Science.gov

Sample records for main research tool

  1. Measurement and Research Tools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    This document contains four symposium papers on measurement and research tools. "Income Effects of Human Resource Development for Higher Educated Professionals" (Martin Mulder, Bob Witziers) reports on a study of 1,876 higher-educated professionals that found no correlation between participation in human resource development activities and…

  2. Measurement and Research Tools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1997

    This document contains four papers from a symposium on measurement and research tools for human resource development (HRD). "The 'Best Fit' Training: Measure Employee Learning Style Strengths" (Daniel L. Parry) discusses a study of the physiological aspect of sensory intake known as modality, more specifically, modality as measured by the…

  3. 18. VIEW TOWARD MAIN ENTRANCE OF AMERICAN TOOL ENGINE LATHE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. VIEW TOWARD MAIN ENTRANCE OF AMERICAN TOOL ENGINE LATHE, JIB CRANE ABOVE-LOOKING NORTH. - W. A. Young & Sons Foundry & Machine Shop, On Water Street along Monongahela River, Rices Landing, Greene County, PA

  4. Protecting endangered species: do the main legislative tools work?

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Katherine E; Currie, David J

    2012-01-01

    It is critical to assess the effectiveness of the tools used to protect endangered species. The main tools enabled under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA) to promote species recovery are funding, recovery plan development and critical habitat designation. Earlier studies sometimes found that statistically significant effects of these tools could be detected, but they have not answered the question of whether the effects were large enough to be biologically meaningful. Here, we ask: how much does the recovery status of ESA-listed species improve with the application of these tools? We used species' staus reports to Congress from 1988 to 2006 to quantify two measures of recovery for 1179 species. We related these to the amount of federal funding, years with a recovery plan, years with critical habitat designation, the amount of peer-reviewed scientific information, and time listed. We found that change in recovery status of listed species was, at best, only very weakly related to any of these tools. Recovery was positively related to the number of years listed, years with a recovery plan, and funding, however, these tools combined explain <13% of the variation in recovery status among species. Earlier studies that reported significant effects of these tools did not focus on effect sizes; however, they are in fact similarly small. One must conclude either that these tools are not very effective in promoting species' recovery, or (as we suspect) that species recovery data are so poor that it is impossible to tell whether the tools are effective or not. It is critically important to assess the effectiveness of tools used to promote species recovery; it is therefore also critically important to obtain population status data that are adequate to that task. PMID:22567111

  5. Research Study: Space Shuttle Main Engine Plume Flowfield Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bender, Robert L.

    1988-01-01

    The initial research effort was an in-depth analysis of the shuttle main engine plumes in an effort to improve the flowfield model and to enhance shuttle base heating equipment predictions during ascent. A prediction methodology code was developed incorporating the improved plume model into a predictive tool which could consider different trajectoreis and engine perfromance variables. Various plume flow model improvement studies were ongoing at the time of the 51-L accident. Since that time, base heating and plume methodology improvements have continued as part of the overall emphasis on Shuttle design assurance before resuming flight schedule.

  6. A Tool for Medical Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    California Measurements, Inc.'s PC-2 Aerosol Particle Analyzer, developed by William Chiang, a former Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) engineer, was used in a study to measure the size of particles in the medical environment. Chiang has a NASA license for the JPL crystal oscillator technology and originally built the instrument for atmospheric research. In the operating room, it enabled researchers from the University of California to obtain multiple sets of data repeatedly and accurately. The study concluded that significant amounts of aerosols are generated during surgery when power tools are employed, and most of these are in the respirable size. Almost all contain blood and are small enough to pass through surgical masks. Research on the presence of blood aerosols during oral surgery had similar results. Further studies are planned to determine the possibility of HIV transmission during surgery, and the PC-2H will be used to quantify blood aerosols.

  7. Ecosystem Indicators and Tools in the Gulf of Maine

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Gulf of Maine Council on the Marine Environment is a U.S.-Canadian partnership of government and non-government organizations focused on the health, environmental quality and productivity of the Gulf of Maine. In 2006, the Ecosystem Indicator Partnership (ESIP) commenced acti...

  8. Tool for Ranking Research Options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortiz, James N.; Scott, Kelly; Smith, Harold

    2005-01-01

    Tool for Research Enhancement Decision Support (TREDS) is a computer program developed to assist managers in ranking options for research aboard the International Space Station (ISS). It could likely also be adapted to perform similar decision-support functions in industrial and academic settings. TREDS provides a ranking of the options, based on a quantifiable assessment of all the relevant programmatic decision factors of benefit, cost, and risk. The computation of the benefit for each option is based on a figure of merit (FOM) for ISS research capacity that incorporates both quantitative and qualitative inputs. Qualitative inputs are gathered and partly quantified by use of the time-tested analytical hierarchical process and used to set weighting factors in the FOM corresponding to priorities determined by the cognizant decision maker(s). Then by use of algorithms developed specifically for this application, TREDS adjusts the projected benefit for each option on the basis of levels of technical implementation, cost, and schedule risk. Based partly on Excel spreadsheets, TREDS provides screens for entering cost, benefit, and risk information. Drop-down boxes are provided for entry of qualitative information. TREDS produces graphical output in multiple formats that can be tailored by users.

  9. MHK Research, Tools, and Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Jepsen, Richard

    2011-11-02

    Presentation from the 2011 Water Peer Review in which principal investigator discusses improved testing, analysis, and design tools needed to more accurately model operational conditions, to optimize design parameters, and predict technology viability.

  10. The Value of Open Source Software Tools in Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Gary

    2011-01-01

    In an era of global networks, researchers using qualitative methods must consider the impact of any software they use on the sharing of data and findings. In this essay, I identify researchers' main areas of concern regarding the use of qualitative software packages for research. I then examine how open source software tools, wherein the publisher…

  11. Observatory Bibliographies as Research Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rots, Arnold H.; Winkelman, S. L.

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, observatory bibliographies were maintained to provide insight in how successful a observatory is as measured by its prominence in the (refereed) literature. When we set up the bibliographic database for the Chandra X-ray Observatory (http://cxc.harvard.edu/cgi-gen/cda/bibliography) as part of the Chandra Data Archive ((http://cxc.harvard.edu/cda/), very early in the mission, our objective was to make it primarily a useful tool for our user community. To achieve this we are: (1) casting a very wide net in collecting Chandra-related publications; (2) including for each literature reference in the database a wealth of metadata that is useful for the users; and (3) providing specific links between the articles and the datasets in the archive that they use. As a result our users are able to browse the literature and the data archive simultaneously. As an added bonus, the rich metadata content and data links have also allowed us to assemble more meaningful statistics about the scientific efficacy of the observatory. In all this we collaborate closely with the Astrophysics Data System (ADS). Among the plans for future enhancement are the inclusion of press releases and the Chandra image gallery, linking with ADS semantic searching tools, full-text metadata mining, and linking with other observatories' bibliographies. This work is supported by NASA contract NAS8-03060 (CXC) and depends critically on the services provided by the ADS.

  12. The Maine Garlic Project: A Participatory Research and Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, David; Johnson, Steven B.

    2013-01-01

    Participatory research is a useful technique for collecting basic data over a large geographic area. Garlic production was chosen as a participatory research study focus in Maine. Project participants (285) received bulbs to plant, monitored their crop, and reported data online. Participants received a monthly educational newsletter to improve…

  13. Scalable Combinatorial Tools for Health Disparities Research

    PubMed Central

    Langston, Michael A.; Levine, Robert S.; Kilbourne, Barbara J.; Rogers, Gary L.; Kershenbaum, Anne D.; Baktash, Suzanne H.; Coughlin, Steven S.; Saxton, Arnold M.; Agboto, Vincent K.; Hood, Darryl B.; Litchveld, Maureen Y.; Oyana, Tonny J.; Matthews-Juarez, Patricia; Juarez, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    Despite staggering investments made in unraveling the human genome, current estimates suggest that as much as 90% of the variance in cancer and chronic diseases can be attributed to factors outside an individual’s genetic endowment, particularly to environmental exposures experienced across his or her life course. New analytical approaches are clearly required as investigators turn to complicated systems theory and ecological, place-based and life-history perspectives in order to understand more clearly the relationships between social determinants, environmental exposures and health disparities. While traditional data analysis techniques remain foundational to health disparities research, they are easily overwhelmed by the ever-increasing size and heterogeneity of available data needed to illuminate latent gene x environment interactions. This has prompted the adaptation and application of scalable combinatorial methods, many from genome science research, to the study of population health. Most of these powerful tools are algorithmically sophisticated, highly automated and mathematically abstract. Their utility motivates the main theme of this paper, which is to describe real applications of innovative transdisciplinary models and analyses in an effort to help move the research community closer toward identifying the causal mechanisms and associated environmental contexts underlying health disparities. The public health exposome is used as a contemporary focus for addressing the complex nature of this subject. PMID:25310540

  14. Telerehabilitation: Policy Issues and Research Tools

    PubMed Central

    Seelman, Katherine D.; Hartman, Linda M.

    2009-01-01

    The importance of public policy as a complementary framework for telehealth, telemedicine, and by association telerehabilitation, has been recognized by a number of experts. The purpose of this paper is to review literature on telerehabilitation (TR) policy and research methodology issues in order to report on the current state of the science and make recommendations about future research needs. An extensive literature search was implemented using search terms grouped into main topics of telerehabilitation, policy, population of users, and policy specific issues such as cost and reimbursement. The availability of rigorous and valid evidence-based cost studies emerged as a major challenge to the field. Existing cost studies provided evidence that telehomecare may be a promising application area for TR. Cost studies also indicated that telepsychiatry is a promising telepractice area. The literature did not reference the International Classification on Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Rigorous and comprehensive TR assessment and evaluation tools for outcome studies are tantamount to generating confidence among providers, payers, clinicians and end users. In order to evaluate consumer satisfaction and participation, assessment criteria must include medical, functional and quality of life items such as assistive technology and environmental factors. PMID:25945162

  15. Research as an educational tool

    SciTech Connect

    Neff, R.; Perlmutter, D.; Klaczynski, P.

    1994-12-31

    Our students have participated in original group research projects focused on the natural environment which culminate in a written manuscript published in-house, and an oral presentation to peers, faculty, and the university community. Our goal has been to develop their critical thinking skills so that they will be more successful in high school and college. We have served ninety-three students (47.1% white, 44.1% black, 5.4% hispanic, 2.2% American Indian, 1.2% asian) from an eight state region in the southeast over the past three years. Thirty-one students have graduated from high school with over 70% enrolled in college and another thirty-four are seniors this year. We are tracking students` progress in college and are developing our own critical thinking test to measure the impact of our program. Although preliminary, the results from the critical thinking test indicated that students are often prone to logical errors; however, higher levels of critical thinking were observed on items which raised issues that conflicted with students` pre-existing beliefs.

  16. Parallel software tools at Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moitra, Stuti; Tennille, Geoffrey M.; Lakeotes, Christopher D.; Randall, Donald P.; Arthur, Jarvis J.; Hammond, Dana P.; Mall, Gerald H.

    1993-01-01

    This document gives a brief overview of parallel software tools available on the Intel iPSC/860 parallel computer at Langley Research Center. It is intended to provide a source of information that is somewhat more concise than vendor-supplied material on the purpose and use of various tools. Each of the chapters on tools is organized in a similar manner covering an overview of the functionality, access information, how to effectively use the tool, observations about the tool and how it compares to similar software, known problems or shortfalls with the software, and reference documentation. It is primarily intended for users of the iPSC/860 at Langley Research Center and is appropriate for both the experienced and novice user.

  17. Bringing Research Tools into the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shubert, Charles; Ceraj, Ivica; Riley, Justin

    2009-01-01

    The advancement of computer technology used for research is creating the need to change the way classes are taught in higher education. "Bringing Research Tools into the Classroom" has become a major focus of the work of the Office of Educational Innovation and Technology (OEIT) for the Dean of Undergraduate Education (DUE) at the Massachusetts…

  18. Evaluating the Performance of Calculus Classes Using Operational Research Tools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soares de Mello, Joao Carlos C. B.; Lins, Marcos P. E.; Soares de Mello, Maria Helena C.; Gomes, Eliane G.

    2002-01-01

    Compares the efficiency of calculus classes and evaluates two kinds of classes: traditional and others that use computational methods in teaching. Applies quantitative evaluation methods using two operational research tools, multicriteria decision aid methods (mainly using the MACBETH approach) and data development analysis. (Author/YDS)

  19. Software tool for portal dosimetry research.

    PubMed

    Vial, P; Hunt, P; Greer, P B; Oliver, L; Baldock, C

    2008-09-01

    This paper describes a software tool developed for research into the use of an electronic portal imaging device (EPID) to verify dose for intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) beams. A portal dose image prediction (PDIP) model that predicts the EPID response to IMRT beams has been implemented into a commercially available treatment planning system (TPS). The software tool described in this work was developed to modify the TPS PDIP model by incorporating correction factors into the predicted EPID image to account for the difference in EPID response to open beam radiation and multileaf collimator (MLC) transmitted radiation. The processes performed by the software tool include; i) read the MLC file and the PDIP from the TPS, ii) calculate the fraction of beam-on time that each point in the IMRT beam is shielded by MLC leaves, iii) interpolate correction factors from look-up tables, iv) create a corrected PDIP image from the product of the original PDIP and the correction factors and write the corrected image to file, v) display, analyse, and export various image datasets. The software tool was developed using the Microsoft Visual Studio.NET framework with the C# compiler. The operation of the software tool was validated. This software provided useful tools for EPID dosimetry research, and it is being utilised and further developed in ongoing EPID dosimetry and IMRT dosimetry projects. PMID:18946980

  20. New Software Framework to Share Research Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milner, Kevin; Becker, Thorsten W.; Boschi, Lapo; Sain, Jared; Schorlemmer, Danijel; Waterhouse, Hannah

    2009-03-01

    Solid Earth Teaching and Research Environment (SEATREE) is a modular and user-friendly software to facilitate the use of solid Earth research tools in the classroom and for interdisciplinary research collaboration. The software provides a stand-alone open-source package that allows users to operate in a “black box” mode, which hides implementation details, while also allowing them to dig deeper into the underlying source code. The overlying user interfaces are written in the Python programming language using a modern, object-oriented design, including graphical user interactions. SEATREE, which provides an interface to a range of new and existing lower level programs that can be written in any computer programming language, may in the long run contribute to new ways of sharing scientific research. By sharing both data and modeling tools in a consistent framework, published (numerical) experiments can be made truly reproducible again.

  1. Web Based Tools for Research and Teaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svirsky, E.; Hijazi, A.; Betterton, D.; Doxas, I.

    2005-05-01

    The Solar System Collaboratory is a web based set of tools that has been used for the past seven years in introductory classes in Astronomy, Physics, Environmental Science, and Engineering. The present paper will discuss the integration into the tool set of a recently developed Magnetospheric package. The package is written in Java 3D, and has a modular design, so that different models and datasets, both real-time and historical, can be seamlessly compared using a variety of goodness-of-fit measures. The package is used both in research and education at the undergraduate as well as secondary level. In addition to the science components, the package includes web based tools for conceptual student assessment, as well as resources for teachers, and videotaped case studies of classroom interactions.

  2. Inductive knowledge acquisition experience with commercial tools for space shuttle main engine testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Modesitt, Kenneth L.

    1990-01-01

    Since 1984, an effort has been underway at Rocketdyne, manufacturer of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME), to automate much of the analysis procedure conducted after engine test firings. Previously published articles at national and international conferences have contained the context of and justification for this effort. Here, progress is reported in building the full system, including the extensions of integrating large databases with the system, known as Scotty. Inductive knowledge acquisition has proven itself to be a key factor in the success of Scotty. The combination of a powerful inductive expert system building tool (ExTran), a relational data base management system (Reliance), and software engineering principles and Computer-Assisted Software Engineering (CASE) tools makes for a practical, useful and state-of-the-art application of an expert system.

  3. Tools and collaborative environments for bioinformatics research

    PubMed Central

    Giugno, Rosalba; Pulvirenti, Alfredo

    2011-01-01

    Advanced research requires intensive interaction among a multitude of actors, often possessing different expertise and usually working at a distance from each other. The field of collaborative research aims to establish suitable models and technologies to properly support these interactions. In this article, we first present the reasons for an interest of Bioinformatics in this context by also suggesting some research domains that could benefit from collaborative research. We then review the principles and some of the most relevant applications of social networking, with a special attention to networks supporting scientific collaboration, by also highlighting some critical issues, such as identification of users and standardization of formats. We then introduce some systems for collaborative document creation, including wiki systems and tools for ontology development, and review some of the most interesting biological wikis. We also review the principles of Collaborative Development Environments for software and show some examples in Bioinformatics. Finally, we present the principles and some examples of Learning Management Systems. In conclusion, we try to devise some of the goals to be achieved in the short term for the exploitation of these technologies. PMID:21984743

  4. VAO Tools Enhance CANDELS Research Productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, Gretchen; Donley, J.; Rodney, S.; LAZIO, J.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Busko, I.; Hanisch, R. J.; VAO Team; CANDELS Team

    2013-01-01

    The formation of galaxies and their co-evolution with black holes through cosmic time are prominent areas in current extragalactic astronomy. New methods in science research are building upon collaborations between scientists and archive data centers which span large volumes of multi-wavelength and heterogeneous data. A successful example of this form of teamwork is demonstrated by the CANDELS (Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey) and the Virtual Astronomical Observatory (VAO) collaboration. The CANDELS project archive data provider services are registered and discoverable in the VAO through an innovative web based Data Discovery Tool, providing a drill down capability and cross-referencing with other co-spatially located astronomical catalogs, images and spectra. The CANDELS team is working together with the VAO to define new methods for analyzing Spectral Energy Distributions of galaxies containing active galactic nuclei, and helping to evolve advanced catalog matching methods for exploring images of variable depths, wavelengths and resolution. Through the publication of VOEvents, the CANDELS project is publishing data streams for newly discovered supernovae that are bright enough to be followed from the ground.

  5. University of Maine Integrated Forest Product Refinery (IFPR) Technology Research

    SciTech Connect

    Pendse, Hemant P.

    2010-11-23

    This project supported research on science and technology that forms a basis for integrated forest product refinery for co-production of chemicals, fuels and materials using existing forest products industry infrastructure. Clear systems view of an Integrated Forest Product Refinery (IFPR) allowed development of a compelling business case for a small scale technology demonstration in Old Town ME for co-production of biofuels using cellulosic sugars along with pulp for the new owners of the facility resulting in an active project on Integrated Bio-Refinery (IBR) at the Old Town Fuel & Fiber. Work on production of advanced materials from woody biomass has led to active projects in bioplastics and carbon nanofibers. A lease for 40,000 sq. ft. high-bay space has been obtained to establish a Technology Research Center for IFPR technology validation on industrially relevant scale. UMaine forest bioproducts research initiative that began in April 2006 has led to establishment of a formal research institute beginning in March 2010.

  6. [Main results of scientific researches in oil industry].

    PubMed

    Bakirov, A B; Gimranova, G G

    2009-01-01

    Clinical and hygienic research was carried out in major oil extracting, oil processing and petrochemical enterpirses. Complex of industrial hazards results in occupational diseases of mild and medium severity, in increase of occupationally mediated diseases. The article covers sanitary and epidemiologic evaluation of oil processing and petrochemical products, technical documentation certificates for these products are obtained. PMID:20099388

  7. Determination of clopidogrel main metabolite in plasma: a useful tool for monitoring therapy?

    PubMed

    Mani, Helen; Toennes, Stefan W; Linnemann, Birgit; Urbanek, Dorota A; Schwonberg, Jan; Kauert, Gerold F; Lindhoff-Last, Edelgard

    2008-02-01

    This study was performed to determine whether analysis of clopidogrel and its main carboxylic acid metabolite in plasma provides additional information about the wide variability of platelet aggregation inhibition in clopidogrel-treated patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease. Consecutive outpatients (n = 56) with stable peripheral arterial occlusive disease treated with 75 mg clopidogrel daily, without co-administration of aspirin, were investigated. With use of a standardized questionnaire, the time of drug intake was documented. Blood sampling was performed within 24 hours after the most recent drug intake. Platelet function was measured by optical aggregometry using adenosine diphosphate (ADP) (2 mumol/L) as the agonist. Plasma concentrations of clopidogrel and its main metabolite, clopidogrel carboxylic acid, were quantitated using high-performance liquid chromatography analysis coupled to mass spectrometry. In 95% (53/56) of patients, clopidogrel carboxylic acid was detected. In 40% (22/56) of patients, the ADP-induced aggregation response was within the normal range despite clopidogrel treatment. In 14% (3/22) of these patients, neither clopidogrel nor its main metabolite could be detected. Two of these patients agreed to ingest 75 mg/d clopidogrel under observation and to undergo blood sampling after 2, 12, and 24 hours. Clopidogrel carboxylic acid and a significant inhibition of platelet aggregation were detected even after 24 hours in both patients, confirming noncompliance as the reason for the lack of inhibition of ADP-induced platelet aggregation observed in the initial measurements. In the subgroup of patients who had taken clopidogrel within 4 hours before blood sampling, a large range of carboxylic acid concentrations was detected, indicating a high variability of drug metabolism among patients. In conclusion, determining clopidogrel metabolite plasma concentrations could be a useful tool for identifying poor compliance and variable

  8. Rotterdam: main port for organ transplantation research in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Kwekkeboom, Jaap; van der Laan, Luc J W; Betjes, Michiel G H; Manintveld, Olivier C; Hoek, Rogier A S; Cransberg, Karlien; de Bruin, Ron W F; Dor, Frank J M F; de Jonge, Jeroen; Boor, Patrick P C; van Gent, Rogier; van Besouw, Nicole M; Boer, Karin; Litjens, Nicolle H R; Hesselink, Dennis A; Hoogduijn, Martin J; Massey, Emma; Rowshani, Ajda T; van de Wetering, Jacqueline; de Jong, Huib; Hendriks, Rudi W; Metselaar, Herold J; van Gelder, Teun; Weimar, Willem; IJzermans, Jan N M; Baan, Carla C

    2014-10-01

    This overview describes the full spectrum of current pre-clinical and clinical kidney-, liver-, heart- and lung transplantation research performed in Erasmus MC - University Medical Centre in Rotterdam, The Netherlands. An update is provided on the development of a large living donor kidney transplantation program and on optimization of kidney allocation, including the implementation of a domino kidney-donation program. Our current research efforts to optimize immunosuppressive regimens and find novel targets for immunosuppressive therapy, our recent studies on prevention of ischemia-reperfusion-induced graft injury, our newest findings on stimulation of tissue regeneration, our novel approaches to prevent rejection and viral infection, and our latest insights in the regulation of allograft rejection, are summarized. PMID:25240732

  9. Research on graphical workflow modeling tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Hongjiu

    2013-07-01

    Through the technical analysis of existing modeling tools, combined with Web technology, this paper presents a graphical workflow modeling tool design program, through which designers can draw process directly in the browser and automatically transform the drawn process description in XML description file, to facilitate the workflow engine analysis and barrier-free sharing of workflow data in a networked environment. The program has software reusability, cross-platform, scalability, and strong practicality.

  10. Microfluidic tools for cell biological research

    PubMed Central

    Velve-Casquillas, Guilhem; Le Berre, Maël; Piel, Matthieu; Tran, Phong T.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Microfluidic technology is creating powerful tools for cell biologists to control the complete cellular microenvironment, leading to new questions and new discoveries. We review here the basic concepts and methodologies in designing microfluidic devices, and their diverse cell biological applications. PMID:21152269

  11. Tools for Ephemeral Gully Erosion Process Research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Techniques to quantify ephemeral gully erosion have been identified by USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) as one of gaps in current erosion assessment tools. One reason that may have contributed to this technology gap is the difficulty to quantify changes in channel geometry to asses...

  12. Participatory Research: A Tool for Extension Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tritz, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Given their positions in communities across the United States, Extension educators are poised to have meaningful partnerships with the communities they serve. This article presents a case for the use of participatory research, which is a departure from more conventional forms of research based on objectivity, researcher distance, and social…

  13. Narratives and Activity Theory as Reflective Tools in Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Kaz

    2012-01-01

    Narratives and activity theory are useful as socially constructed data collection tools that allow a researcher access to the social, cultural and historical meanings that research participants place on events in their lives. This case study shows how these tools were used to promote reflection within a cultural-historical activity theoretically…

  14. The Child Diary as a Research Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamsa, Tiina; Ronka, Anna; Poikonen, Pirjo-Liisa; Malinen, Kaisa

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this article is to introduce the use of the child diary as a method in daily diary research. By describing the research process and detailing its structure, a child diary, a structured booklet in which children's parents and day-care personnel (N = 54 children) reported their observations, was evaluated. The participants reported the…

  15. Interactive Assessment as a Research Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haywood, H. Carl; Wingenfeld, Sabine A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses dynamic/interactive approaches to psychological assessment based on the concept of induced change as a research tactic. Studies are reviewed showing how interactive assessment has yielded new knowledge in psychopathology; neuropsychology; learning disabilities; intelligence testing (in normal, deaf, and immigrant children);…

  16. Visualization tools for comprehensive test ban treaty research

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, T.L.; Harris, J.M.; Simons, R.W.

    1997-08-01

    This paper focuses on tools used in Data Visualization efforts at Sandia National Laboratories under the Department of Energy CTBT R&D program. These tools provide interactive techniques for the examination and interpretation of scientific data, and can be used for many types of CTBT research and development projects. We will discuss the benefits and drawbacks of using the tools to display and analyze CTBT scientific data. While the tools may be used for everyday applications, our discussion will focus on the use of these tools for visualization of data used in research and verification of new theories. Our examples focus on uses with seismic data, but the tools may also be used for other types of data sets. 5 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Geographical Information Systems: A Tool for Institutional Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prather, James E.; Carlson, Christina E.

    This paper addresses the application of Geographical Information Systems (GIS), a computerized tool for associating key information by geographical location, to the institutional research function at institutions of higher education. The first section investigates the potential of GIS as an analytical and planning tool for institutional…

  18. Improving Teaching with Collaborative Action Research: An ASCD Action Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Diane

    2011-01-01

    Once you've established a professional learning community (PLC), you need to get this ASCD (Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development) action tool to ensure that your PLC stays focused on addressing teaching methods and student learning problems. This ASCD action tool explains how your PLC can use collaborative action research to…

  19. Aligning Web-Based Tools to the Research Process Cycle: A Resource for Collaborative Research Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Geoffrey P.; Wright, Vivian H.

    2012-01-01

    Using John Creswell's Research Process Cycle as a framework, this article describes various web-based collaborative technologies useful for enhancing the organization and efficiency of educational research. Visualization tools (Cacoo) assist researchers in identifying a research problem. Resource storage tools (Delicious, Mendeley, EasyBib)…

  20. Innovations in scholarly communication - global survey on research tool usage.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Bianca; Bosman, Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    Many new websites and online tools have come into existence to support scholarly communication in all phases of the research workflow. To what extent researchers are using these and more traditional tools has been largely unknown. This 2015-2016 survey aimed to fill that gap. Its results may help decision making by stakeholders supporting researchers and may also help researchers wishing to reflect on their own online workflows. In addition, information on tools usage can inform studies of changing research workflows. The online survey employed an open, non-probability sample. A largely self-selected group of 20663 researchers, librarians, editors, publishers and other groups involved in research took the survey, which was available in seven languages. The survey was open from May 10, 2015 to February 10, 2016. It captured information on tool usage for 17 research activities, stance towards open access and open science, and expectations of the most important development in scholarly communication. Respondents' demographics included research roles, country of affiliation, research discipline and year of first publication. PMID:27429740

  1. Innovations in scholarly communication - global survey on research tool usage

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Bianca; Bosman, Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    Many new websites and online tools have come into existence to support scholarly communication in all phases of the research workflow. To what extent researchers are using these and more traditional tools has been largely unknown. This 2015-2016 survey aimed to fill that gap. Its results may help decision making by stakeholders supporting researchers and may also help researchers wishing to reflect on their own online workflows. In addition, information on tools usage can inform studies of changing research workflows. The online survey employed an open, non-probability sample. A largely self-selected group of 20663 researchers, librarians, editors, publishers and other groups involved in research took the survey, which was available in seven languages. The survey was open from May 10, 2015 to February 10, 2016. It captured information on tool usage for 17 research activities, stance towards open access and open science, and expectations of the most important development in scholarly communication. Respondents’ demographics included research roles, country of affiliation, research discipline and year of first publication. PMID:27429740

  2. The use of metacognitive tools in a multidimensional research program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iuli, Richard John

    Metacognition may be thought of as "cognition about cognition", or "thinking about thinking." A number of strategies and tools have been developed to help individuals understand the nature of knowledge, and to enhance their "thinking about thinking." Two metacognitive tools, concept maps and Gowin's Vee, were first developed for use in educational research. Subsequently, they were used successfully to help learners "learn how to learn." The success of metacognitive tools in educational settings suggests that they may help scientists understand the nature of knowledge production and organization, thereby facilitating their research activities and enhancing their understanding of the events and objects they study. In September 1993 I began an ethnographic, naturalistic study of the United States Department of Agriculture - Agricultural Research Service - Rhizobotany Project at Cornell University in Ithaca, NY. I spent the next two and one-half years as a participant observer with the Project. The focus of my research was to examine the application of metacognitive tools to an academic research setting. The knowledge claims that emerged from my research were: (1) Individual researchers tended to have narrow views of the Rhizobotany Project that centered on their individual areas of research; (2) The researchers worked in "conceptual isolation", or failing to see the connections and interrelatedness of their own work with the work of the others; (3) For those researchers who constructed concept maps and Vee diagrams, these heuristics helped them to build a deeper conceptual understanding of their own work; and (4) Half of the members of the research team did not find concept mapping and Vee diagramming useful. Their reluctance to use these tools was interpreted as an indication of epistemological confusion. The prevalence of conceptual isolation and epistemological confusion among members of the Rhizobotany Project parallels the results of previous studies that have

  3. Building a Better Bibliography: Computer-Aided Research Tools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloomfield, Elizabeth

    1989-01-01

    Describes a project at the University of Guelph (Ontario) that combined both bibliographical and archival references in one large machine readable database to facilitate local history research. The description covers research tool creation, planning activities, system design, the database management system used, material selection, record…

  4. The WWW Cabinet of Curiosities: A Serendipitous Research Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Josie

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes that the WWW is able to be fruitfully understood as a research tool when we utilise the metaphor of the cabinet of curiosities, the wunderkammer. It unpeels some of the research attributes of the metaphor as it reveals the multiplicity of connectivity on the web that provides serendipitous interactions between unexpected…

  5. SAGE Research Methods Datasets: A Data Analysis Educational Tool.

    PubMed

    Vardell, Emily

    2016-01-01

    SAGE Research Methods Datasets (SRMD) is an educational tool designed to offer users the opportunity to obtain hands-on experience with data analysis. Users can search for and browse authentic datasets by method, discipline, and data type. Each of the datasets are supplemented with educational material on the research method and clear guidelines for how to approach data analysis. PMID:27391182

  6. Spec Tool; an online education and research resource

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maman, S.; Shenfeld, A.; Isaacson, S.; Blumberg, D. G.

    2016-06-01

    Education and public outreach (EPO) activities related to remote sensing, space, planetary and geo-physics sciences have been developed widely in the Earth and Planetary Image Facility (EPIF) at Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Israel. These programs aim to motivate the learning of geo-scientific and technologic disciplines. For over the past decade, the facility hosts research and outreach activities for researchers, local community, school pupils, students and educators. As software and data are neither available nor affordable, the EPIF Spec tool was created as a web-based resource to assist in initial spectral analysis as a need for researchers and students. The tool is used both in the academic courses and in the outreach education programs and enables a better understanding of the theoretical data of spectroscopy and Imaging Spectroscopy in a 'hands-on' activity. This tool is available online and provides spectra visualization tools and basic analysis algorithms including Spectral plotting, Spectral angle mapping and Linear Unmixing. The tool enables to visualize spectral signatures from the USGS spectral library and additional spectra collected in the EPIF such as of dunes in southern Israel and from Turkmenistan. For researchers and educators, the tool allows loading collected samples locally for further analysis.

  7. Overview of EPA Research On Condition Assessment of Drinking Water Mains

    EPA Science Inventory

    This slide presentation provides an overview of condition assessment research that is part of EPA Office of Research and Development’s Aging Water Infrastructure Research Plan (AWIRP). The primary focus is on a water main condition assessment technology forum and associated whit...

  8. Finding Collaborators: Toward Interactive Discovery Tools for Research Network Systems

    PubMed Central

    Schleyer, Titus K; Becich, Michael J; Hochheiser, Harry

    2014-01-01

    Background Research networking systems hold great promise for helping biomedical scientists identify collaborators with the expertise needed to build interdisciplinary teams. Although efforts to date have focused primarily on collecting and aggregating information, less attention has been paid to the design of end-user tools for using these collections to identify collaborators. To be effective, collaborator search tools must provide researchers with easy access to information relevant to their collaboration needs. Objective The aim was to study user requirements and preferences for research networking system collaborator search tools and to design and evaluate a functional prototype. Methods Paper prototypes exploring possible interface designs were presented to 18 participants in semistructured interviews aimed at eliciting collaborator search needs. Interview data were coded and analyzed to identify recurrent themes and related software requirements. Analysis results and elements from paper prototypes were used to design a Web-based prototype using the D3 JavaScript library and VIVO data. Preliminary usability studies asked 20 participants to use the tool and to provide feedback through semistructured interviews and completion of the System Usability Scale (SUS). Results Initial interviews identified consensus regarding several novel requirements for collaborator search tools, including chronological display of publication and research funding information, the need for conjunctive keyword searches, and tools for tracking candidate collaborators. Participant responses were positive (SUS score: mean 76.4%, SD 13.9). Opportunities for improving the interface design were identified. Conclusions Interactive, timeline-based displays that support comparison of researcher productivity in funding and publication have the potential to effectively support searching for collaborators. Further refinement and longitudinal studies may be needed to better understand the

  9. Participant-Centric Initiatives: Tools to Facilitate Engagement In Research

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Nicholas; Bragg, Caleb; Hartzler, Andrea; Edwards, Kelly

    2014-01-01

    Clinical genomic research faces increasing challenges in establishing participant privacy and consent processes that facilitate meaningful choice and communication capacity for longitudinal and secondary research uses. There are an evolving range of participant-centric initiatives that combine web-based informatics tools with new models of engagement and research collaboration. These emerging initiatives may become valuable approaches to support large-scale and longitudinal research studies. We highlight and discuss four types of emerging initiatives for engaging and sustaining participation in research. PMID:24772384

  10. Research Tools Available at the Community Coordinated Modeling Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berrios, D. H.; Maddox, M.; Rastaetter, L.; Chulaki, A.; Hesse, M.

    2007-12-01

    The Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC), located at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, provides access to state-of-the-art space weather models to the research community. The majority of the models residing at the CCMC are comprehensive computationally intensive physics-based models. The CCMC also provides free services and tools to assist the research community in analyzing the results from the space weather model simulations. We present an overview of the available services at the CCMC: the Runs-On-Request system, the online visualizations, the Kameleon access and interpolation library, and the CCMC Space Weather Widget. Finally, we discuss the future services and tools in development.

  11. miRQuest: integration of tools on a Web server for microRNA research.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, R R; Ambrosio, L A; Sepúlveda-Hermosilla, G; Maracaja-Coutinho, V; Paschoal, A R

    2016-01-01

    This report describes the miRQuest - a novel middleware available in a Web server that allows the end user to do the miRNA research in a user-friendly way. It is known that there are many prediction tools for microRNA (miRNA) identification that use different programming languages and methods to realize this task. It is difficult to understand each tool and apply it to diverse datasets and organisms available for miRNA analysis. miRQuest can easily be used by biologists and researchers with limited experience with bioinformatics. We built it using the middleware architecture on a Web platform for miRNA research that performs two main functions: i) integration of different miRNA prediction tools for miRNA identification in a user-friendly environment; and ii) comparison of these prediction tools. In both cases, the user provides sequences (in FASTA format) as an input set for the analysis and comparisons. All the tools were selected on the basis of a survey of the literature on the available tools for miRNA prediction. As results, three different cases of use of the tools are also described, where one is the miRNA identification analysis in 30 different species. Finally, miRQuest seems to be a novel and useful tool; and it is freely available for both benchmarking and miRNA identification at http://mirquest.integrativebioinformatics.me/. PMID:27050998

  12. Research for research: tools for knowledge discovery and visualization.

    PubMed Central

    Van Mulligen, Erik M.; Van Der Eijk, Christiaan; Kors, Jan A.; Schijvenaars, Bob J. A.; Mons, Barend

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes a method to construct from a set of documents a spatial representation that can be used for information retrieval and knowledge discovery. The proposed method has been implemented in a prototype system and allows the researcher to browse interactively and in real-time a network of relationships obtained from a set of full text articles. These relationships are combined with the potential relationships between concepts as defined in the UMLS semantic network. The browser allows the user to select a seed term and find all related concepts, to find a path between concepts (hypothesis testing), and to retrieve the references to documents or database entries that support the relationship between concepts. PMID:12463942

  13. Stem diameter variations as a versatile research tool in ecophysiology.

    PubMed

    De Swaef, Tom; De Schepper, Veerle; Vandegehuchte, Maurits W; Steppe, Kathy

    2015-10-01

    High-resolution stem diameter variations (SDV) are widely recognized as a useful drought stress indicator and have therefore been used in many irrigation scheduling studies. More recently, SDV have been used in combination with other plant measurements and biophysical modelling to study fundamental mechanisms underlying whole-plant functioning and growth. The present review aims to scrutinize the important insights emerging from these more recent SDV applications to identify trends in ongoing fundamental research. The main mechanism underlying SDV is variation in water content in stem tissues, originating from reversible shrinkage and swelling of dead and living tissues, and irreversible growth. The contribution of different stem tissues to the overall SDV signal is currently under debate and shows variation with species and plant age, but can be investigated by combining SDV with state-of-the-art technology like magnetic resonance imaging. Various physiological mechanisms, such as water and carbon transport, and mechanical properties influence the SDV pattern, making it an extensive source of information on dynamic plant behaviour. To unravel these dynamics and to extract information on plant physiology or plant biophysics from SDV, mechanistic modelling has proved to be valuable. Biophysical models integrate different mechanisms underlying SDV, and help us to explain the resulting SDV signal. Using an elementary modelling approach, we demonstrate the application of SDV as a tool to examine plant water relations, plant hydraulics, plant carbon relations, plant nutrition, freezing effects, plant phenology and dendroclimatology. In the ever-expanding SDV knowledge base we identified two principal research tracks. First, in detailed short-term experiments, SDV measurements are combined with other plant measurements and modelling to discover patterns in phloem turgor, phloem osmotic concentrations, root pressure and plant endogenous control. Second, long-term SDV time

  14. Using High-Tech Tools for Student Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plati, Thomas

    1988-01-01

    Discusses incorporating high technology research tools into the curriculum for grades 5 through 12 in Shrewsbury, Massachusetts, public schools. The use of CD-ROM and online databases is described, teacher training is discussed, and steps to integrate this new technology are listed, including budget proposals and evaluation. (LRW)

  15. Database Advisor: A New Tool for K-12 Research Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berteaux, Susan S.; Strong, Sandra S.

    The Database Advisor (DBA) is a tool designed to guide users to the most appropriate World Wide Web-based databases for their research. Developed in 1997 by the Science Libraries at the University of California, San Diego (UCSD), DBA is a Web-based front-end to bibliographic and full-text databases to which UCSD has remote access. DBA allows the…

  16. Measurement and Research Tools. Symposium 37. [AHRD Conference, 2001].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    This symposium on measurement and research tools consists of three presentations. "An Examination of the Multiple Intelligences Developmental Assessment Scales (MIDAS)" (Albert Wiswell et al.) explores MIDAS's psychometric saliency. Findings indicates this instrument represents an incomplete attempt to develop a valid assessment of multiple…

  17. SIGAPS: a prototype of bibliographic tool for medical research evaluation.

    PubMed

    Devos, P; Dufresne, E; Renard, J M; Beuscart, R

    2003-01-01

    Evaluation of research activity is extremely important but remains a complex domain. There's no standardized methods and evaluation is often based on the scientific publications. It is easy to identify, for a researcher, all the publications realized over a given period of time. At the level of an important establishment like an University Hospital, with about 500 researchers, this sort of inventory is very difficult to realize: we have to list the researchers, to list their publications, to determine the quality of articles produced, to store retrieved data and to calculate summary statistics. We have developed a full-Web prototype, using free software which, for a given researchers' list, interrogates the Pubmed server, downloads the found references and stores them in a local database. They are then enriched with local data which allow the realization of more or less complex analyses, the automatic production of reports, or keyword search. This tool is very easy to use, allowing for immediate analysis of publications of a researcher or a research team. This tool will allow to identify those active teams to be maintained or emergent teams to be supported. It will also allow to compare candidate profiles for appointments to research posts. PMID:14664073

  18. Echocardiography as a Research and Clinical Tool in Veterinary Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Allen, D. G.

    1982-01-01

    Echocardiography is the accepted term for the study of cardiac ultrasound. Although a relatively new tool for the study of the heart in man it has already found wide acceptance in the area of cardiac research and in the study of clinical cardiac disease. Animals had often been used in the early experiments with cardiac ultrasound, but only recently has echocardiography been used as a research and clinical tool in veterinary medicine. In this report echocardiography is used in the research of anesthetic effects on ventricular function and clinically in the diagnosis of congestive cardiomyopathy in a cat, ventricular septal defect in a calf, and pericardial effusion in a dog. Echocardiography is now an important adjunct to the field of veterinary cardiology. ImagesFigure 7.Figure 8.Figure 9.Figure 10. PMID:17422196

  19. Technical phosphoproteomic and bioinformatic tools useful in cancer research.

    PubMed

    López, Elena; Wesselink, Jan-Jaap; López, Isabel; Mendieta, Jesús; Gómez-Puertas, Paulino; Muñoz, Sarbelio Rodríguez

    2011-01-01

    Reversible protein phosphorylation is one of the most important forms of cellular regulation. Thus, phosphoproteomic analysis of protein phosphorylation in cells is a powerful tool to evaluate cell functional status. The importance of protein kinase-regulated signal transduction pathways in human cancer has led to the development of drugs that inhibit protein kinases at the apex or intermediary levels of these pathways. Phosphoproteomic analysis of these signalling pathways will provide important insights for operation and connectivity of these pathways to facilitate identification of the best targets for cancer therapies. Enrichment of phosphorylated proteins or peptides from tissue or bodily fluid samples is required. The application of technologies such as phosphoenrichments, mass spectrometry (MS) coupled to bioinformatics tools is crucial for the identification and quantification of protein phosphorylation sites for advancing in such relevant clinical research. A combination of different phosphopeptide enrichments, quantitative techniques and bioinformatic tools is necessary to achieve good phospho-regulation data and good structural analysis of protein studies. The current and most useful proteomics and bioinformatics techniques will be explained with research examples. Our aim in this article is to be helpful for cancer research via detailing proteomics and bioinformatic tools. PMID:21967744

  20. Technical phosphoproteomic and bioinformatic tools useful in cancer research

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Reversible protein phosphorylation is one of the most important forms of cellular regulation. Thus, phosphoproteomic analysis of protein phosphorylation in cells is a powerful tool to evaluate cell functional status. The importance of protein kinase-regulated signal transduction pathways in human cancer has led to the development of drugs that inhibit protein kinases at the apex or intermediary levels of these pathways. Phosphoproteomic analysis of these signalling pathways will provide important insights for operation and connectivity of these pathways to facilitate identification of the best targets for cancer therapies. Enrichment of phosphorylated proteins or peptides from tissue or bodily fluid samples is required. The application of technologies such as phosphoenrichments, mass spectrometry (MS) coupled to bioinformatics tools is crucial for the identification and quantification of protein phosphorylation sites for advancing in such relevant clinical research. A combination of different phosphopeptide enrichments, quantitative techniques and bioinformatic tools is necessary to achieve good phospho-regulation data and good structural analysis of protein studies. The current and most useful proteomics and bioinformatics techniques will be explained with research examples. Our aim in this article is to be helpful for cancer research via detailing proteomics and bioinformatic tools. PMID:21967744

  1. SEACOIN--an investigative tool for biomedical informatics researchers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eva K; Lee, Hee-Rin; Quarshie, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Peer-reviewed scientific literature is a prime source for accessing knowledge in the biomedical field. Its rapid growth and diverse domain coverage require systematic efforts in developing interactive tools for efficiently searching and summarizing current advances for acquiring knowledge and referencing, and for furthering scientific discovery. Although information retrieval systems exist, the conventional tools and systems remain difficult for biomedical investigators to use. There remain gaps even in the state-of-the-art systems as little attention has been devoted to understanding the needs of biomedical researchers. Our work attempts to bridge the gap between the needs of biomedical users and systems design efforts. We first study the needs of users and then design a simple visual analytic application tool, SEACOIN. A key motivation stems from biomedical researchers' request for a "simple interface" that is suitable for novice users in information technology. The system minimizes information overload, and allows users to search easily even in time-constrained situations. Users can manipulate the depth of information according to the purpose of usage. SEACOIN enables interactive exploration and filtering of search results via "metamorphose topological visualization" and "tag cloud," visualization tools that are commonly used in social network sites. We illustrate SEACOIN's usage through applications on PubMed publications on heart disease, cancer, Alzheimer's disease, diabetes, and asthma. PMID:22195132

  2. Research gaps for three main tropical diseases in the People’s Republic of China

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This scoping review analyzes the research gaps of three diseases: schistosomiasis japonica, malaria and echinococcosis. Based on available data in the P.R. China, we highlight the gaps between control capacity and prevalence levels, and between diagnostic/drug development and population need for treatment at different stages of the national control programme. After reviewing the literature from 848 original studies and consultations with experts in the field, the gaps were identified as follows. Firstly, the malaria research gaps include (i) deficiency of active testing in the public community and no appropriate technique to evaluate elimination, (ii) lack of sensitive diagnostic tools for asymptomatic patients, (iii) lack of safe drugs for mass administration. Secondly, gaps in research of schistosomiasis include (i) incongruent policy in the implementation of integrated control strategy for schistosomiasis, (ii) lack of effective tools for Oncomelania sp. snail control, (iii) lack of a more sensitive and cheaper diagnostic test for large population samples, (iv) lack of new drugs in addition to praziquantel. Thirdly, gaps in research of echinococcosis include (i) low capacity in field epidemiology studies, (ii) lack of sanitation improvement studies in epidemic areas, (iii) lack of a sensitivity test for early diagnosis, (iv) lack of more effective drugs for short-term treatment. We believe these three diseases can eventually be eliminated in mainland China if all the research gaps are abridged in a short period of time. PMID:23895635

  3. Research pressure instrumentation for NASA Space Shuttle main engine, modification no. 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, P. J.; Nussbaum, P.; Gustafson, G.

    1984-01-01

    Research concerning the development of pressure instrumentation for the space shuttle main engine is reported. The following specific topics were addressed: (1) transducer design and materials, (2) silicon piezoresistor characterization at cryogenic temperatures, (3) chip mounting characterization, and (4) frequency response optimization.

  4. Main Trends of Research in the Social and Human Sciences, Part 1: Social Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    This volume is the result of a study, initiated by United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), to report on the main trends of social sciences research, not on the results achieved. Part I contains an examination of the present state and perspectives for development of the disciplines of sociology (Lazarsfeld),…

  5. STEAM ENHANCED REMEDIATION RESEARCH FOR DNAPL IN FRACTURED ROCK, LORING AIR FORCE BASE, LIMESTONE, MAINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report details a research project on Steam Enhanced Remediation (SER) for the recovery of volatile organic compounds from fractured limestone that was carried out at the Quarry at the former Loring Air Force Base in Limestone, Maine. This project was carried out by USEPA, Ma...

  6. Using the Virtual Solar Observatory as a multifaceted research tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davey, A. A.

    2008-12-01

    The original premise behind the VxO movement was to provide a common interface to heteregenous datasets no matter the physical location of those datasets. This came with the implicit promise that the VxOs would help scientists to do science. This promise has been achieved to lesser and greater degrees and sometimes in ways that we didn't envisage. The current trend in Heliophsyics research is one that spans multiple instruments and often multiple physical realms, from the Sun to the earth. The VxOs are again helping scientists to do science by developing tools to allow VxOs to cross their specific physical regime and access and retrieve data from other VxOs serving their own particular regime. VxOs are also moving forward in providing research tools that allow large scale statistical studies. Using the VSO as an example I will demonstrate how VxOs continue to fulfil their original premise in new and innovative ways, provide tools for science research, and adapt to the challenges prresented to us by a mission such as SDO.

  7. CaMKII inhibitors: from research tools to therapeutic agents

    PubMed Central

    Pellicena, Patricia; Schulman, Howard

    2014-01-01

    The cardiac field has benefited from the availability of several CaMKII inhibitors serving as research tools to test putative CaMKII pathways associated with cardiovascular physiology and pathophysiology. Successful demonstrations of its critical pathophysiological roles have elevated CaMKII as a key target in heart failure, arrhythmia, and other forms of heart disease. This has caught the attention of the pharmaceutical industry, which is now racing to develop CaMKII inhibitors as safe and effective therapeutic agents. While the first generation of CaMKII inhibitor development is focused on blocking its activity based on ATP binding to its catalytic site, future inhibitors can also target sites affecting its regulation by Ca2+/CaM or translocation to some of its protein substrates. The recent availability of crystal structures of the kinase in the autoinhibited and activated state, and of the dodecameric holoenzyme, provides insights into the mechanism of action of existing inhibitors. It is also accelerating the design and development of better pharmacological inhibitors. This review examines the structure of the kinase and suggests possible sites for its inhibition. It also analyzes the uses and limitations of current research tools. Development of new inhibitors will enable preclinical proof of concept tests and clinical development of successful lead compounds, as well as improved research tools to more accurately examine and extend knowledge of the role of CaMKII in cardiac health and disease. PMID:24600394

  8. Rural outreach in Maine: A research-driven professional development teacher community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittmann, Michael

    2016-03-01

    In the Maine Physical Sciences Partnership (MainePSP), researchers at the University of Maine have joined together with the state's Department of Education, non-profits, and teachers in multiple school districts to create a dynamic and growing community dedicated to improving K12 education of the physical sciences. Through ongoing efforts to introduce and adapt instructional materials, guided by education research and research-guided professional development, we have built a community responsive to student and teacher needs. This work has fed back into the university setting, where teachers are playing a role in graduate courses taken by our Master of Science in Teaching students. In this talk, I will focus on the role of education research in the partnership, showing how we use research in professional development, the development of assessments, and the analysis of the resulting data. I will describe two projects, one to understand how teachers' content knowledge affects the development of items assessing knowledge of acceleration, the other to see how teachers use their content knowledge of systems and energy to make pedagogical choices based on students' incorrect ideas about conservation of energy. Sponsored in part by NSF Grants MSP-0962805, DRL-1222580, and DUE-1340033.

  9. FOSS Tools for Research Infrastructures - A Success Story?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stender, V.; Schroeder, M.; Wächter, J.

    2015-12-01

    Established initiatives and mandated organizations, e.g. the Initiative for Scientific Cyberinfrastructures (NSF, 2007) or the European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures (ESFRI, 2008), promote and foster the development of sustainable research infrastructures. The basic idea behind these infrastructures is the provision of services supporting scientists to search, visualize and access data, to collaborate and exchange information, as well as to publish data and other results. Especially the management of research data is gaining more and more importance. In geosciences these developments have to be merged with the enhanced data management approaches of Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDI). The Centre for GeoInformationTechnology (CeGIT) at the GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences has the objective to establish concepts and standards of SDIs as an integral part of research infrastructure architectures. In different projects, solutions to manage research data for land- and water management or environmental monitoring have been developed based on a framework consisting of Free and Open Source Software (FOSS) components. The framework provides basic components supporting the import and storage of data, discovery and visualization as well as data documentation (metadata). In our contribution, we present our data management solutions developed in three projects, Central Asian Water (CAWa), Sustainable Management of River Oases (SuMaRiO) and Terrestrial Environmental Observatories (TERENO) where FOSS components build the backbone of the data management platform. The multiple use and validation of tools helped to establish a standardized architectural blueprint serving as a contribution to Research Infrastructures. We examine the question of whether FOSS tools are really a sustainable choice and whether the increased efforts of maintenance are justified. Finally it should help to answering the question if the use of FOSS for Research Infrastructures is a

  10. SEACOIN – An Investigative Tool for Biomedical Informatics Researchers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eva K.; Lee, Hee-Rin; Quarshie, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Peer-reviewed scientific literature is a prime source for accessing knowledge in the biomedical field. Its rapid growth and diverse domain coverage require systematic efforts in developing interactive tools for efficiently searching and summarizing current advances for acquiring knowledge and referencing, and for furthering scientific discovery. Although information retrieval systems exist, the conventional tools and systems remain difficult for biomedical investigators to use. There remain gaps even in the state-of-the-art systems as little attention has been devoted to understanding the needs of biomedical researchers. Our work attempts to bridge the gap between the needs of biomedical users and systems design efforts. We first study the needs of users and then design a simple visual analytic application tool, SEACOIN. A key motivation stems from biomedical researchers’ request for a “simple interface” that is suitable for novice users in information technology. The system minimizes information overload, and allows users to search easily even in time-constrained situations. Users can manipulate the depth of information according to the purpose of usage. SEACOIN enables interactive exploration and filtering of search results via “metamorphose topological visualization” and “tag cloud,” visualization tools that are commonly used in social network sites. We illustrate SEACOIN’s usage through applications on PubMed publications on heart disease, cancer, Alzheimer’s disease, diabetes, and asthma. PMID:22195132

  11. Simulated Interactive Research Experiments as Educational Tools for Advanced Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomandl, Mathias; Mieling, Thomas; Losert-Valiente Kroon, Christiane M.; Hopf, Martin; Arndt, Markus

    2015-09-01

    Experimental research has become complex and thus a challenge to science education. Only very few students can typically be trained on advanced scientific equipment. It is therefore important to find new tools that allow all students to acquire laboratory skills individually and independent of where they are located. In a design-based research process we have investigated the feasibility of using a virtual laboratory as a photo-realistic and scientifically valid representation of advanced scientific infrastructure to teach modern experimental science, here, molecular quantum optics. We found a concept based on three educational principles that allows undergraduate students to become acquainted with procedures and concepts of a modern research field. We find a significant increase in student understanding using our Simulated Interactive Research Experiment (SiReX), by evaluating the learning outcomes with semi-structured interviews in a pre/post design. This suggests that this concept of an educational tool can be generalized to disseminate findings in other fields.

  12. Simulated Interactive Research Experiments as Educational Tools for Advanced Science.

    PubMed

    Tomandl, Mathias; Mieling, Thomas; Losert-Valiente Kroon, Christiane M; Hopf, Martin; Arndt, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Experimental research has become complex and thus a challenge to science education. Only very few students can typically be trained on advanced scientific equipment. It is therefore important to find new tools that allow all students to acquire laboratory skills individually and independent of where they are located. In a design-based research process we have investigated the feasibility of using a virtual laboratory as a photo-realistic and scientifically valid representation of advanced scientific infrastructure to teach modern experimental science, here, molecular quantum optics. We found a concept based on three educational principles that allows undergraduate students to become acquainted with procedures and concepts of a modern research field. We find a significant increase in student understanding using our Simulated Interactive Research Experiment (SiReX), by evaluating the learning outcomes with semi-structured interviews in a pre/post design. This suggests that this concept of an educational tool can be generalized to disseminate findings in other fields. PMID:26370627

  13. Simulated Interactive Research Experiments as Educational Tools for Advanced Science

    PubMed Central

    Tomandl, Mathias; Mieling, Thomas; Losert-Valiente Kroon, Christiane M.; Hopf, Martin; Arndt, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Experimental research has become complex and thus a challenge to science education. Only very few students can typically be trained on advanced scientific equipment. It is therefore important to find new tools that allow all students to acquire laboratory skills individually and independent of where they are located. In a design-based research process we have investigated the feasibility of using a virtual laboratory as a photo-realistic and scientifically valid representation of advanced scientific infrastructure to teach modern experimental science, here, molecular quantum optics. We found a concept based on three educational principles that allows undergraduate students to become acquainted with procedures and concepts of a modern research field. We find a significant increase in student understanding using our Simulated Interactive Research Experiment (SiReX), by evaluating the learning outcomes with semi-structured interviews in a pre/post design. This suggests that this concept of an educational tool can be generalized to disseminate findings in other fields. PMID:26370627

  14. The Research Tools of the Virtual Astronomical Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanisch, Robert J.; Berriman, G. B.; Lazio, T. J.; Project, VAO

    2013-01-01

    Astronomy is being transformed by the vast quantities of data, models, and simulations that are becoming available to astronomers at an ever-accelerating rate. The U.S. Virtual Astronomical Observatory (VAO) has been funded to provide an operational facility that is intended to be a resource for discovery and access of data, and to provide science services that use these data. Over the course of the past year, the VAO has been developing and releasing for community use five science tools: 1) "Iris", for dynamically building and analyzing spectral energy distributions, 2) a web-based data discovery tool that allows astronomers to identify and retrieve catalog, image, and spectral data on sources of interest, 3) a scalable cross-comparison service that allows astronomers to conduct pair-wise positional matches between very large catalogs stored remotely as well as between remote and local catalogs, 4) time series tools that allow astronomers to compute periodograms of the public data held at the NASA Star and Exoplanet Database (NStED) and the Harvard Time Series Center, and 5) A VO-aware release of the Image Reduction and Analysis Facility (IRAF) that provides transparent access to VO-available data collections and is SAMP-enabled, so that IRAF users can easily use tools such as Aladin and Topcat in conjuction with IRAF tasks. Additional VAO services will be built to make it easy for researchers to provide access to their data in VO-compliant ways, to build VO-enabled custom applications in Python, and to respond generally to the growing size and complexity of astronomy data. Acknowledgements: The Virtual Astronomical Observatory (VAO) is managed by the VAO, LLC, a non-profit company established as a partnership of the Associated Universities, Inc. and the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. The VAO is sponsored by the National Science Foundation and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  15. Technology, safety, and costs of decommissioning reference nuclear research and test reactors. Main report

    SciTech Connect

    Konzek, G.J.; Ludwick, J.D.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Smith, R.I.

    1982-03-01

    Safety and Cost Information is developed for the conceptual decommissioning of two representative licensed nuclear research and test reactors. Three decommissioning alternatives are studied to obtain comparisons between costs (in 1981 dollars), occupational radiation doses, potential radiation dose to the public, and other safety impacts. The alternatives considered are: DECON (immediate decontamination), SAFSTOR (safe storage followed by deferred decontamination), and ENTOMB (entombment). The study results are presented in two volumes. Volume 1 (Main Report) contains the results in summary form.

  16. Designing and implementing full immersion simulation as a research tool.

    PubMed

    Munroe, Belinda; Buckley, Thomas; Curtis, Kate; Morris, Richard

    2016-05-01

    Simulation is a valuable research tool used to evaluate the clinical performance of devices, people and systems. The simulated setting may address concerns unique to complex clinical environments such as the Emergency Department, which make the conduct of research challenging. There is limited evidence available to inform the development of simulated clinical scenarios for the purpose of evaluating practice in research studies, with the majority of literature focused on designing simulated clinical scenarios for education and training. Distinct differences exist in scenario design when implemented in education compared with use in clinical research studies. Simulated scenarios used to assess practice in clinical research must not comprise of any purposeful or planned teaching and be developed with a high degree of validity and reliability. A new scenario design template was devised to develop two standardised simulated clinical scenarios for the evaluation of a new assessment framework for emergency nurses. The scenario development and validation processes undertaken are described and provide an evidence-informed guide to scenario development for future clinical research studies. PMID:26917415

  17. Natural Language Thesaurus: A Survey of Student Research Skills and Research Tool Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redfern, Victoria

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a University of Canberra Library survey of student research knowledge, skills, tools and resources. Students are experiencing difficulties interrogating databases, the internet and library catalogues because of the lack of consistency in terminology and various methods of interrogation. This research was an…

  18. Vaccinia Virus: A Tool for Research and Vaccine Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moss, Bernard

    1991-06-01

    Vaccinia virus is no longer needed for smallpox immunization, but now serves as a useful vector for expressing genes within the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. As a research tool, recombinant vaccinia viruses are used to synthesize biologically active proteins and analyze structure-function relations, determine the targets of humoral- and cell-mediated immunity, and investigate the immune responses needed for protection against specific infectious diseases. When more data on safety and efficacy are available, recombinant vaccinia and related poxviruses may be candidates for live vaccines and for cancer immunotherapy.

  19. Tissue fluid pressures - From basic research tools to clinical applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hargens, Alan R.; Akeson, Wayne H.; Mubarak, Scott J.; Owen, Charles A.; Gershuni, David H.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes clinical applications of two basic research tools developed and refined in the past 20 years: the wick catheter (for measuring tissue fluid pressure) and the colloid osmometer (for measuring osmotic pressure). Applications of the osmometer include estimations of the reduced osmotic pressure of sickle-cell hemoglobin with deoxygenation, and of reduced swelling pressure of human nucleus pulposus with hydration or upon action of certain enzymes. Clinical uses of the wick-catheter technique include an improvement of diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic compartment syndromes, the elucidation of the tissue pressure thresholds for neuromuscular dysfunction, and the development of a better tourniquet for orthopedics.

  20. ARM Climate Research Facility: Outreach Tools and Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roeder, L.; Jundt, R.

    2009-12-01

    Sponsored by the Department of Energy, the ARM Climate Research Facility is a global scientific user facility for the study of climate change. To publicize progress and achievements and to reach new users, the ACRF uses a variety of Web 2.0 tools and strategies that build off of the program’s comprehensive and well established News Center (www.arm.gov/news). These strategies include: an RSS subscription service for specific news categories; an email “newsletter” distribution to the user community that compiles the latest News Center updates into a short summary with links; and a Facebook page that pulls information from the News Center and links to relevant information in other online venues, including those of our collaborators. The ACRF also interacts with users through field campaign blogs, like Discovery Channel’s EarthLive, to share research experiences from the field. Increasingly, field campaign Wikis are established to help ACRF researchers collaborate during the planning and implementation phases of their field studies and include easy to use logs and image libraries to help record the campaigns. This vital reference information is used in developing outreach material that is shared in highlights, news, and Facebook. Other Web 2.0 tools that ACRF uses include Google Maps to help users visualize facility locations and aircraft flight patterns. Easy-to-use comment boxes are also available on many of the data-related web pages on www.arm.gov to encourage feedback. To provide additional opportunities for increased interaction with the public and user community, future Web 2.0 plans under consideration for ACRF include: evaluating field campaigns for Twitter and microblogging opportunities, adding public discussion forums to research highlight web pages, moving existing photos into albums on FlickR or Facebook, and building online video archives through YouTube.

  1. Operations other than war: Requirements for analysis tools research report

    SciTech Connect

    Hartley, D.S. III

    1996-12-01

    This report documents the research effort to determine the requirements for new or improved analysis tools to support decisions at the strategic and operational levels for military Operations Other than War (OOTW). The work was performed for the Commander in Chief, U.S. Pacific Command (USCINCPAC). The data collection was based on workshops attended by experts in OOTWs: analysis personnel from each of the Combatant Commands, the Services, the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD), the Joint Staff, and other knowledgeable personnel. Further data were gathered from other workshops and conferences and from the literature. The results of this research begin with the creation of a taxonomy of OOTWs: categories of operations, attributes of operations, and tasks requiring analytical support. The tasks are connected to the Joint Staff`s Universal Joint Task List (UJTL). Historical OOTWs are analyzed to produce frequency distributions by category and responsible CINC. The analysis products are synthesized into a list of requirements for analytical tools and definitions of the requirements. The report concludes with a timeline or roadmap for satisfying the requirements.

  2. Intellectual Property: a powerful tool to develop biotech research

    PubMed Central

    Giugni, Diego; Giugni, Valter

    2010-01-01

    Summary Today biotechnology is perhaps the most important technology field because of the strong health and food implications. However, due to the nature of said technology, there is the need of a huge amount of investments to sustain the experimentation costs. Consequently, investors aim to safeguard as much as possible their investments. Intellectual Property, and in particular patents, has been demonstrated to actually constitute a powerful tool to help them. Moreover, patents represent an extremely important means to disclose biotechnology inventions. Patentable biotechnology inventions involve products as nucleotide and amino acid sequences, microorganisms, processes or methods for modifying said products, uses for the manufacture of medicaments, etc. There are several ways to protect inventions, but all follow the three main patentability requirements: novelty, inventive step and industrial application. PMID:21255349

  3. Intellectual Property: a powerful tool to develop biotech research.

    PubMed

    Giugni, Diego; Giugni, Valter

    2010-09-01

    Today biotechnology is perhaps the most important technology field because of the strong health and food implications. However, due to the nature of said technology, there is the need of a huge amount of investments to sustain the experimentation costs. Consequently, investors aim to safeguard as much as possible their investments. Intellectual Property, and in particular patents, has been demonstrated to actually constitute a powerful tool to help them. Moreover, patents represent an extremely important means to disclose biotechnology inventions. Patentable biotechnology inventions involve products as nucleotide and amino acid sequences, microorganisms, processes or methods for modifying said products, uses for the manufacture of medicaments, etc. There are several ways to protect inventions, but all follow the three main patentability requirements: novelty, inventive step and industrial application. PMID:21255349

  4. NASA Human Research Wiki - An Online Collaboration Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barr, Y. R.; Rasbury, J.; Johnson, J.; Barsten, K.; Saile, L.; Watkins, S. D.

    2011-01-01

    In preparation for exploration-class missions, the Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) element of NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) has compiled a large evidence base, which previously was available only to persons within the NASA community. The evidence base is comprised of several types of data, for example: information on more than 80 medical conditions which could occur during space flight, derived from several sources (including data on incidence and potential outcomes of these medical conditions, as captured in the Integrated Medical Model's Clinical Finding Forms). In addition, approximately 35 gap reports are included in the evidence base, identifying current understanding of the medical challenges for exploration, as well as any gaps in knowledge and/or technology that would need to be addressed in order to provide adequate medical support for these novel missions. In an effort to make the ExMC information available to the general public and increase collaboration with subject matter experts within and outside of NASA, ExMC has developed an online collaboration tool, very similar to a wiki, titled the NASA Human Research Wiki. The platform chosen for this data sharing, and the potential collaboration it could generate, is a MediaWiki-based application that would house the evidence, allow "read only" access to all visitors to the website, and editorial access to credentialed subject matter experts who have been approved by the Wiki's editorial board. Although traditional wikis allow users to edit information in real time, the NASA Human Research Wiki includes a peer review process to ensure quality and validity of information. The wiki is also intended to be a pathfinder project for other HRP elements that may want to use this type of web-based tool. The wiki website will be released with a subset of the data described and will continue to be populated throughout the year.

  5. Research experience in Maine leads to teacher and student success in Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slade-Redden, D.; Incze, L.; Census Of Marine Life-Maine

    2010-12-01

    As a High School science teacher it is my responsibility to present curriculum, to create enthusiasm for science, and to instill a passion and love for science in my students. Through a research experience as an ARMADA master teacher my passion and enthusiasm for the ocean was rekindled in the Gulf of Maine. Topics I had taught for years came alive in front of my eyes, and I was able to experience science to its fullest. I brought home many photographs, valuable information, and new enthusiasm to my students. I began a program called S.A.N.D. (Students As Nature Directors). In this program my students teach 3rd graders about the oceans and its many wonders. Also, I have incorporated hands-on research based projects. The research experience has enabled my students to become more scientifically literate and capable of sharing scientific knowledge with others. This presentation will show how research/teacher partnerships benefit students as well as teachers and how my students and district have benefited from my experience as an ARMADA master teacher. Author: Debra Slade-Redden Author #2: Lew Incze

  6. Interactive Publication: The document as a research tool.

    PubMed

    Thoma, George R; Ford, Glenn; Antani, Sameer; Demner-Fushman, Dina; Chung, Michael; Simpson, Matthew

    2010-07-01

    The increasing prevalence of multimedia and research data generated by scientific work affords an opportunity to reformulate the idea of a scientific article from the traditional static document, or even one with links to supplemental material in remote databases, to a self-contained, multimedia-rich interactive publication. This paper describes our concept of such a document, and the design of tools for authoring (Forge) and visualization/analysis (Panorama). They are platform-independent applications written in Java, and developed in Eclipse using its Rich Client Platform (RCP) framework. Both applications operate on PDF files with links to XML files that define the media type, location, and action to be performed. We also briefly cite the challenges posed by the potentially large size of interactive publications, the need for evaluating their value to improved comprehension and learning, and the need for their long-term preservation by the National Library of Medicine and other libraries. PMID:20657757

  7. Interactive Publication: The document as a research tool

    PubMed Central

    Thoma, George R.; Ford, Glenn; Antani, Sameer; Demner-Fushman, Dina; Chung, Michael; Simpson, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of multimedia and research data generated by scientific work affords an opportunity to reformulate the idea of a scientific article from the traditional static document, or even one with links to supplemental material in remote databases, to a self-contained, multimedia-rich interactive publication. This paper describes our concept of such a document, and the design of tools for authoring (Forge) and visualization/analysis (Panorama). They are platform-independent applications written in Java, and developed in Eclipse1 using its Rich Client Platform (RCP) framework. Both applications operate on PDF files with links to XML files that define the media type, location, and action to be performed. We also briefly cite the challenges posed by the potentially large size of interactive publications, the need for evaluating their value to improved comprehension and learning, and the need for their long-term preservation by the National Library of Medicine and other libraries. PMID:20657757

  8. Conservation of Mass: An Important Tool in Renal Research.

    PubMed

    Sargent, John A

    2016-05-01

    The dialytic treatment of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients is based on control of solute concentrations and management of fluid volume. The application of the principal of conservation of mass, or mass balance, is fundamental to the study of such treatment and can be extended to chronic kidney disease (CKD) in general. This review discusses the development and use of mass conservation and transport concepts, incorporated into mathematical models. These concepts, which can be applied to a wide range of solutes of interest, represent a powerful tool for quantitatively guided studies of dialysis issues currently and into the future. Incorporating these quantitative concepts in future investigations is key to achieving positive control of known solutes, and in the analysis of such studies; to relate future research to known results of prior studies; and to help in the understanding of the obligatory physiological perturbations that result from dialysis therapy. PMID:26278776

  9. Rethinking the Role of Information Technology-Based Research Tools in Students' Development of Scientific Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Eijck, Michiel; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2007-01-01

    Given the central place IT-based research tools take in scientific research, the marginal role such tools currently play in science curricula is dissatisfying from the perspective of making students scientifically literate. To appropriately frame the role of IT-based research tools in science curricula, we propose a framework that is developed to…

  10. The GATO gene annotation tool for research laboratories.

    PubMed

    Fujita, A; Massirer, K B; Durham, A M; Ferreira, C E; Sogayar, M C

    2005-11-01

    Large-scale genome projects have generated a rapidly increasing number of DNA sequences. Therefore, development of computational methods to rapidly analyze these sequences is essential for progress in genomic research. Here we present an automatic annotation system for preliminary analysis of DNA sequences. The gene annotation tool (GATO) is a Bioinformatics pipeline designed to facilitate routine functional annotation and easy access to annotated genes. It was designed in view of the frequent need of genomic researchers to access data pertaining to a common set of genes. In the GATO system, annotation is generated by querying some of the Web-accessible resources and the information is stored in a local database, which keeps a record of all previous annotation results. GATO may be accessed from everywhere through the internet or may be run locally if a large number of sequences are going to be annotated. It is implemented in PHP and Perl and may be run on any suitable Web server. Usually, installation and application of annotation systems require experience and are time consuming, but GATO is simple and practical, allowing anyone with basic skills in informatics to access it without any special training. GATO can be downloaded at [http://mariwork.iq.usp.br/gato/]. Minimum computer free space required is 2 MB. PMID:16258624

  11. Physics Education Research at the Upper Division at the University of Maine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, John

    2013-04-01

    Researchers from the University of Maine Physics Education Research Laboratory are conducting several investigations of the learning and teaching of physics beyond the introductory level. Content topics include intermediate mechanics, electronics, thermodynamics and statistical mechanics. One focus of our work is the identification and addressing of specific student difficulties with topics such as damped harmonic motion, bipolar junction transistor (BJT) circuits, work, entropy, and the Boltzmann factor. Student understanding and use of the underlying mathematics has been one important emerging theme, including definite integrals, partial derivatives, and linear differential equations. Recent work in mechanics has focused on understanding the interplay of mathematical and physical reasoning when describing damped harmonic motion, including framing and representational issues. In electronics, there has been an ongoing investigation of student understanding of the behavior of basic BJT follower and amplifier circuits as well as related issues of signal and bias. In thermal physics, student understanding of state functions, heat engines and the Carnot cycle, the First and Second Laws of thermodynamics, and the macroscopic and microscopic perspectives on entropy have been investigated. The greater content sophistication in these courses has drawn attention to the specific needs, constraints, and advantages of instructional materials tailored to the upper division. Future directions include more attention to interdisciplinary topics across mathematics, physics, and engineering in particular, as well as metacognition in the laboratory.

  12. IT Tools for Teachers and Scientists, Created by Undergraduate Researchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millar, A. Z.; Perry, S.

    2007-12-01

    Interns in the Southern California Earthquake Center/Undergraduate Studies in Earthquake Information Technology (SCEC/UseIT) program conduct computer science research for the benefit of earthquake scientists and have created products in growing use within the SCEC education and research communities. SCEC/UseIT comprises some twenty undergraduates who combine their varied talents and academic backgrounds to achieve a Grand Challenge that is formulated around needs of SCEC scientists and educators and that reflects the value SCEC places on the integration of computer science and the geosciences. In meeting the challenge, students learn to work on multidisciplinary teams and to tackle complex problems with no guaranteed solutions. Meantime, their efforts bring fresh perspectives and insight to the professionals with whom they collaborate, and consistently produces innovative, useful tools for research and education. The 2007 Grand Challenge was to design and prototype serious games to communicate important earthquake science concepts. Interns broke themselves into four game teams, the Educational Game, the Training Game, the Mitigation Game and the Decision-Making Game, and created four diverse games with topics from elementary plate tectonics to earthquake risk mitigation, with intended players ranging from elementary students to city planners. The games were designed to be versatile, to accommodate variation in the knowledge base of the player; and extensible, to accommodate future additions. The games are played on a web browser or from within SCEC-VDO (Virtual Display of Objects). SCEC-VDO, also engineered by UseIT interns, is a 4D, interactive, visualization software that enables integration and exploration of datasets and models such as faults, earthquake hypocenters and ruptures, digital elevation models, satellite imagery, global isochrons, and earthquake prediction schemes. SCEC-VDO enables the user to create animated movies during a session, and is now part

  13. Microgravity as a research tool to improve US agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bula, R. J.; Stankovic, Bratislav

    2000-01-01

    Crop production and utilization are undergoing significant modifications and improvements that emanate from adaptation of recently developed plant biotechnologies. Several innovative technologies will impact US agriculture in the next century. One of these is the transfer of desirable genes from organisms to economically important crop species in a way that cannot be accomplished with traditional plant breeding techniques. Such plant genetic engineering offers opportunities to improve crop species for a number of characteristics as well as use as source materials for specific medical and industrial applications. Although plant genetic engineering is having an impact on development of new crop cultivars, several major constraints limit the application of this technology to selected crop species and genotypes. Consequently, gene transfer systems that overcome these constraints would greatly enhance development of new crop materials. If results of a recent gene transfer experiment conducted in microgravity during a Space Shuttle mission are confirmed, and with the availability of the International Space Station as a permanent space facility, commercial plant transformation activity in microgravity could become a new research tool to improve US agriculture. .

  14. RTNS-II - a fusion materials research tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logan, C. M.; Heikkinen, D. W.

    1982-09-01

    Rotating Target Neutron Source-II (RTNS-II) is a national facility for fusion materials research. It contains two 14 MeV neutron sources. Deuterons are accelerated to ˜ 400 keV and transported to a rotating titanium tritide target. Present source strength is greater than 1 × 10 13 n/s and source diameter is 1 cm fwhm. An air-levitated vacuum seal permits rotation of the target at 5000 rpm with negligible impact on accelerator vacuum system gas load. Targets are cooled by chilled water flowing through internal channels in a copper alloy substrate. Substrates are produced by solid-state diffusion bonding of two sheets, one containing etched cooling channels. An electroforming process is being developed which will reduce substrate cost and improve reliability. Titanium tritide coating thickness is ˜ 10 μm giving an initial tritium inventory for the present 23 cm diameter targets of 3.7 × 10 7 MBq. Operating interval between target changes is typically about 80 h. Thirteen laboratories and universities have participated in the experimental program at RTNS-II. Most measurements have been directed at understanding defect production and low-dose damage microstructure. The principal diagnostic tools have been cryogenic resistivity measurements, mechanical properties assessment and transmission electron microscopy. Some engineering tests have been conducted in support of near-term magnetic confinement experiments and of reactor materials which will see small lifetime doses.

  15. The capsicum transcriptome DB: a "hot" tool for genomic research.

    PubMed

    Góngora-Castillo, Elsa; Fajardo-Jaime, Rubén; Fernández-Cortes, Araceli; Jofre-Garfias, Alba E; Lozoya-Gloria, Edmundo; Martínez, Octavio; Ochoa-Alejo, Neftalí; Rivera-Bustamante, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    Chili pepper (Capsicum annuum) is an economically important crop with no available public genome sequence. We describe a genomic resource to facilitate Capsicum annuum research. A collection of Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) derived from five C. annuum organs (root, stem, leaf, flower and fruit) were sequenced using the Sanger method and multiple leaf transcriptomes were deeply sampled using with GS-pyrosequencing. A hybrid assembly of 1,324,516 raw reads yielded 32,314 high quality contigs as validated by coverage and identity analysis with existing pepper sequences. Overall, 75.5% of the contigs had significant sequence similarity to entries in nucleic acid and protein databases; 23% of the sequences have not been previously reported for C. annuum and expand sequence resources for this species. A MySQL database and a user-friendly Web interface were constructed with search-tools that permit queries of the ESTs including sequence, functional annotation, Gene Ontology classification, metabolic pathways, and assembly information. The Capsicum Transcriptome DB is free available from http://www.bioingenios.ira.cinvestav.mx:81/Joomla/ PMID:22359434

  16. Concept Mapping as a Research Tool to Evaluate Conceptual Change Related to Instructional Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Kevin J.; Koury, Kevin A.; Fitzgerald, Gail E.; Hollingsead, Candice; Mitchem, Katherine J.; Tsai, Hui-Hsien; Park, Meeaeng Ko

    2009-01-01

    Concept maps are commonly used in a variety of educational settings as a learning aid or instructional tool. Additionally, their potential as a research tool has been recognized. This article defines features of concept maps, describes the use of pre- and postconcept maps as a research tool, and offers a protocol for employing concept maps as an…

  17. Tools for Linking Research and Practice in the Helping Professions: Research Abstract Worksheets and Personal Reviews of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burlingame, Martin

    This document is comprised of four chapters that show how to use research-abstract worksheets and personal reviews of the literature as tools for linking research and practice in the helping professions. The research tools help to condense lengthy reports, place them into a consistent format, and actively involve the information seeker. Chapter 1…

  18. Advances in the Research and Development of Natural Health Products as Main Stream Cancer Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Ovadje, Pamela; Roma, Alessia; Steckle, Matthew; Nicoletti, Leah; Arnason, John Thor; Pandey, Siyaram

    2015-01-01

    Natural health products (NHPs) are defined as natural extracts containing polychemical mixtures; they play a leading role in the discovery and development of drugs, for disease treatment. More than 50% of current cancer therapeutics are derived from natural sources. However, the efficacy of natural extracts in treating cancer has not been explored extensively. Scientific research into the validity and mechanism of action of these products is needed to develop NHPs as main stream cancer therapy. The preclinical and clinical validation of NHPs would be essential for this development. This review summarizes some of the recent advancements in the area of NHPs with anticancer effects. This review also focuses on various NHPs that have been studied to scientifically validate their claims as anticancer agents. Furthermore, this review emphasizes the efficacy of these NHPs in targeting the multiple vulnerabilities of cancer cells for a more selective efficacious treatment. The studies reviewed here have paved the way for the introduction of more NHPs from traditional medicine to the forefront of modern medicine, in order to provide alternative, safer, and cheaper complementary treatments for cancer therapy and possibly improve the quality of life of cancer patients. PMID:25883673

  19. Science in the Eyes of Preschool Children: Findings from an Innovative Research Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubosarsky, Mia D.

    How do young children view science? Do these views reflect cultural stereotypes? When do these views develop? These fundamental questions in the field of science education have rarely been studied with the population of preschool children. One main reason is the lack of an appropriate research instrument that addresses preschool children's developmental competencies. Extensive body of research has pointed at the significance of early childhood experiences in developing positive attitudes and interests toward learning in general and the learning of science in particular. Theoretical and empirical research suggests that stereotypical views of science may be replaced by authentic views following inquiry science experience. However, no preschool science intervention program could be designed without a reliable instrument that provides baseline information about preschool children's current views of science. The current study presents preschool children's views of science as gathered from a pioneering research tool. This tool, in the form of a computer "game," does not require reading, writing, or expressive language skills and is operated by the children. The program engages children in several simple tasks involving picture recognition and yes/no answers in order to reveal their views about science. The study was conducted with 120 preschool children in two phases and found that by the age of 4 years, participants possess an emergent concept of science. Gender and school differences were detected. Findings from this interdisciplinary study will contribute to the fields of early childhood, science education, learning technologies, program evaluation, and early childhood curriculum development.

  20. Concept Maps as a Research and Evaluation Tool To Assess Conceptual Change in Quantum Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sen, Ahmet Ilhan

    2002-01-01

    Informs teachers about using concept maps as a learning tool and alternative assessment tools in education. Presents research results of how students might use concept maps to communicate their cognitive structure. (Author/KHR)

  1. Dynamic Visual Acuity: a Functionally Relevant Research Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Brian T.; Brady, Rachel A.; Miller, Chris A.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Wood, Scott J.; Cohen, Helen S.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2010-01-01

    Coordinated movements between the eyes and head are required to maintain a stable retinal image during head and body motion. The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) plays a significant role in this gaze control system that functions well for most daily activities. However, certain environmental conditions or interruptions in normal VOR function can lead to inadequate ocular compensation, resulting in oscillopsia, or blurred vision. It is therefore possible to use acuity to determine when the environmental conditions, VOR function, or the combination of the two is not conductive for maintaining clear vision. Over several years we have designed and tested several tests of dynamic visual acuity (DVA). Early tests used the difference between standing and walking acuity to assess decrements in the gaze stabilization system after spaceflight. Supporting ground-based studies measured the responses from patients with bilateral vestibular dysfunction and explored the effects of visual target viewing distance and gait cycle events on walking acuity. Results from these studies show that DVA is affected by spaceflight, is degraded in patients with vestibular dysfunction, changes with target distance, and is not consistent across the gait cycle. We have recently expanded our research to include studies in which seated subjects are translated or rotated passively. Preliminary results from this work indicate that gaze stabilization ability may differ between similar active and passive conditions, may change with age, and can be affected by the location of the visual target with respect to the axis of motion. Use of DVA as a diagnostic tool is becoming more popular but the functional nature of the acuity outcome measure also makes it ideal for identifying conditions that could lead to degraded vision. By doing so, steps can be taken to alter the problematic environments to improve the man-machine interface and optimize performance.

  2. Computer as Research Tools 4.Use Your PC More Effectively

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baba, Hajime

    This article shows the useful tools on personal computers. The electronical dictionaries, the full-text search system, the simple usage of the preprint server, and the numeric computation language for applications in engineering and science are introduced.

  3. METABOLOMICS AS A DIAGNOSTIC TOOL FOR SMALL FISH TOXICOLOGY RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Metabolomics involves the application of advanced analytical and statistical tools to profile changes in levels of endogenous metabolites in tissues and biofluids resulting from disease onset or stress. While certain metabolites are being specifically targeted in these studies, w...

  4. Software Tools to Support Research on Airport Departure Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, Francis; Evans, Antony; Feron, Eric; Clarke, John-Paul

    2003-01-01

    A simple, portable and useful collection of software tools has been developed for the analysis of airport surface traffic. The tools are based on a flexible and robust traffic-flow model, and include calibration, validation and simulation functionality for this model. Several different interfaces have been developed to help promote usage of these tools, including a portable Matlab(TM) implementation of the basic algorithms; a web-based interface which provides online access to automated analyses of airport traffic based on a database of real-world operations data which covers over 250 U.S. airports over a 5-year period; and an interactive simulation-based tool currently in use as part of a college-level educational module. More advanced applications for airport departure traffic include taxi-time prediction and evaluation of "windowing" congestion control.

  5. Research investigation of helicopter main rotor/tail rotor interaction noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzgerald, J.; Kohlhepp, F.

    1988-01-01

    Acoustic measurements were obtained in a Langley 14 x 22 foot Subsonic Wind Tunnel to study the aeroacoustic interaction of 1/5th scale main rotor, tail rotor, and fuselage models. An extensive aeroacoustic data base was acquired for main rotor, tail rotor, fuselage aerodynamic interaction for moderate forward speed flight conditions. The details of the rotor models, experimental design and procedure, aerodynamic and acoustic data acquisition and reduction are presented. The model was initially operated in trim for selected fuselage angle of attack, main rotor tip-path-plane angle, and main rotor thrust combinations. The effects of repositioning the tail rotor in the main rotor wake and the corresponding tail rotor countertorque requirements were determined. Each rotor was subsequently tested in isolation at the thrust and angle of attack combinations for trim. The acoustic data indicated that the noise was primarily dominated by the main rotor, especially for moderate speed main rotor blade-vortex interaction conditions. The tail rotor noise increased when the main rotor was removed indicating that tail rotor inflow was improved with the main rotor present.

  6. MEETING TODAY'S EMERGING CONTAMINANTS WITH TOMORROW'S RESEARCH TOOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will explore the many facets of research and development for emerging contaminants within the USEPA's National Exposure Research Laboratories (Athens, Cincinnati, Las Vegas, and Research Triangle Park).

  7. "This Ain't the Projects": A Researcher's Reflections on the Local Appropriateness of Our Research Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Danny C.

    2016-01-01

    In this article I examine the ways in which Black and Latina/o urban high school youth pressed me to reflexively examine my positionality and that of my research tools during a year-long ethnographic study documenting their communicative repertoires. I reflect on youth comments on my researcher tools, as well as myself, in order to wrestle with…

  8. [Research on infrared safety protection system for machine tool].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuan-Ji; Zhang, Zhi-Ling; Yan, Hui-Ying; Wang, Song-De

    2008-04-01

    In order to ensure personal safety and prevent injury accident in machine tool operation, an infrared machine tool safety system was designed with infrared transmitting-receiving module, memory self-locked relay and voice recording-playing module. When the operator does not enter the danger area, the system has no response. Once the operator's whole or part of body enters the danger area and shades the infrared beam, the system will alarm and output an control signal to the machine tool executive element, and at the same time, the system makes the machine tool emergency stop to prevent equipment damaged and person injured. The system has a module framework, and has many advantages including safety, reliability, common use, circuit simplicity, maintenance convenience, low power consumption, low costs, working stability, easy debugging, vibration resistance and interference resistance. It is suitable for being installed and used in different machine tools such as punch machine, pour plastic machine, digital control machine, armor plate cutting machine, pipe bending machine, oil pressure machine etc. PMID:18619302

  9. 'Model' or 'tool'? New definitions for translational research.

    PubMed

    Sive, Hazel

    2011-03-01

    The term 'model' often describes non-human biological systems that are used to obtain a better understanding of human disorders. According to the most stringent definition, an animal 'model' would display exactly the same phenotype as seen in the relevant human disorder; however, this precise correspondence is often not present. In this Editorial, I propose the alternative, broader term 'tool' to describe a biological system that does not obviously (or precisely) recapitulate a human disorder, but that nonetheless provides useful insight into the etiology or treatment of that disorder. Applying the term 'tool' to biological systems used in disease-related studies will help to identify those systems that can most effectively address mechanisms underlying human disease. Conversely, differentiating 'models' from 'tools' will help to define more clearly the limitations of biological systems used in preclinical analyses. PMID:21357758

  10. Nearly arc-length tool path generation and tool radius compensation algorithm research in FTS turning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Minghui; Zhao, Xuesen; Li, Zengqiang; Sun, Tao

    2014-08-01

    In the non-rotational symmetrical microstrcture surfaces generation using turning method with Fast Tool Servo(FTS), non-uniform distribution of the interpolation data points will lead to long processing cycle and poor surface quality. To improve this situation, nearly arc-length tool path generation algorithm is proposed, which generates tool tip trajectory points in nearly arc-length instead of the traditional interpolation rule of equal angle and adds tool radius compensation. All the interpolation points are equidistant in radial distribution because of the constant feeding speed in X slider, the high frequency tool radius compensation components are in both X direction and Z direction, which makes X slider difficult to follow the input orders due to its large mass. Newton iterative method is used to calculate the neighboring contour tangent point coordinate value with the interpolation point X position as initial value, in this way, the new Z coordinate value is gotten, and the high frequency motion components in X direction is decomposed into Z direction. Taking a typical microstructure with 4μm PV value for test, which is mixed with two 70μm wave length sine-waves, the max profile error at the angle of fifteen is less than 0.01μm turning by a diamond tool with big radius of 80μm. The sinusoidal grid is machined on a ultra-precision lathe succesfully, the wavelength is 70.2278μm the Ra value is 22.81nm evaluated by data points generated by filtering out the first five harmonics.

  11. Report on the Property Research Workshop (Orono, Maine, June 25-28, 1975). Publication No. 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colyer, Dale, Comp.

    In response to the complexities of technological, social, political, and institutional change, the Property Research Workshop focused on the theoretical, rather than the empirical aspects of property-related research. Specifically, emphasis was on analytical and institutional approaches to research. Ten institutionally-related propositions were…

  12. Main trends in experimental morphological research in angiology and outlook for its development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dzhavakhishvili, N. A.; Melman, Y. P.

    1980-01-01

    The main prospective trends in the problem of collateral circulation and new trends in experimental angiology with respect to the effect of gravitational forces, hypodynamia and hypokinesia on the vascular bed are discussed.

  13. Improving Students' Understanding of Quantum Measurement. II. Development of Research-Based Learning Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Guangtian; Singh, Chandralekha

    2012-01-01

    We describe the development and implementation of research-based learning tools such as the Quantum Interactive Learning Tutorials and peer-instruction tools to reduce students' common difficulties with issues related to measurement in quantum mechanics. A preliminary evaluation shows that these learning tools are effective in improving students'…

  14. Exploiting the Brachypodium Tool Box in cereal and grass research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is now a decade since Brachypodium distachyon was suggested as a model species for temperate grasses and cereals. Since then transformation protocols, large expressed sequence tag (EST) populations, tools for forward and reverse genetic screens, highly refined cytogenetic probes, germplasm coll...

  15. Specially Made for Science: Researchers Develop Online Tools For Collaborations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guterman, Lila

    2008-01-01

    Blogs, wikis, and social-networking sites such as Facebook may get media buzz these days, but for scientists, engineers, and doctors, they are not even on the radar. The most effective tools of the Internet for such people tend to be efforts more narrowly aimed at their needs, such as software that helps geneticists replicate one another's…

  16. Preservice Teachers as Researchers: Using Ethnographic Tools To Interpret Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Lois McFadyen

    The structures of meaning preservice teachers perceived and interpreted as a result of field placements in a methods course and through the use of ethnographic tools were studied in an ethnographic design. The study involved 11 preservice teachers. It described how they shaped each other's thinking about teaching and it examined how ethnographic…

  17. Researchers: new resources, tools needed to reduce variation in the admissions decisions.

    PubMed

    2014-11-01

    New research suggests there is considerable variation in the decisions emergency providers make regarding whether to admit patients with certain common, low-mortality conditions. ln some cases, the researchers found that patients were as much as six times more likely to be admitted at some hospitals than others. While available resources and cultural differences likely play a role in this variation, the researchers estimate that reducing this variation in decision making could potentially save as much as $5 billion per year. Data show that EDs are the main source of hospitalizations in this country, and emergency providers make a decision about admission approximately 350,000 times each day, resulting in close to 20 million admissions per year. Researchers found that variation in the admission decision was most prominent for patients presenting with chest pain but no heart attaclk, soft-tissue infections, urinary tract infections, asthma-related difficulties, and COPD. There was little variation in the admission decisions regarding patients with high-risk conditions such as heart attacks, sepsis, or kidney failure. Researchers suggest that reducing this variation in admission decisions will require better tools for determining which patients with lower-mortality conditions likely require hospitalization, and more resources so that physician have good alternatives to hospitalization at their disposal. PMID:25362751

  18. Tools for Monitoring Social Media: A Marketing Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veeck, Ann; Hoger, Beth

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of how to effectively monitor social media is an increasingly valued marketing research skill. This study tests an approach for adding social media content to an undergraduate marketing research class team project. The revised project maintains the expected objectives and parameters of a traditional research project, while integrating…

  19. "Mythbusters": A Tool for Teaching Research Methods in Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkley, Edward; Burkley, Melissa

    2009-01-01

    "Mythbusters" uses multiple research methods to test interesting topics, offering research methods students an entertaining review of course material. To test the effectiveness of "Mythbusters" clips in a psychology research methods course, we systematically selected and showed 4 clips. Students answered questions about the clips, offered their…

  20. A Consideration to Two Main Ethical Issues in Educational Research, and How May These Be Addressed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abed, Mohaned Ghazi

    2015-01-01

    This paper has firstly discussed the topic of Ethical Issues in Education, and has accordingly highlighted the fact that ethics are not something to deem at the commencement of a research project or fieldwork, but rather throughout the entire research process. Furthermore, two of the most important ethical issues have been given…

  1. Research Tool Patents--Rumours of their Death are Greatly Exaggerated

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Peter G.; Roberts, John S.

    2006-01-01

    Using a patented drug during clinical trials is not infringement [35 U.S.C. 271(e)(1)]. Merck v Integra enlarged this "safe harbour" to accommodate preclinical use of drugs and patented "research tools" if "reasonably related" to FDA approval. The decision allowed lower courts, should they wish, to find any use of a research tool, except for…

  2. Challenges Faced by Maine School Districts in Providing High Quality Public Education. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silvernail, David L.; Linet, Sarah R.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to: (1) identify challenges faced by Maine school districts in providing high quality public education; (2) describe the magnitude of the challenges; and (3) identify areas where school districts were experiencing some success in meeting these challenges. The School Districts Challenge Survey was distributed online to…

  3. Chemometrics Tools in Detection and Quantitation of the Main Impurities Present in Aspirin/Dipyridamole Extended-Release Capsules.

    PubMed

    El-Ragehy, Nariman A; Yehia, Ali M; Hassan, Nagiba Y; Tantawy, Mahmoud A; Abdelkawy, Mohamed

    2016-07-01

    Aspirin (ASP) and dipyridamole (DIP) in combination is widely used in the prevention of secondary events after stroke and transient ischemic attack. Salicylic acid is a well-known impurity of ASP, and the DIP extended-release formulation may contain ester impurities originating from the reaction with tartaric acid. UV spectral data analysis of the active ingredients in the presence of their main impurities is presented using multivariate approaches. Four chemometric-assisted spectrophotometric methods, namely, partial least-squares, concentration residuals augmented classical least-squares (CRACLS), multivariate curve resolution (MCR) alternating least-squares (ALS), and artificial neural networks, were developed and validated. The quantitative analyses of all the proposed calibrations were compared by percentage recoveries, root mean square error of prediction, and standard error of prediction. In addition, r(2) values between the pure and estimated spectral profiles were used to evaluate the qualitative analysis of CRACLS and MCR-ALS. The lowest error was obtained by the CRACLS model, whereas the best correlation was achieved using MCR-ALS. The four multivariate calibration methods could successfully be applied for the extended-release formulation analysis. The application results were also validated by analysis of the stored dosage-form solution, which showed a susceptibility of DIP esterification in the extended-release formulation. Statistical comparison between the proposed and official methods showed no significant difference. PMID:27302874

  4. Stress analysis and design considerations for Shuttle pointed autonomous research tool for astronomy /SPARTAN/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferragut, N. J.

    1982-01-01

    The Shuttle Pointed Autonomous Research Tool for Astronomy (SPARTAN) family of spacecraft are intended to operate with minimum interfaces with the U.S. Space Shuttle in order to increase flight opportunities. The SPARTAN I Spacecraft was designed to enhance structural capabilities and increase reliability. The approach followed results from work experience which evolved from sounding rocket projects. Structural models were developed to do the analyses necessary to satisfy safety requirements for Shuttle hardware. A loads analysis must also be performed. Stress analysis calculations will be performed on the main structural elements and subcomponents. Attention is given to design considerations and program definition, the schematic representation of a finite element model used for SPARTAN I spacecraft, details of loads analysis, the stress analysis, and fracture mechanics plan implications.

  5. STELLA software as a tool for modelling phosphorus removal in a constructed wetland employing dewatered alum sludge as main substrate.

    PubMed

    Kumar, J L G; Wang, Z Y; Zhao, Y Q; Babatunde, A O; Zhao, X H; Jørgensen, S E

    2011-01-01

    A dynamic simulation model was developed for the removal of soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) from the vertical flow constructed wetlands (VFCW) using a dynamic software program called STELLA (structural thinking, experiential learning laboratory with animation) 9.1.3 to aid in simulating the environmental nature and succession of relationship between interdependent components and processes in the VFCW system. In particular, the VFCW employed dewatered alum sludge as its main substrate to enhance phosphorus (P) immobilization. Although computer modelling of P in treatment wetland has been well studied especially in recent years, there is still a need to develop simple and realistic models that can be used for investigating the dynamics of SRP in VFCWs. The state variables included in the model are dissolved phosphorus (DISP), plant phosphorus (PLAP), detritus phosphorus (DETP), plant biomass (PLBI) and adsorbed phosphorus (ADSP). The major P transformation processes considered in this study were adsorption, plant and microbial uptake and decomposition. The forcing functions which were considered in the model are temperature, radiation, volume of wastewater, P concentration, contact time, flow rate and the adsorbent (i.e., alum sludge). The model results revealed that up to 72% of the SRP can be removed through adsorption process whereas the uptake by plants is about 20% and the remaining processes such as microbial P utilization and decomposition, accounted for 7% SRP removal based on the mass balance calculations. The results obtained indicate that the model can be used to simulate outflow SRP concentration, and it can also be used to estimate the amount of P removed by individual processes in the VFCW using alum-sludge as a substrate. PMID:21644152

  6. Somatic Sensitivity and Reflexivity as Validity Tools in Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Jill

    2015-01-01

    Validity is a key concept in qualitative educational research. Yet, it is often not addressed in methodological writing about dance. This essay explores validity in a postmodern world of diverse approaches to scholarship, by looking at the changing face of validity in educational qualitative research and at how new understandings of the concept…

  7. Recent and Potential Application of Engineering Tools to Educational Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taft, Martin I.

    This paper presents a summary of some recent engineering research in education and identifies some research areas with high payoff potential. The underlying assumption is that a school is a system with a set of subsystems which is potentially susceptible to analysis, design, and eventually some sort of optimization. This assumption leads to the…

  8. Present status of research activities relating global warming problems in Japan (mainly MITI and relating organizations)

    SciTech Connect

    Yokoyama, O.

    1993-12-31

    Japanese government has issued action program so called {open_quotes}Action Program to Arrest Global Warming{close_quotes} for preventing global warming at Oct., 1990. According to the program, CO{sub 2} emission should be stabilized on a per capita basis in the year 2000 and beyond at about same level as in 2000 by introducing several methods such as energy conservation, improvement of energy using efficiency, expanding use of renewable energy and so on. The basic concept, target and methods are summarized. At the same time, MITI published so called {open_quotes}New Earth 21{close_quotes} project which aims remedying the earth environment modified by human activities since industrial innovation began at about 200 years ago in coming 100 years. This plan proposed yearly step of research development of technology for mitigating CO{sub 2} emission. According to the MITI`s plan, 15 institutions belonging to AIST have carrying research for developing technology of reducing emission of CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases, with cooperation of other research organizations such as RITE (research Institute of Innovative Technology for Earth) and NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Developing Organization). Time schedule of the research development by The New Earth 21 project is summarized in Table 2. Now, in Japan, many national institutions and universities, research works relating reduction and mitigation of GHG are carried out according to this guideline.

  9. Applying Web-Based Tools for Research, Engineering, and Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.

    2011-01-01

    Personnel in the NASA Glenn Research Center Network and Architectures branch have performed a variety of research related to space-based sensor webs, network centric operations, security and delay tolerant networking (DTN). Quality documentation and communications, real-time monitoring and information dissemination are critical in order to perform quality research while maintaining low cost and utilizing multiple remote systems. This has been accomplished using a variety of Internet technologies often operating simultaneously. This paper describes important features of various technologies and provides a number of real-world examples of how combining Internet technologies can enable a virtual team to act efficiently as one unit to perform advanced research in operational systems. Finally, real and potential abuses of power and manipulation of information and information access is addressed.

  10. Education of research ethics for clinical investigators with Moodle tool

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In clinical research scientific, legal as well as ethical aspects are important. It is well known that clinical investigators at university hospitals have to undertake their PhD-studies alongside their daily work and reconciling work and study can be challenging. The aim of this project was to create a web based course in clinical research bioethics (5 credits) and to examine whether the method is suitable for teaching bioethics. The course comprised of six modules: an initial examination (to assess knowledge in bioethics), information on research legislation, obtaining permissions from authorities, writing an essay on research ethics, preparing one’s own study protocol, and a final exam. All assignments were designed with an idea of supporting students to reflect on their learning with their own research. Methods 57 PhD-students (medical, nursing and dental sciences) enrolled and 46 completed the course. Course evaluation was done using a questionnaire. The response rate was 78%. Data were analyzed using quantitative methods and qualitative content analysis. Results The course was viewed as useful and technically easy to perform. Students were pleased with the guidance offered. Personal feedback from teachers about students’ own performance was seen advantageous and helped them to appreciate how these aspects could be applied their own studies. The course was also considered valuable for future research projects. Conclusions Ethical issues and legislation of clinical research can be understood more easily when students can reflect the principles upon their own research project. Web based teaching environment is a feasible learning method for clinical investigators. PMID:24330709

  11. Governments and Universities as the Main Drivers of Enhanced Australian University Research Commercialisation Capability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harman, Grant; Harman, Kay

    2004-01-01

    In building capacity in research commercialisation and science-based entrepreneurship, Australia has adopted neither the Swedish top-down approach depending on government initiative, nor the American bottom-up approach depending on incentive systems related to university ownership of intellectual property and a highly competitive and…

  12. Temporal perception in visual processing as a research tool

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Bin; Zhang, Ting; Mao, Lihua

    2015-01-01

    Accumulated evidence has shown that the subjective time in the sub-second range can be altered by different factors; some are related to stimulus features such as luminance contrast and spatial frequency, others are processes like perceptual grouping and contextual modulation. These findings indicate that temporal perception uses neural signals involved in non-temporal feature processes and that perceptual organization plays an important role in shaping the experience of elapsed time. We suggest that the temporal representation of objects can be treated as a feature of objects. This new concept implies that psychological time can serve as a tool to study the principles of neural codes in the perception of objects like “reaction time (RT).” Whereas “RT” usually reflects the state of transient signals crossing decision thresholds, “apparent time” in addition reveals the dynamics of sustained signals, thus providing complementary information of what has been obtained from “RT” studies. PMID:25964774

  13. The airborne infrared scanner as a geophysical research tool

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedman, Jules D.

    1970-01-01

    The infrared scanner is proving to be an effective anomaly-mapping tool, albeit one which depicts surface emission directly and heat mass transfer from depths only indirectly and at a threshold level 50 to 100 times the normal conductive heat flow of the earth. Moreover, successive terrain observations are affected by time-dependent variables such as the diurnal and seasonal warming and cooling cycle of a point on the earth's surface. In planning precise air borne surveys of radiant flux from the earth's surface, account must be taken of background noise created by variations in micrometeorological factors and emissivity of surface materials, as well as the diurnal temperature cycle. The effect of the diurnal cycle may be minimized by planning predawn aerial surveys. In fact, the diurnal change is very small for most water bodies and the emissivity factor for water (e) =~ 1 so a minimum background noise is characteristic of scanner records of calm water surfaces.

  14. Main lines of scientific and technical research at the Soviet Jet Propulsion Research Institute (RNII), 1933 - 1942

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shchetinkov, Y. S.

    1977-01-01

    The rapid development of rocketry in the U.S.S.R. during the post-war years was due largely to pre-war activity; in particular, to investigations conducted in the Jet Propulsion Research Institute (RNII). The history of RNII commenced in 1933, resulting from the merger of two rocket research organizations. Previous research was continued in areas of solid-propellant rockets, jet-assisted take-off of aircraft, liquid propellant engines (generally with nitric acid as the oxidizer), liquid-propellant rockets (generally with oxgen as the oxidizer), ram jet engines, rockets with and without wings, and rocket planes. RNII research is described and summarized for the years 1933-1942.

  15. Inconsistency in the items included in tools used in general health research and physical therapy to evaluate the methodological quality of randomized controlled trials: a descriptive analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Assessing the risk of bias of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) is crucial to understand how biases affect treatment effect estimates. A number of tools have been developed to evaluate risk of bias of RCTs; however, it is unknown how these tools compare to each other in the items included. The main objective of this study was to describe which individual items are included in RCT quality tools used in general health and physical therapy (PT) research, and how these items compare to those of the Cochrane Risk of Bias (RoB) tool. Methods We used comprehensive literature searches and a systematic approach to identify tools that evaluated the methodological quality or risk of bias of RCTs in general health and PT research. We extracted individual items from all quality tools. We calculated the frequency of quality items used across tools and compared them to those in the RoB tool. Comparisons were made between general health and PT quality tools using Chi-squared tests. Results In addition to the RoB tool, 26 quality tools were identified, with 19 being used in general health and seven in PT research. The total number of quality items included in general health research tools was 130, compared with 48 items across PT tools and seven items in the RoB tool. The most frequently included items in general health research tools (14/19, 74%) were inclusion and exclusion criteria, and appropriate statistical analysis. In contrast, the most frequent items included in PT tools (86%, 6/7) were: baseline comparability, blinding of investigator/assessor, and use of intention-to-treat analysis. Key items of the RoB tool (sequence generation and allocation concealment) were included in 71% (5/7) of PT tools, and 63% (12/19) and 37% (7/19) of general health research tools, respectively. Conclusions There is extensive item variation across tools that evaluate the risk of bias of RCTs in health research. Results call for an in-depth analysis of items that should be used to

  16. Research pressure instrumentation for NASA Space Shuttle main engine, modification no. 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, P. J.; Nussbaum, P.; Gustafson, G.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of Modification No. 5 of this contract is to expand the scope of work (Task C) of this research study effort to develop pressure instrumentation for the SSME. The objective of this contract (Task C) is to direct Honeywell's Solid State Electronics Division's (SSED) extensive experience and expertise in solid state sensor technology to develop prototype pressure transducers which are targeted to meet the SSME performance design goals and to fabricate, test and deliver a total of 10 prototype units. SSED's basic approach is to effectively utilize the many advantages of silicon piezoresistive strain sensing technology to achieve the objectives of advanced state-of-the-art pressure sensors in terms of reliability, accuracy and ease of manufacture. More specifically, integration of multiple functions on a single chip is the key attribute of this technology which will be exploited during this research study.

  17. 2011 Raditation & Climate Gordon Research Conference (July 10-15 2011- Colby College, Waterville, Maine)

    SciTech Connect

    Prof. Max Hoggblom

    2012-02-09

    The 2011 Gordon Research Conference on Radiation and Climate will present cutting-edge research on outstanding issues in climate change, particularly those in which the interactions between clouds, aerosols, and precipitation play a major role. The Conference will feature a broad range of topics, including grand challenges in atmospheric radiation and climate, cloud and water vapor feedbacks, aerosol-cloud-precipitation-climate interactions across scales, new approaches for remote sensing and in-situ observations of clouds, aerosols and precipitation, and multi-scale modeling challenges. The invited speakers will present the most important recent advances and future challenges in these areas. The Conference will bring together a collection of leading investigators who are at the forefront of their field, and will provide opportunities for scientists, especially junior scientists and graduate students, to present their work in poster format and exchange ideas with leaders in the field. The collegial atmosphere of this Conference, with programmed discussion sessions as well as opportunities for informal gatherings in the afternoons and evenings, provides an avenue for scientists from different disciplines to brainstorm and promotes cross-disciplinary collaborations in the various research areas represented.

  18. Online Tools Allow Distant Students to Collaborate on Research Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    T.H.E. Journal, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The Wesleyan Academy and Moravian School in St. Thomas, Virgin Islands, recently joined forces with Evergreen Elementary in Fort Lewis, Wash., to collaborate on a research project using My eCoach Online (http://myecoach.com) as the primary medium to share information, post ideas and findings, and develop inquiry projects on 10 topics about water.…

  19. Miniature spinning as a tool for ginning research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cotton gin must balance efficient processing and cleaning with adversely affecting the quality of lint through damage and/or failure to remove sufficient material. Substantial research is conducted on all aspects of the cotton gin; however it is difficult to gauge the effect on fiber quality wi...

  20. Ready Reference Tools: EBSCO Topic Search and SIRS Researcher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goins, Sharon; Dayment, Lu

    1998-01-01

    Discussion of ready reference and current events collections in high school libraries focuses on a comparison of two CD-ROM services, EBSCO Topic Search and the SIRS Researcher. Considers licensing; access; search strategies; viewing articles; currency; printing; added value features; and advantages of CD-ROMs. (LRW)

  1. The Portable Usability Testing Lab: A Flexible Research Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, Michael E.; And Others

    A group of faculty at the University of Georgia obtained funding for a research and development facility called the Learning and Performance Support Laboratory (LPSL). One of the LPSL's primary needs was obtaining a portable usability lab for software testing, so the facility obtained the "Luggage Lab 2000." The lab is transportable to any site…

  2. New research and tools lead to improved earthquake alerting protocols

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wald, David J.

    2009-01-01

    What’s the best way to get alerted about the occurrence and potential impact of an earthquake? The answer to that question has changed dramatically of late, in part due to improvements in earthquake science, and in part by the implementation of new research in the delivery of earthquake information

  3. Reimagining Science Education and Pedagogical Tools: Blending Research with Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Jacqueline S.

    2010-01-01

    The future of higher education in the sciences will be marked by programs that link skilled educators and research scientists from around the world with teachers for professional development and with students for high-impact learning--either virtually or physically in the field. These programs will use technology where possible to build new and…

  4. Administrative Data Linkage as a Tool for Child Maltreatment Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownell, Marni D.; Jutte, Douglas P.

    2013-01-01

    Linking administrative data records for the same individuals across services and over time offers a powerful, population-wide resource for child maltreatment research that can be used to identify risk and protective factors and to examine outcomes. Multistage de-identification processes have been developed to protect privacy and maintain…

  5. Friending Adolescents on Social Networking Websites: A Feasible Research Tool

    PubMed Central

    Brockman, Libby N.; Christakis, Dimitri A.; Moreno, Megan A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Social networking sites (SNSs) are increasingly used for research. This paper reports on two studies examining the feasibility of friending adolescents on SNSs for research purposes. Methods Study 1 took place on www.MySpace.com where public profiles belonging to 18-year-old adolescents received a friend request from an unknown physician. Study 2 took place on www.Facebook.com where college freshmen from two US universities, enrolled in an ongoing research study, received a friend request from a known researcher’s profile. Acceptance and retention rates of friend requests were calculated for both studies. Results Study 1: 127 participants received a friend request; participants were 18 years-old, 62.2% male and 51.8% Caucasian. 49.6% accepted the friend request. After 9 months, 76% maintained the online friendship, 12.7% defriended the study profile and 11% deactivated their profile. Study 2: 338 participants received a friend request; participants were 18 years-old, 56.5% female and 75.1% Caucasian. 99.7% accepted the friend request. Over 12 months, 3.3% defriended the study profile and 4.1% deactivated their profile. These actions were often temporary; the overall 12-month friendship retention rate was 96.1%. Conclusion Friending adolescents on SNSs is feasible and friending adolescents from a familiar profile may be more effective for maintaining online friendship with research participants over time. PMID:25485226

  6. Composition and emissions of VOCs in main- and side-stream smoke of research cigarettes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charles, Simone M.; Batterman, S. A.; Jia, Chunrong

    It is well known that mainstream (MS) and sidestream (SS) cigarette smoke contains a vast number of chemical substances. Previous studies have emphasized SS smoke rather than MS smoke to which smokers are exposed, and most have used chamber tests that have several disadvantages such as wall losses. Emissions from standard research cigarettes have been measured, but relatively few constituents have been reported, and only the 1R4F (low nicotine) cigarette type has been tested. This study provides a comprehensive characterization of total, MS and SS smoke emissions for the 1R5F (ultra low nicotine), 2R4F (low nicotine), and 1R3F (standard nicotine) research cigarettes research cigarettes, including emission factors for a number of toxic compounds (e.g., benzene) and tobacco smoke tracers (e.g., 2,5-dimethyl furan). Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and particulate matter (PM) are quantified using a dynamic dilution emission measurement system that is shown to produce accurate, rapid and reproducible results for over 30 VOCs and PM. SS and MS emissions were accurately apportioned based on a mass balance of total emissions. As expected, SS emissions greatly exceeded MS emissions. The ultra low nicotine cigarette had lower emissions of most VOCs compared to low and standard nicotine cigarettes, which had similar emissions. Across the three types of cigarettes, emissions of benzene (296-535 μg cig -1), toluene (541-1003 μg cig -1), styrene (90-162 μg cig -1), 2-dimethyl furan (71-244 μg cig -1), naphthalene (15-18 μg cig -1) and other VOCs were generally comparable to or somewhat higher than literature estimates using chamber tests.

  7. ``Tools for Astrometry": A Windows-based Research Tool for Asteroid Discovery and Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, G. A.; Marschall, L. A.; Good, R. F.; Hayden, M. B.; Cooper, P. R.

    1998-12-01

    We have developed a Windows-based interactive digital astrometry package with a simple, ergonomic interface, designed for the discovery, measurement, and recording of asteroid positions by individual observers. The software, "Tools For Astrometry", will handle FITS and SBIG format images up to 2048 x 2048 (or larger, depending on RAM), and provides features for blinking images or subframes of images, and measurement of positions and magnitudes against both the HST Guide Star Catalog and the USNO SA-1 catalog,. In addition, the program can calculate ephemerides from element tables, including the Lowell Asteroid Database available online, can generate charts of star-fields showing the motion of asteroids from the ephemeris superimposed against the background star field, can project motions of measured asteroids ahead several days using linear interpolation for purposes of reacquisition, and can calculate projected baselines for asteroid parallax measurements. Images, charts, and tables of ephemerides can printed as well as displayed, and reports can be generated in the standard format of the IAU Minor Planet Center. The software is designed ergonomically, and one can go from raw images to completed astrometric report in a matter of minutes. The software is an extension of software developed for introductory astronomy laboratories by Project CLEA, which is supported by grants from Gettysburg College and the National Science Foundation.

  8. Developing a Research Tool to Gauge Student Metacognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McInerny, Alistair; Boudreaux, Andrew; Rishal, Sepideh; Clare, Kelci

    2012-10-01

    Metacognition refers to the family of thought processes and skills used to evaluate and manage learning. A research and curriculum development project underway at Western Washington University uses introductory physics labs as a context to promote students' abilities to learn and apply metacognitive skills. A required ``narrative reflection'' has been incorporated as a weekly end-of-lab assignment. The goal of the narrative reflection is to encourage and support student metacognition while generating written artifacts that can be used by researchers to study metacognition in action. We have developed a Reflective Thinking Rubric (RTR) to analyze scanned narrative reflections. The RTR codes student writing for Metacognitive Elements, identifiable steps or aspects of metacognitive thinking at a variety of levels of sophistication. We hope to use the RTR to monitor the effect of weekly reflection on metacognitive ability and to search for correlations between metacognitive ability and conceptual understanding.

  9. CAMS as a tool for human factors research in spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauer, Juergen

    2004-01-01

    The paper reviews a number of research studies that were carried out with a PC-based task environment called Cabin Air Management System (CAMS) simulating the operation of a spacecraft's life support system. As CAMS was a multiple task environment, it allowed the measurement of performance at different levels. Four task components of different priority were embedded in the task environment: diagnosis and repair of system faults, maintaining atmospheric parameters in a safe state, acknowledgement of system alarms (reaction time), and keeping a record of critical system resources (prospective memory). Furthermore, the task environment permitted the examination of different task management strategies and changes in crew member state (fatigue, anxiety, mental effort). A major goal of the research programme was to examine how crew members adapted to various forms of sub-optimal working conditions, such as isolation and confinement, sleep deprivation and noise. None of the studies provided evidence for decrements in primary task performance. However, the results showed a number of adaptive responses of crew members to adjust to the different sub-optimal working conditions. There was evidence for adjustments in information sampling strategies (usually reductions in sampling frequency) as a result of unfavourable working conditions. The results also showed selected decrements in secondary task performance. Prospective memory seemed to be somewhat more vulnerable to sub-optimal working conditions than performance on the reaction time task. Finally, suggestions are made for future research with the CAMS environment.

  10. Research on bait resources in the Main Stream of Wulie River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lin; Yan, Denghua; Gan, Hong; Fu, Xiaocheng; Sun, Xiumin

    2010-05-01

    Wulie river is the first branch of Luanhe river, and most of the water use for industrial, agricultural and living of the Chengde city is coming from it. The investigation results of 8 monitoring sections in July, 2009 show that there are 44 species of phytoplankton belonging to 7 phylum in the Main stream of Wulie river. The Bacillariophyta has the most species comparing with other species, and is the dominant species. The phytoplankton species is more in the lower reach than that in the upper reach which is relevant to the intensity of the human disturbance. There are 28 kinds of zooplanktons in the river, in which the protozoa and rotatoria are the dominant species. The zooplankton species in the lower reach show the lake characteristics which is relevant to the 12 rubber dams. There are 18 macrozoobenthos in the river, and Hydropyche, Ephemera, Baetidae and Caenis are the dominant genus. The macrozoobenthos community is simple and most of them belong to the species fond of rapids and oxygen. Investigation of the bait resources show that the water quality is good in this river, but the lower reach has appeared the lake characteristics because of the water intercepting and impounding by the rubber dams. The establishment of water conservancy engineering has changed the hydrology and river morphology, which as a result altered the bait resources of the fishes living in the rivers.

  11. Modelling as an indispensible research tool in the information society.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouma, Johan

    2016-04-01

    Science and society would be well advised to develop a different relationship as the information revolution penetrates all aspects of modern life. Rather than produce clear answers to clear questions in a top-down manner, land-use issues related to the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) present "wicked"problems involving different, strongly opiniated, stakeholders with conflicting ideas and interests and risk-averse politicians. The Dutch government has invited its citizens to develop a "science agenda", defining future research needs, implicitly suggesting that the research community is unable to do so. Time, therefore, for a pro-active approach to more convincingly define our:"societal license to research". For soil science this could imply a focus on the SDGs , considering soils as living, characteristically different, dynamic bodies in a landscape, to be mapped in ways that allow generation of suitable modelling data. Models allow a dynamic characterization of water- and nutrient regimes and plant growth in soils both for actual and future conditions, reflecting e.g. effects of climate or land-use change or alternative management practices. Engaging modern stakeholders in a bottom-up manner implies continuous involvement and "joint learning" from project initiation to completion, where modelling results act as building blocks to explore alternative scenarios. Modern techniques allow very rapid calculations and innovative visualization. Everything is possible but only modelling can articulate the economic, social and environmental consequences of each scenario, demonstrating in a pro-active manner the crucial and indispensible role of research. But choices are to be made by stakeholders and reluctant policy makers and certainly not by scientists who should carefully guard their independance. Only clear results in the end are convincing proof for the impact of science, requiring therefore continued involvement of scientists up to the very end of projects. To

  12. Incorporating ethical principles into clinical research protocols: a tool for protocol writers and ethics committees

    PubMed Central

    Li, Rebecca H; Wacholtz, Mary C; Barnes, Mark; Boggs, Liam; Callery-D'Amico, Susan; Davis, Amy; Digilova, Alla; Forster, David; Heffernan, Kate; Luthin, Maeve; Lynch, Holly Fernandez; McNair, Lindsay; Miller, Jennifer E; Murphy, Jacquelyn; Van Campen, Luann; Wilenzick, Mark; Wolf, Delia; Woolston, Cris; Aldinger, Carmen; Bierer, Barbara E

    2016-01-01

    A novel Protocol Ethics Tool Kit (‘Ethics Tool Kit’) has been developed by a multi-stakeholder group of the Multi-Regional Clinical Trials Center of Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard. The purpose of the Ethics Tool Kit is to facilitate effective recognition, consideration and deliberation of critical ethical issues in clinical trial protocols. The Ethics Tool Kit may be used by investigators and sponsors to develop a dedicated Ethics Section within a protocol to improve the consistency and transparency between clinical trial protocols and research ethics committee reviews. It may also streamline ethics review and may facilitate and expedite the review process by anticipating the concerns of ethics committee reviewers. Specific attention was given to issues arising in multinational settings. With the use of this Tool Kit, researchers have the opportunity to address critical research ethics issues proactively, potentially speeding the time and easing the process to final protocol approval. PMID:26811365

  13. Incorporating ethical principles into clinical research protocols: a tool for protocol writers and ethics committees.

    PubMed

    Li, Rebecca H; Wacholtz, Mary C; Barnes, Mark; Boggs, Liam; Callery-D'Amico, Susan; Davis, Amy; Digilova, Alla; Forster, David; Heffernan, Kate; Luthin, Maeve; Lynch, Holly Fernandez; McNair, Lindsay; Miller, Jennifer E; Murphy, Jacquelyn; Van Campen, Luann; Wilenzick, Mark; Wolf, Delia; Woolston, Cris; Aldinger, Carmen; Bierer, Barbara E

    2016-04-01

    A novel Protocol Ethics Tool Kit ('Ethics Tool Kit') has been developed by a multi-stakeholder group of the Multi-Regional Clinical Trials Center of Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard. The purpose of the Ethics Tool Kit is to facilitate effective recognition, consideration and deliberation of critical ethical issues in clinical trial protocols. The Ethics Tool Kit may be used by investigators and sponsors to develop a dedicated Ethics Section within a protocol to improve the consistency and transparency between clinical trial protocols and research ethics committee reviews. It may also streamline ethics review and may facilitate and expedite the review process by anticipating the concerns of ethics committee reviewers. Specific attention was given to issues arising in multinational settings. With the use of this Tool Kit, researchers have the opportunity to address critical research ethics issues proactively, potentially speeding the time and easing the process to final protocol approval. PMID:26811365

  14. Cephalopod culture: current status of main biological models and research priorities.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Erica A G; Villanueva, Roger; Andrade, José P; Gleadall, Ian G; Iglesias, José; Koueta, Noussithé; Rosas, Carlos; Segawa, Susumu; Grasse, Bret; Franco-Santos, Rita M; Albertin, Caroline B; Caamal-Monsreal, Claudia; Chimal, Maria E; Edsinger-Gonzales, Eric; Gallardo, Pedro; Le Pabic, Charles; Pascual, Cristina; Roumbedakis, Katina; Wood, James

    2014-01-01

    A recent revival in using cephalopods as experimental animals has rekindled interest in their biology and life cycles, information with direct applications also in the rapidly growing ornamental aquarium species trade and in commercial aquaculture production for human consumption. Cephalopods have high rates of growth and food conversion, which for aquaculture translates into short culture cycles, high ratios of production to biomass and high cost-effectiveness. However, at present, only small-scale culture is possible and only for a few species: the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis, the loliginid squid Sepioteuthis lessoniana and the octopuses Octopus maya and O. vulgaris. These four species are the focus of this chapter, the aims of which are as follows: (1) to provide an overview of the culture requirements of cephalopods, (2) to highlight the physical and nutritional requirements at each phase of the life cycle regarded as essential for successful full-scale culture and (3) to identify current limitations and the topics on which further research is required. Knowledge of cephalopod culture methods is advanced, but commercialization is still constrained by the highly selective feeding habits of cephalopods and their requirement for large quantities of high-quality (preferably live) feed, particularly in the early stages of development. Future research should focus on problems related to the consistent production of viable numbers of juveniles, the resolution of which requires a better understanding of nutrition at all phases of the life cycle and better broodstock management, particularly regarding developments in genetic selection, control of reproduction and quality of eggs and offspring. PMID:24880794

  15. [The main directions of research on the causes conditioning the occurrence of the borderline personality disorders].

    PubMed

    Ogłodek, Ewa; Araszkiewicz, Aleksander

    2011-10-01

    Currently, there are two main directions of explaining the occurrence of the borderline personality disorders (BPD). The first of them attempts to explain them upon the constitutional basis, finding the causes in the genetic conditioning, biological and organic factors. The other one underline a role of the psychological developmental categories. A significant role is ascribed to traumatic childhood mental experiences such as: harassment and sexual abuse, as well as neglect of emotional and developmental needs of a child. About 40-71% of the infirm with the borderline personality admits to have been sexually abused. It was observed that there is a connection between the extent of sexual abuse of an individual in childhood and the intensification of the disorders proper for the borderline personality. One should, however, point out that sexual abuse, although they are regarded as a risk factor, are not seen as specific to the infirm with the borderline personality disorders. Moreover, there is a third direction referred to in the literature, seeking the causes of the occurrence of the borderline personality in a significant influence of social-cultural and environment factors. It was noticed that there is a significant correlation between the social situation and the degree of dissemination of those disorders. The borderline personality disorders are more frequent among the people of the low social status background and with relatively low level of education. More and more frequently, theorists and clinical personnel adhere to the view that the development of that disorder is caused by a combination of neurobiological and social factors, together with the pathological qualities of early-childhood development. PMID:22097186

  16. Electromagnetic Levitation: A Useful Tool in Microgravity Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szekely, Julian; Schwartz, Elliot; Hyers, Robert

    1995-01-01

    Electromagnetic levitation is one area of the electromagnetic processing of materials that has uses for both fundamental research and practical applications. This technique was successfully used on the Space Shuttle Columbia during the Spacelab IML-2 mission in July 1994 as a platform for accurately measuring the surface tensions of liquid metals and alloys. In this article, we discuss the key transport phenomena associated with electromagnetic levitation, the fundamental relationships associated with thermophysical property measurement that can be made using this technique, reasons for working in microgravity, and some of the results obtained from the microgravity experiments.

  17. NASA Global Hawk: A New Tool for Earth Science Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Phill

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Global Hawk, a unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) that NASA plans to use for Earth Sciences research. The Global Hawk is the world's first fully autonomous high-altitude, long-endurance aircraft, and is capable of conducting long duration missions. Plans are being made for the use of the aircraft on missions in the Arctic, Pacific and Western Atlantic Oceans. There are slides showing the Global Hawk Operations Center (GHOC), Flight Control and Air Traffic Control Communications Architecture, and Payload Integration and Accommodations on the Global Hawk. The first science campaign, planned for a study of the Pacific Ocean, is reviewed.

  18. Positioning Mentoring as a Coach Development Tool: Recommendations for Future Practice and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQuade, Sarah; Davis, Louise; Nash, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Current thinking in coach education advocates mentoring as a development tool to connect theory and practice. However, little empirical evidence exists to evaluate the effectiveness of mentoring as a coach development tool. Business, education, and nursing precede the coaching industry in their mentoring practice, and research findings offered in…

  19. NASTRAN as an analytical research tool for composite mechanics and composite structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Sinclair, J. H.; Sullivan, T. L.

    1976-01-01

    Selected examples are described in which NASTRAN is used as an analysis research tool for composite mechanics and for composite structural components. The examples were selected to illustrate the importance of using NASTRAN as an analysis tool in this rapidly advancing field.

  20. Guiding Independence: Developing a Research Tool to Support Student Decision Making in Selecting Online Information Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baildon, Rindi; Baildon, Mark

    2008-01-01

    The development and use of a research tool to guide fourth-grade students' use of information sources during a research project is described in this article. Over a period of five weeks, 21 fourth-grade students in an international school in Singapore participated in a study investigating the extent to which the use of a "research resource guide"…

  1. Searching for New Directions: Developing MA Action Research Project as a Tool for Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Young Ah; Wang, Ye

    2012-01-01

    Action research has been recognized as a useful professional development tool for teaching, but for inservice teachers, conducting action research can be challenging. Their learning about action research can be influenced by social situations--whether in an MA (Master of Arts) program or other professional development. The purpose of this…

  2. Conceptualising the Use of Facebook in Ethnographic Research: As Tool, as Data and as Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Sally

    2013-01-01

    This article proposes a three-part conceptualisation of the use of Facebook in ethnographic research: as a tool, as data and as context. Longitudinal research with young adults at a time of significant change provides many challenges for the ethnographic researcher, such as maintaining channels of communication and high rates of participant…

  3. The NASA Human Research Wiki - An Online Collaboration Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barr, Yael; Rasbury, Jack; Johnson, Jordan; Barstend, Kristina; Saile, Lynn; Watkins, Sharmi

    2012-01-01

    The Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) element is one of six elements of the Human Research Program (HRP). ExMC is charged with decreasing the risk of: "Inability to adequately recognize or treat an ill or injured crew member" for exploration-class missions In preparation for exploration-class missions, ExMC has compiled a large evidence base, previously available only to persons within the NASA community. ExMC has developed the "NASA Human Research Wiki" in an effort to make the ExMC information available to the general public and increase collaboration within and outside of NASA. The ExMC evidence base is comprised of several types of data, including: (1)Information on more than 80 medical conditions which could occur during space flight (a)Derived from several sources (b)Including data on incidence and potential outcomes, as captured in the Integrated Medical Model s (IMM) Clinical Finding Forms (CliFFs). (2)Approximately 25 gap reports (a)Identify any "gaps" in knowledge and/or technology that would need to be addressed in order to provide adequate medical support for these novel missions.

  4. Conceptual Systems Model as a Tool for Hypothesis Generation and Testing in Ecotoxicological Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microarray, proteomic, and metabonomic technologies are becoming increasingly accessible as tools for ecotoxicology research. Effective use of these technologies will depend, at least in part, on the ability to apply these techniques within a paradigm of hypothesis driven researc...

  5. Electrostatic Levitation: A Tool to Support Materials Research in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Jan; SanSoucie, Mike

    2012-01-01

    Containerless processing represents an important topic for materials research in microgravity. Levitated specimens are free from contact with a container, which permits studies of deeply undercooled melts, and high-temperature, highly reactive materials. Containerless processing provides data for studies of thermophysical properties, phase equilibria, metastable state formation, microstructure formation, undercooling, and nucleation. The European Space Agency (ESA) and the German Aerospace Center (DLR) jointly developed an electromagnetic levitator facility (MSL-EML) for containerless materials processing in space. The electrostatic levitator (ESL) facility at the Marshall Space Flight Center provides support for the development of containerless processing studies for the ISS. Apparatus and techniques have been developed to use the ESL to provide data for phase diagram determination, creep resistance, emissivity, specific heat, density/thermal expansion, viscosity, surface tension and triggered nucleation of melts. The capabilities and results from selected ESL-based characterization studies performed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center will be presented.

  6. Nucleic Acid Aptamers: Research Tools in Disease Diagnostics and Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Yadava, Pramod K.

    2014-01-01

    Aptamers are short sequences of nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) or peptide molecules which adopt a conformation and bind cognate ligands with high affinity and specificity in a manner akin to antibody-antigen interactions. It has been globally acknowledged that aptamers promise a plethora of diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Although use of nucleic acid aptamers as targeted therapeutics or mediators of targeted drug delivery is a relatively new avenue of research, one aptamer-based drug “Macugen” is FDA approved and a series of aptamer-based drugs are in clinical pipelines. The present review discusses the aspects of design, unique properties, applications, and development of different aptamers to aid in cancer diagnosis, prevention, and/or treatment under defined conditions. PMID:25050359

  7. Cell stretching devices as research tools: engineering and biological considerations.

    PubMed

    Kamble, Harshad; Barton, Matthew J; Jun, Myeongjun; Park, Sungsu; Nguyen, Nam-Trung

    2016-08-16

    Cells within the human body are subjected to continuous, cyclic mechanical strain caused by various organ functions, movement, and growth. Cells are well known to have the ability to sense and respond to mechanical stimuli. This process is referred to as mechanotransduction. A better understanding of mechanotransduction is of great interest to clinicians and scientists alike to improve clinical diagnosis and understanding of medical pathology. However, the complexity involved in in vivo biological systems creates a need for better in vitro technologies, which can closely mimic the cells' microenvironment using induced mechanical strain. This technology gap motivates the development of cell stretching devices for better understanding of the cell response to mechanical stimuli. This review focuses on the engineering and biological considerations for the development of such cell stretching devices. The paper discusses different types of stretching concepts, major design consideration and biological aspects of cell stretching and provides a perspective for future development in this research area. PMID:27440436

  8. The Spallation Neutron Source: A powerful tool for materials research

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, Thom; Anderson, Ian S; Ankner, John Francis; Egami, Takeshi; Ekkebus, Allen E; Herwig, Kenneth W; Hodges, Jason P; Horak, Charlie M; Horton, Linda L; Klose, Frank Richard; Mesecar, Andrew D.; Myles, Dean A A; Ohl, M.; Zhao, Jinkui

    2006-01-01

    When completed in 2006, the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) will use an accelerator to produce the most intense beams of pulsed neutrons in the world. This unique facility is being built by a collaboration of six US Department of Energy laboratories and will serve a diverse community of users drawn from academia, industry, and government labs. The project continues on schedule and within budget, with commissioning and installation of all systems going well. Installation of 14 state-of-the-art instruments is under way, and design work is being completed for several others. These new instruments will enable inelastic and elastic-scattering measurements across a broad range of science such as condensed-matter physics, chemistry, engineering materials, biology, and beyond. Neutron Science at SNS will be complemented by research opportunities at several other facilities under way at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  9. Air Enquirer's multi-sensor boxes as a tool for High School Education and Atmospheric Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morguí, Josep-Anton; Font, Anna; Cañas, Lidia; Vázquez-García, Eusebi; Gini, Andrea; Corominas, Ariadna; Àgueda, Alba; Lobo, Agustin; Ferraz, Carlos; Nofuentes, Manel; Ulldemolins, Delmir; Roca, Alex; Kamnang, Armand; Grossi, Claudia; Curcoll, Roger; Batet, Oscar; Borràs, Silvia; Occhipinti, Paola; Rodó, Xavier

    2016-04-01

    An educational tool was designed with the aim of making more comprehensive the research done on Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) in the ClimaDat Spanish network of atmospheric observation stations (www.climadat.es). This tool is called Air Enquirer and it consist of a multi-sensor box. It is envisaged to build more than two hundred boxes to yield them to the Spanish High Schools through the Education department (www.educaixa.com) of the "Obra Social 'La Caixa'", who funds this research. The starting point for the development of the Air Enquirers was the experience at IC3 (www.ic3.cat) in the CarboSchools+ FP7 project (www.carboschools.cat, www.carboschools.eu). The Air Enquirer's multi-sensor box is based in Arduino's architecture and contains sensors for CO2, temperature, relative humidity, pressure, and both infrared and visible luminance. The Air Enquirer is designed for taking continuous measurements. Every Air Enquirer ensemble of measurements is used to convert values to standard units (water content in ppmv, and CO2 in ppmv_dry). These values are referred to a calibration made with Cavity Ring Down Spectrometry (Picarro®) under different temperature, pressure, humidity and CO2 concentrations. Multiple sets of Air Enquirers are intercalibrated for its use in parallel during the experiments. The different experiments proposed to the students will be outdoor (observational) or indoor (experimental, in the lab) focusing on understanding the biogeochemistry of GHGs in the ecosystems (mainly CO2), the exchange (flux) of gases, the organic matter production, respiration and decomposition processes, the influence of the anthropogenic activities on the gases (and particles) exchanges, and their interaction with the structure and composition of the atmosphere (temperature, water content, cooling and warming processes, radiative forcing, vertical gradients and horizontal patterns). In order to ensure Air Enquirers a high-profile research performance the experimental designs

  10. Advanced imaging microscope tools applied to microgravity research investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, L.; Samson, J.; Conrad, D.; Clark, K.

    1998-01-01

    The inability to observe and interact with experiments on orbit has been an impediment for both basic research and commercial ventures using the shuttle. In order to open the frontiers of space, the Center for Microgravity Automation Technology has developed a unique and innovative system for conducting experiments at a distance, the ``Remote Scientist.'' The Remote Scientist extends laboratory automation capability to the microgravity environment. While the Remote Scientist conceptually encompasses a broad spectrum of elements and functionalities, the development approach taken is to: • establish a baseline capability that is both flexible and versatile • incrementally augment the baseline with additional functions over time. Since last year, the application of the Remote Scientist has changed from protein crystal growth to tissue culture, specifically, the development of skeletal muscle under varying levels of tension. This system includes a series of bioreactor chambers that allow for three-dimensional growth of muscle tissue on a membrane suspended between the two ends of a programmable force transducer that can provide automated or investigator-initiated tension on the developing tissue. A microscope objective mounted on a translation carriage allows for high-resolution microscopy along a large area of the tissue. These images will be mosaiced on orbit to detect features and structures that span multiple images. The use of fluorescence and pseudo-confocal microscopy will maximize the observational capabilities of this system. A series of ground-based experiments have been performed to validate the bioreactor, the force transducer, the translation carriage and the image acquisition capabilities of the Remote Scientist. • The bioreactor is capable of sustaining three dimensional tissue culture growth over time. • The force transducer can be programmed to provide static tension on cells or to simulate either slow or fast growth of underlying tissues in

  11. NANIVID: A New Research Tool for Tissue Microenvironment Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raja, Waseem K.

    Metastatic tumors are heterogeneous in nature and composed of subpopulations of cells having various metastatic potentials. The time progression of a tumor creates a unique microenvironment to improve the invasion capabilities and survivability of cancer cells in different microenvironments. In the early stages of intravasation, cancer cells establish communication with other cell types through a paracrine loop and covers long distances by sensing growth factor gradients through extracellular matrices. Cellular migration both in vitro and in vivo is a complex process and to understand their motility in depth, sophisticated techniques are required to document and record events in real time. This study presents the design and optimization of a new versatile chemotaxis device called the NANIVID (NANo IntraVital Imaging Device), developed using advanced Nano/Micro fabrication techniques. The current version of this device has been demonstrated to form a stable (epidermal growth factor) EGF gradient in vitro (2D and 3D) while a miniaturized size of NANIVID is used as an implantable device for intravital studies of chemotaxis and to collect cells in vivo. The device is fabricated using microfabrication techniques in which two substrates are bonded together using a thin polymer layer creating a bonded device with one point source (approximately 150 im x 50 im) outlet. The main structures of the device consist of two transparent substrates: one having etched chambers and channel while the second consists of a microelectrode system to measure real time cell arrival inside the device. The chamber of the device is loaded with a growth factor reservoir consisting of hydrogel to sustain a steady release of growth factor into the surrounding environment for long periods of time and establishing a concentration gradient from the device. The focus of this study was to design and optimize the new device for cell chemotaxis studies in breast cancer cells in cell culture. Our results

  12. A Review of Knowledge Gaps and Tools for Orbivirus Research.

    PubMed

    Drolet, Barbara S; van Rijn, Piet; Howerth, Elizabeth W; Beer, Martin; Mertens, Peter P

    2015-06-01

    Although recognized as causing emerging and re-emerging disease outbreaks worldwide since the late 1800 s, there has been growing interest in the United States and Europe in recent years in orbiviruses, their insect vectors, and the diseases they cause in domestic livestock and wildlife. This is due, in part, to the emergence of bluetongue (BT) in northern Europe in 2006-2007 resulting in a devastating outbreak, as well as severe BT outbreaks in sheep and epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD) outbreaks in deer and cattle in the United States. Of notable concern is the isolation of as many as 10 new BT virus (BTV) serotypes in the United States since 1999 and their associated unknowns, such as route of introduction, virulence to mammals, and indigenous competent vectors. This review, based on a gap analysis workshop composed of international experts on orbiviruses conducted in 2013, gives a global perspective of current basic virological understanding of orbiviruses, with particular attention to BTV and the closely related epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV), and identifies a multitude of basic virology research gaps, critical for predicting and preventing outbreaks. PMID:26086555

  13. Citizen Science as a New Tool in Dog Cognition Research.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Laughlin; MacLean, Evan L; Ivy, David; Woods, Vanessa; Cohen, Eliot; Rodriguez, Kerri; McIntyre, Matthew; Mukherjee, Sayan; Call, Josep; Kaminski, Juliane; Miklósi, Ádám; Wrangham, Richard W; Hare, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Family dogs and dog owners offer a potentially powerful way to conduct citizen science to answer questions about animal behavior that are difficult to answer with more conventional approaches. Here we evaluate the quality of the first data on dog cognition collected by citizen scientists using the Dognition.com website. We conducted analyses to understand if data generated by over 500 citizen scientists replicates internally and in comparison to previously published findings. Half of participants participated for free while the other half paid for access. The website provided each participant a temperament questionnaire and instructions on how to conduct a series of ten cognitive tests. Participation required internet access, a dog and some common household items. Participants could record their responses on any PC, tablet or smartphone from anywhere in the world and data were retained on servers. Results from citizen scientists and their dogs replicated a number of previously described phenomena from conventional lab-based research. There was little evidence that citizen scientists manipulated their results. To illustrate the potential uses of relatively large samples of citizen science data, we then used factor analysis to examine individual differences across the cognitive tasks. The data were best explained by multiple factors in support of the hypothesis that nonhumans, including dogs, can evolve multiple cognitive domains that vary independently. This analysis suggests that in the future, citizen scientists will generate useful datasets that test hypotheses and answer questions as a complement to conventional laboratory techniques used to study dog psychology. PMID:26376443

  14. Citizen Science as a New Tool in Dog Cognition Research

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Laughlin; MacLean, Evan L.; Ivy, David; Woods, Vanessa; Cohen, Eliot; Rodriguez, Kerri; McIntyre, Matthew; Mukherjee, Sayan; Call, Josep; Kaminski, Juliane; Miklósi, Ádám; Wrangham, Richard W.; Hare, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Family dogs and dog owners offer a potentially powerful way to conduct citizen science to answer questions about animal behavior that are difficult to answer with more conventional approaches. Here we evaluate the quality of the first data on dog cognition collected by citizen scientists using the Dognition.com website. We conducted analyses to understand if data generated by over 500 citizen scientists replicates internally and in comparison to previously published findings. Half of participants participated for free while the other half paid for access. The website provided each participant a temperament questionnaire and instructions on how to conduct a series of ten cognitive tests. Participation required internet access, a dog and some common household items. Participants could record their responses on any PC, tablet or smartphone from anywhere in the world and data were retained on servers. Results from citizen scientists and their dogs replicated a number of previously described phenomena from conventional lab-based research. There was little evidence that citizen scientists manipulated their results. To illustrate the potential uses of relatively large samples of citizen science data, we then used factor analysis to examine individual differences across the cognitive tasks. The data were best explained by multiple factors in support of the hypothesis that nonhumans, including dogs, can evolve multiple cognitive domains that vary independently. This analysis suggests that in the future, citizen scientists will generate useful datasets that test hypotheses and answer questions as a complement to conventional laboratory techniques used to study dog psychology. PMID:26376443

  15. Microwave transmission, a new tool in forest hydrological research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouten, W.; Swart, P. J. F.; De Water, E.

    1991-04-01

    After several decades of interception studies, there are still considerable gaps in the understanding of wet-canopy evaporation. Model development is being obstructed by the lack of techniques for the measurement of state and rate variables which have to be quantified for model validation. The applicability of microwave attenuation measurements for the determination of canopy wetness is examined. The attenuation caused by a single spruce fir in the laboratory and the vertical attenuation profiles of a Douglas fir stand were measured under dry and wet conditions. The results indicate an instant increase of the attenuation upon wetting and a decrease owing to drip and evaporation after rainfall ceased. From the results, conclusions have been drawn on the design of instrumentation for an optimized measuring system which is suitable for unattended automated scanning of canopy water storage. This system has been calibrated, using vertically integrated microwave attenuation profiles and canopy water budgets from precipitation and throughfall measurements. This system will be used for a forest hydrological study in the framework of the Dutch ACIFORN project, a research project on the effect of atmospheric deposition on Douglas fir vitality.

  16. Development, Validation and Deployment of a Real Time 30 Day Hospital Readmission Risk Assessment Tool in the Maine Healthcare Information Exchange

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Shiying; Wang, Yue; Jin, Bo; Shin, Andrew Young; Zhu, Chunqing; Huang, Min; Zheng, Le; Luo, Jin; Hu, Zhongkai; Fu, Changlin; Dai, Dorothy; Wang, Yicheng; Culver, Devore S.; Alfreds, Shaun T.; Rogow, Todd; Stearns, Frank; Sylvester, Karl G.; Widen, Eric; Ling, Xuefeng B.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Identifying patients at risk of a 30-day readmission can help providers design interventions, and provide targeted care to improve clinical effectiveness. This study developed a risk model to predict a 30-day inpatient hospital readmission for patients in Maine, across all payers, all diseases and all demographic groups. Methods Our objective was to develop a model to determine the risk for inpatient hospital readmission within 30 days post discharge. All patients within the Maine Health Information Exchange (HIE) system were included. The model was retrospectively developed on inpatient encounters between January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2012 from 24 randomly chosen hospitals, and then prospectively validated on inpatient encounters from January 1, 2013 to December 31, 2013 using all HIE patients. Results A risk assessment tool partitioned the entire HIE population into subgroups that corresponded to probability of hospital readmission as determined by a corresponding positive predictive value (PPV). An overall model c-statistic of 0.72 was achieved. The total 30-day readmission rates in low (score of 0–30), intermediate (score of 30–70) and high (score of 70–100) risk groupings were 8.67%, 24.10% and 74.10%, respectively. A time to event analysis revealed the higher risk groups readmitted to a hospital earlier than the lower risk groups. Six high-risk patient subgroup patterns were revealed through unsupervised clustering. Our model was successfully integrated into the statewide HIE to identify patient readmission risk upon admission and daily during hospitalization or for 30 days subsequently, providing daily risk score updates. Conclusions The risk model was validated as an effective tool for predicting 30-day readmissions for patients across all payer, disease and demographic groups within the Maine HIE. Exposing the key clinical, demographic and utilization profiles driving each patient’s risk of readmission score may be useful to providers

  17. Emerging Imaging Tools for Use with Traumatic Brain Injury Research

    PubMed Central

    Wilde, Elisabeth A.; Tong, Karen A.; Holshouser, Barbara A.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract This article identifies emerging neuroimaging measures considered by the inter-agency Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) Neuroimaging Workgroup. This article attempts to address some of the potential uses of more advanced forms of imaging in TBI as well as highlight some of the current considerations and unresolved challenges of using them. We summarize emerging elements likely to gain more widespread use in the coming years, because of 1) their utility in diagnosis, prognosis, and understanding the natural course of degeneration or recovery following TBI, and potential for evaluating treatment strategies; 2) the ability of many centers to acquire these data with scanners and equipment that are readily available in existing clinical and research settings; and 3) advances in software that provide more automated, readily available, and cost-effective analysis methods for large scale data image analysis. These include multi-slice CT, volumetric MRI analysis, susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), magnetization transfer imaging (MTI), arterial spin tag labeling (ASL), functional MRI (fMRI), including resting state and connectivity MRI, MR spectroscopy (MRS), and hyperpolarization scanning. However, we also include brief introductions to other specialized forms of advanced imaging that currently do require specialized equipment, for example, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), positron emission tomography (PET), encephalography (EEG), and magnetoencephalography (MEG)/magnetic source imaging (MSI). Finally, we identify some of the challenges that users of the emerging imaging CDEs may wish to consider, including quality control, performing multi-site and longitudinal imaging studies, and MR scanning in infants and children. PMID:21787167

  18. Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC): Providing Access to Space Weather Models and Research Support Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chulaki, A.; Bakshi, S. S.; Berrios, D.; Hesse, M.; Kuznetsova, M. M.; Lee, H.; MacNeice, P. J.; Mendoza, A. M.; Mullinix, R.; Patel, K. D.; Pulkkinen, A.; Rastaetter, L.; Shim, J.; Taktakishvili, A.; Zheng, Y.

    2011-12-01

    The Community Coordinated Modeling Center at NASA, Goddard Space flight Center, provides access to state-of-the-art space weather models to the research community. The majority of the models residing at the CCMC are comprehensive computationally intensive physics-based models. The CCMC also provides free services and tools to assist the research community in analyzing the results from the space weather model simulations. We present an overview of the available tools and services at the CCMC: the Runs-On-Request system, the online visualization, the Kameleon access and interpolation library and the Metrics Challenge tools suite.

  19. Advancing Research in Second Language Writing through Computational Tools and Machine Learning Techniques: A Research Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossley, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an agenda for replication studies focusing on second language (L2) writing and the use of natural language processing (NLP) tools and machine learning algorithms. Specifically, it introduces a range of the available NLP tools and machine learning algorithms and demonstrates how these could be used to replicate seminal studies…

  20. ResearchIQ: Design of a Semantically Anchored Integrative Query Tool

    PubMed Central

    Lele, Omkar; Raje, Satyajeet; Yen, Po-Yin; Payne, Philip

    2015-01-01

    An important factor influencing the pace of research activity is the ability of researchers to discover and leverage heterogeneous resources. Usually, researcher profiles, laboratory equipment, data samples, clinical trials, and other research resources are stored in heterogeneous datasets in large organizations. Emergent semantic web technologies provide novel approaches to discover, annotate and consequently link such resources. In this manuscript, we describe the design of Research Integrative Query (ResearchIQ) tool, a semantically anchored resource discovery platform that facilitates semantic discovery of local and publically available data through a single web portal designed for researchers in the biomedical informatics domain within The Ohio State University. PMID:26306248

  1. From research to management: A suite of GIS-based watershed modeling, assessment and planning tools 1889

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment (AGWA) tool is a GIS-based hydrologic modeling tool developed jointly by the U.S. EPA Office of Research and Development, USDA Agricultural Research Service, and University of Arizona. It was initially designed as a research tool for assessing the hydro...

  2. New Tools for New Literacies Research: An Exploration of Usability Testing Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asselin, Marlene; Moayeri, Maryam

    2010-01-01

    Competency in the new literacies of the Internet is essential for participating in contemporary society. Researchers studying these new literacies are recognizing the limitations of traditional methodological tools and adapting new technologies and new media for use in research. This paper reports our exploration of usability testing software to…

  3. The Notion of the Relationship to Knowledge: A Theoretical Tool for Research in Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pouliot, Chantal; Bader, Barbara; Therriault, Genevieve

    2010-01-01

    This article pursues a dual objective. First, it seeks to present the notion of the relationship to knowledge as a valuable theoretical tool for science education research. Secondly, it aims to illustrate how this notion has been operationalized in recent research conducted in Quebec (Canada) that focuses on teachers' and students' relationship to…

  4. TREND: a tool for rapid online research literature analysis and quantification.

    PubMed

    Landers, Richard N

    2008-08-01

    The Research Explicator for oNline Databases (TREND) tool was developed out of a need to quantify large research literatures rapidly and objectively on the basis of online research database output. By parsing such output with TREND, a researcher can in minutes extract the most commonly cited articles, the most frequently published authors, a distribution of publication dates, and a variety of other information from a research literature several thousand articles in size. This tool thus enables an increase in productivity both for researchers venturing into new areas of interest and for advisors and instructors putting together core reading lists. The processing of citations from articles represents a unique challenge, however, because deviations from strict APA formatting cause problems that are sometimes difficult to correct mechanically. A case study of one particularly troublesome citation (Baron & Kenny, 1986) is presented. Usage and implications are discussed. PMID:18697661

  5. Communication research between working capacity of hard- alloy cutting tools and fractal dimension of their wear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arefiev, K.; Nesterenko, V.; Daneykina, N.

    2016-06-01

    The results of communication research between the wear resistance of the K applicability hard-alloy cutting tools and the fractal dimension of the wear surface, which is formed on a back side of the cutting edge when processing the materials showing high adhesive activity are presented in the paper. It has been established that the wear resistance of tested cutting tools samples increases according to a fractal dimension increase of their wear surface.

  6. Development of Advanced Computational Aeroelasticity Tools at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartels, R. E.

    2008-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center has continued to develop its long standing computational tools to address new challenges in aircraft and launch vehicle design. This paper discusses the application and development of those computational aeroelastic tools. Four topic areas will be discussed: 1) Modeling structural and flow field nonlinearities; 2) Integrated and modular approaches to nonlinear multidisciplinary analysis; 3) Simulating flight dynamics of flexible vehicles; and 4) Applications that support both aeronautics and space exploration.

  7. A Tool for Measuring NASA's Aeronautics Research Progress Toward Planned Strategic Community Outcomes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tahmasebi, Farhad; Pearce, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Description of a tool for portfolio analysis of NASA's Aeronautics research progress toward planned community strategic Outcomes is presented. For efficiency and speed, the tool takes advantage of a function developed in Excels Visual Basic for Applications. The strategic planning process for determining the community Outcomes is also briefly discussed. Stakeholder buy-in, partnership performance, progress of supporting Technical Challenges, and enablement forecast are used as the criteria for evaluating progress toward Outcomes. A few illustrative examples of using the tool are also presented.

  8. Interactive Data Visualization for HIV Cohorts: Leveraging Data Exchange Standards to Share and Reuse Research Tools

    PubMed Central

    Blevins, Meridith; Wehbe, Firas H.; Rebeiro, Peter F.; Caro-Vega, Yanink; McGowan, Catherine C.; Shepherd, Bryan E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To develop and disseminate tools for interactive visualization of HIV cohort data. Design and Methods If a picture is worth a thousand words, then an interactive video, composed of a long string of pictures, can produce an even richer presentation of HIV population dynamics. We developed an HIV cohort data visualization tool using open-source software (R statistical language). The tool requires that the data structure conform to the HIV Cohort Data Exchange Protocol (HICDEP), and our implementation utilized Caribbean, Central and South America network (CCASAnet) data. Results This tool currently presents patient-level data in three classes of plots: (1) Longitudinal plots showing changes in measurements viewed alongside event probability curves allowing for simultaneous inspection of outcomes by relevant patient classes. (2) Bubble plots showing changes in indicators over time allowing for observation of group level dynamics. (3) Heat maps of levels of indicators changing over time allowing for observation of spatial-temporal dynamics. Examples of each class of plot are given using CCASAnet data investigating trends in CD4 count and AIDS at antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation, CD4 trajectories after ART initiation, and mortality. Conclusions We invite researchers interested in this data visualization effort to use these tools and to suggest new classes of data visualization. We aim to contribute additional shareable tools in the spirit of open scientific collaboration and hope that these tools further the participation in open data standards like HICDEP by the HIV research community. PMID:26963255

  9. Scientific Mobility and International Research Networks: Trends and Policy Tools for Promoting Research Excellence and Capacity Building

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Merle; Meek, V. Lynn

    2013-01-01

    One of the ways in which globalization is manifesting itself in higher education and research is through the increasing importance and emphasis on scientific mobility. This article seeks to provide an overview and analysis of current trends and policy tools for promoting mobility. The article argues that the mobility of scientific labour is an…

  10. Isotope pattern deconvolution as rising tool for isotope tracer studies in environmental research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irrgeher, Johanna; Zitek, Andreas; Prohaska, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    During the last decade stable isotope tracers have emerged as versatile tool in ecological research. Besides 'intrinsic' isotope tracers caused by the natural variation of isotopes, the intentional introduction of 'extrinsic' enriched stable isotope tracers into biological systems has gained significant interest. Hereby the induced change in the natural isotopic composition of an element allows amongst others for studying the fate and fluxes of metals, trace elements and species in organisms or provides an intrinsic marker or tag of particular biological samples. Due to the shoreless potential of this methodology, the number of publications dealing with applications of isotope (double) spikes as tracers to address research questions in 'real world systems' is constantly increasing. However, some isotope systems like the natural Sr isotopic system, although potentially very powerful for this type of application, are still rarely used, mainly because their adequate measurement/determination poses major analytical challenges; as e.g. Sr is available in significant amounts in natural samples. In addition, biological systems underlie complex processes such as metabolism, adsorption/desorption or oxidation/reduction. As a consequence, classic evaluation approaches such as the isotope dilution mass spectrometry equation are often not applicable because of the unknown amount of tracer finally present in the sample. Isotope pattern deconvolution (IPD), based on multiple linear regression, serves as simplified alternative data processing strategy to double spike isotope dilution calculations. The outstanding advantage of this mathematical tool lies in the possibility of deconvolving the isotope pattern in a spiked sample without knowing the quantities of enriched isotope tracer being incorporated into the natural sample matrix as well as the degree of impurities and species-interconversion (e.g. from sample preparation). Here, the potential of IPD for environmental tracer

  11. Basics, common errors and essentials of statistical tools and techniques in anesthesiology research

    PubMed Central

    Bajwa, Sukhminder Jit Singh

    2015-01-01

    The statistical portion is a vital component of any research study. The research methodology and the application of statistical tools and techniques have evolved over the years and have significantly helped the research activities throughout the globe. The results and inferences are not accurately possible without proper validation with various statistical tools and tests. The evidencebased anesthesia research and practice has to incorporate statistical tools in the methodology right from the planning stage of the study itself. Though the medical fraternity is well acquainted with the significance of statistics in research, there is a lack of in-depth knowledge about the various statistical concepts and principles among majority of the researchers. The clinical impact and consequences can be serious as the incorrect analysis, conclusions, and false results may construct an artificial platform on which future research activities are replicated. The present tutorial is an attempt to make anesthesiologists aware of the various aspects of statistical methods used in evidence-based research and also to highlight the common areas where maximum number of statistical errors are committed so as to adopt better statistical practices. PMID:26702217

  12. The Research-Teaching Nexus: Using a Construction Teaching Event as a Research Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casanovas-Rubio, Maria del Mar; Ahearn, Alison; Ramos, Gonzalo; Popo-Ola, Sunday

    2016-01-01

    In principle, the research-teaching nexus should be seen as a two-way link, showing not only ways in which research supports teaching but also ways in which teaching supports research. In reality, the discussion has been limited almost entirely to the first of these practices. This paper presents a case study in which some student field-trip…

  13. Research-tool patents: issues for health in the developing world.

    PubMed Central

    Barton, John H.

    2002-01-01

    The patent system is now reaching into the tools of medical research, including gene sequences themselves. Many of the new patents can potentially preempt large areas of medical research and lay down legal barriers to the development of a broad category of products. Researchers must therefore consider redesigning their research to avoid use of patented techniques, or expending the effort to obtain licences from those who hold the patents. Even if total licence fees can be kept low, there are enormous negotiation costs, and one "hold-out" may be enough to lead to project cancellation. This is making it more difficult to conduct research within the developed world, and poses important questions for the future of medical research for the benefit of the developing world. Probably the most important implication for health in the developing world is the possible general slowing down and complication of medical research. To the extent that these patents do slow down research, they weaken the contribution of the global research community to the creation and application of medical technology for the benefit of developing nations. The patents may also complicate the granting of concessional prices to developing nations - for pharmaceutical firms that seek to offer a concessional price may have to negotiate arrangements with research-tool firms, which may lose royalties as a result. Three kinds of response are plausible. One is to develop a broad or global licence to permit the patented technologies to be used for important applications in the developing world. The second is to change technical patent law doctrines. Such changes could be implemented in developed and developing nations and could be quite helpful while remaining consistent with TRIPS. The third is to negotiate specific licence arrangements, under which specific research tools are used on an agreed basis for specific applications. These negotiations are difficult and expensive, requiring both scientific and

  14. Quantitative Risk reduction estimation Tool For Control Systems, Suggested Approach and Research Needs

    SciTech Connect

    Miles McQueen; Wayne Boyer; Mark Flynn; Sam Alessi

    2006-03-01

    For the past year we have applied a variety of risk assessment technologies to evaluate the risk to critical infrastructure from cyber attacks on control systems. More recently, we identified the need for a stand alone control system risk reduction estimation tool to provide owners and operators of control systems with a more useable, reliable, and credible method for managing the risks from cyber attack. Risk is defined as the probability of a successful attack times the value of the resulting loss, typically measured in lives and dollars. Qualitative and ad hoc techniques for measuring risk do not provide sufficient support for cost benefit analyses associated with cyber security mitigation actions. To address the need for better quantitative risk reduction models we surveyed previous quantitative risk assessment research; evaluated currently available tools; developed new quantitative techniques [17] [18]; implemented a prototype analysis tool to demonstrate how such a tool might be used; used the prototype to test a variety of underlying risk calculational engines (e.g. attack tree, attack graph); and identified technical and research needs. We concluded that significant gaps still exist and difficult research problems remain for quantitatively assessing the risk to control system components and networks, but that a useable quantitative risk reduction estimation tool is not beyond reach.

  15. Knowledge Translation Tools are Emerging to Move Neck Pain Research into Practice

    PubMed Central

    MacDermid, Joy C.; Miller, Jordan; Gross, Anita R.

    2013-01-01

    Development or synthesis of the best clinical research is in itself insufficient to change practice. Knowledge translation (KT) is an emerging field focused on moving knowledge into practice, which is a non-linear, dynamic process that involves knowledge synthesis, transfer, adoption, implementation, and sustained use. Successful implementation requires using KT strategies based on theory, evidence, and best practice, including tools and processes that engage knowledge developers and knowledge users. Tools can provide instrumental help in implementing evidence. A variety of theoretical frameworks underlie KT and provide guidance on how tools should be developed or implemented. A taxonomy that outlines different purposes for engaging in KT and target audiences can also be useful in developing or implementing tools. Theoretical frameworks that underlie KT typically take different perspectives on KT with differential focus on the characteristics of the knowledge, knowledge users, context/environment, or the cognitive and social processes that are involved in change. Knowledge users include consumers, clinicians, and policymakers. A variety of KT tools have supporting evidence, including: clinical practice guidelines, patient decision aids, and evidence summaries or toolkits. Exemplars are provided of two KT tools to implement best practice in management of neck pain—a clinician implementation guide (toolkit) and a patient decision aid. KT frameworks, taxonomies, clinical expertise, and evidence must be integrated to develop clinical tools that implement best evidence in the management of neck pain. PMID:24155807

  16. Research on Error Modelling and Identification of 3 Axis NC Machine Tools Based on Cross Grid Encoder Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Z. C.; Lv, C. F.; Hong, M. S.

    2006-10-01

    A new error modelling and identification method based on the cross grid encoder is proposed in this paper. Generally, there are 21 error components in the geometric error of the 3 axis NC machine tools. However according our theoretical analysis, the squareness error among different guide ways affects not only the translation error component, but also the rotational ones. Therefore, a revised synthetic error model is developed. And the mapping relationship between the error component and radial motion error of round workpiece manufactured on the NC machine tools are deduced. This mapping relationship shows that the radial error of circular motion is the comprehensive function result of all the error components of link, worktable, sliding table and main spindle block. Aiming to overcome the solution singularity shortcoming of traditional error component identification method, a new multi-step identification method of error component by using the Cross Grid Encoder measurement technology is proposed based on the kinematic error model of NC machine tool. Firstly, the 12 translational error components of the NC machine tool are measured and identified by using the least square method (LSM) when the NC machine tools go linear motion in the three orthogonal planes: XOY plane, XOZ plane and YOZ plane. Secondly, the circular error tracks are measured when the NC machine tools go circular motion in the same above orthogonal planes by using the cross grid encoder Heidenhain KGM 182. Therefore 9 rotational errors can be identified by using LSM. Finally the experimental validation of the above modelling theory and identification method is carried out in the 3 axis CNC vertical machining centre Cincinnati 750 Arrow. The entire 21 error components have been successfully measured out by the above method. Research shows the multi-step modelling and identification method is very suitable for 'on machine measurement'.

  17. Research-IQ: Development and Evaluation of an Ontology-anchored Integrative Query Tool

    PubMed Central

    Borlawsky, Tara B.; Lele, Omkar; Payne, Philip R. O.

    2011-01-01

    Investigators in the translational research and systems medicine domains require highly usable, efficient and integrative tools and methods that allow for the navigation of and reasoning over emerging large-scale data sets. Such resources must cover a spectrum of granularity from bio-molecules to population phenotypes. Given such information needs, we report upon the initial design and evaluation of an ontology-anchored integrative query tool, Research-IQ, which employs a combination of conceptual knowledge engineering and information retrieval techniques to enable the intuitive and rapid construction of queries, in terms of semi-structured textual propositions, that can subsequently be applied to integrative data sets. Our initial results, based upon both quantitative and qualitative evaluations of the efficacy and usability of Research-IQ, demonstrate its potential to increase clinical and translational research throughput. PMID:21821150

  18. Managing complex research datasets using electronic tools: a meta-analysis exemplar.

    PubMed

    Brown, Sharon A; Martin, Ellen E; Garcia, Theresa J; Winter, Mary A; García, Alexandra A; Brown, Adama; Cuevas, Heather E; Sumlin, Lisa L

    2013-06-01

    Meta-analyses of broad scope and complexity require investigators to organize many study documents and manage communication among several research staff. Commercially available electronic tools, for example, EndNote, Adobe Acrobat Pro, Blackboard, Excel, and IBM SPSS Statistics (SPSS), are useful for organizing and tracking the meta-analytic process as well as enhancing communication among research team members. The purpose of this article is to describe the electronic processes designed, using commercially available software, for an extensive, quantitative model-testing meta-analysis. Specific electronic tools improved the efficiency of (a) locating and screening studies, (b) screening and organizing studies and other project documents, (c) extracting data from primary studies, (d) checking data accuracy and analyses, and (e) communication among team members. The major limitation in designing and implementing a fully electronic system for meta-analysis was the requisite upfront time to decide on which electronic tools to use, determine how these tools would be used, develop clear guidelines for their use, and train members of the research team. The electronic process described here has been useful in streamlining the process of conducting this complex meta-analysis and enhancing communication and sharing documents among research team members. PMID:23681256

  19. Improving the Usefulness of Concept Maps as a Research Tool for Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Zele, Els; Lenaerts, Josephina; Wieme, Willem

    2004-01-01

    The search for authentic science research tools to evaluate student understanding in a hybrid learning environment with a large multimedia component has resulted in the use of concept maps as a representation of student's knowledge organization. One hundred and seventy third-semester introductory university-level engineering students represented…

  20. Managing complex research datasets using electronic tools: A meta-analysis exemplar

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Sharon A.; Martin, Ellen E.; Garcia, Theresa J.; Winter, Mary A.; García, Alexandra A.; Brown, Adama; Cuevas, Heather E.; Sumlin, Lisa L.

    2013-01-01

    Meta-analyses of broad scope and complexity require investigators to organize many study documents and manage communication among several research staff. Commercially available electronic tools, e.g., EndNote, Adobe Acrobat Pro, Blackboard, Excel, and IBM SPSS Statistics (SPSS), are useful for organizing and tracking the meta-analytic process, as well as enhancing communication among research team members. The purpose of this paper is to describe the electronic processes we designed, using commercially available software, for an extensive quantitative model-testing meta-analysis we are conducting. Specific electronic tools improved the efficiency of (a) locating and screening studies, (b) screening and organizing studies and other project documents, (c) extracting data from primary studies, (d) checking data accuracy and analyses, and (e) communication among team members. The major limitation in designing and implementing a fully electronic system for meta-analysis was the requisite upfront time to: decide on which electronic tools to use, determine how these tools would be employed, develop clear guidelines for their use, and train members of the research team. The electronic process described here has been useful in streamlining the process of conducting this complex meta-analysis and enhancing communication and sharing documents among research team members. PMID:23681256

  1. Family Myths, Beliefs, and Customs as a Research/Educational Tool to Explore Identity Formation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, William E.

    2008-01-01

    This paper outlines a qualitative research tool designed to explore personal identity formation as described by Erik Erikson and offers self-reflective and anonymous evaluative comments made by college students after completing this task. Subjects compiled a list of 200 myths, customs, fables, rituals, and beliefs from their family of origin and…

  2. A Portfolio Analysis Tool for Measuring NASAs Aeronautics Research Progress toward Planned Strategic Outcomes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tahmasebi, Farhad; Pearce, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Description of a tool for portfolio analysis of NASA's Aeronautics research progress toward planned community strategic Outcomes is presented. The strategic planning process for determining the community Outcomes is also briefly described. Stakeholder buy-in, partnership performance, progress of supporting Technical Challenges, and enablement forecast are used as the criteria for evaluating progress toward Outcomes. A few illustrative examples are also presented.

  3. Qualitative and Quantitative Management Tools Used by Financial Officers in Public Research Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trexler, Grant Lewis

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation set out to identify effective qualitative and quantitative management tools used by financial officers (CFOs) in carrying out their management functions of planning, decision making, organizing, staffing, communicating, motivating, leading and controlling at a public research university. In addition, impediments to the use of…

  4. Handbook of Research on Technology Tools for Real-World Skill Development (2 Volumes)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Yigel, Ed.; Ferrara, Steve, Ed.; Mosharraf, Maryam, Ed.

    2016-01-01

    Education is expanding to include a stronger focus on the practical application of classroom lessons in an effort to prepare the next generation of scholars for a changing world economy centered on collaborative and problem-solving skills for the digital age. "The Handbook of Research on Technology Tools for Real-World Skill Development"…

  5. (Re)braiding to Tell: Using "Trenzas" as a Metaphorical-Analytical Tool in Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quiñones, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Metaphors can be used in qualitative research to illuminate the meanings of participant experiences and examine phenomena from insightful and creative perspectives. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate how I utilized "trenzas" (braids) as a metaphorical and analytical tool for understanding the experiences and perspectives of…

  6. Community-based research as a tool for empowerment: the Haida Gwaii Diabetes Project example.

    PubMed

    Herbert, C P

    1996-01-01

    The evolution of the Haida Gwaii Diabetes Project exemplifies how community-based family practice research can be a tool for empowerment for both the community of research participants and the community based members of the research team. The aims of the project are to develop a better understanding of Haida beliefs about diabetes; to develop culturally sensitive approaches to prevention and management; and to attempt to apply this understanding to the development of a model for preventive health for native people in the province of British Columbia. A participatory research paradigm, coupled with explicit working principles by which the research team agreed to operate, addressed the concerns that the Aboriginal community had about the risks of research. A true working partnership has developed among all members of the research team, and with the Haida community. PMID:8753639

  7. DMPwerkzeug - A tool to support the planning, implementation, and organization of research data management.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klar, Jochen; Engelhardt, Claudia; Neuroth, Heike; Enke, Harry

    2016-04-01

    Following the call to make the results of publicly funded research openly accessible, more and more funding agencies demand the submission of a data management plan (DMP) as part of the application process. These documents specify, how the data management of the project is organized and what datasets will be published when. Of particular importance for European researchers is the Open Data Research Pilot of Horizon 2020 which requires data management plans for a set of 9 selected research fields from social sciences to nanotechnology. In order to assist the researchers creating these documents, several institutions developed dedicated software tools. The most well-known are DMPonline by the Digital Curation Centre (DCC) and DMPtool by the California Digital Library (CDL) - both extensive and well received web applications. The core functionality of these tools is the assisted editing of the DMP templates provided by the particular funding agency.While this is certainly helpful, especially in an environment with a plethora of different funding agencies like the UK or the USA, these tools are somewhat limited to this particular task and don't utilise the full potential of DMP. Beyond the purpose of fulfilling funder requirements, DMP can be useful for a number of additional tasks. In the initial conception phase of a project, they can be used as a planning tool to determine which date management activities and measures are necessary throughout the research process, to assess which resources are needed, and which institutions (computing centers, libraries, data centers) should be involved. During the project, they can act as a constant reference or guideline for the handling of research data. They also determine where the data will be stored after the project has ended and whether it can be accessed by the public, helping to take into account resulting requirements of the data center or actions necessary to ensure re-usability by others from early on. Ideally, a DMP

  8. Stone tool analysis and human origins research: some advice from Uncle Screwtape.

    PubMed

    Shea, John J

    2011-01-01

    The production of purposefully fractured stone tools with functional, sharp cutting edges is a uniquely derived hominin adaptation. In the long history of life on earth, only hominins have adopted this remarkably expedient and broadly effective technological strategy. In the paleontological record, flaked stone tools are irrefutable proof that hominins were present at a particular place and time. Flaked stone tools are found in contexts ranging from the Arctic to equatorial rainforests and on every continent except Antarctica. Paleolithic stone tools show complex patterns of variability, suggesting that they have been subject to the variable selective pressures that have shaped so many other aspects of hominin behavior and morphology. There is every reason to expect that insights gained from studying stone tools should provide vital and important information about the course of human evolution. And yet, one senses that archeological analyses of Paleolithic stone tools are not making as much of a contribution as they could to the major issues in human origins research. PMID:22034103

  9. Virtual Globes and Glacier Research: Integrating research, collaboration, logistics, data archival, and outreach into a single tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolan, M.

    2006-12-01

    Virtual Globes are a paradigm shift in the way earth sciences are conducted. With these tools, nearly all aspects of earth science can be integrated from field science, to remote sensing, to remote collaborations, to logistical planning, to data archival/retrieval, to PDF paper retriebal, to education and outreach. Here we present an example of how VGs can be fully exploited for field sciences, using research at McCall Glacier, in Arctic Alaska.

  10. Building genetic tools in Drosophila research: an interview with Gerald Rubin

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Gerald (Gerry) Rubin, pioneer in Drosophila genetics, is Founding Director of the HHMI-funded Janelia Research Campus. In this interview, Gerry recounts key events and collaborations that have shaped his unique approach to scientific exploration, decision-making, management and mentorship – an approach that forms the cornerstone of the model adopted at Janelia to tackle problems in interdisciplinary biomedical research. Gerry describes his remarkable journey from newcomer to internationally renowned leader in the fly field, highlighting his contributions to the tools and resources that have helped establish Drosophila as an important model in translational research. Describing himself as a ‘tool builder’, his current focus is on developing approaches for in-depth study of the fly nervous system, in order to understand key principles in neurobiology. Gerry was interviewed by Ross Cagan, Senior Editor of Disease Models & Mechanisms. PMID:27053132

  11. The Association of Religion Data Archives (ARDA): Online Research Data, Tools, and References

    PubMed Central

    Finke, Roger; Adamczyk, Amy

    2014-01-01

    The Association of Religion Data Archives (ARDA) currently archives over 400 local, national, and international data files, and offers a wide range of research tools to build surveys, preview data on-line, develop customized maps and reports of U.S. church membership, and examine religion differences across nations and regions of the world. The ARDA also supports reference and teaching tools that draw on the rich data archive. This research note offers a brief introduction to the quantitative data available for exploration or download, and a few of the website features most useful for research and teaching. Supported by the Lilly Endowment, the John Templeton Foundation, the Pennsylvania State University, and the Baylor Institute for Studies of Religion, all data downloads and online services are free of charge. PMID:25484914

  12. Information Technology Research Services: Powerful Tools to Keep Up with a Rapidly Moving Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Marty firms offer Information Technology Research reports, analyst calls, conferences, seminars, tools, leadership development, etc. These entities include Gartner, Forrester Research, IDC, The Burton Group, Society for Information Management, 1nfoTech Research, The Corporate Executive Board, and so on. This talk will cover how a number of such services are being used at the Goddard Space Flight Center to improve our IT management practices, workforce skills, approach to innovation, and service delivery. These tools and services are used across the workforce, from the executive leadership to the IT worker. The presentation will cover the types of services each vendor provides and their primary engagement model. The use of these services at other NASA Centers and Headquarters will be included. In addition, I will explain how two of these services are available now to the entire NASA IT workforce through enterprise-wide subscriptions.

  13. Building genetic tools in Drosophila research: an interview with Gerald Rubin.

    PubMed

    2016-04-01

    Gerald (Gerry) Rubin, pioneer inDrosophilagenetics, is Founding Director of the HHMI-funded Janelia Research Campus. In this interview, Gerry recounts key events and collaborations that have shaped his unique approach to scientific exploration, decision-making, management and mentorship - an approach that forms the cornerstone of the model adopted at Janelia to tackle problems in interdisciplinary biomedical research. Gerry describes his remarkable journey from newcomer to internationally renowned leader in the fly field, highlighting his contributions to the tools and resources that have helped establishDrosophilaas an important model in translational research. Describing himself as a 'tool builder', his current focus is on developing approaches for in-depth study of the fly nervous system, in order to understand key principles in neurobiology. Gerry was interviewed by Ross Cagan, Senior Editor of Disease Models & Mechanisms. PMID:27053132

  14. Development of an Accessible Self-Assessment Tool for Research Ethics Committees in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Sleem, Hany; Abdelhai, Rehab Abdelhai Ahmed; Al-Abdallat, Imad; Al-Naif, Mohammed; Gabr, Hala Mansour; Kehil, Et-taher; Sadiq, Bakr Bin; Yousri, Reham; Elsayed, Dyaeldin; Sulaiman, Suad; Silverman, Henry

    2011-01-01

    In response to increased research being performed in developing countries, many research ethics committees (RECs) have been established, but the quality of their ethics review systems remains unknown. Evaluating the performance of an REC remains a challenging task. Absent an accreditation process, a self-assessment mechanism would provide RECs a way to review their policies and processes against recognized international standards. We describe a self-assessment tool that was developed and reviewed by REC members and researchers from the Middle East. This tool reflects pragmatic aspects of human subjects protection, is based on international standards, is straightforward in its completion, and its items are relevant to the administrative processes that exist in many RECs in the developing world. PMID:20831423

  15. High integrity software for nuclear power plants: Candidate guidelines, technical basis and research needs. Main report, Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Seth, S.; Bail, W.; Cleaves, D.; Cohen, H.; Hybertson, D.; Schaefer, C.; Stark, G.; Ta, A.; Ulery, B.

    1995-06-01

    The work documented in this report was performed in support of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to examine the technical basis for candidate guidelines that could be considered in reviewing and evaluating high integrity computer e following software development and assurance activities: Requirements specification; design; coding; verification and validation, inclukding static analysis and dynamic testing; safety analysis; operation and maintenance; configuration management; quality assurance; and planning and management. Each activity (framework element) was subdivided into technical areas (framework subelements). The report describes the development of approximately 200 candidate guidelines that span the entire ran e identification, categorization and prioritization of technical basis for those candidate guidelines; and the identification, categorization and prioritization of research needs for improving the technical basis. The report has two volumes: Volume 1, Executive Summary includes an overview of the framwork and of each framework element, the complete set of candidate guidelines, the results of the assessment of the technical basis for each candidate guideline, and a discussion of research needs that support the regulatory function; this document, Volume 2, is the main report.

  16. Open Support Platform for Environmental Research (OSPER) - tools for the discovery and exploitation of environmental data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawes, N. M.; Lehning, M.; Bavay, M.; Sarni, S.; Iosifescu, I.; Gwadera, R.; Scipion, D. E.; Blanchet, J.; Davison, A.; Berne, A.; Hurni, L.; Parlange, M. B.; Aberer, K.

    2012-12-01

    The Open Support Platform for Environmental Research (OSPER) has been launched to take forward key data management components developed under the Swiss Experiment platform project to achieve improved usability and a wider scope. With this project, we aim to connect users to data and their context, an area identified during SwissEx as having the greatest potential impact on the research community. OSPER has a clear focus on providing the technology for data storage, management and exploitation with a special focus on data interoperability and documentation. In this presentation, we will demonstrate the key aims of OSPER for the period 2012 - 2015. Inheriting the basic SwissEx functionality, OSPER provides an excellent method of making data accessible via their metadata. One of the biggest differences between the OSPER infrastructure and other data platforms is the level of interaction that one can have with the data and the level of integration with the analysis tools used in science. We wish to capitalise on this advantage by increasing this integration and working with environmental research projects to develop the tools that make a difference to their daily research. The new data infrastructure will serve the following purposes: ● Open documentation, archiving and discovery of datasets. ● Facilitation of data sharing and collaboration (especially inter-disciplinary) with data owner controlled access rights, particularly concentrating on providing as much contextual information as possible. ● Improvements in ease of data access and combination of data sources. ● Tools for data visualisation and statistical and numerical data analysis with a focus on spatial data and trends. Key areas identified for development during OSPER are: ● New infrastructure and content for current WebGIS-based data visualisation system to create a publicly available platform. ● Provision of data in standard formats using standard methods as well as the consumption of such data

  17. SPIN query tools for de-identified research on a humongous database.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Clement J; Dexter, Paul; Schadow, Gunther; Chueh, Henry C; Abernathy, Greg; Hook, John; Blevins, Lonnie; Overhage, J Marc; Berman, Jules J

    2005-01-01

    The Shared Pathology Informatics Network (SPIN), a research initiative of the National Cancer Institute, will allow for the retrieval of more than 4 million pathology reports and specimens. In this paper, we describe the special query tool as developed for the Indianapolis/Regenstrief SPIN node, integrated into the ever-expanding Indiana Network for Patient care (INPC). This query tool allows for the retrieval of de-identified data sets using complex logic, auto-coded final diagnoses, and intrinsically supports multiple types of statistical analyses. The new SPIN/INPC database represents a new generation of the Regenstrief Medical Record system - a centralized, but federated system of repositories. PMID:16779093

  18. SPIN Query Tools for De-identified Research on a Humongous Database

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Clement J.; Dexter, Paul; Schadow, Gunther; Chueh, Henry C.; Abernathy, Greg; Hook, John; Blevins, Lonnie; Overhage, J. Marc; Berman, Jules J.

    2005-01-01

    The Shared Pathology Informatics Network (SPIN), a research initiative of the National Cancer Institute, will allow for the retrieval of more than 4 million pathology reports and specimens. In this paper, we describe the special query tool as developed for the Indianapolis/Regenstrief SPIN node, integrated into the ever-expanding Indiana Network for Patient care (INPC). This query tool allows for the retrieval of de-identified data sets using complex logic, auto-coded final diagnoses, and intrinsically supports multiple types of statistical analyses. The new SPIN/INPC database represents a new generation of the Regenstrief Medical Record system – a centralized, but federated system of repositories. PMID:16779093

  19. Recent advances in hopanoids analysis: Quantification protocols overview, main research targets and selected problems of complex data exploration.

    PubMed

    Zarzycki, Paweł K; Portka, Joanna K

    2015-09-01

    Pentacyclic triterpenoids, particularly hopanoids, are organism-specific compounds and are generally considered as useful biomarkers that allow fingerprinting and classification of biological, environmental and geological samples. Simultaneous quantification of various hopanoids together with battery of related non-polar and low-molecular mass compounds may provide principal information for geochemical and environmental research focusing on both modern and ancient investigations. Target compounds can be derived from microbial biomass, water columns, sediments, coals, crude fossils or rocks. This create number of analytical problems due to different composition of the analytical matrix and interfering compounds and therefore, proper optimization of quantification protocols for such biomarkers is still the challenge. In this work we summarizing typical analytical protocols that were recently applied for quantification of hopanoids like compounds from different samples. Main steps including components of interest extraction, pre-purification, fractionation, derivatization and quantification involving gas (1D and 2D) as well as liquid separation techniques (liquid-liquid extraction, solid-phase extraction, planar and low resolution column chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography) are described and discussed from practical point of view, mainly based on the experimental papers that were published within last two years, where significant increase in hopanoids research was noticed. The second aim of this review is to describe the latest research trends concerning determination of hopanoids and related low-molecular mass lipids analyzed in various samples including sediments, rocks, coals, crude oils and plant fossils as well as stromatolites and microbial biomass cultivated under different conditions. It has been found that majority of the most recent papers are based on uni- or bivariate approach for complex data analysis. Data interpretation involves

  20. Integrated Decision-Making Tool to Develop Spent Fuel Strategies for Research Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Beatty, Randy L; Harrison, Thomas J

    2016-01-01

    IAEA Member States operating or having previously operated a Research Reactor are responsible for the safe and sustainable management and disposal of associated radioactive waste, including research reactor spent nuclear fuel (RRSNF). This includes the safe disposal of RRSNF or the corresponding equivalent waste returned after spent fuel reprocessing. One key challenge to developing general recommendations lies in the diversity of spent fuel types, locations and national/regional circumstances rather than mass or volume alone. This is especially true given that RRSNF inventories are relatively small, and research reactors are rarely operated at a high power level or duration typical of commercial power plants. Presently, many countries lack an effective long-term policy for managing RRSNF. This paper presents results of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Coordinated Research Project (CRP) #T33001 on Options and Technologies for Managing the Back End of the Research Reactor Nuclear Fuel Cycle which includes an Integrated Decision Making Tool called BRIDE (Back-end Research reactor Integrated Decision Evaluation). This is a multi-attribute decision-making tool that combines the Total Estimated Cost of each life-cycle scenario with Non-economic factors such as public acceptance, technical maturity etc and ranks optional back-end scenarios specific to member states situations in order to develop a specific member state strategic plan with a preferred or recommended option for managing spent fuel from Research Reactors.

  1. New Tools for New Research in Psychiatry: A Scalable and Customizable Platform to Empower Data Driven Smartphone Research

    PubMed Central

    Torous, John; Kiang, Mathew V; Lorme, Jeanette

    2016-01-01

    Background A longstanding barrier to progress in psychiatry, both in clinical settings and research trials, has been the persistent difficulty of accurately and reliably quantifying disease phenotypes. Mobile phone technology combined with data science has the potential to offer medicine a wealth of additional information on disease phenotypes, but the large majority of existing smartphone apps are not intended for use as biomedical research platforms and, as such, do not generate research-quality data. Objective Our aim is not the creation of yet another app per se but rather the establishment of a platform to collect research-quality smartphone raw sensor and usage pattern data. Our ultimate goal is to develop statistical, mathematical, and computational methodology to enable us and others to extract biomedical and clinical insights from smartphone data. Methods We report on the development and early testing of Beiwe, a research platform featuring a study portal, smartphone app, database, and data modeling and analysis tools designed and developed specifically for transparent, customizable, and reproducible biomedical research use, in particular for the study of psychiatric and neurological disorders. We also outline a proposed study using the platform for patients with schizophrenia. Results We demonstrate the passive data capabilities of the Beiwe platform and early results of its analytical capabilities. Conclusions Smartphone sensors and phone usage patterns, when coupled with appropriate statistical learning tools, are able to capture various social and behavioral manifestations of illnesses, in naturalistic settings, as lived and experienced by patients. The ubiquity of smartphones makes this type of moment-by-moment quantification of disease phenotypes highly scalable and, when integrated within a transparent research platform, presents tremendous opportunities for research, discovery, and patient health. PMID:27150677

  2. Using Digital Video as a Research Tool: Ethical Issues for Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuck, Sandy; Kearney, Matthew

    2006-01-01

    Digital video and accompanying editing software are increasingly becoming more accessible for researchers in terms of ease of use and cost. The rich, visually appealing and seductive nature of video-based data can convey a strong sense of direct experience with the phenomena studied (Pea, 1999). However, the ease of selection and editing of…

  3. A New Tool for Identifying Research Standards and Evaluating Research Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacon, Donald R.; Paul, Pallab; Stewart, Kim A.; Mukhopadhyay, Kausiki

    2012-01-01

    Much has been written about the evaluation of faculty research productivity in promotion and tenure decisions, including many articles that seek to determine the rank of various marketing journals. Yet how faculty evaluators combine journal quality, quantity, and author contribution to form judgments of a scholar's performance is unclear. A…

  4. Noncontact Atomic Force Microscopy: An Emerging Tool for Fundamental Catalysis Research.

    PubMed

    Altman, Eric I; Baykara, Mehmet Z; Schwarz, Udo D

    2015-09-15

    Although atomic force microscopy (AFM) was rapidly adopted as a routine surface imaging apparatus after its introduction in 1986, it has not been widely used in catalysis research. The reason is that common AFM operating modes do not provide the atomic resolution required to follow catalytic processes; rather the more complex noncontact (NC) mode is needed. Thus, scanning tunneling microscopy has been the principal tool for atomic scale catalysis research. In this Account, recent developments in NC-AFM will be presented that offer significant advantages for gaining a complete atomic level view of catalysis. The main advantage of NC-AFM is that the image contrast is due to the very short-range chemical forces that are of interest in catalysis. This motivated our development of 3D-AFM, a method that yields quantitative atomic resolution images of the potential energy surfaces that govern how molecules approach, stick, diffuse, and rebound from surfaces. A variation of 3D-AFM allows the determination of forces required to push atoms and molecules on surfaces, from which diffusion barriers and variations in adsorption strength may be obtained. Pushing molecules towards each other provides access to intermolecular interaction between reaction partners. Following reaction, NC-AFM with CO-terminated tips yields textbook images of intramolecular structure that can be used to identify reaction intermediates and products. Because NC-AFM and STM contrast mechanisms are distinct, combining the two methods can produce unique insight. It is demonstrated for surface-oxidized Cu(100) that simultaneous 3D-AFM/STM yields resolution of both the Cu and O atoms. Moreover, atomic defects in the Cu sublattice lead to variations in the reactivity of the neighboring O atoms. It is shown that NC-AFM also allows a straightforward imaging of work function variations which has been used to identify defect charge states on catalytic surfaces and to map charge transfer within an individual

  5. Multimedia Informed Consent Tool for a Low Literacy African Research Population: Development and Pilot-Testing

    PubMed Central

    Afolabi, Muhammed Olanrewaju; Bojang, Kalifa; D’Alessandro, Umberto; Imoukhuede, Egeruan Babatunde; Ravinetto, Raffaella M; Larson, Heidi Jane; McGrath, Nuala; Chandramohan, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Background International guidelines recommend the use of appropriate informed consent procedures in low literacy research settings because written information is not known to guarantee comprehension of study information. Objectives This study developed and evaluated a multimedia informed consent tool for people with low literacy in an area where a malaria treatment trial was being planned in The Gambia. Methods We developed the informed consent document of the malaria treatment trial into a multimedia tool integrating video, animations and audio narrations in three major Gambian languages. Acceptability and ease of use of the multimedia tool were assessed using quantitative and qualitative methods. In two separate visits, the participants’ comprehension of the study information was measured by using a validated digitised audio questionnaire. Results The majority of participants (70%) reported that the multimedia tool was clear and easy to understand. Participants had high scores on the domains of adverse events/risk, voluntary participation, study procedures while lowest scores were recorded on the question items on randomisation. The differences in mean scores for participants’ ‘recall’ and ‘understanding’ between first and second visits were statistically significant (F (1,41)=25.38, p<0.00001 and (F (1, 41) = 31.61, p<0.00001 respectively. Conclusions Our locally developed multimedia tool was acceptable and easy to administer among low literacy participants in The Gambia. It also proved to be effective in delivering and sustaining comprehension of study information across a diverse group of participants. Additional research is needed to compare the tool to the traditional consent interview, both in The Gambia and in other sub-Saharan settings. PMID:25133065

  6. Community-based participatory research as a tool to advance environmental health sciences.

    PubMed Central

    O'Fallon, Liam R; Dearry, Allen

    2002-01-01

    The past two decades have witnessed a rapid proliferation of community-based participatory research (CBPR) projects. CBPR methodology presents an alternative to traditional population-based biomedical research practices by encouraging active and equal partnerships between community members and academic investigators. The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), the premier biomedical research facility for environmental health, is a leader in promoting the use of CBPR in instances where community-university partnerships serve to advance our understanding of environmentally related disease. In this article, the authors highlight six key principles of CBPR and describe how these principles are met within specific NIEHS-supported research investigations. These projects demonstrate that community-based participatory research can be an effective tool to enhance our knowledge of the causes and mechanisms of disorders having an environmental etiology, reduce adverse health outcomes through innovative intervention strategies and policy change, and address the environmental health concerns of community residents. PMID:11929724

  7. A new research tool for hybrid Bayesian networks using script language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Wei; Park, Cheol Young; Carvalho, Rommel

    2011-06-01

    While continuous variables become more and more inevitable in Bayesian networks for modeling real-life applications in complex systems, there are not much software tools to support it. Popular commercial Bayesian network tools such as Hugin, and Netica etc., are either expensive or have to discretize continuous variables. In addition, some free programs existing in the literature, commonly known as BNT, GeNie/SMILE, etc, have their own advantages and disadvantages respectively. In this paper, we introduce a newly developed Java tool for model construction and inference for hybrid Bayesian networks. Via the representation power of the script language, this tool can build the hybrid model automatically based on a well defined string that follows the specific grammars. Furthermore, it implements several inference algorithms capable to accommodate hybrid Bayesian networks, including Junction Tree algorithm (JT) for conditional linear Gaussian model (CLG), and Direct Message Passing (DMP) for general hybrid Bayesian networks with CLG structure. We believe this tool will be useful for researchers in the field.

  8. A Runtime Environment for Supporting Research in Resilient HPC System Software & Tools

    SciTech Connect

    Vallee, Geoffroy R; Naughton, III, Thomas J; Boehm, Swen; Engelmann, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The high-performance computing (HPC) community continues to increase the size and complexity of hardware platforms that support advanced scientific workloads. The runtime environment (RTE) is a crucial layer in the software stack for these large-scale systems. The RTE manages the interface between the operating system and the application running in parallel on the machine. The deployment of applications and tools on large-scale HPC computing systems requires the RTE to manage process creation in a scalable manner, support sparse connectivity, and provide fault tolerance. We have developed a new RTE that provides a basis for building distributed execution environments and developing tools for HPC to aid research in system software and resilience. This paper describes the software architecture of the Scalable runTime Component Infrastructure (STCI), which is intended to provide a complete infrastructure for scalable start-up and management of many processes in large-scale HPC systems. We highlight features of the current implementation, which is provided as a system library that allows developers to easily use and integrate STCI in their tools and/or applications. The motivation for this work has been to support ongoing research activities in fault-tolerance for large-scale systems. We discuss the advantages of the modular framework employed and describe two use cases that demonstrate its capabilities: (i) an alternate runtime for a Message Passing Interface (MPI) stack, and (ii) a distributed control and communication substrate for a fault-injection tool.

  9. Automated Tools for Clinical Research Data Quality Control using NCI Common Data Elements

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, Cody L.; Topaloglu, Umit; Bian, Jiang; Hogan, William; Kieber-Emmons, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Clinical research data generated by a federation of collection mechanisms and systems often produces highly dissimilar data with varying quality. Poor data quality can result in the inefficient use of research data or can even require the repetition of the performed studies, a costly process. This work presents two tools for improving data quality of clinical research data relying on the National Cancer Institute’s Common Data Elements as a standard representation of possible questions and data elements to A: automatically suggest CDE annotations for already collected data based on semantic and syntactic analysis utilizing the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) Terminology Services’ Metathesaurus and B: annotate and constrain new clinical research questions though a simple-to-use “CDE Browser.” In this work, these tools are built and tested on the open-source LimeSurvey software and research data analyzed and identified to contain various data quality issues captured by the Comprehensive Research Informatics Suite (CRIS) at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences. PMID:25717402

  10. The need for novel informatics tools for integrating and planning research in molecular and cellular cognition.

    PubMed

    Silva, Alcino J; Müller, Klaus-Robert

    2015-09-01

    The sheer volume and complexity of publications in the biological sciences are straining traditional approaches to research planning. Nowhere is this problem more serious than in molecular and cellular cognition, since in this neuroscience field, researchers routinely use approaches and information from a variety of areas in neuroscience and other biology fields. Additionally, the multilevel integration process characteristic of this field involves the establishment of experimental connections between molecular, electrophysiological, behavioral, and even cognitive data. This multidisciplinary integration process requires strategies and approaches that originate in several different fields, which greatly increases the complexity and demands of this process. Although causal assertions, where phenomenon A is thought to contribute or relate to B, are at the center of this integration process and key to research in biology, there are currently no tools to help scientists keep track of the increasingly more complex network of causal connections they use when making research decisions. Here, we propose the development of semiautomated graphical and interactive tools to help neuroscientists and other biologists, including those working in molecular and cellular cognition, to track, map, and weight causal evidence in research papers. There is a great need for a concerted effort by biologists, computer scientists, and funding institutions to develop maps of causal information that would aid in integration of research findings and in experiment planning. PMID:26286658

  11. A semi-automatic web based tool for the selection of research projects reviewers.

    PubMed

    Pupella, Valeria; Monteverde, Maria Eugenia; Lombardo, Claudio; Belardelli, Filippo; Giacomini, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    The correct evaluation of research proposals continues today to be problematic, and in many cases, grants and fellowships are subjected to this type of assessment. A web based semi-automatic tool to help in the selection of reviewers was developed. The core of the proposed system is the matching of the MeSH Descriptors of the publications submitted by the reviewers (for their accreditation) and the Descriptor linked to the research keywords, which were selected. Moreover, a citation related index was further calculated and adopted in order to discard not suitable reviewers. This tool was used as a support in a web site for the evaluation of candidates applying for a fellowship in the oncology field. PMID:25160328

  12. Exploring Assessment Tools for Research and Evaluation in Astronomy Education and Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buxner, S. R.; Wenger, M. C.; Dokter, E. F. C.

    2011-09-01

    The ability to effectively measure knowledge, attitudes, and skills in formal and informal educational settings is an important aspect of astronomy education research and evaluation. Assessments may take the form of interviews, observations, surveys, exams, or other probes to help unpack people's understandings or beliefs. In this workshop, we discussed characteristics of a variety of tools that exist to assess understandings of different concepts in astronomy as well as attitudes towards science and science teaching; these include concept inventories, surveys, interview protocols, observation protocols, card sorting, reflection videos, and other methods currently being used in astronomy education research and EPO program evaluations. In addition, we discussed common questions in the selection of assessment tools including issues of reliability and validity, time to administer, format of implementation, analysis, and human subject concerns.

  13. CRISPR: a versatile tool for both forward and reverse genetics research.

    PubMed

    Gurumurthy, Channabasavaiah B; Grati, M'hamed; Ohtsuka, Masato; Schilit, Samantha L P; Quadros, Rolen M; Liu, Xue Zhong

    2016-09-01

    Human genetics research employs the two opposing approaches of forward and reverse genetics. While forward genetics identifies and links a mutation to an observed disease etiology, reverse genetics induces mutations in model organisms to study their role in disease. In most cases, causality for mutations identified by forward genetics is confirmed by reverse genetics through the development of genetically engineered animal models and an assessment of whether the model can recapitulate the disease. While many technological advances have helped improve these approaches, some gaps still remain. CRISPR/Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated), which has emerged as a revolutionary genetic engineering tool, holds great promise for closing such gaps. By combining the benefits of forward and reverse genetics, it has dramatically expedited human genetics research. We provide a perspective on the power of CRISPR-based forward and reverse genetics tools in human genetics and discuss its applications using some disease examples. PMID:27384229

  14. Open Virtual Worlds as Pedagogical Research Tools: Learning from the Schome Park Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Twining, Peter; Peachey, Anna

    This paper introduces the term Open Virtual Worlds and argues that they are ‘unclaimed educational spaces’, which provide a valuable tool for researching pedagogy. Having explored these claims the way in which Teen Second Life® virtual world was used for pedagogical experimentation in the initial phases of the Schome Park Programme is described. Four sets of pedagogical dimensions that emerged are presented and illustrated with examples from the Schome Park Programme.

  15. Participant observation as a research tool in a practice based profession.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, C

    1999-10-01

    This paper by Catriona Kennedy offers a personal account of the use of participant observation as a tool for exploring and uncovering the knowledge base of experienced district nurses in relation to first assessment visits. Currently, many district nurses (DNs) are educated to degree level. However, despite a long history of educational provision for DNs, the research base available to support their practice is limited. PMID:26954027

  16. Using robotics construction kits as metacognitive tools: a research in an Italian primary school.

    PubMed

    La Paglia, Filippo; Caci, Barbara; La Barbera, Daniele; Cardaci, Maurizio

    2010-01-01

    The present paper is aimed at analyzing the process of building and programming robots as a metacognitive tool. Quantitative data and qualitative observations from a research performed in a sample of children attending an Italian primary school are described in this work. Results showed that robotics activities may be intended as a new metacognitive environment that allows children to monitor themselves and control their learning actions in an autonomous and self-centered way. PMID:20543280

  17. Research and experimental testing of a new kind electrokinetic logging tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Feng-Bo; Ju, Xiao-Dong; Qiao, Wen-Xiao; Lu, Jun-Qiang; Men, Bai-Rong

    2014-12-01

    We designed a new downhole electrokinetic logging tool based on numerical simulations and petrophysical experiments. Acoustic and electric receivers cannot be arranged at the same depth, and the proposed composite electrokinetic logging tool offers a solution to this problem. The sound field characteristics of the detectors were tested in a water tank in the laboratory. Then, we calculated the sound pressure of the radiated acoustic field and the transmitting voltage response of the transmitting transducers; in addition, we analyzed the directivity and application of the acoustic transmitting probe based on linear phased array. The results suggest that the sound pressure generated at 1500 mm spacing reaches up to 47.2 kPa and decreases with increasing acoustic source frequency. When the excitation signals delay time of adjacent acoustic transmitting subarrays increases, the radiation beam of the main lobe is deflected and its energy gradually increases, which presumably enhances the acoustoelectric conversion efficiency.

  18. DataUp: A tool to help researchers describe and share tabular data

    PubMed Central

    Strasser, Carly; Kunze, John; Abrams, Stephen; Cruse, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Scientific datasets have immeasurable value, but they lose their value over time without proper documentation, long-term storage, and easy discovery and access. Across disciplines as diverse as astronomy, demography, archeology, and ecology, large numbers of small heterogeneous datasets (i.e., the long tail of data) are especially at risk unless they are properly documented, saved, and shared. One unifying factor for many of these at-risk datasets is that they reside in spreadsheets. In response to this need, the California Digital Library (CDL) partnered with Microsoft Research Connections and the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation to create the DataUp data management tool for Microsoft Excel. Many researchers creating these small, heterogeneous datasets use Excel at some point in their data collection and analysis workflow, so we were interested in developing a data management tool that fits easily into those work flows and minimizes the learning curve for researchers. The DataUp project began in August 2011. We first formally assessed the needs of researchers by conducting surveys and interviews of our target research groups: earth, environmental, and ecological scientists. We found that, on average, researchers had very poor data management practices, were not aware of data centers or metadata standards, and did not understand the benefits of data management or sharing. Based on our survey results, we composed a list of desirable components and requirements and solicited feedback from the community to prioritize potential features of the DataUp tool. These requirements were then relayed to the software developers, and DataUp was successfully launched in October 2012. PMID:25653834

  19. DataUp: A tool to help researchers describe and share tabular data.

    PubMed

    Strasser, Carly; Kunze, John; Abrams, Stephen; Cruse, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Scientific datasets have immeasurable value, but they lose their value over time without proper documentation, long-term storage, and easy discovery and access. Across disciplines as diverse as astronomy, demography, archeology, and ecology, large numbers of small heterogeneous datasets (i.e., the long tail of data) are especially at risk unless they are properly documented, saved, and shared. One unifying factor for many of these at-risk datasets is that they reside in spreadsheets. In response to this need, the California Digital Library (CDL) partnered with Microsoft Research Connections and the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation to create the DataUp data management tool for Microsoft Excel. Many researchers creating these small, heterogeneous datasets use Excel at some point in their data collection and analysis workflow, so we were interested in developing a data management tool that fits easily into those work flows and minimizes the learning curve for researchers. The DataUp project began in August 2011. We first formally assessed the needs of researchers by conducting surveys and interviews of our target research groups: earth, environmental, and ecological scientists. We found that, on average, researchers had very poor data management practices, were not aware of data centers or metadata standards, and did not understand the benefits of data management or sharing. Based on our survey results, we composed a list of desirable components and requirements and solicited feedback from the community to prioritize potential features of the DataUp tool. These requirements were then relayed to the software developers, and DataUp was successfully launched in October 2012. PMID:25653834

  20. Easily configured real-time CPOE Pick Off Tool supporting focused clinical research and quality improvement

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbaum, Benjamin P; Silkin, Nikolay; Miller, Randolph A

    2014-01-01

    Real-time alerting systems typically warn providers about abnormal laboratory results or medication interactions. For more complex tasks, institutions create site-wide ‘data warehouses’ to support quality audits and longitudinal research. Sophisticated systems like i2b2 or Stanford's STRIDE utilize data warehouses to identify cohorts for research and quality monitoring. However, substantial resources are required to install and maintain such systems. For more modest goals, an organization desiring merely to identify patients with ‘isolation’ orders, or to determine patients’ eligibility for clinical trials, may adopt a simpler, limited approach based on processing the output of one clinical system, and not a data warehouse. We describe a limited, order-entry-based, real-time ‘pick off’ tool, utilizing public domain software (PHP, MySQL). Through a web interface the tool assists users in constructing complex order-related queries and auto-generates corresponding database queries that can be executed at recurring intervals. We describe successful application of the tool for research and quality monitoring. PMID:24287172

  1. CCMC: Serving research and space weather communities with unique space weather services, innovative tools and resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yihua; Kuznetsova, Maria M.; Pulkkinen, Antti; Maddox, Marlo

    2015-04-01

    With the addition of Space Weather Research Center (a sub-team within CCMC) in 2010 to address NASA’s own space weather needs, CCMC has become a unique entity that not only facilitates research through providing access to the state-of-the-art space science and space weather models, but also plays a critical role in providing unique space weather services to NASA robotic missions, developing innovative tools and transitioning research to operations via user feedback. With scientists, forecasters and software developers working together within one team, through close and direct connection with space weather customers and trusted relationship with model developers, CCMC is flexible, nimble and effective to meet customer needs. In this presentation, we highlight a few unique aspects of CCMC/SWRC’s space weather services, such as addressing space weather throughout the solar system, pushing the frontier of space weather forecasting via the ensemble approach, providing direct personnel and tool support for spacecraft anomaly resolution, prompting development of multi-purpose tools and knowledge bases, and educating and engaging the next generation of space weather scientists.

  2. Easily configured real-time CPOE Pick Off Tool supporting focused clinical research and quality improvement.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, Benjamin P; Silkin, Nikolay; Miller, Randolph A

    2014-01-01

    Real-time alerting systems typically warn providers about abnormal laboratory results or medication interactions. For more complex tasks, institutions create site-wide 'data warehouses' to support quality audits and longitudinal research. Sophisticated systems like i2b2 or Stanford's STRIDE utilize data warehouses to identify cohorts for research and quality monitoring. However, substantial resources are required to install and maintain such systems. For more modest goals, an organization desiring merely to identify patients with 'isolation' orders, or to determine patients' eligibility for clinical trials, may adopt a simpler, limited approach based on processing the output of one clinical system, and not a data warehouse. We describe a limited, order-entry-based, real-time 'pick off' tool, utilizing public domain software (PHP, MySQL). Through a web interface the tool assists users in constructing complex order-related queries and auto-generates corresponding database queries that can be executed at recurring intervals. We describe successful application of the tool for research and quality monitoring. PMID:24287172

  3. The virtual supermarket: An innovative research tool to study consumer food purchasing behaviour

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Economic interventions in the food environment are expected to effectively promote healthier food choices. However, before introducing them on a large scale, it is important to gain insight into the effectiveness of economic interventions and peoples' genuine reactions to price changes. Nonetheless, because of complex implementation issues, studies on price interventions are virtually non-existent. This is especially true for experiments undertaken in a retail setting. We have developed a research tool to study the effects of retail price interventions in a virtual-reality setting: the Virtual Supermarket. This paper aims to inform researchers about the features and utilization of this new software application. Results The Virtual Supermarket is a Dutch-developed three-dimensional software application in which study participants can shop in a manner comparable to a real supermarket. The tool can be used to study several food pricing and labelling strategies. The application base can be used to build future extensions and could be translated into, for example, an English-language version. The Virtual Supermarket contains a front-end which is seen by the participants, and a back-end that enables researchers to easily manipulate research conditions. The application keeps track of time spent shopping, number of products purchased, shopping budget, total expenditures and answers on configurable questionnaires. All data is digitally stored and automatically sent to a web server. A pilot study among Dutch consumers (n = 66) revealed that the application accurately collected and stored all data. Results from participant feedback revealed that 83% of the respondents considered the Virtual Supermarket easy to understand and 79% found that their virtual grocery purchases resembled their regular groceries. Conclusions The Virtual Supermarket is an innovative research tool with a great potential to assist in gaining insight into food purchasing behaviour. The

  4. Low Cost Electroencephalographic Acquisition Amplifier to serve as Teaching and Research Tool

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Ankit; Kim, Insoo; Gluckman, Bruce J.

    2012-01-01

    We describe the development and testing of a low cost, easily constructed electroencephalographic acquisition amplifier for noninvasive Brain Computer Interface (BCI) education and research. The acquisition amplifier is constructed from newly available off-the-shelf integrated circuit components, and readily sends a 24-bit data stream via USB bus to a computer platform. We demonstrate here the hardware’s use in the analysis of a visually evoked P300 paradigm for a choose one-of-eight task. This clearly shows the applicability of this system as a low cost teaching and research tool. PMID:22254699

  5. [EpiInfo as a research and teaching tool in epidemiology and statistics: strengths and weaknesses].

    PubMed

    Mannocci, Alice; Bontempi, Claudio; Giraldi, Guglielmo; Chiaradia, Giacomina; de Waure, Chiara; Sferrazza, Antonella; Ricciardi, Walter; Boccia, Antonio; La Torre, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    EpiInfo is a free software developed in 1988 by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta to facilitate field epidemiological investigations and statistical analysis. The aim of this study was to assess whether the software represents, in the Italian biomedical field, an effective analytical research tool and a practical and simple epidemiology and biostatistics teaching tool. A questionnaire consisting of 20 multiple-choice and open questions was administered to 300 healthcare workers, including doctors, biologists, nurses, medical students and interns, at the end of a CME course in epidemiology and biostatistics. Sixty-four percent of participants were aged between 26 and 45 years, 52% were women and 73% were unmarried. Results show that women are more likely to utilize EpiInfo in their research activities with respect to men (p = 0.023), as are individuals aged 26-45 years with respect to the older and younger age groups (p = 0.023) and unmarried participants with respect to those married (p = 0.010). Thirty-one percent of respondents consider EpiInfo to be more than adequate for analysis of their research data and 52% consider it to be sufficiently so. The inclusion of an EpiInfo course in statistics and epidemiology modules facilitates the understanding of theoretical concepts and allows researchers to more easily perform some of the clinical/epidemiological research activities. PMID:22507994

  6. Tools for Citizen-Science Recruitment and Student Engagement in Your Research and in Your Classroom.

    PubMed

    Council, Sarah E; Horvath, Julie E

    2016-03-01

    The field of citizen science is exploding and offers not only a great way to engage the general public in science literacy through primary research, but also an avenue for teaching professionals to engage their students in meaningful community research experiences. Though this field is expanding, there are many hurdles for researchers and participants, as well as challenges for teaching professionals who want to engage their students. Here we highlight one of our projects that engaged many citizens in Raleigh, NC, and across the world, and we use this as a case study to highlight ways to engage citizens in all kinds of research. Through the use of numerous tools to engage the public, we gathered citizen scientists to study skin microbes and their associated odors, and we offer valuable ideas for teachers to tap into resources for their own students and potential citizen-science projects. PMID:27047587

  7. NASA System-Level Design, Analysis and Simulation Tools Research on NextGen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bardina, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    A review of the research accomplished in 2009 in the System-Level Design, Analysis and Simulation Tools (SLDAST) of the NASA's Airspace Systems Program is presented. This research thrust focuses on the integrated system-level assessment of component level innovations, concepts and technologies of the Next Generation Air Traffic System (NextGen) under research in the ASP program to enable the development of revolutionary improvements and modernization of the National Airspace System. The review includes the accomplishments on baseline research and the advancements on design studies and system-level assessment, including the cluster analysis as an annualization standard of the air traffic in the U.S. National Airspace, and the ACES-Air MIDAS integration for human-in-the-loop analyzes within the NAS air traffic simulation.

  8. Tools for Citizen-Science Recruitment and Student Engagement in Your Research and in Your Classroom

    PubMed Central

    Council, Sarah E.; Horvath, Julie E.

    2016-01-01

    The field of citizen science is exploding and offers not only a great way to engage the general public in science literacy through primary research, but also an avenue for teaching professionals to engage their students in meaningful community research experiences. Though this field is expanding, there are many hurdles for researchers and participants, as well as challenges for teaching professionals who want to engage their students. Here we highlight one of our projects that engaged many citizens in Raleigh, NC, and across the world, and we use this as a case study to highlight ways to engage citizens in all kinds of research. Through the use of numerous tools to engage the public, we gathered citizen scientists to study skin microbes and their associated odors, and we offer valuable ideas for teachers to tap into resources for their own students and potential citizen-science projects. PMID:27047587

  9. Metaphors and Drawings as Research Tools of Head Teachers' Perceptions on Their Management and Leadership Roles and Responsibilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Argyropoulou, Eleftheria; Hatira, Kalliopi

    2014-01-01

    This article introduces an alternative qualitative research tool: metaphor and drawing, as projections of personality features, to explore underlying concepts and values, thoughts and beliefs, fears and hesitations, aspirations and ambitions of the research subjects. These two projective tools are used to explore Greek state kindergarten head…

  10. Approaches, tools and methods used for setting priorities in health research in the 21st century

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Sachiyo

    2016-01-01

    Background Health research is difficult to prioritize, because the number of possible competing ideas for research is large, the outcome of research is inherently uncertain, and the impact of research is difficult to predict and measure. A systematic and transparent process to assist policy makers and research funding agencies in making investment decisions is a permanent need. Methods To obtain a better understanding of the landscape of approaches, tools and methods used to prioritize health research, I conducted a methodical review using the PubMed database for the period 2001–2014. Results A total of 165 relevant studies were identified, in which health research prioritization was conducted. They most frequently used the CHNRI method (26%), followed by the Delphi method (24%), James Lind Alliance method (8%), the Combined Approach Matrix (CAM) method (2%) and the Essential National Health Research method (<1%). About 3% of studies reported no clear process and provided very little information on how priorities were set. A further 19% used a combination of expert panel interview and focus group discussion (“consultation process”) but provided few details, while a further 2% used approaches that were clearly described, but not established as a replicable method. Online surveys that were not accompanied by face–to–face meetings were used in 8% of studies, while 9% used a combination of literature review and questionnaire to scrutinise the research options for prioritization among the participating experts. Conclusion The number of priority setting exercises in health research published in PubMed–indexed journals is increasing, especially since 2010. These exercises are being conducted at a variety of levels, ranging from the global level to the level of an individual hospital. With the development of new tools and methods which have a well–defined structure – such as the CHNRI method, James Lind Alliance Method and Combined Approach Matrix – it is