growth and census mapping – all critical aspects a of a country's socio-economic development. In this paper, a user test research was carried out to determine the effectiveness of spatio-temporal maps (animation) in exploring geospatial structures encompassing disease, urban and census mapping. Results Three types of animation were used, namely; passive, interactive and inference-based animation, with the key differences between them being on the level of interactivity and complementary domain knowledge that each offers to the user. Passive animation maintains the view only status. The user has no control over its contents and dynamic variables. Interactive animation provides users with the basic media player controls, navigation and orientation tools. Inference-based animation incorporates these interactive capabilities together with a complementary automated intelligent view that alerts users to interesting patterns, trends or anomalies that may be inherent in the data sets. The test focussed on the role of animation passive and interactive capabilities in exploring space-time patterns by engaging test-subjects in thinking aloud evaluation protocol. The test subjects were selected from a geoinformatics (map reading, interpretation and analysis abilities) background. Every test-subject used each of the three types of animation and their performances for each session assessed. The results show that interactivity in animation is a preferred exploratory tool in identifying, interpreting and providing explanations about observed geospatial phenomena. Also, exploring geospatial data structures using animation is best achieved using provocative interactive tools such as was seen with the inference-based animation. The visual methods employed using the three types of animation are all related and together these patterns confirm the exploratory cognitive structure and processes for visualization tools. Conclusion The generic types of animation as defined in this paper play a crucial role in facilitating the visualization of geospatial data. These animations can be created and their contents defined based on the user's presentational and exploratory needs. For highly explorative tasks, maintaining a link between the data sets and the animation is crucial to enabling a rich and effective knowledge discovery environment.

Ogao, Patrick J

2006-01-01

240

Novel Murine Dendritic Cell Lines: A Powerful Auxiliary Tool for Dendritic Cell Research  

PubMed Central

Research in vitro facilitates discovery, screening, and pilot experiments, often preceding research in vivo. Several technical difficulties render Dendritic Cell (DC) research particularly challenging, including the low frequency of DC in vivo, thorough isolation requirements, and the vulnerability of DC ex vivo. Critically, there is not as yet a widely accepted human or murine DC line and in vitro systems of DC research are limited. In this study, we report the generation of new murine DC lines, named MutuDC, originating from cultures of splenic CD8? conventional DC (cDC) tumors. By direct comparison to normal WT splenic cDC subsets, we describe the phenotypic and functional features of the MutuDC lines and show that they have retained all the major features of their natural counterpart in vivo, the splenic CD8? cDC. These features include expression of surface markers Clec9A, DEC205, and CD24, positive response to TLR3 and TLR9 but not TLR7 stimuli, secretion of cytokines, and chemokines upon activation, as well as cross-presentation capacity. In addition to the close resemblance to normal splenic CD8? cDC, a major advantage is the ease of derivation and maintenance of the MutuDC lines, using standard culture medium and conditions, importantly without adding supplementary growth factors or maturation-inducing stimuli to the medium. Furthermore, genetically modified MutuDC lines have been successfully obtained either by lentiviral transduction or by culture of DC tumors originating from genetically modified mice. In view of the current lack of stable and functional DC lines, these novel murine DC lines have the potential to serve as an important auxiliary tool for DC research.

Fuertes Marraco, Silvia A.; Grosjean, Frederic; Duval, Anais; Rosa, Muriel; Lavanchy, Christine; Ashok, Devika; Haller, Sergio; Otten, Luc A.; Steiner, Quynh-Giao; Descombes, Patrick; Luber, Christian A.; Meissner, Felix; Mann, Matthias; Szeles, Lajos; Reith, Walter; Acha-Orbea, Hans

2012-01-01

241

Novel murine dendritic cell lines: a powerful auxiliary tool for dendritic cell research.  

PubMed

Research in vitro facilitates discovery, screening, and pilot experiments, often preceding research in vivo. Several technical difficulties render Dendritic Cell (DC) research particularly challenging, including the low frequency of DC in vivo, thorough isolation requirements, and the vulnerability of DC ex vivo. Critically, there is not as yet a widely accepted human or murine DC line and in vitro systems of DC research are limited. In this study, we report the generation of new murine DC lines, named MutuDC, originating from cultures of splenic CD8? conventional DC (cDC) tumors. By direct comparison to normal WT splenic cDC subsets, we describe the phenotypic and functional features of the MutuDC lines and show that they have retained all the major features of their natural counterpart in vivo, the splenic CD8? cDC. These features include expression of surface markers Clec9A, DEC205, and CD24, positive response to TLR3 and TLR9 but not TLR7 stimuli, secretion of cytokines, and chemokines upon activation, as well as cross-presentation capacity. In addition to the close resemblance to normal splenic CD8? cDC, a major advantage is the ease of derivation and maintenance of the MutuDC lines, using standard culture medium and conditions, importantly without adding supplementary growth factors or maturation-inducing stimuli to the medium. Furthermore, genetically modified MutuDC lines have been successfully obtained either by lentiviral transduction or by culture of DC tumors originating from genetically modified mice. In view of the current lack of stable and functional DC lines, these novel murine DC lines have the potential to serve as an important auxiliary tool for DC research. PMID:23162549

Fuertes Marraco, Silvia A; Grosjean, Frédéric; Duval, Anaïs; Rosa, Muriel; Lavanchy, Christine; Ashok, Devika; Haller, Sergio; Otten, Luc A; Steiner, Quynh-Giao; Descombes, Patrick; Luber, Christian A; Meissner, Felix; Mann, Matthias; Szeles, Lajos; Reith, Walter; Acha-Orbea, Hans

2012-01-01

242

Benchmark and Framework for Encouraging Research on Multi-Threaded Testing Tools  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A problem that has been getting prominence in testing is that of looking for intermittent bugs. Multi-threaded code is becoming very common, mostly on the server side. As there is no silver bullet solution, research focuses on a variety of partial solutions. In this paper (invited by PADTAD 2003) we outline a proposed project to facilitate research. The project goals are as follows. The first goal is to create a benchmark that can be used to evaluate different solutions. The benchmark, apart from containing programs with documented bugs, will include other artifacts, such as traces, that are useful for evaluating some of the technologies. The second goal is to create a set of tools with open API s that can be used to check ideas without building a large system. For example an instrumentor will be available, that could be used to test temporal noise making heuristics. The third goal is to create a focus for the research in this area around which a community of people who try to solve similar problems with different techniques, could congregate.

Havelund, Klaus; Stoller, Scott D.; Ur, Shmuel

2003-01-01

243

On the use of EEG or MEG brain imaging tools in neuromarketing research.  

PubMed

Here we present an overview of some published papers of interest for the marketing research employing electroencephalogram (EEG) and magnetoencephalogram (MEG) methods. The interest for these methodologies relies in their high-temporal resolution as opposed to the investigation of such problem with the functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) methodology, also largely used in the marketing research. In addition, EEG and MEG technologies have greatly improved their spatial resolution in the last decades with the introduction of advanced signal processing methodologies. By presenting data gathered through MEG and high resolution EEG we will show which kind of information it is possible to gather with these methodologies while the persons are watching marketing relevant stimuli. Such information will be related to the memorization and pleasantness related to such stimuli. We noted that temporal and frequency patterns of brain signals are able to provide possible descriptors conveying information about the cognitive and emotional processes in subjects observing commercial advertisements. These information could be unobtainable through common tools used in standard marketing research. We also show an example of how an EEG methodology could be used to analyze cultural differences between fruition of video commercials of carbonated beverages in Western and Eastern countries. PMID:21960996

Vecchiato, Giovanni; Astolfi, Laura; De Vico Fallani, Fabrizio; Toppi, Jlenia; Aloise, Fabio; Bez, Francesco; Wei, Daming; Kong, Wanzeng; Dai, Jounging; Cincotti, Febo; Mattia, Donatella; Babiloni, Fabio

2011-01-01

244

On the Use of EEG or MEG Brain Imaging Tools in Neuromarketing Research  

PubMed Central

Here we present an overview of some published papers of interest for the marketing research employing electroencephalogram (EEG) and magnetoencephalogram (MEG) methods. The interest for these methodologies relies in their high-temporal resolution as opposed to the investigation of such problem with the functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) methodology, also largely used in the marketing research. In addition, EEG and MEG technologies have greatly improved their spatial resolution in the last decades with the introduction of advanced signal processing methodologies. By presenting data gathered through MEG and high resolution EEG we will show which kind of information it is possible to gather with these methodologies while the persons are watching marketing relevant stimuli. Such information will be related to the memorization and pleasantness related to such stimuli. We noted that temporal and frequency patterns of brain signals are able to provide possible descriptors conveying information about the cognitive and emotional processes in subjects observing commercial advertisements. These information could be unobtainable through common tools used in standard marketing research. We also show an example of how an EEG methodology could be used to analyze cultural differences between fruition of video commercials of carbonated beverages in Western and Eastern countries.

Vecchiato, Giovanni; Astolfi, Laura; De Vico Fallani, Fabrizio; Toppi, Jlenia; Aloise, Fabio; Bez, Francesco; Wei, Daming; Kong, Wanzeng; Dai, Jounging; Cincotti, Febo; Mattia, Donatella; Babiloni, Fabio

2011-01-01

245

Human Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes as Research and Therapeutic Tools  

PubMed Central

Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), namely, embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), with their ability of indefinite self-renewal and capability to differentiate into cell types derivatives of all three germ layers, represent a powerful research tool in developmental biology, for drug screening, disease modelling, and potentially cell replacement therapy. Efficient differentiation protocols that would result in the cell type of our interest are needed for maximal exploitation of these cells. In the present work, we aim at focusing on the protocols for differentiation of hPSCs into functional cardiomyocytes in vitro as well as achievements in the heart disease modelling and drug testing on the patient-specific iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes (iPSC-CMs).

Pesl, Martin; Lacampagne, Alain; Dvorak, Petr; Rotrekl, Vladimir; Meli, Albano C.

2014-01-01

246

Microbeam methodologies as powerful tools in manganese hyperaccumulation research: present status and future directions.  

PubMed

Microbeam studies over the past decade have garnered unique insight into manganese (Mn) homeostasis in plant species that hyperaccumulate this essential mineral micronutrient. Electron- and/or proton-probe methodologies employed to examine tissue elemental distributions have proven highly effective in illuminating excess foliar Mn disposal strategies, some apparently unique to Mn hyperaccumulating plants. When applied to samples prepared with minimal artefacts, these are powerful tools for extracting true 'snapshot' data of living systems. For a range of reasons, Mn hyperaccumulation is particularly suited to in vivo interrogation by this approach. Whilst microbeam investigation of metallophytes is well documented, certain methods originally intended for non-biological samples are now widely applied in biology. This review examines current knowledge about Mn hyperaccumulators with reference to microbeam methodologies, and discusses implications for future research into metal transporters. PMID:23970891

Fernando, Denise R; Marshall, Alan; Baker, Alan J M; Mizuno, Takafumi

2013-01-01

247

The Virtual Heliospheric Observatory: An ideal tool for cross-disciplinary research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Currently, space physicists are faced with a bewildering array of heliospheric missions, experiments, and data sets available at archives distributed around the world. Daunting even for those most familiar with the field, physicists in other concentrations (solar physics, magnetospheric physics, etc.) find locating the heliospheric data that they need extremely challenging if not impossible. The Virtual Heliospheric Observatory (VHO) works to solve this problem by providing an Application Programming Interface (API) and web portal that integrates these data sets to find the highest quality data for a given task. The VHO is an ideal tool for cross-disclipinary research providing complex and powerful search capabilities and enforcing a coherent metadata standard ensuring data are independently usable and understandable.

Schroeder, Peter

248

Constructing a Virtual World as a Research Tool: Lessons Learned from the First Iteration in the Development of Greenland  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper draws from insights gained while constructing a virtual world named Greenland at Indiana University. The first section, examines the theoretical evidence supporting the use of virtual worlds as experimental research tools. The second, addresses a few of the practical concerns a researcher will encounter when attempting to construct a virtual world. And the final section, presents a hypothetical

Travis L. Ross

2009-01-01

249

Process design and costing of bioethanol technology: A tool for determining the status and direction of research and development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioethanol is a fuel-grade ethanol made from trees, grasses, and waste materials. It represents a sustainable substitute for gasoline in today's passenger cars. Modeling and design of processes for making bioethanol are critical tools used in the US Department of Energy's bioethanol research and development program. The authors use such analysis to guide new directions for research and to help

R. Wooley; M. Ruth; D. Glassner; J. Sheehan

1999-01-01

250

MAINE AQUIFERS  

EPA Science Inventory

AQFRS24 contains polygons of significant aquifers in Maine (glacial deposits that are a significant ground water resource) mapped at a scale 1:24,000. This statewide coverage was derived from aquifer boundaries delineated and digitized by the Maine Geological Survey from data com...

251

Artificial Exo-Society Modeling: a New Tool for SETI Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the newest fields of complexity research is artificial society modeling. Methodologically related to artificial life research, artificial society modeling utilizes agent-based computer simulation tools like SWARM and SUGARSCAPE developed by the Santa Fe Institute, Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Bookings Institution in an effort to introduce an unprecedented degree of rigor and quantitative sophistication into social science research. The broad aim of artificial society modeling is to begin the development of a more unified social science that embeds cultural evolutionary processes in a computational environment that simulates demographics, the transmission of culture, conflict, economics, disease, the emergence of groups and coadaptation with an environment in a bottom-up fashion. When an artificial society computer model is run, artificial societal patterns emerge from the interaction of autonomous software agents (the "inhabitants" of the artificial society). Artificial society modeling invites the interpretation of society as a distributed computational system and the interpretation of social dynamics as a specialized category of computation. Artificial society modeling techniques offer the potential of computational simulation of hypothetical alien societies in much the same way that artificial life modeling techniques offer the potential to model hypothetical exobiological phenomena. NASA recently announced its intention to begin exploring the possibility of including artificial life research within the broad portfolio of scientific fields comprised by the interdisciplinary astrobiology research endeavor. It may be appropriate for SETI researchers to likewise commence an exploration of the possible inclusion of artificial exo-society modeling within the SETI research endeavor. Artificial exo-society modeling might be particularly useful in a post-detection environment by (1) coherently organizing the set of data points derived from a detected ETI signal, (2) mapping trends in the data points over time (assuming receipt of an extended ETI signal), and (3) projecting such trends forward to derive alternative cultural evolutionary scenarios for the exo-society under analysis. The latter exercise might be particularly useful to compensate for the inevitable time lag between generation of an ETI signal and receipt of an ETI signal on Earth. For this reason, such an exercise might be a helpful adjunct to the decisional process contemplated by Paragraph 9 of the Declaration of Principles Concerning Activities Following the Detection of Extraterrestrial Intelligence.

Gardner, James N.

2002-01-01

252

An informatics supported web-based data annotation and query tool to expedite translational research for head and neck malignancies  

PubMed Central

Background The Specialized Program of Research Excellence (SPORE) in Head and Neck Cancer neoplasm virtual biorepository is a bioinformatics-supported system to incorporate data from various clinical, pathological, and molecular systems into a single architecture based on a set of common data elements (CDEs) that provides semantic and syntactic interoperability of data sets. Results The various components of this annotation tool include the Development of Common Data Elements (CDEs) that are derived from College of American Pathologists (CAP) Checklist and North American Association of Central Cancer Registries (NAACR) standards. The Data Entry Tool is a portable and flexible Oracle-based data entry device, which is an easily mastered web-based tool. The Data Query Tool helps investigators and researchers to search de-identified information within the warehouse/resource through a "point and click" interface, thus enabling only the selected data elements to be essentially copied into a data mart using a multi dimensional model from the warehouse's relational structure. The SPORE Head and Neck Neoplasm Database contains multimodal datasets that are accessible to investigators via an easy to use query tool. The database currently holds 6553 cases and 10607 tumor accessions. Among these, there are 965 metastatic, 4227 primary, 1369 recurrent, and 483 new primary cases. The data disclosure is strictly regulated by user's authorization. Conclusion The SPORE Head and Neck Neoplasm Virtual Biorepository is a robust translational biomedical informatics tool that can facilitate basic science, clinical, and translational research. The Data Query Tool acts as a central source providing a mechanism for researchers to efficiently find clinically annotated datasets and biospecimens that are relevant to their research areas. The tool protects patient privacy by revealing only de-identified data in accordance with regulations and approvals of the IRB and scientific review committee.

2009-01-01

253

A Tropical Marine Microbial Natural Products Geobibliography as an Example of Desktop Exploration of Current Research Using Web Visualisation Tools  

PubMed Central

Microbial marine biodiscovery is a recent scientific endeavour developing at a time when information and other technologies are also undergoing great technical strides. Global visualisation of datasets is now becoming available to the world through powerful and readily available software such as Worldwind™, ArcGIS Explorer™ and Google Earth™. Overlaying custom information upon these tools is within the hands of every scientist and more and more scientific organisations are making data available that can also be integrated into these global visualisation tools. The integrated global view that these tools enable provides a powerful desktop exploration tool. Here we demonstrate the value of this approach to marine microbial biodiscovery by developing a geobibliography that incorporates citations on tropical and near-tropical marine microbial natural products research with Google Earth™ and additional ancillary global data sets. The tools and software used are all readily available and the reader is able to use and install the material described in this article.

Mukherjee, Joydeep; Llewellyn, Lyndon E; Evans-Illidge, Elizabeth A

2008-01-01

254

Exploring the Gap Between Water Managers and Researchers: Difficulties of Model-Based Tools to Support Practical Water Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supported by EU funds, the European research community has been putting much effort into providing model-based tools to support\\u000a water resource managers in implementing water management as well as the implementation of the Water Framework Directive. This\\u000a paper presents the results of a two-year long elicitation phase which aimed to explain why the use of tools in water management\\u000a is

Ilke Borowski; Matt Hare

2007-01-01

255

Action?research and Food and Nutrition Security: A school experience mediated by conceptual graphic representation tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study deals with the development of a graphic representation tool as a way to support educational planning in an elementary school in the rural area of Brasilia (Brazil’s capital), aiming at the implementation of an integrated action?research project focusing on hunger and nutrition. The graphic tool made it possible to promote dialogical–reflexive interactions among school teachers as to the

Ivete Teresinha Graebner; Elizabeth Maria Talá de Souza; Carlos Hiroo Saito

2009-01-01

256

A new DoD initiative: the Computational Research and Engineering Acquisition Tools and Environments (CREATE) program  

Microsoft Academic Search

In FY2008, the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) initiated the Computational Research and Engineering Acquisition Tools and Environments (CREATE) program, a 360M program with a two-year planning phase and a ten-year execution phase. CREATE will develop and deploy three computational engineering tool sets for DoD acquisition programs to use to design aircraft, ships and radio-frequency antennas. The planning and execution

S. Arevalo; C. Atwood; P. Bell; T. D. Blacker; S. Dey; D. Fisher; D A Fisher; P. Genalis; J. Gorski; A. Harris; K. Hill; M. Hurwitz; R. P. Kendall; R. L. Meakin; S. Morton; E. T. Moyer; D. E. Post; R. Strawn; D. v. Veldhuizen; L. G. Votta; S. Wynn; G. Zelinski

2008-01-01

257

A Microsoft Excel interface for rhyolite-MELTS: a tool for research and teaching of magma properties and evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thermodynamic modeling software MELTS (and its derivatives) is a powerful and much utilized tool for investigating crystallization and melting in natural magmatic systems. Rhyolite-MELTS (Gualda et al. 2012, J. Petrol. 53:875-890) is a recent recalibration of MELTS aimed at better capturing the evolution of magmas present in the upper crust (up to ~400 MPa pressure). Currently, most users of rhyolite-MELTS rely on a graphical user interface (GUI), which can be run on UNIX/LINUX and Mac OS X computers. While the interface is powerful and flexible, it can be somewhat cumbersome for the novice and the output is in the form of text files that need to be processed offline. This situation is probably the main reason why MELTS - despite great potential - has not been used more frequently for teaching purposes. We are currently developing an alternative GUI for rhyolite-MELTS using web services consumed by a VBA backend in Microsoft Excel©. The goal is to create a much more interactive tool, that is easy to use that can be made available to a widespread audience, and that will be useful for both research and teaching. The interface is contained within a macro-enabled workbook, which includes editable cells where the user can insert the model input information. Interface buttons initiate computations that are executed on a central server at OFM Research in Seattle (WA). Results of simple calculations are shown immediately within the interface itself. For instance, a user can very rapidly determine the temperature at which a magma of a given composition is completely molten (i.e. find the liquidus); or determine which phases are present, in what abundances, their compositions, and their physical properties (e.g. density, viscosity) at any given combination of temperature, pressure and oxygen fugacity. We expect that using the interface in this mode will greatly facilitate building intuition about magmas and their properties. It is also possible to combine a sequence of calculations into an evolutionary path. The user can input starting and ending temperatures and pressures, temperature and pressure steps, and the prevailing oxidation conditions, and the program will perform the calculations showing the magma properties at every step; at the conclusion of the calculations, a series of data sheets and diagrams are created in a separate workbook, which can be saved independently of the interface. Additionally, the user can specify a grid of temperatures and pressures and calculate a phase diagram showing the conditions at which different phases are present. We envision a host of exercises that can be tackled by students of all levels exploring the varied evolution of natural magma compositions. The main advantages of this new platform are that it is simple to use and flexible. Workbooks can be created for specific exercises, facilitating their use in classroom assignments. The Excel GUI interface is built on a popular platform, which is widely available, requires no installation, and is distributed for free from melts.ofm-research.org. The main drawback is that operation of the workbook requires an internet connection. The web services used are currently only accessible by Excel 2010 and 2013 for Windows.

Gualda, G. A.; Ghiorso, M. S.

2013-12-01

258

Characterization of a standardized glucagon challenge test as a pharmacodynamic tool in pharmacological research.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to characterize a glucagon challenge test as a tool in diabetes research by assessing the inter- and intra-individual variability, and investigating the activity of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) during the challenge, as this might have an indirect impact on glucose homeostasis. The study was performed in 24 healthy volunteers separated in 2 groups. The first group of 12 volunteers underwent a 5-h glucagon challenge during a pancreatic clamp procedure with infusion of [6,6-2H2]-glucose infusion in combination with heart rate variability measurements. In the second group, 12 other healthy volunteers underwent two 6-h glucagon challenges separated by 6 weeks, and fat biopsies were taken for analysis of glucagon receptor expression. Serum glucose rose rapidly after glucagon infusion, and reached a plateau at 90?min. The time profiles suggested rapid development of tolerance for glucagon-induced hyperglycemia. During the glucagon challenge intra- and inter-individual variabilities for hepatic glucose production, the rate of disappearance of glucose, and plasma glucose were approximately 10-15% for all variables. Hyperglucagonemia did not affect heart rate variability. Human adipose tissue had a low, but variable, expression of glucagon receptor mRNA. This standardized glucagon challenge test has a good reproducibility with only limited variability over 6 weeks. It is a robust tool to explore in detail the contribution of glucagon in normal and altered glucose homeostasis and can also be used to evaluate the effects of drugs antagonizing glucagon action in humans without confounding changes in ANS tone. PMID:24402684

van Dongen, M G J; Geerts, B F; Bhanot, S; Morgan, E S; de Kam, M L; Moerland, M; Romijn, J A; Cohen, A F; Burggraaf, J

2014-04-01

259

Adventures in the microlensing cloud: Large datasets, eResearch tools, and GPUs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As astronomy enters the petascale data era, astronomers are faced with new challenges relating to storage, access and management of data. A shift from the traditional approach of combining data and analysis at the desktop to the use of remote services, pushing the computation to the data, is now underway. In the field of cosmological gravitational microlensing, future synoptic all-sky surveys are expected to bring the number of multiply imaged quasars from the few tens that are currently known to a few thousands. This inflow of observational data, together with computationally demanding theoretical modeling via the production of microlensing magnification maps, requires a new approach. We present our technical solutions to supporting the GPU-Enabled, High Resolution cosmological MicroLensing parameter survey (GERLUMPH). This extensive dataset for cosmological microlensing modeling comprises over 70 000 individual magnification maps and ˜106 related results. We describe our approaches to hosting, organizing, and serving ˜30 TB of data and metadata products. We present a set of online analysis tools developed with PHP, JavaScript and WebGL to support access and analysis of GELRUMPH data in a Web browser. We discuss our use of graphics processing units (GPUs) to accelerate data production, and we release the core of the GPU-D direct inverse ray-shooting code (Thompson et al., 2010, 2014) used to generate the magnification maps. All of the GERLUMPH data and tools are available online from http://gerlumph.swin.edu.au. This project made use of gSTAR, the GPU Supercomputer for Theoretical Astrophysical Research.

Vernardos, G.; Fluke, C. J.

2014-10-01

260

A tool for sharing annotated research data: the "Category 0" UMLS (Unified Medical Language System) vocabularies  

PubMed Central

Background Large biomedical data sets have become increasingly important resources for medical researchers. Modern biomedical data sets are annotated with standard terms to describe the data and to support data linking between databases. The largest curated listing of biomedical terms is the the National Library of Medicine's Unified Medical Language System (UMLS). The UMLS contains more than 2 million biomedical terms collected from nearly 100 medical vocabularies. Many of the vocabularies contained in the UMLS carry restrictions on their use, making it impossible to share or distribute UMLS-annotated research data. However, a subset of the UMLS vocabularies, designated Category 0 by UMLS, can be used to annotate and share data sets without violating the UMLS License Agreement. Methods The UMLS Category 0 vocabularies can be extracted from the parent UMLS metathesaurus using a Perl script supplied with this article. There are 43 Category 0 vocabularies that can be used freely for research purposes without violating the UMLS License Agreement. Among the Category 0 vocabularies are: MESH (Medical Subject Headings), NCBI (National Center for Bioinformatics) Taxonomy and ICD-9-CM (International Classification of Diseases-9-Clinical Modifiers). Results The extraction file containing all Category 0 terms and concepts is 72,581,138 bytes in length and contains 1,029,161 terms. The UMLS Metathesaurus MRCON file (January, 2003) is 151,048,493 bytes in length and contains 2,146,899 terms. Therefore the Category 0 vocabularies, in aggregate, are about half the size of the UMLS metathesaurus. A large publicly available listing of 567,921 different medical phrases were automatically coded using the full UMLS metatathesaurus and the Category 0 vocabularies. There were 545,321 phrases with one or more matches against UMLS terms while 468,785 phrases had one or more matches against the Category 0 terms. This indicates that when the two vocabularies are evaluated by their fitness to find at least one term for a medical phrase, the Category 0 vocabularies performed 86% as well as the complete UMLS metathesaurus. Conclusion The Category 0 vocabularies of UMLS constitute a large nomenclature that can be used by biomedical researchers to annotate biomedical data. These annotated data sets can be distributed for research purposes without violating the UMLS License Agreement. These vocabularies may be of particular importance for sharing heterogeneous data from diverse biomedical data sets. The software tools to extract the Category 0 vocabularies are freely available Perl scripts entered into the public domain and distributed with this article.

Berman, Jules J

2003-01-01

261

Evolution of dental informatics as a major research tool in oral pathology  

PubMed Central

Bioinformatics is a relatively new field of science that incorporates the principles of biology and computer science. It is mainly concerned with collecting, storing, and retrieving data from large databases. Ever since the successful completion of the Human Genome Project, there has been an exponential growth in the volumes of biological data that is being generated worldwide. The evolution of bioinformatics has made it possible to access these databases and apply the information for better research. One discipline that has been benefitted from the advent of bioinformatics is oral pathology. Oral pathology is a branch of dentistry which deals with the diseases of the head and neck region. Remarkable progress has been made in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases with the aid of bioinformatics. This article attempts to review the evolution and progress of dental informatics as a specialty and its applications in oral pathology.

Singaraju, Sasidhar; Prasad, H; Singaraju, Medhini

2012-01-01

262

The Main Pillar: Assessment of Space Weather Observational Asset Performance Supporting Nowcasting, Forecasting and Research to Operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sporadically, the Sun unleashes severe magnetic activity into the heliosphere. The specific solar/heliospheric phenomena and their effects on humans, technology and the wider geospace environment include a) high-intensity emissions from the Sun causing radio blackouts and (surface) charging, b) particle acceleration in the solar corona leading to high dose rates of ionizing radiation in exposed materials that can trigger single event upsets in electronic components of space hardware, or temporal/permanent damage in tissue, c) arrivals of fast-moving coronal mass ejections with embedded enhancements of magnetic fields that can cause strong ionospheric disturbances affecting radio communications and induce out-of-spec currents in power lines near the surface. Many of the effects could now be forecast with higher fidelity than ever before. However, forecasting critically depends upon availability of timely and reliable observational data. It is therefore crucial to understand how observational assets perform during periods of severe space weather. This paper analyzes and documents the status of the existing and upcoming observational capabilities for forecasting, and discusses how the findings may impact space weather research and its transition to operations.

Posner, A.; Hesse, M.; St. Cyr, C.

2012-12-01

263

MAINE HYDROGRAPHY  

EPA Science Inventory

Hydronet_me24 and Hydropoly_me24 depict Maine's hydrography data, based on 8-digit hydrological unit codes (HUC's) at the 1:24,000 scale. Some New Hampshire and New Brunswick hydrography data are also included. The NHD hydrography data was compiled from previous ArcIn...

264

MAINE WOODLOTS  

EPA Science Inventory

MEOWN250 describes industrial, non-industrial, and public woodlot ownership in Maine at 1:250,000 scale. Industrial owners are those having at least one primary wood processing facility. Non-industrial owners are those with no primary wood processing facility. Public ownership...

265

Maine Ingredients  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article features Maine Learning Technology Initiative (MLTI), the nation's first-ever statewide 1-to-1 laptop program which marks its seventh birthday by expanding into high schools, providing an occasion to celebrate--and to examine the components of its success. The plan to put laptops into the hands of every teacher and student in grades 7…

Waters, John K.

2009-01-01

266

Lunar e-Library: A Research Tool Focused on the Lunar Environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As NASA plans and implements the Vision for Space Exploration, managers, engineers, and scientists need lunar environment information that is readily available and easily accessed. For this effort, lunar environment data was compiled from a variety of missions from Apollo to more recent remote sensing missions, such as Clementine. This valuable information comes not only in the form of measurements and images but also from the observations of astronauts who have visited the Moon and people who have designed spacecraft for lunar missions. To provide a research tool that makes the voluminous lunar data more accessible, the Space Environments and Effects (SEE) Program, managed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, AL, organized the data into a DVD knowledgebase: the Lunar e-Library. This searchable collection of 1100 electronic (.PDF) documents and abstracts makes it easy to find critical technical data and lessons learned from past lunar missions and exploration studies. The SEE Program began distributing the Lunar e-Library DVD in 2006. This paper describes the Lunar e-Library development process (including a description of the databases and resources used to acquire the documents) and the contents of the DVD product, demonstrates its usefulness with focused searches, and provides information on how to obtain this free resource.

McMahan, Tracy A.; Shea, Charlotte A.; Finckenor, Miria; Ferguson, Dale

2007-01-01

267

Electric Field Encephalography as a tool for functional brain research: a modeling study.  

PubMed

We introduce the notion of Electric Field Encephalography (EFEG) based on measuring electric fields of the brain and demonstrate, using computer modeling, that given the appropriate electric field sensors this technique may have significant advantages over the current EEG technique. Unlike EEG, EFEG can be used to measure brain activity in a contactless and reference-free manner at significant distances from the head surface. Principal component analysis using simulated cortical sources demonstrated that electric field sensors positioned 3 cm away from the scalp and characterized by the same signal-to-noise ratio as EEG sensors provided the same number of uncorrelated signals as scalp EEG. When positioned on the scalp, EFEG sensors provided 2-3 times more uncorrelated signals. This significant increase in the number of uncorrelated signals can be used for more accurate assessment of brain states for non-invasive brain-computer interfaces and neurofeedback applications. It also may lead to major improvements in source localization precision. Source localization simulations for the spherical and Boundary Element Method (BEM) head models demonstrated that the localization errors are reduced two-fold when using electric fields instead of electric potentials. We have identified several techniques that could be adapted for the measurement of the electric field vector required for EFEG and anticipate that this study will stimulate new experimental approaches to utilize this new tool for functional brain research. PMID:23844066

Petrov, Yury; Sridhar, Srinivas

2013-01-01

268

Adventures in the microlensing cloud: eResearch tools for zooming into the heart of quasars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gravitational cosmological microlensing is an established technique for exploring the structure of the inner parts of a quasar, especially the accretion disc and the central supermassive black hole.Results from studies on ~20 of the ~90 known lensed systems, indicate the presence of a thin Shakura- Sunyaev disc (Eigenbrod et al. 2008, Blackburne et al. 2011, Mediavilla et al. 2011), although this is not always the case (Floyd et al. 2009, Morgan et al. 2010). Upcoming all-sky synoptic surveys are expected to discover, and monitor regularly, thousands of new microlensed systems. The GPUEnabled, High-Resolution cosmological MicroLensing parameter survey (GERLUMPH) can be thought of as a theoretical counterpart of an all-sky survey, which explores the microlensing parameter space in preparation for these new discoveries. GERLUMPH's high resolution magnification maps, the basic tool for quasar microlensing, allow for statistical studies of accretion disc models and comparisons to observations. As the volume of astronomical data sets continues to increase, there is a growing need to move more analysis tasks to a remote service model on cloud-like architectures. I will describe how the GERLUMPH data form a computationally demanding part of the microlensing eResearch cloud, and what are the interactions between its various constituents.

Vernardos, G.

2013-09-01

269

Electric Field Encephalography as a Tool for Functional Brain Research: A Modeling Study  

PubMed Central

We introduce the notion of Electric Field Encephalography (EFEG) based on measuring electric fields of the brain and demonstrate, using computer modeling, that given the appropriate electric field sensors this technique may have significant advantages over the current EEG technique. Unlike EEG, EFEG can be used to measure brain activity in a contactless and reference-free manner at significant distances from the head surface. Principal component analysis using simulated cortical sources demonstrated that electric field sensors positioned 3 cm away from the scalp and characterized by the same signal-to-noise ratio as EEG sensors provided the same number of uncorrelated signals as scalp EEG. When positioned on the scalp, EFEG sensors provided 2–3 times more uncorrelated signals. This significant increase in the number of uncorrelated signals can be used for more accurate assessment of brain states for non-invasive brain-computer interfaces and neurofeedback applications. It also may lead to major improvements in source localization precision. Source localization simulations for the spherical and Boundary Element Method (BEM) head models demonstrated that the localization errors are reduced two-fold when using electric fields instead of electric potentials. We have identified several techniques that could be adapted for the measurement of the electric field vector required for EFEG and anticipate that this study will stimulate new experimental approaches to utilize this new tool for functional brain research.

Petrov, Yury; Sridhar, Srinivas

2013-01-01

270

Characterizing Urban Traffic Exposures Using Transportation Planning Tools: An Illustrated Methodology for Health Researchers  

PubMed Central

Exposure to elevated levels of vehicular traffic has been associated with adverse cardiovascular and respiratory health effects in a range of populations, including children, the elderly, and individuals with pre-existing heart conditions, diabetes, obesity, and genetic susceptibilities. As these relationships become clearer, public health officials will need to have access to methods to identify areas of concern in terms of elevated traffic levels and susceptible populations. This paper briefly reviews current approaches for characterizing traffic exposure and then presents a detailed method that can be employed by public health officials and other researchers in performing screening assessments to define areas of potential concern within a particular locale and, with appropriate caveats, in epidemiologic studies examining traffic-related health impacts at the intra-urban scale. The method is based on two exposure parameters extensively used in numerous epidemiologic studies of traffic and health—proximity to high traffic roadways and overall traffic density. The method is demonstrated with publically available information on susceptible populations, traffic volumes, and Traffic Analysis Zones, a transportation planning tool long used by Metropolitan Planning Agencies and planners across the USA but presented here as a new application which can be used to spatially assess possible traffic-related impacts on susceptible populations. Recommendations are provided for the appropriate use of this methodology, along with its limitations.

Gute, David M.; Brugge, Doug; Peterson, Scott; Parmenter, Barbara

2010-01-01

271

[Clinical psychopathological research on late-onset schizophrenia--mainly patients with schizophrenia from a hospital psychiatric ward].  

PubMed

In the field of clinical psychiatry, cases of late-onset schizophrenia are often observed in the population of 40 years or older. Female patients seem to significantly predominate those diagnosed with late-onset schizophrenia. Generally, paranoid delusions of reference with family members, neighbors, and friends are observed as clinical features of such late-onset schizophrenia conditions. Medical treatment for such a condition is often effective and considered to improve the prognosis. The authors conducted clinical research at Jichi Medical University Hospital psychiatric ward involving 38 late-onset schizophrenia patients (7 males; 31 females) diagnosed over the age of 40 using DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria. Subjects were selected from 316 schizophrenia patients (164 males; 152 females) admitted to the hospital for schizophrenia treatment at some time during the 13 years from April 1, 1993 to March 31, 2006. Also, another 14 late-onset schizophrenia patients diagnosed over the age of 40 (1 male; 13 females), with additional investigation, were selected from 130 cases (50 males; 80 females) treated in related facilities at some time during the 2 years from April 1, 2004 to March 31, 2006. The investigation revealed the following results: (1) Cases showing an onset after the age of 40 comprised 12% of the total population. Female cases comprised 20.4%, being significantly higher than that of male cases (4.3%). Within the psychiatric ward, cases showing an onset after 40 made up 10.8% of the total population. Female cases comprised 16.3%, being significantly higher than that of male cases (2.0%). (2) The paranoid type comprised 55.3% of the total population of late-onset cases, being significantly higher than in early-onset cases younger than 40 years old. A total of 55.3% of late-onset cases also showed depressive symptoms, being significantly higher than in early-onset cases. (3) For late-onset, 55.3% of patients showed an introverted premorbid character, while 15.8% of patients exhibited an extroverted premorbid character. Regarding late-onset cases, the number of introverted premorbid character cases significantly lower than in early-onset cases diagnosed at 40 years or younger; however, no significant difference was observed for the extroverted premorbid character. (4) A total of 65.8% of the population of late-onset cases were diagnosed as having psychosocial stresses as their cause. In addition, 36 % of subjects with psychosocial stress recognition had experienced a sense of loss. Of these, 66.6% of the loss experience involved separation from their family members. (5) Cases showing a successful recovery from schizophrenia comprised 55.3 % of the total population. On the other hand, cases with an unsuccessful outcome were observed in 34.2% of the total population, accounting for a relatively large portion. A total of 30.8% of subjects with an unsuccessful outcome were unmarried at the time of onset, and made up 57.1% of the late-onset population. According to the results of this investigation, late-onset schizophrenia represents about 10% of the total cases, and female cases are significantly more common than male cases. For late-onset patients, subjects' self-functions were more developed compared to those of early-onset patients, so they did not seem to clearly show early-onset symptoms during a younger period. The late-onset type has a tendency to show a better rate of successful recovery; however, there are situations where the condition reverts toward the "disorganized type", moving closer toward Kraepelin's early-onset disorganized schizophrenia. PMID:19425390

Yasuda, Manabu; Kato, Satoshi

2009-01-01

272

Let SMIL be your umbrella: software tools for transcribing, coding, and presenting digital video in behavioral research.  

PubMed

Video-based techniques have become central to many areas of social science research, although their use has been limited by the expense and complexity of tools for working with video information. New standards for the representation of digital video make the manipulation of video for observational research a far less time-consuming and expensive process than it once was. We provide an overview of SMIL, a cross-platform markup standard, and guidelines on how it can be used to edit, synchronize, caption, and present video clips with no need to modify the original digital video files. We also present TransTool, a free Windows program that can generate SMIL files for playing video clips of interest along with captions and codes. TransTool can also be used as a transcribing and coding tool that synchronizes video and text such as transcripts. These tools greatly facilitate tasks such as creating video events with multilanguage transcripts, showing synchronized views of the same event, quickly extracting clips from longer video files, and incorporating video clips into presentations and web pages. Example SMIL files and the TransTool program can be downloaded from http://www.psych.uiuc.edu/-kmiller/smil. PMID:16171208

Kumar, Sujai; Miller, Kevin

2005-05-01

273

A Research of Tool Wear Recognizing Based on Wavelet Packet Pretreated and Neural Network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vibration signals of tool wear are proved to be non-stationary ones. They usually carry the dynamic information of tool wear and are very useful for tool wear condition recognition. The wavelet analysis is especially suitable for non-stationary signal processing and the artificial neural network is a very good tool for signal identification. In this paper, a new efficient tool wear monitoring method based on the wavelet packet transform and the artificial neural network was presented. The cutting vibration signals in different milling wear conditions are decomposed and reconstructed by using the wavelet packet transform and feature extraction with conditions information is obtained by using proper and scientific methods to extract from signals. Wavelet pretreatment distills feature information from original signal as input vectors of decision net in order to reduce input data dimension, optimize the net construction, compute complexity and decrease the decision the errors. The theoretical background of wavelet packet transform and grey relational degree analysis optimization radial based function network (RBFN) was given. The effect of cutting parameters on energy parameters was taken into account while extracting energy parameters of tool wear characteristic vector, this made the extracted parameters of characteristic vector be more sensitive to tool wear and the sensitivity to cutting parameters be the minimum. The recognition method for tool wear condition was studied through artificial neural network and wavelet packet analysis, and relevant RBFN was established. The results showed that RBFN can be successfully used to recognize and analyze tool wear conditions.

Chuangwen, Xu; Hualing, Chen

274

The MBARI Deep-Sea Guide: The Design Process for a Web-based Education and Research Tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal for this summer was to create the foundation for a website that can be used as a model for the MBARI Deep-Sea Guide that in turn will be used by college students and scientists, but will accommodate a wider audience. The MBARI Deep-Sea Guide will be a comprehensive education and research tool about different aspects of deep-sea research

J. R. Sosky; Nancy Jacobsen Stout; Kristine Rodgers-Walz; Kyra Schlining Summer

275

In Vivo Computed Tomography as a Research Tool to Investigate Asthma and COPD: Where Do We Stand?  

PubMed Central

Computed tomography (CT) is a clinical tool widely used to assess and followup asthma and chonic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in humans. Strong efforts have been made the last decade to improve this technique as a quantitative research tool. Using semiautomatic softwares, quantification of airway wall thickness, lumen area, and bronchial wall density are available from large to intermediate conductive airways. Skeletonization of the bronchial tree can be built to assess its three-dimensional geometry. Lung parenchyma density can be analysed as a surrogate of small airway disease and emphysema. Since resident cells involve airway wall and lung parenchyma abnormalities, CT provides an accurate and reliable research tool to assess their role in vivo. This litterature review highlights the most recent advances made to assess asthma and COPD with CT, and also their drawbacks and the place of CT in clarifying the complex physiopathology of both diseases.

Dournes, Gael; Montaudon, Michel; Berger, Patrick; Laurent, Francois

2012-01-01

276

A Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA) as a Measurement Tool for Wind-Energy Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In wind energy meteorology, RPA have the clear advantage compared to manned aircraft that they allow to fly very close to the ground and even in between individual wind turbines in a wind farm. Compared to meteorological towers and lidar systems, the advantage is the flexibility of the system, which makes it possible to measure at the desired site on short notice and not only in main wind direction. At the Center of Applied Geoscience at the University of Tübingen, the research RPA MASC (Multi-purpose Airborne Sensor Carrier) was developed. RPA of type MASC have a wingspan of about 3 m and a maximum take-off weight of 7.5 kg, including payload. The standard meteorological payload includes instruments for temperature, humidity, barometric pressure and wind measurement. It is possible to resolve turbulence fluctuations of wind and temperature up to 20 Hz. The autopilot ROCS (Research Onboard Computer System), which is developed at the Institute of Flight Mechanics and Control, University of Stuttgart, makes it possible to automatically follow predefined waypoints at constant altitude and airspeed. At a cruising speed of 24 m/s and a battery life of approx. one hour, a range of 80 km is feasible. The project 'Lidar Complex', funded by the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety, is part of the research network 'WindForS', based in Southern Germany. The goal of the project is to establish lidar technology for wind energy plant site evaluation in complex terrain. Additional goals are the comparison of different measurement techniques and the validation of wind-field models in not IEC 61400 conform terrain. It is planned to design a turbulent wind-field generator, fed by real measurement data, which can be used to analyse WEC behaviour. Two test sites were defined for the 'Lidar Complex' project, one in IEC-conform terrain about 15 km from the Baltic Sea, the other in the Swabian Alb, only 2 km downstream of a 100 m steep escarpment. At both sites, flight measurements were performed in 2013 with the RPA MASC. The data that was collected allows to investigate the influence of thermal stability of the atmosphere at the test site and turbulence intensity around individual wind energy converters (WECs). Several measurement flights were done to investigate the wake structure downstream a running WEC. Preliminary results will be presented as well as an outlook for future research with the instrument.

Wildmann, Norman; Bange, Jens

2014-05-01

277

Slow-Rotating Centrifuge Microscope (Nizemi): A New Research Tool for Terrestrial and Space-Related Gravitational Biology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

NIZEMI (German acronym) is a Spacelab facility for optical investigations of small biological or nonbiological transparent specimens under variable accelerations (0.001 to 2 g). A laboratory model (1 to 5 g) was tested by various research groups as a tool...

K. Kreuzberg R. Behrle O. Joop R. Treichel

1990-01-01

278

76 FR 47216 - Expediting Research Tools to NIH Licensees Through the Use of Pay.gov for Rapid Processing of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health Expediting Research Tools to NIH Licensees Through the Use of Pay.gov for...SUMMARY: NIH licensees can now expedite the receipt of...With its introduction earlier this year, NIH licensees have found that using the...

2011-08-04

279

Students' Perceptions of the Effectiveness of the World Wide Web as a Research and Teaching Tool in Science Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates the use of the World Wide Web (WWW) as a research and teaching tool in promoting self-directed learning groups of 15-year-old students. Discusses the perceptions of students of the effectiveness of the WWW in assisting them with the construction of knowledge on photosynthesis and respiration. (Contains 33 references.) (Author/YDS)

Ng, Wan; Gunstone, Richard

2002-01-01

280

Students' Perceptions of the Effectiveness of the World Wide Web as a Research and Teaching Tool in Science Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Students often make little linkage from lesson to lesson on what they learn in the regular classroom. Having them take responsibility for what they are learning is one way of having them think and connect these thoughts together. This qualitative study looks at the use of the World Wide Web (WWW) as a research and teaching tool in promoting self-directed

Wan Ng; Richard Gunstone

2002-01-01

281

TOOLS FOR DETERMINING SUSTAINABLE WASTE MANAGEMENT THROUGH APPLICATION OF LIFE-CYCLE ASSESSMENT: UPDATE ON U.S. RESEARCH  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper is an update on U.S. research to develop tools and information for evaluating integrated solid waste management strategies. In the past, waste management systems consisted primarily of waste collection and disposal at a local landfill. Today's municipal solid waste ma...

282

Advances in nanotechnology education and research: Surface Engineering of Surgical and Dental Tools using Diamond Films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dental and surgical tools play a critical role in the removal of parts and unwanted impurities from the head, mouth and the body. Often during operation these are damaged, have reduced lifetime or poor performance. For example, conventional dental burs are made of a tool with diamond particles embedded in the surface with binder materials. Often these metal containing binders

W. Ahmed; H. Sein; J. O. Uhomoibhi; M. J. Jackson

283

VPR: A new packing, placement and routing tool for FPGA research  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the capabilities of and algorithms used in a ne w FPGA CAD tool, Versatile Place and Route (VPR). In terms of minimizing routing area, VPR outper- forms all published FPGA place and route tools to which we can compare. Although the algorithms used are based on pre viously known approaches, we present several enhancements that improve run-time and

Vaughn Betz; Jonathan Rose

1997-01-01

284

Research based criteria for the design and selection of literacy and thinking tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes criteria for the design and selection of literacy and thinking tools. The criteria are that tools should be: (i) teaching focused (ii) learner focused, (iii) thought linked (iv) neurologically consistent, (v) subject specific, (vi) text linked, (vii) developmentally appropriate, (viii) culturally responsive, and (ix) assessment linked. Introduction The importance of establishing criteria for the design and selection

David W Whitehead

285

Unmanned Aerial Systems as Versatile Tools for Atmospheric and Environmental Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unmanned Aerial Systems (UASs) are increasingly recognized as versatile tools for different earth-sciences applications providing chiefly a link between in-situ ground based measurements and satellite remote sensing observations. Based on the Autonomous Flying Platforms for Atmospheric and Earth Surface Observations project (APAESO) of the Energy, Environment and Water Research Center (EEWRC) at the Cyprus Institute (APAESO is co-financed by the European Development Fund and the Republic of Cyprus through the Cyprus Research Promotion Foundation: ??? ???????/?????/0308/09), we have acquired four CRUISERS (ET-Air, Slovakia) as UAS platforms and a substantial range of scientific instruments to be employed on these platforms. The APAESO platforms are aimed at the dual purpose of carrying out atmospheric and earth-surface observations in the (Eastern) Mediterranean They will enable 3D measurements for determining physical, chemical and radiative atmospheric properties, aerosol and dust concentrations and atmospheric dynamics as well as 2D investigations into land management practices, vegetation and agricultural mapping, contaminant detection and the monitoring and assessment of hydrological parameters and processes of a given region at high spatial resolution. Currently, we are building up an Unmanned Airplane Facility at CyI. In the process of reaching full operational capacity, we have initiated and carried out first test missions involving highly specialized and specifically adapted instrumentation for atmospheric investigations. The first scientific mission involves the employment of a DOAS-system (Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy) in cooperation with colleagues from Heidelberg and Mainz, Germany and has been successfully completed. More recently, we started work on a new collaborative project aimed at measuring vertical profiles of aerosols in the Eastern Mediterranean. The project involves colleagues from the University of Frankfurt, Germany as well as from the University of Tel Aviv and the Weizmann Institute, both in Israel. For this project, a specially designed multi-stage electrostatic aerosol collector is being placed on one of the APAESO UAS. Simultaneously, atmospheric aerosols size and concentrations will be measured with an optical aerosol spectrometer, mounted on the same platform. The collected samples will be divided into two parts for analysis in both the University of Frankfurt and the Weizmann Institute

Lange, Manfred; Argyrides, Marios; Ioannou, Stelios; Keleshis, Christos; Levin, Zev

2013-04-01

286

A Practitioner's Look at Research: Experientially Based Practitioner-Friendly Program Assessment Measurement Tools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School-based outdoor and experiential programs face an increasing demand from outside interests for research-based accountability. This paper suggests that both research and practice are strengthened by researcher-practitioner partnerships and by practitioners conducting their own research. Three modest qualitative research designs are explored as…

Henderson, Bob; Mehta, Sonali; Elrick, Michael

287

Teaching Main Idea Comprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended to help classroom teachers, curriculum developers, and researchers, this book provides current information on theoretical and instructional aspects of main idea comprehension. Titles and authors are as follows: "The Confused World of Main Idea" (James W. Cunningham and David W. Moore); "The Comprehension of Important Information in…

Baumann, James F., Ed.

288

JADE: A Tool for Medical Researchers to Explore Adverse Drug Events Using Health Claims Data.  

PubMed

The objective of our project was to create a tool for physicians to explore health claims data with regard to adverse drug reactions. The Java Adverse Drug Event (JADE) tool should enable the analysis of prescribed drugs in connection with diagnoses from hospital stays. We calculated the number of days drugs were taken by using the defined daily doses and estimated possible interactions between dispensed drugs using the Austria Codex, a database including drug-drug interactions. The JADE tool was implemented using Java, R and a PostgreSQL database. Beside an overview of the study cohort which includes selection of gender and age groups, selected statistical methods like association rule learning, logistic regres-sion model and the number needed to harm have been implemented. The JADE tool can support physicians during their planning of clinical trials by showing the occurrences of adverse drug events with population based information. PMID:24825714

Edlinger, Doron; Sauter, Simone Katja; Rinner, Christoph; Neuhofer, Lisa Maria; Wolzt, Michael; Grossmann, Wilfried; Endel, Gottfried; Gall, Walter

2014-01-01

289

Patent Office Search Files: A Tool for Historical Research and Technological Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The classified search files of the U.S. Patent Office are useful for locating a desired patent record. The method of constructing these files, and the tools needed to enter the classification scheme at the proper locus, are described.

Simon M. Newman

1962-01-01

290

A Surveillance Tool to Support Quality Assurance and Research in Personalized Medicine  

PubMed Central

Developing effective methods to enable the practice of personalized medicine is a national priority for translational science. By leveraging modern genotyping technology and health information technologies, prescribing therapies based on genotype becomes an achievable goal. Within this manuscript, we describe the development, implementation, and piloting of a surveillance tool to assure the quality of clinical decision making in the context of new pharmacogenetic information. The surveillance tool allows a quality assurance (QA) team to review significant genotyping results and deliver focused educational interventions to providers. We report on the first eight patients undergoing genotyping to support antiplatelet therapy selection after drug-eluting stent placement. The collected pilot data supports an informatics approach to QA process management, as our tool delivered actionable patient information. It also enabled providers to tailor antiplatelet therapy to individual patients’ genotypes. Our expectation is to continue collecting surveillance reports to perform an in-depth analysis of our tool.

Khan, Naqi A.; Peterson, Josh F.

2011-01-01

291

pClone: Synthetic Biology Tool Makes Promoter Research Accessible to Beginning Biology Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "Vision and Change" report recommended genuine research experiences for undergraduate biology students. Authentic research improves science education, increases the number of scientifically literate citizens, and encourages students to pursue research. Synthetic biology is well suited for undergraduate research and is a growing area…

Campbell, A. Malcolm; Eckdahl, Todd; Cronk, Brian; Andresen, Corinne; Frederick, Paul; Huckuntod, Samantha; Shinneman, Claire; Wacker, Annie; Yuan, Jason

2014-01-01

292

Heavy ion microprobes: a unique tool for bystander research and other radiobiological applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The risk assessment for low doses of high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation has been challenged by a growing body of experimental evidence showing that non-irradiated bystander cells can receive signals from irradiated cells to elicit a variety of cellular responses. These may be significant for radiation protection but also for radiation therapy using heavy ions. Charged particle microbeams for radiobiological application provide a unique means to address these issues by allowing the precise irradiation of single cells with a counted numbers of ions. Here, we focus specifically on heavy ion microbeam facilities currently in use for biological purposes, describing their technical features and biological results. Typically, ion species up to argon are used for targeted biological irradiation at the vertically collimated microbeam at JAEA (Takasaki, Japan). At the SNAKE microprobe in Munich, mostly oxygen ions have been used in a horizontal focused beam line for cell targeting. At GSI (Darmstadt), a horizontal microprobe with a focused beam for defined targeting using ion species up to uranium is operational. The visualization of DNA damage response proteins relocalizing to defined sites of ion traversal has been accomplished at the three heavy ion microbeam facilities described above and is used to study mechanistic aspects of heavy ion effects. However, bystander studies have constituted the main focus of biological applications. While for cell inactivation and effects on cell cycle progression a response of non-targeted cells has been described at JAEA and GSI, respectively, in part controversial results have been obtained for the induction of DNA damage measured by double-strand formation or at the cytogenetic level. The results emphasize the influence of the cellular environment, and standardization of experimental conditions for cellular studies at different facilities as well as the investigation of bystander effects in tissue will be the aims of future research. At present, the most important conclusion of radiobiology studies at heavy ion microbeams is that bystander responses are not accentuated for increasing ionizing density radiation.

Voss, K. O.; Fournier, C.; Taucher-Scholz, G.

2008-07-01

293

Main Report  

PubMed Central

Background: States vary widely in their use of newborn screening tests, with some mandating screening for as few as three conditions and others mandating as many as 43 conditions, including varying numbers of the 40+ conditions that can be detected by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). There has been no national guidance on the best candidate conditions for newborn screening since the National Academy of Sciences report of 19751 and the United States Congress Office of Technology Assessment report of 1988,2 despite rapid developments since then in genetics, in screening technologies, and in some treatments. Objectives: In 2002, the Maternal and Child Health Bureau (MCHB) of the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) of the United States Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) commissioned the American College of Medical Genetics (ACMG) to: Conduct an analysis of the scientific literature on the effectiveness of newborn screening.Gather expert opinion to delineate the best evidence for screening for specified conditions and develop recommendations focused on newborn screening, including but not limited to the development of a uniform condition panel.Consider other components of the newborn screening system that are critical to achieving the expected outcomes in those screened. Methods: A group of experts in various areas of subspecialty medicine and primary care, health policy, law, public health, and consumers worked with a steering committee and several expert work groups, using a two-tiered approach to assess and rank conditions. A first step was developing a set of principles to guide the analysis. This was followed by developing criteria by which conditions could be evaluated, and then identifying the conditions to be evaluated. A large and broadly representative group of experts was asked to provide their opinions on the extent to which particular conditions met the selected criteria, relying on supporting evidence and references from the scientific literature. The criteria were distributed among three main categories for each condition: The availability and characteristics of the screening test;The availability and complexity of diagnostic services; andThe availability and efficacy of treatments related to the conditions. A survey process utilizing a data collection instrument was used to gather expert opinion on the conditions in the first tier of the assessment. The data collection format and survey provided the opportunity to quantify expert opinion and to obtain the views of a diverse set of interest groups (necessary due to the subjective nature of some of the criteria). Statistical analysis of data produced a score for each condition, which determined its ranking and initial placement in one of three categories (high scoring, moderately scoring, or low scoring/absence of a newborn screening test). In the second tier of these analyses, the evidence base related to each condition was assessed in depth (e.g., via systematic reviews of reference lists including MedLine, PubMed and others; books; Internet searches; professional guidelines; clinical evidence; and cost/economic evidence and modeling). The fact sheets reflecting these analyses were evaluated by at least two acknowledged experts for each condition. These experts assessed the data and the associated references related to each criterion and provided corrections where appropriate, assigned a value to the level of evidence and the quality of the studies that established the evidence base, and determined whether there were significant variances from the survey data. Survey results were subsequently realigned with the evidence obtained from the scientific literature during the second-tier analysis for all objective criteria, based on input from at least three acknowledged experts in each condition. The information from these two tiers of assessment was then considered with regard to the overriding principles and other technology or condition-specific recommendations. On the basis of this information, conditions were assigned to one of thr

2006-01-01

294

Linguistic validation of the Alberta Context Tool and two measures of research use, for German residential long term care  

PubMed Central

Background To study the association between organizational context and research utilization in German residential long term care (LTC), we translated three Canadian assessment instruments: the Alberta Context Tool (ACT), Estabrooks’ Kinds of Research Utilization (RU) items and the Conceptual Research Utilization Scale. Target groups for the tools were health care aides (HCAs), registered nurses (RNs), allied health professionals (AHPs), clinical specialists and care managers. Through a cognitive debriefing process, we assessed response processes validity–an initial stage of validity, necessary before more advanced validity assessment. Methods We included 39 participants (16 HCAs, 5 RNs, 7 AHPs, 5 specialists and 6 managers) from five residential LTC facilities. We created lists of questionnaire items containing problematic items plus items randomly selected from the pool of remaining items. After participants completed the questionnaires, we conducted individual semi-structured cognitive interviews using verbal probing. We asked participants to reflect on their answers for list items in detail. Participants’ answers were compared to concept maps defining the instrument concepts in detail. If at least two participants gave answers not matching concept map definitions, items were revised and re-tested with new target group participants. Results Cognitive debriefings started with HCAs. Based on the first round, we modified 4 of 58 ACT items, 1 ACT item stem and all 8 items of the RU tools. All items were understood by participants after another two rounds. We included revised HCA ACT items in the questionnaires for the other provider groups. In the RU tools for the other provider groups, we used different wording than the HCA version, as was done in the original English instruments. Only one cognitive debriefing round was needed with each of the other provider groups. Conclusion Cognitive debriefing is essential to detect and respond to problematic instrument items, particularly when translating instruments for heterogeneous, less well educated provider groups such as HCAs. Cognitive debriefing is an important step in research tool development and a vital component of establishing response process validity evidence. Publishing cognitive debriefing results helps researchers to determine potentially critical elements of the translated tools and assists with interpreting scores.

2014-01-01

295

Evaluating Mastery of Biostatistics for Medical Researchers: Need for a new assessment tool  

PubMed Central

Research training has enabled academic clinicians to contribute significantly to the body of medical research literature. Biostatistics represents a critical methodological skill for such researchers, as statistical methods are increasingly a necessary part of medical research. However, there is no validated knowledge and skills assessment for graduate level biostatistics for academic medical researchers. In this paper I review graduate level statistical competencies and existing instruments intended to assess physicians’ ability to read the medical literature and for undergraduate statistics for their alignment with core competencies necessary for successful use of statistics. This analysis shows a need for a new instrument to assess biostatistical competencies for medical researchers.

Enders, Felicity

2011-01-01

296

The one-pager: a practical policy advocacy tool for translating community-based participatory research into action.  

PubMed

The multiple and diverse perspectives, skills, and experiences inherent in community-academic partnerships make them uniquely positioned to educate policy makers and advocate for health equity. Effective communication tools are critical to successfully engage in the policy-making process. Yet few resources emphasize the development and use of practical tools for translating community-based participatory research (CBPR) findings into action. The purpose of this article is to describe a CBPR process for developing and using a one-page summary, or "one-pager," of research findings and their policy implications. This article draws on the experience of the Healthy Environments Partnership (HEP), a community-academic partnership in Detroit, Michigan. In addition to describing these processes, this article includes a template for a one-pager and an example of a one-pager that was written for and presented to federal policy makers. PMID:20543489

Izumi, Betty T; Schulz, Amy J; Israel, Barbara A; Reyes, Angela G; Martin, Jenifer; Lichtenstein, Richard L; Wilson, Christine; Sand, Sharon L

2010-01-01

297

SignStream: A tool for linguistic and computer vision research on visual-gestural language data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on recognition and generation of signed languages and the gestural component of spoken languages has been held back\\u000a by the unavailability of large-scale linguistically annotated corpora of the kind that led to significant advances in the\\u000a area of spoken language. A major obstacle has been the lack of computational tools to assist in efficient analysis and transcription\\u000a of visual

Carol Neidle; Stan Sclaroff; Vassilis Athitsos

2001-01-01

298

Research into the process, materials and tool interaction for large area flexible electronics with micron sized features  

Microsoft Academic Search

By taking the advantage of the flexible nature of flexible substrates, roll-to-roll (R2R) flexible electronics manufacturing will eventually lead to continuous production of high quality and flexible thin film devices with a significant cost reduction. In this work, research has been conducted into the interaction of tooling, material and process for large area flexible electronics with micron sized features. Part

Hao Zhang

2010-01-01

299

Work in progress - a research-based tool kit for communicating unique messages about engineering to first generation college students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ultimate purpose of this work-in-progress is to contribute to increased recruitment and retention efforts for first generation college students studying engineering at the undergraduate level. This paper describes the first stages of a project which aims to translate the authors' research into a ¿tool kit¿ of practical outreach and recruitment materials (e.g., brochures, slides, web-based information) for use and

Julie Martin Trenor; Denise S. Grant

2009-01-01

300

The BIOMAT facility at FAIR: a new tool for ground-based research in space radiation biophysics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The BIOMAT facility at FAIR: a new tool for ground-based research in space radiation biophysics M.Durante The FAIR accelerator complex at GSI (placeCityDarmstadt, country-regionGermany) will be a unique facility, where heavy ions with energies up to about 45 A GeV can be used for radiation biology experiments. The study of these very high charge and energy (HZE) particles is not

Marco Durante

2008-01-01

301

PRE-QAPP AGREEMENT (PQA) AND ANALYTICAL METHOD CHECKLISTS (AMCS): TOOLS FOR PLANNING RESEARCH PROJECTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The Land Remediation and Pollution Control Division (LRPCD) QA Manager strives to assist LRPCD researchers in developing functional planning documents for their research projects. As part of the planning process, several pieces of information are needed, including information re...

302

Assessing the impact of user-centered research on a clinical trial eHealth tool via counterbalanced research design  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveInformatics applications have the potential to improve participation in clinical trials, but their design must be based on user-centered research. This research used a fully counterbalanced experimental design to investigate the effect of changes made to the original version of a website, http:\\/\\/BreastCancerTrials.org\\/, and confirm that the revised version addressed and reinforced patients' needs and expectations.DesignParticipants included women who had

Nancy L. Atkinson; Holly A. Massett; Christy Mylks; Lauren A. McCormack; Julia Kish-Doto; Bradford W. Hesse; Min Qi Wang

2011-01-01

303

Heuristics Diagrams as a Tool to Formatively Assess Teachers' Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many teacher education programs include different forms of teachers doing research. Be it in the form of action research or general inquiries about their practice, it has been argued that when teachers do research on their own practice, they are able to take a more reflective stance towards their work which is necessary to bring about educational…

Chamizo, J. A.; Garcia-Franco, A.

2013-01-01

304

NCCR Chemical Biology: Interdisciplinary Research Excellence, Outreach, Education, and New Tools for Switzerland.  

PubMed

Funded by the Swiss National Science Foundation to promote cutting edge research as well as the advancement of young researchers and women, technology transfer, outreach and education, the NCCR (Swiss National Centre of Competence in Research) Chemical Biology is co-led by Howard Riezman, University of Geneva and Kai Johnsson, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL). PMID:22289365

Sturzenegger, Susi; Johnsson, Kai; Riezman, Howard

2011-01-01

305

Relating Science and Religion: An Ontology of Taxonomies and Development of a Research Tool for Identifying Individual Views  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding how individuals view the relationship between science and religion shows promise for explaining a range of aspects of teaching and learning in science. Several taxonomies, consisting of different views by which people relate science and religion, can be found in the philosophical literature. However, most of the science education literature uses these taxonomies selectively and with limited justification, hindering comparison between existing and future studies. The first aim of this paper is therefore to provide a comprehensive review of the different taxonomies described in the literature and to organise the different views according to their similarities and differences. The second aim of the paper is to present a new research tool developed on the basis of the findings of the literature review. This tool consists of a short questionnaire allowing educational researchers to identify the different viewpoints held by pre-service teachers, undergraduates majoring in biology and school learners. We present the tool itself and demonstrate its usefulness and versatility for future science education research based on three empirical studies covering a range of geographical areas, religious backgrounds, educational levels, age groups and genders.

Yasri, Pratchayapong; Arthur, Shagufta; Smith, Mike U.; Mancy, Rebecca

2013-10-01

306

A web-based tool to engage stakeholders in informing research planning for future decisions on emerging materials.  

PubMed

Prioritizing and assessing risks associated with chemicals, industrial materials, or emerging technologies is a complex problem that benefits from the involvement of multiple stakeholder groups. For example, in the case of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs), scientific uncertainties exist that hamper environmental, health, and safety (EHS) assessments. Therefore, alternative approaches to standard EHS assessment methods have gained increased attention. The objective of this paper is to describe the application of a web-based, interactive decision support tool developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) in a pilot study on ENMs. The piloted tool implements U.S. EPA's comprehensive environmental assessment (CEA) approach to prioritize research gaps. When pursued, such research priorities can result in data that subsequently improve the scientific robustness of risk assessments and inform future risk management decisions. Pilot results suggest that the tool was useful in facilitating multi-stakeholder prioritization of research gaps. Results also provide potential improvements for subsequent applications. The outcomes of future CEAWeb applications with larger stakeholder groups may inform the development of funding opportunities for emerging materials across the scientific community (e.g., National Science Foundation Science to Achieve Results [STAR] grants, National Institutes of Health Requests for Proposals). PMID:24176714

Powers, Christina M; Grieger, Khara D; Hendren, Christine Ogilvie; Meacham, Connie A; Gurevich, Gerald; Lassiter, Meredith Gooding; Money, Eric S; Lloyd, Jennifer M; Beaulieu, Stephen M

2014-02-01

307

QUANTITATIVE RISK REDUCTION ESTIMATION TOOL FOR CONTROL SYSTEMS Suggested Approach and Research Needs  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the past year we have applied a variety of risk assessment technologies to evaluate the risk to critical infrastructure from cyber attacks on control systems. More recently, we identified the need for a stand alone control system risk reduction estimation tool to provide owners and operators of control systems with a more useable, reliable, and credible method for managing

Miles McQueen; Wayne Boyer; Mark Flynn; Sam Alessi

308

PIN: a binary instrumentation tool for computer architecture research and education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer architecture embraces a tremendous number of ever-changing inter-connected concepts and information, yet computer architecture education is very often static, seemingly motionless. Computer architecture is commonly taught using simple piecewise methods of explaining how the hardware performs a given task, rather than characterizing the interaction of software and hardware. Visualization tools allow students to interactively explore basic concepts in computer

Vijay Janapa Reddi; Alex Settle; Daniel A. Connors; Robert S. Cohn

2004-01-01

309

Research Notes. Archimedes: Analysis of a HyperCard Reference Tool.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a study of Archimedes as a HyperCard reference tool at the University of Michigan, and compares uses to similar projects. Results from studied points (i.e., system design and use statistics) support Archimedes: the system sees more use during reference hours when a librarian is unavailable, and user time is comparable to time spent with a…

Ottaviani, J. S.

1995-01-01

310

A new tool for converting food frequency questionnaire data into nutrient and food group values: FETA research methods and availability  

PubMed Central

Objectives To describe the research methods for the development of a new open source, cross-platform tool which processes data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Norfolk Food Frequency Questionnaire (EPIC-Norfolk FFQ). A further aim was to compare nutrient and food group values derived from the current tool (FETA, FFQ EPIC Tool for Analysis) with the previously validated but less accessible tool, CAFÉ (Compositional Analyses from Frequency Estimates). The effect of text matching on intake data was also investigated. Design Cross-sectional analysis of a prospective cohort study—EPIC-Norfolk. Setting East England population (city of Norwich and its surrounding small towns and rural areas). Participants Complete FFQ data from 11?250 men and 13?602 women (mean age 59?years; range 40–79?years). Outcome measures Nutrient and food group intakes derived from FETA and CAFÉ analyses of EPIC-Norfolk FFQ data. Results Nutrient outputs from FETA and CAFÉ were similar; mean (SD) energy intake from FETA was 9222 kJ (2633) in men, 8113?kJ (2296) in women, compared with CAFÉ intakes of 9175?kJ (2630) in men, 8091?kJ (2298) in women. The majority of differences resulted in one or less quintile change (98.7%). Only mean daily fruit and vegetable food group intakes were higher in women than in men (278 vs 212 and 284 vs 255?g, respectively). Quintile changes were evident for all nutrients, with the exception of alcohol, when text matching was not executed; however, only the cereals food group was affected. Conclusions FETA produces similar nutrient and food group values to the previously validated CAFÉ but has the advantages of being open source, cross-platform and complete with a data-entry form directly compatible with the software. The tool will facilitate research using the EPIC-Norfolk FFQ, and can be customised for different study populations.

Mulligan, Angela A; Luben, Robert N; Bhaniani, Amit; Parry-Smith, David J; O'Connor, Laura; Khawaja, Anthony P; Forouhi, Nita G; Khaw, Kay-Tee

2014-01-01

311

Fallout radionuclide-based techniques for assessing the impact of soil conservation measures on erosion control and soil quality: an overview of the main lessons learnt under an FAO/IAEA Coordinated Research Project.  

PubMed

This paper summarizes key findings and identifies the main lessons learnt from a 5-year (2002-2008) coordinated research project (CRP) on "Assessing the effectiveness of soil conservation measures for sustainable watershed management and crop production using fallout radionuclides" (D1.50.08), organized and funded by the International Atomic Energy Agency through the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. The project brought together nineteen participants, from Australia, Austria, Brazil, Canada, Chile, China, Japan, Morocco, Pakistan, Poland, Romania, Russian Federation, Turkey, United Kingdom, United States of America and Vietnam, involved in the use of nuclear techniques and, more particularly, fallout radionuclides (FRN) to assess the relative impacts of different soil conservation measures on soil erosion and land productivity. The overall objective of the CRP was to develop improved land use and management strategies for sustainable watershed management through effective soil erosion control practices, by the use of ¹³?Cs (half-life of 30.2 years), ²¹?Pb(ex) (half-life of 22.3 years) and ?Be (half-life of 53.4 days) for measuring soil erosion over several spatial and temporal scales. The environmental conditions under which the different research teams applied the tools based on the use of fallout radionuclides varied considerably--a variety of climates, soils, topographies and land uses. Nevertheless, the achievements of the CRP, as reflected in this overview paper, demonstrate that fallout radionuclide-based techniques are powerful tools to assess soil erosion/deposition at several spatial and temporal scales in a wide range of environments, and offer potential to monitor soil quality. The success of the CRP has stimulated an interest in many IAEA Member States in the use of these methodologies to identify factors and practices that can enhance sustainable agriculture and minimize land degradation. PMID:22336567

Dercon, G; Mabit, L; Hancock, G; Nguyen, M L; Dornhofer, P; Bacchi, O O S; Benmansour, M; Bernard, C; Froehlich, W; Golosov, V N; Haciyakupoglu, S; Hai, P S; Klik, A; Li, Y; Lobb, D A; Onda, Y; Popa, N; Rafiq, M; Ritchie, J C; Schuller, P; Shakhashiro, A; Wallbrink, P; Walling, D E; Zapata, F; Zhang, X

2012-05-01

312

Using Animation as an Information Tool to Advance Health Research Literacy among Minority Participants  

PubMed Central

Lack of adequate consumer health information about clinical research contributes to health disparities among low health literate minority multicultural populations and requires appropriate methods for making information accessible. Enhancing understanding of health research can enable such minority multicultural consumers to make informed, active decisions about their own health and research participation. This qualitative study examines the effectiveness and acceptability of an animated video to enhance what we call health research literacy among minority multicultural populations. A team analyzed the transcripts of 58 focus groups of African Americans, Latinos, Native Hawaiians, and Filipinos in Los Angeles/Hawaii. Participants were accepting of animation and the video’s cultural appropriateness. Communicating information about health research via animation improved participants’ ability to identify personal information-gaps, engage in meaningful community-level dialogue, and ask questions about health research.

George, Sheba; Moran, Erin; Duran, Nelida; Jenders, Robert A

2013-01-01

313

Three Powerful Research Tools from Single Cells into Single Molecules: AFM, Laser Tweezers, and Raman Spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

By using three physical techniques (atomic force microscopy (AFM), laser tweezers, and Raman spectroscopy), many excellent\\u000a works in single-cell\\/molecule research have been accomplished. In this review, we present a brief introduction to the principles\\u000a of these three techniques, and their capabilities toward single-cell\\/molecule research are highlighted. Afterward, the advances\\u000a in single-cell\\/molecule research that have been facilitated by these three techniques

Yongkuan Wu; Kun Liu; Kedong Song; Shi Pan

314

The Development of an Online Research Tool to Investigate Children’s Social Bonds with Robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a As children are increasingly exposed to robots, it is important to learn more about the social interaction and bond that may\\u000a develop between robots and children. In this paper we report the development of an interactive tool to measure children’s\\u000a attitudes toward social robots for children ages 6-10. A first version of the KidSAR instrument was tested and a pilot

Dana Nathalie Veenstra; Vanessa Evers

2011-01-01

315

Tick cell lines: tools for tick and tick-borne disease research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over 40 cell lines are currently available from 13 ixodid\\u000aand one argasid tick species. The successful isolation\\u000aand propagation of several economically important tickborne\\u000apathogens in tick cell lines has created a useful\\u000amodel to study interactions between tick cells and\\u000athese viral and bacterial disease agents. Tick cell lines\\u000ahave already proved to be a useful tool in

Lesley Bell-Sakyi; Erich Zweygarth; Edmour F. Blouin; Ernest A. Gould; Frans Jongejan

2007-01-01

316

Perceptions of the web as a search tool amongst researchers in biological sciences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to report selective findings from a wider study of web-based information-seeking behaviour amongst biologists. It aims to describe: aspects of the participants' interactions with web-based search tools; their feelings associated with these interactions, and the different types of searches that they carry out on the web. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Data were collected by

Yazdan Mansourian; Andrew D. Madden

2007-01-01

317

Ethics in Educational Research: Introducing a Methodological Tool for Effective Ethical Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ethics is a complicated field and much has been written about its application to educational research. In this paper we introduce a way of planning for and dealing with situations that arise in the course of research that promotes detailed ethical analysis. We present a framework based on the work of Seedhouse and Flinders and describe a…

Stutchbury, Kris; Fox, Alison

2009-01-01

318

Benchmark and Framework for Encouraging Research on Multi-Threaded Testing Tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

A problem that has been getting prominence in testing is that of looking for intermittent bugs. Multi-threaded code is becoming very common, mostly on the server side. As there is no silver bullet solution, research focuses on a va- riety of partial solutions. In this paper (invited by PADTAD 2003) we outline a proposed project to facilitate research. The project

Klaus Havelund; Scott D. Stoller; Ur Shmuel

2003-01-01

319

A software tool for research in linguistics and lexicography: Application to Somali  

Microsoft Academic Search

General-purpose database management systems, whose structure is built in, are not an appropriate solution to situations where problems of translation or areas of research cannot be bounded in advance, for example, when lexicography and linguistic research are closely related. Consequently, an original system has been developed, and is being applied to linguistic and lexicographical data on the Somali language.

Jacqueline Lecarme; Carole Maury

1987-01-01

320

Using C-SPAN as a Research Tool To Analyze Cross-Cultural Relations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

C-SPAN (Cable-Satellite Public Affairs Network) can be used for communications oriented research. A research project on reactions in the United States to the Chinese pro-democracy movement shows the use of C-SPAN as a representative forum. Primary funding for the project was obtained through grants from C-SPAN. Twenty-one C-SPAN programs since…

Schnell, Jim

321

Community-based participatory research and user-centered design in a diabetes medication information and decision tool  

PubMed Central

Background Together, community-based participatory research (CBPR), usercentered design (UCD) and health information technology (HIT) offer promising approaches to improve health disparities in low-resource settings. Objectives This article describes the application of CBPR and UCD principles to the development of iDecide/Decido, an interactive, tailored, web-based diabetes medication education and decision support tool delivered by community health workers (CHWs) to African-American and Latino participants with diabetes in Southwest and Eastside Detroit. The decision aid is offered in English or Spanish and is delivered on an iPad in participants’ homes. Methods The overlapping principles of CBPR and UCD used to develop iDecide/Decido include: a user-focused or community approach; equitable academic and community partnership in all study phases; an iterative development process that relies on input from all stakeholders; and a program experience that is specified, adapted, and implemented with the target community. Results Collaboration between community members, researchers, and developers is especially evident in the program’s design concept, animations, pictographs, issue cards, goal setting, tailoring, and additional CHW tools. Conclusions Applying the principles of CBPR and UCD can be successfully employed in developing health information tools that are easy to use and understand, interactive, and target health disparities.

Henderson, Vida A; Barr, Kathryn LC; An, Lawrence C; Guajardo, Claudia; Newhouse, William; Mase, Rebecca; Heisler, Michele

2014-01-01

322

The Solid Earth Research and Teaching Environment, a new software framework to share research tools in the classroom and across disciplines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Solid Earth Teaching and Research Environment (SEATREE) is a modular and user-friendly software framework to facilitate the use of solid Earth research tools in the classroom and for interdisciplinary research collaboration. SEATREE is open source and community developed, distributed freely under the GNU General Public License. It is a fully contained package that lets users operate in a graphical mode, while giving more advanced users the opportunity to view and modify the source code. Top level graphical user interfaces which initiate the calculations and visualize results, are written in the Python programming language using an object-oriented, modern design. Results are plotted with either Matlab-like Python libraries, or SEATREE’s own Generic Mapping Tools wrapper. The underlying computational codes used to produce the results can be written in any programming language and accessed through Python wrappers. There are currently four fully developed science modules for SEATREE: (1) HC is a global geodynamics tool based on a semi-analytical mantle-circulation program based on work by B. Steinberger, Becker, and C. O'Neill. HC can compute velocities and tractions for global, spherical Stokes flow and radial viscosity variations. HC is fast enough to be used for classroom instruction, for example to let students interactively explore the role of radial viscosity variations for global geopotential (geoid) anomalies. (2) ConMan wraps Scott King’s 2D finite element mantle convection code, allowing users to quickly observe how modifications to input parameters affect heat flow over time. As seismology modules, SEATREE includes, (3), Larry, a global, surface wave phase-velocity inversion tool and, (4), Syn2D, a Cartesian tomography teaching tool for ray-theory wave propagation in synthetic, arbitrary velocity structure in the presence of noise. Both underlying programs were contributed by Boschi. Using Syn2D, students can explore, for example, how well a given input structure (e.g., a checkerboard pattern) will be resolved by data for different types of earthquake-receiver geometries. Additionally, Larry3D, a three-dimensional seismic tomography tool contributed by Boschi, and NonLinLoc, a nonlinear earthquake relocation tool by Anthony Lomax, are both under development. The goal of all of the implemented modules is to aid in teaching research techniques, while remaining flexible enough for use in true research applications. In the long run, SEATREE may contribute to new ways of sharing scientific research, making published (numerical) experiments truly reproducible again. SEATREE can be downloaded as a package from http://geosys.usc.edu/projects/seatree/wiki/, and users can also subscribe to our Subversion project page. The software is designed to run on GNU/Linux based platforms and has also been successfully run on Mac OS-X. Our poster will present the four currently implemented modules, along with our design philosophies and implementation details.

Milner, K.; Becker, T. W.; Boschi, L.; Sain, J.; Schorlemmer, D.; Waterhouse, H.

2009-12-01

323

Ethnobotany as a Pharmacological Research Tool and Recent Developments in CNS-active Natural Products from Ethnobotanical Sources  

PubMed Central

The science of ethnobotany is reviewed in light of its multidisciplinary contributions to natural product research for the development of pharmaceuticals and pharmacological tools. Some of the issues reviewed involve ethical and cultural perspectives of healthcare and medicinal plants. While these are not usually part of the discussion of pharmacology, cultural concerns potentially provide both challenges and insight for field and laboratory researchers. Plant evolutionary issues are also considered as they relate to development of plant chemistry and accessing this through ethnobotanical methods. The discussion includes presentation of a range of CNS-active medicinal plants that have been recently examined in the field, laboratory and/or clinic. Each of these plants is used to illustrate one or more aspects about the valuable roles of ethnobotany in pharmacological research. We conclude with consideration of mutually beneficial future collaborations between field ethnobotanists and pharmacologists.

McClatchey, Will C.; Mahady, Gail B.; Bennett, Bradley C.; Shiels, Laura; Savo, Valentina

2009-01-01

324

NASA's use of McIDAS technology - A data systems tool for meteorological research and applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Earth Science and Applications Division of the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center has been chartered to conduct research, and to develop and use space technology to gain a basic understanding of the earth processes with emphasis on atmospheric processes. An integral part of the research and development efforts has been the Man computer Interactive Data Access System (McIDAS). The McIDAS computer system has permitted integration of data from satellites, aircraft remote sensors, ground based meteorological data sources, and modeled atmospheric radiances. The result has been an increase in knowlege of mesoscale atmospheric processes and has enabled researchers to recommend improvements and suggestions for planned future remote sensing instruments.

Goodman, H. Michael; Meyer, Paul J.

1987-01-01

325

Maine Folklife Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Located at the University of Maine, the Maine Folklife Center is committed to documenting and understanding the folklore, folklife, and history of Maine and Atlantic Canada. Along with its various scholarly activities, the Center sponsors a number of festivals, lectures, and like-minded programs that encourage appreciation of the diverse cultural traditions within the region. The site will be useful to researchers with a penchant in these fields, as it contains information about the collections, including a rather extensive oral history collection (with work that documenting the cranberry culture of Massachusetts and the traditional music of Maine). There is also material on the public programs and exhibits sponsored by the center, and a set of external links that lead to other sites dealing with oral history, folklore, and Maine. While the Center's site does not have a great deal of online material for consideration, the center has transcribed the sixth volume of Northeast Folklore (originally published in 1964) and placed them online.

326

Solar Flares and Coronal Physics Using P/OF as a Research Tool  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This NASA Conference Publication contains the proceedings of the Workshop on Solar High-Resolution Astrophysics Using the Pinhole/Occulter Facility held at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Alabama, on May 8 to 10, 1985. These proceedings include primarily the invited tutorial papers, extended abstracts of contributed poster papers, and summaries of subpanel (X-Ray and Coronal Physics) discussions. Both observational and theoretical results are presented. Although the emphasis of the Workshop was focused primarily on topics peculiar to solar physics, one paper is included that discusses the P/0F as a tool for X-ray astronomy.

Tandberg, E. (editor); Wilson, R. M. (editor); Hudson, R. M. (editor)

1986-01-01

327

Collection of Practical Tips and Tools for Conducting Clinical Research | accrualnet.cancer.gov  

Cancer.gov

The link to the samples, forms, and worksheets is extremely helpful. I am a cancer program consultant assisting a hospital program in building their cancer-related clinical trials accrual. One barrier has been the hesitancy of IRB and other staff to utilize the cancer registry in a planned screening process to identify patients who may be eligible for some studies. The tools in the link yielded several explanations and samples that will be of great benefit in the education process to move forward.

328

ModelDB in computational neuroscience education - a research tool as interactive educational media  

PubMed Central

ModelDB's mission is to link computational models and publications, supporting the field of computational neuroscience (CNS) by making model source code readily available. It is continually expanding, and currently contains source code for more than 300 models that cover more than 41 topics. Investigators, educators, and students can use it to obtain working models that reproduce published results and can be modified to test for new domains of applicability. Users can browse ModelDB to survey the field of computational neuroscience, or pursue more focused explorations of specific topics. Here we describe tutorials and initial experiences with ModelDB as an interactive educational tool.

Morse, Thomas M.

2013-01-01

329

Microgravity: A New Tool for Basic and Applied Research in Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This brochure highlights selected aspects of the NASA Microgravity Science and Applications program. So that we can expand our understanding and control of physical processes, this program supports basic and applied research in electronic materials, metals, glasses and ceramics, biological materials, combustion and fluids and chemicals. NASA facilities that provide weightless environments on the ground, in the air, and in space are available to U.S. and foreign investigators representing the academic and industrial communities. After a brief history of microgravity research, the text explains the advantages and methods of performing microgravity research. Illustrations follow of equipment used and experiments preformed aboard the Shuttle and of prospects for future research. The brochure concludes be describing the program goals and the opportunities for participation.

1985-01-01

330

DESIGN OF MULTI-PARADIGM INTEGRATING MODELING TOOLS FOR ECOLOGICAL RESEARCH. (R825792)  

EPA Science Inventory

The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

331

MEDES clinical research facility as a tool to prepare ISSA space flights  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This new multi-disciplinary medical experimentation center provides the ideal scientific, medical and technical environment required for research programs and to prepare international space station Alpha (ISSA) missions, where space and healthcare industries can share their expertise. Different models are available to simulate space flight effects (bed-rest, confinement,…). This is of particular interest for research in Human psychology, physiology, physiopathology and ergonomics, validation of biomedical materials and procedures, testing of drugs, and other healthcare related products. This clinical research facility (CRF) provides valuable services in various fields of Human research requiring healthy volunteers. CRF is widely accessible to national and international, scientific, medical and industrial organisations. Furthermore, users have at their disposal the multi-disciplinary skills of MEDES staff and all MEDES partners on a single site.

Maillet, A.; Traon, A. Pavy-Le

332

Sulfur Hexafluoride as a Mine Ventilation Research Tool-Recent Field Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) is an odorless, colorless, nontoxic gas that has found acceptance as a tracer gas in research on ventilation patterns, measurement of air leak rates, respirable dust reductions due to bagging hood modifications, and the study of ...

R. J. Timko E. D. Thimons

1982-01-01

333

U of Chicago researchers develop new tool that predicts financial pain for cancer patients  

Cancer.gov

Researchers have found that cancer care has a new side effect. Along with the distress that comes with a cancer diagnosis and the discomforts of treatment, more patients now have to deal with "financial toxicity".

334

Research Project as Boundary Object: negotiating the conceptual design of a tool for International Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reflects on the relationship between whoone designs for and whatone designs in the unstructured space of designing for political change; in particular, for supporting “International Development”\\u000a with ICT. We look at an interdisciplinary research project with goals and funding, but no clearly defined beneficiary group\\u000a at start, and how amorphousness contributed to impact. The reported project researched a

Ann Light; Theresa Dirndorfer Anderson

335

Process design and costing of bioethanol technology: A tool for determining the status and direction of research and development  

SciTech Connect

Bioethanol is a fuel-grade ethanol made from trees, grasses, and waste materials. It represents a sustainable substitute for gasoline in today's passenger cars. Modeling and design of processes for making bioethanol are critical tools used in the US Department of Energy's bioethanol research and development program. The authors use such analysis to guide new directions for research and to help them understand the level at which and the time when bioethanol will achieve commercial success. This paper provides an update on their latest estimates for current and projected costs of bioethanol. These estimates are the result of very sophisticated modeling and costing efforts undertaken in the program over the past few years. Bioethanol could cost anywhere from $1.16 to $1.44 per gallon, depending on the technology and the availability of low cost feedstocks for conversion to ethanol. While this cost range opens the door to fuel blending opportunities, in which ethanol can be used, for example, to improve the octane rating of gasoline, it is not currently competitive with gasoline as a bulk fuel. Research strategies and goals described in this paper have been translated into cost savings for ethanol. Their analysis of these goals shows that the cost of ethanol could drop by 40 cents per gallon over the next ten years by taking advantage of exciting new tools in biotechnology that will improve yield and performance in the conversion process.

Wooley, R.; Ruth, M.; Glassner, D.; Sheehan, J.

1999-10-01

336

Calibration of self-report tools for physical activity research: the Physical Activity Questionnaire (PAQ)  

PubMed Central

Background The utility of self-report measures of physical activity (PA) in youth can be greatly enhanced by calibrating self-report output against objectively measured PA data. This study demonstrates the potential of calibrating self-report output against objectively measured physical activity (PA) in youth by using a commonly used self-report tool called the Physical Activity Questionnaire (PAQ). Methods A total of 148 participants (grades 4 through 12) from 9 schools (during the 2009–2010 school year) wore an Actigraph accelerometer for 7 days and then completed the PAQ. Multiple linear regression modeling was used on 70% of the available sample to develop a calibration equation and this was cross validated on an independent sample of participants (30% of sample). Results A calibration model with age, gender, and PAQ scores explained 40% of the variance in values for the percentage of time in moderate-to-vigorous PA (%MVPA) measured from the accelerometers (%MVPA?=?14.56 - (sex*0.98) - (0.84*age)?+?(1.01*PAQ)). When tested on an independent, hold-out sample, the model estimated %MVPA values that were highly correlated with the recorded accelerometer values (r?=?.63) and there was no significant difference between the estimated and recorded activity values (mean diff. = 25.3?±?18.1 min; p?=?.17). Conclusions These results suggest that the calibrated PAQ may be a valid alternative tool to activity monitoring instruments for estimating %MVPA in groups of youth.

2014-01-01

337

Biomedical research, a tool to address the health issues that affect African populations  

PubMed Central

Traditionally, biomedical research endeavors in low to middle resources countries have focused on communicable diseases. However, data collected over the past 20 years by the World Health Organization (WHO) show a significant increase in the number of people suffering from non-communicable diseases (e.g. heart disease, diabetes, cancer and pulmonary diseases). Within the coming years, WHO predicts significant decreases in communicable diseases while non-communicable diseases are expected to double in low and middle income countries in sub-Saharan Africa. The predicted increase in the non-communicable diseases population could be economically burdensome for the basic healthcare infrastructure of countries that lack resources to address this emerging disease burden. Biomedical research could stimulate development of healthcare and biomedical infrastructure. If this development is sustainable, it provides an opportunity to alleviate the burden of both communicable and non-communicable diseases through diagnosis, prevention and treatment. In this paper, we discuss how research using biomedical technology, especially genomics, has produced data that enhances the understanding and treatment of both communicable and non-communicable diseases in sub-Saharan Africa. We further discuss how scientific development can provide opportunities to pursue research areas responsive to the African populations. We limit our discussion to biomedical research in the areas of genomics due to its substantial impact on the scientific community in recent years however, we also recognize that targeted investments in other scientific disciplines could also foster further development in African countries.

2013-01-01

338

pClone: Synthetic Biology Tool Makes Promoter Research Accessible to Beginning Biology Students  

PubMed Central

The Vision and Change report recommended genuine research experiences for undergraduate biology students. Authentic research improves science education, increases the number of scientifically literate citizens, and encourages students to pursue research. Synthetic biology is well suited for undergraduate research and is a growing area of science. We developed a laboratory module called pClone that empowers students to use advances in molecular cloning methods to discover new promoters for use by synthetic biologists. Our educational goals are consistent with Vision and Change and emphasize core concepts and competencies. pClone is a family of three plasmids that students use to clone a new transcriptional promoter or mutate a canonical promoter and measure promoter activity in Escherichia coli. We also developed the Registry of Functional Promoters, an open-access database of student promoter research results. Using pre- and posttests, we measured significant learning gains among students using pClone in introductory biology and genetics classes. Student posttest scores were significantly better than scores of students who did not use pClone. pClone is an easy and affordable mechanism for large-enrollment labs to meet the high standards of Vision and Change.

Eckdahl, Todd; Cronk, Brian; Andresen, Corinne; Frederick, Paul; Huckuntod, Samantha; Shinneman, Claire; Wacker, Annie; Yuan, Jason

2014-01-01

339

Neutron and synchrotron radiation tomography: New tools for materials science at the GKSS-Research Center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the research reactor Geesthacht FRG-1, a new neutron tomography station is planned by the GKSS-Research Center. The neutron radiography facility GENRA-3 will be extended to investigate samples up to 40 cm in diameter. Furthermore, in cooperation with the Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, the GKSS-Research Center is building the new synchrotron radiation beamline HARWI-2 at the DORIS storage ring. High-energy X-rays in the range of 20-200 keV will be used to perform X-ray microtomography on small and large samples of up to 10 cm in diameter. Here the different tomographic stations, operated by the GKSS, will be described. The combination of neutron and synchrotron radiation techniques will give new insights into the three-dimensional behavior of samples in materials science.

Beckmann, F.; Vollbrandt, J.; Donath, T.; Schmitz, H. W.; Schreyer, A.

2005-04-01

340

A pilot study: research poster presentations as an educational tool for undergraduate epidemiology students  

PubMed Central

Students in a fourth year epidemiology course were surveyed after participating in a formal Science Research Day in which they presented original research, in poster form, to be judged by scientists from the community. Of 276 participating students, 80 (29%) responded to the study survey. As a result, 19% of respondents were more likely to pursue a career in science, and 27.5% were more likely to pursue a career in epidemiology. Only one respondent reported being less likely to pursue a science career, while seven were less likely to pursue epidemiology. A majority of respondents felt that the poster experience was on par with, or superior to, a comparable research paper, in terms of both educational appeal and enjoyment. Mandatory, formal poster presentations are an innovative format for teaching advanced health sciences, and may more accurately reflect the realities of a science career than do more traditional educational formats.

Deonandan, Raywat; Gomes, James; Lavigne, Eric; Dinh, Thy; Blanchard, Robert

2013-01-01

341

Thermonuclear Reaction Rate Libraries and Software Tools for Nuclear Astrophysics Research  

SciTech Connect

Thermonuclear reaction rates are a crucial input for simulating a wide variety of astrophysical environments. A new collaboration has been formed to ensure that astrophysical modelers have access to reaction rates based on the most recent experimental and theoretical nuclear physics information. To reach this goal, a new version of the REACLIB library has been created by the Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics (JINA), now available online at http://www.nscl.msu.edu/{approx}nero/db. A complementary effort is the development of software tools in the Computational Infrastructure for Nuclear Astrophysics, online at nucastrodata.org, to streamline, manage, and access the workflow of the reaction evaluations from their initiation to peer review to incorporation into the library. Details of these new projects will be described.

Smith, Michael S. [Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, 37831-6354 (United States); Cyburt, Richard; Schatz, Hendrik; Smith, Karl; Warren, Scott; Ferguson, Ryan [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, and National Superconducting Cyclotron Lab., Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, Michigan, 48824-1321 (United States); Wiescher, Michael [Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana, 46556-5770 (United States); Lingerfelt, Eric; Buckner, Kim; Nesaraja, Caroline D. [Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, 37831-6354 (United States); Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee, 37996-1200 (United States)

2008-05-21

342

Thermonuclear Reaction Rate Libraries and Software Tools for Nuclear Astrophysics Research  

SciTech Connect

Thermonuclear reaction rates are a crucial input for simulating a wide variety of astrophysical environments. A new collaboration has been formed to ensure that astrophysical modelers have access to reaction rates based on the most recent experimental and theoretical nuclear physics information. To reach this goal, a new version of the REACLIB library has been created by the Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics (JINA), now available online at http://www.nscl.msu.edu/~nero/db. A complementary effort is the development of software tools in the Computational Infrastructure for Nuclear Astrophysics, online at nucastrodata.org, to streamline, manage, and access the workflow of the reaction evaluations from their initiation to peer review to incorporation into the library. Details of these new projects will be described.

Smith, Michael Scott [ORNL; Cyburt, Richard [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Schatz, Hendrik [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Wiescher, Michael [University of Notre Dame, IN; Smith, Karl [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Warren, Scott [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Ferguson, Ryan [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Lingerfelt, Eric J [ORNL; Buckner, Kim [ORNL; Nesaraja, Caroline D [ORNL

2008-01-01

343

Development of inhibitors as research tools for carbohydrate-processing enzymes.  

PubMed

Carbohydrates, which are present in all domains of life, play important roles in a host of cellular processes. These ubiquitous biomolecules form highly diverse and often complex glycan structures without the aid of a template. The carbohydrate structures are regulated solely by the location and specificity of the enzymes responsible for their synthesis and degradation. These enzymes, glycosyltransferases and glycoside hydrolases, need to be functionally well characterized in order to investigate the structure and function of glycans. The use of enzyme inhibitors, which target a particular enzyme, can significantly aid this understanding, and may also provide insights into therapeutic applications. The present article describes some of the approaches used to design and develop enzyme inhibitors as tools for investigating carbohydrate-processing enzymes. PMID:22988843

Gloster, Tracey M

2012-10-01

344

Tools for 3D scientific visualization in computational aerodynamics at NASA Ames Research Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hardware, software, and techniques used by the Fluid Dynamics Division (NASA) for performing visualization of computational aerodynamics, which can be applied to the visualization of flow fields from computer simulations of fluid dynamics about the Space Shuttle, are discussed. Three visualization techniques applied, post-processing, tracking, and steering, are described, as well as the post-processing software packages used, PLOT3D, SURF (Surface Modeller), GAS (Graphical Animation System), and FAST (Flow Analysis software Toolkit). Using post-processing methods a flow simulation was executed on a supercomputer and, after the simulation was complete, the results were processed for viewing. It is shown that the high-resolution, high-performance three-dimensional workstation combined with specially developed display and animation software provides a good tool for analyzing flow field solutions obtained from supercomputers.

Bancroft, Gordon; Plessel, Todd; Merritt, Fergus; Watson, Val

1989-01-01

345

The antisaccade task as a research tool in psychopathology: a critical review.  

PubMed

The antisaccade task is a measure of volitional control of behavior sensitive to fronto-striatal dysfunction. Here we outline important issues concerning antisaccade methodology, consider recent evidence of the cognitive processes and neural mechanisms involved in task performance, and review how the task has been applied to study psychopathology. We conclude that the task yields reliable and sensitive measures of the processes involved in resolving the conflict between volitional and reflexive behavioral responses, a key cognitive deficit relevant to a number of neuropsychiatric conditions. Additionally, antisaccade deficits may reflect genetic liability for schizophrenia. Finally, the ease and accuracy with which the task can be administered, combined with its sensitivity to fronto-striatal dysfunction and the availability of suitable control conditions, may make it a useful benchmark tool for studies of potential cognitive enhancers. PMID:16805870

Hutton, Samuel B; Ettinger, Ulrich

2006-05-01

346

Behavioral monitoring in zoos and aquariums: a tool for guiding husbandry and directing research.  

PubMed

Behavioral monitoring is the scientific collection of animal behavior data to understand normal patterns of behavior and changes in these patterns. This tool is underutilized in the zoo industry although it can be an effective indicator of many potential problems that compromise zoo animal well-being. We suggest that a behavioral monitoring program should be a core component of a zoological institution's care program. We detail the benefits of such a program and describe its components. We provide guidelines for implementing such a program and make recommendations that will help institutions to employ behavioral monitoring programs with reasonable expense. We argue that the benefits of such a program, primarily increased detection of rising or potential problems, far outweigh the minor costs of implementation. PMID:19358317

Watters, Jason V; Margulis, Susan W; Atsalis, Sylvia

2009-01-01

347

A review of three simple plant models and corresponding statistical tools for basic research in homeopathy.  

PubMed

In this paper, we review three simple plant models (wheat seed germination, wheat seedling growth, and infected tobacco plants) that we set up during a series of experiments carried out from 1991 to 2009 in order to study the effects of homeopathic treatments. We will also describe the set of statistical tools applied in the different models. The homeopathic treatment used in our experiments was arsenic trioxide (As?O?) diluted in a decimal scale and dynamized. Since the most significant results were achieved with the 45th decimal potency, both for As?O? (As 45x) and water (W 45x), we here report a brief summary of these results. The statistical analysis was performed by using parametric and nonparametric tests, and Poisson distribution had an essential role when dealing with germination experiments. Finally, we will describe some results related to the changes in variability, which seems to be one of the targets of homeopathic treatment effect. PMID:21170483

Betti, Lucietta; Trebbi, Grazia; Zurla, Michela; Nani, Daniele; Peruzzi, Maurizio; Brizzi, Maurizio

2010-01-01

348

“Underground Safari” and other outreach tools for dissemination of root and soil science research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Kalahari Transect encompasses the sandy savanna biome of southern Africa and provides a compelling setting for studying the influence of climate change on soil and plant dynamics in a water stressed environment. NSF funding for the Research Experience for Teachers (RET) Program made it possible for a high school science teacher to visit field sites in Botswana, interact with Botswana high school teachers and students, and collaborate with scientists to develop web-based science teacher education modules on the topic of roots and belowground carbon storage. The “Underground Safari” website for K-12 teachers and students was constructed to infuse middle and high school level standards-based soil science curricula with outdoor activities, international field research videos, lab demos, printable handouts, and stimulating real-world applications. This presentation highlights the “Underground Safari” website design, the wiki page used by the RET teacher to communicate with her students on-line and take them on science adventures during the international field research, and other educational outreach activities resulting from this international research experience. Figure 1. Wiki page used by RET teacher to communicate with her students while in the field in Botswana, Africa.

Mladenov, N.; Riffel, H.; D'Odorico, P.

2009-12-01

349

Using Research Based Assessment Tools in Professional Development in Current Electricity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We present a practical way of adapting and using four research-based assessments for different purposes in an electricity and magnetism course for K-8 science teachers. The course is designed to accomplish conceptual change toward accepted scientific conceptions as well as introducing teachers to materials and activities appropriate for their…

Shen, Ji; Gibbons, Patrick C.; Wiegers, John F.; McMahon, Ann P.

2007-01-01

350

Systems Thinking Tools as Applied to Community-Based Participatory Research: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is being used increasingly to address health disparities and complex health issues. The authors propose that CBPR can benefit from a systems science framework to represent the complex and dynamic characteristics of a community and identify intervention points and potential "tipping points." Systems…

BeLue, Rhonda; Carmack, Chakema; Myers, Kyle R.; Weinreb-Welch, Laurie; Lengerich, Eugene J.

2012-01-01

351

The Electronic Survey as a Research Tool: A Case Study of BALT-L.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this research study was to compose a user profile of one specific electronic conference/electronic mail (e-conference/e-mail) discussion group through an in-depth case study, using a survey administered, collected, and tabulated electronically. The BALT-L is an online forum devoted to communication to and about the Baltic republics…

Sudmalis, Linda

352

Measurement of heart rate variability: a clinical tool or a research toy?  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVESThe objectives of this review are to discuss the diversity of mechanisms that may explain the association between heart rate (HR) variability and mortality, to appraise the clinical applicability of traditional and new measures of HR variability and to propose future directions in this field of research. There is a large body of data demonstrating that abnormal HR variability measured

Heikki V Huikuri; Timo Mäkikallio; K. E. Juhani Airaksinen; Raul Mitrani; Agustin Castellanos; Robert J Myerburg

1999-01-01

353

The Interview: An Educational Research Tool. An Occasional Paper from ERIC at Stanford.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Like all good social research methods, the interview demands careful planning and intelligent administration. The study director formulates the goals of the study, which serve as the basis for the interview schedule or instrument. The interview schedule decided upon may be standardized or unstandardized. Questions may be closed-ended or…

Collins, Andrew

354

Vagus nerve stimulation: a new tool for brain research and therapy?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological psychiatry has a long history of using somatic therapies to treat neuropsychiatric illnesses and to understand brain function. These methods have included neurosurgery, electroconvulsive therapy, and, most recently, transcranial magnetic stimulation. Fourteen years ago researchers discovered that intermittent electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve produces inhibition of neural processes, which can alter brain electrical activity and terminate seizures in

Mark S. George; Harold A. Sackeim; A. John Rush; Lauren B. Marangell; Ziad Nahas; Mustafa M. Husain; Sarah Lisanby; Tal Burt; Juliet Goldman; James C. Ballenger

2000-01-01

355

Simulation as a tool for teaching research methods in a criminology course  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, I describe an approach for integrating discussions of research methods into an introductory criminology course. I describe how one method—simulation—is introduced to students and how they analyze it critically while I communicate Coleman's concept of the culture of competition. This example is offered as a model for an introductory criminology course that pairs substance with methods to

Rebecca L. Bordt

1999-01-01

356

Automated riverine landscape characterization: GIS-based tools for watershed-scale research, assessment, and management  

EPA Science Inventory

River systems consist of hydrogeomorphic patches (HPs) that emerge at multiple spatiotemporal scales. Functional process zones (FPZs) are HPs that exist at the river valley scae and are important strata for fraing whole-watershed research questions and management plans. Hierarchi...

357

Focus Groups as a Tool for Critical Social Research in Nurse Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the potential of focus groups to address balance of power and empowerment issues in nursing research. Explains the need to involve diverse stakeholders in curriculum development, student evaluation, and appraisals of students' perceptions of their experiences. (Contains 52 references.) (SK)

Kevern, Jennifer; Webb, Christine

2001-01-01

358

Sensemaking tools for understanding research literatures: Design, implementation and user evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the work undertaken in the Scholarly Ontologies Project. The aim of the project has been to develop a computational approach to support scholarly sensemaking, through interpretation and argumentation, enabling researchers to make claims: to describe and debate their view of a document's key contributions and relationships to the literature. The project has investigated the technicalities and practicalities

Victoria S. Uren; Simon Buckingham Shum; Michelle Bachler; Gangmin Li

2006-01-01

359

Unmanned Aerial Vehicle - A Good Tool for Aerospace Engineering Education and Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aerospace engineering is a vehicle-oriented discipline, which commonly incorporates a very wide variety of curricular subjects but with a hands -on training as an ultimate goal of education and research for the young students. The aerospace engineering education starts as a system approach, which shall, at least, include the design, manufacturing and maintenance of aerospace vehicles. It is essential to

Fei-Bin HSIAO; Ying-Chih LAI; Meng-Tse LEE; Tsong-Liang LIU; Woei-Leong CHAN; Sheng-Yen HSIEH; Chun-Chih CHEN

2005-01-01

360

Assessing Customer Satisfaction at the NIST Research Library: Essential Tool for Future Planning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a campus-wide customer satisfaction survey undertaken by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Research Library in 2007. The methodology, survey instrument, data analysis, results, and actions taken in response to the survey are described. The outcome and recommendations will guide the library both…

Liu, Rosa; Allmang, Nancy

2008-01-01

361

Agent-Based Learning Environments as a Research Tool for Investigating Teaching and Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses intelligent learning environments for computer-based learning, such as agent-based learning environments, and their advantages over human-based instruction. Considers the effects of multiple agents; agents and research design; the use of Multiple Intelligent Mentors Instructing Collaboratively (MIMIC) for instructional design for…

Baylor, Amy L.

2002-01-01

362

Image Processing for Teaching: Transforming a Scientific Research Tool into an Educational Technology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Image Processing for Teaching (IPT) project which provides digital image processing to excite students about science and mathematics as they use research-quality software on microcomputers. Provides information on IPT whose components of this dissemination project have been widespread teacher education, curriculum-based materials…

Greenberg, Richard

1998-01-01

363

Germ cell DNA-repair systems—possible tools in cancer research?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major dogma in cancer research is that cancer begins at the cellular level. Because of this single-cell origin, evolutionary principles have often been used to explain how somatic cancer cells are selected at a sub-individual level. The traditional application of Darwinian theory, however, in which the colony of cells constituting an individual is regarded as a whole, has not

F Helle

2012-01-01

364

The Reference Desk Survey: A Management Tool in an Academic Research Library.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Findings of a survey of the level of reference service requested at service points conducted at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University indicate that, while 20.5 percent of 14,026 questions recorded fall in the reference category, only 0.7 percent required research by professional librarians. Models of reference desk service and…

Kok, Victoria T.; Pierce, Anton B.

1982-01-01

365

The Plant Protoplast: A Useful Tool for Plant Research and Student Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A plant protoplast is basically a plant cell that lacks a cell wall. This article outlines some of the ways in which protoplasts may be used to advance understanding of plant cell biology in research and student instruction. Topics include high efficiency experimental virus infection, organelle isolation, and osmotic effects. (Author/MA)

Wagner, George J.; And Others

1978-01-01

366

Comparing tools for service quality evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Service quality evaluation is one of the main issues that have recently drawn managers’ and researchers’ attention. The definition of an evaluation standard not dependent on any particular service context has determined the popularity of many different quality tools. In this paper we show a comparative analysis of the affected tools that are widely used. These are summarized in an

Fiorenzo Franceschini; Marco Cignetti; Mara Caldara

1998-01-01

367

Image analysis tools for evaluation of microscopic views of immunohistochemically stained specimen in medical research-a review.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to review the methods being used for image analysis of microscopic views of immunohistochemically stained specimen in medical research. The solutions available range from general purpose software to commercial packages. Many studies have developed their own custom written programs based on some general purpose software available. Many groups have reported development of computer aided image analysis programs aiming at obtaining faster, simpler and cheaper solutions. Image analysis tools namely Aperio, Lucia, Metaview, Metamorph, ImageJ, Scion, Adobe Photoshop, Image Pro Plus are also used for evaluation of expressions using immunohistochemical staining. An overview of such methods used for image analysis is provided in this paper. This study concludes that there is good scope for development of freely available software for staining intensity quantification, which a medical researcher could easily use without requiring high level computer skills. PMID:21584771

Prasad, Keerthana; Prabhu, Gopalakrishna K

2012-08-01

368

ERTS-A data as a teaching and research tool in the Department of Geology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. The project was an attempt to integrate ERTS-1 data into teaching introductory, specialized, and graduate courses in the Department of Geology, University of Alaska. This data was to be utilized principally through a specially selected, high quality collection of black and white, and color 9.5 mosaics of the State of Alaska. In completing these tasks, the data accumulated has proved highly useful in a variety of ways including: (1) discussions of the uses and availability of ERTS imagery; (2) as a medium for talking about and showing various areas of Alaska; (3) in discussing geology in general; and (4) as an aid in doing research and as possible research topics themselves. Use of ERTS-1 imagery in geology proved highly successful and its use is now an integral part of many courses.

Grybeck, D. (principal investigator)

1974-01-01

369

Tools to Support Scientists' Involvement in EPO and Science Education Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding resources that are needed to successfully engage scientists in EPO requires an awareness of scientists' previous experiences with EPO activities. We provide a short analysis involving a survey of scientists involved with an EPO effort. The results from this case study helped to inform the EPO community of the needs of the science community when engaging with EPO efforts. We provide resources to support scientists' involvement in EPO activities and science education research.

Brogt, E.; Buxner, S.; Matiella Novak, M. A.

2013-04-01

370

NASA Global Hawk Project Update and Future Plans: A New Tool for Earth Science Research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Science objectives include: First demonstration of the Global Hawk unmanned aircraft system (UAS) for NASA and NOAA Earth science research and applications; Validation of instruments on-board the Aura satellite; Exploration of trace gases, aerosols, and dynamics of remote upper Troposphere/lower Stratosphere regions; Sample polar vortex fragments and atmospheric rivers; Risk reduction for future missions that will study hurricanes and atmospheric rivers.

Naftel, Chris

2009-01-01

371

National Specialty Workshop on Technical Tools for Air Toxics Assessment. Held in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina on June 17-20, 1997.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Speciality Workshop Technical Tools for Air Toxics Assessment was held on June 17-29, 1997 at EPA's Administration Auditorium Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. The purpose of the workshop was to provide participant s with an opportunity...

1997-01-01

372

Tribology of coated tools in conventional and HSC machining  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of research of the tribological conditions in the tool–workpiece interface in cutting processes is to find the main causes for unpredicted tool life. As is shown in the paper there are many causes for their influences on the tool wear. Not only mechanical and chemical but also thermo-chemical aspects of wear is important. The high cutting temperature, which

J. Kopac; M. Sokovic; S. Dolinsek

2001-01-01

373

Unattached radon progeny as an experimental tool for dosimetry of nanoaerosols: proposed method and research strategy.  

PubMed

In this paper the authors discuss a method using 1-nm particulate radon decay products as an experimental tool in the study of local lung deposition and dosimetry for nanoaerosols. The study of aerosol exposure and dosimetry measurements, and related quantitative assessment of health effects, are important to the understanding of the consequences of air pollution, and are discussed widely in the scientific literature. During the last 10 years the need to correlate aerosol exposure and biological effects has become especially important due to rapid development of a new, revolutionary industry--nanotechnology. Quantitative assessment of aerosol particle behavior in air, in lung deposition, and dosimetry in different parts of the lung, particularly for nanoaerosols, remains poor despite several decades of study. Direct nanoparticle dose measurements on humans are still needed in order to validate the hollow cast, animal studies, and lung deposition modeling. The issue of the safe use of radon progeny in such measurements is discussed. One of the properties of radon progeny is that they consist partly of 1-nm radioactive particles called unattached activity; having extremely small size and high diffusion coefficients, these particles can be potentially useful as radioactive tracers in the study of nanometer-sized aerosols. PMID:20433333

Ruzer, Lev S; Apte, Michael G

2010-08-01

374

Development of ITSASGIS-5D: seeking interoperability between Marine GIS layers and scientific multidimensional data using open source tools and OGC services for multidisciplinary research.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 2000, an intense effort was conducted in AZTI's Marine Research Division to set up a data management system which could gather all the marine datasets that were being produced by different in-house research projects. For that, a corporative GIS was designed that included a data and metadata repository, a database, a layer catalog & search application and an internet map viewer. Several layers, mostly dealing with physical, chemical and biological in-situ sampling, and basic and thematic cartography including bathymetry, geomorphology, different species habitat maps, and human pressure and activities maps, were successfully gathered in this system. Very soon, it was realised that new marine technologies yielding continuous multidimensional data, sometimes called FES (Fluid Earth System) data, were difficult to handle in this structure. The data affected, mainly included numerical oceanographic and meteorological models, remote sensing data, coastal RADAR data, and some in-situ observational systems such as CTD's casts, moored or lagrangian buoys, etc. A management system for gridded multidimensional data was developed using standardized formats (netcdf using CF conventions) and tools such as THREDDS catalog (UNIDATA/UCAR) providing web services such as OPENDAP, NCSS, and WCS, as well as ncWMS service developed by the Reading e-science Center. At present, a system (ITSASGIS-5D) is being developed, based on OGC standards and open-source tools to allow interoperability between all the data types mentioned before. This system includes, in the server side, postgresql/postgis databases and geoserver for GIS layers, and THREDDS/Opendap and ncWMS services for FES gridded data. Moreover, an on-line client is being developed to allow joint access, user configuration, data visualisation & query and data distribution. This client is using mapfish, ExtJS - GeoEXT, and openlayers libraries. Through this presentation the elements of the first released version of this system will be described and showed, together with the new topics to be developed in new versions that include among others, the integration of geoNetwork libraries and tools for both FES and GIS metadata management, and the use of new OGC Sensor Observation Services (SOS) to integrate non gridded multidimensional data such as time series, depth profiles or trajectories provided by different observational systems. The final aim of this approach is to contribute to the multidisciplinary access and use of marine data for management and research activities, and facilitate the implementation of integrated ecosystem based approaches in the fields of fisheries advice and management, marine spatial planning, or the implementation of the European policies such as the Water Framework Directive, the Marine Strategy Framework Directive or the Habitat Framework Directive.

Sagarminaga, Y.; Galparsoro, I.; Reig, R.; Sánchez, J. A.

2012-04-01

375

Infrared thermography as a high-throughput tool in catalysis research.  

PubMed

The so-called "emissivity corrected infrared thermography" (ecIRT) has been successfully developed and used to great effect in the field of combinatorial high-throughput studies in catalysis. A short introduction to the basics of ecIRT and the description of a typical setup is given. Research efforts from 1998 until present are summarized and selected publications with IRT applications in catalysis are highlighted. The last section of the article covers potential problems, which the observant may misinterpret as activity of the materials. The effects are classified and it is explained why they occur and what can be done to bypass them. PMID:22432458

Loskyll, Jonas; Stoewe, Klaus; Maier, Wilhelm F

2012-05-14

376

Software Tools  

Cancer.gov

Software Tools What is caBIG®? NCI's Cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid (caBIG®) is a virtual network of interconnected data, individuals, and organizations that redefines how research is conducted, care is provided, and patients/participants interact

377

An FDA bioinformatics tool for microbial genomics research on molecular characterization of bacterial foodborne pathogens using microarrays  

PubMed Central

Background Advances in microbial genomics and bioinformatics are offering greater insights into the emergence and spread of foodborne pathogens in outbreak scenarios. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has developed a genomics tool, ArrayTrackTM, which provides extensive functionalities to manage, analyze, and interpret genomic data for mammalian species. ArrayTrackTM has been widely adopted by the research community and used for pharmacogenomics data review in the FDA’s Voluntary Genomics Data Submission program. Results ArrayTrackTM has been extended to manage and analyze genomics data from bacterial pathogens of human, animal, and food origin. It was populated with bioinformatics data from public databases such as NCBI, Swiss-Prot, KEGG Pathway, and Gene Ontology to facilitate pathogen detection and characterization. ArrayTrackTM’s data processing and visualization tools were enhanced with analysis capabilities designed specifically for microbial genomics including flag-based hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA), flag concordance heat maps, and mixed scatter plots. These specific functionalities were evaluated on data generated from a custom Affymetrix array (FDA-ECSG) previously developed within the FDA. The FDA-ECSG array represents 32 complete genomes of Escherichia coli and Shigella. The new functions were also used to analyze microarray data focusing on antimicrobial resistance genes from Salmonella isolates in a poultry production environment using a universal antimicrobial resistance microarray developed by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Conclusion The application of ArrayTrackTM to different microarray platforms demonstrates its utility in microbial genomics research, and thus will improve the capabilities of the FDA to rapidly identify foodborne bacteria and their genetic traits (e.g., antimicrobial resistance, virulence, etc.) during outbreak investigations. ArrayTrackTM is free to use and available to public, private, and academic researchers at http://www.fda.gov/ArrayTrack.

2010-01-01

378

Tissue regeneration after bark girdling: an ideal research tool to investigate plant vascular development and regeneration.  

PubMed

Regeneration is a common strategy for plants to survive the intrinsic and extrinsic challenges they face through their life cycle, and it may occur upon wounding. Bark girdling is applied to improve fruit production or harvest bark as medicinal material. When tree bark is removed, the cambium and phloem will be peeled off. After a small strip of bark is removed from trees, newly formed periderm and wound cambium develop from the callus on the surface of the trunk, and new phloem is subsequently derived from the wound cambium. However, after large-scale girdling, the newly formed sieve elements (SEs) appear earlier than the regenerated cambium, and both of them derive from differentiating xylem cells rather than from callus. This secondary vascular tissue regeneration mainly involves three key stages: callus formation and xylem cell dedifferentiation; SEs appearance and wound cambium formation. The new bark is formed within 1 month in poplar, Eucommia; thus, it provides high temporal resolution of regenerated tissues at different stages. In this review, we will illustrate the morphology, gene expression and phytohormone regulation of vascular tissue regeneration after large-scale girdling in trees, and also discuss the potential utilization of the bark girdling system in studies of plant vascular development and tissue regeneration. PMID:24111607

Chen, Jia-Jia; Zhang, Jing; He, Xin-Qiang

2014-06-01

379

RenderToolbox3: MATLAB tools that facilitate physically based stimulus rendering for vision research.  

PubMed

RenderToolbox3 provides MATLAB utilities and prescribes a workflow that should be useful to researchers who want to employ graphics in the study of vision and perhaps in other endeavors as well. In particular, RenderToolbox3 facilitates rendering scene families in which various scene attributes and renderer behaviors are manipulated parametrically, enables spectral specification of object reflectance and illuminant spectra, enables the use of physically based material specifications, helps validate renderer output, and converts renderer output to physical units of radiance. This paper describes the design and functionality of the toolbox and discusses several examples that demonstrate its use. We have designed RenderToolbox3 to be portable across computer hardware and operating systems and to be free and open source (except for MATLAB itself). RenderToolbox3 is available at https://github.com/DavidBrainard/RenderToolbox3. PMID:24511145

Heasly, Benjamin S; Cottaris, Nicolas P; Lichtman, Daniel P; Xiao, Bei; Brainard, David H

2014-01-01

380

fMRI Brain-Computer Interface: A Tool for Neuroscientific Research and Treatment  

PubMed Central

Brain-computer interfaces based on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI-BCI) allow volitional control of anatomically specific regions of the brain. Technological advancement in higher field MRI scanners, fast data acquisition sequences, preprocessing algorithms, and robust statistical analysis are anticipated to make fMRI-BCI more widely available and applicable. This noninvasive technique could potentially complement the traditional neuroscientific experimental methods by varying the activity of the neural substrates of a region of interest as an independent variable to study its effects on behavior. If the neurobiological basis of a disorder (e.g., chronic pain, motor diseases, psychopathy, social phobia, depression) is known in terms of abnormal activity in certain regions of the brain, fMRI-BCI can be targeted to modify activity in those regions with high specificity for treatment. In this paper, we review recent results of the application of fMRI-BCI to neuroscientific research and psychophysiological treatment.

Sitaram, Ranganatha; Caria, Andrea; Veit, Ralf; Gaber, Tilman; Rota, Giuseppina; Kuebler, Andrea; Birbaumer, Niels

2007-01-01

381

Pulsed laser deposition in Twente: from research tool towards industrial deposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After the discovery of the perovskite high Tc superconductors in 1986, a rare and almost unknown deposition technique attracted attention. Pulsed laser deposition (PLD), or laser ablation as it was called in the beginning, became popular because of the possibility to deposit complex materials, like perovskites, as thin film. By introducing in situ diagnostics and control of the laser fluence, PLD became a technique for several experimental studies of diverse complex materials. Nowadays, first steps towards industrial applications of PLD thin films on large wafers, up to 200 mm, are underway. In this paper we give a brief overview of the progress that PLD has made in our research group in Twente. Starting with control of deposition parameters, via in situ diagnostics with reflection high-energy electron diffraction and ending with the latest development in equipment for large-area deposition.

Blank, Dave H. A.; Dekkers, Matthijn; Rijnders, Guus

2014-01-01

382

GIS(c): a scientific framework and methodological tool for nursing research.  

PubMed

The purpose of this article was to bring to nursing science a theoretical framework and technology that can transport with it new ways of knowing by exploiting microperspectives and macroperspectives, both from "within the map" and globally. Nursing continues to find its voice, but it also must lend its voice to the forming of Geographic Information Systems and Science in a pan-disciplinary partnership with geography, cartography, sociology, public health, and information technology. It is proposed that nursing take advantage of the latest databases that hold "person" information and layer these over geographical maps holding "environment" and "health" information as a new way of seeing and applying the metaparadigms of nursing. By using Geographic Information Systems for understanding spatial, numeric, health, and population relationships as they relate to nursing practice, research, and teaching, nursing science will continue to evolve at a speed needed to be effective in the new millennia. PMID:15206686

Moss, Margaret P; Schell, Matthew C

2004-01-01

383

The imaging of apoptosis with the radiolabelled annexin A5: a new tool in translational research.  

PubMed

Programmed cell death also called apoptosis plays a pivotal role in many physiological and pathological conditions. In the multi-step process of drug development, a number of medications are being designed to target strategic checkpoints of the apoptotic cascade either to induce or to inhibit programmed cell death. Conceptually, the assessment of programmed cell death in response to various therapeutic interventions appears to be critical for evaluating the efficacy of many drugs that act through apoptotic pathways. In the last decade, nuclear medicine techniques provided proofs of principle for the imaging of apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo. The purpose of this article was to review current knowledge on the imaging of apoptosis with radiolabelled annexin A5 in various pre-clinical and clinical models, and beyond that, to assess the potential integration of such a dedicated technology into translational research. PMID:18666365

Belhocine, Tarik Z; Blankenberg, Francis G

2006-05-01

384

The new Metals and Alloys Indexes -- Search Manual: A phase diagram research tool  

SciTech Connect

A new Metals and Alloys (M&A) Indexes to the Powder Diffraction File (PDF) has been developed. These indexes will be immediately useful to material scientists because the indexes share many features with references such as Hansen, Elliot, Shunk, Pearson, and Villars and Calvert. These indexes, as contained in the Search Manual, may be used independently or in conjunction with the Powder Diffraction File. The book contains four indexes: two contain data for all materials in the M&A PDF, and two contain supporting data. The permuted-sort Alphabetical Formula Index brings together all entries containing a given element in alphabetical formula order. It has n entries for an n-component material and a straight-line format for the element being sorted to simplify reading the index. Thus, chemical knowledge can make identifications easier. Further, within binary and ternary phase diagrams, phases are listed in compositional order to facilitate direct use in phase diagram research. The Pearson Symbol Code Index has entries arranged in order of the Pearson Symbol Code, hence one can find all the materials with a given structure, and if desired, compare their atomic contents and lattice parameters. The latter are in the standard Crystal Data setting to aid in structural comparisons. The Common Names Index cross-references common metallurgical names, such as austenite or cementite, to the appropriate PDF data. The Strukturbericht Symbol Index cross-references Strukturbericht Symbols and the equivalent Pearson Symbols and Structure Prototypes. Examples of the uses of this index in phase diagram research are given.

Mueller, M.H. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Wallace, P.L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Huang, T.C. [IBM Research Division, San Jose, CA (United States); Dann, J.N. [OSRAM Sylvania, Towanda, PA (United States)

1993-12-31

385

The Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP) Mission: Improving Science Application Tools and Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA depends on the science community to identify and prioritize leading-edge scientific questions and the observations required to answer them. The Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP) Mission has been identified as a priority for NASA's Science Mission Directorate through the most recent decadal survey. Following launch in 2014, SMAP will deliver global maps of soil moisture content and surface freeze/thaw state. Global measurements of these variables are critical for terrestrial hydrologic and carbon cycle applications. The SMAP observatory consists of two multipolarization L-band sensors, a radar and radiometer that share a deployable mesh reflector antenna. The combined observations from the two sensors will allow accurate estimation of soil moisture at spatial scales. The wide-swath (1000 km) measurements will allow global mapping of soil moisture and freeze/thaw state with a 2-3 day revisit frequency and 1-2 day revisit in boreal latitudes. The synergy of active and passive observations enables measurements of soil moisture and freeze/thaw state with unprecedented resolution, sensitivity, area coverage and revisit frequency. SMAP data are valuable for both scientific research and practical applications. SMAP has the potential to drive a diverse range of novel research in drought and flood guidance, agricultural productivity estimation, weather forecasting, climate prediction, human health risk analysis and defense systems. The accuracy, resolution, and global coverage of SMAP soil moisture and freeze/thaw measurements will provide new information for many science and applications disciplines. A SMAP Applications Team will explore ways to measure interaction and integration of SMAP data with the Emergency Management User community of Maryland in order to produce quantitative metrics related to long-term projects, milestone completion, and movement of SMAP products into routine operations for emergency response.

Escobar, V. M.; Brown, M. E.; Moran, S. M.

2011-12-01

386

Technical note: validation of electronic feeding stations as a swine research tool.  

PubMed

Electronic feeding stations (EFS) were developed to automate data collection of individual animals housed in a group environment. In order for scientists to use EFS, such as feed intake recording equipment (FIRE), in research, data recorded electronically cannot differ from data recorded on calibrated scales. The objectives of 2 studies were to determine if data recorded by 2 FIRE stations (FIRE1 and FIRE2) were different from the same data recorded by calibrated scales and determine differences between the 2 independent FIRE stations. Body weight of pigs recorded by the platform scales of both FIRE stations did not differ (P > 0.6) from calibrated scales during a 21-d comparison (study 1). The weight of calibrated check weights recorded by the platform scale of FIRE1 tended to be less (P = 0.1) than the weight of check weights during a 126-d comparison (study 2). Feed disappearance recorded by FIRE1 was greater (P < 0.01) than recorded by calibrated scales during study 2. Feed dispensed to the FIRE trough and compared with calibrated scales did not differ (P ? 0.17) for either FIRE station during study 2. There were no differences (P ? 0.15) between FIRE1 and FIRE2 for any measured variables. The FIRE stations were not recalibrated during study 1. The platform scale of FIRE2 was recalibrated during study 2 when the percentage error between calibrated check weights and the weight recorded by FIRE exceeded 2.5%. The trough scales of FIRE1 and FIRE2 were recalibrated during study 2 when the percentage error between true weight of dispensed feed and the average recorded FIRE weight exceeded 4%. Establishing more stringent criteria for recalibration may have reduced differences among weights recorded by calibrated scales and weights recorded by FIRE. These data suggest that FIRE stations can be used in research; however, adequate verification procedures and recalibration criteria must be followed to ensure accuracy of data. PMID:24243900

Faltys, G L; Young, J M; Odgaard, R L; Murphy, R B; Lechtenberg, K F

2014-01-01

387

A new research tool to retrieve data from astronomical catalogues and tables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CDS (Centre de Donnees astronomiques de Strasbourg) has collected, with the collaboration of other astronomical data centers, in particular the ADC, a very large set of of electronic catalogues and tables dealing with all parts of astronomy; this set continues to grow at a high rate (20 new catalogues per month), mainly due to the electronic tables prepared at CDS for the A&A journals, and to the AAS CD-ROM data. These electronic tables also represent the input material for the improvement of the Simbad database. A large effort of rationalisation and standardisation in the documentation of the electronic tables was conducted in the last two years at CDS, such that each catalogue, generally represented by a set of tabular data, is completely described in terms of overview description, referencing, and details about the structure, units, and contents of each column of each table. Such descriptions, which follow a well-defined standard, can also be used in programs and allow for instance a stream conversion of the tabular files into FITS format during the FTP copy process, and can be viewed at the "Astronomer's Bazaar" at http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Cats.html The new service which is proposed for searching inside any of the catalogues (by position or name of an object and/or catalogue field) is essentially a result of merging a part of the ESIS project (European Space Information System) of the European Space Agency with the CDS set of documented catalogues which will be homogeneously loaded into a DBMS and made available through a WWW interface. Examples, illustrations and figures about this new service will be presented, and its role in the framework of the world-wide access to the astronomical data will be discussed. The exact URL and name of this new service will be publicly announced in early January 1996.

Ochsenbein, F.; Genova, F.; Egret, D.; Bourekeb, I.; Sadat, R.; Ansari, S. G.; Simonsen, E.

1995-12-01

388

Tools for Integrating Data Access from the IRIS DMC into Research Workflows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Web service interfaces at the IRIS Data Management Center (DMC) provide access to a vast archive of seismological and related geophysical data. These interfaces are designed to easily incorporate data access into data processing workflows. Examples of data that may be accessed include: time series data, related metadata, and earthquake information. The DMC has developed command line scripts, MATLAB® interfaces and a Java library to support a wide variety of data access needs. Users of these interfaces do not need to concern themselves with web service details, networking, or even (in most cases) data conversion. Fetch scripts allow access to the DMC archive and are a comfortable fit for command line users. These scripts are written in Perl and are well suited for automation and integration into existing workflows on most operating systems. For metdata and event information, the Fetch scripts even parse the returned data into simple text summaries. The IRIS Java Web Services Library (IRIS-WS Library) allows Java developers the ability to create programs that access the DMC archives seamlessly. By returning the data and information as native Java objects the Library insulates the developer from data formats, network programming and web service details. The MATLAB interfaces leverage this library to allow users access to the DMC archive directly from within MATLAB (r2009b or newer), returning data into variables for immediate use. Data users and research groups are developing other toolkits that use the DMC's web services. Notably, the ObsPy framework developed at LMU Munich is a Python Toolbox that allows seamless access to data and information via the DMC services. Another example is the MATLAB-based GISMO and Waveform Suite developments that can now access data via web services. In summary, there now exist a host of ways that researchers can bring IRIS DMC data directly into their workflows. MATLAB users can use irisFetch.m, command line users can use the various Fetch scripts, Java users can use the IRIS-WS library, and Python users may request data through ObsPy. To learn more about any of these clients see http://www.iris.edu/ws/wsclients/.

Reyes, C. G.; Suleiman, Y. Y.; Trabant, C.; Karstens, R.; Weertman, B. R.

2012-12-01

389

Measurement of PEEP-induced alveolar recruitment: just a research tool?  

PubMed Central

For positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) to have lung protective efficacy in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome, it must increase the end-expiratory lung volume through alveolar recruitment while avoiding lung over-inflation. PEEP may increase the end-expiratory lung volume either by increasing the proportion of aerated alveoli at end-expiration or by further inflating already ventilated lung regions. The optimal PEEP regimen is still a matter of debate. In theory, the ability to measure of PEEP-induced alveolar recruitment would be extremely useful in titrating PEEP at the bedside. However, until now this measurement has been confined to clinical research settings. Interesting work by Lu and coworkers, published in the previous issue of this journal, deals with the problem of measuring PEEP-induced alveolar recruitment. The 'gold standard' technique (i.e. the computed tomography method) is compared with the pressure-volume curve method. Because implementation of the latter method at the bedside would be relatively simple, that report, in addition to its intrinsic scientific value, may have important clinical implications.

De Michele, Michele; Grasso, Salvatore

2006-01-01

390

Computer simulation models as tools for identifying research needs: A black duck population model  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Existing data on the mortality and production rates of the black duck (Anas rubripes) were used to construct a WATFIV computer simulation model. The yearly cycle was divided into 8 phases: hunting, wintering, reproductive, molt, post-molt, and juvenile dispersal mortality, and production from original and renesting attempts. The program computes population changes for sex and age classes during each phase. After completion of a standard simulation run with all variable default values in effect, a sensitivity analysis was conducted by changing each of 50 input variables, 1 at a time, to assess the responsiveness of the model to changes in each variable. Thirteen variables resulted in a substantial change in population level. Adult mortality factors were important during hunting and wintering phases. All production and mortality associated with original nesting attempts were sensitive, as was juvenile dispersal mortality. By identifying those factors which invoke the greatest population change, and providing an indication of the accuracy required in estimating these factors, the model helps to identify those variables which would be most profitable topics for future research.

Ringelman, J.K.; Longcore, J.R.

1980-01-01

391

Barley whole exome capture: a tool for genomic research in the genus Hordeum and beyond.  

PubMed

Advanced resources for genome-assisted research in barley (Hordeum vulgare) including a whole-genome shotgun assembly and an integrated physical map have recently become available. These have made possible studies that aim to assess genetic diversity or to isolate single genes by whole-genome resequencing and in silico variant detection. However such an approach remains expensive given the 5 Gb size of the barley genome. Targeted sequencing of the mRNA-coding exome reduces barley genomic complexity more than 50-fold, thus dramatically reducing this heavy sequencing and analysis load. We have developed and employed an in-solution hybridization-based sequence capture platform to selectively enrich for a 61.6 megabase coding sequence target that includes predicted genes from the genome assembly of the cultivar Morex as well as publicly available full-length cDNAs and de novo assembled RNA-Seq consensus sequence contigs. The platform provides a highly specific capture with substantial and reproducible enrichment of targeted exons, both for cultivated barley and related species. We show that this exome capture platform provides a clear path towards a broader and deeper understanding of the natural variation residing in the mRNA-coding part of the barley genome and will thus constitute a valuable resource for applications such as mapping-by-sequencing and genetic diversity analyzes. PMID:23889683

Mascher, Martin; Richmond, Todd A; Gerhardt, Daniel J; Himmelbach, Axel; Clissold, Leah; Sampath, Dharanya; Ayling, Sarah; Steuernagel, Burkhard; Pfeifer, Matthias; D'Ascenzo, Mark; Akhunov, Eduard D; Hedley, Pete E; Gonzales, Ana M; Morrell, Peter L; Kilian, Benjamin; Blattner, Frank R; Scholz, Uwe; Mayer, Klaus F X; Flavell, Andrew J; Muehlbauer, Gary J; Waugh, Robbie; Jeddeloh, Jeffrey A; Stein, Nils

2013-11-01

392

Cognitive avionics and watching spaceflight crews think: generation-after-next research tools in functional neuroimaging.  

PubMed

Confinement and isolation have always confounded the extraordinary endeavor of human spaceflight. Psychosocial health is at the forefront in considering risk factors that imperil missions of 1- to 2-yr duration. Current crewmember selection metrics restricted to behavioral observation by definition observe rather than prevent performance degradation and are thus inadequate when preflight training cannot simulate an entire journey. Nascent techniques to monitor functional and task-related cortical neural activity show promise and can be extended to include whole-brain monitoring. Watching spaceflight crews think can reveal the efficiency of training procedures. Moreover, observing subcortical emotion centers may provide early detection of developing neuropsychiatric disorders. The non-invasive functional neuroimaging modalities electroencephalography (EEG), magnetoencephalography (MEG), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), and highlights of how they may be engineered for spacecraft are detailed. Preflight and in-flight applications to crewmember behavioral health from current generation, next generation, and generation-after-next neuroscience research studies are also described. The emphasis is on preventing the onset of neuropsychiatric dysfunctions, thus reducing the risk of mission failure due to human error. PMID:15943214

Genik, Richard J; Green, Christopher C; Graydon, Francis X; Armstrong, Robert E

2005-06-01

393

Evaluating Amazon's Mechanical Turk as a Tool for Experimental Behavioral Research  

PubMed Central

Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT) is an online crowdsourcing service where anonymous online workers complete web-based tasks for small sums of money. The service has attracted attention from experimental psychologists interested in gathering human subject data more efficiently. However, relative to traditional laboratory studies, many aspects of the testing environment are not under the experimenter's control. In this paper, we attempt to empirically evaluate the fidelity of the AMT system for use in cognitive behavioral experiments. These types of experiment differ from simple surveys in that they require multiple trials, sustained attention from participants, comprehension of complex instructions, and millisecond accuracy for response recording and stimulus presentation. We replicate a diverse body of tasks from experimental psychology including the Stroop, Switching, Flanker, Simon, Posner Cuing, attentional blink, subliminal priming, and category learning tasks using participants recruited using AMT. While most of replications were qualitatively successful and validated the approach of collecting data anonymously online using a web-browser, others revealed disparity between laboratory results and online results. A number of important lessons were encountered in the process of conducting these replications that should be of value to other researchers.

Crump, Matthew J. C.; McDonnell, John V.; Gureckis, Todd M.

2013-01-01

394

Ivermectin to reduce malaria transmission: a research agenda for a promising new tool for elimination  

PubMed Central

Background The heterogeneity of malaria transmission makes widespread elimination a difficult goal to achieve. Most of the current vector control measures insufficiently target outdoor transmission. Also, insecticide resistance threatens to diminish the efficacy of the most prevalent measures, indoor residual spray and insecticide treated nets. Innovative approaches are needed. The use of endectocides, such as ivermectin, could be an important new addition to the toolbox of anti-malarial measures. Ivermectin effectively targets outdoor transmission, has a novel mechanism of action that could circumvent resistance and might be distributed over the channels already in place for the control of onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis. Methods The previous works involving ivermectin and Anopheles vectors are reviewed and summarized. A review of ivermectin’s safety profile is also provided. Finally three definitive clinical trials are described in detail and proposed as the evidence needed for implementation. Several smaller and specific supportive studies are also proposed. Conclusions The use of ivermectin solves many challenges identified for future vector control strategies. It is an effective and safe endectocide that was approved for human use more than 25 years ago. Recent studies suggest it might become an effective and complementary strategy in malaria elimination and eradication efforts; however, intensive research will be needed to make this a reality.

2013-01-01

395

C-ME: A 3D Community-Based, Real-Time Collaboration Tool for Scientific Research and Training  

PubMed Central

The need for effective collaboration tools is growing as multidisciplinary proteome-wide projects and distributed research teams become more common. The resulting data is often quite disparate, stored in separate locations, and not contextually related. Collaborative Molecular Modeling Environment (C-ME) is an interactive community-based collaboration system that allows researchers to organize information, visualize data on a two-dimensional (2-D) or three-dimensional (3-D) basis, and share and manage that information with collaborators in real time. C-ME stores the information in industry-standard databases that are immediately accessible by appropriate permission within the computer network directory service or anonymously across the internet through the C-ME application or through a web browser. The system addresses two important aspects of collaboration: context and information management. C-ME allows a researcher to use a 3-D atomic structure model or a 2-D image as a contextual basis on which to attach and share annotations to specific atoms or molecules or to specific regions of a 2-D image. These annotations provide additional information about the atomic structure or image data that can then be evaluated, amended or added to by other project members.

Kolatkar, Anand; Kennedy, Kevin; Halabuk, Dan; Kunken, Josh; Marrinucci, Dena; Bethel, Kelly; Guzman, Rodney; Huckaby, Tim; Kuhn, Peter

2008-01-01

396

Reactive transport modeling: An essential tool and a new research approach for the Earth sciences [rapid communication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reactive transport modeling is an essential tool for the analysis of coupled physical, chemical, and biological processes in Earth systems, and has additional potential to better integrate the results from focused fundamental research on Earth materials. Appropriately designed models can describe the interactions of competing processes at a range of spatial and time scales, and hence are critical for connecting the advancing capabilities for materials characterization at the atomic scale with the macroscopic behavior of complex Earth systems. Reactive transport modeling has had a significant impact on the treatment of contaminant retardation in the subsurface, the description of elemental and nutrient fluxes between major Earth reservoirs, and in the treatment of deep Earth processes such as metamorphism and magma transport. Active topics of research include the development of pore scale and hybrid, or multiple continua, models to capture the scale dependence of coupled reactive transport processes. Frontier research questions, that are only now being addressed, include the effects of chemical microenvironments, coupled thermal-mechanical-chemical processes, controls on mineral-fluid reaction rates in natural media, and scaling of reactive transport processes from the microscopic to pore to field scale.

Steefel, Carl I.; DePaolo, Donald J.; Lichtner, Peter C.

2005-12-01

397

A multimedia comprehensive informatics system with decision support tools for a multi-site collaboration research of stroke rehabilitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stroke is a major cause of adult disability. The Interdisciplinary Comprehensive Arm Rehabilitation Evaluation (I-CARE) clinical trial aims to evaluate a therapy for arm rehabilitation after stroke. A primary outcome measure is correlative analysis between stroke lesion characteristics and standard measures of rehabilitation progress, from data collected at seven research facilities across the country. Sharing and communication of brain imaging and behavioral data is thus a challenge for collaboration. A solution is proposed as a web-based system with tools supporting imaging and informatics related data. In this system, users may upload anonymized brain images through a secure internet connection and the system will sort the imaging data for storage in a centralized database. Users may utilize an annotation tool to mark up images. In addition to imaging informatics, electronic data forms, for example, clinical data forms, are also integrated. Clinical information is processed and stored in the database to enable future data mining related development. Tele-consultation is facilitated through the development of a thin-client image viewing application. For convenience, the system supports access through desktop PC, laptops, and iPAD. Thus, clinicians may enter data directly into the system via iPAD while working with participants in the study. Overall, this comprehensive imaging informatics system enables users to collect, organize and analyze stroke cases efficiently.

Wang, Ximing; Documet, Jorge; Garrison, Kathleen A.; Winstein, Carolee J.; Liu, Brent

2012-02-01

398

A new DoD initiative: the Computational Research and Engineering Acquisition Tools and Environments (CREATE) program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In FY2008, the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) initiated the Computational Research and Engineering Acquisition Tools and Environments (CREATE) program, a 360M program with a two-year planning phase and a ten-year execution phase. CREATE will develop and deploy three computational engineering tool sets for DoD acquisition programs to use to design aircraft, ships and radio-frequency antennas. The planning and execution of CREATE are based on the 'lessons learned' from case studies of large-scale computational science and engineering projects. The case studies stress the importance of a stable, close-knit development team; a focus on customer needs and requirements; verification and validation; flexible and agile planning, management, and development processes; risk management; realistic schedules and resource levels; balanced short- and long-term goals and deliverables; and stable, long-term support by the program sponsor. Since it began in FY2008, the CREATE program has built a team and project structure, developed requirements and begun validating them, identified candidate products, established initial connections with the acquisition programs, begun detailed project planning and development, and generated the initial collaboration infrastructure necessary for success by its multi-institutional, multidisciplinary teams.

Arevalo, S.; Atwood, C.; Bell, P.; Blacker, T. D.; Dey, S.; Fisher, D.; Fisher, D. A.; Genalis, P.; Gorski, J.; Harris, A.; Hill, K.; Hurwitz, M.; Kendall, R. P.; Meakin, R. L.; Morton, S.; Moyer, E. T.; Post, D. E.; Strawn, R.; Veldhuizen, D. v.; Votta, L. G.; Wynn, S.; Zelinski, G.

2008-07-01

399

Small molecule inhibitors of mitochondrial division: tools that translate basic biological research into medicine.  

PubMed

Mitochondria do not exist as discrete static entities; rather, mitochondria form a network that continuously moves, divides, and fuses. The structure of this dynamic network is in part maintained by a balance of division and fusion events (Hoppins et al., 2007). The ratio of division to fusion events that defines a proper balance is not universal but varies with developmental stage, cell type, and biological circumstances. This is evident throughout the cell cycle in higher eukaryotes, where mitochondria elongate during the G1/S transition and fragment at the onset of mitosis, and when mitochondria fragment in response to certain cellular stimuli, such as increases in cytosolic calcium levels (Breckenridge et al., 2003; Cereghetti et al., 2008; Han et al., 2008; Mitra et al., 2009; Taguchi et al., 2007). The functional state and distribution of mitochondria are clearly influenced by its steady-state structure. When the normal balance of division and fusion is disrupted as a consequence of the inappropriate stimulation or inhibition of either process, problems arise at the cellular level that compromises the well-being of the organism as a whole. This is evident by the ever-increasing number of diseases in which abnormal mitochondrial dynamics have been etiologically implicated. In this context, the mitochondrial division and fusion machines are valuable and interesting targets of small molecule effectors, as inhibition or activation of these processes may be able to restore the proper dynamic balance and function. A small molecule inhibitor of mitochondrial division, mdivi-1, has already been identified and characterized (Cassidy-Stone et al., 2008). This inhibitor has provided valuable insight into the mechanism of mitochondrial division and has shown great therapeutic promise in a wide array of disease models. This review will focus on small molecule effectors of mitochondrial division, discussing their value in basic biological research as well as their therapeutic potential. PMID:20609407

Lackner, Laura L; Nunnari, Jodi

2010-06-25

400

Murine Models of Acute Leukemia: Important Tools in Current Pediatric Leukemia Research  

PubMed Central

Leukemia remains the most common diagnosis in pediatric oncology and, despite dramatic progress in upfront therapy, is also the most common cause of cancer-related death in children. Much of the initial improvement in outcomes for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) was due to identification of cytotoxic agents that are active against leukemia followed by the recognition that combination of these cytotoxic agents and prolonged therapy are essential for cure. Recent data demonstrating lack of progress in patients for whom standard chemotherapy fails suggests that the ability to improve outcome for these children will not be dramatically impacted through more intensive or newer cytotoxic agents. Thus, much of the recent research focus has been in the area of improving our understanding of the genetics and the biology of leukemia. Although in vitro studies remain critical, given the complexity of a living system and the increasing recognition of the contribution of leukemia extrinsic factors such as the bone marrow microenvironment, in vivo models have provided important insights. The murine systems that are used can be broadly categorized into syngeneic models in which a murine leukemia can be studied in immunologically intact hosts and xenograft models where human leukemias are studied in highly immunocompromised murine hosts. Both of these systems have limitations such that neither can be used exclusively to study all aspects of leukemia biology and therapeutics for humans. This review will describe the various ALL model systems that have been developed as well as discuss the advantages and disadvantages inherent to these systems that make each particularly suitable for specific types of studies.

Jacoby, Elad; Chien, Christopher D.; Fry, Terry J.

2014-01-01

401

The research of the stochastic reward net model for the cluster tool in serial-parallel mode  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proliferation of cluster tools in semiconductor manufacturing motivates an understanding of how basic parameters determine the performance of cluster tools. This paper presents three general stochastic reward net models of serial-parallel cluster tools to describe the processing procedure of them. They help to effectively analyze and evaluate the performance of cluster tools on different demands.

Xiuhong Zheng; Jingtao Hu; Haibin Yu

2011-01-01

402

Data federation in the Biomedical Informatics Research Network: tools for semantic annotation and query of distributed multiscale brain data.  

PubMed

The broadly defined mission of the Biomedical Informatics Research Network (BIRN, www.nbirn.net) is to better understand the causes human disease and the specific ways in which animal models inform that understanding. To construct the community-wide infrastructure for gathering, organizing and managing this knowledge, BIRN is developing a federated architecture for linking multiple databases across sites contributing data and knowledge. Navigating across these distributed data sources requires a shared semantic scheme and supporting software framework to actively link the disparate repositories. At the core of this knowledge organization is BIRNLex, a formally-represented ontology facilitating data exchange. Source curators enable database interoperability by mapping their schema and data to BIRNLex semantic classes thereby providing a means to cast BIRNLex-based queries against specific data sources in the federation. We will illustrate use of the source registration, term mapping, and query tools. PMID:18999211

Bug, William; Astahkov, Vadim; Boline, Jyl; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Grethe, Jeffrey S; Gupta, Amarnath; Kennedy, David N; Rubin, Daniel L; Sanders, Brian; Turner, Jessica A; Martone, Maryann E

2008-01-01

403

Effects of research tool patents on biotechnology innovation in a developing country: A case study of South Korea  

PubMed Central

Background Concerns have recently been raised about the negative effects of patents on innovation. In this study, the effects of patents on innovations in the Korean biotech SMEs (small and medium-sized entrepreneurs) were examined using survey data and statistical analysis. Results The survey results of this study provided some evidence that restricted access problems have occurred even though their frequency was not high. Statistical analysis revealed that difficulties in accessing patented research tools were not negatively correlated with the level of innovation performance and attitudes toward the patent system. Conclusion On the basis of the results of this investigation in combination with those of previous studies, we concluded that although restricted access problems have occurred, this has not yet deterred innovation in Korea. However, potential problems do exist, and the effects of restricted access should be constantly scrutinized.

Kang, Kyung-Nam; Ryu, Tae-Kyu; Lee, Yoon-Sik

2009-01-01

404

Automatic, Satellite-Linked "Webcams" as a Tool in Ice-Shelf and Iceberg Research.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Important dynamic events governing the behavior of ice shelves and icebergs are episodic in time and small in scale, making them difficult to observe. Traditional satellite imagery is acquired on a rigid schedule with coarse spatial resolution and this means that collisions between icebergs or the processes which create ice "mélange" that fills detachment rifts leading to ice-shelf calving, to give examples, cannot be readily observed. To overcome the temporal and spatial gaps in traditional remote sensing, we have deployed cameras at locations in Antarctica where research is conducted on the calving and subsequent evolution of icebergs. One camera is located at the edge of iceberg C16 in the Ross Sea, and is positioned to capture visual imagery of collisions between C16 and neighboring B15A. The second camera is located within the anticipated detachment rift of a "nascent" iceberg on the Ross Ice Shelf. The second camera is positioned to capture visual imagery of the rift's propagation and the in-fill of ice mélange, which constrains the mechanical influence of such rifts on the surrounding ice shelf. Both cameras are designed for connection to the internet (hence are referred to as "webcams") and possess variable image qualities and image-control technology. The cameras are also connected to data servers via the Iridium satellite telephone network and produce a daily image that is transmitted to the internet through the Iridium connection. Results of the initial trial deployments will be presented as a means of assessing both the techniques involved and the value of the scientific information acquired by these webcams. In the case of the iceberg webcam, several collisions between B15A and C16 were monitored over the period between January, 2003 and December, 2004. The time-lapse imagery obtained through this period showed giant "push mounds" of damaged firn on the edge and surface of the icebergs within the zones of contact as a consequence of the collisions. The push mounds were subsequently unstable, and calved as small scale ice debris soon after the collision, thereby returning the iceberg edge to a clean, vertical cliff-like appearance. A correlation between the iceberg collision record available from the webcam and data from a seismometer located on C16 is anticipated once the seismometer data is recovered. The webcam associated with the detachment rift of the nascent iceberg on the Ross Ice Shelf is planned to be deployed in early November, 2004. If results are available from this deployment, they too will be discussed.

Ross, R.; Okal, M. H.; Thom, J. E.; Macayeal, D. R.

2004-12-01

405

Pain Measurement Tools and Methods in Clinical Research in Palliative Care: Recommendations of an Expert Working Group of the European Association of Palliative Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

An Expert Working Group was convened under the auspices of the Steering Committee of the Research Network of the European Association of Palliative Care to review the status of the use of pain measurement tools (PMTs) in palliative care research conducted in a multilingual- multicenter setting. Based on a literature review and on the experts' opinion, the present work recommends

Augusto Caraceni; Nathan Cherny; Robin Fainsinger

406

Autoethnography, a Chicana's Methodological Research Tool: The Role of Storytelling for Those Who Have No Choice but to Do Critical Race Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article investigates the role of autoethnographic research as the methodological tool of choice for a Chicana who positions herself along the liminal perspective. I posit that "testimonios", autobiographical educational experiences, must be used as valid ethnographic research to contribute to existing knowledge around issues of educational…

Chavez, Minerva S.

2012-01-01

407

U.S.-GERMAN BILATERAL WORKING GROUP: International Research Cooperation to Develop and Evaluate Tools and Techniques for Revitalization of Potentially Contaminated Sites  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. German Bilateral Working Group originated in 1990 in order to share and transfer information, ideas, tools and techniques regarding environmental research. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)/Office of Research and Development (ORD) and the German Federal Mini...

408

Development of new exploration tools for seabed mineral resources - Result of R/V YOKOSUKA research cruise YK09-09 -  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detailed information on subsurface structure under seafloor is necessary for the estimation of seabed resources such as the hydrothermal deposit and methane hydrate. Although advantages of geophysical exploration near seafloor are expected for the seabed resource survey, efficient method has not been well-established. The authors started a project to develop exploration tools for seabed resources under the financial support of MEXT-Japan. We carry out research and development mainly regarding measurement of the magnetic field with high-resolution and high-sampling rate electric exploration devices with accurately controlled active source signals. Developed tools will be mounted underwater platforms such as deep-tow system, ROV (remotely operated vehicle), and AUV (autonomous undersea vehicle). We carried out the research cruise (vessel: JAMSTEC R/V YOKOSUKA YK09-09, cruise period: 19-29 July 2009, area surveyed: Kumano-nada, off Kii Peninsula, Japan) to investigate the performance of developed equipments for magnetic exploration. We mounted an Overhauser and two flux-gate magnetometers on the deep-tow and the AUV URASHIMA. To inspect the efficiency of equipments, it is better to measure the magnetic anomaly which is caused by known magnetic source. Therefore, we made a magnetic target which is consisted of 50 neodymium magnets. Before the navigation, the magnetic target was put under water and its position was measured by the acoustic method. The depth of target is about 2,050 meters, and the measurement was performed in the circle of a radius of about 300 meters. The vehicles were navigated at heights of 25 meters for AUV, and about 15 meters for deep-tow. Each of underwater navigation was practiced for two times. Both performances were carried out successfully, which means that we detected the significant magnetic anomalies caused by the target. We will be able to estimate three-dimensional distribution of anomalous magnetic field, and the source property of magnetic target. However, we have to resolve a lot of problems; (1) elimination of noises caused by the vehicles themselves, and their attitude, and (2) precise estimation of the position of vehicles. We will introduce the results of the research cruise and data processing in the presentation. Acknowledgement: We are grateful to captain Mr. E. Ukekura, chief officer Mr. S. Kusaka, chief AUV/DT operator Mr. T. Sakurai, and operation team, who made our difficult trials in the navigation possible by their professional skill. We also thank to the YOKOSUKA marine crew for overall support, and the engineers who take part in the development of equipments. This study is financially supported by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan.

Harada, M.; Sayanagi, K.; Kasaya, T.; Sawa, T.; Goto, T.; Tada, N.; Ichihara, H.; Asada, M.; Nakajima, T.; Isezaki, N.

2009-12-01

409

Assessment of the Doppler Radar for Airport Weather (DRAW) System in Japan as a Research Tool for Studying Typhoon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the usefulness of the Doppler Radar for Airport Weather (DRAW) system as a research tool for studying typhoon. I particularly aim at assessing opportunity for detecting typhoon inner core circulations and precipitations with the DRAW. For centers of typhoons, which correspond to positions of the inner cores, it is estimated that 322 hours of data (61cases) had been collected with the eight DRAWs over past 30 typhoons (1995-2005). On average, about one typhoon will be observed with each DRAW site. The Naha DRAW (the southernmost DRAW site) will provide the most frequent observations and each observed center would remain in radar range for periods between 4 and 11 hours. In this study, it is shown that many typhoon inner core cases will be collected with DRAW and suggested new opportunities for further research and development these phenomena. DRAWs will play an increasing role to understand detailed typhoon structures and life cycles (e.g., polygonal eyewall, mesovorticies, landfall processes, and asymmetric structure), and in the future, to improve typhoon intensity forecasts.

Kusunoki, Kenichi

410

Software Tool for Researching Annotations of Proteins (STRAP): Open-Source Protein Annotation Software with Data Visualization  

PubMed Central

In order that biological meaning may be derived and testable hypotheses may be built from proteomics experiments, assignments of proteins identified by mass spectrometry or other techniques must be supplemented with additional notation, such as information on known protein functions, protein-protein interactions, or biological pathway associations. Collecting, organizing, and interpreting this data often requires the input of experts in the biological field of study, in addition to the time-consuming search for and compilation of information from online protein databases. Furthermore, visualizing this bulk of information can be challenging due to the limited availability of easy-to-use and freely available tools for this process. In response to these constraints, we have undertaken the design of software to automate annotation and visualization of proteomics data in order to accelerate the pace of research. Here we present the Software Tool for Researching Annotations of Proteins (STRAP) – a user-friendly, open-source C# application. STRAP automatically obtains gene ontology (GO) terms associated with proteins in a proteomics results ID list using the freely accessible UniProtKB and EBI GOA databases. Summarized in an easy-to-navigate tabular format, STRAP includes meta-information on the protein in addition to complimentary GO terminology. Additionally, this information can be edited by the user so that in-house expertise on particular proteins may be integrated into the larger dataset. STRAP provides a sortable tabular view for all terms, as well as graphical representations of GO-term association data in pie (biological process, cellular component and molecular function) and bar charts (cross comparison of sample sets) to aid in the interpretation of large datasets and differential analyses experiments. Furthermore, proteins of interest may be exported as a unique FASTA-formatted file to allow for customizable re-searching of mass spectrometry data, and gene names corresponding to the proteins in the lists may be encoded in the Gaggle microformat for further characterization, including pathway analysis. STRAP, a tutorial, and the C# source code are freely available from http://cpctools.sourceforge.net.

Bhatia, Vivek N.; Perlman, David H.; Costello, Catherine E.; McComb, Mark E.

2009-01-01

411

The Marine VHR 2.5-D Seismic Brute Stack Cube as a Feasible Tool for Low Budget Investigation and Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Between 1997 and 1999 several marine seismic surveys were carried out in Kiel Bay aimed towards the development of a three-dimensional acquisition and interpretation technique for small scale subsurface structures using high-frequency sources and multichannel streamers. The data set was recently revisited by the author and reprocessed to obtain a multichannel stacked seismic data cube. Nominal hydrophone positions are deduced by determining offsets from first arrival times and estimating the hydrophone positions under consideration of the ships track. Processing towards a ‘seismic cube’ mainly comprised CMP sorting, constant velocity NMO correction and stacking. The resulting VHR 3-D seismic ‘brute stack cube’ reveals rich structural details. The fluvial Pleistocene channel system already documented in an earlier publication was tracked further to the north. It is situated below a flat cover of gas-bearing Holocene sediments, which locally constitute the seafloor. This till-horizon is superimposed on a second till layer showing strong topographic variations. Seismic signal phase and shielding effects indicate the possible presence of gas in these formations. This case history demonstrates that the VHR 3-D seismic method is a feasible tool for low budget investigation and research.

Müller, Christof

2005-06-01

412

Research into the process, materials and tool interaction for large area flexible electronics with micron sized features  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By taking the advantage of the flexible nature of flexible substrates, roll-to-roll (R2R) flexible electronics manufacturing will eventually lead to continuous production of high quality and flexible thin film devices with a significant cost reduction. In this work, research has been conducted into the interaction of tooling, material and process for large area flexible electronics with micron sized features. Part one presents the study of precision overlay alignment of micron sized features on unsupported and R2R processed plastic. Azores R2R photolithography tool with dependent materials and processes has been applied to establish the fabrication, registration and overlay on unsupported plastic in pieces and carried by a web. Enabling the use of unsupported plastic film is the first step in understanding the R2R process. Test verniers with up to 0.1 micron measurement precision were used to read the overlay offsets. Micro-sized features with one micron overlay accuracy have been achieved on photoresist coated unsupported 5 mil thick Dupont MelinexRTM ST507 polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate. Based on experimental results, a vector model is initially designed to investigate and map the substrate deformation and overlay alignment in R2R photolithography process. The vector model quantifies the significance of elastic deformation caused distortion offsets in the overlay process on R2R based substrates. Part two presents the fabrication and reliability study of flexible chemical sensors with nanoparticle-structured sensing materials. The substrates of flexible chemical sensor with micron-sized features are fabricated in this work. The mechanical reliability of the flexible chemical sensors is initially investigated to test the functionality of the sensors under different working environments. The Accelerate Thermal Cycling (ATC) test, the Deep Thermal Storage (DTS) test and the Immersion test are conducted on the flexible nanoparticle coated sensors.

Zhang, Hao

413

Refactoring Tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

WRT’07 was the first instance of the Workshop on Refactoring Tools. It was held in Berlin, Germany, on July 31st, in conjunction\\u000a with ECOOP’07. The workshop brought together over 50 participants from both academia and industry. Participants include the\\u000a lead developers of two widely used refactoring engines (Eclipse and NetBeans), researchers that work on refactoring tools\\u000a and techniques, and others

Ralph Johnson; Frank Tip; Oege De Moor; Jan Becicka; William G. Griswold; Markus Keller

2007-01-01

414

Internet-to-orbit gateway and virtual ground station: A tool for space research and scientific outreach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Students in higher education, and scientific and technological researchers want to communicate with the International Space Station (ISS), download live satellite images, and receive telemetry, housekeeping and science/engineering data from nano-satellites and larger spacecrafts. To meet this need the Ecuadorian Civilian Space Agency (EXA) has recently provided the civilian world with an internet-to-orbit gateway (Hermes-A/Minotaur) Space Flight Control Center (SFCC) available for public use. The gateway has a maximum range of tracking and detection of 22,000 km and sensitivity such that it can receive and discriminate the signals from a satellite transmitter with power˜0.1 W. The capability is enough to receive the faintest low-earth-orbit (LEO) satellites. This gateway virtually connects participating internet clients around the world to a remote satellite ground station (GS), providing a broad community for multinational cooperation. The goal of the GS is to lower financial and engineering barriers that hinder access to science and engineering data from orbit. The basic design of the virtual GS on a user side is based on free software suites. Using these and other software tools the GS is able to provide access to orbit for a multitude of users without each having to go through the costly setups. We present the design and implementation of the virtual GS in a higher education and scientific outreach settings. We also discuss the basic architecture of the single existing system and the benefits of a proposed distributed system. Details of the software tools and their applicability to synchronous round-the-world tracking, monitoring and processing performed by students and teams at Graz University of Technology, Austria, EXA-Ecuador, University of Michigan, USA and JAXA who have participated in various mission operations and have investigated real-time satellite data download and image acquisition and processing. Students and other remote users at these institutions undergo training with in orbit satellites in preparation for their own use with future university-class nano-satellites' post launch space operations. The exclusive ability of Hermes-A/Minotaur to act as a gateway between remote users (internet) and satellites (in orbit) makes the virtual GS at user-end more feasible for the long-term real-time nano/cubesats space operations. The only requirement is to have a mutual agreement between EXA and participating university/research organization and broadband internet connection at user-end. With successful and remote satellite tracking and downloading of real-time data from many operational satellites, the Hermes has been found a reliable potential GS for current and future university missions and a training platform for individuals pursuing space operations.

Jaffer, Ghulam; Nader, Ronnie; Koudelka, Otto

2011-09-01

415

Pipe dream? Envisioning a grassroots Python ecosystem of open, common software tools and data access in support of river and coastal biogeochemical research (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Practical, problem oriented software developed by scientists and graduate students in domains lacking a strong software development tradition is often balkanized into the scripting environments provided by dominant, typically proprietary tools. In environmental fields, these tools include ArcGIS, Matlab, SAS, Excel and others, and are often constrained to specific operating systems. While this situation is the outcome of rational choices, it limits the dissemination of useful tools and their integration into loosely coupled frameworks that can meet wider needs and be developed organically by groups addressing their own needs. Open-source dynamic languages offer the advantages of an accessible programming syntax, a wealth of pre-existing libraries, multi-platform access, linkage to community libraries developed in lower level languages such as C or FORTRAN, and access to web service infrastructure. Python in particular has seen a large and increasing uptake in scientific communities, as evidenced by the continued growth of the annual SciPy conference. Ecosystems with distinctive physical structures and organization, and mechanistic processes that are well characterized, are both factors that have often led to the grass-roots development of useful code meeting the needs of a range of communities. In aquatic applications, examples include river and watershed analysis tools (River Tools, Taudem, etc), and geochemical modules such as CO2SYS, PHREEQ and LOADEST. I will review the state of affairs and explore the potential offered by a Python tool ecosystem in supporting aquatic biogeochemistry and water quality research. This potential is multi-faceted and broadly involves accessibility to lone grad students, access to a wide community of programmers and problem solvers via online resources such as StackExchange, and opportunities to leverage broader cyberinfrastructure efforts and tools, including those from widely different domains. Collaborative development of such tools can provide the additional advantage of enhancing cohesion and communication across specific research areas, and reducing research obstacles in a range of disciplines.

Mayorga, E.

2013-12-01

416

Southern California Earthquake Center--Virtual Display of Objects (SCEC-VDO): An Earthquake Research and Education Tool  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interns in the program Southern California Earthquake Center/Undergraduate Studies in Earthquake Information Technology (SCEC/UseIT, an NSF Research Experience for Undergraduates Site) have designed, engineered, and distributed SCEC-VDO (Virtual Display of Objects), an interactive software used by earthquake scientists and educators to integrate and visualize global and regional, georeferenced datasets. SCEC-VDO is written in Java/Java3D with an extensible, scalable architecture. An increasing number of SCEC-VDO datasets are obtained on the fly through web services and connections to remote databases; and user sessions may be saved in xml-encoded files. Currently users may display time-varying sequences of earthquake hypocenters and focal mechanisms, several 3-dimensional fault and rupture models, satellite imagery - optionally draped over digital elevation models - and cultural datasets including political boundaries. The ability to juxtapose and interactively explore these data and their temporal and spatial relationships has been particularly important to SCEC scientists who are evaluating fault and deformation models, or who must quickly evaluate the menace of evolving earthquake sequences. Additionally, SCEC-VDO users can annotate the display, plus script and render animated movies with adjustable compression levels. SCEC-VDO movies are excellent communication tools and have been featured in scientific presentations, classrooms, press conferences, and television reports.

Perry, S.; Maechling, P.; Jordan, T.

2006-12-01

417

Research Tools to Investigate Movements, Migrations, and Life History of Sturgeons (Acipenseridae), with an Emphasis on Marine-Oriented Populations  

PubMed Central

Worldwide, sturgeons (Acipenseridae) are among the most endangered fishes due to habitat degradation, overfishing, and inherent life history characteristics (long life span, late maturation, and infrequent spawning). As most sturgeons are anadromous, a considerable portion of their life history occurs in estuarine and marine environments where they may encounter unique threats (e.g., interception in non-target fisheries). Of the 16 marine-oriented species, 12 are designated as Critically Endangered by the IUCN, and these include species commercially harvested. We review important research tools and techniques (tagging, electronic tagging, genetics, microchemistry, observatory) and discuss the comparative utility of these techniques to investigate movements, migrations, and life-history characteristics of sturgeons. Examples are provided regarding what the applications have revealed regarding movement and migration and how this information can be used for conservation and management. Through studies that include Gulf (Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi) and Green Sturgeon (A. medirostris), we illustrate what is known about well-studied species and then explore lesser-studied species. A more complete picture of migration is available for North American sturgeon species, while European and Asian species, which are among the most endangered sturgeons, are less understood. We put forth recommendations that encourage the support of stewardship initiatives to build awareness and provide key information for population assessment and monitoring.

Nelson, Troy C.; Doukakis, Phaedra; Lindley, Steven T.; Schreier, Andrea D.; Hightower, Joseph E.; Hildebrand, Larry R.; Whitlock, Rebecca E.; Webb, Molly A. H.

2013-01-01

418

Research tools to investigate movements, migrations, and life history of sturgeons (Acipenseridae), with an emphasis on marine-oriented populations.  

PubMed

Worldwide, sturgeons (Acipenseridae) are among the most endangered fishes due to habitat degradation, overfishing, and inherent life history characteristics (long life span, late maturation, and infrequent spawning). As most sturgeons are anadromous, a considerable portion of their life history occurs in estuarine and marine environments where they may encounter unique threats (e.g., interception in non-target fisheries). Of the 16 marine-oriented species, 12 are designated as Critically Endangered by the IUCN, and these include species commercially harvested. We review important research tools and techniques (tagging, electronic tagging, genetics, microchemistry, observatory) and discuss the comparative utility of these techniques to investigate movements, migrations, and life-history characteristics of sturgeons. Examples are provided regarding what the applications have revealed regarding movement and migration and how this information can be used for conservation and management. Through studies that include Gulf (Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi) and Green Sturgeon (A. medirostris), we illustrate what is known about well-studied species and then explore lesser-studied species. A more complete picture of migration is available for North American sturgeon species, while European and Asian species, which are among the most endangered sturgeons, are less understood. We put forth recommendations that encourage the support of stewardship initiatives to build awareness and provide key information for population assessment and monitoring. PMID:23990959

Nelson, Troy C; Doukakis, Phaedra; Lindley, Steven T; Schreier, Andrea D; Hightower, Joseph E; Hildebrand, Larry R; Whitlock, Rebecca E; Webb, Molly A H

2013-01-01

419

Research on main stream temperature control system in power plant based on CMAC neural network and the single-neuron PID controller with quadratic index  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main steam temperature control system is necessary to ensure high efficiency and high load-following capability in the operation of modern power plant, which has the characteristics of large inertia, large time-delay and time-varying, etc. Thus conventional PID control strategy cannot achieve good control performance. The quadratic index was introduced into single-neuron PID controller and then the optimal controller was

Yang Xue; Zhen-Jie Yan

2010-01-01

420

Fracture of brazed cemented carbide tool in high speed machining  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although index tools are increasingly used in wide range, brazed carbide tools are extensively applied in all kinds of high speed metal machining for their simple and compact structures, high rigidity and flexibility. So it is important to investigate the tool damage of brazed carbide tools. In the research, to avoid residual stress and micro cracks, the insert trough is specially designed and the parameters of braze-welding and heat treatment are optimized. After being brazed and sharpened, the tools were checked to assure no obvious defects in brazed tools. Then 50 pieces flawless turning tools of 45°, 90° and parting-off, respectively, were selected and used in high speed turning experiments. After turning experiments, there were seven damage types of fracture tools and the main fracture modes were notch, chipping, tip collapse and tip-off for all kinds of tools. Notch damage accounts for about 30% of 45° and 90° fracture tools. Micro tipping and extend-tipping are main fracture modes and in relatively high proportion to the total amount of 45° and 90° straight tools. Tip-off is the main breakage form of cut-off tool and accounting for about 58% of total fracture tools. How the residual stress, micro crack, cutting parameters and material defect, et al, cause tool fracture damage is detailedly analyzed.

Pei, Hongjie; Shen, Yujie; Song, Wei; Yang, Lei; Wang, Guicheng

2010-12-01

421

A Clinical Trial Alert Tool to Recruit Large Patient Samples and Assess Selection Bias in General Practice Research | accrualnet.cancer.gov  

Cancer.gov

The authors developed a computerized clinical trial alert (CTA) tool that uses data from electronic patient records to facilitate recruitment to an osteoporosis trial conducted by a network of general practices. One feature of the system essential to improving recruitment is a continual series of reminders to inform practice staff members that patients are eligible and should be considered for research participation.

422

Integrating Human Health and Environmental Health into the DPSIR Framework: A Tool to Identify Research Opportunities for Sustainable and Healthy Communities  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has recently realigned its research enterprise around the concept of sustainability. Scientists from across multiple disciplines have a role to play in contributing the information, methods, and tools to more fully understand the long-term...

423

Where are the gaps in the data lifecycle? Developing policies and workflow tools for digital preservation of research data in the geosciences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ongoing work on digital preservation of research data has produced a vast output of models, workflows and software tools, often tailored to specific research environments or software architectures. The presented project (EWIG) is designed to support the transfer of research data from various research environments into digital long-term archives without focusing only on a specific architecture or path in the digital preservation workflow. We aim to identify and to fill existing (policy) gaps throughout the data lifecycle and to develop currently missing workflow components. The emphasis will be on long-term preservation of research data from the geosciences. In cooperation between an infrastructure facility (Zuse-Institute) and two different data producers from the field of geosciences, policies and software tools will be developed to facilitate long-term preservation of research data. Furthermore, during the entire project duration re-use of archived research data is to be tested by scientists, graduates and students in an iterative process. Based on the experience from the test procedures and results we intend to design a university lecture/seminar series, which contributes to raise awareness for data curation issues among students and graduates. The generation of model policies, best-practice documentations and a lecture concept is intended to further the re-use of archived research data by the scientific community.

Peters-Kottig, W.; Klump, J.; Kirchner, I.; Bertelmann, R.; Rusch, B.; Wattenbach, M.; Ulbricht, D.

2011-12-01

424

On-Line and Indirect Tool Wear Monitoring in Turning with Artificial Neural Networks: a Review of More than a Decade of Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The supervision of tool wear is the most difficult task in the context of tool condition monitoring for metal-cutting processes. Based on a continuous acquisition of signals with multi-sensor systems it is possible to estimate or to classify certain wear parameters by means of neural networks. However, despite of more than a decade of intensive scientific research, the development of tool wear monitoring systems is an on-going attempt. This article aims to investigate, why it has not been possible to develop appropriate monitoring systems up to now. In order to describe the 'state of the art', 138 publications dealing with on-line and indirect tool wear monitoring in turning by means of artificial neural networks are evaluated. The article compares the methods applied in these publications as well as the methodologies used to select certain methods, to carry out simulation experiments, to evaluate and to present results, etc. As a conclusion, possible directions for future research in this area are pointed out. Many of the recommendations are valid for other machining processes using tools with or without defined cutting edges, too.

Sick, Bernhard

2002-07-01

425

Impact of lesion morphology and associated procedures for left main coronary stenting on angiographic outcome after intervention: sub-analysis of Heart Research Group of Kanazawa, HERZ, Study.  

PubMed

Whether the lesion morphology and associated interventional procedures for the left main coronary artery disease (LMCA) could affect clinical outcome is still controversial. Therefore, we examined the impact of lesion morphology and associated procedures on clinical and angiographic outcomes of stenting for the LMCA. Among 7,660 patients with coronary intervention registered, we analyzed early angiographic results of 228 patients (179 men, mean age 69.4 years) concerned with LMCA lesions. In 121 out of 228 patients having long-term angiographic results, we examined the occurrence of major adverse coronary events (MACE) particularly in terms of the presence of acute coronary syndrome (ACS), the kind of stents, bear metal or drug eluting, the lesion morphology and associated procedures. Early angiographic success rate of LMCA stenting was 100 %, and clinical success rate was 94.3 %. During follow-up period for 3 years, MACE was observed in 17 patients. Under these conditions, multiple stenting (p < 0.01) and complicated procedures such as such as Y-stent, T-stent and crush stent (p < 0.01) were listed as risks for MACE, although there was no statistical difference in kinds of stent. Multivariate analysis demonstrated the significant disadvantage of complicated procedures using the bear metal stent on the occurrence of MACE (p < 0.01). These results demonstrate that the complicated procedures have great impact on clinical and angiographic outcomes after stenting for LMCA lesions, and suggest the simple procedure with a single stent for LMCA lesions in the present cohort. Whether the presence of ACS can affect the prognosis should further be sought. PMID:24203580

Kawashiri, Masa-aki; Sakata, Kenji; Uchiyama, Katsuharru; Konno, Tetsuo; Namura, Masanobu; Mizuno, Sumio; Tatami, Ryozo; Kanaya, Honin; Nitta, Yutaka; Michishita, Ichiro; Hirase, Hiroaki; Ueda, Kosei; Aoyama, Takashi; Okeie, Kazuyasu; Haraki, Tatsuo; Mori, Kiyoo; Araki, Tsutomu; Minamoto, Masaharu; Oiwake, Hisanori; Ino, Hidekazu; Hayashi, Kenshi; Yamagishi, Masakazu

2014-04-01

426

A Set of Web-based Tools for Integrating Scientific Research and Decision-Making through Systems Thinking  

EPA Science Inventory

Currently, many policy and management decisions are made without considering the goods and services humans derive from ecosystems and the costs associated with protecting them. This approach is unlikely to be sustainable. Conceptual frameworks provide a tool for capturing, visual...

427

Short Tools to Assess Young Children's Dietary Intake: A Systematic Review Focusing on Application to Dietary Index Research  

PubMed Central

Dietary indices evaluate diet quality, usually based on current dietary guidelines. Indices can therefore contribute to our understanding of early-life obesity-risk dietary behaviours. Yet indices are commonly applied to dietary data collected by onerous methods (e.g., recalls or records). Short dietary assessment instruments are an attractive alternative to collect data from which to derive an index score. A systematic review of studies published before April 2013 was conducted to identify short (?50 items) tools that measure whole-of-diet intake of young children (birth-five years) and are applicable to dietary indices, in particular screening obesogenic dietary behaviours. The search identified 3686 papers of which 16, reporting on 15 tools (n = 7, infants and toddlers birth-24 months; n = 8, preschoolers 2–5 years), met the inclusion criteria. Most tools were food frequency questionnaires (n = 14), with one innovative dietary questionnaire identified. Seven were tested for validity or reliability, and one was tested for both. Six tools (n = 2, infants and toddlers; n = 4, preschoolers) are applicable for use with current dietary indices, five of which screen obesogenic dietary behaviours. Given the limited number of brief, valid and reliable dietary assessment tools for young children to which an index can be applied, future short tool development is warranted, particularly for screening obesogenic dietary behaviours.

Bell, Lucinda K.; Golley, Rebecca K.; Magarey, Anthea M.

2013-01-01

428

SPARSKIT: a basic tool kit for sparse matrix computations - Version 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

. This paper presents the main features of a tool package for manipulating and workingwith sparse matrices. One of the goals of the package is to provide basic tools to facilitate exchangeof software and data between researchers in sparse matrix computations. Our starting point is theHarwell\\/Boeing collection of matrices for which we provide a number of tools. Among other thingsthe

Youcef Saad

1994-01-01

429

New M&S Challenges Derived from the NATO Research & Technology Organization (RTO) Systems Analysis Studies (SAS071) Task Group on Analytical Tools for Irregular Warfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research conducted recently by NATO's RTO Systems Analysis Studies (SAS-071) Task Group on Analytical Tools for Irregular Warfare (IW) is of direct interest to the M&S community, as it formulates several new challenges that have to be met by the M&S community. IW comprises among others the following categories: insurgency\\/counter-insurgency, combat- ing terrorism, unconventional warfare, strategic communications, transnational criminal

Andreas Tolk

2009-01-01

430

Bibliometrics as a Performance Measurement Tool for Research Evaluation: The Case of Research Funded by the National Cancer Institute of Canada  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As bibliometric indicators are objective, reliable, and cost-effective measures of peer-reviewed research outputs, they are expected to play an increasingly important role in research assessment/management. Recently, a bibliometric approach was developed and integrated within the evaluation framework of research funded by the National Cancer…

Campbell, David; Picard-Aitken, Michelle; Cote, Gre