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Gulf of Maine Research Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Teaching about aquatic environments, serving as neutral conveners, and facilitating marine research is the mission of the Gulf of Maine Research Institute. Features hundreds of web pages with information and classroom activities covering: oceans, human impact, weather, satellite imagery, remote sensing, Antarctica, global climate change, lobsters, turtles, marine, freshwater issues and more. The project of building the new aquarium at Portland is specially considered.


Measurement and Research Tools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains four papers from a symposium on measurement and research tools for human resource development (HRD). "The 'Best Fit' Training: Measure Employee Learning Style Strengths" (Daniel L. Parry) discusses a study of the physiological aspect of sensory intake known as modality, more specifically, modality as measured by the…



Aircraft as Research Tools  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aeronautical research usually begins with computers, wind tunnels, and flight simulators, but eventually the theories must fly. This is when flight research begins, and aircraft are the primary tools of the trade. Flight research involves doing precision maneuvers in either a specially built experimental aircraft or an existing production airplane that has been modified. For example, the AD-1 was a unique airplane made only for flight research, while the NASA F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) was a standard fighter aircraft that was transformed into a one-of-a-kind aircraft as it was fitted with new propulsion systems, flight controls, and scientific equipment. All research aircraft are able to perform scientific experiments because of the onboard instruments that record data about its systems, aerodynamics, and the outside environment. Since the 1970's, NASA flight research has become more comprehensive, with flights involving everything form Space Shuttles to ultralights. NASA now flies not only the fastest airplanes, but some of the slowest. Flying machines continue to evolve with new wing designs, propulsion systems, and flight controls. As always, a look at today's experimental research aircraft is a preview of the future.



Professor Ralf Hiptmair Main research areas  

E-print Network

DRAFT Professor Ralf Hiptmair Main research areas Professor Hiptmair's research in Applied electromagnetics, which forms the core of most of his research. His activities range from issues of modeling, via discretization techniques, to special multigrid methods for the boundary value problems of electromagnetism

Hiptmair, Ralf


Semantic Web research main streams, popular falacies,  

E-print Network

Semantic Web research anno 2006: main streams, popular falacies, current status, future challenges Frank van Harmelen Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam #12;2 This is NOT a Semantic Web evangelization talk (I of the day, of temporary interest" #12;Which Semantic Web are we talking about? Semantic Web research anno

van Harmelen, Frank


Semantic Web Research anno 2006: main streams,  

E-print Network

Semantic Web Research anno 2006: main streams, popular fallacies, current status and future. In this topical1 paper we try to give an analysis and overview of the current state of Semantic Web research. We point to different in- terpretations of the Semantic Web as the reason underlying many contro- versies

van Harmelen, Frank


Gulf of Maine Research Institute: Atlantic Herring  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by the Gulf of Maine Research Institute, this website offers several interesting perspectives on a very important fish in the food chain -- the Atlantic Herring (_Clupea harengus_). The website organizes information about the Atlantic Herring into three main categories: Biology; Harvest and Processing; and Research. The site utilizes beautiful photos, illustrations, and maps as it briefly describes herring life cycle, distribution, spawning research, mid-water trawling, processing, and much more. The website also provides a solid collection of herring resources and references.


Protecting endangered species: do the main legislative tools work?  


It is critical to assess the effectiveness of the tools used to protect endangered species. The main tools enabled under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA) to promote species recovery are funding, recovery plan development and critical habitat designation. Earlier studies sometimes found that statistically significant effects of these tools could be detected, but they have not answered the question of whether the effects were large enough to be biologically meaningful. Here, we ask: how much does the recovery status of ESA-listed species improve with the application of these tools? We used species' staus reports to Congress from 1988 to 2006 to quantify two measures of recovery for 1179 species. We related these to the amount of federal funding, years with a recovery plan, years with critical habitat designation, the amount of peer-reviewed scientific information, and time listed. We found that change in recovery status of listed species was, at best, only very weakly related to any of these tools. Recovery was positively related to the number of years listed, years with a recovery plan, and funding, however, these tools combined explain <13% of the variation in recovery status among species. Earlier studies that reported significant effects of these tools did not focus on effect sizes; however, they are in fact similarly small. One must conclude either that these tools are not very effective in promoting species' recovery, or (as we suspect) that species recovery data are so poor that it is impossible to tell whether the tools are effective or not. It is critically important to assess the effectiveness of tools used to promote species recovery; it is therefore also critically important to obtain population status data that are adequate to that task. PMID:22567111

Gibbs, Katherine E; Currie, David J



Bioinformatic tools in Arabidopsis research.  


Bioinformatic tools are an increasingly important resource for Arabidopsis researchers. With them, it is possible to rapidly query the large data sets covering genomes, transcriptomes, proteomes, epigenomes, and other "omes" that have been generated in the past decade. Often these tools can be used to generate quality hypotheses at the click of a mouse. In this chapter, we cover the use of bioinformatic tools for examining gene expression and coexpression patterns, performing promoter analyses, looking for functional classification enrichment for sets of genes, and investigating protein-protein interactions. We also introduce bioinformatic tools that allow integration of data from several sources for improved hypothesis generation. PMID:24057362

de Lucas, Miguel; Provart, Nicholas J; Brady, Siobhan M



A Tool for Medical Research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

California Measurements, Inc.'s PC-2 Aerosol Particle Analyzer, developed by William Chiang, a former Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) engineer, was used in a study to measure the size of particles in the medical environment. Chiang has a NASA license for the JPL crystal oscillator technology and originally built the instrument for atmospheric research. In the operating room, it enabled researchers from the University of California to obtain multiple sets of data repeatedly and accurately. The study concluded that significant amounts of aerosols are generated during surgery when power tools are employed, and most of these are in the respirable size. Almost all contain blood and are small enough to pass through surgical masks. Research on the presence of blood aerosols during oral surgery had similar results. Further studies are planned to determine the possibility of HIV transmission during surgery, and the PC-2H will be used to quantify blood aerosols.



Research Study: Space Shuttle Main Engine Plume Flowfield Model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The initial research effort was an in-depth analysis of the shuttle main engine plumes in an effort to improve the flowfield model and to enhance shuttle base heating equipment predictions during ascent. A prediction methodology code was developed incorporating the improved plume model into a predictive tool which could consider different trajectoreis and engine perfromance variables. Various plume flow model improvement studies were ongoing at the time of the 51-L accident. Since that time, base heating and plume methodology improvements have continued as part of the overall emphasis on Shuttle design assurance before resuming flight schedule.

Bender, Robert L.



Ecosystem Indicators and Tools in the Gulf of Maine  

EPA Science Inventory

The Gulf of Maine Council on the Marine Environment is a U.S.-Canadian partnership of government and non-government organizations focused on the health, environmental quality and productivity of the Gulf of Maine. In 2006, the Ecosystem Indicator Partnership (ESIP) commenced acti...


The Value of Open Source Software Tools in Qualitative Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an era of global networks, researchers using qualitative methods must consider the impact of any software they use on the sharing of data and findings. In this essay, I identify researchers' main areas of concern regarding the use of qualitative software packages for research. I then examine how open source software tools, wherein the publisher…

Greenberg, Gary



Maine Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit and Department of Wildlife Ecology, University of Maine  

E-print Network

Maine Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit and Department of Wildlife Ecology, University Fisheries and Wildlife United States Geological Survey United States Fish and Wildlife Service Wildlife of this report in any way is withheld pending specific authorization from the Leader, Maine Cooperative Fish

Thomas, Andrew


Scalable combinatorial tools for health disparities research.  


Despite staggering investments made in unraveling the human genome, current estimates suggest that as much as 90% of the variance in cancer and chronic diseases can be attributed to factors outside an individual's genetic endowment, particularly to environmental exposures experienced across his or her life course. New analytical approaches are clearly required as investigators turn to complicated systems theory and ecological, place-based and life-history perspectives in order to understand more clearly the relationships between social determinants, environmental exposures and health disparities. While traditional data analysis techniques remain foundational to health disparities research, they are easily overwhelmed by the ever-increasing size and heterogeneity of available data needed to illuminate latent gene x environment interactions. This has prompted the adaptation and application of scalable combinatorial methods, many from genome science research, to the study of population health. Most of these powerful tools are algorithmically sophisticated, highly automated and mathematically abstract. Their utility motivates the main theme of this paper, which is to describe real applications of innovative transdisciplinary models and analyses in an effort to help move the research community closer toward identifying the causal mechanisms and associated environmental contexts underlying health disparities. The public health exposome is used as a contemporary focus for addressing the complex nature of this subject. PMID:25310540

Langston, Michael A; Levine, Robert S; Kilbourne, Barbara J; Rogers, Gary L; Kershenbaum, Anne D; Baktash, Suzanne H; Coughlin, Steven S; Saxton, Arnold M; Agboto, Vincent K; Hood, Darryl B; Litchveld, Maureen Y; Oyana, Tonny J; Matthews-Juarez, Patricia; Juarez, Paul D



Observatory Bibliographies as Research Tools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditionally, observatory bibliographies were maintained to provide insight in how successful a observatory is as measured by its prominence in the (refereed) literature. When we set up the bibliographic database for the Chandra X-ray Observatory ( as part of the Chandra Data Archive ((, very early in the mission, our objective was to make it primarily a useful tool for our user community. To achieve this we are: (1) casting a very wide net in collecting Chandra-related publications; (2) including for each literature reference in the database a wealth of metadata that is useful for the users; and (3) providing specific links between the articles and the datasets in the archive that they use. As a result our users are able to browse the literature and the data archive simultaneously. As an added bonus, the rich metadata content and data links have also allowed us to assemble more meaningful statistics about the scientific efficacy of the observatory. In all this we collaborate closely with the Astrophysics Data System (ADS). Among the plans for future enhancement are the inclusion of press releases and the Chandra image gallery, linking with ADS semantic searching tools, full-text metadata mining, and linking with other observatories' bibliographies. This work is supported by NASA contract NAS8-03060 (CXC) and depends critically on the services provided by the ADS.

Rots, Arnold H.; Winkelman, S. L.



DCCPS: Behavioral Research Program: Research Tools

Managed by the Basic and Biobehavioral Research Branch, BiMPED encourages mechanistic studies to identify biological signaling pathways that might inform how behavioral stress and other influences on tumorigenesis are mediated by the central nervous system.


DCCPS: Behavioral Research Program: Research Tools

Grid-Enabled Measures (GEM) Grid-Enabled Measures (GEM) is a dynamic web-based database that contains behavioral and social science measures organized by theoretical constructs. GEM is designed to enable researchers to use common measures with the goal of exchanging harmonized data. Through the use of these standardized measures and common elements, prospective meta-analyses will be possible.


Research as an educational tool  

SciTech Connect

Our students have participated in original group research projects focused on the natural environment which culminate in a written manuscript published in-house, and an oral presentation to peers, faculty, and the university community. Our goal has been to develop their critical thinking skills so that they will be more successful in high school and college. We have served ninety-three students (47.1% white, 44.1% black, 5.4% hispanic, 2.2% American Indian, 1.2% asian) from an eight state region in the southeast over the past three years. Thirty-one students have graduated from high school with over 70% enrolled in college and another thirty-four are seniors this year. We are tracking students` progress in college and are developing our own critical thinking test to measure the impact of our program. Although preliminary, the results from the critical thinking test indicated that students are often prone to logical errors; however, higher levels of critical thinking were observed on items which raised issues that conflicted with students` pre-existing beliefs.

Neff, R.; Perlmutter, D.; Klaczynski, P. [Western Carolina Univ., Cullowhee, NC (United States)] [and others



The Maine Garlic Project: A Participatory Research and Education Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Participatory research is a useful technique for collecting basic data over a large geographic area. Garlic production was chosen as a participatory research study focus in Maine. Project participants (285) received bulbs to plant, monitored their crop, and reported data online. Participants received a monthly educational newsletter to improve…

Fuller, David; Johnson, Steven B.



Augmenting Computational Research Tools in Observational Cosmology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present progress toward creating functional programs for data analysis to be used by cosmology researchers. Using Easy Java Simulations (EJS) to rewrite older code used in cosmology research, such as studying light intensity plots of supernovae (J. Moldenhauer & L. Engelhardt (2011)), should prove most beneficial since many computational research tools pertinent to the field are written in FORTRAN, which while useful in terms of computational speed can be limiting in terms of functionality and simplicity to the user.

Stone, Keenan; Moldenhauer, Jacob; Engelhardt, Larry



Software tool for portal dosimetry research.  


This paper describes a software tool developed for research into the use of an electronic portal imaging device (EPID) to verify dose for intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) beams. A portal dose image prediction (PDIP) model that predicts the EPID response to IMRT beams has been implemented into a commercially available treatment planning system (TPS). The software tool described in this work was developed to modify the TPS PDIP model by incorporating correction factors into the predicted EPID image to account for the difference in EPID response to open beam radiation and multileaf collimator (MLC) transmitted radiation. The processes performed by the software tool include; i) read the MLC file and the PDIP from the TPS, ii) calculate the fraction of beam-on time that each point in the IMRT beam is shielded by MLC leaves, iii) interpolate correction factors from look-up tables, iv) create a corrected PDIP image from the product of the original PDIP and the correction factors and write the corrected image to file, v) display, analyse, and export various image datasets. The software tool was developed using the Microsoft Visual Studio.NET framework with the C# compiler. The operation of the software tool was validated. This software provided useful tools for EPID dosimetry research, and it is being utilised and further developed in ongoing EPID dosimetry and IMRT dosimetry projects. PMID:18946980

Vial, P; Hunt, P; Greer, P B; Oliver, L; Baldock, C



New Software Framework to Share Research Tools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solid Earth Teaching and Research Environment (SEATREE) is a modular and user-friendly software to facilitate the use of solid Earth research tools in the classroom and for interdisciplinary research collaboration. The software provides a stand-alone open-source package that allows users to operate in a “black box” mode, which hides implementation details, while also allowing them to dig deeper into the underlying source code. The overlying user interfaces are written in the Python programming language using a modern, object-oriented design, including graphical user interactions. SEATREE, which provides an interface to a range of new and existing lower level programs that can be written in any computer programming language, may in the long run contribute to new ways of sharing scientific research. By sharing both data and modeling tools in a consistent framework, published (numerical) experiments can be made truly reproducible again.

Milner, Kevin; Becker, Thorsten W.; Boschi, Lapo; Sain, Jared; Schorlemmer, Danijel; Waterhouse, Hannah



English 269 Contemporary Literature Research Tools & Tips  

E-print Network

of this search engine. #12;Other general databases and interdisciplinary E-journal collections: Academic OneEnglish 269 ­ Contemporary Literature Research Tools & Tips Connect from off campus: http Bibliography (MLA) Eg. Butler, Octavia To refine searches within larger result sets: Author as Subject: "Butler

Abolmaesumi, Purang


Optical tools for ocean monitoring and research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Requirements for understanding the relationships between ocean color and suspended and dissolved materials within the water column, and a rapidly emerging photonics and materials technology base for performing optical based analytical techniques have generated a diverse offering of commercial sensors and research prototypes that perform optical measurements in water. Through inversion, these tools are now being used to determine a

C. Moore; A. Barnard; P. Fietzek; M. R. Lewis; H. M. Sosik; S. White; O. Zielinski



Optical tools for ocean monitoring and research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Requirements for understanding the relationships between ocean color and suspended and dissolved materials within the water column, and a rapidly emerging photonics and materials technology base for performing optical based analytical techniques have generated a diverse offering of commercial sensors and research prototypes that perform optical measurements in water. Through inversion, these tools are now being used to determine a

C. Moore; A. Barnard; P. Fietzek; M. R. Lewis; H. M. Sosik; S. White; O. Zielinski



Unicase - an Ecosystem for Unified Software Engineering Research Tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many research approaches aiming at control and mitigation of risks in global software development (GSD) are based on tool support. Following a rigorous research approach these tools need to be evaluated and therefore implemented. Existing tools lack support for research requirements. As a consequence researchers often have to build their own solution from scratch. This is a time consuming task

Bernd Bruegge; Oliver Creighton; Jonas Helming; Maximilian Kögel


Tools and collaborative environments for bioinformatics research  

PubMed Central

Advanced research requires intensive interaction among a multitude of actors, often possessing different expertise and usually working at a distance from each other. The field of collaborative research aims to establish suitable models and technologies to properly support these interactions. In this article, we first present the reasons for an interest of Bioinformatics in this context by also suggesting some research domains that could benefit from collaborative research. We then review the principles and some of the most relevant applications of social networking, with a special attention to networks supporting scientific collaboration, by also highlighting some critical issues, such as identification of users and standardization of formats. We then introduce some systems for collaborative document creation, including wiki systems and tools for ontology development, and review some of the most interesting biological wikis. We also review the principles of Collaborative Development Environments for software and show some examples in Bioinformatics. Finally, we present the principles and some examples of Learning Management Systems. In conclusion, we try to devise some of the goals to be achieved in the short term for the exploitation of these technologies. PMID:21984743

Giugno, Rosalba; Pulvirenti, Alfredo



Research of Blending Learning Making Use of Web2.0 Tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research mainly focus on the probability and effectiveness of integrating multiple Web2.0 tools into blending learning on the basis of analyzing the features of Web2.0 tools and blending learning as well. Grounding on an empirical research a new blending learning mode making use of Web2.0 tools has been put forward, and the learning procedure, features and learning environment of

Rui Cheng



VAO Tools Enhance CANDELS Research Productivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The formation of galaxies and their co-evolution with black holes through cosmic time are prominent areas in current extragalactic astronomy. New methods in science research are building upon collaborations between scientists and archive data centers which span large volumes of multi-wavelength and heterogeneous data. A successful example of this form of teamwork is demonstrated by the CANDELS (Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey) and the Virtual Astronomical Observatory (VAO) collaboration. The CANDELS project archive data provider services are registered and discoverable in the VAO through an innovative web based Data Discovery Tool, providing a drill down capability and cross-referencing with other co-spatially located astronomical catalogs, images and spectra. The CANDELS team is working together with the VAO to define new methods for analyzing Spectral Energy Distributions of galaxies containing active galactic nuclei, and helping to evolve advanced catalog matching methods for exploring images of variable depths, wavelengths and resolution. Through the publication of VOEvents, the CANDELS project is publishing data streams for newly discovered supernovae that are bright enough to be followed from the ground.

Greene, Gretchen; Donley, J.; Rodney, S.; LAZIO, J.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Busko, I.; Hanisch, R. J.; VAO Team; CANDELS Team



New Research Tools for Urogenital Schistosomiasis.  


Approximately 200 000 000 people have schistosomiasis (schistosome infection). Among the schistosomes, Schistosoma haematobium is responsible for the most infections, which are present in 110 million people globally, mostly in sub-Saharan Africa. This pathogen causes an astonishing breadth of sequelae: hematuria, anemia, dysuria, stunting, uremia, bladder cancer, urosepsis, and human immunodeficiency virus coinfection. Refined estimates of the impact of schistosomiasis on quality of life suggest that it rivals malaria. Despite S. haematobium's importance, relevant research has lagged. Here, we review advances that will deepen knowledge of S. haematobium. Three sets of breakthroughs will accelerate discoveries in the pathogenesis of urogenital schistosomiasis (UGS): (1) comparative genomics, (2) the development of functional genomic tools, and (3) the use of animal models to explore S. haematobium-host interactions. Comparative genomics for S. haematobium is feasible, given the sequencing of multiple schistosome genomes. Features of the S. haematobium genome that are conserved among platyhelminth species and others that are unique to S. haematobium may provide novel diagnostic and drug targets for UGS. Although there are technical hurdles, the integrated use of these approaches can elucidate host-pathogen interactions during this infection and can inform the development of techniques for investigating schistosomes in their human and snail hosts and the development of therapeutics and vaccines for the control of UGS. PMID:25240172

Rinaldi, Gabriel; Young, Neil D; Honeycutt, Jared D; Brindley, Paul J; Gasser, Robin B; Hsieh, Michael H



Integrating climate change research across the Main Research Providers in Scotland  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. The need for Scotland to adapt to climate change and move to a low carbon economy is recognized. The rural sector has an important role to play in achieving this transition. 2. Scotland is considering legislation to reduce GHG emissions by 80% from 1990 levels, and also has legally-binding obligations to maintain its biodiversity. 3. The Main Research Providers

Robin Matthews; Adrian Newton; Chris Ellis; Dominic Moran; Chris Glasbey; Philip Skuce


Microfluidic tools for cell biological research  

PubMed Central

Summary Microfluidic technology is creating powerful tools for cell biologists to control the complete cellular microenvironment, leading to new questions and new discoveries. We review here the basic concepts and methodologies in designing microfluidic devices, and their diverse cell biological applications. PMID:21152269

Velve-Casquillas, Guilhem; Le Berre, Maël; Piel, Matthieu; Tran, Phong T.



Tools for Ephemeral Gully Erosion Process Research  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Techniques to quantify ephemeral gully erosion have been identified by USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) as one of gaps in current erosion assessment tools. One reason that may have contributed to this technology gap is the difficulty to quantify changes in channel geometry to asses...


University of Maine Integrated Forest Product Refinery (IFPR) Technology Research  

SciTech Connect

This project supported research on science and technology that forms a basis for integrated forest product refinery for co-production of chemicals, fuels and materials using existing forest products industry infrastructure. Clear systems view of an Integrated Forest Product Refinery (IFPR) allowed development of a compelling business case for a small scale technology demonstration in Old Town ME for co-production of biofuels using cellulosic sugars along with pulp for the new owners of the facility resulting in an active project on Integrated Bio-Refinery (IBR) at the Old Town Fuel & Fiber. Work on production of advanced materials from woody biomass has led to active projects in bioplastics and carbon nanofibers. A lease for 40,000 sq. ft. high-bay space has been obtained to establish a Technology Research Center for IFPR technology validation on industrially relevant scale. UMaine forest bioproducts research initiative that began in April 2006 has led to establishment of a formal research institute beginning in March 2010.

Pendse, Hemant P.



[Main results of scientific researches in oil industry].  


Clinical and hygienic research was carried out in major oil extracting, oil processing and petrochemical enterpirses. Complex of industrial hazards results in occupational diseases of mild and medium severity, in increase of occupationally mediated diseases. The article covers sanitary and epidemiologic evaluation of oil processing and petrochemical products, technical documentation certificates for these products are obtained. PMID:20099388

Bakirov, A B; Gimranova, G G



Research pressure instrumentation for NASA space shuttle main engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The breadboard feasibility model of a silicon piezoresistive pressure transducer suitable for space shuttle main engine (SSME) applications was demonstrated. The development of pressure instrumentation for the SSME was examined. The objective is to develop prototype pressure transducers which are targeted to meet the SSME performance design goals and to fabricate, test and deliver a total of 10 prototype units. Effective utilization of the many advantages of silicon piezoresistive strain sensing technology to achieve the objectives of advanced state-of-the-art pressure sensors for reliability, accuracy and ease of manufacture is analyzed. Integration of multiple functions on a single chip is the key attribute of the technology.

Anderson, P. J.; Nussbaum, P.; Gustafson, G.



The Child Diary as a Research Tool  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this article is to introduce the use of the child diary as a method in daily diary research. By describing the research process and detailing its structure, a child diary, a structured booklet in which children's parents and day-care personnel (N = 54 children) reported their observations, was evaluated. The participants reported the…

Lamsa, Tiina; Ronka, Anna; Poikonen, Pirjo-Liisa; Malinen, Kaisa



Design as a research development tool.  


The design and development process is due for some innovation. Current practices use design as a downstream activity. This article explores how to use it during research and development and the benefits this offers companies. PMID:15941196

Pearson, M



Aligning Web-Based Tools to the Research Process Cycle: A Resource for Collaborative Research Projects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using John Creswell's Research Process Cycle as a framework, this article describes various web-based collaborative technologies useful for enhancing the organization and efficiency of educational research. Visualization tools (Cacoo) assist researchers in identifying a research problem. Resource storage tools (Delicious, Mendeley, EasyBib)…

Price, Geoffrey P.; Wright, Vivian H.



BALLView: A tool for research and education in molecular modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present BALLView, a molecular viewer and modeling tool. It combines state-of-the-art visualization capabilities with power- ful modeling functionality including implementations of force eld methods and continuum electrostatics models. BALLView is a ver- satile and extensible tool for research in structural bioinformatics and molecular modeling. Furthermore, the convenient and intuitive gra- phical user interface offers novice users direct access to

Andreas Molla



E-print Network

INCIDENCE OF CULL LOBSTERS, HOMARUS AMERICANUS, IN COMMERCIAL AND RESEARCH CATCHES OFF THE MAINE COASTI JAY S. KROUSE2 ABSTRACf Data obtained by port sampling the Maine commercial lobster catch (1968.74) and the natural lobster population near Boothbay Harbor, Maine, with research gear (1969-74) indicate that 6


Overview of EPA Research On Condition Assessment of Drinking Water Mains  

EPA Science Inventory

This slide presentation provides an overview of condition assessment research that is part of EPA Office of Research and Development?s Aging Water Infrastructure Research Plan (AWIRP). The primary focus is on a water main condition assessment technology forum and associated whit...


Exploring Ethical Issues When Using Visual Tools in Educational Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the visual as well as word-orientated world that the qualitative researcher increasingly finds herself in, a critical stance\\u000a about ethics and its relation to qualitative data-gathering methods is long overdue. The growing popularity of technology\\u000a and the user-friendliness of cameras and videos have led to an increase in the use of visual-oriented tools. Consequentially,\\u000a critical reflection by the researcher

Doria Daniels


Analyzing Online Teacher Networks: Cyber Networks Require Cyber Research Tools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors argue that conceptual and methodological limitations in existing research approaches severely hamper theory building and empirical exploration of teacher learning and collaboration through cyber-enabled networks. They conclude that new frameworks, tools, and techniques are needed to understand and maximize the benefits of teacher…

Schlager, Mark S.; Farooq, Umer; Fusco, Judith; Schank, Patricia; Dwyer, Nathan




EPA Science Inventory

GATHER, Geographic Analysis Tool for Health and Environmental Research, is an online spatial data access system that provides members of the public health community and general public access to spatial data that is pertinent to the analysis and exploration of public health issues...


A Tool for Mapping Research Skills in Undergraduate Curricula  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There has been considerable interest recently in the teaching of skills to undergraduate students. However, existing methods for collating data on how much, where and when students are taught and assessed skills have often been shown to be time-consuming and ineffective. Here, we outline an electronic research skills audit tool that has been…

Fraser, Gillian A.; Crook, Anne C.; Park, Julian R.



Echocardiography as a Research and Clinical Tool in Veterinary Medicine  

PubMed Central

Echocardiography is the accepted term for the study of cardiac ultrasound. Although a relatively new tool for the study of the heart in man it has already found wide acceptance in the area of cardiac research and in the study of clinical cardiac disease. Animals had often been used in the early experiments with cardiac ultrasound, but only recently has echocardiography been used as a research and clinical tool in veterinary medicine. In this report echocardiography is used in the research of anesthetic effects on ventricular function and clinically in the diagnosis of congestive cardiomyopathy in a cat, ventricular septal defect in a calf, and pericardial effusion in a dog. Echocardiography is now an important adjunct to the field of veterinary cardiology. ImagesFigure 7.Figure 8.Figure 9.Figure 10. PMID:17422196

Allen, D. G.



Technical phosphoproteomic and bioinformatic tools useful in cancer research  

PubMed Central

Reversible protein phosphorylation is one of the most important forms of cellular regulation. Thus, phosphoproteomic analysis of protein phosphorylation in cells is a powerful tool to evaluate cell functional status. The importance of protein kinase-regulated signal transduction pathways in human cancer has led to the development of drugs that inhibit protein kinases at the apex or intermediary levels of these pathways. Phosphoproteomic analysis of these signalling pathways will provide important insights for operation and connectivity of these pathways to facilitate identification of the best targets for cancer therapies. Enrichment of phosphorylated proteins or peptides from tissue or bodily fluid samples is required. The application of technologies such as phosphoenrichments, mass spectrometry (MS) coupled to bioinformatics tools is crucial for the identification and quantification of protein phosphorylation sites for advancing in such relevant clinical research. A combination of different phosphopeptide enrichments, quantitative techniques and bioinformatic tools is necessary to achieve good phospho-regulation data and good structural analysis of protein studies. The current and most useful proteomics and bioinformatics techniques will be explained with research examples. Our aim in this article is to be helpful for cancer research via detailing proteomics and bioinformatic tools. PMID:21967744



Use of AMASE and ADF Visualization Tools in Multispectral Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Astrophysics Data Facility (ADF) has developed the Astrophysics Multispectral Archive Search Engine (AMASE) ( and a suite of visualization tools ( to support multispectral research. AMASE Release 3 extended the spectral coverage to encompass almost the entire electromagnetic spectrum; added observations from the HST, IUE, ASCA and Alexis; added more predefined regions of interest; enriched the object classification scheme; and included the ADC ( holdings of catalogs and journal tables. New interactive features of the ADF Visualization Tools are described in a companion poster by B. Thomas, et al. Several scientific scenarios will be presented to demonstrate how these tools can be used to support data search, browsing, and visualization. We shall describe the on-going effort that will enable interoperability with other data services (e.g., NED), user-defined views, positional data mining, and object cross identification.

Blackwell, J. H., Jr.; Cheung, C.; White, R. A.; Shaya, E.; Thomas, B.; Roussopoulos, N.; Kelley, S.



Environmental equity research: review with focus on outdoor air pollution research methods and analytic tools.  


The objective of this study was to review environmental equity research on outdoor air pollution and, specifically, methods and tools used in research, published in English, with the aim of recommending the best methods and analytic tools. English language publications from 2000 to 2012 were identified in Google Scholar, Ovid MEDLINE, and PubMed. Research methodologies and results were reviewed and potential deficiencies and knowledge gaps identified. The publications show that exposure to outdoor air pollution differs by social factors, but findings are inconsistent in Canada. In terms of study designs, most were small and ecological and therefore prone to the ecological fallacy. Newer tools such as geographic information systems, modeling, and biomarkers offer improved precision in exposure measurement. Higher-quality research using large, individual-based samples and more precise analytic tools are needed to provide better evidence for policy-making to reduce environmental inequities. PMID:24972259

Miao, Qun; Chen, Dongmei; Buzzelli, Michael; Aronson, Kristan J



Proteasome inhibitors: from research tools to drug candidates.  


The 26S proteasome is a 2.4 MDa multifunctional ATP-dependent proteolytic complex, which degrades the majority of cellular polypeptides by an unusual enzyme mechanism. Several groups of proteasome inhibitors have been developed and are now widely used as research tools to study the role of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in various cellular processes, and two inhibitors are now in clinical trials for treatment of multiple cancers and stroke. PMID:11514224

Kisselev, A F; Goldberg, A L



A web service based tool to plan atmospheric research flights  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a web service based tool for the planning of atmospheric research flights. The tool, which we call the "Mission Support System" (MSS), provides online access to horizontal maps and vertical cross-sections of numerical weather prediction data and in particular allows the interactive design of a flight route in direct relation to the predictions. It thereby fills a crucial gap in the set of currently available tools for using data from numerical atmospheric models for research flight planning. A distinct feature of the tool is its lightweight, web service based architecture, requiring only commodity hardware and a basic Internet connection for deployment. Access to visualisations of prediction data is achieved by using an extended version of the Open Geospatial Consortium Web Map Service (WMS) standard. With the WMS approach, we avoid the transfer of large forecast model output datasets while enabling on-demand generated visualisations of the predictions at campaign sites with limited Internet bandwidth. Usage of the Web Map Service standard also enables access to third-party sources of georeferenced data. The MSS is focused on the primary needs of mission scientists responsible for planning a research flight, addressing in particular the following requirements: (1) interactive exploration of available atmospheric forecasts, (2) interactive flight planning in relation to these forecasts, (3) computation of expected flight performance to assess the technical feasibility (in terms of total distance and vertical profile) of a flight, (4) no transfer of large forecast data files to the campaign site to allow deployment at remote locations and (5) low demand on hardware resources. We have implemented the software using the open-source programming language Python.

Rautenhaus, M.; Dörnbrack, A.



Scientific research tools as an aid to Antarctic logistics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Logistics have always been a vital part of polar exploration and research. The more efficient those logistics can be made, the greater the likelihood that research programmes will be delivered on time, safely and to maximum scientific effectiveness. Over the last decade, the potential for symbiosis between logistics and some of the scientific research methods themselves, has increased remarkably; suites of scientific tools can help to optimise logistic efforts, thereby enhancing the effectiveness of further scientific activity. We present one recent example of input to logistics from scientific activities, in support of the NERC iSTAR Programme, a major ice sheet research effort in West Antarctica. We used data output from a number of research tools, spanning a range of techniques and international agencies, to support the deployment of a tractor-traverse system into a remote area of mainland Antarctica. The tractor system was deployed from RRS Ernest Shackleton onto the Abbot Ice Shelf then driven inland to the research area in Pine Island Glacier Data from NASA ICEBRIDGE were used to determine the ice-front freeboard and surface gradients for the traverse route off the ice shelf and onwards into the continent. Quickbird high resolution satellite imagery provided clear images of route track and some insight into snow surface roughness. Polarview satellite data gave sea ice information in the Amundsen Sea, both the previous multi-annual historical characteristics and for real-time information during deployment. Likewise meteorological data contributed historical and information and was used during deployment. Finally, during the tractors' inland journey, ground-based high frequency radar was used to determine a safe, crevasse-free route.

Dinn, Michael; Rose, Mike; Smith, Andrew; Fleming, Andrew; Garrod, Simon



Natural Language Thesaurus: A Survey of Student Research Skills and Research Tool Preferences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports the results of a University of Canberra Library survey of student research knowledge, skills, tools and resources. Students are experiencing difficulties interrogating databases, the internet and library catalogues because of the lack of consistency in terminology and various methods of interrogation. This research was an…

Redfern, Victoria



Research gaps for three main tropical diseases in the People’s Republic of China  

PubMed Central

This scoping review analyzes the research gaps of three diseases: schistosomiasis japonica, malaria and echinococcosis. Based on available data in the P.R. China, we highlight the gaps between control capacity and prevalence levels, and between diagnostic/drug development and population need for treatment at different stages of the national control programme. After reviewing the literature from 848 original studies and consultations with experts in the field, the gaps were identified as follows. Firstly, the malaria research gaps include (i) deficiency of active testing in the public community and no appropriate technique to evaluate elimination, (ii) lack of sensitive diagnostic tools for asymptomatic patients, (iii) lack of safe drugs for mass administration. Secondly, gaps in research of schistosomiasis include (i) incongruent policy in the implementation of integrated control strategy for schistosomiasis, (ii) lack of effective tools for Oncomelania sp. snail control, (iii) lack of a more sensitive and cheaper diagnostic test for large population samples, (iv) lack of new drugs in addition to praziquantel. Thirdly, gaps in research of echinococcosis include (i) low capacity in field epidemiology studies, (ii) lack of sanitation improvement studies in epidemic areas, (iii) lack of a sensitivity test for early diagnosis, (iv) lack of more effective drugs for short-term treatment. We believe these three diseases can eventually be eliminated in mainland China if all the research gaps are abridged in a short period of time. PMID:23895635



MRC: Research Tools and Skills Grade 3-5  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lesson about research tools and skills. Learners will explore the features of Mars through a demonstration of Google Earth Mars, gather, and analyze data from multiple sources on the internet as well as print sources, develop and use strategies for reading informational text to systematically find information, understand that Earth and Mars have similar geological features. The lesson uses the 5E instructional model and includes: TEKS Details (Texas Standards alignment), Essential Question, Science Notebook, Vocabulary Definitions for Students, Vocabulary Definitions for Teachers, two Vocabulary Cards, and a reading strategy supplement. This is lesson 3 as part of the Mars Rover Celebration Unit, a six week long curriculum.


Research pressure instrumentation for NASA Space Shuttle main engine, modification no. 6  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research concerning the utilization of silicon piezoresistive strain sensing technology for space shuttle main engine applications is reported. The following specific topics were addressed: (1) transducer design and materials, (2) silicon piezoresistor characterization at cryogenic temperatures, (3) chip mounting characterization, and (4) frequency response optimization.

P. J. Anderson; R. L. Johnson




EPA Science Inventory

This report details a research project on Steam Enhanced Remediation (SER) for the recovery of volatile organic compounds from fractured limestone that was carried out at the Quarry at the former Loring Air Force Base in Limestone, Maine. This project was carried out by USEPA, Ma...


Researchers develop new search tool to help fight child porn, catch cyber  

E-print Network

Researchers develop new search tool to help fight child porn, catch cyber thieves Canada Standard a comment... Post to Facebook 0 0 New #12;Researchers develop new search tool to help fight child porn

Fung, Benjamin C. M.


ARM Climate Research Facility: Outreach Tools and Strategies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sponsored by the Department of Energy, the ARM Climate Research Facility is a global scientific user facility for the study of climate change. To publicize progress and achievements and to reach new users, the ACRF uses a variety of Web 2.0 tools and strategies that build off of the program’s comprehensive and well established News Center ( These strategies include: an RSS subscription service for specific news categories; an email “newsletter” distribution to the user community that compiles the latest News Center updates into a short summary with links; and a Facebook page that pulls information from the News Center and links to relevant information in other online venues, including those of our collaborators. The ACRF also interacts with users through field campaign blogs, like Discovery Channel’s EarthLive, to share research experiences from the field. Increasingly, field campaign Wikis are established to help ACRF researchers collaborate during the planning and implementation phases of their field studies and include easy to use logs and image libraries to help record the campaigns. This vital reference information is used in developing outreach material that is shared in highlights, news, and Facebook. Other Web 2.0 tools that ACRF uses include Google Maps to help users visualize facility locations and aircraft flight patterns. Easy-to-use comment boxes are also available on many of the data-related web pages on to encourage feedback. To provide additional opportunities for increased interaction with the public and user community, future Web 2.0 plans under consideration for ACRF include: evaluating field campaigns for Twitter and microblogging opportunities, adding public discussion forums to research highlight web pages, moving existing photos into albums on FlickR or Facebook, and building online video archives through YouTube.

Roeder, L.; Jundt, R.



Operations other than war: Requirements for analysis tools research report  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the research effort to determine the requirements for new or improved analysis tools to support decisions at the strategic and operational levels for military Operations Other than War (OOTW). The work was performed for the Commander in Chief, U.S. Pacific Command (USCINCPAC). The data collection was based on workshops attended by experts in OOTWs: analysis personnel from each of the Combatant Commands, the Services, the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD), the Joint Staff, and other knowledgeable personnel. Further data were gathered from other workshops and conferences and from the literature. The results of this research begin with the creation of a taxonomy of OOTWs: categories of operations, attributes of operations, and tasks requiring analytical support. The tasks are connected to the Joint Staff`s Universal Joint Task List (UJTL). Historical OOTWs are analyzed to produce frequency distributions by category and responsible CINC. The analysis products are synthesized into a list of requirements for analytical tools and definitions of the requirements. The report concludes with a timeline or roadmap for satisfying the requirements.

Hartley, D.S. III



Tool management research based on Data Matrix barcode  

Microsoft Academic Search

Now enterprise have paid little attention to the application of data collection technique to tools, we can not share information that are not directed to the whole life cycle of tools, it cause that tool's information is not complete and tool has a poor traceability. In this paper, we studied data needs of the whole tool life cycle management and

Hua Chen; Jun Zhao; Yadong Fang; Bo Sun



Rethinking the Role of Information Technology-Based Research Tools in Students' Development of Scientific Literacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Given the central place IT-based research tools take in scientific research, the marginal role such tools currently play in science curricula is dissatisfying from the perspective of making students scientifically literate. To appropriately frame the role of IT-based research tools in science curricula, we propose a framework that is developed to…

van Eijck, Michiel; Roth, Wolff-Michael



Article A10.4 Introduction to the Research Tools Mind Map  

E-print Network

) Compare resources: Top 30 Web Tools to Search, 100 Useful Tips and Tools to Research the Deep Web (g do their work efficiently. It is assembled as an interactive Web-based mind map, titled Research Adcenter Lab, keyword density analyser, Free Keyword Tool (c) Find research materials: Web of Science

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Intellectual Property: a powerful tool to develop biotech research  

PubMed Central

Summary Today biotechnology is perhaps the most important technology field because of the strong health and food implications. However, due to the nature of said technology, there is the need of a huge amount of investments to sustain the experimentation costs. Consequently, investors aim to safeguard as much as possible their investments. Intellectual Property, and in particular patents, has been demonstrated to actually constitute a powerful tool to help them. Moreover, patents represent an extremely important means to disclose biotechnology inventions. Patentable biotechnology inventions involve products as nucleotide and amino acid sequences, microorganisms, processes or methods for modifying said products, uses for the manufacture of medicaments, etc. There are several ways to protect inventions, but all follow the three main patentability requirements: novelty, inventive step and industrial application. PMID:21255349

Giugni, Diego; Giugni, Valter



NASA Human Research Wiki - An Online Collaboration Tool  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In preparation for exploration-class missions, the Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) element of NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) has compiled a large evidence base, which previously was available only to persons within the NASA community. The evidence base is comprised of several types of data, for example: information on more than 80 medical conditions which could occur during space flight, derived from several sources (including data on incidence and potential outcomes of these medical conditions, as captured in the Integrated Medical Model's Clinical Finding Forms). In addition, approximately 35 gap reports are included in the evidence base, identifying current understanding of the medical challenges for exploration, as well as any gaps in knowledge and/or technology that would need to be addressed in order to provide adequate medical support for these novel missions. In an effort to make the ExMC information available to the general public and increase collaboration with subject matter experts within and outside of NASA, ExMC has developed an online collaboration tool, very similar to a wiki, titled the NASA Human Research Wiki. The platform chosen for this data sharing, and the potential collaboration it could generate, is a MediaWiki-based application that would house the evidence, allow "read only" access to all visitors to the website, and editorial access to credentialed subject matter experts who have been approved by the Wiki's editorial board. Although traditional wikis allow users to edit information in real time, the NASA Human Research Wiki includes a peer review process to ensure quality and validity of information. The wiki is also intended to be a pathfinder project for other HRP elements that may want to use this type of web-based tool. The wiki website will be released with a subset of the data described and will continue to be populated throughout the year.

Barr, Y. R.; Rasbury, J.; Johnson, J.; Barsten, K.; Saile, L.; Watkins, S. D.



Technology, safety, and costs of decommissioning reference nuclear research and test reactors. Main report  

SciTech Connect

Safety and Cost Information is developed for the conceptual decommissioning of two representative licensed nuclear research and test reactors. Three decommissioning alternatives are studied to obtain comparisons between costs (in 1981 dollars), occupational radiation doses, potential radiation dose to the public, and other safety impacts. The alternatives considered are: DECON (immediate decontamination), SAFSTOR (safe storage followed by deferred decontamination), and ENTOMB (entombment). The study results are presented in two volumes. Volume 1 (Main Report) contains the results in summary form.

Konzek, G.J.; Ludwick, J.D.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Smith, R.I.



Research Tensions with the Use of Timed Numeracy Fluency Assessments as a Research Tool  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, we describe how we came to use timed fluency activities, along with personal learner reflections on those activities, in our after-school maths club as a complementary research and development tool for assessing the changing levels of learners' mathematical proficiency over time. We use data from one case-study after-school…

Stott, Debbie; Graven, Mellony



Direct writing of metal nanostructures: lithographic tools for nanoplasmonics research.  


Continued progress in the fast-growing field of nanoplasmonics will require the development of new methods for the fabrication of metal nanostructures. Optical lithography provides a continually expanding tool box. Two-photon processes, as demonstrated by Shukla et al. (doi: 10.1021/nn103015g), enable the fabrication of gold nanostructures encapsulated in dielectric material in a simple, direct process and offer the prospect of three-dimensional fabrication. At higher resolution, scanning probe techniques enable nanoparticle particle placement by localized oxidation, and near-field sintering of nanoparticulate films enables direct writing of nanowires. Direct laser "printing" of single gold nanoparticles offers a remarkable capability for the controlled fabrication of model structures for fundamental studies, particle-by-particle. Optical methods continue to provide a powerful support for research into metamaterials. PMID:21417494

Leggett, Graham J



Research on criminal tool wear based on multi-scale fractal feature of the texture image  

Microsoft Academic Search

In forensic science, the wear information of the criminal tool can provide the relevant cues. So far, the researches about how to analyze the wear of criminal tool are still in the initial stage. There is a strong relationship between the degree of wear for the cutting tool such as pliers and the geometry imparted by the tool on to

Mou Li; Yang Min



Voice recognition technology as a tool for behavioral research.  


Behavioral research often requires the acquisition and processing of large volumes of data. Most current techniques for recording behavior constrain the amount and type of data that can be measured. We developed and tested a system that uses voice recognition technology to collect data on the social interactions and singing patterns of cowbirds (Molothrus ater) living outdoors in a semi-natural environment. We spoke observation data into a wireless microphone that transmitted the data to a computer in the laboratory. After collection, the data were automatically checked for errors and then were entered into a database. Overall, the system performed at extremely high levels of accuracy. Furthermore, owing to the removal of constraints on observers such as breaking visual contact with subjects and manual data entry into a database, we were able to increase the amount of data collected and to collect new measures of social interactions that have not been available to us in the past. We tested the system under the challenging circumstances of field observation, and it performed above our expectations. In a laboratory setting, if transmission difficulties are removed, voice recognition could be even more accurate. We recommend voice recognition as a powerful new tool for the variety of research fields in which measuring behavior is involved. PMID:12060983

White, David J; King, Andrew P; Duncan, Shan D



The Use of NUDIST, a Computerized Analytical Tool, to Support Qualitative Information Systems Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discusses the use of software tools to support qualitative information systems research, and provides a practical example of how one tool, NUDIST, was used in a recent empirical study. Argues that greatest benefit can be gained from software tools when their use is based on sound theory of qualitative research. The analysis for the study was built on the concept

Anne Rouse; Martin Dick



Concept Mapping as a Research Tool to Evaluate Conceptual Change Related to Instructional Methods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Concept maps are commonly used in a variety of educational settings as a learning aid or instructional tool. Additionally, their potential as a research tool has been recognized. This article defines features of concept maps, describes the use of pre- and postconcept maps as a research tool, and offers a protocol for employing concept maps as an…

Miller, Kevin J.; Koury, Kevin A.; Fitzgerald, Gail E.; Hollingsead, Candice; Mitchem, Katherine J.; Tsai, Hui-Hsien; Park, Meeaeng Ko



Haystack, a web-based tool for metabolomics research  

PubMed Central

Background Liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LCMS) has become a widely used technique in metabolomics research for differential profiling, the broad screening of biomolecular constituents across multiple samples to diagnose phenotypic differences and elucidate relevant features. However, a significant limitation in LCMS-based metabolomics is the high-throughput data processing required for robust statistical analysis and data modeling for large numbers of samples with hundreds of unique chemical species. Results To address this problem, we developed Haystack, a web-based tool designed to visualize, parse, filter, and extract significant features from LCMS datasets rapidly and efficiently. Haystack runs in a browser environment with an intuitive graphical user interface that provides both display and data processing options. Total ion chromatograms (TICs) and base peak chromatograms (BPCs) are automatically displayed, along with time-resolved mass spectra and extracted ion chromatograms (EICs) over any mass range. Output files in the common .csv format can be saved for further statistical analysis or customized graphing. Haystack's core function is a flexible binning procedure that converts the mass dimension of the chromatogram into a set of interval variables that can uniquely identify a sample. Binned mass data can be analyzed by exploratory methods such as principal component analysis (PCA) to model class assignment and identify discriminatory features. The validity of this approach is demonstrated by comparison of a dataset from plants grown at two light conditions with manual and automated peak detection methods. Haystack successfully predicted class assignment based on PCA and cluster analysis, and identified discriminatory features based on analysis of EICs of significant bins. Conclusion Haystack, a new online tool for rapid processing and analysis of LCMS-based metabolomics data is described. It offers users a range of data visualization options and supports non-biased differential profiling studies through a unique and flexible binning function that provides an alternative to conventional peak deconvolution analysis methods. PMID:25350247



Science in the Eyes of Preschool Children: Findings from an Innovative Research Tool  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

How do young children view science? Do these views reflect cultural stereotypes? When do these views develop? These fundamental questions in the field of science education have rarely been studied with the population of preschool children. One main reason is the lack of an appropriate research instrument that addresses preschool children's developmental competencies. Extensive body of research has pointed at the significance of early childhood experiences in developing positive attitudes and interests toward learning in general and the learning of science in particular. Theoretical and empirical research suggests that stereotypical views of science may be replaced by authentic views following inquiry science experience. However, no preschool science intervention program could be designed without a reliable instrument that provides baseline information about preschool children's current views of science. The current study presents preschool children's views of science as gathered from a pioneering research tool. This tool, in the form of a computer "game," does not require reading, writing, or expressive language skills and is operated by the children. The program engages children in several simple tasks involving picture recognition and yes/no answers in order to reveal their views about science. The study was conducted with 120 preschool children in two phases and found that by the age of 4 years, participants possess an emergent concept of science. Gender and school differences were detected. Findings from this interdisciplinary study will contribute to the fields of early childhood, science education, learning technologies, program evaluation, and early childhood curriculum development.

Dubosarsky, Mia D.


Research experience in Maine leads to teacher and student success in Texas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a High School science teacher it is my responsibility to present curriculum, to create enthusiasm for science, and to instill a passion and love for science in my students. Through a research experience as an ARMADA master teacher my passion and enthusiasm for the ocean was rekindled in the Gulf of Maine. Topics I had taught for years came alive in front of my eyes, and I was able to experience science to its fullest. I brought home many photographs, valuable information, and new enthusiasm to my students. I began a program called S.A.N.D. (Students As Nature Directors). In this program my students teach 3rd graders about the oceans and its many wonders. Also, I have incorporated hands-on research based projects. The research experience has enabled my students to become more scientifically literate and capable of sharing scientific knowledge with others. This presentation will show how research/teacher partnerships benefit students as well as teachers and how my students and district have benefited from my experience as an ARMADA master teacher. Author: Debra Slade-Redden Author #2: Lew Incze

Slade-Redden, D.; Incze, L.; Census Of Marine Life-Maine



The capsicum transcriptome DB: a "hot" tool for genomic research.  


Chili pepper (Capsicum annuum) is an economically important crop with no available public genome sequence. We describe a genomic resource to facilitate Capsicum annuum research. A collection of Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) derived from five C. annuum organs (root, stem, leaf, flower and fruit) were sequenced using the Sanger method and multiple leaf transcriptomes were deeply sampled using with GS-pyrosequencing. A hybrid assembly of 1,324,516 raw reads yielded 32,314 high quality contigs as validated by coverage and identity analysis with existing pepper sequences. Overall, 75.5% of the contigs had significant sequence similarity to entries in nucleic acid and protein databases; 23% of the sequences have not been previously reported for C. annuum and expand sequence resources for this species. A MySQL database and a user-friendly Web interface were constructed with search-tools that permit queries of the ESTs including sequence, functional annotation, Gene Ontology classification, metabolic pathways, and assembly information. The Capsicum Transcriptome DB is free available from PMID:22359434

Góngora-Castillo, Elsa; Fajardo-Jaime, Rubén; Fernández-Cortes, Araceli; Jofre-Garfias, Alba E; Lozoya-Gloria, Edmundo; Martínez, Octavio; Ochoa-Alejo, Neftalí; Rivera-Bustamante, Rafael



Microgravity as a research tool to improve US agriculture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Crop production and utilization are undergoing significant modifications and improvements that emanate from adaptation of recently developed plant biotechnologies. Several innovative technologies will impact US agriculture in the next century. One of these is the transfer of desirable genes from organisms to economically important crop species in a way that cannot be accomplished with traditional plant breeding techniques. Such plant genetic engineering offers opportunities to improve crop species for a number of characteristics as well as use as source materials for specific medical and industrial applications. Although plant genetic engineering is having an impact on development of new crop cultivars, several major constraints limit the application of this technology to selected crop species and genotypes. Consequently, gene transfer systems that overcome these constraints would greatly enhance development of new crop materials. If results of a recent gene transfer experiment conducted in microgravity during a Space Shuttle mission are confirmed, and with the availability of the International Space Station as a permanent space facility, commercial plant transformation activity in microgravity could become a new research tool to improve US agriculture. .

Bula, R. J.; Stankovic, Bratislav



Building an Exploratory Visual Analysis Tool for Qualitative Researchers Tanuka Bhowmick  

E-print Network

Building an Exploratory Visual Analysis Tool for Qualitative Researchers Tanuka Bhowmick Geo, Vancouver, WA, June 26-28, 2006 #12;Abstract Qualitative research is an integral part of both academic research in various disciplines, newer and more sophisticated exploratory tools that assist qualitative

Klippel, Alexander


International Cancer Research Portfolio: New On-Line Tool Will Aid in Cancer Research Collaboration and Planning

Cancer researchers around the world now have a powerful new tool at their fingertips that provides instant access to information on ongoing cancer research supported by cancer funding organizations within the United States and the United Kingdom.


Dynamic Visual Acuity: a Functionally Relevant Research Tool  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Coordinated movements between the eyes and head are required to maintain a stable retinal image during head and body motion. The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) plays a significant role in this gaze control system that functions well for most daily activities. However, certain environmental conditions or interruptions in normal VOR function can lead to inadequate ocular compensation, resulting in oscillopsia, or blurred vision. It is therefore possible to use acuity to determine when the environmental conditions, VOR function, or the combination of the two is not conductive for maintaining clear vision. Over several years we have designed and tested several tests of dynamic visual acuity (DVA). Early tests used the difference between standing and walking acuity to assess decrements in the gaze stabilization system after spaceflight. Supporting ground-based studies measured the responses from patients with bilateral vestibular dysfunction and explored the effects of visual target viewing distance and gait cycle events on walking acuity. Results from these studies show that DVA is affected by spaceflight, is degraded in patients with vestibular dysfunction, changes with target distance, and is not consistent across the gait cycle. We have recently expanded our research to include studies in which seated subjects are translated or rotated passively. Preliminary results from this work indicate that gaze stabilization ability may differ between similar active and passive conditions, may change with age, and can be affected by the location of the visual target with respect to the axis of motion. Use of DVA as a diagnostic tool is becoming more popular but the functional nature of the acuity outcome measure also makes it ideal for identifying conditions that could lead to degraded vision. By doing so, steps can be taken to alter the problematic environments to improve the man-machine interface and optimize performance.

Peters, Brian T.; Brady, Rachel A.; Miller, Chris A.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Wood, Scott J.; Cohen, Helen S.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.



Improving studentsâ understanding of quantum measurement. II. Development of research-based learning tools  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We describe the development and implementation of research-based learning tools such as the Quantum Interactive Learning Tutorials and peer-instruction tools to reduce studentsâ common difficulties with issues related to measurement in quantum mechanics. A preliminary evaluation shows that these learning tools are effective in improving students' understanding of concepts related to quantum measurement.

Zhu, Guangtian; Singh, Chandralekha



Researchers: new resources, tools needed to reduce variation in the admissions decisions.  


New research suggests there is considerable variation in the decisions emergency providers make regarding whether to admit patients with certain common, low-mortality conditions. ln some cases, the researchers found that patients were as much as six times more likely to be admitted at some hospitals than others. While available resources and cultural differences likely play a role in this variation, the researchers estimate that reducing this variation in decision making could potentially save as much as $5 billion per year. Data show that EDs are the main source of hospitalizations in this country, and emergency providers make a decision about admission approximately 350,000 times each day, resulting in close to 20 million admissions per year. Researchers found that variation in the admission decision was most prominent for patients presenting with chest pain but no heart attaclk, soft-tissue infections, urinary tract infections, asthma-related difficulties, and COPD. There was little variation in the admission decisions regarding patients with high-risk conditions such as heart attacks, sepsis, or kidney failure. Researchers suggest that reducing this variation in admission decisions will require better tools for determining which patients with lower-mortality conditions likely require hospitalization, and more resources so that physician have good alternatives to hospitalization at their disposal. PMID:25362751



Purdue study finds "label-free" imaging tool tracks nanotubes in cells, blood for biomedical research:

Purdue University researchers have demonstrated a new imaging tool for tracking structures called carbon nanotubes in living cells and the bloodstream, which could aid efforts to perfect their use in biomedical research and clinical medicine.



NSDL National Science Digital Library

The goal of the lesson is not for students to learn what the simple machines are, even though this is an underlying theme. Students will approach the lesson in a much more open-minded fashion. They will discuss tools and how they function. This will naturally lead to acknowledgment of how tools make our lives easier. By categorizing everyday items, students will come to understand the natural functions of tools. This base of knowledge will lead into exercises and discussions about how complex machines are a conglomerate of simpler tools and motions, as well as how tools have changed and become more sophisticated throughout history. At the end of the lesson to reemphasize the importance of tools in human society, students will write a paper in which they imagine a world without a particular tool.

Science Netlinks;




EPA Science Inventory

This presentation will explore the many facets of research and development for emerging contaminants within the USEPA's National Exposure Research Laboratories (Athens, Cincinnati, Las Vegas, and Research Triangle Park). ...


Physics Education Research at the Upper Division at the University of Maine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Researchers from the University of Maine Physics Education Research Laboratory are conducting several investigations of the learning and teaching of physics beyond the introductory level. Content topics include intermediate mechanics, electronics, thermodynamics and statistical mechanics. One focus of our work is the identification and addressing of specific student difficulties with topics such as damped harmonic motion, bipolar junction transistor (BJT) circuits, work, entropy, and the Boltzmann factor. Student understanding and use of the underlying mathematics has been one important emerging theme, including definite integrals, partial derivatives, and linear differential equations. Recent work in mechanics has focused on understanding the interplay of mathematical and physical reasoning when describing damped harmonic motion, including framing and representational issues. In electronics, there has been an ongoing investigation of student understanding of the behavior of basic BJT follower and amplifier circuits as well as related issues of signal and bias. In thermal physics, student understanding of state functions, heat engines and the Carnot cycle, the First and Second Laws of thermodynamics, and the macroscopic and microscopic perspectives on entropy have been investigated. The greater content sophistication in these courses has drawn attention to the specific needs, constraints, and advantages of instructional materials tailored to the upper division. Future directions include more attention to interdisciplinary topics across mathematics, physics, and engineering in particular, as well as metacognition in the laboratory.

Thompson, John




EPA Science Inventory

Metabolomics involves the application of advanced analytical and statistical tools to profile changes in levels of endogenous metabolites in tissues and biofluids resulting from disease onset or stress. While certain metabolites are being specifically targeted in these studies, w...


Research Tool Patents--Rumours of their Death are Greatly Exaggerated  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a patented drug during clinical trials is not infringement [35 U.S.C. 271(e)(1)]. Merck v Integra enlarged this "safe harbour" to accommodate preclinical use of drugs and patented "research tools" if "reasonably related" to FDA approval. The decision allowed lower courts, should they wish, to find any use of a research tool, except for…

Carroll, Peter G.; Roberts, John S.



‘Model’ or ‘tool’? New definitions for translational research  

PubMed Central

Summary The term ‘model’ often describes non-human biological systems that are used to obtain a better understanding of human disorders. According to the most stringent definition, an animal ‘model’ would display exactly the same phenotype as seen in the relevant human disorder; however, this precise correspondence is often not present. In this Editorial, I propose the alternative, broader term ‘tool’ to describe a biological system that does not obviously (or precisely) recapitulate a human disorder, but that nonetheless provides useful insight into the etiology or treatment of that disorder. Applying the term ‘tool’ to biological systems used in disease-related studies will help to identify those systems that can most effectively address mechanisms underlying human disease. Conversely, differentiating ‘models’ from ‘tools’ will help to define more clearly the limitations of biological systems used in preclinical analyses. PMID:21357758

Sive, Hazel



"Mythbusters": A Tool for Teaching Research Methods in Psychology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Mythbusters" uses multiple research methods to test interesting topics, offering research methods students an entertaining review of course material. To test the effectiveness of "Mythbusters" clips in a psychology research methods course, we systematically selected and showed 4 clips. Students answered questions about the clips, offered their…

Burkley, Edward; Burkley, Melissa



CAQDAS: a supplementary tool for qualitative market research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The aims of the paper are twofold: to assess the usage of Computer Assisted Qualitative Data Analysis (CAQDAS) in the UK market research industry; and to evaluate the use of CAQDAS as a supplement to paper-coding in market research. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – CAQDAS usage was assessed by a questionnaire, sent to a sample of 400 UK market researchers. The

Ruth Rettie; Helen Robinson; Anja Radke; Xiajiao Ye



Tools for Monitoring Social Media: A Marketing Research Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Knowledge of how to effectively monitor social media is an increasingly valued marketing research skill. This study tests an approach for adding social media content to an undergraduate marketing research class team project. The revised project maintains the expected objectives and parameters of a traditional research project, while integrating…

Veeck, Ann; Hoger, Beth



Specially Made for Science: Researchers Develop Online Tools For Collaborations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Blogs, wikis, and social-networking sites such as Facebook may get media buzz these days, but for scientists, engineers, and doctors, they are not even on the radar. The most effective tools of the Internet for such people tend to be efforts more narrowly aimed at their needs, such as software that helps geneticists replicate one another's…

Guterman, Lila



Research on Technology of Variant Design for Main Frame of Tunnel Boring Machine Based on KBE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main frame of full face rock tunnel boring machine (TBM) has very complex configuration, function and space constraint relation. Aiming at these problems, a new method of variant design for TBM main frame based on KBE is proposed. The modularization variant project configuration for TBM main frame is designed with integrating KBE and modular design method. Moreover, the method

Zhang Zhi-qiang; Wu Qing-ming; Li Yong; Zong Chi; Zhou Chao



Use of an enterprise wiki as a research collaboration tool.  


Biomedical research projects are highly collaborative endeavors with unique information management and communication needs. We describe the pilot use of an enterprise wiki solution to facilitate group communication, secure file sharing, and collaborative writing within a pediatric hospital and research center. We discuss the choice of software, examples of use, and initial user feedback. We conclude that a wiki is a low-cost and high-yield approach to enhance research collaboration. PMID:18694032

Desai, Bimal R; O'Hara, Ryan T; White, Peter S



The NASA Exoplanet Archive: Data and Tools for Exoplanet Research  

E-print Network

We describe the contents and functionality of the NASA Exoplanet Archive, a database and tool set funded by NASA to support astronomers in the exoplanet community. The current content of the database includes interactive tables containing properties of all published exoplanets, Kepler planet candidates, threshold-crossing events, data validation reports and target stellar parameters, light curves from the Kepler and CoRoT missions and from several ground-based surveys, and spectra and radial velocity measurements from the literature. Tools provided to work with these data include a transit ephemeris predictor, both for single planets and for observing locations, light curve viewing and normalization utilities, and a periodogram and phased light curve service. The archive can be accessed at

Akeson, R L; Ciardi, D; Crane, M; Good, J; Harbut, M; Jackson, E; Kane, S R; Laity, A C; Leifer, S; Lynn, M; McElroy, D L; Papin, M; Plavchan, P; Ramirez, S V; Rey, R; von Braun, K; Wittman, M; Abajian, M; Ali, B; Beichman, C; Beekley, A; Berriman, G B; Berukoff, S; Bryden, G; Chan, B; Groom, S; Lau, C; Payne, A N; Regelson, M; Saucedo, M; Schmitz, M; Stauffer, J; Wyatt, P; Zhang, A



Research on the cutting performance of carbon nitride cutting tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new kind of superhard material C3N4 has been developed in recent years. C3N4 film is deposited on the surface of cutting tools by the dc active magnetron-sputtering method. It has ultrahigh hardness approaching that of diamond.A high speed steel (HSS) twist drill coated with C3N4 film is applied to drilling hole process in steel workpiece in cutting tests, the

X. H. Zheng; Q. X. Yu; J. Lin; M. Lu; S. Q. Pang



Focus groups: A new tool for qualitative research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Focus groups have received little attention from sociologists, although they are a commonly used qualitative technique in market research. The data collected in focus group sessions typically consist of tape-recorded group discussions among four to ten participants who share their thoughts and experiences on a set of topics selected by the researcher. We present a brief description of dimensions along

David L. Morgan; Margaret T. Spanish



Somatic Sensitivity and Reflexivity as Validity Tools in Qualitative Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Validity is a key concept in qualitative educational research. Yet, it is often not addressed in methodological writing about dance. This essay explores validity in a postmodern world of diverse approaches to scholarship, by looking at the changing face of validity in educational qualitative research and at how new understandings of the concept…

Green, Jill



A validated set of tool pictures with matched objects and non-objects for laterality research.  


Neuropsychological and neuroimaging research has established that knowledge related to tool use and tool recognition is lateralized to the left cerebral hemisphere. Recently, behavioural studies with the visual half-field technique have confirmed the lateralization. A limitation of this research was that different sets of stimuli had to be used for the comparison of tools to other objects and objects to non-objects. Therefore, we developed a new set of stimuli containing matched triplets of tools, other objects and non-objects. With the new stimulus set, we successfully replicated the findings of no visual field advantage for objects in an object recognition task combined with a significant right visual field advantage for tools in a tool recognition task. The set of stimuli is available as supplemental data to this article. PMID:24821308

Verma, Ark; Brysbaert, Marc



Research investigation of helicopter main rotor/tail rotor interaction noise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Acoustic measurements were obtained in a Langley 14 x 22 foot Subsonic Wind Tunnel to study the aeroacoustic interaction of 1/5th scale main rotor, tail rotor, and fuselage models. An extensive aeroacoustic data base was acquired for main rotor, tail rotor, fuselage aerodynamic interaction for moderate forward speed flight conditions. The details of the rotor models, experimental design and procedure, aerodynamic and acoustic data acquisition and reduction are presented. The model was initially operated in trim for selected fuselage angle of attack, main rotor tip-path-plane angle, and main rotor thrust combinations. The effects of repositioning the tail rotor in the main rotor wake and the corresponding tail rotor countertorque requirements were determined. Each rotor was subsequently tested in isolation at the thrust and angle of attack combinations for trim. The acoustic data indicated that the noise was primarily dominated by the main rotor, especially for moderate speed main rotor blade-vortex interaction conditions. The tail rotor noise increased when the main rotor was removed indicating that tail rotor inflow was improved with the main rotor present.

Fitzgerald, J.; Kohlhepp, F.



Reframing research on learning with technology: in search of the meaning of cognitive tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research and development with cognitive tools has been limited by an inadequate conceptualization of the complexity\\u000a underlying their nature and affordances for supporting learning and performance. This paper provides a new perspective on\\u000a cognitive tools through the lens of the theories of distributed cognition and expertise. The learner, tool, and activity form\\u000a a joint learning system, and the expertise

Beaumie Kim; Thomas C. Reeves



Market research for requirements analysis using linguistic tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous studies in recent months have proposed the use of linguistic instruments to support requirements analysis. There are two main reasons for this: (i) the progress made in natural language processing, (ii) the need to provide the developers of software systems with support in the early phases of requirements definition and conceptual modelling. This paper presents the results of an

Luisa Mich; Mariangela Franch; Pierluigi Novi Inverardi



Conceptualising the Use of Facebook in Ethnographic Research: As Tool, as Data and as Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article proposes a three-part conceptualisation of the use of Facebook in ethnographic research: as a tool, as data and as context. Longitudinal research with young adults at a time of significant change provides many challenges for the ethnographic researcher, such as maintaining channels of communication and high rates of participant…

Baker, Sally



Learning discipline-specific research English for a world stage: A self-access concordancing tool?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers and postgraduate research students who use English as an additional language (EAL) often struggle to gain command of the highly discipline-specifi c English they need to write independently for successful publication in the international literature. A self-access language- learning tool that takes advantage of their existing facility with research processes and provides access to specifi c language elements they

Margaret Cargill; Ray Adams


Exploring the Potential of Ultrasonic Position Measurement as a Research Tool Cliff Randell  

E-print Network

Exploring the Potential of Ultrasonic Position Measurement as a Research Tool Cliff Randell ¡ Ian ultrasonic and RF technologies, and further out- lines research which has been enabled by the system. Exist using ultrasonic and RF technologies designed to promote indoor research [1]. There are three

Rogers, Yvonne


Searching for New Directions: Developing MA Action Research Project as a Tool for Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Action research has been recognized as a useful professional development tool for teaching, but for inservice teachers, conducting action research can be challenging. Their learning about action research can be influenced by social situations--whether in an MA (Master of Arts) program or other professional development. The purpose of this…

Lee, Young Ah; Wang, Ye



Introduction: new tools for enhancing collaborative endometriosis research.  


This issue of Fertility and Sterility contains four articles by the World Endometriosis Research Foundation whose present objective is global standardization of the collection of phenotypic data and biological samples, designated as the Endometriosis Phenome and Biobanking Harmonisation Project. The aim is to facilitate large-scale international, multicenter trials that are robust, and will result in biomarker and treatment targets to advance research in endometriosis. PMID:25154678

Casper, Robert F



SMART, a Simple Modular Architecture Research Tool: Identification of Signaling Domains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate multiple alignments of 86 domains that occur in signaling proteins have been constructed and used to provide a Web-based tool (SMART: simple modular architecture research tool) that allows rapid identification and annotation of signaling domain sequences. The majority of signaling proteins are multidomain in character with a considerable variety of domain combinations known. Comparison with established databases showed that

Jorg Schultz; Frank Milpetz; Peer Bork; Chris P. Ponting



Research Summary Sustainability impact assessment: tools for environmental, social and economic  

E-print Network

Research Summary Sustainability impact assessment: tools for environmental, social and economic to produce Sustainability Impact Assessment Tools (SIATs) that will be used to predict the impacts) and will be used as part of the Impact Assessment (IA) process, as set out in the Impact Assessment Guidelines


An Evaluation Tool for Machine Translation: Fast Evaluation for MT Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a tool for the evaluation of translat ion quality. First, the typical requirements of such a tool i n the framework of machine translation (MT) research are discussed. We define e valuation criteria which are more adequate than pure edit distance and we describe how the measurement along these quality criteria is performed semi-automaticallyin a

Gregor Leusch; Hermann Ney; RWTH Aachen



Inhibitory RNA in epilepsy: Research tool and therapeutic perspectives  

PubMed Central

Summary Since its discovery a decade ago, RNA interference (RNAi) has been developed not only into powerful experimental tools but also into promising novel therapeutics. In contrast to conventional antiepileptic drugs that target specific proteins such as ion channels or receptors, RNAi –based therapeutics exploit an endogenous regulatory mechanism of gene expression and thereby are poised to prevent or reverse pathogenetic mechanisms involved in seizure development. Therapeutic RNAi has been widely explored for dominant targets involved in neurodegenerative diseases; however, their use for epilepsy therapy has received less attention. This review will discuss potential RNAi-based targets that are of interest for epilepsy therapy, including adenosine kinase (ADK), the key negative regulator of the brain’s endogenous anticonvulsant adenosine. Overexpression of ADK, and the resulting adenosine deficiency, are pathological hallmarks of the sclerotic epileptic brain, and have been implicated in seizure generation. Therefore, RNAi-strategies aimed at reducing ADK (and increasing adenosine) are based on a direct neurochemical rationale that has recently been explored experimentally using ex vivo and in vivo gene therapy approaches. Technical issues and challenges remain before those promising tools can be developed into future therapeutics for epilepsy. PMID:20633035

Boison, Detlev



ORIGINAL RESEARCH Preliminary NSQIP results: A tool for quality improvement 26  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL RESEARCH Preliminary NSQIP results: A tool for quality improvement 26 Stachler et al Cost of the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation #12;ORIGINAL RESEARCH­HEAD AND NECK

Gao, Jinming


HILAS Flight Operations Research: Development of Risk\\/Safety Management, Process Improvement and Task Support Tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on flight operations research, conducted as part of the work requirements for the Flight Operations Strand\\u000a of the Human Integration into the Lifecycle of Aviation Systems (HILAS) project. Specifically, it presents a provisional framework\\u000a for a suite of integrated Flight Operations tools developed in this research. It is anticipated that these tools will be used\\u000a by different

Joan Cahill; Nick Mc Donald; Pernilla Ulfvengren; Franklyn Young; Yeray Ramos; Gabriel Losa



Hopkins researchers find cancer is caused mainly by random mutations that occur during cell division

Scientists from the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center have created a statistical model that measures the proportion of cancer incidence, across many tissue types, caused mainly by random mutations that occur when stem cells divide.


Configural Frequency Analysis as a Statistical Tool for Developmental Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Configural frequency analysis (CFA) is suggested as a technique for longitudinal research in developmental psychology. Stability and change in answers to multiple choice and yes-no item patterns obtained with repeated measurements are identified by CFA and illustrated by developmental analysis of an item from Gorham's Proverb Test. (Author/DWH)

Lienert, Gustav A.; Oeveste, Hans Zur



TPACK: An Emerging Research and Development Tool for Teacher Educators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

TPACK (technological pedagogical content knowledge) has emerged as a clear and useful construct for researchers working to understand technology integration in learning and teaching. Whereas first generation TPACK work focused upon explaining and interpreting the construct, TPACK has now entered a second generation where the focus is upon using…

Baran, Evrim; Chuang, Hsueh-Hua; Thompson, Ann



The Portable Usability Testing Lab: A Flexible Research Tool.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A group of faculty at the University of Georgia obtained funding for a research and development facility called the Learning and Performance Support Laboratory (LPSL). One of the LPSL's primary needs was obtaining a portable usability lab for software testing, so the facility obtained the "Luggage Lab 2000." The lab is transportable to any site…

Hale, Michael E.; And Others


Administrative Record Linkage as a Tool for Public Health Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Linked administrative databases offer a powerful resource for studying important public health issues. Methods developed and implemented in several jurisdictions across the globe have achieved high-quality linkages for conducting health and social research without compromising confidentiality. Key data available for linkage include health services utilization, population registries, place of residence, family ties, educational outcomes, and use of social services. Linking

Douglas P. Jutte; Leslie L. Roos; Marni D. Brownell


Data Linkage: A powerful research tool with potential problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Policy makers, clinicians and researchers are demonstrating increasing interest in using data linked from multiple sources to support measurement of clinical performance and patient health outcomes. However, the utility of data linkage may be compromised by sub-optimal or incomplete linkage, leading to systematic bias. In this study, we synthesize the evidence identifying participant or population characteristics that can influence

Megan A Bohensky; Damien Jolley; Vijaya Sundararajan; Sue Evans; David V Pilcher; Ian Scott; Caroline A Brand



Python Tools for Reproducible Research on Hyperbolic Problems  

E-print Network

of scholarship and a necessary component of the scientific method. Scientific and mathematical journals on reproducible research, the scientific method and style of presenting experiments in publications be examined to determine details of the method used. Some difficulties in achieving this goal are discussed

LeVeque, Randy


Python Tools for Reproducible Research on Hyperbolic Problems  

E-print Network

of scholarship and a necessary component of the scientific method. Scientific and mathematical journals on reproducible research, the scientific method and style of presenting experiments in publications, and can be examined to determine details of the method used. Some difficulties in achieving this goal

LeVeque, Randy


CDPP tools : Promoting research and education with AMDA, 3DView and the propagation tool in space physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CDPP (Centre de Données de la Physique des Plasmas,, the French data center for plasma physics, is engaged for more than a decade in the archiving and dissemination of plasma data products from space missions and ground observatories. Besides these activities, the CDPP developed an online analysis tool, AMDA ( It enables in depth analysis of large amount of space physics, planetary and model data through dedicated functionalities such as: visualization, data mining, cataloguing ... It is used (about 250 connections per month) by scientists for their own research, but also by graduate students in the classroom and for dedicated projects. AMDA is ideally complemented by two companion tools also developed at CDPP : 3DView ( which provides immersive data visualisations in planetary environments and the Propagation Tool ( which enables tracking of solar perturbations in the heliosphere with different analytical models and white light imaging techniques. This presentation will focus on some scientific cases combining the use of the three tools. (2.1) Data Mining and Intelligent Systems for Massive Data Sets

Genot, Vincent; Cecconi, Baptiste


STELLA software as a tool for modelling phosphorus removal in a constructed wetland employing dewatered alum sludge as main substrate.  


A dynamic simulation model was developed for the removal of soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) from the vertical flow constructed wetlands (VFCW) using a dynamic software program called STELLA (structural thinking, experiential learning laboratory with animation) 9.1.3 to aid in simulating the environmental nature and succession of relationship between interdependent components and processes in the VFCW system. In particular, the VFCW employed dewatered alum sludge as its main substrate to enhance phosphorus (P) immobilization. Although computer modelling of P in treatment wetland has been well studied especially in recent years, there is still a need to develop simple and realistic models that can be used for investigating the dynamics of SRP in VFCWs. The state variables included in the model are dissolved phosphorus (DISP), plant phosphorus (PLAP), detritus phosphorus (DETP), plant biomass (PLBI) and adsorbed phosphorus (ADSP). The major P transformation processes considered in this study were adsorption, plant and microbial uptake and decomposition. The forcing functions which were considered in the model are temperature, radiation, volume of wastewater, P concentration, contact time, flow rate and the adsorbent (i.e., alum sludge). The model results revealed that up to 72% of the SRP can be removed through adsorption process whereas the uptake by plants is about 20% and the remaining processes such as microbial P utilization and decomposition, accounted for 7% SRP removal based on the mass balance calculations. The results obtained indicate that the model can be used to simulate outflow SRP concentration, and it can also be used to estimate the amount of P removed by individual processes in the VFCW using alum-sludge as a substrate. PMID:21644152

Kumar, J L G; Wang, Z Y; Zhao, Y Q; Babatunde, A O; Zhao, X H; Jørgensen, S E



Developing a Research Tool to Gauge Student Metacognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metacognition refers to the family of thought processes and skills used to evaluate and manage learning. A research and curriculum development project underway at Western Washington University uses introductory physics labs as a context to promote students' abilities to learn and apply metacognitive skills. A required ``narrative reflection'' has been incorporated as a weekly end-of-lab assignment. The goal of the narrative reflection is to encourage and support student metacognition while generating written artifacts that can be used by researchers to study metacognition in action. We have developed a Reflective Thinking Rubric (RTR) to analyze scanned narrative reflections. The RTR codes student writing for Metacognitive Elements, identifiable steps or aspects of metacognitive thinking at a variety of levels of sophistication. We hope to use the RTR to monitor the effect of weekly reflection on metacognitive ability and to search for correlations between metacognitive ability and conceptual understanding.

McInerny, Alistair; Boudreaux, Andrew; Rishal, Sepideh; Clare, Kelci



Human genome project: New tools for tomorrow's health research  

SciTech Connect

The Human Genome Project is discussed within the context of the benefits that can be derived from human biological and biomedical research in the 21st century. Explanations are given about what chromosome mapping is and the different kinds that exist. Next, model organisms that were developed to better understand and interpret genetic information are discussed, as well as the database that the project will develop and the training opportunities that such a database will afford to emerging technologies. Finally, a review is given of the personal and social implications stemming from greater genetic knowledge.

Not Available



Digital storytelling: an innovative tool for practice, education, and research.  


ABSTRACT Digital storytelling is a method of using storytelling, group work, and modern technology to facilitate the creation of 2-3 minute multi-media video clips to convey personal or community stories. Digital storytelling is being used within the health care field; however, there has been limited documentation of its application within occupational therapy. This paper introduces digital storytelling and proposes how it can be applied in occupational therapy clinical practice, education, and research. The ethical and methodological challenges in relation to using the method are also discussed. PMID:25338054

Lal, Shalini; Donnelly, Catherine; Shin, Jennifer



NASA Global Hawk: A New Tool for Earth Science Research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the Global Hawk, a unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) that NASA plans to use for Earth Sciences research. The Global Hawk is the world's first fully autonomous high-altitude, long-endurance aircraft, and is capable of conducting long duration missions. Plans are being made for the use of the aircraft on missions in the Arctic, Pacific and Western Atlantic Oceans. There are slides showing the Global Hawk Operations Center (GHOC), Flight Control and Air Traffic Control Communications Architecture, and Payload Integration and Accommodations on the Global Hawk. The first science campaign, planned for a study of the Pacific Ocean, is reviewed.

Hall, Phill



Electromagnetic Levitation: A Useful Tool in Microgravity Research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electromagnetic levitation is one area of the electromagnetic processing of materials that has uses for both fundamental research and practical applications. This technique was successfully used on the Space Shuttle Columbia during the Spacelab IML-2 mission in July 1994 as a platform for accurately measuring the surface tensions of liquid metals and alloys. In this article, we discuss the key transport phenomena associated with electromagnetic levitation, the fundamental relationships associated with thermophysical property measurement that can be made using this technique, reasons for working in microgravity, and some of the results obtained from the microgravity experiments.

Szekely, Julian; Schwartz, Elliot; Hyers, Robert



The NASA Human Research Wiki - An Online Collaboration Tool  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) element is one of six elements of the Human Research Program (HRP). ExMC is charged with decreasing the risk of: "Inability to adequately recognize or treat an ill or injured crew member" for exploration-class missions In preparation for exploration-class missions, ExMC has compiled a large evidence base, previously available only to persons within the NASA community. ExMC has developed the "NASA Human Research Wiki" in an effort to make the ExMC information available to the general public and increase collaboration within and outside of NASA. The ExMC evidence base is comprised of several types of data, including: (1)Information on more than 80 medical conditions which could occur during space flight (a)Derived from several sources (b)Including data on incidence and potential outcomes, as captured in the Integrated Medical Model s (IMM) Clinical Finding Forms (CliFFs). (2)Approximately 25 gap reports (a)Identify any "gaps" in knowledge and/or technology that would need to be addressed in order to provide adequate medical support for these novel missions.

Barr, Yael; Rasbury, Jack; Johnson, Jordan; Barstend, Kristina; Saile, Lynn; Watkins, Sharmi



Markov reliability model research of monitoring process in digital main control room of nuclear power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monitoring process is an important part in a high safety digital main control room of nuclear power plant (NPP), it is the source extracted information and found abnormal information in time. As the human factors events arisen from monitoring process recently take place more and more frequent, the authors propose a reliability Markov model to effectively decrease these abnormal events.

Jian-jun Jiang; Li Zhang; Yi-qun Wang; Yu-yuan Peng; Kun Zhang; Wen He



Research Report Selective enhancement of main olfactory input to the medial  

E-print Network

(GnRH) neurons. In sexually naive males, vomeronasal organ removal (VNX), but not main olfactory Vomeronasal organ Gonadotropin-releasing hormone Hamster Olfatory bulb Fos 1. Introduction Chemosensory, ventromedial hypothalamus; VNO, vomeronasal organ; VNX, vomeronasal organ removal 0006-8993/$ ­ see front

Ronquist, Fredrik


Making Wavesat the University of Maine Darling Marine Center More cutting-edge research inside  

E-print Network

-five percent of the students are from Maine and seventy-five percent hale from thirteen other states and one at UMaine. Dr. William Ellis Assistant Director, School of Marine Sciences Secrets of the North Atlantic platforms. From April to June, state-of-the-art subsurface floats and autonomous under- water gliders, both

Boss, Emmanuel S.


Main differences between volatiles of sparkling and base wines accessed through comprehensive two dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometric detection and chemometric tools.  


The main changes in the volatile profile of base wines and their corresponding sparkling wines produced by traditional method were evaluated and investigated for the first time using headspace solid-phase microextraction combined with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry detection (GC×GC/TOFMS) and chemometric tools. Fisher ratios helped to find the 119 analytes that were responsible for the main differences between base and sparkling wines and principal component analysis explained 93.1% of the total variance related to the selected 78 compounds. It was also possible to observe five subclusters in base wines and four subclusters in sparkling wines samples through hierarchical cluster analysis, which seemed to have an organised distribution according to the regions where the wines came from. Twenty of the most important volatile compounds co-eluted with other components and separation of some of them was possible due to GC×GC/TOFMS performance. PMID:24996354

Welke, Juliane Elisa; Zanus, Mauro; Lazzarotto, Marcelo; Pulgati, Fernando Hepp; Zini, Cláudia Alcaraz



Outline of Ongoing Research Activities of the Marine Ecology Research Institute, Mainly Regarding Thermal Issues in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The Marine Ecology Research Institute (MERI) was established in 1975 by an agreement among three government agencies, which\\u000a were then known as the Fisheries Agency, Energy Agency, and Environmental Agency. MERI is the only research organization in\\u000a Japan specialized in research to elucidate the effects of thermal power plant cooling systems on coastal fishery resources\\u000a and marine organisms. Most fossil

Michiyasu Kiyono; Katsutoshi Kido


Pancreatic Cancer Center: Providing the Research Tools Necessary to Advance Pancreatic Cancer Patient Care  

E-print Network

Pancreatic Cancer Center: Providing the Research Tools Necessary to Advance Pancreatic Cancer number of NCI-designated cancer centers have a specialized pancreatic cancer program. The creation of the IUPUI Signature Center for Pancreatic Cancer Research has been the foundation for putting IUPUI, the IU

Zhou, Yaoqi


Operations Research Tools for Addressing Current Challenges in Emergency Medical Services  

E-print Network

Operations Research Tools for Addressing Current Challenges in Emergency Medical Services Shane G. Henderson March 26, 2009 Abstract Emergency Medical Service (EMS) providers face a host of significant research techniques in conjunction with EMS expertise. The pur- pose of this article is to outline some

Henderson, Shane


Random Table and Its Ground Truth Automatic Generation: A Tool for Table Understanding Research  

E-print Network

Random Table and Its Ground Truth Automatic Generation: A Tool for Table Understanding Research- ing research. It can analyze any given table ground truth and generate documents that include similar matching ground truthing idea, the table ground truth data for the generated table elements become

Wang, Yalin


New Tools for New Literacies Research: An Exploration of Usability Testing Software  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Competency in the new literacies of the Internet is essential for participating in contemporary society. Researchers studying these new literacies are recognizing the limitations of traditional methodological tools and adapting new technologies and new media for use in research. This paper reports our exploration of usability testing software to…

Asselin, Marlene; Moayeri, Maryam



Electrostatic Levitation: A Tool to Support Materials Research in Microgravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Containerless processing represents an important topic for materials research in microgravity. Levitated specimens are free from contact with a container, which permits studies of deeply undercooled melts, and high-temperature, highly reactive materials. Containerless processing provides data for studies of thermophysical properties, phase equilibria, metastable state formation, microstructure formation, undercooling, and nucleation. The European Space Agency (ESA) and the German Aerospace Center (DLR) jointly developed an electromagnetic levitator facility (MSL-EML) for containerless materials processing in space. The electrostatic levitator (ESL) facility at the Marshall Space Flight Center provides support for the development of containerless processing studies for the ISS. Apparatus and techniques have been developed to use the ESL to provide data for phase diagram determination, creep resistance, emissivity, specific heat, density/thermal expansion, viscosity, surface tension and triggered nucleation of melts. The capabilities and results from selected ESL-based characterization studies performed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center will be presented.

Rogers, Jan; SanSoucie, Mike



The Spallation Neutron Source: A powerful tool for materials research  

SciTech Connect

When completed in 2006, the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) will use an accelerator to produce the most intense beams of pulsed neutrons in the world. This unique facility is being built by a collaboration of six US Department of Energy laboratories and will serve a diverse community of users drawn from academia, industry, and government labs. The project continues on schedule and within budget, with commissioning and installation of all systems going well. Installation of 14 state-of-the-art instruments is under way, and design work is being completed for several others. These new instruments will enable inelastic and elastic-scattering measurements across a broad range of science such as condensed-matter physics, chemistry, engineering materials, biology, and beyond. Neutron Science at SNS will be complemented by research opportunities at several other facilities under way at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

Mason, Thom [ORNL; Anderson, Ian S [ORNL; Ankner, John Francis [ORNL; Egami, Takeshi [ORNL; Ekkebus, Allen E [ORNL; Herwig, Kenneth W [ORNL; Hodges, Jason P [ORNL; Horak, Charlie M [ORNL; Horton, Linda L [ORNL; Klose, Frank Richard [ORNL; Mesecar, Andrew D. [University of Illinois, Chicago; Myles, Dean A A [ORNL; Ohl, M. [Forschungszentrum Julich, Julich, Germany; Zhao, Jinkui [ORNL



Nucleic Acid Aptamers: Research Tools in Disease Diagnostics and Therapeutics  

PubMed Central

Aptamers are short sequences of nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) or peptide molecules which adopt a conformation and bind cognate ligands with high affinity and specificity in a manner akin to antibody-antigen interactions. It has been globally acknowledged that aptamers promise a plethora of diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Although use of nucleic acid aptamers as targeted therapeutics or mediators of targeted drug delivery is a relatively new avenue of research, one aptamer-based drug “Macugen” is FDA approved and a series of aptamer-based drugs are in clinical pipelines. The present review discusses the aspects of design, unique properties, applications, and development of different aptamers to aid in cancer diagnosis, prevention, and/or treatment under defined conditions. PMID:25050359

Yadava, Pramod K.



Abstract. One of the main problems in motor-control research is the muscle load sharing problem, which  

E-print Network

, in the physiological cross-sectional area of muscle. 1 Introduction For most isometric forces and movements of a limbAbstract. One of the main problems in motor-control research is the muscle load sharing problem, which originates from the fact that the number of muscles spanning a joint exceeds the number of degrees

Gielen, C.C.A.M.


Gulf of Maine Ocean Observing System (GoMOOS): an institutional arrangement in support of coastal ocean research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Gulf of Maine Ocean Observing System is the nation's first demonstration of a regional, user-driven, integrated coastal ocean observing system. The demonstration has two major components: the physical component, by which data and observations will be collected, processed, synthesized into useful products as determined by market research, archived, and served to the public in real time; and the institutional

E. D. Richert; P. S. Bogden



Advanced imaging microscope tools applied to microgravity research investigations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The inability to observe and interact with experiments on orbit has been an impediment for both basic research and commercial ventures using the shuttle. In order to open the frontiers of space, the Center for Microgravity Automation Technology has developed a unique and innovative system for conducting experiments at a distance, the ``Remote Scientist.'' The Remote Scientist extends laboratory automation capability to the microgravity environment. While the Remote Scientist conceptually encompasses a broad spectrum of elements and functionalities, the development approach taken is to: • establish a baseline capability that is both flexible and versatile • incrementally augment the baseline with additional functions over time. Since last year, the application of the Remote Scientist has changed from protein crystal growth to tissue culture, specifically, the development of skeletal muscle under varying levels of tension. This system includes a series of bioreactor chambers that allow for three-dimensional growth of muscle tissue on a membrane suspended between the two ends of a programmable force transducer that can provide automated or investigator-initiated tension on the developing tissue. A microscope objective mounted on a translation carriage allows for high-resolution microscopy along a large area of the tissue. These images will be mosaiced on orbit to detect features and structures that span multiple images. The use of fluorescence and pseudo-confocal microscopy will maximize the observational capabilities of this system. A series of ground-based experiments have been performed to validate the bioreactor, the force transducer, the translation carriage and the image acquisition capabilities of the Remote Scientist. • The bioreactor is capable of sustaining three dimensional tissue culture growth over time. • The force transducer can be programmed to provide static tension on cells or to simulate either slow or fast growth of underlying tissues in vivo, ranging from 0.2 mm per day to 32 mm per day. • The two-axis translation carriage is capable of scanning the camera along the bioreactor and adjusting the focus with 25 ?m resolution. • Time-lapse sequences of images have been acquired, stored and transmitted to a remote computer system. Although the current application of the Remote Scientist technology is the observation and manipulation of a tissue culture growth system, the hardware has been designed to be easily reconfigured to accommodate a multitude of experiments, including animal observation, combustion studies, protein crystal growth, plant growth and aquatic research.

Peterson, L.; Samson, J.; Conrad, D.; Clark, K.



Emerging Imaging Tools for Use with Traumatic Brain Injury Research  

PubMed Central

Abstract This article identifies emerging neuroimaging measures considered by the inter-agency Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) Neuroimaging Workgroup. This article attempts to address some of the potential uses of more advanced forms of imaging in TBI as well as highlight some of the current considerations and unresolved challenges of using them. We summarize emerging elements likely to gain more widespread use in the coming years, because of 1) their utility in diagnosis, prognosis, and understanding the natural course of degeneration or recovery following TBI, and potential for evaluating treatment strategies; 2) the ability of many centers to acquire these data with scanners and equipment that are readily available in existing clinical and research settings; and 3) advances in software that provide more automated, readily available, and cost-effective analysis methods for large scale data image analysis. These include multi-slice CT, volumetric MRI analysis, susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), magnetization transfer imaging (MTI), arterial spin tag labeling (ASL), functional MRI (fMRI), including resting state and connectivity MRI, MR spectroscopy (MRS), and hyperpolarization scanning. However, we also include brief introductions to other specialized forms of advanced imaging that currently do require specialized equipment, for example, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), positron emission tomography (PET), encephalography (EEG), and magnetoencephalography (MEG)/magnetic source imaging (MSI). Finally, we identify some of the challenges that users of the emerging imaging CDEs may wish to consider, including quality control, performing multi-site and longitudinal imaging studies, and MR scanning in infants and children. PMID:21787167

Wilde, Elisabeth A.; Tong, Karen A.; Holshouser, Barbara A.



Prof. Aldo Steinfeld, Institute of Energy Technology Research main activities and goals  

E-print Network

At the fundamental level, the research themes encompass heat/mass transport phenomena and multi-phase reacting flows tomography and spectroscopic goniometry, are applied to characterize complex porous materials and determine power (CSP) and concentrating pho- tovoltaics (CPV), with the goal to reach significant electricity cost

Daraio, Chiara


Advancing Research in Second Language Writing through Computational Tools and Machine Learning Techniques: A Research Agenda  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper provides an agenda for replication studies focusing on second language (L2) writing and the use of natural language processing (NLP) tools and machine learning algorithms. Specifically, it introduces a range of the available NLP tools and machine learning algorithms and demonstrates how these could be used to replicate seminal studies…

Crossley, Scott A.



COPERITE-computer-aided tool for power engineering research, instruction, training and education  

Microsoft Academic Search

A graphics-oriented, primarily PC-based tool for education, research, and training in power engineering is introduced. The tool, called COPERITE, has all user interfaces resident on an IBM-386 microcomputer. Menus and windows are used for the interface, and attractive graphical representations and displays are included. Application programs that are interfaced are power flow, contingency analysis, economic dispatch, security-constrained dispatch, system stability,

B. H. Chowdhury; D. E. Clark



Research pressure instrumentation for NASA Space Shuttle main engine, modification no. 5  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of Modification No. 5 of this contract is to expand the scope of work (Task C) of this research study effort to develop pressure instrumentation for the SSME. The objective of this contract (Task C) is to direct Honeywell's Solid State Electronics Division's (SSED) extensive experience and expertise in solid state sensor technology to develop prototype pressure transducers which are targeted to meet the SSME performance design goals and to fabricate, test and deliver a total of 10 prototype units. SSED's basic approach is to effectively utilize the many advantages of silicon piezoresistive strain sensing technology to achieve the objectives of advanced state-of-the-art pressure sensors in terms of reliability, accuracy and ease of manufacture. More specifically, integration of multiple functions on a single chip is the key attribute of this technology which will be exploited during this research study.

Anderson, P. J.; Nussbaum, P.; Gustafson, G.



2011 Raditation & Climate Gordon Research Conference (July 10-15 2011- Colby College, Waterville, Maine)  

SciTech Connect

The 2011 Gordon Research Conference on Radiation and Climate will present cutting-edge research on outstanding issues in climate change, particularly those in which the interactions between clouds, aerosols, and precipitation play a major role. The Conference will feature a broad range of topics, including grand challenges in atmospheric radiation and climate, cloud and water vapor feedbacks, aerosol-cloud-precipitation-climate interactions across scales, new approaches for remote sensing and in-situ observations of clouds, aerosols and precipitation, and multi-scale modeling challenges. The invited speakers will present the most important recent advances and future challenges in these areas. The Conference will bring together a collection of leading investigators who are at the forefront of their field, and will provide opportunities for scientists, especially junior scientists and graduate students, to present their work in poster format and exchange ideas with leaders in the field. The collegial atmosphere of this Conference, with programmed discussion sessions as well as opportunities for informal gatherings in the afternoons and evenings, provides an avenue for scientists from different disciplines to brainstorm and promotes cross-disciplinary collaborations in the various research areas represented.

Prof. Max Hoggblom



Neuropsychiatric Genetics Research Group The main aim of the Neuropsychiatric Genetics Research Group (NGRG) is to study the  

E-print Network

on the identification of risk genes for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder and has made a substantial contribution Group (NGRG) is to study the relationships between phenotype and genotype in neuropsychiatric disorders of Medicine. Schizophrenia and other psychoses:- Research in this programme has concentrated

O'Mahony, Donal E.


Research Report 2010 The main research of the Department of Training and Movement Sciences of the Humboldt-  

E-print Network

international sports science research. In addition to the skills in training science, biomechanics and motor and movement sciences as well as in sports medicine in 1995 and got his habiliation in biomechanics in 2002 control and safety of locomotion. Through an integrative approach of biomechanics, physiology

Röder, Beate


Scientific Mobility and International Research Networks: Trends and Policy Tools for Promoting Research Excellence and Capacity Building  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the ways in which globalization is manifesting itself in higher education and research is through the increasing importance and emphasis on scientific mobility. This article seeks to provide an overview and analysis of current trends and policy tools for promoting mobility. The article argues that the mobility of scientific labour is an…

Jacob, Merle; Meek, V. Lynn



Research on Error Modelling and Identification of 3 Axis NC Machine Tools Based on Cross Grid Encoder Measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new error modelling and identification method based on the cross grid encoder is proposed in this paper. Generally, there are 21 error components in the geometric error of the 3 axis NC machine tools. However according our theoretical analysis, the squareness error among different guide ways affects not only the translation error component, but also the rotational ones. Therefore, a revised synthetic error model is developed. And the mapping relationship between the error component and radial motion error of round workpiece manufactured on the NC machine tools are deduced. This mapping relationship shows that the radial error of circular motion is the comprehensive function result of all the error components of link, worktable, sliding table and main spindle block. Aiming to overcome the solution singularity shortcoming of traditional error component identification method, a new multi-step identification method of error component by using the Cross Grid Encoder measurement technology is proposed based on the kinematic error model of NC machine tool. Firstly, the 12 translational error components of the NC machine tool are measured and identified by using the least square method (LSM) when the NC machine tools go linear motion in the three orthogonal planes: XOY plane, XOZ plane and YOZ plane. Secondly, the circular error tracks are measured when the NC machine tools go circular motion in the same above orthogonal planes by using the cross grid encoder Heidenhain KGM 182. Therefore 9 rotational errors can be identified by using LSM. Finally the experimental validation of the above modelling theory and identification method is carried out in the 3 axis CNC vertical machining centre Cincinnati 750 Arrow. The entire 21 error components have been successfully measured out by the above method. Research shows the multi-step modelling and identification method is very suitable for 'on machine measurement'.

Du, Z. C.; Lv, C. F.; Hong, M. S.



Cephalopod culture: current status of main biological models and research priorities.  


A recent revival in using cephalopods as experimental animals has rekindled interest in their biology and life cycles, information with direct applications also in the rapidly growing ornamental aquarium species trade and in commercial aquaculture production for human consumption. Cephalopods have high rates of growth and food conversion, which for aquaculture translates into short culture cycles, high ratios of production to biomass and high cost-effectiveness. However, at present, only small-scale culture is possible and only for a few species: the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis, the loliginid squid Sepioteuthis lessoniana and the octopuses Octopus maya and O. vulgaris. These four species are the focus of this chapter, the aims of which are as follows: (1) to provide an overview of the culture requirements of cephalopods, (2) to highlight the physical and nutritional requirements at each phase of the life cycle regarded as essential for successful full-scale culture and (3) to identify current limitations and the topics on which further research is required. Knowledge of cephalopod culture methods is advanced, but commercialization is still constrained by the highly selective feeding habits of cephalopods and their requirement for large quantities of high-quality (preferably live) feed, particularly in the early stages of development. Future research should focus on problems related to the consistent production of viable numbers of juveniles, the resolution of which requires a better understanding of nutrition at all phases of the life cycle and better broodstock management, particularly regarding developments in genetic selection, control of reproduction and quality of eggs and offspring. PMID:24880794

Vidal, Erica A G; Villanueva, Roger; Andrade, José P; Gleadall, Ian G; Iglesias, José; Koueta, Noussithé; Rosas, Carlos; Segawa, Susumu; Grasse, Bret; Franco-Santos, Rita M; Albertin, Caroline B; Caamal-Monsreal, Claudia; Chimal, Maria E; Edsinger-Gonzales, Eric; Gallardo, Pedro; Le Pabic, Charles; Pascual, Cristina; Roumbedakis, Katina; Wood, James



Knowledge Translation Tools are Emerging to Move Neck Pain Research into Practice  

PubMed Central

Development or synthesis of the best clinical research is in itself insufficient to change practice. Knowledge translation (KT) is an emerging field focused on moving knowledge into practice, which is a non-linear, dynamic process that involves knowledge synthesis, transfer, adoption, implementation, and sustained use. Successful implementation requires using KT strategies based on theory, evidence, and best practice, including tools and processes that engage knowledge developers and knowledge users. Tools can provide instrumental help in implementing evidence. A variety of theoretical frameworks underlie KT and provide guidance on how tools should be developed or implemented. A taxonomy that outlines different purposes for engaging in KT and target audiences can also be useful in developing or implementing tools. Theoretical frameworks that underlie KT typically take different perspectives on KT with differential focus on the characteristics of the knowledge, knowledge users, context/environment, or the cognitive and social processes that are involved in change. Knowledge users include consumers, clinicians, and policymakers. A variety of KT tools have supporting evidence, including: clinical practice guidelines, patient decision aids, and evidence summaries or toolkits. Exemplars are provided of two KT tools to implement best practice in management of neck pain—a clinician implementation guide (toolkit) and a patient decision aid. KT frameworks, taxonomies, clinical expertise, and evidence must be integrated to develop clinical tools that implement best evidence in the management of neck pain. PMID:24155807

MacDermid, Joy C.; Miller, Jordan; Gross, Anita R.



60 Years of Research and Demonstration in Maine, 1950-2010 21GTR-NRS-P-123 Penobscot exPerimental Forest  

E-print Network

60 Years of Research and Demonstration in Maine, 1950-2010 21GTR-NRS-P-123 Penobscot ex in supporting forest research in Maine. In 1950, nine pulp and paper and land-holding companies pooled resources and purchased almost 4,000 acres of land in east-central Maine. The property was named the Penobscot


Online Survey Tools 37 Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics, PP. 3748. PRINT ISSN 1556-2646, ONLINE ISSN 1556-2654. 2009 BY JOAN SIEBER.  

E-print Network

Online Survey Tools 37 Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics, PP. 37­48. PRINT and ontological model. Within this new model, a research ethics 2.0 (Buchanan, 2009) emerges, one that is forcing researchers and research regulators to rethink and reevaluate such fundamental research ethics issues

Brusilovsky, Peter


Managing complex research datasets using electronic tools: a meta-analysis exemplar.  


Meta-analyses of broad scope and complexity require investigators to organize many study documents and manage communication among several research staff. Commercially available electronic tools, for example, EndNote, Adobe Acrobat Pro, Blackboard, Excel, and IBM SPSS Statistics (SPSS), are useful for organizing and tracking the meta-analytic process as well as enhancing communication among research team members. The purpose of this article is to describe the electronic processes designed, using commercially available software, for an extensive, quantitative model-testing meta-analysis. Specific electronic tools improved the efficiency of (a) locating and screening studies, (b) screening and organizing studies and other project documents, (c) extracting data from primary studies, (d) checking data accuracy and analyses, and (e) communication among team members. The major limitation in designing and implementing a fully electronic system for meta-analysis was the requisite upfront time to decide on which electronic tools to use, determine how these tools would be used, develop clear guidelines for their use, and train members of the research team. The electronic process described here has been useful in streamlining the process of conducting this complex meta-analysis and enhancing communication and sharing documents among research team members. PMID:23681256

Brown, Sharon A; Martin, Ellen E; Garcia, Theresa J; Winter, Mary A; García, Alexandra A; Brown, Adama; Cuevas, Heather E; Sumlin, Lisa L



Reactive transport modeling: An essential tool and a new research approach for the Earth sciences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reactive transport modeling is an essential tool for the analysis of coupled physical, chemical, and biological processes in Earth systems, and has additional potential to better integrate the results from focused fundamental research on Earth materials. Appropriately designed models can describe the interactions of competing processes at a range of spatial and time scales, and hence are critical for connecting

Carl I. Steefel; Donald J. DePaolo; Peter C. Lichtner



Primary progressive aphasia New insights paving the way toward clinical research tools  

E-print Network

Primary progressive aphasia New insights paving the way toward clinical research tools Bradford C. Dickerson, MD Neurology® 2010;75:582­583 When a patient presents with acute aphasia, today's neurologist with progressive aphasia. Three articles in the current issue move us in this direction. Patients with primary

Dickerson, Brad


Improving the Usefulness of Concept Maps as a Research Tool for Science Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The search for authentic science research tools to evaluate student understanding in a hybrid learning environment with a large multimedia component has resulted in the use of concept maps as a representation of student's knowledge organization. One hundred and seventy third-semester introductory university-level engineering students represented…

Van Zele, Els; Lenaerts, Josephina; Wieme, Willem



Proceedings of the 2009 Industrial Engineering Research Conference A Software Tool for Intermittent Demand Analysis  

E-print Network

demand, inventory, inventory control, logistics 1 Introduction Demand forecasting is an important areaProceedings of the 2009 Industrial Engineering Research Conference A Software Tool for Intermittent Demand Analysis Hugh R. Medal, Manuel D. Rossetti, Vijith M. Varghese, Edward A. Pohl Department

Rossetti, Manuel D.


Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) develop a new complex modeling and analysis tool  

E-print Network

tool combines the computational methodologies used to analyze land-based wind turbines of harvesting the rich offshore wind resources at water depths that cannot be reached using the current technologies capable of harvesting the vast offshore wind resources found farther from shore. This research


Cutting-edge microfabricated biomedical tools for human pluripotent stem cell research.  


Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), including embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells (hESCs and hiPSCs, respectively), continue to attract researchers and clinicians as well as patients worldwide because of their applicability in regenerative medicine, cell-based therapies, and drug discovery. However, conventional biomedical approaches for stem cell research provide only limited insights regarding how stem cells are regulated in our body and how we could control them. To accelerate the progress of stem cell research and their applications, interdisciplinary research needs to be carried out to enable access of or mimic in vivo physiological conditions and to investigate their functions. In the past few decades, progress in microfabrication engineering has had a tremendous impact in both academia and industry (electronics, mechanics, chemicals, and environments), and many people have realized that microfabricated tools hold great potential for applications in stem cell research because they allow precise manipulation of a wide range of biological materials, including small molecules, DNA/RNA, proteins, cells, and tissues. In this review, I describe advanced microfabricated tools for studying the mechanisms of in vivo stem cell regulation and precise manipulation of stem cells, notably hPSCs, and concerns of using such tools for stem cell research. PMID:23850864

Kamei, Ken-ichiro



Information Technology Research Services: Powerful Tools to Keep Up with a Rapidly Moving Field  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Marty firms offer Information Technology Research reports, analyst calls, conferences, seminars, tools, leadership development, etc. These entities include Gartner, Forrester Research, IDC, The Burton Group, Society for Information Management, 1nfoTech Research, The Corporate Executive Board, and so on. This talk will cover how a number of such services are being used at the Goddard Space Flight Center to improve our IT management practices, workforce skills, approach to innovation, and service delivery. These tools and services are used across the workforce, from the executive leadership to the IT worker. The presentation will cover the types of services each vendor provides and their primary engagement model. The use of these services at other NASA Centers and Headquarters will be included. In addition, I will explain how two of these services are available now to the entire NASA IT workforce through enterprise-wide subscriptions.

Hunter, Paul



Development of “-omics” research in Schistosoma spp. and -omics-based new diagnostic tools for schistosomiasis  

PubMed Central

Schistosomiasis, caused by dioecious flatworms in the genus Schistosoma, is torturing people from many developing countries nowadays and frequently leads to severe morbidity and mortality of the patients. Praziquantel based chemotherapy and morbidity control for this disease adopted currently necessitate viable and efficient diagnostic technologies. Fortunately, those “-omics” researches, which rely on high-throughput experimental technologies to produce massive amounts of informative data, have substantially contributed to the exploitation and innovation of diagnostic tools of schistosomiasis. In its first section, this review provides a concise conclusion on the progresses pertaining to schistosomal “-omics” researches to date, followed by a comprehensive section on the diagnostic methods of schistosomiasis, especially those innovative ones based on the detection of antibodies, antigens, nucleic acids, and metabolites with a focus on those achievements inspired by “-omics” researches. Finally, suggestions about the design of future diagnostic tools of schistosomiasis are proposed, in order to better harness those data produced by “-omics” studies. PMID:25018752

Wang, Shuqi; Hu, Wei



Researchers develop tool to determine individual risk of prostate cancer overdiagnosis

Researchers at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center and the University of Washington have developed a personalized tool that can predict the likelihood of prostate cancer overdiagnosis. They announced their findings this week in the online issue of the Journal of the National Cancer Institute. The researchers created a nomogram, a graphical calculating device, that incorporates a patient’s age, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level and Gleason score – which grades prostate cancer tissue based on how it looks under a microscope – to determine the likelihood that screening-detected prostate cancer has been overdiagnosed.


Open Support Platform for Environmental Research (OSPER) - tools for the discovery and exploitation of environmental data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Open Support Platform for Environmental Research (OSPER) has been launched to take forward key data management components developed under the Swiss Experiment platform project to achieve improved usability and a wider scope. With this project, we aim to connect users to data and their context, an area identified during SwissEx as having the greatest potential impact on the research community. OSPER has a clear focus on providing the technology for data storage, management and exploitation with a special focus on data interoperability and documentation. In this presentation, we will demonstrate the key aims of OSPER for the period 2012 - 2015. Inheriting the basic SwissEx functionality, OSPER provides an excellent method of making data accessible via their metadata. One of the biggest differences between the OSPER infrastructure and other data platforms is the level of interaction that one can have with the data and the level of integration with the analysis tools used in science. We wish to capitalise on this advantage by increasing this integration and working with environmental research projects to develop the tools that make a difference to their daily research. The new data infrastructure will serve the following purposes: ? Open documentation, archiving and discovery of datasets. ? Facilitation of data sharing and collaboration (especially inter-disciplinary) with data owner controlled access rights, particularly concentrating on providing as much contextual information as possible. ? Improvements in ease of data access and combination of data sources. ? Tools for data visualisation and statistical and numerical data analysis with a focus on spatial data and trends. Key areas identified for development during OSPER are: ? New infrastructure and content for current WebGIS-based data visualisation system to create a publicly available platform. ? Provision of data in standard formats using standard methods as well as the consumption of such data by the processing/visualisation tools. ? Provision of connected tools to provide commonly used functionality. ? Cloud compatibility. ? Greater integration of metadata and data. ? Integration of publications using advances made in the ScienceWise project. ? Advanced queries of 3- and 4-Dimensional data sources. ? Documented examples of spatio-temporal statistical tools. Each of the components of the infrastructure (database middleware, WebGIS, model interfaces and processing/visualization tools) will be designed for usage both within the OSPER system and standalone. They will provide standardized interfaces, such that they can be adapted for use with data from any compatible infrastructure, and such that the data held within OSPER can be visualized or processed using any compatible tools.

Dawes, N. M.; Lehning, M.; Bavay, M.; Sarni, S.; Iosifescu, I.; Gwadera, R.; Scipion, D. E.; Blanchet, J.; Davison, A.; Berne, A.; Hurni, L.; Parlange, M. B.; Aberer, K.



Toole 8/28/2007 page 1 A Primer on Social Science Research Methods in Construction1  

E-print Network

Toole 8/28/2007 page 1 A Primer on Social Science Research Methods in Construction1 T. Michael that effective construction research requires proper application of social science research methods on construction research methods, six principles of social science research methods are presented and illustrated

Toole, T. Michael


Multimedia Informed Consent Tool for a Low Literacy African Research Population: Development and Pilot-Testing  

PubMed Central

Background International guidelines recommend the use of appropriate informed consent procedures in low literacy research settings because written information is not known to guarantee comprehension of study information. Objectives This study developed and evaluated a multimedia informed consent tool for people with low literacy in an area where a malaria treatment trial was being planned in The Gambia. Methods We developed the informed consent document of the malaria treatment trial into a multimedia tool integrating video, animations and audio narrations in three major Gambian languages. Acceptability and ease of use of the multimedia tool were assessed using quantitative and qualitative methods. In two separate visits, the participants’ comprehension of the study information was measured by using a validated digitised audio questionnaire. Results The majority of participants (70%) reported that the multimedia tool was clear and easy to understand. Participants had high scores on the domains of adverse events/risk, voluntary participation, study procedures while lowest scores were recorded on the question items on randomisation. The differences in mean scores for participants’ ‘recall’ and ‘understanding’ between first and second visits were statistically significant (F (1,41)=25.38, p<0.00001 and (F (1, 41) = 31.61, p<0.00001 respectively. Conclusions Our locally developed multimedia tool was acceptable and easy to administer among low literacy participants in The Gambia. It also proved to be effective in delivering and sustaining comprehension of study information across a diverse group of participants. Additional research is needed to compare the tool to the traditional consent interview, both in The Gambia and in other sub-Saharan settings. PMID:25133065

Afolabi, Muhammed Olanrewaju; Bojang, Kalifa; D’Alessandro, Umberto; Imoukhuede, Egeruan Babatunde; Ravinetto, Raffaella M; Larson, Heidi Jane; McGrath, Nuala; Chandramohan, Daniel



Evidence?based Dialogue Maps as a research tool to investigate the quality of school pupils’ scientific argumentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This pilot study focuses on the potential of Evidence?based Dialogue Mapping as a participatory action research tool to investigate young teenagers’ scientific argumentation. Evidence?based Dialogue Mapping is a technique for representing graphically an argumentative dialogue through Questions, Ideas, Pros, Cons and Data. Our research objective is to better understand the usage of Compendium, a Dialogue Mapping software tool, as both

Alexandra Okada; Simon Buckingham Shum



Soil erosion assessment tools from point to regional scales—the role of geomorphologists in land management research and implementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geomorphological research has played an important role in the development and implementation of soil erosion assessment tools. Because policy and management approaches include the use of soil erosion assessment tools, soil erosion research directly affects the public in terms of providing information on natural hazards and human impacts, and also as the basis for regulatory policy on land management. For

Chris S. Renschler; Jon Harbor



A Runtime Environment for Supporting Research in Resilient HPC System Software & Tools  

SciTech Connect

The high-performance computing (HPC) community continues to increase the size and complexity of hardware platforms that support advanced scientific workloads. The runtime environment (RTE) is a crucial layer in the software stack for these large-scale systems. The RTE manages the interface between the operating system and the application running in parallel on the machine. The deployment of applications and tools on large-scale HPC computing systems requires the RTE to manage process creation in a scalable manner, support sparse connectivity, and provide fault tolerance. We have developed a new RTE that provides a basis for building distributed execution environments and developing tools for HPC to aid research in system software and resilience. This paper describes the software architecture of the Scalable runTime Component Infrastructure (STCI), which is intended to provide a complete infrastructure for scalable start-up and management of many processes in large-scale HPC systems. We highlight features of the current implementation, which is provided as a system library that allows developers to easily use and integrate STCI in their tools and/or applications. The motivation for this work has been to support ongoing research activities in fault-tolerance for large-scale systems. We discuss the advantages of the modular framework employed and describe two use cases that demonstrate its capabilities: (i) an alternate runtime for a Message Passing Interface (MPI) stack, and (ii) a distributed control and communication substrate for a fault-injection tool.

Vallee, Geoffroy R [ORNL] [ORNL; Naughton, III, Thomas J [ORNL; Boehm, Swen [ORNL] [ORNL; Engelmann, Christian [ORNL] [ORNL



Cultural Interface Design Advisor Tool: Research Methodology and Practical Development Efforts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the cultural user interface design research and development project we address the need in culturally appropriate user\\u000a interface design that is brought up by globalization. Globalization is affecting most computer-mediated communication and,\\u000a in particular, user interface design for the Internet applications. To address this need, we are building a cultural “look\\u000a and feel” advisor tool that is based on

Irina Kondratova; Ilia Goldfarb



Open Virtual Worlds as Pedagogical Research Tools: Learning from the Schome Park Programme  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper introduces the term Open Virtual Worlds and argues that they are ‘unclaimed educational spaces’, which provide a valuable tool for researching pedagogy. Having explored these claims the way in which Teen Second Life® virtual world was used for pedagogical experimentation in the initial phases of the Schome Park Programme is described. Four sets of pedagogical dimensions that emerged are presented and illustrated with examples from the Schome Park Programme.

Twining, Peter; Peachey, Anna


DataUp: A tool to help researchers describe and share tabular data  

PubMed Central

Scientific datasets have immeasurable value, but they lose their value over time without proper documentation, long-term storage, and easy discovery and access. Across disciplines as diverse as astronomy, demography, archeology, and ecology, large numbers of small heterogeneous datasets (i.e., the long tail of data) are especially at risk unless they are properly documented, saved, and shared. One unifying factor for many of these at-risk datasets is that they reside in spreadsheets. In response to this need, the California Digital Library (CDL) partnered with Microsoft Research Connections and the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation to create the DataUp data management tool for Microsoft Excel. Many researchers creating these small, heterogeneous datasets use Excel at some point in their data collection and analysis workflow, so we were interested in developing a data management tool that fits easily into those work flows and minimizes the learning curve for researchers. The DataUp project began in August 2011. We first formally assessed the needs of researchers by conducting surveys and interviews of our target research groups: earth, environmental, and ecological scientists. We found that, on average, researchers had very poor data management practices, were not aware of data centers or metadata standards, and did not understand the benefits of data management or sharing. Based on our survey results, we composed a list of desirable components and requirements and solicited feedback from the community to prioritize potential features of the DataUp tool. These requirements were then relayed to the software developers, and DataUp was successfully launched in October 2012. PMID:25653834

Strasser, Carly; Kunze, John; Abrams, Stephen; Cruse, Patricia



Easily configured real-time CPOE Pick Off Tool supporting focused clinical research and quality improvement.  


Real-time alerting systems typically warn providers about abnormal laboratory results or medication interactions. For more complex tasks, institutions create site-wide 'data warehouses' to support quality audits and longitudinal research. Sophisticated systems like i2b2 or Stanford's STRIDE utilize data warehouses to identify cohorts for research and quality monitoring. However, substantial resources are required to install and maintain such systems. For more modest goals, an organization desiring merely to identify patients with 'isolation' orders, or to determine patients' eligibility for clinical trials, may adopt a simpler, limited approach based on processing the output of one clinical system, and not a data warehouse. We describe a limited, order-entry-based, real-time 'pick off' tool, utilizing public domain software (PHP, MySQL). Through a web interface the tool assists users in constructing complex order-related queries and auto-generates corresponding database queries that can be executed at recurring intervals. We describe successful application of the tool for research and quality monitoring. PMID:24287172

Rosenbaum, Benjamin P; Silkin, Nikolay; Miller, Randolph A



The 1999 Reginald Thomson Lecture. Custom-built mice: unique discovery tools in biomedical research.  

PubMed Central

The study of mouse genetics is a science in its own right. Currently, the mouse is the central platform for model building in biomedical research. Recombinant DNA technology and mouse transgenesis have provided an almost unlimited resource of new animals that is constantly expanding. Investigators, through their selection of the most appropriate type of mouse and by imaginative combinations of animals in breeding or culture experiments, have the opportunity for discovery of new information that will benefit the health of both humans and species of veterinary interest. Wider appreciation and use of the mouse as a discovery tool in veterinary research should be encouraged. Images Figure 2. PMID:10738597

Croy, B A



A Mentoring Toolkit: Tips and Tools for Mentoring Early-Career Researchers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effective mentoring is a critical component in the training of early-career researchers, cultivating more independent, productive and satisfied scientists. For example, mentoring has been shown by the 2005 Sigma Xi National Postdoc Survey to be a key indicator for a successful postdoctoral outcome. Mentoring takes many forms and can include support for maximizing research skills and productivity as well as assistance in preparing for a chosen career path. Yet, because there is no "one-size-fits-all” approach, mentoring can be an activity that is hard to define. In this presentation, a series of tips and tools will be offered to aid mentors in developing a plan for their mentoring activities. This will include: suggestions for how to get started; opportunities for mentoring activities within the research group, within the institution, and outside the institution; tools for communicating and assessing professional milestones; and resources for fostering the professional and career development of mentees. Special considerations will also be presented for mentoring international scholars and women. These strategies will be helpful to the PI responding to the new NSF mentoring plan requirement for postdocs as well as to the student, postdoc, researcher or professor overseeing the research and training of others.

Flint, Kathleen



[EpiInfo as a research and teaching tool in epidemiology and statistics: strengths and weaknesses].  


EpiInfo is a free software developed in 1988 by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta to facilitate field epidemiological investigations and statistical analysis. The aim of this study was to assess whether the software represents, in the Italian biomedical field, an effective analytical research tool and a practical and simple epidemiology and biostatistics teaching tool. A questionnaire consisting of 20 multiple-choice and open questions was administered to 300 healthcare workers, including doctors, biologists, nurses, medical students and interns, at the end of a CME course in epidemiology and biostatistics. Sixty-four percent of participants were aged between 26 and 45 years, 52% were women and 73% were unmarried. Results show that women are more likely to utilize EpiInfo in their research activities with respect to men (p = 0.023), as are individuals aged 26-45 years with respect to the older and younger age groups (p = 0.023) and unmarried participants with respect to those married (p = 0.010). Thirty-one percent of respondents consider EpiInfo to be more than adequate for analysis of their research data and 52% consider it to be sufficiently so. The inclusion of an EpiInfo course in statistics and epidemiology modules facilitates the understanding of theoretical concepts and allows researchers to more easily perform some of the clinical/epidemiological research activities. PMID:22507994

Mannocci, Alice; Bontempi, Claudio; Giraldi, Guglielmo; Chiaradia, Giacomina; de Waure, Chiara; Sferrazza, Antonella; Ricciardi, Walter; Boccia, Antonio; La Torre, Giuseppe



NASA System-Level Design, Analysis and Simulation Tools Research on NextGen  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A review of the research accomplished in 2009 in the System-Level Design, Analysis and Simulation Tools (SLDAST) of the NASA's Airspace Systems Program is presented. This research thrust focuses on the integrated system-level assessment of component level innovations, concepts and technologies of the Next Generation Air Traffic System (NextGen) under research in the ASP program to enable the development of revolutionary improvements and modernization of the National Airspace System. The review includes the accomplishments on baseline research and the advancements on design studies and system-level assessment, including the cluster analysis as an annualization standard of the air traffic in the U.S. National Airspace, and the ACES-Air MIDAS integration for human-in-the-loop analyzes within the NAS air traffic simulation.

Bardina, Jorge



Research and experimental testing of a new kind electrokinetic logging tool  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We designed a new downhole electrokinetic logging tool based on numerical simulations and petrophysical experiments. Acoustic and electric receivers cannot be arranged at the same depth, and the proposed composite electrokinetic logging tool offers a solution to this problem. The sound field characteristics of the detectors were tested in a water tank in the laboratory. Then, we calculated the sound pressure of the radiated acoustic field and the transmitting voltage response of the transmitting transducers; in addition, we analyzed the directivity and application of the acoustic transmitting probe based on linear phased array. The results suggest that the sound pressure generated at 1500 mm spacing reaches up to 47.2 kPa and decreases with increasing acoustic source frequency. When the excitation signals delay time of adjacent acoustic transmitting subarrays increases, the radiation beam of the main lobe is deflected and its energy gradually increases, which presumably enhances the acoustoelectric conversion efficiency.

Li, Feng-Bo; Ju, Xiao-Dong; Qiao, Wen-Xiao; Lu, Jun-Qiang; Men, Bai-Rong



Extending the XNAT archive tool for image and analysis management in ophthalmology research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In ophthalmology, various modalities and tests are utilized to obtain vital information on the eye's structure and function. For example, optical coherence tomography (OCT) is utilized to diagnose, screen, and aid treatment of eye diseases like macular degeneration or glaucoma. Such data are complemented by photographic retinal fundus images and functional tests on the visual field. DICOM isn't widely used yet, though, and frequently images are encoded in proprietary formats. The eXtensible Neuroimaging Archive Tool (XNAT) is an open-source NIH-funded framework for research PACS and is in use at the University of Iowa for neurological research applications. Its use for ophthalmology was hence desirable but posed new challenges due to data types thus far not considered and the lack of standardized formats. We developed custom tools for data types not natively recognized by XNAT itself using XNAT's low-level REST API. Vendor-provided tools can be included as necessary to convert proprietary data sets into valid DICOM. Clients can access the data in a standardized format while still retaining the original format if needed by specific analysis tools. With respective project-specific permissions, results like segmentations or quantitative evaluations can be stored as additional resources to previously uploaded datasets. Applications can use our abstract-level Python or C/C++ API to communicate with the XNAT instance. This paper describes concepts and details of the designed upload script templates, which can be customized to the needs of specific projects, and the novel client-side communication API which allows integration into new or existing research applications.

Wahle, Andreas; Lee, Kyungmoo; Harding, Adam T.; Garvin, Mona K.; Niemeijer, Meindert; Sonka, Milan; Abràmoff, Michael D.



VoiceThread as a Peer Review and Dissemination Tool for Undergraduate Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

VoiceThread has been utilized in an undergraduate research methods course for peer review and final research project dissemination. VoiceThread ( can be considered a social media tool, as it is a web-based technology with the capacity to enable interactive dialogue. VoiceThread is an application that allows a user to place a media collection online containing images, audio, videos, documents, and/or presentations in an interface that facilitates asynchronous communication. Participants in a VoiceThread can be passive viewers of the online content or engaged commenters via text, audio, video, with slide annotations via a doodle tool. The VoiceThread, which runs across browsers and operating systems, can be public or private for viewing and commenting and can be embedded into any website. Although few university students are aware of the VoiceThread platform (only 10% of the students surveyed by Ng (2012)), the 2009 K-12 edition of The Horizon Report (Johnson et al., 2009) lists VoiceThread as a tool to watch because of the opportunities it provides as a collaborative learning environment. In Fall 2011, eleven students enrolled in an undergraduate research methods course at Penn State Brandywine each conducted their own small-scale research project. Upon conclusion of the projects, students were required to create a poster summarizing their work for peer review. To facilitate the peer review process outside of class, each student-created PowerPoint file was placed in a VoiceThread with private access to only the class members and instructor. Each student was assigned to peer review five different student posters (i.e., VoiceThread images) with the audio and doodle tools to comment on formatting, clarity of content, etc. After the peer reviews were complete, the students were allowed to edit their PowerPoint poster files for a new VoiceThread. In the new VoiceThread, students were required to video record themselves describing their research and taking the viewer through their poster in the VoiceThread. This new VoiceThread with their final presentations was open for public viewing but not public commenting. A formal assessment was not conducted on the student impact of using VoiceThread for peer review and final research presentations. From an instructional standpoint, requiring students to use audio for the peer review commenting seemed to result in lengthier and more detailed reviews, connected with specific poster features when the doodle tool was utilized. By recording themselves as a "talking head" for the final product, students were required to be comfortable and confident with presenting their research, similar to what would be expected at a conference presentation. VoiceThread is currently being tested in general education Earth science courses at Penn State Brandywine as a dissemination tool for classroom-based inquiry projects and recruitment tool for Earth & Mineral Science majors.

Guertin, L. A.



Advanced REACH Tool (ART): overview of version 1.0 and research needs.  


This paper provides an outline of the Advanced REACH Tool (ART) version 1.0 and a discussion of how it could be further developed. ART is a higher tier exposure assessment tool that combines mechanistically modelled inhalation exposure predictions with available exposure data using a Bayesian approach. ART assesses exposure for scenarios across different plants and sites. Estimates are provided for different percentiles of the exposure distribution and confidence intervals around the estimate. It also produces exposure estimates in the absence of data, but uncertainty of the estimates will decrease when results of exposure measurements are included. The tool has been calibrated using a broad range of exposure data and provides estimates for exposure to vapours, mists, and dusts. ART has a robust and stable conceptual basis but will be refined in the future and should therefore be considered an evolving system. High-priority areas for future research are identified in this paper and include the integration of partially analogous measurement series, inclusion of company and site-specific assessments, user decision strategies linked to ART predictions, evaluation of validity and reliability of ART, exploring the possibilities for incorporating the dermal route and integration of ART predictions with tools for modelling internal dose. ART is initially developed in the scope of REACH but is equally useful for exposure assessment in other areas. PMID:22080161

Tielemans, Erik; Warren, Nick; Fransman, Wouter; Van Tongeren, Martie; McNally, Kevin; Tischer, Martin; Ritchie, Peter; Kromhout, Hans; Schinkel, Jody; Schneider, Thomas; Cherrie, John W



PathCase-SB: integrating data sources and providing tools for systems biology research  

PubMed Central

Background Integration of metabolic pathways resources and metabolic network models, and deploying new tools on the integrated platform can help perform more effective and more efficient systems biology research on understanding the regulation of metabolic networks. Therefore, the tasks of (a) integrating under a single database environment regulatory metabolic networks and existing models, and (b) building tools to help with modeling and analysis are desirable and intellectually challenging computational tasks. Results PathCase Systems Biology (PathCase-SB) is built and released. This paper describes PathCase-SB user interfaces developed to date. The current PathCase-SB system provides a database-enabled framework and web-based computational tools towards facilitating the development of kinetic models for biological systems. PathCase-SB aims to integrate systems biology models data and metabolic network data of selected biological data sources on the web (currently, BioModels Database and KEGG, respectively), and to provide more powerful and/or new capabilities via the new web-based integrative framework. Conclusions Each of the current four PathCase-SB interfaces, namely, Browser, Visualization, Querying, and Simulation interfaces, have expanded and new capabilities as compared with the original data sources. PathCase-SB is already available on the web and being used by researchers across the globe. PMID:22697505



Cloud-enabling Scientific Tools and Computational Methods for Invigorating STEM Learning and Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We present a cloud-enabled comprehensive platform (Pop!World) for experiential learning, education, training and research in population genetics and evolutionary biology. The major goal of Pop!World is to leverage the advances in cyber-infrastructure to improve accessibility of important biological concepts to students at all levels. It is designed to empower a broad spectrum of users with access to cyber-enabled scientific resources, tools and platforms, thus, preparing the next generation of scientists. Pop!World offers a highly engaging alternative to currently prevalent textual environments that fail to captivate net-generation audiences. It is also more mathematically focused than currently available tools, allowing it to be used as a basic teaching tool and expanded to higher education levels and collaborative research platforms. The project is a synergistic inter-disciplinary collaboration among investigators from Computer Science & Engineering and Biological Sciences. In this paper we share our invaluable multi-disciplinary experience (CSE and BIO) in the design and deployment of the Pop!World platform and its successful integration into the introductory biological sciences course offerings over the past two years. We expect our project to serve as a model for creative use of advances in cyber-infrastructure for engaging the cyber-savvy net-generation [11] students and invigorating STEM education.

Ramamurthy, Bina; Poulin, Jessica; Dittmar, Katharina


High integrity software for nuclear power plants: Candidate guidelines, technical basis and research needs. Main report, Volume 2  

SciTech Connect

The work documented in this report was performed in support of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to examine the technical basis for candidate guidelines that could be considered in reviewing and evaluating high integrity computer e following software development and assurance activities: Requirements specification; design; coding; verification and validation, inclukding static analysis and dynamic testing; safety analysis; operation and maintenance; configuration management; quality assurance; and planning and management. Each activity (framework element) was subdivided into technical areas (framework subelements). The report describes the development of approximately 200 candidate guidelines that span the entire ran e identification, categorization and prioritization of technical basis for those candidate guidelines; and the identification, categorization and prioritization of research needs for improving the technical basis. The report has two volumes: Volume 1, Executive Summary includes an overview of the framwork and of each framework element, the complete set of candidate guidelines, the results of the assessment of the technical basis for each candidate guideline, and a discussion of research needs that support the regulatory function; this document, Volume 2, is the main report.

Seth, S.; Bail, W.; Cleaves, D.; Cohen, H.; Hybertson, D.; Schaefer, C.; Stark, G.; Ta, A.; Ulery, B. [Mitre Corp., McLean, VA (United States)



The development of a two-component force dynamometer and tool control system for dynamic machine tool research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development is presented of a tooling system that makes a controlled sinusoidal oscillation simulating a dynamic chip removal condition. It also measures the machining forces in two mutually perpendicular directions without any cross sensitivity.

Sutherland, I. A.



SIMS ion microscopy as a novel, practical tool for subcellular chemical imaging in cancer research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of cryogenic sample preparations, subcellular image quantification schemes, and correlative confocal laser scanning microscopy and ion microscopy have made dynamic SIMS a versatile tool in biology and medicine. For example, ion microscopy can provide much needed, novel information on calcium influx and intracellular calcium stores at organelle resolution in normal and transformed cells in order to better understand the altered calcium signaling in malignant cells. 3-D SIMS imaging of cells revealed dynamic gradients of calcium in cells undergoing mitosis and cytokinesis. Studies of subcellular localization of anticancer drugs is another area of research where ion microscopy can provide novel observations in many types of cancers. Ion microscopy is already an essential tool in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) of brain cancer as it can be used to quantitatively image the subcellular location of boron in cells and tissues. This information is critically needed for testing the efficacy of boronated agents and for calculations of radiation dosimetry.

Chandra, S.



10/6/13 Researchers develop new search tool to help fight child porn, catch cyber thieves -Yahoo India Finance 1/1  

E-print Network

10/6/13 Researchers develop new search tool to help fight child porn, catch cyber thieves - Yahoo porn, catch cyber thieves ANI ­ Thu 6 Jun, 2013 2:49 PM IST Montreal, June 6 (ANI): A new search tool

Fung, Benjamin C. M.


Surface Texture Indicators of Tool Wear - A Machine Vision Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been much research on the automated monitoring of cutting tool wear. This research has tended to focus on three\\u000a main areas that attempt to quantify the cutting tool condition: monitoring of specific machine tool parameters in order to\\u000a infer tool condition, direct observations made on the cutting tool; and measurements taken from the chips produced by the\\u000a tool.

C. Bradley; Y. S. Wong



The DEDUCE Guided Query Tool: Providing Simplified Access to Clinical Data for Research and Quality Improvement  

PubMed Central

In many healthcare organizations, comparative effectiveness research and quality improvement (QI) investigations are hampered by a lack of access to data created as a byproduct of patient care. Data collection often hinges upon either manual chart review or ad hoc requests to technical experts who support legacy clinical systems. In order to facilitate this needed capacity for data exploration at our institution (Duke University Health System), we have designed and deployed a robust Web application for cohort identification and data extraction—the Duke Enterprise Data Unified Content Explorer (DEDUCE). DEDUCE is envisioned as a simple, web-based environment that allows investigators access to administrative, financial, and clinical information generated during patient care. By using business intelligence tools to create a view into Duke Medicine's enterprise data warehouse, DEDUCE provides a guided query functionality using a wizard-like interface that lets users filter through millions of clinical records, explore aggregate reports, and, export extracts. Researchers and QI specialists can obtain detailed patient- and observation-level extracts without needing to understand structured query language or the underlying database model. Developers designing such tools must devote sufficient training and develop application safeguards to ensure that patient-centered clinical researchers understand when observation-level extracts should be used. This may mitigate the risk of data being misunderstood and consequently used in an improper fashion. PMID:21130181

Horvath, Monica M.; Winfield, Stephanie; Evans, Steve; Slopek, Steve; Shang, Howard; Ferranti, Jeffrey



Oxytocin and Vasopressin Agonists and Antagonists as Research Tools and Potential Therapeutics  

PubMed Central

We recently reviewed the status of peptide and nonpeptide agonists and antagonists for the V1a, V1b and V2 receptors for arginine vasopressin (AVP) and the oxytocin receptor for oxytocin (OT). In the present review, we update the status of peptides and nonpeptides as: (i) research tools and (ii) therapeutic agents. We also present our recent findings on the design of fluorescent ligands for V1b receptor localisation and for OT receptor dimerisation. We note the exciting discoveries regarding two novel naturally occurring analogues of OT. Recent reports of a selective VP V1a agonist and a selective OT agonist point to the continued therapeutic potential of peptides in this field. To date, only two nonpeptides, the V2/V1a antagonist, conivaptan and the V2 antagonist tolvaptan have received Food and Drug Administration approval for clinical use. The development of nonpeptide AVP V1a, V1b and V2 antagonists and OT agonists and antagonists has recently been abandoned by Merck, Sanofi and Pfizer. A promising OT antagonist, Retosiban, developed at Glaxo SmithKline is currently in a Phase II clinical trial for the prevention of premature labour. A number of the nonpeptide ligands that were not successful in clinical trials are proving to be valuable as research tools. Peptide agonists and antagonists continue to be very widely used as research tools in this field. In this regard, we present receptor data on some of the most widely used peptide and nonpeptide ligands, as a guide for their use, especially with regard to receptor selectivity and species differences. PMID:22375852

Manning, M; Misicka, A; Olma, A; Bankowski, K; Stoev, S; Chini, B; Durroux, T; Mouillac, B; Corbani, M; Guillon, G



High Throughput Tools to Access Images from Clinical Archives for Research.  


Historically, medical images collected in the course of clinical care have been difficult to access for secondary research studies. While there is a tremendous potential value in the large volume of studies contained in clinical image archives, Picture Archiving and Communication Systems (PACS) are designed to optimize clinical operations and workflow. Search capabilities in PACS are basic, limiting their use for population studies, and duplication of archives for research is costly. To address this need, we augment the Informatics for Integrating Biology and the Bedside (i2b2) open source software, providing investigators with the tools necessary to query and integrate medical record and clinical research data. Over 100 healthcare institutions have installed this suite of software tools that allows investigators to search medical record metadata including images for specific types of patients. In this report, we describe a new Medical Imaging Informatics Bench to Bedside (mi2b2) module ( ), available now as an open source addition to the i2b2 software platform that allows medical imaging examinations collected during routine clinical care to be made available to translational investigators directly from their institution's clinical PACS for research and educational use in compliance with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) Omnibus Rule. Access governance within the mi2b2 module is customizable per institution and PACS minimizing impact on clinical systems. Currently in active use at our institutions, this new technology has already been used to facilitate access to thousands of clinical MRI brain studies representing specific patient phenotypes for use in research. PMID:25316195

Murphy, Shawn N; Herrick, Christopher; Wang, Yanbing; Wang, Taowei David; Sack, Darren; Andriole, Katherine P; Wei, Jesse; Reynolds, Nathaniel; Plesniak, Wendy; Rosen, Bruce R; Pieper, Steven; Gollub, Randy L



Solid Modeling Aerospace Research Tool (SMART) user's guide, version 2.0  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Solid Modeling Aerospace Research Tool (SMART) software package is used in the conceptual design of aerospace vehicles. It provides a highly interactive and dynamic capability for generating geometries with Bezier cubic patches. Features include automatic generation of commonly used aerospace constructs (e.g., wings and multilobed tanks); cross-section skinning; wireframe and shaded presentation; area, volume, inertia, and center-of-gravity calculations; and interfaces to various aerodynamic and structural analysis programs. A comprehensive description of SMART and how to use it is provided.

Mcmillin, Mark L.; Spangler, Jan L.; Dahmen, Stephen M.; Rehder, John J.



Ocular static and dynamic light scattering: a noninvasive diagnostic tool for eye research and clinical practice  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The noninvasive techniques of static and dynamic light scattering are emerging as valuable diagnostic tools for the early detection of ocular and systemic diseases. These include corneal abnormalities, pigmentary dispersion syndrome, glaucoma, cataract, diabetic vitreopathy, and possibly macular degeneration. Systemic conditions such as diabetes and possibly Alzheimer's disease can potentially be detected early via ocular tissues. The current state of development of these techniques for application to ophthalmic research and ultimately clinical practice is reviewed. (c) 2004 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers.

Ansari, Rafat R.



Synthetic biology in mammalian cells: Next generation research tools and therapeutics  

PubMed Central

Recent progress in DNA manipulation and gene circuit engineering has greatly improved our ability to programme and probe mammalian cell behaviour. These advances have led to a new generation of synthetic biology research tools and potential therapeutic applications. Programmable DNA-binding domains and RNA regulators are leading to unprecedented control of gene expression and elucidation of gene function. Rebuilding complex biological circuits such as T cell receptor signalling in isolation from their natural context has deepened our understanding of network motifs and signalling pathways. Synthetic biology is also leading to innovative therapeutic interventions based on cell-based therapies, protein drugs, vaccines and gene therapies. PMID:24434884

Lienert, Florian; Lohmueller, Jason J; Garg, Abhishek; Silver, Pamela A



Designing simulator tools for rail research: the case study of a train driving microworld.  


The microworld simulator paradigm is well established in the areas of ship-navigation and spaceflight, but has yet to be applied to rail. This paper presents a case study aiming to address this research gap, and describes the development of a train driving microworld as a tool to overcome some common research barriers. A theoretical framework for microworld design is tested and used to explore some key methodological issues and characteristics of train driving, enhancing theory development and providing a useful guideline for the designers of other collision-avoidance systems. A detailed description is given of the ATREIDES (Adaptive Train Research Enhanced Information Display & Environment Simulator) microworld, which simulates the work environment of a train driver in a high-speed passenger train. General indications of the testable driving scenarios that may be simulated are given, and an example of an ATREIDES-based study is presented to illustrate its applied research potential. The article concludes with a review of the design process, considers some strengths and limitations, and explores some future initiatives towards enhancing the systematic study of rail research in the human factors community. PMID:23107003

Naweed, A; Hockey, G R J; Clarke, S D



Research priorities for the development and implementation of serological tools for malaria surveillance  

PubMed Central

Surveillance is a key component of control and elimination programs. Malaria surveillance has been typically reliant on case reporting by health services, entomological estimates and parasitemia (Plasmodium species) point prevalence. However, these techniques become less sensitive and relatively costly as transmission declines. There is great potential for the development and application of serological biomarkers of malaria exposure as sero-surveillance tools to strengthen malaria control and elimination. Antibodies to malaria antigens are sensitive biomarkers of population-level malaria exposure and can be used to identify hotspots of malaria transmission, estimate transmission levels, monitor changes over time or the impact of interventions on transmission, confirm malaria elimination, and monitor re-emergence of malaria. Sero-surveillance tools could be used in reference laboratories or developed as simple point-of-care tests for community-based surveillance, and different applications and target populations dictate the technical performance required from assays that are determined by properties of antigens and antibody responses. To advance the development of sero-surveillance tools for malaria elimination, major gaps in our knowledge need to be addressed through further research. These include greater knowledge of potential antigens, the sensitivity and specificity of antibody responses, and the longevity of these responses and defining antigens and antibodies that differentiate between exposure to Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax. Additionally, a better understanding of the influence of host factors, such as age, genetics, and comorbidities on antibody responses in different populations is needed. PMID:25580254

Elliott, Salenna R.; Fowkes, Freya J.I.; Richards, Jack S.; Reiling, Linda; Drew, Damien R.



Automated riverine landscape characterization: GIS-based tools for watershed-scale research, assessment, and management.  


River systems consist of hydrogeomorphic patches (HPs) that emerge at multiple spatiotemporal scales. Functional process zones (FPZs) are HPs that exist at the river valley scale and are important strata for framing whole-watershed research questions and management plans. Hierarchical classification procedures aid in HP identification by grouping sections of river based on their hydrogeomorphic character; however, collecting data required for such procedures with field-based methods is often impractical. We developed a set of GIS-based tools that facilitate rapid, low cost riverine landscape characterization and FPZ classification. Our tools, termed RESonate, consist of a custom toolbox designed for ESRI ArcGIS®. RESonate automatically extracts 13 hydrogeomorphic variables from readily available geospatial datasets and datasets derived from modeling procedures. An advanced 2D flood model, FLDPLN, designed for MATLAB® is used to determine valley morphology by systematically flooding river networks. When used in conjunction with other modeling procedures, RESonate and FLDPLN can assess the character of large river networks quickly and at very low costs. Here we describe tool and model functions in addition to their benefits, limitations, and applications. PMID:23435849

Williams, Bradley S; D'Amico, Ellen; Kastens, Jude H; Thorp, James H; Flotemersch, Joseph E; Thoms, Martin C



Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) as a new tool for neuroeconomic research  

PubMed Central

Over the last decade, the application of neuroscience to economic research has gained in importance and the number of neuroeconomic studies has grown extensively. The most common method for these investigations is fMRI. However, fMRI has limitations (particularly concerning situational factors) that should be countered with other methods. This review elaborates on the use of functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) as a new and promising tool for investigating economic decision making both in field experiments and outside the laboratory. We describe results of studies investigating the reliability of prototype NIRS studies, as well as detailing experiments using conventional and stationary fNIRS devices to analyze this potential. This review article shows that further research using mobile fNIRS for studies on economic decision making outside the laboratory could be a fruitful avenue helping to develop the potential of a new method for field experiments outside the laboratory. PMID:25147517

Kopton, Isabella M.; Kenning, Peter



Lower body negative pressure as a tool for research in aerospace physiology and military medicine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lower body negative pressure (LBNP) has been extensively used for decades in aerospace physiological research as a tool to investigate cardiovascular mechanisms that are associated with or underlie performance in aerospace and military environments. In comparison with clinical stand and tilt tests, LBNP represents a relatively safe methodology for inducing highly reproducible hemodynamic responses during exposure to footward fluid shifts similar to those experienced under orthostatic challenge. By maintaining an orthostatic challenge in a supine posture, removal of leg support (muscle pump) and head motion (vestibular stimuli) during LBNP provides the capability to isolate cardiovascular mechanisms that regulate blood pressure. LBNP can be used for physiological measurements, clinical diagnoses and investigational research comparisons of subject populations and alterations in physiological status. The applications of LBNP to the study of blood pressure regulation in spaceflight, groundbased simulations of low gravity, and hemorrhage have provided unique insights and understanding for development of countermeasures based on physiological mechanisms underlying the operational problems.

Convertino, V. A.



Applications of 'TissueQuant'- a color intensity quantification tool for medical research.  


This paper demonstrates the use of TissueQuant - an image analysis tool for quantification of color intensities which was developed for use in medical research where the stained biological specimen such as tissue or antigen needs to be quantified. TissueQuant provides facilities for user interaction to choose and quantify the color of interest and its shades. Gaussian weighting functions are used to provide a color score which quantifies how close the shade is to the user specified reference color. We describe two studies in medical research which use TissueQuant for quantification. The first study evaluated the effect of petroleum-ether extract of Cissus quadrangularis (CQ) on osteoporotic rats. It was found that the analysis results correlated well with the manual evaluation, p < 0.001. The second study evaluated the nerve morphometry and it was found that the adipose and non adipose tissue content was maximum in radial nerve among the five nerves studied. PMID:21924792

Prasad, Keerthana; P, Bhagath Kumar; Chakravarthy, Marx; Prabhu, Gopalakrishna



Rapidly Re-Configurable Flight Simulator Tools for Crew Vehicle Integration Research and Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

While simulation is a valuable research and design tool, the time and difficulty required to create new simulations (or re-use existing simulations) often limits their application. This report describes the design of the software architecture for the Reconfigurable Flight Simulator (RFS), which provides a robust simulation framework that allows the simulator to fulfill multiple research and development goals. The core of the architecture provides the interface standards for simulation components, registers and initializes components, and handles the communication between simulation components. The simulation components are each a pre-compiled library 'plug-in' module. This modularity allows independent development and sharing of individual simulation components. Additional interfaces can be provided through the use of Object Data/Method Extensions (OD/ME). RFS provides a programmable run-time environment for real-time access and manipulation, and has networking capabilities using the High Level Architecture (HLA).

Schutte, Paul C.; Trujillo, Anna; Pritchett, Amy R.



Genome Elimination: Translating Basic Research into a Future Tool for Plant Breeding  

PubMed Central

During the course of our history, humankind has been through different periods of agricultural improvement aimed at enhancing our food supply and the performance of food crops. In recent years, it has become apparent that future crop improvement efforts will require new approaches to address the local challenges of farmers while empowering discovery across industry and academia. New plant breeding approaches are needed to meet this challenge to help feed a growing world population. Here I discuss how a basic research discovery is being translated into a potential future tool for plant breeding, and share the story of researcher Simon Chan, who recognized the potential application of this new approach—genome elimination—for the breeding of staple food crops in Africa and South America. PMID:24915001

Comai, Luca



60 Years of Research and Demonstration in Maine, 1950-2010 103GTR-NRS-P-123 Vascular Flora oF the Penobscot exPerimental Forest,  

E-print Network

Experimental Forest (PEF), Bradley, Maine. More than 300 taxa of vascular plants in 71 families and 186 genera of an area, among many other uses (Palmer et al. 1995). This report is the first comprehensive vascular plant60 Years of Research and Demonstration in Maine, 1950-2010 103GTR-NRS-P-123 Vascular Flora


A tool for exploring space-time patterns : an animation user research  

PubMed Central

Background Ever since Dr. John Snow (1813–1854) used a case map to identify water well as the source of a cholera outbreak in London in the 1800s, the use of spatio-temporal maps have become vital tools in a wide range of disease mapping and control initiatives. The increasing use of spatio-temporal maps in these life-threatening sectors warrants that they are accurate, and easy to interpret to enable prompt decision making by health experts. Similar spatio-temporal maps are observed in urban growth and census mapping – all critical aspects a of a country's socio-economic development. In this paper, a user test research was carried out to determine the effectiveness of spatio-temporal maps (animation) in exploring geospatial structures encompassing disease, urban and census mapping. Results Three types of animation were used, namely; passive, interactive and inference-based animation, with the key differences between them being on the level of interactivity and complementary domain knowledge that each offers to the user. Passive animation maintains the view only status. The user has no control over its contents and dynamic variables. Interactive animation provides users with the basic media player controls, navigation and orientation tools. Inference-based animation incorporates these interactive capabilities together with a complementary automated intelligent view that alerts users to interesting patterns, trends or anomalies that may be inherent in the data sets. The test focussed on the role of animation passive and interactive capabilities in exploring space-time patterns by engaging test-subjects in thinking aloud evaluation protocol. The test subjects were selected from a geoinformatics (map reading, interpretation and analysis abilities) background. Every test-subject used each of the three types of animation and their performances for each session assessed. The results show that interactivity in animation is a preferred exploratory tool in identifying, interpreting and providing explanations about observed geospatial phenomena. Also, exploring geospatial data structures using animation is best achieved using provocative interactive tools such as was seen with the inference-based animation. The visual methods employed using the three types of animation are all related and together these patterns confirm the exploratory cognitive structure and processes for visualization tools. Conclusion The generic types of animation as defined in this paper play a crucial role in facilitating the visualization of geospatial data. These animations can be created and their contents defined based on the user's presentational and exploratory needs. For highly explorative tasks, maintaining a link between the data sets and the animation is crucial to enabling a rich and effective knowledge discovery environment. PMID:16938138

Ogao, Patrick J



A dissection of the chapter "Tools for Research" in Peter Singer's Animal Liberation.  


The book Animal Liberation, by philosopher Peter Singer, is frequently referred to as the bible of the animal liberation/rights movement(ALARM). Thus, Singer is regarded as a major moral standard-bearer of the ALARM. Some have suggested that his book provides "intellectual rigor" to the moral arguments for animals' equality with humans, which had previously been based largely on emotionalism and sentimentality. We have analyzed the contents of the chapter "Tools for Research" which criticizes the use of animals in biomedical research as well as for drug and product-safety testing. In order to discredit these practices, Singer "documents" his arguments with 138 "notes", some of which are to the same reference and others of which contain multiple references. Of the 132 difference references, we attempted to verify the accuracy of 49 of them. Of these, 16 (33%) were inaccurate or we could not find. In addition, Singer mischaracterizes the cited studies in various ways. He quotes selectively and out of context from numerous research projects. He never mentions the objectives of these projects, except occasionally when, in our opinion, he distorts or trivializes them. Singer also cites supposedly damning "evidence" published by other antivivisectionists, even though this "evidence" has been refuted in the literature. Singer supposedly embraces utilitarianism, a philosophy which holds that the harm done by a practice should be balanced against the gain realized from it. However, he makes virtually no attempt to consider objectively the benefits that have been realized from animal-based medical research and he greatly exaggerates the costs. To him, animal research is "all pain and no gain." We believe that Singer's moral arguments for animal equality are not convincing. The lack of objectivity and the reliance upon distortion and selective quotation that characterize Singer's "scholarship" are surprising when one considers that he presents himself as an ethicist and moralist. PMID:8599021

Russell, S M; Nicoll, C S



Novel Murine Dendritic Cell Lines: A Powerful Auxiliary Tool for Dendritic Cell Research  

PubMed Central

Research in vitro facilitates discovery, screening, and pilot experiments, often preceding research in vivo. Several technical difficulties render Dendritic Cell (DC) research particularly challenging, including the low frequency of DC in vivo, thorough isolation requirements, and the vulnerability of DC ex vivo. Critically, there is not as yet a widely accepted human or murine DC line and in vitro systems of DC research are limited. In this study, we report the generation of new murine DC lines, named MutuDC, originating from cultures of splenic CD8? conventional DC (cDC) tumors. By direct comparison to normal WT splenic cDC subsets, we describe the phenotypic and functional features of the MutuDC lines and show that they have retained all the major features of their natural counterpart in vivo, the splenic CD8? cDC. These features include expression of surface markers Clec9A, DEC205, and CD24, positive response to TLR3 and TLR9 but not TLR7 stimuli, secretion of cytokines, and chemokines upon activation, as well as cross-presentation capacity. In addition to the close resemblance to normal splenic CD8? cDC, a major advantage is the ease of derivation and maintenance of the MutuDC lines, using standard culture medium and conditions, importantly without adding supplementary growth factors or maturation-inducing stimuli to the medium. Furthermore, genetically modified MutuDC lines have been successfully obtained either by lentiviral transduction or by culture of DC tumors originating from genetically modified mice. In view of the current lack of stable and functional DC lines, these novel murine DC lines have the potential to serve as an important auxiliary tool for DC research. PMID:23162549

Fuertes Marraco, Silvia A.; Grosjean, Frédéric; Duval, Anaïs; Rosa, Muriel; Lavanchy, Christine; Ashok, Devika; Haller, Sergio; Otten, Luc A.; Steiner, Quynh-Giao; Descombes, Patrick; Luber, Christian A.; Meissner, Felix; Mann, Matthias; Szeles, Lajos; Reith, Walter; Acha-Orbea, Hans



Design of a Web-tool for diagnostic clinical trials handling medical imaging research.  


New clinical studies in medicine are based on patients and controls using different imaging diagnostic modalities. Medical information systems are not designed for clinical trials employing clinical imaging. Although commercial software and communication systems focus on storage of image data, they are not suitable for storage and mining of new types of quantitative data. We sought to design a Web-tool to support diagnostic clinical trials involving different experts and hospitals or research centres. The image analysis of this project is based on skeletal X-ray imaging. It involves a computerised image method using quantitative analysis of regions of interest in healthy bone and skeletal metastases. The database is implemented with ASP.NET 3.5 and C# technologies for our Web-based application. For data storage, we chose MySQL v.5.0, one of the most popular open source databases. User logins were necessary, and access to patient data was logged for auditing. For security, all data transmissions were carried over encrypted connections. This Web-tool is available to users scattered at different locations; it allows an efficient organisation and storage of data (case report form) and images and allows each user to know precisely what his task is. The advantages of our Web-tool are as follows: (1) sustainability is guaranteed; (2) network locations for collection of data are secured; (3) all clinical information is stored together with the original images and the results derived from processed images and statistical analysis that enable us to perform retrospective studies; (4) changes are easily incorporated because of the modular architecture; and (5) assessment of trial data collected at different sites is centralised to reduce statistical variance. PMID:20517632

Baltasar Sánchez, Alicia; González-Sistal, Angel



Benchmark and Framework for Encouraging Research on Multi-Threaded Testing Tools  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A problem that has been getting prominence in testing is that of looking for intermittent bugs. Multi-threaded code is becoming very common, mostly on the server side. As there is no silver bullet solution, research focuses on a variety of partial solutions. In this paper (invited by PADTAD 2003) we outline a proposed project to facilitate research. The project goals are as follows. The first goal is to create a benchmark that can be used to evaluate different solutions. The benchmark, apart from containing programs with documented bugs, will include other artifacts, such as traces, that are useful for evaluating some of the technologies. The second goal is to create a set of tools with open API s that can be used to check ideas without building a large system. For example an instrumentor will be available, that could be used to test temporal noise making heuristics. The third goal is to create a focus for the research in this area around which a community of people who try to solve similar problems with different techniques, could congregate.

Havelund, Klaus; Stoller, Scott D.; Ur, Shmuel



Reactive Transport Modeling: An Essential Tool and a New ResearchApproach for the Earth Sciences  

SciTech Connect

Reactive transport modeling is an essential tool for the analysis of coupled physical, chemical, and biological processes in Earth systems, and has additional potential to better integrate the results from focused fundamental research on Earth materials. Appropriately designed models can describe the interactions of competing processes at a range of spatial and time scales, and hence are critical for connecting the advancing capabilities for materials characterization at the atomic scale with the macroscopic behavior of complex Earth systems. Reactive transport modeling has had a significant impact on the treatment of contaminant retardation in the subsurface, the description of elemental and nutrient fluxes between major Earth reservoirs, and in the treatment of deep Earth processes such as metamorphism and magma transport. Active topics of research include the development of pore scale and hybrid, or multiple continua, models to capture the scale dependence of coupled reactive transport processes. Frontier research questions, that are only now being addressed, include the effects of chemical microenvironments, coupled thermal mechanical chemical processes, controls on mineral fluid reaction rates in natural media, and scaling of reactive transport processes from the microscopic to pore to field scale.

Steefel, Carl I.; DePaolo, Donald J.; Lichtner, Peter C.



Evidence-Based Dialogue Maps as a Research Tool to Investigate the Quality of School Pupils' Scientific Argumentation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This pilot study focuses on the potential of Evidence-based Dialogue Mapping as a participatory action research tool to investigate young teenagers' scientific argumentation. Evidence-based Dialogue Mapping is a technique for representing graphically an argumentative dialogue through Questions, Ideas, Pros, Cons and Data. Our research objective is…

Okada, Alexandra; Shum, Simon Buckingham



Precision Irrigators Network: On-Farm Research Demonstration to Evaluate Irrigation Scheduling Tools in the Wintergarden and Texas High Plains  

E-print Network

Precision Irrigators Network: On-Farm Research Demonstration to Evaluate Irrigation Scheduling Tools in the Wintergarden and Texas High Plains Submitted by: Giovanni Piccinni, formerly with Texas AgriLife Research... ..................................................................................................................... 14 SUMMARY ........................................................................................................................................ 14 CHAPTER 1: Wintergarden Agronomic Demonstrations and Implementation .......15 Giovanni...

Piccinni, Giovanni; Leskovar, Daniel; Harman, Wyatte; Marek, Thomas; Harris, B.L.


RedOrbit NEWS | Researchers Reveal Genetic Code of Papaya 1 of 1 4/24/2008 6:39 PM  

E-print Network

RedOrbit NEWS | Researchers Reveal Genetic Code of Papaya 1 of 1 4/24/2008 6:39 PM Researchers Reveal Genetic Code of Papaya Researchers recently published the full DNA sequence of the "SunUp" papaya, discovering genes that cause the tree evolve and also help

Alam, Maqsudul


Curvature continuity of cubic Bezier curves in the solid modeling aerospace research tools design software  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Preliminary results are presented of an investigation into the development of a procedure to provide curvature continuity between biparametric cubic Bezier surface patches in the computer-aided design package known as SMART (Solid Modeling Aerospace Research Tools). This initial effort was aimed at providing the designer with the ability to locally impose curvature continuity at the intersection of two Bezier curves without disrupting either the curvature or slope continuity that may exist at the ends of these curves. Such a method was found if the original Bezier control points are all coplanar. If they are not, then it is possible to find a minimum deviation from exact curvature continuity. In cases where this is not sufficient, then an entire piecewise curve must be made curvature continuous simultaneously. A method was developed based on cubic splines which is very fast. The procedure returns new Bezier control points which have both slope and curvature continuity.

Roach, Robert L.; Forrest, John R.



Unraveling the web of viroinformatics: computational tools and databases in viral research.  


The beginning of the second century of research in the field of virology (the first virus was discovered in 1898) was marked with its amalgamation with bioinformatics resulting in the birth of a new domain - viroinformatics. The availability of more than 100 web servers and databases embracing all or specific viruses (for example dengue, influenza, hepatitis, HIV, HFV, HPV, West Nile etc.) as well as distinct applications (comparative/diversity analysis, viral recombination, siRNA/shRNA/miRNA studies, RNA folding, protein-protein interaction, structural analysis, phylotyping/genotyping) will definitely aid the development of effective drugs and vaccines. However, the information about their access and utility is not available at any single source/platform. Therefore, a compendium of various computational tools/resources dedicated specifically to virology is presented in this article. PMID:25428870

Sharma, Deepak; Priyadarshini, Pragya; Vrati, Sudhanshu



Microbeam methodologies as powerful tools in manganese hyperaccumulation research: present status and future directions  

PubMed Central

Microbeam studies over the past decade have garnered unique insight into manganese (Mn) homeostasis in plant species that hyperaccumulate this essential mineral micronutrient. Electron- and/or proton-probe methodologies employed to examine tissue elemental distributions have proven highly effective in illuminating excess foliar Mn disposal strategies, some apparently unique to Mn hyperaccumulating plants. When applied to samples prepared with minimal artefacts, these are powerful tools for extracting true ‘snapshot’ data of living systems. For a range of reasons, Mn hyperaccumulation is particularly suited to in vivo interrogation by this approach. Whilst microbeam investigation of metallophytes is well documented, certain methods originally intended for non-biological samples are now widely applied in biology. This review examines current knowledge about Mn hyperaccumulators with reference to microbeam methodologies, and discusses implications for future research into metal transporters. PMID:23970891

Fernando, Denise R.; Marshall, Alan; Baker, Alan J. M.; Mizuno, Takafumi



OPAD: An expert system for research reactor operations and fault diagnosis using probabilistic safety assessment tools  

SciTech Connect

A prototype Knowledge Based (KB) operator Adviser (OPAD) system has been developed for 100 MW(th) Heavy Water moderated, cooled and Natural Uranium fueled research reactor. The development objective of this system is to improve reliability of operator action and hence the reactor safety at the time of crises as well as normal operation. The jobs performed by this system include alarm analysis, transient identification, reactor safety status monitoring, qualitative fault diagnosis and procedure generation in reactor operation. In order to address safety objectives at various stages of the Operator Adviser (OPAD) system development the Knowledge has been structured using PSA tools/information in an shell environment. To demonstrate the feasibility of using a combination of KB approach with PSA for operator adviser system, salient features of some of the important modules (viz. FUELEX, LOOPEX and LOCAEX) have been discussed. It has been found that this system can serve as an efficient operator support system.

Verma, A.K. [Indian Inst. of Technology, Bombay (India). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Varde, P.V.; Sankar, S. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Reactor Operations Division; Prakash, P. [Nuclear Power Corp., Bombay (India). Directorate of Safety



The Right Tools for the Job: The Challenges of Theory and Method in Geoscience Education Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As geoscience education has matured as a research field over the last decade, workers in this area have been challenged to adapt methodologies and theoretical approaches to study design and data collection. These techniques are as diverse as the earth sciences themselves, and researchers have drawn on established methods and traditions from science education research, social science research, and the cognitive and learning sciences. While the diversity of methodological and theoretical approaches is powerful, the challenge is to ground geoscience education research in rigorous methodologies that are appropriate for the epistemological and functional realities of the content area and the environment in which the research is conducted. The issue of theory is the first hurdle. After techniques are proven, earth scientists typically need not worry much about the theoretical value or theory-laden nature of measurements they make in the field or laboratory. As an example, a field geologist does not question the validity of the gravitational field that levels the spirit level within a Brunton compass. However, in earth science education research, these issues are magnified because a theoretical approach to a study affects what is admitted as data and the weight that can be given to conclusions. Not only must one be concerned about the validity of measurements and observations, but also the value of this information from an epistemological standpoint. The assigning of meaning to student gestures, utterances, writing and actions all carries theoretical implications. For example, working with geologists learning or working in the field, purely experimental research designs are very difficult, and the majority of the work must be conducted in a naturalistic environment. In fact dealing with time pressure, distractions, and complexity of a field environment is part of intellectual backdrop for field geology that separates experts from novices and advanced students from beginners. Thus researchers must embrace the uncontrolled nature of the setting, the qualitative nature of the data collected, and the researcher's role in interpreting geologically appropriate actions as evidence of successful problem solving and investigation. Working to understand the role of diversity and culture in the geosciences also involves a wide array of theory, from affective issues through culturally and linguistically-influenced cognition, through gender, self-efficacy, and many other areas of inquiry. Research in understanding spatial skills draws heavily on techniques from cognition research but also must involve the field-specific knowledge of geoscientists to infuse these techniques with exemplars, a catalog of meaningful actions by students, and an understanding of how to recognize success. These examples illustrate briefly the wide array of tools from other fields that is being brought to bear to advance rigorous geoscience education research. We will illustrate a few of these and the insights we have gained, and the power of theory and method from other fields to enlighten us as we attempt to educate a broader array of earth scientists.

Riggs, E. M.



Ambient Particulate Matter during MILAGRO in Mexico City: Main Findings, Impacts (on AQ and Climate), and Future Research Needs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The MILAGRO campaign was a large international field experiments conduced in Mexico City and Central Mexico during March 2006. We present an overview of the main findings related to particulate matter and aerosol radiative properties. PM levels inside Mexico City were similar or higher than those in the most polluted North American cities, but ~5 times lower than levels in the most polluted Asian megacities During the study, PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations in the urban area of were about double the concentrations in the rural areas surrounding Mexico City. PM2.5 made up about half of the PM10 concentrations, with small amounts of mass in the PM2.5-PM1.0 range. Mineral matter made up approximately 25% of the PM10 and on average 15% and 28% of the PM2.5 in the urban and rural areas, respectively. Approximately 25% of the PM2.5 was secondary inorganic ions with the remaining PM2.5 mass being comprised of largely carbonaceous aerosol. Except for surface measurements at the central sampling sites in Mexico city, the elemental carbon mass absorption efficiency was relatively constant for aircraft and surface measurements throughout the study, contrary to expectations. Although different organic aerosol (OA) source apportionment methods had some differences, there was agreement that the dominant sources of carbonaceous aerosol were secondary OA (SOA), biomass burning, and mobile sources. The impact of biomass burning to the aerosol outflow from the region was much larger than to the surface concentrations inside the city. SOA formation from primary semivolatile and intermediate volatility precursors has the potential to close the gap in predicted vs. measured SOA, while formation from glyoxal also makes an important contribution, especially to organic oxygen. Biogenic SOA advected from the coastal mountain ranges contributes about 1 ?g m-3 to concentrations in the MCMA. Primary OA from anthropogenic and biomass burning sources was found to be semivolatile, while secondary OA was less volatile than POA and aged SOA was essentially non-volatile, in contradiction with current models. Growth rates of new particle formation in Mexico City was very large and found to be impacted by nitrogen containing organic compounds, organic acids, and hydroxyl organic acids, with only a smaller fraction of sulfate aerosol. Some open research questions include the following: additional work is needed to fully quantify the sources of substantial (30-45%) modern carbon in organic aerosols during low biomass burning periods. Discrepancies between the two modern carbon datasets deserve further study. The impact of regional dust vs. road resuspension, as well as heterogeneous reactions of HNO3 with dust need to be quantified. The impact of some POA sources such as food cooking, biofuel use, and open trash burning may be important, but remains poorly characterized. Some differences in the apportionment of biomass burning PM between different approaches were observed and need further research, as these techniques together represent the state of the art for source apportionment. Anthropogenic SOA predictions are improving in terms of magnitude but are poorly constrained by the data. More specific precursor, intermediate, and tracer measurements are needed in future campaigns. SOA from biomass burning sources, although not dominant in the city, remains poorly characterized and appears to be underpredicted by traditional models.

Jimenez, Jose-Luis; Schauer, James J.; Molina, Luisa T.; MILAGRO Pm Team



A systematic review of the literature on the evaluation of handoff tools: implications for research and practice  

PubMed Central

Objective Given the complexities of the healthcare environment, efforts to develop standardized handoff practices have led to widely varying manifestations of handoff tools. A systematic review of the literature on handoff evaluation studies was performed to investigate the nature, methodological, and theoretical foundations underlying the evaluation of handoff tools and their adequacy and appropriateness in achieving standardization goals. Method We searched multiple databases for articles evaluating handoff tools published between 1 February 1983 and 15 June 2012. The selected articles were categorized along the following dimensions: handoff tool characteristics, standardization initiatives, methodological framework, and theoretical perspectives underlying the evaluation. Results Thirty-six articles met our inclusion criteria. Handoff evaluations were conducted primarily on electronic tools (64%), with a more recent focus on electronic medical record-integrated tools (36% since 2008). Most evaluations centered on intra-departmental tools (95%). Evaluation studies were quasi-experimental (42%) or observational (50%), with a major focus on handoff-related outcome measures (94%) using predominantly survey-based tools (70%) with user satisfaction metrics (53%). Most of the studies (81%) based their evaluation on aspects of standardization that included continuity of care and patient safety. Conclusions The nature, methodological, and theoretical foundations of handoff tool evaluations varied significantly in terms of their quality and rigor, thereby limiting their ability to inform strategic standardization initiatives. Future research should utilize rigorous, multi-method qualitative and quantitative approaches that capture the contextual nuances of handoffs, and evaluate their effect on patient-related outcomes. PMID:23703824

Abraham, Joanna; Kannampallil, Thomas; Patel, Vimla L



Modelling the human epidermis in vitro: tools for basic and applied research  

PubMed Central

Culture models of tissues and organs are valuable tools developed by basic research that help investigation of the body functions. Modelling is aimed at simplifying experimental procedures in order to better understand biological phenomena, and consequently, when sufficiently characterized, culture models can also be utilized with high potential in applied research. In skin biology and pathology, the development of cultures of keratinocytes as monolayers has allowed the elucidation of most functional and structural characteristics of the cell type. Beside the multiple great successes that have been obtained with this type of culture, this review draws attention on several neglected characteristics of monolayer cultures. The more sophisticated models created in order to reconstruct the fully differentiated epidermis have followed the monolayers. The epidermal reconstruction produces all typical layers found in vivo and thus makes the model much less simple, but only this kind of model allows the study of full differentiation in keratinocyte and production of the cornified barrier. In addition to its interest in basic research, the reconstructed epidermis is currently gaining a lot of interest for applied research, particularly as an alternative to laboratory animals in the chemical and cosmetic industry. Today several commercial providers propose reconstructed skin or epidermis, but in vitro assays on these materials are still under development. In order to be beneficial at long term, the validation of assays must be performed on a material whose availability will not be interrupted. We warn here providers and customers that the longevity of in vitro assays will be guaranteed only if these assays are done with well-described models, prepared according to published procedures, and must consider having a minimum of two independent simultaneous producers of similar material. PMID:17072628

Coquette, Alain



A Microsoft Excel interface for rhyolite-MELTS: a tool for research and teaching of magma properties and evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thermodynamic modeling software MELTS (and its derivatives) is a powerful and much utilized tool for investigating crystallization and melting in natural magmatic systems. Rhyolite-MELTS (Gualda et al. 2012, J. Petrol. 53:875-890) is a recent recalibration of MELTS aimed at better capturing the evolution of magmas present in the upper crust (up to ~400 MPa pressure). Currently, most users of rhyolite-MELTS rely on a graphical user interface (GUI), which can be run on UNIX/LINUX and Mac OS X computers. While the interface is powerful and flexible, it can be somewhat cumbersome for the novice and the output is in the form of text files that need to be processed offline. This situation is probably the main reason why MELTS - despite great potential - has not been used more frequently for teaching purposes. We are currently developing an alternative GUI for rhyolite-MELTS using web services consumed by a VBA backend in Microsoft Excel©. The goal is to create a much more interactive tool, that is easy to use that can be made available to a widespread audience, and that will be useful for both research and teaching. The interface is contained within a macro-enabled workbook, which includes editable cells where the user can insert the model input information. Interface buttons initiate computations that are executed on a central server at OFM Research in Seattle (WA). Results of simple calculations are shown immediately within the interface itself. For instance, a user can very rapidly determine the temperature at which a magma of a given composition is completely molten (i.e. find the liquidus); or determine which phases are present, in what abundances, their compositions, and their physical properties (e.g. density, viscosity) at any given combination of temperature, pressure and oxygen fugacity. We expect that using the interface in this mode will greatly facilitate building intuition about magmas and their properties. It is also possible to combine a sequence of calculations into an evolutionary path. The user can input starting and ending temperatures and pressures, temperature and pressure steps, and the prevailing oxidation conditions, and the program will perform the calculations showing the magma properties at every step; at the conclusion of the calculations, a series of data sheets and diagrams are created in a separate workbook, which can be saved independently of the interface. Additionally, the user can specify a grid of temperatures and pressures and calculate a phase diagram showing the conditions at which different phases are present. We envision a host of exercises that can be tackled by students of all levels exploring the varied evolution of natural magma compositions. The main advantages of this new platform are that it is simple to use and flexible. Workbooks can be created for specific exercises, facilitating their use in classroom assignments. The Excel GUI interface is built on a popular platform, which is widely available, requires no installation, and is distributed for free from The main drawback is that operation of the workbook requires an internet connection. The web services used are currently only accessible by Excel 2010 and 2013 for Windows.

Gualda, G. A.; Ghiorso, M. S.



Development of Complexity Science and Technology Tools for NextGen Airspace Research and Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this research by NextGen AeroSciences, LLC is twofold: 1) to deliver an initial "toolbox" of algorithms, agent-based structures, and method descriptions for introducing trajectory agency as a methodology for simulating and analyzing airspace states, including bulk properties of large numbers of heterogeneous 4D aircraft trajectories in a test airspace -- while maintaining or increasing system safety; and 2) to use these tools in a test airspace to identify possible phase transition structure to predict when an airspace will approach the limits of its capacity. These 4D trajectories continuously replan their paths in the presence of noise and uncertainty while optimizing performance measures and performing conflict detection and resolution. In this approach, trajectories are represented as extended objects endowed with pseudopotential, maintaining time and fuel-efficient paths by bending just enough to accommodate separation while remaining inside of performance envelopes. This trajectory-centric approach differs from previous aircraft-centric distributed approaches to deconfliction. The results of this project are the following: 1) we delivered a toolbox of algorithms, agent-based structures and method descriptions as pseudocode; and 2) we corroborated the existence of phase transition structure in simulation with the addition of "early warning" detected prior to "full" airspace. This research suggests that airspace "fullness" can be anticipated and remedied before the airspace becomes unsafe.

Holmes, Bruce J.; Sawhill, Bruce K.; Herriot, James; Seehart, Ken; Zellweger, Dres; Shay, Rick



Adventures in the microlensing cloud: Large datasets, eResearch tools, and GPUs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As astronomy enters the petascale data era, astronomers are faced with new challenges relating to storage, access and management of data. A shift from the traditional approach of combining data and analysis at the desktop to the use of remote services, pushing the computation to the data, is now underway. In the field of cosmological gravitational microlensing, future synoptic all-sky surveys are expected to bring the number of multiply imaged quasars from the few tens that are currently known to a few thousands. This inflow of observational data, together with computationally demanding theoretical modeling via the production of microlensing magnification maps, requires a new approach. We present our technical solutions to supporting the GPU-Enabled, High Resolution cosmological MicroLensing parameter survey (GERLUMPH). This extensive dataset for cosmological microlensing modeling comprises over 70 000 individual magnification maps and ˜106 related results. We describe our approaches to hosting, organizing, and serving ˜ 30 TB of data and metadata products. We present a set of online analysis tools developed with PHP, JavaScript and WebGL to support access and analysis of GELRUMPH data in a Web browser. We discuss our use of graphics processing units (GPUs) to accelerate data production, and we release the core of the GPU-D direct inverse ray-shooting code (Thompson et al., 2010, 2014) used to generate the magnification maps. All of the GERLUMPH data and tools are available online from This project made use of gSTAR, the GPU Supercomputer for Theoretical Astrophysical Research.

Vernardos, G.; Fluke, C. J.



Journal of Coastal Research 22 5 13001304 West Palm Beach, Florida September 2006 Fractal Analysis of Maine's Glaciated Shoreline Tests  

E-print Network

Journal of Coastal Research 22 5 1300­1304 West Palm Beach, Florida September 2006 Fractal Analysis(5), 1300­1304. West Palm Beach (Florida), ISSN 0749-0208. Average fractal dimensions (D) are calculated

Perfect, Ed


15 Years of Cell-penetrating, Guanidinium-rich Molecular Transporters: Basic Science, Research Tools, and Clinical Applications  

PubMed Central

Conspectus All living systems require biochemical barriers. As a consequence, all drugs, imaging agents, and probes have targets that are either on, in, or inside of these barriers. Fifteen years ago, we initiated research directed at more fully understanding these barriers and at developing tools and strategies for breaching them that could be of use in basic research, imaging, diagnostics and medicine. At the outset of this research and to a lesser extent now, the “rules” for drug design biased the selection of drug candidates to mainly those with an intermediate and narrow log P. At the same time, it was becoming increasingly apparent that Nature had long ago developed clever strategies to circumvent these “rules”. In 1988, for example, independent reports appeared documenting the otherwise uncommon passage of a protein (HIV-Tat) across a membrane. A subsequent study called attention to a highly basic domain in this protein (Tat49–57) being responsible for its cellular entry. This conspicuously contradictory behavior, i.e., a polar, highly charged peptide passing through a non-polar membrane, set the stage for learning how Nature had gotten around the current “rules” of transport. As elaborated in our studies and discussed herein, the key strategy used in Nature rests in part on the ability of a molecule to change its properties as a function of microenvironment, being a polarity chameleon – i.e., being polar in a polar milieu and relatively non-polar in a non-polar environment. Because this research originated in part with the protein Tat and its basic peptide domain, Tat49–57, the field focused heavily on peptides, even limiting its nomenclature to names such as ‘cell-penetrating peptides,’ ‘cell-permeating peptides,’ ‘protein transduction domains,’ and ‘membrane translocating peptides’ to note a few. Starting in 1997, through a systematic reverse engineering approach, we established that the ability of Tat49–57 to enter cells is not a function of its peptide backbone, but rather the number and spatial array of its guanidinium groups. These function-oriented studies allowed one to design more effective peptidic agents and to think beyond the confines of peptidic systems to new and even more effective non-peptidic agents. Because the function of passage across a cell membrane is not limited to or even best achieved with the peptide backbone, we referred to these agents by their shared function, i.e., ‘cell-penetrating molecular transporters’. The scope of this molecular approach to breaching biochemical barriers has expanded remarkably in the past 15 years, enabling or enhancing the delivery of a wide range of cargos into cells and across other biochemical barriers; creating new tools for research, imaging, and diagnostics; and introducing new therapies into clinical trials. PMID:23697862

Stanzl, Erika Geihe; Trantow, Brian M.; Vargas, Jessica R.; Wender, Paul A.



Catalogue of space objects and events as a powerful tool for scientific researches on space debris  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wide work on developing and maintenance of the Catalogue of scientific information on space objects and events is continuing at the Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics. The work is making in cooperation with Russian company "Space information analytical systems" (KIA Systems). Powerful software tool is developed by now including:- informational core (relational database in RDBMS Oracle 8i environment)with special tools for automatic initial processing and systematization ofdata- software complex for orbital modeling and space objects and eventsdynamical catalogue maintenance- special information - analytical software Informational core covers wide spectrum of data needed for following purposes:- full-scale and high quality modeling of object's motion in near-Earth space(orbital and measurement data, solar flux and geomagnetic indices, Earthrotation parameters etc.)- determination of various events parameters (launches, manoeuvres,fragmentations etc.)- analysis of space debris sources- studying long-term orbital evolution (over several years or tens of years)- other The database is storing huge volume of data including:- optical measurements- TLEs- information about all space launches took place since 1957- information about space missions and programs- manoeuvres- fragmentations- launch sequences for typical orbital insertions- various characteristics for orbital objects (payloads, stages, fragments)- officially released UN and ITU registration data- other By now there are records storing in informational core for more than 28000 orbital objects (both catalogued and not), about all orbital launch attempts since 04.10.1957 (including failed ones), more than 30millions records of orbital information (TLEs, state vectors, polynomial data), more than 200000 optical measurements (normal places) for GEO region objects, calculated data on more than 14 millions of close approaches had taken place during last five years and other data. Software complex for orbital modeling and space objects and events dynamical catalogue maintenance has wide functionality. Following tasks are developed, programmed, tested and working by now:- querying and analysis of statistical data on objects and events- analysis of orbital evolution for real objects based on real orbital data andmodeling of long-term evolution for given orbit- determination and analysis of close approaches between orbital objects- analysis of possibilities of specific objects observations by various sensors- a priory and a posteriori orbital data accuracy estimation taking intoaccount different types of sensors and kinds of measurements,measurements quality estimation- meas urement processing: identification with object in the catalogue,construction of initial estimation of orbital parameters, orbitaldetermination- high - efficient (by time and quality) orbital propagation- dynamical catalogue of objects in GEO region maintenance- presenting of orbital data in universal form permitting to use them withoutspecial propagation software- calculation of near-Earth objects distribution density and probability ofcollision- re-entry prediction for large objects Each one will be discussed in the presentation. For providing high - efficient work with the Catalogue powerful GUI is developed. It permits easily to query data and present results in form of tables, charts, graphics, show them with the map at the background. Projection of trajectory and error ellipsoid can be displayed on the sky or Earth map. Special interactive tools permits to control process of calculation. Many of developed tools and stored data can be used not just for space debris analysis but also for space missions analysis, studying atmosphere drag, developing object observation strategy etc. The next important step in the complex developing is providing access to it for wide range of outer users from various scientific and research organizations over the world using modern Internet technologies. Organizations of communication with observers on a permanent base, for example, will permit to create GEO

Agapov, V.; Stepanyants, V.; Tuchin, A.; Khutorovsky, Z.


SMART II : the spot market agent research tool version 2.0.  

SciTech Connect

Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has worked closely with Western Area Power Administration (Western) over many years to develop a variety of electric power marketing and transmission system models that are being used for ongoing system planning and operation as well as analytic studies. Western markets and delivers reliable, cost-based electric power from 56 power plants to millions of consumers in 15 states. The Spot Market Agent Research Tool Version 2.0 (SMART II) is an investigative system that partially implements some important components of several existing ANL linear programming models, including some used by Western. SMART II does not implement a complete model of the Western utility system but it does include several salient features of this network for exploratory purposes. SMART II uses a Swarm agent-based framework. SMART II agents model bulk electric power transaction dynamics with recognition for marginal costs as well as transmission and generation constraints. SMART II uses a sparse graph of nodes and links to model the electric power spot market. The nodes represent power generators and consumers with distinct marginal decision curves and varying investment capital as well individual learning parameters. The links represent transmission lines with individual capacities taken from a range of central distribution, outlying distribution and feeder line types. The application of SMART II to electric power systems studies has produced useful results different from those often found using more traditional techniques. Use of the advanced features offered by the Swarm modeling environment simplified the creation of the SMART II model.

North, M. J. N.



Characterizing Urban Traffic Exposures Using Transportation Planning Tools: An Illustrated Methodology for Health Researchers  

PubMed Central

Exposure to elevated levels of vehicular traffic has been associated with adverse cardiovascular and respiratory health effects in a range of populations, including children, the elderly, and individuals with pre-existing heart conditions, diabetes, obesity, and genetic susceptibilities. As these relationships become clearer, public health officials will need to have access to methods to identify areas of concern in terms of elevated traffic levels and susceptible populations. This paper briefly reviews current approaches for characterizing traffic exposure and then presents a detailed method that can be employed by public health officials and other researchers in performing screening assessments to define areas of potential concern within a particular locale and, with appropriate caveats, in epidemiologic studies examining traffic-related health impacts at the intra-urban scale. The method is based on two exposure parameters extensively used in numerous epidemiologic studies of traffic and health—proximity to high traffic roadways and overall traffic density. The method is demonstrated with publically available information on susceptible populations, traffic volumes, and Traffic Analysis Zones, a transportation planning tool long used by Metropolitan Planning Agencies and planners across the USA but presented here as a new application which can be used to spatially assess possible traffic-related impacts on susceptible populations. Recommendations are provided for the appropriate use of this methodology, along with its limitations. PMID:20094920

Gute, David M.; Brugge, Doug; Peterson, Scott; Parmenter, Barbara



Lunar e-Library: A Research Tool Focused on the Lunar Environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As NASA plans and implements the Vision for Space Exploration, managers, engineers, and scientists need lunar environment information that is readily available and easily accessed. For this effort, lunar environment data was compiled from a variety of missions from Apollo to more recent remote sensing missions, such as Clementine. This valuable information comes not only in the form of measurements and images but also from the observations of astronauts who have visited the Moon and people who have designed spacecraft for lunar missions. To provide a research tool that makes the voluminous lunar data more accessible, the Space Environments and Effects (SEE) Program, managed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, AL, organized the data into a DVD knowledgebase: the Lunar e-Library. This searchable collection of 1100 electronic (.PDF) documents and abstracts makes it easy to find critical technical data and lessons learned from past lunar missions and exploration studies. The SEE Program began distributing the Lunar e-Library DVD in 2006. This paper describes the Lunar e-Library development process (including a description of the databases and resources used to acquire the documents) and the contents of the DVD product, demonstrates its usefulness with focused searches, and provides information on how to obtain this free resource.

McMahan, Tracy A.; Shea, Charlotte A.; Finckenor, Miria; Ferguson, Dale



Neutron tomography of particulate filters: a non-destructive investigation tool for applied and industrial research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research describes the development and implementation of high-fidelity neutron imaging and the associated analysis of the images. This advanced capability allows the non-destructive, non-invasive imaging of particulate filters (PFs) and how the deposition of particulate and catalytic washcoat occurs within the filter. The majority of the efforts described here were performed at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) CG-1D neutron imaging beamline at Oak Ridge National Laboratory; the current spatial resolution is approximately 50 ?m. The sample holder is equipped with a high-precision rotation stage that allows 3D imaging (i.e., computed tomography) of the sample when combined with computerized reconstruction tools. What enables the neutron-based image is the ability of some elements to absorb or scatter neutrons where other elements allow the neutron to pass through them with negligible interaction. Of particular interest in this study is the scattering of neutrons by hydrogen-containing molecules, such as hydrocarbons (HCs) and/or water, which are adsorbed to the surface of soot, ash and catalytic washcoat. Even so, the interactions with this adsorbed water/HC is low and computational techniques were required to enhance the contrast, primarily a modified simultaneous iterative reconstruction technique (SIRT). This effort describes the following systems: particulate randomly distributed in a PF, ash deposition in PFs, a catalyzed washcoat layer in a PF, and three particulate loadings in a SiC PF.

Toops, Todd J.; Bilheux, Hassina Z.; Voisin, Sophie; Gregor, Jens; Walker, Lakeisha; Strzelec, Andrea; Finney, Charles E. A.; Pihl, Josh A.



ReliefSeq: A Gene-Wise Adaptive-K Nearest-Neighbor Feature Selection Tool for Finding Gene-Gene Interactions and Main Effects in mRNA-Seq Gene Expression Data  

PubMed Central

Relief-F is a nonparametric, nearest-neighbor machine learning method that has been successfully used to identify relevant variables that may interact in complex multivariate models to explain phenotypic variation. While several tools have been developed for assessing differential expression in sequence-based transcriptomics, the detection of statistical interactions between transcripts has received less attention in the area of RNA-seq analysis. We describe a new extension and assessment of Relief-F for feature selection in RNA-seq data. The ReliefSeq implementation adapts the number of nearest neighbors (k) for each gene to optimize the Relief-F test statistics (importance scores) for finding both main effects and interactions. We compare this gene-wise adaptive-k (gwak) Relief-F method with standard RNA-seq feature selection tools, such as DESeq and edgeR, and with the popular machine learning method Random Forests. We demonstrate performance on a panel of simulated data that have a range of distributional properties reflected in real mRNA-seq data including multiple transcripts with varying sizes of main effects and interaction effects. For simulated main effects, gwak-Relief-F feature selection performs comparably to standard tools DESeq and edgeR for ranking relevant transcripts. For gene-gene interactions, gwak-Relief-F outperforms all comparison methods at ranking relevant genes in all but the highest fold change/highest signal situations where it performs similarly. The gwak-Relief-F algorithm outperforms Random Forests for detecting relevant genes in all simulation experiments. In addition, Relief-F is comparable to the other methods based on computational time. We also apply ReliefSeq to an RNA-Seq study of smallpox vaccine to identify gene expression changes between vaccinia virus-stimulated and unstimulated samples. ReliefSeq is an attractive tool for inclusion in the suite of tools used for analysis of mRNA-Seq data; it has power to detect both main effects and interaction effects. Software Availability: PMID:24339943

McKinney, Brett A.; White, Bill C.; Grill, Diane E.; Li, Peter W.; Kennedy, Richard B.; Poland, Gregory A.; Oberg, Ann L.



The virtual supermarket: an innovative research tool to study consumer food purchasing behaviour. — Measures of the Food Environment

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A Comparison of Student Knowledge and Attitude toward Research: Are Main Campus Students Different from Those in a Hybrid Environment?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The trend toward the use of distance education in teaching social work students has been rapidly growing over the past two decades. A constant issue of concern is related to student outcomes. This paper reports on a longitudinal quasi-experimental study assessing the differential knowledge and attitude toward research between social work students…

Buchanan, Rachel L.; Mathews, Deborah A.



Students' Perceptions of the Effectiveness of the World Wide Web as a Research and Teaching Tool in Science Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates the use of the World Wide Web (WWW) as a research and teaching tool in promoting self-directed learning groups of 15-year-old students. Discusses the perceptions of students of the effectiveness of the WWW in assisting them with the construction of knowledge on photosynthesis and respiration. (Contains 33 references.) (Author/YDS)

Ng, Wan; Gunstone, Richard



Spontaneous versus trained numerical abilities. A comparison between the two main tools to study numerical competence in non-human animals.  


A large body of experimental evidence shows that animals as diverse as mammals, birds, and fish are capable of processing numerical information. Considerable differences have been reported in some cases among species and a wide debate currently surrounds the issue of whether all vertebrates share the same numerical systems or not. Part of the problem is due to the fact that these studies often use different methods, a circumstance that potentially introduces confounding factors in a comparative analysis. In most studies, two main methodological approaches have been used: spontaneous choice tests and training procedures. The former approach consists of presenting to the subjects two groups of biologically-relevant stimuli (e.g., food items or social companions) differing in numerosity with the assumption that if they are able to discriminate between the two quantities, they are expected to spontaneously select the larger/smaller quantity. In the latter approach, subjects undergo extensive training in which some neutral stimuli (e.g., a quantity of dots) are associated with a reward and the capacity to learn a numerical rule is taken as evidence of numerical abilities. We review the literature on this topic, highlighting the relevance, and potential weaknesses in controlling confounding factors obtained with either approach. PMID:24793399

Agrillo, Christian; Bisazza, Angelo



A Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA) as a Measurement Tool for Wind-Energy Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In wind energy meteorology, RPA have the clear advantage compared to manned aircraft that they allow to fly very close to the ground and even in between individual wind turbines in a wind farm. Compared to meteorological towers and lidar systems, the advantage is the flexibility of the system, which makes it possible to measure at the desired site on short notice and not only in main wind direction. At the Center of Applied Geoscience at the University of Tübingen, the research RPA MASC (Multi-purpose Airborne Sensor Carrier) was developed. RPA of type MASC have a wingspan of about 3 m and a maximum take-off weight of 7.5 kg, including payload. The standard meteorological payload includes instruments for temperature, humidity, barometric pressure and wind measurement. It is possible to resolve turbulence fluctuations of wind and temperature up to 20 Hz. The autopilot ROCS (Research Onboard Computer System), which is developed at the Institute of Flight Mechanics and Control, University of Stuttgart, makes it possible to automatically follow predefined waypoints at constant altitude and airspeed. At a cruising speed of 24 m/s and a battery life of approx. one hour, a range of 80 km is feasible. The project 'Lidar Complex', funded by the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety, is part of the research network 'WindForS', based in Southern Germany. The goal of the project is to establish lidar technology for wind energy plant site evaluation in complex terrain. Additional goals are the comparison of different measurement techniques and the validation of wind-field models in not IEC 61400 conform terrain. It is planned to design a turbulent wind-field generator, fed by real measurement data, which can be used to analyse WEC behaviour. Two test sites were defined for the 'Lidar Complex' project, one in IEC-conform terrain about 15 km from the Baltic Sea, the other in the Swabian Alb, only 2 km downstream of a 100 m steep escarpment. At both sites, flight measurements were performed in 2013 with the RPA MASC. The data that was collected allows to investigate the influence of thermal stability of the atmosphere at the test site and turbulence intensity around individual wind energy converters (WECs). Several measurement flights were done to investigate the wake structure downstream a running WEC. Preliminary results will be presented as well as an outlook for future research with the instrument.

Wildmann, Norman; Bange, Jens



Sputum induction as a research tool for sampling the airways of subjects with cystic fibrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUNDSputum induction (SI) has proved to be a reliable non-invasive tool for sampling inflammatory airway contents in asthma, with distinct advantages over collection of expectorated sputum (ES) and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). A study was undertaken to evaluate the safety of SI and to assess if it might be an equally valuable outcome tool in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF).METHODSThe safety

N R Henig; M R Tonelli; M V Pier; J L Burns; M L Aitken



A clinical trial alert tool to recruit large patient samples and assess selection bias in general practice research  

PubMed Central

Background Many research projects in general practice face problems when recruiting patients, often resulting in low recruitment rates and an unknown selection bias, thus limiting their value for health services research. The objective of the study is to evaluate the recruitment performance of the practice staff in 25 participating general practices when using a clinical trial alert (CTA) tool. Methods The CTA tool was developed for an osteoporosis survey of patients at risk for osteoporosis and fractures. The tool used data from electronic patient records (EPRs) to automatically identify the population at risk (net sample), to apply eligibility criteria, to contact eligible patients, to enrol and survey at least 200 patients per practice. The effects of the CTA intervention were evaluated on the basis of recruitment efficiency and selection bias. Results The CTA tool identified a net sample of 16,067 patients (range 162 to 1,316 per practice), of which the practice staff reviewed 5,161 (32%) cases for eligibility. They excluded 3,248 patients and contacted 1,913 patients. Of these, 1,526 patients (range 4 to 202 per practice) were successfully enrolled and surveyed. This made up 9% of the net sample and 80% of the patients contacted. Men and older patients were underrepresented in the study population. Conclusion Although the recruitment target was unreachable for most practices, the practice staff in the participating practices used the CTA tool successfully to identify, document and survey a large patient sample. The tool also helped the research team to precisely determine a slight selection bias. PMID:21320358



Unmanned Aerial Systems as Versatile Tools for Atmospheric and Environmental Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unmanned Aerial Systems (UASs) are increasingly recognized as versatile tools for different earth-sciences applications providing chiefly a link between in-situ ground based measurements and satellite remote sensing observations. Based on the Autonomous Flying Platforms for Atmospheric and Earth Surface Observations project (APAESO) of the Energy, Environment and Water Research Center (EEWRC) at the Cyprus Institute (APAESO is co-financed by the European Development Fund and the Republic of Cyprus through the Cyprus Research Promotion Foundation: ??? ???????/?????/0308/09), we have acquired four CRUISERS (ET-Air, Slovakia) as UAS platforms and a substantial range of scientific instruments to be employed on these platforms. The APAESO platforms are aimed at the dual purpose of carrying out atmospheric and earth-surface observations in the (Eastern) Mediterranean They will enable 3D measurements for determining physical, chemical and radiative atmospheric properties, aerosol and dust concentrations and atmospheric dynamics as well as 2D investigations into land management practices, vegetation and agricultural mapping, contaminant detection and the monitoring and assessment of hydrological parameters and processes of a given region at high spatial resolution. Currently, we are building up an Unmanned Airplane Facility at CyI. In the process of reaching full operational capacity, we have initiated and carried out first test missions involving highly specialized and specifically adapted instrumentation for atmospheric investigations. The first scientific mission involves the employment of a DOAS-system (Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy) in cooperation with colleagues from Heidelberg and Mainz, Germany and has been successfully completed. More recently, we started work on a new collaborative project aimed at measuring vertical profiles of aerosols in the Eastern Mediterranean. The project involves colleagues from the University of Frankfurt, Germany as well as from the University of Tel Aviv and the Weizmann Institute, both in Israel. For this project, a specially designed multi-stage electrostatic aerosol collector is being placed on one of the APAESO UAS. Simultaneously, atmospheric aerosols size and concentrations will be measured with an optical aerosol spectrometer, mounted on the same platform. The collected samples will be divided into two parts for analysis in both the University of Frankfurt and the Weizmann Institute

Lange, Manfred; Argyrides, Marios; Ioannou, Stelios; Keleshis, Christos; Levin, Zev



Maine Ingredients  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article features Maine Learning Technology Initiative (MLTI), the nation's first-ever statewide 1-to-1 laptop program which marks its seventh birthday by expanding into high schools, providing an occasion to celebrate--and to examine the components of its success. The plan to put laptops into the hands of every teacher and student in grades 7…

Waters, John K.




EPA Science Inventory

Hydronet_me24 and Hydropoly_me24 depict Maine's hydrography data, based on 8-digit hydrological unit codes (HUC's) at the 1:24,000 scale. Some New Hampshire and New Brunswick hydrography data are also included. The NHD hydrography data was compiled from previous ArcIn...



EPA Science Inventory

MEOWN250 describes industrial, non-industrial, and public woodlot ownership in Maine at 1:250,000 scale. Industrial owners are those having at least one primary wood processing facility. Non-industrial owners are those with no primary wood processing facility. Public ownership...


Aristotle: A System for Research on and Development of Program-Analysis-Based Tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

this paper,we first describe the current Aristotle system, including its overall architecture and the tools and componentsthat constitute its forthcoming release. We then discuss lessons that we have learned about system1

Mary Jean Harrold; Gregg Rothermel



The Main Pillar: Assessment of Space Weather Observational Asset Performance Supporting Nowcasting, Forecasting and Research to Operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sporadically, the Sun unleashes severe magnetic activity into the heliosphere. The specific solar/heliospheric phenomena and their effects on humans, technology and the wider geospace environment include a) high-intensity emissions from the Sun causing radio blackouts and (surface) charging, b) particle acceleration in the solar corona leading to high dose rates of ionizing radiation in exposed materials that can trigger single event upsets in electronic components of space hardware, or temporal/permanent damage in tissue, c) arrivals of fast-moving coronal mass ejections with embedded enhancements of magnetic fields that can cause strong ionospheric disturbances affecting radio communications and induce out-of-spec currents in power lines near the surface. Many of the effects could now be forecast with higher fidelity than ever before. However, forecasting critically depends upon availability of timely and reliable observational data. It is therefore crucial to understand how observational assets perform during periods of severe space weather. This paper analyzes and documents the status of the existing and upcoming observational capabilities for forecasting, and discusses how the findings may impact space weather research and its transition to operations.

Posner, A.; Hesse, M.; St. Cyr, C.



The Main Pillar: Assessment of Space Weather Observational Asset Performance Supporting Nowcasting, Forecasting and Research to Operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space weather forecasting critically depends upon availability of timely and reliable observational data. It is therefore particularly important to understand how existing and newly planned observational assets perform during periods of severe space weather. Extreme space weather creates challenging conditions under which instrumentation and spacecraft may be impeded or in which parameters reach values that are outside the nominal observational range. This paper analyzes existing and upcoming observational capabilities for forecasting, and discusses how the findings may impact space weather research and its transition to operations. A single limitation to the assessment is lack of information provided to us on radiation monitor performance, which caused us not to fully assess (i.e., not assess short term) radiation storm forecasting. The assessment finds that at least two widely spaced coronagraphs including L4 would provide reliability for Earth-bound CMEs. Furthermore, all magnetic field measurements assessed fully meet requirements. However, with current or even with near term new assets in place, in the worst-case scenario there could be a near-complete lack of key near-real-time solar wind plasma data of severe disturbances heading toward and impacting Earth's magnetosphere. Models that attempt to simulate the effects of these disturbances in near real time or with archival data require solar wind plasma observations as input. Moreover, the study finds that near-future observational assets will be less capable of advancing the understanding of extreme geomagnetic disturbances at Earth, which might make the resulting space weather models unsuitable for transition to operations.

Posner, Arik; Hesse, Michael; SaintCyr, Chris



Heavy ion microprobes: a unique tool for bystander research and other radiobiological applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The risk assessment for low doses of high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation has been challenged by a growing body of experimental evidence showing that non-irradiated bystander cells can receive signals from irradiated cells to elicit a variety of cellular responses. These may be significant for radiation protection but also for radiation therapy using heavy ions. Charged particle microbeams for radiobiological application provide a unique means to address these issues by allowing the precise irradiation of single cells with a counted numbers of ions. Here, we focus specifically on heavy ion microbeam facilities currently in use for biological purposes, describing their technical features and biological results. Typically, ion species up to argon are used for targeted biological irradiation at the vertically collimated microbeam at JAEA (Takasaki, Japan). At the SNAKE microprobe in Munich, mostly oxygen ions have been used in a horizontal focused beam line for cell targeting. At GSI (Darmstadt), a horizontal microprobe with a focused beam for defined targeting using ion species up to uranium is operational. The visualization of DNA damage response proteins relocalizing to defined sites of ion traversal has been accomplished at the three heavy ion microbeam facilities described above and is used to study mechanistic aspects of heavy ion effects. However, bystander studies have constituted the main focus of biological applications. While for cell inactivation and effects on cell cycle progression a response of non-targeted cells has been described at JAEA and GSI, respectively, in part controversial results have been obtained for the induction of DNA damage measured by double-strand formation or at the cytogenetic level. The results emphasize the influence of the cellular environment, and standardization of experimental conditions for cellular studies at different facilities as well as the investigation of bystander effects in tissue will be the aims of future research. At present, the most important conclusion of radiobiology studies at heavy ion microbeams is that bystander responses are not accentuated for increasing ionizing density radiation.

Voss, K. O.; Fournier, C.; Taucher-Scholz, G.



Gulf of Maine: Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Lessons and activities from the Gulf of Maine Research Institute (formerly Gulf of Maine Aquarium), focused on hurricanes, El Nino, fog, and volcanic eruptions. Emphasis on important hurricanes of the past. Resources include lessons, guides for simple experiments, and a student weather network. Downloadable materials and additional webpages also provided.



Tool Using.  


Research on the development of tool use in children has often emphasized the cognitive bases of this achievement, focusing on the choice of an artifact, but has largely neglected its motor foundations. However, research across diverse fields, from evolutionary anthropology to cognitive neuroscience, converges on the idea that the actions that embody tool use are also critical for understanding its ontogenesis and phylogenesis. In this article, we highlight findings across these fields to show how a deeper examination of the act of tool using can inform developmental accounts and illuminate what makes human tool use unique. PMID:25400691

Kahrs, Björn A; Lockman, Jeffrey J



Relating Science and Religion: An Ontology of Taxonomies and Development of a Research Tool for Identifying Individual Views  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding how individuals view the relationship between science and religion shows promise for explaining a range of aspects of teaching and learning in science. Several taxonomies, consisting of different views by which people relate science and religion, can be found in the philosophical literature. However, most of the science education literature uses these taxonomies selectively and with limited justification, hindering comparison between existing and future studies. The first aim of this paper is therefore to provide a comprehensive review of the different taxonomies described in the literature and to organise the different views according to their similarities and differences. The second aim of the paper is to present a new research tool developed on the basis of the findings of the literature review. This tool consists of a short questionnaire allowing educational researchers to identify the different viewpoints held by pre-service teachers, undergraduates majoring in biology and school learners. We present the tool itself and demonstrate its usefulness and versatility for future science education research based on three empirical studies covering a range of geographical areas, religious backgrounds, educational levels, age groups and genders.

Yasri, Pratchayapong; Arthur, Shagufta; Smith, Mike U.; Mancy, Rebecca



Evaluating mastery of biostatistics for medical researchers: need for a new assessment tool.  


Research training has enabled academic clinicians to contribute significantly to the body of medical research literature. Biostatistics represents a critical methodological skill for such researchers, as statistical methods are increasingly a necessary part of medical research. However, there is no validated knowledge and skills assessment for graduate level biostatistics for academic medical researchers. In this paper, I review graduate level statistical competencies and existing instruments intended to assess physicians' ability to read the medical literature and for undergraduate statistics for their alignment with core competencies necessary for successful use of statistics. This analysis shows a need for a new instrument to assess biostatistical competencies for medical researchers. PMID:22212227

Enders, Felicity




EPA Science Inventory

The Land Remediation and Pollution Control Division (LRPCD) QA Manager strives to assist LRPCD researchers in developing functional planning documents for their research projects. As part of the planning process, several pieces of information are needed, including information re...


A new tool for converting food frequency questionnaire data into nutrient and food group values: FETA research methods and availability  

PubMed Central

Objectives To describe the research methods for the development of a new open source, cross-platform tool which processes data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Norfolk Food Frequency Questionnaire (EPIC-Norfolk FFQ). A further aim was to compare nutrient and food group values derived from the current tool (FETA, FFQ EPIC Tool for Analysis) with the previously validated but less accessible tool, CAFÉ (Compositional Analyses from Frequency Estimates). The effect of text matching on intake data was also investigated. Design Cross-sectional analysis of a prospective cohort study—EPIC-Norfolk. Setting East England population (city of Norwich and its surrounding small towns and rural areas). Participants Complete FFQ data from 11?250 men and 13?602 women (mean age 59?years; range 40–79?years). Outcome measures Nutrient and food group intakes derived from FETA and CAFÉ analyses of EPIC-Norfolk FFQ data. Results Nutrient outputs from FETA and CAFÉ were similar; mean (SD) energy intake from FETA was 9222 kJ (2633) in men, 8113?kJ (2296) in women, compared with CAFÉ intakes of 9175?kJ (2630) in men, 8091?kJ (2298) in women. The majority of differences resulted in one or less quintile change (98.7%). Only mean daily fruit and vegetable food group intakes were higher in women than in men (278 vs 212 and 284 vs 255?g, respectively). Quintile changes were evident for all nutrients, with the exception of alcohol, when text matching was not executed; however, only the cereals food group was affected. Conclusions FETA produces similar nutrient and food group values to the previously validated CAFÉ but has the advantages of being open source, cross-platform and complete with a data-entry form directly compatible with the software. The tool will facilitate research using the EPIC-Norfolk FFQ, and can be customised for different study populations. PMID:24674997

Mulligan, Angela A; Luben, Robert N; Bhaniani, Amit; Parry-Smith, David J; O'Connor, Laura; Khawaja, Anthony P; Forouhi, Nita G; Khaw, Kay-Tee



Joining the Tots: Visual Research Tools to Connect Families and Community in Early Childhood Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over a two-year teacher-researcher project in New Zealand we used a mosaic of research methods (Clark, 2010) to capture the perspectives of staff, parents and children. As a team of teachers and academic researchers, we recorded and documented reconceptualised pedagogical practices that included active adult participation in a cluster of early…

Duncan, Judith; One, Sarah Te



Pedestrian Tools and Character-driven Science: How Bones Helped Me Rethink My Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper I develop analogies between television shows that involve collaborative science work and my own research on geographically distributed science teams. My goal is to use popularized science to get us to think differently about our own research. I use examples from the forensics drama Bones and data from my current study of post doctoral researchers and their

Libby Hemphill


German translation of the Alberta context tool and two measures of research use: methods, challenges and lessons learned  

PubMed Central

Background Understanding the relationship between organizational context and research utilization is key to reducing the research-practice gap in health care. This is particularly true in the residential long term care (LTC) setting where relatively little work has examined the influence of context on research implementation. Reliable, valid measures and tools are a prerequisite for studying organizational context and research utilization. Few such tools exist in German. We thus translated three such tools (the Alberta Context Tool and two measures of research use) into German for use in German residential LTC. We point out challenges and strategies for their solution unique to German residential LTC, and demonstrate how resolving specific challenges in the translation of the health care aide instrument version streamlined the translation process of versions for registered nurses, allied health providers, practice specialists, and managers. Methods Our translation methods were based on best practices and included two independent forward translations, reconciliation of the forward translations, expert panel discussions, two independent back translations, reconciliation of the back translations, back translation review, and cognitive debriefing. Results We categorized the challenges in this translation process into seven categories: (1) differing professional education of Canadian and German care providers, (2) risk that German translations would become grammatically complex, (3) wordings at risk of being misunderstood, (4) phrases/idioms non-existent in German, (5) lack of corresponding German words, (6) limited comprehensibility of corresponding German words, and (7) target persons’ unfamiliarity with activities detailed in survey items. Examples of each challenge are described with strategies that we used to manage the challenge. Conclusion Translating an existing instrument is complex and time-consuming, but a rigorous approach is necessary to obtain instrument equivalence. Essential components were (1) involvement of and co-operation with the instrument developers and (2) expert panel discussions, including both target group and content experts. Equivalent translated instruments help researchers from different cultures to find a common language and undertake comparative research. As acceptable psychometric properties are a prerequisite for that, we are currently carrying out a study with that focus. PMID:24238613



FDA Bioinformatics Tool for Microbial Genomics Research on Molecular Characterization of Bacterial Foodborne Pathogens Using Microarrays  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Background: Advances in microbial genomics and bioinformatics are offering greater insights into the emergence and spread of foodborne pathogens in outbreak scenarios. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has developed the genomics tool ArrayTrackTM, which provides extensive functionalities to man...


James Kidder Main Research Library  

E-print Network

. R. C., et al. (2009). Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration - Science for Enhancement and Implementation of carbon sequestration data and models. In B. J. McPherson & E. T. Sundquist (Eds.), Carbon Sequestration


James Kidder Main Research Library  

E-print Network

of chemical warfare agents in the environment. In T. Marrs, R. L. Maynard & F. R. Sidell (Eds.), Chemical Warfare Agents: Toxicology and Treatment (pp. 89-125). Chichester, West Sussex: John Wiley and Sons, Ltd


Using animation as an information tool to advance health research literacy among minority participants.  


Lack of adequate consumer health information about clinical research contributes to health disparities among low health literate minority multicultural populations and requires appropriate methods for making information accessible. Enhancing understanding of health research can enable such minority multicultural consumers to make informed, active decisions about their own health and research participation. This qualitative study examines the effectiveness and acceptability of an animated video to enhance what we call health research literacy among minority multicultural populations. A team analyzed the transcripts of 58 focus groups of African Americans, Latinos, Native Hawaiians, and Filipinos in Los Angeles/Hawaii. Participants were accepting of animation and the video's cultural appropriateness. Communicating information about health research via animation improved participants' ability to identify personal information-gaps, engage in meaningful community-level dialogue, and ask questions about health research. PMID:24551351

George, Sheba; Moran, Erin; Duran, Nelida; Jenders, Robert A



geneCBR: a translational tool for multiple-microarray analysis and integrative information retrieval for aiding diagnosis in cancer research  

PubMed Central

Background Bioinformatics and medical informatics are two research fields that serve the needs of different but related communities. Both domains share the common goal of providing new algorithms, methods and technological solutions to biomedical research, and contributing to the treatment and cure of diseases. Although different microarray techniques have been successfully used to investigate useful information for cancer diagnosis at the gene expression level, the true integration of existing methods into day-to-day clinical practice is still a long way off. Within this context, case-based reasoning emerges as a suitable paradigm specially intended for the development of biomedical informatics applications and decision support systems, given the support and collaboration involved in such a translational development. With the goals of removing barriers against multi-disciplinary collaboration and facilitating the dissemination and transfer of knowledge to real practice, case-based reasoning systems have the potential to be applied to translational research mainly because their computational reasoning paradigm is similar to the way clinicians gather, analyze and process information in their own practice of clinical medicine. Results In addressing the issue of bridging the existing gap between biomedical researchers and clinicians who work in the domain of cancer diagnosis, prognosis and treatment, we have developed and made accessible a common interactive framework. Our geneCBR system implements a freely available software tool that allows the use of combined techniques that can be applied to gene selection, clustering, knowledge extraction and prediction for aiding diagnosis in cancer research. For biomedical researches, geneCBR expert mode offers a core workbench for designing and testing new techniques and experiments. For pathologists or oncologists, geneCBR diagnostic mode implements an effective and reliable system that can diagnose cancer subtypes based on the analysis of microarray data using a CBR architecture. For programmers, geneCBR programming mode includes an advanced edition module for run-time modification of previous coded techniques. Conclusion geneCBR is a new translational tool that can effectively support the integrative work of programmers, biomedical researches and clinicians working together in a common framework. The code is freely available under the GPL license and can be obtained at . PMID:19538727

Glez-Peña, Daniel; Díaz, Fernando; Hernández, Jesús M; Corchado, Juan M; Fdez-Riverola, Florentino



The Flo-and-Mac problem: a tool for encouraging undergraduate research  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has historically been difficult to persuade undergraduates to become involved in research, in part due to the difficulty of making meaningful research problems accessible to such students. This paper describes the Flo-and-Mac problem, an open-ended research problem specifically designed to be accessible to undergraduates, and to enable them to make a meaningful contribution to a scientifically interesting investigation. Perspectives

Jonathan P. Bernick



Design of a Web-Tool for Diagnostic Clinical Trials Handling Medical Imaging Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

New clinical studies in medicine are based on patients and controls using different imaging diagnostic modalities. Medical\\u000a information systems are not designed for clinical trials employing clinical imaging. Although commercial software and communication\\u000a systems focus on storage of image data, they are not suitable for storage and mining of new types of quantitative data. We\\u000a sought to design a Web-tool

Alicia Baltasar Sánchez; Angel González-Sistal



Software Tools

Software Tools What is caBIG®? NCI's Cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid (caBIG®) is a virtual network of interconnected data, individuals, and organizations that redefines how research is conducted, care is provided, and patients/participants interact


A software tool for research in linguistics and lexicography: Application to Somali  

Microsoft Academic Search

General-purpose database management systems, whose structure is built in, are not an appropriate solution to situations where problems of translation or areas of research cannot be bounded in advance, for example, when lexicography and linguistic research are closely related. Consequently, an original system has been developed, and is being applied to linguistic and lexicographical data on the Somali language.

Jacqueline Lecarme; Carole Maury



Risk Factor Monitoring and Methods Branch | Tools Support Faster, More Efficient Research on Childhood Obesity

Through its multiyear collaboration with the National Collaborative on Childhood Obesity Research (NCCOR), Drs. Susan Krebs-Smith and Robin McKinnon led the development and oversight of the Catalogue of Surveillance Systems, which provides one-stop access to more than 100 publicly available datasets relevant to childhood obesity research. The CSS averages more than 1000 unique visitors per month.


Digital Video as a Tool in Research Projects: Zooming In on Current Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital video and accompanying editing software are increasingly becoming more accessible for researchers in terms of ease of use and cost. The rich, visually appealing and seductive nature of video-based data can convey a strong sense of direct experience with the phenomena studied (Pea 1999). However, the ease of selection and of editing of digital video clips means that researchers

Sandy Schuck; Matthew Kearney


Ethics in Educational Research: Introducing a Methodological Tool for Effective Ethical Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ethics is a complicated field and much has been written about its application to educational research. In this paper we introduce a way of planning for and dealing with situations that arise in the course of research that promotes detailed ethical analysis. We present a framework based on the work of Seedhouse and Flinders and describe a…

Stutchbury, Kris; Fox, Alison



Main Report  

PubMed Central

Background: States vary widely in their use of newborn screening tests, with some mandating screening for as few as three conditions and others mandating as many as 43 conditions, including varying numbers of the 40+ conditions that can be detected by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). There has been no national guidance on the best candidate conditions for newborn screening since the National Academy of Sciences report of 19751 and the United States Congress Office of Technology Assessment report of 1988,2 despite rapid developments since then in genetics, in screening technologies, and in some treatments. Objectives: In 2002, the Maternal and Child Health Bureau (MCHB) of the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) of the United States Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) commissioned the American College of Medical Genetics (ACMG) to: Conduct an analysis of the scientific literature on the effectiveness of newborn screening.Gather expert opinion to delineate the best evidence for screening for specified conditions and develop recommendations focused on newborn screening, including but not limited to the development of a uniform condition panel.Consider other components of the newborn screening system that are critical to achieving the expected outcomes in those screened. Methods: A group of experts in various areas of subspecialty medicine and primary care, health policy, law, public health, and consumers worked with a steering committee and several expert work groups, using a two-tiered approach to assess and rank conditions. A first step was developing a set of principles to guide the analysis. This was followed by developing criteria by which conditions could be evaluated, and then identifying the conditions to be evaluated. A large and broadly representative group of experts was asked to provide their opinions on the extent to which particular conditions met the selected criteria, relying on supporting evidence and references from the scientific literature. The criteria were distributed among three main categories for each condition: The availability and characteristics of the screening test;The availability and complexity of diagnostic services; andThe availability and efficacy of treatments related to the conditions. A survey process utilizing a data collection instrument was used to gather expert opinion on the conditions in the first tier of the assessment. The data collection format and survey provided the opportunity to quantify expert opinion and to obtain the views of a diverse set of interest groups (necessary due to the subjective nature of some of the criteria). Statistical analysis of data produced a score for each condition, which determined its ranking and initial placement in one of three categories (high scoring, moderately scoring, or low scoring/absence of a newborn screening test). In the second tier of these analyses, the evidence base related to each condition was assessed in depth (e.g., via systematic reviews of reference lists including MedLine, PubMed and others; books; Internet searches; professional guidelines; clinical evidence; and cost/economic evidence and modeling). The fact sheets reflecting these analyses were evaluated by at least two acknowledged experts for each condition. These experts assessed the data and the associated references related to each criterion and provided corrections where appropriate, assigned a value to the level of evidence and the quality of the studies that established the evidence base, and determined whether there were significant variances from the survey data. Survey results were subsequently realigned with the evidence obtained from the scientific literature during the second-tier analysis for all objective criteria, based on input from at least three acknowledged experts in each condition. The information from these two tiers of assessment was then considered with regard to the overriding principles and other technology or condition-specific recommendations. On the basis of this information, conditions were assigned to one of thr



[Tardive dyskinesia. AIMS (Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale) as a diagnostic and research tool].  


This work is part of a research project designed to investigate the occurrence of tardive dyskinesia among patients treated with fluphenazine decanoate. The Authors present to clinicians and researchers the Italian version of the AIMS (Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale), a rating scale presently considered to be the most valuable diagnostic and research instrument available to study tardive dyskinesia. The Authors stress the severity of the problem as it appears from the growing number of worried reports from several countries. the Authors also present a set of problems and questions still unresolved, calling for deeper and more systematic investigations. PMID:7312199

Burti, L; Parolin, A; Zanotelli, R



Collection of Practical Tips and Tools for Conducting Clinical Research |

The link to the samples, forms, and worksheets is extremely helpful. I am a cancer program consultant assisting a hospital program in building their cancer-related clinical trials accrual. One barrier has been the hesitancy of IRB and other staff to utilize the cancer registry in a planned screening process to identify patients who may be eligible for some studies. The tools in the link yielded several explanations and samples that will be of great benefit in the education process to move forward.


ModelDB in computational neuroscience education - a research tool as interactive educational media.  


ModelDB's mission is to link computational models and publications, supporting the field of computational neuroscience (CNS) by making model source code readily available. It is continually expanding, and currently contains source code for more than 300 models that cover more than 41 topics. Investigators, educators, and students can use it to obtain working models that reproduce published results and can be modified to test for new domains of applicability. Users can browse ModelDB to survey the field of computational neuroscience, or pursue more focused explorations of specific topics. Here we describe tutorials and initial experiences with ModelDB as an interactive educational tool. PMID:25089156

Morse, Thomas M



Solar Flares and Coronal Physics Using P/OF as a Research Tool  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This NASA Conference Publication contains the proceedings of the Workshop on Solar High-Resolution Astrophysics Using the Pinhole/Occulter Facility held at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Alabama, on May 8 to 10, 1985. These proceedings include primarily the invited tutorial papers, extended abstracts of contributed poster papers, and summaries of subpanel (X-Ray and Coronal Physics) discussions. Both observational and theoretical results are presented. Although the emphasis of the Workshop was focused primarily on topics peculiar to solar physics, one paper is included that discusses the P/0F as a tool for X-ray astronomy.

Tandberg, E. (editor); Wilson, R. M. (editor); Hudson, R. M. (editor)



MEDES clinical research facility as a tool to prepare ISSA space flights  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This new multi-disciplinary medical experimentation center provides the ideal scientific, medical and technical environment required for research programs and to prepare international space station Alpha (ISSA) missions, where space and healthcare industries can share their expertise. Different models are available to simulate space flight effects (bed-rest, confinement,…). This is of particular interest for research in Human psychology, physiology, physiopathology and ergonomics, validation of biomedical materials and procedures, testing of drugs, and other healthcare related products. This clinical research facility (CRF) provides valuable services in various fields of Human research requiring healthy volunteers. CRF is widely accessible to national and international, scientific, medical and industrial organisations. Furthermore, users have at their disposal the multi-disciplinary skills of MEDES staff and all MEDES partners on a single site.

Maillet, A.; Traon, A. Pavy-Le


U Chicago researchers describe new screening tool that could speed development of ovarian cancer drugs

University of Chicago Medicine researchers have built a model system that uses multiple cell types from patients to rapidly test compounds that could block the early steps in ovarian cancer metastasis.


U of Chicago researchers develop new tool that predicts financial pain for cancer patients

Researchers have found that cancer care has a new side effect. Along with the distress that comes with a cancer diagnosis and the discomforts of treatment, more patients now have to deal with "financial toxicity".


Research Partnership Award: Tools for counting bicyclists and pedestrians help guide investment  

E-print Network

attribute it to socially constructed gender roles or to gendered structural contexts such as labor market. Companies from GM to Google are developing self-driving vehicle technology, said Adeel Lari, research fellow

Minnesota, University of


COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH: Parallel Analysis Tools and New Visualization Techniques for Ultra-Large Climate Data Set  

SciTech Connect

ParVis was a project funded under LAB 10-05: “Earth System Modeling: Advanced Scientific Visualization of Ultra-Large Climate Data Sets”. Argonne was the lead lab with partners at PNNL, SNL, NCAR and UC-Davis. This report covers progress from January 1st, 2013 through Dec 1st, 2014. Two previous reports covered the period from Summer, 2010, through September 2011 and October 2011 through December 2012, respectively. While the project was originally planned to end on April 30, 2013, personnel and priority changes allowed many of the institutions to continue work through FY14 using existing funds. A primary focus of ParVis was introducing parallelism to climate model analysis to greatly reduce the time-to-visualization for ultra-large climate data sets. Work in the first two years was conducted on two tracks with different time horizons: one track to provide immediate help to climate scientists already struggling to apply their analysis to existing large data sets and another focused on building a new data-parallel library and tool for climate analysis and visualization that will give the field a platform for performing analysis and visualization on ultra-large datasets for the foreseeable future. In the final 2 years of the project, we focused mostly on the new data-parallel library and associated tools for climate analysis and visualization.

middleton, Don [Co-PI; Haley, Mary



Maine Folklife Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Located at the University of Maine, the Maine Folklife Center is committed to documenting and understanding the folklore, folklife, and history of Maine and Atlantic Canada. Along with its various scholarly activities, the Center sponsors a number of festivals, lectures, and like-minded programs that encourage appreciation of the diverse cultural traditions within the region. The site will be useful to researchers with a penchant in these fields, as it contains information about the collections, including a rather extensive oral history collection (with work that documenting the cranberry culture of Massachusetts and the traditional music of Maine). There is also material on the public programs and exhibits sponsored by the center, and a set of external links that lead to other sites dealing with oral history, folklore, and Maine. While the Center's site does not have a great deal of online material for consideration, the center has transcribed the sixth volume of Northeast Folklore (originally published in 1964) and placed them online.


pClone: Synthetic Biology Tool Makes Promoter Research Accessible to Beginning Biology Students  

PubMed Central

The Vision and Change report recommended genuine research experiences for undergraduate biology students. Authentic research improves science education, increases the number of scientifically literate citizens, and encourages students to pursue research. Synthetic biology is well suited for undergraduate research and is a growing area of science. We developed a laboratory module called pClone that empowers students to use advances in molecular cloning methods to discover new promoters for use by synthetic biologists. Our educational goals are consistent with Vision and Change and emphasize core concepts and competencies. pClone is a family of three plasmids that students use to clone a new transcriptional promoter or mutate a canonical promoter and measure promoter activity in Escherichia coli. We also developed the Registry of Functional Promoters, an open-access database of student promoter research results. Using pre- and posttests, we measured significant learning gains among students using pClone in introductory biology and genetics classes. Student posttest scores were significantly better than scores of students who did not use pClone. pClone is an easy and affordable mechanism for large-enrollment labs to meet the high standards of Vision and Change.

Eckdahl, Todd; Cronk, Brian; Andresen, Corinne; Frederick, Paul; Huckuntod, Samantha; Shinneman, Claire; Wacker, Annie; Yuan, Jason



Biomedical research, a tool to address the health issues that affect African populations  

PubMed Central

Traditionally, biomedical research endeavors in low to middle resources countries have focused on communicable diseases. However, data collected over the past 20 years by the World Health Organization (WHO) show a significant increase in the number of people suffering from non-communicable diseases (e.g. heart disease, diabetes, cancer and pulmonary diseases). Within the coming years, WHO predicts significant decreases in communicable diseases while non-communicable diseases are expected to double in low and middle income countries in sub-Saharan Africa. The predicted increase in the non-communicable diseases population could be economically burdensome for the basic healthcare infrastructure of countries that lack resources to address this emerging disease burden. Biomedical research could stimulate development of healthcare and biomedical infrastructure. If this development is sustainable, it provides an opportunity to alleviate the burden of both communicable and non-communicable diseases through diagnosis, prevention and treatment. In this paper, we discuss how research using biomedical technology, especially genomics, has produced data that enhances the understanding and treatment of both communicable and non-communicable diseases in sub-Saharan Africa. We further discuss how scientific development can provide opportunities to pursue research areas responsive to the African populations. We limit our discussion to biomedical research in the areas of genomics due to its substantial impact on the scientific community in recent years however, we also recognize that targeted investments in other scientific disciplines could also foster further development in African countries. PMID:24143865



Assessing the impact of user-centered research on a clinical trial eHealth tool via counterbalanced research design  

PubMed Central

Objective Informatics applications have the potential to improve participation in clinical trials, but their design must be based on user-centered research. This research used a fully counterbalanced experimental design to investigate the effect of changes made to the original version of a website,, and confirm that the revised version addressed and reinforced patients' needs and expectations. Design Participants included women who had received a breast cancer diagnosis within the last 5?years (N=77). They were randomized into two groups: one group used and reviewed the original version first followed by the redesigned version, and the other group used and reviewed them in reverse order. Measurements The study used both quantitative and qualitative measures. During use, participants' click paths and general reactions were observed. After use, participants were asked to answer survey items and open-ended questions to indicate their reactions and which version they preferred and met their needs and expectations better. Results Overall, the revised version of the site was preferred and perceived to be clearer, easier to navigate, more trustworthy and credible, and more private and safe overall. However, users who viewed the original version last had similar attitudes toward both versions. Conclusion By applying research findings to the redesign of a website for clinical trial searching, it was possible to re-engineer the interface to better support patients' decisions to participate in clinical trials. The mechanisms of action in this case appeared to revolve around creating an environment that supported a sense of personal control and decisional autonomy. PMID:21169619

Massett, Holly A; Mylks, Christy; McCormack, Lauren A; Kish-Doto, Julia; Hesse, Bradford W; Wang, Min Qi



Development of ITSASGIS-5D: seeking interoperability between Marine GIS layers and scientific multidimensional data using open source tools and OGC services for multidisciplinary research.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 2000, an intense effort was conducted in AZTI's Marine Research Division to set up a data management system which could gather all the marine datasets that were being produced by different in-house research projects. For that, a corporative GIS was designed that included a data and metadata repository, a database, a layer catalog & search application and an internet map viewer. Several layers, mostly dealing with physical, chemical and biological in-situ sampling, and basic and thematic cartography including bathymetry, geomorphology, different species habitat maps, and human pressure and activities maps, were successfully gathered in this system. Very soon, it was realised that new marine technologies yielding continuous multidimensional data, sometimes called FES (Fluid Earth System) data, were difficult to handle in this structure. The data affected, mainly included numerical oceanographic and meteorological models, remote sensing data, coastal RADAR data, and some in-situ observational systems such as CTD's casts, moored or lagrangian buoys, etc. A management system for gridded multidimensional data was developed using standardized formats (netcdf using CF conventions) and tools such as THREDDS catalog (UNIDATA/UCAR) providing web services such as OPENDAP, NCSS, and WCS, as well as ncWMS service developed by the Reading e-science Center. At present, a system (ITSASGIS-5D) is being developed, based on OGC standards and open-source tools to allow interoperability between all the data types mentioned before. This system includes, in the server side, postgresql/postgis databases and geoserver for GIS layers, and THREDDS/Opendap and ncWMS services for FES gridded data. Moreover, an on-line client is being developed to allow joint access, user configuration, data visualisation & query and data distribution. This client is using mapfish, ExtJS - GeoEXT, and openlayers libraries. Through this presentation the elements of the first released version of this system will be described and showed, together with the new topics to be developed in new versions that include among others, the integration of geoNetwork libraries and tools for both FES and GIS metadata management, and the use of new OGC Sensor Observation Services (SOS) to integrate non gridded multidimensional data such as time series, depth profiles or trajectories provided by different observational systems. The final aim of this approach is to contribute to the multidisciplinary access and use of marine data for management and research activities, and facilitate the implementation of integrated ecosystem based approaches in the fields of fisheries advice and management, marine spatial planning, or the implementation of the European policies such as the Water Framework Directive, the Marine Strategy Framework Directive or the Habitat Framework Directive.

Sagarminaga, Y.; Galparsoro, I.; Reig, R.; Sánchez, J. A.



Finding research information on the web: how to make the most of Google and other free search tools.  


The Internet and the World Wide Web has had a major impact on the accessibility of research information. The move towards open access and development of institutional repositories has resulted in increasing amounts of information being made available free of charge. Many of these resources are not included in conventional subscription databases and Google is not always the best way to ensure that one is picking up all relevant material on a topic. This article will look at how Google's search engine works, how to use Google more effectively for identifying research information, alternatives to Google and will review some of the specialist tools that have evolved to cope with the diverse forms of information that now exist in electronic form. PMID:23738438

Blakeman, Karen



Innovative Near Real-Time Data Dissemination Tools Developed by the Space Weather Research Center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space weather affects virtually all of NASA's endeavors, from robotic missions to human exploration. Knowledge and prediction of space weather conditions are therefore essential to NASA operations. The diverse nature of currently available space environment measurements and modeling products compels the need for a single access point to such information. The Integrated Space Weather Analysis (iSWA) System provides this single point access along with the capability to collect and catalog a vast range of sources including both observational and model data. NASA Goddard Space Weather Research Center heavily utilizes the iSWA System daily for research, space weather model validation, and forecasting for NASA missions. iSWA provides the capabilities to view and analyze near real-time space weather data from any where in the world. This presentation will describe the technology behind the iSWA system and describe how to use the system for space weather research, forecasting, training, education, and sharing.

Mullinix, R.; Maddox, M. M.; Berrios, D.; Kuznetsova, M.; Pulkkinen, A.; Rastaetter, L.; Zheng, Y.



DART: Tools and Support for Ensemble Data Assimilation Research, Operations, and Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Data Assimilation Research Testbed (DART) is a community facility for ensemble data assimilation developed and supported by the National Center for Atmospheric Research. DART provides a comprehensive suite of software, documentation, examples and tutorials that can be used for ensemble data assimilation research, operations, and education. Scientists and software engineers from the Data Assimilation Research Section at NCAR are available to actively support DART users who want to use existing DART products or develop their own new applications. Current DART users range from university professors teaching data assimilation, to individual graduate students working with simple models, through national laboratories doing operational prediction with large state-of-the-art models. DART runs efficiently on many computational platforms ranging from laptops through thousands of cores on the newest supercomputers. This poster focuses on recent developments for coupled data assimilation with DART and NCAR's Community Earth System Model. DART interfaces to the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM), the Parallel Ocean Program (POP) and the Community Land Model (CLM) can now be used to do multiple component data assimilation with the fully-coupled CESM prediction model. The software innovations required to enable this are described. The latest results for ensemble assimilation experiments with each of the component models are presented along with initial comparisons to corresponding assimilations with the coupled model. A newly developed DART interface to the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM) is now available. An overview of results of the relative value of assimilating tropospheric and middle atmosphere observations in WACCM is presented. DART is also used with many other types of geophysical models. Highlights of the latest results using DART with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model for springtime weather over the central United States are also presented. The poster includes instructions on how to get started using DART for research or educational applications.

Anderson, J. L.; Raeder, K.; Hoar, T. J.; Collins, N.; Kershaw, H.; Romine, G. S.; Liu, H.; Mizzi, A. P.; Lei, L.; Chatterjee, A.; Karspeck, A. R.; Pedatella, N. M.



Research and Teaching: Two-Dimensional, Implicit Confidence Tests as a Tool for Recognizing Student Misconceptions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The misconceptions that students bring with them, or that arise during instruction, are a critical barrier to learning. Implicit-confidence tests, a simple modification of the multiple-choice test, can be used as a strategy for recognizing student misconceptions. An important issue, however, is whether such tests are gender-neutral. We analyzed the results of exams administered to students (both majors and nonmajors) in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology (MCDB) 1111: Biofundamentals at the University of Colorado at Boulder. At a statistically significant level ( 95%), there was no difference between women and men regardless of whether their answers were confidently correct or incorrect, suggesting that such two-dimensional tests are a gender-neutral tool.

Linda B. Taylor



A review of three simple plant models and corresponding statistical tools for basic research in homeopathy.  


In this paper, we review three simple plant models (wheat seed germination, wheat seedling growth, and infected tobacco plants) that we set up during a series of experiments carried out from 1991 to 2009 in order to study the effects of homeopathic treatments. We will also describe the set of statistical tools applied in the different models. The homeopathic treatment used in our experiments was arsenic trioxide (As?O?) diluted in a decimal scale and dynamized. Since the most significant results were achieved with the 45th decimal potency, both for As?O? (As 45x) and water (W 45x), we here report a brief summary of these results. The statistical analysis was performed by using parametric and nonparametric tests, and Poisson distribution had an essential role when dealing with germination experiments. Finally, we will describe some results related to the changes in variability, which seems to be one of the targets of homeopathic treatment effect. PMID:21170483

Betti, Lucietta; Trebbi, Grazia; Zurla, Michela; Nani, Daniele; Peruzzi, Maurizio; Brizzi, Maurizio



The Interview: An Educational Research Tool. An Occasional Paper from ERIC at Stanford.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Like all good social research methods, the interview demands careful planning and intelligent administration. The study director formulates the goals of the study, which serve as the basis for the interview schedule or instrument. The interview schedule decided upon may be standardized or unstandardized. Questions may be closed-ended or…

Collins, Andrew


Simulation As a Tool in Education Research and Development. A Technical Paper. EdTalk.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document introduces simulation as a field of endeavor that has great potential for education research, development, and training. Simulation allows education developers to explore, develop, and test new educational programs and practices before communities, educators, and students are asked to participate in them. Simulation technologies…

Hood, Paul


Assessing Customer Satisfaction at the NIST Research Library: Essential Tool for Future Planning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a campus-wide customer satisfaction survey undertaken by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Research Library in 2007. The methodology, survey instrument, data analysis, results, and actions taken in response to the survey are described. The outcome and recommendations will guide the library both…

Liu, Rosa; Allmang, Nancy



Digital Historical NewspapersA Review of the Powerful New Research Tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

New digital newspaper databases provide keyword searching, vastly improving research. Databases such as ProQuest, Newspaper Archive, and Paper of Record are briefly reviewed. Digitized versions of the Chicago Tribune and Early American Newspapers are expected for the first half of 2004.

Barry Popik



The Reference Desk Survey: A Management Tool in an Academic Research Library.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Findings of a survey of the level of reference service requested at service points conducted at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University indicate that, while 20.5 percent of 14,026 questions recorded fall in the reference category, only 0.7 percent required research by professional librarians. Models of reference desk service and…

Kok, Victoria T.; Pierce, Anton B.



S.O.S. for Information Literacy: A Tool for Improving Research and Information Skills Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At no time in history has the ability to locate, organize, evaluate, manage and use information, skills collectively referred to as information literacy, been more important to today's learners. Classroom and technology teachers and library media specialists are challenged to find effective, innovative techniques for teaching research and…

Arnone, Marilyn P.; Small, Ruth V.


Image Processing for Teaching: Transforming a Scientific Research Tool into an Educational Technology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Image Processing for Teaching (IPT) project which provides digital image processing to excite students about science and mathematics as they use research-quality software on microcomputers. Provides information on IPT whose components of this dissemination project have been widespread teacher education, curriculum-based materials…

Greenberg, Richard



Intensive Care Window: A multi-modal monitoring tool for Intensive Care Research and Practice  

E-print Network

of Intensive Care Medicine (practice, research, education). A characteristic example is traumatic brain injury the traumatic brain injury described above, produces large volumes of data. However, the IT infrastructure found and morbidity in TBI are largely attributed to `secondary' injuries of the brain due to inadequate perfusion

Zeinalipour, Demetris


Swimming Simulation: A New Tool for Swimming Research and Practical Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter covers topics in swimming simulation from a computational fluid dynamics perspective. This perspective means\\u000a emphasis on the fluid mechanics and CFD methodology applied in swimming research. We concentrated on numerical simulation\\u000a results, considering the scientific simulation point-of-view and especially the practical implications with swimmers.

Daniel A. Marinho; Tiago M. Barbosa; Per L. Kjendlie; João P. Vilas-Boas; Francisco B. Alves; Abel I. Rouboa; António J. Silva


Fitts''law as a research and design tool in human-computer interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to Fitts' law, human movement can be modeled by analogy to the transmission of information. Fitts' popular model has been widely adopted in numerous research areas, including kinematics, human factors, and (recently) human-computer interaction (HCI). The present study provides a historical and theoretical context for the model, including an analysis of problems that have emerged through the systematic deviation

I. Scott Mackenzie



An Indispensable Tool for Research and Evaluation: A Functional Pupil Data System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The School District of Philadelphia has had a continuously maintained computerized data system for its 270,000 pupils since 1967. This paper outlines: the general procedures and descriptions of the file; the need for establishing a pupil data-base file; the systems products and services; its value to research and evaluation as well as to the…

Penry, Edward B.


Teaching-Learning Sequences: Aims and Tools for Science Education Research. Special Issue  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One notable line of inquiry, aspects of which date back to the early 1980s, involves the design and implementation not of long-term curricula, but of topic-oriented sequences for teaching science. One distinguishing characteristic of a teaching-learning sequence (TLS) is its inclusion in a gradual research-based volutionary process aiming at…

Meheut, Martine; Psillos, Dimitris



Science overlay maps: a new tool for research policy and library management  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a novel approach to visually locate bodies of research within the sciences, both at each moment of time and dynamically. This article describes how this approach fits with other efforts to locally and globally map scientific outputs. We then show how these science overlay maps help benchmark, explore collaborations, and track temporal changes, using examples of universities, corporations,

Ismael Rafols; Alan L. Porter; Loet Leydesdorff



The I-Search Paper Goes Global: Using the Internet as a Research Tool.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains how high school students may learn to use the Internet as a resource for writing research papers, and considers some of the special problems and dangers the new medium poses. Reviews basic hardware information and procedures for getting started on the Internet. (TB)

Davis, Chris



The Plant Protoplast: A Useful Tool for Plant Research and Student Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A plant protoplast is basically a plant cell that lacks a cell wall. This article outlines some of the ways in which protoplasts may be used to advance understanding of plant cell biology in research and student instruction. Topics include high efficiency experimental virus infection, organelle isolation, and osmotic effects. (Author/MA)

Wagner, George J.; And Others



Agent-Based Learning Environments as a Research Tool for Investigating Teaching and Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses intelligent learning environments for computer-based learning, such as agent-based learning environments, and their advantages over human-based instruction. Considers the effects of multiple agents; agents and research design; the use of Multiple Intelligent Mentors Instructing Collaboratively (MIMIC) for instructional design for…

Baylor, Amy L.




E-print Network

, students can experiment with major image processing and computer vision methods during the lecture period to the intellectual excitement involved in research activities and encourage students to pursue academic jobs applications to basic algorithms for leveraging other disciplines such as biology, physics, robotics, and geo

Qi, Xiaojun


System for Observing Family Therapy Alliances: A Tool for Research and Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To advance research and inform practice, the authors developed an observational rating system of client behavior reflecting strong and weak therapeutic alliances in couple and family therapy. The System for Observing Family Therapy Alliances (SOFTA), in both English and Spanish, has 2 dimensions that are common across therapy modalities…

Friedlander, Myrna L.; Escudero, Valentin; Horvath, Adam O.; Heatherington, Laurie; Cabero, Andres; Martens, Matthew P.



The Biobanking Analysis Resource Catalogue (BARCdb): a new research tool for the analysis of biobank samples.  


We report the development of a new database of technology services and products for analysis of biobank samples in biomedical research. BARCdb, the Biobanking Analysis Resource Catalogue (, is a freely available web resource, listing expertise and molecular resource capabilities of research centres and biotechnology companies. The database is designed for researchers who require information on how to make best use of valuable biospecimens from biobanks and other sample collections, focusing on the choice of analytical techniques and the demands they make on the type of samples, pre-analytical sample preparation and amounts needed. BARCdb has been developed as part of the Swedish biobanking infrastructure (, but now welcomes submissions from service providers throughout Europe. BARCdb can help match resource providers with potential users, stimulating transnational collaborations and ensuring compatibility of results from different labs. It can promote a more optimal use of European resources in general, both with respect to standard and more experimental technologies, as well as for valuable biobank samples. This article describes how information on service and reagent providers of relevant technologies is made available on BARCdb, and how this resource may contribute to strengthening biomedical research in academia and in the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:25336620

Galli, Joakim; Oelrich, Johan; Taussig, Michael J; Andreasson, Ulrika; Ortega-Paino, Eva; Landegren, Ulf



Using Research Based Assessment Tools in Professional Development in Current Electricity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We present a practical way of adapting and using four research-based assessments for different purposes in an electricity and magnetism course for K-8 science teachers. The course is designed to accomplish conceptual change toward accepted scientific conceptions as well as introducing teachers to materials and activities appropriate for their…

Shen, Ji; Gibbons, Patrick C.; Wiegers, John F.; McMahon, Ann P.



Handbook of Research on Hybrid Learning Models: Advanced Tools, Technologies, and Applications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hybrid learning is now the single-greatest trend in education today due to the numerous educational advantages when both traditional classroom learning and e-learning are implemented collectively. This handbook collects emerging research and pedagogies related to the convergence of teaching and learning methods. This significant "Handbook of…

Wang, Fu Lee, Ed.; Fong, Joseph, Ed.; Kwan, Reggie, Ed.



Final cleanup of buildings within in legacy French research facilities: strategy, tools and lessons learned  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the methodology followed by the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) to decommission the buildings of former research facilities for demolition or possible reuse. It is a well known fact that the French nuclear safety authority has decided not to define any general release level for the decommissioning of nuclear facilities, thus effectively prohibiting radiological measurement-driven decommissioning. The

C. Le Goaller; C. Doutreluingne; M. A. Berton; O. Doucet



Tools to Support Scientists' Involvement in EPO and Science Education Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding resources that are needed to successfully engage scientists in EPO requires an awareness of scientists' previous experiences with EPO activities. We provide a short analysis involving a survey of scientists involved with an EPO effort. The results from this case study helped to inform the EPO community of the needs of the science community when engaging with EPO efforts. We provide resources to support scientists' involvement in EPO activities and science education research.

Brogt, E.; Buxner, S.; Matiella Novak, M. A.



NASA Global Hawk Project Update and Future Plans: A New Tool for Earth Science Research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Science objectives include: First demonstration of the Global Hawk unmanned aircraft system (UAS) for NASA and NOAA Earth science research and applications; Validation of instruments on-board the Aura satellite; Exploration of trace gases, aerosols, and dynamics of remote upper Troposphere/lower Stratosphere regions; Sample polar vortex fragments and atmospheric rivers; Risk reduction for future missions that will study hurricanes and atmospheric rivers.

Naftel, Chris



Mapping of sample collection data: GIS tools for the natural product researcher  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scientists engaged in the research of natural products often either conduct field collections themselves or collaborate with partners who do, such as botanists, mycologists, or SCUBA divers. The information gleaned from such collecting trips (e.g. longitude\\/latitude coordinates, geography, elevation, and a multitude of other field observations) have provided valuable data to the scientific community (e.g., biodiversity), even if it is

Nicholas H. Oberlies; James I. Rineer; Feras Q. Alali; Khaled Tawaha; Joseph O. Falkinham III; William D. Wheaton



IT Research Services: Powerful Tools to Track a Fast Moving Industry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research services change and evolve over time, sometimes suddenly, in their focus, topics, formats, service model, etc. You have to check in often. Some offer products that you can customize to your environment, others not so much. You will find a variation in customer management practices (e.g., when and how they share information) ...can sometimes be annoying. Assess your needs carefully. Each research service has a very different service model. Explore ways to share or lower the cost. Someone out there may share the expense when that is an option. Make sure you read the small print. It can work for you as well as against you. When in doubt, ask your Vendor's POC. Set up Research Service "gurus or SME's." Not to violate the copyright agreement of course, just have someone who knows what's there. After you subscribe, reassess.Get the most out of your investment. Some early enthusiasts will fade, and there will be others who don't know it's there and can use it.

Hunter, Paul



The Advanced Light Source: A new tool for research in atomic and molecular physics  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Light Source at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory will be the world's brightest synchrotron radiation source in the extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray regions of the spectrum when it begins operation in 1993. It will be available as a national user facility to researchers in a broad range of disciplines, including materials science, atomic and molecular physics, chemistry, biology, imaging, and technology. The high brightness of the ALS will be particularly well suited to high-resolution studies of tenuous targets, such as excited atoms, ions, and clusters. 13 figs., 4 tabs.

Schlachter, F.; Robinson, A.



Next-Generation Sequencing: A Review of Technologies and Tools for Wound Microbiome Research  

PubMed Central

Significance: The colonization of wounds by specific microbes or communities of microbes may delay healing and/or lead to infection-related complication. Studies of wound-associated microbial communities (microbiomes) to date have primarily relied upon culture-based methods, which are known to have extreme biases and are not reliable for the characterization of microbiomes. Biofilms are very resistant to culture and are therefore especially difficult to study with techniques that remain standard in clinical settings. Recent Advances: Culture-independent approaches employing next-generation DNA sequencing have provided researchers and clinicians a window into wound-associated microbiomes that could not be achieved before and has begun to transform our view of wound-associated biodiversity. Within the past decade, many platforms have arisen for performing this type of sequencing, with various types of applications for microbiome research being possible on each. Critical Issues: Wound care incorporating knowledge of microbiomes gained from next-generation sequencing could guide clinical management and treatments. The purpose of this review is to outline the current platforms, their applications, and the steps necessary to undertake microbiome studies using next-generation sequencing. Future Directions: As DNA sequencing technology progresses, platforms will continue to produce longer reads and more reads per run at lower costs. A major future challenge is to implement these technologies in clinical settings for more precise and rapid identification of wound bioburden.

Hodkinson, Brendan P.; Grice, Elizabeth A.



Web 2.0 collaboration tools to support student research in hydrology - an opinion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A growing body of evidence suggests that it is unwise to make the a-priori assumption that university students are ready and eager to embrace modern online technologies employed to enhance the educational experience. We present an opinion on employing Wiki, a popular Web 2.0 technology, in small student groups, based on a case-study of using it customized as a personal learning environment (PLE) for supporting thesis research in hydrology. Since inception in 2006 the system presented has proven to facilitate knowledge construction and peer-communication within and across groups of students of different academic years and to stimulate learning. Being an open ended and egalitarian system, it was a minimal burden to maintain, as all students became content authors and shared responsibility. A number of unintended uses of the system were also observed, like using it as a backup medium and mobile storage. We attribute the success and sustainability of the proposed web 2.0-based approach to the fact that the efforts were not limited to the application of the technology, but comprised the creation of a supporting environment with educational activities organized around it. We propose that Wiki-based PLEs are much more suitable than traditional learning management systems for supporting non-classroom education activities like thesis research in hydrology.

Pathirana, A.; Gersonius, B.; Radhakrishnan, M.



Internet based marketing research: a serious alternative to traditional research methods?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines how online market research is utilised within UK market research agencies and what opportunities or problems this new research tool is giving the market research industry. The research involved sending 120 postal questionnaires to UK based market research agencies that claimed to do Internet based research. The main findings from the study show that the dramatic growth

Alan Wilson; Nial Laskey



Cross-species approaches to pathological gambling: a review targeting sex differences, adolescent vulnerability and ecological validity of research tools.  


Decision-making plays a pivotal role in daily life as impairments in processes underlying decision-making often lead to an inability to make profitable long-term decisions. As a case in point, pathological gamblers continue gambling despite the fact that this disrupts their personal, professional or financial life. The prevalence of pathological gambling will likely increase in the coming years due to expanding possibilities of on-line gambling through the Internet and increasing liberal attitudes towards gambling. It therefore represents a growing concern for society. Both human and animal studies rapidly advance our knowledge on brain-behaviour processes relevant for understanding normal and pathological gambling behaviour. Here, we review in humans and animals three features of pathological gambling which hitherto have received relatively little attention: (1) sex differences in (the development of) pathological gambling, (2) adolescence as a (putative) sensitive period for (developing) pathological gambling and (3) avenues for improving ecological validity of research tools. Based on these issues we also discuss how research in humans and animals may be brought in line to maximize translational research opportunities. PMID:23867802

van den Bos, Ruud; Davies, William; Dellu-Hagedorn, Francoise; Goudriaan, Anna E; Granon, Sylvie; Homberg, Judith; Rivalan, Marion; Swendsen, Joel; Adriani, Walter



C-ME: A 3D Community-Based, Real-Time Collaboration Tool for Scientific Research and Training  

PubMed Central

The need for effective collaboration tools is growing as multidisciplinary proteome-wide projects and distributed research teams become more common. The resulting data is often quite disparate, stored in separate locations, and not contextually related. Collaborative Molecular Modeling Environment (C-ME) is an interactive community-based collaboration system that allows researchers to organize information, visualize data on a two-dimensional (2-D) or three-dimensional (3-D) basis, and share and manage that information with collaborators in real time. C-ME stores the information in industry-standard databases that are immediately accessible by appropriate permission within the computer network directory service or anonymously across the internet through the C-ME application or through a web browser. The system addresses two important aspects of collaboration: context and information management. C-ME allows a researcher to use a 3-D atomic structure model or a 2-D image as a contextual basis on which to attach and share annotations to specific atoms or molecules or to specific regions of a 2-D image. These annotations provide additional information about the atomic structure or image data that can then be evaluated, amended or added to by other project members. PMID:18286178

Kolatkar, Anand; Kennedy, Kevin; Halabuk, Dan; Kunken, Josh; Marrinucci, Dena; Bethel, Kelly; Guzman, Rodney; Huckaby, Tim; Kuhn, Peter



Class Evolution Tree: A Graphical Tool to Support Decisions on the Number of Classes in Exploratory Categorical Latent Variable Modeling for Rehabilitation Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of our study was to develop a graphical tool that can be used in addition to standard statistical criteria to support decisions on the number of classes in explorative categorical latent variable modeling for rehabilitation research. Data from two rehabilitation research projects were used. In the first study, a latent profile analysis was…

Kriston, Levente; Melchior, Hanne; Hergert, Anika; Bergelt, Corinna; Watzke, Birgit; Schulz, Holger; von Wolff, Alessa



Beyond the PhD: putting the right tools in your research toolbox.  


Postdoctoral training is vital to a successful career for nurse researchers with a biological or biobehavioral focus. Such training provides structured time to devote to gaining substantive knowledge, expanding one's biological-methods repertoire, and writing grants. However, for unknown reasons, relatively few nurses pursue postdoctoral training. A few plausible explanations include a near critical shortage of nursing faculty coupled with an aging population in need of health care, a lack of available mentoring for predoctoral students to pursue postdoctoral training, and the difficulty of navigating the process of finding and choosing the right match for a postdoctoral experience. The purposes of this article are to provide a rationale for choosing postdoctoral training, review common fellowship opportunities, and discuss the process of finding and choosing the right match for postdoctoral training. The authors provide two prospective plans for postdoctoral training and include a plan for staying on track during the postdoctoral experience. PMID:20026452

Downs, Charles A; Morrison, Helena W



EdGCM: Research Tools for Training the Climate Change Generation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate scientists employ complex computer simulations of the Earth's physical systems to prepare climate change forecasts, study the physical mechanisms of climate, and to test scientific hypotheses and computer parameterizations. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 4th Assessment Report (2007) demonstrates unequivocally that policy makers rely heavily on such Global Climate Models (GCMs) to assess the impacts of potential economic and emissions scenarios. However, true climate modeling capabilities are not disseminated to the majority of world governments or U.S. researchers - let alone to the educators who will be training the students who are about to be presented with a world full of climate change stakeholders. The goal is not entirely quixotic; in fact, by the mid-1990's prominent climate scientists were predicting with certainty that schools and politicians would "soon" be running GCMs on laptops [Randall, 1996]. For a variety of reasons this goal was never achieved (nor even really attempted). However, around the same time NASA and the National Science Foundation supported a small pilot project at Columbia University to show the potential of putting sophisticated computer climate models - not just "demos" or "toy models" - into the hands of non-specialists. The Educational Global Climate Modeling Project (EdGCM) gave users access to a real global climate model and provided them with the opportunity to experience the details of climate model setup, model operation, post-processing and scientific visualization. EdGCM was designed for use in both research and education - it is a full-blown research GCM, but the ultimate goal is to develop a capability to embed these crucial technologies across disciplines, networks, platforms, and even across academia and industry. With this capability in place we can begin training the skilled workforce that is necessary to deal with the multitude of climate impacts that will occur over the coming decades. To further increase the educational potential of climate models, the EdGCM project has also created "EZgcm". Through a joint venture of NASA, Columbia University and McGill University EZgcm moves the focus toward a greater use of Web 1.0 and Web 2.0-based technologies. It shifts the educational objectives towards a greater emphasis on teaching students how science is conducted and what role science plays in assessing climate change. That is, students learn about the steps of the scientific process as conveyed by climate modeling research: constructing a hypothesis, designing an experiment, running a computer model, using scientific visualization to support analysis, communicating the results of that analysis, and role playing the scientific peer review process. This is in stark contrast to what they learn from the political debate over climate change, which they often confuse with a scientific debate.

Chandler, M. A.; Sohl, L. E.; Zhou, J.; Sieber, R.



Beyond the PhD: Putting the Right Tools in Your Research Toolbox  

PubMed Central

Postdoctoral training is vital to a successful career for nurse researchers with a biological or biobehavioral focus. Such training provides structured time to devote to gaining substantive knowledge, expanding one’s biological-methods repertoire, and writing grants. However, for unknown reasons, relatively few nurses pursue postdoctoral training. A few plausible explanations include a near critical shortage of nursing faculty coupled with an aging population in need of health care, a lack of available mentoring for predoctoral students to pursue postdoctoral training, and the difficulty of navigating the process of finding and choosing the right match for a postdoctoral experience. The purposes of this article are to provide a rationale for choosing postdoctoral training, review common fellowship opportunities, and discuss the process of finding and choosing the right match for postdoctoral training. The authors provide two prospective plans for postdoctoral training and include a plan for staying on track during the postdoctoral experience. PMID:20026452

Downs, Charles A.; Morrison, Helena W.



RenderToolbox3: MATLAB tools that facilitate physically based stimulus rendering for vision research  

PubMed Central

RenderToolbox3 provides MATLAB utilities and prescribes a workflow that should be useful to researchers who want to employ graphics in the study of vision and perhaps in other endeavors as well. In particular, RenderToolbox3 facilitates rendering scene families in which various scene attributes and renderer behaviors are manipulated parametrically, enables spectral specification of object reflectance and illuminant spectra, enables the use of physically based material specifications, helps validate renderer output, and converts renderer output to physical units of radiance. This paper describes the design and functionality of the toolbox and discusses several examples that demonstrate its use. We have designed RenderToolbox3 to be portable across computer hardware and operating systems and to be free and open source (except for MATLAB itself). RenderToolbox3 is available at PMID:24403392

Heasly, Benjamin S.; Cottaris, Nicolas P.; Lichtman, Daniel P.; Xiao, Bei; Brainard, David H.



Pharmacological tools for hydrogen sulphide research: a brief, introductory guide for beginners.  


The purpose of this brief review is to help researchers in their initial approach to the H2 S field and to provide answers for the most frequently posed questions by newcomers to the topic related to H2 S donors and inhibitors of H2 S synthesis, as well as methods to measure H2 S production. Here the reader will find a practical guide that provides fast and to the point information on how to (i) deliver H2 S to cells; (ii) modulate its endogenous production; and (iii) measure its levels in fluids, cells and tissues in order to gain an understanding of its role in health and disease. PMID:24909294

Papapetropoulos, Andreas; Whiteman, Matthew; Cirino, Giuseppe



INFRAFRONTIER-providing mutant mouse resources as research tools for the international scientific community.  


The laboratory mouse is a key model organism to investigate mechanism and therapeutics of human disease. The number of targeted genetic mouse models of disease is growing rapidly due to high-throughput production strategies employed by the International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium (IMPC) and the development of new, more efficient genome engineering techniques such as CRISPR based systems. We have previously described the European Mouse Mutant Archive (EMMA) resource and how this international infrastructure provides archiving and distribution worldwide for mutant mouse strains. EMMA has since evolved into INFRAFRONTIER (, the pan-European research infrastructure for the systemic phenotyping, archiving and distribution of mouse disease models. Here we describe new features including improved search for mouse strains, support for new embryonic stem cell resources, access to training materials via a comprehensive knowledgebase and the promotion of innovative analytical and diagnostic techniques. PMID:25414328



Web 2.0 collaboration tool to support student research in hydrology - an opinion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A growing body of evidence suggests that it is unwise to make the a-priori assumption that university students are ready and eager to embrace modern online technologies employed to enhance the educational experience. We present our opinion on employing Wiki, a popular Web 2.0 technology, in small student groups, based on a case-study of using it customized to work as a personal learning environment (PLE1) (Fiedler and Väljataga, 2011) for supporting thesis research in hydrology. Since inception in 2006, the system presented has proven to facilitate knowledge construction and peer-communication within and across groups of students of different academic years and to stimulate learning. Being an open ended and egalitarian system, it was a minimal burden to maintain, as all students became content authors and shared responsibility. A number of unintended uses of the system were also observed, like using it as a backup medium and mobile storage. We attribute the success and sustainability of the proposed Web 2.0-based approach to the fact that the efforts were not limited to the application of the technology, but comprised the creation of a supporting environment with educational activities organized around it. We propose that Wiki-based PLEs are much more suitable than traditional learning management systems for supporting non-classroom education activities like thesis research in hydrology. 1Here we use the term PLE to refer to the conceptual framework to make the process of knowledge construction a personalized experience - rather than to refer to the technology (in this case Wiki) used to attempt implementing such a system.

Pathirana, A.; Gersonius, B.; Radhakrishnan, M.



A multimedia comprehensive informatics system with decision support tools for a multi-site collaboration research of stroke rehabilitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stroke is a major cause of adult disability. The Interdisciplinary Comprehensive Arm Rehabilitation Evaluation (I-CARE) clinical trial aims to evaluate a therapy for arm rehabilitation after stroke. A primary outcome measure is correlative analysis between stroke lesion characteristics and standard measures of rehabilitation progress, from data collected at seven research facilities across the country. Sharing and communication of brain imaging and behavioral data is thus a challenge for collaboration. A solution is proposed as a web-based system with tools supporting imaging and informatics related data. In this system, users may upload anonymized brain images through a secure internet connection and the system will sort the imaging data for storage in a centralized database. Users may utilize an annotation tool to mark up images. In addition to imaging informatics, electronic data forms, for example, clinical data forms, are also integrated. Clinical information is processed and stored in the database to enable future data mining related development. Tele-consultation is facilitated through the development of a thin-client image viewing application. For convenience, the system supports access through desktop PC, laptops, and iPAD. Thus, clinicians may enter data directly into the system via iPAD while working with participants in the study. Overall, this comprehensive imaging informatics system enables users to collect, organize and analyze stroke cases efficiently.

Wang, Ximing; Documet, Jorge; Garrison, Kathleen A.; Winstein, Carolee J.; Liu, Brent



MORPHIN: a web tool for human disease research by projecting model organism biology onto a human integrated gene network  

PubMed Central

Despite recent advances in human genetics, model organisms are indispensable for human disease research. Most human disease pathways are evolutionally conserved among other species, where they may phenocopy the human condition or be associated with seemingly unrelated phenotypes. Much of the known gene-to-phenotype association information is distributed across diverse databases, growing rapidly due to new experimental techniques. Accessible bioinformatics tools will therefore facilitate translation of discoveries from model organisms into human disease biology. Here, we present a web-based discovery tool for human disease studies, MORPHIN (model organisms projected on a human integrated gene network), which prioritizes the most relevant human diseases for a given set of model organism genes, potentially highlighting new model systems for human diseases and providing context to model organism studies. Conceptually, MORPHIN investigates human diseases by an orthology-based projection of a set of model organism genes onto a genome-scale human gene network. MORPHIN then prioritizes human diseases by relevance to the projected model organism genes using two distinct methods: a conventional overlap-based gene set enrichment analysis and a network-based measure of closeness between the query and disease gene sets capable of detecting associations undetectable by the conventional overlap-based methods. MORPHIN is freely accessible at PMID:24861622

Hwang, Sohyun; Kim, Eiru; Yang, Sunmo; Marcotte, Edward M.; Lee, Insuk



Investigation into the Use of the Concept Laser QM System as an In-Situ Research and Evaluation Tool  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is using a Concept Laser Fusing (Cusing) M2 powder bed additive manufacturing system for the build of space flight prototypes and hardware. NASA MSFC is collecting and analyzing data from the M2 QM Meltpool and QM Coating systems for builds. This data is intended to aide in understanding of the powder-bed additive manufacturing process, and in the development of a thermal model for the process. The QM systems are marketed by Concept Laser GmbH as in-situ quality management modules. The QM Meltpool system uses both a high-speed near-IR camera and a photodiode to monitor the melt pool generated by the laser. The software determines from the camera images the size of the melt pool. The camera also measures the integrated intensity of the IR radiation, and the photodiode gives an intensity value based on the brightness of the melt pool. The QM coating system uses a high resolution optical camera to image the surface after each layer has been formed. The objective of this investigation was to determine the adequacy of the QM Meltpool system as a research instrument for in-situ measurement of melt pool size and temperature and its applicability to NASA's objectives in (1) Developing a process thermal model and (2) Quantifying feedback measurements with the intent of meeting quality requirements or specifications. Note that Concept Laser markets the system only as capable of giving an indication of changes between builds, not as an in-situ research and evaluation tool. A secondary objective of the investigation is to determine the adequacy of the QM Coating system as an in-situ layer-wise geometry and layer quality evaluation tool.

Bagg, Stacey



Tools for Integrating Data Access from the IRIS DMC into Research Workflows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Web service interfaces at the IRIS Data Management Center (DMC) provide access to a vast archive of seismological and related geophysical data. These interfaces are designed to easily incorporate data access into data processing workflows. Examples of data that may be accessed include: time series data, related metadata, and earthquake information. The DMC has developed command line scripts, MATLAB® interfaces and a Java library to support a wide variety of data access needs. Users of these interfaces do not need to concern themselves with web service details, networking, or even (in most cases) data conversion. Fetch scripts allow access to the DMC archive and are a comfortable fit for command line users. These scripts are written in Perl and are well suited for automation and integration into existing workflows on most operating systems. For metdata and event information, the Fetch scripts even parse the returned data into simple text summaries. The IRIS Java Web Services Library (IRIS-WS Library) allows Java developers the ability to create programs that access the DMC archives seamlessly. By returning the data and information as native Java objects the Library insulates the developer from data formats, network programming and web service details. The MATLAB interfaces leverage this library to allow users access to the DMC archive directly from within MATLAB (r2009b or newer), returning data into variables for immediate use. Data users and research groups are developing other toolkits that use the DMC's web services. Notably, the ObsPy framework developed at LMU Munich is a Python Toolbox that allows seamless access to data and information via the DMC services. Another example is the MATLAB-based GISMO and Waveform Suite developments that can now access data via web services. In summary, there now exist a host of ways that researchers can bring IRIS DMC data directly into their workflows. MATLAB users can use irisFetch.m, command line users can use the various Fetch scripts, Java users can use the IRIS-WS library, and Python users may request data through ObsPy. To learn more about any of these clients see

Reyes, C. G.; Suleiman, Y. Y.; Trabant, C.; Karstens, R.; Weertman, B. R.



ERTS-A data as a teaching and research tool in the Department of Geology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS-1 prints have been used extensively in a geology of Alaska class to give a basic framework of the geology of the state. In addition, they have been intermittantly used in such diverse classes as: (1) Economic Geology (e.g. the Sn-bearing granites of the Seward Peninsula are particularly noticeable due to their wide contact metamorphic aureoles.) (2) A canned geology of Alaska lecture which has been given to two different introductory geology courses. (3) Structural Geology (e.g. the Fairweather and Denali faults are striking obvious). It was found most convenient for larger classes to prepare 35mm slides of the ERTS-1 prints that are used in conjunction with slides of the topographic and geologic maps at about the same scale. Thus the emphasis has been in integration of the ERTS-1 material into existing courses. As such, the ERTS-1 data has provided a unique and striking viewpoint that never fails to initiate favorable comment. In addition, prints have been examined by numerous researchers to develop a regional, integrated overview of such varied topics as regional geology to a background for local geologic mapping to studies of ore deposits and to the definition of a formation to be studied in detail at its type locality.

Grybeck, D. (principal investigator)



Barley whole exome capture: a tool for genomic research in the genus Hordeum and beyond  

PubMed Central

Advanced resources for genome-assisted research in barley (Hordeum vulgare) including a whole-genome shotgun assembly and an integrated physical map have recently become available. These have made possible studies that aim to assess genetic diversity or to isolate single genes by whole-genome resequencing and in silico variant detection. However such an approach remains expensive given the 5 Gb size of the barley genome. Targeted sequencing of the mRNA-coding exome reduces barley genomic complexity more than 50-fold, thus dramatically reducing this heavy sequencing and analysis load. We have developed and employed an in-solution hybridization-based sequence capture platform to selectively enrich for a 61.6 megabase coding sequence target that includes predicted genes from the genome assembly of the cultivar Morex as well as publicly available full-length cDNAs and de novo assembled RNA-Seq consensus sequence contigs. The platform provides a highly specific capture with substantial and reproducible enrichment of targeted exons, both for cultivated barley and related species. We show that this exome capture platform provides a clear path towards a broader and deeper understanding of the natural variation residing in the mRNA-coding part of the barley genome and will thus constitute a valuable resource for applications such as mapping-by-sequencing and genetic diversity analyzes. PMID:23889683

Mascher, Martin; Richmond, Todd A; Gerhardt, Daniel J; Himmelbach, Axel; Clissold, Leah; Sampath, Dharanya; Ayling, Sarah; Steuernagel, Burkhard; Pfeifer, Matthias; D'Ascenzo, Mark; Akhunov, Eduard D; Hedley, Pete E; Gonzales, Ana M; Morrell, Peter L; Kilian, Benjamin; Blattner, Frank R; Scholz, Uwe; Mayer, Klaus FX; Flavell, Andrew J; Muehlbauer, Gary J; Waugh, Robbie; Jeddeloh, Jeffrey A; Stein, Nils



Human engineered heart tissue as a versatile tool in basic research and preclinical toxicology.  


Human embryonic stem cell (hESC) progenies hold great promise as surrogates for human primary cells, particularly if the latter are not available as in the case of cardiomyocytes. However, high content experimental platforms are lacking that allow the function of hESC-derived cardiomyocytes to be studied under relatively physiological and standardized conditions. Here we describe a simple and robust protocol for the generation of fibrin-based human engineered heart tissue (hEHT) in a 24-well format using an unselected population of differentiated human embryonic stem cells containing 30-40% ?-actinin-positive cardiac myocytes. Human EHTs started to show coherent contractions 5-10 days after casting, reached regular (mean 0.5 Hz) and strong (mean 100 µN) contractions for up to 8 weeks. They displayed a dense network of longitudinally oriented, interconnected and cross-striated cardiomyocytes. Spontaneous hEHT contractions were analyzed by automated video-optical recording and showed chronotropic responses to calcium and the ?-adrenergic agonist isoprenaline. The proarrhythmic compounds E-4031, quinidine, procainamide, cisapride, and sertindole exerted robust, concentration-dependent and reversible decreases in relaxation velocity and irregular beating at concentrations that recapitulate findings in hERG channel assays. In conclusion this study establishes hEHT as a simple in vitro model for heart research. PMID:22028871

Schaaf, Sebastian; Shibamiya, Aya; Mewe, Marco; Eder, Alexandra; Stöhr, Andrea; Hirt, Marc N; Rau, Thomas; Zimmermann, Wolfram-Hubertus; Conradi, Lenard; Eschenhagen, Thomas; Hansen, Arne



Cognitive avionics and watching spaceflight crews think: generation-after-next research tools in functional neuroimaging.  


Confinement and isolation have always confounded the extraordinary endeavor of human spaceflight. Psychosocial health is at the forefront in considering risk factors that imperil missions of 1- to 2-yr duration. Current crewmember selection metrics restricted to behavioral observation by definition observe rather than prevent performance degradation and are thus inadequate when preflight training cannot simulate an entire journey. Nascent techniques to monitor functional and task-related cortical neural activity show promise and can be extended to include whole-brain monitoring. Watching spaceflight crews think can reveal the efficiency of training procedures. Moreover, observing subcortical emotion centers may provide early detection of developing neuropsychiatric disorders. The non-invasive functional neuroimaging modalities electroencephalography (EEG), magnetoencephalography (MEG), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), and highlights of how they may be engineered for spacecraft are detailed. Preflight and in-flight applications to crewmember behavioral health from current generation, next generation, and generation-after-next neuroscience research studies are also described. The emphasis is on preventing the onset of neuropsychiatric dysfunctions, thus reducing the risk of mission failure due to human error. PMID:15943214

Genik, Richard J; Green, Christopher C; Graydon, Francis X; Armstrong, Robert E



Development of new exploration tools for seabed mineral resources - Result of R/V YOKOSUKA research cruise YK09-09 -  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detailed information on subsurface structure under seafloor is necessary for the estimation of seabed resources such as the hydrothermal deposit and methane hydrate. Although advantages of geophysical exploration near seafloor are expected for the seabed resource survey, efficient method has not been well-established. The authors started a project to develop exploration tools for seabed resources under the financial support of MEXT-Japan. We carry out research and development mainly regarding measurement of the magnetic field with high-resolution and high-sampling rate electric exploration devices with accurately controlled active source signals. Developed tools will be mounted underwater platforms such as deep-tow system, ROV (remotely operated vehicle), and AUV (autonomous undersea vehicle). We carried out the research cruise (vessel: JAMSTEC R/V YOKOSUKA YK09-09, cruise period: 19-29 July 2009, area surveyed: Kumano-nada, off Kii Peninsula, Japan) to investigate the performance of developed equipments for magnetic exploration. We mounted an Overhauser and two flux-gate magnetometers on the deep-tow and the AUV URASHIMA. To inspect the efficiency of equipments, it is better to measure the magnetic anomaly which is caused by known magnetic source. Therefore, we made a magnetic target which is consisted of 50 neodymium magnets. Before the navigation, the magnetic target was put under water and its position was measured by the acoustic method. The depth of target is about 2,050 meters, and the measurement was performed in the circle of a radius of about 300 meters. The vehicles were navigated at heights of 25 meters for AUV, and about 15 meters for deep-tow. Each of underwater navigation was practiced for two times. Both performances were carried out successfully, which means that we detected the significant magnetic anomalies caused by the target. We will be able to estimate three-dimensional distribution of anomalous magnetic field, and the source property of magnetic target. However, we have to resolve a lot of problems; (1) elimination of noises caused by the vehicles themselves, and their attitude, and (2) precise estimation of the position of vehicles. We will introduce the results of the research cruise and data processing in the presentation. Acknowledgement: We are grateful to captain Mr. E. Ukekura, chief officer Mr. S. Kusaka, chief AUV/DT operator Mr. T. Sakurai, and operation team, who made our difficult trials in the navigation possible by their professional skill. We also thank to the YOKOSUKA marine crew for overall support, and the engineers who take part in the development of equipments. This study is financially supported by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan.

Harada, M.; Sayanagi, K.; Kasaya, T.; Sawa, T.; Goto, T.; Tada, N.; Ichihara, H.; Asada, M.; Nakajima, T.; Isezaki, N.




E-print Network

of Maine waters were sounded and fished with a lampara seine, gill nets, midwater trawls, and otter trawls for Atlantic herring and to carry on research and developmental work on sardine fishing gear. Original efforts sought along the Maine coast and in the Gulf of Maine. Otter trawl surveys were made during the winters


Murine Models of Acute Leukemia: Important Tools in Current Pediatric Leukemia Research  

PubMed Central

Leukemia remains the most common diagnosis in pediatric oncology and, despite dramatic progress in upfront therapy, is also the most common cause of cancer-related death in children. Much of the initial improvement in outcomes for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) was due to identification of cytotoxic agents that are active against leukemia followed by the recognition that combination of these cytotoxic agents and prolonged therapy are essential for cure. Recent data demonstrating lack of progress in patients for whom standard chemotherapy fails suggests that the ability to improve outcome for these children will not be dramatically impacted through more intensive or newer cytotoxic agents. Thus, much of the recent research focus has been in the area of improving our understanding of the genetics and the biology of leukemia. Although in vitro studies remain critical, given the complexity of a living system and the increasing recognition of the contribution of leukemia extrinsic factors such as the bone marrow microenvironment, in vivo models have provided important insights. The murine systems that are used can be broadly categorized into syngeneic models in which a murine leukemia can be studied in immunologically intact hosts and xenograft models where human leukemias are studied in highly immunocompromised murine hosts. Both of these systems have limitations such that neither can be used exclusively to study all aspects of leukemia biology and therapeutics for humans. This review will describe the various ALL model systems that have been developed as well as discuss the advantages and disadvantages inherent to these systems that make each particularly suitable for specific types of studies. PMID:24847444

Jacoby, Elad; Chien, Christopher D.; Fry, Terry J.



Femtosecond Microbunched Electron Beam — A New Tool for Advanced Accelerator Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We employed periodic trains of femtosecond electron bunches for testing several novel concepts of acceleration. A microwave-driven linac sends a 45-MeV electron beam (e-beam) through a magnetic wiggler wherein the e-beam energy is modulated via the inverse free electron laser (IFEL) technique by interacting with a 30-GW CO2 laser beam, so creating 3 fs long microbunches separated by a 30 fs laser period. We show several examples of utilizing such a femtosecond bunch train in advanced accelerator and radiation source research. We demonstrated that microbunching improves the performance of the laser acceleration process compared to the previously investigated single-bunch technique. Specifically, microbunches were phased to the electromagnetic wave of the CO2 laser beam inside a matched tapered wiggler where ˜80% of electrons gained energy as an ensemble while maintaining a narrow energy spread (i.e., monoenergetic). Another plasma wakefield acceleration (PWFA) experiment explored resonant wakefield excitation in an electric discharge plasma with the plasma frequency matched to that of the CO2 laser. Simulations predict orders-of-magnitude enhancement in the wakefield's amplitude compared with that attained with single bunches. In the Particle Acceleration by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (PASER) experiment, we tested a prediction that an active laser medium can produce particle acceleration by stimulating the emission of radiation. The process benefits from the action of a periodic train of microbunches resonating with the laser transition. Finally, we analyze prospects for using partially coherent x-ray sources based on Thomson backscattering from the electron microbunch train.

Pogorelsky, I. V.; Babzien, M.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Kusche, K. P.; Pavlishin, I. V.; Yakimenko, V.; Dilley, C. E.; Gottschalk, S. C.; Kimura, W. D.; Steinhauer, L. C.; Kallos, E.; Katsouleas, T.; Muggli, P.; Zigler, A.; Banna, S.; Schächter, L.; Cline, D. B.; Zhou, F.; Kamiya, Y.; Kumita, T.



HZETRN2010 - A Space Radiation Analysis Tool for Research and Engineering Applications (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

HZETRN 2010 is the most recent update to a series of space radiation transport codes developed at NASA Langley Research Center. Since the last official release (HZETRN 2005), several modifications, improvements, and corrections have been made to the numerical methods, transport methodologies, and nuclear physics models. In this talk, we first review the improved numerical methods and their impact on discretization error and run-time. Results from a comprehensive convergence study are given to show that the new methods are more accurate and nearly 100 times faster than their predecessors. Next, the low energy neutron transport model that includes back scattering and light ion target fragmentation is discussed. Results from a benchmark study using MCNPX, FLUKA, and HETC-HEDS are given to show that HZETRN 2010 agrees with the Monte Carlo codes for neutron flux, proton flux, dose, and dose equivalent to the extent that they agree with each other. The updated heavy ion nuclear fragmentation model, NUCFRG3 is also discussed. NUCFRG3 includes a parameterization for the even-odd effect observed in experimental data, a coalescence model for light ion formation, and an improved electromagnetic dissociation model. Finally, the improved speed and accuracy of HZETRN 2010 is demonstrated through a detailed validation study. In this study, HZETRN 2010 is compared to 77,000 measurements taken aboard the International Space Station over a six day period in 2001. The comparisons are used to characterize errors as a function of cutoff rigidity, allowing smooth extrapolation of Low Earth Orbit uncertainties to free space. A user friendly web-interface utilizing the HZETRN 2010 code base, called OLTARIS, is briefly summarized as well.

Slaba, T. C.; Blattnig, S. R.; Badavi, F. F.; Norman, R. B.; Adamczyk, A. M.; Townsend, L.; Sriprisan, S. I.; Norbury, J. W.



Tissue-Level Modeling of Xenobiotic Metabolism in Liver: An Emerging Tool for Enabling Clinical Translational Research  

PubMed Central

This review summarizes some of the recent developments and identifies critical challenges associated with in vitro and in silico representations of the liver and assesses the translational potential of these models in the quest of rationalizing the process of evaluating drug efficacy and toxicity. It discusses a wide range of research efforts that have produced, during recent years, quantitative descriptions and conceptual as well as computational models of hepatic processes such as biotransport and biotransformation, intra- and intercellular signal transduction, detoxification, etc. The abovementioned research efforts cover multiple scales of biological organization, from molecule–molecule interactions to reaction network and cellular and histological dynamics, and have resulted in a rapidly evolving knowledge base for a “systems biology of the liver.” Virtual organ/organism formulations represent integrative implementations of particular elements of this knowledge base, usually oriented toward the study of specific biological endpoints, and provide frameworks for translating the systems biology concepts into computational tools for quantitative prediction of responses to stressors and hypothesis generation for experimental design. PMID:20443896

Ierapetritou, Marianthi G.; Georgopoulos, Panos G.; Roth, Charles M.; Androulakis, Ioannis P.



The Clinical Research Tool: A High-Performance Microdialysis-Based System for Reliably Measuring Interstitial Fluid Glucose Concentration  

PubMed Central

Background A novel microdialysis-based continuous glucose monitoring system, the so-called Clinical Research Tool (CRT), is presented. The CRT was designed exclusively for investigational use to offer high analytical accuracy and reliability. The CRT was built to avoid signal artifacts due to catheter clogging, flow obstruction by air bubbles, and flow variation caused by inconstant pumping. For differentiation between physiological events and system artifacts, the sensor current, counter electrode and polarization voltage, battery voltage, sensor temperature, and flow rate are recorded at a rate of 1 Hz. Method In vitro characterization with buffered glucose solutions (cglucose = 0 - 26 × 10-3 mol liter-1) over 120 h yielded a mean absolute relative error (MARE) of 2.9 ± 0.9% and a recorded mean flow rate of 330 ± 48 nl/min with periodic flow rate variation amounting to 24 ± 7%. The first 120 h in vivo testing was conducted with five type 1 diabetes subjects wearing two systems each. A mean flow rate of 350 ± 59 nl/min and a periodic variation of 22 ± 6% were recorded. Results Utilizing 3 blood glucose measurements per day and a physical lag time of 1980 s, retrospective calibration of the 10 in vivo experiments yielded a MARE value of 12.4 ± 5.7. Clarke error grid analysis resulted in 81.0%, 16.6%, 0.8%, 1.6%, and 0% in regions A, B, C, D, and E, respectively. Conclusion The CRT demonstrates exceptional reliability of system operation and very good measurement performance. The ability to differentiate between artifacts and physiological effects suggests the use of the CRT as a reference tool in clinical investigations. PMID:20144284

Ocvirk, Gregor; Hajnsek, Martin; Gillen, Ralph; Guenther, Arnfried; Hochmuth, Gernot; Kamecke, Ulrike; Koelker, Karl-Heinz; Kraemer, Peter; Obermaier, Karin; Reinheimer, Cornelia; Jendrike, Nina; Freckmann, Guido



Research into the process, materials and tool interaction for large area flexible electronics with micron sized features  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By taking the advantage of the flexible nature of flexible substrates, roll-to-roll (R2R) flexible electronics manufacturing will eventually lead to continuous production of high quality and flexible thin film devices with a significant cost reduction. In this work, research has been conducted into the interaction of tooling, material and process for large area flexible electronics with micron sized features. Part one presents the study of precision overlay alignment of micron sized features on unsupported and R2R processed plastic. Azores R2R photolithography tool with dependent materials and processes has been applied to establish the fabrication, registration and overlay on unsupported plastic in pieces and carried by a web. Enabling the use of unsupported plastic film is the first step in understanding the R2R process. Test verniers with up to 0.1 micron measurement precision were used to read the overlay offsets. Micro-sized features with one micron overlay accuracy have been achieved on photoresist coated unsupported 5 mil thick Dupont MelinexRTM ST507 polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate. Based on experimental results, a vector model is initially designed to investigate and map the substrate deformation and overlay alignment in R2R photolithography process. The vector model quantifies the significance of elastic deformation caused distortion offsets in the overlay process on R2R based substrates. Part two presents the fabrication and reliability study of flexible chemical sensors with nanoparticle-structured sensing materials. The substrates of flexible chemical sensor with micron-sized features are fabricated in this work. The mechanical reliability of the flexible chemical sensors is initially investigated to test the functionality of the sensors under different working environments. The Accelerate Thermal Cycling (ATC) test, the Deep Thermal Storage (DTS) test and the Immersion test are conducted on the flexible nanoparticle coated sensors.

Zhang, Hao


Computational challenges and human factors influencing the design and use of clinical research participant eligibility pre-screening tools  

PubMed Central

Background Clinical trials are the primary mechanism for advancing clinical care and evidenced-based practice, yet challenges with the recruitment of participants for such trials are widely recognized as a major barrier to these types of studies. Data warehouses (DW) store large amounts of heterogenous clinical data that can be used to enhance recruitment practices, but multiple challenges exist when using a data warehouse for such activities, due to the manner of collection, management, integration, analysis, and dissemination of the data. A critical step in leveraging the DW for recruitment purposes is being able to match trial eligibility criteria to discrete and semi-structured data types in the data warehouse, though trial eligibility criteria tend to be written without concern for their computability. We present the multi-modal evaluation of a web-based tool that can be used for pre-screening patients for clinical trial eligibility and assess the ability of this tool to be practically used for clinical research pre-screening and recruitment. Methods The study used a validation study, usability testing, and a heuristic evaluation to evaluate and characterize the operational characteristics of the software as well as human factors affecting its use. Results Clinical trials from the Division of Cardiology and the Department of Family Medicine were used for this multi-modal evaluation, which included a validation study, usability study, and a heuristic evaluation. From the results of the validation study, the software demonstrated a positive predictive value (PPV) of 54.12% and 0.7%, respectively, and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 73.3% and 87.5%, respectively, for two types of clinical trials. Heuristic principles concerning error prevention and documentation were characterized as the major usability issues during the heuristic evaluation. Conclusions This software is intended to provide an initial list of eligible patients to a clinical study coordinators, which provides a starting point for further eligibility screening by the coordinator. Because this software has a high “rule in” ability, meaning that it is able to remove patients who are not eligible for the study, the use of an automated tool built to leverage an existing enterprise DW can be beneficial to determining eligibility and facilitating clinical trial recruitment through pre-screening. While the results of this study are promising, further refinement and study of this and related approaches to automated eligibility screening, including comparison to other approaches and stakeholder perceptions, are needed and future studies are planned to address these needs. PMID:22646313



Internet-to-orbit gateway and virtual ground station: A tool for space research and scientific outreach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Students in higher education, and scientific and technological researchers want to communicate with the International Space Station (ISS), download live satellite images, and receive telemetry, housekeeping and science/engineering data from nano-satellites and larger spacecrafts. To meet this need the Ecuadorian Civilian Space Agency (EXA) has recently provided the civilian world with an internet-to-orbit gateway (Hermes-A/Minotaur) Space Flight Control Center (SFCC) available for public use. The gateway has a maximum range of tracking and detection of 22,000 km and sensitivity such that it can receive and discriminate the signals from a satellite transmitter with power˜0.1 W. The capability is enough to receive the faintest low-earth-orbit (LEO) satellites. This gateway virtually connects participating internet clients around the world to a remote satellite ground station (GS), providing a broad community for multinational cooperation. The goal of the GS is to lower financial and engineering barriers that hinder access to science and engineering data from orbit. The basic design of the virtual GS on a user side is based on free software suites. Using these and other software tools the GS is able to provide access to orbit for a multitude of users without each having to go through the costly setups. We present the design and implementation of the virtual GS in a higher education and scientific outreach settings. We also discuss the basic architecture of the single existing system and the benefits of a proposed distributed system. Details of the software tools and their applicability to synchronous round-the-world tracking, monitoring and processing performed by students and teams at Graz University of Technology, Austria, EXA-Ecuador, University of Michigan, USA and JAXA who have participated in various mission operations and have investigated real-time satellite data download and image acquisition and processing. Students and other remote users at these institutions undergo training with in orbit satellites in preparation for their own use with future university-class nano-satellites' post launch space operations. The exclusive ability of Hermes-A/Minotaur to act as a gateway between remote users (internet) and satellites (in orbit) makes the virtual GS at user-end more feasible for the long-term real-time nano/cubesats space operations. The only requirement is to have a mutual agreement between EXA and participating university/research organization and broadband internet connection at user-end. With successful and remote satellite tracking and downloading of real-time data from many operational satellites, the Hermes has been found a reliable potential GS for current and future university missions and a training platform for individuals pursuing space operations.

Jaffer, Ghulam; Nader, Ronnie; Koudelka, Otto



Strategic petroleum reserves in Maine  

Microsoft Academic Search

An evaluation was made to determine if the State of Maine should develop a State petroleum storage reserve to protect its economic and social vitality against future petroleum shortages. The requirements for residual oil are delineated and alternate storage options are described. The adequacy of the National Strategic Petroleum Reserve Program (S.P.R.) as a tool for alleviating shortfalls of residual




Research Tools to Investigate Movements, Migrations, and Life History of Sturgeons (Acipenseridae), with an Emphasis on Marine-Oriented Populations  

PubMed Central

Worldwide, sturgeons (Acipenseridae) are among the most endangered fishes due to habitat degradation, overfishing, and inherent life history characteristics (long life span, late maturation, and infrequent spawning). As most sturgeons are anadromous, a considerable portion of their life history occurs in estuarine and marine environments where they may encounter unique threats (e.g., interception in non-target fisheries). Of the 16 marine-oriented species, 12 are designated as Critically Endangered by the IUCN, and these include species commercially harvested. We review important research tools and techniques (tagging, electronic tagging, genetics, microchemistry, observatory) and discuss the comparative utility of these techniques to investigate movements, migrations, and life-history characteristics of sturgeons. Examples are provided regarding what the applications have revealed regarding movement and migration and how this information can be used for conservation and management. Through studies that include Gulf (Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi) and Green Sturgeon (A. medirostris), we illustrate what is known about well-studied species and then explore lesser-studied species. A more complete picture of migration is available for North American sturgeon species, while European and Asian species, which are among the most endangered sturgeons, are less understood. We put forth recommendations that encourage the support of stewardship initiatives to build awareness and provide key information for population assessment and monitoring. PMID:23990959

Nelson, Troy C.; Doukakis, Phaedra; Lindley, Steven T.; Schreier, Andrea D.; Hightower, Joseph E.; Hildebrand, Larry R.; Whitlock, Rebecca E.; Webb, Molly A. H.



Maintenance, operation, and research (radiation) zones (MORZ) application model - a design and operation tool for intelligent buildings with application to the advanced neutron source  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a user-friendly application tool to assist in the design, operation and maintenance of large buildings/facilities charged with complex/extensive/elaborate activities. The model centers around a specially designed, easy-access data base containing essentially all the relevant information about the facility. Our first test case is the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) research reactor to be constructed as a center for neutron research.

Shapira, H.B.; Brown, R.A.



A research tool for long-term and continuous analysis of fish assemblage in coral-reefs using underwater camera footage  

E-print Network

A research tool for long-term and continuous analysis of fish assemblage in coral-reefs using a better understanding of a complex environment such as a coral reef, collecting data for long-term monitoring of these environments is essential. Long-term monitoring of a coral reef environment can however

Fisher, Bob


Developing the injury prevention and safety promotion thesaurus, international English edition: An interdisciplinary tool for indexing and searching for research literature. Progress report 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Research relevant to injury prevention and safety promotion (IPSP) is conducted within more than 30 disciplines. A thesaurus under development identifies and clarifies important IPSP concepts from these disciplines and standardizes their corresponding terms. The primary function of the IPSP thesaurus will be as an indexing and search tool so that users can conduct online searches with satisfactory completeness

Andrew Meier; Lucie Laflamme



A Clinical Trial Alert Tool to Recruit Large Patient Samples and Assess Selection Bias in General Practice Research |

The authors developed a computerized clinical trial alert (CTA) tool that uses data from electronic patient records to facilitate recruitment to an osteoporosis trial conducted by a network of general practices. One feature of the system essential to improving recruitment is a continual series of reminders to inform practice staff members that patients are eligible and should be considered for research participation.


Integrating Human Health and Environmental Health into the DPSIR Framework: A Tool to Identify Research Opportunities for Sustainable and Healthy Communities  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has recently realigned its research enterprise around the concept of sustainability. Scientists from across multiple disciplines have a role to play in contributing the information, methods, and tools to more fully understand the long-term...


A Framework for the Evaluation of CASE Tool Learnability in Educational Environments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of the research is to derive a framework for the evaluation of Computer Aided Software Engineering (CASE) tool learnability in educational environments. Drawing from the literature of Human Computer Interaction and educational research, a framework for evaluating CASE tool learnability in educational environments is derived. The two main

Senapathi, Mali



RSP Tooling Technology  

SciTech Connect

RSP Tooling{trademark} is a spray forming technology tailored for producing molds and dies. The approach combines rapid solidification processing and net-shape materials processing in a single step. The general concept involves converting a mold design described by a CAD file to a tooling master using a suitable rapid prototyping (RP) technology such as stereolithography. A pattern transfer is made to a castable ceramic, typically alumina or fused silica (Figure 1). This is followed by spray forming a thick deposit of a tooling alloy on the pattern to capture the desired shape, surface texture, and detail. The resultant metal block is cooled to room temperature and separated from the pattern. The deposit's exterior walls are machined square, allowing it to be used as an insert in a standard mold base. The overall turnaround time for tooling is about 3 to 5 days, starting with a master. Molds and dies produced in this way have been used in high volume production runs in plastic injection molding and die casting. A Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and Grupo Vitro has been established to evaluate the feasibility of using RSP Tooling technology for producing molds and dies of interest to Vitro. This report summarizes results from Phase I of this agreement, and describes work scope and budget for Phase I1 activities. The main objective in Phase I was to demonstrate the feasibility of applying the Rapid Solidification Process (RSP) Tooling method to produce molds for the manufacture of glass and other components of interest to Vitro. This objective was successfully achieved.




Proceedings of Student-Faculty Research Day, CSIS, Pace University, May 6th Forensics Tools for Social Network Security  

E-print Network

address may have been used on a variety of online sources. Lastly, through a tool developed on ASP.NET we and database include ASP.NET with a local flat-file database. It is intended that the data will either networking. Here we discuss the use of numerous open-source tools and methods that, when combined, can give

Tappert, Charles


Maine ePSCoR at the UniveRSity of Maine Maine EPSCoR has just received a $1M award from  

E-print Network

Maine ePSCoR at the UniveRSity of Maine Maine EPSCoR has just received a $1M award from NSF EPSCo "Maine EPSCoR End-to-End Connectivity for Sustainability Science Collaboration," will allow Maine research, higher education, and K-12 institutions through MaineREN, Maine's Research and Education Network

Thomas, Andrew


A Set of Web-based Tools for Integrating Scientific Research and Decision-Making through Systems Thinking  

EPA Science Inventory

Currently, many policy and management decisions are made without considering the goods and services humans derive from ecosystems and the costs associated with protecting them. This approach is unlikely to be sustainable. Conceptual frameworks provide a tool for capturing, visual...


Mobile Building Energy Audit and Modeling Tools: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-11-00441  

SciTech Connect

Broadly accessible, low cost, accurate, and easy-to-use energy auditing tools remain out of reach for managers of the aging U.S. building population (over 80% of U.S. commercial buildings are more than 10 years old*). concept3D and NREL's commercial buildings group will work to translate and extend NREL's existing spreadsheet-based energy auditing tool for a browser-friendly and mobile-computing platform. NREL will also work with concept3D to further develop a prototype geometry capture and materials inference tool operable on a smart phone/pad platform. These tools will be developed to interoperate with NREL's Building Component Library and OpenStudio energy modeling platforms, and will be marketed by concept3D to commercial developers, academic institutions and governmental agencies. concept3D is NREL's lead developer and subcontractor of the Building Component Library.

Brackney, L.



Proceedings of Student-Faculty Research Day, CSIS, Pace University, May 4th Social Network Forensic Tools  

E-print Network

the anonymous. 2. Types of Internet Crime Cybercrime There is a pressing need to develop effective tools to combat crime on Facebook and the Internet. Cybercrime involves the action of committing crime using

Tappert, Charles


Co-authorship Network Analysis: A Powerful Tool for Strategic Planning of Research, Development and Capacity Building Programs on Neglected Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundNew approaches and tools were needed to support the strategic planning, implementation and management of a Program launched by the Brazilian Government to fund research, development and capacity building on neglected tropical diseases with strong focus on the North, Northeast and Center-West regions of the country where these diseases are prevalent.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsBased on demographic, epidemiological and burden of disease data,

Carlos Medicis Morel; Suzanne Jacob Serruya; Gerson Oliveira Penna; Reinaldo Guimarães



Theoretical and experimental research on error analysis and optimization of tool path in fabricating aspheric compound eyes by precision micro milling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Structure design and fabricating methods of three-dimensional (3D) artificial spherical compound eyes have been researched by many scholars. Micro-nano optical manufacturing is mostly used to process 3D artificial compound eyes. However, spherical optical compound eyes are less at optical performance than the eyes of insects, and it is difficult to further improve the imaging quality of compound eyes by means of micro-nano optical manufacturing. In this research, nonhomogeneous aspheric compound eyes (ACEs) are designed and fabricated. The nonhomogeneous aspheric structure is applied to calibrate the spherical aberration. Micro milling with advantages in processing three-dimensional micro structures is adopted to manufacture ACEs. In order to obtain ACEs with high imaging quality, the tool paths are optimized by analyzing the influence factors consisting of interpolation allowable error, scallop height and tool path pattern. In the experiments, two kinds of ACEs are manufactured by micro-milling with different too path patterns and cutting parameter on the miniature precision five-axis milling machine tool. The experimental results indicate that the ACEs of high surface quality can be achieved by circularly milling small micro-lens individually with changeable cutting depth. A prototype of the aspheric compound eye (ACE) with surface roughness ( R a) below 0.12 ?m is obtained with good imaging performance. This research ameliorates the imaging quality of 3D artificial compound eyes, and the proposed method of micro-milling can improve surface processing quality of compound eyes.

Chen, Mingjun; Xiao, Yong; Tian, Wenlan; Wu, Chunya; Chu, Xin



The origin of metazoa and the main evolutionary lineages of the animal Kingdom: The gallertoid hypothesis in the light of modern research  

Microsoft Academic Search

A scenario for the evolutionary history of the Metazoa is presented, including the evolution of the Urmetazoa and the Ctenophora,\\u000a Porifera, Coelenterata, and early Bilateria. The reasoning about evolutionary transformations is based on engineering morphology,\\u000a and includes the results of comparative anatomy and of molecular research. According to this evolutionary model, the specific\\u000a metazoan multicellularity, which is different of that

Manfred Grasshoff; Michael Gudo



K6 Mathematics Tools List  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page from Education Development Center in Maine provides an alphabetical list by tool name with links to the 27 learning tools (Java applets). An image, title and description with content tags are provided for each tool. The tools were constructed using the cross-platform open educational resource GeoGebra.



Assessing the proximity of healthy food options and food deserts in a rural area in Maine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the project described in this paper was to assess and describe the food environment facing public assistance clients in a rural county in Maine. Using the concept of a “food desert” and an objective tool for rating participating food outlets, the research team developed a spatial model of client access to healthy foods. The final map shows

Teresa A. Hubley



A plant resource and experiment management system based on the Golm Plant Database as a basic tool for omics research  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: For omics experiments, detailed characterisation of experimental material with respect to its genetic features, its cultivation history and its treatment history is a requirement for analyses by bioinformatics tools and for publication needs. Furthermore, meta-analysis of several experiments in systems biology based approaches make it necessary to store this information in a standardised manner, preferentially in relational databases. In

Karin I Köhl; Georg Basler; Alexander Lüdemann; Joachim Selbig; Dirk Walther



SBDART: A Research and Teaching Software Tool for Plane-Parallel Radiative Transfer in the Earth's Atmosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

SBDART is a software tool that computes plane-parallel radiative transfer in clear and cloudy conditions within the earth's atmosphere and at the surface. All important processes that affect the ultraviolet, visible, and infrared radiation fields are included. The code is a marriage of a sophisticated discrete ordinate radiative transfer module, low-resolution atmospheric transmission models, and Mie scattering results for light

Paul Ricchiazzi; Shiren Yang; Catherine Gautier; David Sowle



Solution--What Does It Mean? Helping Linear Algebra Students Develop the Concept While Improving Research Tools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twelve linear algebra students were interviewed about the concept of a Solution of a System of Equations. The interviews were analyzed using APOS tools, in particular the ideas of Action, Process, Object and Schema, and Genetic Decomposition. The analysis of the interviews revealed several misconceptions of Solution. The analysis also revealed…

DeVries, David; Arnon, Ilana



The Principal Component Analysis of X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry Data as a Tool for Paleoseismic Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To document the magnitude of displacement in past faulting events, observed in excavated paleoseismological trenches across faults, stratigraphic and structural relationships imprinted on the walls should be interpreted. Often, the interpretation is not straightforward. Stratigraphic units on the upthrown block may be subjected to subaerial erosion, while the downthrown block is sometimes poorly stratified with few stratigraphic horizons. Since it is difficult to correlate the lithologic units on the opposite sides of the fault, the reconstruction of past displacements is an equally arduous task. In this work, samples from a recently excavated paleoseismological trench were collected and analyzed with the method of X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) Spectrometry, in order to assess their elemental composition. The XRF data were submitted to Principal Component Analysis (PCA), which is a well-established dimension-reducing statistical technique, applied for pattern recognition in multivariate datasets. The statistical handling aimed to distinguish the base of scarp-derived colluvium(s) from the top of the prefaulting deposits of the downthrown block and infer from which part of the upthrown fault block scarp-derived colluvium and colluvial wedges, parts of the downthrown block were derived and thus estimate displacement. The paleoseismological trench was excavated in Gyrtoni, Larissa, Greece. The excavation yielded excellent results in relation to the recent activity of the Gyrtoni Fault. The south facing Gyrtoni Fault is ~12-13 km long and defines the north boundary of the Middle-Late Quaternary Tyrnavos Basin, at a distance of ca. 10 km from the city of Larissa. The walls of the trench were cleaned and mapped in detail. The footwall of the fault consists of well stratified lagustrine deposits, while the hanging wall consists of poorly stratified scarp-derived deposits. The initial preliminary interpretation of the trench wall structure provided indications of recent reactivations of the fault. Seven samples, one for each lithologic unit, were collected from the upthrown fault block and 10 samples were collected from the downthrown fault block. The samples were dried, pulverized and pressed into standard pellets before carrying out XRF spectrometry measurements. Radioisotope sources (109Cd and 241Am) were used for sample excitation, while X-ray spectra were acquired using a Si(Li) detector coupled with adequate electronics. The concentrations of 17 minor and trace elements (K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Ni, Zn, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Ba, La, Ce, Nd) were thus determined. To identify samples of similar composition, the elemental data were treated by PCA using the STATISTICA 8 Statistical Software. The PC score-plots revealed a widely scattered compositional pattern. However, three distinct chemical groups were identified, associated with differences in elemental concentrations. The PCA grouping, combined with geological criteria, allowed distinguishing the colluvial deposits on the downthrown fault block and inferring the provenance of the scarp-derived colluvium and colluvial wedges. An ongoing mineralogical analysis by X-ray diffraction is expected to provide further arguments in this direction. The results indicate that the XRF analysis combined with Principal Component Analysis can serve as a useful tool for paleoseismological research.

Tsodoulos, Ioannis; Papachristodoulou, Christina; Stamoulis, Konstantinos; Ioannides, Konstantinos; Pavlides, Spypos; Caputo, Riccardo; Chatzipetros, Alexandros; Koukouvelas, Ioannis; Kremastas, Evangelos



Brazilian version of an assessment tool for the evaluation of work organizational aspects (AOT) by the NIOSH WMSD Research Consortium: translation and application in industrial sectors.  


Work organization affects the production of a company as well as the health of employees. It is a challenge to create sustainable production systems with the least harm to the health. An observational assessment tool was developed by the NIOSH--WMSD Research Consortium and adapted by the SHARP study. The objectives were to translate this assessment tool into Brazilian Portuguese (as the Avaliação de Aspectos Organizacionais do Trabalho--AOT) and to evaluate its applicability in an industrial setting. The AOT final translated version was obtained after a consensus by the research team. Difficulties arose in applying the translated version due to technical terms with no direct equivalents in Portuguese, nonexcluding or similar alternatives, and questions that gave room for various interpretations, besides the great complexity of the tasks performed in the sectors. Despite that, the results suggest that AOT was sensitive for discriminating differences between sectors. Nevertheless, for better application of this tool in complex industrial environments, it is necessary: training and consensus among evaluators, familiarity with organizational aspects of the occupational settings evaluated. Also for assuring the internal validity of the analysis, might be necessary, the creation of subdivisions in the sectors evaluated if the tasks vary significantly intra-sector. The present report can help to understand the difficulties inherent to the evaluation of organizational aspects on a collective level and also the possible implications related to the translation of this assessment into other languages. PMID:22317465

Batistão, Mariana V; Alcântara, Carolina C; Pissinato, Isabella G; Alem, Michele E R; Coury, Helenice J C G



60 Years of Research and Demonstration in Maine, 1950-2010 81GTR-NRS-P-123 The CooperaTive ForesTry researCh UniT  

E-print Network

Try researCh UniT CommerCial Thinning researCh neTwork: 9-year resUlTs robert s. seymour, spencer r. meyer, and robert g. wagner Abstract.--The Commercial Thinning Research Network (CTRN) was established throughout


Impact of lesion morphology and associated procedures for left main coronary stenting on angiographic outcome after intervention: sub-analysis of Heart Research Group of Kanazawa, HERZ, Study.  


Whether the lesion morphology and associated interventional procedures for the left main coronary artery disease (LMCA) could affect clinical outcome is still controversial. Therefore, we examined the impact of lesion morphology and associated procedures on clinical and angiographic outcomes of stenting for the LMCA. Among 7,660 patients with coronary intervention registered, we analyzed early angiographic results of 228 patients (179 men, mean age 69.4 years) concerned with LMCA lesions. In 121 out of 228 patients having long-term angiographic results, we examined the occurrence of major adverse coronary events (MACE) particularly in terms of the presence of acute coronary syndrome (ACS), the kind of stents, bear metal or drug eluting, the lesion morphology and associated procedures. Early angiographic success rate of LMCA stenting was 100 %, and clinical success rate was 94.3 %. During follow-up period for 3 years, MACE was observed in 17 patients. Under these conditions, multiple stenting (p < 0.01) and complicated procedures such as such as Y-stent, T-stent and crush stent (p < 0.01) were listed as risks for MACE, although there was no statistical difference in kinds of stent. Multivariate analysis demonstrated the significant disadvantage of complicated procedures using the bear metal stent on the occurrence of MACE (p < 0.01). These results demonstrate that the complicated procedures have great impact on clinical and angiographic outcomes after stenting for LMCA lesions, and suggest the simple procedure with a single stent for LMCA lesions in the present cohort. Whether the presence of ACS can affect the prognosis should further be sought. PMID:24203580

Kawashiri, Masa-aki; Sakata, Kenji; Uchiyama, Katsuharru; Konno, Tetsuo; Namura, Masanobu; Mizuno, Sumio; Tatami, Ryozo; Kanaya, Honin; Nitta, Yutaka; Michishita, Ichiro; Hirase, Hiroaki; Ueda, Kosei; Aoyama, Takashi; Okeie, Kazuyasu; Haraki, Tatsuo; Mori, Kiyoo; Araki, Tsutomu; Minamoto, Masaharu; Oiwake, Hisanori; Ino, Hidekazu; Hayashi, Kenshi; Yamagishi, Masakazu



e-PKGene: A knowledge-based research tool for analysing the impact of genetics on drug exposure  

PubMed Central

e-PKGene ( is a manually curated knowledge product developed in the Department of Pharmaceutics at the University of Washington, USA. The tool integrates information from the literature, public repositories, reference textbooks, product prescribing labels and clinical review sections of new drug approval packages. The database's easy-to-use web portal offers tools for visualisation, reporting and filtering of information. The database helps scientists to mine pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic information for drug-metabolising enzymes and transporters, and provides access to available quantitative information on drug exposure contained in the literature. It allows in-depth analysis of the impact of genetic variants of enzymes and transporters on pharmacokinetic responses to drugs and metabolites. This review gives a brief description of the database organisation, its search functionalities and examples of use. PMID:21807605



It is time to combine the two main traditions in the research on the neural correlates of consciousness: C = L × D  

PubMed Central

Research on neural correlates of consciousness has been conducted and carried out mostly from within two relatively autonomous paradigmatic traditions – studying the specific contents of conscious experience and their brain-process correlates and studying the level of consciousness. In the present paper we offer a theoretical integration suggesting that an emphasis has to be put on understanding the mechanisms of consciousness (and not a mere correlates) and in doing this, the two paradigmatic traditions must be combined. We argue that consciousness emerges as a result of interaction of brain mechanisms specialized for representing the specific contents of perception/cognition – the data – and mechanisms specialized for regulating the level of activity of whatever data the content-carrying specific mechanisms happen to represent. Each of these mechanisms are necessary because without the contents there is no conscious experience and without the required level of activity the processed contents remain unconscious. Together the two mechanisms, when activated up to a necessary degree each, provide conditions sufficient for conscious experience to emerge. This proposal is related to pertinent experimental evidence. PMID:25202297

Bachmann, Talis; Hudetz, Anthony G.



Integrated piezoelectric actuators in deep drawing tools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The production of car body panels are defective in succession of process fluctuations. Thus the produced car body panel can be precise or damaged. To reduce the error rate, an intelligent deep drawing tool was developed at the Fraunhofer Institute for Machine Tools and Forming Technology IWU in cooperation with Audi and Volkswagen. Mechatronic components in a closed-loop control is the main differentiating factor between an intelligent and a conventional deep drawing tool. In correlation with sensors for process monitoring, the intelligent tool consists of piezoelectric actuators to actuate the deep drawing process. By enabling the usage of sensors and actuators at the die, the forming tool transform to a smart structure. The interface between sensors and actuators will be realized with a closed-loop control. The content of this research will present the experimental results with the piezoelectric actuator. For the analysis a production-oriented forming tool with all automotive requirements were used. The disposed actuators are monolithic multilayer actuators of the piezo injector system. In order to achieve required force, the actuators are combined in a cluster. The cluster is redundant and economical. In addition to the detailed assembly structures, this research will highlight intensive analysis with the intelligent deep drawing tool.

Neugebauer, R.; Mainda, P.; Drossel, W.-G.; Kerschner, M.; Wolf, K.



A Meta-analysis Method to Advance Design of Technology-Based Learning Tool: Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Research to Understand Learning in Relation to Different Technology Features  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Educators design and create various technology tools to scaffold students' learning. As more and more technology designs are incorporated into learning, growing attention has been paid to the study of technology-based learning tool. This paper discusses the emerging issues, such as how can learning effectiveness be understood in relation to different technology features? And how can pieces of qualitative and quantitative results be integrated to achieve a broader understanding of technology designs? To address these issues, this paper proposes a meta-analysis method. Detailed explanations about the structure of the methodology and its scientific mechanism are provided for discussions and suggestions. This paper ends with an in-depth discussion on the concerns and questions that educational researchers might raise, such as how this methodology takes care of learning contexts.

Zhang, Lin



Guest Expert: Lauren Wood, MD: Maximizing Our Investment in Clinical Research Through Improved Recruitment Tools |

Please welcome this month’s AccrualNet Guest Expert, Lauren Wood, MD. Dr. Wood is a senior clinical investigator in NCI’s Center for Cancer Research and oversees the implementation and clinical translation of research studies investigating vaccines and immune-based therapies for both cancer and HIV infection.


South Columbia Street (Main Hospital)  

E-print Network

Dental School Bridge A Bridge B East Parking Circle Deck Jackson Building Office Physicians NC Cancer South Columbia Street wood Dri P Drive Drive West ve (Main Hospital) Old Tarrson Brauer Dental Research Hospital BridgeC Em ergency R oom D rive UNC Hospitals Visitor Maps for the University of North Carolina

Whitton, Mary C.


South Columbia Street (Main Hospital)  

E-print Network

Research Dental School Bridge A Bridge B East Parking Circle Deck Jackson Building Office Physicians NC South Columbia Street wood Dri Pit D rive Drive West ve (Main Hospital) Old Tarrson Brauer Dental Cancer Hospital BridgeC Em ergency R oom D rive UNC Hospitals Visitor Maps for the University of North

Whitton, Mary C.



ERIC Educational Resources Information Center




The Fabled Maine Winter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

No study of Maine weather would be complete without analysis of the year of 1816 - the year with no summer in an area from western Pennsylvania and New York, up through Quebec and across to Maine and the Canadian maritimes. In this five-unit lesson, students will investigate the causes and effects of the Fabled Maine Winter by exploring a variety of data sources. They will locate, graph, and analyze meteorological and climatological data for Portland, Maine, for more recent years to try to find one that most closely resembles the fabled Maine winter of 1816.


Main University Entrance Main University Reception  

E-print Network

Complex A. North B. Meadow C. Michael Bevis D. Concourse E. Stephen Bragg F. West G. Maurice Kogan H St Margarets Hall 12 Faraday Complex Lancaster Complex 18 Gordon Hall Zone A Chadwick Gaskell Health Shops Students'Union Lecture Centre Media Services Recital (Roberts) Room APDU Michael Sterling Research

Martin, Ralph R.


Load research as a tool in electric power system planning, operation, and control—The case of Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric load research involves the systematic collection and analysis of customers’ electrical energy as well as demand requirements by time-of-day, month, season, and year; consumption patterns; socio-economic and demographic influencing factors; and willingness-to-pay for electricity. The information created by load research are the bases for all studies and analyses conducted by the electricity company to plan, monitor, operate, and control

Fawwaz Elkarmi



Global stem cell research trend: Bibliometric analysis as a tool for mapping of trends from 1991 to 2006  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we aim to evaluate the global scientific production of stem cell research for the past 16 years and provide\\u000a insights into the characteristics of the stem cell research activities and identify patterns, tendencies, or regularities\\u000a that may exist in the papers. Data are based on the online version of SCI, Web of Science from 1991 to 2006.

Ling-Li Li; Guohua Ding; Nan Feng; Ming-Huang Wang; Yuh-Shan Ho



Google Tools in the Classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Maine Learning Technology Initiative provides every seventh and eighth grade student in the state with MacBook laptop computers. Limitless education possibilities exist with the inclusion of Google Tools and laptops as learning tools in our modern classrooms. Google Applications allow students to create documents, spreadsheets, charts, graphs, forms, and presentations and easily allows the sharing of information with their fellow classmates and teachers. These applications invite the use of inquiry and critical thinking skills, collaboration among peers, and subject integration to teach students crucial concepts. The benefits for teachers extend into the realm of using Google sites to easily create a teacher website and blog to upload classroom information and create a communication connection for parents and students as well as collaborations between the teachers and University researchers and educators. Google Applications further enhances the possibilities for learning, sharing a wealth of information, and enhancing communication inside and outside of the classroom.

Albee, E. M.; Koons, P. O.; Schauffler, M.; Zhu, Y.; Segee, B. E.



Programmer-Friendly Refactoring Tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tools that perform semi-automated refactoring are currently under-utilized by programmers. If more programmers adopted refactoring tools, software projects could make enormous productivity gains. However, as more advanced refactoring tools are designed, a great chasm widens between how the tools must be used and how programmers want to use them. The proposed research will bridge this chasm by exposing usability guidelines

Emerson Murphy-Hill


RETURN TO MAIN MENU Manage Your Activities  

E-print Network

RETURN TO MAIN MENU Dashboard Manage Your Activities Manage Data Run Ad Hoc Reports Run Custom lecturer in other course or courses Taught Research Safety in the Classroom Taught Responsible Research and Research Ethics in the Classroom Training activities on responsible conduct of research integrated

Gelfond, Michael


Using Social Networking Tools to Promote Genealogy and Local History Collections and to Instruct Researchers in Their Use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Libraries with genealogy and local history collections spend a great deal of time and effort in collecting, preserving, cataloging, indexing, digitizing, and providing access to their materials. However, these activities may be wasted if potential researchers are unaware of the existence of these materials, or are lacking the knowledge and skills to navigate the materials. Many libraries have long used

Andrew M Smith



Environmental Inquiry by College Students: Original Research and Peer Review Using Web-Based Collaborative Tools. Preliminary Quantitative Data Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Environmental Inquiry (EI) program (Cornell University and Pennsylvania State University) supports inquiry based, student-centered science teaching on selected topics in the environmental sciences. Texts to support high school student research are published by the National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) in the domains of environmental…

Cakir, Mustafa; Carlsen, William S.


The School-Wide Evaluation Tool (SET): A Research Instrument for Assessing School-Wide Positive Behavior Support  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Schools throughout the country are now encouraged to implement school-wide positive behavior support (PBS) procedures as a way to improve their behavioral climate, safety, and social culture. Research is needed to determine (a) the extent to which schools already use school-wide PBS, (b) if training and technical assistance efforts result in…

Horner, Robert H.; Todd, Anne W.; Lewis-Palmer, Teri; Irvin, Larry K.; Sugai, George; Boland, Joseph B.



OEXP Analysis Tools Workshop  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This publication summarizes the software needs and available analysis tools presented at the OEXP Analysis Tools Workshop held at the NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia on June 21 to 22, 1988. The objective of the workshop was to identify available spacecraft system (and subsystem) analysis and engineering design tools, and mission planning and analysis software that could be used for various NASA Office of Exploration (code Z) studies, specifically lunar and Mars missions.

Garrett, L. Bernard; Wright, Robert L.; Badi, Deborah; Findlay, John T.



The Maine Event  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author describes the successful laptop program employed at Mt. Abram High School in Strong, Maine. Through the Maine Learning Technology Initiative, the school has issued laptops to all 36,000 teachers and students in grades 7-8. This program has helped level the playing field for a student population that is 50 percent to 55…

McHale, Tom




EPA Science Inventory

WORM provides a generalized representation at 1:24,000 scale of commercially harvested marine worm habitat in Maine, based on Maine Department of Marine Resources data from 1970's. Original maps were created by MDMR and published by USF&WS as part of the ""&quo...


on Hurricane Island, Maine  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1981, a study was initiated to measure the effects of low-level trampling (100 to 200 tramples) on selected vegetation on Hurricane Island, Maine. Low levels of trampling are representative of general recreational use patterns on most Maine islands. The study was designed to compare percent survival of common island species when subjected to low-level trampling, to observe treadway formation,

R. E. Leonard; P. W. Conkling; J. L. McMahon


Developing Atmospheric Science Tools for Teachers Based on Research at the Pico Mountain Observatory, Pico Island, Azores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric science and climate change are becoming increasingly important, especially in education, as the Next Generation Science Standards now include climate change. A collaborating team of research scientists and students are studying the free troposphere, specifically the aerosol composition and properties, on the island of Pico in the Azores Archipelago. The research station sits in the caldera of Mount Pico, 2225 meters above sea level. At this elevation, the station is above the marine boundary layer, thus placing it in the free troposphere. In this work, collaboration between a high school Earth Science teacher and university researchers was formed with the goal of developing classroom and outreach materials regarding atmospheric science. Among the materials, a video was created containing: site and project background, explanation of some of the instruments used and candid conversations regarding science and research. The video serves several purposes, such as informing students and the general public about what is happening in the atmosphere and informing students about the importance of science and research. The video could also be used to educate the local island community and tourists. Other materials designed include data directly obtained from the project, such as measurements of aerosol particles in electron microscopy photos (which were imaged for particle morphology and size), and composition of the aerosol particles. Students can use this evidence, as well as other data, to gain a better understanding of aerosols and the overall effect they have on the climate. Students will discover this evidence as they work through a series of experiments and activities. Using the strategy of Claim-Evidence-Reasoning as a way to answer scientific questions, students will use the evidence they gathered to explain their ideas. One such question could be, 'How do aerosols affect the climate?' and the student's 'claim' is their answer to that question. In the 'evidence' portion, the student lists the evidence they gathered that supports their claim. Some evidence could include the shape of the aerosol (has it traveled a long distance or is it local), the composition (does it contain carbon or mineral dust for example), the color (does it reflect or absorb light). Finally, the student explains how their evidence relates to the claim and question in the 'reasoning' section. While learning about the atmosphere, students would also be learning about science and the importance of research.

Harkness, L.; Mazzoleni, L. R.; Dzepina, K.; Mazzoleni, C.; China, S.



Tool steels. 5. edition  

SciTech Connect

The revision of this authoritative work contains a significant amount of new information from the past nearly two decades presented in an entirely new outline, making this a must have reference for engineers involved in tool-steel production, as well as in the selection and use of tool steels in metalworking and other materials manufacturing industries. The chapter on tool-steel manufacturing includes new production processes, such as electroslag refining, vacuum arc remelting, spray deposition processes (Osprey and centrifugal spray), and powder metal processing. The seven chapters covering tool-steel types in the 4th Edition have been expanded to 11 chapters covering nine main groups of tool steels as well as other types of ultrahigh strength steels sometimes used for tooling. Each chapter discusses in detail processing, composition, and applications specific to the particular group. In addition, two chapters have been added covering surface modification and trouble shooting production and performance problems.

Roberts, G.; Krauss, G.; Kennedy, R.



Internet-to-orbit gateway and virtual ground station: A tool for space research and scientific outreach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Students in higher education, and scientific and technological researchers want to communicate with the International Space Station (ISS), download live satellite images, and receive telemetry, housekeeping and science\\/engineering data from nano-satellites and larger spacecrafts. To meet this need the Ecuadorian Civilian Space Agency (EXA) has recently provided the civilian world with an internet-to-orbit gateway (Hermes-A\\/Minotaur) Space Flight Control Center (SFCC)

Ghulam Jaffer; Ronnie Nader; Otto Koudelka



Building a Bridge into the Future: Dynamic Connectionist Modeling as an Integrative Tool for Research on Intertemporal Choice  

PubMed Central

Temporal discounting denotes the fact that individuals prefer smaller rewards delivered sooner over larger rewards delivered later, often to a higher extent than suggested by normative economical theories. In this article, we identify three lines of research studying this phenomenon which aim (i) to describe temporal discounting mathematically, (ii) to explain observed choice behavior psychologically, and (iii) to predict the influence of specific factors on intertemporal decisions. We then opt for an approach integrating postulated mechanisms and empirical findings from these three lines of research. Our approach focuses on the dynamical properties of decision processes and is based on computational modeling. We present a dynamic connectionist model of intertemporal choice focusing on the role of self-control and time framing as two central factors determining choice behavior. Results of our simulations indicate that the two influences interact with each other, and we present experimental data supporting this prediction. We conclude that computational modeling of the decision process dynamics can advance the integration of different strands of research in intertemporal choice. PMID:23181048

Scherbaum, Stefan; Dshemuchadse, Maja; Goschke, Thomas



A teaching tool for architectural acoustics.  

E-print Network

??This research aims to create an architectural computer-supported acoustics teaching tool AATT, which stands for Architectural Acoustics Teaching Tool. The AATT uses widely accepted principles… (more)

Xing, Tianxin



Tools: Teaching and Learning Leadership  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This webpage contains tools for math coaches and specialists to utilize, to analyze and refine their work with teachers to ensure research-informed best practices are used. These tools are built upon NCSM's PRIME Leadership Framework: Principle 2 Teaching and Learning Leadership. Each tool can be previewed on the left by clicking the name of the tool and can be viewed in full by clicking beneath the tool name.

The Robert Noyce Foundation



Platform Li-Ion Battery Risk Assessment Tool: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-10-407  

SciTech Connect

Creare was awarded a Phase 1 STTR contract from the US Office of Naval Research, with a seven month period of performance from 6/28/2010 to 1/28/2011. The objectives of the STTR were to determine the feasibility of developing a software package for estimating reliability of battery packs, and develop a user interface to allow the designer to assess the overall impact on battery packs and host platforms for cell-level faults. NREL served as sub-tier partner to Creare, providing battery modeling and battery thermal safety expertise.

Smith, K.



The causal model approach to nutritional problems: an effective tool for research and action at the local level.  

PubMed Central

Reported are the results of a case study from Kirotshe rural health district, Northern Kivu, Zaire, where a workshop on the causal model approach to nutrition was organized in 1987. The model has since been used in the field for research design, training of health professionals, nutrition intervention, and community development. The rationale behind this approach is reviewed, the experience accumulated from Kirotshe district is described, and the ways in which the causal model contributes to comprehensive health and nutrition care are discussed. The broad range of possible policy implications of this approach underlines its usefulness for future action. PMID:1486667

Tonglet, R.; Mudosa, M.; Badashonderana, M.; Beghin, I.; Hennart, P.



NA57 main results  

E-print Network

The CERN NA57 experiment was designed to study the production of strange and multi-strange particles in heavy ion collisions at SPS energies; its physics programme is essentially completed. A review of the main results is presented.

G. E. Bruno; for the NA57 Collaboration



SPARSKIT: A basic tool kit for sparse matrix computations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Presented here are the main features of a tool package for manipulating and working with sparse matrices. One of the goals of the package is to provide basic tools to facilitate the exchange of software and data between researchers in sparse matrix computations. The starting point is the Harwell/Boeing collection of matrices for which the authors provide a number of tools. Among other things, the package provides programs for converting data structures, printing simple statistics on a matrix, plotting a matrix profile, and performing linear algebra operations with sparse matrices.

Saad, Youcef



Biological Markers of Sexual Activity: Tools for Improving Measurement in HIV/Sexually Transmitted Infection Prevention Research  

PubMed Central

Research on interventions to prevent HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is heavily influenced by participant reporting of sexual behavior, despite uncertainty about its validity. Exclusive reliance on participant self-report often is based, overtly or by implication, on 4 assumptions: (1) no feasible alternatives exist; (2) misreporting can be minimized to levels that can be disregarded; (3) misreporting tends to underreport sensitive behaviors; and (4) misreporting tends to be nondifferential with respect to the groups being compared. The objective of this review are to evaluate these assumptions, including a review of studies using semen biomarkers to evaluate the validity of self-reported data, and to make recommendations for applying biological markers of semen exposure detectable in women to further strengthen research on HIV/STI prevention. Increasing evidence shows that semen biomarkers provide an important means of assessing and augmenting the validity of studies on HIV/STI prevention. Additional biomarkers are needed to assess male exposure to vaginal sex and both male and female exposure to anal sex. Methods and study designs that incorporate biomarkers into studies collecting self-reported behavioral data should be considered where possible. PMID:23677018

Gallo, Maria F.; Steiner, Markus J.; Hobbs, Marcia M.; Warner, Lee; Jamieson, Denise J.; Macaluso, Maurizio



The Maine Music Box  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created through a collaboration between the University of Maine's Fogler Library and other Maine libraries, The Maine Music Box contains hundreds of digitized sheet music scores from five major collections. First-time visitors to the site will want to click on the "About Maine Music Box" project as a way of getting started. Here they can check out the "User Information" area, which contains helpful tips on viewing the music and how to best browse the entire database. Additionally, those with a penchant for technical details and information science in general can also learn in copious detail how the database was created for this project. From there, visitors can move straight away into the main collection. Visitors can browse the collection by music subject, sheet music cover art, or just type in their own keywords. One of the best ways to look over the collection is to browse around in such areas as "Instructional Violin", "Maine Collection" and "Parlor Salon Collection". It's also worth remarking that this site may inspire a sing-a-long, a campfire get-together, or a miniature Chautauqua.


Tool use as adaptation  

PubMed Central

Tool use is a vital component of the human behavioural repertoire. The benefits of tool use have often been assumed to be self-evident: by extending control over our environment, we have increased energetic returns and buffered ourselves from potentially harmful influences. In recent decades, however, the study of tool use in both humans and non-human animals has expanded the way we think about the role of tools in the natural world. This Theme Issue is aimed at bringing together this developing body of knowledge, gathered across multiple species and from multiple research perspectives, to chart the wider evolutionary context of this phylogenetically rare behaviour. PMID:24101619

Biro, Dora; Haslam, Michael; Rutz, Christian



Remember the MaineRx.  


In 2000, Maine became the first state in the US to enact a law to establish maximum retail prices for prescription drugs for all qualified state residents-MaineRx. The purpose was to lower prescription drug prices for all eligible residents of the state. The state was to have the ability to negotiate manufacturer rebates and pharmacy discounts. Major drug manufacturers, represented by the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America, challenged MaineRx in the courts, going to the Supreme Court where it was upheld in 2003. Fifteen other states enacted, proposed, or filed price-control bills in their state legislatures. The result would have been downward pressure on prices outside of the public programs, and the first instance of state-sponsored monopsony power in the US. MaineRx is viewed as one of the proximate causes of the pharmaceutical industry's successful lobbying effort to implement Medicare Part D in 2004. Medicare Part D is administered through private Pharmacy Benefit Managers (PBMs); it made administration via state government PBMs illegal. The lower prices that could have resulted from MaineRx-type laws did not occur and the magnitude of these reductions is commented upon. PMID:24420789

Kemp, Robert



Biogeography Recap Spatial models are one of our main tools  

E-print Network

? Impacts of Global Change #12;Traits favoring invasive plants · Invasive plants tend to grow quickly al., 2000 Song et al., 2009 Invasive grass Invasive vines #12;Impacts of Rising CO2 · Invasive plants are bigger & harder to kill Ambient CO2 Future CO2 #12;Type of change Impact on plant invasions Rising

Schweik, Charles M.


Giving High School Students a Research Grade Radio Telescope to Control; Motivational Results from Access to Real Scientific Tools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Have you ever wondered what it might be like to place control of a six-story building in the hands of eager high school students? This past summer, the USNO 20m telescope at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Green Bank, WV was brought back online for just such a purpose. This telescope is equipped with an X-band receiver, capable of observing center frequencies from 8-10 GHz and is the first radio telescope accessible by students and observers through the SKYNET telescope network. Operated remotely with a queue-based system, students can now collect real radio data for any range of projects. This past summer, five lessons were written that were tailor-made for student exploration of radio astronomy. Each lesson explores various radio objects in the context of an action-packed sci-fi adventure. Some of the work required to bring the 20m online for student use will be discussed here, but the main focus of this presentation will be how this work has been received by the author’s own students in its first classroom application. Topics that are normally difficult to discuss with students in an inquiry-based classroom setting, such as HII regions, synchrotron radiation, lunar temperature profiles, and galactic supermassive black holes were addressed in the classroom using the lessons developed by the author for the 20m as well as data collected by students using the telescope via SKYNET.

Kohrs, Russell; Langston, G.; Heatherly, S.



Optical techniques as validation tools for finite element modeling of biomechanical structures, demonstrated in bird ear research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we demonstrate the potential of stroboscopic digital holography and laser vibrometry as tools to gather vibration data and validate modelling results in complex biomechanical systems, in this case the avian middle ear. Whereas the middle ear of all mammal species contains three ossicles, birds only feature one ossicle, the columella. Despite this far simpler design, the hearing range of most birds is comparable to mammals, and is adapted to operate under very diverse atmospheric circumstances. This makes the investigation of the avian middle ear potentially very meaningful, since it could provide knowledge that can improve the design of prosthetic ossicle replacements in humans such as a TORP (Total Ossicle Replacement Prosthesis). In order to better understand the mechanics of the bird's hearing, we developed a finite element model that simulates the transmission of an incident acoustic wave on the eardrum via the middle ear structures to the fluid of the inner ear. The model is based on geometry extracted from stained ?CT data and is validated using results from stroboscopic digital holography measurements on the eardrum and LDV measurements on the columella footplate. This technique uses very short high-power laser pulses that are synchronized to the membrane's vibration phase to measure the dynamic response of the bird's eardrum to an incident acoustic stimulus. Vibration magnitude as well as phase relative to the sound wave can be deduced from the results, the latter being of great importance in the elastic characterization of the tympanic membrane. In this work, the setup and results from the optical measurements, as well as the properties and optimization of the finite element model are presented. Observed phase variations across the eardrum's surface on the holography results strongly suggest the presence of internal energy losses in the membrane due to damping. Therefore, a viscoelastic characterisation of the model based on a complex modulus with a loss factor is chosen. Optimal values for a number of essential material parameters are determined by applying inverse analysis techniques using the experimental results. The result is a realistic dynamic model of the avian middle ear that will be used in the future to enhance treatment of middle ear pathologies in humans.

Muyshondt, Pieter; De Greef, Daniël; Soons, Joris; Dirckx, Joris J. J.



The closterovirus-derived gene expression and RNA interference vectors as tools for research and plant biotechnology  

PubMed Central

Important progress in understanding replication, interactions with host plants, and evolution of closteroviruses enabled engineering of several vectors for gene expression and virus-induced gene silencing. Due to the broad host range of closteroviruses, these vectors expanded vector applicability to include important woody plants such as citrus and grapevine. Furthermore, large closterovirus genomes offer genetic capacity and stability unrivaled by other plant viral vectors. These features provided immense opportunities for using closterovirus vectors for the functional genomics studies and pathogen control in economically valuable crops. This review briefly summarizes advances in closterovirus research during the last decade, explores the relationships between virus biology and vector design, and outlines the most promising directions for future application of closterovirus vectors. PMID:23596441

Dolja, Valerian V.; Koonin, Eugene V.



Ionosphere Waves Service (IWS) - a problem-oriented tool in ionosphere and Space Weather research produced by POPDAT project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the frame of the FP7 POPDAT project the Ionosphere Waves Service (IWS) has been developed and opened for public access by ionosphere experts. IWS is forming a database, derived from archived ionospheric wave records to assist the ionosphere and Space Weather research, and to answer the following questions: How can the data of earlier ionospheric missions be reprocessed with current algorithms to gain more profitable results? How could the scientific community be provided with a new insight on wave processes that take place in the ionosphere? The answer is a specific and unique data mining service accessing a collection of topical catalogs that characterize a huge number of recorded occurrences of Whistler-like Electromagnetic Wave Phenomena, Atmosphere Gravity Waves, and Traveling Ionosphere Disturbances. IWS online service ( offers end users to query optional set of predefined wave phenomena, their detailed characteristics. These were collected by target specific event detection algorithms in selected satellite records during database buildup phase. Result of performed wave processing thus represents useful information on statistical or comparative investigations of wave types, listed in a detailed catalog of ionospheric wave phenomena. The IWS provides wave event characteristics, extracted by specific software systems from data records of the selected satellite missions. The end-user can access targets by making specific searches and use statistical modules within the service in their field of interest. Therefore the IWS opens a new way in ionosphere and Space Weather research. The scientific applications covered by IWS concern beyond Space Weather also other fields like earthquake precursors, ionosphere climatology, geomagnetic storms, troposphere-ionosphere energy transfer, and trans-ionosphere link perturbations.

Ferencz, Csaba; Lizunov, Georgii; Crespon, François; Price, Ivan; Bankov, Ludmil; Przepiórka, Dorota; Brieß, Klaus; Dudkin, Denis; Girenko, Andrey; Korepanov, Valery; Kuzmych, Andrii; Skorokhod, Tetiana; Marinov, Pencho; Piankova, Olena; Rothkaehl, Hanna; Shtus, Tetyana; Steinbach, Péter; Lichtenberger, János; Sterenharz, Arnold; Vassileva, Any



Tool use by aquatic animals.  


Tool-use research has focused primarily on land-based animals, with less consideration given to aquatic animals and the environmental challenges and conditions they face. Here, we review aquatic tool use and examine the contributing ecological, physiological, cognitive and social factors. Tool use among aquatic animals is rare but taxonomically diverse, occurring in fish, cephalopods, mammals, crabs, urchins and possibly gastropods. While additional research is required, the scarcity of tool use can likely be attributable to the characteristics of aquatic habitats, which are generally not conducive to tool use. Nonetheless, studying tool use by aquatic animals provides insights into the conditions that promote and inhibit tool-use behaviour across biomes. Like land-based tool users, aquatic animals tend to find tools on the substrate and use tools during foraging. However, unlike on land, tool users in water often use other animals (and their products) and water itself as a tool. Among sea otters and dolphins, the two aquatic tool users studied in greatest detail, some individuals specialize in tool use, which is vertically socially transmitted possibly because of their long dependency periods. In all, the contrasts between aquatic- and land-based tool users enlighten our understanding of the adaptive value of tool-use behaviour. PMID:24101631

Mann, Janet; Patterson, Eric M



Possible biomedical applications and limitations of a variable-force centrifuge on the lunar surface: A research tool and an enabling resource  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Centrifuges will continue to serve as a valuable research tool in gaining an understanding of the biological significance of the inertial acceleration due to gravity. Space- and possibly lunar-based centrifuges will play a significant and enabling role with regard to the human component of future lunar and martian exploration, both as a means of accessing potential health and performance risks and as a means of alleviating these risks. Lunar-based centrifuges could be particularly useful as part of a program of physiologic countermeasures designed to alleviate the physical deconditioning that may result from prolonged exposure to a 1/6-g environment. Centrifuges on the lunar surface could also be used as part of a high-fidelity simulation of a trip to Mars. Other uses could include crew readaptation to 1 g, waste separation, materials processing, optical mirror production in situ on the Moon, and laboratory specimen separation.

Cowing, Keith L.



Integration of Tsunami Analysis Tools into a GIS Workspace – Research, Modeling, and Hazard Mitigation efforts Within NOAA’s Center for Tsunami Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s \\u000a \\u000a (NOAA) Center for Tsunami Research \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a (NCTR) uses geospatial data and GIS analysis techniques in support of building an accurate \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a tsunami forecasting system for the US Tsunami Warning Centers. \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a The resulting forecast products can be integrated into applications and visualizations to assess hazard risk and provide mitigation\\u000a for US coastal communities ranging from small towns

Nazila Merati; Christopher Chamberlin; Christopher Moore; Vasily Titov; Tiffany C. Vance


The Maine Memory Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Once you have visited Maine, it is most certainly not a place that you will soon forget. This website is designed to make sure longtime residents and visitors alike will not forget this tranquil state, as it brings together a very wide range of historical documents and memories from around the state. The site itself was created by the Maine Historical Society, and is supported by monies from the Institute of Museum and Library Services and several other partners. Within the site, visitors can search for historical items and documents, view thematic online exhibits, and learn about how the site may be used effectively in classroom settings. One particularly fine exhibit is the one that offers some visual documentation of rural Aroostook County around the year 1900. In this exhibit, visitors can experience the dense forests and rugged terrain that dominate the landscape of this part of Maine.


Optical Tools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluorescence is a physical phenomenon described for the first time in 1852 by the British scientist George G. Stokes, famous for his work in mathematics and hydrodynamics. He observed the light emitted by a mineral after excitation (absorption of light by the mineral) by UV light. He then formulated what has become known as Stokes’ law, which says that the wavelength of fluorescence emission is longer than the excitation wavelength used to generate it. Some phenomena departing from this rule were later discovered, but do not in fact invalidate it. The possibility of visible excitation was subsequently developed, with the discovery of many fluorescing aromaticmolecules, called fluorophores. The identification of these compounds and improved control over the physical phenomenon meant that by 1930 research tools had been developed in biology, e.g., labeling certain tissues and bacteria so as to observe them by fluorescence. The optical microscope as it had existed since the nineteenth century thus gave rise to the fluorescence microscope: a reflection system to supply the light required to excite the fluorophores was added to the standard microscope, together with a suitable filtering system. Fluorescence microscopy soon became an important tool for biological analysis both in vitro and ex vivo, and other applications of light emission were also devised (light-emission phenomena of which fluorescence is a special case, described further in Sect. 7.2). It became possible to study phenomena that could not be observed by standard optical microscopy. Among other things, the location of molecules inside cells, monitoring of intracellular processes, and detection of single molecules all become feasible by means of fluorescence microscopy.

Roncali, E.; Tavitian, B.; Texier, I. E.; Peltié, P.; Perraut, F.; Boutet, J.; Cognet, L.; Lounis, B.; Marguet, D.; Thoumine, O.; Tramier, M.


Forest management under changing climate conditions: Is timing a tool for Sustainable Forest Management? Relevant questions for research development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Change of climate conditions influence energy fluxes applicable to forest ecosystems. These affect cycles of nutrients and materials, primary productivity of the ecosystem, biodiversity, ecological functionality and, consequently, carbon equilibria of the forest ecosystem. Temporal factors influence physical, biological, ecological, and climatic processes and functions. For example, seasonality, cycles, periodicity, and trends in climate variables; tree growth, forest growth, and forest metabolic activities (i.e., photosynthesis and respiration) are commonly known to be time-related. In tropical forests, the impacts of changing climate conditions may exceed temperature and/or precipitation thresholds critical to forest tree growth or health. Historically, forest management emphasises growth rates and financial returns as affected by species and site. Until recently, the influence of climate variability on growth dynamics has not been influential in forest planning and management. Under this system, especially in climatic and forest regions where most of species are stenoecious, periodical wood harvesting may occur in any phase of growth (increasing, decreasing, peak, and trough). This scenario presents four main situations: a) harvesting occurs when the rate of growth is decreasing: future productivity is damaged; the minimum biomass capital may be altered, and CO2 storage is negatively affected; b) harvesting occurs during a trough of the rate of growth: the minimum biomass capital necessary to preserve the resilience of the forest is damaged; the damage can be temporary (decades) or permanent; CO2 storage capacity is deficient - which may be read as an indirect emission of CO2 since the balance appears negative; c) harvesting occurs when the rate of growth is increasing: the planned wood mass can be used without compromising the resilience and recovery of the forest; CO2 storage remains increasing; d) harvesting occurs during a peak period of growth: the wood mass harvested can be even higher than planned, and the rate of CO2 storage can be above the average. A real risk for SFM under changing climatic conditions is that negative effects may be amplified; critical thresholds of temperature and/or rainfall for tree growth and stress may be exceeded with impacts on growth response, resilience, and CO2 balance that are not completely known. Furthermore, temporal changes in silvicultural and harvesting operations may lead to increased carbon emissions. Under this scenario and the consequent risks to SFM forestry operations should be planned or scheduled in periods when climate variables influencing tree growth and stress are within the relative thresholds. In this way, silvicultural operations and harvesting are going to be optimised to climate variability and forest growth responses, rather than just forest timber production.

D'Aprile, Fabrizio; McShane, Paul; Tapper, Nigel



FORTRAN tools  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An integrated set of FORTRAN tools that are commercially available is described. The basic purpose of various tools is summarized and their economic impact highlighted. The areas addressed by these tools include: code auditing, error detection, program portability, program instrumentation, documentation, clerical aids, and quality assurance.

Presser, L.



United States National Sewage Sludge Repository at Arizona State University-a new resource and research tool for environmental scientists, engineers, and epidemiologists.  


Processed municipal sewage sludges (MSS) are an abundant, unwanted by-product of wastewater treatment, increasingly applied to agriculture and forestry for inexpensive disposal and soil conditioning. Due to their high organic carbon and lipid contents, MSS not only is rich in carbon and nutrients but also represents a "sink" for recalcitrant, hydrophobic, and potentially bioaccumulative compounds. Indeed, many organics sequestered and concentrated in MSS meet the US Environmental Protection Agency's definition of being persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic (PBT). In a strategic effort, our research team at the Biodesign Institute has created the National Sewage Sludge Repository (NSSR), a large repository of digested MSSs from 164 wastewater treatment plants from across the USA, as part of the Human Health Observatory (H2O) at Arizona State University (ASU). The NSSR likely represents the largest archive of digested MSS specimens in the USA. The present study summarizes key findings gleaned thus far from analysis of NSSR samples. For example, we evaluated the content of toxicants in MSS and computed estimates of nationwide inventories of mass produced chemicals that become sequestrated in sludge and later are released into the environment during sludge disposal on land. Ongoing efforts document co-occurrence of a variety of PBT compounds in both MSS and human samples, while also identifying a large number of potentially harmful MSS constituents for which human exposure data are still lacking. Finally, we summarize future opportunities and invite collaborative use of the NSSR by the research community. The H2O at ASU represents a new resource and research tool for environmental scientists and the larger research community. As illustrated in this work, this repository can serve to (i) identify and prioritize emerging contaminants, (ii) provide spatial and temporal trends of contaminants, (iii) inform and evaluate the effectiveness of environmental policy-making and regulations, and (iv) approximate, ongoing exposures and body burdens of mass-produced chemicals in human society. PMID:24824503

Venkatesan, Arjun K; Done, Hansa Y; Halden, Rolf U



Indian Education in Maine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Maine Department of Education assumed the responsibility for the education of Indian children living on Indian reservations on July 1, 1966. This report provides information on the present status of the program. Information is provided on number of schools, school enrollment for the 1969-1970 school year, characteristics of the teaching staff,…

Maine State Dept. of Education, Augusta.


Snow Falls - Maine  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

As the Little Androscoggin River flows through western Maine it eventually reaches Snow Falls, a 25 ft cascading waterfall in the town of West Paris.  This photo was taken during a high flow event at the falls. The USGS monitors the Little Androscoggin River upstream of the falls at station 01...



E-print Network

IRB 6400 MAIN APPLICATIONS Spot welding Press tending Material handling Machine tending Palletizing Assembly Industrial Robot High performance industrial robot The 6-axis IRB 6400 manipulator and S4Cplus precision. IRB 6400 accounts for one third of the 90,000 ABB robot installations. The family of 6400 robots

De Luca, Alessandro



EPA Science Inventory

SCHLIB shows point locations of libraries and educational institutions in Maine at 1:24,000 scale. Colleges, universities, technical colleges, high schools, middle schools, elementary schools, kindergarten/sub-primary and other special schools are included. The data was developed...


Oliver Kullmann Main results  

E-print Network

Oliver Kullmann Main results Complement invariance Lean clause-sets Minimal unsatisfiability SAT and Outlook SAT and the Polya Permanent Problem Oliver Kullmann Computer Science Department Swansea University SAT 2007, Lisbon, May 30, 2007 SAT: Connecting combinatorics and linear algebra #12;Oliver Kullmann

Martin, Ralph R.


Main features of meiosis  

SciTech Connect

Chapter 17, outlines the main features of meiosis, beginning with its significance and proceeding through the meiotic stages. Meiosis is the most important modification of mitosis because it is the reduction division that gives rise to the haploid generation in the life cycle. 17 refs., 6 figs.




SUPPORT Tools for evidence-informed health Policymaking (STP) 5: Using research evidence to frame options to address a problem  

PubMed Central

This article is part of a series written for people responsible for making decisions about health policies and programmes and for those who support these decision makers. Policymakers and those supporting them may find themselves in one or more of the following three situations that will require them to characterise the costs and consequences of options to address a problem. These are: 1. A decision has already been taken and their role is to maximise the benefits of an option, minimise its harms, optimise the impacts achieved for the money spent, and (if there is substantial uncertainty about the likely costs and consequences of the option) to design a monitoring and evaluation plan, 2. A policymaking process is already underway and their role is to assess the options presented to them, or 3. A policymaking process has not yet begun and their role is therefore to identify options, characterise the costs and consequences of these options, and look for windows of opportunity in which to act. In situations like these, research evidence, particularly about benefits, harms, and costs, can help to inform whether an option can be considered viable. In this article, we suggest six questions that can be used to guide those involved in identifying policy and programme options to address a high-priority problem, and to characterise the costs and consequences of these options. These are: 1. Has an appropriate set of options been identified to address a problem? 2. What benefits are important to those who will be affected and which benefits are likely to be achieved with each option? 3. What harms are important to those who will be affected and which harms are likely to arise with each option? 4. What are the local costs of each option and is there local evidence about their cost-effectiveness? 5. What adaptations might be made to any given option and could they alter its benefits, harms and costs? 6. Which stakeholder views and experiences might influence an option's acceptability and its benefits, harms, and costs? PMID:20018112



caBIG™ Tools

One of the most challenging issues for researchers and biorepositories has been the absence of information technology tools and infrastructure to facilitate the appropriate collection, processing, archiving, and dissemination of biospecimens to the research community, not only within an individual medical institution but also in a network across multiple institutions.


Nitrogen Trading Tool (NTT)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) recently developed a prototype web-based nitrogen trading tool to facilitate water quality credit trading. The development team has worked closely with the Agriculture Research Service Soil Plant Nutrient Research Unit (ARS-SPNR) and the Environmenta...


Overview: Main Fundamentals for Steganography  

E-print Network

The rapid development of multimedia and internet allows for wide distribution of digital media data. It becomes much easier to edit, modify and duplicate digital information .Besides that, digital documents are also easy to copy and distribute, therefore it will be faced by many threats. It is a big security and privacy issue, it become necessary to find appropriate protection because of the significance, accuracy and sensitivity of the information. Steganography considers one of the techniques which used to protect the important information. The main goals for this paper, to recognize the researchers for the main fundamentals of steganography. In this paper provides a general overview of the following subject areas: Steganography types, General Steganography system, Characterization of Steganography Systems and Classification of Steganography Techniques.

AL-Ani, Zaidoon Kh; Zaidan, B B; Alanazi, Hamdan O



Windows on Maine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created with funds provided by the Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS), Windows on Maine contains interesting and informative programs and video clips from Maine Public Broadcasting and other partners. On their homepage, visitors can use their interactive map and timeline to locate video clips of interest, and they can also search the entire collection for specific items. Visitors can also use the subject category menu to look over 25 different headings, including "earth sciences", "land disputes", and "Penobscot tribe". The map feature is a real pip, and visitors can customize their search by location and date, and it's a great way to learn about different regions, including Aroostook County (also known as "the County") and Downeast. Also, many of the videos also have additional resources attached to them, such as railroad timetables, historic photographs, and so on.


Maine Humanities Council  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Formed as a private nonprofit organization, the Maine Humanities Council (MHC) "promotes strong communities and informed citizens by providing Mainers with opportunities to explore the power and pleasure of ideas." Their work is supported by volunteer board members, and their projects include programs to promote reading and writing, guest lectures around the state, and online newsletters and discussion groups. In the "Programs" area, visitors can learn about these programs, and educators can check out the resources created especially for them. The "Connections" area contains links to their thoughtful blog, their "Humanities on Demand" podcasts, and their periodic newsletter "Synapse", which deals with medicine and literature. The podcasts are quite fun, and they include "Franco-American Women's Words in Maine" and a talk by Professor Dianne Sadoff of Rutgers University on Middlemarch, by George Eliot.


Main roads to melanoma  

PubMed Central

The characterization of the molecular mechanisms involved in development and progression of melanoma could be helpful to identify the molecular profiles underlying aggressiveness, clinical behavior, and response to therapy as well as to better classify the subsets of melanoma patients with different prognosis and/or clinical outcome. Actually, some aspects regarding the main molecular changes responsible for the onset as well as the progression of melanoma toward a more aggressive phenotype have been described. Genes and molecules which control either cell proliferation, apoptosis, or cell senescence have been implicated. Here we provided an overview of the main molecular changes underlying the pathogenesis of melanoma. All evidence clearly indicates the existence of a complex molecular machinery that provides checks and balances in normal melanocytes. Progression from normal melanocytes to malignant metastatic cells in melanoma patients is the result of a combination of down- or up-regulation of various effectors acting on different molecular pathways. PMID:19828018

Palmieri, Giuseppe; Capone, Mariaelena; Ascierto, Maria Libera; Gentilcore, Giusy; Stroncek, David F; Casula, Milena; Sini, Maria Cristina; Palla, Marco; Mozzillo, Nicola; Ascierto, Paolo A



Jupiter's Main Ring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A mosaic of four images taken through the clear filter (610 nanometers) of the solid state imaging (CCD) system aboard NASA's Galileo spacecraft on November 8, 1996, at a resolution of approximately 46 kilometers (km) per picture element (pixel) along the rings; however, because the spacecraft was only about 0.5 degrees above the ring plane, the image is highly foreshortened in the vertical direction. The images were obtained when Galileo was in Jupiter's shadow peering back toward the Sun; the ring was approximately 2,300,000 kilometers (km) away. The arc on the far right of the image is produced by sunlight scattered by small particles comprising Jupiter's upper atmospheric haze. The ring also efficiently scatters light, indicating that much of its brightness is due to particles that are microns or less in diameter. Such small particles are believed to have human-scale lifetimes, i.e., very brief compared to the solar system's age.

Jupiter's ring system is composed of three parts -- a flat main ring, a lenticular halo interior to the main ring, and the gossamer ring, which lies exterior to the main ring. The near and far arms of Jupiter's main ring extend horizontally across the mosaic, joining together at the ring's ansa, on the far left side of the figure. The near arm of the ring appears to be abruptly truncated close to the planet, at the point where it passes into Jupiter's shadow. Some radial structure is barely visible across the ring's ansa. A faint mist of particles can be seen above and below the main rings; this vertically extended 'halo' is unusual in planetary rings, and is probably caused by electromagnetic forces pushing the smallest grains out of the ring plane. Because of shadowing, the halo is not visible close to Jupiter in the lower right part of the mosaic.

Jupiter's main ring is a thin strand of material encircling the planet. The diffuse innermost boundary begins at approximately 123,000 km. The main ring's outer radius is found to be at 128,940 +/-50 km, slightly less than the Voyager value of 129,130 +/-100 km, but very close to the orbit of the satellite Adrastea (128,980 km). The main ring exhibits a marked drop in brightness at 127,849 +/-50 km, lying almost atop the orbit of the Jovian moon Metis at 127,978 km. Satellites seem to affect the structure of even tenuous rings like that found at Jupiter.

The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at: Background information and educational context for the images can be found at: http:/ /



Stars main sequence  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What happens during most of a star's life? This activity page, part of an interactive laboratory series for grades 8-12, introduces students to the main sequence phase of a star's existence. This phase is where a star lives out the majority of its life. In an interactive lab activity, students predict the length of the main sequence for four different stars. The predictions can be printed for later evaluation. Students view diagrams that compare the size and color of stars to human lives, and equilibrium within a star is stressed. Finally, students choose between two hypotheses about the length of life of a star. Students write a one- to three-sentence explanation for their hypotheses. The correct answer is provided. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

University of Utah. Astrophysics Science Project Integrating Research and Education (ASPIRE)



Energetic Main Idea  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students will learn about different forms of energy and how to find the main idea and key details in informational text. Included with the lesson is an anticipation guide to assess prior knowledge, plus a rubric to score the students' summative assessment. Also present is a list of books to choose from so that teachers can use the books that fit their students best.

Shipley, Amanda



Maine coast winds  

SciTech Connect

The Maine Coast Winds Project was proposed for four possible turbine locations. Significant progress has been made at the prime location, with a lease-power purchase contract for ten years for the installation of turbine equipment having been obtained. Most of the site planning and permitting have been completed. It is expect that the turbine will be installed in early May. The other three locations are less suitable for the project, and new locations are being considered.

Avery, Richard



Main graphs: Quadratic equation  

E-print Network

Main graphs: Quadratic equation: Equation A2 +B+C = 0, has solutions given by the following 'abc equations: Equation dN dt = kN has the solution: N(t) = N0ekt; N0 is an (arbitrary) initial value of N. Characteristic time of change is = 1/k. Systems of linear differential equations: For system dx dt = ax+by dy dt

Utrecht, Universiteit


Environmental Risk Score as a New Tool to Examine Multi-Pollutants in Epidemiologic Research: An Example from the NHANES Study Using Serum Lipid Levels  

PubMed Central

Objective A growing body of evidence suggests that environmental pollutants, such as heavy metals, persistent organic pollutants and plasticizers play an important role in the development of chronic diseases. Most epidemiologic studies have examined environmental pollutants individually, but in real life, we are exposed to multi-pollutants and pollution mixtures, not single pollutants. Although multi-pollutant approaches have been recognized recently, challenges exist such as how to estimate the risk of adverse health responses from multi-pollutants. We propose an “Environmental Risk Score (ERS)” as a new simple tool to examine the risk of exposure to multi-pollutants in epidemiologic research. Methods and Results We examined 134 environmental pollutants in relation to serum lipids (total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) and triglycerides) using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 1999 and 2006. Using a two-stage approach, stage-1 for discovery (n?=?10818) and stage-2 for validation (n?=?4615), we identified 13 associated pollutants for total cholesterol, 9 for HDL, 5 for LDL and 27 for triglycerides with adjustment for sociodemographic factors, body mass index and serum nutrient levels. Using the regression coefficients (weights) from joint analyses of the combined data and exposure concentrations, ERS were computed as a weighted sum of the pollutant levels. We computed ERS for multiple lipid outcomes examined individually (single-phenotype approach) or together (multi-phenotype approach). Although the contributions of ERS to overall risk predictions for lipid outcomes were modest, we found relatively stronger associations between ERS and lipid outcomes than with individual pollutants. The magnitudes of the observed associations for ERS were comparable to or stronger than those for socio-demographic factors or BMI. Conclusions This study suggests ERS is a promising tool for characterizing disease risk from multi-pollutant exposures. This new approach supports the need for moving from a single-pollutant to a multi-pollutant framework. PMID:24901996

Park, Sung Kyun; Tao, Yebin; Meeker, John D.; Harlow, Siobán D.; Mukherjee, Bhramar



Use of a wiki as an interactive teaching tool in pathology residency education: Experience with a genomics, research, and informatics in pathology course  

PubMed Central

Background: The need for informatics and genomics training in pathology is critical, yet limited resources for such training are available. In this study we sought to critically test the hypothesis that the incorporation of a wiki (a collaborative writing and publication tool with roots in “Web 2.0”) in a combined informatics and genomics course could both (1) serve as an interactive, collaborative educational resource and reference and (2) actively engage trainees by requiring the creation and sharing of educational materials. Materials and Methods: A 2-week full-time course at our institution covering genomics, research, and pathology informatics (GRIP) was taught by 36 faculty to 18 second- and third-year pathology residents. The course content included didactic lectures and hands-on demonstrations of technology (e.g., whole-slide scanning, telepathology, and statistics software). Attendees were given pre- and posttests. Residents were trained to use wiki technology (MediaWiki) and requested to construct a wiki about the GRIP course by writing comprehensive online review articles on assigned lectures. To gauge effectiveness, pretest and posttest scores for our course were compared with scores from the previous 7 years from the predecessor course (limited to informatics) given at our institution that did not utilize wikis. Results: Residents constructed 59 peer-reviewed collaborative wiki articles. This group showed a 25% improvement (standard deviation 12%) in test scores, which was greater than the 16% delta recorded in the prior 7 years of our predecessor course (P = 0.006). Conclusions: Our use of wiki technology provided a wiki containing high-quality content that will form the basis of future pathology informatics and genomics courses and proved to be an effective teaching tool, as evidenced by the significant rise in our resident posttest scores. Data from this project provide support for the notion that active participation in content creation is an effective mechanism for mastery of content. Future residents taking this course will continue to build on this wiki, keeping content current, and thereby benefit from this collaborative teaching tool. PMID:23024891

Park, Seung; Parwani, Anil; MacPherson, Trevor; Pantanowitz, Liron



The FCC: A Research Tool.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The numerous forms filed with the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) provide information about a variety of topics. Basic licensing information that is available concerns engineering, ownership, and equal employment opportunity. The FCC's broadcast bureau collects information about programing, the ascertainment of community needs, public…

Wilson, Paul


Tool wear mechanisms in the machining of Nickel based super-alloys: A review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nickel based super-alloys are widely employed in aircraft engines and gas turbines due to their high temperature strength, corrosion resistance and, excellent thermal fatigue properties. Conversely, these alloys are very difficult to machine and cause rapid wear of the cutting tool, frequent tool changes are thus required resulting in low economy of the machining process. This study provides a detailed review of the tool wear mechanism in the machining of nickel based super-alloys. Typical tool wear mechanisms found by different researchers are analyzed in order to find out the most prevalent wear mechanism affecting the tool life. The review of existing works has revealed interesting findings about the tool wear mechanisms in the machining of these alloys. Adhesion wear is found to be the main phenomenon leading to the cutting tool wear in this study.

Akhtar, Waseem; Sun, Jianfei; Sun, Pengfei; Chen, Wuyi; Saleem, Zawar



Excellence in Physics Education Award Talk: The Role of Physics Education Research in the Design and Assessment of Active Learning Curricula and Tools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the Activity Based Physics Group (APB), research in student learning has been a cornerstone, for the past 22 years, of the development of activity-based curricula supported by real-time data collection, analysis, and modeling. This presentation, the first of three related talks, will focus on student learning, Priscilla Laws will describe the curriculum and tools developed, and David Sokoloff will describe dissemination efforts. One of the earliest examples of seminal research, done as part of the early MBL development for middle school at TERC, showed that delaying the display of a position-time graph by 10 seconds instead of displaying it in real-time resulted in a substantial learning decrease. This result assured the use of real-time data collection in our curricula. As we developed our early kinematics and dynamics curricula for college and high school, we interviewed many students before and after instruction, to understand where they started and what they had learned. We used the results of these interviews and written student explanations of their thinking to develop robust multiple-choice evaluations that were easy to give and allowed us to understand student thinking using both ``right and wrong'' responses. Work such as this resulted in Questions on Linear Motion, Force and Motion Conceptual Evaluation (FMCE), Heat and Temperature Conceptual Evaluation (HTCE), Electrical Circuit Conceptual Evaluation (ECCE), Light and Optics Conceptual Evaluation (LOCE) and others which guided our curriculum development and convinced many that standard instruction in physics did not result in substantial conceptual learning. Other evaluations measured mathematical understandings.evaluations also allowed us to look at a progression of student ideas as they learned (``Conceptual Dynamics''), study the behavior of students who did and did not learn conceptually (``Uncommon Knowledge''), study the efficacy of peer groups, and finally identify some of factors that led to conceptual learning for both women and men. (e.g. increases in spatial ability). )

Thornton, Ronald



Communication tools.  


In this bimonthly series, the author examines how nurse educators can use Internet and Web-based computer technologies such as search, communication, and collaborative writing tools; social networking and social bookmarking sites; virtual worlds; and Web-based teaching and learning programs. This article describes Web-based communication tools and techniques to increase their effectiveness. PMID:19726955

Wink, Diane



DCCPS: Behavioral Research Program: Research Tools

GEM allows the user to search for a construct (e.g., anxiety, depression), see a definition of the construct, view its associated theoretical foundation, and download different measures of the construct. Similarly, the user can search for a measure and see attributes of that measure (e.g., definition, target population, author, reliability, validity), including the associated construct.


A refined radio-telemetry technique to monitor right ventricle or pulmonary artery pressures in rats: a useful tool in pulmonary hypertension research  

PubMed Central

Implantable radio-telemetry methodology, allowing for continuous recording of pulmonary haemodynamics, has previously been used to assess effects of therapy on development and treatment of pulmonary hypertension. In the original procedure, rats were subjected to invasive thoracic surgery, which imposes significant stress that may disturb critical aspects of the cardiovascular system and delay recovery. In the present study, we describe and compare the original trans-thoracic approach with a new, simpler trans-diaphragm approach for catheter placement, which avoids the need for surgical invasion of the thorax. Satisfactory overall success rates up to 75% were achieved in both approaches, and right ventricular pressures and heart and respiratory rates normalised within 2 weeks. However, recovery was significantly faster in trans-diaphragm than in trans-thoracic operated animals (6.4?±?0.5 vs 9.5?±?1.1 days, respectively; p?tool in pulmonary hypertension research in rats, especially when used in combination with echocardiography. We conclude that the described trans-diaphragm approach should be considered as the method of choice, for it is less invasive and simpler to perform. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi: 10.1007/s00424-007-0334-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:17912547

Schalij, I.; Kramer, K.; Sebkhi, A.; Postmus, P. E.; van der Laarse, W. J.; Paulus, W. J.; Vonk-Noordegraaf, A.