Science.gov

Sample records for main research tool

  1. Measurement and Research Tools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1997

    This document contains four papers from a symposium on measurement and research tools for human resource development (HRD). "The 'Best Fit' Training: Measure Employee Learning Style Strengths" (Daniel L. Parry) discusses a study of the physiological aspect of sensory intake known as modality, more specifically, modality as measured by the…

  2. HEI Tools for Researchers

    Cancer.gov

    This page provides information about the basic steps for calculating HEI component and total scores and further details for calculating scores at different levels of analysis (i.e., national food supply, food processing, community food environment, and individual food intake). Refer to the Research Uses page for more details about these levels and the types of studies that can be conducted at each.

  3. CRN - Informatics & Research Tools

    Cancer.gov

    The healthcare delivery systems affiliated with the CRN have an ethical and legal obligation to safeguard the confidentiality of medical information of their individual members and patients. The CRN operates as a distributed data network, meaning that each site retains its own data. There is no central data repository. This data structure protects the confidentiality of patient and provider data. However, the CRN has developed standardized data resources to increase the quality and efficiency of research using electronic data.

  4. Main transformation tools in ANALITIK-93 programming system

    SciTech Connect

    Gorovoi, V.D.; Klimenko, V.P.; Fishman, Yu.S.

    1995-09-01

    This article reviews the main functions incorporated in the latest version of the source language for the ANALITIK programming system. These functions are intended as transformation tools for nonnumerical models and problems, which are usually represented by systems of symbolic expressions of arbitrary length with a hierarchical structure. Such problems are often connected with nonlinear dependences and oscillating functions, which require multiple integration and differentiation, opening of parentheses, reduction of simmilar terms, various simplifications, etc. Such transformations are available in the languages of the ANALITIK family, REDUCE, Formac, Lisp, MACSYMA, Mathematica, and others. Languages of the ANALITIK family, and especially ANALITIK-93, are distinguished by greater generality and a higher level of intelligence, which is determined by an advanced automatic recognition system of functional properties of the objects being transformed and by a developed interactive system.

  5. A Tool for Medical Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    California Measurements, Inc.'s PC-2 Aerosol Particle Analyzer, developed by William Chiang, a former Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) engineer, was used in a study to measure the size of particles in the medical environment. Chiang has a NASA license for the JPL crystal oscillator technology and originally built the instrument for atmospheric research. In the operating room, it enabled researchers from the University of California to obtain multiple sets of data repeatedly and accurately. The study concluded that significant amounts of aerosols are generated during surgery when power tools are employed, and most of these are in the respirable size. Almost all contain blood and are small enough to pass through surgical masks. Research on the presence of blood aerosols during oral surgery had similar results. Further studies are planned to determine the possibility of HIV transmission during surgery, and the PC-2H will be used to quantify blood aerosols.

  6. Tool for Ranking Research Options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortiz, James N.; Scott, Kelly; Smith, Harold

    2005-01-01

    Tool for Research Enhancement Decision Support (TREDS) is a computer program developed to assist managers in ranking options for research aboard the International Space Station (ISS). It could likely also be adapted to perform similar decision-support functions in industrial and academic settings. TREDS provides a ranking of the options, based on a quantifiable assessment of all the relevant programmatic decision factors of benefit, cost, and risk. The computation of the benefit for each option is based on a figure of merit (FOM) for ISS research capacity that incorporates both quantitative and qualitative inputs. Qualitative inputs are gathered and partly quantified by use of the time-tested analytical hierarchical process and used to set weighting factors in the FOM corresponding to priorities determined by the cognizant decision maker(s). Then by use of algorithms developed specifically for this application, TREDS adjusts the projected benefit for each option on the basis of levels of technical implementation, cost, and schedule risk. Based partly on Excel spreadsheets, TREDS provides screens for entering cost, benefit, and risk information. Drop-down boxes are provided for entry of qualitative information. TREDS produces graphical output in multiple formats that can be tailored by users.

  7. Ecosystem Indicators and Tools in the Gulf of Maine

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Gulf of Maine Council on the Marine Environment is a U.S.-Canadian partnership of government and non-government organizations focused on the health, environmental quality and productivity of the Gulf of Maine. In 2006, the Ecosystem Indicator Partnership (ESIP) commenced acti...

  8. MHK Research, Tools, and Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Jepsen, Richard

    2011-11-02

    Presentation from the 2011 Water Peer Review in which principal investigator discusses improved testing, analysis, and design tools needed to more accurately model operational conditions, to optimize design parameters, and predict technology viability.

  9. The Value of Open Source Software Tools in Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Gary

    2011-01-01

    In an era of global networks, researchers using qualitative methods must consider the impact of any software they use on the sharing of data and findings. In this essay, I identify researchers' main areas of concern regarding the use of qualitative software packages for research. I then examine how open source software tools, wherein the publisher…

  10. The Value of Open Source Software Tools in Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Gary

    2011-01-01

    In an era of global networks, researchers using qualitative methods must consider the impact of any software they use on the sharing of data and findings. In this essay, I identify researchers' main areas of concern regarding the use of qualitative software packages for research. I then examine how open source software tools, wherein the publisher


  11. Observatory Bibliographies as Research Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rots, Arnold H.; Winkelman, S. L.

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, observatory bibliographies were maintained to provide insight in how successful a observatory is as measured by its prominence in the (refereed) literature. When we set up the bibliographic database for the Chandra X-ray Observatory (http://cxc.harvard.edu/cgi-gen/cda/bibliography) as part of the Chandra Data Archive ((http://cxc.harvard.edu/cda/), very early in the mission, our objective was to make it primarily a useful tool for our user community. To achieve this we are: (1) casting a very wide net in collecting Chandra-related publications; (2) including for each literature reference in the database a wealth of metadata that is useful for the users; and (3) providing specific links between the articles and the datasets in the archive that they use. As a result our users are able to browse the literature and the data archive simultaneously. As an added bonus, the rich metadata content and data links have also allowed us to assemble more meaningful statistics about the scientific efficacy of the observatory. In all this we collaborate closely with the Astrophysics Data System (ADS). Among the plans for future enhancement are the inclusion of press releases and the Chandra image gallery, linking with ADS semantic searching tools, full-text metadata mining, and linking with other observatories' bibliographies. This work is supported by NASA contract NAS8-03060 (CXC) and depends critically on the services provided by the ADS.

  12. DCCPS: Behavioral Research Program: Research Tools

    Cancer.gov

    Grid-Enabled Measures (GEM) Grid-Enabled Measures (GEM) is a dynamic web-based database that contains behavioral and social science measures organized by theoretical constructs. GEM is designed to enable researchers to use common measures with the goal of exchanging harmonized data. Through the use of these standardized measures and common elements, prospective meta-analyses will be possible.

  13. Scalable Combinatorial Tools for Health Disparities Research

    PubMed Central

    Langston, Michael A.; Levine, Robert S.; Kilbourne, Barbara J.; Rogers, Gary L.; Kershenbaum, Anne D.; Baktash, Suzanne H.; Coughlin, Steven S.; Saxton, Arnold M.; Agboto, Vincent K.; Hood, Darryl B.; Litchveld, Maureen Y.; Oyana, Tonny J.; Matthews-Juarez, Patricia; Juarez, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    Despite staggering investments made in unraveling the human genome, current estimates suggest that as much as 90% of the variance in cancer and chronic diseases can be attributed to factors outside an individual’s genetic endowment, particularly to environmental exposures experienced across his or her life course. New analytical approaches are clearly required as investigators turn to complicated systems theory and ecological, place-based and life-history perspectives in order to understand more clearly the relationships between social determinants, environmental exposures and health disparities. While traditional data analysis techniques remain foundational to health disparities research, they are easily overwhelmed by the ever-increasing size and heterogeneity of available data needed to illuminate latent gene x environment interactions. This has prompted the adaptation and application of scalable combinatorial methods, many from genome science research, to the study of population health. Most of these powerful tools are algorithmically sophisticated, highly automated and mathematically abstract. Their utility motivates the main theme of this paper, which is to describe real applications of innovative transdisciplinary models and analyses in an effort to help move the research community closer toward identifying the causal mechanisms and associated environmental contexts underlying health disparities. The public health exposome is used as a contemporary focus for addressing the complex nature of this subject. PMID:25310540

  14. Applying for ethical approval for research: the main issues.

    PubMed

    Gelling, Leslie

    2016-01-13

    The need to obtain research ethical approval is common to all research involving human participants. This approval must be obtained before research participants can be approached and before data collection can begin. The process of ethical review is one way that research participants can be confident that possible risks have been considered, minimised and deemed acceptable. This article outlines some of the main issues researchers should consider when planning an application for research ethical approval by answering the following six questions: 'Do I need research ethical approval?', 'How many applications will I need to make?', 'Where should I apply for research ethical approval?', 'What do I need to include in my application?', 'What do research ethics committees look for?' and 'What other approvals might I need?' Answering these questions will enable researchers to navigate the ethical review process. PMID:26758167

  15. The Maine Garlic Project: A Participatory Research and Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, David; Johnson, Steven B.

    2013-01-01

    Participatory research is a useful technique for collecting basic data over a large geographic area. Garlic production was chosen as a participatory research study focus in Maine. Project participants (285) received bulbs to plant, monitored their crop, and reported data online. Participants received a monthly educational newsletter to improve…

  16. The Maine Garlic Project: A Participatory Research and Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, David; Johnson, Steven B.

    2013-01-01

    Participatory research is a useful technique for collecting basic data over a large geographic area. Garlic production was chosen as a participatory research study focus in Maine. Project participants (285) received bulbs to plant, monitored their crop, and reported data online. Participants received a monthly educational newsletter to improve


  17. Research as an educational tool

    SciTech Connect

    Neff, R.; Perlmutter, D.; Klaczynski, P.

    1994-12-31

    Our students have participated in original group research projects focused on the natural environment which culminate in a written manuscript published in-house, and an oral presentation to peers, faculty, and the university community. Our goal has been to develop their critical thinking skills so that they will be more successful in high school and college. We have served ninety-three students (47.1% white, 44.1% black, 5.4% hispanic, 2.2% American Indian, 1.2% asian) from an eight state region in the southeast over the past three years. Thirty-one students have graduated from high school with over 70% enrolled in college and another thirty-four are seniors this year. We are tracking students` progress in college and are developing our own critical thinking test to measure the impact of our program. Although preliminary, the results from the critical thinking test indicated that students are often prone to logical errors; however, higher levels of critical thinking were observed on items which raised issues that conflicted with students` pre-existing beliefs.

  18. Telerehabilitation: Policy Issues and Research Tools

    PubMed Central

    Seelman, Katherine D.; Hartman, Linda M.

    2009-01-01

    The importance of public policy as a complementary framework for telehealth, telemedicine, and by association telerehabilitation, has been recognized by a number of experts. The purpose of this paper is to review literature on telerehabilitation (TR) policy and research methodology issues in order to report on the current state of the science and make recommendations about future research needs. An extensive literature search was implemented using search terms grouped into main topics of telerehabilitation, policy, population of users, and policy specific issues such as cost and reimbursement. The availability of rigorous and valid evidence-based cost studies emerged as a major challenge to the field. Existing cost studies provided evidence that telehomecare may be a promising application area for TR. Cost studies also indicated that telepsychiatry is a promising telepractice area. The literature did not reference the International Classification on Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Rigorous and comprehensive TR assessment and evaluation tools for outcome studies are tantamount to generating confidence among providers, payers, clinicians and end users. In order to evaluate consumer satisfaction and participation, assessment criteria must include medical, functional and quality of life items such as assistive technology and environmental factors. PMID:25945162

  19. Parallel software tools at Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moitra, Stuti; Tennille, Geoffrey M.; Lakeotes, Christopher D.; Randall, Donald P.; Arthur, Jarvis J.; Hammond, Dana P.; Mall, Gerald H.

    1993-01-01

    This document gives a brief overview of parallel software tools available on the Intel iPSC/860 parallel computer at Langley Research Center. It is intended to provide a source of information that is somewhat more concise than vendor-supplied material on the purpose and use of various tools. Each of the chapters on tools is organized in a similar manner covering an overview of the functionality, access information, how to effectively use the tool, observations about the tool and how it compares to similar software, known problems or shortfalls with the software, and reference documentation. It is primarily intended for users of the iPSC/860 at Langley Research Center and is appropriate for both the experienced and novice user.

  20. Bringing Research Tools into the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shubert, Charles; Ceraj, Ivica; Riley, Justin

    2009-01-01

    The advancement of computer technology used for research is creating the need to change the way classes are taught in higher education. "Bringing Research Tools into the Classroom" has become a major focus of the work of the Office of Educational Innovation and Technology (OEIT) for the Dean of Undergraduate Education (DUE) at the Massachusetts…

  1. The research project EVA—general objectives and main results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slemr, F.; Friedrich, R.; Seiler, W.

    Emissions are generally believed to represent a part, if not most, of the uncertainty in input data for air quality models. The quality of emission data, however, is largely unknown. There are indicators that the actual and modeled emissions may differ by more than a factor of two. In order to evaluate the uncertainty of calculated emissions of individual ozone precursors, a joint research project evaluation of highly resolved emission inventories (EVA) was designed and executed. The main objective of EVA was to determine the total emissions of ozone precursors of a city (Augsburg) experimentally and to compare the obtained results with calculated emissions using state-of-the-art models. This paper presents an overview of the project design and activities.

  2. Tools and collaborative environments for bioinformatics research

    PubMed Central

    Giugno, Rosalba; Pulvirenti, Alfredo

    2011-01-01

    Advanced research requires intensive interaction among a multitude of actors, often possessing different expertise and usually working at a distance from each other. The field of collaborative research aims to establish suitable models and technologies to properly support these interactions. In this article, we first present the reasons for an interest of Bioinformatics in this context by also suggesting some research domains that could benefit from collaborative research. We then review the principles and some of the most relevant applications of social networking, with a special attention to networks supporting scientific collaboration, by also highlighting some critical issues, such as identification of users and standardization of formats. We then introduce some systems for collaborative document creation, including wiki systems and tools for ontology development, and review some of the most interesting biological wikis. We also review the principles of Collaborative Development Environments for software and show some examples in Bioinformatics. Finally, we present the principles and some examples of Learning Management Systems. In conclusion, we try to devise some of the goals to be achieved in the short term for the exploitation of these technologies. PMID:21984743

  3. Microfluidics as a tool for C. elegans research.

    PubMed Central

    San-Miguel, Adriana; Lu, Hang

    2013-01-01

    Microfluidics has emerged as a set of powerful tools that have greatly advanced some areas of biological research, including research using C. elegans. The use of microfluidics has enabled many experiments that are otherwise impossible with conventional methods. Today there are many examples that demonstrate the main advantages of using microfluidics for C. elegans research, achieving precise environmental conditions and facilitating worm handling. Examples range from behavioral analysis under precise chemical or odor stimulation, locomotion studies in well-defined structural surroundings, and even long-term culture on chip. Moreover, microfluidics has enabled coupling worm handling and imaging thus facilitating genetic screens, optogenetic studies, and laser ablation experiments. In this article, we review some of the applications of microfluidics for C. elegans research and provide guides for the design, fabrication, and use of microfluidic devices for C. elegans research studies. PMID:24065448

  4. Optical tools for ocean monitoring and research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, C.; Barnard, A.; Fietzek, P.; Lewis, M. R.; Sosik, H. M.; White, S.; Zielinski, O.

    2008-11-01

    Requirements for understanding the relationships between ocean color and suspended and dissolved materials within the water column, and a rapidly emerging photonics and materials technology base for performing optical based analytical techniques have generated a diverse offering of commercial sensors and research prototypes that perform optical measurements in water. Through inversion, these tools are now being used to determine a diverse set of related biogeochemical and physical parameters. Techniques engaged include measurement of the solar radiance distribution, absorption, scattering, stimulated fluorescence, flow cytometry, and various spectroscopy methods. Selective membranes and other techniques for material isolation further enhance specificity, leading to sensors for measurement of dissolved oxygen, methane, carbon dioxide, common nutrients and a variety of other parameters. Scientists are using these measurements to infer information related to an increasing set of parameters and wide range of applications over relevant scales in space and time.

  5. Optical tools for ocean monitoring and research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, C.; Barnard, A.; Fietzek, P.; Lewis, M. R.; Sosik, H. M.; White, S.; Zielinski, O.

    2009-12-01

    Requirements for understanding the relationships between ocean color and suspended and dissolved materials within the water column, and a rapidly emerging photonics and materials technology base for performing optical based analytical techniques have generated a diverse offering of commercial sensors and research prototypes that perform optical measurements in water. Through inversion, these tools are now being used to determine a diverse set of related biogeochemical and physical parameters. Techniques engaged include measurement of the solar radiance distribution, absorption, scattering, stimulated fluorescence, flow cytometry, and various spectroscopy methods. Selective membranes and other techniques for material isolation further enhance specificity, leading to sensors for measurement of dissolved oxygen, methane, carbon dioxide, common nutrients and a variety of other parameters. Scientists are using these measurements to infer information related to an increasing set of parameters and wide range of applications over relevant scales in space and time.

  6. Inductive knowledge acquisition experience with commercial tools for space shuttle main engine testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Modesitt, Kenneth L.

    1990-01-01

    Since 1984, an effort has been underway at Rocketdyne, manufacturer of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME), to automate much of the analysis procedure conducted after engine test firings. Previously published articles at national and international conferences have contained the context of and justification for this effort. Here, progress is reported in building the full system, including the extensions of integrating large databases with the system, known as Scotty. Inductive knowledge acquisition has proven itself to be a key factor in the success of Scotty. The combination of a powerful inductive expert system building tool (ExTran), a relational data base management system (Reliance), and software engineering principles and Computer-Assisted Software Engineering (CASE) tools makes for a practical, useful and state-of-the-art application of an expert system.

  7. New research tools for urogenital schistosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Rinaldi, Gabriel; Young, Neil D; Honeycutt, Jared D; Brindley, Paul J; Gasser, Robin B; Hsieh, Michael H

    2015-03-15

    Approximately 200,000,000 people have schistosomiasis (schistosome infection). Among the schistosomes, Schistosoma haematobium is responsible for the most infections, which are present in 110 million people globally, mostly in sub-Saharan Africa. This pathogen causes an astonishing breadth of sequelae: hematuria, anemia, dysuria, stunting, uremia, bladder cancer, urosepsis, and human immunodeficiency virus coinfection. Refined estimates of the impact of schistosomiasis on quality of life suggest that it rivals malaria. Despite S. haematobium's importance, relevant research has lagged. Here, we review advances that will deepen knowledge of S. haematobium. Three sets of breakthroughs will accelerate discoveries in the pathogenesis of urogenital schistosomiasis (UGS): (1) comparative genomics, (2) the development of functional genomic tools, and (3) the use of animal models to explore S. haematobium-host interactions. Comparative genomics for S. haematobium is feasible, given the sequencing of multiple schistosome genomes. Features of the S. haematobium genome that are conserved among platyhelminth species and others that are unique to S. haematobium may provide novel diagnostic and drug targets for UGS. Although there are technical hurdles, the integrated use of these approaches can elucidate host-pathogen interactions during this infection and can inform the development of techniques for investigating schistosomes in their human and snail hosts and the development of therapeutics and vaccines for the control of UGS. PMID:25240172

  8. VAO Tools Enhance CANDELS Research Productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, Gretchen; Donley, J.; Rodney, S.; LAZIO, J.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Busko, I.; Hanisch, R. J.; VAO Team; CANDELS Team

    2013-01-01

    The formation of galaxies and their co-evolution with black holes through cosmic time are prominent areas in current extragalactic astronomy. New methods in science research are building upon collaborations between scientists and archive data centers which span large volumes of multi-wavelength and heterogeneous data. A successful example of this form of teamwork is demonstrated by the CANDELS (Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey) and the Virtual Astronomical Observatory (VAO) collaboration. The CANDELS project archive data provider services are registered and discoverable in the VAO through an innovative web based Data Discovery Tool, providing a drill down capability and cross-referencing with other co-spatially located astronomical catalogs, images and spectra. The CANDELS team is working together with the VAO to define new methods for analyzing Spectral Energy Distributions of galaxies containing active galactic nuclei, and helping to evolve advanced catalog matching methods for exploring images of variable depths, wavelengths and resolution. Through the publication of VOEvents, the CANDELS project is publishing data streams for newly discovered supernovae that are bright enough to be followed from the ground.

  9. Research pressure instrumentation for NASA Space Shuttle main engine, modification no. 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, P. J.; Nussbaum, P.; Gustafson, G.

    1984-01-01

    The objective of the research project described is to define and demonstrate methods to advance the state of the art of pressure sensors for the space shuttle main engine (SSME). Silicon piezoresistive technology was utilized in completing tasks: generation and testing of three transducer design concepts for solid state applications; silicon resistor characterization at cryogenic temperatures; experimental chip mounting characterization; frequency response optimization and prototype design and fabrication. Excellent silicon sensor performance was demonstrated at liquid nitrogen temperature. A silicon resistor ion implant dose was customized for SSME temperature requirements. A basic acoustic modeling software program was developed as a design tool to evaluate frequency response characteristics.

  10. Research pressure instrumentation for NASA Space Shuttle main engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, P. J.; Nussbaum, P.; Gustafson, G.

    1984-01-01

    The development of prototype pressure transducers which are targeted to meet the Space Shuttle Main Engine SSME performance design goals is discussed. The fabrication, testing and delivery of 10 prototype units is examined. Silicon piezoresistive strain sensing technology is used to achieve the objectives of advanced state-of-the-art pressure sensors in terms of reliability, accuracy and ease of manufacture. Integration of multiple functions on a single chip is the key attribute of this technology.

  11. Research pressure instrumentation for NASA space shuttle main engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, P. J.; Nussbaum, P.; Gustafson, G.

    1985-01-01

    The breadboard feasibility model of a silicon piezoresistive pressure transducer suitable for space shuttle main engine (SSME) applications was demonstrated. The development of pressure instrumentation for the SSME was examined. The objective is to develop prototype pressure transducers which are targeted to meet the SSME performance design goals and to fabricate, test and deliver a total of 10 prototype units. Effective utilization of the many advantages of silicon piezoresistive strain sensing technology to achieve the objectives of advanced state-of-the-art pressure sensors for reliability, accuracy and ease of manufacture is analyzed. Integration of multiple functions on a single chip is the key attribute of the technology.

  12. University of Maine Integrated Forest Product Refinery (IFPR) Technology Research

    SciTech Connect

    Pendse, Hemant P.

    2010-11-23

    This project supported research on science and technology that forms a basis for integrated forest product refinery for co-production of chemicals, fuels and materials using existing forest products industry infrastructure. Clear systems view of an Integrated Forest Product Refinery (IFPR) allowed development of a compelling business case for a small scale technology demonstration in Old Town ME for co-production of biofuels using cellulosic sugars along with pulp for the new owners of the facility resulting in an active project on Integrated Bio-Refinery (IBR) at the Old Town Fuel & Fiber. Work on production of advanced materials from woody biomass has led to active projects in bioplastics and carbon nanofibers. A lease for 40,000 sq. ft. high-bay space has been obtained to establish a Technology Research Center for IFPR technology validation on industrially relevant scale. UMaine forest bioproducts research initiative that began in April 2006 has led to establishment of a formal research institute beginning in March 2010.

  13. Tools for Ephemeral Gully Erosion Process Research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Techniques to quantify ephemeral gully erosion have been identified by USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) as one of gaps in current erosion assessment tools. One reason that may have contributed to this technology gap is the difficulty to quantify changes in channel geometry to asses...

  14. Microfluidic tools for cell biological research

    PubMed Central

    Velve-Casquillas, Guilhem; Le Berre, Maël; Piel, Matthieu; Tran, Phong T.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Microfluidic technology is creating powerful tools for cell biologists to control the complete cellular microenvironment, leading to new questions and new discoveries. We review here the basic concepts and methodologies in designing microfluidic devices, and their diverse cell biological applications. PMID:21152269

  15. Participatory Research: A Tool for Extension Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tritz, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Given their positions in communities across the United States, Extension educators are poised to have meaningful partnerships with the communities they serve. This article presents a case for the use of participatory research, which is a departure from more conventional forms of research based on objectivity, researcher distance, and social


  16. Participatory Research: A Tool for Extension Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tritz, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Given their positions in communities across the United States, Extension educators are poised to have meaningful partnerships with the communities they serve. This article presents a case for the use of participatory research, which is a departure from more conventional forms of research based on objectivity, researcher distance, and social…

  17. Integrating Evolving Tools for Proteomics Research

    SciTech Connect

    Havre, Susan L.; Singhal, Mudita; Gopalan, Banu; Payne, Deborah A.; Klicker, Kyle R.; Kiebel, Gary R.; Auberry, Kenneth J.; Stephan, Eric G.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Gracio, Deborah K.

    2004-06-23

    The recent development of high-throughput proteomics techniques has resulted in the exponential growth of experimental proteomics data. At the same time, the amount of published biological information—which includes not only journal articles but also gene sequences, annotations, and biological ontologies—is also growing rapidly. To extract information from these large, diverse data sets, biologists will require powerful data management, analysis, and integration tools. More than that, biologists will need these diverse tools integrated into a computational environment that allows them to focus on the science. Without an integrated environment, biologists must attend to non-scientific tasks, for example, moving data files or altering data formats; such tasks can be a nuisance with small data sets and significant obstacles with large data sets. This paper explores an integrated computational environment for proteomics by loosely connecting individual components for data storage, retrieval, analysis, and visualization.

  18. The Child Diary as a Research Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamsa, Tiina; Ronka, Anna; Poikonen, Pirjo-Liisa; Malinen, Kaisa

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this article is to introduce the use of the child diary as a method in daily diary research. By describing the research process and detailing its structure, a child diary, a structured booklet in which children's parents and day-care personnel (N = 54 children) reported their observations, was evaluated. The participants reported the


  19. The Child Diary as a Research Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamsa, Tiina; Ronka, Anna; Poikonen, Pirjo-Liisa; Malinen, Kaisa

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this article is to introduce the use of the child diary as a method in daily diary research. By describing the research process and detailing its structure, a child diary, a structured booklet in which children's parents and day-care personnel (N = 54 children) reported their observations, was evaluated. The participants reported the…

  20. Research-Based Communication Tool Kit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sherry; Campbell-Zopf, Mary; Hooper, Jeffrey; Marshall, David; McLaughlin, Beck

    2007-01-01

    Significant research over the last decade has built a strong case for the value of arts learning. Major summaries, including "Schools, Communities, and the Arts" (1995); "Champions of Change" (2000); "The Arts in Education: Evaluating the Evidence for a Causal Link" (2000); "Critical Links" (2002); and now "Critical Evidence: How the Arts Benefit…

  1. Interactive Assessment as a Research Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haywood, H. Carl; Wingenfeld, Sabine A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses dynamic/interactive approaches to psychological assessment based on the concept of induced change as a research tactic. Studies are reviewed showing how interactive assessment has yielded new knowledge in psychopathology; neuropsychology; learning disabilities; intelligence testing (in normal, deaf, and immigrant children);…

  2. Using Wordle as a Supplementary Research Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNaught, Carmel; Lam, Paul

    2010-01-01

    A word cloud is a special visualization of text in which the more frequently used words are effectively highlighted by occupying more prominence in the representation. We have used Wordle to produce word-cloud analyses of the spoken and written responses of informants in two research projects. The product demonstrates a fast and visually rich way…

  3. Developing products for personalized medicine: NIH Research Tools Policy applications

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Ranjan; Kim, JP; Spiegel, Jack; Ferguson, Steven M

    2009-01-01

    For innovators at academic or industrial institutions to develop personalized medicine products at the accelerated pace required, rapid access to state-of-the-art research tools and reagents are needed. Unreasonable restrictions or delays in the use of such tools may undermine the development of these customized diagnostics and therapeutic products designed to provide significant treatment benefits to patients who frequently do not benefit from traditional therapeutic approaches. In its funding agreements and its own internal research programs, the National Institutes of Health is implementing policies to facilitate the exchanges of these research tools and related resources. PMID:19960108

  4. Visualization tools for comprehensive test ban treaty research

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, T.L.; Harris, J.M.; Simons, R.W.

    1997-08-01

    This paper focuses on tools used in Data Visualization efforts at Sandia National Laboratories under the Department of Energy CTBT R&D program. These tools provide interactive techniques for the examination and interpretation of scientific data, and can be used for many types of CTBT research and development projects. We will discuss the benefits and drawbacks of using the tools to display and analyze CTBT scientific data. While the tools may be used for everyday applications, our discussion will focus on the use of these tools for visualization of data used in research and verification of new theories. Our examples focus on uses with seismic data, but the tools may also be used for other types of data sets. 5 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Improving Teaching with Collaborative Action Research: An ASCD Action Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Diane

    2011-01-01

    Once you've established a professional learning community (PLC), you need to get this ASCD (Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development) action tool to ensure that your PLC stays focused on addressing teaching methods and student learning problems. This ASCD action tool explains how your PLC can use collaborative action research to…

  6. Aligning Web-Based Tools to the Research Process Cycle: A Resource for Collaborative Research Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Geoffrey P.; Wright, Vivian H.

    2012-01-01

    Using John Creswell's Research Process Cycle as a framework, this article describes various web-based collaborative technologies useful for enhancing the organization and efficiency of educational research. Visualization tools (Cacoo) assist researchers in identifying a research problem. Resource storage tools (Delicious, Mendeley, EasyBib)…

  7. Aligning Web-Based Tools to the Research Process Cycle: A Resource for Collaborative Research Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Geoffrey P.; Wright, Vivian H.

    2012-01-01

    Using John Creswell's Research Process Cycle as a framework, this article describes various web-based collaborative technologies useful for enhancing the organization and efficiency of educational research. Visualization tools (Cacoo) assist researchers in identifying a research problem. Resource storage tools (Delicious, Mendeley, EasyBib)


  8. Lipidomics as a principal tool for advancing biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Lam, Sin Man; Shui, Guanghou

    2013-08-20

    Lipidomics, which targets at the construction of a comprehensive map of lipidome comprising the entire lipid pool within a cell or tissue, is currently emerging as an independent discipline at the interface of lipid biology, technology and medicine. The diversity and complexity of the biological lipidomes call for technical innovation and improvement to meet the needs of various biomedical studies. The recent wave of expansion in the field of lipidomic research is mainly attributed to advances in analytical technologies, in particular, the development of new mass spectrometric and chromatographic tools for the characterization and quantification of the wide array of diverse lipid species in the cellular lipidome. Here, we review some of the key technical advances in lipidome analysis and put forth the applications of lipidomics in addressing the biological roles of lipids in numerous disease models including the metabolic syndrome, neurodegenerative diseases and infectious diseases, as well as the increasing urgency to construct the lipidome inventory for various mammalian/organism models useful for biomedical research. PMID:23969247

  9. The use of metacognitive tools in a multidimensional research program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iuli, Richard John

    Metacognition may be thought of as "cognition about cognition", or "thinking about thinking." A number of strategies and tools have been developed to help individuals understand the nature of knowledge, and to enhance their "thinking about thinking." Two metacognitive tools, concept maps and Gowin's Vee, were first developed for use in educational research. Subsequently, they were used successfully to help learners "learn how to learn." The success of metacognitive tools in educational settings suggests that they may help scientists understand the nature of knowledge production and organization, thereby facilitating their research activities and enhancing their understanding of the events and objects they study. In September 1993 I began an ethnographic, naturalistic study of the United States Department of Agriculture - Agricultural Research Service - Rhizobotany Project at Cornell University in Ithaca, NY. I spent the next two and one-half years as a participant observer with the Project. The focus of my research was to examine the application of metacognitive tools to an academic research setting. The knowledge claims that emerged from my research were: (1) Individual researchers tended to have narrow views of the Rhizobotany Project that centered on their individual areas of research; (2) The researchers worked in "conceptual isolation", or failing to see the connections and interrelatedness of their own work with the work of the others; (3) For those researchers who constructed concept maps and Vee diagrams, these heuristics helped them to build a deeper conceptual understanding of their own work; and (4) Half of the members of the research team did not find concept mapping and Vee diagramming useful. Their reluctance to use these tools was interpreted as an indication of epistemological confusion. The prevalence of conceptual isolation and epistemological confusion among members of the Rhizobotany Project parallels the results of previous studies that have demonstrated the instability and inconsistency of science students' and researchers' epistemological commitments and beliefs.

  10. Finding Collaborators: Toward Interactive Discovery Tools for Research Network Systems

    PubMed Central

    Schleyer, Titus K; Becich, Michael J; Hochheiser, Harry

    2014-01-01

    Background Research networking systems hold great promise for helping biomedical scientists identify collaborators with the expertise needed to build interdisciplinary teams. Although efforts to date have focused primarily on collecting and aggregating information, less attention has been paid to the design of end-user tools for using these collections to identify collaborators. To be effective, collaborator search tools must provide researchers with easy access to information relevant to their collaboration needs. Objective The aim was to study user requirements and preferences for research networking system collaborator search tools and to design and evaluate a functional prototype. Methods Paper prototypes exploring possible interface designs were presented to 18 participants in semistructured interviews aimed at eliciting collaborator search needs. Interview data were coded and analyzed to identify recurrent themes and related software requirements. Analysis results and elements from paper prototypes were used to design a Web-based prototype using the D3 JavaScript library and VIVO data. Preliminary usability studies asked 20 participants to use the tool and to provide feedback through semistructured interviews and completion of the System Usability Scale (SUS). Results Initial interviews identified consensus regarding several novel requirements for collaborator search tools, including chronological display of publication and research funding information, the need for conjunctive keyword searches, and tools for tracking candidate collaborators. Participant responses were positive (SUS score: mean 76.4%, SD 13.9). Opportunities for improving the interface design were identified. Conclusions Interactive, timeline-based displays that support comparison of researcher productivity in funding and publication have the potential to effectively support searching for collaborators. Further refinement and longitudinal studies may be needed to better understand the implications of collaborator search tools for researcher workflows. PMID:25370463

  11. Overview of EPA Research On Condition Assessment of Drinking Water Mains

    EPA Science Inventory

    This slide presentation provides an overview of condition assessment research that is part of EPA Office of Research and Development’s Aging Water Infrastructure Research Plan (AWIRP). The primary focus is on a water main condition assessment technology forum and associated whit...

  12. Overview of EPA Research On Condition Assessment of Drinking Water Mains

    EPA Science Inventory

    This slide presentation provides an overview of condition assessment research that is part of EPA Office of Research and Development’s Aging Water Infrastructure Research Plan (AWIRP). The primary focus is on a water main condition assessment technology forum and associated whit...

  13. Participant-Centric Initiatives: Tools to Facilitate Engagement In Research

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Nicholas; Bragg, Caleb; Hartzler, Andrea; Edwards, Kelly

    2014-01-01

    Clinical genomic research faces increasing challenges in establishing participant privacy and consent processes that facilitate meaningful choice and communication capacity for longitudinal and secondary research uses. There are an evolving range of participant-centric initiatives that combine web-based informatics tools with new models of engagement and research collaboration. These emerging initiatives may become valuable approaches to support large-scale and longitudinal research studies. We highlight and discuss four types of emerging initiatives for engaging and sustaining participation in research. PMID:24772384

  14. Empowering the Teacher-Researcher: Adopting a Tool from Biochemist-Researcher Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ting, Y. L. Teresa

    2005-01-01

    As teachers are probably the most invaluable source of field-based informants regarding (in)effective classroom practices, teacher-training should equip teachers with tools for classroom-based teacher-led research. More importantly, these tools should sustain trainees' research-eagerness as well as autonomous professional development beyond…

  15. Stem diameter variations as a versatile research tool in ecophysiology.

    PubMed

    De Swaef, Tom; De Schepper, Veerle; Vandegehuchte, Maurits W; Steppe, Kathy

    2015-10-01

    High-resolution stem diameter variations (SDV) are widely recognized as a useful drought stress indicator and have therefore been used in many irrigation scheduling studies. More recently, SDV have been used in combination with other plant measurements and biophysical modelling to study fundamental mechanisms underlying whole-plant functioning and growth. The present review aims to scrutinize the important insights emerging from these more recent SDV applications to identify trends in ongoing fundamental research. The main mechanism underlying SDV is variation in water content in stem tissues, originating from reversible shrinkage and swelling of dead and living tissues, and irreversible growth. The contribution of different stem tissues to the overall SDV signal is currently under debate and shows variation with species and plant age, but can be investigated by combining SDV with state-of-the-art technology like magnetic resonance imaging. Various physiological mechanisms, such as water and carbon transport, and mechanical properties influence the SDV pattern, making it an extensive source of information on dynamic plant behaviour. To unravel these dynamics and to extract information on plant physiology or plant biophysics from SDV, mechanistic modelling has proved to be valuable. Biophysical models integrate different mechanisms underlying SDV, and help us to explain the resulting SDV signal. Using an elementary modelling approach, we demonstrate the application of SDV as a tool to examine plant water relations, plant hydraulics, plant carbon relations, plant nutrition, freezing effects, plant phenology and dendroclimatology. In the ever-expanding SDV knowledge base we identified two principal research tracks. First, in detailed short-term experiments, SDV measurements are combined with other plant measurements and modelling to discover patterns in phloem turgor, phloem osmotic concentrations, root pressure and plant endogenous control. Second, long-term SDV time series covering many different species, regions and climates provide an expanding amount of phenotypic data of growth, phenology and survival in relation to microclimate, soil water availability, species or genotype, which can be coupled with genetic information to support ecological and breeding research under on-going global change. This under-exploited source of information has now encouraged research groups to set up coordinated initiatives to explore this data pool via global analysis techniques and data-mining. PMID:26377875

  16. A web service based tool to plan atmospheric research flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rautenhaus, M.; Bauer, G.; Dörnbrack, A.

    2012-01-01

    We present a web service based tool for the planning of atmospheric research flights. The tool provides online access to horizontal maps and vertical cross-sections of numerical weather prediction data and in particular allows the interactive design of a flight route in direct relation to the predictions. It thereby fills a crucial gap in the set of currently available tools for using data from numerical atmospheric models for research flight planning. A distinct feature of the tool is its lightweight, web service based architecture, requiring only commodity hardware and a basic Internet connection for deployment. Access to visualisations of prediction data is achieved by using an extended version of the Open Geospatial Consortium Web Map Service (WMS) standard, a technology that has gained increased attention in meteorology in recent years. With the WMS approach, we avoid the transfer of large forecast model output datasets while enabling on-demand generated visualisations of the predictions at campaign sites with limited Internet bandwidth. Usage of the Web Map Service standard also enables access to third-party sources of georeferenced data. We have implemented the software using the open-source programming language Python. In the present article, we describe the architecture of the tool. As an example application, we discuss a case study research flight planned for the scenario of the 2010 Eyjafjalla volcano eruption. Usage and implementation details are provided as Supplement.

  17. A web service based tool to plan atmospheric research flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rautenhaus, M.; Bauer, G.; Dörnbrack, A.

    2011-09-01

    We present a web service based tool for the planning of atmospheric research flights. The tool provides online access to horizontal maps and vertical cross-sections of numerical weather prediction data and in particular allows the interactive design of a flight route in direct relation to the predictions. It thereby fills a crucial gap in the set of currently available tools for using data from numerical atmospheric models for research flight planning. A distinct feature of the tool is its lightweight, web service based architecture, requiring only commodity hardware and a basic Internet connection for deployment. Access to visualisations of prediction data is achieved by using an extended version of the Open Geospatial Consortium Web Map Service (WMS) standard, a technology that has gained increased attention in meteorology in recent years. With the WMS approach, we avoid the transfer of large forecast model output datasets while enabling on-demand generated visualisations of the predictions at campaign sites with limited Internet bandwidth. Usage of the Web Map Service standard also enables access to third-party sources of georeferenced data. We have implemented the software using the open-source programming language Python. In the present article, we describe the architecture of the tool. As an example application, we discuss a case study research flight planned for the scenario of the 2010 Eyjafjalla volcano eruption. Usage and implementation details are provided as Supplement.

  18. Measurement and Research Tools. Symposium 37. [AHRD Conference, 2001].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    This symposium on measurement and research tools consists of three presentations. "An Examination of the Multiple Intelligences Developmental Assessment Scales (MIDAS)" (Albert Wiswell et al.) explores MIDAS's psychometric saliency. Findings indicates this instrument represents an incomplete attempt to develop a valid assessment of multiple


  19. Analyzing Online Teacher Networks: Cyber Networks Require Cyber Research Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlager, Mark S.; Farooq, Umer; Fusco, Judith; Schank, Patricia; Dwyer, Nathan

    2009-01-01

    The authors argue that conceptual and methodological limitations in existing research approaches severely hamper theory building and empirical exploration of teacher learning and collaboration through cyber-enabled networks. They conclude that new frameworks, tools, and techniques are needed to understand and maximize the benefits of teacher…

  20. Micro-Concord: A Language Learner's Research Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johns, Tim

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the micro-concord, an interactive, keyword-in-context concordancing program that can be run on the Spectrum home microcomputer. The program offers language learners, teachers, and linguistic researchers an excellent tool for investigating learners' writing as well as for replacing more traditional language learning materials. (Author/SED)

  1. Technical phosphoproteomic and bioinformatic tools useful in cancer research

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Reversible protein phosphorylation is one of the most important forms of cellular regulation. Thus, phosphoproteomic analysis of protein phosphorylation in cells is a powerful tool to evaluate cell functional status. The importance of protein kinase-regulated signal transduction pathways in human cancer has led to the development of drugs that inhibit protein kinases at the apex or intermediary levels of these pathways. Phosphoproteomic analysis of these signalling pathways will provide important insights for operation and connectivity of these pathways to facilitate identification of the best targets for cancer therapies. Enrichment of phosphorylated proteins or peptides from tissue or bodily fluid samples is required. The application of technologies such as phosphoenrichments, mass spectrometry (MS) coupled to bioinformatics tools is crucial for the identification and quantification of protein phosphorylation sites for advancing in such relevant clinical research. A combination of different phosphopeptide enrichments, quantitative techniques and bioinformatic tools is necessary to achieve good phospho-regulation data and good structural analysis of protein studies. The current and most useful proteomics and bioinformatics techniques will be explained with research examples. Our aim in this article is to be helpful for cancer research via detailing proteomics and bioinformatic tools. PMID:21967744

  2. Environmental equity research: review with focus on outdoor air pollution research methods and analytic tools.

    PubMed

    Miao, Qun; Chen, Dongmei; Buzzelli, Michael; Aronson, Kristan J

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to review environmental equity research on outdoor air pollution and, specifically, methods and tools used in research, published in English, with the aim of recommending the best methods and analytic tools. English language publications from 2000 to 2012 were identified in Google Scholar, Ovid MEDLINE, and PubMed. Research methodologies and results were reviewed and potential deficiencies and knowledge gaps identified. The publications show that exposure to outdoor air pollution differs by social factors, but findings are inconsistent in Canada. In terms of study designs, most were small and ecological and therefore prone to the ecological fallacy. Newer tools such as geographic information systems, modeling, and biomarkers offer improved precision in exposure measurement. Higher-quality research using large, individual-based samples and more precise analytic tools are needed to provide better evidence for policy-making to reduce environmental inequities. PMID:24972259

  3. ACNP and NILDE: Essential Tools for Access to Scientific Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunetti, F.; Bonora, O.; Filippucci, G.

    2015-04-01

    This paper describes ACNP and NILDE, the two main Italian cooperative systems for access to scientific information. Used by the Italian Astronomical Libraries (IAL), they are two essential channels to access information resources that are otherwise unreachable. At the same time, they allow IAL (Italian Astronomical Libraries) to share their very rich and unique holdings with other research and university libraries.

  4. Research gaps for three main tropical diseases in the People’s Republic of China

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This scoping review analyzes the research gaps of three diseases: schistosomiasis japonica, malaria and echinococcosis. Based on available data in the P.R. China, we highlight the gaps between control capacity and prevalence levels, and between diagnostic/drug development and population need for treatment at different stages of the national control programme. After reviewing the literature from 848 original studies and consultations with experts in the field, the gaps were identified as follows. Firstly, the malaria research gaps include (i) deficiency of active testing in the public community and no appropriate technique to evaluate elimination, (ii) lack of sensitive diagnostic tools for asymptomatic patients, (iii) lack of safe drugs for mass administration. Secondly, gaps in research of schistosomiasis include (i) incongruent policy in the implementation of integrated control strategy for schistosomiasis, (ii) lack of effective tools for Oncomelania sp. snail control, (iii) lack of a more sensitive and cheaper diagnostic test for large population samples, (iv) lack of new drugs in addition to praziquantel. Thirdly, gaps in research of echinococcosis include (i) low capacity in field epidemiology studies, (ii) lack of sanitation improvement studies in epidemic areas, (iii) lack of a sensitivity test for early diagnosis, (iv) lack of more effective drugs for short-term treatment. We believe these three diseases can eventually be eliminated in mainland China if all the research gaps are abridged in a short period of time. PMID:23895635

  5. Research pressure instrumentation for NASA Space Shuttle main engine, modification no. 6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, P. J.; Johnson, R. L.

    1984-01-01

    Research concerning the utilization of silicon piezoresistive strain sensing technology for space shuttle main engine applications is reported. The following specific topics were addressed: (1) transducer design and materials, (2) silicon piezoresistor characterization at cryogenic temperatures, (3) chip mounting characterization, and (4) frequency response optimization.

  6. High School Accreditation in Maine: Perceptions of Costs and Benefits. Penquis Superintendents' Association Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairman, Janet; Peirce, Brenda; Harris, Walter

    2009-01-01

    This report presents the findings of an exploratory study conducted by the Center for Research and Evaluation during the summer and fall of 2009, which focuses on perceptions of the costs and benefits of the accreditation process for high schools in Maine. The study was commissioned by the Penquis Superintendents' Association, a professional…

  7. STEAM ENHANCED REMEDIATION RESEARCH FOR DNAPL IN FRACTURED ROCK, LORING AIR FORCE BASE, LIMESTONE, MAINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report details a research project on Steam Enhanced Remediation (SER) for the recovery of volatile organic compounds from fractured limestone that was carried out at the Quarry at the former Loring Air Force Base in Limestone, Maine. This project was carried out by USEPA, Ma...

  8. Developing College Readiness Indices for Maine High Schools: An Exploratory Study. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silvernail, David L.; Sloan, James E.; Paul, Chelsea R.; Linet, Sarah R.

    2014-01-01

    This Research Brief describes the results of an exploratory study of the development and potential uses of a set of college readiness measures for Maine high schools. The study was designed to: (1) explore the viability of creating a series of school-level college readiness indices; (2) examine the relationships between the indices and other


  9. Research pressure instrumentation for NASA Space Shuttle main engine, modification no. 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, P. J.; Nussbaum, P.; Gustafson, G.

    1984-01-01

    Research concerning the development of pressure instrumentation for the space shuttle main engine is reported. The following specific topics were addressed: (1) transducer design and materials, (2) silicon piezoresistor characterization at cryogenic temperatures, (3) chip mounting characterization, and (4) frequency response optimization.

  10. A web service based tool to plan atmospheric research flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rautenhaus, M.; Dörnbrack, A.

    2012-04-01

    We present a web service based tool for the planning of atmospheric research flights. The tool, which we call the "Mission Support System" (MSS), provides online access to horizontal maps and vertical cross-sections of numerical weather prediction data and in particular allows the interactive design of a flight route in direct relation to the predictions. It thereby fills a crucial gap in the set of currently available tools for using data from numerical atmospheric models for research flight planning. A distinct feature of the tool is its lightweight, web service based architecture, requiring only commodity hardware and a basic Internet connection for deployment. Access to visualisations of prediction data is achieved by using an extended version of the Open Geospatial Consortium Web Map Service (WMS) standard. With the WMS approach, we avoid the transfer of large forecast model output datasets while enabling on-demand generated visualisations of the predictions at campaign sites with limited Internet bandwidth. Usage of the Web Map Service standard also enables access to third-party sources of georeferenced data. The MSS is focused on the primary needs of mission scientists responsible for planning a research flight, addressing in particular the following requirements: (1) interactive exploration of available atmospheric forecasts, (2) interactive flight planning in relation to these forecasts, (3) computation of expected flight performance to assess the technical feasibility (in terms of total distance and vertical profile) of a flight, (4) no transfer of large forecast data files to the campaign site to allow deployment at remote locations and (5) low demand on hardware resources. We have implemented the software using the open-source programming language Python.

  11. Simulated Interactive Research Experiments as Educational Tools for Advanced Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomandl, Mathias; Mieling, Thomas; Losert-Valiente Kroon, Christiane M.; Hopf, Martin; Arndt, Markus

    2015-09-01

    Experimental research has become complex and thus a challenge to science education. Only very few students can typically be trained on advanced scientific equipment. It is therefore important to find new tools that allow all students to acquire laboratory skills individually and independent of where they are located. In a design-based research process we have investigated the feasibility of using a virtual laboratory as a photo-realistic and scientifically valid representation of advanced scientific infrastructure to teach modern experimental science, here, molecular quantum optics. We found a concept based on three educational principles that allows undergraduate students to become acquainted with procedures and concepts of a modern research field. We find a significant increase in student understanding using our Simulated Interactive Research Experiment (SiReX), by evaluating the learning outcomes with semi-structured interviews in a pre/post design. This suggests that this concept of an educational tool can be generalized to disseminate findings in other fields.

  12. Simulated Interactive Research Experiments as Educational Tools for Advanced Science

    PubMed Central

    Tomandl, Mathias; Mieling, Thomas; Losert-Valiente Kroon, Christiane M.; Hopf, Martin; Arndt, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Experimental research has become complex and thus a challenge to science education. Only very few students can typically be trained on advanced scientific equipment. It is therefore important to find new tools that allow all students to acquire laboratory skills individually and independent of where they are located. In a design-based research process we have investigated the feasibility of using a virtual laboratory as a photo-realistic and scientifically valid representation of advanced scientific infrastructure to teach modern experimental science, here, molecular quantum optics. We found a concept based on three educational principles that allows undergraduate students to become acquainted with procedures and concepts of a modern research field. We find a significant increase in student understanding using our Simulated Interactive Research Experiment (SiReX), by evaluating the learning outcomes with semi-structured interviews in a pre/post design. This suggests that this concept of an educational tool can be generalized to disseminate findings in other fields. PMID:26370627

  13. Simulated Interactive Research Experiments as Educational Tools for Advanced Science.

    PubMed

    Tomandl, Mathias; Mieling, Thomas; Losert-Valiente Kroon, Christiane M; Hopf, Martin; Arndt, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Experimental research has become complex and thus a challenge to science education. Only very few students can typically be trained on advanced scientific equipment. It is therefore important to find new tools that allow all students to acquire laboratory skills individually and independent of where they are located. In a design-based research process we have investigated the feasibility of using a virtual laboratory as a photo-realistic and scientifically valid representation of advanced scientific infrastructure to teach modern experimental science, here, molecular quantum optics. We found a concept based on three educational principles that allows undergraduate students to become acquainted with procedures and concepts of a modern research field. We find a significant increase in student understanding using our Simulated Interactive Research Experiment (SiReX), by evaluating the learning outcomes with semi-structured interviews in a pre/post design. This suggests that this concept of an educational tool can be generalized to disseminate findings in other fields. PMID:26370627

  14. A Query Tool Enabling Clinicians and Researchers to Explore Patient Cohorts.

    PubMed

    Lim Choi Keung, Sarah N; Khan, Omar; Asadipour, Ali; Dereli, Huseyin; Zhao, Lei; Robbins, Tim; Arvanitis, Theodoros N

    2015-01-01

    Due to the increasing amount of health information being gathered and the potential benefit of data reuse, it is now becoming a necessity for tools, which collect and analyse this data, to support integration of heterogeneous datasets, as well as provide intuitive user interfaces, which allow clinicians and researchers to query the data without needing to form complex SQL queries. The West Midlands Query Tool consists of an easy-to-use graph-based GUI, which interacts with a flexible middleware application. It has the main objective of querying heterogeneous data sources for exploring patient cohorts through a query builder and criteria set. PMID:26152952

  15. Scientific research tools as an aid to Antarctic logistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinn, Michael; Rose, Mike; Smith, Andrew; Fleming, Andrew; Garrod, Simon

    2013-04-01

    Logistics have always been a vital part of polar exploration and research. The more efficient those logistics can be made, the greater the likelihood that research programmes will be delivered on time, safely and to maximum scientific effectiveness. Over the last decade, the potential for symbiosis between logistics and some of the scientific research methods themselves, has increased remarkably; suites of scientific tools can help to optimise logistic efforts, thereby enhancing the effectiveness of further scientific activity. We present one recent example of input to logistics from scientific activities, in support of the NERC iSTAR Programme, a major ice sheet research effort in West Antarctica. We used data output from a number of research tools, spanning a range of techniques and international agencies, to support the deployment of a tractor-traverse system into a remote area of mainland Antarctica. The tractor system was deployed from RRS Ernest Shackleton onto the Abbot Ice Shelf then driven inland to the research area in Pine Island Glacier Data from NASA ICEBRIDGE were used to determine the ice-front freeboard and surface gradients for the traverse route off the ice shelf and onwards into the continent. Quickbird high resolution satellite imagery provided clear images of route track and some insight into snow surface roughness. Polarview satellite data gave sea ice information in the Amundsen Sea, both the previous multi-annual historical characteristics and for real-time information during deployment. Likewise meteorological data contributed historical and information and was used during deployment. Finally, during the tractors' inland journey, ground-based high frequency radar was used to determine a safe, crevasse-free route.

  16. The Research Tools of the Virtual Astronomical Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanisch, Robert J.; Berriman, G. B.; Lazio, T. J.; Project, VAO

    2013-01-01

    Astronomy is being transformed by the vast quantities of data, models, and simulations that are becoming available to astronomers at an ever-accelerating rate. The U.S. Virtual Astronomical Observatory (VAO) has been funded to provide an operational facility that is intended to be a resource for discovery and access of data, and to provide science services that use these data. Over the course of the past year, the VAO has been developing and releasing for community use five science tools: 1) "Iris", for dynamically building and analyzing spectral energy distributions, 2) a web-based data discovery tool that allows astronomers to identify and retrieve catalog, image, and spectral data on sources of interest, 3) a scalable cross-comparison service that allows astronomers to conduct pair-wise positional matches between very large catalogs stored remotely as well as between remote and local catalogs, 4) time series tools that allow astronomers to compute periodograms of the public data held at the NASA Star and Exoplanet Database (NStED) and the Harvard Time Series Center, and 5) A VO-aware release of the Image Reduction and Analysis Facility (IRAF) that provides transparent access to VO-available data collections and is SAMP-enabled, so that IRAF users can easily use tools such as Aladin and Topcat in conjuction with IRAF tasks. Additional VAO services will be built to make it easy for researchers to provide access to their data in VO-compliant ways, to build VO-enabled custom applications in Python, and to respond generally to the growing size and complexity of astronomy data. Acknowledgements: The Virtual Astronomical Observatory (VAO) is managed by the VAO, LLC, a non-profit company established as a partnership of the Associated Universities, Inc. and the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. The VAO is sponsored by the National Science Foundation and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  17. Natural Language Thesaurus: A Survey of Student Research Skills and Research Tool Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redfern, Victoria

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a University of Canberra Library survey of student research knowledge, skills, tools and resources. Students are experiencing difficulties interrogating databases, the internet and library catalogues because of the lack of consistency in terminology and various methods of interrogation. This research was an…

  18. Fish in behavior research: unique tools with a great promise!

    PubMed

    Gerlai, Robert

    2014-08-30

    Fish represent the most diverse class of vertebrates on Earth and also an unprecedented, but as of yet still largely untapped, resource for comparative analyses that can illuminate answers to questions about both how organisms work and how they evolved. The current review is a general discussion of some of the basic principles of why adding new species such as fish to the short list of biomedical model organisms (mainly the house mouse and the rat) has merit. In addition to the general points, it also reviews some questions about a newcomer, the zebrafish, which is rapidly gaining popularity in brain and behavior research. It discusses some examples demonstrating the advantages and disadvantages of the zebrafish mainly in the context of biomedical research. It is followed by other articles that further elaborate on these questions. PMID:24768578

  19. Vaccinia Virus: A Tool for Research and Vaccine Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moss, Bernard

    1991-06-01

    Vaccinia virus is no longer needed for smallpox immunization, but now serves as a useful vector for expressing genes within the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. As a research tool, recombinant vaccinia viruses are used to synthesize biologically active proteins and analyze structure-function relations, determine the targets of humoral- and cell-mediated immunity, and investigate the immune responses needed for protection against specific infectious diseases. When more data on safety and efficacy are available, recombinant vaccinia and related poxviruses may be candidates for live vaccines and for cancer immunotherapy.

  20. Tissue fluid pressures - From basic research tools to clinical applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hargens, Alan R.; Akeson, Wayne H.; Mubarak, Scott J.; Owen, Charles A.; Gershuni, David H.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes clinical applications of two basic research tools developed and refined in the past 20 years: the wick catheter (for measuring tissue fluid pressure) and the colloid osmometer (for measuring osmotic pressure). Applications of the osmometer include estimations of the reduced osmotic pressure of sickle-cell hemoglobin with deoxygenation, and of reduced swelling pressure of human nucleus pulposus with hydration or upon action of certain enzymes. Clinical uses of the wick-catheter technique include an improvement of diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic compartment syndromes, the elucidation of the tissue pressure thresholds for neuromuscular dysfunction, and the development of a better tourniquet for orthopedics.

  1. Technology, safety, and costs of decommissioning reference nuclear research and test reactors. Main report

    SciTech Connect

    Konzek, G.J.; Ludwick, J.D.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Smith, R.I.

    1982-03-01

    Safety and Cost Information is developed for the conceptual decommissioning of two representative licensed nuclear research and test reactors. Three decommissioning alternatives are studied to obtain comparisons between costs (in 1981 dollars), occupational radiation doses, potential radiation dose to the public, and other safety impacts. The alternatives considered are: DECON (immediate decontamination), SAFSTOR (safe storage followed by deferred decontamination), and ENTOMB (entombment). The study results are presented in two volumes. Volume 1 (Main Report) contains the results in summary form.

  2. Using circular questions as a tool in qualitative research.

    PubMed

    Evans, Nicola; Whitcombe, Steve

    2016-01-22

    Background Circular questions are used within systematic family therapy as a tool to generate multiple explanations and stories from a family situation and as a means to stimulate the curiosity of the therapist while avoiding their temptation to seek a one definitive explanation. Aim To consider the potential for using this approach in qualitative research, with researchers using carefully crafted questions to invite respondents to provide information about the meanings behind a phenomenon or consider how relationships between people contribute to it. Discussion Drawing on examples from a study into children's mental health services, this paper discusses the application of the technique of circular questioning from systemic family therapy to qualitative research. Conclusion The use of circular questions is a technique that qualitative researchers could employ in the field when conducting interviews with individuals or groups, or when engaged in participant observation as a means to obtain rich sources of data. Implications for practice Circular questioning can help to promote curiosity in the researcher and invite responses that illuminate relational issues between participants in a study. PMID:26793984

  3. YouTube as a research tool: three approaches.

    PubMed

    Konijn, Elly A; Veldhuis, Jolanda; Plaisier, Xanthe S

    2013-09-01

    The present paper provides empirical data to support the use of social media as research environment. YouTube was chosen as a most appropriate format to target adolescents in experimental and cross-sectional designs given its popularity as well as its plasticity. We uniquely applied the YouTube format as (a) an environment to present manipulated media materials in controlled experimental designs; (b) an environment to study effects of peer feedback on various media contents; (c) a format to design a media-based questionnaire, specifically, the Media, Morals and Youth Questionnaire (MMaYQue). Various studies have been conducted that demonstrate the appropriateness of our YouTube transformations for each of these three purposes. The focus in the present paper is on the methodology of these studies to illustrate how we effectively transformed YouTube as a research tool. PMID:23659721

  4. The Second Life Researcher Toolkit - An Exploration of Inworld Tools, Methods and Approaches for Researching Educational Projects in Second Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moschini, Elena

    Academics are beginning to explore the educational potential of Second LifeTM (SL) by setting up inworld educational activities and projects. Given the relative novelty of the use of virtual world environments in higher education many such projects are still at pilot stage. However the initial pilot and experimentation stage will have to be followed by a rigorous evaluation process as for more traditional teaching projects. The chapter addresses issues about SL research tools and research methods. It introduces a "researcher toolkit" that includes: the various stages in the evaluation of SL educational projects and the theoretical framework that can inform such projects; an outline of the inworld tools that can be utilised or customised for academic research purposes; a review of methods for collecting feedback from participants and of the main ethical issues involved in researching virtual world environments; a discussion on the technical skills required to operate a research project in SL. The chapter also offers an indication of the inworld opportunities for the dissemination of SL research findings.

  5. ARM Climate Research Facility: Outreach Tools and Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roeder, L.; Jundt, R.

    2009-12-01

    Sponsored by the Department of Energy, the ARM Climate Research Facility is a global scientific user facility for the study of climate change. To publicize progress and achievements and to reach new users, the ACRF uses a variety of Web 2.0 tools and strategies that build off of the program’s comprehensive and well established News Center (www.arm.gov/news). These strategies include: an RSS subscription service for specific news categories; an email “newsletter” distribution to the user community that compiles the latest News Center updates into a short summary with links; and a Facebook page that pulls information from the News Center and links to relevant information in other online venues, including those of our collaborators. The ACRF also interacts with users through field campaign blogs, like Discovery Channel’s EarthLive, to share research experiences from the field. Increasingly, field campaign Wikis are established to help ACRF researchers collaborate during the planning and implementation phases of their field studies and include easy to use logs and image libraries to help record the campaigns. This vital reference information is used in developing outreach material that is shared in highlights, news, and Facebook. Other Web 2.0 tools that ACRF uses include Google Maps to help users visualize facility locations and aircraft flight patterns. Easy-to-use comment boxes are also available on many of the data-related web pages on www.arm.gov to encourage feedback. To provide additional opportunities for increased interaction with the public and user community, future Web 2.0 plans under consideration for ACRF include: evaluating field campaigns for Twitter and microblogging opportunities, adding public discussion forums to research highlight web pages, moving existing photos into albums on FlickR or Facebook, and building online video archives through YouTube.

  6. Zebrafish development and regeneration: new tools for biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Brittijn, Sebastiaan A; Duivesteijn, Suzanne J; Belmamoune, Mounia; Bertens, Laura F M; Bitter, Wilbert; de Bruijn, Joost D; Champagne, Danielle L; Cuppen, Edwin; Flik, Gert; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, Christina M; Janssen, Richard A J; de Jong, Ilse M L; de Kloet, Edo Ronald; Kros, Alexander; Meijer, Annemarie H; Metz, Juriaan R; van der Sar, Astrid M; Schaaf, Marcel J M; Schulte-Merker, Stefan; Spaink, Herman P; Tak, Paul P; Verbeek, Fons J; Vervoordeldonk, Margriet J; Vonk, Freek J; Witte, Frans; Yuan, Huipin; Richardson, Michael K

    2009-01-01

    Basic research in pattern formation is concerned with the generation of phenotypes and tissues. It can therefore lead to new tools for medical research. These include phenotypic screening assays, applications in tissue engineering, as well as general advances in biomedical knowledge. Our aim here is to discuss this emerging field with special reference to tools based on zebrafish developmental biology. We describe phenotypic screening assays being developed in our own and other labs. Our assays involve: (i) systemic or local administration of a test compound or drug to zebrafish in vivo; (ii) the subsequent detection or "readout" of a defined phenotypic change. A positive readout may result from binding of the test compound to a molecular target involved in a developmental pathway. We present preliminary data on assays for compounds that modulate skeletal patterning, bone turnover, immune responses, inflammation and early-life stress. The assays use live zebrafish embryos and larvae as well as adult fish undergoing caudal fin regeneration. We describe proof-of-concept studies on the localised targeting of compounds into regeneration blastemas using microcarriers. Zebrafish are cheaper to maintain than rodents, produce large numbers of transparent eggs, and some zebrafish assays could be scaled-up into medium and high throughput screens. However, advances in automation and imaging are required. Zebrafish cannot replace mammalian models in the drug development pipeline. Nevertheless, they can provide a cost-effective bridge between cell-based assays and mammalian whole-organism models. PMID:19557689

  7. Operations other than war: Requirements for analysis tools research report

    SciTech Connect

    Hartley, D.S. III

    1996-12-01

    This report documents the research effort to determine the requirements for new or improved analysis tools to support decisions at the strategic and operational levels for military Operations Other than War (OOTW). The work was performed for the Commander in Chief, U.S. Pacific Command (USCINCPAC). The data collection was based on workshops attended by experts in OOTWs: analysis personnel from each of the Combatant Commands, the Services, the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD), the Joint Staff, and other knowledgeable personnel. Further data were gathered from other workshops and conferences and from the literature. The results of this research begin with the creation of a taxonomy of OOTWs: categories of operations, attributes of operations, and tasks requiring analytical support. The tasks are connected to the Joint Staff`s Universal Joint Task List (UJTL). Historical OOTWs are analyzed to produce frequency distributions by category and responsible CINC. The analysis products are synthesized into a list of requirements for analytical tools and definitions of the requirements. The report concludes with a timeline or roadmap for satisfying the requirements.

  8. Intellectual Property: a powerful tool to develop biotech research

    PubMed Central

    Giugni, Diego; Giugni, Valter

    2010-01-01

    Summary Today biotechnology is perhaps the most important technology field because of the strong health and food implications. However, due to the nature of said technology, there is the need of a huge amount of investments to sustain the experimentation costs. Consequently, investors aim to safeguard as much as possible their investments. Intellectual Property, and in particular patents, has been demonstrated to actually constitute a powerful tool to help them. Moreover, patents represent an extremely important means to disclose biotechnology inventions. Patentable biotechnology inventions involve products as nucleotide and amino acid sequences, microorganisms, processes or methods for modifying said products, uses for the manufacture of medicaments, etc. There are several ways to protect inventions, but all follow the three main patentability requirements: novelty, inventive step and industrial application. PMID:21255349

  9. NASA Human Research Wiki - An Online Collaboration Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barr, Y. R.; Rasbury, J.; Johnson, J.; Barsten, K.; Saile, L.; Watkins, S. D.

    2011-01-01

    In preparation for exploration-class missions, the Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) element of NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) has compiled a large evidence base, which previously was available only to persons within the NASA community. The evidence base is comprised of several types of data, for example: information on more than 80 medical conditions which could occur during space flight, derived from several sources (including data on incidence and potential outcomes of these medical conditions, as captured in the Integrated Medical Model's Clinical Finding Forms). In addition, approximately 35 gap reports are included in the evidence base, identifying current understanding of the medical challenges for exploration, as well as any gaps in knowledge and/or technology that would need to be addressed in order to provide adequate medical support for these novel missions. In an effort to make the ExMC information available to the general public and increase collaboration with subject matter experts within and outside of NASA, ExMC has developed an online collaboration tool, very similar to a wiki, titled the NASA Human Research Wiki. The platform chosen for this data sharing, and the potential collaboration it could generate, is a MediaWiki-based application that would house the evidence, allow "read only" access to all visitors to the website, and editorial access to credentialed subject matter experts who have been approved by the Wiki's editorial board. Although traditional wikis allow users to edit information in real time, the NASA Human Research Wiki includes a peer review process to ensure quality and validity of information. The wiki is also intended to be a pathfinder project for other HRP elements that may want to use this type of web-based tool. The wiki website will be released with a subset of the data described and will continue to be populated throughout the year.

  10. Astonishing advances in mouse genetic tools for biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Walker Scot; Kaczmarczyk, Lech

    2015-01-01

    The humble house mouse has long been a workhorse model system in biomedical research. The technology for introducing site-specific genome modifications led to Nobel Prizes for its pioneers and opened a new era of mouse genetics. However, this technology was very time-consuming and technically demanding. As a result, many investigators continued to employ easier genome manipulation methods, though resulting models can suffer from overlooked or underestimated consequences. Another breakthrough, invaluable for the molecular dissection of disease mechanisms, was the invention of high-throughput methods to measure the expression of a plethora of genes in parallel. However, the use of samples containing material from multiple cell types could obfuscate data, and thus interpretations. In this review we highlight some important issues in experimental approaches using mouse models for biomedical research. We then discuss recent technological advances in mouse genetics that are revolutionising human disease research. Mouse genomes are now easily manipulated at precise locations thanks to guided endonucleases, such as transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) or the CRISPR/Cas9 system, both also having the potential to turn the dream of human gene therapy into reality. Newly developed methods of cell type-specific isolation of transcriptomes from crude tissue homogenates, followed by detection with next generation sequencing (NGS), are vastly improving gene regulation studies. Taken together, these amazing tools simplify the creation of much more accurate mouse models of human disease, and enable the extraction of hitherto unobtainable data. PMID:26513700

  11. Research experience in Maine leads to teacher and student success in Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slade-Redden, D.; Incze, L.; Census Of Marine Life-Maine

    2010-12-01

    As a High School science teacher it is my responsibility to present curriculum, to create enthusiasm for science, and to instill a passion and love for science in my students. Through a research experience as an ARMADA master teacher my passion and enthusiasm for the ocean was rekindled in the Gulf of Maine. Topics I had taught for years came alive in front of my eyes, and I was able to experience science to its fullest. I brought home many photographs, valuable information, and new enthusiasm to my students. I began a program called S.A.N.D. (Students As Nature Directors). In this program my students teach 3rd graders about the oceans and its many wonders. Also, I have incorporated hands-on research based projects. The research experience has enabled my students to become more scientifically literate and capable of sharing scientific knowledge with others. This presentation will show how research/teacher partnerships benefit students as well as teachers and how my students and district have benefited from my experience as an ARMADA master teacher. Author: Debra Slade-Redden Author #2: Lew Incze

  12. Rethinking the Role of Information Technology-Based Research Tools in Students' Development of Scientific Literacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Eijck, Michiel; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2007-06-01

    Given the central place IT-based research tools take in scientific research, the marginal role such tools currently play in science curricula is dissatisfying from the perspective of making students scientifically literate. To appropriately frame the role of IT-based research tools in science curricula, we propose a framework that is developed to understand the use of tools in human activity, namely cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT). Accordingly, IT-based research tools constitute central moments of scientific research activity and neither can be seen apart from its objectives, nor can it be considered apart from the cultural-historical determined forms of activity (praxis) in which human subjects participate. Based on empirical data involving students participating in research activity, we point out how an appropriate account of IT-based research tools involves subjects' use of tools with respect to the objectives of research activity and the contribution to the praxis of research. We propose to reconceptualize the role of IT-based research tools as contributing to scientific literacy if students apply these tools with respect to the objectives of the research activity and contribute to praxis of research by evaluating and modifying the application of these tools. We conclude this paper by sketching the educational implications of this reconceptualized role of IT-based research tools.

  13. Haystack, a web-based tool for metabolomics research

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LCMS) has become a widely used technique in metabolomics research for differential profiling, the broad screening of biomolecular constituents across multiple samples to diagnose phenotypic differences and elucidate relevant features. However, a significant limitation in LCMS-based metabolomics is the high-throughput data processing required for robust statistical analysis and data modeling for large numbers of samples with hundreds of unique chemical species. Results To address this problem, we developed Haystack, a web-based tool designed to visualize, parse, filter, and extract significant features from LCMS datasets rapidly and efficiently. Haystack runs in a browser environment with an intuitive graphical user interface that provides both display and data processing options. Total ion chromatograms (TICs) and base peak chromatograms (BPCs) are automatically displayed, along with time-resolved mass spectra and extracted ion chromatograms (EICs) over any mass range. Output files in the common .csv format can be saved for further statistical analysis or customized graphing. Haystack's core function is a flexible binning procedure that converts the mass dimension of the chromatogram into a set of interval variables that can uniquely identify a sample. Binned mass data can be analyzed by exploratory methods such as principal component analysis (PCA) to model class assignment and identify discriminatory features. The validity of this approach is demonstrated by comparison of a dataset from plants grown at two light conditions with manual and automated peak detection methods. Haystack successfully predicted class assignment based on PCA and cluster analysis, and identified discriminatory features based on analysis of EICs of significant bins. Conclusion Haystack, a new online tool for rapid processing and analysis of LCMS-based metabolomics data is described. It offers users a range of data visualization options and supports non-biased differential profiling studies through a unique and flexible binning function that provides an alternative to conventional peak deconvolution analysis methods. PMID:25350247

  14. IT Tools for Teachers and Scientists, Created by Undergraduate Researchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millar, A. Z.; Perry, S.

    2007-12-01

    Interns in the Southern California Earthquake Center/Undergraduate Studies in Earthquake Information Technology (SCEC/UseIT) program conduct computer science research for the benefit of earthquake scientists and have created products in growing use within the SCEC education and research communities. SCEC/UseIT comprises some twenty undergraduates who combine their varied talents and academic backgrounds to achieve a Grand Challenge that is formulated around needs of SCEC scientists and educators and that reflects the value SCEC places on the integration of computer science and the geosciences. In meeting the challenge, students learn to work on multidisciplinary teams and to tackle complex problems with no guaranteed solutions. Meantime, their efforts bring fresh perspectives and insight to the professionals with whom they collaborate, and consistently produces innovative, useful tools for research and education. The 2007 Grand Challenge was to design and prototype serious games to communicate important earthquake science concepts. Interns broke themselves into four game teams, the Educational Game, the Training Game, the Mitigation Game and the Decision-Making Game, and created four diverse games with topics from elementary plate tectonics to earthquake risk mitigation, with intended players ranging from elementary students to city planners. The games were designed to be versatile, to accommodate variation in the knowledge base of the player; and extensible, to accommodate future additions. The games are played on a web browser or from within SCEC-VDO (Virtual Display of Objects). SCEC-VDO, also engineered by UseIT interns, is a 4D, interactive, visualization software that enables integration and exploration of datasets and models such as faults, earthquake hypocenters and ruptures, digital elevation models, satellite imagery, global isochrons, and earthquake prediction schemes. SCEC-VDO enables the user to create animated movies during a session, and is now part of a multi-media, general education curriculum at University of Southern California. Throughout this meeting, at the SCEC booth, UseIT interns will be demonstrating both the serious games and SCEC-VDO. SCEC/UseIT is a National Science Foundation Research Experience for Undergraduates site.

  15. Proteomics: a new tool in bovine claw disease research.

    PubMed

    TĂžlbĂžll, Trine H; Danscher, Anne Mette; Andersen, Pia H; Codrea, Marius C; Bendixen, EmĂžke

    2012-09-01

    Claw horn disruption (CHD) is a common underlying cause of lameness in dairy cattle which leads to compromised animal welfare and production losses. Despite an intense research effort over the last two decades, progress in reducing the prevalence of lameness due to CHD has been limited. In addition to current research strategies there is a need to develop novel approaches and methods that expand understanding of the disease mechanisms involved in CHD. The objectives of the present study were to explore the potential of liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in mapping protein expression in three different bovine claw tissues, and to provide a relevant functional annotation of the proteins characterized in these tissues. LC-MS/MS was used to characterize protein expression in coronary band skin (C), claw dermal (D) and lamellar (L) tissues from two heifers. A total of 388 different proteins were identified, with 146 proteins available for identification in C, 279 proteins in D and 269 proteins in L. A functional annotation of the identified proteins was obtained using the on-line Blast2GO tool. Three hundred and sixteen of the identified proteins could be subsequently grouped manually to one or more of five major functional groups related to metabolism, cell structure, immunity, apoptosis and angiogenesis. These were chosen to represent basic cell functions and biological processes potentially involved in the pathogenesis of CHD. The LC-MS/MS-based proteomic analysis presented here is the largest published survey, so far, of the bovine claw tissue proteome. PMID:22884987

  16. Genetic Research in Schizophrenia: New Tools and Future Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Bertram, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Genetically, schizophrenia is a complex disease whose pathogenesis is likely governed by a number of different risk factors. While substantial efforts have been made to identify the underlying susceptibility alleles over the past 2 decades, they have been of only limited success. Each year, the field is enriched with nearly 150 additional genetic association studies, each of which either proposes or refutes the existence of certain schizophrenia genes. To facilitate the evaluation and interpretation of these findings, we have recently created a database for genetic association studies in schizophrenia (“SzGene”; available at http://www.szgene.org). In addition to systematically screening the scientific literature for eligible studies, SzGene also reports the results of allele-based meta-analyses for polymorphisms with sufficient genotype data. Currently, these meta-analyses highlight not only over 20 different potential schizophrenia genes, many of which represent the “usual suspects” (eg, various dopamine receptors and neuregulin 1), but also several that were never meta-analyzed previously. All the highlighted loci contain at least one variant showing modest (summary odds ratios approximately 1.20 [range 1.06–1.45]) but nominally significant risk effects. This review discusses some of the strengths and limitations of the SzGene database, which could become a useful bioinformatics tool within the schizophrenia research community. PMID:18644854

  17. Genetic research in schizophrenia: new tools and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Bertram, Lars

    2008-09-01

    Genetically, schizophrenia is a complex disease whose pathogenesis is likely governed by a number of different risk factors. While substantial efforts have been made to identify the underlying susceptibility alleles over the past 2 decades, they have been of only limited success. Each year, the field is enriched with nearly 150 additional genetic association studies, each of which either proposes or refutes the existence of certain schizophrenia genes. To facilitate the evaluation and interpretation of these findings, we have recently created a database for genetic association studies in schizophrenia ("SzGene"; available at http://www.szgene.org). In addition to systematically screening the scientific literature for eligible studies, SzGene also reports the results of allele-based meta-analyses for polymorphisms with sufficient genotype data. Currently, these meta-analyses highlight not only over 20 different potential schizophrenia genes, many of which represent the "usual suspects" (eg, various dopamine receptors and neuregulin 1), but also several that were never meta-analyzed previously. All the highlighted loci contain at least one variant showing modest (summary odds ratios approximately 1.20 [range 1.06-1.45]) but nominally significant risk effects. This review discusses some of the strengths and limitations of the SzGene database, which could become a useful bioinformatics tool within the schizophrenia research community. PMID:18644854

  18. Microgravity as a research tool to improve US agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bula, R. J.; Stankovic, Bratislav

    2000-01-01

    Crop production and utilization are undergoing significant modifications and improvements that emanate from adaptation of recently developed plant biotechnologies. Several innovative technologies will impact US agriculture in the next century. One of these is the transfer of desirable genes from organisms to economically important crop species in a way that cannot be accomplished with traditional plant breeding techniques. Such plant genetic engineering offers opportunities to improve crop species for a number of characteristics as well as use as source materials for specific medical and industrial applications. Although plant genetic engineering is having an impact on development of new crop cultivars, several major constraints limit the application of this technology to selected crop species and genotypes. Consequently, gene transfer systems that overcome these constraints would greatly enhance development of new crop materials. If results of a recent gene transfer experiment conducted in microgravity during a Space Shuttle mission are confirmed, and with the availability of the International Space Station as a permanent space facility, commercial plant transformation activity in microgravity could become a new research tool to improve US agriculture. .

  19. The capsicum transcriptome DB: a “hot” tool for genomic research

    PubMed Central

    Góngora-Castillo, Elsa; Fajardo-Jaime, Rubén; Fernández-Cortes, Araceli; Jofre-Garfias, Alba E; Lozoya-Gloria, Edmundo; Martínez, Octavio; Ochoa-Alejo, Neftalí; Rivera-Bustamante, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    Chili pepper (Capsicum annuum) is an economically important crop with no available public genome sequence. We describe a genomic resource to facilitate Capsicum annuum research. A collection of Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) derived from five C. annuum organs (root, stem, leaf, flower and fruit) were sequenced using the Sanger method and multiple leaf transcriptomes were deeply sampled using with GS-pyrosequencing. A hybrid assembly of 1,324,516 raw reads yielded 32,314 high quality contigs as validated by coverage and identity analysis with existing pepper sequences. Overall, 75.5% of the contigs had significant sequence similarity to entries in nucleic acid and protein databases; 23% of the sequences have not been previously reported for C. annuum and expand sequence resources for this species. A MySQL database and a user-friendly Web interface were constructed with search-tools that permit queries of the ESTs including sequence, functional annotation, Gene Ontology classification, metabolic pathways, and assembly information. The Capsicum Transcriptome DB is free available from http://www.bioingenios.ira.cinvestav.mx:81/Joomla/ PMID:22359434

  20. How should we assess knowledge translation in research organizations; designing a knowledge translation self-assessment tool for research institutes (SATORI)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The knowledge translation self-assessment tool for research institutes (SATORI) was designed to assess the status of knowledge translation in research institutes. The objective was, to identify the weaknesses and strengths of knowledge translation in research centres and faculties associated with Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS). Methods The tool, consisting of 50 statements in four main domains, was used in 20 TUMS-affiliated research centres and departments after its reliability was established. It was completed in a group discussion by the members of the research council, researchers and research users' representatives from each centre and/or department. Results The mean score obtained in the four domains of 'The question of research', 'Knowledge production', 'Knowledge transfer' and 'Promoting the use of evidence' were 2.26, 2.92, 2 and 1.89 (out of 5) respectively. Nine out of 12 interventional priorities with the lowest quartile score were related to knowledge transfer resources and strategies, whereas eight of them were in the highest quartile and related to 'The question of research' and 'Knowledge production'. Conclusions The self-assessment tool identifies the gaps in capacity and infrastructure of knowledge translation support within research organizations. Assessment of research institutes using SATORI pointed out that strengthening knowledge translation through provision of financial support for knowledge translation activities, creating supportive and facilitating infrastructures, and facilitating interactions between researchers and target audiences to exchange questions and research findings are among the priorities of research centres and/or departments. PMID:21342517

  1. Physics Education Research at the Upper Division at the University of Maine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, John

    2013-04-01

    Researchers from the University of Maine Physics Education Research Laboratory are conducting several investigations of the learning and teaching of physics beyond the introductory level. Content topics include intermediate mechanics, electronics, thermodynamics and statistical mechanics. One focus of our work is the identification and addressing of specific student difficulties with topics such as damped harmonic motion, bipolar junction transistor (BJT) circuits, work, entropy, and the Boltzmann factor. Student understanding and use of the underlying mathematics has been one important emerging theme, including definite integrals, partial derivatives, and linear differential equations. Recent work in mechanics has focused on understanding the interplay of mathematical and physical reasoning when describing damped harmonic motion, including framing and representational issues. In electronics, there has been an ongoing investigation of student understanding of the behavior of basic BJT follower and amplifier circuits as well as related issues of signal and bias. In thermal physics, student understanding of state functions, heat engines and the Carnot cycle, the First and Second Laws of thermodynamics, and the macroscopic and microscopic perspectives on entropy have been investigated. The greater content sophistication in these courses has drawn attention to the specific needs, constraints, and advantages of instructional materials tailored to the upper division. Future directions include more attention to interdisciplinary topics across mathematics, physics, and engineering in particular, as well as metacognition in the laboratory.

  2. Main topics in transcultural psychiatric research in the Netherlands during the past decade.

    PubMed

    Laban, Cornelis J; van Dijk, Rob

    2013-12-01

    The population of the Netherlands has become increasingly diverse in terms of ethnicity and religion, and anti-immigrant attitudes have become more apparent. At the same time, interest in issues linked to transcultural psychiatry has grown steadily. The purpose of this article is to describe the most important results in Dutch transcultural psychiatric research in the last decade and to discuss their relationship with relevant social and political developments in the Netherlands. All relevant PhD theses (N?=?27) between 2000 and 2011 were selected. Screening of Dutch journals in the field of transcultural psychiatry and medical anthropology and a PubMed query yielded additional publications. Forensic and addiction psychiatry were excluded from this review. The results of the review indicate three main topics: (a) the prevalence of psychiatric disorders and their relation to migration issues as social defeat and ethnic density, showing considerable intra- and interethnic differences in predictors and prevalence rates, (b) the social position of refugees and asylum seekers, and its effect on mental health, showing especially high risk among asylum seekers, and (c) the patterns of health-seeking behaviour and use of mental health services, showing a differentiated picture among various migrant groups. Anthropological research brought additional knowledge on all the above topics. The overall conclusion is that transcultural psychiatric research in the Netherlands has made a giant leap since the turn of the century. The results are of international importance and invite redefinition of the relationship between migration and mental health, and reconsideration of its underlying mechanisms in multiethnic societies. PMID:24071745

  3. Concept Mapping as a Research Tool to Evaluate Conceptual Change Related to Instructional Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Kevin J.; Koury, Kevin A.; Fitzgerald, Gail E.; Hollingsead, Candice; Mitchem, Katherine J.; Tsai, Hui-Hsien; Park, Meeaeng Ko

    2009-01-01

    Concept maps are commonly used in a variety of educational settings as a learning aid or instructional tool. Additionally, their potential as a research tool has been recognized. This article defines features of concept maps, describes the use of pre- and postconcept maps as a research tool, and offers a protocol for employing concept maps as an…

  4. Dynamic Visual Acuity: a Functionally Relevant Research Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Brian T.; Brady, Rachel A.; Miller, Chris A.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Wood, Scott J.; Cohen, Helen S.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2010-01-01

    Coordinated movements between the eyes and head are required to maintain a stable retinal image during head and body motion. The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) plays a significant role in this gaze control system that functions well for most daily activities. However, certain environmental conditions or interruptions in normal VOR function can lead to inadequate ocular compensation, resulting in oscillopsia, or blurred vision. It is therefore possible to use acuity to determine when the environmental conditions, VOR function, or the combination of the two is not conductive for maintaining clear vision. Over several years we have designed and tested several tests of dynamic visual acuity (DVA). Early tests used the difference between standing and walking acuity to assess decrements in the gaze stabilization system after spaceflight. Supporting ground-based studies measured the responses from patients with bilateral vestibular dysfunction and explored the effects of visual target viewing distance and gait cycle events on walking acuity. Results from these studies show that DVA is affected by spaceflight, is degraded in patients with vestibular dysfunction, changes with target distance, and is not consistent across the gait cycle. We have recently expanded our research to include studies in which seated subjects are translated or rotated passively. Preliminary results from this work indicate that gaze stabilization ability may differ between similar active and passive conditions, may change with age, and can be affected by the location of the visual target with respect to the axis of motion. Use of DVA as a diagnostic tool is becoming more popular but the functional nature of the acuity outcome measure also makes it ideal for identifying conditions that could lead to degraded vision. By doing so, steps can be taken to alter the problematic environments to improve the man-machine interface and optimize performance.

  5. Science in the Eyes of Preschool Children: Findings from an Innovative Research Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubosarsky, Mia D.

    How do young children view science? Do these views reflect cultural stereotypes? When do these views develop? These fundamental questions in the field of science education have rarely been studied with the population of preschool children. One main reason is the lack of an appropriate research instrument that addresses preschool children's developmental competencies. Extensive body of research has pointed at the significance of early childhood experiences in developing positive attitudes and interests toward learning in general and the learning of science in particular. Theoretical and empirical research suggests that stereotypical views of science may be replaced by authentic views following inquiry science experience. However, no preschool science intervention program could be designed without a reliable instrument that provides baseline information about preschool children's current views of science. The current study presents preschool children's views of science as gathered from a pioneering research tool. This tool, in the form of a computer "game," does not require reading, writing, or expressive language skills and is operated by the children. The program engages children in several simple tasks involving picture recognition and yes/no answers in order to reveal their views about science. The study was conducted with 120 preschool children in two phases and found that by the age of 4 years, participants possess an emergent concept of science. Gender and school differences were detected. Findings from this interdisciplinary study will contribute to the fields of early childhood, science education, learning technologies, program evaluation, and early childhood curriculum development.

  6. Concept Maps as a Research and Evaluation Tool To Assess Conceptual Change in Quantum Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sen, Ahmet Ilhan

    2002-01-01

    Informs teachers about using concept maps as a learning tool and alternative assessment tools in education. Presents research results of how students might use concept maps to communicate their cognitive structure. (Author/KHR)

  7. Advances in the Research and Development of Natural Health Products as Main Stream Cancer Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Ovadje, Pamela; Roma, Alessia; Steckle, Matthew; Nicoletti, Leah; Arnason, John Thor; Pandey, Siyaram

    2015-01-01

    Natural health products (NHPs) are defined as natural extracts containing polychemical mixtures; they play a leading role in the discovery and development of drugs, for disease treatment. More than 50% of current cancer therapeutics are derived from natural sources. However, the efficacy of natural extracts in treating cancer has not been explored extensively. Scientific research into the validity and mechanism of action of these products is needed to develop NHPs as main stream cancer therapy. The preclinical and clinical validation of NHPs would be essential for this development. This review summarizes some of the recent advancements in the area of NHPs with anticancer effects. This review also focuses on various NHPs that have been studied to scientifically validate their claims as anticancer agents. Furthermore, this review emphasizes the efficacy of these NHPs in targeting the multiple vulnerabilities of cancer cells for a more selective efficacious treatment. The studies reviewed here have paved the way for the introduction of more NHPs from traditional medicine to the forefront of modern medicine, in order to provide alternative, safer, and cheaper complementary treatments for cancer therapy and possibly improve the quality of life of cancer patients. PMID:25883673

  8. Software Tools to Support Research on Airport Departure Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, Francis; Evans, Antony; Feron, Eric; Clarke, John-Paul

    2003-01-01

    A simple, portable and useful collection of software tools has been developed for the analysis of airport surface traffic. The tools are based on a flexible and robust traffic-flow model, and include calibration, validation and simulation functionality for this model. Several different interfaces have been developed to help promote usage of these tools, including a portable Matlab(TM) implementation of the basic algorithms; a web-based interface which provides online access to automated analyses of airport traffic based on a database of real-world operations data which covers over 250 U.S. airports over a 5-year period; and an interactive simulation-based tool currently in use as part of a college-level educational module. More advanced applications for airport departure traffic include taxi-time prediction and evaluation of "windowing" congestion control.

  9. GENOME RESOURCES AND COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS TOOLS FOR CARDIOVASCULAR RESEARCH

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Disorders of the cardiovascular (CV) system are often caused by the interaction of genetic and environmental factors that jointly contribute to individual susceptibility. Genomic data and bioinformatics tools generated from genome projects, coupled with functional verification, offer novel approache...

  10. METABOLOMICS AS A DIAGNOSTIC TOOL FOR SMALL FISH TOXICOLOGY RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Metabolomics involves the application of advanced analytical and statistical tools to profile changes in levels of endogenous metabolites in tissues and biofluids resulting from disease onset or stress. While certain metabolites are being specifically targeted in these studies, w...

  11. MEETING TODAY'S EMERGING CONTAMINANTS WITH TOMORROW'S RESEARCH TOOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will explore the many facets of research and development for emerging contaminants within the USEPA's National Exposure Research Laboratories (Athens, Cincinnati, Las Vegas, and Research Triangle Park).

  12. Research Tools, Tips, and Resources for Financial Aid Administrators. Monograph, A NASFAA Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohning, David D.; Redd, Kenneth E.; Simmons, Barry W., Sr.

    This monograph provides research tools, tips, and resources to financial aid administrators who need to undertake research tasks. It answers: What is research? How can financial aid administrators get started on research projects? What resources are available to help answer research questions quickly and accurately? How can research efforts assist…

  13. Is research working for you? validating a tool to examine the capacity of health organizations to use research

    PubMed Central

    Kothari, Anita; Edwards, Nancy; Hamel, Nadia; Judd, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Background 'Is research working for you? A self-assessment tool and discussion guide for health services management and policy organizations', developed by the Canadian Health Services Research Foundation, is a tool that can help organizations understand their capacity to acquire, assess, adapt, and apply research. Objectives were to: determine whether the tool demonstrated response variability; describe how the tool differentiated between organizations that were known to be lower-end or higher-end research users; and describe the potential usability of the tool. Methods Thirty-two focus groups were conducted among four sectors of Canadian health organizations. In the first hour of the focus group, participants individually completed the tool and then derived a group consensus ranking on items. In the second hour, the facilitator asked about overall impressions of the tool, to identify insights that emerged during the review of items on the tool and to elicit comments on research utilization. Discussion data were analyzed qualitatively, and individual and consensus item scores were analyzed using descriptive and non-parametric statistics. Results The tool demonstrated good usability and strong response variability. Differences between higher-end and lower-end research use organizations on scores suggested that this tool has adequate discriminant validity. The group discussion based on the tool was the more useful aspect of the exercise, rather than the actual score assigned. Conclusion The tool can serve as a catalyst for an important discussion about research use at the organizational level; such a discussion, in and of itself, demonstrates potential as an intervention to encourage processes and supports for research translation. PMID:19627601

  14. "This Ain't the Projects": A Researcher's Reflections on the Local Appropriateness of Our Research Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Danny C.

    2016-01-01

    In this article I examine the ways in which Black and Latina/o urban high school youth pressed me to reflexively examine my positionality and that of my research tools during a year-long ethnographic study documenting their communicative repertoires. I reflect on youth comments on my researcher tools, as well as myself, in order to wrestle with


  15. [Research on infrared safety protection system for machine tool].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuan-Ji; Zhang, Zhi-Ling; Yan, Hui-Ying; Wang, Song-De

    2008-04-01

    In order to ensure personal safety and prevent injury accident in machine tool operation, an infrared machine tool safety system was designed with infrared transmitting-receiving module, memory self-locked relay and voice recording-playing module. When the operator does not enter the danger area, the system has no response. Once the operator's whole or part of body enters the danger area and shades the infrared beam, the system will alarm and output an control signal to the machine tool executive element, and at the same time, the system makes the machine tool emergency stop to prevent equipment damaged and person injured. The system has a module framework, and has many advantages including safety, reliability, common use, circuit simplicity, maintenance convenience, low power consumption, low costs, working stability, easy debugging, vibration resistance and interference resistance. It is suitable for being installed and used in different machine tools such as punch machine, pour plastic machine, digital control machine, armor plate cutting machine, pipe bending machine, oil pressure machine etc. PMID:18619302

  16. Research investigation of helicopter main rotor/tail rotor interaction noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzgerald, J.; Kohlhepp, F.

    1988-05-01

    Acoustic measurements were obtained in a Langley 14 x 22 foot Subsonic Wind Tunnel to study the aeroacoustic interaction of 1/5th scale main rotor, tail rotor, and fuselage models. An extensive aeroacoustic data base was acquired for main rotor, tail rotor, fuselage aerodynamic interaction for moderate forward speed flight conditions. The details of the rotor models, experimental design and procedure, aerodynamic and acoustic data acquisition and reduction are presented. The model was initially operated in trim for selected fuselage angle of attack, main rotor tip-path-plane angle, and main rotor thrust combinations. The effects of repositioning the tail rotor in the main rotor wake and the corresponding tail rotor countertorque requirements were determined. Each rotor was subsequently tested in isolation at the thrust and angle of attack combinations for trim. The acoustic data indicated that the noise was primarily dominated by the main rotor, especially for moderate speed main rotor blade-vortex interaction conditions. The tail rotor noise increased when the main rotor was removed indicating that tail rotor inflow was improved with the main rotor present.

  17. Specially Made for Science: Researchers Develop Online Tools For Collaborations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guterman, Lila

    2008-01-01

    Blogs, wikis, and social-networking sites such as Facebook may get media buzz these days, but for scientists, engineers, and doctors, they are not even on the radar. The most effective tools of the Internet for such people tend to be efforts more narrowly aimed at their needs, such as software that helps geneticists replicate one another's…

  18. Specially Made for Science: Researchers Develop Online Tools For Collaborations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guterman, Lila

    2008-01-01

    Blogs, wikis, and social-networking sites such as Facebook may get media buzz these days, but for scientists, engineers, and doctors, they are not even on the radar. The most effective tools of the Internet for such people tend to be efforts more narrowly aimed at their needs, such as software that helps geneticists replicate one another's


  19. "Mythbusters": A Tool for Teaching Research Methods in Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkley, Edward; Burkley, Melissa

    2009-01-01

    "Mythbusters" uses multiple research methods to test interesting topics, offering research methods students an entertaining review of course material. To test the effectiveness of "Mythbusters" clips in a psychology research methods course, we systematically selected and showed 4 clips. Students answered questions about the clips, offered their…

  20. Tools for Monitoring Social Media: A Marketing Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veeck, Ann; Hoger, Beth

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of how to effectively monitor social media is an increasingly valued marketing research skill. This study tests an approach for adding social media content to an undergraduate marketing research class team project. The revised project maintains the expected objectives and parameters of a traditional research project, while integrating


  1. Tools for Monitoring Social Media: A Marketing Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veeck, Ann; Hoger, Beth

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of how to effectively monitor social media is an increasingly valued marketing research skill. This study tests an approach for adding social media content to an undergraduate marketing research class team project. The revised project maintains the expected objectives and parameters of a traditional research project, while integrating…

  2. Nearly arc-length tool path generation and tool radius compensation algorithm research in FTS turning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Minghui; Zhao, Xuesen; Li, Zengqiang; Sun, Tao

    2014-08-01

    In the non-rotational symmetrical microstrcture surfaces generation using turning method with Fast Tool Servo(FTS), non-uniform distribution of the interpolation data points will lead to long processing cycle and poor surface quality. To improve this situation, nearly arc-length tool path generation algorithm is proposed, which generates tool tip trajectory points in nearly arc-length instead of the traditional interpolation rule of equal angle and adds tool radius compensation. All the interpolation points are equidistant in radial distribution because of the constant feeding speed in X slider, the high frequency tool radius compensation components are in both X direction and Z direction, which makes X slider difficult to follow the input orders due to its large mass. Newton iterative method is used to calculate the neighboring contour tangent point coordinate value with the interpolation point X position as initial value, in this way, the new Z coordinate value is gotten, and the high frequency motion components in X direction is decomposed into Z direction. Taking a typical microstructure with 4ÎŒm PV value for test, which is mixed with two 70ÎŒm wave length sine-waves, the max profile error at the angle of fifteen is less than 0.01ÎŒm turning by a diamond tool with big radius of 80ÎŒm. The sinusoidal grid is machined on a ultra-precision lathe succesfully, the wavelength is 70.2278ÎŒm the Ra value is 22.81nm evaluated by data points generated by filtering out the first five harmonics.

  3. Improving Students' Understanding of Quantum Measurement. II. Development of Research-Based Learning Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Guangtian; Singh, Chandralekha

    2012-01-01

    We describe the development and implementation of research-based learning tools such as the Quantum Interactive Learning Tutorials and peer-instruction tools to reduce students' common difficulties with issues related to measurement in quantum mechanics. A preliminary evaluation shows that these learning tools are effective in improving students'…

  4. Improving Students' Understanding of Quantum Measurement. II. Development of Research-Based Learning Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Guangtian; Singh, Chandralekha

    2012-01-01

    We describe the development and implementation of research-based learning tools such as the Quantum Interactive Learning Tutorials and peer-instruction tools to reduce students' common difficulties with issues related to measurement in quantum mechanics. A preliminary evaluation shows that these learning tools are effective in improving students'


  5. TB tools to tell the tale-molecular genetic methods for mycobacterial research.

    PubMed

    Machowski, Edith E; Dawes, Stephanie; Mizrahi, Valerie

    2005-01-01

    In spite of the availability of drugs and a vaccine, tuberculosis--one of man's medical nemeses--remains a formidable public health problem, particularly in the developing world. The persistent nature of the tubercle bacillus, with one third of the world's population is estimated to be infected, combined with the emergence of multi drug-resistant strains and the exquisite susceptibility of HIV-positive individuals, has underscored the urgent need for in-depth study of the biology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis address the resurgence of TB. In aiming to understand the mechanisms by which mycobacteria react to their immediate environments, molecular genetic tools have been developed from naturally occurring genetic elements. These include protein expressing genes, and episomal and integrating elements, which have been derived mainly from prokaryotic but also from eukaryotic organisms. Molecular genetic tools that had been established as routine procedures in other prokaryotic genera were thus mimicked. Knowledge of the underlying mechanisms greatly expedited the harnessing of these elements for mycobacteriological research and has brought us to a point where these molecular genetic tools are now employed routinely in laboratories worldwide. PMID:15381150

  6. Main trends in experimental morphological research in angiology and outlook for its development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dzhavakhishvili, N. A.; Melman, Y. P.

    1980-01-01

    The main prospective trends in the problem of collateral circulation and new trends in experimental angiology with respect to the effect of gravitational forces, hypodynamia and hypokinesia on the vascular bed are discussed.

  7. Somatic Sensitivity and Reflexivity as Validity Tools in Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Jill

    2015-01-01

    Validity is a key concept in qualitative educational research. Yet, it is often not addressed in methodological writing about dance. This essay explores validity in a postmodern world of diverse approaches to scholarship, by looking at the changing face of validity in educational qualitative research and at how new understandings of the concept…

  8. Incorporating Research Design and Estimation Tools in the Finance Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shrader, Mark J.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Marketing research students (n=19) estimated small business sales revenue using the Buying Power Index. Compared to a control group of 26 finance students who received no instruction in estimation or research design, the marketing students made significantly better estimates. (SK)

  9. Recent and Potential Application of Engineering Tools to Educational Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taft, Martin I.

    This paper presents a summary of some recent engineering research in education and identifies some research areas with high payoff potential. The underlying assumption is that a school is a system with a set of subsystems which is potentially susceptible to analysis, design, and eventually some sort of optimization. This assumption leads to the


  10. Research Tool Patents--Rumours of their Death are Greatly Exaggerated

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Peter G.; Roberts, John S.

    2006-01-01

    Using a patented drug during clinical trials is not infringement [35 U.S.C. 271(e)(1)]. Merck v Integra enlarged this "safe harbour" to accommodate preclinical use of drugs and patented "research tools" if "reasonably related" to FDA approval. The decision allowed lower courts, should they wish, to find any use of a research tool, except for


  11. Research Tool Patents--Rumours of their Death are Greatly Exaggerated

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Peter G.; Roberts, John S.

    2006-01-01

    Using a patented drug during clinical trials is not infringement [35 U.S.C. 271(e)(1)]. Merck v Integra enlarged this "safe harbour" to accommodate preclinical use of drugs and patented "research tools" if "reasonably related" to FDA approval. The decision allowed lower courts, should they wish, to find any use of a research tool, except for…

  12. Challenges Faced by Maine School Districts in Providing High Quality Public Education. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silvernail, David L.; Linet, Sarah R.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to: (1) identify challenges faced by Maine school districts in providing high quality public education; (2) describe the magnitude of the challenges; and (3) identify areas where school districts were experiencing some success in meeting these challenges. The School Districts Challenge Survey was distributed online to


  13. Applying Web-Based Tools for Research, Engineering, and Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.

    2011-01-01

    Personnel in the NASA Glenn Research Center Network and Architectures branch have performed a variety of research related to space-based sensor webs, network centric operations, security and delay tolerant networking (DTN). Quality documentation and communications, real-time monitoring and information dissemination are critical in order to perform quality research while maintaining low cost and utilizing multiple remote systems. This has been accomplished using a variety of Internet technologies often operating simultaneously. This paper describes important features of various technologies and provides a number of real-world examples of how combining Internet technologies can enable a virtual team to act efficiently as one unit to perform advanced research in operational systems. Finally, real and potential abuses of power and manipulation of information and information access is addressed.

  14. The Stuttering Treatment Research Evaluation and Assessment Tool (STREAT): Evaluating Treatment Research as Part of Evidence-Based Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidow, Jason H.; Bothe, Anne K.; Bramlett, Robin E.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This article presents, and explains the issues behind, the Stuttering Treatment Research Evaluation and Assessment Tool (STREAT), an instrument created to assist clinicians, researchers, students, and other readers in the process of critically appraising reports of stuttering treatment research. Method: The STREAT was developed by


  15. The Stuttering Treatment Research Evaluation and Assessment Tool (STREAT): Evaluating Treatment Research as Part of Evidence-Based Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidow, Jason H.; Bothe, Anne K.; Bramlett, Robin E.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This article presents, and explains the issues behind, the Stuttering Treatment Research Evaluation and Assessment Tool (STREAT), an instrument created to assist clinicians, researchers, students, and other readers in the process of critically appraising reports of stuttering treatment research. Method: The STREAT was developed by…

  16. Utilizing Spectroscopic Research Tools and Software in the Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grubbs, G. S., II

    2015-06-01

    Given today's technological age, it has become crucial to be able to reach the student in a more ''tech-savvy" way than traditional classroom methods afford. Given this, there are already a vast range of software packages available to the molecular spectroscopist that can easily be introduced to the classroom with success. This talk will highlight taking a few of these tools (Gaussian09, SPFIT/SPCAT, the AABS Package, LabViewTM, etc.) and implementing them in the classroom to teach subjects such as Quantum Mechanics and Thermodynamics as well as to aid in the linkage between these subjects. Examples of project implementation on both undergraduate and graduate level students will be presented with a discussion on the successes and failures of such attempts.

  17. Temporal perception in visual processing as a research tool

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Bin; Zhang, Ting; Mao, Lihua

    2015-01-01

    Accumulated evidence has shown that the subjective time in the sub-second range can be altered by different factors; some are related to stimulus features such as luminance contrast and spatial frequency, others are processes like perceptual grouping and contextual modulation. These findings indicate that temporal perception uses neural signals involved in non-temporal feature processes and that perceptual organization plays an important role in shaping the experience of elapsed time. We suggest that the temporal representation of objects can be treated as a feature of objects. This new concept implies that psychological time can serve as a tool to study the principles of neural codes in the perception of objects like “reaction time (RT).” Whereas “RT” usually reflects the state of transient signals crossing decision thresholds, “apparent time” in addition reveals the dynamics of sustained signals, thus providing complementary information of what has been obtained from “RT” studies. PMID:25964774

  18. A Web Tool for Research in Nonlinear Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prikhod'ko, Nikolay V.; Abramovsky, Viktor A.; Abramovskaya, Natalia V.; Demichev, Andrey P.; Kryukov, Alexandr P.; Polyakov, Stanislav P.

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents a project of developing the web platform called WebNLO for computer modeling of nonlinear optics phenomena. We discuss a general scheme of the platform and a model for interaction between the platform modules. The platform is built as a set of interacting RESTful web services (SaaS approach). Users can interact with the platform through a web browser or command line interface. Such a resource has no analogues in the field of nonlinear optics and will be created for the first time therefore allowing researchers to access high-performance computing resources that will significantly reduce the cost of the research and development process.

  19. New research and tools lead to improved earthquake alerting protocols

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wald, David J.

    2009-01-01

    What’s the best way to get alerted about the occurrence and potential impact of an earthquake? The answer to that question has changed dramatically of late, in part due to improvements in earthquake science, and in part by the implementation of new research in the delivery of earthquake information

  20. Stephenson's Q Methodology: A Unique Tool for Research and Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aitken, Joan E.

    Q methodology, a theory-based research technique begun by William Stephenson, permits a scientific approach to the study of subjective ideas, and proves useful in studying intrapersonal communication processes in a variety of contexts. The Q-sort, which incorporates Q methodology into a measure, allows respondents to sort statements (pictures or…

  1. Fish as research tools: alternatives to in vivo experiments.

    PubMed

    Schaeck, Marlien; Van den Broeck, Wim; Hermans, Katleen; Decostere, Annemie

    2013-07-01

    The use of fish in scientific research is increasing worldwide, due to both the rapid expansion of the fish farming industry and growing awareness of questions concerning the humane use of mammalian models in basic research and chemical testing. As fish are lower on the evolutionary scale than mammals, they are considered to be less sentient. Fish models are providing researchers, and those concerned with animal welfare, with opportunities for adhering to the Three Rs principles of refinement, reduction and replacement. However, it should be kept in mind that fish should also be covered by the principles of the Three Rs. Indeed, various studies have shown that fish are capable of nociception, and of experiencing pain in a manner analogous to that in mammals. Thus, emphasis needs to be placed on the development of alternatives that replace, as much as possible, the use of all living vertebrate animals, including fish. This review gives the first comprehensive and critical overview of the existing alternatives for live fish experimental studies. The alternative methods described range from cell and tissue cultures, organ and perfusion models, and embryonic models, to in silico computer and mathematical models. This article aspires to guide scientists in the adoption of the correct alternative methods in their research, and, whenever possible, to reduce the use of live fish. PMID:23971702

  2. Miniature spinning as a tool for ginning research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cotton gin must balance efficient processing and cleaning with adversely affecting the quality of lint through damage and/or failure to remove sufficient material. Substantial research is conducted on all aspects of the cotton gin; however it is difficult to gauge the effect on fiber quality wi...

  3. The Portable Usability Testing Lab: A Flexible Research Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, Michael E.; And Others

    A group of faculty at the University of Georgia obtained funding for a research and development facility called the Learning and Performance Support Laboratory (LPSL). One of the LPSL's primary needs was obtaining a portable usability lab for software testing, so the facility obtained the "Luggage Lab 2000." The lab is transportable to any site


  4. Administrative Data Linkage as a Tool for Child Maltreatment Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownell, Marni D.; Jutte, Douglas P.

    2013-01-01

    Linking administrative data records for the same individuals across services and over time offers a powerful, population-wide resource for child maltreatment research that can be used to identify risk and protective factors and to examine outcomes. Multistage de-identification processes have been developed to protect privacy and maintain…

  5. Friending Adolescents on Social Networking Websites: A Feasible Research Tool

    PubMed Central

    Brockman, Libby N.; Christakis, Dimitri A.; Moreno, Megan A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Social networking sites (SNSs) are increasingly used for research. This paper reports on two studies examining the feasibility of friending adolescents on SNSs for research purposes. Methods Study 1 took place on www.MySpace.com where public profiles belonging to 18-year-old adolescents received a friend request from an unknown physician. Study 2 took place on www.Facebook.com where college freshmen from two US universities, enrolled in an ongoing research study, received a friend request from a known researcher’s profile. Acceptance and retention rates of friend requests were calculated for both studies. Results Study 1: 127 participants received a friend request; participants were 18 years-old, 62.2% male and 51.8% Caucasian. 49.6% accepted the friend request. After 9 months, 76% maintained the online friendship, 12.7% defriended the study profile and 11% deactivated their profile. Study 2: 338 participants received a friend request; participants were 18 years-old, 56.5% female and 75.1% Caucasian. 99.7% accepted the friend request. Over 12 months, 3.3% defriended the study profile and 4.1% deactivated their profile. These actions were often temporary; the overall 12-month friendship retention rate was 96.1%. Conclusion Friending adolescents on SNSs is feasible and friending adolescents from a familiar profile may be more effective for maintaining online friendship with research participants over time. PMID:25485226

  6. Online Tools Allow Distant Students to Collaborate on Research Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    T.H.E. Journal, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The Wesleyan Academy and Moravian School in St. Thomas, Virgin Islands, recently joined forces with Evergreen Elementary in Fort Lewis, Wash., to collaborate on a research project using My eCoach Online (http://myecoach.com) as the primary medium to share information, post ideas and findings, and develop inquiry projects on 10 topics about water.


  7. The National ALS Registry: A Recruitment Tool for Research

    PubMed Central

    Malek, Angela M.; Stickler, David E.; Antao, Vinicius C.; Horton, D. Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Subject recruitment is critical for understanding fatal diseases like ALS, however linking patients with researchers can be challenging. The US population-based National ALS Registry allows recruitment of persons with ALS (PALS) for research opportunities. Methods The Registry’s Research Notification Mechanism was used to recruit PALS aged ?21 years; participants completed a web-based epidemiologic survey. PALS (n=2,232) were sent an email describing the study, and 268 surveys were completed. Results The mean age (± SD) of eligible participants was 57.7 ± 9.3 years for men and 61.5 ± 8.9 for women. Most were men (63%) and Caucasian (92%). Of 256 potentially eligible participants, 37.5% (n=96) returned an authorization to disclose protected health information. ALS was confirmed for 94% (83/88) from physician responses. Discussion This analysis demonstrates the National ALS Registry’s usefulness in recruiting PALS for research. This recruitment source can potentially foster the discovery of better treatment options and therapies, and of prevention strategies. PMID:25111654

  8. Close range photogrammetry--a clinical dental research tool.

    PubMed

    Chadwick, R G

    1992-08-01

    Photogrammetry is the art, science and technology of obtaining reliable information about physical objects through processes of recording and interpreting photographic images. This review outlines the principles of the technique and summarizes the various methodologies and applications in clinical dental research. PMID:1430514

  9. TPACK: An Emerging Research and Development Tool for Teacher Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baran, Evrim; Chuang, Hsueh-Hua; Thompson, Ann

    2011-01-01

    TPACK (technological pedagogical content knowledge) has emerged as a clear and useful construct for researchers working to understand technology integration in learning and teaching. Whereas first generation TPACK work focused upon explaining and interpreting the construct, TPACK has now entered a second generation where the focus is upon using


  10. Reimagining Science Education and Pedagogical Tools: Blending Research with Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Jacqueline S.

    2010-01-01

    The future of higher education in the sciences will be marked by programs that link skilled educators and research scientists from around the world with teachers for professional development and with students for high-impact learning--either virtually or physically in the field. These programs will use technology where possible to build new and…

  11. Reimagining Science Education and Pedagogical Tools: Blending Research with Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Jacqueline S.

    2010-01-01

    The future of higher education in the sciences will be marked by programs that link skilled educators and research scientists from around the world with teachers for professional development and with students for high-impact learning--either virtually or physically in the field. These programs will use technology where possible to build new and


  12. Governments and Universities as the Main Drivers of Enhanced Australian University Research Commercialisation Capability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harman, Grant; Harman, Kay

    2004-01-01

    In building capacity in research commercialisation and science-based entrepreneurship, Australia has adopted neither the Swedish top-down approach depending on government initiative, nor the American bottom-up approach depending on incentive systems related to university ownership of intellectual property and a highly competitive and…

  13. Developing a Research Tool to Gauge Student Metacognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McInerny, Alistair; Boudreaux, Andrew; Rishal, Sepideh; Clare, Kelci

    2012-10-01

    Metacognition refers to the family of thought processes and skills used to evaluate and manage learning. A research and curriculum development project underway at Western Washington University uses introductory physics labs as a context to promote students' abilities to learn and apply metacognitive skills. A required ``narrative reflection'' has been incorporated as a weekly end-of-lab assignment. The goal of the narrative reflection is to encourage and support student metacognition while generating written artifacts that can be used by researchers to study metacognition in action. We have developed a Reflective Thinking Rubric (RTR) to analyze scanned narrative reflections. The RTR codes student writing for Metacognitive Elements, identifiable steps or aspects of metacognitive thinking at a variety of levels of sophistication. We hope to use the RTR to monitor the effect of weekly reflection on metacognitive ability and to search for correlations between metacognitive ability and conceptual understanding.

  14. Administrative data linkage as a tool for child maltreatment research.

    PubMed

    Brownell, Marni D; Jutte, Douglas P

    2013-01-01

    Linking administrative data records for the same individuals across services and over time offers a powerful, population-wide resource for child maltreatment research that can be used to identify risk and protective factors and to examine outcomes. Multistage de-identification processes have been developed to protect privacy and maintain confidentiality of the datasets. Lack of information on those not coming to the attention of child protection agencies, and limited information on certain variables, such as individual-level SES and parenting practices, is outweighed by strengths that include large and unbiased samples, objective measures, comprehensive long-term follow-up, continuous data collection, and relatively low expense. Ever emerging methodologies and expanded holdings ensure that research using linked population-wide databases will make important contributions to the study of child maltreatment. PMID:23260116

  15. Generation of Comprehensive Thoracic Oncology Database - Tool for Translational Research

    PubMed Central

    Surati, Mosmi; Robinson, Matthew; Nandi, Suvobroto; Faoro, Leonardo; Demchuk, Carley; Kanteti, Rajani; Ferguson, Benjamin; Gangadhar, Tara; Hensing, Thomas; Hasina, Rifat; Husain, Aliya; Ferguson, Mark; Karrison, Theodore; Salgia, Ravi

    2011-01-01

    The Thoracic Oncology Program Database Project was created to serve as a comprehensive, verified, and accessible repository for well-annotated cancer specimens and clinical data to be available to researchers within the Thoracic Oncology Research Program. This database also captures a large volume of genomic and proteomic data obtained from various tumor tissue studies. A team of clinical and basic science researchers, a biostatistician, and a bioinformatics expert was convened to design the database. Variables of interest were clearly defined and their descriptions were written within a standard operating manual to ensure consistency of data annotation. Using a protocol for prospective tissue banking and another protocol for retrospective banking, tumor and normal tissue samples from patients consented to these protocols were collected. Clinical information such as demographics, cancer characterization, and treatment plans for these patients were abstracted and entered into an Access database. Proteomic and genomic data have been included in the database and have been linked to clinical information for patients described within the database. The data from each table were linked using the relationships function in Microsoft Access to allow the database manager to connect clinical and laboratory information during a query. The queried data can then be exported for statistical analysis and hypothesis generation. PMID:21304468

  16. CAMS as a tool for human factors research in spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauer, Juergen

    2004-01-01

    The paper reviews a number of research studies that were carried out with a PC-based task environment called Cabin Air Management System (CAMS) simulating the operation of a spacecraft's life support system. As CAMS was a multiple task environment, it allowed the measurement of performance at different levels. Four task components of different priority were embedded in the task environment: diagnosis and repair of system faults, maintaining atmospheric parameters in a safe state, acknowledgement of system alarms (reaction time), and keeping a record of critical system resources (prospective memory). Furthermore, the task environment permitted the examination of different task management strategies and changes in crew member state (fatigue, anxiety, mental effort). A major goal of the research programme was to examine how crew members adapted to various forms of sub-optimal working conditions, such as isolation and confinement, sleep deprivation and noise. None of the studies provided evidence for decrements in primary task performance. However, the results showed a number of adaptive responses of crew members to adjust to the different sub-optimal working conditions. There was evidence for adjustments in information sampling strategies (usually reductions in sampling frequency) as a result of unfavourable working conditions. The results also showed selected decrements in secondary task performance. Prospective memory seemed to be somewhat more vulnerable to sub-optimal working conditions than performance on the reaction time task. Finally, suggestions are made for future research with the CAMS environment.

  17. Research pressure instrumentation for NASA Space Shuttle main engine, modification no. 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, P. J.; Nussbaum, P.; Gustafson, G.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of Modification No. 5 of this contract is to expand the scope of work (Task C) of this research study effort to develop pressure instrumentation for the SSME. The objective of this contract (Task C) is to direct Honeywell's Solid State Electronics Division's (SSED) extensive experience and expertise in solid state sensor technology to develop prototype pressure transducers which are targeted to meet the SSME performance design goals and to fabricate, test and deliver a total of 10 prototype units. SSED's basic approach is to effectively utilize the many advantages of silicon piezoresistive strain sensing technology to achieve the objectives of advanced state-of-the-art pressure sensors in terms of reliability, accuracy and ease of manufacture. More specifically, integration of multiple functions on a single chip is the key attribute of this technology which will be exploited during this research study.

  18. 2011 Raditation & Climate Gordon Research Conference (July 10-15 2011- Colby College, Waterville, Maine)

    SciTech Connect

    Prof. Max Hoggblom

    2012-02-09

    The 2011 Gordon Research Conference on Radiation and Climate will present cutting-edge research on outstanding issues in climate change, particularly those in which the interactions between clouds, aerosols, and precipitation play a major role. The Conference will feature a broad range of topics, including grand challenges in atmospheric radiation and climate, cloud and water vapor feedbacks, aerosol-cloud-precipitation-climate interactions across scales, new approaches for remote sensing and in-situ observations of clouds, aerosols and precipitation, and multi-scale modeling challenges. The invited speakers will present the most important recent advances and future challenges in these areas. The Conference will bring together a collection of leading investigators who are at the forefront of their field, and will provide opportunities for scientists, especially junior scientists and graduate students, to present their work in poster format and exchange ideas with leaders in the field. The collegial atmosphere of this Conference, with programmed discussion sessions as well as opportunities for informal gatherings in the afternoons and evenings, provides an avenue for scientists from different disciplines to brainstorm and promotes cross-disciplinary collaborations in the various research areas represented.

  19. A validated set of tool pictures with matched objects and non-objects for laterality research.

    PubMed

    Verma, Ark; Brysbaert, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Neuropsychological and neuroimaging research has established that knowledge related to tool use and tool recognition is lateralized to the left cerebral hemisphere. Recently, behavioural studies with the visual half-field technique have confirmed the lateralization. A limitation of this research was that different sets of stimuli had to be used for the comparison of tools to other objects and objects to non-objects. Therefore, we developed a new set of stimuli containing matched triplets of tools, other objects and non-objects. With the new stimulus set, we successfully replicated the findings of no visual field advantage for objects in an object recognition task combined with a significant right visual field advantage for tools in a tool recognition task. The set of stimuli is available as supplemental data to this article. PMID:24821308

  20. Research on visualization of main tourist areas in Hubei province based on Google Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Zhan-chun; Liu, Yan-fang; Liu, Jing; Tang, Ya; Zeng, Chen

    2009-10-01

    The travel craze in China has become one of the largest sources of expenditure increases. However, the limited patterns of information demonstration hindered the availability of necessary information to the public as well as the decision makers. Google Earth provides a useful platform for integrating environmental information with geospatial data from different sources. Using KML files, various environmental data may be viewed in Google Earth. In this paper, Google Earth is used as basic GIS platform. Placemarks of main tourist areas of Hubei Province are made and loaded by KML. The most up-to-date information is released using text, picture and video in HTML files. This approach transformed the traditional two-dimension travel information system into multi-dimensional information platform, facilitating data updating and information sharing over the Internet. It would also help decision making of the government and promote information availability to the public.

  1. NASA Global Hawk: A New Tool for Earth Science Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Phill

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Global Hawk, a unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) that NASA plans to use for Earth Sciences research. The Global Hawk is the world's first fully autonomous high-altitude, long-endurance aircraft, and is capable of conducting long duration missions. Plans are being made for the use of the aircraft on missions in the Arctic, Pacific and Western Atlantic Oceans. There are slides showing the Global Hawk Operations Center (GHOC), Flight Control and Air Traffic Control Communications Architecture, and Payload Integration and Accommodations on the Global Hawk. The first science campaign, planned for a study of the Pacific Ocean, is reviewed.

  2. Electromagnetic Levitation: A Useful Tool in Microgravity Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szekely, Julian; Schwartz, Elliot; Hyers, Robert

    1995-01-01

    Electromagnetic levitation is one area of the electromagnetic processing of materials that has uses for both fundamental research and practical applications. This technique was successfully used on the Space Shuttle Columbia during the Spacelab IML-2 mission in July 1994 as a platform for accurately measuring the surface tensions of liquid metals and alloys. In this article, we discuss the key transport phenomena associated with electromagnetic levitation, the fundamental relationships associated with thermophysical property measurement that can be made using this technique, reasons for working in microgravity, and some of the results obtained from the microgravity experiments.

  3. Digital storytelling: an innovative tool for practice, education, and research.

    PubMed

    Lal, Shalini; Donnelly, Catherine; Shin, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Digital storytelling is a method of using storytelling, group work, and modern technology to facilitate the creation of 2-3 minute multi-media video clips to convey personal or community stories. Digital storytelling is being used within the health care field; however, there has been limited documentation of its application within occupational therapy. This paper introduces digital storytelling and proposes how it can be applied in occupational therapy clinical practice, education, and research. The ethical and methodological challenges in relation to using the method are also discussed. PMID:25338054

  4. The NASA Human Research Wiki - An Online Collaboration Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barr, Yael; Rasbury, Jack; Johnson, Jordan; Barstend, Kristina; Saile, Lynn; Watkins, Sharmi

    2012-01-01

    The Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) element is one of six elements of the Human Research Program (HRP). ExMC is charged with decreasing the risk of: "Inability to adequately recognize or treat an ill or injured crew member" for exploration-class missions In preparation for exploration-class missions, ExMC has compiled a large evidence base, previously available only to persons within the NASA community. ExMC has developed the "NASA Human Research Wiki" in an effort to make the ExMC information available to the general public and increase collaboration within and outside of NASA. The ExMC evidence base is comprised of several types of data, including: (1)Information on more than 80 medical conditions which could occur during space flight (a)Derived from several sources (b)Including data on incidence and potential outcomes, as captured in the Integrated Medical Model s (IMM) Clinical Finding Forms (CliFFs). (2)Approximately 25 gap reports (a)Identify any "gaps" in knowledge and/or technology that would need to be addressed in order to provide adequate medical support for these novel missions.

  5. Incorporating ethical principles into clinical research protocols: a tool for protocol writers and ethics committees.

    PubMed

    Li, Rebecca H; Wacholtz, Mary C; Barnes, Mark; Boggs, Liam; Callery-D'Amico, Susan; Davis, Amy; Digilova, Alla; Forster, David; Heffernan, Kate; Luthin, Maeve; Lynch, Holly Fernandez; McNair, Lindsay; Miller, Jennifer E; Murphy, Jacquelyn; Van Campen, Luann; Wilenzick, Mark; Wolf, Delia; Woolston, Cris; Aldinger, Carmen; Bierer, Barbara E

    2016-04-01

    A novel Protocol Ethics Tool Kit ('Ethics Tool Kit') has been developed by a multi-stakeholder group of the Multi-Regional Clinical Trials Center of Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard. The purpose of the Ethics Tool Kit is to facilitate effective recognition, consideration and deliberation of critical ethical issues in clinical trial protocols. The Ethics Tool Kit may be used by investigators and sponsors to develop a dedicated Ethics Section within a protocol to improve the consistency and transparency between clinical trial protocols and research ethics committee reviews. It may also streamline ethics review and may facilitate and expedite the review process by anticipating the concerns of ethics committee reviewers. Specific attention was given to issues arising in multinational settings. With the use of this Tool Kit, researchers have the opportunity to address critical research ethics issues proactively, potentially speeding the time and easing the process to final protocol approval. PMID:26811365

  6. Composition and emissions of VOCs in main- and side-stream smoke of research cigarettes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charles, Simone M.; Batterman, S. A.; Jia, Chunrong

    It is well known that mainstream (MS) and sidestream (SS) cigarette smoke contains a vast number of chemical substances. Previous studies have emphasized SS smoke rather than MS smoke to which smokers are exposed, and most have used chamber tests that have several disadvantages such as wall losses. Emissions from standard research cigarettes have been measured, but relatively few constituents have been reported, and only the 1R4F (low nicotine) cigarette type has been tested. This study provides a comprehensive characterization of total, MS and SS smoke emissions for the 1R5F (ultra low nicotine), 2R4F (low nicotine), and 1R3F (standard nicotine) research cigarettes research cigarettes, including emission factors for a number of toxic compounds (e.g., benzene) and tobacco smoke tracers (e.g., 2,5-dimethyl furan). Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and particulate matter (PM) are quantified using a dynamic dilution emission measurement system that is shown to produce accurate, rapid and reproducible results for over 30 VOCs and PM. SS and MS emissions were accurately apportioned based on a mass balance of total emissions. As expected, SS emissions greatly exceeded MS emissions. The ultra low nicotine cigarette had lower emissions of most VOCs compared to low and standard nicotine cigarettes, which had similar emissions. Across the three types of cigarettes, emissions of benzene (296-535 ÎŒg cig -1), toluene (541-1003 ÎŒg cig -1), styrene (90-162 ÎŒg cig -1), 2-dimethyl furan (71-244 ÎŒg cig -1), naphthalene (15-18 ÎŒg cig -1) and other VOCs were generally comparable to or somewhat higher than literature estimates using chamber tests.

  7. Electrostatic Levitation: A Tool to Support Materials Research in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Jan; SanSoucie, Mike

    2012-01-01

    Containerless processing represents an important topic for materials research in microgravity. Levitated specimens are free from contact with a container, which permits studies of deeply undercooled melts, and high-temperature, highly reactive materials. Containerless processing provides data for studies of thermophysical properties, phase equilibria, metastable state formation, microstructure formation, undercooling, and nucleation. The European Space Agency (ESA) and the German Aerospace Center (DLR) jointly developed an electromagnetic levitator facility (MSL-EML) for containerless materials processing in space. The electrostatic levitator (ESL) facility at the Marshall Space Flight Center provides support for the development of containerless processing studies for the ISS. Apparatus and techniques have been developed to use the ESL to provide data for phase diagram determination, creep resistance, emissivity, specific heat, density/thermal expansion, viscosity, surface tension and triggered nucleation of melts. The capabilities and results from selected ESL-based characterization studies performed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center will be presented.

  8. Computer Imaging As A Creative Tool For Medical Researchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaminuma, T.; Suzuki, I.

    1982-11-01

    A general purpose interactive pattern anal-sys and image display system has been developed for medical applications. The system consists of a PDP 11/70 under RSX 11/M operating system, a drum scanner and a TV camera input subsystems, an interactive color image display, and some other special peripherals. It can process nearly all types of patterns that we encounter in medical research except dynamic image sequence such as cineangiograms. The system has been developed through versatile requirement from clinical collaborators. After the usefulness of the system for the image analysis was approved, the system has been extended to geo-health data display in an epidemiological study and also to molecular imagery in pharmacological applications. Based on these past experience a revised plan of the system, which will overcome the shortcoming of the present system is on going.

  9. Nucleic Acid Aptamers: Research Tools in Disease Diagnostics and Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Yadava, Pramod K.

    2014-01-01

    Aptamers are short sequences of nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) or peptide molecules which adopt a conformation and bind cognate ligands with high affinity and specificity in a manner akin to antibody-antigen interactions. It has been globally acknowledged that aptamers promise a plethora of diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Although use of nucleic acid aptamers as targeted therapeutics or mediators of targeted drug delivery is a relatively new avenue of research, one aptamer-based drug “Macugen” is FDA approved and a series of aptamer-based drugs are in clinical pipelines. The present review discusses the aspects of design, unique properties, applications, and development of different aptamers to aid in cancer diagnosis, prevention, and/or treatment under defined conditions. PMID:25050359

  10. Conceptualising the Use of Facebook in Ethnographic Research: As Tool, as Data and as Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Sally

    2013-01-01

    This article proposes a three-part conceptualisation of the use of Facebook in ethnographic research: as a tool, as data and as context. Longitudinal research with young adults at a time of significant change provides many challenges for the ethnographic researcher, such as maintaining channels of communication and high rates of participant


  11. Guiding Independence: Developing a Research Tool to Support Student Decision Making in Selecting Online Information Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baildon, Rindi; Baildon, Mark

    2008-01-01

    The development and use of a research tool to guide fourth-grade students' use of information sources during a research project is described in this article. Over a period of five weeks, 21 fourth-grade students in an international school in Singapore participated in a study investigating the extent to which the use of a "research resource guide"…

  12. Guiding Independence: Developing a Research Tool to Support Student Decision Making in Selecting Online Information Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baildon, Rindi; Baildon, Mark

    2008-01-01

    The development and use of a research tool to guide fourth-grade students' use of information sources during a research project is described in this article. Over a period of five weeks, 21 fourth-grade students in an international school in Singapore participated in a study investigating the extent to which the use of a "research resource guide"


  13. Searching for New Directions: Developing MA Action Research Project as a Tool for Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Young Ah; Wang, Ye

    2012-01-01

    Action research has been recognized as a useful professional development tool for teaching, but for inservice teachers, conducting action research can be challenging. Their learning about action research can be influenced by social situations--whether in an MA (Master of Arts) program or other professional development. The purpose of this


  14. Conceptualising the Use of Facebook in Ethnographic Research: As Tool, as Data and as Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Sally

    2013-01-01

    This article proposes a three-part conceptualisation of the use of Facebook in ethnographic research: as a tool, as data and as context. Longitudinal research with young adults at a time of significant change provides many challenges for the ethnographic researcher, such as maintaining channels of communication and high rates of participant…

  15. Research on bait resources in the Main Stream of Wulie River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lin; Yan, Denghua; Gan, Hong; Fu, Xiaocheng; Sun, Xiumin

    2010-05-01

    Wulie river is the first branch of Luanhe river, and most of the water use for industrial, agricultural and living of the Chengde city is coming from it. The investigation results of 8 monitoring sections in July, 2009 show that there are 44 species of phytoplankton belonging to 7 phylum in the Main stream of Wulie river. The Bacillariophyta has the most species comparing with other species, and is the dominant species. The phytoplankton species is more in the lower reach than that in the upper reach which is relevant to the intensity of the human disturbance. There are 28 kinds of zooplanktons in the river, in which the protozoa and rotatoria are the dominant species. The zooplankton species in the lower reach show the lake characteristics which is relevant to the 12 rubber dams. There are 18 macrozoobenthos in the river, and Hydropyche, Ephemera, Baetidae and Caenis are the dominant genus. The macrozoobenthos community is simple and most of them belong to the species fond of rapids and oxygen. Investigation of the bait resources show that the water quality is good in this river, but the lower reach has appeared the lake characteristics because of the water intercepting and impounding by the rubber dams. The establishment of water conservancy engineering has changed the hydrology and river morphology, which as a result altered the bait resources of the fishes living in the rivers.

  16. Research and Evaluation Trends in the Uses of Computer-Based Tools for Learning and Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Beverly

    Current research and evaluation studies describe changing knowledge about the effects and conditions of computer-based tools in learning and teaching in elementary and secondary school classrooms. Current studies of computer-based tool use are characterized by: (1) a focus on many dimensions of learning, learners, and learning environments; (2) an


  17. Positioning Mentoring as a Coach Development Tool: Recommendations for Future Practice and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQuade, Sarah; Davis, Louise; Nash, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Current thinking in coach education advocates mentoring as a development tool to connect theory and practice. However, little empirical evidence exists to evaluate the effectiveness of mentoring as a coach development tool. Business, education, and nursing precede the coaching industry in their mentoring practice, and research findings offered in…

  18. Cephalopod culture: current status of main biological models and research priorities.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Erica A G; Villanueva, Roger; Andrade, José P; Gleadall, Ian G; Iglesias, José; Koueta, Noussithé; Rosas, Carlos; Segawa, Susumu; Grasse, Bret; Franco-Santos, Rita M; Albertin, Caroline B; Caamal-Monsreal, Claudia; Chimal, Maria E; Edsinger-Gonzales, Eric; Gallardo, Pedro; Le Pabic, Charles; Pascual, Cristina; Roumbedakis, Katina; Wood, James

    2014-01-01

    A recent revival in using cephalopods as experimental animals has rekindled interest in their biology and life cycles, information with direct applications also in the rapidly growing ornamental aquarium species trade and in commercial aquaculture production for human consumption. Cephalopods have high rates of growth and food conversion, which for aquaculture translates into short culture cycles, high ratios of production to biomass and high cost-effectiveness. However, at present, only small-scale culture is possible and only for a few species: the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis, the loliginid squid Sepioteuthis lessoniana and the octopuses Octopus maya and O. vulgaris. These four species are the focus of this chapter, the aims of which are as follows: (1) to provide an overview of the culture requirements of cephalopods, (2) to highlight the physical and nutritional requirements at each phase of the life cycle regarded as essential for successful full-scale culture and (3) to identify current limitations and the topics on which further research is required. Knowledge of cephalopod culture methods is advanced, but commercialization is still constrained by the highly selective feeding habits of cephalopods and their requirement for large quantities of high-quality (preferably live) feed, particularly in the early stages of development. Future research should focus on problems related to the consistent production of viable numbers of juveniles, the resolution of which requires a better understanding of nutrition at all phases of the life cycle and better broodstock management, particularly regarding developments in genetic selection, control of reproduction and quality of eggs and offspring. PMID:24880794

  19. Advanced imaging microscope tools applied to microgravity research investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, L.; Samson, J.; Conrad, D.; Clark, K.

    1998-01-01

    The inability to observe and interact with experiments on orbit has been an impediment for both basic research and commercial ventures using the shuttle. In order to open the frontiers of space, the Center for Microgravity Automation Technology has developed a unique and innovative system for conducting experiments at a distance, the ``Remote Scientist.'' The Remote Scientist extends laboratory automation capability to the microgravity environment. While the Remote Scientist conceptually encompasses a broad spectrum of elements and functionalities, the development approach taken is to: • establish a baseline capability that is both flexible and versatile • incrementally augment the baseline with additional functions over time. Since last year, the application of the Remote Scientist has changed from protein crystal growth to tissue culture, specifically, the development of skeletal muscle under varying levels of tension. This system includes a series of bioreactor chambers that allow for three-dimensional growth of muscle tissue on a membrane suspended between the two ends of a programmable force transducer that can provide automated or investigator-initiated tension on the developing tissue. A microscope objective mounted on a translation carriage allows for high-resolution microscopy along a large area of the tissue. These images will be mosaiced on orbit to detect features and structures that span multiple images. The use of fluorescence and pseudo-confocal microscopy will maximize the observational capabilities of this system. A series of ground-based experiments have been performed to validate the bioreactor, the force transducer, the translation carriage and the image acquisition capabilities of the Remote Scientist. • The bioreactor is capable of sustaining three dimensional tissue culture growth over time. • The force transducer can be programmed to provide static tension on cells or to simulate either slow or fast growth of underlying tissues in vivo, ranging from 0.2 mm per day to 32 mm per day. • The two-axis translation carriage is capable of scanning the camera along the bioreactor and adjusting the focus with 25 ?m resolution. • Time-lapse sequences of images have been acquired, stored and transmitted to a remote computer system. Although the current application of the Remote Scientist technology is the observation and manipulation of a tissue culture growth system, the hardware has been designed to be easily reconfigured to accommodate a multitude of experiments, including animal observation, combustion studies, protein crystal growth, plant growth and aquatic research.

  20. STELLA software as a tool for modelling phosphorus removal in a constructed wetland employing dewatered alum sludge as main substrate.

    PubMed

    Kumar, J L G; Wang, Z Y; Zhao, Y Q; Babatunde, A O; Zhao, X H; Jűrgensen, S E

    2011-01-01

    A dynamic simulation model was developed for the removal of soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) from the vertical flow constructed wetlands (VFCW) using a dynamic software program called STELLA (structural thinking, experiential learning laboratory with animation) 9.1.3 to aid in simulating the environmental nature and succession of relationship between interdependent components and processes in the VFCW system. In particular, the VFCW employed dewatered alum sludge as its main substrate to enhance phosphorus (P) immobilization. Although computer modelling of P in treatment wetland has been well studied especially in recent years, there is still a need to develop simple and realistic models that can be used for investigating the dynamics of SRP in VFCWs. The state variables included in the model are dissolved phosphorus (DISP), plant phosphorus (PLAP), detritus phosphorus (DETP), plant biomass (PLBI) and adsorbed phosphorus (ADSP). The major P transformation processes considered in this study were adsorption, plant and microbial uptake and decomposition. The forcing functions which were considered in the model are temperature, radiation, volume of wastewater, P concentration, contact time, flow rate and the adsorbent (i.e., alum sludge). The model results revealed that up to 72% of the SRP can be removed through adsorption process whereas the uptake by plants is about 20% and the remaining processes such as microbial P utilization and decomposition, accounted for 7% SRP removal based on the mass balance calculations. The results obtained indicate that the model can be used to simulate outflow SRP concentration, and it can also be used to estimate the amount of P removed by individual processes in the VFCW using alum-sludge as a substrate. PMID:21644152

  1. Conceptual Systems Model as a Tool for Hypothesis Generation and Testing in Ecotoxicological Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microarray, proteomic, and metabonomic technologies are becoming increasingly accessible as tools for ecotoxicology research. Effective use of these technologies will depend, at least in part, on the ability to apply these techniques within a paradigm of hypothesis driven researc...

  2. NANIVID: A New Research Tool for Tissue Microenvironment Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raja, Waseem K.

    Metastatic tumors are heterogeneous in nature and composed of subpopulations of cells having various metastatic potentials. The time progression of a tumor creates a unique microenvironment to improve the invasion capabilities and survivability of cancer cells in different microenvironments. In the early stages of intravasation, cancer cells establish communication with other cell types through a paracrine loop and covers long distances by sensing growth factor gradients through extracellular matrices. Cellular migration both in vitro and in vivo is a complex process and to understand their motility in depth, sophisticated techniques are required to document and record events in real time. This study presents the design and optimization of a new versatile chemotaxis device called the NANIVID (NANo IntraVital Imaging Device), developed using advanced Nano/Micro fabrication techniques. The current version of this device has been demonstrated to form a stable (epidermal growth factor) EGF gradient in vitro (2D and 3D) while a miniaturized size of NANIVID is used as an implantable device for intravital studies of chemotaxis and to collect cells in vivo. The device is fabricated using microfabrication techniques in which two substrates are bonded together using a thin polymer layer creating a bonded device with one point source (approximately 150 im x 50 im) outlet. The main structures of the device consist of two transparent substrates: one having etched chambers and channel while the second consists of a microelectrode system to measure real time cell arrival inside the device. The chamber of the device is loaded with a growth factor reservoir consisting of hydrogel to sustain a steady release of growth factor into the surrounding environment for long periods of time and establishing a concentration gradient from the device. The focus of this study was to design and optimize the new device for cell chemotaxis studies in breast cancer cells in cell culture. Our results show that we have created a flexible, cheap, miniature and autonomous chemotaxis device and demonstrate its usefulness in 2D and 3D cell culture. We also provide preliminary data for use of the device in vivo.

  3. A Review of Knowledge Gaps and Tools for Orbivirus Research.

    PubMed

    Drolet, Barbara S; van Rijn, Piet; Howerth, Elizabeth W; Beer, Martin; Mertens, Peter P

    2015-06-01

    Although recognized as causing emerging and re-emerging disease outbreaks worldwide since the late 1800 s, there has been growing interest in the United States and Europe in recent years in orbiviruses, their insect vectors, and the diseases they cause in domestic livestock and wildlife. This is due, in part, to the emergence of bluetongue (BT) in northern Europe in 2006-2007 resulting in a devastating outbreak, as well as severe BT outbreaks in sheep and epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD) outbreaks in deer and cattle in the United States. Of notable concern is the isolation of as many as 10 new BT virus (BTV) serotypes in the United States since 1999 and their associated unknowns, such as route of introduction, virulence to mammals, and indigenous competent vectors. This review, based on a gap analysis workshop composed of international experts on orbiviruses conducted in 2013, gives a global perspective of current basic virological understanding of orbiviruses, with particular attention to BTV and the closely related epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV), and identifies a multitude of basic virology research gaps, critical for predicting and preventing outbreaks. PMID:26086555

  4. Citizen Science as a New Tool in Dog Cognition Research.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Laughlin; MacLean, Evan L; Ivy, David; Woods, Vanessa; Cohen, Eliot; Rodriguez, Kerri; McIntyre, Matthew; Mukherjee, Sayan; Call, Josep; Kaminski, Juliane; Miklósi, Ádám; Wrangham, Richard W; Hare, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Family dogs and dog owners offer a potentially powerful way to conduct citizen science to answer questions about animal behavior that are difficult to answer with more conventional approaches. Here we evaluate the quality of the first data on dog cognition collected by citizen scientists using the Dognition.com website. We conducted analyses to understand if data generated by over 500 citizen scientists replicates internally and in comparison to previously published findings. Half of participants participated for free while the other half paid for access. The website provided each participant a temperament questionnaire and instructions on how to conduct a series of ten cognitive tests. Participation required internet access, a dog and some common household items. Participants could record their responses on any PC, tablet or smartphone from anywhere in the world and data were retained on servers. Results from citizen scientists and their dogs replicated a number of previously described phenomena from conventional lab-based research. There was little evidence that citizen scientists manipulated their results. To illustrate the potential uses of relatively large samples of citizen science data, we then used factor analysis to examine individual differences across the cognitive tasks. The data were best explained by multiple factors in support of the hypothesis that nonhumans, including dogs, can evolve multiple cognitive domains that vary independently. This analysis suggests that in the future, citizen scientists will generate useful datasets that test hypotheses and answer questions as a complement to conventional laboratory techniques used to study dog psychology. PMID:26376443

  5. Citizen Science as a New Tool in Dog Cognition Research

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Laughlin; MacLean, Evan L.; Ivy, David; Woods, Vanessa; Cohen, Eliot; Rodriguez, Kerri; McIntyre, Matthew; Mukherjee, Sayan; Call, Josep; Kaminski, Juliane; Miklósi, Ádåm; Wrangham, Richard W.; Hare, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Family dogs and dog owners offer a potentially powerful way to conduct citizen science to answer questions about animal behavior that are difficult to answer with more conventional approaches. Here we evaluate the quality of the first data on dog cognition collected by citizen scientists using the Dognition.com website. We conducted analyses to understand if data generated by over 500 citizen scientists replicates internally and in comparison to previously published findings. Half of participants participated for free while the other half paid for access. The website provided each participant a temperament questionnaire and instructions on how to conduct a series of ten cognitive tests. Participation required internet access, a dog and some common household items. Participants could record their responses on any PC, tablet or smartphone from anywhere in the world and data were retained on servers. Results from citizen scientists and their dogs replicated a number of previously described phenomena from conventional lab-based research. There was little evidence that citizen scientists manipulated their results. To illustrate the potential uses of relatively large samples of citizen science data, we then used factor analysis to examine individual differences across the cognitive tasks. The data were best explained by multiple factors in support of the hypothesis that nonhumans, including dogs, can evolve multiple cognitive domains that vary independently. This analysis suggests that in the future, citizen scientists will generate useful datasets that test hypotheses and answer questions as a complement to conventional laboratory techniques used to study dog psychology. PMID:26376443

  6. Advancing Research in Second Language Writing through Computational Tools and Machine Learning Techniques: A Research Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossley, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an agenda for replication studies focusing on second language (L2) writing and the use of natural language processing (NLP) tools and machine learning algorithms. Specifically, it introduces a range of the available NLP tools and machine learning algorithms and demonstrates how these could be used to replicate seminal studies


  7. Advancing Research in Second Language Writing through Computational Tools and Machine Learning Techniques: A Research Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossley, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an agenda for replication studies focusing on second language (L2) writing and the use of natural language processing (NLP) tools and machine learning algorithms. Specifically, it introduces a range of the available NLP tools and machine learning algorithms and demonstrates how these could be used to replicate seminal studies…

  8. Emerging Imaging Tools for Use with Traumatic Brain Injury Research

    PubMed Central

    Wilde, Elisabeth A.; Tong, Karen A.; Holshouser, Barbara A.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract This article identifies emerging neuroimaging measures considered by the inter-agency Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) Neuroimaging Workgroup. This article attempts to address some of the potential uses of more advanced forms of imaging in TBI as well as highlight some of the current considerations and unresolved challenges of using them. We summarize emerging elements likely to gain more widespread use in the coming years, because of 1) their utility in diagnosis, prognosis, and understanding the natural course of degeneration or recovery following TBI, and potential for evaluating treatment strategies; 2) the ability of many centers to acquire these data with scanners and equipment that are readily available in existing clinical and research settings; and 3) advances in software that provide more automated, readily available, and cost-effective analysis methods for large scale data image analysis. These include multi-slice CT, volumetric MRI analysis, susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), magnetization transfer imaging (MTI), arterial spin tag labeling (ASL), functional MRI (fMRI), including resting state and connectivity MRI, MR spectroscopy (MRS), and hyperpolarization scanning. However, we also include brief introductions to other specialized forms of advanced imaging that currently do require specialized equipment, for example, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), positron emission tomography (PET), encephalography (EEG), and magnetoencephalography (MEG)/magnetic source imaging (MSI). Finally, we identify some of the challenges that users of the emerging imaging CDEs may wish to consider, including quality control, performing multi-site and longitudinal imaging studies, and MR scanning in infants and children. PMID:21787167

  9. CDPP tools : Promoting research and education with AMDA, 3DView and the propagation tool in space physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genot, Vincent; Cecconi, Baptiste

    The CDPP (Centre de Données de la Physique des Plasmas, http://cdpp.eu/), the French data center for plasma physics, is engaged for more than a decade in the archiving and dissemination of plasma data products from space missions and ground observatories. Besides these activities, the CDPP developed an online analysis tool, AMDA (http://amda.cdpp.eu/). It enables in depth analysis of large amount of space physics, planetary and model data through dedicated functionalities such as: visualization, data mining, cataloguing ... It is used (about 250 connections per month) by scientists for their own research, but also by graduate students in the classroom and for dedicated projects. AMDA is ideally complemented by two companion tools also developed at CDPP : 3DView (http://3dview.cdpp.eu/) which provides immersive data visualisations in planetary environments and the Propagation Tool (http://propagationtool.cdpp.eu/) which enables tracking of solar perturbations in the heliosphere with different analytical models and white light imaging techniques. This presentation will focus on some scientific cases combining the use of the three tools. (2.1) Data Mining and Intelligent Systems for Massive Data Sets

  10. ResearchIQ: Design of a Semantically Anchored Integrative Query Tool

    PubMed Central

    Lele, Omkar; Raje, Satyajeet; Yen, Po-Yin; Payne, Philip

    2015-01-01

    An important factor influencing the pace of research activity is the ability of researchers to discover and leverage heterogeneous resources. Usually, researcher profiles, laboratory equipment, data samples, clinical trials, and other research resources are stored in heterogeneous datasets in large organizations. Emergent semantic web technologies provide novel approaches to discover, annotate and consequently link such resources. In this manuscript, we describe the design of Research Integrative Query (ResearchIQ) tool, a semantically anchored resource discovery platform that facilitates semantic discovery of local and publically available data through a single web portal designed for researchers in the biomedical informatics domain within The Ohio State University. PMID:26306248

  11. ResearchIQ: Design of a Semantically Anchored Integrative Query Tool.

    PubMed

    Lele, Omkar; Raje, Satyajeet; Yen, Po-Yin; Payne, Philip

    2015-01-01

    An important factor influencing the pace of research activity is the ability of researchers to discover and leverage heterogeneous resources. Usually, researcher profiles, laboratory equipment, data samples, clinical trials, and other research resources are stored in heterogeneous datasets in large organizations. Emergent semantic web technologies provide novel approaches to discover, annotate and consequently link such resources. In this manuscript, we describe the design of Research Integrative Query (ResearchIQ) tool, a semantically anchored resource discovery platform that facilitates semantic discovery of local and publically available data through a single web portal designed for researchers in the biomedical informatics domain within The Ohio State University. PMID:26306248

  12. From research to management: A suite of GIS-based watershed modeling, assessment and planning tools 1889

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment (AGWA) tool is a GIS-based hydrologic modeling tool developed jointly by the U.S. EPA Office of Research and Development, USDA Agricultural Research Service, and University of Arizona. It was initially designed as a research tool for assessing the hydro...

  13. New Tools for New Literacies Research: An Exploration of Usability Testing Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asselin, Marlene; Moayeri, Maryam

    2010-01-01

    Competency in the new literacies of the Internet is essential for participating in contemporary society. Researchers studying these new literacies are recognizing the limitations of traditional methodological tools and adapting new technologies and new media for use in research. This paper reports our exploration of usability testing software to


  14. The Precision-Power-Gradient Theory for Teaching Basic Research Statistical Tools to Graduate Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassel, Russell N.

    This paper relates educational and psychological statistics to certain "Research Statistical Tools" (RSTs) necessary to accomplish and understand general research in the behavioral sciences. Emphasis is placed on acquiring an effective understanding of the RSTs and to this end they are are ordered to a continuum scale in terms of individual…

  15. The Interpretive Approach as a Research Tool: Inside the REDCo Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Robert

    2011-01-01

    This contribution shows how the author's interpretive approach to religious education was used as a theoretical and pedagogical stimulus and an empirical research tool by researchers in the European Commission Framework 6 REDCo (religion, education, dialogue, conflict) project. The origins and development of the interpretive approach, from its…

  16. New Tools for New Literacies Research: An Exploration of Usability Testing Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asselin, Marlene; Moayeri, Maryam

    2010-01-01

    Competency in the new literacies of the Internet is essential for participating in contemporary society. Researchers studying these new literacies are recognizing the limitations of traditional methodological tools and adapting new technologies and new media for use in research. This paper reports our exploration of usability testing software to…

  17. Scientific Mobility and International Research Networks: Trends and Policy Tools for Promoting Research Excellence and Capacity Building

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Merle; Meek, V. Lynn

    2013-01-01

    One of the ways in which globalization is manifesting itself in higher education and research is through the increasing importance and emphasis on scientific mobility. This article seeks to provide an overview and analysis of current trends and policy tools for promoting mobility. The article argues that the mobility of scientific labour is an


  18. Scientific Mobility and International Research Networks: Trends and Policy Tools for Promoting Research Excellence and Capacity Building

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Merle; Meek, V. Lynn

    2013-01-01

    One of the ways in which globalization is manifesting itself in higher education and research is through the increasing importance and emphasis on scientific mobility. This article seeks to provide an overview and analysis of current trends and policy tools for promoting mobility. The article argues that the mobility of scientific labour is an…

  19. Development of Advanced Computational Aeroelasticity Tools at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartels, R. E.

    2008-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center has continued to develop its long standing computational tools to address new challenges in aircraft and launch vehicle design. This paper discusses the application and development of those computational aeroelastic tools. Four topic areas will be discussed: 1) Modeling structural and flow field nonlinearities; 2) Integrated and modular approaches to nonlinear multidisciplinary analysis; 3) Simulating flight dynamics of flexible vehicles; and 4) Applications that support both aeronautics and space exploration.

  20. The Research-Teaching Nexus: Using a Construction Teaching Event as a Research Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casanovas-Rubio, Maria del Mar; Ahearn, Alison; Ramos, Gonzalo; Popo-Ola, Sunday

    2016-01-01

    In principle, the research-teaching nexus should be seen as a two-way link, showing not only ways in which research supports teaching but also ways in which teaching supports research. In reality, the discussion has been limited almost entirely to the first of these practices. This paper presents a case study in which some student field-trip


  1. Interactive Data Visualization for HIV Cohorts: Leveraging Data Exchange Standards to Share and Reuse Research Tools

    PubMed Central

    Blevins, Meridith; Wehbe, Firas H.; Rebeiro, Peter F.; Caro-Vega, Yanink; McGowan, Catherine C.; Shepherd, Bryan E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To develop and disseminate tools for interactive visualization of HIV cohort data. Design and Methods If a picture is worth a thousand words, then an interactive video, composed of a long string of pictures, can produce an even richer presentation of HIV population dynamics. We developed an HIV cohort data visualization tool using open-source software (R statistical language). The tool requires that the data structure conform to the HIV Cohort Data Exchange Protocol (HICDEP), and our implementation utilized Caribbean, Central and South America network (CCASAnet) data. Results This tool currently presents patient-level data in three classes of plots: (1) Longitudinal plots showing changes in measurements viewed alongside event probability curves allowing for simultaneous inspection of outcomes by relevant patient classes. (2) Bubble plots showing changes in indicators over time allowing for observation of group level dynamics. (3) Heat maps of levels of indicators changing over time allowing for observation of spatial-temporal dynamics. Examples of each class of plot are given using CCASAnet data investigating trends in CD4 count and AIDS at antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation, CD4 trajectories after ART initiation, and mortality. Conclusions We invite researchers interested in this data visualization effort to use these tools and to suggest new classes of data visualization. We aim to contribute additional shareable tools in the spirit of open scientific collaboration and hope that these tools further the participation in open data standards like HICDEP by the HIV research community. PMID:26963255

  2. Development, Validation and Deployment of a Real Time 30 Day Hospital Readmission Risk Assessment Tool in the Maine Healthcare Information Exchange

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Shiying; Wang, Yue; Jin, Bo; Shin, Andrew Young; Zhu, Chunqing; Huang, Min; Zheng, Le; Luo, Jin; Hu, Zhongkai; Fu, Changlin; Dai, Dorothy; Wang, Yicheng; Culver, Devore S.; Alfreds, Shaun T.; Rogow, Todd; Stearns, Frank; Sylvester, Karl G.; Widen, Eric; Ling, Xuefeng B.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Identifying patients at risk of a 30-day readmission can help providers design interventions, and provide targeted care to improve clinical effectiveness. This study developed a risk model to predict a 30-day inpatient hospital readmission for patients in Maine, across all payers, all diseases and all demographic groups. Methods Our objective was to develop a model to determine the risk for inpatient hospital readmission within 30 days post discharge. All patients within the Maine Health Information Exchange (HIE) system were included. The model was retrospectively developed on inpatient encounters between January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2012 from 24 randomly chosen hospitals, and then prospectively validated on inpatient encounters from January 1, 2013 to December 31, 2013 using all HIE patients. Results A risk assessment tool partitioned the entire HIE population into subgroups that corresponded to probability of hospital readmission as determined by a corresponding positive predictive value (PPV). An overall model c-statistic of 0.72 was achieved. The total 30-day readmission rates in low (score of 0–30), intermediate (score of 30–70) and high (score of 70–100) risk groupings were 8.67%, 24.10% and 74.10%, respectively. A time to event analysis revealed the higher risk groups readmitted to a hospital earlier than the lower risk groups. Six high-risk patient subgroup patterns were revealed through unsupervised clustering. Our model was successfully integrated into the statewide HIE to identify patient readmission risk upon admission and daily during hospitalization or for 30 days subsequently, providing daily risk score updates. Conclusions The risk model was validated as an effective tool for predicting 30-day readmissions for patients across all payer, disease and demographic groups within the Maine HIE. Exposing the key clinical, demographic and utilization profiles driving each patient’s risk of readmission score may be useful to providers in developing individualized post discharge care plans. PMID:26448562

  3. Isotope pattern deconvolution as rising tool for isotope tracer studies in environmental research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irrgeher, Johanna; Zitek, Andreas; Prohaska, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    During the last decade stable isotope tracers have emerged as versatile tool in ecological research. Besides 'intrinsic' isotope tracers caused by the natural variation of isotopes, the intentional introduction of 'extrinsic' enriched stable isotope tracers into biological systems has gained significant interest. Hereby the induced change in the natural isotopic composition of an element allows amongst others for studying the fate and fluxes of metals, trace elements and species in organisms or provides an intrinsic marker or tag of particular biological samples. Due to the shoreless potential of this methodology, the number of publications dealing with applications of isotope (double) spikes as tracers to address research questions in 'real world systems' is constantly increasing. However, some isotope systems like the natural Sr isotopic system, although potentially very powerful for this type of application, are still rarely used, mainly because their adequate measurement/determination poses major analytical challenges; as e.g. Sr is available in significant amounts in natural samples. In addition, biological systems underlie complex processes such as metabolism, adsorption/desorption or oxidation/reduction. As a consequence, classic evaluation approaches such as the isotope dilution mass spectrometry equation are often not applicable because of the unknown amount of tracer finally present in the sample. Isotope pattern deconvolution (IPD), based on multiple linear regression, serves as simplified alternative data processing strategy to double spike isotope dilution calculations. The outstanding advantage of this mathematical tool lies in the possibility of deconvolving the isotope pattern in a spiked sample without knowing the quantities of enriched isotope tracer being incorporated into the natural sample matrix as well as the degree of impurities and species-interconversion (e.g. from sample preparation). Here, the potential of IPD for environmental tracer studies is critically discussed, where special emphasis is set on evaluating different data processing strategies on the example of enriched stable Sr isotopes.1 The analytical key parameters such as blank (Kr, Sr and Rb), variation of the natural Sr isotopic composition in the sample, mass bias, interferences (Rb) and total combined uncertainty are considered. A full metrological protocol for data processing using IPD is presented based on data gained during two transgenerational marking studies of fish, where the transfer of a Sr isotope double spike (84Sr and 86Sr) from female spawners of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) and brown trout (Salmo trutta f.f.)2 to the centre of the otoliths of their offspring was studied by (LA)-MC-ICP-MS. 1J. Irrgeher, A. Zitek, M. Cervicek and T. Prohaska, J. Anal. At. Spectrom., 2014, 29, 193-200. 2A. Zitek, J. Irrgeher, M. Kletzl, T. Weismann and T. Prohaska, Fish. Manage. Ecol., 2013, 20, 654-361.

  4. Research-tool patents: issues for health in the developing world.

    PubMed Central

    Barton, John H.

    2002-01-01

    The patent system is now reaching into the tools of medical research, including gene sequences themselves. Many of the new patents can potentially preempt large areas of medical research and lay down legal barriers to the development of a broad category of products. Researchers must therefore consider redesigning their research to avoid use of patented techniques, or expending the effort to obtain licences from those who hold the patents. Even if total licence fees can be kept low, there are enormous negotiation costs, and one "hold-out" may be enough to lead to project cancellation. This is making it more difficult to conduct research within the developed world, and poses important questions for the future of medical research for the benefit of the developing world. Probably the most important implication for health in the developing world is the possible general slowing down and complication of medical research. To the extent that these patents do slow down research, they weaken the contribution of the global research community to the creation and application of medical technology for the benefit of developing nations. The patents may also complicate the granting of concessional prices to developing nations - for pharmaceutical firms that seek to offer a concessional price may have to negotiate arrangements with research-tool firms, which may lose royalties as a result. Three kinds of response are plausible. One is to develop a broad or global licence to permit the patented technologies to be used for important applications in the developing world. The second is to change technical patent law doctrines. Such changes could be implemented in developed and developing nations and could be quite helpful while remaining consistent with TRIPS. The third is to negotiate specific licence arrangements, under which specific research tools are used on an agreed basis for specific applications. These negotiations are difficult and expensive, requiring both scientific and legal skills. But they will be an unavoidable part of international medical research. PMID:11953790

  5. Quantitative Risk reduction estimation Tool For Control Systems, Suggested Approach and Research Needs

    SciTech Connect

    Miles McQueen; Wayne Boyer; Mark Flynn; Sam Alessi

    2006-03-01

    For the past year we have applied a variety of risk assessment technologies to evaluate the risk to critical infrastructure from cyber attacks on control systems. More recently, we identified the need for a stand alone control system risk reduction estimation tool to provide owners and operators of control systems with a more useable, reliable, and credible method for managing the risks from cyber attack. Risk is defined as the probability of a successful attack times the value of the resulting loss, typically measured in lives and dollars. Qualitative and ad hoc techniques for measuring risk do not provide sufficient support for cost benefit analyses associated with cyber security mitigation actions. To address the need for better quantitative risk reduction models we surveyed previous quantitative risk assessment research; evaluated currently available tools; developed new quantitative techniques [17] [18]; implemented a prototype analysis tool to demonstrate how such a tool might be used; used the prototype to test a variety of underlying risk calculational engines (e.g. attack tree, attack graph); and identified technical and research needs. We concluded that significant gaps still exist and difficult research problems remain for quantitatively assessing the risk to control system components and networks, but that a useable quantitative risk reduction estimation tool is not beyond reach.

  6. Commercial Licensing of HIV-1 Protease: Applications of the NIH Research Tools Policy

    PubMed Central

    Keller, George H.; Ferguson, Steven M.

    2009-01-01

    Licensing of the HIV-1 protease gene by the NIH Office of Technology Transfer (OTT) provides an example of the effective use of the principles of the NIH Research Tools Policy, which was designed to provide broad access to important biomedical technologies. The OTT licensing experience is presented in detail as it was applied to research reagents, diagnostics and drug development to thus enhance the overall development process for a wide variety of medical products. PMID:21197158

  7. Dancing on the Grid: using e-Science tools to extend choreographic research.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Helen; Bachler, Michelle; Buckingham Shum, Simon; Le Blanc, Anja; Popat, Sita; Rowley, Andrew; Turner, Martin

    2009-07-13

    This paper considers the role and impact of new and emerging e-Science tools on practice-led research in dance. Specifically, it draws on findings from the e-Dance project. This 2-year project brings together an interdisciplinary team combining research aspects of choreography, next generation of videoconferencing and human-computer interaction analysis incorporating hypermedia and nonlinear annotations for recording and documentation. PMID:19487213

  8. Qualitative and Quantitative Management Tools Used by Financial Officers in Public Research Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trexler, Grant Lewis

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation set out to identify effective qualitative and quantitative management tools used by financial officers (CFOs) in carrying out their management functions of planning, decision making, organizing, staffing, communicating, motivating, leading and controlling at a public research university. In addition, impediments to the use of


  9. Handbook of Research on Technology Tools for Real-World Skill Development (2 Volumes)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Yigel, Ed.; Ferrara, Steve, Ed.; Mosharraf, Maryam, Ed.

    2016-01-01

    Education is expanding to include a stronger focus on the practical application of classroom lessons in an effort to prepare the next generation of scholars for a changing world economy centered on collaborative and problem-solving skills for the digital age. "The Handbook of Research on Technology Tools for Real-World Skill Development"…

  10. (Re)braiding to Tell: Using "Trenzas" as a Metaphorical-Analytical Tool in Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quińones, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Metaphors can be used in qualitative research to illuminate the meanings of participant experiences and examine phenomena from insightful and creative perspectives. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate how I utilized "trenzas" (braids) as a metaphorical and analytical tool for understanding the experiences and perspectives of…

  11. Family Myths, Beliefs, and Customs as a Research/Educational Tool to Explore Identity Formation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, William E.

    2008-01-01

    This paper outlines a qualitative research tool designed to explore personal identity formation as described by Erik Erikson and offers self-reflective and anonymous evaluative comments made by college students after completing this task. Subjects compiled a list of 200 myths, customs, fables, rituals, and beliefs from their family of origin and…

  12. Procedural Task Analysis: A Tool for Science Education Problem-Solving Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barba, Robertta H.; Rubba, Peter A.

    1992-01-01

    Proposes the use of procedural task analysis as a tool to assess a person's mental processes during problem solving in science education research. Uses transcriptions of videotape or audiotape problem-solving sessions to identify students' knowledge structures and misconceptions. (MDH)

  13. Improving the Usefulness of Concept Maps as a Research Tool for Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Zele, Els; Lenaerts, Josephina; Wieme, Willem

    2004-01-01

    The search for authentic science research tools to evaluate student understanding in a hybrid learning environment with a large multimedia component has resulted in the use of concept maps as a representation of student's knowledge organization. One hundred and seventy third-semester introductory university-level engineering students represented…

  14. Basic Reference Tools for Nursing Research. A Workbook with Explanations and Examples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smalley, Topsy N.

    This workbook is designed to introduce nursing students to basic concepts and skills needed for searching the literatures of medicine, nursing, and allied health areas for materials relevant to specific information needs. The workbook introduces the following research tools: (1) the National Library of Medicine's MEDLINE searches, including a…

  15. Basic Reference Tools for Nursing Research. A Workbook with Explanations and Examples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smalley, Topsy N.

    This workbook is designed to introduce nursing students to basic concepts and skills needed for searching the literatures of medicine, nursing, and allied health areas for materials relevant to specific information needs. The workbook introduces the following research tools: (1) the National Library of Medicine's MEDLINE searches, including a


  16. Handbook of Research on Technology Tools for Real-World Skill Development (2 Volumes)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Yigel, Ed.; Ferrara, Steve, Ed.; Mosharraf, Maryam, Ed.

    2016-01-01

    Education is expanding to include a stronger focus on the practical application of classroom lessons in an effort to prepare the next generation of scholars for a changing world economy centered on collaborative and problem-solving skills for the digital age. "The Handbook of Research on Technology Tools for Real-World Skill Development"


  17. A Portfolio Analysis Tool for Measuring NASAs Aeronautics Research Progress toward Planned Strategic Outcomes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tahmasebi, Farhad; Pearce, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Description of a tool for portfolio analysis of NASA's Aeronautics research progress toward planned community strategic Outcomes is presented. The strategic planning process for determining the community Outcomes is also briefly described. Stakeholder buy-in, partnership performance, progress of supporting Technical Challenges, and enablement forecast are used as the criteria for evaluating progress toward Outcomes. A few illustrative examples are also presented.

  18. Qualitative and Quantitative Management Tools Used by Financial Officers in Public Research Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trexler, Grant Lewis

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation set out to identify effective qualitative and quantitative management tools used by financial officers (CFOs) in carrying out their management functions of planning, decision making, organizing, staffing, communicating, motivating, leading and controlling at a public research university. In addition, impediments to the use of…

  19. Community-based research as a tool for empowerment: the Haida Gwaii Diabetes Project example.

    PubMed

    Herbert, C P

    1996-01-01

    The evolution of the Haida Gwaii Diabetes Project exemplifies how community-based family practice research can be a tool for empowerment for both the community of research participants and the community based members of the research team. The aims of the project are to develop a better understanding of Haida beliefs about diabetes; to develop culturally sensitive approaches to prevention and management; and to attempt to apply this understanding to the development of a model for preventive health for native people in the province of British Columbia. A participatory research paradigm, coupled with explicit working principles by which the research team agreed to operate, addressed the concerns that the Aboriginal community had about the risks of research. A true working partnership has developed among all members of the research team, and with the Haida community. PMID:8753639

  20. Cutting-edge microfabricated biomedical tools for human pluripotent stem cell research.

    PubMed

    Kamei, Ken-ichiro

    2013-12-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), including embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells (hESCs and hiPSCs, respectively), continue to attract researchers and clinicians as well as patients worldwide because of their applicability in regenerative medicine, cell-based therapies, and drug discovery. However, conventional biomedical approaches for stem cell research provide only limited insights regarding how stem cells are regulated in our body and how we could control them. To accelerate the progress of stem cell research and their applications, interdisciplinary research needs to be carried out to enable access of or mimic in vivo physiological conditions and to investigate their functions. In the past few decades, progress in microfabrication engineering has had a tremendous impact in both academia and industry (electronics, mechanics, chemicals, and environments), and many people have realized that microfabricated tools hold great potential for applications in stem cell research because they allow precise manipulation of a wide range of biological materials, including small molecules, DNA/RNA, proteins, cells, and tissues. In this review, I describe advanced microfabricated tools for studying the mechanisms of in vivo stem cell regulation and precise manipulation of stem cells, notably hPSCs, and concerns of using such tools for stem cell research. PMID:23850864

  1. Using Digital Video as a Research Tool: Ethical Issues for Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuck, Sandy; Kearney, Matthew

    2006-01-01

    Digital video and accompanying editing software are increasingly becoming more accessible for researchers in terms of ease of use and cost. The rich, visually appealing and seductive nature of video-based data can convey a strong sense of direct experience with the phenomena studied (Pea, 1999). However, the ease of selection and editing of


  2. A New Tool for Identifying Research Standards and Evaluating Research Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacon, Donald R.; Paul, Pallab; Stewart, Kim A.; Mukhopadhyay, Kausiki

    2012-01-01

    Much has been written about the evaluation of faculty research productivity in promotion and tenure decisions, including many articles that seek to determine the rank of various marketing journals. Yet how faculty evaluators combine journal quality, quantity, and author contribution to form judgments of a scholar's performance is unclear. A…

  3. A New Tool for Identifying Research Standards and Evaluating Research Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacon, Donald R.; Paul, Pallab; Stewart, Kim A.; Mukhopadhyay, Kausiki

    2012-01-01

    Much has been written about the evaluation of faculty research productivity in promotion and tenure decisions, including many articles that seek to determine the rank of various marketing journals. Yet how faculty evaluators combine journal quality, quantity, and author contribution to form judgments of a scholar's performance is unclear. A


  4. Using Digital Video as a Research Tool: Ethical Issues for Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuck, Sandy; Kearney, Matthew

    2006-01-01

    Digital video and accompanying editing software are increasingly becoming more accessible for researchers in terms of ease of use and cost. The rich, visually appealing and seductive nature of video-based data can convey a strong sense of direct experience with the phenomena studied (Pea, 1999). However, the ease of selection and editing of…

  5. Stone tool analysis and human origins research: some advice from Uncle Screwtape.

    PubMed

    Shea, John J

    2011-01-01

    The production of purposefully fractured stone tools with functional, sharp cutting edges is a uniquely derived hominin adaptation. In the long history of life on earth, only hominins have adopted this remarkably expedient and broadly effective technological strategy. In the paleontological record, flaked stone tools are irrefutable proof that hominins were present at a particular place and time. Flaked stone tools are found in contexts ranging from the Arctic to equatorial rainforests and on every continent except Antarctica. Paleolithic stone tools show complex patterns of variability, suggesting that they have been subject to the variable selective pressures that have shaped so many other aspects of hominin behavior and morphology. There is every reason to expect that insights gained from studying stone tools should provide vital and important information about the course of human evolution. And yet, one senses that archeological analyses of Paleolithic stone tools are not making as much of a contribution as they could to the major issues in human origins research. PMID:22034103

  6. Development of “-omics” research in Schistosoma spp. and -omics-based new diagnostic tools for schistosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuqi; Hu, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Schistosomiasis, caused by dioecious flatworms in the genus Schistosoma, is torturing people from many developing countries nowadays and frequently leads to severe morbidity and mortality of the patients. Praziquantel based chemotherapy and morbidity control for this disease adopted currently necessitate viable and efficient diagnostic technologies. Fortunately, those “-omics” researches, which rely on high-throughput experimental technologies to produce massive amounts of informative data, have substantially contributed to the exploitation and innovation of diagnostic tools of schistosomiasis. In its first section, this review provides a concise conclusion on the progresses pertaining to schistosomal “-omics” researches to date, followed by a comprehensive section on the diagnostic methods of schistosomiasis, especially those innovative ones based on the detection of antibodies, antigens, nucleic acids, and metabolites with a focus on those achievements inspired by “-omics” researches. Finally, suggestions about the design of future diagnostic tools of schistosomiasis are proposed, in order to better harness those data produced by “-omics” studies. PMID:25018752

  7. The Association of Religion Data Archives (ARDA): Online Research Data, Tools, and References

    PubMed Central

    Finke, Roger; Adamczyk, Amy

    2014-01-01

    The Association of Religion Data Archives (ARDA) currently archives over 400 local, national, and international data files, and offers a wide range of research tools to build surveys, preview data on-line, develop customized maps and reports of U.S. church membership, and examine religion differences across nations and regions of the world. The ARDA also supports reference and teaching tools that draw on the rich data archive. This research note offers a brief introduction to the quantitative data available for exploration or download, and a few of the website features most useful for research and teaching. Supported by the Lilly Endowment, the John Templeton Foundation, the Pennsylvania State University, and the Baylor Institute for Studies of Religion, all data downloads and online services are free of charge. PMID:25484914

  8. Information Technology Research Services: Powerful Tools to Keep Up with a Rapidly Moving Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Marty firms offer Information Technology Research reports, analyst calls, conferences, seminars, tools, leadership development, etc. These entities include Gartner, Forrester Research, IDC, The Burton Group, Society for Information Management, 1nfoTech Research, The Corporate Executive Board, and so on. This talk will cover how a number of such services are being used at the Goddard Space Flight Center to improve our IT management practices, workforce skills, approach to innovation, and service delivery. These tools and services are used across the workforce, from the executive leadership to the IT worker. The presentation will cover the types of services each vendor provides and their primary engagement model. The use of these services at other NASA Centers and Headquarters will be included. In addition, I will explain how two of these services are available now to the entire NASA IT workforce through enterprise-wide subscriptions.

  9. SPIN Query Tools for De-identified Research on a Humongous Database

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Clement J.; Dexter, Paul; Schadow, Gunther; Chueh, Henry C.; Abernathy, Greg; Hook, John; Blevins, Lonnie; Overhage, J. Marc; Berman, Jules J.

    2005-01-01

    The Shared Pathology Informatics Network (SPIN), a research initiative of the National Cancer Institute, will allow for the retrieval of more than 4 million pathology reports and specimens. In this paper, we describe the special query tool as developed for the Indianapolis/Regenstrief SPIN node, integrated into the ever-expanding Indiana Network for Patient care (INPC). This query tool allows for the retrieval of de-identified data sets using complex logic, auto-coded final diagnoses, and intrinsically supports multiple types of statistical analyses. The new SPIN/INPC database represents a new generation of the Regenstrief Medical Record system – a centralized, but federated system of repositories. PMID:16779093

  10. SPIN query tools for de-identified research on a humongous database.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Clement J; Dexter, Paul; Schadow, Gunther; Chueh, Henry C; Abernathy, Greg; Hook, John; Blevins, Lonnie; Overhage, J Marc; Berman, Jules J

    2005-01-01

    The Shared Pathology Informatics Network (SPIN), a research initiative of the National Cancer Institute, will allow for the retrieval of more than 4 million pathology reports and specimens. In this paper, we describe the special query tool as developed for the Indianapolis/Regenstrief SPIN node, integrated into the ever-expanding Indiana Network for Patient care (INPC). This query tool allows for the retrieval of de-identified data sets using complex logic, auto-coded final diagnoses, and intrinsically supports multiple types of statistical analyses. The new SPIN/INPC database represents a new generation of the Regenstrief Medical Record system - a centralized, but federated system of repositories. PMID:16779093

  11. Open Support Platform for Environmental Research (OSPER) - tools for the discovery and exploitation of environmental data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawes, N. M.; Lehning, M.; Bavay, M.; Sarni, S.; Iosifescu, I.; Gwadera, R.; Scipion, D. E.; Blanchet, J.; Davison, A.; Berne, A.; Hurni, L.; Parlange, M. B.; Aberer, K.

    2012-12-01

    The Open Support Platform for Environmental Research (OSPER) has been launched to take forward key data management components developed under the Swiss Experiment platform project to achieve improved usability and a wider scope. With this project, we aim to connect users to data and their context, an area identified during SwissEx as having the greatest potential impact on the research community. OSPER has a clear focus on providing the technology for data storage, management and exploitation with a special focus on data interoperability and documentation. In this presentation, we will demonstrate the key aims of OSPER for the period 2012 - 2015. Inheriting the basic SwissEx functionality, OSPER provides an excellent method of making data accessible via their metadata. One of the biggest differences between the OSPER infrastructure and other data platforms is the level of interaction that one can have with the data and the level of integration with the analysis tools used in science. We wish to capitalise on this advantage by increasing this integration and working with environmental research projects to develop the tools that make a difference to their daily research. The new data infrastructure will serve the following purposes: ● Open documentation, archiving and discovery of datasets. ● Facilitation of data sharing and collaboration (especially inter-disciplinary) with data owner controlled access rights, particularly concentrating on providing as much contextual information as possible. ● Improvements in ease of data access and combination of data sources. ● Tools for data visualisation and statistical and numerical data analysis with a focus on spatial data and trends. Key areas identified for development during OSPER are: ● New infrastructure and content for current WebGIS-based data visualisation system to create a publicly available platform. ● Provision of data in standard formats using standard methods as well as the consumption of such data by the processing/visualisation tools. ● Provision of connected tools to provide commonly used functionality. ● Cloud compatibility. ● Greater integration of metadata and data. ● Integration of publications using advances made in the ScienceWise project. ● Advanced queries of 3- and 4-Dimensional data sources. ● Documented examples of spatio-temporal statistical tools. Each of the components of the infrastructure (database middleware, WebGIS, model interfaces and processing/visualization tools) will be designed for usage both within the OSPER system and standalone. They will provide standardized interfaces, such that they can be adapted for use with data from any compatible infrastructure, and such that the data held within OSPER can be visualized or processed using any compatible tools.

  12. Researchers’ Needs for Resource Discovery and Collaboration Tools: A Qualitative Investigation of Translational Scientists

    PubMed Central

    Warden, Michael; Zheng, Kai; Hill, Mary; Athey, Brian D

    2012-01-01

    Background A critical aspect of clinical and translational science (CTS) is interdisciplinary and collaborative research, which increasingly requires a wide range of computational and human resources. However, few studies have systematically analyzed such resource needs of CTS researchers. Objective To improve our understanding of CTS researchers’ needs for computational and human resources in order to build useful and useable supporting informatics tools. Methods We conducted semistructured interviews of 30 CTS researchers from the University of Michigan, followed by qualitative analysis of the interview transcripts. Results The analysis identified three recurring themes: the need for the federation of information, the need to address information overload, and the need to humanize computing, including strong and well-informed views about the use of social networking tools for research collaboration. These findings helped us to narrow down the available design choices for assisting CTS researchers, and helped to identify potential deficiencies of well-known theoretical frameworks used to guide our study, with suggestions for future remedies. Conclusions The user needs identified through the study, along with concrete design suggestions, provided key design, methodological, and theoretical insights, which are being used to guide the design and development of a CTS resource portal. The results and interview instrument should be useful to other institutions with Clinical and Translational Science Awards that face similar challenges related to helping CTS researchers make more effective use of computational and human resources. PMID:22668750

  13. High integrity software for nuclear power plants: Candidate guidelines, technical basis and research needs. Main report, Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Seth, S.; Bail, W.; Cleaves, D.; Cohen, H.; Hybertson, D.; Schaefer, C.; Stark, G.; Ta, A.; Ulery, B.

    1995-06-01

    The work documented in this report was performed in support of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to examine the technical basis for candidate guidelines that could be considered in reviewing and evaluating high integrity computer e following software development and assurance activities: Requirements specification; design; coding; verification and validation, inclukding static analysis and dynamic testing; safety analysis; operation and maintenance; configuration management; quality assurance; and planning and management. Each activity (framework element) was subdivided into technical areas (framework subelements). The report describes the development of approximately 200 candidate guidelines that span the entire ran e identification, categorization and prioritization of technical basis for those candidate guidelines; and the identification, categorization and prioritization of research needs for improving the technical basis. The report has two volumes: Volume 1, Executive Summary includes an overview of the framwork and of each framework element, the complete set of candidate guidelines, the results of the assessment of the technical basis for each candidate guideline, and a discussion of research needs that support the regulatory function; this document, Volume 2, is the main report.

  14. Noncontact Atomic Force Microscopy: An Emerging Tool for Fundamental Catalysis Research.

    PubMed

    Altman, Eric I; Baykara, Mehmet Z; Schwarz, Udo D

    2015-09-15

    Although atomic force microscopy (AFM) was rapidly adopted as a routine surface imaging apparatus after its introduction in 1986, it has not been widely used in catalysis research. The reason is that common AFM operating modes do not provide the atomic resolution required to follow catalytic processes; rather the more complex noncontact (NC) mode is needed. Thus, scanning tunneling microscopy has been the principal tool for atomic scale catalysis research. In this Account, recent developments in NC-AFM will be presented that offer significant advantages for gaining a complete atomic level view of catalysis. The main advantage of NC-AFM is that the image contrast is due to the very short-range chemical forces that are of interest in catalysis. This motivated our development of 3D-AFM, a method that yields quantitative atomic resolution images of the potential energy surfaces that govern how molecules approach, stick, diffuse, and rebound from surfaces. A variation of 3D-AFM allows the determination of forces required to push atoms and molecules on surfaces, from which diffusion barriers and variations in adsorption strength may be obtained. Pushing molecules towards each other provides access to intermolecular interaction between reaction partners. Following reaction, NC-AFM with CO-terminated tips yields textbook images of intramolecular structure that can be used to identify reaction intermediates and products. Because NC-AFM and STM contrast mechanisms are distinct, combining the two methods can produce unique insight. It is demonstrated for surface-oxidized Cu(100) that simultaneous 3D-AFM/STM yields resolution of both the Cu and O atoms. Moreover, atomic defects in the Cu sublattice lead to variations in the reactivity of the neighboring O atoms. It is shown that NC-AFM also allows a straightforward imaging of work function variations which has been used to identify defect charge states on catalytic surfaces and to map charge transfer within an individual molecule. These advances highlight the potential for NC-AFM-based methods to become the cornerstone upon which a quantitative atomic scale view of each step of a catalytic process may be gained. Realizing this potential will rely on two breakthroughs: (1) development of robust methods for tip functionalization and (2) simplification of NC-AFM instrumentation and control schemes. Quartz force sensors may offer paths forward in both cases. They allow any material with an atomic asperity to be used as a tip, opening the door to a wide range of surface functionalization chemistry. In addition, they do not suffer from the instabilities that motivated the initial adoption of complex control strategies that are still used today. PMID:26301490

  15. Recent advances in hopanoids analysis: Quantification protocols overview, main research targets and selected problems of complex data exploration.

    PubMed

    Zarzycki, Pawe? K; Portka, Joanna K

    2015-09-01

    Pentacyclic triterpenoids, particularly hopanoids, are organism-specific compounds and are generally considered as useful biomarkers that allow fingerprinting and classification of biological, environmental and geological samples. Simultaneous quantification of various hopanoids together with battery of related non-polar and low-molecular mass compounds may provide principal information for geochemical and environmental research focusing on both modern and ancient investigations. Target compounds can be derived from microbial biomass, water columns, sediments, coals, crude fossils or rocks. This create number of analytical problems due to different composition of the analytical matrix and interfering compounds and therefore, proper optimization of quantification protocols for such biomarkers is still the challenge. In this work we summarizing typical analytical protocols that were recently applied for quantification of hopanoids like compounds from different samples. Main steps including components of interest extraction, pre-purification, fractionation, derivatization and quantification involving gas (1D and 2D) as well as liquid separation techniques (liquid-liquid extraction, solid-phase extraction, planar and low resolution column chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography) are described and discussed from practical point of view, mainly based on the experimental papers that were published within last two years, where significant increase in hopanoids research was noticed. The second aim of this review is to describe the latest research trends concerning determination of hopanoids and related low-molecular mass lipids analyzed in various samples including sediments, rocks, coals, crude oils and plant fossils as well as stromatolites and microbial biomass cultivated under different conditions. It has been found that majority of the most recent papers are based on uni- or bivariate approach for complex data analysis. Data interpretation involves number of physicochemical parameters and hopanoids quantities or given biomarkers mass ratios derived from high-throughput separation and detection systems, typically GC-MS and HPLC-MS. Based on quantitative data reported in recently published experimental works it has been demonstrated that multivariate data analysis using e.g. principal components computations may significantly extend our knowledge concerning proper biomarkers selection and samples classification by means of hopanoids and related non-polar compounds. PMID:25958047

  16. Community-based participatory research as a tool to advance environmental health sciences.

    PubMed Central

    O'Fallon, Liam R; Dearry, Allen

    2002-01-01

    The past two decades have witnessed a rapid proliferation of community-based participatory research (CBPR) projects. CBPR methodology presents an alternative to traditional population-based biomedical research practices by encouraging active and equal partnerships between community members and academic investigators. The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), the premier biomedical research facility for environmental health, is a leader in promoting the use of CBPR in instances where community-university partnerships serve to advance our understanding of environmentally related disease. In this article, the authors highlight six key principles of CBPR and describe how these principles are met within specific NIEHS-supported research investigations. These projects demonstrate that community-based participatory research can be an effective tool to enhance our knowledge of the causes and mechanisms of disorders having an environmental etiology, reduce adverse health outcomes through innovative intervention strategies and policy change, and address the environmental health concerns of community residents. PMID:11929724

  17. Social Networking Site Usage Among Childhood Cancer Survivors - A Potential Tool for Research Recruitment?

    PubMed Central

    Seltzer, Erica D.; Stolley, Melinda R.; Mensah, Edward K.; Sharp, Lisa K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The recent and rapid growth of social networking site (SNS) use presents a unique public health opportunity to develop effective strategies for the recruitment of hard-to-reach participants for cancer research studies. This survey investigated childhood cancer survivors’ reported use of SNS such as facebook or MySpace and their perceptions of using SNS, for recruitment into survivorship research. Methods Sixty White, Black and Hispanic, adult childhood cancer survivors (range 18 – 48 years of age) that were randomly selected from a larger childhood cancer study, the Chicago Healthy Living Study (CHLS), participated in this pilot survey. Telephone surveys were conducted to understand current SNS activity and attitudes towards using SNS as a cancer research recruitment tool. Results Seventy percent of participants reported SNS usage of which 80% were at least weekly users and 79 % reported positive attitudes towards the use of SNS as a recruitment tool for survivorship research. Conclusions and implications for cancer survivors The results of this pilot study revealed that SNS use was high and regular among the childhood cancer survivors sampled. Most had positive attitudes towards using SNS for recruitment of research. The results of this pilot survey suggest that SNS may offer an alternative approach for recruitment of childhood cancer survivors into research. PMID:24532046

  18. The need for novel informatics tools for integrating and planning research in molecular and cellular cognition.

    PubMed

    Silva, Alcino J; Müller, Klaus-Robert

    2015-09-01

    The sheer volume and complexity of publications in the biological sciences are straining traditional approaches to research planning. Nowhere is this problem more serious than in molecular and cellular cognition, since in this neuroscience field, researchers routinely use approaches and information from a variety of areas in neuroscience and other biology fields. Additionally, the multilevel integration process characteristic of this field involves the establishment of experimental connections between molecular, electrophysiological, behavioral, and even cognitive data. This multidisciplinary integration process requires strategies and approaches that originate in several different fields, which greatly increases the complexity and demands of this process. Although causal assertions, where phenomenon A is thought to contribute or relate to B, are at the center of this integration process and key to research in biology, there are currently no tools to help scientists keep track of the increasingly more complex network of causal connections they use when making research decisions. Here, we propose the development of semiautomated graphical and interactive tools to help neuroscientists and other biologists, including those working in molecular and cellular cognition, to track, map, and weight causal evidence in research papers. There is a great need for a concerted effort by biologists, computer scientists, and funding institutions to develop maps of causal information that would aid in integration of research findings and in experiment planning. PMID:26286658

  19. A Runtime Environment for Supporting Research in Resilient HPC System Software & Tools

    SciTech Connect

    Vallee, Geoffroy R; Naughton, III, Thomas J; Boehm, Swen; Engelmann, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The high-performance computing (HPC) community continues to increase the size and complexity of hardware platforms that support advanced scientific workloads. The runtime environment (RTE) is a crucial layer in the software stack for these large-scale systems. The RTE manages the interface between the operating system and the application running in parallel on the machine. The deployment of applications and tools on large-scale HPC computing systems requires the RTE to manage process creation in a scalable manner, support sparse connectivity, and provide fault tolerance. We have developed a new RTE that provides a basis for building distributed execution environments and developing tools for HPC to aid research in system software and resilience. This paper describes the software architecture of the Scalable runTime Component Infrastructure (STCI), which is intended to provide a complete infrastructure for scalable start-up and management of many processes in large-scale HPC systems. We highlight features of the current implementation, which is provided as a system library that allows developers to easily use and integrate STCI in their tools and/or applications. The motivation for this work has been to support ongoing research activities in fault-tolerance for large-scale systems. We discuss the advantages of the modular framework employed and describe two use cases that demonstrate its capabilities: (i) an alternate runtime for a Message Passing Interface (MPI) stack, and (ii) a distributed control and communication substrate for a fault-injection tool.

  20. A new research tool for hybrid Bayesian networks using script language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Wei; Park, Cheol Young; Carvalho, Rommel

    2011-06-01

    While continuous variables become more and more inevitable in Bayesian networks for modeling real-life applications in complex systems, there are not much software tools to support it. Popular commercial Bayesian network tools such as Hugin, and Netica etc., are either expensive or have to discretize continuous variables. In addition, some free programs existing in the literature, commonly known as BNT, GeNie/SMILE, etc, have their own advantages and disadvantages respectively. In this paper, we introduce a newly developed Java tool for model construction and inference for hybrid Bayesian networks. Via the representation power of the script language, this tool can build the hybrid model automatically based on a well defined string that follows the specific grammars. Furthermore, it implements several inference algorithms capable to accommodate hybrid Bayesian networks, including Junction Tree algorithm (JT) for conditional linear Gaussian model (CLG), and Direct Message Passing (DMP) for general hybrid Bayesian networks with CLG structure. We believe this tool will be useful for researchers in the field.

  1. Exploring Assessment Tools for Research and Evaluation in Astronomy Education and Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buxner, S. R.; Wenger, M. C.; Dokter, E. F. C.

    2011-09-01

    The ability to effectively measure knowledge, attitudes, and skills in formal and informal educational settings is an important aspect of astronomy education research and evaluation. Assessments may take the form of interviews, observations, surveys, exams, or other probes to help unpack people's understandings or beliefs. In this workshop, we discussed characteristics of a variety of tools that exist to assess understandings of different concepts in astronomy as well as attitudes towards science and science teaching; these include concept inventories, surveys, interview protocols, observation protocols, card sorting, reflection videos, and other methods currently being used in astronomy education research and EPO program evaluations. In addition, we discussed common questions in the selection of assessment tools including issues of reliability and validity, time to administer, format of implementation, analysis, and human subject concerns.

  2. Open Virtual Worlds as Pedagogical Research Tools: Learning from the Schome Park Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Twining, Peter; Peachey, Anna

    This paper introduces the term Open Virtual Worlds and argues that they are ‘unclaimed educational spaces’, which provide a valuable tool for researching pedagogy. Having explored these claims the way in which Teen Second Life¼ virtual world was used for pedagogical experimentation in the initial phases of the Schome Park Programme is described. Four sets of pedagogical dimensions that emerged are presented and illustrated with examples from the Schome Park Programme.

  3. Using robotics construction kits as metacognitive tools: a research in an Italian primary school.

    PubMed

    La Paglia, Filippo; Caci, Barbara; La Barbera, Daniele; Cardaci, Maurizio

    2010-01-01

    The present paper is aimed at analyzing the process of building and programming robots as a metacognitive tool. Quantitative data and qualitative observations from a research performed in a sample of children attending an Italian primary school are described in this work. Results showed that robotics activities may be intended as a new metacognitive environment that allows children to monitor themselves and control their learning actions in an autonomous and self-centered way. PMID:20543280

  4. DataUp: A tool to help researchers describe and share tabular data

    PubMed Central

    Strasser, Carly; Kunze, John; Abrams, Stephen; Cruse, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Scientific datasets have immeasurable value, but they lose their value over time without proper documentation, long-term storage, and easy discovery and access. Across disciplines as diverse as astronomy, demography, archeology, and ecology, large numbers of small heterogeneous datasets (i.e., the long tail of data) are especially at risk unless they are properly documented, saved, and shared. One unifying factor for many of these at-risk datasets is that they reside in spreadsheets. In response to this need, the California Digital Library (CDL) partnered with Microsoft Research Connections and the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation to create the DataUp data management tool for Microsoft Excel. Many researchers creating these small, heterogeneous datasets use Excel at some point in their data collection and analysis workflow, so we were interested in developing a data management tool that fits easily into those work flows and minimizes the learning curve for researchers. The DataUp project began in August 2011. We first formally assessed the needs of researchers by conducting surveys and interviews of our target research groups: earth, environmental, and ecological scientists. We found that, on average, researchers had very poor data management practices, were not aware of data centers or metadata standards, and did not understand the benefits of data management or sharing. Based on our survey results, we composed a list of desirable components and requirements and solicited feedback from the community to prioritize potential features of the DataUp tool. These requirements were then relayed to the software developers, and DataUp was successfully launched in October 2012. PMID:25653834

  5. DataUp: A tool to help researchers describe and share tabular data.

    PubMed

    Strasser, Carly; Kunze, John; Abrams, Stephen; Cruse, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Scientific datasets have immeasurable value, but they lose their value over time without proper documentation, long-term storage, and easy discovery and access. Across disciplines as diverse as astronomy, demography, archeology, and ecology, large numbers of small heterogeneous datasets (i.e., the long tail of data) are especially at risk unless they are properly documented, saved, and shared. One unifying factor for many of these at-risk datasets is that they reside in spreadsheets. In response to this need, the California Digital Library (CDL) partnered with Microsoft Research Connections and the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation to create the DataUp data management tool for Microsoft Excel. Many researchers creating these small, heterogeneous datasets use Excel at some point in their data collection and analysis workflow, so we were interested in developing a data management tool that fits easily into those work flows and minimizes the learning curve for researchers. The DataUp project began in August 2011. We first formally assessed the needs of researchers by conducting surveys and interviews of our target research groups: earth, environmental, and ecological scientists. We found that, on average, researchers had very poor data management practices, were not aware of data centers or metadata standards, and did not understand the benefits of data management or sharing. Based on our survey results, we composed a list of desirable components and requirements and solicited feedback from the community to prioritize potential features of the DataUp tool. These requirements were then relayed to the software developers, and DataUp was successfully launched in October 2012. PMID:25653834

  6. Research and experimental testing of a new kind electrokinetic logging tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Feng-Bo; Ju, Xiao-Dong; Qiao, Wen-Xiao; Lu, Jun-Qiang; Men, Bai-Rong

    2014-12-01

    We designed a new downhole electrokinetic logging tool based on numerical simulations and petrophysical experiments. Acoustic and electric receivers cannot be arranged at the same depth, and the proposed composite electrokinetic logging tool offers a solution to this problem. The sound field characteristics of the detectors were tested in a water tank in the laboratory. Then, we calculated the sound pressure of the radiated acoustic field and the transmitting voltage response of the transmitting transducers; in addition, we analyzed the directivity and application of the acoustic transmitting probe based on linear phased array. The results suggest that the sound pressure generated at 1500 mm spacing reaches up to 47.2 kPa and decreases with increasing acoustic source frequency. When the excitation signals delay time of adjacent acoustic transmitting subarrays increases, the radiation beam of the main lobe is deflected and its energy gradually increases, which presumably enhances the acoustoelectric conversion efficiency.

  7. Easily configured real-time CPOE Pick Off Tool supporting focused clinical research and quality improvement.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, Benjamin P; Silkin, Nikolay; Miller, Randolph A

    2014-01-01

    Real-time alerting systems typically warn providers about abnormal laboratory results or medication interactions. For more complex tasks, institutions create site-wide 'data warehouses' to support quality audits and longitudinal research. Sophisticated systems like i2b2 or Stanford's STRIDE utilize data warehouses to identify cohorts for research and quality monitoring. However, substantial resources are required to install and maintain such systems. For more modest goals, an organization desiring merely to identify patients with 'isolation' orders, or to determine patients' eligibility for clinical trials, may adopt a simpler, limited approach based on processing the output of one clinical system, and not a data warehouse. We describe a limited, order-entry-based, real-time 'pick off' tool, utilizing public domain software (PHP, MySQL). Through a web interface the tool assists users in constructing complex order-related queries and auto-generates corresponding database queries that can be executed at recurring intervals. We describe successful application of the tool for research and quality monitoring. PMID:24287172

  8. CCMC: Serving research and space weather communities with unique space weather services, innovative tools and resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yihua; Kuznetsova, Maria M.; Pulkkinen, Antti; Maddox, Marlo

    2015-04-01

    With the addition of Space Weather Research Center (a sub-team within CCMC) in 2010 to address NASA’s own space weather needs, CCMC has become a unique entity that not only facilitates research through providing access to the state-of-the-art space science and space weather models, but also plays a critical role in providing unique space weather services to NASA robotic missions, developing innovative tools and transitioning research to operations via user feedback. With scientists, forecasters and software developers working together within one team, through close and direct connection with space weather customers and trusted relationship with model developers, CCMC is flexible, nimble and effective to meet customer needs. In this presentation, we highlight a few unique aspects of CCMC/SWRC’s space weather services, such as addressing space weather throughout the solar system, pushing the frontier of space weather forecasting via the ensemble approach, providing direct personnel and tool support for spacecraft anomaly resolution, prompting development of multi-purpose tools and knowledge bases, and educating and engaging the next generation of space weather scientists.

  9. The virtual supermarket: An innovative research tool to study consumer food purchasing behaviour

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Economic interventions in the food environment are expected to effectively promote healthier food choices. However, before introducing them on a large scale, it is important to gain insight into the effectiveness of economic interventions and peoples' genuine reactions to price changes. Nonetheless, because of complex implementation issues, studies on price interventions are virtually non-existent. This is especially true for experiments undertaken in a retail setting. We have developed a research tool to study the effects of retail price interventions in a virtual-reality setting: the Virtual Supermarket. This paper aims to inform researchers about the features and utilization of this new software application. Results The Virtual Supermarket is a Dutch-developed three-dimensional software application in which study participants can shop in a manner comparable to a real supermarket. The tool can be used to study several food pricing and labelling strategies. The application base can be used to build future extensions and could be translated into, for example, an English-language version. The Virtual Supermarket contains a front-end which is seen by the participants, and a back-end that enables researchers to easily manipulate research conditions. The application keeps track of time spent shopping, number of products purchased, shopping budget, total expenditures and answers on configurable questionnaires. All data is digitally stored and automatically sent to a web server. A pilot study among Dutch consumers (n = 66) revealed that the application accurately collected and stored all data. Results from participant feedback revealed that 83% of the respondents considered the Virtual Supermarket easy to understand and 79% found that their virtual grocery purchases resembled their regular groceries. Conclusions The Virtual Supermarket is an innovative research tool with a great potential to assist in gaining insight into food purchasing behaviour. The application can be obtained via an URL and is freely available for academic use. The unique features of the tool include the fact that it enables researchers to easily modify research conditions and in this way study different types of interventions in a retail environment without a complex implementation process. Finally, it also maintains researcher independence and avoids conflicts of interest that may arise from industry collaboration. PMID:21787391

  10. The 1999 Reginald Thomson Lecture. Custom-built mice: unique discovery tools in biomedical research.

    PubMed Central

    Croy, B A

    2000-01-01

    The study of mouse genetics is a science in its own right. Currently, the mouse is the central platform for model building in biomedical research. Recombinant DNA technology and mouse transgenesis have provided an almost unlimited resource of new animals that is constantly expanding. Investigators, through their selection of the most appropriate type of mouse and by imaginative combinations of animals in breeding or culture experiments, have the opportunity for discovery of new information that will benefit the health of both humans and species of veterinary interest. Wider appreciation and use of the mouse as a discovery tool in veterinary research should be encouraged. Images Figure 2. PMID:10738597

  11. A Mentoring Toolkit: Tips and Tools for Mentoring Early-Career Researchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flint, Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    Effective mentoring is a critical component in the training of early-career researchers, cultivating more independent, productive and satisfied scientists. For example, mentoring has been shown by the 2005 Sigma Xi National Postdoc Survey to be a key indicator for a successful postdoctoral outcome. Mentoring takes many forms and can include support for maximizing research skills and productivity as well as assistance in preparing for a chosen career path. Yet, because there is no "one-size-fits-all” approach, mentoring can be an activity that is hard to define. In this presentation, a series of tips and tools will be offered to aid mentors in developing a plan for their mentoring activities. This will include: suggestions for how to get started; opportunities for mentoring activities within the research group, within the institution, and outside the institution; tools for communicating and assessing professional milestones; and resources for fostering the professional and career development of mentees. Special considerations will also be presented for mentoring international scholars and women. These strategies will be helpful to the PI responding to the new NSF mentoring plan requirement for postdocs as well as to the student, postdoc, researcher or professor overseeing the research and training of others.

  12. NASA System-Level Design, Analysis and Simulation Tools Research on NextGen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bardina, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    A review of the research accomplished in 2009 in the System-Level Design, Analysis and Simulation Tools (SLDAST) of the NASA's Airspace Systems Program is presented. This research thrust focuses on the integrated system-level assessment of component level innovations, concepts and technologies of the Next Generation Air Traffic System (NextGen) under research in the ASP program to enable the development of revolutionary improvements and modernization of the National Airspace System. The review includes the accomplishments on baseline research and the advancements on design studies and system-level assessment, including the cluster analysis as an annualization standard of the air traffic in the U.S. National Airspace, and the ACES-Air MIDAS integration for human-in-the-loop analyzes within the NAS air traffic simulation.

  13. Helping to drive the robustness of preclinical research – the assay capability tool

    PubMed Central

    Gore, Katrina; Stanley, Phil

    2015-01-01

    Numerous articles in Nature, Science, Pharmacology Research and Perspectives, and other biomedical research journals over the past decade have highlighted that research is plagued by findings that are not reliable and cannot be reproduced. Poor experiments can occur, in part, as a consequence of inadequate statistical thinking in the experimental design, conduct and analysis. As it is not feasible for statisticians to be involved in every preclinical experiment many of the same journals have published guidelines on good statistical practice. Here, we outline a tool that addresses the root causes of irreproducibility in preclinical research in the pharmaceutical industry. The Assay Capability Tool uses 13 questions to guide scientists and statisticians during the development of in vitro and in vivo assays. It promotes the absolutely essential experimental design and analysis strategies and documents the strengths, weaknesses, and precision of an assay. However, what differentiates it from other proposed solutions is the emphasis on how the resulting data will be used. An assay can be assigned a low, medium, or high rating to indicate the level of confidence that can be afforded when making important decisions using data from that assay. This provides transparency on the appropriate interpretation of the assay's results in the light of its current capability. We suggest that following a well-defined process during assay development and use such as that laid out within the Assay Capability Tool means that whatever the results, positive or negative, a researcher can have confidence to make decisions upon and publish their findings. PMID:26236488

  14. Autonomous profiling buoy system: a new powerful tool for research and operational oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aracri, Simona; Borghini, Mireno; Canesso, Devis; Chiggiato, Jacopo; Durante, Sara; Griffa, Annalisa; Schroeder, Katrin; Sparnocchia, Stefania; Vetrano, Anna; Kitawaza, Yuji; Kawahara, Hisayoshi; Nakamura, Tetsuya

    2015-04-01

    Oceanography is nowadays a fast-changing field. The scientific community is orienting towards the implementation of a growing array of satellite-borne or mobile and moored high-tech devices and sensors, while sending fewer scientists at sea to collect measurements, minimizing the expensive ship-time costs. In other words, oceanography is now moving from a platform-centric sensing system to a net-centric distributed sensing system. Integration with operational ocean models, providing the best estimate of the ocean state by means of data assimilation, is the step forward, with nowadays mature initiatives at global scale and at regional scale in the Mediterranean Sea. While the ocean still remains a complex system, largely undersampled, multiplatform-integration, improvements in tools capabilities and assimilation in models represents one way to reduce uncertainties in marine areas. In this context, and differently from mobile platforms (e.g, gliders, argos), fixed-point moorings nicely provide long term point wise time-series, but limited by a low vertical resolution. Technology is fast evolving towards the implementation of automatic profilers, which partially overcome this limitation. In June 2013 the Institute of Marine Sciences of the Italian National Research Council (CNR-ISMAR) started the test phase of one of the very few Mediterranean autonomous profiling systems installed in a open-sea mooring, transmitting, daily, hydrological vertical profiles in real time through satellite communication. The selected site was the Corsica Channel, a narrow passage between Corsica and Capraia islands, connecting the two main regions of the western Mediterranean: the Tyrrhenian and the Liguro-Provençal basins. The Corsica Channel represents a 'choke point' for the study of the dynamics and evolution of the western Mediterranean Sea. Previous studies in this passage indicate an annual and seasonal cycle with northward winter fluxes representing about the 60% of the total annual transport. In summer, excluding few cases of current inversions, exchanges between the two basins are mostly interrupted. Here the use of the new profiler is discussed. The profiling buoy system can be mounted at any level of a moored chain, which doesn't need any surficial support, allowing the flexibility to monitor discontinuities and sharp changes along selected depth ranges, at the same time, transmitting real-time data for best integration in modern operational oceanography networks.

  15. Metaphors and Drawings as Research Tools of Head Teachers' Perceptions on Their Management and Leadership Roles and Responsibilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Argyropoulou, Eleftheria; Hatira, Kalliopi

    2014-01-01

    This article introduces an alternative qualitative research tool: metaphor and drawing, as projections of personality features, to explore underlying concepts and values, thoughts and beliefs, fears and hesitations, aspirations and ambitions of the research subjects. These two projective tools are used to explore Greek state kindergarten head…

  16. Extending the XNAT archive tool for image and analysis management in ophthalmology research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahle, Andreas; Lee, Kyungmoo; Harding, Adam T.; Garvin, Mona K.; Niemeijer, Meindert; Sonka, Milan; Abràmoff, Michael D.

    2013-03-01

    In ophthalmology, various modalities and tests are utilized to obtain vital information on the eye's structure and function. For example, optical coherence tomography (OCT) is utilized to diagnose, screen, and aid treatment of eye diseases like macular degeneration or glaucoma. Such data are complemented by photographic retinal fundus images and functional tests on the visual field. DICOM isn't widely used yet, though, and frequently images are encoded in proprietary formats. The eXtensible Neuroimaging Archive Tool (XNAT) is an open-source NIH-funded framework for research PACS and is in use at the University of Iowa for neurological research applications. Its use for ophthalmology was hence desirable but posed new challenges due to data types thus far not considered and the lack of standardized formats. We developed custom tools for data types not natively recognized by XNAT itself using XNAT's low-level REST API. Vendor-provided tools can be included as necessary to convert proprietary data sets into valid DICOM. Clients can access the data in a standardized format while still retaining the original format if needed by specific analysis tools. With respective project-specific permissions, results like segmentations or quantitative evaluations can be stored as additional resources to previously uploaded datasets. Applications can use our abstract-level Python or C/C++ API to communicate with the XNAT instance. This paper describes concepts and details of the designed upload script templates, which can be customized to the needs of specific projects, and the novel client-side communication API which allows integration into new or existing research applications.

  17. VoiceThread as a Peer Review and Dissemination Tool for Undergraduate Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guertin, L. A.

    2012-12-01

    VoiceThread has been utilized in an undergraduate research methods course for peer review and final research project dissemination. VoiceThread (http://www.voicethread.com) can be considered a social media tool, as it is a web-based technology with the capacity to enable interactive dialogue. VoiceThread is an application that allows a user to place a media collection online containing images, audio, videos, documents, and/or presentations in an interface that facilitates asynchronous communication. Participants in a VoiceThread can be passive viewers of the online content or engaged commenters via text, audio, video, with slide annotations via a doodle tool. The VoiceThread, which runs across browsers and operating systems, can be public or private for viewing and commenting and can be embedded into any website. Although few university students are aware of the VoiceThread platform (only 10% of the students surveyed by Ng (2012)), the 2009 K-12 edition of The Horizon Report (Johnson et al., 2009) lists VoiceThread as a tool to watch because of the opportunities it provides as a collaborative learning environment. In Fall 2011, eleven students enrolled in an undergraduate research methods course at Penn State Brandywine each conducted their own small-scale research project. Upon conclusion of the projects, students were required to create a poster summarizing their work for peer review. To facilitate the peer review process outside of class, each student-created PowerPoint file was placed in a VoiceThread with private access to only the class members and instructor. Each student was assigned to peer review five different student posters (i.e., VoiceThread images) with the audio and doodle tools to comment on formatting, clarity of content, etc. After the peer reviews were complete, the students were allowed to edit their PowerPoint poster files for a new VoiceThread. In the new VoiceThread, students were required to video record themselves describing their research and taking the viewer through their poster in the VoiceThread. This new VoiceThread with their final presentations was open for public viewing but not public commenting. A formal assessment was not conducted on the student impact of using VoiceThread for peer review and final research presentations. From an instructional standpoint, requiring students to use audio for the peer review commenting seemed to result in lengthier and more detailed reviews, connected with specific poster features when the doodle tool was utilized. By recording themselves as a "talking head" for the final product, students were required to be comfortable and confident with presenting their research, similar to what would be expected at a conference presentation. VoiceThread is currently being tested in general education Earth science courses at Penn State Brandywine as a dissemination tool for classroom-based inquiry projects and recruitment tool for Earth & Mineral Science majors.

  18. Participant Satisfaction With a Preference-Setting Tool for the Return of Individual Research Results in Pediatric Genomic Research.

    PubMed

    Holm, Ingrid A; Iles, Brittany R; Ziniel, Sonja I; Bacon, Phoebe L; Savage, Sarah K; Christensen, Kurt D; Weitzman, Elissa R; Green, Robert C; Huntington, Noelle L

    2015-10-01

    The perceived benefit of return of individual research results (IRRs) in accordance to participants' preferences in genomic biobank research is unclear. We developed an online preference-setting tool for return of IRRs based on the preventability and severity of a condition, which included an opt-out option for IRRs for mental illness, developmental disorders, childhood-onset degenerative conditions, and adult-onset conditions. Parents of patients <18 years of age at Boston Children's Hospital were randomized to the hypothetical scenario that their child was enrolled in one of four biobanks with different policies for IRRs to receive (a) "None," (b) "All," (c) "Binary"--choice to receive all or none, and (d) "Granular"--use the preference-setting tool to choose categories of IRRs. Parents were given a hypothetical IRRs report for their child. The survey was sent to 11,391 parents and completed by 2,718. The Granular group was the most satisfied with the process, biobank, and hypothetical IRRs received. The None group was least satisfied and least likely to agree that the biobank was beneficial (p < .001). The response to the statement that the biobank was harmful was not different between groups. Our data suggest that the ability to designate preferences leads to greater satisfaction and may increase biobank participation. PMID:26376753

  19. The development of a two-component force dynamometer and tool control system for dynamic machine tool research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutherland, I. A.

    1973-01-01

    The development is presented of a tooling system that makes a controlled sinusoidal oscillation simulating a dynamic chip removal condition. It also measures the machining forces in two mutually perpendicular directions without any cross sensitivity.

  20. Mapping of Sample Collection Data: GIS Tools for the Natural Product Researcher

    PubMed Central

    Oberlies, Nicholas H.; Rineer, James I.; Alali, Feras Q.; Tawaha, Khaled; Falkinham, Joseph O.; Wheaton, William D.

    2009-01-01

    Scientists engaged in the research of natural products often either conduct field collections themselves or collaborate with partners who do, such as botanists, mycologists, or SCUBA divers. The information gleaned from such collecting trips (e.g. longitude/latitude coordinates, geography, elevation, and a multitude of other field observations) have provided valuable data to the scientific community (e.g., biodiversity), even if it is tangential to the direct aims of the natural products research, which are often focused on drug discovery and/or chemical ecology. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) have been used to display, manage, and analyze geographic data, including collection sites for natural products. However, to the uninitiated, these tools are often beyond the financial and/or computational means of the natural product scientist. With new, free, and easy-to-use geospatial visualization tools, such as Google Earth, mapping and geographic imaging of sampling data are now within the reach of natural products scientists. The goals of the present study were to develop simple tools that are tailored for the natural products setting, thereby presenting a means to map such information, particularly via open source software like Google Earth. PMID:20161345

  1. PathCase-SB: integrating data sources and providing tools for systems biology research

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Integration of metabolic pathways resources and metabolic network models, and deploying new tools on the integrated platform can help perform more effective and more efficient systems biology research on understanding the regulation of metabolic networks. Therefore, the tasks of (a) integrating under a single database environment regulatory metabolic networks and existing models, and (b) building tools to help with modeling and analysis are desirable and intellectually challenging computational tasks. Results PathCase Systems Biology (PathCase-SB) is built and released. This paper describes PathCase-SB user interfaces developed to date. The current PathCase-SB system provides a database-enabled framework and web-based computational tools towards facilitating the development of kinetic models for biological systems. PathCase-SB aims to integrate systems biology models data and metabolic network data of selected biological data sources on the web (currently, BioModels Database and KEGG, respectively), and to provide more powerful and/or new capabilities via the new web-based integrative framework. Conclusions Each of the current four PathCase-SB interfaces, namely, Browser, Visualization, Querying, and Simulation interfaces, have expanded and new capabilities as compared with the original data sources. PathCase-SB is already available on the web and being used by researchers across the globe. PMID:22697505

  2. sRNAtoolbox: an integrated collection of small RNA research tools

    PubMed Central

    Rueda, Antonio; Barturen, Guillermo; Lebrón, Ricardo; Gómez-Martín, Cristina; Alganza, Ángel; Oliver, José L.; Hackenberg, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Small RNA research is a rapidly growing field. Apart from microRNAs, which are important regulators of gene expression, other types of functional small RNA molecules have been reported in animals and plants. MicroRNAs are important in host-microbe interactions and parasite microRNAs might modulate the innate immunity of the host. Furthermore, small RNAs can be detected in bodily fluids making them attractive non-invasive biomarker candidates. Given the general broad interest in small RNAs, and in particular microRNAs, a large number of bioinformatics aided analysis types are needed by the scientific community. To facilitate integrated sRNA research, we developed sRNAtoolbox, a set of independent but interconnected tools for expression profiling from high-throughput sequencing data, consensus differential expression, target gene prediction, visual exploration in a genome context as a function of read length, gene list analysis and blast search of unmapped reads. All tools can be used independently or for the exploration and downstream analysis of sRNAbench results. Workflows like the prediction of consensus target genes of parasite microRNAs in the host followed by the detection of enriched pathways can be easily established. The web-interface interconnecting all these tools is available at http://bioinfo5.ugr.es/srnatoolbox PMID:26019179

  3. sRNAtoolbox: an integrated collection of small RNA research tools.

    PubMed

    Rueda, Antonio; Barturen, Guillermo; Lebrón, Ricardo; Gómez-Martín, Cristina; Alganza, Ángel; Oliver, José L; Hackenberg, Michael

    2015-07-01

    Small RNA research is a rapidly growing field. Apart from microRNAs, which are important regulators of gene expression, other types of functional small RNA molecules have been reported in animals and plants. MicroRNAs are important in host-microbe interactions and parasite microRNAs might modulate the innate immunity of the host. Furthermore, small RNAs can be detected in bodily fluids making them attractive non-invasive biomarker candidates. Given the general broad interest in small RNAs, and in particular microRNAs, a large number of bioinformatics aided analysis types are needed by the scientific community. To facilitate integrated sRNA research, we developed sRNAtoolbox, a set of independent but interconnected tools for expression profiling from high-throughput sequencing data, consensus differential expression, target gene prediction, visual exploration in a genome context as a function of read length, gene list analysis and blast search of unmapped reads. All tools can be used independently or for the exploration and downstream analysis of sRNAbench results. Workflows like the prediction of consensus target genes of parasite microRNAs in the host followed by the detection of enriched pathways can be easily established. The web-interface interconnecting all these tools is available at http://bioinfo5.ugr.es/srnatoolbox. PMID:26019179

  4. Research concerning optimum cutting parameters according with tool path strategy for finishing procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pena, A. E.; Anania, F. D.; Zapciu, M.

    2015-11-01

    Optimization of cutting parameters in NC milling needs to be studied because of its influence on machining time and cost. Today, any CAM software offers many tool path strategies to milling free form geometries. However, the users must have the know-how to choose the strategies according to geometry complexity, cutting tool geometry and its contact on the machined surface. Choosing the right strategy with the right cutting parameter is a rather difficult task to do on the machine tool. In this paper we try to take into account the influence of the toolpath over the surface quality for finishing operation. The main goal is to establish a direct link between machining parameters and toolpath in order to obtain the same surface quality for different trajectories. The first step consist in making a series of experiments for standards toolpaths (which can be found in any CAM software) like one-way, zig-zag, spiral from outside to inside, zig-zag at 45 dgr on a milling center. Based on the results, a correction coefficient for the feed rate was established.

  5. SIMS ion microscopy as a novel, practical tool for subcellular chemical imaging in cancer research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, S.

    2003-01-01

    The development of cryogenic sample preparations, subcellular image quantification schemes, and correlative confocal laser scanning microscopy and ion microscopy have made dynamic SIMS a versatile tool in biology and medicine. For example, ion microscopy can provide much needed, novel information on calcium influx and intracellular calcium stores at organelle resolution in normal and transformed cells in order to better understand the altered calcium signaling in malignant cells. 3-D SIMS imaging of cells revealed dynamic gradients of calcium in cells undergoing mitosis and cytokinesis. Studies of subcellular localization of anticancer drugs is another area of research where ion microscopy can provide novel observations in many types of cancers. Ion microscopy is already an essential tool in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) of brain cancer as it can be used to quantitatively image the subcellular location of boron in cells and tissues. This information is critically needed for testing the efficacy of boronated agents and for calculations of radiation dosimetry.

  6. A multimedia consent tool for research participants in the Gambia: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    McGrath, Nuala; D’Alessandro, Umberto; Kampmann, Beate; Imoukhuede, Egeruan B; Ravinetto, Raffaella M; Alexander, Neal; Larson, Heidi J; Chandramohan, Daniel; Bojang, Kalifa

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess the effectiveness of a multimedia informed consent tool for adults participating in a clinical trial in the Gambia. Methods Adults eligible for inclusion in a malaria treatment trial (n?=?311) were randomized to receive information needed for informed consent using either a multimedia tool (intervention arm) or a standard procedure (control arm). A computerized, audio questionnaire was used to assess participants’ comprehension of informed consent. This was done immediately after consent had been obtained (at day 0) and at subsequent follow-up visits (days 7, 14, 21 and 28). The acceptability and ease of use of the multimedia tool were assessed in focus groups. Findings On day 0, the median comprehension score in the intervention arm was 64% compared with 40% in the control arm (P?=?0.042). The difference remained significant at all follow-up visits. Poorer comprehension was independently associated with female sex (odds ratio, OR: 0.29; 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.12–0.70) and residing in Jahaly rather than Basse province (OR: 0.33; 95% CI: 0.13–0.82). There was no significant independent association with educational level. The risk that a participant’s comprehension score would drop to half of the initial value was lower in the intervention arm (hazard ratio 0.22, 95% CI: 0.16–0.31). Overall, 70% (42/60) of focus group participants from the intervention arm found the multimedia tool clear and easy to understand. Conclusion A multimedia informed consent tool significantly improved comprehension and retention of consent information by research participants with low levels of literacy. PMID:26229203

  7. The DEDUCE Guided Query tool: providing simplified access to clinical data for research and quality improvement.

    PubMed

    Horvath, Monica M; Winfield, Stephanie; Evans, Steve; Slopek, Steve; Shang, Howard; Ferranti, Jeffrey

    2011-04-01

    In many healthcare organizations, comparative effectiveness research and quality improvement (QI) investigations are hampered by a lack of access to data created as a byproduct of patient care. Data collection often hinges upon either manual chart review or ad hoc requests to technical experts who support legacy clinical systems. In order to facilitate this needed capacity for data exploration at our institution (Duke University Health System), we have designed and deployed a robust Web application for cohort identification and data extraction--the Duke Enterprise Data Unified Content Explorer (DEDUCE). DEDUCE is envisioned as a simple, web-based environment that allows investigators access to administrative, financial, and clinical information generated during patient care. By using business intelligence tools to create a view into Duke Medicine's enterprise data warehouse, DEDUCE provides a Guided Query functionality using a wizard-like interface that lets users filter through millions of clinical records, explore aggregate reports, and, export extracts. Researchers and QI specialists can obtain detailed patient- and observation-level extracts without needing to understand structured query language or the underlying database model. Developers designing such tools must devote sufficient training and develop application safeguards to ensure that patient-centered clinical researchers understand when observation-level extracts should be used. This may mitigate the risk of data being misunderstood and consequently used in an improper fashion. PMID:21130181

  8. The DEDUCE Guided Query Tool: Providing Simplified Access to Clinical Data for Research and Quality Improvement

    PubMed Central

    Horvath, Monica M.; Winfield, Stephanie; Evans, Steve; Slopek, Steve; Shang, Howard; Ferranti, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    In many healthcare organizations, comparative effectiveness research and quality improvement (QI) investigations are hampered by a lack of access to data created as a byproduct of patient care. Data collection often hinges upon either manual chart review or ad hoc requests to technical experts who support legacy clinical systems. In order to facilitate this needed capacity for data exploration at our institution (Duke University Health System), we have designed and deployed a robust Web application for cohort identification and data extraction—the Duke Enterprise Data Unified Content Explorer (DEDUCE). DEDUCE is envisioned as a simple, web-based environment that allows investigators access to administrative, financial, and clinical information generated during patient care. By using business intelligence tools to create a view into Duke Medicine's enterprise data warehouse, DEDUCE provides a guided query functionality using a wizard-like interface that lets users filter through millions of clinical records, explore aggregate reports, and, export extracts. Researchers and QI specialists can obtain detailed patient- and observation-level extracts without needing to understand structured query language or the underlying database model. Developers designing such tools must devote sufficient training and develop application safeguards to ensure that patient-centered clinical researchers understand when observation-level extracts should be used. This may mitigate the risk of data being misunderstood and consequently used in an improper fashion. PMID:21130181

  9. Growth and Maturation in the Zebrafish, Danio Rerio: A Staging Tool for Teaching and Research

    PubMed Central

    Singleman, Corinna

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Zebrafish have been increasingly used as a teaching tool to enhance the learning of many biological concepts from genetics, development, and behavior to the understanding of the local watershed. Traditionally, in both research and teaching, zebrafish work has focused on embryonic stages; however, later stages, from larval through adulthood, are increasingly being examined. Defining developmental stages based on age is a problematic way to assess maturity, because many environmental factors, such as temperature, population density, and water quality, impact growth and maturation. Fish length and characterization of key external morphological traits are considered better markers for maturation state. While a number of staging series exist for zebrafish, here we present a simplified normalization table of post-embryonic maturation well suited to both educational and research use. Specifically, we utilize fish size and four easily identified external morphological traits (pigment pattern, tail fin, anal fin, and dorsal fin morphology) to describe three larval stages, a juvenile stage, and an adult stage. These simplified maturation standards will be a useful tool for both educational and research protocols. PMID:24979389

  10. Oxytocin and Vasopressin Agonists and Antagonists as Research Tools and Potential Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Manning, M; Misicka, A; Olma, A; Bankowski, K; Stoev, S; Chini, B; Durroux, T; Mouillac, B; Corbani, M; Guillon, G

    2012-01-01

    We recently reviewed the status of peptide and nonpeptide agonists and antagonists for the V1a, V1b and V2 receptors for arginine vasopressin (AVP) and the oxytocin receptor for oxytocin (OT). In the present review, we update the status of peptides and nonpeptides as: (i) research tools and (ii) therapeutic agents. We also present our recent findings on the design of fluorescent ligands for V1b receptor localisation and for OT receptor dimerisation. We note the exciting discoveries regarding two novel naturally occurring analogues of OT. Recent reports of a selective VP V1a agonist and a selective OT agonist point to the continued therapeutic potential of peptides in this field. To date, only two nonpeptides, the V2/V1a antagonist, conivaptan and the V2 antagonist tolvaptan have received Food and Drug Administration approval for clinical use. The development of nonpeptide AVP V1a, V1b and V2 antagonists and OT agonists and antagonists has recently been abandoned by Merck, Sanofi and Pfizer. A promising OT antagonist, Retosiban, developed at Glaxo SmithKline is currently in a Phase II clinical trial for the prevention of premature labour. A number of the nonpeptide ligands that were not successful in clinical trials are proving to be valuable as research tools. Peptide agonists and antagonists continue to be very widely used as research tools in this field. In this regard, we present receptor data on some of the most widely used peptide and nonpeptide ligands, as a guide for their use, especially with regard to receptor selectivity and species differences. PMID:22375852

  11. Oxytocin and vasopressin agonists and antagonists as research tools and potential therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Manning, M; Misicka, A; Olma, A; Bankowski, K; Stoev, S; Chini, B; Durroux, T; Mouillac, B; Corbani, M; Guillon, G

    2012-04-01

    We recently reviewed the status of peptide and nonpeptide agonists and antagonists for the V(1a), V(1b) and V(2) receptors for arginine vasopressin (AVP) and the oxytocin receptor for oxytocin (OT). In the present review, we update the status of peptides and nonpeptides as: (i) research tools and (ii) therapeutic agents. We also present our recent findings on the design of fluorescent ligands for V(1b) receptor localisation and for OT receptor dimerisation. We note the exciting discoveries regarding two novel naturally occurring analogues of OT. Recent reports of a selective VP V(1a) agonist and a selective OT agonist point to the continued therapeutic potential of peptides in this field. To date, only two nonpeptides, the V(2) /V(1a) antagonist, conivaptan and the V(2) antagonist tolvaptan have received Food and Drug Administration approval for clinical use. The development of nonpeptide AVP V(1a), V(1b) and V(2) antagonists and OT agonists and antagonists has recently been abandoned by Merck, Sanofi and Pfizer. A promising OT antagonist, Retosiban, developed at Glaxo SmithKline is currently in a Phase II clinical trial for the prevention of premature labour. A number of the nonpeptide ligands that were not successful in clinical trials are proving to be valuable as research tools. Peptide agonists and antagonists continue to be very widely used as research tools in this field. In this regard, we present receptor data on some of the most widely used peptide and nonpeptide ligands, as a guide for their use, especially with regard to receptor selectivity and species differences. PMID:22375852

  12. Piperonyl butoxide as a tool in aquatic toxicological research with organophosphate insecticides.

    PubMed

    Ankley, G T; Dierkes, J R; Jensen, D A; Peterson, G S

    1991-06-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of piperonyl butoxide, a synthetic methylenedioxyphenyl inhibitor of cytochrome(s) P450, on the toxicity of organophosphate insecticides to three cladoceran test species: Ceriodaphnia dubia. Daphnia magna, and Daphnia pulex. Coadministration of piperonyl butoxide effectively reduced the acute toxicity of four metabolically activated organophosphates (parathion, methyl parathion, diazinon, and malathion) and did not affect the toxicity of three organophosphates not requiring metabolic activation (dichlorvos, chlorfenvinphos, and mevinphos). These results indicate that piperonyl butoxide may be an effective tool in toxicological research focused upon identifying specific compounds responsible for toxicity in complex aqueous mixtures. PMID:1868783

  13. Solid Modeling Aerospace Research Tool (SMART) user's guide, version 2.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmillin, Mark L.; Spangler, Jan L.; Dahmen, Stephen M.; Rehder, John J.

    1993-01-01

    The Solid Modeling Aerospace Research Tool (SMART) software package is used in the conceptual design of aerospace vehicles. It provides a highly interactive and dynamic capability for generating geometries with Bezier cubic patches. Features include automatic generation of commonly used aerospace constructs (e.g., wings and multilobed tanks); cross-section skinning; wireframe and shaded presentation; area, volume, inertia, and center-of-gravity calculations; and interfaces to various aerodynamic and structural analysis programs. A comprehensive description of SMART and how to use it is provided.

  14. Frontal affinity chromatography: A unique research tool for biospecific interaction that promotes glycobiology

    PubMed Central

    KASAI, Kenichi

    2014-01-01

    Combination of bioaffinity and chromatography gave birth to affinity chromatography. A further combination with frontal analysis resulted in creation of frontal affinity chromatography (FAC). This new versatile research tool enabled detailed analysis of weak interactions that play essential roles in living systems, especially those between complex saccharides and saccharide-binding proteins. FAC now becomes the best method for the investigation of saccharide-binding proteins (lectins) from viewpoints of sensitivity, accuracy, and efficiency, and is contributing greatly to the development of glycobiology. It opened a door leading to deeper understanding of the significance of saccharide recognition in life. The theory is also concisely described. PMID:25169774

  15. Synthetic biology in mammalian cells: Next generation research tools and therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Lienert, Florian; Lohmueller, Jason J; Garg, Abhishek; Silver, Pamela A

    2014-01-01

    Recent progress in DNA manipulation and gene circuit engineering has greatly improved our ability to programme and probe mammalian cell behaviour. These advances have led to a new generation of synthetic biology research tools and potential therapeutic applications. Programmable DNA-binding domains and RNA regulators are leading to unprecedented control of gene expression and elucidation of gene function. Rebuilding complex biological circuits such as T cell receptor signalling in isolation from their natural context has deepened our understanding of network motifs and signalling pathways. Synthetic biology is also leading to innovative therapeutic interventions based on cell-based therapies, protein drugs, vaccines and gene therapies. PMID:24434884

  16. Ocular static and dynamic light scattering: a noninvasive diagnostic tool for eye research and clinical practice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ansari, Rafat R.

    2004-01-01

    The noninvasive techniques of static and dynamic light scattering are emerging as valuable diagnostic tools for the early detection of ocular and systemic diseases. These include corneal abnormalities, pigmentary dispersion syndrome, glaucoma, cataract, diabetic vitreopathy, and possibly macular degeneration. Systemic conditions such as diabetes and possibly Alzheimer's disease can potentially be detected early via ocular tissues. The current state of development of these techniques for application to ophthalmic research and ultimately clinical practice is reviewed. (c) 2004 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers.

  17. High throughput tools to access images from clinical archives for research.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Shawn N; Herrick, Christopher; Wang, Yanbing; Wang, Taowei David; Sack, Darren; Andriole, Katherine P; Wei, Jesse; Reynolds, Nathaniel; Plesniak, Wendy; Rosen, Bruce R; Pieper, Steven; Gollub, Randy L

    2015-04-01

    Historically, medical images collected in the course of clinical care have been difficult to access for secondary research studies. While there is a tremendous potential value in the large volume of studies contained in clinical image archives, Picture Archiving and Communication Systems (PACS) are designed to optimize clinical operations and workflow. Search capabilities in PACS are basic, limiting their use for population studies, and duplication of archives for research is costly. To address this need, we augment the Informatics for Integrating Biology and the Bedside (i2b2) open source software, providing investigators with the tools necessary to query and integrate medical record and clinical research data. Over 100 healthcare institutions have installed this suite of software tools that allows investigators to search medical record metadata including images for specific types of patients. In this report, we describe a new Medical Imaging Informatics Bench to Bedside (mi2b2) module ( www.mi2b2.org ), available now as an open source addition to the i2b2 software platform that allows medical imaging examinations collected during routine clinical care to be made available to translational investigators directly from their institution's clinical PACS for research and educational use in compliance with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) Omnibus Rule. Access governance within the mi2b2 module is customizable per institution and PACS minimizing impact on clinical systems. Currently in active use at our institutions, this new technology has already been used to facilitate access to thousands of clinical MRI brain studies representing specific patient phenotypes for use in research. PMID:25316195

  18. Ambient Particulate Matter during MILAGRO in Mexico City: Main Findings, Impacts (on AQ and Climate), and Future Research Needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenez, Jose-Luis; Schauer, James J.; Molina, Luisa T.; MILAGRO Pm Team

    2010-05-01

    The MILAGRO campaign was a large international field experiments conduced in Mexico City and Central Mexico during March 2006. We present an overview of the main findings related to particulate matter and aerosol radiative properties. PM levels inside Mexico City were similar or higher than those in the most polluted North American cities, but ~5 times lower than levels in the most polluted Asian megacities During the study, PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations in the urban area of were about double the concentrations in the rural areas surrounding Mexico City. PM2.5 made up about half of the PM10 concentrations, with small amounts of mass in the PM2.5-PM1.0 range. Mineral matter made up approximately 25% of the PM10 and on average 15% and 28% of the PM2.5 in the urban and rural areas, respectively. Approximately 25% of the PM2.5 was secondary inorganic ions with the remaining PM2.5 mass being comprised of largely carbonaceous aerosol. Except for surface measurements at the central sampling sites in Mexico city, the elemental carbon mass absorption efficiency was relatively constant for aircraft and surface measurements throughout the study, contrary to expectations. Although different organic aerosol (OA) source apportionment methods had some differences, there was agreement that the dominant sources of carbonaceous aerosol were secondary OA (SOA), biomass burning, and mobile sources. The impact of biomass burning to the aerosol outflow from the region was much larger than to the surface concentrations inside the city. SOA formation from primary semivolatile and intermediate volatility precursors has the potential to close the gap in predicted vs. measured SOA, while formation from glyoxal also makes an important contribution, especially to organic oxygen. Biogenic SOA advected from the coastal mountain ranges contributes about 1 ?g m-3 to concentrations in the MCMA. Primary OA from anthropogenic and biomass burning sources was found to be semivolatile, while secondary OA was less volatile than POA and aged SOA was essentially non-volatile, in contradiction with current models. Growth rates of new particle formation in Mexico City was very large and found to be impacted by nitrogen containing organic compounds, organic acids, and hydroxyl organic acids, with only a smaller fraction of sulfate aerosol. Some open research questions include the following: additional work is needed to fully quantify the sources of substantial (30-45%) modern carbon in organic aerosols during low biomass burning periods. Discrepancies between the two modern carbon datasets deserve further study. The impact of regional dust vs. road resuspension, as well as heterogeneous reactions of HNO3 with dust need to be quantified. The impact of some POA sources such as food cooking, biofuel use, and open trash burning may be important, but remains poorly characterized. Some differences in the apportionment of biomass burning PM between different approaches were observed and need further research, as these techniques together represent the state of the art for source apportionment. Anthropogenic SOA predictions are improving in terms of magnitude but are poorly constrained by the data. More specific precursor, intermediate, and tracer measurements are needed in future campaigns. SOA from biomass burning sources, although not dominant in the city, remains poorly characterized and appears to be underpredicted by traditional models.

  19. Research priorities for the development and implementation of serological tools for malaria surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Salenna R.; Fowkes, Freya J.I.; Richards, Jack S.; Reiling, Linda; Drew, Damien R.

    2014-01-01

    Surveillance is a key component of control and elimination programs. Malaria surveillance has been typically reliant on case reporting by health services, entomological estimates and parasitemia (Plasmodium species) point prevalence. However, these techniques become less sensitive and relatively costly as transmission declines. There is great potential for the development and application of serological biomarkers of malaria exposure as sero-surveillance tools to strengthen malaria control and elimination. Antibodies to malaria antigens are sensitive biomarkers of population-level malaria exposure and can be used to identify hotspots of malaria transmission, estimate transmission levels, monitor changes over time or the impact of interventions on transmission, confirm malaria elimination, and monitor re-emergence of malaria. Sero-surveillance tools could be used in reference laboratories or developed as simple point-of-care tests for community-based surveillance, and different applications and target populations dictate the technical performance required from assays that are determined by properties of antigens and antibody responses. To advance the development of sero-surveillance tools for malaria elimination, major gaps in our knowledge need to be addressed through further research. These include greater knowledge of potential antigens, the sensitivity and specificity of antibody responses, and the longevity of these responses and defining antigens and antibodies that differentiate between exposure to Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax. Additionally, a better understanding of the influence of host factors, such as age, genetics, and comorbidities on antibody responses in different populations is needed. PMID:25580254

  20. Designing simulator tools for rail research: the case study of a train driving microworld.

    PubMed

    Naweed, A; Hockey, G R J; Clarke, S D

    2013-05-01

    The microworld simulator paradigm is well established in the areas of ship-navigation and spaceflight, but has yet to be applied to rail. This paper presents a case study aiming to address this research gap, and describes the development of a train driving microworld as a tool to overcome some common research barriers. A theoretical framework for microworld design is tested and used to explore some key methodological issues and characteristics of train driving, enhancing theory development and providing a useful guideline for the designers of other collision-avoidance systems. A detailed description is given of the ATREIDES (Adaptive Train Research Enhanced Information Display & Environment Simulator) microworld, which simulates the work environment of a train driver in a high-speed passenger train. General indications of the testable driving scenarios that may be simulated are given, and an example of an ATREIDES-based study is presented to illustrate its applied research potential. The article concludes with a review of the design process, considers some strengths and limitations, and explores some future initiatives towards enhancing the systematic study of rail research in the human factors community. PMID:23107003

  1. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) as a new tool for neuroeconomic research.

    PubMed

    Kopton, Isabella M; Kenning, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade, the application of neuroscience to economic research has gained in importance and the number of neuroeconomic studies has grown extensively. The most common method for these investigations is fMRI. However, fMRI has limitations (particularly concerning situational factors) that should be countered with other methods. This review elaborates on the use of functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) as a new and promising tool for investigating economic decision making both in field experiments and outside the laboratory. We describe results of studies investigating the reliability of prototype NIRS studies, as well as detailing experiments using conventional and stationary fNIRS devices to analyze this potential. This review article shows that further research using mobile fNIRS for studies on economic decision making outside the laboratory could be a fruitful avenue helping to develop the potential of a new method for field experiments outside the laboratory. PMID:25147517

  2. High Resolution X-ray Computed Tomography: An Emerging Tool for Small Animal Cancer Research1

    PubMed Central

    Paulus, Michael J; Gleason, Shaun S; Kennel, Stephen J; Hunsicker, Patricia R; Johnson, Dabney K

    2000-01-01

    Abstract Dedicated high-resolution small animal imaging systems have recently emerged as important new tools for cancer research. These new imaging systems permit researchers to noninvasively screen animals for mutations or pathologies and to monitor disease progression and response to therapy. One imaging modality, X-ray microcomputed tomography (microCT) shows promise as a cost-effective means for detecting and characterizing soft-tissue structures, skeletal abnormalities, and tumors in live animals. MicroCT systems provide high-resolution images (typically 50 microns or less), rapid data acquisition (typically 5 to 30 minutes), excellent sensitivity to skeletal tissue and good sensitivity to soft tissue, particularly when contrast-enhancing media are employed. The development of microCT technology for small animal imaging is reviewed, and key considerations for designing small animal microCT imaging protocols are summarized. Recent studies on mouse prostate, lung and bone tumor models are overviewed. PMID:10933069

  3. Genome Elimination: Translating Basic Research into a Future Tool for Plant Breeding

    PubMed Central

    Comai, Luca

    2014-01-01

    During the course of our history, humankind has been through different periods of agricultural improvement aimed at enhancing our food supply and the performance of food crops. In recent years, it has become apparent that future crop improvement efforts will require new approaches to address the local challenges of farmers while empowering discovery across industry and academia. New plant breeding approaches are needed to meet this challenge to help feed a growing world population. Here I discuss how a basic research discovery is being translated into a potential future tool for plant breeding, and share the story of researcher Simon Chan, who recognized the potential application of this new approach—genome elimination—for the breeding of staple food crops in Africa and South America. PMID:24915001

  4. Facebook as a research tool for the social sciences: Opportunities, challenges, ethical considerations, and practical guidelines.

    PubMed

    Kosinski, Michal; Matz, Sandra C; Gosling, Samuel D; Popov, Vesselin; Stillwell, David

    2015-09-01

    Facebook is rapidly gaining recognition as a powerful research tool for the social sciences. It constitutes a large and diverse pool of participants, who can be selectively recruited for both online and offline studies. Additionally, it facilitates data collection by storing detailed records of its users' demographic profiles, social interactions, and behaviors. With participants' consent, these data can be recorded retrospectively in a convenient, accurate, and inexpensive way. Based on our experience in designing, implementing, and maintaining multiple Facebook-based psychological studies that attracted over 10 million participants, we demonstrate how to recruit participants using Facebook, incentivize them effectively, and maximize their engagement. We also outline the most important opportunities and challenges associated with using Facebook for research, provide several practical guidelines on how to successfully implement studies on Facebook, and finally, discuss ethical considerations. PMID:26348336

  5. Applications of 'TissueQuant'- a color intensity quantification tool for medical research.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Keerthana; P, Bhagath Kumar; Chakravarthy, Marx; Prabhu, Gopalakrishna

    2012-04-01

    This paper demonstrates the use of TissueQuant - an image analysis tool for quantification of color intensities which was developed for use in medical research where the stained biological specimen such as tissue or antigen needs to be quantified. TissueQuant provides facilities for user interaction to choose and quantify the color of interest and its shades. Gaussian weighting functions are used to provide a color score which quantifies how close the shade is to the user specified reference color. We describe two studies in medical research which use TissueQuant for quantification. The first study evaluated the effect of petroleum-ether extract of Cissus quadrangularis (CQ) on osteoporotic rats. It was found that the analysis results correlated well with the manual evaluation, p < 0.001. The second study evaluated the nerve morphometry and it was found that the adipose and non adipose tissue content was maximum in radial nerve among the five nerves studied. PMID:21924792

  6. Lower body negative pressure as a tool for research in aerospace physiology and military medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, V. A.

    2001-01-01

    Lower body negative pressure (LBNP) has been extensively used for decades in aerospace physiological research as a tool to investigate cardiovascular mechanisms that are associated with or underlie performance in aerospace and military environments. In comparison with clinical stand and tilt tests, LBNP represents a relatively safe methodology for inducing highly reproducible hemodynamic responses during exposure to footward fluid shifts similar to those experienced under orthostatic challenge. By maintaining an orthostatic challenge in a supine posture, removal of leg support (muscle pump) and head motion (vestibular stimuli) during LBNP provides the capability to isolate cardiovascular mechanisms that regulate blood pressure. LBNP can be used for physiological measurements, clinical diagnoses and investigational research comparisons of subject populations and alterations in physiological status. The applications of LBNP to the study of blood pressure regulation in spaceflight, groundbased simulations of low gravity, and hemorrhage have provided unique insights and understanding for development of countermeasures based on physiological mechanisms underlying the operational problems.

  7. InterMOD: integrated data and tools for the unification of model organism research.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Julie; Karra, Kalpana; Moxon, Sierra A T; Vallejos, Andrew; Motenko, Howie; Wong, J D; Aleksic, Jelena; Balakrishnan, Rama; Binkley, Gail; Harris, Todd; Hitz, Benjamin; Jayaraman, Pushkala; Lyne, Rachel; Neuhauser, Steven; Pich, Christian; Smith, Richard N; Trinh, Quang; Cherry, J Michael; Richardson, Joel; Stein, Lincoln; Twigger, Simon; Westerfield, Monte; Worthey, Elizabeth; Micklem, Gos

    2013-01-01

    Model organisms are widely used for understanding basic biology, and have significantly contributed to the study of human disease. In recent years, genomic analysis has provided extensive evidence of widespread conservation of gene sequence and function amongst eukaryotes, allowing insights from model organisms to help decipher gene function in a wider range of species. The InterMOD consortium is developing an infrastructure based around the InterMine data warehouse system to integrate genomic and functional data from a number of key model organisms, leading the way to improved cross-species research. So far including budding yeast, nematode worm, fruit fly, zebrafish, rat and mouse, the project has set up data warehouses, synchronized data models, and created analysis tools and links between data from different species. The project unites a number of major model organism databases, improving both the consistency and accessibility of comparative research, to the benefit of the wider scientific community. PMID:23652793

  8. Rapidly Re-Configurable Flight Simulator Tools for Crew Vehicle Integration Research and Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pritchett, Amy R.

    2002-01-01

    While simulation is a valuable research and design tool, the time and difficulty required to create new simulations (or re-use existing simulations) often limits their application. This report describes the design of the software architecture for the Reconfigurable Flight Simulator (RFS), which provides a robust simulation framework that allows the simulator to fulfill multiple research and development goals. The core of the architecture provides the interface standards for simulation components, registers and initializes components, and handles the communication between simulation components. The simulation components are each a pre-compiled library 'plugin' module. This modularity allows independent development and sharing of individual simulation components. Additional interfaces can be provided through the use of Object Data/Method Extensions (OD/ME). RFS provides a programmable run-time environment for real-time access and manipulation, and has networking capabilities using the High Level Architecture (HLA).

  9. Rapidly Re-Configurable Flight Simulator Tools for Crew Vehicle Integration Research and Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutte, Paul C.; Trujillo, Anna; Pritchett, Amy R.

    2000-01-01

    While simulation is a valuable research and design tool, the time and difficulty required to create new simulations (or re-use existing simulations) often limits their application. This report describes the design of the software architecture for the Reconfigurable Flight Simulator (RFS), which provides a robust simulation framework that allows the simulator to fulfill multiple research and development goals. The core of the architecture provides the interface standards for simulation components, registers and initializes components, and handles the communication between simulation components. The simulation components are each a pre-compiled library 'plug-in' module. This modularity allows independent development and sharing of individual simulation components. Additional interfaces can be provided through the use of Object Data/Method Extensions (OD/ME). RFS provides a programmable run-time environment for real-time access and manipulation, and has networking capabilities using the High Level Architecture (HLA).

  10. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) as a new tool for neuroeconomic research

    PubMed Central

    Kopton, Isabella M.; Kenning, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade, the application of neuroscience to economic research has gained in importance and the number of neuroeconomic studies has grown extensively. The most common method for these investigations is fMRI. However, fMRI has limitations (particularly concerning situational factors) that should be countered with other methods. This review elaborates on the use of functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) as a new and promising tool for investigating economic decision making both in field experiments and outside the laboratory. We describe results of studies investigating the reliability of prototype NIRS studies, as well as detailing experiments using conventional and stationary fNIRS devices to analyze this potential. This review article shows that further research using mobile fNIRS for studies on economic decision making outside the laboratory could be a fruitful avenue helping to develop the potential of a new method for field experiments outside the laboratory. PMID:25147517

  11. Visualising the past: potential applications of Geospatial tools to paleoclimate research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, A.; Turney, C. S.

    2012-12-01

    Recent advances in geospatial data acquisition, analysis and web-based data sharing offer new possibilities for understanding and visualising past modes of change. The availability, accessibility and cost-effectiveness of data is better than ever. Researchers can access remotely sensed data including terrain models; use secondary data from large consolidated repositories; make more accurate field measurements and combine data from disparate sources to form a single asset. An increase in the quantity and consistency of data is coupled with subtle yet significant improvements to the way in which geospatial systems manage data interoperability, topological and textual integrity, resulting in more stable analytical and modelling environments. Essentially, researchers now have greater control and more confidence in analytical tools and outputs. Web-based data sharing is growing rapidly, enabling researchers to publish and consume data directly into their spatial systems through OGC-compliant Web Map Services (WMS), Web Feature Services (WFS) and Web Coverage Services (WCS). This has been implemented at institutional, organisational and project scale around the globe. Some institutions have gone one step further and established Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDI) based on Federated Data Structures where the participating data owners retain control over who has access to what. It is important that advances in knowledge are transferred to audiences outside the scientific community in a way that is interesting and meaningful. The visualisation of paleodata through multi-media offers significant opportunities to highlight the parallels and distinctions between past climate dynamics and the challenges of today and tomorrow. Here we present an assessment of key innovations that demonstrate how Geospatial tools can be applied to palaeo-research and used to communicate the results to a diverse array of audiences in the digital age.

  12. The Virtual Museum for Meteorites: an Online Tool for Researchers Educators and Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madiedo, J. M.

    2013-09-01

    The Virtual Museum for Meteorites (Figure 1) was created as a tool for students, educators and researchers [1, 2]. One of the aims of this online resource is to promote the interest in meteorites. Thus, the role of meteorites in education and outreach is fundamental, as these are very valuable tools to promote the public's interest in Astronomy and Planetary Sciences. Meteorite exhibitions reveal the fascination of students, educators and even researchers for these extraterrestrial rocks and how these can explain many key questions origin and evolution of our Solar System. However, despite the efforts related to the origin and evolution of our Solar System. However, despite the efforts of private collectors, museums and other institutions to organize meteorite exhibitions, the reach of these is usually limited. The Virtual Museum for Meteorites takes advantage of HTML and related technologies to overcome local boundaries and offer its contents for a global audience. A description of the recent developments performed in the framework of this virtual museum is given in this work.

  13. Action-Research and Food and Nutrition Security: A School Experience Mediated by Conceptual Graphic Representation Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graebner, Ivete Teresinha; de Souza, Elizabeth Maria Tala; Saito, Carlos Hiroo

    2009-01-01

    This study deals with the development of a graphic representation tool as a way to support educational planning in an elementary school in the rural area of Brasilia (Brazil's capital), aiming at the implementation of an integrated action-research project focusing on hunger and nutrition. The graphic tool made it possible to promote…

  14. Laboratory directed research and development final report: Intelligent tools for on-machine acceptance of precision machined components

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, N.G.; Harwell, L.D.; Hazelton, A.

    1997-02-01

    On-Machine Acceptance (OMA) is an agile manufacturing concept being developed for machine tools at SNL. The concept behind OMA is the integration of product design, fabrication, and qualification processes by using the machining center as a fabrication and inspection tool. This report documents the final results of a Laboratory Directed Research and Development effort to qualify OMA.

  15. Build your own social network laboratory with Social Lab: a tool for research in social media.

    PubMed

    Garaizar, Pablo; Reips, Ulf-Dietrich

    2014-06-01

    Social networking has surpassed e-mail and instant messaging as the dominant form of online communication (Meeker, Devitt, & Wu, 2010). Currently, all large social networks are proprietary, making it difficult to impossible for researchers to make changes to such networks for the purpose of study design and access to user-generated data from the networks. To address this issue, the authors have developed and present Social Lab, an Internet-based free and open-source social network software system available from http://www.sociallab.es . Having full availability of navigation and communication data in Social Lab allows researchers to investigate behavior in social media on an individual and group level. Automated artificial users ("bots") are available to the researcher to simulate and stimulate social networking situations. These bots respond dynamically to situations as they unfold. The bots can easily be configured with scripts and can be used to experimentally manipulate social networking situations in Social Lab. Examples for setting up, configuring, and using Social Lab as a tool for research in social media are provided. PMID:24061930

  16. Text analysis tools for identification of emerging topics and research gaps in conservation science.

    PubMed

    Westgate, Martin J; Barton, Philip S; Pierson, Jennifer C; Lindenmayer, David B

    2015-12-01

    Keeping track of conceptual and methodological developments is a critical skill for research scientists, but this task is increasingly difficult due to the high rate of academic publication. As a crisis discipline, conservation science is particularly in need of tools that facilitate rapid yet insightful synthesis. We show how a common text-mining method (latent Dirichlet allocation, or topic modeling) and statistical tests familiar to ecologists (cluster analysis, regression, and network analysis) can be used to investigate trends and identify potential research gaps in the scientific literature. We tested these methods on the literature on ecological surrogates and indicators. Analysis of topic popularity within this corpus showed a strong emphasis on monitoring and management of fragmented ecosystems, while analysis of research gaps suggested a greater role for genetic surrogates and indicators. Our results show that automated text analysis methods need to be used with care, but can provide information that is complementary to that given by systematic reviews and meta-analyses, increasing scientists' capacity for research synthesis. PMID:26271213

  17. Translational research to develop a human PBPK models tool kit-volatile organic compounds (VOCs).

    PubMed

    Mumtaz, M Moiz; Ray, Meredith; Crowell, Susan R; Keys, Deborah; Fisher, Jeffrey; Ruiz, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Toxicity and exposure evaluations remain the two of the key components of human health assessment. While improvement in exposure assessment relies on a better understanding of human behavior patterns, toxicity assessment still relies to a great extent on animal toxicity testing and human epidemiological studies. Recent advances in computer modeling of the dose-response relationship and distribution of xenobiotics in humans to important target tissues have advanced our abilities to assess toxicity. In particular, physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models are among the tools than can enhance toxicity assessment accuracy. Many PBPK models are available to the health assessor, but most are so difficult to use that health assessors rarely use them. To encourage their use these models need to have transparent and user-friendly formats. To this end the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) is using translational research to increase PBPK model accessibility, understandability, and use in the site-specific health assessment arena. The agency has initiated development of a human PBPK tool-kit for certain high priority pollutants. The tool kit comprises a series of suitable models. The models are recoded in a single computer simulation language and evaluated for use by health assessors. While not necessarily being state-of-the-art code for each chemical, the models will be sufficiently accurate to use for screening purposes. This article presents a generic, seven-compartment PBPK model for six priority volatile organic compounds (VOCs): benzene (BEN), carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)), dichloromethane (DCM), perchloroethylene (PCE), trichloroethylene (TCE), and vinyl chloride (VC). Limited comparisons of the generic and original model predictions to published kinetic data were conducted. A goodness of fit was determined by calculating the means of the sum of the squared differences (MSSDs) for simulation vs. experimental kinetic data using the generic and original models. Using simplified solvent exposure assumptions for oral ingestion and inhalation, steady-state blood concentrations of each solvent were simulated for exposures equivalent to the ATSDR Minimal Risk Levels (MRLs). The predicted blood levels were then compared to those reported in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). With the notable exception of BEN, simulations of combined oral and inhalation MRLs using our generic VOC model yielded blood concentrations well above those reported for the 95th percentile blood concentrations for the U.S. populations, suggesting no health concerns. When the PBPK tool kit is fully developed, risk assessors will have a readily accessible tool for evaluating human exposure to a variety of environmental pollutants. PMID:22047160

  18. Implementing an International Consultation on Earth System Research Priorities Using Web 2.0 Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldfarb, L.; Yang, A.

    2009-12-01

    Leah Goldfarb, Paul Cutler, Andrew Yang*, Mustapha Mokrane, Jacinta Legg and Deliang Chen The scientific community has been engaged in developing an international strategy on Earth system research. The initial consultation in this “visioning” process focused on gathering suggestions for Earth system research priorities that are interdisciplinary and address the most pressing societal issues. It was implemented this through a website that utilized Web 2.0 capabilities. The website (http://www.icsu-visioning.org/) collected input from 15 July to 1 September 2009. This consultation was the first in which the international scientific community was asked to help shape the future of a research theme. The site attracted over 7000 visitors from 133 countries, more than 1000 of whom registered and took advantage of the site’s functionality to contribute research questions (~300 questions), comment on posts, and/or vote on questions. To facilitate analysis of results, the site captured a small set of voluntary information about each contributor and their contribution. A group of ~50 international experts were invited to analyze the inputs at a “Visioning Earth System Research” meeting held in September 2009. The outcome of this meeting—a prioritized list of research questions to be investigated over the next decade—was then posted on the visioning website for additional comment from the community through an online survey tool. In general, many lessons were learned in the development and implementation of this website, both in terms of the opportunities offered by Web 2.0 capabilities and the application of these capabilities. It is hoped that this process may serve as a model for other scientific communities. The International Council for Science (ICSU) in cooperation with the International Social Science Council (ISSC) is responsible for organizing this Earth system visioning process.

  19. URSSA, the Undergraduate Research Student Self-Assessment: A Tool for Assessing Student Outcomes of Undergraduate Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laursen, S. L.; Hunter, A.; Weston, T.; Thiry, H.

    2009-12-01

    Evidence-based thinking is essential both to science and to the development of effective educational programs. Thus assessment of student learning—gathering evidence about the nature and depth of students’ learning gains, and about how they arise—is a centerpiece of any effective undergraduate research (UR) program. Assessment data can be used to monitor progress, to diagnose problems, to strengthen program designs, and to report both good outcomes and strategies to improve them to institutional and financial stakeholders in UR programs. While the positive impact of UR on students’ educational, personal and professional development has long been a matter of faith, only recently have researchers and evaluators developed an empirical basis by which to identify and explain these outcomes. Based on this growing body of evidence, URSSA, the Undergraduate Research Student Self-Assessment, is a survey tool that departments and programs can use to assess student outcomes of UR. URSSA focuses on what students learn from their UR experience, rather than whether they liked it. Both multiple-choice and open-ended items focus on students’ gains from UR, including: (1) skills such as lab work and communication; (2) conceptual knowledge and linkages among ideas in their field and with other fields; (3) deepened understanding of the intellectual and practical work of science; (4) growth in confidence and adoption of the identity of scientist; (5) preparation for a career or graduate school in science; and (6) greater clarity in understanding what career or educational path they might wish to pursue. Other items probe students’ participation in important activities that have been shown to lead to these gains; and a set of optional items can be included to probe specific program features that may supplement UR (e.g. field trips, career seminars, housing arrangements). The poster will describe URSSA's content, development, validation, and use. For more information about URSSA and how to use it, visit our web site.

  20. DataUp 2.0: Improving On a Tool For Helping Researchers Archive, Manage, and Share Their Tabular Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strasser, C.; Borda, S.; Cruse, P.; Kunze, J.

    2013-12-01

    There are many barriers to data management and sharing among earth and environmental scientists; among the most significant are a lack of knowledge about best practices for data management, metadata standards, or appropriate data repositories for archiving and sharing data. Last year we developed an open source web application, DataUp, to help researchers overcome these barriers. DataUp helps scientists to (1) determine whether their file is CSV compatible, (2) generate metadata in a standard format, (3) retrieve an identifier to facilitate data citation, and (4) deposit their data into a repository. With funding from the NSF via a supplemental grant to the DataONE project, we are working to improve upon DataUp. Our main goal for DataUp 2.0 is to ensure organizations and repositories are able to adopt and adapt DataUp to meet their unique needs, including connecting to analytical tools, adding new metadata schema, and expanding the list of connected data repositories. DataUp is a collaborative project between the California Digital Library, DataONE, the San Diego Supercomputing Center, and Microsoft Research Connections.

  1. Design of a Web-tool for diagnostic clinical trials handling medical imaging research.

    PubMed

    Baltasar Sánchez, Alicia; González-Sistal, Angel

    2011-04-01

    New clinical studies in medicine are based on patients and controls using different imaging diagnostic modalities. Medical information systems are not designed for clinical trials employing clinical imaging. Although commercial software and communication systems focus on storage of image data, they are not suitable for storage and mining of new types of quantitative data. We sought to design a Web-tool to support diagnostic clinical trials involving different experts and hospitals or research centres. The image analysis of this project is based on skeletal X-ray imaging. It involves a computerised image method using quantitative analysis of regions of interest in healthy bone and skeletal metastases. The database is implemented with ASP.NET 3.5 and C# technologies for our Web-based application. For data storage, we chose MySQL v.5.0, one of the most popular open source databases. User logins were necessary, and access to patient data was logged for auditing. For security, all data transmissions were carried over encrypted connections. This Web-tool is available to users scattered at different locations; it allows an efficient organisation and storage of data (case report form) and images and allows each user to know precisely what his task is. The advantages of our Web-tool are as follows: (1) sustainability is guaranteed; (2) network locations for collection of data are secured; (3) all clinical information is stored together with the original images and the results derived from processed images and statistical analysis that enable us to perform retrospective studies; (4) changes are easily incorporated because of the modular architecture; and (5) assessment of trial data collected at different sites is centralised to reduce statistical variance. PMID:20517632

  2. Rapid development of image analysis research tools: Bridging the gap between researcher and clinician with pyOsiriX

    PubMed Central

    Blackledge, Matthew D.; Collins, David J.; Koh, Dow-Mu; Leach, Martin O.

    2016-01-01

    We present pyOsiriX, a plugin built for the already popular dicom viewer OsiriX that provides users the ability to extend the functionality of OsiriX through simple Python scripts. This approach allows users to integrate the many cutting-edge scientific/image-processing libraries created for Python into a powerful DICOM visualisation package that is intuitive to use and already familiar to many clinical researchers. Using pyOsiriX we hope to bridge the apparent gap between basic imaging scientists and clinical practice in a research setting and thus accelerate the development of advanced clinical image processing. We provide arguments for the use of Python as a robust scripting language for incorporation into larger software solutions, outline the structure of pyOsiriX and how it may be used to extend the functionality of OsiriX, and we provide three case studies that exemplify its utility. For our first case study we use pyOsiriX to provide a tool for smooth histogram display of voxel values within a user-defined region of interest (ROI) in OsiriX. We used a kernel density estimation (KDE) method available in Python using the scikit-learn library, where the total number of lines of Python code required to generate this tool was 22. Our second example presents a scheme for segmentation of the skeleton from CT datasets. We have demonstrated that good segmentation can be achieved for two example CT studies by using a combination of Python libraries including scikit-learn, scikit-image, SimpleITK and matplotlib. Furthermore, this segmentation method was incorporated into an automatic analysis of quantitative PET-CT in a patient with bone metastases from primary prostate cancer. This enabled repeatable statistical evaluation of PET uptake values for each lesion, before and after treatment, providing estaimes maximum and median standardised uptake values (SUVmax and SUVmed respectively). Following treatment we observed a reduction in lesion volume, SUVmax and SUVmed for all lesions, in agreement with a reduction in concurrent measures of serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA). PMID:26773941

  3. Rapid development of image analysis research tools: Bridging the gap between researcher and clinician with pyOsiriX.

    PubMed

    Blackledge, Matthew D; Collins, David J; Koh, Dow-Mu; Leach, Martin O

    2016-02-01

    We present pyOsiriX, a plugin built for the already popular dicom viewer OsiriX that provides users the ability to extend the functionality of OsiriX through simple Python scripts. This approach allows users to integrate the many cutting-edge scientific/image-processing libraries created for Python into a powerful DICOM visualisation package that is intuitive to use and already familiar to many clinical researchers. Using pyOsiriX we hope to bridge the apparent gap between basic imaging scientists and clinical practice in a research setting and thus accelerate the development of advanced clinical image processing. We provide arguments for the use of Python as a robust scripting language for incorporation into larger software solutions, outline the structure of pyOsiriX and how it may be used to extend the functionality of OsiriX, and we provide three case studies that exemplify its utility. For our first case study we use pyOsiriX to provide a tool for smooth histogram display of voxel values within a user-defined region of interest (ROI) in OsiriX. We used a kernel density estimation (KDE) method available in Python using the scikit-learn library, where the total number of lines of Python code required to generate this tool was 22. Our second example presents a scheme for segmentation of the skeleton from CT datasets. We have demonstrated that good segmentation can be achieved for two example CT studies by using a combination of Python libraries including scikit-learn, scikit-image, SimpleITK and matplotlib. Furthermore, this segmentation method was incorporated into an automatic analysis of quantitative PET-CT in a patient with bone metastases from primary prostate cancer. This enabled repeatable statistical evaluation of PET uptake values for each lesion, before and after treatment, providing estaimes maximum and median standardised uptake values (SUVmax and SUVmed respectively). Following treatment we observed a reduction in lesion volume, SUVmax and SUVmed for all lesions, in agreement with a reduction in concurrent measures of serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA). PMID:26773941

  4. Novel Murine Dendritic Cell Lines: A Powerful Auxiliary Tool for Dendritic Cell Research

    PubMed Central

    Fuertes Marraco, Silvia A.; Grosjean, Frédéric; Duval, Anaïs; Rosa, Muriel; Lavanchy, Christine; Ashok, Devika; Haller, Sergio; Otten, Luc A.; Steiner, Quynh-Giao; Descombes, Patrick; Luber, Christian A.; Meissner, Felix; Mann, Matthias; Szeles, Lajos; Reith, Walter; Acha-Orbea, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Research in vitro facilitates discovery, screening, and pilot experiments, often preceding research in vivo. Several technical difficulties render Dendritic Cell (DC) research particularly challenging, including the low frequency of DC in vivo, thorough isolation requirements, and the vulnerability of DC ex vivo. Critically, there is not as yet a widely accepted human or murine DC line and in vitro systems of DC research are limited. In this study, we report the generation of new murine DC lines, named MutuDC, originating from cultures of splenic CD8α conventional DC (cDC) tumors. By direct comparison to normal WT splenic cDC subsets, we describe the phenotypic and functional features of the MutuDC lines and show that they have retained all the major features of their natural counterpart in vivo, the splenic CD8α cDC. These features include expression of surface markers Clec9A, DEC205, and CD24, positive response to TLR3 and TLR9 but not TLR7 stimuli, secretion of cytokines, and chemokines upon activation, as well as cross-presentation capacity. In addition to the close resemblance to normal splenic CD8α cDC, a major advantage is the ease of derivation and maintenance of the MutuDC lines, using standard culture medium and conditions, importantly without adding supplementary growth factors or maturation-inducing stimuli to the medium. Furthermore, genetically modified MutuDC lines have been successfully obtained either by lentiviral transduction or by culture of DC tumors originating from genetically modified mice. In view of the current lack of stable and functional DC lines, these novel murine DC lines have the potential to serve as an important auxiliary tool for DC research. PMID:23162549

  5. Benchmark and Framework for Encouraging Research on Multi-Threaded Testing Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Havelund, Klaus; Stoller, Scott D.; Ur, Shmuel

    2003-01-01

    A problem that has been getting prominence in testing is that of looking for intermittent bugs. Multi-threaded code is becoming very common, mostly on the server side. As there is no silver bullet solution, research focuses on a variety of partial solutions. In this paper (invited by PADTAD 2003) we outline a proposed project to facilitate research. The project goals are as follows. The first goal is to create a benchmark that can be used to evaluate different solutions. The benchmark, apart from containing programs with documented bugs, will include other artifacts, such as traces, that are useful for evaluating some of the technologies. The second goal is to create a set of tools with open API s that can be used to check ideas without building a large system. For example an instrumentor will be available, that could be used to test temporal noise making heuristics. The third goal is to create a focus for the research in this area around which a community of people who try to solve similar problems with different techniques, could congregate.

  6. On the use of EEG or MEG brain imaging tools in neuromarketing research.

    PubMed

    Vecchiato, Giovanni; Astolfi, Laura; De Vico Fallani, Fabrizio; Toppi, Jlenia; Aloise, Fabio; Bez, Francesco; Wei, Daming; Kong, Wanzeng; Dai, Jounging; Cincotti, Febo; Mattia, Donatella; Babiloni, Fabio

    2011-01-01

    Here we present an overview of some published papers of interest for the marketing research employing electroencephalogram (EEG) and magnetoencephalogram (MEG) methods. The interest for these methodologies relies in their high-temporal resolution as opposed to the investigation of such problem with the functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) methodology, also largely used in the marketing research. In addition, EEG and MEG technologies have greatly improved their spatial resolution in the last decades with the introduction of advanced signal processing methodologies. By presenting data gathered through MEG and high resolution EEG we will show which kind of information it is possible to gather with these methodologies while the persons are watching marketing relevant stimuli. Such information will be related to the memorization and pleasantness related to such stimuli. We noted that temporal and frequency patterns of brain signals are able to provide possible descriptors conveying information about the cognitive and emotional processes in subjects observing commercial advertisements. These information could be unobtainable through common tools used in standard marketing research. We also show an example of how an EEG methodology could be used to analyze cultural differences between fruition of video commercials of carbonated beverages in Western and Eastern countries. PMID:21960996

  7. Reactive Transport Modeling: An Essential Tool and a New ResearchApproach for the Earth Sciences

    SciTech Connect

    Steefel, Carl I.; DePaolo, Donald J.; Lichtner, Peter C.

    2005-08-25

    Reactive transport modeling is an essential tool for the analysis of coupled physical, chemical, and biological processes in Earth systems, and has additional potential to better integrate the results from focused fundamental research on Earth materials. Appropriately designed models can describe the interactions of competing processes at a range of spatial and time scales, and hence are critical for connecting the advancing capabilities for materials characterization at the atomic scale with the macroscopic behavior of complex Earth systems. Reactive transport modeling has had a significant impact on the treatment of contaminant retardation in the subsurface, the description of elemental and nutrient fluxes between major Earth reservoirs, and in the treatment of deep Earth processes such as metamorphism and magma transport. Active topics of research include the development of pore scale and hybrid, or multiple continua, models to capture the scale dependence of coupled reactive transport processes. Frontier research questions, that are only now being addressed, include the effects of chemical microenvironments, coupled thermal mechanical chemical processes, controls on mineral fluid reaction rates in natural media, and scaling of reactive transport processes from the microscopic to pore to field scale.

  8. On the Use of EEG or MEG Brain Imaging Tools in Neuromarketing Research

    PubMed Central

    Vecchiato, Giovanni; Astolfi, Laura; De Vico Fallani, Fabrizio; Toppi, Jlenia; Aloise, Fabio; Bez, Francesco; Wei, Daming; Kong, Wanzeng; Dai, Jounging; Cincotti, Febo; Mattia, Donatella; Babiloni, Fabio

    2011-01-01

    Here we present an overview of some published papers of interest for the marketing research employing electroencephalogram (EEG) and magnetoencephalogram (MEG) methods. The interest for these methodologies relies in their high-temporal resolution as opposed to the investigation of such problem with the functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) methodology, also largely used in the marketing research. In addition, EEG and MEG technologies have greatly improved their spatial resolution in the last decades with the introduction of advanced signal processing methodologies. By presenting data gathered through MEG and high resolution EEG we will show which kind of information it is possible to gather with these methodologies while the persons are watching marketing relevant stimuli. Such information will be related to the memorization and pleasantness related to such stimuli. We noted that temporal and frequency patterns of brain signals are able to provide possible descriptors conveying information about the cognitive and emotional processes in subjects observing commercial advertisements. These information could be unobtainable through common tools used in standard marketing research. We also show an example of how an EEG methodology could be used to analyze cultural differences between fruition of video commercials of carbonated beverages in Western and Eastern countries. PMID:21960996

  9. MAINE POPULATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    MEPOP250 depicts Maine's 1950-1990 population data by town or Census in unorganized territories. Populations were compiled from US Census Bureau data where available or from Maine Municipal Information (mainly for older records). Unorganized towns with very low or zero pop...

  10. MaSK: A visualization tool for teaching and research in computational chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podolyan, Yevgeniy; Leszczynski, Jerzy

    The number of researchers using computational chemistry tools is growing every year. There are multiple programs used for calculation of various molecular and electronic properties such as optimized geometry, energy, vibrational spectra, and so forth. Another set of programs is used for the visualization of these properties. However, such programs are either too complex for a beginner or too simple for an intermediate user for everyday use. Molecular Modeling and Simulation Kit (MaSK) is designed to fill this gap by presenting an easy-to-use intuitive interface to quantum chemical programs such as GAMESS and Gaussian with an array of advanced tools. The program can be used as a postprocessor to visualize calculated properties or as a preprocessor to prepare the input files for quantum chemical programs. In addition, some properties such as the surfaces of molecular orbitals, electron and spin densities, and molecular electrostatic potentials are actually calculated by MaSK. If MaSK is combined with PC GAMESS, the preparation of the input, running of the calculations, and the display of the results can all be done without leaving the program's interface.

  11. Human Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes as Research and Therapeutic Tools

    PubMed Central

    Pesl, Martin; Lacampagne, Alain; Dvorak, Petr; Rotrekl, Vladimir; Meli, Albano C.

    2014-01-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), namely, embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), with their ability of indefinite self-renewal and capability to differentiate into cell types derivatives of all three germ layers, represent a powerful research tool in developmental biology, for drug screening, disease modelling, and potentially cell replacement therapy. Efficient differentiation protocols that would result in the cell type of our interest are needed for maximal exploitation of these cells. In the present work, we aim at focusing on the protocols for differentiation of hPSCs into functional cardiomyocytes in vitro as well as achievements in the heart disease modelling and drug testing on the patient-specific iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes (iPSC-CMs). PMID:24800237

  12. The styrene-maleic acid copolymer: a versatile tool in membrane research.

    PubMed

    Dörr, Jonas M; Scheidelaar, Stefan; Koorengevel, Martijn C; Dominguez, Juan J; Schäfer, Marre; van Walree, Cornelis A; Killian, J Antoinette

    2016-01-01

    A new and promising tool in membrane research is the detergent-free solubilization of membrane proteins by styrene-maleic acid copolymers (SMAs). These amphipathic molecules are able to solubilize lipid bilayers in the form of nanodiscs that are bounded by the polymer. Thus, membrane proteins can be directly extracted from cells in a water-soluble form while conserving a patch of native membrane around them. In this review article, we briefly discuss current methods of membrane protein solubilization and stabilization. We then zoom in on SMAs, describe their physico-chemical properties, and discuss their membrane-solubilizing effect. This is followed by an overview of studies in which SMA has been used to isolate and investigate membrane proteins. Finally, potential future applications of the methodology are discussed for structural and functional studies on membrane proteins in a near-native environment and for characterizing protein-lipid and protein-protein interactions. PMID:26639665

  13. Curvature continuity of cubic Bezier curves in the solid modeling aerospace research tools design software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roach, Robert L.; Forrest, John R.

    1990-01-01

    Preliminary results are presented of an investigation into the development of a procedure to provide curvature continuity between biparametric cubic Bezier surface patches in the computer-aided design package known as SMART (Solid Modeling Aerospace Research Tools). This initial effort was aimed at providing the designer with the ability to locally impose curvature continuity at the intersection of two Bezier curves without disrupting either the curvature or slope continuity that may exist at the ends of these curves. Such a method was found if the original Bezier control points are all coplanar. If they are not, then it is possible to find a minimum deviation from exact curvature continuity. In cases where this is not sufficient, then an entire piecewise curve must be made curvature continuous simultaneously. A method was developed based on cubic splines which is very fast. The procedure returns new Bezier control points which have both slope and curvature continuity.

  14. Microbeam methodologies as powerful tools in manganese hyperaccumulation research: present status and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Fernando, Denise R.; Marshall, Alan; Baker, Alan J. M.; Mizuno, Takafumi

    2013-01-01

    Microbeam studies over the past decade have garnered unique insight into manganese (Mn) homeostasis in plant species that hyperaccumulate this essential mineral micronutrient. Electron- and/or proton-probe methodologies employed to examine tissue elemental distributions have proven highly effective in illuminating excess foliar Mn disposal strategies, some apparently unique to Mn hyperaccumulating plants. When applied to samples prepared with minimal artefacts, these are powerful tools for extracting true ‘snapshot’ data of living systems. For a range of reasons, Mn hyperaccumulation is particularly suited to in vivo interrogation by this approach. Whilst microbeam investigation of metallophytes is well documented, certain methods originally intended for non-biological samples are now widely applied in biology. This review examines current knowledge about Mn hyperaccumulators with reference to microbeam methodologies, and discusses implications for future research into metal transporters. PMID:23970891

  15. The Right Tools for the Job: The Challenges of Theory and Method in Geoscience Education Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riggs, E. M.

    2011-12-01

    As geoscience education has matured as a research field over the last decade, workers in this area have been challenged to adapt methodologies and theoretical approaches to study design and data collection. These techniques are as diverse as the earth sciences themselves, and researchers have drawn on established methods and traditions from science education research, social science research, and the cognitive and learning sciences. While the diversity of methodological and theoretical approaches is powerful, the challenge is to ground geoscience education research in rigorous methodologies that are appropriate for the epistemological and functional realities of the content area and the environment in which the research is conducted. The issue of theory is the first hurdle. After techniques are proven, earth scientists typically need not worry much about the theoretical value or theory-laden nature of measurements they make in the field or laboratory. As an example, a field geologist does not question the validity of the gravitational field that levels the spirit level within a Brunton compass. However, in earth science education research, these issues are magnified because a theoretical approach to a study affects what is admitted as data and the weight that can be given to conclusions. Not only must one be concerned about the validity of measurements and observations, but also the value of this information from an epistemological standpoint. The assigning of meaning to student gestures, utterances, writing and actions all carries theoretical implications. For example, working with geologists learning or working in the field, purely experimental research designs are very difficult, and the majority of the work must be conducted in a naturalistic environment. In fact dealing with time pressure, distractions, and complexity of a field environment is part of intellectual backdrop for field geology that separates experts from novices and advanced students from beginners. Thus researchers must embrace the uncontrolled nature of the setting, the qualitative nature of the data collected, and the researcher's role in interpreting geologically appropriate actions as evidence of successful problem solving and investigation. Working to understand the role of diversity and culture in the geosciences also involves a wide array of theory, from affective issues through culturally and linguistically-influenced cognition, through gender, self-efficacy, and many other areas of inquiry. Research in understanding spatial skills draws heavily on techniques from cognition research but also must involve the field-specific knowledge of geoscientists to infuse these techniques with exemplars, a catalog of meaningful actions by students, and an understanding of how to recognize success. These examples illustrate briefly the wide array of tools from other fields that is being brought to bear to advance rigorous geoscience education research. We will illustrate a few of these and the insights we have gained, and the power of theory and method from other fields to enlighten us as we attempt to educate a broader array of earth scientists.

  16. Artificial Exo-Society Modeling: a New Tool for SETI Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, James N.

    2002-01-01

    One of the newest fields of complexity research is artificial society modeling. Methodologically related to artificial life research, artificial society modeling utilizes agent-based computer simulation tools like SWARM and SUGARSCAPE developed by the Santa Fe Institute, Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Bookings Institution in an effort to introduce an unprecedented degree of rigor and quantitative sophistication into social science research. The broad aim of artificial society modeling is to begin the development of a more unified social science that embeds cultural evolutionary processes in a computational environment that simulates demographics, the transmission of culture, conflict, economics, disease, the emergence of groups and coadaptation with an environment in a bottom-up fashion. When an artificial society computer model is run, artificial societal patterns emerge from the interaction of autonomous software agents (the "inhabitants" of the artificial society). Artificial society modeling invites the interpretation of society as a distributed computational system and the interpretation of social dynamics as a specialized category of computation. Artificial society modeling techniques offer the potential of computational simulation of hypothetical alien societies in much the same way that artificial life modeling techniques offer the potential to model hypothetical exobiological phenomena. NASA recently announced its intention to begin exploring the possibility of including artificial life research within the broad portfolio of scientific fields comprised by the interdisciplinary astrobiology research endeavor. It may be appropriate for SETI researchers to likewise commence an exploration of the possible inclusion of artificial exo-society modeling within the SETI research endeavor. Artificial exo-society modeling might be particularly useful in a post-detection environment by (1) coherently organizing the set of data points derived from a detected ETI signal, (2) mapping trends in the data points over time (assuming receipt of an extended ETI signal), and (3) projecting such trends forward to derive alternative cultural evolutionary scenarios for the exo-society under analysis. The latter exercise might be particularly useful to compensate for the inevitable time lag between generation of an ETI signal and receipt of an ETI signal on Earth. For this reason, such an exercise might be a helpful adjunct to the decisional process contemplated by Paragraph 9 of the Declaration of Principles Concerning Activities Following the Detection of Extraterrestrial Intelligence.

  17. Development of Complexity Science and Technology Tools for NextGen Airspace Research and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Bruce J.; Sawhill, Bruce K.; Herriot, James; Seehart, Ken; Zellweger, Dres; Shay, Rick

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this research by NextGen AeroSciences, LLC is twofold: 1) to deliver an initial "toolbox" of algorithms, agent-based structures, and method descriptions for introducing trajectory agency as a methodology for simulating and analyzing airspace states, including bulk properties of large numbers of heterogeneous 4D aircraft trajectories in a test airspace -- while maintaining or increasing system safety; and 2) to use these tools in a test airspace to identify possible phase transition structure to predict when an airspace will approach the limits of its capacity. These 4D trajectories continuously replan their paths in the presence of noise and uncertainty while optimizing performance measures and performing conflict detection and resolution. In this approach, trajectories are represented as extended objects endowed with pseudopotential, maintaining time and fuel-efficient paths by bending just enough to accommodate separation while remaining inside of performance envelopes. This trajectory-centric approach differs from previous aircraft-centric distributed approaches to deconfliction. The results of this project are the following: 1) we delivered a toolbox of algorithms, agent-based structures and method descriptions as pseudocode; and 2) we corroborated the existence of phase transition structure in simulation with the addition of "early warning" detected prior to "full" airspace. This research suggests that airspace "fullness" can be anticipated and remedied before the airspace becomes unsafe.

  18. Antipredatory behavior of zebrafish: adaptive function and a tool for translational research.

    PubMed

    Gerlai, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The zebrafish is gaining popularity in behavioral brain research. It may be a cost-effective tool with which we can improve our understanding of the biological and genetic mechanisms of human brain function and dysfunction. Some, myself and collaborators included, have argued that such translational relevance may be best achieved if one considers the ecology and species-specific characteristics of the study organism. In this review, I focus on our own studies investigating zebrafish fear responses, which may be utilized in analyzing the mechanisms of fear and anxiety, and which may be used for screening anxiolytic drugs. I review how zebrafish respond to their natural and synthetic alarm substance as well as to other fear-inducing stimuli, including sympatric and allopatric predatory fish, sympatric or allopatric harmless fish, moving (animated) images of predatory fish and moving images of abstract shapes. I discuss the behavioral responses these stimuli elicit, summarize the methods of the quantification of the behaviors, and speculate about their possible adaptive nature. Although we utilize complex visual stimuli and do not yet know what key features zebrafish may be sensitive to, our results, together with those published by others, imply that this simple vertebrate may have a bright future in behavioral brain research. PMID:23864295

  19. Thermal Protection System Evaluation Using Arc-jet Flows: Flight Simulation or Research Tool?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, David A.; Venkatapathy, Ethiras (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The arc-jet has been used to evaluate thermal protection systems (TPS) and materials for the past forty years. Systems that have been studied in this environmerd include ablators, active, and passive TPS concepts designed for vehicles entering planetary and Earth atmospheres. The question of whether arc-jet flow can simulate a flight environment or is it a research tool that provides an aero-thermodynamic heating environment to obtain critical material properties will be addressed. Stagnation point tests in arc-jets are commonly used to obtain material properties such as mass loss rates, thermal chemical stability data, optical properties, and surface catalytic efficiency. These properties are required in computational fluid dynamic codes to accurately predict the performance of a TPS during flight. Special facilities have been developed at NASA Ames Research Center to approximate the flow environment over the mid-fuselage and body flap regions of proposed space-planes type vehicles. This paper compares flow environments generated in flight over a vehicle with those created over an arc-jet test articles in terms of scale, chemistry, and fluid dynamic properties. Flight experiments are essential in order to validate the material properties obtained from arc-jet tests and used to predict flight performance of any TPS being considered for use on a vehicle entering the Earth atmosphere at hypersonic speed.

  20. Software tool for researching annotations of proteins: open-source protein annotation software with data visualization.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Vivek N; Perlman, David H; Costello, Catherine E; McComb, Mark E

    2009-12-01

    In order that biological meaning may be derived and testable hypotheses may be built from proteomics experiments, assignments of proteins identified by mass spectrometry or other techniques must be supplemented with additional notation, such as information on known protein functions, protein-protein interactions, or biological pathway associations. Collecting, organizing, and interpreting this data often requires the input of experts in the biological field of study, in addition to the time-consuming search for and compilation of information from online protein databases. Furthermore, visualizing this bulk of information can be challenging due to the limited availability of easy-to-use and freely available tools for this process. In response to these constraints, we have undertaken the design of software to automate annotation and visualization of proteomics data in order to accelerate the pace of research. Here we present the Software Tool for Researching Annotations of Proteins (STRAP), a user-friendly, open-source C# application. STRAP automatically obtains gene ontology (GO) terms associated with proteins in a proteomics results ID list using the freely accessible UniProtKB and EBI GOA databases. Summarized in an easy-to-navigate tabular format, STRAP results include meta-information on the protein in addition to complementary GO terminology. Additionally, this information can be edited by the user so that in-house expertise on particular proteins may be integrated into the larger data set. STRAP provides a sortable tabular view for all terms, as well as graphical representations of GO-term association data in pie charts (biological process, cellular component, and molecular function) and bar charts (cross comparison of sample sets) to aid in the interpretation of large data sets and differential analyses experiments. Furthermore, proteins of interest may be exported as a unique FASTA-formatted file to allow for customizable re-searching of mass spectrometry data, and gene names corresponding to the proteins in the lists may be encoded in the Gaggle microformat for further characterization, including pathway analysis. STRAP, a tutorial, and the C# source code are freely available from http://cpctools.sourceforge.net. PMID:19839595

  1. The Framework for Participation: A Research Tool for Exploring the Relationship between Achievement and Inclusion in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black-Hawkins, Kristine

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the Framework for Participation: a research tool established to support a recently completed study. The research was undertaken to explore the relationship between achievement and inclusion because headteachers and teachers in some schools continue to resist becoming more inclusive in their student intake on the grounds that


  2. 76 FR 47216 - Expediting Research Tools to NIH Licensees Through the Use of Pay.gov for Rapid Processing of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ... Health Service, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: NIH licensees can now expedite the receipt of research... is not trivial since waiting too long to secure research materials or tools can delay or sink a... looking to save time on their royalty transactions with NIH can easily pay royalties on Pay.gov by...

  3. From gross anatomy to the nanomorphome: stereological tools provide a paradigm for advancing research in quantitative morphomics.

    PubMed

    Mayhew, Terry M; Lucocq, John M

    2015-04-01

    The terms morphome and morphomics are not new but, recently, a group of morphologists and cell biologists has given them clear definitions and emphasised their integral importance in systems biology. By analogy to other '-omes', the morphome refers to the distribution of matter within 3-dimensional (3D) space. It equates to the totality of morphological features within a biological system (virus, single cell, multicellular organism or populations thereof) and morphomics is the systematic study of those structures. Morphomics research has the potential to generate 'big data' because it includes all imaging techniques at all levels of achievable resolution and all structural scales from gross anatomy and medical imaging, via optical and electron microscopy, to molecular characterisation. As with other '-omics', quantification is an important part of morphomics and, because biological systems exist and operate in 3D space, precise descriptions of form, content and spatial relationships require the quantification of structure in 3D. Revealing and quantifying structural detail inside the specimen is achieved currently in two main ways: (i) by some form of reconstruction from serial physical or tomographic slices or (ii) by using randomly-sampled sections and simple test probes (points, lines, areas, volumes) to derive stereological estimates of global and/or individual quantities. The latter include volumes, surfaces, lengths and numbers of interesting features and spatial relationships between them. This article emphasises the value of stereological design, sampling principles and estimation tools as a template for combining with alternative imaging techniques to tackle the 'big data' issue and advance knowledge and understanding of the morphome. The combination of stereology, TEM and immunogold cytochemistry provides a practical illustration of how this has been achieved in the sub-field of nanomorphomics. Applying these quantitative tools/techniques in a carefully managed study design offers us a deeper appreciation of the spatiotemporal relationships between the genome, metabolome and morphome which are integral to systems biology. PMID:25753334

  4. MUST - An integrated system of support tools for research flight software engineering. [Multipurpose User-oriented Software Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Straeter, T. A.; Foudriat, E. C.; Will, R. W.

    1977-01-01

    The objectives of NASA's MUST (Multipurpose User-oriented Software Technology) program at Langley Research Center are to cut the cost of producing software which effectively utilizes digital systems for flight research. These objectives will be accomplished by providing an integrated system of support software tools for use throughout the research flight software development process. A description of the overall MUST program and its progress toward the release of a first MUST system will be presented. This release includes: a special interactive user interface, a library of subroutines, assemblers, a compiler, automatic documentation tools, and a test and simulation system.

  5. An informatics supported web-based data annotation and query tool to expedite translational research for head and neck malignancies

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The Specialized Program of Research Excellence (SPORE) in Head and Neck Cancer neoplasm virtual biorepository is a bioinformatics-supported system to incorporate data from various clinical, pathological, and molecular systems into a single architecture based on a set of common data elements (CDEs) that provides semantic and syntactic interoperability of data sets. Results The various components of this annotation tool include the Development of Common Data Elements (CDEs) that are derived from College of American Pathologists (CAP) Checklist and North American Association of Central Cancer Registries (NAACR) standards. The Data Entry Tool is a portable and flexible Oracle-based data entry device, which is an easily mastered web-based tool. The Data Query Tool helps investigators and researchers to search de-identified information within the warehouse/resource through a "point and click" interface, thus enabling only the selected data elements to be essentially copied into a data mart using a multi dimensional model from the warehouse's relational structure. The SPORE Head and Neck Neoplasm Database contains multimodal datasets that are accessible to investigators via an easy to use query tool. The database currently holds 6553 cases and 10607 tumor accessions. Among these, there are 965 metastatic, 4227 primary, 1369 recurrent, and 483 new primary cases. The data disclosure is strictly regulated by user's authorization. Conclusion The SPORE Head and Neck Neoplasm Virtual Biorepository is a robust translational biomedical informatics tool that can facilitate basic science, clinical, and translational research. The Data Query Tool acts as a central source providing a mechanism for researchers to efficiently find clinically annotated datasets and biospecimens that are relevant to their research areas. The tool protects patient privacy by revealing only de-identified data in accordance with regulations and approvals of the IRB and scientific review committee. PMID:19912644

  6. MAINE AQUIFERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    AQFRS24 contains polygons of significant aquifers in Maine (glacial deposits that are a significant ground water resource) mapped at a scale 1:24,000. This statewide coverage was derived from aquifer boundaries delineated and digitized by the Maine Geological Survey from data com...

  7. Adventures in the microlensing cloud: Large datasets, eResearch tools, and GPUs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernardos, G.; Fluke, C. J.

    2014-10-01

    As astronomy enters the petascale data era, astronomers are faced with new challenges relating to storage, access and management of data. A shift from the traditional approach of combining data and analysis at the desktop to the use of remote services, pushing the computation to the data, is now underway. In the field of cosmological gravitational microlensing, future synoptic all-sky surveys are expected to bring the number of multiply imaged quasars from the few tens that are currently known to a few thousands. This inflow of observational data, together with computationally demanding theoretical modeling via the production of microlensing magnification maps, requires a new approach. We present our technical solutions to supporting the GPU-Enabled, High Resolution cosmological MicroLensing parameter survey (GERLUMPH). This extensive dataset for cosmological microlensing modeling comprises over 70 000 individual magnification maps and ˜106 related results. We describe our approaches to hosting, organizing, and serving ˜ 30 TB of data and metadata products. We present a set of online analysis tools developed with PHP, JavaScript and WebGL to support access and analysis of GELRUMPH data in a Web browser. We discuss our use of graphics processing units (GPUs) to accelerate data production, and we release the core of the GPU-D direct inverse ray-shooting code (Thompson et al., 2010, 2014) used to generate the magnification maps. All of the GERLUMPH data and tools are available online from http://gerlumph.swin.edu.au. This project made use of gSTAR, the GPU Supercomputer for Theoretical Astrophysical Research.

  8. Photomat: A Mobile Tool for Aiding in Student Construction of Research Questions and Data Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelley, Tia Renee; Dasgupta, Chandan; Silva, Alexandra; Lyons, Leilah; Moher, Tom

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new mobile software tool, PhotoMAT (Photo Management and Analysis Tool), and students' experiences with this tool within a scaffolded curricular unit--Neighborhood Safari. PhotoMAT was designed to support learners' investigations of backyard animal behavior and works with image sets obtained using fixed-position field cameras


  9. Photomat: A Mobile Tool for Aiding in Student Construction of Research Questions and Data Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelley, Tia Renee; Dasgupta, Chandan; Silva, Alexandra; Lyons, Leilah; Moher, Tom

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new mobile software tool, PhotoMAT (Photo Management and Analysis Tool), and students' experiences with this tool within a scaffolded curricular unit--Neighborhood Safari. PhotoMAT was designed to support learners' investigations of backyard animal behavior and works with image sets obtained using fixed-position field cameras…

  10. A tool for sharing annotated research data: the "Category 0" UMLS (Unified Medical Language System) vocabularies

    PubMed Central

    Berman, Jules J

    2003-01-01

    Background Large biomedical data sets have become increasingly important resources for medical researchers. Modern biomedical data sets are annotated with standard terms to describe the data and to support data linking between databases. The largest curated listing of biomedical terms is the the National Library of Medicine's Unified Medical Language System (UMLS). The UMLS contains more than 2 million biomedical terms collected from nearly 100 medical vocabularies. Many of the vocabularies contained in the UMLS carry restrictions on their use, making it impossible to share or distribute UMLS-annotated research data. However, a subset of the UMLS vocabularies, designated Category 0 by UMLS, can be used to annotate and share data sets without violating the UMLS License Agreement. Methods The UMLS Category 0 vocabularies can be extracted from the parent UMLS metathesaurus using a Perl script supplied with this article. There are 43 Category 0 vocabularies that can be used freely for research purposes without violating the UMLS License Agreement. Among the Category 0 vocabularies are: MESH (Medical Subject Headings), NCBI (National Center for Bioinformatics) Taxonomy and ICD-9-CM (International Classification of Diseases-9-Clinical Modifiers). Results The extraction file containing all Category 0 terms and concepts is 72,581,138 bytes in length and contains 1,029,161 terms. The UMLS Metathesaurus MRCON file (January, 2003) is 151,048,493 bytes in length and contains 2,146,899 terms. Therefore the Category 0 vocabularies, in aggregate, are about half the size of the UMLS metathesaurus. A large publicly available listing of 567,921 different medical phrases were automatically coded using the full UMLS metatathesaurus and the Category 0 vocabularies. There were 545,321 phrases with one or more matches against UMLS terms while 468,785 phrases had one or more matches against the Category 0 terms. This indicates that when the two vocabularies are evaluated by their fitness to find at least one term for a medical phrase, the Category 0 vocabularies performed 86% as well as the complete UMLS metathesaurus. Conclusion The Category 0 vocabularies of UMLS constitute a large nomenclature that can be used by biomedical researchers to annotate biomedical data. These annotated data sets can be distributed for research purposes without violating the UMLS License Agreement. These vocabularies may be of particular importance for sharing heterogeneous data from diverse biomedical data sets. The software tools to extract the Category 0 vocabularies are freely available Perl scripts entered into the public domain and distributed with this article. PMID:12809560

  11. [Research on Sha zheng quan shu (A complete book for Sha disease) and its main circulating editions].

    PubMed

    Ji, Zheng-han

    2008-07-01

    Sha zheng quan shu (A Complete Book for Sha Disease), the famous books on sha diseases in the early Qing dynasty, did exert influence on the classification and names of the sha disease ever since. During its circulation, deletions and supplementations with frequent changes in its form and contents made its versions so diversified and lead to difficulties in both its cataloguing, inheriting and searching for its origin and development. By comparing more than dozens of its editions, four main groups of version can be recognized, among which Zhang Zhong--xin's edition was the earliest one, published four years after Wang Kai's original version completed, which could reflect the authentic appearance of Wang's original version. Shen Jin-ao re--compiled and modified Zhang's version which has several separate editions with substantial changes in its contents, book title and author's names, while He Fen revised and reprinted Zhang's version, and his version was often misunderstood as the primitive one of Wang's version due to its extensive circulation. Hu Jie made a little abridgement based on He's version with another book Sha yi lun (Treatise on Pestilent Sha Disease) included and attached. PMID:24915655

  12. A tropical marine microbial natural products geobibliography as an example of desktop exploration of current research using web visualisation tools.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Joydeep; Llewellyn, Lyndon E; Evans-Illidge, Elizabeth A

    2008-01-01

    Microbial marine biodiscovery is a recent scientific endeavour developing at a time when information and other technologies are also undergoing great technical strides. Global visualisation of datasets is now becoming available to the world through powerful and readily available software such as Worldwind, ArcGIS Explorer and Google Earth. Overlaying custom information upon these tools is within the hands of every scientist and more and more scientific organisations are making data available that can also be integrated into these global visualisation tools. The integrated global view that these tools enable provides a powerful desktop exploration tool. Here we demonstrate the value of this approach to marine microbial biodiscovery by developing a geobibliography that incorporates citations on tropical and near-tropical marine microbial natural products research with Google Earth and additional ancillary global data sets. The tools and software used are all readily available and the reader is able to use and install the material described in this article. PMID:19172194

  13. A Tropical Marine Microbial Natural Products Geobibliography as an Example of Desktop Exploration of Current Research Using Web Visualisation Tools

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Joydeep; Llewellyn, Lyndon E; Evans-Illidge, Elizabeth A

    2008-01-01

    Microbial marine biodiscovery is a recent scientific endeavour developing at a time when information and other technologies are also undergoing great technical strides. Global visualisation of datasets is now becoming available to the world through powerful and readily available software such as Worldwind™, ArcGIS Explorer™ and Google Earth™. Overlaying custom information upon these tools is within the hands of every scientist and more and more scientific organisations are making data available that can also be integrated into these global visualisation tools. The integrated global view that these tools enable provides a powerful desktop exploration tool. Here we demonstrate the value of this approach to marine microbial biodiscovery by developing a geobibliography that incorporates citations on tropical and near-tropical marine microbial natural products research with Google Earth™ and additional ancillary global data sets. The tools and software used are all readily available and the reader is able to use and install the material described in this article. PMID:19172194

  14. A Microsoft Excel interface for rhyolite-MELTS: a tool for research and teaching of magma properties and evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gualda, G. A.; Ghiorso, M. S.

    2013-12-01

    The thermodynamic modeling software MELTS (and its derivatives) is a powerful and much utilized tool for investigating crystallization and melting in natural magmatic systems. Rhyolite-MELTS (Gualda et al. 2012, J. Petrol. 53:875-890) is a recent recalibration of MELTS aimed at better capturing the evolution of magmas present in the upper crust (up to ~400 MPa pressure). Currently, most users of rhyolite-MELTS rely on a graphical user interface (GUI), which can be run on UNIX/LINUX and Mac OS X computers. While the interface is powerful and flexible, it can be somewhat cumbersome for the novice and the output is in the form of text files that need to be processed offline. This situation is probably the main reason why MELTS - despite great potential - has not been used more frequently for teaching purposes. We are currently developing an alternative GUI for rhyolite-MELTS using web services consumed by a VBA backend in Microsoft Excel©. The goal is to create a much more interactive tool, that is easy to use that can be made available to a widespread audience, and that will be useful for both research and teaching. The interface is contained within a macro-enabled workbook, which includes editable cells where the user can insert the model input information. Interface buttons initiate computations that are executed on a central server at OFM Research in Seattle (WA). Results of simple calculations are shown immediately within the interface itself. For instance, a user can very rapidly determine the temperature at which a magma of a given composition is completely molten (i.e. find the liquidus); or determine which phases are present, in what abundances, their compositions, and their physical properties (e.g. density, viscosity) at any given combination of temperature, pressure and oxygen fugacity. We expect that using the interface in this mode will greatly facilitate building intuition about magmas and their properties. It is also possible to combine a sequence of calculations into an evolutionary path. The user can input starting and ending temperatures and pressures, temperature and pressure steps, and the prevailing oxidation conditions, and the program will perform the calculations showing the magma properties at every step; at the conclusion of the calculations, a series of data sheets and diagrams are created in a separate workbook, which can be saved independently of the interface. Additionally, the user can specify a grid of temperatures and pressures and calculate a phase diagram showing the conditions at which different phases are present. We envision a host of exercises that can be tackled by students of all levels exploring the varied evolution of natural magma compositions. The main advantages of this new platform are that it is simple to use and flexible. Workbooks can be created for specific exercises, facilitating their use in classroom assignments. The Excel GUI interface is built on a popular platform, which is widely available, requires no installation, and is distributed for free from melts.ofm-research.org. The main drawback is that operation of the workbook requires an internet connection. The web services used are currently only accessible by Excel 2010 and 2013 for Windows.

  15. Evolution of dental informatics as a major research tool in oral pathology

    PubMed Central

    Singaraju, Sasidhar; Prasad, H; Singaraju, Medhini

    2012-01-01

    Bioinformatics is a relatively new field of science that incorporates the principles of biology and computer science. It is mainly concerned with collecting, storing, and retrieving data from large databases. Ever since the successful completion of the Human Genome Project, there has been an exponential growth in the volumes of biological data that is being generated worldwide. The evolution of bioinformatics has made it possible to access these databases and apply the information for better research. One discipline that has been benefitted from the advent of bioinformatics is oral pathology. Oral pathology is a branch of dentistry which deals with the diseases of the head and neck region. Remarkable progress has been made in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases with the aid of bioinformatics. This article attempts to review the evolution and progress of dental informatics as a specialty and its applications in oral pathology. PMID:22434944

  16. BCSC Tools

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content Home   |   Data   |   Statistics   |   Tools   |   Collaborations   |   Work with Us   |   Publications   |   About   |   Links BCSC Tools BCSC Risk Calculator BCSC Data Explorer Last modified: 25 Jul 2013 Contact Us | Accessibility

  17. Developing and assessing research-based tools for teaching quantum mechanics and thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Benjamin R.

    Research-based tools to educate college students in physics courses from introductory level to graduate level are essential for helping students with a diverse set of goals and backgrounds learn physics. This thesis explores issues related to student common difficulties with some topics in undergraduate quantum mechanics and thermodynamics courses. Student difficulties in learning quantum mechanics and thermodynamics are investigated by administering written tests and surveys to many classes and conducting individual interviews with a subset of students outside the class to unpack the cognitive mechanisms of the difficulties. The quantum mechanics research also focuses on using the research on student difficulties for the development and evaluation of a Quantum Interactive Learning Tutorial (QuILT) to help students learn about the time-dependence of expectation values using the context of Larmor precession of spin and evaluating the role of asking students to self-diagnose their mistakes on midterm examination on their performance on subsequent problem solving. The QuILT on Larmor precession of spin has both paper-pencil activities and a simulation component to help students learn these foundational issues in quantum mechanics. Preliminary evaluations suggest that the QuILT, which strives to help students build a robust knowledge structure of time-dependence of expectation values in quantum mechanics using a guided approach, is successful in helping students learn these topics in the junior-senior level quantum mechanics courses. The technique to help upper-level students in quantum mechanics courses effectively engage in the process of learning from their mistakes is also found to be effective. In particular, research shows that the self-diagnosis activity in upper-level quantum mechanics significantly helps students who are struggling and this activity can reduce the gap between the high and low achieving students on subsequent problem solving. Finally, a survey of Thermodynamic Processes and the First and Second Laws (STPFaSL) is developed and validated with the purpose of evaluating the effectiveness of these topics in a thermodynamics curriculum. The validity and reliability of this survey are discussed and the student difficulties with these topics among various groups from introductory students to physics graduate students are cataloged.

  18. Academic nursing education guidelines: tool for bridging the gap between theory, research and practice.

    PubMed

    Jerlock, Margaretha; Falk, Kristin; Severinsson, Elisabeth

    2003-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop educational guidelines to be used as a tool for the integration of theory, research and practice to ensure that nursing knowledge and practical skills form the basis of academic nursing education. An additional aim was to describe the nursing competence expected of the students at four academic levels: introductory, intermediate and advanced levels I and II. Clinical nursing education plays a crucial role in assisting nursing students to integrate the theory and practice of nursing at the baccalaureate level, as well as in further specialization and in-depth nursing studies at the advanced level. A research group consisting of lecturers from the Institute of Nursing, Göteborg University, Sweden, was given the objective to formulate educational guidelines for clinical practice within nursing education. The study took the form of a literature search. In addition, the Delphi method, aimed at reaching a consensus of opinion among colleagues, was used. Based on the literature review and the collegial discussions, four core concepts emerged: professional stance, reflective processes, problem-solving processes, and practical skills, from which the educational guidelines were developed. Guidelines were formulated both in general and abstract form. They were not connected to a specific care context, specific patient group or specific nursing problems. The most important objective of academic education is that the student develops abilities and techniques necessary for life-long learning. Students will, in their professional life as nurses, continuously meet situations where they are challenged to take appropriate decisions and actions. This demands training in problem-solving, reflection, decision-making and the ability to use both deductive and inductive learning strategies. The guidelines describe what is expected of the students in terms of nursing competence and personal qualifications to ensure that they will be ready to meet the demands of their future profession. PMID:12877723

  19. The main pillar: Assessment of space weather observational asset performance supporting nowcasting, forecasting, and research to operations

    PubMed Central

    Posner, A; Hesse, M; St Cyr, O C

    2014-01-01

    Space weather forecasting critically depends upon availability of timely and reliable observational data. It is therefore particularly important to understand how existing and newly planned observational assets perform during periods of severe space weather. Extreme space weather creates challenging conditions under which instrumentation and spacecraft may be impeded or in which parameters reach values that are outside the nominal observational range. This paper analyzes existing and upcoming observational capabilities for forecasting, and discusses how the findings may impact space weather research and its transition to operations. A single limitation to the assessment is lack of information provided to us on radiation monitor performance, which caused us not to fully assess (i.e., not assess short term) radiation storm forecasting. The assessment finds that at least two widely spaced coronagraphs including L4 would provide reliability for Earth-bound CMEs. Furthermore, all magnetic field measurements assessed fully meet requirements. However, with current or even with near term new assets in place, in the worst-case scenario there could be a near-complete lack of key near-real-time solar wind plasma data of severe disturbances heading toward and impacting Earth's magnetosphere. Models that attempt to simulate the effects of these disturbances in near real time or with archival data require solar wind plasma observations as input. Moreover, the study finds that near-future observational assets will be less capable of advancing the understanding of extreme geomagnetic disturbances at Earth, which might make the resulting space weather models unsuitable for transition to operations. Key Points Manuscript assesses current and near-future space weather assets Current assets unreliable for forecasting of severe geomagnetic storms Near-future assets will not improve the situation PMID:26213516

  20. The Main Pillar: Assessment of Space Weather Observational Asset Performance Supporting Nowcasting, Forecasting and Research to Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Posner, Arik; Hesse, Michael; SaintCyr, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Space weather forecasting critically depends upon availability of timely and reliable observational data. It is therefore particularly important to understand how existing and newly planned observational assets perform during periods of severe space weather. Extreme space weather creates challenging conditions under which instrumentation and spacecraft may be impeded or in which parameters reach values that are outside the nominal observational range. This paper analyzes existing and upcoming observational capabilities for forecasting, and discusses how the findings may impact space weather research and its transition to operations. A single limitation to the assessment is lack of information provided to us on radiation monitor performance, which caused us not to fully assess (i.e., not assess short term) radiation storm forecasting. The assessment finds that at least two widely spaced coronagraphs including L4 would provide reliability for Earth-bound CMEs. Furthermore, all magnetic field measurements assessed fully meet requirements. However, with current or even with near term new assets in place, in the worst-case scenario there could be a near-complete lack of key near-real-time solar wind plasma data of severe disturbances heading toward and impacting Earth's magnetosphere. Models that attempt to simulate the effects of these disturbances in near real time or with archival data require solar wind plasma observations as input. Moreover, the study finds that near-future observational assets will be less capable of advancing the understanding of extreme geomagnetic disturbances at Earth, which might make the resulting space weather models unsuitable for transition to operations.

  1. Archive eggs: a research and management tool for avian conservation breeding

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Des H.V.; Moehrenschlager, Axel; Christensen, Nancy; Knapik, Dwight; Gibson, Keith; Converse, Sarah J.

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide, approximately 168 bird species are captive-bred for reintroduction into the wild. Programs tend to be initiated for species with a high level of endangerment. Depressed hatching success can be a problem for such programs and has been linked to artificial incubation. The need for artificial incubation is driven by the practice of multiclutching to increase egg production or by uncertainty over the incubation abilities of captive birds. There has been little attempt to determine how artificial incubation differs from bird-contact incubation. We describe a novel archive (data-logger) egg and use it to compare temperature, humidity, and egg-turning in 5 whooping crane (Grus americana) nests, 4 sandhill crane (G. canadensis) nests, and 3 models of artificial incubator; each of which are used to incubate eggs in whooping crane captive-breeding programs. Mean incubation temperature was 31.7° C for whooping cranes and 32.83° C for sandhill cranes. This is well below that of the artificial incubators (which were set based on a protocol of 37.6° C). Humidity in crane nests varied considerably, but median humidity in all 3 artificial incubators was substantially different from that in the crane nests. Two artificial incubators failed to turn the eggs in a way that mimicked crane egg-turning. Archive eggs are an effective tool for guiding the management of avian conservation breeding programs, and can be custom-made for other species. They also have potential to be applied to research on wild populations.

  2. Electron Tomography: A Three-Dimensional Analytic Tool for Hard and Soft Materials Research

    PubMed Central

    Alaidi, Osama; Rames, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) structural analysis is essential to understand the relationship between the structure and function of an object. Many analytical techniques, such as X-ray diffraction, neutron spectroscopy, and electron microscopy imaging, are used to provide structural information. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), one of the most popular analytic tools, has been widely used for structural analysis in both physical and biological sciences for many decades, in which 3D objects are projected into two-dimensional (2D) images. In many cases, 2D-projection images are insufficient to understand the relationship between the 3D structure and the function of nanoscale objects. Electron tomography (ET) is a technique that retrieves 3D structural information from a tilt series of 2D projections, and is gradually becoming a mature technology with sub-nanometer resolution. Distinct methods to overcome sample-based limitations have been separately developed in both physical and biological science, although they share some basic concepts of ET. This review discusses the common basis for 3D characterization, and specifies difficulties and solutions regarding both hard and soft materials research. It is hoped that novel solutions based on current state-of-the-art techniques for advanced applications in hybrid matter systems can be motivated.

  3. Electron Tomography: A Three-Dimensional Analytic Tool for Hard and Soft Materials Research.

    PubMed

    Ercius, Peter; Alaidi, Osama; Rames, Matthew J; Ren, Gang

    2015-10-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) structural analysis is essential to understand the relationship between the structure and function of an object. Many analytical techniques, such as X-ray diffraction, neutron spectroscopy, and electron microscopy imaging, are used to provide structural information. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), one of the most popular analytic tools, has been widely used for structural analysis in both physical and biological sciences for many decades, in which 3D objects are projected into two-dimensional (2D) images. In many cases, 2D-projection images are insufficient to understand the relationship between the 3D structure and the function of nanoscale objects. Electron tomography (ET) is a technique that retrieves 3D structural information from a tilt series of 2D projections, and is gradually becoming a mature technology with sub-nanometer resolution. Distinct methods to overcome sample-based limitations have been separately developed in both physical and biological science, although they share some basic concepts of ET. This review discusses the common basis for 3D characterization, and specifies difficulties and solutions regarding both hard and soft materials research. It is hoped that novel solutions based on current state-of-the-art techniques for advanced applications in hybrid matter systems can be motivated. PMID:26087941

  4. Engineering plastid genomes: methods, tools, and applications in basic research and biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Bock, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    The small bacterial-type genome of the plastid (chloroplast) can be engineered by genetic transformation, generating cells and plants with transgenic plastid genomes, also referred to as transplastomic plants. The transformation process relies on homologous recombination, thereby facilitating the site-specific alteration of endogenous plastid genes as well as the precisely targeted insertion of foreign genes into the plastid DNA. The technology has been used extensively to analyze chloroplast gene functions and study plastid gene expression at all levels in vivo. Over the years, a large toolbox has been assembled that is now nearly comparable to the techniques available for plant nuclear transformation and that has enabled new applications of transplastomic technology in basic and applied research. This review describes the state of the art in engineering the plastid genomes of algae and land plants (Embryophyta). It provides an overview of the existing tools for plastid genome engineering, discusses current technological limitations, and highlights selected applications that demonstrate the immense potential of chloroplast transformation in several key areas of plant biotechnology. PMID:25494465

  5. Lunar e-Library: A Research Tool Focused on the Lunar Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McMahan, Tracy A.; Shea, Charlotte A.; Finckenor, Miria; Ferguson, Dale

    2007-01-01

    As NASA plans and implements the Vision for Space Exploration, managers, engineers, and scientists need lunar environment information that is readily available and easily accessed. For this effort, lunar environment data was compiled from a variety of missions from Apollo to more recent remote sensing missions, such as Clementine. This valuable information comes not only in the form of measurements and images but also from the observations of astronauts who have visited the Moon and people who have designed spacecraft for lunar missions. To provide a research tool that makes the voluminous lunar data more accessible, the Space Environments and Effects (SEE) Program, managed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, AL, organized the data into a DVD knowledgebase: the Lunar e-Library. This searchable collection of 1100 electronic (.PDF) documents and abstracts makes it easy to find critical technical data and lessons learned from past lunar missions and exploration studies. The SEE Program began distributing the Lunar e-Library DVD in 2006. This paper describes the Lunar e-Library development process (including a description of the databases and resources used to acquire the documents) and the contents of the DVD product, demonstrates its usefulness with focused searches, and provides information on how to obtain this free resource.

  6. Neutron tomography of particulate filters: a non-destructive investigation tool for applied and industrial research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toops, Todd J.; Bilheux, Hassina Z.; Voisin, Sophie; Gregor, Jens; Walker, Lakeisha; Strzelec, Andrea; Finney, Charles E. A.; Pihl, Josh A.

    2013-11-01

    This research describes the development and implementation of high-fidelity neutron imaging and the associated analysis of the images. This advanced capability allows the non-destructive, non-invasive imaging of particulate filters (PFs) and how the deposition of particulate and catalytic washcoat occurs within the filter. The majority of the efforts described here were performed at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) CG-1D neutron imaging beamline at Oak Ridge National Laboratory; the current spatial resolution is approximately 50 ?m. The sample holder is equipped with a high-precision rotation stage that allows 3D imaging (i.e., computed tomography) of the sample when combined with computerized reconstruction tools. What enables the neutron-based image is the ability of some elements to absorb or scatter neutrons where other elements allow the neutron to pass through them with negligible interaction. Of particular interest in this study is the scattering of neutrons by hydrogen-containing molecules, such as hydrocarbons (HCs) and/or water, which are adsorbed to the surface of soot, ash and catalytic washcoat. Even so, the interactions with this adsorbed water/HC is low and computational techniques were required to enhance the contrast, primarily a modified simultaneous iterative reconstruction technique (SIRT). This effort describes the following systems: particulate randomly distributed in a PF, ash deposition in PFs, a catalyzed washcoat layer in a PF, and three particulate loadings in a SiC PF.

  7. Hyperacusis Questionnaire as a Tool for Measuring Hypersensitivity to Sound in a Tinnitus Research Population

    PubMed Central

    Fackrell, Kathryn; Fearnley, Constance; Hoare, Derek J.; Sereda, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Hypersensitivity to external sounds is often comorbid with tinnitus and may be significant for adherence to certain types of tinnitus management. Therefore, a clear measure of sensitivity to sound is important. The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of the Hyperacusis Questionnaire (HQ) for use as a measurement tool using data from a sample of 264 adults who took part in tinnitus research. We evaluated the HQ factor structure, internal consistency, convergent and discriminant validity, and floor and ceiling effects. Internal consistency was high (Cronbach's alpha = 0.88) and moderate correlations were observed between the HQ, uncomfortable loudness levels, and other health questionnaires. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the original HQ three-factor solution and a one-factor solution were both a poor fit to the data. Four problematic items were removed and exploratory factor analysis identified a two-factor (attentional and social) solution. The original three-factor structure of the HQ was not confirmed. All fourteen items do not accurately assess hypersensitivity to sound in a tinnitus population. We propose a 10-item (2-factor) version of the HQ, which will need to be confirmed using a new tinnitus and perhaps nontinnitus population. PMID:26557658

  8. GERLUMPH Data Release 1: High-resolution Cosmological Microlensing Magnification Maps and eResearch Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernardos, G.; Fluke, C. J.; Bate, N. F.; Croton, D.

    2014-03-01

    As synoptic all-sky surveys begin to discover new multiply lensed quasars, the flow of data will enable statistical cosmological microlensing studies of sufficient size to constrain quasar accretion disk and supermassive black hole properties. In preparation for this new era, we are undertaking the GPU-Enabled, High Resolution cosmological MicroLensing parameter survey (GERLUMPH). We present here the GERLUMPH Data Release 1, which consists of 12,342 high resolution cosmological microlensing magnification maps and provides the first uniform coverage of the convergence, shear, and smooth matter fraction parameter space. We use these maps to perform a comprehensive numerical investigation of the mass-sheet degeneracy, finding excellent agreement with its predictions. We study the effect of smooth matter on microlensing induced magnification fluctuations. In particular, in the minima and saddle-point regions, fluctuations are enhanced only along the critical line, while in the maxima region they are always enhanced for high smooth matter fractions (?0.9). We describe our approach to data management, including the use of an SQL database with a Web interface for data access and online analysis, obviating the need for individuals to download large volumes of data. In combination with existing observational databases and online applications, the GERLUMPH archive represents a fundamental component of a new microlensing eResearch cloud. Our maps and tools are publicly available at http://gerlumph.swin.edu.au/.

  9. The Shared Health Research Information Network (SHRINE): a prototype federated query tool for clinical data repositories.

    PubMed

    Weber, Griffin M; Murphy, Shawn N; McMurry, Andrew J; Macfadden, Douglas; Nigrin, Daniel J; Churchill, Susanne; Kohane, Isaac S

    2009-01-01

    The authors developed a prototype Shared Health Research Information Network (SHRINE) to identify the technical, regulatory, and political challenges of creating a federated query tool for clinical data repositories. Separate Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) at Harvard's three largest affiliated health centers approved use of their data, and the Harvard Medical School IRB approved building a Query Aggregator Interface that can simultaneously send queries to each hospital and display aggregate counts of the number of matching patients. Our experience creating three local repositories using the open source Informatics for Integrating Biology and the Bedside (i2b2) platform can be used as a road map for other institutions. The authors are actively working with the IRBs and regulatory groups to develop procedures that will ultimately allow investigators to obtain identified patient data and biomaterials through SHRINE. This will guide us in creating a future technical architecture that is scalable to a national level, compliant with ethical guidelines, and protective of the interests of the participating hospitals. PMID:19567788

  10. Unraveling the Web of Viroinformatics: Computational Tools and Databases in Virus Research

    PubMed Central

    Priyadarshini, Pragya; Vrati, Sudhanshu

    2014-01-01

    The beginning of the second century of research in the field of virology (the first virus was discovered in 1898) was marked by its amalgamation with bioinformatics, resulting in the birth of a new domain—viroinformatics. The availability of more than 100 Web servers and databases embracing all or specific viruses (for example, dengue virus, influenza virus, hepatitis virus, human immunodeficiency virus [HIV], hemorrhagic fever virus [HFV], human papillomavirus [HPV], West Nile virus, etc.) as well as distinct applications (comparative/diversity analysis, viral recombination, small interfering RNA [siRNA]/short hairpin RNA [shRNA]/microRNA [miRNA] studies, RNA folding, protein-protein interaction, structural analysis, and phylotyping and genotyping) will definitely aid the development of effective drugs and vaccines. However, information about their access and utility is not available at any single source or on any single platform. Therefore, a compendium of various computational tools and resources dedicated specifically to virology is presented in this article. PMID:25428870

  11. SMART II : the spot market agent research tool version 2.0.

    SciTech Connect

    North, M. J. N.

    2000-12-14

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has worked closely with Western Area Power Administration (Western) over many years to develop a variety of electric power marketing and transmission system models that are being used for ongoing system planning and operation as well as analytic studies. Western markets and delivers reliable, cost-based electric power from 56 power plants to millions of consumers in 15 states. The Spot Market Agent Research Tool Version 2.0 (SMART II) is an investigative system that partially implements some important components of several existing ANL linear programming models, including some used by Western. SMART II does not implement a complete model of the Western utility system but it does include several salient features of this network for exploratory purposes. SMART II uses a Swarm agent-based framework. SMART II agents model bulk electric power transaction dynamics with recognition for marginal costs as well as transmission and generation constraints. SMART II uses a sparse graph of nodes and links to model the electric power spot market. The nodes represent power generators and consumers with distinct marginal decision curves and varying investment capital as well individual learning parameters. The links represent transmission lines with individual capacities taken from a range of central distribution, outlying distribution and feeder line types. The application of SMART II to electric power systems studies has produced useful results different from those often found using more traditional techniques. Use of the advanced features offered by the Swarm modeling environment simplified the creation of the SMART II model.

  12. GERLUMPH DATA RELEASE 1: HIGH-RESOLUTION COSMOLOGICAL MICROLENSING MAGNIFICATION MAPS AND eResearch TOOLS

    SciTech Connect

    Vernardos, G.; Fluke, C. J.; Croton, D.; Bate, N. F.

    2014-03-01

    As synoptic all-sky surveys begin to discover new multiply lensed quasars, the flow of data will enable statistical cosmological microlensing studies of sufficient size to constrain quasar accretion disk and supermassive black hole properties. In preparation for this new era, we are undertaking the GPU-Enabled, High Resolution cosmological MicroLensing parameter survey (GERLUMPH). We present here the GERLUMPH Data Release 1, which consists of 12,342 high resolution cosmological microlensing magnification maps and provides the first uniform coverage of the convergence, shear, and smooth matter fraction parameter space. We use these maps to perform a comprehensive numerical investigation of the mass-sheet degeneracy, finding excellent agreement with its predictions. We study the effect of smooth matter on microlensing induced magnification fluctuations. In particular, in the minima and saddle-point regions, fluctuations are enhanced only along the critical line, while in the maxima region they are always enhanced for high smooth matter fractions (≈0.9). We describe our approach to data management, including the use of an SQL database with a Web interface for data access and online analysis, obviating the need for individuals to download large volumes of data. In combination with existing observational databases and online applications, the GERLUMPH archive represents a fundamental component of a new microlensing eResearch cloud. Our maps and tools are publicly available at http://gerlumph.swin.edu.au/.

  13. Evaluation of the Newton Pen-Pad as a tool for collecting clinical research data at the bed-side.

    PubMed Central

    Grant, A. M.; Delisle, E.; Champagne, S.; Théroux, P.

    1996-01-01

    A protocol for the study of practice variation between Quebec Intensive Care Units in the treatment of myocardial infarction by thrombolysis was coded into the Newton Pen-Pad. This tool for the direct recording of clinical data was tested in the working environment by research nurses of 4 different teaching hospitals. Data was sent directly from the pen-pad by telecommunication to the information coordinating center. The results of this evaluation confirm the reliability and robustness of this approach which promises to be an important tool for applied clinical research. PMID:8947763

  14. MARSTHERM: A Web-based System Providing Thermophysical Analysis Tools for Mars Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putzig, N. E.; Barratt, E. M.; Mellon, M. T.; Michaels, T. I.

    2013-12-01

    We introduce MARSTHERM, a web-based system that will allow researchers access to a standard numerical thermal model of the Martian near-surface and atmosphere. In addition, the system will provide tools for the derivation, mapping, and analysis of apparent thermal inertia from temperature observations by the Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) and the Mars Odyssey Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS). Adjustable parameters for the thermal model include thermal inertia, albedo, surface pressure, surface emissivity, atmospheric dust opacity, latitude, surface slope angle and azimuth, season (solar longitude), and time steps for calculations and output. The model computes diurnal surface and brightness temperatures for either a single day or a full Mars year. Output options include text files and plots of seasonal and diurnal surface, brightness, and atmospheric temperatures. The tools for the derivation and mapping of apparent thermal inertia from spacecraft data are project-based, wherein the user provides an area of interest (AOI) by specifying latitude and longitude ranges. The system will then extract results within the AOI from prior global mapping of elevation (from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter, for calculating surface pressure), TES annual albedo, and TES seasonal and annual-mean 2AM and 2PM apparent thermal inertia (Putzig and Mellon, 2007, Icarus 191, 68-94). In addition, a history of TES dust opacity within the AOI is computed. For each project, users may then provide a list of THEMIS images to process for apparent thermal inertia, optionally overriding the TES-derived dust opacity with a fixed value. Output from the THEMIS derivation process includes thumbnail and context images, GeoTIFF raster data, and HDF5 files containing arrays of input and output data (radiance, brightness temperature, apparent thermal inertia, elevation, quality flag, latitude, and longitude) and ancillary information. As a demonstration of capabilities, we will present results from a thermophysical study of Gale Crater (Barratt and Putzig, 2013, EPSC abstract 613), for which TES and THEMIS mapping has been carried out during system development. Public access to the MARSTHERM system will be provided in conjunction with the 2013 AGU Fall Meeting and will feature the numerical thermal model and thermal-inertia derivation algorithm developed by Mellon et al. (2000, Icarus 148, 437-455) as modified by Putzig and Mellon (2007, Icarus 191, 68-94). Updates to the thermal model and derivation algorithm that include a more sophisticated representation of the atmosphere and a layered subsurface are presently in development, and these will be incorporated into the system when they are available. Other planned enhancements include tools for modeling temperatures from horizontal mixtures of materials and slope facets, for comparing heterogeneity modeling results to TES and THEMIS results, and for mosaicking THEMIS images.

  15. A Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA) as a Measurement Tool for Wind-Energy Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wildmann, Norman; Bange, Jens

    2014-05-01

    In wind energy meteorology, RPA have the clear advantage compared to manned aircraft that they allow to fly very close to the ground and even in between individual wind turbines in a wind farm. Compared to meteorological towers and lidar systems, the advantage is the flexibility of the system, which makes it possible to measure at the desired site on short notice and not only in main wind direction. At the Center of Applied Geoscience at the University of TĂŒbingen, the research RPA MASC (Multi-purpose Airborne Sensor Carrier) was developed. RPA of type MASC have a wingspan of about 3 m and a maximum take-off weight of 7.5 kg, including payload. The standard meteorological payload includes instruments for temperature, humidity, barometric pressure and wind measurement. It is possible to resolve turbulence fluctuations of wind and temperature up to 20 Hz. The autopilot ROCS (Research Onboard Computer System), which is developed at the Institute of Flight Mechanics and Control, University of Stuttgart, makes it possible to automatically follow predefined waypoints at constant altitude and airspeed. At a cruising speed of 24 m/s and a battery life of approx. one hour, a range of 80 km is feasible. The project 'Lidar Complex', funded by the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety, is part of the research network 'WindForS', based in Southern Germany. The goal of the project is to establish lidar technology for wind energy plant site evaluation in complex terrain. Additional goals are the comparison of different measurement techniques and the validation of wind-field models in not IEC 61400 conform terrain. It is planned to design a turbulent wind-field generator, fed by real measurement data, which can be used to analyse WEC behaviour. Two test sites were defined for the 'Lidar Complex' project, one in IEC-conform terrain about 15 km from the Baltic Sea, the other in the Swabian Alb, only 2 km downstream of a 100 m steep escarpment. At both sites, flight measurements were performed in 2013 with the RPA MASC. The data that was collected allows to investigate the influence of thermal stability of the atmosphere at the test site and turbulence intensity around individual wind energy converters (WECs). Several measurement flights were done to investigate the wake structure downstream a running WEC. Preliminary results will be presented as well as an outlook for future research with the instrument.

  16. Maine Ingredients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, John K.

    2009-01-01

    This article features Maine Learning Technology Initiative (MLTI), the nation's first-ever statewide 1-to-1 laptop program which marks its seventh birthday by expanding into high schools, providing an occasion to celebrate--and to examine the components of its success. The plan to put laptops into the hands of every teacher and student in grades 7


  17. MAINE HYDROGRAPHY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydronet_me24 and Hydropoly_me24 depict Maine's hydrography data, based on 8-digit hydrological unit codes (HUC's) at the 1:24,000 scale. Some New Hampshire and New Brunswick hydrography data are also included. The NHD hydrography data was compiled from previous ArcIn...

  18. MAINE WOODLOTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    MEOWN250 describes industrial, non-industrial, and public woodlot ownership in Maine at 1:250,000 scale. Industrial owners are those having at least one primary wood processing facility. Non-industrial owners are those with no primary wood processing facility. Public ownership...

  19. 15 Years of Cell-penetrating, Guanidinium-rich Molecular Transporters: Basic Science, Research Tools, and Clinical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Stanzl, Erika Geihe; Trantow, Brian M.; Vargas, Jessica R.; Wender, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Conspectus All living systems require biochemical barriers. As a consequence, all drugs, imaging agents, and probes have targets that are either on, in, or inside of these barriers. Fifteen years ago, we initiated research directed at more fully understanding these barriers and at developing tools and strategies for breaching them that could be of use in basic research, imaging, diagnostics and medicine. At the outset of this research and to a lesser extent now, the “rules” for drug design biased the selection of drug candidates to mainly those with an intermediate and narrow log P. At the same time, it was becoming increasingly apparent that Nature had long ago developed clever strategies to circumvent these “rules”. In 1988, for example, independent reports appeared documenting the otherwise uncommon passage of a protein (HIV-Tat) across a membrane. A subsequent study called attention to a highly basic domain in this protein (Tat49–57) being responsible for its cellular entry. This conspicuously contradictory behavior, i.e., a polar, highly charged peptide passing through a non-polar membrane, set the stage for learning how Nature had gotten around the current “rules” of transport. As elaborated in our studies and discussed herein, the key strategy used in Nature rests in part on the ability of a molecule to change its properties as a function of microenvironment, being a polarity chameleon – i.e., being polar in a polar milieu and relatively non-polar in a non-polar environment. Because this research originated in part with the protein Tat and its basic peptide domain, Tat49–57, the field focused heavily on peptides, even limiting its nomenclature to names such as ‘cell-penetrating peptides,’ ‘cell-permeating peptides,’ ‘protein transduction domains,’ and ‘membrane translocating peptides’ to note a few. Starting in 1997, through a systematic reverse engineering approach, we established that the ability of Tat49–57 to enter cells is not a function of its peptide backbone, but rather the number and spatial array of its guanidinium groups. These function-oriented studies allowed one to design more effective peptidic agents and to think beyond the confines of peptidic systems to new and even more effective non-peptidic agents. Because the function of passage across a cell membrane is not limited to or even best achieved with the peptide backbone, we referred to these agents by their shared function, i.e., ‘cell-penetrating molecular transporters’. The scope of this molecular approach to breaching biochemical barriers has expanded remarkably in the past 15 years, enabling or enhancing the delivery of a wide range of cargos into cells and across other biochemical barriers; creating new tools for research, imaging, and diagnostics; and introducing new therapies into clinical trials. PMID:23697862

  20. Sugarcane genome sequencing by methylation filtration provides tools for genomic research in the genus Saccharum

    PubMed Central

    Grativol, ClĂ­cia; Regulski, Michael; Bertalan, Marcelo; McCombie, W. Richard; da Silva, Felipe Rodrigues; Neto, Adhemar Zerlotini; Vicentini, Renato; Farinelli, Laurent; Hemerly, Adriana Silva; Martienssen, Robert A.; Ferreira, Paulo Cavalcanti Gomes

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Many economically important crops have large and complex genomes, which hampers sequencing of their genome by standard methods such as WGS. Large tracts of methylated repeats occur at plant genomes interspersed by hypomethylated gene-rich regions. Gene enrichment strategies based on methylation profile offer an alternative to sequencing repetitive genomes. Here, we have applied methyl filtration (MF) with McrBC digestion to enrich for euchromatic regions of sugarcane genome. To verify the efficiency of MF and the assembly quality of sequences submitted to gene-enrichment strategy, we have compared assemblies using MF and unfiltered (UF) libraries. The MF allowed the achievement of a better assembly by filtering out 35% of the sugarcane genome and by producing 1.5 times more scaffolds and 1.7 times more assembled Mb compared to unfiltered scaffolds. The coverage of sorghum CDS by MF scaffolds was at least 36% higher than by UF scaffolds. Using MF technology, we increased by 134X the coverage of genic regions of the monoploid sugarcane genome. The MF reads assembled into scaffolds covering all genes at sugarcane BACs, 97.2% of sugarcane ESTs, 92.7% of sugarcane RNA-seq reads and 98.4% of sorghum protein sequences. Analysis of MF scaffolds encoding enzymes of the sucrose/starch pathway discovered 291 SNPs in the wild sugarcane species, S. spontaneum and S. officinarum. A large number of microRNA genes were also identified in the MF scaffolds. The information achieved by the MF dataset provides a valuable tool for genomic research in the genus Saccharum and improvement of sugarcane as a biofuel crop. PMID:24773339

  1. Dual signature tracer: A new tool for soil management and research.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poleykett, Jack; Quinton, John; Armstrong, Alona; Maher, Barbara; Black, Kevin

    2015-04-01

    The significant detrimental effects that occur, both on and off site due to the transport of soil are well documented. Now more than ever, it is vital to understand the pathways, processes and fate of transported sediments, to underpin environmental strategy and develop robust forecast models. Researchers have employed a broad range of materials and techniques to trace the movement of soil through space and time. However, three primary challenges still remain: 1) to develop a tracer that has the same or similar hydraulic characteristics as soil: 2) to develop a tracer able to replicate the broad and variable particle size distribution of soils; and: 3) to develop a tracing methodology that increases the volume, and quality of data collected from the field. This study approaches these challenges using a unique 'dual signature' tracer comprising natural mineral material directly coated with a fluorescent dye pigment and loaded during coating with a naturally occurring magnetic mineral oxide creating a tracer with both fluorescent properties and para-magnetic character. An assessment of the effectiveness of the tracer as a tracer of soil was conducted at the soil box and plot scale under controlled rainfall conditions, to: 1) examine the behaviour of the tracer, and: 2) to assess the efficiency of the different tools available to monitor the tracer post- deployment. At the plot scale, a unique site specific tracer was developed to match the hydraulic characteristics (particle size distribution and specific gravity), of the native soil enabling the source-sink relationship, transport pathways and transport rate through the environment to be investigated. Spatial mapping of the tracer distribution within each plot was also conducted using photography and Ultra Violet (UV) illumination. The results of this study provide the basis for the development of a unique soil tracing methodology, which can be applied to investigate soil transport processes, at a range of scales in a variety of settings. Keywords: soil, processes, erosion, tracing, fluorescent, magnetic

  2. Unmanned Aerial Systems as Versatile Tools for Atmospheric and Environmental Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, Manfred; Argyrides, Marios; Ioannou, Stelios; Keleshis, Christos; Levin, Zev

    2013-04-01

    Unmanned Aerial Systems (UASs) are increasingly recognized as versatile tools for different earth-sciences applications providing chiefly a link between in-situ ground based measurements and satellite remote sensing observations. Based on the Autonomous Flying Platforms for Atmospheric and Earth Surface Observations project (APAESO) of the Energy, Environment and Water Research Center (EEWRC) at the Cyprus Institute (APAESO is co-financed by the European Development Fund and the Republic of Cyprus through the Cyprus Research Promotion Foundation: ΝΕΑ ΄ΠΟΔΟΜΗ/ΝΕΚ΄Π/0308/09), we have acquired four CRUISERS (ET-Air, Slovakia) as UAS platforms and a substantial range of scientific instruments to be employed on these platforms. The APAESO platforms are aimed at the dual purpose of carrying out atmospheric and earth-surface observations in the (Eastern) Mediterranean They will enable 3D measurements for determining physical, chemical and radiative atmospheric properties, aerosol and dust concentrations and atmospheric dynamics as well as 2D investigations into land management practices, vegetation and agricultural mapping, contaminant detection and the monitoring and assessment of hydrological parameters and processes of a given region at high spatial resolution. Currently, we are building up an Unmanned Airplane Facility at CyI. In the process of reaching full operational capacity, we have initiated and carried out first test missions involving highly specialized and specifically adapted instrumentation for atmospheric investigations. The first scientific mission involves the employment of a DOAS-system (Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy) in cooperation with colleagues from Heidelberg and Mainz, Germany and has been successfully completed. More recently, we started work on a new collaborative project aimed at measuring vertical profiles of aerosols in the Eastern Mediterranean. The project involves colleagues from the University of Frankfurt, Germany as well as from the University of Tel Aviv and the Weizmann Institute, both in Israel. For this project, a specially designed multi-stage electrostatic aerosol collector is being placed on one of the APAESO UAS. Simultaneously, atmospheric aerosols size and concentrations will be measured with an optical aerosol spectrometer, mounted on the same platform. The collected samples will be divided into two parts for analysis in both the University of Frankfurt and the Weizmann Institute

  3. Isolation of a strong Arabidopsis guard cell promoter and its potential as a research tool

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yingzhen; Costa, Alex; Leonhardt, Nathalie; Siegel, Robert S; Schroeder, Julian I

    2008-01-01

    Background A common limitation in guard cell signaling research is that it is difficult to obtain consistent high expression of transgenes of interest in Arabidopsis guard cells using known guard cell promoters or the constitutive 35S cauliflower mosaic virus promoter. An additional drawback of the 35S promoter is that ectopically expressing a gene throughout the organism could cause pleiotropic effects. To improve available methods for targeted gene expression in guard cells, we isolated strong guard cell promoter candidates based on new guard cell-specific microarray analyses of 23,000 genes that are made available together with this report. Results A promoter, pGC1(At1g22690), drove strong and relatively specific reporter gene expression in guard cells including GUS (beta-glucuronidase) and yellow cameleon YC3.60 (GFP-based calcium FRET reporter). Reporter gene expression was weaker in immature guard cells. The expression of YC3.60 was sufficiently strong to image intracellular Ca2+ dynamics in guard cells of intact plants and resolved spontaneous calcium transients in guard cells. The GC1 promoter also mediated strong reporter expression in clustered stomata in the stomatal development mutant too-many-mouths (tmm). Furthermore, the same promoter::reporter constructs also drove guard cell specific reporter expression in tobacco, illustrating the potential of this promoter as a method for high level expression in guard cells. A serial deletion of the promoter defined a guard cell expression promoter region. In addition, anti-sense repression using pGC1 was powerful for reducing specific GFP gene expression in guard cells while expression in leaf epidermal cells was not repressed, demonstrating strong cell-type preferential gene repression. Conclusion The pGC1 promoter described here drives strong reporter expression in guard cells of Arabidopsis and tobacco plants. It provides a potent research tool for targeted guard cell expression or gene silencing. It is also applicable to reduce specific gene expression in guard cells, providing a method for circumvention of limitations arising from genetic redundancy and lethality. These advances could be very useful for manipulating signaling pathways in guard cells and modifying plant performance under stress conditions. In addition, new guard cell and mesophyll cell-specific 23,000 gene microarray data are made publicly available here. PMID:18284694

  4. Tools for Virtual Collaboration Designed for High Resolution Hydrologic Research with Continental-Scale Data Support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffy, Christopher; Leonard, Lorne; Shi, Yuning; Bhatt, Gopal; Hanson, Paul; Gil, Yolanda; Yu, Xuan

    2015-04-01

    Using a series of recent examples and papers we explore some progress and potential for virtual (cyber-) collaboration inspired by access to high resolution, harmonized public-sector data at continental scales [1]. The first example describes 7 meso-scale catchments in Pennsylvania, USA where the watershed is forced by climate reanalysis and IPCC future climate scenarios (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). We show how existing public-sector data and community models are currently able to resolve fine-scale eco-hydrologic processes regarding wetland response to climate change [2]. The results reveal that regional climate change is only part of the story, with large variations in flood and drought response associated with differences in terrain, physiography, landuse and/or hydrogeology. The importance of community-driven virtual testbeds are demonstrated in the context of Critical Zone Observatories, where earth scientists from around the world are organizing hydro-geophysical data and model results to explore new processes that couple hydrologic models with land-atmosphere interaction, biogeochemical weathering, carbon-nitrogen cycle, landscape evolution and ecosystem services [3][4]. Critical Zone cyber-research demonstrates how data-driven model development requires a flexible computational structure where process modules are relatively easy to incorporate and where new data structures can be implemented [5]. From the perspective of "Big-Data" the paper points out that extrapolating results from virtual observatories to catchments at continental scales, will require centralized or cloud-based cyberinfrastructure as a necessary condition for effectively sharing petabytes of data and model results [6]. Finally we outline how innovative cyber-science is supporting earth-science learning, sharing and exploration through the use of on-line tools where hydrologists and limnologists are sharing data and models for simulating the coupled impacts of catchment hydrology on lake eco-hydrology (NSF-INSPIRE, IIS1344272). The research attempts to use a virtual environment (www.organicdatascience.org) to break down disciplinary barriers and support emergent communities of science. [1] Source: Leonard and Duffy, 2013, Environmental Modelling & Software; [2] Source: Yu et al, 2014, Computers in Geoscience; [3] Source: Duffy et al, 2014, Procedia Earth and Planetary Science; [4] Source: Shi et al, Journal of Hydrometeorology, 2014; [5] Source: Bhatt et al, 2014, Environmental Modelling & Software ; [6] Leonard and Duffy, 2014, Environmental Modelling and Software.

  5. The BIOMAT facility at FAIR: a new tool for ground-based research in space radiation biophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durante, Marco

    The BIOMAT facility at FAIR: a new tool for ground-based research in space radiation biophysics M.Durante The FAIR accelerator complex at GSI (placeCityDarmstadt, country-regionGermany) will be a unique facility, where heavy ions with energies up to about 45 A GeV can be used for radiation biology experiments. The study of these very high charge and energy (HZE) particles is not only interesting for understanding the mechanisms of radiation action in living system, but also for radiation protection purposes. For space radiobiology, it is generally acknowledged that accelerator-based experiments are preferable to expensive and poorly reproducible flight tests, which are also presently unable to simulate the space radiation field beyond Earth's geomagnetic field. For these very reason, NASA has started the Space Radiation Health Program, building the 34 M NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (NY), and funding several research groups for studying biological effects of heavy ions with mass up to 56 (iron) and energy up to metricconverterProductID1 A1 A GeV. FAIR offers a number of unique opportunities in this frame. First, the beamtime available at NSRL is not sufficient to accommodate many non-US research groups, while the research needs are becoming urgent: uncertainty should be reduced to ±50% and effective countermeasures (physical and medical) developed by 2025 if a mission to Mars has to be performed within the first half of the XXI century. FAIR can be used to test a higher energy range (1- metricconverterProductID35 A35 A GeV), which has a low flux in space but is particularly penetrating and consequently impossible to shield. Finally, the raster scanning system used at GSI offers unique opportunities for biological experiments requiring precise exposures of parts of tissue or animal targets. The group of Biophysics at GSI has along experience in the field of space radiation protection, which naturally stems from heavy-ion cancer therapy research, where the GSI group is the world leading group. The Biophysics group is joined in a single technical proposal with the material research group (BIOMAT project group). The PlaceNameplaceFAIR PlaceNameHigh- PlaceNameEnergy Place- TypeCave will be developed and shared in mutual agreement by the Atomic Physics (SPARC), Biophysics, and Materials Research collaborations. FAIR has therefore the potential to become the main European laboratory for studies in basic biophysics of heavy ions, and space radiation protection. Recently, ESA has also decided to start an accelerator-based program in space radiation research, which is currently in the preliminary assessment phase. It is foreseeable that FAIR will play a decisive role in this project.

  6. Intercropping with white lupin (Lupinus albus L.); a promising tool for phytoremediation and phytomining research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiche, Oliver; Székely, Balazs; Moschner, Christin; Heilmeier, Hermann

    2015-04-01

    In recent studies root-soil interactions of white lupine (Lupinus albus L.) have drawn special attention to researchers due to its particularly high potential to increase bioavailability of phosphorous (P) and trace nutrients in soils. In mixed cultures, white lupine has the ability to mobilize P and trace nutrients in soil in excess of its own need and make this excess available for other intercropped companion species. While improved acquisition of P and improved yield parameters have mostly been documented in cereal-lupine intercrops, compared to sole crops, only a few recent studies have evidenced similar effects for trace elements e.g. Fe, Zn and Mn. In this preliminary study we tried to obtain more information about the mobilization of trace elements due to intercropping under field conditions. We hypothesize, that processes that lead to a better acquisition of trace nutrients might also affect other trace elements what could be useful for phytoremediation and phytomining research. Here we report the results of a semi-field experiment were we investigated the effects of an intercropping of white lupine with oat (Avena sativa L.) on the concentrations of trace metals in shoots of oat. We investigated the effects on 12 trace elements, including 4 elements with relevance for plant nutrition (P, Fe, Mn, Zn) and 8 trace elements, belonging to the group of metalloids, lanthanides and actinides with high relevance in phytoremediation (Cd, Pb Th, U) and phytomining research (Sc, La, Nd, Ge). The experiment was carried out on a semi-field lysimer at the off-site soil recycling and remediation center in Hirschfeld (Saxony, Germany). To test the intercropping-dependent mobilization of trace metals in soil and enhanced uptake of elements by oat, white lupine and oat were cultivated on 20 plots (4 mÂČ each) in monocultures and mixed cultures and two different white lupin /oat-ratios (11% and 33%, respectively) applying various treatments. The geometrical arrangement of plots was randomized and every treatment was fivefold replicated. Soil solution was collected weekly with plastic suction cups. Concentrations of trace metals in shoots of oat and soil solution were measured with ICP-MS. As a result, we found that both, concentrations of trace elements in oat plants, as well as the mobility of P and trace metals in soil solution was increased by an intercropping with white lupine. Mixed culture of oat with 11% white lupin significantly increased the concentrations of the trace nutrients Fe, Mn and Zn, as well as the concentrations of the trace metals Pb, La, Nd, Sc, Th and U in tissues of oat. Surprisingly, mixed cultures with 33 % white lupin did not significantly affect trace metal concentrations in oat, what might be the consequence of an increasing competition of roots of white lupin and oat for nutrients and trace metals. In conclusion we found that mixed cultures of white lupin with cereals might be a powerful tool for enhanced phytoremediation and phytomining. However, processes involved in the physiochemical mechanism of element uptake as affected by the oat/white lupin co-cultivation remain unknown and further studies on this topic are planned. These studies have been carried out in the framework of the PhytoGerm project, financed by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research, Germany. The authors are grateful to students and laboratory assistants contributing in the field work and sample preparation.

  7. Discrepancies between metabolic activity and DNA content as tool to assess cell proliferation in cancer research

    PubMed Central

    Quent, Verena MC; Loessner, Daniela; Friis, Thor; Reichert, Johannes C; Hutmacher, Dietmar W

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Cell proliferation is a critical and frequently studied feature of molecular biology in cancer research. Therefore, various assays are available using different strategies to measure cell proliferation. Metabolic assays such as AlamarBlue, water-soluble tetrazolium salt and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide, which were originally developed to determine cell toxicity, are used to assess cell numbers. Additionally, proliferative activity can be determined by quantification of DNA content using fluorophores such as CyQuant and PicoGreen. Referring to data published in high ranking cancer journals, these assays were applied in 945 publications over the past 14 years to examine the proliferative behaviour of diverse cell types. In these studies, however, mainly metabolic assays were used to quantify changes in cell growth yet these assays may not accurately reflect cellular proliferation rates due to a miscorrelation of metabolic activity and cell number. Testing this hypothesis, we compared the metabolic activity of different cell types, human cancer cells and primary cells, over a time period of 4 days using AlamarBlue and the fluorometric assays CyQuant and PicoGreen to determine their DNA content. Our results show certain discrepancies in terms of over-estimation of cell proliferation with respect to the metabolic assay in comparison to DNA binding fluorophores. PMID:20082656

  8. Photovoice as Participatory Action Research Tool for Engaging People with Intellectual Disabilities in Research and Program Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurkowski, Janine M.

    2008-01-01

    People with intellectual disabilities have few opportunities to actively participate in research affecting programs and policies. Employment of participatory action research has been recommended. Although use of this approach with people who have intellectual disabilities is growing, articles on specific participatory research methods are rare.


  9. The virtual supermarket: an innovative research tool to study consumer food purchasing behaviour. — Measures of the Food Environment

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov Print Page E-mail Page Search: Please wait while this form is being loaded.... Home Browse by Resource Type Browse by Area of Research Research Networks Funding Information About

  10. Google vs. the Library: Student Preferences and Perceptions when Doing Research Using Google and a Federated Search Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgas, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Federated searching was once touted as the library world's answer to Google, but ten years since federated searching technology's inception, how does it actually compare? This study focuses on undergraduate student preferences and perceptions when doing research using both Google and a federated search tool. Students were asked about their


  11. Students' Perceptions of the Effectiveness of the World Wide Web as a Research and Teaching Tool in Science Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Wan; Gunstone, Richard

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the use of the World Wide Web (WWW) as a research and teaching tool in promoting self-directed learning groups of 15-year-old students. Discusses the perceptions of students of the effectiveness of the WWW in assisting them with the construction of knowledge on photosynthesis and respiration. (Contains 33 references.) (Author/YDS)

  12. Design Tools in Didactical Research: Instrumenting the Epistemological and Cognitive Aspects of the Design of Teaching Sequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruthven, Kenneth; Laborde, Colette; Leach, John; Tiberghien, Andree

    2009-01-01

    European programs of design research have developed distinctive types of apparatus to structure and support the process of didactical design. This article illustrates how intermediate frameworks and design tools serve to mediate the contribution of grand theories to the design process, by coordinating and contextualizing theoretical insights on…

  13. Research and Teaching: Photovoice as a Pedagogical Tool--Student Engagement in Undergraduate Introductory Chemistry for Nonscience Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stroud, Mary W.

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the use of Photovoice as a pedagogical tool in two introductory undergraduate chemistry courses for nonscience majors. Photovoice, historically linked to participatory action research, is a qualitative mode of inquiry in which the perspectives provided in narratives and pictures are generally personal, subjective, and unique.…

  14. Research and Teaching: Photovoice as a Pedagogical Tool--Student Engagement in Undergraduate Introductory Chemistry for Nonscience Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stroud, Mary W.

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the use of Photovoice as a pedagogical tool in two introductory undergraduate chemistry courses for nonscience majors. Photovoice, historically linked to participatory action research, is a qualitative mode of inquiry in which the perspectives provided in narratives and pictures are generally personal, subjective, and unique.


  15. Google vs. the Library: Student Preferences and Perceptions when Doing Research Using Google and a Federated Search Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgas, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Federated searching was once touted as the library world's answer to Google, but ten years since federated searching technology's inception, how does it actually compare? This study focuses on undergraduate student preferences and perceptions when doing research using both Google and a federated search tool. Students were asked about their…

  16. Laser-heating and fuse-permeating research of coat tools' surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Weina; Chen, Ping; Chen, Ling

    2000-10-01

    To prevent the surface of coat tools from eroding and improve the longevity of coat tools, the laser-heating and fuse-permeating process, a method which adopt high-power acute laser scan for W18Cr4V steel and for micron spraying WC tools to acquire the alloy-coating, get fusing or nonfusing of tools further surface, however, a fuse- permeating layer is formed between the further surface and original body, then quickly-cooled to concord with some property. According to the experiment of laser-phased harden layer atom distribution. Atom W has the obvious diffusing tendency to the original body, the thickness of the fuse- permeating layer >= 20 micrometers , and the crystal particle is small. All this get high performance to decrease the fracture which extend along crystal side.

  17. The Development of an Online Research Tool to Investigate Children's Social Bonds with Robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veenstra, Dana Nathalie; Evers, Vanessa

    As children are increasingly exposed to robots, it is important to learn more about the social interaction and bond that may develop between robots and children. In this paper we report the development of an interactive tool to measure children's attitudes toward social robots for children ages 6-10. A first version of the KidSAR instrument was tested and a pilot study was carried out to evaluate and improve the design of the KidSAR (Children's Social Attitude toward Robots) tool. The pilot study involved a small scale field experiment assessing whether children feel more social connection with a robot in a caring role compared with a role where it needed to be taken care of. The final KidSAR tool was developed after evaluation of children's responses and observation of children using the tool.

  18. ReliefSeq: A Gene-Wise Adaptive-K Nearest-Neighbor Feature Selection Tool for Finding Gene-Gene Interactions and Main Effects in mRNA-Seq Gene Expression Data

    PubMed Central

    McKinney, Brett A.; White, Bill C.; Grill, Diane E.; Li, Peter W.; Kennedy, Richard B.; Poland, Gregory A.; Oberg, Ann L.

    2013-01-01

    Relief-F is a nonparametric, nearest-neighbor machine learning method that has been successfully used to identify relevant variables that may interact in complex multivariate models to explain phenotypic variation. While several tools have been developed for assessing differential expression in sequence-based transcriptomics, the detection of statistical interactions between transcripts has received less attention in the area of RNA-seq analysis. We describe a new extension and assessment of Relief-F for feature selection in RNA-seq data. The ReliefSeq implementation adapts the number of nearest neighbors (k) for each gene to optimize the Relief-F test statistics (importance scores) for finding both main effects and interactions. We compare this gene-wise adaptive-k (gwak) Relief-F method with standard RNA-seq feature selection tools, such as DESeq and edgeR, and with the popular machine learning method Random Forests. We demonstrate performance on a panel of simulated data that have a range of distributional properties reflected in real mRNA-seq data including multiple transcripts with varying sizes of main effects and interaction effects. For simulated main effects, gwak-Relief-F feature selection performs comparably to standard tools DESeq and edgeR for ranking relevant transcripts. For gene-gene interactions, gwak-Relief-F outperforms all comparison methods at ranking relevant genes in all but the highest fold change/highest signal situations where it performs similarly. The gwak-Relief-F algorithm outperforms Random Forests for detecting relevant genes in all simulation experiments. In addition, Relief-F is comparable to the other methods based on computational time. We also apply ReliefSeq to an RNA-Seq study of smallpox vaccine to identify gene expression changes between vaccinia virus-stimulated and unstimulated samples. ReliefSeq is an attractive tool for inclusion in the suite of tools used for analysis of mRNA-Seq data; it has power to detect both main effects and interaction effects. Software Availability: http://insilico.utulsa.edu/ReliefSeq.php. PMID:24339943

  19. ReliefSeq: a gene-wise adaptive-K nearest-neighbor feature selection tool for finding gene-gene interactions and main effects in mRNA-Seq gene expression data.

    PubMed

    McKinney, Brett A; White, Bill C; Grill, Diane E; Li, Peter W; Kennedy, Richard B; Poland, Gregory A; Oberg, Ann L

    2013-01-01

    Relief-F is a nonparametric, nearest-neighbor machine learning method that has been successfully used to identify relevant variables that may interact in complex multivariate models to explain phenotypic variation. While several tools have been developed for assessing differential expression in sequence-based transcriptomics, the detection of statistical interactions between transcripts has received less attention in the area of RNA-seq analysis. We describe a new extension and assessment of Relief-F for feature selection in RNA-seq data. The ReliefSeq implementation adapts the number of nearest neighbors (k) for each gene to optimize the Relief-F test statistics (importance scores) for finding both main effects and interactions. We compare this gene-wise adaptive-k (gwak) Relief-F method with standard RNA-seq feature selection tools, such as DESeq and edgeR, and with the popular machine learning method Random Forests. We demonstrate performance on a panel of simulated data that have a range of distributional properties reflected in real mRNA-seq data including multiple transcripts with varying sizes of main effects and interaction effects. For simulated main effects, gwak-Relief-F feature selection performs comparably to standard tools DESeq and edgeR for ranking relevant transcripts. For gene-gene interactions, gwak-Relief-F outperforms all comparison methods at ranking relevant genes in all but the highest fold change/highest signal situations where it performs similarly. The gwak-Relief-F algorithm outperforms Random Forests for detecting relevant genes in all simulation experiments. In addition, Relief-F is comparable to the other methods based on computational time. We also apply ReliefSeq to an RNA-Seq study of smallpox vaccine to identify gene expression changes between vaccinia virus-stimulated and unstimulated samples. ReliefSeq is an attractive tool for inclusion in the suite of tools used for analysis of mRNA-Seq data; it has power to detect both main effects and interaction effects. Software Availability: http://insilico.utulsa.edu/ReliefSeq.php. PMID:24339943

  20. ["Méta-analyse": a web-based tool for research and analysis of radiology papers].

    PubMed

    Garcelon, N; Bertaud, V; Saïd, W; Marin, F; Duvauferrier, R

    2008-06-01

    Finding articles providing answers to specific clinical questions is greatly facilitated by the availability of indexed Medline abstracts using the Pubmed search engine. Nonetheless, the large number of references sometimes requires a time-consuming review of multiple abstracts. In order to streamline the search process, we have created a tool facilitating the search and review of these abstracts. We present here this tool named "Méta-analyse". PMID:18641572

  1. A decade of experience in the development and implementation of tissue banking informatics tools for intra and inter-institutional translational research

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Waqas; Singh, Harpreet; Pople, Andre K.; Winters, Sharon; Dhir, Rajiv; Parwani, Anil V.; Becich, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Tissue banking informatics deals with standardized annotation, collection and storage of biospecimens that can further be shared by researchers. Over the last decade, the Department of Biomedical Informatics (DBMI) at the University of Pittsburgh has developed various tissue banking informatics tools to expedite translational medicine research. In this review, we describe the technical approach and capabilities of these models. Design: Clinical annotation of biospecimens requires data retrieval from various clinical information systems and the de-identification of the data by an honest broker. Based upon these requirements, DBMI, with its collaborators, has developed both Oracle-based organ-specific data marts and a more generic, model-driven architecture for biorepositories. The organ-specific models are developed utilizing Oracle 9.2.0.1 server tools and software applications and the model-driven architecture is implemented in a J2EE framework. Result: The organ-specific biorepositories implemented by DBMI include the Cooperative Prostate Cancer Tissue Resource (http://www.cpctr.info/), Pennsylvania Cancer Alliance Bioinformatics Consortium (http://pcabc.upmc.edu/main.cfm), EDRN Colorectal and Pancreatic Neoplasm Database (http://edrn.nci.nih.gov/) and Specialized Programs of Research Excellence (SPORE) Head and Neck Neoplasm Database (http://spores.nci.nih.gov/current/hn/index.htm). The model-based architecture is represented by the National Mesothelioma Virtual Bank (http://mesotissue.org/). These biorepositories provide thousands of well annotated biospecimens for the researchers that are searchable through query interfaces available via the Internet. Conclusion: These systems, developed and supported by our institute, serve to form a common platform for cancer research to accelerate progress in clinical and translational research. In addition, they provide a tangible infrastructure and resource for exposing research resources and biospecimen services in collaboration with the clinical anatomic pathology laboratory information system (APLIS) and the cancer registry information systems. PMID:20922029

  2. Building a Central Repository for Research Ethics Consultation Data: A Proposal for a Standard Data Collection Tool.

    PubMed

    Cho, Mildred K; Taylor, Holly; McCormick, Jennifer B; Anderson, Nick; Barnard, David; Boyle, Mary B; Capron, Alexander M; Dorfman, Elizabeth; Havard, Kathryn; Reider, Carson; Sadler, John; Schwartz, Peter; Sharp, Richard R; Danis, Marion; Wilfond, Benjamin S

    2015-08-01

    Clinical research ethics consultation services have been established across academic health centers over the past decade. This paper presents the results of collaboration within the CTSA consortium to develop a standard approach to the collection of research ethics consultation information to serve as a foundation for quality improvement, education, and research efforts. This approach includes categorizing and documenting descriptive information about the requestor, research project, the ethical question, the consult process, and describing the basic structure for a consult note. This paper also explores challenges in determining how to share some of this information between collaborating institutions related to concerns about confidentially, data quality, and informatics. While there is much still to be learned to improve the process of clinical research ethics consultation, these tools can advance these efforts, which, in turn, can facilitate the ethical conduct of research. PMID:25758372

  3. Heavy ion microprobes: a unique tool for bystander research and other radiobiological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voss, K. O.; Fournier, C.; Taucher-Scholz, G.

    2008-07-01

    The risk assessment for low doses of high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation has been challenged by a growing body of experimental evidence showing that non-irradiated bystander cells can receive signals from irradiated cells to elicit a variety of cellular responses. These may be significant for radiation protection but also for radiation therapy using heavy ions. Charged particle microbeams for radiobiological application provide a unique means to address these issues by allowing the precise irradiation of single cells with a counted numbers of ions. Here, we focus specifically on heavy ion microbeam facilities currently in use for biological purposes, describing their technical features and biological results. Typically, ion species up to argon are used for targeted biological irradiation at the vertically collimated microbeam at JAEA (Takasaki, Japan). At the SNAKE microprobe in Munich, mostly oxygen ions have been used in a horizontal focused beam line for cell targeting. At GSI (Darmstadt), a horizontal microprobe with a focused beam for defined targeting using ion species up to uranium is operational. The visualization of DNA damage response proteins relocalizing to defined sites of ion traversal has been accomplished at the three heavy ion microbeam facilities described above and is used to study mechanistic aspects of heavy ion effects. However, bystander studies have constituted the main focus of biological applications. While for cell inactivation and effects on cell cycle progression a response of non-targeted cells has been described at JAEA and GSI, respectively, in part controversial results have been obtained for the induction of DNA damage measured by double-strand formation or at the cytogenetic level. The results emphasize the influence of the cellular environment, and standardization of experimental conditions for cellular studies at different facilities as well as the investigation of bystander effects in tissue will be the aims of future research. At present, the most important conclusion of radiobiology studies at heavy ion microbeams is that bystander responses are not accentuated for increasing ionizing density radiation.

  4. pClone: Synthetic Biology Tool Makes Promoter Research Accessible to Beginning Biology Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, A. Malcolm; Eckdahl, Todd; Cronk, Brian; Andresen, Corinne; Frederick, Paul; Huckuntod, Samantha; Shinneman, Claire; Wacker, Annie; Yuan, Jason

    2014-01-01

    The "Vision and Change" report recommended genuine research experiences for undergraduate biology students. Authentic research improves science education, increases the number of scientifically literate citizens, and encourages students to pursue research. Synthetic biology is well suited for undergraduate research and is a growing area


  5. pClone: Synthetic Biology Tool Makes Promoter Research Accessible to Beginning Biology Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, A. Malcolm; Eckdahl, Todd; Cronk, Brian; Andresen, Corinne; Frederick, Paul; Huckuntod, Samantha; Shinneman, Claire; Wacker, Annie; Yuan, Jason

    2014-01-01

    The "Vision and Change" report recommended genuine research experiences for undergraduate biology students. Authentic research improves science education, increases the number of scientifically literate citizens, and encourages students to pursue research. Synthetic biology is well suited for undergraduate research and is a growing area…

  6. Towards a Reflection Repertoire: Using a Thinking Tool to Understand Tensions in an Action Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aas, Marit

    2014-01-01

    Most action researchers agree that action research consists of cycles of planning, acting, reflecting, and taking further action. However, in action research literature, there is something missing. The nature of reflection in the action research process, including its relationship with the tensions that arise while discussing purposes, processes,…

  7. Towards a Reflection Repertoire: Using a Thinking Tool to Understand Tensions in an Action Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aas, Marit

    2014-01-01

    Most action researchers agree that action research consists of cycles of planning, acting, reflecting, and taking further action. However, in action research literature, there is something missing. The nature of reflection in the action research process, including its relationship with the tensions that arise while discussing purposes, processes,


  8. Effective communication tools to engage Torres Strait Islanders in scientific research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, A.; Barnett, B.; Williams, A. J.; Grayson, J.; Busilacchi, S.; Duckworth, A.; Evans-Illidge, E.; Begg, G. A.; Murchie, C. D.

    2008-09-01

    Often, research activities in Torres Strait have not delivered full benefit to Torres Strait Islanders due to a lack of consultation, ineffectual communication of research information and lack of empathy for the needs of Islander communities. As for other stakeholder groups, integration of Islanders into the research process through practical involvement in research may overcome these problems. Three case studies from research projects conducted in Torres Strait are discussed to highlight a variety of communication and engagement activities carried out by non-Indigenous researchers. How these communication and extension activities facilitate collaboration between Torres Strait Islander and non-Indigenous researchers provides insight in the importance of these activities to the relative success of research projects. The benefits for Islanders in collaborating with researchers may be: improved understanding of the research and how it contributes to natural resource management; a sense of control in future management decisions; a greater likelihood of successful self-regulatory management systems; enhanced skills; and increased employment opportunities. The potential benefits for researchers are enhanced support for research projects resulting in increased access to data and logistic support that may ultimately impact the successful completion of projects. Such an approach will require researchers to take time to develop relationships with Torres Strait Islanders, effectively involve Islanders in research on an equitable basis and be flexible. This will ultimately require funding organisations to recognise the importance of such activities in research proposals and provide support through sufficient funding to enable these activities to be carried out.

  9. Connectivity research in Iceland - using scientific tools to establish sustainable water management strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finger, David

    2015-04-01

    Since the ninth century when the first settlers arrived in Iceland the island has undergone deforestation and subsequent vegetation degradation and soil erosion. Almost the entire birch forest and woodland, which originally covered ~ 25% of the nation, have been deforested through wood cutting and overgrazing. Consequently, soil erosion seriously affects over 40% of the country. During the last 50 years extensive drainage of wetlands has taken place. Furthermore, about 75% of Iceland electricity production comes from hydropower plants, constructed along the main rivers. Along with seismic and volcanic activities the above mentioned anthropogenic impacts continuously altered the hydro-geomorphic connectivity in many parts of the island. In the framework of ongoing efforts to restore ecosystems and their services in Iceland a thorough understanding of the hydro-geomorphic processes is essential. Field observations and numerical models are crucial tools to adopt appropriate management strategies and help decision makers establish sustainable governance strategies. Sediment transport models have been used in the past to investigate the impacts of hydropower dams on sediment transport in downstream rivers (Finger et al., 2006). Hydropower operations alter the turbidity dynamics in downstream freshwater systems, affecting visibility and light penetration into the water, leading to significant changes in primary production (Finger et al., 2007a). Overall, the interruption of connectivity by physical obstructions can affect the entire food chain, hampering the fishing yields in downstream waters (Finger et al., 2007b). In other locations hydraulic connectivity through retreating glaciers assures water transfer from upstream to downstream areas. The drastically retreat of glaciers can raise concerns of future water availability in remote mountain areas (Finger et al., 2013). Furthermore, the drastic reduction of glacier mass also jeopardizes the water availability for hydropower production (Finger et al., 2012). All these factors reveal the importance of a thorough understanding of hydro-geomorphic connectivity to adopt adequate water management strategies. The presentation will conclude by outlining how the above presented methods can be applied to Icelandic study sites to help water managers and policy makers to adopt resilient based policies regarding the challenges of future climate change impacts. References: Finger, D., M. Schmid, and A. Wuest (2006), Effects of upstream hydropower operation on riverine particle transport and turbidity in downstream lakes, Water Resour. Res., 42(8), doi: 10.1029/2005wr004751. Finger, D., P. Bossard, M. Schmid, L. Jaun, B. MĂŒller, D. Steiner, E. Schaffer, M. Zeh, and A. WĂŒest (2007a), Effects of alpine hydropower operations on primary production in a downstream lake, Aquatic Sciences, 69(2), 240-256, doi: 10.1007/s00027-007-0873-6. Finger, D., M. Schmid, and A. WĂŒest (2007b), Comparing effects of oligotrophication and upstream hydropower dams on plankton and productivity in perialpine lakes, Water Resour. Res., 43(12), W12404, doi: 10.1029/2007WR005868. Finger, D., G. Heinrich, A. Gobiet, and A. Bauder (2012), Projections of future water resources and their uncertainty in a glacierized catchment in the Swiss Alps and the subsequent effects on hydropower production during the 21st century, Water Resour. Res., 48, doi: 10.1029/2011wr010733, W02521. Finger, D., A. Hugentobler, M. Huss, A. Voinesco, H. R. Wernli, D. Fischer, E. Weber, P.-Y. Jeannin, M. Kauzlaric, A. Wirz, T. Vennemann, F. HĂŒsler, B. SchĂ€dler, and R. Weingartner (2013), Identification of glacial melt water runoff in a karstic environment and its implication for present and future water availability, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 3261-3277, doi: 10.5194/hess-17-3261-2013.

  10. PRE-QAPP AGREEMENT (PQA) AND ANALYTICAL METHOD CHECKLISTS (AMCS): TOOLS FOR PLANNING RESEARCH PROJECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Land Remediation and Pollution Control Division (LRPCD) QA Manager strives to assist LRPCD researchers in developing functional planning documents for their research projects. As part of the planning process, several pieces of information are needed, including information re...

  11. FDA Bioinformatics Tool for Microbial Genomics Research on Molecular Characterization of Bacterial Foodborne Pathogens Using Microarrays

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Advances in microbial genomics and bioinformatics are offering greater insights into the emergence and spread of foodborne pathogens in outbreak scenarios. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has developed the genomics tool ArrayTrackTM, which provides extensive functionalities to man...

  12. Challenges in Higher Education Research: The Use of Quantitative Tools in Comparative Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reale, Emanuela

    2014-01-01

    Despite the value of the comparative perspective for the study of higher education is widely recognised, there is little consensus about the specific methodological approaches. Quantitative tools outlined their relevance for addressing comparative analyses since they are supposed to reducing the complexity, finding out and graduating similarities…

  13. Research Notes. Archimedes: Analysis of a HyperCard Reference Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ottaviani, J. S.

    1995-01-01

    Presents a study of Archimedes as a HyperCard reference tool at the University of Michigan, and compares uses to similar projects. Results from studied points (i.e., system design and use statistics) support Archimedes: the system sees more use during reference hours when a librarian is unavailable, and user time is comparable to time spent with a


  14. Research Notes. Archimedes: Analysis of a HyperCard Reference Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ottaviani, J. S.

    1995-01-01

    Presents a study of Archimedes as a HyperCard reference tool at the University of Michigan, and compares uses to similar projects. Results from studied points (i.e., system design and use statistics) support Archimedes: the system sees more use during reference hours when a librarian is unavailable, and user time is comparable to time spent with a…

  15. Assessing Digital Humanities Tools: Use of Scalar at a Research University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tracy, Daniel G.

    2016-01-01

    As librarians increasingly support digital publication platforms, they must also understand the user experience of these tools. This case study assesses use of Scalar, a digital humanities publishing platform for media-rich projects, at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Based on a survey, interviews, and content analysis, the study


  16. Action Research as a Tool of Professional Development of Advisers and Teachers in Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cain, Tim; Milovic, Sanja

    2010-01-01

    Whilst educational action research is not unknown in Croatia, its use is not widespread. In part, this might be because action research assumes a high level of autonomy for practitioner-researchers, and a constructivist view of knowledge, neither of which are traditional characteristics of the Croatian system. This article reports on a capacity…

  17. Students' Framing of a Reading Annotation Tool in the Context of Research-Based Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahl, Jan Erik

    2016-01-01

    In the studied master's course, students participated both as research objects in a digital annotation experiment and as critical investigators of this technology in their semester projects. The students' role paralleled the researcher's role, opening an opportunity for researcher-student co-learning within what is often referred to as


  18. Heuristics Diagrams as a Tool to Formatively Assess Teachers' Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamizo, J. A.; Garcia-Franco, A.

    2013-01-01

    Many teacher education programs include different forms of teachers doing research. Be it in the form of action research or general inquiries about their practice, it has been argued that when teachers do research on their own practice, they are able to take a more reflective stance towards their work which is necessary to bring about educational


  19. Heuristics Diagrams as a Tool to Formatively Assess Teachers' Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamizo, J. A.; Garcia-Franco, A.

    2013-01-01

    Many teacher education programs include different forms of teachers doing research. Be it in the form of action research or general inquiries about their practice, it has been argued that when teachers do research on their own practice, they are able to take a more reflective stance towards their work which is necessary to bring about educational…

  20. Action Research as a Tool of Professional Development of Advisers and Teachers in Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cain, Tim; Milovic, Sanja

    2010-01-01

    Whilst educational action research is not unknown in Croatia, its use is not widespread. In part, this might be because action research assumes a high level of autonomy for practitioner-researchers, and a constructivist view of knowledge, neither of which are traditional characteristics of the Croatian system. This article reports on a capacity


  1. Linguistic validation of the Alberta Context Tool and two measures of research use, for German residential long term care

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To study the association between organizational context and research utilization in German residential long term care (LTC), we translated three Canadian assessment instruments: the Alberta Context Tool (ACT), Estabrooks’ Kinds of Research Utilization (RU) items and the Conceptual Research Utilization Scale. Target groups for the tools were health care aides (HCAs), registered nurses (RNs), allied health professionals (AHPs), clinical specialists and care managers. Through a cognitive debriefing process, we assessed response processes validity–an initial stage of validity, necessary before more advanced validity assessment. Methods We included 39 participants (16 HCAs, 5 RNs, 7 AHPs, 5 specialists and 6 managers) from five residential LTC facilities. We created lists of questionnaire items containing problematic items plus items randomly selected from the pool of remaining items. After participants completed the questionnaires, we conducted individual semi-structured cognitive interviews using verbal probing. We asked participants to reflect on their answers for list items in detail. Participants’ answers were compared to concept maps defining the instrument concepts in detail. If at least two participants gave answers not matching concept map definitions, items were revised and re-tested with new target group participants. Results Cognitive debriefings started with HCAs. Based on the first round, we modified 4 of 58 ACT items, 1 ACT item stem and all 8 items of the RU tools. All items were understood by participants after another two rounds. We included revised HCA ACT items in the questionnaires for the other provider groups. In the RU tools for the other provider groups, we used different wording than the HCA version, as was done in the original English instruments. Only one cognitive debriefing round was needed with each of the other provider groups. Conclusion Cognitive debriefing is essential to detect and respond to problematic instrument items, particularly when translating instruments for heterogeneous, less well educated provider groups such as HCAs. Cognitive debriefing is an important step in research tool development and a vital component of establishing response process validity evidence. Publishing cognitive debriefing results helps researchers to determine potentially critical elements of the translated tools and assists with interpreting scores. PMID:24479645

  2. Understanding and teaching key concepts and tools of evidence-based medicine: perspectives of a clinician-researcher pharmaceutical physician.

    PubMed

    Karagianis, Jamie

    2011-12-01

    Clinical practice benefits from research to inform good decision making. Evidence-based medicine (EBM) helps physicians integrate experience and individual expertise with the best evidence. Various philosophical concepts, including "primum non nocere," are balanced to achieve this. The tools of EBM, such as number needed to treat, are easy to calculate and to use. Other valuable tools include number needed to harm, attributable risk, and likelihood of being helped or harmed. It is also important to distinguish between relative risk and absolute risk to avoid drawing the wrong conclusions. With the right teaching techniques to grab attention and encourage active participation, real examples can be used to impart practical skills that the clinician can employ in translating research findings into something that helps the individual patient. PMID:22177378

  3. Teaching Main Idea Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumann, James F., Ed.

    Intended to help classroom teachers, curriculum developers, and researchers, this book provides current information on theoretical and instructional aspects of main idea comprehension. Titles and authors are as follows: "The Confused World of Main Idea" (James W. Cunningham and David W. Moore); "The Comprehension of Important Information in…

  4. A web-based tool to engage stakeholders in informing research planning for future decisions on emerging materials.

    PubMed

    Powers, Christina M; Grieger, Khara D; Hendren, Christine Ogilvie; Meacham, Connie A; Gurevich, Gerald; Lassiter, Meredith Gooding; Money, Eric S; Lloyd, Jennifer M; Beaulieu, Stephen M

    2014-02-01

    Prioritizing and assessing risks associated with chemicals, industrial materials, or emerging technologies is a complex problem that benefits from the involvement of multiple stakeholder groups. For example, in the case of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs), scientific uncertainties exist that hamper environmental, health, and safety (EHS) assessments. Therefore, alternative approaches to standard EHS assessment methods have gained increased attention. The objective of this paper is to describe the application of a web-based, interactive decision support tool developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) in a pilot study on ENMs. The piloted tool implements U.S. EPA's comprehensive environmental assessment (CEA) approach to prioritize research gaps. When pursued, such research priorities can result in data that subsequently improve the scientific robustness of risk assessments and inform future risk management decisions. Pilot results suggest that the tool was useful in facilitating multi-stakeholder prioritization of research gaps. Results also provide potential improvements for subsequent applications. The outcomes of future CEAWeb applications with larger stakeholder groups may inform the development of funding opportunities for emerging materials across the scientific community (e.g., National Science Foundation Science to Achieve Results [STAR] grants, National Institutes of Health Requests for Proposals). PMID:24176714

  5. Relating Science and Religion: An Ontology of Taxonomies and Development of a Research Tool for Identifying Individual Views

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasri, Pratchayapong; Arthur, Shagufta; Smith, Mike U.; Mancy, Rebecca

    2013-10-01

    Understanding how individuals view the relationship between science and religion shows promise for explaining a range of aspects of teaching and learning in science. Several taxonomies, consisting of different views by which people relate science and religion, can be found in the philosophical literature. However, most of the science education literature uses these taxonomies selectively and with limited justification, hindering comparison between existing and future studies. The first aim of this paper is therefore to provide a comprehensive review of the different taxonomies described in the literature and to organise the different views according to their similarities and differences. The second aim of the paper is to present a new research tool developed on the basis of the findings of the literature review. This tool consists of a short questionnaire allowing educational researchers to identify the different viewpoints held by pre-service teachers, undergraduates majoring in biology and school learners. We present the tool itself and demonstrate its usefulness and versatility for future science education research based on three empirical studies covering a range of geographical areas, religious backgrounds, educational levels, age groups and genders.

  6. Twitter as a Potential Disaster Risk Reduction Tool. Part I: Introduction, Terminology, Research and Operational Applications.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Guy Paul; Yeager, Violet; Burkle, Frederick M; Subbarao, Italo

    2015-01-01

    Twitter, a popular communications platform, is identified as contributing to improved mortality and morbidity outcomes resulting from the 2013 Hattiesburg, Mississippi EF-4 Tornado. This study describes the methodology by which Twitter was investigated as a potential disaster risk reduction and management tool at the community level and the process by which the at-risk population was identified from the broader Twitter user population. By understanding how various factors contribute to the superspreading of messages, one can better optimize Twitter as an essential communications and risk reduction tool. This study introduces Parts II, III and IV which further define the technological and scientific knowledge base necessary for developing future competency base curriculum and content for Twitter assisted disaster management education and training at the community level. PMID:26203395

  7. Twitter as a Potential Disaster Risk Reduction Tool. Part I: Introduction, Terminology, Research and Operational Applications

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Guy Paul; Yeager, Violet; Burkle, Frederick M.; Subbarao, Italo

    2015-01-01

    Twitter, a popular communications platform, is identified as contributing to improved mortality and morbidity outcomes resulting from the 2013 Hattiesburg, Mississippi EF-4 Tornado. This study describes the methodology by which Twitter was investigated as a potential disaster risk reduction and management tool at the community level and the process by which the at-risk population was identified from the broader Twitter user population. By understanding how various factors contribute to the superspreading of messages, one can better optimize Twitter as an essential communications and risk reduction tool. This study introduces Parts II, III and IV which further define the technological and scientific knowledge base necessary for developing future competency base curriculum and content for Twitter assisted disaster management education and training at the community level.  PMID:26203395

  8. Development and Applications of Lectins as Biological Tools in Biomedical Research.

    PubMed

    Dan, Xiuli; Liu, Wenlong; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2016-03-01

    As a new and burgeoning area following genomics and proteomics, glycomics has become a hot issue due to its pivotal roles in many physiological and pathological processes. Glycans are much more complicated than genes or proteins since glycans are highly branched and dynamic. Antibodies and lectins are the two major molecular tools applied for glycan profiling. Though the study of antibodies and lectins started at almost the same time in 1880s, lectins gained much less attention than the antibodies until recent decades when the importance and difficulties of glycomics were realized. The present review summarizes the discovery history of lectins and their biological functions with a special emphasis on their various applications as biological tools. Both older techniques that had been developed in the last century and new technologies developed in recent years, especially lectin microarrays and lectin-based biosensors, are included in this account. PMID:26290041

  9. Using Animation as an Information Tool to Advance Health Research Literacy among Minority Participants

    PubMed Central

    George, Sheba; Moran, Erin; Duran, Nelida; Jenders, Robert A

    2013-01-01

    Lack of adequate consumer health information about clinical research contributes to health disparities among low health literate minority multicultural populations and requires appropriate methods for making information accessible. Enhancing understanding of health research can enable such minority multicultural consumers to make informed, active decisions about their own health and research participation. This qualitative study examines the effectiveness and acceptability of an animated video to enhance what we call health research literacy among minority multicultural populations. A team analyzed the transcripts of 58 focus groups of African Americans, Latinos, Native Hawaiians, and Filipinos in Los Angeles/Hawaii. Participants were accepting of animation and the video’s cultural appropriateness. Communicating information about health research via animation improved participants’ ability to identify personal information-gaps, engage in meaningful community-level dialogue, and ask questions about health research. PMID:24551351

  10. [Research of tool-path generation algorithm for NC machining dental crown restoration].

    PubMed

    Sun, Quanping; Wang, Tongyue; Chen, Qianliang; Dai, Ning; Liao, Wenhe; He, Ning

    2008-06-01

    Seeing that the manual method to restore tooth has the disadvantages such as long "lead-time", assurance of quality highly depending on operator's technology, and real-time cure difficulty met by lots of dental patients coming up for tooth restoration, we put forward an algorithm of tool-path generation based on STL data model for roughing dental restoration. The algorithm can reconfigure the STL data of dental crown restoration quickly, can generates the multi-level offset wire-loop by the use of horizontal plane cutting triangle facets; and then on the basis of offset wire-loop, it can plan Zigzag and follow the contour machining tool path. The algorithm has been applied to Dental CAM software, through simulation machining, the result shows that it can not only generate interference-free tool path, but also save a lot of "lead-time" for dental restoration. Accordingly, the algorithm is of great value for reference in clinical application. PMID:18693428

  11. Health literacy among young adults: a short survey tool for public health and health promotion research.

    PubMed

    Abel, Thomas; Hofmann, Karen; Ackermann, Sabine; Bucher, Sabine; Sakarya, Sibel

    2015-09-01

    Health literacy (HL) is context-specific. In public health and health promotion, HL in the private realm refers to individuals' knowledge and skills to prevent disease and to promote health in everyday life. However, there is a scarcity of measurement tools explicitly geared to private realm contexts. Our aim was to develop and test a short survey tool that captures different dimensions of HL in the context of family and friends. We used cross-sectional data from the Swiss Federal Surveys of Adolescents from 2010 to 2011, comprising 7983 males and 366 females between 18 and 25 years. HL was assessed through a set of eight items (self-reports). We used principal component analysis to explore the underlying factor structure among these items in the male sample and confirmatory factor analysis to verify the factor structure in the female sample. The results showed that the tested item set represented dimensions of functional, interactive and critical HL. Two sub-dimensions, understanding versus finding health-relevant information, denoted functional HL. Interactive and critical HL were each represented with two items. A sum score based on all eight items (Cronbach's ?: 0.64) showed expected positive associations with own and parental education among males and females (p < 0.05). The short item set appears to be a feasible measurement tool to assess HL in the private realm. Its broader application in survey studies may help to improve our understanding of how this form of HL is distributed in the general population. PMID:24482542

  12. Electronic health records as a tool for recruitment of participants' clinical effectiveness research: lessons learned from tobacco cessation.

    PubMed

    Fraser, David; Christiansen, Bruce A; Adsit, Robert; Baker, Timothy B; Fiore, Michael C

    2013-09-01

    Translating tobacco dependence treatments that are effective in research settings into real-world clinical settings remains challenging. Electronic health record (EHR) technology can facilitate this process. This paper describes the accomplishments and lessons learned from a translational team science (clinic/research) approach to the development of an EHR tool for participant recruitment and clinic engagement in tobacco cessation research. All team stakeholders-research, clinical, and IT-were engaged in the design and planning of the project. Results over the first 17 months of the study showed that over one half of all smokers, coming in for any type of clinic appointment, were offered participation in the study, a very high level of adherent use of the EHR. Study recruitment over this period was 1,071 individuals, over 12 % of smokers in the participating clinics. PMID:24073175

  13. Premier Tools of Energy Research Also Probe Secrets of Viral Disease

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Chui, Glennda

    2011-03-28

    Advanced light sources peer into matter at the atomic and molecular scales, with applications ranging from physics, chemistry, materials science, and advanced energy research, to biology and medicine.

  14. A new tool for converting food frequency questionnaire data into nutrient and food group values: FETA research methods and availability

    PubMed Central

    Mulligan, Angela A; Luben, Robert N; Bhaniani, Amit; Parry-Smith, David J; O'Connor, Laura; Khawaja, Anthony P; Forouhi, Nita G; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To describe the research methods for the development of a new open source, cross-platform tool which processes data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Norfolk Food Frequency Questionnaire (EPIC-Norfolk FFQ). A further aim was to compare nutrient and food group values derived from the current tool (FETA, FFQ EPIC Tool for Analysis) with the previously validated but less accessible tool, CAFÉ (Compositional Analyses from Frequency Estimates). The effect of text matching on intake data was also investigated. Design Cross-sectional analysis of a prospective cohort study—EPIC-Norfolk. Setting East England population (city of Norwich and its surrounding small towns and rural areas). Participants Complete FFQ data from 11?250 men and 13?602 women (mean age 59?years; range 40–79?years). Outcome measures Nutrient and food group intakes derived from FETA and CAFÉ analyses of EPIC-Norfolk FFQ data. Results Nutrient outputs from FETA and CAFÉ were similar; mean (SD) energy intake from FETA was 9222 kJ (2633) in men, 8113?kJ (2296) in women, compared with CAFÉ intakes of 9175?kJ (2630) in men, 8091?kJ (2298) in women. The majority of differences resulted in one or less quintile change (98.7%). Only mean daily fruit and vegetable food group intakes were higher in women than in men (278 vs 212 and 284 vs 255?g, respectively). Quintile changes were evident for all nutrients, with the exception of alcohol, when text matching was not executed; however, only the cereals food group was affected. Conclusions FETA produces similar nutrient and food group values to the previously validated CAFÉ but has the advantages of being open source, cross-platform and complete with a data-entry form directly compatible with the software. The tool will facilitate research using the EPIC-Norfolk FFQ, and can be customised for different study populations. PMID:24674997

  15. Lidars as an operational tool for meteorology and advanced atmospheric research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simeonov, Valentin; Dinoev, Todor; Serikov, Ilya; Froidevaux, Martin; Bartlome, Marcel; Calpini, Bertrand; Bobrovnikov, Sergei; Ristori, Pablo; van den Bergh, Hubert; Parlange, Marc; Archinov, Yury

    2010-05-01

    The talk will present the concept and observation results of three advanced lidar systems developed recently at the Swiss federal Institute of Technology- Lausanne (EPFL) Switzerland. Two of the systems are Raman lidars for simultaneous water vapor, temperature and aerosol observations and the third one is an ozone UV DIAL system. The Ranan lidars use vibrational water vapor and nitrogen signals to derive water vapor mixing ratio and temperature, aerosol extinction and backscatter are measured using pure-rotational Raman and elastic signals. The first Raman lidar (RALMO) is a fully automated, water vapor /temperature/aerosol lidar developed for operational use by the Swiss meteorological office (MeteoSiss). The lidar supplies water vapor mixing ratio and temperature plus aerosol extinction and backscatter coefficients at 355 nm. The operational range of the lidar is 100-7000 m (night time) and 100- 5000 m (daytime) with time resolution of 30 min. The spatial resolution varies with height from 25 to 300 m in order to maintain the maximum measurement error of 10%. The system is designed to provide long-term database with minimal instrument-induced variations in time of the measured parameters. The lidar has been in regular operation in the main aerological station of Meteoswiss- Payerne since September 2008. The second Raman lidar is a new generation, solar-blind system with an operational range 10-500 m and high spatial (1.5 m) and temporal (1 s) resolutions designed for simultaneous humidity, temperature, and aerosol measurements in the lower atmosphere. To maintain the measurement accuracy while operating with fixed spatial and temporal resolution, the receiver is designed to provide lower than ten dynamic range of the signals within the distance range of the lidar. The lidar has 360° azimuth and 240°elevation scanning ability. The lidar was used in two field campaigns aiming to study the structure of the lower atmosphere over complex terrains and, in particular, to advance our understanding of turbulent blending mechanisms in the unstable atmosphere. The third lidar is an ozone UV DIAL system designed for studies of the upper troposphere, lower stratosphere ozone exchange processes. The lidar is based on a commercial fourth harmonic Nd:YAG laser. The DIAL wavelengths (284 and 304 nm) are produced by stimulated Raman conversion in high pressure nitrogen. A 76 cm in diameter Cassegrein telescope is used in the receiver and the spectral separation of the signals is carried out by an imaging-grating based polychromator. The operational distance of the lidar is 6000 -12000 m ASL with a statistical error lower than 10%. The lidar is deployed at the High Altitude Research Station Jungfraujoch at 3600 m altitude in the Swiss Alps. The lidar accuracy was verified by comparison to profiles taken by ECC balloon-borne sondes launched by Meteoswiss from Payerne. The lidar has been in use from September 2008 and since that time several stratospheric intrusions and cases of intercontinental transport and transport from the atmospheric boundary layer have been observed.

  16. German translation of the Alberta context tool and two measures of research use: methods, challenges and lessons learned

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Understanding the relationship between organizational context and research utilization is key to reducing the research-practice gap in health care. This is particularly true in the residential long term care (LTC) setting where relatively little work has examined the influence of context on research implementation. Reliable, valid measures and tools are a prerequisite for studying organizational context and research utilization. Few such tools exist in German. We thus translated three such tools (the Alberta Context Tool and two measures of research use) into German for use in German residential LTC. We point out challenges and strategies for their solution unique to German residential LTC, and demonstrate how resolving specific challenges in the translation of the health care aide instrument version streamlined the translation process of versions for registered nurses, allied health providers, practice specialists, and managers. Methods Our translation methods were based on best practices and included two independent forward translations, reconciliation of the forward translations, expert panel discussions, two independent back translations, reconciliation of the back translations, back translation review, and cognitive debriefing. Results We categorized the challenges in this translation process into seven categories: (1) differing professional education of Canadian and German care providers, (2) risk that German translations would become grammatically complex, (3) wordings at risk of being misunderstood, (4) phrases/idioms non-existent in German, (5) lack of corresponding German words, (6) limited comprehensibility of corresponding German words, and (7) target persons’ unfamiliarity with activities detailed in survey items. Examples of each challenge are described with strategies that we used to manage the challenge. Conclusion Translating an existing instrument is complex and time-consuming, but a rigorous approach is necessary to obtain instrument equivalence. Essential components were (1) involvement of and co-operation with the instrument developers and (2) expert panel discussions, including both target group and content experts. Equivalent translated instruments help researchers from different cultures to find a common language and undertake comparative research. As acceptable psychometric properties are a prerequisite for that, we are currently carrying out a study with that focus. PMID:24238613

  17. Action Research: A Tool for Promoting Faculty Development and Continuous Improvement in Leadership Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carver, Cynthia L.; Klein, C. Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces the use of action research to examine the content and outcomes of university-based leadership preparation programs. Using examples drawn from an ongoing action research project with candidates in a master's level principal preparation program, we demonstrate how the collection and analysis of candidate's written


  18. Technology as an Instructional Tool: What We Are Learning. Research Bulletin #3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Educational Computing Consortium, St. Paul.

    The purpose of this research bulletin is to provide educational decision-makers with empirical data for making informed decisions relative to the integration of technology in schools. Ten expanded abstracts of research studies are included here, each with a background/problem statement, list of study goals, description of methodology, conclusion…

  19. Videodisc Technology as a Conceptual Research Tool for the Study of Human Theory Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segall, Ricki Goldman

    Videodisc technology could have a dramatic effect on the future of educational research by allowing users to access and manipulate the actual raw data in multiple ways. The supposed threat to traditional research methodologies is that there is apparently no systematic way for different viewers to reach the same conclusions about the same content.…

  20. The Laboratory Course Assessment Survey: A Tool to Measure Three Dimensions of Research-Course Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corwin, Lisa A.; Runyon, Christopher; Robinson, Aspen; Dolan, Erin L.

    2015-01-01

    Course-based undergraduate research experiences (CUREs) are increasingly being offered as scalable ways to involve undergraduates in research. Yet few if any design features that make CUREs effective have been identified. We developed a 17-item survey instrument, the Laboratory Course Assessment Survey (LCAS), that measures students' perceptions…

  1. The Need for Novel Informatics Tools for Integrating and Planning Research in Molecular and Cellular Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Alcino J.; Müller, Klaus-Robert

    2015-01-01

    The sheer volume and complexity of publications in the biological sciences are straining traditional approaches to research planning. Nowhere is this problem more serious than in molecular and cellular cognition, since in this neuroscience field, researchers routinely use approaches and information from a variety of areas in neuroscience and other…

  2. The Need for Novel Informatics Tools for Integrating and Planning Research in Molecular and Cellular Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Alcino J.; MĂŒller, Klaus-Robert

    2015-01-01

    The sheer volume and complexity of publications in the biological sciences are straining traditional approaches to research planning. Nowhere is this problem more serious than in molecular and cellular cognition, since in this neuroscience field, researchers routinely use approaches and information from a variety of areas in neuroscience and other


  3. Comparative community case studies as research tools: A national effort to support local sustainability planning

    EPA Science Inventory

    The provisioning of aquatic ecosystem goods and services (EGS) is a key concept in USEPA Office of Research and Development research programs. This is a national issue, yet many decisions affecting EGS sustainability are made at the local level where decisions can have substanti...

  4. The Laboratory Course Assessment Survey: A Tool to Measure Three Dimensions of Research-Course Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corwin, Lisa A.; Runyon, Christopher; Robinson, Aspen; Dolan, Erin L.

    2015-01-01

    Course-based undergraduate research experiences (CUREs) are increasingly being offered as scalable ways to involve undergraduates in research. Yet few if any design features that make CUREs effective have been identified. We developed a 17-item survey instrument, the Laboratory Course Assessment Survey (LCAS), that measures students' perceptions


  5. Developing a Framework for Using E-Portfolios as a Research and Assessment Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Sun-young

    2013-01-01

    As Tarone (1998) stated, an understanding of interlanguage variation in relation to contextual changes has been a key issue in both second language acquisition (SLA) and language assessment (LA) research. Research on interlanguage variation has shown that systematic variation is often evidenced when different phonological and syntactic forms are


  6. Youth Participatory Action Research and Educational Transformation: The Potential of Intertextuality as a Methodological Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertrand, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    In this article, Melanie Bertrand explores the potential of using the concept of intertextuality--which captures the way snippets of written or spoken text from one source become incorporated into other sources--in the study and practice of youth participatory action research (YPAR). Though this collective and youth-centered form of research…

  7. Main Report

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Background: States vary widely in their use of newborn screening tests, with some mandating screening for as few as three conditions and others mandating as many as 43 conditions, including varying numbers of the 40+ conditions that can be detected by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). There has been no national guidance on the best candidate conditions for newborn screening since the National Academy of Sciences report of 19751 and the United States Congress Office of Technology Assessment report of 1988,2 despite rapid developments since then in genetics, in screening technologies, and in some treatments. Objectives: In 2002, the Maternal and Child Health Bureau (MCHB) of the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) of the United States Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) commissioned the American College of Medical Genetics (ACMG) to: Conduct an analysis of the scientific literature on the effectiveness of newborn screening.Gather expert opinion to delineate the best evidence for screening for specified conditions and develop recommendations focused on newborn screening, including but not limited to the development of a uniform condition panel.Consider other components of the newborn screening system that are critical to achieving the expected outcomes in those screened. Methods: A group of experts in various areas of subspecialty medicine and primary care, health policy, law, public health, and consumers worked with a steering committee and several expert work groups, using a two-tiered approach to assess and rank conditions. A first step was developing a set of principles to guide the analysis. This was followed by developing criteria by which conditions could be evaluated, and then identifying the conditions to be evaluated. A large and broadly representative group of experts was asked to provide their opinions on the extent to which particular conditions met the selected criteria, relying on supporting evidence and references from the scientific literature. The criteria were distributed among three main categories for each condition: The availability and characteristics of the screening test;The availability and complexity of diagnostic services; andThe availability and efficacy of treatments related to the conditions. A survey process utilizing a data collection instrument was used to gather expert opinion on the conditions in the first tier of the assessment. The data collection format and survey provided the opportunity to quantify expert opinion and to obtain the views of a diverse set of interest groups (necessary due to the subjective nature of some of the criteria). Statistical analysis of data produced a score for each condition, which determined its ranking and initial placement in one of three categories (high scoring, moderately scoring, or low scoring/absence of a newborn screening test). In the second tier of these analyses, the evidence base related to each condition was assessed in depth (e.g., via systematic reviews of reference lists including MedLine, PubMed and others; books; Internet searches; professional guidelines; clinical evidence; and cost/economic evidence and modeling). The fact sheets reflecting these analyses were evaluated by at least two acknowledged experts for each condition. These experts assessed the data and the associated references related to each criterion and provided corrections where appropriate, assigned a value to the level of evidence and the quality of the studies that established the evidence base, and determined whether there were significant variances from the survey data. Survey results were subsequently realigned with the evidence obtained from the scientific literature during the second-tier analysis for all objective criteria, based on input from at least three acknowledged experts in each condition. The information from these two tiers of assessment was then considered with regard to the overriding principles and other technology or condition-specific recommendations. On the basis of this information, conditions were assigned to one of three categories as described above:Core Panel;Secondary Targets (conditions that are part of the differential diagnosis of a core panel condition.); andNot Appropriate for Newborn Screening (either no newborn screening test is available or there is poor performance with regard to multiple other evaluation criteria). ACMG also considered features of optimal newborn screening programs beyond the tests themselves by assessing the degree to which programs met certain goals (e.g., availability of educational programs, proportions of newborns screened and followed up). Assessments were based on the input of experts serving in various capacities in newborn screening programs and on 2002 data provided by the programs of the National Newborn Screening and Genetics Resource Center (NNSGRC). In addition, a brief cost-effectiveness assessment of newborn screening was conducted. Results: Uniform panel A total of 292 individuals determined to be generally representative of the regional distribution of the United States population and of areas of expertise or involvement in newborn screening provided a total of 3,949 evaluations of 84 conditions. For each condition, the responses of at least three experts in that condition were compared with those of all respondents for that condition and found to be consistent. A score of 1,200 on the data collection instrument provided a logical separation point between high scoring conditions (1,200–1,799 of a possible 2,100) and low scoring (<1,000) conditions. A group of conditions with intermediate scores (1,000–1,199) was identified, all of which were part of the differential diagnosis of a high scoring condition or apparent in the result of the multiplex assay. Some are identified by screening laboratories and others by diagnostic laboratories. This group was designated as a “secondary target” category for which the program must report the diagnostic result. Using the validated evidence base and expert opinion, each condition that had previously been assigned to a category based on scores gathered through the data collection instrument was reconsidered. Again, the factors taken into consideration were: 1) available scientific evidence; 2) availability of a screening test; 3) presence of an efficacious treatment; 4) adequate understanding of the natural history of the condition; and 5) whether the condition was either part of the differential diagnosis of another condition or whether the screening test results related to a clinically significant condition. The conditions were then assigned to one of three categories as previously described (core panel, secondary targets, or not appropriate for Newborn Screening). Among the 29 conditions assigned to the core panel are three hemoglobinopathies associated with a Hb/S allele, six amino acidurias, five disorders of fatty oxidation, nine organic acidurias, and six unrelated conditions (congenital hypothyroidism (CH), biotinidase deficiency (BIOT), congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), classical galactosemia (GALT), hearing loss (HEAR) and cystic fibrosis (CF)). Twenty-three of the 29 conditions in the core panel are identified with multiplex technologies such as tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) or high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). On the basis of the evidence, six of the 35 conditions initially placed in the core panel were moved into the secondary target category, which expanded to 25 conditions. Test results not associated with potential disease in the infant (e.g., carriers) were also placed in the secondary target category. When newborn screening laboratory results definitively establish carrier status, the result should be made available to the health care professional community and families. Twenty-seven conditions were determined to be inappropriate for newborn screening at this time. Conditions with limited evidence reported in the scientific literature were more difficult to evaluate, quantify and place in one of the three categories. In addition, many conditions were found to occur in multiple forms distinguished by age-of-onset, severity, or other features. Further, unless a condition was already included in newborn screening programs, there was a potential for bias in the information related to some criteria. In such circumstances, the quality of the studies underlying the data such as expert opinion that considered case reports and reasoning from first principles determined the placement of the conditions into particular categories. Newborn screening program optimization – Assessment of the activities of newborn screening programs, based on program reports, was done for the six program components: education; screening; follow-up; diagnostic confirmation; management; and program evaluation. Considerable variation was found between programs with regard to whether particular aspects (e.g., prenatal education program availability, tracking of specimen collection and delivery) were included and the degree to which they are provided. Newborn screening program evaluation systems also were assessed in order to determine their adequacy and uniformity with the goal being to improve interprogram evaluation and comparison to ensure that the expected outcomes from having been identified in screening are realized. Conclusions: The state of the published evidence in the fast-moving worlds of newborn screening and medical genetics has not kept up with the implementation of new technologies, thus requiring the considerable use of expert opinion to develop recommendations about a core panel of conditions for newborn screening. Twenty-nine conditions were identified as primary targets for screening from which all components of the newborn screening system should be maximized. An additional 25 conditions were listed that could be identified in the course of screening for core panel conditions. Programs are obligated to establish a diagnosis and communicate the result to the health care provider and family. It is recognized that screening may not have been maximized for the detection of these secondary conditions but that some proportion of such cases may be found among those screened for core panel conditions. With additional screening, greater training of primary care health care professionals and subspecialists will be needed, as will the development of an infrastructure for appropriate follow-up and management throughout the lives of children who have been identified as having one of these rare conditions. Recommended actions to overcome barriers to an optimal newborn screening system include: The establishment of a national role in the scientific evaluation of conditions and the technologies by which they are screened;Standardization of case definitions and reporting procedures;Enhanced oversight of hospital-based screening activities;Long-term data collection and surveillance; andConsideration of the financial needs of programs to allow them to deliver the appropriate services to the screened population.

  8. Making a commitment to ethics in global health research partnerships: a practical tool to support ethical practice.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Jill; Hatfield, Jennifer; Afsana, Kaosar; Neufeld, Vic

    2015-03-01

    Global health research partnerships have many benefits, including the development of research capacity and improving the production and use of evidence to improve global health equity. These partnerships also include many challenges, with power and resource differences often leading to inequitable and unethical partnership dynamics. Responding to these challenges and to important gaps in partnership scholarship, the Canadian Coalition for Global Health Research (CCGHR) conducted a three-year, multi-regional consultation to capture the research partnership experiences of stakeholders in South Asia, Latin America, and sub-Saharan Africa. The consultation participants described persistent inequities in the conduct of global health research partnerships and called for a mechanism through which to improve accountability for ethical conduct within partnerships. They also called for a commitment by the global health research community to research partnership ethics. The Partnership Assessment Toolkit (PAT) is a practical tool that enables partners to openly discuss the ethics of their partnership and to put in place structures that create ethical accountability. Clear mechanisms such as the PAT are essential to guide ethical conduct to ensure that global health research partnerships are beneficial to all collaborators, that they reflect the values of the global health endeavor more broadly, and that they ultimately lead to improvements in health outcomes and health equity. PMID:25648123

  9. Qualitative evaluation of the implementation of the Interdisciplinary Management Tool: a reflective tool to enhance interdisciplinary teamwork using Structured, Facilitated Action Research for Implementation.

    PubMed

    Nancarrow, Susan A; Smith, Tony; Ariss, Steven; Enderby, Pamela M

    2015-07-01

    Reflective practice is used increasingly to enhance team functioning and service effectiveness; however, there is little evidence of its use in interdisciplinary teams. This paper presents the qualitative evaluation of the Interdisciplinary Management Tool (IMT), an evidence-based change tool designed to enhance interdisciplinary teamwork through structured team reflection. The IMT incorporates three components: an evidence-based resource guide; a reflective implementation framework based on Structured, Facilitated Action Research for Implementation methodology; and formative and summative evaluation components. The IMT was implemented with intermediate care teams supported by independent facilitators in England. Each intervention lasted 6 months and was evaluated over a 12-month period. Data sources include interviews, a focus group with facilitators, questionnaires completed by team members and documentary feedback from structured team reports. Data were analysed qualitatively using the Framework approach. The IMT was implemented with 10 teams, including 253 staff from more than 10 different disciplines. Team challenges included lack of clear vision; communication issues; limited career progression opportunities; inefficient resource use; need for role clarity and service development. The IMT successfully engaged staff in the change process, and resulted in teams developing creative strategies to address the issues identified. Participants valued dedicated time to focus on the processes of team functioning; however, some were uncomfortable with a focus on teamwork at the expense of delivering direct patient care. The IMT is a relatively low-cost, structured, reflective way to enhance team function. It empowers individuals to understand and value their own, and others' roles and responsibilities within the team; identify barriers to effective teamwork, and develop and implement appropriate solutions to these. To be successful, teams need protected time to take for reflection, and executive support to be able to broker changes that are beyond the scope of the team. PMID:25522769

  10. Analyzing HT-SELEX data with the Galaxy Project tools - A web based bioinformatics platform for biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Thiel, William H; Giangrande, Paloma H

    2016-03-15

    The development of DNA and RNA aptamers for research as well as diagnostic and therapeutic applications is a rapidly growing field. In the past decade, the process of identifying aptamers has been revolutionized with the advent of high-throughput sequencing (HTS). However, bioinformatics tools that enable the average molecular biologist to analyze these large datasets and expedite the identification of candidate aptamer sequences have been lagging behind the HTS revolution. The Galaxy Project was developed in order to efficiently analyze genome, exome, and transcriptome HTS data, and we have now applied these tools to aptamer HTS data. The Galaxy Project's public webserver is an open source collection of bioinformatics tools that are powerful, flexible, dynamic, and user friendly. The online nature of the Galaxy webserver and its graphical interface allow users to analyze HTS data without compiling code or installing multiple programs. Herein we describe how tools within the Galaxy webserver can be adapted to pre-process, compile, filter and analyze aptamer HTS data from multiple rounds of selection. PMID:26481156

  11. Solar Flares and Coronal Physics Using P/OF as a Research Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tandberg, E. (Editor); Wilson, R. M. (Editor); Hudson, R. M. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    This NASA Conference Publication contains the proceedings of the Workshop on Solar High-Resolution Astrophysics Using the Pinhole/Occulter Facility held at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Alabama, on May 8 to 10, 1985. These proceedings include primarily the invited tutorial papers, extended abstracts of contributed poster papers, and summaries of subpanel (X-Ray and Coronal Physics) discussions. Both observational and theoretical results are presented. Although the emphasis of the Workshop was focused primarily on topics peculiar to solar physics, one paper is included that discusses the P/0F as a tool for X-ray astronomy.

  12. ModelDB in computational neuroscience education - a research tool as interactive educational media.

    PubMed

    Morse, Thomas M

    2008-05-19

    ModelDB's mission is to link computational models and publications, supporting the field of computational neuroscience (CNS) by making model source code readily available. It is continually expanding, and currently contains source code for more than 300 models that cover more than 41 topics. Investigators, educators, and students can use it to obtain working models that reproduce published results and can be modified to test for new domains of applicability. Users can browse ModelDB to survey the field of computational neuroscience, or pursue more focused explorations of specific topics. Here we describe tutorials and initial experiences with ModelDB as an interactive educational tool. PMID:25089156

  13. The Potential to use Publication of Undergraduate Research as a Teaching Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brevik, Eric C.; Lindbo, David L.; Belcher, Christopher

    2015-04-01

    Several studies crossing numerous disciplinary boundaries have demonstrated that undergraduate students benefit from research experiences. These benefits include personal and intellectual development, more and closer contact with faculty, the use of active learning techniques, the creation of high expectations, the development of creative and problem-solving skills, and the development of greater independence and intrinsic motivation to learn. The discipline also gains in that studies show undergraduates who engage in research experiences are more likely to remain science majors and finish their degree program. Research experiences come as close as possible to allowing undergraduates to experience what it is like to be an academic or research member of their profession working to advance their discipline, therefore enhancing their professional socialization into their chosen field. If the goals achieved by undergraduate research include introducing these students to the advancement of their chosen field, it stands to reason the ultimate ending to this experience would be the publication of a peer-reviewed paper. While not all undergraduate projects will end with a product worthy of peer-reviewed publication, some definitely do, and the personal experience of the authors indicates that undergraduate students who achieve publication get great satisfaction and a sense of personal achievement from that publication. While a top-tier international journal probably isn't going to be the ultimate destination for many of these projects, there are several appropriate outlets. The SSSA journal Soil Horizons has published several undergraduate projects in recent years, and good undergraduate projects can often be published in state academy of science journals. Journals focused expressly on publishing undergraduate research include the Journal of Undergraduate Research and Scholarly Excellence, Reinvention, and the American Journal of Undergraduate Research. Case studies of students who have published undergraduate research will be discussed.

  14. The Solid Earth Research and Teaching Environment, a new software framework to share research tools in the classroom and across disciplines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milner, K.; Becker, T. W.; Boschi, L.; Sain, J.; Schorlemmer, D.; Waterhouse, H.

    2009-12-01

    The Solid Earth Teaching and Research Environment (SEATREE) is a modular and user-friendly software framework to facilitate the use of solid Earth research tools in the classroom and for interdisciplinary research collaboration. SEATREE is open source and community developed, distributed freely under the GNU General Public License. It is a fully contained package that lets users operate in a graphical mode, while giving more advanced users the opportunity to view and modify the source code. Top level graphical user interfaces which initiate the calculations and visualize results, are written in the Python programming language using an object-oriented, modern design. Results are plotted with either Matlab-like Python libraries, or SEATREE’s own Generic Mapping Tools wrapper. The underlying computational codes used to produce the results can be written in any programming language and accessed through Python wrappers. There are currently four fully developed science modules for SEATREE: (1) HC is a global geodynamics tool based on a semi-analytical mantle-circulation program based on work by B. Steinberger, Becker, and C. O'Neill. HC can compute velocities and tractions for global, spherical Stokes flow and radial viscosity variations. HC is fast enough to be used for classroom instruction, for example to let students interactively explore the role of radial viscosity variations for global geopotential (geoid) anomalies. (2) ConMan wraps Scott King’s 2D finite element mantle convection code, allowing users to quickly observe how modifications to input parameters affect heat flow over time. As seismology modules, SEATREE includes, (3), Larry, a global, surface wave phase-velocity inversion tool and, (4), Syn2D, a Cartesian tomography teaching tool for ray-theory wave propagation in synthetic, arbitrary velocity structure in the presence of noise. Both underlying programs were contributed by Boschi. Using Syn2D, students can explore, for example, how well a given input structure (e.g., a checkerboard pattern) will be resolved by data for different types of earthquake-receiver geometries. Additionally, Larry3D, a three-dimensional seismic tomography tool contributed by Boschi, and NonLinLoc, a nonlinear earthquake relocation tool by Anthony Lomax, are both under development. The goal of all of the implemented modules is to aid in teaching research techniques, while remaining flexible enough for use in true research applications. In the long run, SEATREE may contribute to new ways of sharing scientific research, making published (numerical) experiments truly reproducible again. SEATREE can be downloaded as a package from http://geosys.usc.edu/projects/seatree/wiki/, and users can also subscribe to our Subversion project page. The software is designed to run on GNU/Linux based platforms and has also been successfully run on Mac OS-X. Our poster will present the four currently implemented modules, along with our design philosophies and implementation details.

  15. NASA's use of McIDAS technology - A data systems tool for meteorological research and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, H. Michael; Meyer, Paul J.

    1987-01-01

    The Earth Science and Applications Division of the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center has been chartered to conduct research, and to develop and use space technology to gain a basic understanding of the earth processes with emphasis on atmospheric processes. An integral part of the research and development efforts has been the Man computer Interactive Data Access System (McIDAS). The McIDAS computer system has permitted integration of data from satellites, aircraft remote sensors, ground based meteorological data sources, and modeled atmospheric radiances. The result has been an increase in knowlege of mesoscale atmospheric processes and has enabled researchers to recommend improvements and suggestions for planned future remote sensing instruments.

  16. Community-based participatory research and user-centered design in a diabetes medication information and decision tool

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Vida A; Barr, Kathryn LC; An, Lawrence C; Guajardo, Claudia; Newhouse, William; Mase, Rebecca; Heisler, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Background Together, community-based participatory research (CBPR), usercentered design (UCD) and health information technology (HIT) offer promising approaches to improve health disparities in low-resource settings. Objectives This article describes the application of CBPR and UCD principles to the development of iDecide/Decido, an interactive, tailored, web-based diabetes medication education and decision support tool delivered by community health workers (CHWs) to African-American and Latino participants with diabetes in Southwest and Eastside Detroit. The decision aid is offered in English or Spanish and is delivered on an iPad in participants’ homes. Methods The overlapping principles of CBPR and UCD used to develop iDecide/Decido include: a user-focused or community approach; equitable academic and community partnership in all study phases; an iterative development process that relies on input from all stakeholders; and a program experience that is specified, adapted, and implemented with the target community. Results Collaboration between community members, researchers, and developers is especially evident in the program’s design concept, animations, pictographs, issue cards, goal setting, tailoring, and additional CHW tools. Conclusions Applying the principles of CBPR and UCD can be successfully employed in developing health information tools that are easy to use and understand, interactive, and target health disparities. PMID:23793248

  17. Head mounted DLP for visual stimulation in freely moving rats: a novel tool for visual neuroscience research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandel, Yossi; Arens-Arad, Tamar; Farah, Nairouz; Zlotnik, Alex; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2015-03-01

    Novel technologies are constantly under development for vision restoration in blind patients. In some of these techniques, such as photodiode implants or optogenetics based treatment, a glasses mounted optical projection system projects the visual scene onto the retina. The desired projection system is characterized by a relatively high power density, a localized retinal stimulation area and compatibility for wavelengths that are specific for the technology at hand. The challenges of obtaining such a projection system are not only limited by developing the tools and the apparatus for testing the visual performance of artificial retina, but also devising the technique and the methodology for training and testing the behaving animals using this tool. Current research techniques used for evaluation of visual function in behaving animals utilize computer screens for retinal stimulation, and therefore do not fulfill the requirements of the evaluation of retinal implant performance or optogenetics based treatment (inefficient power and no wavelength flexibility). In the following work we will present and evaluate a novel projection system that is suited for behavioral animal studies and meet the requirements for artificial retinal stimulation. The proposed system is based on a miniature Digital Mirror Device (DMD) for pattern projection and a telescope for relaying the pattern directly onto the animal eye. This system facilitates the projection of patterns with high spatial resolution at high light intensities with the desired wavelength and may prove to be a vital tool in natural and artificial vision performance research in behaving animals.

  18. Microgravity: A New Tool for Basic and Applied Research in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    This brochure highlights selected aspects of the NASA Microgravity Science and Applications program. So that we can expand our understanding and control of physical processes, this program supports basic and applied research in electronic materials, metals, glasses and ceramics, biological materials, combustion and fluids and chemicals. NASA facilities that provide weightless environments on the ground, in the air, and in space are available to U.S. and foreign investigators representing the academic and industrial communities. After a brief history of microgravity research, the text explains the advantages and methods of performing microgravity research. Illustrations follow of equipment used and experiments preformed aboard the Shuttle and of prospects for future research. The brochure concludes be describing the program goals and the opportunities for participation.

  19. MEDES clinical research facility as a tool to prepare ISSA space flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maillet, A.; Traon, A. Pavy-Le

    This new multi-disciplinary medical experimentation center provides the ideal scientific, medical and technical environment required for research programs and to prepare international space station Alpha (ISSA) missions, where space and healthcare industries can share their expertise. Different models are available to simulate space flight effects (bed-rest, confinement,…). This is of particular interest for research in Human psychology, physiology, physiopathology and ergonomics, validation of biomedical materials and procedures, testing of drugs, and other healthcare related products. This clinical research facility (CRF) provides valuable services in various fields of Human research requiring healthy volunteers. CRF is widely accessible to national and international, scientific, medical and industrial organisations. Furthermore, users have at their disposal the multi-disciplinary skills of MEDES staff and all MEDES partners on a single site.

  20. COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH: Parallel Analysis Tools and New Visualization Techniques for Ultra-Large Climate Data Set

    SciTech Connect

    middleton, Don; Haley, Mary

    2014-12-10

    ParVis was a project funded under LAB 10-05: “Earth System Modeling: Advanced Scientific Visualization of Ultra-Large Climate Data Sets”. Argonne was the lead lab with partners at PNNL, SNL, NCAR and UC-Davis. This report covers progress from January 1st, 2013 through Dec 1st, 2014. Two previous reports covered the period from Summer, 2010, through September 2011 and October 2011 through December 2012, respectively. While the project was originally planned to end on April 30, 2013, personnel and priority changes allowed many of the institutions to continue work through FY14 using existing funds. A primary focus of ParVis was introducing parallelism to climate model analysis to greatly reduce the time-to-visualization for ultra-large climate data sets. Work in the first two years was conducted on two tracks with different time horizons: one track to provide immediate help to climate scientists already struggling to apply their analysis to existing large data sets and another focused on building a new data-parallel library and tool for climate analysis and visualization that will give the field a platform for performing analysis and visualization on ultra-large datasets for the foreseeable future. In the final 2 years of the project, we focused mostly on the new data-parallel library and associated tools for climate analysis and visualization.

  1. Balancing research and funding using value of information and portfolio tools for nanomaterial risk classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, Matthew E.; Keisler, Jeffrey M.; Zussblatt, Niels P.; Plourde, Kenton J.; Wender, Ben A.; Linkov, Igor

    2016-02-01

    Risk research for nanomaterials is currently prioritized by means of expert workshops and other deliberative processes. However, analytical techniques that quantify and compare alternative research investments are increasingly recommended. Here, we apply value of information and portfolio decision analysis—methods commonly applied in financial and operations management—to prioritize risk research for multiwalled carbon nanotubes and nanoparticulate silver and titanium dioxide. We modify the widely accepted CB Nanotool hazard evaluation framework, which combines nano- and bulk-material properties into a hazard score, to operate probabilistically with uncertain inputs. Literature is reviewed to develop uncertain estimates for each input parameter, and a Monte Carlo simulation is applied to assess how different research strategies can improve hazard classification. The relative cost of each research experiment is elicited from experts, which enables identification of efficient research portfolios—combinations of experiments that lead to the greatest improvement in hazard classification at the lowest cost. Nanoparticle shape, diameter, solubility and surface reactivity were most frequently identified within efficient portfolios in our results.

  2. Balancing research and funding using value of information and portfolio tools for nanomaterial risk classification.

    PubMed

    Bates, Matthew E; Keisler, Jeffrey M; Zussblatt, Niels P; Plourde, Kenton J; Wender, Ben A; Linkov, Igor

    2016-02-01

    Risk research for nanomaterials is currently prioritized by means of expert workshops and other deliberative processes. However, analytical techniques that quantify and compare alternative research investments are increasingly recommended. Here, we apply value of information and portfolio decision analysis-methods commonly applied in financial and operations management-to prioritize risk research for multiwalled carbon nanotubes and nanoparticulate silver and titanium dioxide. We modify the widely accepted CB Nanotool hazard evaluation framework, which combines nano- and bulk-material properties into a hazard score, to operate probabilistically with uncertain inputs. Literature is reviewed to develop uncertain estimates for each input parameter, and a Monte Carlo simulation is applied to assess how different research strategies can improve hazard classification. The relative cost of each research experiment is elicited from experts, which enables identification of efficient research portfolios-combinations of experiments that lead to the greatest improvement in hazard classification at the lowest cost. Nanoparticle shape, diameter, solubility and surface reactivity were most frequently identified within efficient portfolios in our results. PMID:26551015

  3. Employability Skills Assessment Tool Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasul, Mohamad Sattar; Rauf, Rose Amnah Abd; Mansor, Azlin Norhaini; Puvanasvaran, A. P.

    2012-01-01

    Research nationally and internationally found that technical graduates are lacking in employability skills. As employability skills are crucial in outcome-based education, the main goal of this research is to develop an Employability Skill Assessment Tool to help students and lecturers produce competent graduates in employability skills needed by


  4. TextHunter – A User Friendly Tool for Extracting Generic Concepts from Free Text in Clinical Research

    PubMed Central

    Jackson MSc, Richard G.; Ball, Michael; Patel, Rashmi; Hayes, Richard D.; Dobson, Richard J.B.; Stewart, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Observational research using data from electronic health records (EHR) is a rapidly growing area, which promises both increased sample size and data richness - therefore unprecedented study power. However, in many medical domains, large amounts of potentially valuable data are contained within the free text clinical narrative. Manually reviewing free text to obtain desired information is an inefficient use of researcher time and skill. Previous work has demonstrated the feasibility of applying Natural Language Processing (NLP) to extract information. However, in real world research environments, the demand for NLP skills outweighs supply, creating a bottleneck in the secondary exploitation of the EHR. To address this, we present TextHunter, a tool for the creation of training data, construction of concept extraction machine learning models and their application to documents. Using confidence thresholds to ensure high precision (>90%), we achieved recall measurements as high as 99% in real world use cases. PMID:25954379

  5. TextHunter--A User Friendly Tool for Extracting Generic Concepts from Free Text in Clinical Research.

    PubMed

    Jackson MSc, Richard G; Ball, Michael; Patel, Rashmi; Hayes, Richard D; Dobson, Richard J B; Stewart, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Observational research using data from electronic health records (EHR) is a rapidly growing area, which promises both increased sample size and data richness - therefore unprecedented study power. However, in many medical domains, large amounts of potentially valuable data are contained within the free text clinical narrative. Manually reviewing free text to obtain desired information is an inefficient use of researcher time and skill. Previous work has demonstrated the feasibility of applying Natural Language Processing (NLP) to extract information. However, in real world research environments, the demand for NLP skills outweighs supply, creating a bottleneck in the secondary exploitation of the EHR. To address this, we present TextHunter, a tool for the creation of training data, construction of concept extraction machine learning models and their application to documents. Using confidence thresholds to ensure high precision (>90%), we achieved recall measurements as high as 99% in real world use cases. PMID:25954379

  6. Ethnobotany as a Pharmacological Research Tool and Recent Developments in CNS-active Natural Products from Ethnobotanical Sources

    PubMed Central

    McClatchey, Will C.; Mahady, Gail B.; Bennett, Bradley C.; Shiels, Laura; Savo, Valentina

    2009-01-01

    The science of ethnobotany is reviewed in light of its multidisciplinary contributions to natural product research for the development of pharmaceuticals and pharmacological tools. Some of the issues reviewed involve ethical and cultural perspectives of healthcare and medicinal plants. While these are not usually part of the discussion of pharmacology, cultural concerns potentially provide both challenges and insight for field and laboratory researchers. Plant evolutionary issues are also considered as they relate to development of plant chemistry and accessing this through ethnobotanical methods. The discussion includes presentation of a range of CNS-active medicinal plants that have been recently examined in the field, laboratory and/or clinic. Each of these plants is used to illustrate one or more aspects about the valuable roles of ethnobotany in pharmacological research. We conclude with consideration of mutually beneficial future collaborations between field ethnobotanists and pharmacologists. PMID:19422851

  7. DART: Tools and Support for Ensemble Data Assimilation Research, Operations, and Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoar, T. J.; Anderson, J. L.; Collins, N.; Raeder, K.; Kershaw, H.; Romine, G. S.; Mizzi, A. P.; Chatterjee, A.; Karspeck, A. R.; Zarzycki, C. M.; Ha, S. Y.; Barre, J.; Gaubert, B.

    2014-12-01

    The Data Assimilation Research Testbed (DART) is a community facility for ensemble data assimilation developed and supported by the National Center for Atmospheric Research. DART provides a comprehensive suite of software, documentation, examples and tutorials that can be used for ensemble data assimilation research, operations, and education. Scientists and software engineers from the Data Assimilation Research Section at NCAR are available to actively support DART users who want to use existing DART products or develop their own new applications. Current DART users range from university professors teaching data assimilation, to individual graduate students working with simple models, through national laboratories doing operational prediction with large state-of-the-art models. DART runs efficiently on many computational platforms ranging from laptops through thousands of cores on the newest supercomputers. This poster focuses on several recent research activities using DART with geophysical models. First, DART is being used with the Community Atmosphere Model Spectral Element (CAM-SE) and Model for Prediction Across Scales (MPAS) global atmospheric models that support locally enhanced grid resolution. Initial results from ensemble assimilation with both models are presented. DART is also being used to produce ensemble analyses of atmospheric tracers, in particular CO, in both the global CAM-Chem model and the regional Weather Research and Forecast with chemistry (WRF-Chem) model by assimilating observations from the Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) and Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) instruments. Results from ensemble analyses in both models are presented. An interface between DART and the Community Atmosphere Biosphere Land Exchange (CABLE) model has been completed and ensemble land surface analyses with DART/CABLE will be discussed. Finally, an update on ensemble analyses in the fully-coupled Community Earth System (CESM) is presented. The poster includes instructions on how to get started using DART for research or educational applications.

  8. Biomedical research, a tool to address the health issues that affect African populations

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, biomedical research endeavors in low to middle resources countries have focused on communicable diseases. However, data collected over the past 20 years by the World Health Organization (WHO) show a significant increase in the number of people suffering from non-communicable diseases (e.g. heart disease, diabetes, cancer and pulmonary diseases). Within the coming years, WHO predicts significant decreases in communicable diseases while non-communicable diseases are expected to double in low and middle income countries in sub-Saharan Africa. The predicted increase in the non-communicable diseases population could be economically burdensome for the basic healthcare infrastructure of countries that lack resources to address this emerging disease burden. Biomedical research could stimulate development of healthcare and biomedical infrastructure. If this development is sustainable, it provides an opportunity to alleviate the burden of both communicable and non-communicable diseases through diagnosis, prevention and treatment. In this paper, we discuss how research using biomedical technology, especially genomics, has produced data that enhances the understanding and treatment of both communicable and non-communicable diseases in sub-Saharan Africa. We further discuss how scientific development can provide opportunities to pursue research areas responsive to the African populations. We limit our discussion to biomedical research in the areas of genomics due to its substantial impact on the scientific community in recent years however, we also recognize that targeted investments in other scientific disciplines could also foster further development in African countries. PMID:24143865

  9. Considering Research Outcomes as Essential Tools for Medical Education Decision Making.

    PubMed

    Miller, Karen Hughes; Miller, Bonnie M; Karani, Reena

    2015-11-01

    As medical educators face the challenge of incorporating new content, learning methods, and assessment techniques into the curriculum, the need for rigorous medical education research to guide efficient and effective instructional planning increases. When done properly, well-designed education research can provide guidance for complex education decision making. In this Commentary, the authors consider the 2015 Research in Medical Education (RIME) research and review articles in terms of the critical areas in teaching and learning that they address. The broad categories include (1) assessment (the largest collection of RIME articles, including both feedback from learners and instructors and the reliability of learner assessment), (2) the institution's impact on the learning environment, (3) what can be learned from program evaluation, and (4) emerging issues in faculty development. While the articles in this issue are broad in scope and potential impact, the RIME committee noted few studies of sufficient rigor focusing on areas of diversity and diverse learners. Although challenging to investigate, the authors encourage continuing innovation in research focused on these important areas. PMID:26505095

  10. pClone: Synthetic Biology Tool Makes Promoter Research Accessible to Beginning Biology Students

    PubMed Central

    Eckdahl, Todd; Cronk, Brian; Andresen, Corinne; Frederick, Paul; Huckuntod, Samantha; Shinneman, Claire; Wacker, Annie; Yuan, Jason

    2014-01-01

    The Vision and Change report recommended genuine research experiences for undergraduate biology students. Authentic research improves science education, increases the number of scientifically literate citizens, and encourages students to pursue research. Synthetic biology is well suited for undergraduate research and is a growing area of science. We developed a laboratory module called pClone that empowers students to use advances in molecular cloning methods to discover new promoters for use by synthetic biologists. Our educational goals are consistent with Vision and Change and emphasize core concepts and competencies. pClone is a family of three plasmids that students use to clone a new transcriptional promoter or mutate a canonical promoter and measure promoter activity in Escherichia coli. We also developed the Registry of Functional Promoters, an open-access database of student promoter research results. Using pre- and posttests, we measured significant learning gains among students using pClone in introductory biology and genetics classes. Student posttest scores were significantly better than scores of students who did not use pClone. pClone is an easy and affordable mechanism for large-enrollment labs to meet the high standards of Vision and Change. PMID:26086659

  11. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells as a Novel Tool in Psychiatric Research

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sewoong; Kim, Min-Kyoung; Oh, Daeyoung; Lee, Sang-Hyuk

    2016-01-01

    Reprogramming of somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) provides a valuable opportunity to study neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative psychiatric diseases by offering an unlimited source for patient-specific neuronal and glial cells. The present review focuses on the recent advancements in modeling psychiatric disorders such as Phelan-McDermid syndrome, Timothy syndrome, Rett syndrome, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and dementia. The treatment effects identified in studies on iPSCs using known therapeutic compounds are also summarized in this review. Here we discuss validation of cellular models and explore iPSCs as a novel drug screening tool. Although there are several limitations associated with the current methods used to study mental disorders, using iPSCs as a model system provides the advantage of rewinding and reviewing the development and degeneration of human neural cells. PMID:26766942

  12. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells as a Novel Tool in Psychiatric Research.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sewoong; Kim, Min-Kyoung; Oh, Daeyoung; Lee, Sang-Hyuk; Kim, Borah

    2016-01-01

    Reprogramming of somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) provides a valuable opportunity to study neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative psychiatric diseases by offering an unlimited source for patient-specific neuronal and glial cells. The present review focuses on the recent advancements in modeling psychiatric disorders such as Phelan-McDermid syndrome, Timothy syndrome, Rett syndrome, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and dementia. The treatment effects identified in studies on iPSCs using known therapeutic compounds are also summarized in this review. Here we discuss validation of cellular models and explore iPSCs as a novel drug screening tool. Although there are several limitations associated with the current methods used to study mental disorders, using iPSCs as a model system provides the advantage of rewinding and reviewing the development and degeneration of human neural cells. PMID:26766942

  13. Innovative Near Real-Time Data Dissemination Tools Developed by the Space Weather Research Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullinix, R.; Maddox, M. M.; Berrios, D.; Kuznetsova, M.; Pulkkinen, A.; Rastaetter, L.; Zheng, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Space weather affects virtually all of NASA's endeavors, from robotic missions to human exploration. Knowledge and prediction of space weather conditions are therefore essential to NASA operations. The diverse nature of currently available space environment measurements and modeling products compels the need for a single access point to such information. The Integrated Space Weather Analysis (iSWA) System provides this single point access along with the capability to collect and catalog a vast range of sources including both observational and model data. NASA Goddard Space Weather Research Center heavily utilizes the iSWA System daily for research, space weather model validation, and forecasting for NASA missions. iSWA provides the capabilities to view and analyze near real-time space weather data from any where in the world. This presentation will describe the technology behind the iSWA system and describe how to use the system for space weather research, forecasting, training, education, and sharing.

  14. A pilot study: research poster presentations as an educational tool for undergraduate epidemiology students

    PubMed Central

    Deonandan, Raywat; Gomes, James; Lavigne, Eric; Dinh, Thy; Blanchard, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Students in a fourth year epidemiology course were surveyed after participating in a formal Science Research Day in which they presented original research, in poster form, to be judged by scientists from the community. Of 276 participating students, 80 (29%) responded to the study survey. As a result, 19% of respondents were more likely to pursue a career in science, and 27.5% were more likely to pursue a career in epidemiology. Only one respondent reported being less likely to pursue a science career, while seven were less likely to pursue epidemiology. A majority of respondents felt that the poster experience was on par with, or superior to, a comparable research paper, in terms of both educational appeal and enjoyment. Mandatory, formal poster presentations are an innovative format for teaching advanced health sciences, and may more accurately reflect the realities of a science career than do more traditional educational formats. PMID:24101888

  15. Geothermal Electricity Technologies Evaluation Model DOE Tool for Assessing Impact of Research on Cost of Power

    SciTech Connect

    Greg Mines

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a spreadsheet model to provide insight as to how its research activities can impact of cost of producing power from geothermal energy. This model is referred to as GETEM, which stands for “Geothermal Electricity Technologies Evaluation Model”. Based on user input, the model develops estimates of costs associated with exploration, well field development, and power plant construction that are used along with estimated operating costs to provide a predicted power generation cost. The model allows the user to evaluate how reductions in cost, or increases in performance or productivity will impact the predicted power generation cost. This feature provides a means of determining how specific technology improvements can impact generation costs, and as such assists DOE in both prioritizing research areas and identifying where research is needed.

  16. DART: Tools and Support for Ensemble Data Assimilation Research, Operations, and Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, J. L.; Raeder, K.; Hoar, T. J.; Collins, N.; Kershaw, H.; Romine, G. S.; Liu, H.; Mizzi, A. P.; Lei, L.; Chatterjee, A.; Karspeck, A. R.; Pedatella, N. M.

    2013-12-01

    The Data Assimilation Research Testbed (DART) is a community facility for ensemble data assimilation developed and supported by the National Center for Atmospheric Research. DART provides a comprehensive suite of software, documentation, examples and tutorials that can be used for ensemble data assimilation research, operations, and education. Scientists and software engineers from the Data Assimilation Research Section at NCAR are available to actively support DART users who want to use existing DART products or develop their own new applications. Current DART users range from university professors teaching data assimilation, to individual graduate students working with simple models, through national laboratories doing operational prediction with large state-of-the-art models. DART runs efficiently on many computational platforms ranging from laptops through thousands of cores on the newest supercomputers. This poster focuses on recent developments for coupled data assimilation with DART and NCAR's Community Earth System Model. DART interfaces to the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM), the Parallel Ocean Program (POP) and the Community Land Model (CLM) can now be used to do multiple component data assimilation with the fully-coupled CESM prediction model. The software innovations required to enable this are described. The latest results for ensemble assimilation experiments with each of the component models are presented along with initial comparisons to corresponding assimilations with the coupled model. A newly developed DART interface to the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM) is now available. An overview of results of the relative value of assimilating tropospheric and middle atmosphere observations in WACCM is presented. DART is also used with many other types of geophysical models. Highlights of the latest results using DART with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model for springtime weather over the central United States are also presented. The poster includes instructions on how to get started using DART for research or educational applications.

  17. California Levee Risk, Now and in the Future:Identifying Research and Tool Development Needs

    SciTech Connect

    Newmark, R L; Hanemann, M; Farber, D

    2006-11-28

    The Center for Catastrophic Risk Management (CCRM) and the California Center for Environmental Law and Policy (CCELP) at UC Berkeley and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) joined together to cosponsor a workshop to define research requirements to mitigate the hazards facing the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta Levee system. The Workshop was intended to provide a forum to (1) Report assessments of current vulnerabilities facing the levees, such as structural failure, seismic loading, flooding, terrorism; (2) Consider longer term challenges such as climate change, sea level rise; and (3) Define research requirements to fill gaps in knowledge and reduce uncertainties in hazard assessments.

  18. Pathways to Participatory Research in Developing a Tool to Measure Feelings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Michelle; Davies, Stephanie

    2008-01-01

    People with a learning disability, the experts of their own experience are increasingly involved in research. We will be discussing in this paper their centrality in the development of a psychological therapy outcome measure for people with learning disabilities. Their involvement needs to go beyond giving their views to being included in the


  19. S.O.S. for Information Literacy: A Tool for Improving Research and Information Skills Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnone, Marilyn P.; Small, Ruth V.

    At no time in history has the ability to locate, organize, evaluate, manage and use information, skills collectively referred to as information literacy, been more important to today's learners. Classroom and technology teachers and library media specialists are challenged to find effective, innovative techniques for teaching research and…

  20. Assessing Customer Satisfaction at the NIST Research Library: Essential Tool for Future Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Rosa; Allmang, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a campus-wide customer satisfaction survey undertaken by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Research Library in 2007. The methodology, survey instrument, data analysis, results, and actions taken in response to the survey are described. The outcome and recommendations will guide the library both…

  1. Automated riverine landscape characterization: GIS-based tools for watershed-scale research, assessment, and management

    EPA Science Inventory

    River systems consist of hydrogeomorphic patches (HPs) that emerge at multiple spatiotemporal scales. Functional process zones (FPZs) are HPs that exist at the river valley scae and are important strata for fraing whole-watershed research questions and management plans. Hierarchi...

  2. Exploratory Factor Analysis as a Construct Validation Tool: (Mis)applications in Applied Linguistics Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karami, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Factor analysis has been frequently exploited in applied research to provide evidence about the underlying factors in various measurement instruments. A close inspection of a large number of studies published in leading applied linguistic journals shows that there is a misconception among applied linguists as to the relative merits of exploratory…

  3. Developing a Research Tool to Enable Children to Voice Their Experiences and Learning through Fieldwork

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halocha, John

    2005-01-01

    Ongoing media coverage of the dangers of fieldwork and guidance from some teacher unions is placing fieldwork under threat in many English primary schools. Most teachers believe that fieldwork experiences are a valuable part of geographical learning, but how do children actually articulate the understanding arising from this? The research took…

  4. Exploratory Factor Analysis as a Construct Validation Tool: (Mis)applications in Applied Linguistics Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karami, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Factor analysis has been frequently exploited in applied research to provide evidence about the underlying factors in various measurement instruments. A close inspection of a large number of studies published in leading applied linguistic journals shows that there is a misconception among applied linguists as to the relative merits of exploratory


  5. Agent-Based Learning Environments as a Research Tool for Investigating Teaching and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baylor, Amy L.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses intelligent learning environments for computer-based learning, such as agent-based learning environments, and their advantages over human-based instruction. Considers the effects of multiple agents; agents and research design; the use of Multiple Intelligent Mentors Instructing Collaboratively (MIMIC) for instructional design for…

  6. Systems Thinking Tools as Applied to Community-Based Participatory Research: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BeLue, Rhonda; Carmack, Chakema; Myers, Kyle R.; Weinreb-Welch, Laurie; Lengerich, Eugene J.

    2012-01-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is being used increasingly to address health disparities and complex health issues. The authors propose that CBPR can benefit from a systems science framework to represent the complex and dynamic characteristics of a community and identify intervention points and potential "tipping points." Systems


  7. Using Research Based Assessment Tools in Professional Development in Current Electricity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Ji; Gibbons, Patrick C.; Wiegers, John F.; McMahon, Ann P.

    2007-01-01

    We present a practical way of adapting and using four research-based assessments for different purposes in an electricity and magnetism course for K-8 science teachers. The course is designed to accomplish conceptual change toward accepted scientific conceptions as well as introducing teachers to materials and activities appropriate for their


  8. Handbook of Research on Hybrid Learning Models: Advanced Tools, Technologies, and Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Fu Lee, Ed.; Fong, Joseph, Ed.; Kwan, Reggie, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    Hybrid learning is now the single-greatest trend in education today due to the numerous educational advantages when both traditional classroom learning and e-learning are implemented collectively. This handbook collects emerging research and pedagogies related to the convergence of teaching and learning methods. This significant "Handbook of…

  9. Image Processing for Teaching: Transforming a Scientific Research Tool into an Educational Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Richard

    1998-01-01

    Describes the Image Processing for Teaching (IPT) project which provides digital image processing to excite students about science and mathematics as they use research-quality software on microcomputers. Provides information on IPT whose components of this dissemination project have been widespread teacher education, curriculum-based materials…

  10. Present Research on the Flipped Classroom and Potential Tools for the EFL Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehring, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    The flipped classroom can support the implementation of a communicative, student-centered learning environment in the English as a foreign language classroom. Unfortunately, there is little research which supports the incorporation of flipped learning in the English as a foreign language classroom. Numerous studies have focused on flipped learning…

  11. Integrating Critical Thinking and Memorandum Writing into Course Curriculum Using the Internet as a Research Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dykstra, De Vee E.

    2008-01-01

    Employers seek job candidates with critically thinking abilities, great written and oral communication skills, and honesty, among other characteristics. Research supports the need to develop those qualities and business faculty are charged with the task of developing and improving them. As a result faculty are continually searching for new and…

  12. Unpacking the Potential of Educational Gaming: A New Tool for Gaming Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wideman, Herbert H.; Owston, Ronald D.; Brown, Christine; Kushniruk, Andre; Ho, Francis; Pitts, Kevin C.

    2007-01-01

    The article begins by reviewing the theoretical bases for the contention that advanced computer-based educational gaming can provide powerful learning experiences, and overviews the limited research on the use of such games. Although studies to date have generally supported their value, most of the published investigations have methodological…

  13. The Biobanking Analysis Resource Catalogue (BARCdb): a new research tool for the analysis of biobank samples.

    PubMed

    Galli, Joakim; Oelrich, Johan; Taussig, Michael J; Andreasson, Ulrika; Ortega-Paino, Eva; Landegren, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    We report the development of a new database of technology services and products for analysis of biobank samples in biomedical research. BARCdb, the Biobanking Analysis Resource Catalogue (http://www.barcdb.org), is a freely available web resource, listing expertise and molecular resource capabilities of research centres and biotechnology companies. The database is designed for researchers who require information on how to make best use of valuable biospecimens from biobanks and other sample collections, focusing on the choice of analytical techniques and the demands they make on the type of samples, pre-analytical sample preparation and amounts needed. BARCdb has been developed as part of the Swedish biobanking infrastructure (BBMRI.se), but now welcomes submissions from service providers throughout Europe. BARCdb can help match resource providers with potential users, stimulating transnational collaborations and ensuring compatibility of results from different labs. It can promote a more optimal use of European resources in general, both with respect to standard and more experimental technologies, as well as for valuable biobank samples. This article describes how information on service and reagent providers of relevant technologies is made available on BARCdb, and how this resource may contribute to strengthening biomedical research in academia and in the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:25336620

  14. The Biobanking Analysis Resource Catalogue (BARCdb): a new research tool for the analysis of biobank samples

    PubMed Central

    Galli, Joakim; Oelrich, Johan; Taussig, Michael J.; Andreasson, Ulrika; Ortega-Paino, Eva; Landegren, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    We report the development of a new database of technology services and products for analysis of biobank samples in biomedical research. BARCdb, the Biobanking Analysis Resource Catalogue (http://www.barcdb.org), is a freely available web resource, listing expertise and molecular resource capabilities of research centres and biotechnology companies. The database is designed for researchers who require information on how to make best use of valuable biospecimens from biobanks and other sample collections, focusing on the choice of analytical techniques and the demands they make on the type of samples, pre-analytical sample preparation and amounts needed. BARCdb has been developed as part of the Swedish biobanking infrastructure (BBMRI.se), but now welcomes submissions from service providers throughout Europe. BARCdb can help match resource providers with potential users, stimulating transnational collaborations and ensuring compatibility of results from different labs. It can promote a more optimal use of European resources in general, both with respect to standard and more experimental technologies, as well as for valuable biobank samples. This article describes how information on service and reagent providers of relevant technologies is made available on BARCdb, and how this resource may contribute to strengthening biomedical research in academia and in the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:25336620

  15. Using Research Based Assessment Tools in Professional Development in Current Electricity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Ji; Gibbons, Patrick C.; Wiegers, John F.; McMahon, Ann P.

    2007-01-01

    We present a practical way of adapting and using four research-based assessments for different purposes in an electricity and magnetism course for K-8 science teachers. The course is designed to accomplish conceptual change toward accepted scientific conceptions as well as introducing teachers to materials and activities appropriate for their…

  16. Pathways to Participatory Research in Developing a Tool to Measure Feelings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Michelle; Davies, Stephanie

    2008-01-01

    People with a learning disability, the experts of their own experience are increasingly involved in research. We will be discussing in this paper their centrality in the development of a psychological therapy outcome measure for people with learning disabilities. Their involvement needs to go beyond giving their views to being included in the…

  17. The Plant Protoplast: A Useful Tool for Plant Research and Student Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, George J.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    A plant protoplast is basically a plant cell that lacks a cell wall. This article outlines some of the ways in which protoplasts may be used to advance understanding of plant cell biology in research and student instruction. Topics include high efficiency experimental virus infection, organelle isolation, and osmotic effects. (Author/MA)

  18. “Underground Safari” and other outreach tools for dissemination of root and soil science research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mladenov, N.; Riffel, H.; D'Odorico, P.

    2009-12-01

    The Kalahari Transect encompasses the sandy savanna biome of southern Africa and provides a compelling setting for studying the influence of climate change on soil and plant dynamics in a water stressed environment. NSF funding for the Research Experience for Teachers (RET) Program made it possible for a high school science teacher to visit field sites in Botswana, interact with Botswana high school teachers and students, and collaborate with scientists to develop web-based science teacher education modules on the topic of roots and belowground carbon storage. The “Underground Safari” website for K-12 teachers and students was constructed to infuse middle and high school level standards-based soil science curricula with outdoor activities, international field research videos, lab demos, printable handouts, and stimulating real-world applications. This presentation highlights the “Underground Safari” website design, the wiki page used by the RET teacher to communicate with her students on-line and take them on science adventures during the international field research, and other educational outreach activities resulting from this international research experience. Figure 1. Wiki page used by RET teacher to communicate with her students while in the field in Botswana, Africa.

  19. Systems Thinking Tools as Applied to Community-Based Participatory Research: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BeLue, Rhonda; Carmack, Chakema; Myers, Kyle R.; Weinreb-Welch, Laurie; Lengerich, Eugene J.

    2012-01-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is being used increasingly to address health disparities and complex health issues. The authors propose that CBPR can benefit from a systems science framework to represent the complex and dynamic characteristics of a community and identify intervention points and potential "tipping points." Systems…

  20. Image Processing for Teaching: Transforming a Scientific Research Tool into an Educational Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Richard

    1998-01-01

    Describes the Image Processing for Teaching (IPT) project which provides digital image processing to excite students about science and mathematics as they use research-quality software on microcomputers. Provides information on IPT whose components of this dissemination project have been widespread teacher education, curriculum-based materials


  1. System for Observing Family Therapy Alliances: A Tool for Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedlander, Myrna L.; Escudero, Valentin; Horvath, Adam O.; Heatherington, Laurie; Cabero, Andres; Martens, Matthew P.

    2006-01-01

    To advance research and inform practice, the authors developed an observational rating system of client behavior reflecting strong and weak therapeutic alliances in couple and family therapy. The System for Observing Family Therapy Alliances (SOFTA), in both English and Spanish, has 2 dimensions that are common across therapy modalities…

  2. Handbook of Research on Hybrid Learning Models: Advanced Tools, Technologies, and Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Fu Lee, Ed.; Fong, Joseph, Ed.; Kwan, Reggie, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    Hybrid learning is now the single-greatest trend in education today due to the numerous educational advantages when both traditional classroom learning and e-learning are implemented collectively. This handbook collects emerging research and pedagogies related to the convergence of teaching and learning methods. This significant "Handbook of


  3. Inexpensive Tools To Quantify And Map Vegetative Cover For Large-Scale Research Or Management Decisions.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetative cover can be quantified quickly and consistently and often at lower cost with image analysis of color digital images than with visual assessments. Image-based mapping of vegetative cover for large-scale research and management decisions can now be considered with the accuracy of these met...

  4. ERTS-A data as a teaching and research tool in the Department of Geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grybeck, D. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The project was an attempt to integrate ERTS-1 data into teaching introductory, specialized, and graduate courses in the Department of Geology, University of Alaska. This data was to be utilized principally through a specially selected, high quality collection of black and white, and color 9.5 mosaics of the State of Alaska. In completing these tasks, the data accumulated has proved highly useful in a variety of ways including: (1) discussions of the uses and availability of ERTS imagery; (2) as a medium for talking about and showing various areas of Alaska; (3) in discussing geology in general; and (4) as an aid in doing research and as possible research topics themselves. Use of ERTS-1 imagery in geology proved highly successful and its use is now an integral part of many courses.

  5. The Laboratory Course Assessment Survey: A Tool to Measure Three Dimensions of Research-Course Design

    PubMed Central

    Corwin, Lisa A.; Runyon, Christopher; Robinson, Aspen; Dolan, Erin L.

    2015-01-01

    Course-based undergraduate research experiences (CUREs) are increasingly being offered as scalable ways to involve undergraduates in research. Yet few if any design features that make CUREs effective have been identified. We developed a 17-item survey instrument, the Laboratory Course Assessment Survey (LCAS), that measures students’ perceptions of three design features of biology lab courses: 1) collaboration, 2) discovery and relevance, and 3) iteration. We assessed the psychometric properties of the LCAS using established methods for instrument design and validation. We also assessed the ability of the LCAS to differentiate between CUREs and traditional laboratory courses, and found that the discovery and relevance and iteration scales differentiated between these groups. Our results indicate that the LCAS is suited for characterizing and comparing undergraduate biology lab courses and should be useful for determining the relative importance of the three design features for achieving student outcomes. PMID:26466990

  6. A concept for a research tool for experiments with cochlear implant users.

    PubMed

    Geurts, L; Wouters, J

    2000-12-01

    APEX, an acronym for computer Application for Psycho-Electrical eXperiments, is a user friendly tool used to conduct psychophysical experiments and to investigate new speech coding algorithms with cochlear implant users. Most common psychophysical experiments can be easily programmed and all stimuli can be easily created without any knowledge of computer programing. The pulsatile stimuli are composed off-line using custom-made MATLAB (Registered trademark of The Mathworks, Inc., http://www.mathworks.com) functions and are stored on hard disk or CD ROM. These functions convert either a speech signal into a pulse sequence or generate any sequence of pulses based on the parameters specified by the experimenter. The APEX personal computer (PC) software reads a text file which specifies the experiment and the stimuli, controls the experiment, delivers the stimuli to the subject through a digital signal processor (DSP) board, collects the responses via a computer mouse or a graphics tablet, and writes the results to the same file. At present, the APEX system is implemented for the LAURA (Registered trademark of Philips Hearing Implants) cochlear implant. However, the concept-and many parts of the system-is portable to any other device. Also, psycho-acoustical experiments can be conducted by presenting the stimuli acoustically through a sound card. PMID:11144586

  7. Glycine and GABAA Ultra-Sensitive Ethanol Receptors as Novel Tools for Alcohol and Brain Research

    PubMed Central

    Naito, Anna; Muchhala, Karan H.; Asatryan, Liana; Trudell, James R.; Homanics, Gregg E.; Perkins, Daya I.; Alkana, Ronald L.

    2014-01-01

    A critical obstacle to developing effective medications to prevent and/or treat alcohol use disorders is the lack of specific knowledge regarding the plethora of molecular targets and mechanisms underlying alcohol (ethanol) action in the brain. To identify the role of individual receptor subunits in ethanol-induced behaviors, we developed a novel class of ultra-sensitive ethanol receptors (USERs) that allow activation of a single receptor subunit population sensitized to extremely low ethanol concentrations. USERs were created by mutating as few as four residues in the extracellular loop 2 region of glycine receptors (GlyRs) or Îł-aminobutyric acid type A receptors (GABAARs), which are implicated in causing many behavioral effects linked to ethanol abuse. USERs, expressed in Xenopus oocytes and tested using two-electrode voltage clamp, demonstrated an increase in ethanol sensitivity of 100-fold over wild-type receptors by significantly decreasing the threshold and increasing the magnitude of ethanol response, without altering general receptor properties including sensitivity to the neurosteroid, allopregnanolone. These profound changes in ethanol sensitivity were observed across multiple subunits of GlyRs and GABAARs. Collectively, our studies set the stage for using USER technology in genetically engineered animals as a unique tool to increase understanding of the neurobiological basis of the behavioral effects of ethanol. PMID:25245406

  8. NMDA antagonists as neurotherapeutic drugs, psychotogens, neurotoxins, and research tools for studying schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Olney, J W; Farber, N B

    1995-12-01

    Antagonists of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) subtype of glutamate (Glu) receptor have become the focus of considerable attention as potential neurotherapeutic agents in view of mounting evidence implicating NMDA receptors in acute central nervous system (CNS) injury syndromes such as stroke, trauma, and status epilepticus. In addition, NMDA receptor antagonists are of potential interest for the clinical management of neuropathic pain and preventing the development of tolerance to opiate analgesics. A potentially serious obstacle to the development of NMDA antagonists as neurotherapeutic drugs is the paradoxical fact that whereas these agents do have significant neurotherapeutic potential, they also have psychotogenic and neurotoxic properties. We have been intensively investigating the mechanisms underlying these adverse properties and have discovered several methods of suppressing or preventing their expression. In addition, we have been exploring the possibility that a common mechanism may underlie the psychotogenic and neurotoxic actions of these agents and that this mechanism may have relevance to the pathogenesis of idiopathic psychotic processes such as schizophrenia. In this chapter, we will review our findings pertaining to NMDA antagonists in the dual context of their value as tools for exploring mechanisms underlying neuropsychiatric disturbances, particularly schizophrenia, and their potential promise as therapeutic agents. For additional references and a more complete elaboration of our hypothesis pertaining to NMDA receptor dysfunction and schizophrenia, please see a recent review (Olney and Farber 1995). PMID:8747758

  9. NASA Global Hawk Project Update and Future Plans: A New Tool for Earth Science Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naftel, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Science objectives include: First demonstration of the Global Hawk unmanned aircraft system (UAS) for NASA and NOAA Earth science research and applications; Validation of instruments on-board the Aura satellite; Exploration of trace gases, aerosols, and dynamics of remote upper Troposphere/lower Stratosphere regions; Sample polar vortex fragments and atmospheric rivers; Risk reduction for future missions that will study hurricanes and atmospheric rivers.

  10. IT Research Services: Powerful Tools to Track a Fast Moving Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Research services change and evolve over time, sometimes suddenly, in their focus, topics, formats, service model, etc. You have to check in often. Some offer products that you can customize to your environment, others not so much. You will find a variation in customer management practices (e.g., when and how they share information) ...can sometimes be annoying. Assess your needs carefully. Each research service has a very different service model. Explore ways to share or lower the cost. Someone out there may share the expense when that is an option. Make sure you read the small print. It can work for you as well as against you. When in doubt, ask your Vendor's POC. Set up Research Service "gurus or SME's." Not to violate the copyright agreement of course, just have someone who knows what's there. After you subscribe, reassess.Get the most out of your investment. Some early enthusiasts will fade, and there will be others who don't know it's there and can use it.

  11. Generation of comprehensive thoracic oncology database--tool for translational research.

    PubMed

    Surati, Mosmi; Robinson, Matthew; Nandi, Suvobroto; Faoro, Leonardo; Demchuk, Carley; Kanteti, Rajani; Ferguson, Benjamin; Gangadhar, Tara; Hensing, Thomas; Hasina, Rifat; Husain, Aliya; Ferguson, Mark; Karrison, Theodore; Salgia, Ravi

    2011-01-01

    The Thoracic Oncology Program Database Project was created to serve as a comprehensive, verified, and accessible repository for well-annotated cancer specimens and clinical data to be available to researchers within the Thoracic Oncology Research Program. This database also captures a large volume of genomic and proteomic data obtained from various tumor tissue studies. A team of clinical and basic science researchers, a biostatistician, and a bioinformatics expert was convened to design the database. Variables of interest were clearly defined and their descriptions were written within a standard operating manual to ensure consistency of data annotation. Using a protocol for prospective tissue banking and another protocol for retrospective banking, tumor and normal tissue samples from patients consented to these protocols were collected. Clinical information such as demographics, cancer characterization, and treatment plans for these patients were abstracted and entered into an Access database. Proteomic and genomic data have been included in the database and have been linked to clinical information for patients described within the database. The data from each table were linked using the relationships function in Microsoft Access to allow the database manager to connect clinical and laboratory information during a query. The queried data can then be exported for statistical analysis and hypothesis generation. PMID:21304468

  12. Miniaturized pre-clinical cancer models as research and diagnostic tools

    PubMed Central

    HĂ„kanson, Maria; Cukierman, Edna; Charnley, Mirren

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is one of the most common causes of death worldwide. Consequently, important resources are directed towards bettering treatments and outcomes. Cancer is difficult to treat due to its heterogeneity, plasticity and frequent drug resistance. New treatment strategies should strive for personalized approaches. These should target neoplastic and/or activated microenvironmental heterogeneity and plasticity without triggering resistance and spare host cells. In this review, the putative use of increasingly physiologically relevant microfabricated cell-culturing systems intended for drug development is discussed. There are two main reasons for the use of miniaturized systems. First, scaling down model size allows for high control of microenvironmental cues enabling more predictive outcomes. Second, miniaturization reduces reagent consumption, thus facilitating combinatorial approaches with little effort and enables the application of scarce materials, such as patient-derived samples. This review aims to give an overview of the state-of-the-art of such systems while predicting their application in cancer drug development. PMID:24295904

  13. Miniaturized pre-clinical cancer models as research and diagnostic tools.

    PubMed

    Hćkanson, Maria; Cukierman, Edna; Charnley, Mirren

    2014-04-01

    Cancer is one of the most common causes of death worldwide. Consequently, important resources are directed towards bettering treatments and outcomes. Cancer is difficult to treat due to its heterogeneity, plasticity and frequent drug resistance. New treatment strategies should strive for personalized approaches. These should target neoplastic and/or activated microenvironmental heterogeneity and plasticity without triggering resistance and spare host cells. In this review, the putative use of increasingly physiologically relevant microfabricated cell-culturing systems intended for drug development is discussed. There are two main reasons for the use of miniaturized systems. First, scaling down model size allows for high control of microenvironmental cues enabling more predictive outcomes. Second, miniaturization reduces reagent consumption, thus facilitating combinatorial approaches with little effort and enables the application of scarce materials, such as patient-derived samples. This review aims to give an overview of the state-of-the-art of such systems while predicting their application in cancer drug development. PMID:24295904

  14. Directing the evolution of Rubisco and Rubisco activase: first impressions of a new tool for photosynthesis research.

    PubMed

    Mueller-Cajar, Oliver; Whitney, Spencer M

    2008-01-01

    During the last decade the practice of laboratory-directed protein evolution has become firmly established as a versatile tool in biochemical research by enabling molecular evolution toward desirable phenotypes or detection of novel structure-function interactions. Applications of this technique in the field of photosynthesis research are still in their infancy, but recently first steps have been reported in the directed evolution of the CO(2)-fixing enzyme Rubisco and its helper protein Rubisco activase. Here we summarize directed protein evolution strategies and review the progressive advances that have been made to develop and apply suitable selection systems for screening mutant forms of these enzymes that improve the fitness of the host organism. The goal of increasing photosynthetic efficiency of plants by improving the kinetics of Rubisco has been a long-term goal scoring modest successes. We discuss how directed evolution methodologies may one day be able to circumvent the problems encountered during this venture. PMID:18626786

  15. The Use if GIS Tools in Tourism Research on the Example of Wodzislaw Poviat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pukowiec, Katarzyna

    2012-01-01

    The activities in name of tourist development in Wodzislaw poviat are the reason to evaluate the tourist land development. The evaluation was prepared on the basis of selected indexes characterizing the level of tourist infrastructure development. It considered: the number of lodgings per km2, the number of restaurants per km2, the amount of additional attractions per km2 and the density of tourist tracks. This database was analyzed by the use of GIS tools. Using GIS software allowed working with large databases and provided the possibility to create a graphic representation of the results. The level of tourist land development is diversified and depends on it function. The cities with the best developed tourist infrastructure are Wodzislaw Slaski, Radlin, Pszow, Rydultowy and town in Odra Valley: Olza, Bukow and Nieboczowy. Pszow, Gorzyce and Godow commons have the biggest density of tourist tracks. Dzia?ania na rzecz rozwoju turystyki w powiecie wodzis?awskim s? powodem do oceny zagospodarowania turystycznego obszaru. Ocen? wykonano w oparciu o wybrane wska?niki, charakteryzuj?ce stopie? rozwoju infrastruktury turystycznej. Uwzgl?dniono: liczb? miejsc noclegowych/km2, liczb? lokali gastronomicznych/km2, liczb? atrakcji dodatkowych/km2 oraz g?sto?? szlaków turystycznych. Baz? danych o zapleczu noclegowym, gastronomicznym, atrakcjach towarzysz?cych i szlakach turystycznych poddano analizom przy u?yciu narz?dzi GIS. Wykorzystanie oprogramowania GIS umo?liwi?o prac? z du?ymi bazami danych i pozwoli?o na graficzn? prezentacj? wyników. Stopie? zagospodarowania turystycznego obszaru jest zró?nicowany i zale?y od pe?nionej przez niego funkcji. Najlepiej rozwini?t? baz? turystyczn? posiadaj? miasta Wodzis?aw ?l?ski, Radlin, Pszów i Rydu?towy oraz miejscowo?ci w Dolinie Odry: Olza, Buków i Nieboczowy. Najwi?ksza g?sto?? szlaków turystycznych wyst?puje w Pszowie oraz w gminach Gorzyce i Godów.

  16. V/STOL systems research aircraft: A tool for cockpit integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stortz, Michael W.; ODonoghue, Dennis P.

    1995-01-01

    The next generation ASTOVL aircraft will have a complicated propulsion system. The configuration choices include Direct Lift, Lift-Fan and Lift + Lift/Cruise but the aircraft must also have supersonic performance and low-observable characteristics. The propulsion system may have features such as flow blockers, vectoring nozzles and flow transfer schemes. The flight control system will necessarily fully integrate the aerodynamic surfaces and the propulsive elements. With a fully integrated, fly-by-wire flight/propulsion control system, the options for cockpit integration are interesting and varied. It is possible to de-couple longitudinal and vertical responses allowing the pilot to close the loop on flightpath and flightpath acceleration directly. In the hover, the pilot can control the translational rate directly without having to stabilize the inner rate and attitude loops. The benefit of this approach, reduced workload and increased precision, has previously been demonstrated through several motion-based simulations. In order to prove the results in flight, the V/STOL System Research Aircraft (VSRA) was developed at the NASA Ames Research Center. The VSRA is the YAV-8B Prototype modified with a research flight control system using a series-parallel servo configuration in all the longitudinal degrees of freedom (including thrust and thrust vector angle) to provide an integrated flight and propulsion control system in a limited envelope. Development of the system has been completed and flight evaluations of the response types have been performed. In this paper we will discuss the development of the VSRA, the evolution of the flightpath command and translational rate command response types and the Guest Pilot evaluations of the system. Pilot evaluation results are used to draw conclusions regarding the suitability of the system to satisfy V/STOL requirements.

  17. V/STOL Systems Research Aircraft: A Tool for Cockpit Integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stortz, Michael W.; ODonoghue, Dennis P.; Tiffany, Geary (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The next generation ASTOVL aircraft will have a complicated propulsion System. The configuration choices include Direct Lift, Lift-Fan and Lift+Lift /Cruise but the aircraft must also have supersonic performance and low-observable characteristics. The propulsion system may have features such as flow blockers, vectoring nozzles and flow transfer schemes. The flight control system will necessarily fully integrate the aerodynamic surfaces and the propulsive elements. With a fully integrated, fly-by-wire flight/propulsion control system, the options for cockpit integration are interesting and varied. It is possible to decouple longitudinal and vertical responses allowing the pilot to close the loop on flight path and flight path acceleration directly. In the hover, the pilot can control the translational rate directly without having to stabilize the inner rate and attitude loops. The benefit of this approach, reduced workload and increased precision. has previously been demonstrated through several motion-based simulations. In order to prove the results in flight, the V/STOL System Research Aircraft (VSRA) was developed at the NASA Ames Research Center. The VSRA is the YAV-8B Prototype modified with a research flight control system using a series-parallel servo configuration in all the longitudinal degrees of freedom (including thrust and thrust vector angle) to provide an integrated flight and propulsion control system in a limited envelope. Development of the system has been completed and flight evaluations of the response types have been performed. In this paper we will discuss the development of the VSRA, the evolution of the flight path command and translational rate command response types and the Guest Pilot evaluations of the system. Pilot evaluation results will be used to draw conclusions regarding the suitability of the system to satisfy V/STOL requirements.

  18. iSRAP – a one-touch research tool for rapid profiling of small RNA-seq data

    PubMed Central

    Quek, Camelia; Jung, Chol-hee; Bellingham, Shayne A.; Lonie, Andrew; Hill, Andrew F.

    2015-01-01

    Small non-coding RNAs have been significantly recognized as the key modulators in many biological processes, and are emerging as promising biomarkers for several diseases. These RNA species are transcribed in cells and can be packaged in extracellular vesicles, which are small vesicles released from many biotypes, and are involved in intercellular communication. Currently, the advent of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology for high-throughput profiling has further advanced the biological insights of non-coding RNA on a genome-wide scale and has become the preferred approach for the discovery and quantification of non-coding RNA species. Despite the routine practice of NGS, the processing of large data sets poses difficulty for analysis before conducting downstream experiments. Often, the current analysis tools are designed for specific RNA species, such as microRNA, and are limited in flexibility for modifying parameters for optimization. An analysis tool that allows for maximum control of different software is essential for drawing concrete conclusions for differentially expressed transcripts. Here, we developed a one-touch integrated small RNA analysis pipeline (iSRAP) research tool that is composed of widely used tools for rapid profiling of small RNAs. The performance test of iSRAP using publicly and in-house available data sets shows its ability of comprehensive profiling of small RNAs of various classes, and analysis of differentially expressed small RNAs. iSRAP offers comprehensive analysis of small RNA sequencing data that leverage informed decisions on the downstream analyses of small RNA studies, including extracellular vesicles such as exosomes. PMID:26561006

  19. iSRAP - a one-touch research tool for rapid profiling of small RNA-seq data.

    PubMed

    Quek, Camelia; Jung, Chol-Hee; Bellingham, Shayne A; Lonie, Andrew; Hill, Andrew F

    2015-01-01

    Small non-coding RNAs have been significantly recognized as the key modulators in many biological processes, and are emerging as promising biomarkers for several diseases. These RNA species are transcribed in cells and can be packaged in extracellular vesicles, which are small vesicles released from many biotypes, and are involved in intercellular communication. Currently, the advent of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology for high-throughput profiling has further advanced the biological insights of non-coding RNA on a genome-wide scale and has become the preferred approach for the discovery and quantification of non-coding RNA species. Despite the routine practice of NGS, the processing of large data sets poses difficulty for analysis before conducting downstream experiments. Often, the current analysis tools are designed for specific RNA species, such as microRNA, and are limited in flexibility for modifying parameters for optimization. An analysis tool that allows for maximum control of different software is essential for drawing concrete conclusions for differentially expressed transcripts. Here, we developed a one-touch integrated small RNA analysis pipeline (iSRAP) research tool that is composed of widely used tools for rapid profiling of small RNAs. The performance test of iSRAP using publicly and in-house available data sets shows its ability of comprehensive profiling of small RNAs of various classes, and analysis of differentially expressed small RNAs. iSRAP offers comprehensive analysis of small RNA sequencing data that leverage informed decisions on the downstream analyses of small RNA studies, including extracellular vesicles such as exosomes. PMID:26561006

  20. The conversion of claims files to an episode data base: a tool for management and research.

    PubMed

    Greene, S B; Gunselman, D L

    1984-01-01

    The construction of an episode-of-care file based on utilization data from the insurance claims system of Blue Cross and Blue Shield of North Carolina was undertaken for its subscribers and Medicare beneficiaries, a data base that includes 60% of the hospital days in North Carolina. The conversion was accomplished without interfering with the integrity of the accounting system, and the resulting file provides essential data for management decisions and epidemiological research. Among the uses to which the information in the file can be put are the promotion of ambulatory surgery, the redesign of group insurance benefits by employers, and the support of statewide health planning programs. PMID:6237999