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While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
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Last update: November 12, 2013.
1

Tools for Researchers - Applied Research  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Content Cancer Control and Population Sciences Home Applied Research Home Areas of Research Tools Surveys & Studies Research Networks Funding Publications About ARP Search:? Tools for Researchers Research tools such as those listed below have

2

Gulf of Maine Research Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Teaching about aquatic environments, serving as neutral conveners, and facilitating marine research is the mission of the Gulf of Maine Research Institute. Features hundreds of web pages with information and classroom activities covering: oceans, human impact, weather, satellite imagery, remote sensing, Antarctica, global climate change, lobsters, turtles, marine, freshwater issues and more. The project of building the new aquarium at Portland is specially considered.

3

Tools for Researchers  

Cancer.gov

In order to monitor and assess cancer risk factors in the general population and in subpopulations of particular interest, researchers need a variety of tools. They need questionnaires, survey instruments, and assessment instruments. They also need databases that allow them to accurately analyze the data collected. NCI has a long history of developing such tools and supporting related methodologic research. These tools have been used in many types of studies by a broad spectrum of researchers.

4

Digital Research Tools  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As more and more scholars grow interested in the world of digital research, this tremendously useful wiki will be one that they will tell their colleagues about. Created by Lisa Spiro, the director of the Digital Media Center at Rice University, this collaborative wiki collects information about tools and resources that can help scholars conduct research more efficiently or creatively. Visitors can browse the tools by task under the "I want to..." heading.

5

Measurement and Research Tools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains four symposium papers on measurement and research tools. "Income Effects of Human Resource Development for Higher Educated Professionals" (Martin Mulder, Bob Witziers) reports on a study of 1,876 higher-educated professionals that found no correlation between participation in human resource development activities and…

1999

6

18. VIEW TOWARD MAIN ENTRANCE OF AMERICAN TOOL ENGINE LATHE, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

18. VIEW TOWARD MAIN ENTRANCE OF AMERICAN TOOL ENGINE LATHE, JIB CRANE ABOVE-LOOKING NORTH. - W. A. Young & Sons Foundry & Machine Shop, On Water Street along Monongahela River, Rices Landing, Greene County, PA

7

Bioinformatic tools in Arabidopsis research.  

PubMed

Bioinformatic tools are an increasingly important resource for Arabidopsis researchers. With them, it is possible to rapidly query the large data sets covering genomes, transcriptomes, proteomes, epigenomes, and other "omes" that have been generated in the past decade. Often these tools can be used to generate quality hypotheses at the click of a mouse. In this chapter, we cover the use of bioinformatic tools for examining gene expression and coexpression patterns, performing promoter analyses, looking for functional classification enrichment for sets of genes, and investigating protein-protein interactions. We also introduce bioinformatic tools that allow integration of data from several sources for improved hypothesis generation. PMID:24057362

de Lucas, Miguel; Provart, Nicholas J; Brady, Siobhan M

2014-01-01

8

History of Stone Tool Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Stone tools, which constitute the earliest record of human material culture, have fascinated scholars since archaeology was\\u000a in its infancy (e.g., Evans 1897; Leakey 1934:3; Roe 1970; Feder 1996:19-21). Early in modern archaeological research, prehistorians\\u000a were confronted with the difficulty of distinguishing actual prehistorically fashioned stone tools from look-alikes made by\\u000a natural forces, a situation that spawned a controversy over

George H. Odell

9

Main transformation tools in ANALITIK-93 programming system  

SciTech Connect

This article reviews the main functions incorporated in the latest version of the source language for the ANALITIK programming system. These functions are intended as transformation tools for nonnumerical models and problems, which are usually represented by systems of symbolic expressions of arbitrary length with a hierarchical structure. Such problems are often connected with nonlinear dependences and oscillating functions, which require multiple integration and differentiation, opening of parentheses, reduction of simmilar terms, various simplifications, etc. Such transformations are available in the languages of the ANALITIK family, REDUCE, Formac, Lisp, MACSYMA, Mathematica, and others. Languages of the ANALITIK family, and especially ANALITIK-93, are distinguished by greater generality and a higher level of intelligence, which is determined by an advanced automatic recognition system of functional properties of the objects being transformed and by a developed interactive system.

Gorovoi, V.D.; Klimenko, V.P.; Fishman, Yu.S.

1995-09-01

10

Assessing Testing Tools in Research and Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

An evaluation of three software engineering tools based on their use in research and educational environments is presented. The three testing tools are Mothra, a mutation-testing tool, Asset, a dataflow testing tool, and ATAC, a dataflow testing tool. Asset, ATAC, and Mothra were used in research projects that examined relative and general fault-detection effectiveness of testing methods, how good a

Joseph Robert Horgan; Aditya P. Mathur

1992-01-01

11

From research to practical tools—developing assessment tools for safety management and safety culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article illustrates how the findings from research work have been used to develop practical tools for the assessment of safety management systems and attitudes to safety at Major Hazard sites. In describing the process of developing such tools some mention is made of the research work itself, although this is mainly by reference to published material, and some reference

Nick Hurst

1997-01-01

12

The Value of Open Source Software Tools in Qualitative Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In an era of global networks, researchers using qualitative methods must consider the impact of any software they use on the sharing of data and findings. In this essay, I identify researchers' main areas of concern regarding the use of qualitative software packages for research. I then examine how open source software tools, wherein the…

Greenberg, Gary

2011-01-01

13

Observatory Bibliographies as Research Tools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditionally, observatory bibliographies were maintained to provide insight in how successful a observatory is as measured by its prominence in the (refereed) literature. When we set up the bibliographic database for the Chandra X-ray Observatory (http://cxc.harvard.edu/cgi-gen/cda/bibliography) as part of the Chandra Data Archive ((http://cxc.harvard.edu/cda/), very early in the mission, our objective was to make it primarily a useful tool for our user community. To achieve this we are: (1) casting a very wide net in collecting Chandra-related publications; (2) including for each literature reference in the database a wealth of metadata that is useful for the users; and (3) providing specific links between the articles and the datasets in the archive that they use. As a result our users are able to browse the literature and the data archive simultaneously. As an added bonus, the rich metadata content and data links have also allowed us to assemble more meaningful statistics about the scientific efficacy of the observatory. In all this we collaborate closely with the Astrophysics Data System (ADS). Among the plans for future enhancement are the inclusion of press releases and the Chandra image gallery, linking with ADS semantic searching tools, full-text metadata mining, and linking with other observatories' bibliographies. This work is supported by NASA contract NAS8-03060 (CXC) and depends critically on the services provided by the ADS.

Rots, Arnold H.; Winkelman, S. L.

2013-01-01

14

Blogging as a Research Tool  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I work on variations of the Maxwell Lagrange density using quaternions and hypercomplex products of covariant 4-derivatives and 4-potentials. The hope is to unify gravity with the symmetries found in the standard model. It is difficult for someone outside academia to get constructive criticism. I have chosen to blog once a week at Science20.com since March, 2011. Over thirty blogs have been generated, most getting more than a thousand views (high mark is 5k for ``Why Quantum Mechanics is Wierd''). The tools used for web and video blogging will be reviewed. A discussion of my efforts to represent electroweak symmetry with quaternions convinced me I was in error. Instead, my hope is to exploit the observation that U(1) is formally a subgroup of SU(2). A battle over gauge symmetry may be reviewed.

Sweetser, Douglas

2011-11-01

15

Conference Support Video: A Tool for Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The conference on Video: 'A Tool for Research' was held to summarize research methodology for use of video recording and analysis to improve patient safety and outcomes and for human factors and ergonomic research. The Video attempts to examine the use of...

C. F. Mackenzie Y. Xiao F. J. Seagull

2003-01-01

16

Bringing Research Tools into the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The advancement of computer technology used for research is creating the need to change the way classes are taught in higher education. "Bringing Research Tools into the Classroom" has become a major focus of the work of the Office of Educational Innovation and Technology (OEIT) for the Dean of Undergraduate Education (DUE) at the Massachusetts…

Shubert, Charles; Ceraj, Ivica; Riley, Justin

2009-01-01

17

Augmenting Computational Research Tools in Observational Cosmology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present progress toward creating functional programs for data analysis to be used by cosmology researchers. Using Easy Java Simulations (EJS) to rewrite older code used in cosmology research, such as studying light intensity plots of supernovae (J. Moldenhauer & L. Engelhardt (2011)), should prove most beneficial since many computational research tools pertinent to the field are written in FORTRAN, which while useful in terms of computational speed can be limiting in terms of functionality and simplicity to the user.

Stone, Keenan; Moldenhauer, Jacob; Engelhardt, Larry

2012-03-01

18

Biomedical research tools from the seabed.  

PubMed

This review covers the applications of small-molecule and peptidic compounds isolated from marine organisms for biomedical research. Enzymes and proteins from marine sources are already on the market for biomedical applications, but the use of small-molecule biomedical research tools of marine origin is less developed. For many studies involving these molecules the ultimate goal is the application of small-molecule therapeutics in the clinic, but those that do not succeed in the clinic still have clearly defined biological activities, which may be of use as biomedical research tools. In other cases, the investigation of marine-derived compounds has led directly to the discovery of therapeutics with clinical applications. Both as tools and therapeutics, these small-molecule compounds are effective for investigating biological processes, and in this review the authors have chosen to concentrate on the ability of marine natural products to affect membrane processes, ion channels and intracellular processes. PMID:17436549

Folmer, Florence; Houssen, Wael E; Scott, Roderick H; Jaspars, Marcel

2007-03-01

19

New Software Framework to Share Research Tools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solid Earth Teaching and Research Environment (SEATREE) is a modular and user-friendly software to facilitate the use of solid Earth research tools in the classroom and for interdisciplinary research collaboration. The software provides a stand-alone open-source package that allows users to operate in a “black box” mode, which hides implementation details, while also allowing them to dig deeper into the underlying source code. The overlying user interfaces are written in the Python programming language using a modern, object-oriented design, including graphical user interactions. SEATREE, which provides an interface to a range of new and existing lower level programs that can be written in any computer programming language, may in the long run contribute to new ways of sharing scientific research. By sharing both data and modeling tools in a consistent framework, published (numerical) experiments can be made truly reproducible again.

Milner, Kevin; Becker, Thorsten W.; Boschi, Lapo; Sain, Jared; Schorlemmer, Danijel; Waterhouse, Hannah

2009-03-01

20

The CATS Service: An Astrophysical Research Tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the current status of CATS (astrophysical CATalogs Support\\u000asystem), a publicly accessible tool maintained at Special Astrophysical\\u000aObservatory of the Russian Academy of Sciences (SAO RAS) (http:\\/\\/cats.sao.ru)\\u000aallowing one to search hundreds of catalogs of astronomical objects discovered\\u000aall along the electromagnetic spectrum. Our emphasis is mainly on catalogs of\\u000aradio continuum sources observed from 10 MHz to

O. V. Verkhodanov; S. A. Trushkin; Heinz Andernach; V. N. Chernenkov

2009-01-01

21

EBT: A tool for electronic brainstorming researchers  

Microsoft Academic Search

EBT is a stand?alone electronic brainstorming tool designed specifically for researchers. It can be used for face?to?face as well as dispersed groups, and will work in a typical college computer lab LAN environment. Its features include anonymous and nonanonymous idea?generation modes, the ability to run multiple simultaneous sessions, and the option of generating a session logfile which indicates the originator

Danial L. Clapper

1995-01-01

22

Microfluidics as a tool for C. elegans research.  

PubMed

Microfluidics has emerged as a set of powerful tools that have greatly advanced some areas of biological research, including research using C. elegans. The use of microfluidics has enabled many experiments that are otherwise impossible with conventional methods. Today there are many examples that demonstrate the main advantages of using microfluidics for C. elegans research, achieving precise environmental conditions and facilitating worm handling. Examples range from behavioral analysis under precise chemical or odor stimulation, locomotion studies in well-defined structural surroundings, and even long-term culture on chip. Moreover, microfluidics has enabled coupling worm handling and imaging thus facilitating genetic screens, optogenetic studies, and laser ablation experiments. In this article, we review some of the applications of microfluidics for C. elegans research and provide guides for the design, fabrication, and use of microfluidic devices for C. elegans research studies. PMID:24065448

San-Miguel, Adriana; Lu, Hang

2013-09-24

23

Tools and collaborative environments for bioinformatics research  

PubMed Central

Advanced research requires intensive interaction among a multitude of actors, often possessing different expertise and usually working at a distance from each other. The field of collaborative research aims to establish suitable models and technologies to properly support these interactions. In this article, we first present the reasons for an interest of Bioinformatics in this context by also suggesting some research domains that could benefit from collaborative research. We then review the principles and some of the most relevant applications of social networking, with a special attention to networks supporting scientific collaboration, by also highlighting some critical issues, such as identification of users and standardization of formats. We then introduce some systems for collaborative document creation, including wiki systems and tools for ontology development, and review some of the most interesting biological wikis. We also review the principles of Collaborative Development Environments for software and show some examples in Bioinformatics. Finally, we present the principles and some examples of Learning Management Systems. In conclusion, we try to devise some of the goals to be achieved in the short term for the exploitation of these technologies.

Giugno, Rosalba; Pulvirenti, Alfredo

2011-01-01

24

Narratives and activity theory as reflective tools in action research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Narratives and activity theory are useful as socially constructed data collection tools that allow a researcher access to the social, cultural and historical meanings that research participants place on events in their lives. This case study shows how these tools were used to promote reflection within a cultural–historical activity theoretically shaped research project on multi-professional collaborative practice. The tools are

Kaz Stuart

2012-01-01

25

Computer-aided molecular modelling: research study or research tool?  

PubMed

Developments in computational methods and equipment have produced a new type of research chemist, who prefers to calculate properties as well as measure them, either to gain a better understanding of microscopic molecular behaviour per se, or to guide a broader scientific study using a so-called 'rational' approach. While there is good reason to believe that significant results can be obtained this way, it is clear that only some of the 'tools of the trade' are sufficiently robust to present to those who are not experts in the field. This paper discusses the underlying basis for molecular modelling techniques, describing their history, state of maturity and prospects for future development. The intention is to outline the scope that these play in an industrial research environment, and to examine how they can successfully be incorporated as routine research tools. Computer-based molecular modelling is not a unique discipline. Some comparisons are drawn between it and other computer-based techniques that have reached a greater degree of maturity, in order to highlight the points made. PMID:3236047

Dearing, A

1988-10-01

26

Some Tooling for Manufacturing Research Reactor Fuel Plates  

SciTech Connect

This paper will discuss some of the tooling necessary to manufacture aluminum-based research reactor fuel plates. Most of this tooling is intended for use in a high-production facility. Some of the tools shown have manufactured more than 150,000 pieces. The only maintenance has been sharpening. With careful design, tools can be made to accommodate the manufacture of several different fuel elements, thus, reducing tooling costs and maintaining tools that the operators are trained to use. An important feature is to design the tools using materials with good lasting quality. Good tools can increase return on investment.

Knight, R.W.

1999-10-03

27

Metabolomics as a tool for cardiac research.  

PubMed

Metabolomics represents a paradigm shift in metabolic research, away from approaches that focus on a limited number of enzymatic reactions or single pathways, to approaches that attempt to capture the complexity of metabolic networks. Additionally, the high-throughput nature of metabolomics makes it ideal to perform biomarker screens for diseases or follow drug efficacy. In this Review, we explore the role of metabolomics in gaining mechanistic insight into cardiac disease processes, and in the search for novel biomarkers. High-resolution NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry are both highly discriminatory for a range of pathological processes affecting the heart, including cardiac ischemia, myocardial infarction, and heart failure. We also discuss the position of metabolomics in the range of functional-genomic approaches, being complementary to proteomic and transcriptomic studies, and having subdivisions such as lipidomics (the study of intact lipid species). In addition to techniques that monitor changes in the total sizes of pools of metabolites in the heart and biofluids, the role of stable-isotope methods for monitoring fluxes through pathways is examined. The use of these novel functional-genomic tools to study metabolism provides a unique insight into cardiac disease progression. PMID:21931361

Griffin, Julian L; Atherton, Helen; Shockcor, John; Atzori, Luigi

2011-09-20

28

LIPID MAPS online tools for lipid research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The LIPID MAPS consortium has developed a number of online tools for performing tasks such as drawing lipid structures and predicting possible structures from mass spectrometry (MS) data. A simple online interface has been developed to enable an end-user to rapidly generate a variety of lipid chemical structures, along with corresponding systematic names and ontological information. The structure-drawing tools are

Eoin Fahy; Manish Sud; Dawn Cotter; Shankar Subramaniam

2007-01-01

29

Narratives and Activity Theory as Reflective Tools in Action Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Narratives and activity theory are useful as socially constructed data collection tools that allow a researcher access to the social, cultural and historical meanings that research participants place on events in their lives. This case study shows how these tools were used to promote reflection within a cultural-historical activity theoretically…

Stuart, Kaz

2012-01-01

30

Zebrafish development and regeneration: new tools for biomedical research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Basic research in pattern formation is concerned with the generation of phenotypes and tissues. It can therefore lead to new tools for medical research. These include phenotypic screening assays, applications in tissue engineering, as well as general advances in biomedical knowledge. Our aim here is to discuss this emerging field with special reference to tools based on zebrafish developmental biology.

Sebastiaan A. Brittijn; Suzanne J. Duivesteijn; Mounia Belmamoune; Laura F. M. Bertens; Wilbert Bitter; J. D. de Bruijn; Danielle L. Champagne; E. P. J. G. Cuppen; Gert Flik; Christina M. Vandenbroucke-Grauls; Richard A. J. Janssen; Jong de I. M. L; Edo Ronald de Kloet; Alexander Kros; Annemarie H. Meijer; Juriaan R. Metz; Astrid M. van der Sar; Marcel J. M. Schaaf; Stefan Schulte-Merker; Herman P. Spaink; Paul P. Tak; Fons J. Verbeek; Margriet J. Vervoordeldonk; Freek J. Vonk; Frans Witte; Huipin Yuan; Michael K. Richardson

2009-01-01

31

Facebook: a tool for nursing education research.  

PubMed

Facebook is an online social networking Web site that allows users to connect with other users. Nurse educators can use this technology to advance nursing research. Social networks provide new opportunities for locating potential research participants and maintaining contact during the research process. The purpose of this article is to explain how the researcher used Facebook to locate previous nursing students to ask them to participate in a qualitative study. Between 2006 and 2008, 22 nursing students had participated in international trips over a 3-year period. Because the students had graduated and moved to other geographical areas, the researcher had little or no contact information to use to follow-up with them. The researcher used Facebook to locate 18 of the 22 nursing graduates and invite them to participate in a qualitative research study. A discussion of the process and the potential ethical issues are provided. PMID:21449530

Amerson, Roxanne

2011-03-31

32

Integrating Evolving Tools for Proteomics Research  

SciTech Connect

The recent development of high-throughput proteomics techniques has resulted in the exponential growth of experimental proteomics data. At the same time, the amount of published biological information—which includes not only journal articles but also gene sequences, annotations, and biological ontologies—is also growing rapidly. To extract information from these large, diverse data sets, biologists will require powerful data management, analysis, and integration tools. More than that, biologists will need these diverse tools integrated into a computational environment that allows them to focus on the science. Without an integrated environment, biologists must attend to non-scientific tasks, for example, moving data files or altering data formats; such tasks can be a nuisance with small data sets and significant obstacles with large data sets. This paper explores an integrated computational environment for proteomics by loosely connecting individual components for data storage, retrieval, analysis, and visualization.

Havre, Susan L.; Singhal, Mudita; Gopalan, Banu; Payne, Deborah A.; Klicker, Kyle R.; Kiebel, Gary R.; Auberry, Kenneth J.; Stephan, Eric G.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Gracio, Deborah K.

2004-06-23

33

The Child Diary as a Research Tool  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The aim of this article is to introduce the use of the child diary as a method in daily diary research. By describing the research process and detailing its structure, a child diary, a structured booklet in which children's parents and day-care personnel (N = 54 children) reported their observations, was evaluated. The participants reported the…

Lamsa, Tiina; Ronka, Anna; Poikonen, Pirjo-Liisa; Malinen, Kaisa

2012-01-01

34

Action research as culture change tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – To report experiences of changing cultures in three Lithuanian schools by means of action research. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This took the form of action research in the schools. Culture change measured by a culture survey (developed by Harrison and Stokes) in the beginning and towards the end of the three-year change project. Findings – The cultures of the primary

Romualda Marcinkoniene; Tauno Kekäle

2007-01-01

35

Educational Research: A Review of Bibliographic Tools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This bibliographic essay provides a sequence for searching and a list of 60 reference sources useful for retrieving educational research literature. Many of these sources are briefly described in the essay. The bibliography includes reviews of research, bibliographies, indexes, abstracts, yearbooks, dictionairies, and such government publications…

Masters, Ronald G.

36

Developing products for personalized medicine: NIH Research Tools Policy applications  

PubMed Central

For innovators at academic or industrial institutions to develop personalized medicine products at the accelerated pace required, rapid access to state-of-the-art research tools and reagents are needed. Unreasonable restrictions or delays in the use of such tools may undermine the development of these customized diagnostics and therapeutic products designed to provide significant treatment benefits to patients who frequently do not benefit from traditional therapeutic approaches. In its funding agreements and its own internal research programs, the National Institutes of Health is implementing policies to facilitate the exchanges of these research tools and related resources.

Gupta, Ranjan; Kim, JP; Spiegel, Jack; Ferguson, Steven M

2009-01-01

37

Visualization tools for comprehensive test ban treaty research  

SciTech Connect

This paper focuses on tools used in Data Visualization efforts at Sandia National Laboratories under the Department of Energy CTBT R&D program. These tools provide interactive techniques for the examination and interpretation of scientific data, and can be used for many types of CTBT research and development projects. We will discuss the benefits and drawbacks of using the tools to display and analyze CTBT scientific data. While the tools may be used for everyday applications, our discussion will focus on the use of these tools for visualization of data used in research and verification of new theories. Our examples focus on uses with seismic data, but the tools may also be used for other types of data sets. 5 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Edwards, T.L.; Harris, J.M.; Simons, R.W. [and others

1997-08-01

38

Aligning Web-Based Tools to the Research Process Cycle: A Resource for Collaborative Research Projects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Using John Creswell's Research Process Cycle as a framework, this article describes various web-based collaborative technologies useful for enhancing the organization and efficiency of educational research. Visualization tools (Cacoo) assist researchers in identifying a research problem. Resource storage tools (Delicious, Mendeley, EasyBib)…

Price, Geoffrey P.; Wright, Vivian H.

2012-01-01

39

Aligning Web-Based Tools to the Research Process Cycle: A Resource for Collaborative Research Projects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using John Creswell's Research Process Cycle as a framework, this article describes various web-based collaborative technologies useful for enhancing the organization and efficiency of educational research. Visualization tools (Cacoo) assist researchers in identifying a research problem. Resource storage tools (Delicious, Mendeley, EasyBib)…

Price, Geoffrey P.; Wright, Vivian H.

2012-01-01

40

Using Wordle as a Supplementary Research Tool  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A word cloud is a special visualization of text in which the more frequently used words are effectively highlighted by occupying more prominence in the representation. We have used Wordle to produce word-cloud analyses of the spoken and written responses of informants in two research projects. The product demonstrates a fast and visually rich way…

McNaught, Carmel; Lam, Paul

2010-01-01

41

Interactive Assessment as a Research Tool.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper discusses dynamic/interactive approaches to psychological assessment based on the concept of induced change as a research tactic. Studies are reviewed showing how interactive assessment has yielded new knowledge in psychopathology; neuropsychology; learning disabilities; intelligence testing (in normal, deaf, and immigrant children);…

Haywood, H. Carl; Wingenfeld, Sabine A.

1992-01-01

42

Metabolomics as a tool for cardiac research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metabolomics represents a paradigm shift in metabolic research, away from approaches that focus on a limited number of enzymatic reactions or single pathways, to approaches that attempt to capture the complexity of metabolic networks. Additionally, the high-throughput nature of metabolomics makes it ideal to perform biomarker screens for diseases or follow drug efficacy. In this Review, we explore the role

Helen Atherton; John Shockcor; Luigi Atzori; Julian L. Griffin

2011-01-01

43

Collaborative Research: A Tool for Overworked Faculty.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes and discusses the collaborative research relationship of three college faculty members, identifying factors that contributed to the team's success and looking at what the literature on collaborative teams offers to such an endeavor. Issues discussed include the quality and quantity of communication among members, group dynamics, and…

Rutherford, LeAne H.; Parry, Linda E.; Merrier, Patricia A.

1997-01-01

44

Research-Based Communication Tool Kit  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Significant research over the last decade has built a strong case for the value of arts learning. Major summaries, including "Schools, Communities, and the Arts" (1995); "Champions of Change" (2000); "The Arts in Education: Evaluating the Evidence for a Causal Link" (2000); "Critical Links" (2002); and now "Critical Evidence: How the Arts Benefit…

Brown, Sherry; Campbell-Zopf, Mary; Hooper, Jeffrey; Marshall, David; McLaughlin, Beck

2007-01-01

45

Blind Hemodialysis: An Important Research Tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of clinical research which require subjective data collection can be influenced by expectations of patients and staff; thus, treatment variables should be easily, safely and effectively concealed. We describe a unique dialysis setup which enables us to conduct double- and single-blind variations in dialysis technique. Six studies involving over 4,700 dialyses are discussed to emphasize the significance of this

Suhail Ahmad; Rex Gentry

1983-01-01

46

Cognitive Environment Simulation as a Tool for Modeling Human Performance and Reliability. Main Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission is sponsoring a program to develop improved methods to model cognitive behavior of nuclear power plant (NPP) personnel. A tool called Cognitive Environment Simulation (CES) was developed for simulating how people for...

D. D. Woods H. E. Pople E. M. Roth

1990-01-01

47

Blast2GO: a universal tool for annotation, visualization and analysis in functional genomics research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: We present here Blast2GO (B2G), a research tool designed with the main purpose of enabling Gene Ontology (GO) based data mining on sequence data for which no GO annotation is yet available. B2G joints in one application GO annotation based on similarity searches with statistical analysis and highlighted visualiza- tion on directed acyclic graphs. This tool offers a suitable

Ana Conesa; Stefan Götz; Juan Miguel García-gómez; Javier Terol; Manuel Talón; Montserrat Robles

2005-01-01

48

Profiling Academic Research on Digital Games Using Text Mining Tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

Academic research on digital games has been conducted for over 30 years. However, the abundance of disciplines conducting research on the topic makes it challenging for the interested to get a holistic and comprehensive account of past digital game studies. Yet, sophisticated text mining tools designed for structured science information resources, such as the ISI Web of Science or INSPEC,

Johanna Bragge; Jan Storgårds

2007-01-01

49

IGRF/DGRF - a given tool describing the main geomagnetic field ?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy (IAGA, Working Group V-8) has recently released the year 2000 revision of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) - the standard mathematical description of the Earth's main magnetic field and its secular variation. This eighth generation of the IGRF introduces a new main field model IGRF-2000 that also includes secular variation terms for extending the 2000-main field to 2005. The IGRF has achieved worldwide acceptability as a standard and has been proved valuable for many applications. A presentation of the IGRF and Definitive GRF models over the XX century allows better understanding of the main field dynamics and its interaction with magnetospheric fields of the external origin. A brief report is given on available geomagnetic data including the present satellite missions, observatory network and INTERMAGNET program, repeat stations and marine surveys. Some issues concerning assimilation of the high-latitude geomagnetic data into the main field modeling are also addressed.

Mandea, M.

2003-04-01

50

Empowering the Teacher-researcher: Adopting a Tool from Biochemist-Researcher Training  

Microsoft Academic Search

As teachers are probably the most invaluable source of field-based informants regarding (in)effective classroom practices, teacher-training should equip teachers with tools for classroom-based teacher-led research. More importantly, these tools should sustain trainees' research-eagerness as well as autonomous professional development beyond teacher-training courses. However, if research is not the raison d'être of teaching and with educational evaluators criticising small-scale teacher-friendly research

Y. L. Teresa Ting

2005-01-01

51

In Flight Research with Instrumented Main and Tail Rotor Blades Using the DRA Bedford Aeromechanics Research Lynx Helicopter.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper serves to inform the reader about in-flight research at DRA Bedford on the DRA's Aeromechanics Lynx Control and Agility Testbed (ALYCAT) using instrumented main and tail rotor blades. The paper describes the instrumentation, data analysis techn...

P. C. Tarttelin A. W. Martyn

1995-01-01

52

On the corrections of tropospheric refractive delay (II): The recent main research topics and progress  

Microsoft Academic Search

In addition to paper (I) (see Abstr. 64.082.050) which has summarized the basic concepts and research methods of the corrections of tropospheric refractive delay, the main research topics and activities as well as the new achievements nowadays on the field of the atmospheric refraction delays have been reviewed in this paper. Meanwhile, the primary features of these studies and the

Haojian Yan

1996-01-01

53

Micro-Concord: A Language Learner's Research Tool.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the micro-concord, an interactive, keyword-in-context concordancing program that can be run on the Spectrum home microcomputer. The program offers language learners, teachers, and linguistic researchers an excellent tool for investigating learners' writing as well as for replacing more traditional language learning materials. (Author/SED)

Johns, Tim

1986-01-01

54

Measurement and Research Tools. Symposium 37. [AHRD Conference, 2001].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This symposium on measurement and research tools consists of three presentations. "An Examination of the Multiple Intelligences Developmental Assessment Scales (MIDAS)" (Albert Wiswell et al.) explores MIDAS's psychometric saliency. Findings indicates this instrument represents an incomplete attempt to develop a valid assessment of multiple…

2001

55

The microcosm: A new tool for reef research  

Microsoft Academic Search

A microcosm has been developed at the Smithsonian Institution which closely simulates the functions of the shallow water Caribbean coral reef. Physical and chemical parameters, as well as the structure of the biological community, are briefly described and compared to a natural reef. The possibilities of the microcosm as a tool angmenting in situ research are briefly discussed.

W. H. Adey

1983-01-01

56

Vaccinia Virus: A Tool for Research and Vaccine Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vaccinia virus is no longer needed for smallpox immunization, but now serves as a useful vector for expressing genes within the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. As a research tool, recombinant vaccinia viruses are used to synthesize biologically active proteins and analyze structure-function relations, determine the targets of humoral- and cell-mediated immunity, and investigate the immune responses needed for protection against

Bernard Moss

1991-01-01

57

GEOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS TOOL FOR HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH (GATHER)  

EPA Science Inventory

GATHER, Geographic Analysis Tool for Health and Environmental Research, is an online spatial data access system that provides members of the public health community and general public access to spatial data that is pertinent to the analysis and exploration of public health issues...

58

Technical phosphoproteomic and bioinformatic tools useful in cancer research  

PubMed Central

Reversible protein phosphorylation is one of the most important forms of cellular regulation. Thus, phosphoproteomic analysis of protein phosphorylation in cells is a powerful tool to evaluate cell functional status. The importance of protein kinase-regulated signal transduction pathways in human cancer has led to the development of drugs that inhibit protein kinases at the apex or intermediary levels of these pathways. Phosphoproteomic analysis of these signalling pathways will provide important insights for operation and connectivity of these pathways to facilitate identification of the best targets for cancer therapies. Enrichment of phosphorylated proteins or peptides from tissue or bodily fluid samples is required. The application of technologies such as phosphoenrichments, mass spectrometry (MS) coupled to bioinformatics tools is crucial for the identification and quantification of protein phosphorylation sites for advancing in such relevant clinical research. A combination of different phosphopeptide enrichments, quantitative techniques and bioinformatic tools is necessary to achieve good phospho-regulation data and good structural analysis of protein studies. The current and most useful proteomics and bioinformatics techniques will be explained with research examples. Our aim in this article is to be helpful for cancer research via detailing proteomics and bioinformatic tools.

2011-01-01

59

Use of AMASE and ADF Visualization Tools in Multispectral Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Astrophysics Data Facility (ADF) has developed the Astrophysics Multispectral Archive Search Engine (AMASE) (http://amase.gsfc.nasa.gov) and a suite of visualization tools (http://adf.gsfc.nasa.gov/adf/visualization/) to support multispectral research. AMASE Release 3 extended the spectral coverage to encompass almost the entire electromagnetic spectrum; added observations from the HST, IUE, ASCA and Alexis; added more predefined regions of interest; enriched the object classification scheme; and included the ADC (http://adc.gsfc.nasa.gov) holdings of catalogs and journal tables. New interactive features of the ADF Visualization Tools are described in a companion poster by B. Thomas, et al. Several scientific scenarios will be presented to demonstrate how these tools can be used to support data search, browsing, and visualization. We shall describe the on-going effort that will enable interoperability with other data services (e.g., NED), user-defined views, positional data mining, and object cross identification.

Blackwell, J. H., Jr.; Cheung, C.; White, R. A.; Shaya, E.; Thomas, B.; Roussopoulos, N.; Kelley, S.

1999-05-01

60

Research gaps for three main tropical diseases in the People's Republic of China.  

PubMed

This scoping review analyzes the research gaps of three diseases: schistosomiasis japonica, malaria and echinococcosis. Based on available data in the P.R. China, we highlight the gaps between control capacity and prevalence levels, and between diagnostic/drug development and population need for treatment at different stages of the national control programme. After reviewing the literature from 848 original studies and consultations with experts in the field, the gaps were identified as follows. Firstly, the malaria research gaps include (i) deficiency of active testing in the public community and no appropriate technique to evaluate elimination, (ii) lack of sensitive diagnostic tools for asymptomatic patients, (iii) lack of safe drugs for mass administration. Secondly, gaps in research of schistosomiasis include (i) incongruent policy in the implementation of integrated control strategy for schistosomiasis, (ii) lack of effective tools for Oncomelania sp. snail control, (iii) lack of a more sensitive and cheaper diagnostic test for large population samples, (iv) lack of new drugs in addition to praziquantel. Thirdly, gaps in research of echinococcosis include (i) low capacity in field epidemiology studies, (ii) lack of sanitation improvement studies in epidemic areas, (iii) lack of a sensitivity test for early diagnosis, (iv) lack of more effective drugs for short-term treatment. We believe these three diseases can eventually be eliminated in mainland China if all the research gaps are abridged in a short period of time. PMID:23895635

Zheng, Qi; Vanderslott, Samantha; Jiang, Bin; Xu, Li-Li; Liu, Cong-Shan; Huo, Le-Le; Duan, Li-Ping; Wu, Ning-Bo; Li, Shi-Zhu; Xia, Zhi-Gui; Wu, Wei-Ping; Hu, Wei; Zhang, Hao-Bing

2013-07-29

61

ARM Climate Research Facility: Outreach Tools and Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sponsored by the Department of Energy, the ARM Climate Research Facility is a global scientific user facility for the study of climate change. To publicize progress and achievements and to reach new users, the ACRF uses a variety of Web 2.0 tools and strategies that build off of the program's comprehensive and well established News Center (www.arm.gov\\/news). These strategies include:

L. Roeder; R. Jundt

2009-01-01

62

STEAM ENHANCED REMEDIATION RESEARCH FOR DNAPL IN FRACTURED ROCK, LORING AIR FORCE BASE, LIMESTONE, MAINE  

EPA Science Inventory

This report details a research project on Steam Enhanced Remediation (SER) for the recovery of volatile organic compounds from fractured limestone that was carried out at the Quarry at the former Loring Air Force Base in Limestone, Maine. This project was carried out by USEPA, Ma...

63

A web service based tool to plan atmospheric research flights  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a web service based tool for the planning of atmospheric research flights. The tool, which we call the "Mission Support System" (MSS), provides online access to horizontal maps and vertical cross-sections of numerical weather prediction data and in particular allows the interactive design of a flight route in direct relation to the predictions. It thereby fills a crucial gap in the set of currently available tools for using data from numerical atmospheric models for research flight planning. A distinct feature of the tool is its lightweight, web service based architecture, requiring only commodity hardware and a basic Internet connection for deployment. Access to visualisations of prediction data is achieved by using an extended version of the Open Geospatial Consortium Web Map Service (WMS) standard. With the WMS approach, we avoid the transfer of large forecast model output datasets while enabling on-demand generated visualisations of the predictions at campaign sites with limited Internet bandwidth. Usage of the Web Map Service standard also enables access to third-party sources of georeferenced data. The MSS is focused on the primary needs of mission scientists responsible for planning a research flight, addressing in particular the following requirements: (1) interactive exploration of available atmospheric forecasts, (2) interactive flight planning in relation to these forecasts, (3) computation of expected flight performance to assess the technical feasibility (in terms of total distance and vertical profile) of a flight, (4) no transfer of large forecast data files to the campaign site to allow deployment at remote locations and (5) low demand on hardware resources. We have implemented the software using the open-source programming language Python.

Rautenhaus, M.; Dörnbrack, A.

2012-04-01

64

Natural Language Thesaurus: A Survey of Student Research Skills and Research Tool Preferences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports the results of a University of Canberra Library survey of student research knowledge, skills, tools and resources. Students are experiencing difficulties interrogating databases, the internet and library catalogues because of the lack of consistency in terminology and various methods of interrogation. This research was an…

Redfern, Victoria

2004-01-01

65

The Second Life Researcher Toolkit - An Exploration of Inworld Tools, Methods and Approaches for Researching Educational Projects in Second Life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Academics are beginning to explore the educational potential of Second LifeTM (SL) by setting up inworld educational activities and projects. Given the relative novelty of the use of virtual world environments in higher education many such projects are still at pilot stage. However the initial pilot and experimentation stage will have to be followed by a rigorous evaluation process as for more traditional teaching projects. The chapter addresses issues about SL research tools and research methods. It introduces a "researcher toolkit" that includes: the various stages in the evaluation of SL educational projects and the theoretical framework that can inform such projects; an outline of the inworld tools that can be utilised or customised for academic research purposes; a review of methods for collecting feedback from participants and of the main ethical issues involved in researching virtual world environments; a discussion on the technical skills required to operate a research project in SL. The chapter also offers an indication of the inworld opportunities for the dissemination of SL research findings.

Moschini, Elena

66

Vaccinia Virus: A Tool for Research and Vaccine Development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vaccinia virus is no longer needed for smallpox immunization, but now serves as a useful vector for expressing genes within the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. As a research tool, recombinant vaccinia viruses are used to synthesize biologically active proteins and analyze structure-function relations, determine the targets of humoral- and cell-mediated immunity, and investigate the immune responses needed for protection against specific infectious diseases. When more data on safety and efficacy are available, recombinant vaccinia and related poxviruses may be candidates for live vaccines and for cancer immunotherapy.

Moss, Bernard

1991-06-01

67

YouTube as a Research Tool: Three Approaches.  

PubMed

Abstract The present paper provides empirical data to support the use of social media as research environment. YouTube was chosen as a most appropriate format to target adolescents in experimental and cross-sectional designs given its popularity as well as its plasticity. We uniquely applied the YouTube format as (a) an environment to present manipulated media materials in controlled experimental designs; (b) an environment to study effects of peer feedback on various media contents; (c) a format to design a media-based questionnaire, specifically, the Media, Morals and Youth Questionnaire (MMaYQue). Various studies have been conducted that demonstrate the appropriateness of our YouTube transformations for each of these three purposes. The focus in the present paper is on the methodology of these studies to illustrate how we effectively transformed YouTube as a research tool. PMID:23659721

Konijn, Elly A; Veldhuis, Jolanda; Plaisier, Xanthe S

2013-05-09

68

Operations other than war: Requirements for analysis tools research report  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the research effort to determine the requirements for new or improved analysis tools to support decisions at the strategic and operational levels for military Operations Other than War (OOTW). The work was performed for the Commander in Chief, U.S. Pacific Command (USCINCPAC). The data collection was based on workshops attended by experts in OOTWs: analysis personnel from each of the Combatant Commands, the Services, the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD), the Joint Staff, and other knowledgeable personnel. Further data were gathered from other workshops and conferences and from the literature. The results of this research begin with the creation of a taxonomy of OOTWs: categories of operations, attributes of operations, and tasks requiring analytical support. The tasks are connected to the Joint Staff`s Universal Joint Task List (UJTL). Historical OOTWs are analyzed to produce frequency distributions by category and responsible CINC. The analysis products are synthesized into a list of requirements for analytical tools and definitions of the requirements. The report concludes with a timeline or roadmap for satisfying the requirements.

Hartley, D.S. III

1996-12-01

69

Intellectual Property: a powerful tool to develop biotech research.  

PubMed

Today biotechnology is perhaps the most important technology field because of the strong health and food implications. However, due to the nature of said technology, there is the need of a huge amount of investments to sustain the experimentation costs. Consequently, investors aim to safeguard as much as possible their investments. Intellectual Property, and in particular patents, has been demonstrated to actually constitute a powerful tool to help them. Moreover, patents represent an extremely important means to disclose biotechnology inventions. Patentable biotechnology inventions involve products as nucleotide and amino acid sequences, microorganisms, processes or methods for modifying said products, uses for the manufacture of medicaments, etc. There are several ways to protect inventions, but all follow the three main patentability requirements: novelty, inventive step and industrial application. PMID:21255349

Giugni, Diego; Giugni, Valter

2010-06-01

70

Storage ring: An advanced tool in modern research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

These introductory notes give a personal flavoured view on the developments, opportunities and perspectives of ion storage rings with cooling devices including some highlights of applications in various fields of research. First some historical remarks are made on the development of cooler rings and cooling techniques, highlighted by the observation of “orderliness” in cooled heavy ion beams. In the main part recent experimental highlights from storage rings in the fields of particle-, nuclear and atomic physics are reviewed. The lecture will end with a look at future projects and a dream.

Kienle, P.

1998-11-01

71

Rethinking the Role of Information Technology-Based Research Tools in Students' Development of Scientific Literacy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Given the central place IT-based research tools take in scientific research, the marginal role such tools currently play in science curricula is dissatisfying from the perspective of making students scientifically literate. To appropriately frame the role of IT-based research tools in science curricula, we propose a framework that is developed to understand the use of tools in human activity, namely cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT). Accordingly, IT-based research tools constitute central moments of scientific research activity and neither can be seen apart from its objectives, nor can it be considered apart from the cultural-historical determined forms of activity (praxis) in which human subjects participate. Based on empirical data involving students participating in research activity, we point out how an appropriate account of IT-based research tools involves subjects' use of tools with respect to the objectives of research activity and the contribution to the praxis of research. We propose to reconceptualize the role of IT-based research tools as contributing to scientific literacy if students apply these tools with respect to the objectives of the research activity and contribute to praxis of research by evaluating and modifying the application of these tools. We conclude this paper by sketching the educational implications of this reconceptualized role of IT-based research tools.

van Eijck, Michiel; Roth, Wolff-Michael

2007-06-01

72

Models - Another tool for use in global change research  

SciTech Connect

Models are increasingly being used in the plant sciences to integrate and extrapolate information derived from laboratory and field investigations. To illustrate the utility of models in global change research, a series of leaf, canopy, ecosystem, and global-scale models are used to explore the response of trees to atmospheric CO[sub 2] enrichment. A biochemical model highlights the effects of elevated CO[sub 2] and temperature on photosynthesis, the consequences of Rubisco down-regulation to leaf and canopy carbon gain, and the relationships among stomatal conductance, transpiration, leaf area, and canopy energy balance. A forest succession model examines the effects of CO[sub 2] on species composition and forest productivity, while a model of the global carbon cycle illustrates the effects of rising CO[sub 2] on terrestrial carbon storage and the interaction of this affect with temperature. We conclude that models are appropriate tools for use both in guiding existing studies and in identifying new hypotheses for future research.

Wullschleger, S.D.; Baldocchi, D.D.; King, A.W.; Post, W.M. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States))

1994-06-01

73

The GATO gene annotation tool for research laboratories.  

PubMed

Large-scale genome projects have generated a rapidly increasing number of DNA sequences. Therefore, development of computational methods to rapidly analyze these sequences is essential for progress in genomic research. Here we present an automatic annotation system for preliminary analysis of DNA sequences. The gene annotation tool (GATO) is a Bioinformatics pipeline designed to facilitate routine functional annotation and easy access to annotated genes. It was designed in view of the frequent need of genomic researchers to access data pertaining to a common set of genes. In the GATO system, annotation is generated by querying some of the Web-accessible resources and the information is stored in a local database, which keeps a record of all previous annotation results. GATO may be accessed from everywhere through the internet or may be run locally if a large number of sequences are going to be annotated. It is implemented in PHP and Perl and may be run on any suitable Web server. Usually, installation and application of annotation systems require experience and are time consuming, but GATO is simple and practical, allowing anyone with basic skills in informatics to access it without any special training. GATO can be downloaded at [http://mariwork.iq.usp.br/gato/]. Minimum computer free space required is 2 MB. PMID:16258624

Fujita, A; Massirer, K B; Durham, A M; Ferreira, C E; Sogayar, M C

2005-10-26

74

Voice recognition technology as a tool for behavioral research.  

PubMed

Behavioral research often requires the acquisition and processing of large volumes of data. Most current techniques for recording behavior constrain the amount and type of data that can be measured. We developed and tested a system that uses voice recognition technology to collect data on the social interactions and singing patterns of cowbirds (Molothrus ater) living outdoors in a semi-natural environment. We spoke observation data into a wireless microphone that transmitted the data to a computer in the laboratory. After collection, the data were automatically checked for errors and then were entered into a database. Overall, the system performed at extremely high levels of accuracy. Furthermore, owing to the removal of constraints on observers such as breaking visual contact with subjects and manual data entry into a database, we were able to increase the amount of data collected and to collect new measures of social interactions that have not been available to us in the past. We tested the system under the challenging circumstances of field observation, and it performed above our expectations. In a laboratory setting, if transmission difficulties are removed, voice recognition could be even more accurate. We recommend voice recognition as a powerful new tool for the variety of research fields in which measuring behavior is involved. PMID:12060983

White, David J; King, Andrew P; Duncan, Shan D

2002-02-01

75

Food 21: a research program looking for measures and tools to increase food chain sustainability.  

PubMed

Food 21, an interdisciplinary research program encompassing the whole agro-food chain, was conducted in Sweden during 1997-2004. The challenges undertaken were to come up with environmental tools and solutions to existing nonsustainable practices along the entire food chain. This required close collaboration between the scientists and the food chain stakeholders. A set of goals characterizing sustainable food production is presented in this paper. Synthesis and systems analysis were the main tools used to analyze the sustainability of proposed changes. In this introduction we give an overview of the Food 21 concept and highlight some results. For example, we found that organic farming and organic products were not in general superior to conventional products and practices with respect to environmental impact and product quality. We also summarize the management experiences in this article, since we consider them to be rather unique and since they contributed to the overall success of the program. PMID:16092256

Andersson, Rune; Algers, Bo; Bergström, Lars; Lundström, Kerstin; Nybrant, Thomas; Sjödén, Per-Olow

2005-06-01

76

Tissue Microarray: A rapidly evolving diagnostic and research tool  

PubMed Central

Tissue microarray is a recent innovation in the field of pathology. A microarray contains many small representative tissue samples from hundreds of different cases assembled on a single histologic slide, and therefore allows high throughput analysis of multiple specimens at the same time. Tissue microarrays are paraffin blocks produced by extracting cylindrical tissue cores from different paraffin donor blocks and re-embedding these into a single recipient (microarray) block at defined array coordinates. Using this technique, up to 1000 or more tissue samples can be arrayed into a single paraffin block. It can permit simultaneous analysis of molecular targets at the DNA, mRNA, and protein levels under identical, standardized conditions on a single glass slide, and also provide maximal preservation and use of limited and irreplaceable archival tissue samples. This versatile technique, in which data analysis is automated facilitates retrospective and prospective human tissue studies. It is a practical and effective tool for high-throughput molecular analysis of tissues that is helping to identify new diagnostic and prognostic markers and targets in human cancers, and has a range of potential applications in basic research, prognostic oncology and drug discovery. This article summarizes the technical aspects of tissue microarray construction and sectioning, advantages, application, and limitations.

Jawhar, Nazar M.T.

2009-01-01

77

Tissue Microarray: A rapidly evolving diagnostic and research tool.  

PubMed

Tissue microarray is a recent innovation in the field of pathology. A microarray contains many small representative tissue samples from hundreds of different cases assembled on a single histologic slide, and therefore allows high throughput analysis of multiple specimens at the same time. Tissue microarrays are paraffin blocks produced by extracting cylindrical tissue cores from different paraffin donor blocks and re-embedding these into a single recipient (microarray) block at defined array coordinates. Using this technique, up to 1000 or more tissue samples can be arrayed into a single paraffin block. It can permit simultaneous analysis of molecular targets at the DNA, mRNA, and protein levels under identical, standardized conditions on a single glass slide, and also provide maximal preservation and use of limited and irreplaceable archival tissue samples. This versatile technique, in which data analysis is automated, facilitates retrospective and prospective human tissue studies. It is a practical and effective tool for high-throughput molecular analysis of tissues that is helping to identify new diagnostic and prognostic markers and targets in human cancers, and has a range of potential applications in basic research, prognostic oncology and drug discovery. This article summarizes the technical aspects of tissue microarray construction and sectioning, advantages, application, and limitations. PMID:19318744

Jawhar, Nazar M T

78

Science in the Eyes of Preschool Children: Findings from an Innovative Research Tool  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

How do young children view science? Do these views reflect cultural stereotypes? When do these views develop? These fundamental questions in the field of science education have rarely been studied with the population of preschool children. One main reason is the lack of an appropriate research instrument that addresses preschool children's developmental competencies. Extensive body of research has pointed at the significance of early childhood experiences in developing positive attitudes and interests toward learning in general and the learning of science in particular. Theoretical and empirical research suggests that stereotypical views of science may be replaced by authentic views following inquiry science experience. However, no preschool science intervention program could be designed without a reliable instrument that provides baseline information about preschool children's current views of science. The current study presents preschool children's views of science as gathered from a pioneering research tool. This tool, in the form of a computer "game," does not require reading, writing, or expressive language skills and is operated by the children. The program engages children in several simple tasks involving picture recognition and yes/no answers in order to reveal their views about science. The study was conducted with 120 preschool children in two phases and found that by the age of 4 years, participants possess an emergent concept of science. Gender and school differences were detected. Findings from this interdisciplinary study will contribute to the fields of early childhood, science education, learning technologies, program evaluation, and early childhood curriculum development.

Dubosarsky, Mia D.

79

International Cancer Research Portfolio: New On-Line Tool Will Aid in Cancer Research Collaboration and Planning  

Cancer.gov

Cancer researchers around the world now have a powerful new tool at their fingertips that provides instant access to information on ongoing cancer research supported by cancer funding organizations within the United States and the United Kingdom.

80

Automated control of the velocity of in-tube diagnostic tools for main gas pipelines: I. Development, design, and operating principle of a bypass device  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study considers the development, design, and operating principle of a bypass device integrated into existing in-tube diagnostic\\u000a tools. The bypass device is designed for automated control of the velocity of in-tube pig flaw detectors in main gas pipelines.\\u000a Equipment of in-tube diagnostic tools with an automated-control system for the velocity provides performance of in-tube inspection\\u000a without decreasing gas transportation.

A. M. Podgorbunskikh; V. E. Loskutov; V. A. Kanaikin; A. F. Matvienko

2007-01-01

81

METABOLOMICS AS A DIAGNOSTIC TOOL FOR SMALL FISH TOXICOLOGY RESEARCH  

EPA Science Inventory

Metabolomics involves the application of advanced analytical and statistical tools to profile changes in levels of endogenous metabolites in tissues and biofluids resulting from disease onset or stress. While certain metabolites are being specifically targeted in these studies, w...

82

Improving studentsâ understanding of quantum measurement. II. Development of research-based learning tools  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We describe the development and implementation of research-based learning tools such as the Quantum Interactive Learning Tutorials and peer-instruction tools to reduce studentsâ common difficulties with issues related to measurement in quantum mechanics. A preliminary evaluation shows that these learning tools are effective in improving students' understanding of concepts related to quantum measurement.

Zhu, Guangtian; Singh, Chandralekha

2012-05-16

83

Improving Students' Understanding of Quantum Measurement. II. Development of Research-Based Learning Tools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We describe the development and implementation of research-based learning tools such as the Quantum Interactive Learning Tutorials and peer-instruction tools to reduce students' common difficulties with issues related to measurement in quantum mechanics. A preliminary evaluation shows that these learning tools are effective in improving students'…

Zhu, Guangtian; Singh, Chandralekha

2012-01-01

84

UMAC Based Motion Control System Architecture Research of Reconfigurable Machine Tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on high speed micro turn-milling complex machine tool and machining characteristic of micro parts, the reconfigurable theory and other related technologies are discussed in this dissertation to implement integrity machining and enhance machining efficiency. The general function analysis of micro turn-milling complex machining tool is done and it is the research foundation of universe technologies of reconfigurable machining tool.

Zhang Jian-cheng; Zhao Lin-hui; Rao Jun; Liu Jian

2010-01-01

85

Object-oriented simulation research on components of inner fuel main pipe in aero-engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to find the control characteristics of fuel flow rate of inner fuel main pipe in aero-engines, the influences of parameters on the flow rate need to be studied systematically. This paper uses object-oriented AMESim to investigate modelling and simulation of the main control components. Modeling methods of components such as electrohydraulic servo valve, pressure difference valve and flow

Wang Bin; Zhou Lifeng; Yang Jinli; Ye Zhifeng

2010-01-01

86

RESEARCH ON CHILDREN'S MAIN IDEA COMPREHENSION: A PROBLEM OF ECOLOGICAL VALIDITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses the generalizability of educational research. The argument is made that educational researchers too frequently take the results from highly?controlled, laboratory studies that possess low levels of ecological validity (generalizability) and apply them to real?life, educational settings. It is further argued that this practice is dangerous and can lead to unjustified or erroneous educational recommendations. The research area

James F. Baumann

1982-01-01

87

Report on the Property Research Workshop (Orono, Maine, June 25-28, 1975). Publication No. 9.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In response to the complexities of technological, social, political, and institutional change, the Property Research Workshop focused on the theoretical, rather than the empirical aspects of property-related research. Specifically, emphasis was on analytical and institutional approaches to research. Ten institutionally-related propositions were…

Colyer, Dale, Comp.

88

[Research on infrared safety protection system for machine tool].  

PubMed

In order to ensure personal safety and prevent injury accident in machine tool operation, an infrared machine tool safety system was designed with infrared transmitting-receiving module, memory self-locked relay and voice recording-playing module. When the operator does not enter the danger area, the system has no response. Once the operator's whole or part of body enters the danger area and shades the infrared beam, the system will alarm and output an control signal to the machine tool executive element, and at the same time, the system makes the machine tool emergency stop to prevent equipment damaged and person injured. The system has a module framework, and has many advantages including safety, reliability, common use, circuit simplicity, maintenance convenience, low power consumption, low costs, working stability, easy debugging, vibration resistance and interference resistance. It is suitable for being installed and used in different machine tools such as punch machine, pour plastic machine, digital control machine, armor plate cutting machine, pipe bending machine, oil pressure machine etc. PMID:18619302

Zhang, Shuan-Ji; Zhang, Zhi-Ling; Yan, Hui-Ying; Wang, Song-De

2008-04-01

89

'Model' or 'tool'? New definitions for translational research.  

PubMed

The term 'model' often describes non-human biological systems that are used to obtain a better understanding of human disorders. According to the most stringent definition, an animal 'model' would display exactly the same phenotype as seen in the relevant human disorder; however, this precise correspondence is often not present. In this Editorial, I propose the alternative, broader term 'tool' to describe a biological system that does not obviously (or precisely) recapitulate a human disorder, but that nonetheless provides useful insight into the etiology or treatment of that disorder. Applying the term 'tool' to biological systems used in disease-related studies will help to identify those systems that can most effectively address mechanisms underlying human disease. Conversely, differentiating 'models' from 'tools' will help to define more clearly the limitations of biological systems used in preclinical analyses. PMID:21357758

Sive, Hazel

2011-03-01

90

CAQDAS: a supplementary tool for qualitative market research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The aims of the paper are twofold: to assess the usage of Computer Assisted Qualitative Data Analysis (CAQDAS) in the UK market research industry; and to evaluate the use of CAQDAS as a supplement to paper-coding in market research. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – CAQDAS usage was assessed by a questionnaire, sent to a sample of 400 UK market researchers. The

Ruth Rettie; Helen Robinson; Anja Radke; Xiajiao Ye

2008-01-01

91

Research Tool Patents--Rumours of their Death are Greatly Exaggerated  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Using a patented drug during clinical trials is not infringement [35 U.S.C. 271(e)(1)]. Merck v Integra enlarged this "safe harbour" to accommodate preclinical use of drugs and patented "research tools" if "reasonably related" to FDA approval. The decision allowed lower courts, should they wish, to find any use of a research tool, except for…

Carroll, Peter G.; Roberts, John S.

2006-01-01

92

Research Tool Patents--Rumours of their Death are Greatly Exaggerated  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a patented drug during clinical trials is not infringement [35 U.S.C. 271(e)(1)]. Merck v Integra enlarged this "safe harbour" to accommodate preclinical use of drugs and patented "research tools" if "reasonably related" to FDA approval. The decision allowed lower courts, should they wish, to find any use of a research tool, except for…

Carroll, Peter G.; Roberts, John S.

2006-01-01

93

Diffusion of latent semantic analysis as a research tool: A social network analysis approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) is a relatively new research tool with a wide range of applications in different fields ranging from discourse analysis to cognitive science, from information retrieval to machine learning and so on. In this paper, we chart the development and diffusion of LSA as a research tool using Social Network Analysis (SNA) approach that reveals the social

Yasar Tonta; Hamid R. Darvish

2010-01-01

94

Evaluating Students' Science Notebooks as an Assessment Tool. Research Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The idea of using science notebooks as a classroom assessment tool is not new. There is general agreement that science notebooks allow teachers to assess students' conceptual and procedural understanding and to provide the feedback students need for improving their performance. In this study we examined the use of science notebooks as an…

Ruiz-Primo, Maria; Li, Min; Ayala, Carlos; Shavelson, Richard

2004-01-01

95

Specially Made for Science: Researchers Develop Online Tools For Collaborations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Blogs, wikis, and social-networking sites such as Facebook may get media buzz these days, but for scientists, engineers, and doctors, they are not even on the radar. The most effective tools of the Internet for such people tend to be efforts more narrowly aimed at their needs, such as software that helps geneticists replicate one another's…

Guterman, Lila

2008-01-01

96

Sandmark--A Tool for Software Protection Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sandmark is a tool that measures the effectiveness of software-based methods for protecting software from piracy, tampering, and reverse engineering. The Sandmark team's goal is to develop techniques that will let users determine empirically which algorithms have the least performance overhead and the highest resilience to attacks.

Christian S. Collberg; Ginger Myles; Andrew Huntwork

2003-01-01

97

A lexical database tool for quantitative phonological research  

Microsoft Academic Search

A lexical database tool tailored for phonological res- earch is described. Database fields include transcrip- tions, glosses and hyperlinks to speech files. Database queries are expressed using HTML forms, and these permit regular expression search on any combination of fields. Regular expressions are passed directly to a Perl CGI program, enabling the full flexibility of Perl extended regular expressions. The

Steven Bird

1997-01-01

98

Temperature Intelligent Control System Research for Quencher Machine Tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper brings forward the renovation project for the quencher machine tool, by analyzing quenching techniques of the silicon-steel roller and designing its control system. First it introduces the fuzzy temperature controller's construction and application method for the control system in detail. Then it obtains the satisfying control effect via applying the method to temperature control of the intermediate frequency

Yu-Chuan Wu; Zhi-Yong Zuo

2007-01-01

99

Health Services Research Tools for Public Health Professionals  

PubMed Central

Although the fields of public health and health services research have much in common, public health practitioners—in their daily encounters with practical, frontline challenges—may not be aware of the quantity and the quality of information generated by health services research that is directly related to public health activities. We describe a number of health services research resources that public health practitioners may find useful, including an overview of these resources and several in-depth examples.

Whitener, B. Lynn; Van Horne, Virginia V.; Gauthier, Anne K.

2005-01-01

100

NetFPGA: A Tool for Network Research and Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

ó NetFPGA is a platform that allows students to build real networking hardware, using industry-standard design tools (e.g. Verilog), then deploy and debug their hardware in an opera- tional network. In the canonical classroom design exercise, a stu- dent builds an Ethernet switch, or an Internet router and makes it interoperate with other students' solutions. NetFPGA-v1 has been used in

Greg Watson; Nick McKeown; Martin Casado

2006-01-01

101

Time studies as a tool for (computer science) education research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer Science Education Research is often done in a very local setting and findings are difficult to transfer to other institutions. There are however several factors that speak in favor of expanding the research to an international scale, one is the wide spread of use of English and another is that the components taught are similar. Time is an important

Anna Sandström; Mats Daniels

2000-01-01

102

VHF and UHF Doppler Radars as Tools for Synoptic Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Applications of VHF and UHF Doppler radars to research in synoptic meteorology are reviewed. We find that these radars show great potential for studies of large scales, but the area of research where the instruments really excel is in studying the interaction between the synoptic scale and the mesoscale. Several examples of results in both these areas are presented. Finally,

M. F. Larsen; J. Röttger

1982-01-01

103

TOOLS FOR RESEARCH AND EDUCATION IN SPEECH SCIENCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Center for Spoken Language Understanding (CSLU) provides free language resources to researchers and educators in all areas of speech and hearing science. These resources are of great potential value to speech scientists for analyzing speech, for diagnosing and treating speech and language problems, for researching and evaluating language technologies, and for training students in the theory and practice of

Ronald A. Cole

104

Focus groups: A new tool for qualitative research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Focus groups have received little attention from sociologists, although they are a commonly used qualitative technique in market research. The data collected in focus group sessions typically consist of tape-recorded group discussions among four to ten participants who share their thoughts and experiences on a set of topics selected by the researcher. We present a brief description of dimensions along

David L. Morgan; Margaret T. Spanish

1984-01-01

105

Process Models as Tools in Forestry Research and Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forest process models are mathematical representations of biological systems that incorporate our understanding of physiological and ecological mechanisms into predictive algorithms. These models were originally designed and used for research purposes, but are being developed for use in practical forest management. Process models designed for research typically require complicated and intensive data, whereas models designed for management strive to use

Kurt Johnsen; Lisa Samuelson; Robert Teskey; Steve McNulty; Tom Fox

2001-01-01

106

Research as an educational tool: experience from Balint groups.  

PubMed

The educational and professional value of research is real but may be deceptive and costly. The history and theory of Balint groups for GPs are reviewed. The value of research in the context of Balint groups is examined and some implications of this experience are discussed in relation to a professional ethos for doctors and their teachers. PMID:723684

Bourne, S; Lewis, E

1978-09-01

107

SPECIES PLANNING: AN APPROACH TO BLACK BEAR MANAGEMENT AND RESEARCH IN MAINE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Maine Department of Inland Fisheries and Wildlife began the active phase of comprehensive species planning in 1974 and implemented the resultant plan for black bears (Ursus americanus) in 1975. The black bear's past, present, and projected future status were evaluated in terms of interrelationships among population, density, distribution, habitat, use-demand, and use-opportunity. Alternate goals and objectives were formulated for

ROY D. HUGIE

108

Main differences in Body Image (BI) perception between American and Chinese consumers: selected research results  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, there has been an observably increasing interest in one's own body appearance. By attempting to identify the main differences in body image perception within two culturally different backgrounds (the US and China), this paper examines the relationship between the way consumers perceive (ideal) body image in a particular culture, and the product categories advertised in media helping

Dagmar Skokanová

2010-01-01

109

Transit Signal Priority Research Tools. (Report for 2005-2008).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the results of a research project that addresses Transit Signal Priority (TSP) deployment issues. The report reviews National Transportation Communications for ITS Protocol (NTCIP) 1211 Signal Control and Prioritization (SCP) standard...

M. Li P. Koonce S. Beaird Y. Li Y. Li

2008-01-01

110

Understanding information policy: concepts, frameworks and research tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the need for a more systematic and critical approach to the academic study of information policy at national and international level. It reviews the complex, multifaceted nature of large-scale information policy problems and considers some of the main sources of confusion in the journal literature. It is argued that while information policy has been largely technology-driven, the

Ian Rowlands

1996-01-01

111

Market research for requirements analysis using linguistic tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous studies in recent months have proposed the use of linguistic instruments to support requirements analysis. There are two main reasons for this: (i) the progress made in natural language processing, (ii) the need to provide the developers of software systems with support in the early phases of requirements definition and conceptual modelling. This paper presents the results of an

Luisa Mich; Mariangela Franch; Pierluigi Novi Inverardi

2004-01-01

112

Inhibitory RNA in epilepsy: Research tool and therapeutic perspectives  

PubMed Central

Summary Since its discovery a decade ago, RNA interference (RNAi) has been developed not only into powerful experimental tools but also into promising novel therapeutics. In contrast to conventional antiepileptic drugs that target specific proteins such as ion channels or receptors, RNAi –based therapeutics exploit an endogenous regulatory mechanism of gene expression and thereby are poised to prevent or reverse pathogenetic mechanisms involved in seizure development. Therapeutic RNAi has been widely explored for dominant targets involved in neurodegenerative diseases; however, their use for epilepsy therapy has received less attention. This review will discuss potential RNAi-based targets that are of interest for epilepsy therapy, including adenosine kinase (ADK), the key negative regulator of the brain’s endogenous anticonvulsant adenosine. Overexpression of ADK, and the resulting adenosine deficiency, are pathological hallmarks of the sclerotic epileptic brain, and have been implicated in seizure generation. Therefore, RNAi-strategies aimed at reducing ADK (and increasing adenosine) are based on a direct neurochemical rationale that has recently been explored experimentally using ex vivo and in vivo gene therapy approaches. Technical issues and challenges remain before those promising tools can be developed into future therapeutics for epilepsy.

Boison, Detlev

2010-01-01

113

Modelling and simulation as research tools in paediatric drug development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Although practical and ethical constraints impose special requirements for the evaluation of treatment safety and efficacy\\u000a in children, the main issue remains the empirical basis for patient stratification and dose selection at the early stage of\\u000a the development of new chemical and biological entities. The aim of this review is to highlight the advantages and limitations\\u000a of modelling and simulation

Francesco Bellanti; Oscar Della Pasqua

2011-01-01

114

2011 Raditation & Climate Gordon Research Conference (July 10-15 2011- Colby College, Waterville, Maine)  

SciTech Connect

The 2011 Gordon Research Conference on Radiation and Climate will present cutting-edge research on outstanding issues in climate change, particularly those in which the interactions between clouds, aerosols, and precipitation play a major role. The Conference will feature a broad range of topics, including grand challenges in atmospheric radiation and climate, cloud and water vapor feedbacks, aerosol-cloud-precipitation-climate interactions across scales, new approaches for remote sensing and in-situ observations of clouds, aerosols and precipitation, and multi-scale modeling challenges. The invited speakers will present the most important recent advances and future challenges in these areas. The Conference will bring together a collection of leading investigators who are at the forefront of their field, and will provide opportunities for scientists, especially junior scientists and graduate students, to present their work in poster format and exchange ideas with leaders in the field. The collegial atmosphere of this Conference, with programmed discussion sessions as well as opportunities for informal gatherings in the afternoons and evenings, provides an avenue for scientists from different disciplines to brainstorm and promotes cross-disciplinary collaborations in the various research areas represented.

Prof. Max Hoggblom

2012-02-09

115

Human Genome Project: New Tools for Tomorrow's Health Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Human Genome Project is discussed within the context of the benefits that can be derived from human biological and biomedical research in the 21st century. Explanations are given about what chromosome mapping is and the different kinds that exist. Nex...

1990-01-01

116

Citizen Science as an Ecological Research Tool: Challenges and Benefits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citizen science, the involvement of volunteers in research, has increased the scale of ecological field studies with continent-wide, centralized monitoring efforts and, more rarely, tapping of volunteers to conduct large, coordinated, field experiments. The unique benefit for the field of ecology lies in understanding processes occurring at broad geographic scales and on private lands, which are impossible to sample extensively

Janis L. Dickinson; Benjamin Zuckerberg; David N. Bonter

117

Computers, Laptops and Tools. ACER Research Monograph No. 56.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1997, Balwyn High School (Australia) instituted a class of 28 Year 7 students to use laptop computers across the curriculum. This report details findings from an action research project that monitored important aspects of what happened when this program was introduced. A range of measures was developed to assess the influence of the use of…

Ainley, Mary; Bourke, Valerie; Chatfield, Robert; Hillman, Kylie; Watkins, Ian

118

Configural Frequency Analysis as a Statistical Tool for Developmental Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Configural frequency analysis (CFA) is suggested as a technique for longitudinal research in developmental psychology. Stability and change in answers to multiple choice and yes-no item patterns obtained with repeated measurements are identified by CFA and illustrated by developmental analysis of an item from Gorham's Proverb Test. (Author/DWH)

Lienert, Gustav A.; Oeveste, Hans Zur

1985-01-01

119

Voice recognition technology as a tool for behavioral research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behavioral research often requires the acquisition and processing of large volumes of data. Most cur- rent techniques for recording behavior constrain the amount and type of data that can be measured. We developed and tested a system that uses voice recognition technology to collect data on the social inter- actions and singing patterns of cowbirds (Molothrus ater) living outdoors in

DAVID J. WHITE; ANDREW P. KING; SHAN D. DUNCAN

2002-01-01

120

Fish as research tools: alternatives to in vivo experiments.  

PubMed

The use of fish in scientific research is increasing worldwide, due to both the rapid expansion of the fish farming industry and growing awareness of questions concerning the humane use of mammalian models in basic research and chemical testing. As fish are lower on the evolutionary scale than mammals, they are considered to be less sentient. Fish models are providing researchers, and those concerned with animal welfare, with opportunities for adhering to the Three Rs principles of refinement, reduction and replacement. However, it should be kept in mind that fish should also be covered by the principles of the Three Rs. Indeed, various studies have shown that fish are capable of nociception, and of experiencing pain in a manner analogous to that in mammals. Thus, emphasis needs to be placed on the development of alternatives that replace, as much as possible, the use of all living vertebrate animals, including fish. This review gives the first comprehensive and critical overview of the existing alternatives for live fish experimental studies. The alternative methods described range from cell and tissue cultures, organ and perfusion models, and embryonic models, to in silico computer and mathematical models. This article aspires to guide scientists in the adoption of the correct alternative methods in their research, and, whenever possible, to reduce the use of live fish. PMID:23971702

Schaeck, Marlien; Van den Broeck, Wim; Hermans, Katleen; Decostere, Annemie

2013-07-01

121

Stephenson's Q Methodology: A Unique Tool for Research and Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Q methodology, a theory-based research technique begun by William Stephenson, permits a scientific approach to the study of subjective ideas, and proves useful in studying intrapersonal communication processes in a variety of contexts. The Q-sort, which incorporates Q methodology into a measure, allows respondents to sort statements (pictures or…

Aitken, Joan E.

122

TPACK: An Emerging Research and Development Tool for Teacher Educators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|TPACK (technological pedagogical content knowledge) has emerged as a clear and useful construct for researchers working to understand technology integration in learning and teaching. Whereas first generation TPACK work focused upon explaining and interpreting the construct, TPACK has now entered a second generation where the focus is upon using…

Baran, Evrim; Chuang, Hsueh-Hua; Thompson, Ann

2011-01-01

123

Reimagining Science Education and Pedagogical Tools: Blending Research with Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The future of higher education in the sciences will be marked by programs that link skilled educators and research scientists from around the world with teachers for professional development and with students for high-impact learning--either virtually or physically in the field. These programs will use technology where possible to build new and…

McLaughlin, Jacqueline S.

2010-01-01

124

Computers, Laptops and Tools. ACER Research Monograph No. 56.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In 1997, Balwyn High School (Australia) instituted a class of 28 Year 7 students to use laptop computers across the curriculum. This report details findings from an action research project that monitored important aspects of what happened when this program was introduced. A range of measures was developed to assess the influence of the use of…

Ainley, Mary; Bourke, Valerie; Chatfield, Robert; Hillman, Kylie; Watkins, Ian

125

Administrative Data Linkage as a Tool for Child Maltreatment Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Linking administrative data records for the same individuals across services and over time offers a powerful, population-wide resource for child maltreatment research that can be used to identify risk and protective factors and to examine outcomes. Multistage de-identification processes have been developed to protect privacy and maintain…

Brownell, Marni D.; Jutte, Douglas P.

2013-01-01

126

Zebrafish as a tool in Alzheimer's disease research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alzheimer's disease is the most prevalent form of neurodegenerative disease. Despite many years of intensive research our understanding of the molecular events leading to this pathology is far from complete. No effective treatments have been defined and questions surround the validity and utility of existing animal models. The zebrafish (and, in particular, its embryos) is a malleable and accessible model

Morgan Newman; Giuseppe Verdile; Ralph N. Martins; Michael Lardelli

2011-01-01

127

Ready Reference Tools: EBSCO Topic Search and SIRS Researcher.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of ready reference and current events collections in high school libraries focuses on a comparison of two CD-ROM services, EBSCO Topic Search and the SIRS Researcher. Considers licensing; access; search strategies; viewing articles; currency; printing; added value features; and advantages of CD-ROMs. (LRW)

Goins, Sharon; Dayment, Lu

1998-01-01

128

Satellite telemetry: A new tool for wildlife research and management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Argos Data Collection and Location System can be used to systematically acquire detailed locational and behavioral data from animals via satellite. System components, applications of satellite technology to wildlife research and management, and use of geographic information systems are described. A computer software package for analyzing satellite telemetry data is presented.

Fancy, Steve G.; Pank, Larry F.; Douglas, David C.; Curby, Catherine H.; Garner, Gerald W.; Amstrup, Steven E.; Regelin, Wayne L.

1988-12-01

129

Guiding Independence: Developing a Research Tool to Support Student Decision Making in Selecting Online Information Sources  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The development and use of a research tool to guide fourth-grade students' use of information sources during a research project is described in this article. Over a period of five weeks, 21 fourth-grade students in an international school in Singapore participated in a study investigating the extent to which the use of a "research resource guide"…

Baildon, Rindi; Baildon, Mark

2008-01-01

130

Group supervision in psychotherapy. Main findings from a Swedish research project on psychotherapy supervision in a group format  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychotherapy supervision is considered crucial for psychotherapists in training. During the last decades, group supervision has been a frequently used format in many countries. Until recently, very few studies had evaluated the small-group format for training of beginner psychotherapists and psychotherapy supervisors. This article aims to summarise and discuss main findings from a research project which used questionnaires to collect

Marie-Louise Ögren; Eva C. Sundin

2009-01-01

131

Composition and emissions of VOCs in main- and side-stream smoke of research cigarettes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well known that mainstream (MS) and sidestream (SS) cigarette smoke contains a vast number of chemical substances. Previous studies have emphasized SS smoke rather than MS smoke to which smokers are exposed, and most have used chamber tests that have several disadvantages such as wall losses. Emissions from standard research cigarettes have been measured, but relatively few constituents have been reported, and only the 1R4F (low nicotine) cigarette type has been tested. This study provides a comprehensive characterization of total, MS and SS smoke emissions for the 1R5F (ultra low nicotine), 2R4F (low nicotine), and 1R3F (standard nicotine) research cigarettes research cigarettes, including emission factors for a number of toxic compounds (e.g., benzene) and tobacco smoke tracers (e.g., 2,5-dimethyl furan). Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and particulate matter (PM) are quantified using a dynamic dilution emission measurement system that is shown to produce accurate, rapid and reproducible results for over 30 VOCs and PM. SS and MS emissions were accurately apportioned based on a mass balance of total emissions. As expected, SS emissions greatly exceeded MS emissions. The ultra low nicotine cigarette had lower emissions of most VOCs compared to low and standard nicotine cigarettes, which had similar emissions. Across the three types of cigarettes, emissions of benzene (296-535 ?g cig -1), toluene (541-1003 ?g cig -1), styrene (90-162 ?g cig -1), 2-dimethyl furan (71-244 ?g cig -1), naphthalene (15-18 ?g cig -1) and other VOCs were generally comparable to or somewhat higher than literature estimates using chamber tests.

Charles, Simone M.; Batterman, S. A.; Jia, Chunrong

132

Pre-service primary teachers' understanding of electricity - Using concept mapping as a research tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concept mapping has been used variously as a tool for learning and teaching science, for encouraging reflective learning, for assessing students' con- ceptual development and as a research tool, probing understanding and searching for alternative frameworks and misconceptions. In the study described in this paper, concept mapping was one of a number of probes used to explore the conceptual understanding

Bruce Murray; Rae Stark

133

Civil Works Operations & Maintenance Management Tools Research Program: Program Summary FY 2000 - FY 2002.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the Civil Works O AND M Tools research and development program was to develop new decision support tools and improve old ones that could remove a degree of subjectivity from the business of developing and executing the O AND M program. The ...

D. T. McKay S. D. Foltz

2005-01-01

134

An Evaluation Tool for Machine Translation: Fast Evaluation for MT Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a tool for the evaluation of translat ion quality. First, the typical requirements of such a tool i n the framework of machine translation (MT) research are discussed. We define e valuation criteria which are more adequate than pure edit distance and we describe how the measurement along these quality criteria is performed semi-automaticallyin a

Gregor Leusch; Hermann Ney; RWTH Aachen

2000-01-01

135

Soil and Water Assessment Tool: Historical Development, Applications, and Future Research Directions, The  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model is a continuation of nearly 30 years of modeling efforts conducted by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Agricultural Research Service. SWAT has gained international acceptance as a robust interdisciplinary watershed modeling tool, as evidenced by international SWAT conferences, hundreds of SWAT-related papers presented at numerous scientific meetings, and dozens of articles

Philip W. Gassman; Manuel R. Reyes; Colleen H. Green; Jeffrey G. Arnold

2007-01-01

136

A Distributed eResearch Tool for Evaluating Source Backtracking Algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an eResearch tool for evaluating and comparing Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear (CBRN) source-backtracking algorithms. The tool enables users to define a CBRN threat scenario to be simulated, which includes the geographical area of concern specified through a map, the simulated threat sources and their placement, and the configuration of sensors. Users can define multiple searchers who

Shanika Karunasekera; John Beaton; Adrian Dimech; Alex Skvortsov; Ajith Gunatilaka

2010-01-01

137

Argus: A suite of tools for research in complex cognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Argus simulates a radar-like target classification task. It was developed to support research in measuring and modeling cognitive\\u000a work load. Argus is used in both single-subject and team modes. However, the Argus systemis more than just a simulated task\\u000a environment. Argus features flexible experimenter control over cognitive work load, as well as extensive data collection and\\u000a data playback facilities to

Michael J. Schoelles; Wayne D. Gray

2001-01-01

138

CAMS as a tool for human factors research in spaceflight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper reviews a number of research studies that were carried out with a PC-based task environment called Cabin Air Management System (CAMS) simulating the operation of a spacecraft's life support system. As CAMS was a multiple task environment, it allowed the measurement of performance at different levels. Four task components of different priority were embedded in the task environment: diagnosis and repair of system faults, maintaining atmospheric parameters in a safe state, acknowledgement of system alarms (reaction time), and keeping a record of critical system resources (prospective memory). Furthermore, the task environment permitted the examination of different task management strategies and changes in crew member state (fatigue, anxiety, mental effort). A major goal of the research programme was to examine how crew members adapted to various forms of sub-optimal working conditions, such as isolation and confinement, sleep deprivation and noise. None of the studies provided evidence for decrements in primary task performance. However, the results showed a number of adaptive responses of crew members to adjust to the different sub-optimal working conditions. There was evidence for adjustments in information sampling strategies (usually reductions in sampling frequency) as a result of unfavourable working conditions. The results also showed selected decrements in secondary task performance. Prospective memory seemed to be somewhat more vulnerable to sub-optimal working conditions than performance on the reaction time task. Finally, suggestions are made for future research with the CAMS environment.

Sauer, Juergen

2004-01-01

139

Shadow Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Improved Performance Research Integration Tool (IMPRINT) Model Supporting Future Combat Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study describes the creation of an IMPRINT (Improved Performance Research Integration Tool) model to describe crew workload levels in the Shadow unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). Field data were collected for tasks performed by Shadow UAV crews. This mo...

B. P. Hunn O. H. Heuckeroth

2006-01-01

140

Neuroproteomics as a promising tool in Parkinson's disease research  

PubMed Central

Despite the vast number of studies on Parkinson’s disease (PD), its effective diagnosis and treatment remains unsatisfactory. Hence, the relentless search for an optimal cure continues. The emergence of neuroproteomics, with its sophisticated techniques and non-biased ability to quantify proteins, provides a methodology with which to study the changes in neurons that are associated with neurodegeneration. Neuroproteomics is an emerging tool to establish disease-associated protein profiles, while also generating a greater understanding as to how these proteins interact and undergo post-translational modifications. Furthermore, due to the advances made in bioinformatics, insight is created concerning their functional characteristics. In this review, we first summarize the most prominent proteomics techniques and then discuss the major advances in the fast-growing field of neuroproteomics in PD. Ultimately, it is hoped that the application of this technology will lead towards a presymptomatic diagnosis of PD, and the identification of risk factors and new therapeutic targets at which pharmacological intervention can be aimed.

Daniels, William M. U.; Gotz, Jurgen

2010-01-01

141

Research as a tool for the teaching of epidemiology.  

PubMed

At a medical school in India, undergraduates have been given the opportunity to volunteer to conduct research as a means of improving their knowledge and understanding of epidemiology. First-year clinical students have conducted case-control studies with emphasis on methodological detail. Second-year students have been involved in community-based epidemiological studies. At the intern level, projects related to social factors in health and disease and to health administration have been encouraged. This initiative has been largely welcomed by the students and has yielded highly encouraging results. PMID:8141977

Soudarssanane, M B; Rotti, S B; Roy, G; Srinivasa, D K

1994-01-01

142

``Tools for Astrometry": A Windows-based Research Tool for Asteroid Discovery and Measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a Windows-based interactive digital astrometry package with a simple, ergonomic interface, designed for the discovery, measurement, and recording of asteroid positions by individual observers. The software, "Tools For Astrometry", will handle FITS and SBIG format images up to 2048 x 2048 (or larger, depending on RAM), and provides features for blinking images or subframes of images, and measurement of positions and magnitudes against both the HST Guide Star Catalog and the USNO SA-1 catalog,. In addition, the program can calculate ephemerides from element tables, including the Lowell Asteroid Database available online, can generate charts of star-fields showing the motion of asteroids from the ephemeris superimposed against the background star field, can project motions of measured asteroids ahead several days using linear interpolation for purposes of reacquisition, and can calculate projected baselines for asteroid parallax measurements. Images, charts, and tables of ephemerides can printed as well as displayed, and reports can be generated in the standard format of the IAU Minor Planet Center. The software is designed ergonomically, and one can go from raw images to completed astrometric report in a matter of minutes. The software is an extension of software developed for introductory astronomy laboratories by Project CLEA, which is supported by grants from Gettysburg College and the National Science Foundation.

Snyder, G. A.; Marschall, L. A.; Good, R. F.; Hayden, M. B.; Cooper, P. R.

1998-12-01

143

Performance calculations for battery power supplies as laboratory research tools  

SciTech Connect

Electromagnetic Launcher (EML) research at the Air Force Armament Laboratory, Hypervelocity Launcher Branch (AFATL/SAH), Eglin AFB, has focused on developing the technologies required for repetitively launching several kilogram payloads to high velocities. Previous AFATL/SAH experiments have been limited by the available power supply resulting in small muzzle energies on the order of 100's of kJ. In an effort to advance the development of EML's, AFATL/SAH has designed and constructed a battery power supply (BPS) capable of providing several mega-Amperes of current for several seconds. This system consists of six modules each containing 2288 automotive batteries which may be connected in two different series - parallel arrangements. In this paper the authors define the electrical characteristics of the AFATL Battery Power supply at the component level.

Scanlon, J.J.; Rolader, G.E.; Jamison, K.A. (Science Applications International Corp., Marietta, GA (US)); Petresky, H. (Air Force Armament Lab., Eglin AFB, FL (United States))

1991-01-01

144

Skype: a tool for functional assessment in orthopaedic research.  

PubMed

Skype is a free program which enables PC users to make video calls to other users with Internet access. We carried out a prospective review of all acromioclavicular joint hook plates for lateral-third clavicle fractures over a five-year period. Functional assessment with Oxford and Constant shoulder scores were carried out using Skype and compared to outpatient review using the Bland-Altman method. Of 36 patients (mean age 36 years), 33 had a computer with a video camera, all 33 had Internet access and 22 were already users of Skype. In total 29 patients were happy to take part in Skype assessment (83%). In comparison with outpatient review, there was a mean difference in the Oxford score of -0.48 (95% confidence interval -0.84, -0.12); the mean difference for the Constant score was -0.68 (95% confidence interval -1.08, -0.29). These differences were not clinically significant, confirming that Skype can be used as an alternative to goniometry in this clinical setting. A survey showed that 93% of 29 patients surveyed preferred the use of Skype for follow-up, mainly due to the convenience and cost-saving involved. The study demonstrates the potential for this new technique in providing patients with more options for follow-up. PMID:22247538

Good, Daniel W; Lui, Darren F; Leonard, Michael; Morris, Seamus; McElwain, John P

2012-01-13

145

Advanced imaging microscope tools applied to microgravity research investigations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The inability to observe and interact with experiments on orbit has been an impediment for both basic research and commercial ventures using the shuttle. In order to open the frontiers of space, the Center for Microgravity Automation Technology has developed a unique and innovative system for conducting experiments at a distance, the ``Remote Scientist.'' The Remote Scientist extends laboratory automation capability to the microgravity environment. While the Remote Scientist conceptually encompasses a broad spectrum of elements and functionalities, the development approach taken is to: • establish a baseline capability that is both flexible and versatile • incrementally augment the baseline with additional functions over time. Since last year, the application of the Remote Scientist has changed from protein crystal growth to tissue culture, specifically, the development of skeletal muscle under varying levels of tension. This system includes a series of bioreactor chambers that allow for three-dimensional growth of muscle tissue on a membrane suspended between the two ends of a programmable force transducer that can provide automated or investigator-initiated tension on the developing tissue. A microscope objective mounted on a translation carriage allows for high-resolution microscopy along a large area of the tissue. These images will be mosaiced on orbit to detect features and structures that span multiple images. The use of fluorescence and pseudo-confocal microscopy will maximize the observational capabilities of this system. A series of ground-based experiments have been performed to validate the bioreactor, the force transducer, the translation carriage and the image acquisition capabilities of the Remote Scientist. • The bioreactor is capable of sustaining three dimensional tissue culture growth over time. • The force transducer can be programmed to provide static tension on cells or to simulate either slow or fast growth of underlying tissues in vivo, ranging from 0.2 mm per day to 32 mm per day. • The two-axis translation carriage is capable of scanning the camera along the bioreactor and adjusting the focus with 25 ?m resolution. • Time-lapse sequences of images have been acquired, stored and transmitted to a remote computer system. Although the current application of the Remote Scientist technology is the observation and manipulation of a tissue culture growth system, the hardware has been designed to be easily reconfigured to accommodate a multitude of experiments, including animal observation, combustion studies, protein crystal growth, plant growth and aquatic research.

Peterson, L.; Samson, J.; Conrad, D.; Clark, K.

1998-01-01

146

Advancing Research in Second Language Writing through Computational Tools and Machine Learning Techniques: A Research Agenda  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper provides an agenda for replication studies focusing on second language (L2) writing and the use of natural language processing (NLP) tools and machine learning algorithms. Specifically, it introduces a range of the available NLP tools and machine learning algorithms and demonstrates how these could be used to replicate seminal studies…

Crossley, Scott A.

2013-01-01

147

The JPL Tropical Cyclone Information System: Data and Tools for Researchers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The JPL Tropical Cyclone Information System (TCIS) is now open to the public. This web portal is designed to assist researchers by providing a one-stop shop for hurricane related data and analysis tools. While there are currently many places that offer storm data, plots, and other information, none offer an extensive archive of data files and images in a common space. The JPL TCIS was created to fill this gap. As currently configured, the JPL Tropical Cyclone Portal has three main features for researchers. The first feature consists of storm-scale data and plots for both observed and modeled data. As of the TCIS' first release, the entire 2005 storm season has been populated with data and plots from AIRS, MLS, AMSU-A, QuikSCAT, Argo floats, WRF models, GPS, and others. Storm data is subsetted to a 1000x1000 km window around the hurricane track for all six oceanic cyclone basins, and all the available data during the life time of any storm can be downloaded with one mouse click. Users can also view pre-generated storm-scale plots from all these data sets that are all co-located to the same temporal and spatial parameters. Work is currently underway to backfill all storm seasons to 1998 with as many relevant data sets as possible. The second offering from this web portal are large-scale data sets and associated visualization tools powered by Google Maps. On this interactive map, researchers can view a particular storm's intensity and track. Users may also overlay large-scale data such as aerosol maps from MODIS and MISR, and a blended microwave sea-surface temperature (SST) to gain an understanding of the large-scale environment of the storm. For example, by using this map, the cold sea-surface temperature wake can be tracked as a storm passes by. The third feature of this portal deals with interactive model and data analysis. A single-parameter analysis tools has recently been developed and added to this portal where users can plot maps, profiles, and histograms of any given data set on this portal and also get several statistics, such as the mean, standard deviation, and median of the data they are viewing. Also available is the ability to compare and condition data sets with each other. For example, users can choose to view sea surface temperature when wind speed is X m/s. Additional data sets continue to be added to this tool and it will eventually expand to include multi- parameter analyses. In this presentation, we will describe the current configuration of the JPL Tropical Cyclone Portal and demonstrate how it will be an asset to researchers. Future plans for the site will also be discussed.

Knosp, B. W.; Ao, C. O.; Chao, Y.; Dang, V.; Garay, M.; Haddad, Z.; Hristova-Veleva, S.; Lambrigtsen, B.; Li, P. P.; Park, K.; Poulsen, W. L.; Rosenman, M. A.; Su, H.; Vane, D.; Vu, Q. A.; Willis, J. K.; Wu, D.

2008-12-01

148

Modelling the human epidermis in vitro: tools for basic and applied research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Culture models of tissues and organs are valuable tools developed by basic research that help investigation of the body functions. Modelling is aimed at simplifying experimental procedures in order to better understand biological phenomena, and consequently, when sufficiently characterized, culture models can also be utilized with high potential in applied research. In skin biology and pathology, the development of cultures

Yves Poumay; Alain Coquette

2007-01-01

149

The Notion of the Relationship to Knowledge: A Theoretical Tool for Research in Science Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article pursues a dual objective. First, it seeks to present the notion of the relationship to knowledge as a valuable theoretical tool for science education research. Secondly, it aims to illustrate how this notion has been operationalized in recent research conducted in Quebec (Canada) that focuses on teachers' and students' relationship to…

Pouliot, Chantal; Bader, Barbara; Therriault, Genevieve

2010-01-01

150

Using action research as a methodological tool: understanding teachers' understanding of science  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of questions and answers between Jennifer Nias in her role as supervisor and Steve Waters-Adams as student explores the rationale for the inclusion of action research as a methodological tool within a wider PhD study. The study explored the effect of teachers' understanding of the nature of science on their teaching. In discussing the complexities of the research,

Stephen Waters-Adams; Jennifer Nias

2003-01-01

151

The Interpretive Approach as a Research Tool: Inside the REDCo Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This contribution shows how the author's interpretive approach to religious education was used as a theoretical and pedagogical stimulus and an empirical research tool by researchers in the European Commission Framework 6 REDCo (religion, education, dialogue, conflict) project. The origins and development of the interpretive approach, from its…

Jackson, Robert

2011-01-01

152

New Tools for New Literacies Research: An Exploration of Usability Testing Software  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Competency in the new literacies of the Internet is essential for participating in contemporary society. Researchers studying these new literacies are recognizing the limitations of traditional methodological tools and adapting new technologies and new media for use in research. This paper reports our exploration of usability testing software to…

Asselin, Marlene; Moayeri, Maryam

2010-01-01

153

TREND: a tool for rapid online research literature analysis and quantification.  

PubMed

The Research Explicator for oNline Databases (TREND) tool was developed out of a need to quantify large research literatures rapidly and objectively on the basis of online research database output. By parsing such output with TREND, a researcher can in minutes extract the most commonly cited articles, the most frequently published authors, a distribution of publication dates, and a variety of other information from a research literature several thousand articles in size. This tool thus enables an increase in productivity both for researchers venturing into new areas of interest and for advisors and instructors putting together core reading lists. The processing of citations from articles represents a unique challenge, however, because deviations from strict APA formatting cause problems that are sometimes difficult to correct mechanically. A case study of one particularly troublesome citation (Baron & Kenny, 1986) is presented. Usage and implications are discussed. PMID:18697661

Landers, Richard N

2008-08-01

154

Recordkeeping research tools in a multi-disciplinary context for cross-jurisdictional health records systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

An Australian Research Council project, Electronic Health Records: Achieving an Effective and Ethical Legal and Recordkeeping Framework, brought together experts in recordkeeping, privacy, confidentiality, intellectual property, torts, medical law and ethics\\u000a to address concerns with a major networked Australian health record initiative. The research required developing innovative\\u000a research tools and understandings, which provides an exemplar for methodologies to address multiple-disciplinary

Livia Iacovino; Barbara Reed

2008-01-01

155

Research on efficient and stable milling using CNC small size tool  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to mill efficiently and stably using small size tool on computer numerical control machine(CNC machine), the paper establishes dual-objective function on the basis of the minimum tool wear and the largest cutting efficiency. Meanwhile, the influence of diameter and length of tool suspended on stability is considered under the guidance of chatter stability analysis relationship. Research results show that, Pareto solution set which has two factors into account conflicting can be obtained by Genetic Algorithms, combined Pareto solution set with the frequency response function (FRF) chatter stability diagram, Pareto solutions of the smaller range of options, the milling parameters which meet the requirements of efficient and stable milling of CNC machine tools can be optimized conveniently and accurately. When the tool suspended length increases, the system stiffness decreases and the chatter stability domain graphic drops down, Stability region narrows.

Luo, Yongxin; Zhao, Beichen; Long, Hua; Yu, Nanlin

2010-12-01

156

Technology Insight: tools for research, diagnosis and clinical assessment of treatment in idiopathic inflammatory myopathies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies, known collectively as myositis, are chronic diseases that cause disability, mainly from muscle weakness, despite the use of immunosuppressive therapies. An improved outcome requires increased knowledge of the key molecular pathways that cause symptoms in muscles and other organs. Technological advances offer promise for improving our understanding of disease mechanisms, and some tools will be helpful in

Helene Alexanderson; Ingrid E Lundberg

2007-01-01

157

Research on USMC Marksmanship Training Assessment Tools, Instructional Simulations, and Qualitative Field-Based Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Office of Naval Research (ONR) has funded the UCLA National Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing (CRESST) and its subcontractor, the University of Southern California Behavioral Technology Laboratories (BTL), to conduct re...

W. L. Bewley G. K. Chung G. C. Delacruz A. Munro J. Walker

2003-01-01

158

An agenda for research in the managerial evaluation of computer-aided software engineering (CASE) tool impacts  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is suggested that the complete lack of validated research demonstrating productivity benefits of computer-aided software engineering (CASE) tools is due to a number of inherent difficulties in the CASE evaluation process. A research agenda is set forth to address the shortfalls in managers' current ability to evaluate these tools. Managerial impacts that are commonly associated with CASE tools are

Chris F. Kemerer

1989-01-01

159

Research-tool patents: issues for health in the developing world.  

PubMed Central

The patent system is now reaching into the tools of medical research, including gene sequences themselves. Many of the new patents can potentially preempt large areas of medical research and lay down legal barriers to the development of a broad category of products. Researchers must therefore consider redesigning their research to avoid use of patented techniques, or expending the effort to obtain licences from those who hold the patents. Even if total licence fees can be kept low, there are enormous negotiation costs, and one "hold-out" may be enough to lead to project cancellation. This is making it more difficult to conduct research within the developed world, and poses important questions for the future of medical research for the benefit of the developing world. Probably the most important implication for health in the developing world is the possible general slowing down and complication of medical research. To the extent that these patents do slow down research, they weaken the contribution of the global research community to the creation and application of medical technology for the benefit of developing nations. The patents may also complicate the granting of concessional prices to developing nations - for pharmaceutical firms that seek to offer a concessional price may have to negotiate arrangements with research-tool firms, which may lose royalties as a result. Three kinds of response are plausible. One is to develop a broad or global licence to permit the patented technologies to be used for important applications in the developing world. The second is to change technical patent law doctrines. Such changes could be implemented in developed and developing nations and could be quite helpful while remaining consistent with TRIPS. The third is to negotiate specific licence arrangements, under which specific research tools are used on an agreed basis for specific applications. These negotiations are difficult and expensive, requiring both scientific and legal skills. But they will be an unavoidable part of international medical research.

Barton, John H.

2002-01-01

160

Immersive Virtual Environment Technology: A Promising Tool for Future Social and Behavioral Genomics Research and Practice  

PubMed Central

Social and behavioral research needs to get started now if we are to direct genomic discoveries to address pressing public health problems. Advancing social and behavioral science will require innovative and rigorous communication methodologies that move us beyond reliance on traditional tools and their inherent limitations. One such emerging research tool is immersive virtual environment technology (aka: virtual reality), a methodology that gives researchers the ability to maintain high experimental control and mundane realism of scenarios, portray and manipulate complex, abstract objects and concepts, and implement innovative implicit behavioral measurement. This report suggests the role that immersive virtual environment technology can play in furthering future research in genomics-related: education, decision-making, test intentions, behavior change, and healthcare provider behaviors. Practical implementation and challenges are also discussed.

Persky, Susan; McBride, Colleen M.

2009-01-01

161

Research Report on Feasibility Study of Building a QT Gui Testing Tool, AX Program Code Group Computer Science R&D Project  

SciTech Connect

The main goal of this project was to determine if a tool could be built to test Qt. In determining the feasibility of building a tool the following requirements needed to be researched: (1) Determine if the underlying Qt signal/slot architecture could be leveraged. (2) Research how much impact implementing such a tool would have on existing code, i.e. how much extra code would need to be inserted to use the tool. (3) Determine with the above information if a tool could be built. With the above steps completed, the information needed to make a decision on building a tool could be made. Armed with this information I felt I could make a more educated decision on the possibility of building a tool. This project was divided into two main steps. The first step was to understand the underlying Qt source code much better. The second step was to build a small prototype that I could use to test ideas. The first step was actually much shorter than I had originally anticipated. Understanding the underlying architecture of Qt only took about two weeks. After studying the architecture of qt and working with the support people at Trolltech, the company that develops Qt, I found a way to test Qt. This project was very successful. I accomplished everything I intended to do. I learned and understood the inner workings of the Qt library enough that I could build a simple tool that could leverage some of the information in Qt to test the GUI. I was also able to find a tool that was commercially available to test Qt GUI's. These two things were the main goals of this project. Therefore I consider it a success. In fact I was able to progress farther with my prototype testing then I had originally planned.

Grover, B T

2003-05-05

162

Knowledge Translation Tools are Emerging to Move Neck Pain Research into Practice  

PubMed Central

Development or synthesis of the best clinical research is in itself insufficient to change practice. Knowledge translation (KT) is an emerging field focused on moving knowledge into practice, which is a non-linear, dynamic process that involves knowledge synthesis, transfer, adoption, implementation, and sustained use. Successful implementation requires using KT strategies based on theory, evidence, and best practice, including tools and processes that engage knowledge developers and knowledge users. Tools can provide instrumental help in implementing evidence. A variety of theoretical frameworks underlie KT and provide guidance on how tools should be developed or implemented. A taxonomy that outlines different purposes for engaging in KT and target audiences can also be useful in developing or implementing tools. Theoretical frameworks that underlie KT typically take different perspectives on KT with differential focus on the characteristics of the knowledge, knowledge users, context/environment, or the cognitive and social processes that are involved in change. Knowledge users include consumers, clinicians, and policymakers. A variety of KT tools have supporting evidence, including: clinical practice guidelines, patient decision aids, and evidence summaries or toolkits. Exemplars are provided of two KT tools to implement best practice in management of neck pain—a clinician implementation guide (toolkit) and a patient decision aid. KT frameworks, taxonomies, clinical expertise, and evidence must be integrated to develop clinical tools that implement best evidence in the management of neck pain.

MacDermid, Joy C.; Miller, Jordan; Gross, Anita R.

2013-01-01

163

Research on Error Modelling and Identification of 3 Axis NC Machine Tools Based on Cross Grid Encoder Measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new error modelling and identification method based on the cross grid encoder is proposed in this paper. Generally, there are 21 error components in the geometric error of the 3 axis NC machine tools. However according our theoretical analysis, the squareness error among different guide ways affects not only the translation error component, but also the rotational ones. Therefore, a revised synthetic error model is developed. And the mapping relationship between the error component and radial motion error of round workpiece manufactured on the NC machine tools are deduced. This mapping relationship shows that the radial error of circular motion is the comprehensive function result of all the error components of link, worktable, sliding table and main spindle block. Aiming to overcome the solution singularity shortcoming of traditional error component identification method, a new multi-step identification method of error component by using the Cross Grid Encoder measurement technology is proposed based on the kinematic error model of NC machine tool. Firstly, the 12 translational error components of the NC machine tool are measured and identified by using the least square method (LSM) when the NC machine tools go linear motion in the three orthogonal planes: XOY plane, XOZ plane and YOZ plane. Secondly, the circular error tracks are measured when the NC machine tools go circular motion in the same above orthogonal planes by using the cross grid encoder Heidenhain KGM 182. Therefore 9 rotational errors can be identified by using LSM. Finally the experimental validation of the above modelling theory and identification method is carried out in the 3 axis CNC vertical machining centre Cincinnati 750 Arrow. The entire 21 error components have been successfully measured out by the above method. Research shows the multi-step modelling and identification method is very suitable for 'on machine measurement'.

Du, Z. C.; Lv, C. F.; Hong, M. S.

2006-10-01

164

Community-based research as a tool for empowerment: the Haida Gwaii Diabetes Project example.  

PubMed

The evolution of the Haida Gwaii Diabetes Project exemplifies how community-based family practice research can be a tool for empowerment for both the community of research participants and the community based members of the research team. The aims of the project are to develop a better understanding of Haida beliefs about diabetes; to develop culturally sensitive approaches to prevention and management; and to attempt to apply this understanding to the development of a model for preventive health for native people in the province of British Columbia. A participatory research paradigm, coupled with explicit working principles by which the research team agreed to operate, addressed the concerns that the Aboriginal community had about the risks of research. A true working partnership has developed among all members of the research team, and with the Haida community. PMID:8753639

Herbert, C P

165

Collaborative research as an anti-poverty tool: a research partnership between police and indigenous Australians  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on a collaborative research project that shows how participatory social research can be used as a strategy for combating social exclusion. The Crime Prevention Partnership Project brought together dominant and disempowered groups to explore social issues of mutual concern and identify potential solutions. Indigenous Australian undergraduate students played a central role in this project, working with the

Robyn Eversole; Richard Routh

2005-01-01

166

Pr´ ecis: Research on Techniques and Tools for Computer Security: The COAST Project and Laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of the COAST project is to establish a long-term research program exploring new approaches to computer security and computer system management. The principal focus will be on techniques and tools for common, non-trusted (in the DoD TCSEC, \\

Eugene H. Spafford

1998-01-01

167

Fault Tree Analysis: A Research Tool for Educational Planning. Technical Report No. 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This ESEA Title III report describes fault tree analysis and assesses its applicability to education. Fault tree analysis is an operations research tool which is designed to increase the probability of success in any system by analyzing the most likely modes of failure that could occur. A graphic portrayal, which has the form of a tree, is…

Alameda County School Dept., Hayward, CA. PACE Center.

168

The JPL Tropical Cyclone Information System: Data and Tools for Researchers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The JPL Tropical Cyclone Information System (TCIS) is now open to the public. This web portal is designed to assist researchers by providing a one-stop shop for hurricane related data and analysis tools. While there are currently many places that offer storm data, plots, and other information, none offer an extensive archive of data files and images in a common

B. W. Knosp; C. O. Ao; Y. Chao; V. Dang; M. Garay; Z. Haddad; S. Hristova-Veleva; B. Lambrigtsen; P. P. Li; W. L. Poulsen; M. A. Rosenman; H. Su; D. Vane; Q. A. Vu; J. K. Willis; D. Wu

2008-01-01

169

Managing complex research datasets using electronic tools: a meta-analysis exemplar.  

PubMed

Meta-analyses of broad scope and complexity require investigators to organize many study documents and manage communication among several research staff. Commercially available electronic tools, for example, EndNote, Adobe Acrobat Pro, Blackboard, Excel, and IBM SPSS Statistics (SPSS), are useful for organizing and tracking the meta-analytic process as well as enhancing communication among research team members. The purpose of this article is to describe the electronic processes designed, using commercially available software, for an extensive, quantitative model-testing meta-analysis. Specific electronic tools improved the efficiency of (a) locating and screening studies, (b) screening and organizing studies and other project documents, (c) extracting data from primary studies, (d) checking data accuracy and analyses, and (e) communication among team members. The major limitation in designing and implementing a fully electronic system for meta-analysis was the requisite upfront time to decide on which electronic tools to use, determine how these tools would be used, develop clear guidelines for their use, and train members of the research team. The electronic process described here has been useful in streamlining the process of conducting this complex meta-analysis and enhancing communication and sharing documents among research team members. PMID:23681256

Brown, Sharon A; Martin, Ellen E; Garcia, Theresa J; Winter, Mary A; García, Alexandra A; Brown, Adama; Cuevas, Heather E; Sumlin, Lisa L

2013-06-01

170

The Research of Plastic Gear Tooth Tip Modification and Rack Tool Root Modification  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the increasing application of plastic gears, the defects of the plastic gear design and manufacturing appears increasingly. Combining the plastic gears problems in the application and the problems of the plastic gear design and manufacturing appears in the company, we collect domestic and abroad information, ratiocinate and research the relationship between plastic gear modification and rack tool modification. Finally,

Jiachun Li; Haipeng Gao; Xudong Ynag

2010-01-01

171

The relation between tools used in action research and the zone of proximal development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes a national school improvement project involving five compulsory schools for hard?of?hearing pupils, located in different parts of Sweden. Using action research, the teachers tried to change the communication patterns among the pupils by changing their own classroom practices, In this process the teachers tested and used different tools, such as writing, shadowing and facilitating each other, over

Karin Rönnerman

2006-01-01

172

Improving the Usefulness of Concept Maps as a Research Tool for Science Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The search for authentic science research tools to evaluate student understanding in a hybrid learning environment with a large multimedia component has resulted in the use of concept maps as a representation of student's knowledge organization. One hundred and seventy third-semester introductory university-level engineering students represented…

Van Zele, Els; Lenaerts, Josephina; Wieme, Willem

2004-01-01

173

UbuntuNet Alliance: A Collaborative Research Platform for Sharing of Technological Tools for Eradication of Brain Drain  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we envisage UbuntuNet Alliance as a continental association that enables tertiary education and research institutions collectively to strengthen research that will expand new technological tools, increase the industrial base and facilitate interaction with the African academic and research diaspora worldwide. An increase in technological tools and in the industrial base will enhance production, engender more job opportunities

Jameson Mbale; Zimani D. Kadzamira; Duncan Martin; Victor Kyalo

174

Virtual Globes and Glacier Research: Integrating research, collaboration, logistics, data archival, and outreach into a single tool  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Virtual Globes are a paradigm shift in the way earth sciences are conducted. With these tools, nearly all aspects of earth science can be integrated from field science, to remote sensing, to remote collaborations, to logistical planning, to data archival/retrieval, to PDF paper retriebal, to education and outreach. Here we present an example of how VGs can be fully exploited for field sciences, using research at McCall Glacier, in Arctic Alaska.

Nolan, M.

2006-12-01

175

Some tools for the diffusion of biomedical information using research networks.  

PubMed

Research and academic computer networks provide e-mail and other services to all members of participating institutions. Their usage by biomedical researchers and clinicians is still limited because of several reasons, including limited awareness of the available network resources. An increased use of these networks within the biomedical community would allow fast, effective communications and convenient remote access to information sources. As an example and pilot study, we prepared two network tools to make some information services maintained by our institution also accessible through e-mail. Both tools were implemented using PMDF e-mail software on a DEC MicroVAX connected to the Italian academic and research network (GARR), which is linked to the U.S. Internet. A network server takes care of automatic distribution of documents (files) reporting results of an oncology research/education project. An information server provides for semiautomated support of a consulting service on use of drugs. The feasibility of implementing these tools, based on existing software, further illustrates the potential usefulness of research computer networks for the dissemination of biomedical information. PMID:1309093

Guardabasso, V; Angeli, G

1992-12-17

176

A New Tool for Identifying Research Standards and Evaluating Research Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Much has been written about the evaluation of faculty research productivity in promotion and tenure decisions, including many articles that seek to determine the rank of various marketing journals. Yet how faculty evaluators combine journal quality, quantity, and author contribution to form judgments of a scholar's performance is unclear. A…

Bacon, Donald R.; Paul, Pallab; Stewart, Kim A.; Mukhopadhyay, Kausiki

2012-01-01

177

Using Digital Video as a Research Tool: Ethical Issues for Researchers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Digital video and accompanying editing software are increasingly becoming more accessible for researchers in terms of ease of use and cost. The rich, visually appealing and seductive nature of video-based data can convey a strong sense of direct experience with the phenomena studied (Pea, 1999). However, the ease of selection and editing of…

Schuck, Sandy; Kearney, Matthew

2006-01-01

178

Accumulating Evidence and Research Organization (AERO) model: a new tool for representing, analyzing, and planning a translational research program  

PubMed Central

Background Maximizing efficiency in drug development is important for drug developers, policymakers, and human subjects. Limited funds and the ethical imperative of risk minimization demand that researchers maximize the knowledge gained per patient-subject enrolled. Yet, despite a common perception that the current system of drug development is beset by inefficiencies, there remain few approaches for systematically representing, analyzing, and communicating the efficiency and coordination of the research enterprise. In this paper, we present the first steps toward developing such an approach: a graph-theoretic tool for representing the Accumulating Evidence and Research Organization (AERO) across a translational trajectory. Methods This initial version of the AERO model focuses on elucidating two dimensions of robustness: (1) the consistency of results among studies with an identical or similar outcome metric; and (2) the concordance of results among studies with qualitatively different outcome metrics. The visual structure of the model is a directed acyclic graph, designed to capture these two dimensions of robustness and their relationship to three basic questions that underlie the planning of a translational research program: What is the accumulating state of total evidence? What has been the translational trajectory? What studies should be done next? Results We demonstrate the utility of the AERO model with an application to a case study involving the antibacterial agent, moxifloxacin, for the treatment of drug-susceptible tuberculosis. We then consider some possible elaborations for the AERO model and propose a number of ways in which the tool could be used to enhance the planning, reporting, and analysis of clinical trials. Conclusion The AERO model provides an immediate visual representation of the number of studies done at any stage of research, depicting both the robustness of evidence and the relationship of each study to the larger translational trajectory. In so doing, it makes some of the invisible or inchoate properties of the research system explicit – helping to elucidate judgments about the accumulating state of evidence and supporting decision-making for future research.

2013-01-01

179

Community-based participatory research as a tool to advance environmental health sciences.  

PubMed Central

The past two decades have witnessed a rapid proliferation of community-based participatory research (CBPR) projects. CBPR methodology presents an alternative to traditional population-based biomedical research practices by encouraging active and equal partnerships between community members and academic investigators. The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), the premier biomedical research facility for environmental health, is a leader in promoting the use of CBPR in instances where community-university partnerships serve to advance our understanding of environmentally related disease. In this article, the authors highlight six key principles of CBPR and describe how these principles are met within specific NIEHS-supported research investigations. These projects demonstrate that community-based participatory research can be an effective tool to enhance our knowledge of the causes and mechanisms of disorders having an environmental etiology, reduce adverse health outcomes through innovative intervention strategies and policy change, and address the environmental health concerns of community residents.

O'Fallon, Liam R; Dearry, Allen

2002-01-01

180

Focus groups as a tool for critical social research in nurse education.  

PubMed

Focus groups are now widely adopted in qualitative health and social research, and have been increasingly used as a data-collection technique in nursing research. The focus group is not a new method, but its uses and procedures have been considerably revised in recent years. The aim of this paper is to present an overview of the focus group as a research tool in social science literature, followed by a more considered discussion on the use of focus groups in contemporary critical social science. It draws on this work to illustrate the potential of focus groups to address some of the political issues in social research, in particular the balance of power between researcher and researched, and the empowerment of under-represented groups. Advantages of the method in connecting the researcher with group perspectives and experiences that may be unexplored by other methods of data collection are discussed, and the 'collective conscience' is put forward as an appropriate resource in data analysis. It argues that the application of focus-group techniques can build on experiences and principles of working with or participating in groups. Focus groups are particularly applicable to research in nurse education, for involving diverse stakeholders in curriculum evaluation and development, and in ongoing appraisals of the student's perceptions of their experience, for which universities have tended to rely on survey approaches and structured questionnaires. The article ends by drawing some conclusions from the health and social research literature to inform nursing education research using focus groups. PMID:11339876

Kevern, J; Webb, C

2001-05-01

181

A new research tool for hybrid Bayesian networks using script language  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While continuous variables become more and more inevitable in Bayesian networks for modeling real-life applications in complex systems, there are not much software tools to support it. Popular commercial Bayesian network tools such as Hugin, and Netica etc., are either expensive or have to discretize continuous variables. In addition, some free programs existing in the literature, commonly known as BNT, GeNie/SMILE, etc, have their own advantages and disadvantages respectively. In this paper, we introduce a newly developed Java tool for model construction and inference for hybrid Bayesian networks. Via the representation power of the script language, this tool can build the hybrid model automatically based on a well defined string that follows the specific grammars. Furthermore, it implements several inference algorithms capable to accommodate hybrid Bayesian networks, including Junction Tree algorithm (JT) for conditional linear Gaussian model (CLG), and Direct Message Passing (DMP) for general hybrid Bayesian networks with CLG structure. We believe this tool will be useful for researchers in the field.

Sun, Wei; Park, Cheol Young; Carvalho, Rommel

2011-05-01

182

Exploring Assessment Tools for Research and Evaluation in Astronomy Education and Outreach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to effectively measure knowledge, attitudes, and skills in formal and informal educational settings is an important aspect of astronomy education research and evaluation. Assessments may take the form of interviews, observations, surveys, exams, or other probes to help unpack people's understandings or beliefs. In this workshop, we discussed characteristics of a variety of tools that exist to assess understandings of different concepts in astronomy as well as attitudes towards science and science teaching; these include concept inventories, surveys, interview protocols, observation protocols, card sorting, reflection videos, and other methods currently being used in astronomy education research and EPO program evaluations. In addition, we discussed common questions in the selection of assessment tools including issues of reliability and validity, time to administer, format of implementation, analysis, and human subject concerns.

Buxner, S. R.; Wenger, M. C.; Dokter, E. F. C.

2011-09-01

183

Social networks, web-based tools and diseases: implications for biomedical research.  

PubMed

Advances in information technology have improved our ability to gather, collect and analyze information from individuals online. Social networks can be seen as a nonlinear superposition of a multitude of complex connections between people where the nodes represent individuals and the links between them capture a variety of different social interactions. The emergence of different types of social networks has fostered connections between individuals, thus facilitating data exchange in a variety of fields. Therefore, the question posed now is "can these same tools be applied to life sciences in order to improve scientific and medical research?" In this article, I will review how social networks and other web-based tools are changing the way we approach and track diseases in biomedical research. PMID:23103282

Costa, Fabricio F

2012-10-24

184

Hyperpolarized gas MR Imaging of the lung: current status as a research tool.  

PubMed

Hyperpolarized gas magnetic resonance imaging has been explored extensively as a promising tool for the quantitative evaluation of regional pulmonary pathophysiology. This noninvasive technique is capable of providing both structural information down to the level of the alveolar microstructure and functional information, such as dynamic ventilation, intrapulmonary partial pressure of oxygen, and alveolar surface area. This study reviews the role of hyperpolarized 3-helium and 129-xenon magnetic resonance imaging in this research. PMID:19704321

Matsuoka, Shin; Patz, Samuel; Albert, Mitchell S; Sun, Yanping; Rizi, Rahim R; Gefter, Warren B; Hatabu, Hiroto

2009-08-01

185

Soil erosion assessment tools from point to regional scales—the role of geomorphologists in land management research and implementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geomorphological research has played an important role in the development and implementation of soil erosion assessment tools. Because policy and management approaches include the use of soil erosion assessment tools, soil erosion research directly affects the public in terms of providing information on natural hazards and human impacts, and also as the basis for regulatory policy on land management. For

Chris S. Renschler; Jon Harbor

2002-01-01

186

Low cost electroencephalographic acquisition amplifier to serve as teaching and research tool.  

PubMed

We described the development and testing of a low cost, easily constructed electroencephalographic (EEG) acquisition amplifier for noninvasive Brain Computer Interface (BCI) education and research. The acquisition amplifier was constructed from newly available off-the-shelf integrated circuit components, and readily sends a 24-bit data stream via USB (Universal Serial Bus) to a computer platform. We demonstrate here the hardware's use in the analysis of a visually evoked P300 paradigm for a choose one-of-eight task. This clearly shows the applicability of this system as a low cost teaching and research tool. PMID:22254699

Jain, Ankit; Kim, Insoo; Gluckman, Bruce J

2011-01-01

187

A Mentoring Toolkit: Tips and Tools for Mentoring Early-Career Researchers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effective mentoring is a critical component in the training of early-career researchers, cultivating more independent, productive and satisfied scientists. For example, mentoring has been shown by the 2005 Sigma Xi National Postdoc Survey to be a key indicator for a successful postdoctoral outcome. Mentoring takes many forms and can include support for maximizing research skills and productivity as well as assistance in preparing for a chosen career path. Yet, because there is no "one-size-fits-all” approach, mentoring can be an activity that is hard to define. In this presentation, a series of tips and tools will be offered to aid mentors in developing a plan for their mentoring activities. This will include: suggestions for how to get started; opportunities for mentoring activities within the research group, within the institution, and outside the institution; tools for communicating and assessing professional milestones; and resources for fostering the professional and career development of mentees. Special considerations will also be presented for mentoring international scholars and women. These strategies will be helpful to the PI responding to the new NSF mentoring plan requirement for postdocs as well as to the student, postdoc, researcher or professor overseeing the research and training of others.

Flint, Kathleen

2010-01-01

188

Assessing Stakeholder Perspectives on the Impacts of a Decade of Collaborative Fisheries Research in the Gulf of Maine and Georges Bank  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of the perceptions of commercial fishermen, marine scientists, and other stakeholders of the Gulf of Maine and Georges Bank ecosystem regarding collaborative fisheries research revealed that the benefits of collaboration have been extensive and that a loss of further research opportunities would be consequential. To date, more than 1,000 individuals have participated in research initiatives dedicated to promoting collaboration

Rachel Gallant Feeney; Kenneth J. La Valley; Madeleine Hall-Arber

2010-01-01

189

Online survey tools: ethical and methodological concerns of human research ethics committees.  

PubMed

A SURVEY OF 750 UNIVERSITY HUMAN Research Ethics Boards (HRECs) in the United States revealed that Internet research protocols involving online or Web surveys are the type most often reviewed (94% of respondents), indicating the growing prevalence of this methodology for academic research. Respondents indicated that the electronic and online nature of these survey data challenges traditional research ethics principles such as consent, risk, privacy, anonymity, confidentiality, and autonomy, and adds new methodological complexities surrounding data storage, security, sampling, and survey design. Interesting discrepancies surfaced among respondents regarding strengths and weaknesses within extant guidelines, which are highlighted throughout the paper. The paper concludes with considerations and suggestions towards consistent protocol review of online surveys to ensure appropriate human subjects protections in the face of emergent electronic tools and methodologies. PMID:19480590

Buchanan, Elizabeth A; Hvizdak, Erin E

2009-06-01

190

Using an Internet grant and scholarship notification service as a research tool.  

PubMed

By using specific key words, clinicians can use an Internet database service to identify federally funded grant and scholarship opportunities--opportunities more frequently sought by basic scientists. The authors hypothesized that such an Internet service could be used as a research tool to examine and compare the clinical research preferences of potential medical and bioscience investigators. The authors selected 577 key words from an online key word thesaurus used by both the federal government and ScienceWise.com. These key words formed a survey instrument to measure the research interests of 40 family medicine academic faculty members of a college of osteopathic medicine. The findings were compared to a survey by ScienceWise.com of its 102,578 subscribers and to previous surveys of nonacademic clinicians. Results indicate an efficient means of determining research interests as well as a method of alerting academic clinicians/nonclinicians and basic scientists to current funding opportunities. PMID:12665220

Clarke, Howard F; Coleridge, Samuel T

2003-03-01

191

Extending the XNAT archive tool for image and analysis management in ophthalmology research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In ophthalmology, various modalities and tests are utilized to obtain vital information on the eye's structure and function. For example, optical coherence tomography (OCT) is utilized to diagnose, screen, and aid treatment of eye diseases like macular degeneration or glaucoma. Such data are complemented by photographic retinal fundus images and functional tests on the visual field. DICOM isn't widely used yet, though, and frequently images are encoded in proprietary formats. The eXtensible Neuroimaging Archive Tool (XNAT) is an open-source NIH-funded framework for research PACS and is in use at the University of Iowa for neurological research applications. Its use for ophthalmology was hence desirable but posed new challenges due to data types thus far not considered and the lack of standardized formats. We developed custom tools for data types not natively recognized by XNAT itself using XNAT's low-level REST API. Vendor-provided tools can be included as necessary to convert proprietary data sets into valid DICOM. Clients can access the data in a standardized format while still retaining the original format if needed by specific analysis tools. With respective project-specific permissions, results like segmentations or quantitative evaluations can be stored as additional resources to previously uploaded datasets. Applications can use our abstract-level Python or C/C++ API to communicate with the XNAT instance. This paper describes concepts and details of the designed upload script templates, which can be customized to the needs of specific projects, and the novel client-side communication API which allows integration into new or existing research applications.

Wahle, Andreas; Lee, Kyungmoo; Harding, Adam T.; Garvin, Mona K.; Niemeijer, Meindert; Sonka, Milan; Abràmoff, Michael D.

2013-03-01

192

Tools for protein-protein interaction network analysis in cancer research.  

PubMed

As cancer is a complex disease, the representation of a malignant cell as a protein-protein interaction network (PPIN) and its subsequent analysis can provide insight into the behaviour of cancer cells and lead to the discovery of new biomarkers. The aim of this review is to help life-science researchers without previous computer programming skills to extract meaningful biological information from such networks, taking advantage of easy-to-use, public bioinformatics tools. It is structured in four parts: the first section describes the pipeline of consecutive steps from network construction to biological hypothesis generation. The second part provides a repository of public, user-friendly tools for network construction, visualisation and analysis. Two different and complementary approaches of network analysis are presented: the topological approach studies the network as a whole by means of structural graph theory, whereas the global approach divides the PPIN into sub-graphs, or modules. In section three, some concepts and tools regarding heterogeneous molecular data integration through a PPIN are described. Finally, the fourth part is an example of how to extract meaningful biological information from a colorectal cancer PPIN using some of the described tools. PMID:22262713

Sanz-Pamplona, Rebeca; Berenguer, Antoni; Sole, Xavier; Cordero, David; Crous-Bou, Marta; Serra-Musach, Jordi; Guinó, Elisabet; Ángel Pujana, Miguel; Moreno, Víctor

2012-01-01

193

SIMS ion microscopy as a novel, practical tool for subcellular chemical imaging in cancer research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of cryogenic sample preparations, subcellular image quantification schemes, and correlative confocal laser scanning microscopy and ion microscopy have made dynamic SIMS a versatile tool in biology and medicine. For example, ion microscopy can provide much needed, novel information on calcium influx and intracellular calcium stores at organelle resolution in normal and transformed cells in order to better understand the altered calcium signaling in malignant cells. 3-D SIMS imaging of cells revealed dynamic gradients of calcium in cells undergoing mitosis and cytokinesis. Studies of subcellular localization of anticancer drugs is another area of research where ion microscopy can provide novel observations in many types of cancers. Ion microscopy is already an essential tool in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) of brain cancer as it can be used to quantitatively image the subcellular location of boron in cells and tissues. This information is critically needed for testing the efficacy of boronated agents and for calculations of radiation dosimetry.

Chandra, S.

2003-01-01

194

The DEDUCE Guided Query tool: providing simplified access to clinical data for research and quality improvement.  

PubMed

In many healthcare organizations, comparative effectiveness research and quality improvement (QI) investigations are hampered by a lack of access to data created as a byproduct of patient care. Data collection often hinges upon either manual chart review or ad hoc requests to technical experts who support legacy clinical systems. In order to facilitate this needed capacity for data exploration at our institution (Duke University Health System), we have designed and deployed a robust Web application for cohort identification and data extraction--the Duke Enterprise Data Unified Content Explorer (DEDUCE). DEDUCE is envisioned as a simple, web-based environment that allows investigators access to administrative, financial, and clinical information generated during patient care. By using business intelligence tools to create a view into Duke Medicine's enterprise data warehouse, DEDUCE provides a Guided Query functionality using a wizard-like interface that lets users filter through millions of clinical records, explore aggregate reports, and, export extracts. Researchers and QI specialists can obtain detailed patient- and observation-level extracts without needing to understand structured query language or the underlying database model. Developers designing such tools must devote sufficient training and develop application safeguards to ensure that patient-centered clinical researchers understand when observation-level extracts should be used. This may mitigate the risk of data being misunderstood and consequently used in an improper fashion. PMID:21130181

Horvath, Monica M; Winfield, Stephanie; Evans, Steve; Slopek, Steve; Shang, Howard; Ferranti, Jeffrey

2010-12-02

195

[The use of interviews in participative intervention and research: the GAM tool as a collective interview].  

PubMed

This paper seeks to assess a way of conducting interviews in line with the ideology of Brazilian Psychiatric Reform. In the methodology of participative intervention and research in mental health, the interview is less a data collection than a data harvesting procedure. It is designed to apply the principles of psychosocial care, autonomy as the basis for treatment, the predominance of the users and of their social networks and civic participation. Inspired by the Explicitation Interview technique, the contention is that the handling of the interview presupposes an open attitude able to promote and embrace different viewpoints. This attitude makes the interview a collective experience of sharing and belonging, allowing participants to reposition themselves subjectively in treatment with the emergence of groupality. As an example of using the interview as a methodological tool in mental health research, we examine research into adaptation of the tool of Autonomous Medication Management (GAM). It is an interventionist approach guided by principles that foster autonomy and the protagonist status of users of psychotropic medication, their quality of life, their rights and recognition of the multiple significances of medication, understood here as a collective interview technique. PMID:24061008

Sade, Christian; Barros, Leticia Maria Renault de; Melo, Jorge José Maciel; Passos, Eduardo

2013-10-01

196

Research on test techniques of fault forewarning and diagnosis for high-end CNC machine tool  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the progress of modern science and technique, the manufacturing industry becomes more and more complex and intelligent. It is the challenge for stable, safe running and economical efficiency of machining equipment such as high-quality numerical control because of its complex structure and integrated functions, and the potential faults are easy to happen. How to ensure the equipment runs stably and reliably becomes the key problem to improve the machining precision and efficiency. In order to prolong the average no-fault time, stable running and machining precision of numerical control, it is very important to make relative test and research on acquisition of data of numerical control sample and establishment of sample database. Take high-end CNC Machine Tool for example, the research on test techniques for data acquisition of sample of typical functional parts in CNC Machine Tool will be made and test condition will be set up; the test methods for sample acquisition on running state monitoring and fault forewarning and diagnosis of numerical control is determined; the test platform for typical functional parts of numerical control is established; the sample database is designed and the sample base and knowledge mode is made. The test and research provide key test techniques to disclosure dynamic performance of fault and precision degeneration, and analyze the impact factors to fault.

Ren, Bin; Xu, Xiaoli

2010-12-01

197

Ambient Particulate Matter during MILAGRO in Mexico City: Main Findings, Impacts (on AQ and Climate), and Future Research Needs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The MILAGRO campaign was a large international field experiments conduced in Mexico City and Central Mexico during March 2006. We present an overview of the main findings related to particulate matter and aerosol radiative properties. PM levels inside Mexico City were similar or higher than those in the most polluted North American cities, but ~5 times lower than levels in the most polluted Asian megacities During the study, PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations in the urban area of were about double the concentrations in the rural areas surrounding Mexico City. PM2.5 made up about half of the PM10 concentrations, with small amounts of mass in the PM2.5-PM1.0 range. Mineral matter made up approximately 25% of the PM10 and on average 15% and 28% of the PM2.5 in the urban and rural areas, respectively. Approximately 25% of the PM2.5 was secondary inorganic ions with the remaining PM2.5 mass being comprised of largely carbonaceous aerosol. Except for surface measurements at the central sampling sites in Mexico city, the elemental carbon mass absorption efficiency was relatively constant for aircraft and surface measurements throughout the study, contrary to expectations. Although different organic aerosol (OA) source apportionment methods had some differences, there was agreement that the dominant sources of carbonaceous aerosol were secondary OA (SOA), biomass burning, and mobile sources. The impact of biomass burning to the aerosol outflow from the region was much larger than to the surface concentrations inside the city. SOA formation from primary semivolatile and intermediate volatility precursors has the potential to close the gap in predicted vs. measured SOA, while formation from glyoxal also makes an important contribution, especially to organic oxygen. Biogenic SOA advected from the coastal mountain ranges contributes about 1 ?g m-3 to concentrations in the MCMA. Primary OA from anthropogenic and biomass burning sources was found to be semivolatile, while secondary OA was less volatile than POA and aged SOA was essentially non-volatile, in contradiction with current models. Growth rates of new particle formation in Mexico City was very large and found to be impacted by nitrogen containing organic compounds, organic acids, and hydroxyl organic acids, with only a smaller fraction of sulfate aerosol. Some open research questions include the following: additional work is needed to fully quantify the sources of substantial (30-45%) modern carbon in organic aerosols during low biomass burning periods. Discrepancies between the two modern carbon datasets deserve further study. The impact of regional dust vs. road resuspension, as well as heterogeneous reactions of HNO3 with dust need to be quantified. The impact of some POA sources such as food cooking, biofuel use, and open trash burning may be important, but remains poorly characterized. Some differences in the apportionment of biomass burning PM between different approaches were observed and need further research, as these techniques together represent the state of the art for source apportionment. Anthropogenic SOA predictions are improving in terms of magnitude but are poorly constrained by the data. More specific precursor, intermediate, and tracer measurements are needed in future campaigns. SOA from biomass burning sources, although not dominant in the city, remains poorly characterized and appears to be underpredicted by traditional models.

Jimenez, Jose-Luis; Schauer, James J.; Molina, Luisa T.; MILAGRO Pm Team

2010-05-01

198

The Solid Earth Research and Teaching Environment, a new software framework to share research tools in the classroom and across disciplines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Solid Earth Teaching and Research Environment (SEATREE) is a modular and user-friendly software framework to facilitate the use of solid Earth research tools in the classroom and for interdisciplinary research collaboration. SEATREE is open source and community developed, distributed freely under the GNU General Public License. It is a fully contained package that lets users operate in a graphical

K. Milner; T. W. Becker; L. Boschi; J. Sain; D. Schorlemmer; H. Waterhouse

2009-01-01

199

Designing simulator tools for rail research: the case study of a train driving microworld.  

PubMed

The microworld simulator paradigm is well established in the areas of ship-navigation and spaceflight, but has yet to be applied to rail. This paper presents a case study aiming to address this research gap, and describes the development of a train driving microworld as a tool to overcome some common research barriers. A theoretical framework for microworld design is tested and used to explore some key methodological issues and characteristics of train driving, enhancing theory development and providing a useful guideline for the designers of other collision-avoidance systems. A detailed description is given of the ATREIDES (Adaptive Train Research Enhanced Information Display & Environment Simulator) microworld, which simulates the work environment of a train driver in a high-speed passenger train. General indications of the testable driving scenarios that may be simulated are given, and an example of an ATREIDES-based study is presented to illustrate its applied research potential. The article concludes with a review of the design process, considers some strengths and limitations, and explores some future initiatives towards enhancing the systematic study of rail research in the human factors community. PMID:23107003

Naweed, A; Hockey, G R J; Clarke, S D

2012-10-26

200

Assessing children's competence to consent in research by a standardized tool: a validity study  

PubMed Central

Background Currently over 50% of drugs prescribed to children have not been evaluated properly for use in their age group. One key reason why children have been excluded from clinical trials is that they are not considered able to exercise meaningful autonomy over the decision to participate. Dutch law states that competence to consent can be presumed present at the age of 12 and above; however, in pediatric practice children’s competence is not that clearly presented and the transition from assent to active consent is gradual. A gold standard for competence assessment in children does not exist. In this article we describe a study protocol on the development of a standardized tool for assessing competence to consent in research in children and adolescents. Methods/design In this study we modified the MacCAT-CR, the best evaluated competence assessment tool for adults, for use in children and adolescents. We will administer the tool prospectively to a cohort of pediatric patients from 6 to18 years during the selection stages of ongoing clinical trials. The outcomes of the MacCAT-CR interviews will be compared to a reference standard, established by the judgments of clinical investigators, and an expert panel consisting of child psychiatrists, child psychologists and medical ethicists. The reliability, criterion-related validity and reproducibility of the tool will be determined. As MacCAT-CR is a multi-item scale consisting of 13 items, power was justified at 130–190 subjects, providing a minimum of 10–15 observations per item. MacCAT-CR outcomes will be correlated with age, life experience, IQ, ethnicity, socio-economic status and competence judgment of the parent(s). It is anticipated that 160 participants will be recruited over 2 years to complete enrollment. Discussion A validity study on an assessment tool of competence to consent is strongly needed in research practice, particularly in the child and adolescent population. In this study we will establish a reference standard of children’s competence to consent, combined with validation of an assessment instrument. Results can facilitate responsible involvement of children in clinical trials by further development of guidelines, health-care policies and legal policies.

2012-01-01

201

InterMOD: integrated data and tools for the unification of model organism research  

PubMed Central

Model organisms are widely used for understanding basic biology, and have significantly contributed to the study of human disease. In recent years, genomic analysis has provided extensive evidence of widespread conservation of gene sequence and function amongst eukaryotes, allowing insights from model organisms to help decipher gene function in a wider range of species. The InterMOD consortium is developing an infrastructure based around the InterMine data warehouse system to integrate genomic and functional data from a number of key model organisms, leading the way to improved cross-species research. So far including budding yeast, nematode worm, fruit fly, zebrafish, rat and mouse, the project has set up data warehouses, synchronized data models, and created analysis tools and links between data from different species. The project unites a number of major model organism databases, improving both the consistency and accessibility of comparative research, to the benefit of the wider scientific community.

Sullivan, Julie; Karra, Kalpana; Moxon, Sierra A. T.; Vallejos, Andrew; Motenko, Howie; Wong, J. D.; Aleksic, Jelena; Balakrishnan, Rama; Binkley, Gail; Harris, Todd; Hitz, Benjamin; Jayaraman, Pushkala; Lyne, Rachel; Neuhauser, Steven; Pich, Christian; Smith, Richard N.; Trinh, Quang; Cherry, J. Michael; Richardson, Joel; Stein, Lincoln; Twigger, Simon; Westerfield, Monte; Worthey, Elizabeth; Micklem, Gos

2013-01-01

202

Are case studies more than sophisticated storytelling?: Methodological problems of qualitative empirical research mainly based on semi-structured interviews  

Microsoft Academic Search

Qualitative empirical research and case studies have, like any other scientific method, their strengths and weaknesses. But\\u000a how valid are the findings stemming from such research, particularly when they are base on data gained from interviews? This\\u000a paper primarily deals with the methodological problems throughout the whole research process. Areas of concerns are: (1) before\\u000a collecting data and during the

Thomas Diefenbach

2009-01-01

203

Action-Research and Food and Nutrition Security: A School Experience Mediated by Conceptual Graphic Representation Tool  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study deals with the development of a graphic representation tool as a way to support educational planning in an elementary school in the rural area of Brasilia (Brazil's capital), aiming at the implementation of an integrated action-research project focusing on hunger and nutrition. The graphic tool made it possible to promote…

Graebner, Ivete Teresinha; de Souza, Elizabeth Maria Tala; Saito, Carlos Hiroo

2009-01-01

204

miRspring: a compact standalone research tool for analyzing miRNA-seq data.  

PubMed

High-throughput sequencing for microRNA (miRNA) profiling has revealed a vast complexity of miRNA processing variants, but these are difficult to discern for those without bioinformatics expertise and large computing capability. In this article, we present miRNA Sequence Profiling (miRspring) (http://mirspring.victorchang.edu.au), a software solution that creates a small portable research document that visualizes, calculates and reports on the complexities of miRNA processing. We designed an index-compression algorithm that allows the miRspring document to reproduce a complete miRNA sequence data set while retaining a small file size (typically <3 MB). Through analysis of 73 public data sets, we demonstrate miRspring's features in assessing quality parameters, miRNA cluster expression levels and miRNA processing. Additionally, we report on a new class of miRNA variants, which we term seed-isomiRs, identified through the novel visualization tools of the miRspring document. Further investigation identified that ?30% of human miRBase entries are likely to have a seed-isomiR. We believe that miRspring will be a highly useful research tool that will enhance the analysis of miRNA data sets and thus increase our understanding of miRNA biology. PMID:23775795

Humphreys, David T; Suter, Catherine M

2013-06-17

205

Integrating research into the inter-organisational relationship: towards a theoretically-rooted tool for evaluation  

PubMed Central

Purpose To enable an understanding of the complexities involved in evaluating and improving the partnerships between organisations involved in integrated working. Theory Network organisations provide a unique challenge to understanding and evaluating the processes and mechanisms through which organisations integrate. Through integrating research into this interface we propose a methodology for evaluation. Methods A Grounded Theory study of partnership working in network organisations, with data analysis to build a theoretical model of the way that partnership works in complex organisational situations. Results and conclusions Integrating care involves working across multiple organisations, creating complex environments for assessment and evaluation. We show that what happens in the ‘spaces’ between organisations involved in complex partnership arrangements is crucial and that current methods of partnership evaluation are inadequate for complex partnership situations, such as network organisations. Our model for integrating research into these interfaces between organisations involved in care enables these complexities to be better understood with the potential for real improvements in complex integrated care situations. In order to achieve this it is important that a theoretically-rooted, context-specific evaluative tool can be developed. This paper presents the Model of Network Partnership which the authors believe is a crucial stage in the process of development of such a tool with the potential to promote genuine improvements in integrated working.

Douglas, Simon; Wilson, Rob

2010-01-01

206

A Research of Tool Wear Recognizing Based on Wavelet Packet Pretreated and Neural Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibration signals of tool wear are proved to be non-stationary ones. They usually carry the dynamic information of tool wear and are very useful for tool wear condition recognition. The wavelet analysis is especially suitable for non-stationary signal processing and the artificial neural network is a very good tool for signal identification. In this paper, a new efficient tool wear

Xu Chuangwen; Chen Hualing

2007-01-01

207

Implementing an International Consultation on Earth System Research Priorities Using Web 2.0 Tools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Leah Goldfarb, Paul Cutler, Andrew Yang*, Mustapha Mokrane, Jacinta Legg and Deliang Chen The scientific community has been engaged in developing an international strategy on Earth system research. The initial consultation in this “visioning” process focused on gathering suggestions for Earth system research priorities that are interdisciplinary and address the most pressing societal issues. It was implemented this through a website that utilized Web 2.0 capabilities. The website (http://www.icsu-visioning.org/) collected input from 15 July to 1 September 2009. This consultation was the first in which the international scientific community was asked to help shape the future of a research theme. The site attracted over 7000 visitors from 133 countries, more than 1000 of whom registered and took advantage of the site’s functionality to contribute research questions (~300 questions), comment on posts, and/or vote on questions. To facilitate analysis of results, the site captured a small set of voluntary information about each contributor and their contribution. A group of ~50 international experts were invited to analyze the inputs at a “Visioning Earth System Research” meeting held in September 2009. The outcome of this meeting—a prioritized list of research questions to be investigated over the next decade—was then posted on the visioning website for additional comment from the community through an online survey tool. In general, many lessons were learned in the development and implementation of this website, both in terms of the opportunities offered by Web 2.0 capabilities and the application of these capabilities. It is hoped that this process may serve as a model for other scientific communities. The International Council for Science (ICSU) in cooperation with the International Social Science Council (ISSC) is responsible for organizing this Earth system visioning process.

Goldfarb, L.; Yang, A.

2009-12-01

208

Translational research to develop a human PBPK models tool kit-volatile organic compounds (VOCs).  

PubMed

Toxicity and exposure evaluations remain the two of the key components of human health assessment. While improvement in exposure assessment relies on a better understanding of human behavior patterns, toxicity assessment still relies to a great extent on animal toxicity testing and human epidemiological studies. Recent advances in computer modeling of the dose-response relationship and distribution of xenobiotics in humans to important target tissues have advanced our abilities to assess toxicity. In particular, physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models are among the tools than can enhance toxicity assessment accuracy. Many PBPK models are available to the health assessor, but most are so difficult to use that health assessors rarely use them. To encourage their use these models need to have transparent and user-friendly formats. To this end the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) is using translational research to increase PBPK model accessibility, understandability, and use in the site-specific health assessment arena. The agency has initiated development of a human PBPK tool-kit for certain high priority pollutants. The tool kit comprises a series of suitable models. The models are recoded in a single computer simulation language and evaluated for use by health assessors. While not necessarily being state-of-the-art code for each chemical, the models will be sufficiently accurate to use for screening purposes. This article presents a generic, seven-compartment PBPK model for six priority volatile organic compounds (VOCs): benzene (BEN), carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)), dichloromethane (DCM), perchloroethylene (PCE), trichloroethylene (TCE), and vinyl chloride (VC). Limited comparisons of the generic and original model predictions to published kinetic data were conducted. A goodness of fit was determined by calculating the means of the sum of the squared differences (MSSDs) for simulation vs. experimental kinetic data using the generic and original models. Using simplified solvent exposure assumptions for oral ingestion and inhalation, steady-state blood concentrations of each solvent were simulated for exposures equivalent to the ATSDR Minimal Risk Levels (MRLs). The predicted blood levels were then compared to those reported in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). With the notable exception of BEN, simulations of combined oral and inhalation MRLs using our generic VOC model yielded blood concentrations well above those reported for the 95th percentile blood concentrations for the U.S. populations, suggesting no health concerns. When the PBPK tool kit is fully developed, risk assessors will have a readily accessible tool for evaluating human exposure to a variety of environmental pollutants. PMID:22047160

Mumtaz, M Moiz; Ray, Meredith; Crowell, Susan R; Keys, Deborah; Fisher, Jeffrey; Ruiz, Patricia

2012-01-01

209

MAINE POPULATION  

EPA Science Inventory

MEPOP250 depicts Maine's 1950-1990 population data by town or Census in unorganized territories. Populations were compiled from US Census Bureau data where available or from Maine Municipal Information (mainly for older records). Unorganized towns with very low or zero pop...

210

URSSA, the Undergraduate Research Student Self-Assessment: A Tool for Assessing Student Outcomes of Undergraduate Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evidence-based thinking is essential both to science and to the development of effective educational programs. Thus assessment of student learning—gathering evidence about the nature and depth of students’ learning gains, and about how they arise—is a centerpiece of any effective undergraduate research (UR) program. Assessment data can be used to monitor progress, to diagnose problems, to strengthen program designs, and to report both good outcomes and strategies to improve them to institutional and financial stakeholders in UR programs. While the positive impact of UR on students’ educational, personal and professional development has long been a matter of faith, only recently have researchers and evaluators developed an empirical basis by which to identify and explain these outcomes. Based on this growing body of evidence, URSSA, the Undergraduate Research Student Self-Assessment, is a survey tool that departments and programs can use to assess student outcomes of UR. URSSA focuses on what students learn from their UR experience, rather than whether they liked it. Both multiple-choice and open-ended items focus on students’ gains from UR, including: (1) skills such as lab work and communication; (2) conceptual knowledge and linkages among ideas in their field and with other fields; (3) deepened understanding of the intellectual and practical work of science; (4) growth in confidence and adoption of the identity of scientist; (5) preparation for a career or graduate school in science; and (6) greater clarity in understanding what career or educational path they might wish to pursue. Other items probe students’ participation in important activities that have been shown to lead to these gains; and a set of optional items can be included to probe specific program features that may supplement UR (e.g. field trips, career seminars, housing arrangements). The poster will describe URSSA's content, development, validation, and use. For more information about URSSA and how to use it, visit our web site.

Laursen, S. L.; Hunter, A.; Weston, T.; Thiry, H.

2009-12-01

211

Novel Murine Dendritic Cell Lines: A Powerful Auxiliary Tool for Dendritic Cell Research  

PubMed Central

Research in vitro facilitates discovery, screening, and pilot experiments, often preceding research in vivo. Several technical difficulties render Dendritic Cell (DC) research particularly challenging, including the low frequency of DC in vivo, thorough isolation requirements, and the vulnerability of DC ex vivo. Critically, there is not as yet a widely accepted human or murine DC line and in vitro systems of DC research are limited. In this study, we report the generation of new murine DC lines, named MutuDC, originating from cultures of splenic CD8? conventional DC (cDC) tumors. By direct comparison to normal WT splenic cDC subsets, we describe the phenotypic and functional features of the MutuDC lines and show that they have retained all the major features of their natural counterpart in vivo, the splenic CD8? cDC. These features include expression of surface markers Clec9A, DEC205, and CD24, positive response to TLR3 and TLR9 but not TLR7 stimuli, secretion of cytokines, and chemokines upon activation, as well as cross-presentation capacity. In addition to the close resemblance to normal splenic CD8? cDC, a major advantage is the ease of derivation and maintenance of the MutuDC lines, using standard culture medium and conditions, importantly without adding supplementary growth factors or maturation-inducing stimuli to the medium. Furthermore, genetically modified MutuDC lines have been successfully obtained either by lentiviral transduction or by culture of DC tumors originating from genetically modified mice. In view of the current lack of stable and functional DC lines, these novel murine DC lines have the potential to serve as an important auxiliary tool for DC research.

Fuertes Marraco, Silvia A.; Grosjean, Frederic; Duval, Anais; Rosa, Muriel; Lavanchy, Christine; Ashok, Devika; Haller, Sergio; Otten, Luc A.; Steiner, Quynh-Giao; Descombes, Patrick; Luber, Christian A.; Meissner, Felix; Mann, Matthias; Szeles, Lajos; Reith, Walter; Acha-Orbea, Hans

2012-01-01

212

Design of a Web-tool for diagnostic clinical trials handling medical imaging research.  

PubMed

New clinical studies in medicine are based on patients and controls using different imaging diagnostic modalities. Medical information systems are not designed for clinical trials employing clinical imaging. Although commercial software and communication systems focus on storage of image data, they are not suitable for storage and mining of new types of quantitative data. We sought to design a Web-tool to support diagnostic clinical trials involving different experts and hospitals or research centres. The image analysis of this project is based on skeletal X-ray imaging. It involves a computerised image method using quantitative analysis of regions of interest in healthy bone and skeletal metastases. The database is implemented with ASP.NET 3.5 and C# technologies for our Web-based application. For data storage, we chose MySQL v.5.0, one of the most popular open source databases. User logins were necessary, and access to patient data was logged for auditing. For security, all data transmissions were carried over encrypted connections. This Web-tool is available to users scattered at different locations; it allows an efficient organisation and storage of data (case report form) and images and allows each user to know precisely what his task is. The advantages of our Web-tool are as follows: (1) sustainability is guaranteed; (2) network locations for collection of data are secured; (3) all clinical information is stored together with the original images and the results derived from processed images and statistical analysis that enable us to perform retrospective studies; (4) changes are easily incorporated because of the modular architecture; and (5) assessment of trial data collected at different sites is centralised to reduce statistical variance. PMID:20517632

Baltasar Sánchez, Alicia; González-Sistal, Angel

2011-04-01

213

On the Use of EEG or MEG Brain Imaging Tools in Neuromarketing Research  

PubMed Central

Here we present an overview of some published papers of interest for the marketing research employing electroencephalogram (EEG) and magnetoencephalogram (MEG) methods. The interest for these methodologies relies in their high-temporal resolution as opposed to the investigation of such problem with the functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) methodology, also largely used in the marketing research. In addition, EEG and MEG technologies have greatly improved their spatial resolution in the last decades with the introduction of advanced signal processing methodologies. By presenting data gathered through MEG and high resolution EEG we will show which kind of information it is possible to gather with these methodologies while the persons are watching marketing relevant stimuli. Such information will be related to the memorization and pleasantness related to such stimuli. We noted that temporal and frequency patterns of brain signals are able to provide possible descriptors conveying information about the cognitive and emotional processes in subjects observing commercial advertisements. These information could be unobtainable through common tools used in standard marketing research. We also show an example of how an EEG methodology could be used to analyze cultural differences between fruition of video commercials of carbonated beverages in Western and Eastern countries.

Vecchiato, Giovanni; Astolfi, Laura; De Vico Fallani, Fabrizio; Toppi, Jlenia; Aloise, Fabio; Bez, Francesco; Wei, Daming; Kong, Wanzeng; Dai, Jounging; Cincotti, Febo; Mattia, Donatella; Babiloni, Fabio

2011-01-01

214

On the use of EEG or MEG brain imaging tools in neuromarketing research.  

PubMed

Here we present an overview of some published papers of interest for the marketing research employing electroencephalogram (EEG) and magnetoencephalogram (MEG) methods. The interest for these methodologies relies in their high-temporal resolution as opposed to the investigation of such problem with the functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) methodology, also largely used in the marketing research. In addition, EEG and MEG technologies have greatly improved their spatial resolution in the last decades with the introduction of advanced signal processing methodologies. By presenting data gathered through MEG and high resolution EEG we will show which kind of information it is possible to gather with these methodologies while the persons are watching marketing relevant stimuli. Such information will be related to the memorization and pleasantness related to such stimuli. We noted that temporal and frequency patterns of brain signals are able to provide possible descriptors conveying information about the cognitive and emotional processes in subjects observing commercial advertisements. These information could be unobtainable through common tools used in standard marketing research. We also show an example of how an EEG methodology could be used to analyze cultural differences between fruition of video commercials of carbonated beverages in Western and Eastern countries. PMID:21960996

Vecchiato, Giovanni; Astolfi, Laura; De Vico Fallani, Fabrizio; Toppi, Jlenia; Aloise, Fabio; Bez, Francesco; Wei, Daming; Kong, Wanzeng; Dai, Jounging; Cincotti, Febo; Mattia, Donatella; Babiloni, Fabio

2011-09-27

215

Reactive Transport Modeling: An Essential Tool and a New ResearchApproach for the Earth Sciences  

SciTech Connect

Reactive transport modeling is an essential tool for the analysis of coupled physical, chemical, and biological processes in Earth systems, and has additional potential to better integrate the results from focused fundamental research on Earth materials. Appropriately designed models can describe the interactions of competing processes at a range of spatial and time scales, and hence are critical for connecting the advancing capabilities for materials characterization at the atomic scale with the macroscopic behavior of complex Earth systems. Reactive transport modeling has had a significant impact on the treatment of contaminant retardation in the subsurface, the description of elemental and nutrient fluxes between major Earth reservoirs, and in the treatment of deep Earth processes such as metamorphism and magma transport. Active topics of research include the development of pore scale and hybrid, or multiple continua, models to capture the scale dependence of coupled reactive transport processes. Frontier research questions, that are only now being addressed, include the effects of chemical microenvironments, coupled thermal mechanical chemical processes, controls on mineral fluid reaction rates in natural media, and scaling of reactive transport processes from the microscopic to pore to field scale.

Steefel, Carl I.; DePaolo, Donald J.; Lichtner, Peter C.

2005-08-25

216

The Virtual Heliospheric Observatory: An ideal tool for cross-disciplinary research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Currently, space physicists are faced with a bewildering array of heliospheric missions, experiments, and data sets available at archives distributed around the world. Daunting even for those most familiar with the field, physicists in other concentrations (solar physics, magnetospheric physics, etc.) find locating the heliospheric data that they need extremely challenging if not impossible. The Virtual Heliospheric Observatory (VHO) works to solve this problem by providing an Application Programming Interface (API) and web portal that integrates these data sets to find the highest quality data for a given task. The VHO is an ideal tool for cross-disclipinary research providing complex and powerful search capabilities and enforcing a coherent metadata standard ensuring data are independently usable and understandable.

Schroeder, Peter

217

Microbeam methodologies as powerful tools in manganese hyperaccumulation research: present status and future directions.  

PubMed

Microbeam studies over the past decade have garnered unique insight into manganese (Mn) homeostasis in plant species that hyperaccumulate this essential mineral micronutrient. Electron- and/or proton-probe methodologies employed to examine tissue elemental distributions have proven highly effective in illuminating excess foliar Mn disposal strategies, some apparently unique to Mn hyperaccumulating plants. When applied to samples prepared with minimal artefacts, these are powerful tools for extracting true 'snapshot' data of living systems. For a range of reasons, Mn hyperaccumulation is particularly suited to in vivo interrogation by this approach. Whilst microbeam investigation of metallophytes is well documented, certain methods originally intended for non-biological samples are now widely applied in biology. This review examines current knowledge about Mn hyperaccumulators with reference to microbeam methodologies, and discusses implications for future research into metal transporters. PMID:23970891

Fernando, Denise R; Marshall, Alan; Baker, Alan J M; Mizuno, Takafumi

2013-08-20

218

The Framework for Participation: A Research Tool for Exploring the Relationship between Achievement and Inclusion in Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article examines the Framework for Participation: a research tool established to support a recently completed study. The research was undertaken to explore the relationship between achievement and inclusion because headteachers and teachers in some schools continue to resist becoming more inclusive in their student intake on the grounds that…

Black-Hawkins, Kristine

2010-01-01

219

The Framework for Participation: a research tool for exploring the relationship between achievement and inclusion in schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the Framework for Participation: a research tool established to support a recently completed study. The research was undertaken to explore the relationship between achievement and inclusion because headteachers and teachers in some schools continue to resist becoming more inclusive in their student intake on the grounds that doing so has a negative effect on the academic achievement

2010-01-01

220

Process design and costing of bioethanol technology: A tool for determining the status and direction of research and development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioethanol is a fuel-grade ethanol made from trees, grasses, and waste materials. It represents a sustainable substitute for gasoline in today's passenger cars. Modeling and design of processes for making bioethanol are critical tools used in the US Department of Energy's bioethanol research and development program. The authors use such analysis to guide new directions for research and to help

R. Wooley; M. Ruth; D. Glassner; J. Sheehan

1999-01-01

221

Artificial Exo-Society Modeling: a New Tool for SETI Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the newest fields of complexity research is artificial society modeling. Methodologically related to artificial life research, artificial society modeling utilizes agent-based computer simulation tools like SWARM and SUGARSCAPE developed by the Santa Fe Institute, Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Bookings Institution in an effort to introduce an unprecedented degree of rigor and quantitative sophistication into social science research. The broad aim of artificial society modeling is to begin the development of a more unified social science that embeds cultural evolutionary processes in a computational environment that simulates demographics, the transmission of culture, conflict, economics, disease, the emergence of groups and coadaptation with an environment in a bottom-up fashion. When an artificial society computer model is run, artificial societal patterns emerge from the interaction of autonomous software agents (the "inhabitants" of the artificial society). Artificial society modeling invites the interpretation of society as a distributed computational system and the interpretation of social dynamics as a specialized category of computation. Artificial society modeling techniques offer the potential of computational simulation of hypothetical alien societies in much the same way that artificial life modeling techniques offer the potential to model hypothetical exobiological phenomena. NASA recently announced its intention to begin exploring the possibility of including artificial life research within the broad portfolio of scientific fields comprised by the interdisciplinary astrobiology research endeavor. It may be appropriate for SETI researchers to likewise commence an exploration of the possible inclusion of artificial exo-society modeling within the SETI research endeavor. Artificial exo-society modeling might be particularly useful in a post-detection environment by (1) coherently organizing the set of data points derived from a detected ETI signal, (2) mapping trends in the data points over time (assuming receipt of an extended ETI signal), and (3) projecting such trends forward to derive alternative cultural evolutionary scenarios for the exo-society under analysis. The latter exercise might be particularly useful to compensate for the inevitable time lag between generation of an ETI signal and receipt of an ETI signal on Earth. For this reason, such an exercise might be a helpful adjunct to the decisional process contemplated by Paragraph 9 of the Declaration of Principles Concerning Activities Following the Detection of Extraterrestrial Intelligence.

Gardner, James N.

2002-01-01

222

Research Needs in the Pulp and Paper and Related Industries: A Report of an Industry Workshop. Held at the University of Maine on July 12-13, 1988.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Under the auspices of the National Science Foundation a workshop on Research Needs in the Pulp and Paper and Related Industries was held at the University of Maine on July 12 and 13, 1988. Recognized experts in the U.S. pulp and paper industry gathered to...

1988-01-01

223

MAINE AQUIFERS  

EPA Science Inventory

AQFRS24 contains polygons of significant aquifers in Maine (glacial deposits that are a significant ground water resource) mapped at a scale 1:24,000. This statewide coverage was derived from aquifer boundaries delineated and digitized by the Maine Geological Survey from data com...

224

Research Note: Firearms Tracing Data from the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms: An Occasionally Useful Law Enforcement Tool but a Poor Research Tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms (BATF) sometimes traces the history of firearms used in crime. Typically, the trace reveals the gun's history from its manufacture to its sale by a licensed retail firearms dealer. BATF traces occasionally have been a useful tool for investigating individual crimes. In recent years, however, some persons have attempted to use BATF trace

David B. Kopel; Paul H. Blackman

2000-01-01

225

A Tropical Marine Microbial Natural Products Geobibliography as an Example of Desktop Exploration of Current Research Using Web Visualisation Tools  

PubMed Central

Microbial marine biodiscovery is a recent scientific endeavour developing at a time when information and other technologies are also undergoing great technical strides. Global visualisation of datasets is now becoming available to the world through powerful and readily available software such as Worldwind™, ArcGIS Explorer™ and Google Earth™. Overlaying custom information upon these tools is within the hands of every scientist and more and more scientific organisations are making data available that can also be integrated into these global visualisation tools. The integrated global view that these tools enable provides a powerful desktop exploration tool. Here we demonstrate the value of this approach to marine microbial biodiscovery by developing a geobibliography that incorporates citations on tropical and near-tropical marine microbial natural products research with Google Earth™ and additional ancillary global data sets. The tools and software used are all readily available and the reader is able to use and install the material described in this article.

Mukherjee, Joydeep; Llewellyn, Lyndon E; Evans-Illidge, Elizabeth A

2008-01-01

226

Exploring the Gap Between Water Managers and Researchers: Difficulties of Model-Based Tools to Support Practical Water Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supported by EU funds, the European research community has been putting much effort into providing model-based tools to support\\u000a water resource managers in implementing water management as well as the implementation of the Water Framework Directive. This\\u000a paper presents the results of a two-year long elicitation phase which aimed to explain why the use of tools in water management\\u000a is

Ilke Borowski; Matt Hare

2007-01-01

227

Action?research and Food and Nutrition Security: A school experience mediated by conceptual graphic representation tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study deals with the development of a graphic representation tool as a way to support educational planning in an elementary school in the rural area of Brasilia (Brazil’s capital), aiming at the implementation of an integrated action?research project focusing on hunger and nutrition. The graphic tool made it possible to promote dialogical–reflexive interactions among school teachers as to the

Ivete Teresinha Graebner; Elizabeth Maria Talá de Souza; Carlos Hiroo Saito

2009-01-01

228

Research on the Yin-Yang structure of the main city of Nanjing by the method of GIS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chinese government has proposed a strategic development thought named as "Harmonious Society", which contains the requirements to apply Chinese traditional theory to nowadays construction. However, the available theoretical achievement almost all stems from the western, and entirely not suitable for the real situation in China. Meanwhile the research method is fairly traditional. The appearance of the concepts of yin-region, yang-region and yin-yang structure changes the situation of the dominance by a series of westerners' concepts of describing the urban and regional space and theories of spatial structures. Based on the primary achievement of the theory, this article tries to apply GIS methods into the new theory, which makes it more consummate and scientific. This paper will put emphases on discussing the quantitative definition with GIS, evaluate effect and harmonious mechanism about urban yin-yang spatial structure based on existing primary researches of the author's mentor. By means of reasonable division, the yin region and yang region can be defined, and which makes the new definition be quantified and the theory more scientific. First, considering the aspect of economy, social progress and environment, 11 indexes composed of 24 factors are elected as the appraisal foundation. Then, decide the importance of each factor by gifting them different scores(hundred mark system is adopted, that is to say 100 stands for the strongest affection, while 0 stands for having no affection, the score between them from low to high represents the importance variety). Furthermore, rely on AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) synthesizing experts' marking methods, the final point is determined. In this way, the scale of the appraisal units scold be fixed. Then we could construct the effect of the factors. By doing this, the factors' entirety affection on every units can be reflected. Accumulating the factors' scores of each unit, the ultimate affection score could be determined by ArcGIS Analysis. Finally, we could divide the units into three groups according to their final score, from high to low they respectively standing for the yin-region, the transition region and the yang region. The research on yin-yang-regions and yin-yang structure will help stimulate the coordinated development of the whole society and make all the people reach an agreement that we should launch positive and effective strategies and measures to improve the development environment of yin-region, promote its transition to yang-region.

Yuan, Wen; Zhu, Xigang; Zhao, Bo

2007-08-01

229

High-resolution respirometry--a modern tool in aging research.  

PubMed

Alterations in mitochondrial function are believed to play a major role in aging processes in many species, including fungi and animals, and increased oxidative stress is considered a major consequence of altered mitochondrial function. In support of this theory, a lot of correlative evidence has been collected, suggesting that changes in mitochondrial DNA accumulate with age in certain tissues. Furthermore, genetic experiments from lower eukaryotic model organisms, indicate a strong correlative link between increased resistance to oxidative stress and an extended lifespan; in addition, limited experimental evidence suggests that the inhibition of mitochondrial function by selected pharmacologically active compounds can extend lifespan in certain species. However, changes in mitochondrial function may affect aging in a different way in various tissues, and a clear statement about the role of mitochondrial deterioration during physiological aging is missing for most if not all species. At this point, respirometric analyses of mitochondrial function provide a tool to study age-associated changes in mitochondrial respiratory chain function and mitochondrial ATP production within living cells and isolated mitochondria. In the recent years, new instruments have been developed, which allow for an unprecedented high-resolution respirometry, which enables us to determine many parameters of mitochondrial function in routine assays using small samples of biological material. It is conceivable that this technology will become an important tool for all those, who are interested in experimentally addressing the mitochondrial theory of aging. In this article, we provide a synopsis of traditional respirometry and the advances of modern high-resolution respirometry, and discuss how future applications of this technology to recently established experimental models in aging research may provide exciting new insights into the role of mitochondria in the aging process. PMID:16309877

Hütter, E; Unterluggauer, H; Garedew, A; Jansen-Dürr, P; Gnaiger, E

2005-11-23

230

Multidimensional Ranking: A New Transparency Tool for Higher Education and Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper sets out to analyse the need for better "transparency tools" which inform university stakeholders about the quality of universities. First, we give an overview of what we understand by the concept of transparency tools and those that are currently available. We then critique current transparency tools' methodologies, looking in detail…

van Vught, Frans; Westerheijden, Don F.

2010-01-01

231

Catalogue of space objects and events as a powerful tool for scientific researches on space debris  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wide work on developing and maintenance of the Catalogue of scientific information on space objects and events is continuing at the Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics. The work is making in cooperation with Russian company "Space information analytical systems" (KIA Systems). Powerful software tool is developed by now including:- informational core (relational database in RDBMS Oracle 8i environment)with special tools for automatic initial processing and systematization ofdata- software complex for orbital modeling and space objects and eventsdynamical catalogue maintenance- special information - analytical software Informational core covers wide spectrum of data needed for following purposes:- full-scale and high quality modeling of object's motion in near-Earth space(orbital and measurement data, solar flux and geomagnetic indices, Earthrotation parameters etc.)- determination of various events parameters (launches, manoeuvres,fragmentations etc.)- analysis of space debris sources- studying long-term orbital evolution (over several years or tens of years)- other The database is storing huge volume of data including:- optical measurements- TLEs- information about all space launches took place since 1957- information about space missions and programs- manoeuvres- fragmentations- launch sequences for typical orbital insertions- various characteristics for orbital objects (payloads, stages, fragments)- officially released UN and ITU registration data- other By now there are records storing in informational core for more than 28000 orbital objects (both catalogued and not), about all orbital launch attempts since 04.10.1957 (including failed ones), more than 30millions records of orbital information (TLEs, state vectors, polynomial data), more than 200000 optical measurements (normal places) for GEO region objects, calculated data on more than 14 millions of close approaches had taken place during last five years and other data. Software complex for orbital modeling and space objects and events dynamical catalogue maintenance has wide functionality. Following tasks are developed, programmed, tested and working by now:- querying and analysis of statistical data on objects and events- analysis of orbital evolution for real objects based on real orbital data andmodeling of long-term evolution for given orbit- determination and analysis of close approaches between orbital objects- analysis of possibilities of specific objects observations by various sensors- a priory and a posteriori orbital data accuracy estimation taking intoaccount different types of sensors and kinds of measurements,measurements quality estimation- meas urement processing: identification with object in the catalogue,construction of initial estimation of orbital parameters, orbitaldetermination- high - efficient (by time and quality) orbital propagation- dynamical catalogue of objects in GEO region maintenance- presenting of orbital data in universal form permitting to use them withoutspecial propagation software- calculation of near-Earth objects distribution density and probability ofcollision- re-entry prediction for large objects Each one will be discussed in the presentation. For providing high - efficient work with the Catalogue powerful GUI is developed. It permits easily to query data and present results in form of tables, charts, graphics, show them with the map at the background. Projection of trajectory and error ellipsoid can be displayed on the sky or Earth map. Special interactive tools permits to control process of calculation. Many of developed tools and stored data can be used not just for space debris analysis but also for space missions analysis, studying atmosphere drag, developing object observation strategy etc. The next important step in the complex developing is providing access to it for wide range of outer users from various scientific and research organizations over the world using modern Internet technologies. Organizations of communication with observers on a permanent base, for example, will permit to create GEO

Agapov, V.; Stepanyants, V.; Tuchin, A.; Khutorovsky, Z.

232

Neutron tomography of particulate filters: a non-destructive investigation tool for applied and industrial research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research describes the development and implementation of high-fidelity neutron imaging and the associated analysis of the images. This advanced capability allows the non-destructive, non-invasive imaging of particulate filters (PFs) and how the deposition of particulate and catalytic washcoat occurs within the filter. The majority of the efforts described here were performed at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) CG-1D neutron imaging beamline at Oak Ridge National Laboratory; the current spatial resolution is approximately 50 ?m. The sample holder is equipped with a high-precision rotation stage that allows 3D imaging (i.e., computed tomography) of the sample when combined with computerized reconstruction tools. What enables the neutron-based image is the ability of some elements to absorb or scatter neutrons where other elements allow the neutron to pass through them with negligible interaction. Of particular interest in this study is the scattering of neutrons by hydrogen-containing molecules, such as hydrocarbons (HCs) and/or water, which are adsorbed to the surface of soot, ash and catalytic washcoat. Even so, the interactions with this adsorbed water/HC is low and computational techniques were required to enhance the contrast, primarily a modified simultaneous iterative reconstruction technique (SIRT). This effort describes the following systems: particulate randomly distributed in a PF, ash deposition in PFs, a catalyzed washcoat layer in a PF, and three particulate loadings in a SiC PF.

Toops, Todd J.; Bilheux, Hassina Z.; Voisin, Sophie; Gregor, Jens; Walker, Lakeisha; Strzelec, Andrea; Finney, Charles E. A.; Pihl, Josh A.

2013-11-01

233

Archive eggs: a research and management tool for avian conservation breeding  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Worldwide, approximately 168 bird species are captive-bred for reintroduction into the wild. Programs tend to be initiated for species with a high level of endangerment. Depressed hatching success can be a problem for such programs and has been linked to artificial incubation. The need for artificial incubation is driven by the practice of multiclutching to increase egg production or by uncertainty over the incubation abilities of captive birds. There has been little attempt to determine how artificial incubation differs from bird-contact incubation. We describe a novel archive (data-logger) egg and use it to compare temperature, humidity, and egg-turning in 5 whooping crane (Grus americana) nests, 4 sandhill crane (G. canadensis) nests, and 3 models of artificial incubator; each of which are used to incubate eggs in whooping crane captive-breeding programs. Mean incubation temperature was 31.7° C for whooping cranes and 32.83° C for sandhill cranes. This is well below that of the artificial incubators (which were set based on a protocol of 37.6° C). Humidity in crane nests varied considerably, but median humidity in all 3 artificial incubators was substantially different from that in the crane nests. Two artificial incubators failed to turn the eggs in a way that mimicked crane egg-turning. Archive eggs are an effective tool for guiding the management of avian conservation breeding programs, and can be custom-made for other species. They also have potential to be applied to research on wild populations.

Smith, Des H. V.; Moehrenschlager, Axel; Christensen, Nancy; Knapik, Dwight; Gibson, Keith; Converse, Sarah J.

2012-01-01

234

SMART II : the spot market agent research tool version 2.0.  

SciTech Connect

Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has worked closely with Western Area Power Administration (Western) over many years to develop a variety of electric power marketing and transmission system models that are being used for ongoing system planning and operation as well as analytic studies. Western markets and delivers reliable, cost-based electric power from 56 power plants to millions of consumers in 15 states. The Spot Market Agent Research Tool Version 2.0 (SMART II) is an investigative system that partially implements some important components of several existing ANL linear programming models, including some used by Western. SMART II does not implement a complete model of the Western utility system but it does include several salient features of this network for exploratory purposes. SMART II uses a Swarm agent-based framework. SMART II agents model bulk electric power transaction dynamics with recognition for marginal costs as well as transmission and generation constraints. SMART II uses a sparse graph of nodes and links to model the electric power spot market. The nodes represent power generators and consumers with distinct marginal decision curves and varying investment capital as well individual learning parameters. The links represent transmission lines with individual capacities taken from a range of central distribution, outlying distribution and feeder line types. The application of SMART II to electric power systems studies has produced useful results different from those often found using more traditional techniques. Use of the advanced features offered by the Swarm modeling environment simplified the creation of the SMART II model.

North, M. J. N.

2000-12-14

235

Characterizing Urban Traffic Exposures Using Transportation Planning Tools: An Illustrated Methodology for Health Researchers  

PubMed Central

Exposure to elevated levels of vehicular traffic has been associated with adverse cardiovascular and respiratory health effects in a range of populations, including children, the elderly, and individuals with pre-existing heart conditions, diabetes, obesity, and genetic susceptibilities. As these relationships become clearer, public health officials will need to have access to methods to identify areas of concern in terms of elevated traffic levels and susceptible populations. This paper briefly reviews current approaches for characterizing traffic exposure and then presents a detailed method that can be employed by public health officials and other researchers in performing screening assessments to define areas of potential concern within a particular locale and, with appropriate caveats, in epidemiologic studies examining traffic-related health impacts at the intra-urban scale. The method is based on two exposure parameters extensively used in numerous epidemiologic studies of traffic and health—proximity to high traffic roadways and overall traffic density. The method is demonstrated with publically available information on susceptible populations, traffic volumes, and Traffic Analysis Zones, a transportation planning tool long used by Metropolitan Planning Agencies and planners across the USA but presented here as a new application which can be used to spatially assess possible traffic-related impacts on susceptible populations. Recommendations are provided for the appropriate use of this methodology, along with its limitations.

Gute, David M.; Brugge, Doug; Peterson, Scott; Parmenter, Barbara

2010-01-01

236

MAINE WOODLOTS  

EPA Science Inventory

MEOWN250 describes industrial, non-industrial, and public woodlot ownership in Maine at 1:250,000 scale. Industrial owners are those having at least one primary wood processing facility. Non-industrial owners are those with no primary wood processing facility. Public ownership...

237

MAINE HYDROGRAPHY  

EPA Science Inventory

Hydronet_me24 and Hydropoly_me24 depict Maine's hydrography data, based on 8-digit hydrological unit codes (HUC's) at the 1:24,000 scale. Some New Hampshire and New Brunswick hydrography data are also included. The NHD hydrography data was compiled from previous ArcIn...

238

A Research of Tool Wear Recognizing Based on Wavelet Packet Pretreated and Neural Network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vibration signals of tool wear are proved to be non-stationary ones. They usually carry the dynamic information of tool wear and are very useful for tool wear condition recognition. The wavelet analysis is especially suitable for non-stationary signal processing and the artificial neural network is a very good tool for signal identification. In this paper, a new efficient tool wear monitoring method based on the wavelet packet transform and the artificial neural network was presented. The cutting vibration signals in different milling wear conditions are decomposed and reconstructed by using the wavelet packet transform and feature extraction with conditions information is obtained by using proper and scientific methods to extract from signals. Wavelet pretreatment distills feature information from original signal as input vectors of decision net in order to reduce input data dimension, optimize the net construction, compute complexity and decrease the decision the errors. The theoretical background of wavelet packet transform and grey relational degree analysis optimization radial based function network (RBFN) was given. The effect of cutting parameters on energy parameters was taken into account while extracting energy parameters of tool wear characteristic vector, this made the extracted parameters of characteristic vector be more sensitive to tool wear and the sensitivity to cutting parameters be the minimum. The recognition method for tool wear condition was studied through artificial neural network and wavelet packet analysis, and relevant RBFN was established. The results showed that RBFN can be successfully used to recognize and analyze tool wear conditions.

Chuangwen, Xu; Hualing, Chen

239

Directing the evolution of Rubisco and Rubisco activase: first impressions of a new tool for photosynthesis research  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last decade the practice of laboratory-directed protein evolution has become firmly established as a versatile\\u000a tool in biochemical research by enabling molecular evolution toward desirable phenotypes or detection of novel structure–function\\u000a interactions. Applications of this technique in the field of photosynthesis research are still in their infancy, but recently\\u000a first steps have been reported in the directed evolution

Oliver Mueller-Cajar; Spencer M. Whitney

2008-01-01

240

CME: A 3D Community-Based, Real-Time Collaboration Tool for Scientific Research and Training  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need for effective collaboration tools is growing as multidisciplinary proteome-wide projects and distributed research teams become more common. The resulting data is often quite disparate, stored in separate locations, and not contextually related. Collaborative Molecular Modeling Environment (C-ME) is an interactive community-based collaboration system that allows researchers to organize information, visualize data on a two-dimensional (2-D) or three-dimensional (3-D)

Anand Kolatkar; Kevin Kennedy; Dan Halabuk; Josh Kunken; Dena Marrinucci; Kelly Bethel; Rodney Guzman; Tim Huckaby; Peter Kuhn; Robert Futrelle

2008-01-01

241

In Vivo Computed Tomography as a Research Tool to Investigate Asthma and COPD: Where Do We Stand?  

PubMed Central

Computed tomography (CT) is a clinical tool widely used to assess and followup asthma and chonic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in humans. Strong efforts have been made the last decade to improve this technique as a quantitative research tool. Using semiautomatic softwares, quantification of airway wall thickness, lumen area, and bronchial wall density are available from large to intermediate conductive airways. Skeletonization of the bronchial tree can be built to assess its three-dimensional geometry. Lung parenchyma density can be analysed as a surrogate of small airway disease and emphysema. Since resident cells involve airway wall and lung parenchyma abnormalities, CT provides an accurate and reliable research tool to assess their role in vivo. This litterature review highlights the most recent advances made to assess asthma and COPD with CT, and also their drawbacks and the place of CT in clarifying the complex physiopathology of both diseases.

Dournes, Gael; Montaudon, Michel; Berger, Patrick; Laurent, Francois

2012-01-01

242

In Vivo Computed Tomography as a Research Tool to Investigate Asthma and COPD: Where Do We Stand?  

PubMed

Computed tomography (CT) is a clinical tool widely used to assess and followup asthma and chonic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in humans. Strong efforts have been made the last decade to improve this technique as a quantitative research tool. Using semiautomatic softwares, quantification of airway wall thickness, lumen area, and bronchial wall density are available from large to intermediate conductive airways. Skeletonization of the bronchial tree can be built to assess its three-dimensional geometry. Lung parenchyma density can be analysed as a surrogate of small airway disease and emphysema. Since resident cells involve airway wall and lung parenchyma abnormalities, CT provides an accurate and reliable research tool to assess their role in vivo. This litterature review highlights the most recent advances made to assess asthma and COPD with CT, and also their drawbacks and the place of CT in clarifying the complex physiopathology of both diseases. PMID:22287977

Dournes, Gaël; Montaudon, Michel; Berger, Patrick; Laurent, François

2012-01-11

243

Using the Tools of the Information Age to Enhance Research and Management of the Southern Pine Beetle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Southern Pine Beetle (SPB) is a major pest in southern U.S.A., Mexico, and Central America. Enormous resources in terms of funding, personnel, and effort have been allocated for research and development of pest management tools for this pest over the past century. Access to information from journal articles, reports, fact sheets, etc. does require some effort and is often

Scott M. Salom; Nicholas D. Stone; Stephen R. Clarke; Jeffrey G. Fidgen; Brian Ward; Quintin McClellan; Brinkley Benson

2001-01-01

244

Transition Planning: Community Mapping as a Tool for Teachers and Students. Research to Practice Brief. Volume 4, Issue 1  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Community mapping is a tool grounded in a school-to-careers research base that can aid educators' efforts in matching students' transition needs with community assets. Community mapping (geographical or abstract) is a contextualized teaching and learning (CTL) approach that can acquaint teachers with the target community's culture, resources,…

Tindle, Kate; Leconte, Pam; Buchanan, LaVerne; Taymans, Juliana M.

2005-01-01

245

Students' Perceptions of the Effectiveness of the World Wide Web as a Research and Teaching Tool in Science Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Investigates the use of the World Wide Web (WWW) as a research and teaching tool in promoting self-directed learning groups of 15-year-old students. Discusses the perceptions of students of the effectiveness of the WWW in assisting them with the construction of knowledge on photosynthesis and respiration. (Contains 33 references.) (Author/YDS)|

Ng, Wan; Gunstone, Richard

2002-01-01

246

THE NORTH OLYMPIC PENINSULA SOLUTIONS NETWORK: EXTENDING NASA TOOLS BEYOND THE RESEARCH COMMUNITY TO RESOURCE MANAGEMENT USER GROUPS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The North Olympic Peninsula Solutions Network (NOPSN) is extending the tools, knowledge, and results of National Aeronautical and Space Administration's (NASA) Applied Sciences Program beyond the science and research communities to contribute to national priorities with societal benefits, such as in ecological forecasting, water management, and agricultural efficiency. NOPSN is interacting with local, state, regional, and national user groups to

Mike Doherty; Jeff Ward; Dwight Barry; Mark Wigmosta; Shea McDonald; Chris DeSisto; Jerry Sehlke; Clea Rome

2008-01-01

247

Market Research Design on Modeling Propensity to Purchase and Market Potential: Using GIS and Data Mining as the Tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the research design for an ongoing project focusing on modelling propensity to purchase and market potential estimation on a small geographic area basis through the integration of market and geo-referenced data sources. Specifically, the project seeks to use geographical information systems (GIS) and data mining technologies as key market intelligence software tools for market forecast modelling. Using

Lihua Zhao; Jennifer Harris

2006-01-01

248

Students' Perceptions of the Effectiveness of the World Wide Web as a Research and Teaching Tool in Science Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Students often make little linkage from lesson to lesson on what they learn in the regular classroom. Having them take responsibility for what they are learning is one way of having them think and connect these thoughts together. This qualitative study looks at the use of the World Wide Web (WWW) as a research and teaching tool in promoting self-directed

Wan Ng; Richard Gunstone

2002-01-01

249

Design Tools in Didactical Research: Instrumenting the Epistemological and Cognitive Aspects of the Design of Teaching Sequences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|European programs of design research have developed distinctive types of apparatus to structure and support the process of didactical design. This article illustrates how intermediate frameworks and design tools serve to mediate the contribution of grand theories to the design process, by coordinating and contextualizing theoretical insights on…

Ruthven, Kenneth; Laborde, Colette; Leach, John; Tiberghien, Andree

2009-01-01

250

Research Paper: Using Petri Net Tools to Study Properties and Dynamics of Biological Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Petri Nets (PNs) and their extensions are promising methods for modeling and simulating biological systems. We surveyed PN formalisms and tools and compared them based on their mathematical capabilities as well as by their appropriateness to represent typical biological processes. We measured the ability of these tools to model specific features of biological systems and answer a set of biological

Mor Peleg; Daniel L. Rubin; Russ B. Altman

2005-01-01

251

Tool Condition Monitoring (TCM) — The Status of Research and Industrial Application  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of sensor systems for tool condition monitoring in machining and grinding is becoming more commonplace to enhance productivity. Many approaches have been proposed to accomplish tool condition monitoring and a number of these are successfully employed in industry. This paper reviews the motivation and basis for the utilization of these systems in industry, the sensors used in such

G. Byrne; D. Dornfeld; I. Inasaki; G. Ketteler; W. König; R. Teti

1995-01-01

252

CE-MS and related techniques as a valuable tool in tumor biomarkers research.  

PubMed

Cancer has been a disease of great concern because it is the second main cause of death in the world. Cures for most cancer pathologies have not yet been found, and an accurate and early diagnosis is essential for successful treatment. Therefore, research on tumor biomarkers has noticeably increased in recent years. The determination of such biomolecules, together with the routinely used laboratory exams for cancer diagnosis, would constitute a more reliable approach, known as systems biology. The "omics" era has corroborated in such investigations since the development of new technologies has arisen along with it. One of the techniques applied to the investigation of tumor biomarkers is CE, and the increasing applications of CE-MS in this field are also observed. This review covers the published literature on tumor biomarker investigations by CE-MS and related techniques, mostly within the last decade, but not limited to it. For didactic reasons this review is divided into the tumor biomarkers chemical classes, namely, proteins and related molecules, DNA adducts and modified nucleosides. PMID:20349514

Simionato, Ana Valéria Colnaghi; Carrilho, Emanuel; Maggi Tavares, Marina Franco

2010-04-01

253

A clinical trial alert tool to recruit large patient samples and assess selection bias in general practice research  

PubMed Central

Background Many research projects in general practice face problems when recruiting patients, often resulting in low recruitment rates and an unknown selection bias, thus limiting their value for health services research. The objective of the study is to evaluate the recruitment performance of the practice staff in 25 participating general practices when using a clinical trial alert (CTA) tool. Methods The CTA tool was developed for an osteoporosis survey of patients at risk for osteoporosis and fractures. The tool used data from electronic patient records (EPRs) to automatically identify the population at risk (net sample), to apply eligibility criteria, to contact eligible patients, to enrol and survey at least 200 patients per practice. The effects of the CTA intervention were evaluated on the basis of recruitment efficiency and selection bias. Results The CTA tool identified a net sample of 16,067 patients (range 162 to 1,316 per practice), of which the practice staff reviewed 5,161 (32%) cases for eligibility. They excluded 3,248 patients and contacted 1,913 patients. Of these, 1,526 patients (range 4 to 202 per practice) were successfully enrolled and surveyed. This made up 9% of the net sample and 80% of the patients contacted. Men and older patients were underrepresented in the study population. Conclusion Although the recruitment target was unreachable for most practices, the practice staff in the participating practices used the CTA tool successfully to identify, document and survey a large patient sample. The tool also helped the research team to precisely determine a slight selection bias.

2011-01-01

254

The Development of an Online Research Tool to Investigate Children's Social Bonds with Robots  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As children are increasingly exposed to robots, it is important to learn more about the social interaction and bond that may develop between robots and children. In this paper we report the development of an interactive tool to measure children's attitudes toward social robots for children ages 6-10. A first version of the KidSAR instrument was tested and a pilot study was carried out to evaluate and improve the design of the KidSAR (Children's Social Attitude toward Robots) tool. The pilot study involved a small scale field experiment assessing whether children feel more social connection with a robot in a caring role compared with a role where it needed to be taken care of. The final KidSAR tool was developed after evaluation of children's responses and observation of children using the tool.

Veenstra, Dana Nathalie; Evers, Vanessa

255

Laser-heating and fuse-permeating research of coat tools' surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To prevent the surface of coat tools from eroding and improve the longevity of coat tools, the laser-heating and fuse-permeating process, a method which adopt high-power acute laser scan for W18Cr4V steel and for micron spraying WC tools to acquire the alloy-coating, get fusing or nonfusing of tools further surface, however, a fuse- permeating layer is formed between the further surface and original body, then quickly-cooled to concord with some property. According to the experiment of laser-phased harden layer atom distribution. Atom W has the obvious diffusing tendency to the original body, the thickness of the fuse- permeating layer >= 20 micrometers , and the crystal particle is small. All this get high performance to decrease the fracture which extend along crystal side.

Liu, Weina; Chen, Ping; Chen, Ling

2000-10-01

256

A Surveillance Tool to Support Quality Assurance and Research in Personalized Medicine  

PubMed Central

Developing effective methods to enable the practice of personalized medicine is a national priority for translational science. By leveraging modern genotyping technology and health information technologies, prescribing therapies based on genotype becomes an achievable goal. Within this manuscript, we describe the development, implementation, and piloting of a surveillance tool to assure the quality of clinical decision making in the context of new pharmacogenetic information. The surveillance tool allows a quality assurance (QA) team to review significant genotyping results and deliver focused educational interventions to providers. We report on the first eight patients undergoing genotyping to support antiplatelet therapy selection after drug-eluting stent placement. The collected pilot data supports an informatics approach to QA process management, as our tool delivered actionable patient information. It also enabled providers to tailor antiplatelet therapy to individual patients’ genotypes. Our expectation is to continue collecting surveillance reports to perform an in-depth analysis of our tool.

Khan, Naqi A.; Peterson, Josh F.

2011-01-01

257

A Critically constructed concept of action research as a tool for the professional development of teachers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The question what contribution action research can make to the professional development of teachers is not easy to answer. It depends firstly on the context in which action research takes shape and secondly on the conceptual principles on which educators and teachers base their view of what good action research is. In order to be able to use action research

Petra Ponte

2005-01-01

258

Funding acknowledgement analysis: an enhanced tool to investigate research sponsorship impacts: the case of nanotechnology  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is increasing interest in assessing how sponsored research funding influences the development and trajectory of science\\u000a and technology. Traditionally, linkages between research funding and subsequent results are hard to track, often requiring\\u000a access to separate funding or performance reports released by researchers or sponsors. Tracing research sponsorship and output\\u000a linkages is even more challenging when researchers receive multiple funding

Jue Wang; Philip Shapira

2011-01-01

259

Gulf of Maine: Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Lessons and activities from the Gulf of Maine Research Institute (formerly Gulf of Maine Aquarium), focused on hurricanes, El Nino, fog, and volcanic eruptions. Emphasis on important hurricanes of the past. Resources include lessons, guides for simple experiments, and a student weather network. Downloadable materials and additional webpages also provided.

260

The One-Pager: A Practical Policy Advocacy Tool for Translating Community-Based Participatory Research Into Action  

PubMed Central

The multiple and diverse perspectives, skills, and experiences inherent in community–academic partnerships make them uniquely positioned to educate policy makers and advocate for health equity. Effective communication tools are critical to successfully engage in the policy-making process. Yet few resources emphasize the development and use of practical tools for translating community-based participatory research (CBPR) findings into action. The purpose of this article is to describe a CBPR process for developing and using a one-page summary, or “one-pager,” of research findings and their policy implications. This article draws on the experience of the Healthy Environments Partnership (HEP), a community–academic partnership in Detroit, Michigan. In addition to describing these processes, this article includes a template for a one-pager and an example of a one-pager that was written for and presented to federal policy makers.

Izumi, Betty T.; Schulz, Amy J.; Israel, Barbara A.; Reyes, Angela G.; Martin, Jenifer; Lichtenstein, Richard L.; Wilson, Christine; Sand, Sharon L.

2010-01-01

261

PRE-QAPP AGREEMENT (PQA) AND ANALYTICAL METHOD CHECKLISTS (AMCS): TOOLS FOR PLANNING RESEARCH PROJECTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The Land Remediation and Pollution Control Division (LRPCD) QA Manager strives to assist LRPCD researchers in developing functional planning documents for their research projects. As part of the planning process, several pieces of information are needed, including information re...

262

References on Men and Women in Psychology (1887–1997): PsycINFO as an Archival Research Tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

PsycINFO was used as an archival research tool to compare the number of references for women and for men in the psychology literature from 1887–1997. The findings of this historical overview indicated a relatively greater number of references for men than for women in the years before the 1960s and a shift during the 1960s toward more references for women.

Michelle Moon; Charles D. Hoffman

2000-01-01

263

The BIOMAT facility at FAIR: a new tool for ground-based research in space radiation biophysics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The BIOMAT facility at FAIR: a new tool for ground-based research in space radiation biophysics M.Durante The FAIR accelerator complex at GSI (placeCityDarmstadt, country-regionGermany) will be a unique facility, where heavy ions with energies up to about 45 A GeV can be used for radiation biology experiments. The study of these very high charge and energy (HZE) particles is not

Marco Durante

2008-01-01

264

Collocation and least squares methods as a tool for handling gravity field dependent data obtained through space research techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Least squares adjustment and collocation methods have in the last decade been the tool for extracting gravity field information\\u000a from data obtained through space research techniques (satellite orbit tracking, altimeter observations, doppler determined\\u000a positions), and when combining these data with data observed at the surface of the Earth.\\u000a \\u000a The mathematical framework for the two models is described and the models

C. C. Tscherning

1978-01-01

265

Main Report  

PubMed Central

Background: States vary widely in their use of newborn screening tests, with some mandating screening for as few as three conditions and others mandating as many as 43 conditions, including varying numbers of the 40+ conditions that can be detected by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). There has been no national guidance on the best candidate conditions for newborn screening since the National Academy of Sciences report of 19751 and the United States Congress Office of Technology Assessment report of 1988,2 despite rapid developments since then in genetics, in screening technologies, and in some treatments. Objectives: In 2002, the Maternal and Child Health Bureau (MCHB) of the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) of the United States Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) commissioned the American College of Medical Genetics (ACMG) to: Conduct an analysis of the scientific literature on the effectiveness of newborn screening.Gather expert opinion to delineate the best evidence for screening for specified conditions and develop recommendations focused on newborn screening, including but not limited to the development of a uniform condition panel.Consider other components of the newborn screening system that are critical to achieving the expected outcomes in those screened. Methods: A group of experts in various areas of subspecialty medicine and primary care, health policy, law, public health, and consumers worked with a steering committee and several expert work groups, using a two-tiered approach to assess and rank conditions. A first step was developing a set of principles to guide the analysis. This was followed by developing criteria by which conditions could be evaluated, and then identifying the conditions to be evaluated. A large and broadly representative group of experts was asked to provide their opinions on the extent to which particular conditions met the selected criteria, relying on supporting evidence and references from the scientific literature. The criteria were distributed among three main categories for each condition: The availability and characteristics of the screening test;The availability and complexity of diagnostic services; andThe availability and efficacy of treatments related to the conditions. A survey process utilizing a data collection instrument was used to gather expert opinion on the conditions in the first tier of the assessment. The data collection format and survey provided the opportunity to quantify expert opinion and to obtain the views of a diverse set of interest groups (necessary due to the subjective nature of some of the criteria). Statistical analysis of data produced a score for each condition, which determined its ranking and initial placement in one of three categories (high scoring, moderately scoring, or low scoring/absence of a newborn screening test). In the second tier of these analyses, the evidence base related to each condition was assessed in depth (e.g., via systematic reviews of reference lists including MedLine, PubMed and others; books; Internet searches; professional guidelines; clinical evidence; and cost/economic evidence and modeling). The fact sheets reflecting these analyses were evaluated by at least two acknowledged experts for each condition. These experts assessed the data and the associated references related to each criterion and provided corrections where appropriate, assigned a value to the level of evidence and the quality of the studies that established the evidence base, and determined whether there were significant variances from the survey data. Survey results were subsequently realigned with the evidence obtained from the scientific literature during the second-tier analysis for all objective criteria, based on input from at least three acknowledged experts in each condition. The information from these two tiers of assessment was then considered with regard to the overriding principles and other technology or condition-specific recommendations. On the basis of this information, conditions were assigned to one of thr

2006-01-01

266

Relating Science and Religion: An Ontology of Taxonomies and Development of a Research Tool for Identifying Individual Views  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding how individuals view the relationship between science and religion shows promise for explaining a range of aspects of teaching and learning in science. Several taxonomies, consisting of different views by which people relate science and religion, can be found in the philosophical literature. However, most of the science education literature uses these taxonomies selectively and with limited justification, hindering comparison between existing and future studies. The first aim of this paper is therefore to provide a comprehensive review of the different taxonomies described in the literature and to organise the different views according to their similarities and differences. The second aim of the paper is to present a new research tool developed on the basis of the findings of the literature review. This tool consists of a short questionnaire allowing educational researchers to identify the different viewpoints held by pre-service teachers, undergraduates majoring in biology and school learners. We present the tool itself and demonstrate its usefulness and versatility for future science education research based on three empirical studies covering a range of geographical areas, religious backgrounds, educational levels, age groups and genders.

Yasri, Pratchayapong; Arthur, Shagufta; Smith, Mike U.; Mancy, Rebecca

2013-09-01

267

Relating Science and Religion: An Ontology of Taxonomies and Development of a Research Tool for Identifying Individual Views  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding how individuals view the relationship between science and religion shows promise for explaining a range of aspects of teaching and learning in science. Several taxonomies, consisting of different views by which people relate science and religion, can be found in the philosophical literature. However, most of the science education literature uses these taxonomies selectively and with limited justification, hindering comparison between existing and future studies. The first aim of this paper is therefore to provide a comprehensive review of the different taxonomies described in the literature and to organise the different views according to their similarities and differences. The second aim of the paper is to present a new research tool developed on the basis of the findings of the literature review. This tool consists of a short questionnaire allowing educational researchers to identify the different viewpoints held by pre-service teachers, undergraduates majoring in biology and school learners. We present the tool itself and demonstrate its usefulness and versatility for future science education research based on three empirical studies covering a range of geographical areas, religious backgrounds, educational levels, age groups and genders.

Yasri, Pratchayapong; Arthur, Shagufta; Smith, Mike U.; Mancy, Rebecca

2013-10-01

268

Social media for company research: A few of the best tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowing the best social sources for company information, and what you can expect to find in those sources, will complement your ‘traditional’ information search and help you paint a richer picture of a company and its strategy. In this article, the author examines three of the top social tools for company information: LinkedIn, Facebook and YouTube. By searching for the

Scott Brown

2011-01-01

269

QUANTITATIVE RISK REDUCTION ESTIMATION TOOL FOR CONTROL SYSTEMS Suggested Approach and Research Needs  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the past year we have applied a variety of risk assessment technologies to evaluate the risk to critical infrastructure from cyber attacks on control systems. More recently, we identified the need for a stand alone control system risk reduction estimation tool to provide owners and operators of control systems with a more useable, reliable, and credible method for managing

Miles McQueen; Wayne Boyer; Mark Flynn; Sam Alessi

270

Electronic health records as a tool for recruitment of participants' clinical effectiveness research: lessons learned from tobacco cessation.  

PubMed

Translating tobacco dependence treatments that are effective in research settings into real-world clinical settings remains challenging. Electronic health record (EHR) technology can facilitate this process. This paper describes the accomplishments and lessons learned from a translational team science (clinic/research) approach to the development of an EHR tool for participant recruitment and clinic engagement in tobacco cessation research. All team stakeholders-research, clinical, and IT-were engaged in the design and planning of the project. Results over the first 17 months of the study showed that over one half of all smokers, coming in for any type of clinic appointment, were offered participation in the study, a very high level of adherent use of the EHR. Study recruitment over this period was 1,071 individuals, over 12 % of smokers in the participating clinics. PMID:24073175

Fraser, David; Christiansen, Bruce A; Adsit, Robert; Baker, Timothy B; Fiore, Michael C

2013-09-01

271

Fallout radionuclide-based techniques for assessing the impact of soil conservation measures on erosion control and soil quality: an overview of the main lessons learnt under an FAO/IAEA Coordinated Research Project.  

PubMed

This paper summarizes key findings and identifies the main lessons learnt from a 5-year (2002-2008) coordinated research project (CRP) on "Assessing the effectiveness of soil conservation measures for sustainable watershed management and crop production using fallout radionuclides" (D1.50.08), organized and funded by the International Atomic Energy Agency through the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. The project brought together nineteen participants, from Australia, Austria, Brazil, Canada, Chile, China, Japan, Morocco, Pakistan, Poland, Romania, Russian Federation, Turkey, United Kingdom, United States of America and Vietnam, involved in the use of nuclear techniques and, more particularly, fallout radionuclides (FRN) to assess the relative impacts of different soil conservation measures on soil erosion and land productivity. The overall objective of the CRP was to develop improved land use and management strategies for sustainable watershed management through effective soil erosion control practices, by the use of ¹³?Cs (half-life of 30.2 years), ²¹?Pb(ex) (half-life of 22.3 years) and ?Be (half-life of 53.4 days) for measuring soil erosion over several spatial and temporal scales. The environmental conditions under which the different research teams applied the tools based on the use of fallout radionuclides varied considerably--a variety of climates, soils, topographies and land uses. Nevertheless, the achievements of the CRP, as reflected in this overview paper, demonstrate that fallout radionuclide-based techniques are powerful tools to assess soil erosion/deposition at several spatial and temporal scales in a wide range of environments, and offer potential to monitor soil quality. The success of the CRP has stimulated an interest in many IAEA Member States in the use of these methodologies to identify factors and practices that can enhance sustainable agriculture and minimize land degradation. PMID:22336567

Dercon, G; Mabit, L; Hancock, G; Nguyen, M L; Dornhofer, P; Bacchi, O O S; Benmansour, M; Bernard, C; Froehlich, W; Golosov, V N; Haciyakupoglu, S; Hai, P S; Klik, A; Li, Y; Lobb, D A; Onda, Y; Popa, N; Rafiq, M; Ritchie, J C; Schuller, P; Shakhashiro, A; Wallbrink, P; Walling, D E; Zapata, F; Zhang, X

2012-02-14

272

A tool for exploring space-time patterns : an animation user research  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Ever since Dr. John Snow (1813–1854) used a case map to identify water well as the source of a cholera outbreak in London in the 1800s, the use of spatio-temporal maps have become vital tools in a wide range of disease mapping and control initiatives. The increasing use of spatio-temporal maps in these life-threatening sectors warrants that they are

Patrick J Ogao

2006-01-01

273

The Chemnitz LogAnalyzer: A tool for analyzing data from hypertext navigation research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer-based studies usually produce log files as raw data. These data cannot be analyzed adequately with conventional statistical\\u000a software. The Chemnitz LogAnalyzer provides tools for quick and comfortable visualization and analyses of hypertext navigation\\u000a behavior by individual users and for aggregated data. In addition, it supports analogous analyses of questionnaire data and\\u000a reanalysis with respect to several predefined orders of

Angela Brunstein; Anja Naumann; Josef F. Krems

2005-01-01

274

Brief Experimental Analysis: A Decision Tool for Bridging the Gap Between Research and Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

This special issue illustrates how brief experimental analysis (BEA) is gaining recognition as a valuable tool for making\\u000a treatment decisions about children who are unresponsive to regular classroom instruction. This commentary article provides\\u000a evidence for why BEA has grown in popularity, briefly summarizes each of the studies included in the series, and discusses\\u000a issues that are critical to conducting and

Brian K. Martens; Lynne E. Gertz

2009-01-01

275

Design of a Web-Tool for Diagnostic Clinical Trials Handling Medical Imaging Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

New clinical studies in medicine are based on patients and controls using different imaging diagnostic modalities. Medical\\u000a information systems are not designed for clinical trials employing clinical imaging. Although commercial software and communication\\u000a systems focus on storage of image data, they are not suitable for storage and mining of new types of quantitative data. We\\u000a sought to design a Web-tool

Alicia Baltasar Sánchez; Angel González-Sistal

2011-01-01

276

The Solid Earth Research and Teaching Environment, a new software framework to share research tools in the classroom and across disciplines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Solid Earth Teaching and Research Environment (SEATREE) is a modular and user-friendly software framework to facilitate the use of solid Earth research tools in the classroom and for interdisciplinary research collaboration. SEATREE is open source and community developed, distributed freely under the GNU General Public License. It is a fully contained package that lets users operate in a graphical mode, while giving more advanced users the opportunity to view and modify the source code. Top level graphical user interfaces which initiate the calculations and visualize results, are written in the Python programming language using an object-oriented, modern design. Results are plotted with either Matlab-like Python libraries, or SEATREE’s own Generic Mapping Tools wrapper. The underlying computational codes used to produce the results can be written in any programming language and accessed through Python wrappers. There are currently four fully developed science modules for SEATREE: (1) HC is a global geodynamics tool based on a semi-analytical mantle-circulation program based on work by B. Steinberger, Becker, and C. O'Neill. HC can compute velocities and tractions for global, spherical Stokes flow and radial viscosity variations. HC is fast enough to be used for classroom instruction, for example to let students interactively explore the role of radial viscosity variations for global geopotential (geoid) anomalies. (2) ConMan wraps Scott King’s 2D finite element mantle convection code, allowing users to quickly observe how modifications to input parameters affect heat flow over time. As seismology modules, SEATREE includes, (3), Larry, a global, surface wave phase-velocity inversion tool and, (4), Syn2D, a Cartesian tomography teaching tool for ray-theory wave propagation in synthetic, arbitrary velocity structure in the presence of noise. Both underlying programs were contributed by Boschi. Using Syn2D, students can explore, for example, how well a given input structure (e.g., a checkerboard pattern) will be resolved by data for different types of earthquake-receiver geometries. Additionally, Larry3D, a three-dimensional seismic tomography tool contributed by Boschi, and NonLinLoc, a nonlinear earthquake relocation tool by Anthony Lomax, are both under development. The goal of all of the implemented modules is to aid in teaching research techniques, while remaining flexible enough for use in true research applications. In the long run, SEATREE may contribute to new ways of sharing scientific research, making published (numerical) experiments truly reproducible again. SEATREE can be downloaded as a package from http://geosys.usc.edu/projects/seatree/wiki/, and users can also subscribe to our Subversion project page. The software is designed to run on GNU/Linux based platforms and has also been successfully run on Mac OS-X. Our poster will present the four currently implemented modules, along with our design philosophies and implementation details.

Milner, K.; Becker, T. W.; Boschi, L.; Sain, J.; Schorlemmer, D.; Waterhouse, H.

2009-12-01

277

The Project Method Approach: An Integrated Teaching Tool in Marketing Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses the integrative role of the project method approach in marketing research. Using the six-step framework of the marketing research process, the article illustrates the effective execution of the project method approach and shows how the project method not only fosters at least 10 useful managerial skills but also incorporates the traditional lecture, case analysis, and games and

Naresh K. Malhotra; Armen Tashchian; Arun K. Jam

1989-01-01

278

A software tool for research in linguistics and lexicography: Application to Somali  

Microsoft Academic Search

General-purpose database management systems, whose structure is built in, are not an appropriate solution to situations where problems of translation or areas of research cannot be bounded in advance, for example, when lexicography and linguistic research are closely related. Consequently, an original system has been developed, and is being applied to linguistic and lexicographical data on the Somali language.

Jacqueline Lecarme; Carole Maury

1987-01-01

279

MEDES clinical research facility as a tool to prepare ISSA space flights  

Microsoft Academic Search

This new multi-disciplinary medical experimentation center provides the ideal scientific, medical and technical environment required for research programs and to prepare international space station Alpha (ISSA) missions, where space and healthcare industries can share their expertise. Different models are available to simulate space flight effects (bed-rest, confinement,…). This is of particular interest for research in Human psychology, physiology, physiopathology and

A. Maillet; A. Pavy-Le Traon

1998-01-01

280

How a freshman level research initiative evolved into multidiscieplinary teaching tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased retention of undergraduate engineering students, particularly women and minorities, has long been a goal of engineering programs. Providing these students with the means and opportunity to pursue research topics of interest, while maintaining close contact with a faculty mentor, is one avenue used to accomplish this goal. When the preliminary research of a freshman-level engineering student, enrolled at the

Angela D. Riddick; Sean T. Droptini; John F. Montgomery

2003-01-01

281

Mental time travel: A practical business and personal research tool for looking ahead  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mental time travel is a futures research method using focused imagination in the “theater of the mind” to visualize and explore contingent future patterns. It is a practical approach for wise choosing, and represents a clear way to improve conventional scenario forecasting, strategic planning and marketing research methods—especially when dealing with just in time (JiT) business environments. The questions to

Oliver W. Markley

2008-01-01

282

Lidars as an operational tool for meteorology and advanced atmospheric research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The talk will present the concept and observation results of three advanced lidar systems developed recently at the Swiss federal Institute of Technology- Lausanne (EPFL) Switzerland. Two of the systems are Raman lidars for simultaneous water vapor, temperature and aerosol observations and the third one is an ozone UV DIAL system. The Ranan lidars use vibrational water vapor and nitrogen signals to derive water vapor mixing ratio and temperature, aerosol extinction and backscatter are measured using pure-rotational Raman and elastic signals. The first Raman lidar (RALMO) is a fully automated, water vapor /temperature/aerosol lidar developed for operational use by the Swiss meteorological office (MeteoSiss). The lidar supplies water vapor mixing ratio and temperature plus aerosol extinction and backscatter coefficients at 355 nm. The operational range of the lidar is 100-7000 m (night time) and 100- 5000 m (daytime) with time resolution of 30 min. The spatial resolution varies with height from 25 to 300 m in order to maintain the maximum measurement error of 10%. The system is designed to provide long-term database with minimal instrument-induced variations in time of the measured parameters. The lidar has been in regular operation in the main aerological station of Meteoswiss- Payerne since September 2008. The second Raman lidar is a new generation, solar-blind system with an operational range 10-500 m and high spatial (1.5 m) and temporal (1 s) resolutions designed for simultaneous humidity, temperature, and aerosol measurements in the lower atmosphere. To maintain the measurement accuracy while operating with fixed spatial and temporal resolution, the receiver is designed to provide lower than ten dynamic range of the signals within the distance range of the lidar. The lidar has 360° azimuth and 240°elevation scanning ability. The lidar was used in two field campaigns aiming to study the structure of the lower atmosphere over complex terrains and, in particular, to advance our understanding of turbulent blending mechanisms in the unstable atmosphere. The third lidar is an ozone UV DIAL system designed for studies of the upper troposphere, lower stratosphere ozone exchange processes. The lidar is based on a commercial fourth harmonic Nd:YAG laser. The DIAL wavelengths (284 and 304 nm) are produced by stimulated Raman conversion in high pressure nitrogen. A 76 cm in diameter Cassegrein telescope is used in the receiver and the spectral separation of the signals is carried out by an imaging-grating based polychromator. The operational distance of the lidar is 6000 -12000 m ASL with a statistical error lower than 10%. The lidar is deployed at the High Altitude Research Station Jungfraujoch at 3600 m altitude in the Swiss Alps. The lidar accuracy was verified by comparison to profiles taken by ECC balloon-borne sondes launched by Meteoswiss from Payerne. The lidar has been in use from September 2008 and since that time several stratospheric intrusions and cases of intercontinental transport and transport from the atmospheric boundary layer have been observed.

Simeonov, Valentin; Dinoev, Todor; Serikov, Ilya; Froidevaux, Martin; Bartlome, Marcel; Calpini, Bertrand; Bobrovnikov, Sergei; Ristori, Pablo; van den Bergh, Hubert; Parlange, Marc; Archinov, Yury

2010-05-01

283

Assessments as Teaching and Research Tools in an Environmental Problem-Solving Program for In-Service Teachers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article discusses the use of a scenario-based assessment tool in two environmental geoscience in-service programs for middle school and high school teachers. This tool served both to guide instructional techniques and as a method to evaluate the success of the instructional approach. In each case, participants were assessed before the workshops to reveal misconceptions that could be addressed in program activities and afterwards to reveal shifts in their understanding of concepts and approaches. The researchers noted that this scenario-based assessment was effective in providing guidance in refining instructional techniques and as a method to evaluate the effectiveness of an instructional program. In addition, participating teachers reported significant changes in their teaching as a result of the program.

Cooper, Barbara; Shepardson, Daniel; Harber, Jonathan

2002-01-01

284

DESIGN OF MULTI-PARADIGM INTEGRATING MODELING TOOLS FOR ECOLOGICAL RESEARCH. (R825792)  

EPA Science Inventory

The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

285

Wild-derived mouse stocks: an underappreciated tool for aging research  

PubMed Central

Virtually all biomedical research makes use of a relatively small pool of laboratory-adapted, inbred, isogenic stocks of mice. Although the advantages of these models are many, there are a number of disadvantages as well. When studying a multifaceted process such as aging, the problems associated with using laboratory stocks are greatly inflated. On the other hand, wild-derived mouse stocks, loosely defined here as either wild-caught individuals or the recent progeny of wild-caught individuals, have much to offer to biogerontology research. Hence, the aims of this review are threefold: (1) to (re)acquaint readers with the pros and cons of using a typical inbred laboratory mouse model for aging research; (2) to reintroduce the notion of using wild-derived mouse stocks in aging research as championed by Austad, Miller and others for more than a decade, and (3) to provide an overview of recent advances in biogerontology using wild-derived mouse stocks.

2008-01-01

286

The internet as a research tool: Worth the price of admission?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Internet is a rich multimodal communication environment where researchers can often recruit large numbers of participants\\u000a for survey studies at low cost; however, there are many unanswered questions about the use of this technology in medical research.\\u000a An important question is whether the results obtained in such surveys are generalizable to other populations. In this article,\\u000a we describe different

Leslie Lenert; Steven Skoczen

2002-01-01

287

Species-specific primary cell cultures: a research tool in veterinary science  

Microsoft Academic Search

In experimental veterinary research intact animals are often employed.\\u000aAlthough this will remain important, both basic and applied research may benefit from well-chosen and well-designed model systems, which range from isolated perfused organs to subcellular fractions. Cell and tissue cultures of organs of euthanised companion animals and slaughtered production animals have been used only infrequently in veterinary science. However, like

Karim R. Sultan

2001-01-01

288

geneCBR: a translational tool for multiple-microarray analysis and integrative information retrieval for aiding diagnosis in cancer research  

PubMed Central

Background Bioinformatics and medical informatics are two research fields that serve the needs of different but related communities. Both domains share the common goal of providing new algorithms, methods and technological solutions to biomedical research, and contributing to the treatment and cure of diseases. Although different microarray techniques have been successfully used to investigate useful information for cancer diagnosis at the gene expression level, the true integration of existing methods into day-to-day clinical practice is still a long way off. Within this context, case-based reasoning emerges as a suitable paradigm specially intended for the development of biomedical informatics applications and decision support systems, given the support and collaboration involved in such a translational development. With the goals of removing barriers against multi-disciplinary collaboration and facilitating the dissemination and transfer of knowledge to real practice, case-based reasoning systems have the potential to be applied to translational research mainly because their computational reasoning paradigm is similar to the way clinicians gather, analyze and process information in their own practice of clinical medicine. Results In addressing the issue of bridging the existing gap between biomedical researchers and clinicians who work in the domain of cancer diagnosis, prognosis and treatment, we have developed and made accessible a common interactive framework. Our geneCBR system implements a freely available software tool that allows the use of combined techniques that can be applied to gene selection, clustering, knowledge extraction and prediction for aiding diagnosis in cancer research. For biomedical researches, geneCBR expert mode offers a core workbench for designing and testing new techniques and experiments. For pathologists or oncologists, geneCBR diagnostic mode implements an effective and reliable system that can diagnose cancer subtypes based on the analysis of microarray data using a CBR architecture. For programmers, geneCBR programming mode includes an advanced edition module for run-time modification of previous coded techniques. Conclusion geneCBR is a new translational tool that can effectively support the integrative work of programmers, biomedical researches and clinicians working together in a common framework. The code is freely available under the GPL license and can be obtained at .

Glez-Pena, Daniel; Diaz, Fernando; Hernandez, Jesus M; Corchado, Juan M; Fdez-Riverola, Florentino

2009-01-01

289

Process Design and Costing of Bioethanol Technology: A Tool for Determining the Status and Direction of Research and Development.  

PubMed

Bioethanol is a fuel-grade ethanol made from trees, grasses, and waste materials. It represents a sustainable substitute for gasoline in today's passenger cars. Modeling and design of processes for making bioethanol are critical tools used in the U.S. Department of Energy's bioethanol research and development program. We use such analysis to guide new directions for research and to help us understand the level at which and the time when bioethanol will achieve commercial success. This paper provides an update on our latest estimates for current and projected costs of bioethanol. These estimates are the result of very sophisticated modeling and costing efforts undertaken in the program over the past few years. Bioethanol could cost anywhere from $1.16 to $1.44 per gallon, depending on the technology and the availability of low cost feedstocks for conversion to ethanol. While this cost range opens the door to fuel blending opportunities, in which ethanol can be used, for example, to improve the octane rating of gasoline, it is not currently competitive with gasoline as a bulk fuel. Research strategies and goals described in this paper have been translated into cost savings for ethanol. Our analysis of these goals shows that the cost of ethanol could drop by 40 cents per gallon over the next ten years by taking advantage of exciting new tools in biotechnology that will improve yield and performance in the conversion process. PMID:10514249

Wooley; Ruth; Glassner; Sheehan

1999-10-01

290

A collaborative Alzheimer disease research exchange using a community-based Helpline as a recruitment tool.  

PubMed

Although barriers to research participation present challenges for researchers trying to recruit participants, community-based organizations typically have a relationship with and access to potential participants, but often lack information about local studies recruiting participants and/or specifics about studies, how to describe them and how to refer their clients to a study. Therefore, a Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR)model of collaboration may be a mutually advantageous option for recruiting participants to Alzheimer disease research. The broad goal of this study was to assess whether this void could be bridged and relationships developed between the Alzheimer's Association of Greater Indiana and researchers at the Indiana Alzheimer Disease Center, and improve flow of information to increase research participation to any or all of 4 projects recruiting research participants at the time. Of the 257 Helpline callers who received information about the 4 local studies recruiting participants, 4 family caregivers called the research coordinators and 2 participants were enrolled into 2 separate studies. One person was interested and had completed and returned initial paperwork but had not yet scheduled a screening visit. The National Cell Repository for Alzheimer Disease received 0 calls (participation in National Cell Repository for Alzheimer Disease was 1 of the 4 projects offered to potential participants). Active CBPR is a good goal to strive toward. Community partners are critical to gain access to potential participants for our research. Despite the low number of recruits to Indiana Alzheimer Disease Center studies, this CBPR project was considered a success. Distributing information about local studies to family members and persons with dementia using the Alzheimer's Association of Greater Indiana Helpline was seen as important by the family members in this study. The Helpline may prove to be an excellent mechanism to do this once revisions are made to improve the efficiency of the methodology and address several limitations of this study. In particular, the Institutional Review Board had approved only the patient/family caregiver call the clinical trial coordinators. We believe if the clinical trial coordinator could call the caregivers with information about studies and projects, recruitment, and retention through the Helpline would be more successful. PMID:22720321

Austrom, Mary Guerriero; Bachman, Jennifer; Altmeyer, Linda; Gao, Sujuan; Farlow, Martin

291

Geothermal Electricity Technologies Evaluation Model DOE Tool for Assessing Impact of Research on Cost of Power  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a spreadsheet model to provide insight as to how its research activities can impact of cost of producing power from geothermal energy. This model is referred to as GETEM, which stands for “Geothermal Electricity Technologies Evaluation Model”. Based on user input, the model develops estimates of costs associated with exploration, well field development, and power plant construction that are used along with estimated operating costs to provide a predicted power generation cost. The model allows the user to evaluate how reductions in cost, or increases in performance or productivity will impact the predicted power generation cost. This feature provides a means of determining how specific technology improvements can impact generation costs, and as such assists DOE in both prioritizing research areas and identifying where research is needed.

Greg Mines

2008-01-01

292

A pilot study: research poster presentations as an educational tool for undergraduate epidemiology students.  

PubMed

Students in a fourth year epidemiology course were surveyed after participating in a formal Science Research Day in which they presented original research, in poster form, to be judged by scientists from the community. Of 276 participating students, 80 (29%) responded to the study survey. As a result, 19% of respondents were more likely to pursue a career in science, and 27.5% were more likely to pursue a career in epidemiology. Only one respondent reported being less likely to pursue a science career, while seven were less likely to pursue epidemiology. A majority of respondents felt that the poster experience was on par with, or superior to, a comparable research paper, in terms of both educational appeal and enjoyment. Mandatory, formal poster presentations are an innovative format for teaching advanced health sciences, and may more accurately reflect the realities of a science career than do more traditional educational formats. PMID:24101888

Deonandan, Raywat; Gomes, James; Lavigne, Eric; Dinh, Thy; Blanchard, Robert

2013-09-23

293

A pilot study: research poster presentations as an educational tool for undergraduate epidemiology students  

PubMed Central

Students in a fourth year epidemiology course were surveyed after participating in a formal Science Research Day in which they presented original research, in poster form, to be judged by scientists from the community. Of 276 participating students, 80 (29%) responded to the study survey. As a result, 19% of respondents were more likely to pursue a career in science, and 27.5% were more likely to pursue a career in epidemiology. Only one respondent reported being less likely to pursue a science career, while seven were less likely to pursue epidemiology. A majority of respondents felt that the poster experience was on par with, or superior to, a comparable research paper, in terms of both educational appeal and enjoyment. Mandatory, formal poster presentations are an innovative format for teaching advanced health sciences, and may more accurately reflect the realities of a science career than do more traditional educational formats.

Deonandan, Raywat; Gomes, James; Lavigne, Eric; Dinh, Thy; Blanchard, Robert

2013-01-01

294

California Levee Risk, Now and in the Future:Identifying Research and Tool Development Needs  

SciTech Connect

The Center for Catastrophic Risk Management (CCRM) and the California Center for Environmental Law and Policy (CCELP) at UC Berkeley and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) joined together to cosponsor a workshop to define research requirements to mitigate the hazards facing the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta Levee system. The Workshop was intended to provide a forum to (1) Report assessments of current vulnerabilities facing the levees, such as structural failure, seismic loading, flooding, terrorism; (2) Consider longer term challenges such as climate change, sea level rise; and (3) Define research requirements to fill gaps in knowledge and reduce uncertainties in hazard assessments.

Newmark, R L; Hanemann, M; Farber, D

2006-11-28

295

Temporary Captivity as a Research Tool: Comprehensive Study of Wild Pinnipeds Under Controlled Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new approach to the study of free-ranging, endan- gered western stock Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) was implemented at the Alaska SeaLife Center in Seward, Alaska. Groups of up to four juvenile (n = 16) Steller sea lions were held in temporary quarantine for research periods of up to three months. Hematological and blood chem- istry parameters were collected

Jo-Ann E. Mellish; Donald G. Calkins; Dennis R. Christen; Markus Horning; Lorrie D. Rea; Shannon K. Atkinson

2006-01-01

296

Diagnostic tools in PEM fuel cell research: Part I Electrochemical techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

To meet the power density, reliability, and cost requirements that will enable a widespread use of fuel cells, many research activities focus on an understanding of the thermodynamics as well as the fluid mechanical and electrochemical processes within a fuel cell. To date, a wide range of experimental diagnostics is imperative not only to help a fundamental understanding of fuel

Jinfeng Wu; Xiao Zi Yuan; Haijiang Wang; Mauricio Blanco; Jonathan J. Martin; Jiujun Zhang

2008-01-01

297

Swimming Simulation: A New Tool for Swimming Research and Practical Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter covers topics in swimming simulation from a computational fluid dynamics perspective. This perspective means\\u000a emphasis on the fluid mechanics and CFD methodology applied in swimming research. We concentrated on numerical simulation\\u000a results, considering the scientific simulation point-of-view and especially the practical implications with swimmers.

Daniel A. Marinho; Tiago M. Barbosa; Per L. Kjendlie; João P. Vilas-Boas; Francisco B. Alves; Abel I. Rouboa; António J. Silva

298

Teacher Rating of Oral Language and Literacy (TROLL): A Research-Based Tool. CIERA Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Teacher Rating of Oral Language and Literacy (TROLL) is an instrument that measures skills identified as critical in the New Standards for Speaking and Listening. In 5 to 10 minutes and without prior training, teachers can assess an individual child's current standing with respect to skills that research has identified as critical for…

Dickinson, David K.; McCabe, Allyssa; Sprague, Kim

299

Germ cell DNA-repair systems—possible tools in cancer research?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major dogma in cancer research is that cancer begins at the cellular level. Because of this single-cell origin, evolutionary principles have often been used to explain how somatic cancer cells are selected at a sub-individual level. The traditional application of Darwinian theory, however, in which the colony of cells constituting an individual is regarded as a whole, has not

F Helle

2012-01-01

300

The Plant Protoplast: A Useful Tool for Plant Research and Student Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A plant protoplast is basically a plant cell that lacks a cell wall. This article outlines some of the ways in which protoplasts may be used to advance understanding of plant cell biology in research and student instruction. Topics include high efficiency experimental virus infection, organelle isolation, and osmotic effects. (Author/MA)

Wagner, George J.; And Others

1978-01-01

301

RESEARCH PAPER WRITING: THE TASK DEPENDENCY PRINCIPLE AS A TOOL IN DEVELOPING LEARNER INDEPENDENCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper sets out to examine the efficiency of the Task Dependency Principle (TDP) in teaching research paper writing for BA students in English Philology. So far the TDP has been used in teaching practical language skills to non-native speakers. It consists in giving students tasks which are based on previously accomplished tasks. The TDP has turned out to

Inesa Ðeðkauskienë

2006-01-01

302

“Underground Safari” and other outreach tools for dissemination of root and soil science research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Kalahari Transect encompasses the sandy savanna biome of southern Africa and provides a compelling setting for studying the influence of climate change on soil and plant dynamics in a water stressed environment. NSF funding for the Research Experience for Teachers (RET) Program made it possible for a high school science teacher to visit field sites in Botswana, interact with Botswana high school teachers and students, and collaborate with scientists to develop web-based science teacher education modules on the topic of roots and belowground carbon storage. The “Underground Safari” website for K-12 teachers and students was constructed to infuse middle and high school level standards-based soil science curricula with outdoor activities, international field research videos, lab demos, printable handouts, and stimulating real-world applications. This presentation highlights the “Underground Safari” website design, the wiki page used by the RET teacher to communicate with her students on-line and take them on science adventures during the international field research, and other educational outreach activities resulting from this international research experience. Figure 1. Wiki page used by RET teacher to communicate with her students while in the field in Botswana, Africa.

Mladenov, N.; Riffel, H.; D'Odorico, P.

2009-12-01

303

System for Observing Family Therapy Alliances: A Tool for Research and Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To advance research and inform practice, the authors developed an observational rating system of client behavior reflecting strong and weak therapeutic alliances in couple and family therapy. The System for Observing Family Therapy Alliances (SOFTA), in both English and Spanish, has 2 dimensions that are common across therapy modalities…

Friedlander, Myrna L.; Escudero, Valentin; Horvath, Adam O.; Heatherington, Laurie; Cabero, Andres; Martens, Matthew P.

2006-01-01

304

Vagus nerve stimulation: a new tool for brain research and therapy?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological psychiatry has a long history of using somatic therapies to treat neuropsychiatric illnesses and to understand brain function. These methods have included neurosurgery, electroconvulsive therapy, and, most recently, transcranial magnetic stimulation. Fourteen years ago researchers discovered that intermittent electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve produces inhibition of neural processes, which can alter brain electrical activity and terminate seizures in

Mark S. George; Harold A. Sackeim; A. John Rush; Lauren B. Marangell; Ziad Nahas; Mustafa M. Husain; Sarah Lisanby; Tal Burt; Juliet Goldman; James C. Ballenger

2000-01-01

305

Central nervous system remyelination in culture — A tool for multiple sclerosis research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple sclerosis is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system which only affects humans. This makes it difficult to study at a molecular level, and to develop and test potential therapies that may change the course of the disease. The development of therapies to promote remyelination in multiple sclerosis is a key research aim, to both aid restoration of

Hui Zhang; Andrew A. Jarjour; Amanda Boyd; Anna Williams

2011-01-01

306

System for Observing Family Therapy Alliances: A Tool for Research and Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To advance research and inform practice, the authors developed an observational rating system of client behavior reflecting strong and weak therapeutic alliances in couple and family therapy. The System for Observing Family Therapy Alliances (SOFTA), in both English and Spanish, has 2 dimensions that are common across therapy modalities…

Friedlander, Myrna L.; Escudero, Valentin; Horvath, Adam O.; Heatherington, Laurie; Cabero, Andres; Martens, Matthew P.

2006-01-01

307

Pathways to Participatory Research in Developing a Tool to Measure Feelings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|People with a learning disability, the experts of their own experience are increasingly involved in research. We will be discussing in this paper their centrality in the development of a psychological therapy outcome measure for people with learning disabilities. Their involvement needs to go beyond giving their views to being included in the…

Brooks, Michelle; Davies, Stephanie

2008-01-01

308

Beyond the PhD: Putting the Right Tools in Your Research Toolbox  

Microsoft Academic Search

Postdoctoral training is vital to a successful career for nurse researchers with a biological or biobehavioral focus. Such training provides structured time to devote to gaining substantive knowledge, expanding one’s biological-methods repertoire, and writing grants. However, for unknown reasons, relatively few nurses pursue postdoctoral training. A few plausible explanations include a near critical shortage of nursing faculty coupled with an

Charles A. Downs; Helena W. Morrison

2011-01-01

309

Final cleanup of buildings within in legacy French research facilities: strategy, tools and lessons learned  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the methodology followed by the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) to decommission the buildings of former research facilities for demolition or possible reuse. It is a well known fact that the French nuclear safety authority has decided not to define any general release level for the decommissioning of nuclear facilities, thus effectively prohibiting radiological measurement-driven decommissioning. The

C. Le Goaller; C. Doutreluingne; M. A. Berton; O. Doucet

2007-01-01

310

The Internet Matters: Exploring the Use of the Internet as a Research Tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

The arrival of the virtual realm and computer mediated communication (CMC) continues to attract considerable interest from a wide range of disciplines. Hine (2000) has suggested that previously negative understandings of CMC have been transcended. The virtual realm is now welcomed as a site for richer and more sustained interaction than previously envisaged. For the research community, the rapid development

Nicola Illingworth

2001-01-01

311

The Plant Protoplast: A Useful Tool for Plant Research and Student Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A plant protoplast is basically a plant cell that lacks a cell wall. This article outlines some of the ways in which protoplasts may be used to advance understanding of plant cell biology in research and student instruction. Topics include high efficiency experimental virus infection, organelle isolation, and osmotic effects. (Author/MA)|

Wagner, George J.; And Others

1978-01-01

312

Inexpensive Tools To Quantify And Map Vegetative Cover For Large-Scale Research Or Management Decisions.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Vegetative cover can be quantified quickly and consistently and often at lower cost with image analysis of color digital images than with visual assessments. Image-based mapping of vegetative cover for large-scale research and management decisions can now be considered with the accuracy of these met...

313

``Underground Safari'' and other outreach tools for dissemination of root and soil science research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Kalahari Transect encompasses the sandy savanna biome of southern Africa and provides a compelling setting for studying the influence of climate change on soil and plant dynamics in a water stressed environment. NSF funding for the Research Experience for Teachers (RET) Program made it possible for a high school science teacher to visit field sites in Botswana, interact with

N. Mladenov; H. Riffel; P. D'Odorico

2009-01-01

314

Simulation as a tool for teaching research methods in a criminology course  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, I describe an approach for integrating discussions of research methods into an introductory criminology course. I describe how one method—simulation—is introduced to students and how they analyze it critically while I communicate Coleman's concept of the culture of competition. This example is offered as a model for an introductory criminology course that pairs substance with methods to

Rebecca L. Bordt

1999-01-01

315

Digital Historical NewspapersA Review of the Powerful New Research Tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

New digital newspaper databases provide keyword searching, vastly improving research. Databases such as ProQuest, Newspaper Archive, and Paper of Record are briefly reviewed. Digitized versions of the Chicago Tribune and Early American Newspapers are expected for the first half of 2004.

Barry Popik

2004-01-01

316

S.O.S. for Information Literacy: A Tool for Improving Research and Information Skills Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At no time in history has the ability to locate, organize, evaluate, manage and use information, skills collectively referred to as information literacy, been more important to today's learners. Classroom and technology teachers and library media specialists are challenged to find effective, innovative techniques for teaching research and…

Arnone, Marilyn P.; Small, Ruth V.

317

Tales, Tours, Tools, and Troupes: A Tiered Research Method to Inform Ubiquitous Designs for the Elderly  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the elder population continues to increase throughout the world, there is a tremendous need for technologies that will keep elders healthy and self-sufficient in their homes. Ubiquitous, smart home technologies can fulfill this role, but a thorough understanding of elders? routines, lifestyles, and home environments is required in order to develop effective aids. This paper describes our research approach,

Jay Lundell; Margaret E. Morris

2004-01-01

318

Focus Groups as a Tool for Critical Social Research in Nurse Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the potential of focus groups to address balance of power and empowerment issues in nursing research. Explains the need to involve diverse stakeholders in curriculum development, student evaluation, and appraisals of students' perceptions of their experiences. (Contains 52 references.) (SK)

Kevern, Jennifer; Webb, Christine

2001-01-01

319

Fault Tree Analysis of a Research Reactor. Computer Tools That Work.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Fault Tree Analysis Techniques have been used to assess the safety system of the ZED-2 Research Reactor at the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories. This turned out to be a strong test of the techniques involved. The resulting fault tree was large and because...

J. A. Hall D. F. O'Dacre R. J. Chenier G. M. Arbique

1986-01-01

320

Risk and worry in everyday life: Comparing diaries and interviews as tools in risk perception research  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recent structured review of the qualitative risk perception literature (Hawkes and Rowe 2008) found that research has tended to focus on a narrow range of samples, using a limited range of techniques, looking at immediate perceptions (rather than changes over time), and focusing upon a limited range of hazards. As such, it may be argued that the risk perception

Gillian Hawkes; Julie Houghton; Gene Rowe

2009-01-01

321

Agent-Based Learning Environments as a Research Tool for Investigating Teaching and Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses intelligent learning environments for computer-based learning, such as agent-based learning environments, and their advantages over human-based instruction. Considers the effects of multiple agents; agents and research design; the use of Multiple Intelligent Mentors Instructing Collaboratively (MIMIC) for instructional design for…

Baylor, Amy L.

2002-01-01

322

Knowledge management and value creation in public research centers: The development of a diagnosis tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

The R&D Centers (RDC) are organizations where knowledge and innovation management has a high priority for increasing efficiency of knowledge and creativity processes and their transformation in intellectual assets. At present, these capacities are essential for competitiveness environment where customers demand new and better products and services. In LATAM countries, the public policies stimulate researchers according to a traditional schema

José Luis Solleiro; Rosario Castañón; Alejandra Herrera; Alma González; Flor Escalante

2009-01-01

323

Image Processing for Teaching: Transforming a Scientific Research Tool into an Educational Technology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the Image Processing for Teaching (IPT) project which provides digital image processing to excite students about science and mathematics as they use research-quality software on microcomputers. Provides information on IPT whose components of this dissemination project have been widespread teacher education, curriculum-based materials…

Greenberg, Richard

1998-01-01

324

Using Research Based Assessment Tools in Professional Development in Current Electricity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We present a practical way of adapting and using four research-based assessments for different purposes in an electricity and magnetism course for K-8 science teachers. The course is designed to accomplish conceptual change toward accepted scientific conceptions as well as introducing teachers to materials and activities appropriate for their…

Shen, Ji; Gibbons, Patrick C.; Wiegers, John F.; McMahon, Ann P.

2007-01-01

325

Handbook of Research on Hybrid Learning Models: Advanced Tools, Technologies, and Applications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Hybrid learning is now the single-greatest trend in education today due to the numerous educational advantages when both traditional classroom learning and e-learning are implemented collectively. This handbook collects emerging research and pedagogies related to the convergence of teaching and learning methods. This significant "Handbook of…

Wang, Fu Lee, Ed.; Fong, Joseph, Ed.; Kwan, Reggie, Ed.

2010-01-01

326

Use of bioelectrical impedance in hydration status assessment: reliability of a new tool in psychophysiology research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adequate hydration is crucial in maintaining optimal physical and mental functioning and the need for a fast and reliable hydration status assessment in behavioral medicine research has become increasingly important. The goal of this study was to determine the reliability of bioelectrical impedance assessment (BIA) in assessing total body water (TBW), extracellular water (ECW) and intracellular water (ICW) and to

Birgit A. Shanholtzer; Stephen M. Patterson

2003-01-01

327

Directing the evolution of Rubisco and Rubisco activase: first impressions of a new tool for photosynthesis research.  

PubMed

During the last decade the practice of laboratory-directed protein evolution has become firmly established as a versatile tool in biochemical research by enabling molecular evolution toward desirable phenotypes or detection of novel structure-function interactions. Applications of this technique in the field of photosynthesis research are still in their infancy, but recently first steps have been reported in the directed evolution of the CO(2)-fixing enzyme Rubisco and its helper protein Rubisco activase. Here we summarize directed protein evolution strategies and review the progressive advances that have been made to develop and apply suitable selection systems for screening mutant forms of these enzymes that improve the fitness of the host organism. The goal of increasing photosynthetic efficiency of plants by improving the kinetics of Rubisco has been a long-term goal scoring modest successes. We discuss how directed evolution methodologies may one day be able to circumvent the problems encountered during this venture. PMID:18626786

Mueller-Cajar, Oliver; Whitney, Spencer M

2008-07-15

328

Image analysis tools for evaluation of microscopic views of immunohistochemically stained specimen in medical research-a review.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to review the methods being used for image analysis of microscopic views of immunohistochemically stained specimen in medical research. The solutions available range from general purpose software to commercial packages. Many studies have developed their own custom written programs based on some general purpose software available. Many groups have reported development of computer aided image analysis programs aiming at obtaining faster, simpler and cheaper solutions. Image analysis tools namely Aperio, Lucia, Metaview, Metamorph, ImageJ, Scion, Adobe Photoshop, Image Pro Plus are also used for evaluation of expressions using immunohistochemical staining. An overview of such methods used for image analysis is provided in this paper. This study concludes that there is good scope for development of freely available software for staining intensity quantification, which a medical researcher could easily use without requiring high level computer skills. PMID:21584771

Prasad, Keerthana; Prabhu, Gopalakrishna K

2011-05-17

329

[The international man-media Tessékéré (OHMi) Observatory: a research tool to study the complexity of arid ecosystems in Sahel].  

PubMed

In the Sahelian zone, the drought phenomenon, combined with anthropic factors (monoculture, bush fires, defect or deficit of manure, overgrazing, etc.), has seriously affected ecological great balances, involving a degradation of the natural resources as well as a fall in agricultural productions, pointing to a process of desertification. To face these challenges, in the course of the 8th ordinary session of the conference of the Heads of States of the African Union held in January 2007 in Addis Ababa (Ethiopia), 11 countries adopted the Panafrican project called the Green Great Wall (GGW). The total objective of the GGW is to contribute i) to the fight against the desert's advance, ii) to the development of the Saharan-Sahelian zones toward a durable management of the natural resources, and iii) to the fight against poverty. It deals with the construction of a set of zones of afforestation crossing the whole African continent in the long term (7000km of which are in the west). Even if some decisions in the launching phase the GGW must be taken quickly, one cannot do without investment in interdisciplinary research. In particular, associating fundamental research and applied research will allow us to ensure the success in the medium and long term of such a large-scale reforestation project. Research segmented in compartmentalized knowledge fields needed to get adequate tools, among which OHMi Tessékéré, initiated by INNEE (Centre national de la recherche scientifique [CNRS]), in partnership with UCAD, constitutes an example. This suitable scientific tool, capable of action flexibility, of self-financing capacity, anchored in civil society, ready to implement a pragmatic and local interdisciplinarity founded currently on the concept of socio-ecological system (SES), is the one we chose to conduct our studies on the Ferlo arid ecosystems. PMID:23916202

Guissé, Aliou; Boëtsch, Gilles; Ducourneau, Axel; Goffner, Deborah; Gueye, Lamine

2013-07-18

330

The Advanced Light Source: A new tool for research in atomic physics  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Light Source, a third-generation national synchrotron-radiation facility now under construction at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory in Berkeley, California, is scheduled to begin serving qualified users across a broad spectrum of research areas in the spring of 1993. Undulators will generate high-brightness, partially coherent, plane polarized, soft-x-ray and ultraviolet (XUV) radiation from below 10 eV to above 2 keV. Wigglers and bend magnets will generate high fluxes of x-rays to photon energies above 10 keV. The ALS will have an extensive research program in which XUV radiation is used to study matter in all its varied gaseous, liquid, and solid forms. 7 refs., 3 figs.

Schlachter, A.S.

1990-09-01

331

Wild-derived mouse stocks: an underappreciated tool for aging research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virtually all biomedical research makes use of a relatively small pool of laboratory-adapted, inbred, isogenic stocks of mice.\\u000a Although the advantages of these models are many, there are a number of disadvantages as well. When studying a multifaceted\\u000a process such as aging, the problems associated with using laboratory stocks are greatly inflated. On the other hand, wild-derived\\u000a mouse stocks, loosely

James M. Harper

2008-01-01

332

The Advanced Light Source: A new tool for research in atomic and molecular physics  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Light Source at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory will be the world's brightest synchrotron radiation source in the extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray regions of the spectrum when it begins operation in 1993. It will be available as a national user facility to researchers in a broad range of disciplines, including materials science, atomic and molecular physics, chemistry, biology, imaging, and technology. The high brightness of the ALS will be particularly well suited to high-resolution studies of tenuous targets, such as excited atoms, ions, and clusters. 13 figs., 4 tabs.

Schlachter, F.; Robinson, A.

1991-04-01

333

Affective communication in rodents: ultrasonic vocalizations as a tool for research on emotion and motivation.  

PubMed

Mice and rats emit and perceive calls in the ultrasonic range, i.e., above the human hearing threshold of about 20 kHz: so-called ultrasonic vocalizations (USV). Juvenile and adult rats emit 22-kHz USV in aversive situations, such as predator exposure and fighting or during drug withdrawal, whereas 50-kHz USV occur in appetitive situations, such as rough-and-tumble play and mating or in response to drugs of abuse, e.g., amphetamine. Aversive 22-kHz USV and appetitive 50-kHz USV serve distinct communicative functions. Whereas 22-kHz USV induce freezing behavior in the receiver, 50-kHz USV lead to social approach behavior. These opposite behavioral responses are paralleled by distinct patterns of brain activation. Freezing behavior in response to 22-kHz USV is paralleled by increased neuronal activity in brain areas regulating fear and anxiety, such as the amygdala and periaqueductal gray, whereas social approach behavior elicited by 50-kHz USV is accompanied by reduced activity levels in the amygdala but enhanced activity in the nucleus accumbens, a brain area implicated in reward processing. These opposing behavioral responses, together with distinct patterns of brain activation, particularly the bidirectional tonic activation or deactivation of the amygdala elicited by 22-kHz and 50-kHz USV, respectively, concur with a wealth of behavioral and neuroimaging studies in humans involving emotionally salient stimuli, such as fearful and happy facial expressions. Affective ultrasonic communication therefore offers a translational tool for studying the neurobiology underlying socio-affective communication. This is particularly relevant for rodent models of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by social and communication deficits, such as autism and schizophrenia. PMID:23576070

Wöhr, Markus; Schwarting, Rainer K W

2013-04-11

334

Global climate change and active tectonics: effective tools for teaching and research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multidisciplinary student teams foster innovative research projects that can discern the locations, times, and styles of late Quaternary faulting. Field studies in the area of the 1992 Landers magnitude 7.3 earthquake in southeastern California provide excellent opportunities for teaching and research in climatic and tectonic geomorphology. Graduate-student work begins with descriptions of type sections for mappable units of Quaternary alluvium — climate-change induced aggradation events. These are stair-stepped flights of alluvial fan and terrace surfaces. Topographic profiles along faulted stream channels and fans provide estimates of vertical tectonic deformation, and insight into the responses of fluvial systems to wrench-fault tectonics. Time lines in this tectonically deforming landscape are the result of global climate changes that caused synchronous pulses of alluviation in the Mojave Desert at about 125, 55, and 10 (12 and 8) ka. These dated alluvial surfaces record tectonic deformation resulting from cumulative Late Quaternary surface ruptures. Tectonic geomorphologic analyses use topographic, pedogenic, stratigraphic, and structural data, but do not require expensive and time-consuming trenching projects. Ages of faulted and unfaulted alluvium constrain the dates of two pre-1992 earthquakes. The 1992 Landers event is not characteristic of earlier faulting because it ruptured through adjacent segments of the Emerson fault that previously ruptured in separate events; one at 3 -1+2 ka, and the other before 8 ka. Styles of tectonic deformation and locations of active faults, however may not have changed during the past 125 ka.

Bull, William B.

1996-07-01

335

Web 2.0 collaboration tools to support student research in hydrology - an opinion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A growing body of evidence suggests that it is unwise to make the a-priori assumption that university students are ready and eager to embrace modern online technologies employed to enhance the educational experience. We present an opinion on employing Wiki, a popular Web 2.0 technology, in small student groups, based on a case-study of using it customized as a personal learning environment (PLE) for supporting thesis research in hydrology. Since inception in 2006 the system presented has proven to facilitate knowledge construction and peer-communication within and across groups of students of different academic years and to stimulate learning. Being an open ended and egalitarian system, it was a minimal burden to maintain, as all students became content authors and shared responsibility. A number of unintended uses of the system were also observed, like using it as a backup medium and mobile storage. We attribute the success and sustainability of the proposed web 2.0-based approach to the fact that the efforts were not limited to the application of the technology, but comprised the creation of a supporting environment with educational activities organized around it. We propose that Wiki-based PLEs are much more suitable than traditional learning management systems for supporting non-classroom education activities like thesis research in hydrology.

Pathirana, A.; Gersonius, B.; Radhakrishnan, M.

2012-02-01

336

Virtual reality and physical rehabilitation: a new toy or a new research and rehabilitation tool?  

PubMed Central

Virtual reality (VR) technology is rapidly becoming a popular application for physical rehabilitation and motor control research. But questions remain about whether this technology really extends our ability to influence the nervous system or whether moving within a virtual environment just motivates the individual to perform. I served as guest editor of this month's issue of the Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation (JNER) for a group of papers on augmented and virtual reality in rehabilitation. These papers demonstrate a variety of approaches taken for applying VR technology to physical rehabilitation. The papers by Kenyon et al. and Sparto et al. address critical questions about how this technology can be applied to physical rehabilitation and research. The papers by Sveistrup and Viau et al. explore whether action within a virtual environment is equivalent to motor performance within the physical environment. Finally, papers by Riva et al. and Weiss et al. discuss the important characteristics of a virtual environment that will be most effective for obtaining changes in the motor system.

Keshner, Emily A

2004-01-01

337

Tribology of coated tools in conventional and HSC machining  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of research of the tribological conditions in the tool–workpiece interface in cutting processes is to find the main causes for unpredicted tool life. As is shown in the paper there are many causes for their influences on the tool wear. Not only mechanical and chemical but also thermo-chemical aspects of wear is important. The high cutting temperature, which

J. Kopac; M. Sokovic; S. Dolinsek

2001-01-01

338

Beyond the PhD: Putting the Right Tools in Your Research Toolbox  

PubMed Central

Postdoctoral training is vital to a successful career for nurse researchers with a biological or biobehavioral focus. Such training provides structured time to devote to gaining substantive knowledge, expanding one’s biological-methods repertoire, and writing grants. However, for unknown reasons, relatively few nurses pursue postdoctoral training. A few plausible explanations include a near critical shortage of nursing faculty coupled with an aging population in need of health care, a lack of available mentoring for predoctoral students to pursue postdoctoral training, and the difficulty of navigating the process of finding and choosing the right match for a postdoctoral experience. The purposes of this article are to provide a rationale for choosing postdoctoral training, review common fellowship opportunities, and discuss the process of finding and choosing the right match for postdoctoral training. The authors provide two prospective plans for postdoctoral training and include a plan for staying on track during the postdoctoral experience.

Downs, Charles A.; Morrison, Helena W.

2013-01-01

339

fMRI Brain-Computer Interface: A Tool for Neuroscientific Research and Treatment  

PubMed Central

Brain-computer interfaces based on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI-BCI) allow volitional control of anatomically specific regions of the brain. Technological advancement in higher field MRI scanners, fast data acquisition sequences, preprocessing algorithms, and robust statistical analysis are anticipated to make fMRI-BCI more widely available and applicable. This noninvasive technique could potentially complement the traditional neuroscientific experimental methods by varying the activity of the neural substrates of a region of interest as an independent variable to study its effects on behavior. If the neurobiological basis of a disorder (e.g., chronic pain, motor diseases, psychopathy, social phobia, depression) is known in terms of abnormal activity in certain regions of the brain, fMRI-BCI can be targeted to modify activity in those regions with high specificity for treatment. In this paper, we review recent results of the application of fMRI-BCI to neuroscientific research and psychophysiological treatment.

Sitaram, Ranganatha; Caria, Andrea; Veit, Ralf; Gaber, Tilman; Rota, Giuseppina; Kuebler, Andrea; Birbaumer, Niels

2007-01-01

340

The Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP) Mission: Improving Science Application Tools and Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA depends on the science community to identify and prioritize leading-edge scientific questions and the observations required to answer them. The Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP) Mission has been identified as a priority for NASA's Science Mission Directorate through the most recent decadal survey. Following launch in 2014, SMAP will deliver global maps of soil moisture content and surface freeze/thaw state. Global measurements of these variables are critical for terrestrial hydrologic and carbon cycle applications. The SMAP observatory consists of two multipolarization L-band sensors, a radar and radiometer that share a deployable mesh reflector antenna. The combined observations from the two sensors will allow accurate estimation of soil moisture at spatial scales. The wide-swath (1000 km) measurements will allow global mapping of soil moisture and freeze/thaw state with a 2-3 day revisit frequency and 1-2 day revisit in boreal latitudes. The synergy of active and passive observations enables measurements of soil moisture and freeze/thaw state with unprecedented resolution, sensitivity, area coverage and revisit frequency. SMAP data are valuable for both scientific research and practical applications. SMAP has the potential to drive a diverse range of novel research in drought and flood guidance, agricultural productivity estimation, weather forecasting, climate prediction, human health risk analysis and defense systems. The accuracy, resolution, and global coverage of SMAP soil moisture and freeze/thaw measurements will provide new information for many science and applications disciplines. A SMAP Applications Team will explore ways to measure interaction and integration of SMAP data with the Emergency Management User community of Maryland in order to produce quantitative metrics related to long-term projects, milestone completion, and movement of SMAP products into routine operations for emergency response.

Escobar, V. M.; Brown, M. E.; Moran, S. M.

2011-12-01

341

Genetically engineered bacteria: an emerging tool for environmental remediation and future research perspectives.  

PubMed

This minireview explores the environmental bioremediation mediated by genetically engineered (GE) bacteria and it also highlights the limitations and challenges associated with the release of engineered bacteria in field conditions. Application of GE bacteria based remediation of various heavy metal pollutants is in the forefront due to eco-friendly and lesser health hazards compared to physico-chemical based strategies, which are less eco-friendly and hazardous to human health. A combination of microbiological and ecological knowledge, biochemical mechanisms and field engineering designs would be an essential element for successful in situ bioremediation of heavy metal contaminated sites using engineered bacteria. Critical research questions pertaining to the development and implementation of GE bacteria for enhanced bioremediation have been identified and poised for possible future research. Genetic engineering of indigenous microflora, well adapted to local environmental conditions, may offer more efficient bioremediation of contaminated sites and making the bioremediation more viable and eco-friendly technology. However, many challenges are to be addressed concerning the release of genetically engineered bacteria in field conditions. There are possible risks associated with the use of GE bacteria in field condition, with particular emphasis on ways in which molecular genetics could contribute to the risk mitigation. Both environmental as well as public health concerns need to be addressed by the molecular biologists. Although bioremediation of heavy metals by using the genetically engineered bacteria has been extensively reviewed in the past also, but the bio-safety assessment and factors of genetic pollution have been never the less ignored. PMID:21402131

Singh, Jay Shankar; Abhilash, P C; Singh, H B; Singh, Rana P; Singh, D P

2011-03-22

342

A new research tool to retrieve data from astronomical catalogues and tables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CDS (Centre de Donnees astronomiques de Strasbourg) has collected, with the collaboration of other astronomical data centers, in particular the ADC, a very large set of of electronic catalogues and tables dealing with all parts of astronomy; this set continues to grow at a high rate (20 new catalogues per month), mainly due to the electronic tables prepared at CDS for the A&A journals, and to the AAS CD-ROM data. These electronic tables also represent the input material for the improvement of the Simbad database. A large effort of rationalisation and standardisation in the documentation of the electronic tables was conducted in the last two years at CDS, such that each catalogue, generally represented by a set of tabular data, is completely described in terms of overview description, referencing, and details about the structure, units, and contents of each column of each table. Such descriptions, which follow a well-defined standard, can also be used in programs and allow for instance a stream conversion of the tabular files into FITS format during the FTP copy process, and can be viewed at the "Astronomer's Bazaar" at http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Cats.html The new service which is proposed for searching inside any of the catalogues (by position or name of an object and/or catalogue field) is essentially a result of merging a part of the ESIS project (European Space Information System) of the European Space Agency with the CDS set of documented catalogues which will be homogeneously loaded into a DBMS and made available through a WWW interface. Examples, illustrations and figures about this new service will be presented, and its role in the framework of the world-wide access to the astronomical data will be discussed. The exact URL and name of this new service will be publicly announced in early January 1996.

Ochsenbein, F.; Genova, F.; Egret, D.; Bourekeb, I.; Sadat, R.; Ansari, S. G.; Simonsen, E.

1995-12-01

343

Barley whole exome capture: a tool for genomic research in the genus Hordeum and beyond.  

PubMed

Advanced resources for genome-assisted research in barley (Hordeum vulgare) including a whole-genome shotgun assembly and an integrated physical map have recently become available. These have made possible studies that aim to assess genetic diversity or to isolate single genes by whole-genome resequencing and in silico variant detection. However such an approach remains expensive given the 5 Gb size of the barley genome. Targeted sequencing of the mRNA-coding exome reduces barley genomic complexity more than 50-fold, thus dramatically reducing this heavy sequencing and analysis load. We have developed and employed an in-solution hybridization-based sequence capture platform to selectively enrich for a 61.6 megabase coding sequence target that includes predicted genes from the genome assembly of the cultivar Morex as well as publicly available full-length cDNAs and de novo assembled RNA-Seq consensus sequence contigs. The platform provides a highly specific capture with substantial and reproducible enrichment of targeted exons, both for cultivated barley and related species. We show that this exome capture platform provides a clear path towards a broader and deeper understanding of the natural variation residing in the mRNA-coding part of the barley genome and will thus constitute a valuable resource for applications such as mapping-by-sequencing and genetic diversity analyzes. PMID:23889683

Mascher, Martin; Richmond, Todd A; Gerhardt, Daniel J; Himmelbach, Axel; Clissold, Leah; Sampath, Dharanya; Ayling, Sarah; Steuernagel, Burkhard; Pfeifer, Matthias; D'Ascenzo, Mark; Akhunov, Eduard D; Hedley, Pete E; Gonzales, Ana M; Morrell, Peter L; Kilian, Benjamin; Blattner, Frank R; Scholz, Uwe; Mayer, Klaus F X; Flavell, Andrew J; Muehlbauer, Gary J; Waugh, Robbie; Jeddeloh, Jeffrey A; Stein, Nils

2013-08-24

344

Final cleanup of buildings within in legacy French research facilities: strategy, tools and lessons learned  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the methodology followed by the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) to decommission the buildings of former research facilities for demolition or possible reuse. It is a well known fact that the French nuclear safety authority has decided not to define any general release level for the decommissioning of nuclear facilities, thus effectively prohibiting radiological measurement-driven decommissioning. The decommissioning procedure therefore requires an intensive in-depth examination of each nuclear plant. This requires a good knowledge of the past history of the plant, and should be initiated as early as possible. The paper first describes the regulatory framework recently unveiled by the French Safety Authority, then, reviews its application to ongoing decommissioning projects. The cornerstone of the strategy is the definition of waste zoning in the buildings to segregate areas producing conventional waste from those generating nuclear waste. After dismantling, suitable measurements are carried out to confirm the conventional state of the remaining walls. This requires low-level measurement methods providing a suitable detection limit within an acceptable measuring time. Although this generally involves particle counting and in-situ low level gamma spectrometry, the paper focuses on y spectrometry. Finally, the lessons learned from ongoing projects are discussed. (authors)

Le Goaller, C.; Doutreluingne, C. [CEA/DEN/DDCO/SDSP, Site de Marcoule - BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France); Berton, M.A.; Doucet, O. [CEA/DEN/DGI/SIG, CEA GRENOBLE 38054 Grenoble (France)

2007-07-01

345

Polymyxin B-horseradish peroxidase conjugates as tools in endotoxin research.  

PubMed

The peptide antibiotic Polymyxin B (PMB) binds to bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS). We prepared covalent conjugates of PMB and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) by periodation of HRP-linked oligosaccharides followed by direct condensation with PMB. In addition we prepared monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) to PMB. The PMB-HRP conjugates and anti-PMB Mabs were used to study in ELISA the binding of PMB to LPS from Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In addition, PMB-HRP was used to quantify lipid A in ELISA, and to stain gram-negative bacteria histochemically. For the study of PMB-LPS interaction, PMB-HRP proved to be superior to the anti-PMB Mabs. PMB-HRP conjugates are useful general probes to detect or measure lipid A and LPS of various species using very simple methods and to stain bacteria, and they may obviate the need for many specific antisera. Thus, PMB-HRP conjugates are useful probes for endotoxin research. PMID:1481986

Appelmelk, B J; Su, D; Verweij-van Vught, A M; Thijs, B G; MacLaren, D M

1992-12-01

346

Cognitive avionics and watching spaceflight crews think: generation-after-next research tools in functional neuroimaging.  

PubMed

Confinement and isolation have always confounded the extraordinary endeavor of human spaceflight. Psychosocial health is at the forefront in considering risk factors that imperil missions of 1- to 2-yr duration. Current crewmember selection metrics restricted to behavioral observation by definition observe rather than prevent performance degradation and are thus inadequate when preflight training cannot simulate an entire journey. Nascent techniques to monitor functional and task-related cortical neural activity show promise and can be extended to include whole-brain monitoring. Watching spaceflight crews think can reveal the efficiency of training procedures. Moreover, observing subcortical emotion centers may provide early detection of developing neuropsychiatric disorders. The non-invasive functional neuroimaging modalities electroencephalography (EEG), magnetoencephalography (MEG), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), and highlights of how they may be engineered for spacecraft are detailed. Preflight and in-flight applications to crewmember behavioral health from current generation, next generation, and generation-after-next neuroscience research studies are also described. The emphasis is on preventing the onset of neuropsychiatric dysfunctions, thus reducing the risk of mission failure due to human error. PMID:15943214

Genik, Richard J; Green, Christopher C; Graydon, Francis X; Armstrong, Robert E

2005-06-01

347

Human engineered heart tissue as a versatile tool in basic research and preclinical toxicology.  

PubMed

Human embryonic stem cell (hESC) progenies hold great promise as surrogates for human primary cells, particularly if the latter are not available as in the case of cardiomyocytes. However, high content experimental platforms are lacking that allow the function of hESC-derived cardiomyocytes to be studied under relatively physiological and standardized conditions. Here we describe a simple and robust protocol for the generation of fibrin-based human engineered heart tissue (hEHT) in a 24-well format using an unselected population of differentiated human embryonic stem cells containing 30-40% ?-actinin-positive cardiac myocytes. Human EHTs started to show coherent contractions 5-10 days after casting, reached regular (mean 0.5 Hz) and strong (mean 100 µN) contractions for up to 8 weeks. They displayed a dense network of longitudinally oriented, interconnected and cross-striated cardiomyocytes. Spontaneous hEHT contractions were analyzed by automated video-optical recording and showed chronotropic responses to calcium and the ?-adrenergic agonist isoprenaline. The proarrhythmic compounds E-4031, quinidine, procainamide, cisapride, and sertindole exerted robust, concentration-dependent and reversible decreases in relaxation velocity and irregular beating at concentrations that recapitulate findings in hERG channel assays. In conclusion this study establishes hEHT as a simple in vitro model for heart research. PMID:22028871

Schaaf, Sebastian; Shibamiya, Aya; Mewe, Marco; Eder, Alexandra; Stöhr, Andrea; Hirt, Marc N; Rau, Thomas; Zimmermann, Wolfram-Hubertus; Conradi, Lenard; Eschenhagen, Thomas; Hansen, Arne

2011-10-20

348

C-ME: A 3D Community-Based, Real-Time Collaboration Tool for Scientific Research and Training  

PubMed Central

The need for effective collaboration tools is growing as multidisciplinary proteome-wide projects and distributed research teams become more common. The resulting data is often quite disparate, stored in separate locations, and not contextually related. Collaborative Molecular Modeling Environment (C-ME) is an interactive community-based collaboration system that allows researchers to organize information, visualize data on a two-dimensional (2-D) or three-dimensional (3-D) basis, and share and manage that information with collaborators in real time. C-ME stores the information in industry-standard databases that are immediately accessible by appropriate permission within the computer network directory service or anonymously across the internet through the C-ME application or through a web browser. The system addresses two important aspects of collaboration: context and information management. C-ME allows a researcher to use a 3-D atomic structure model or a 2-D image as a contextual basis on which to attach and share annotations to specific atoms or molecules or to specific regions of a 2-D image. These annotations provide additional information about the atomic structure or image data that can then be evaluated, amended or added to by other project members.

Kolatkar, Anand; Kennedy, Kevin; Halabuk, Dan; Kunken, Josh; Marrinucci, Dena; Bethel, Kelly; Guzman, Rodney; Huckaby, Tim; Kuhn, Peter

2008-01-01

349

C-ME: a 3D community-based, real-time collaboration tool for scientific research and training.  

PubMed

The need for effective collaboration tools is growing as multidisciplinary proteome-wide projects and distributed research teams become more common. The resulting data is often quite disparate, stored in separate locations, and not contextually related. Collaborative Molecular Modeling Environment (C-ME) is an interactive community-based collaboration system that allows researchers to organize information, visualize data on a two-dimensional (2-D) or three-dimensional (3-D) basis, and share and manage that information with collaborators in real time. C-ME stores the information in industry-standard databases that are immediately accessible by appropriate permission within the computer network directory service or anonymously across the internet through the C-ME application or through a web browser. The system addresses two important aspects of collaboration: context and information management. C-ME allows a researcher to use a 3-D atomic structure model or a 2-D image as a contextual basis on which to attach and share annotations to specific atoms or molecules or to specific regions of a 2-D image. These annotations provide additional information about the atomic structure or image data that can then be evaluated, amended or added to by other project members. PMID:18286178

Kolatkar, Anand; Kennedy, Kevin; Halabuk, Dan; Kunken, Josh; Marrinucci, Dena; Bethel, Kelly; Guzman, Rodney; Huckaby, Tim; Kuhn, Peter

2008-02-20

350

A new DoD initiative: the Computational Research and Engineering Acquisition Tools and Environments (CREATE) program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In FY2008, the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) initiated the Computational Research and Engineering Acquisition Tools and Environments (CREATE) program, a 360M program with a two-year planning phase and a ten-year execution phase. CREATE will develop and deploy three computational engineering tool sets for DoD acquisition programs to use to design aircraft, ships and radio-frequency antennas. The planning and execution of CREATE are based on the 'lessons learned' from case studies of large-scale computational science and engineering projects. The case studies stress the importance of a stable, close-knit development team; a focus on customer needs and requirements; verification and validation; flexible and agile planning, management, and development processes; risk management; realistic schedules and resource levels; balanced short- and long-term goals and deliverables; and stable, long-term support by the program sponsor. Since it began in FY2008, the CREATE program has built a team and project structure, developed requirements and begun validating them, identified candidate products, established initial connections with the acquisition programs, begun detailed project planning and development, and generated the initial collaboration infrastructure necessary for success by its multi-institutional, multidisciplinary teams.

Arevalo, S.; Atwood, C.; Bell, P.; Blacker, T. D.; Dey, S.; Fisher, D.; Fisher, D. A.; Genalis, P.; Gorski, J.; Harris, A.; Hill, K.; Hurwitz, M.; Kendall, R. P.; Meakin, R. L.; Morton, S.; Moyer, E. T.; Post, D. E.; Strawn, R.; Veldhuizen, D. v.; Votta, L. G.; Wynn, S.; Zelinski, G.

2008-07-01

351

Femtosecond Microbunched Electron Beam - A New Tool for Advanced Accelerator Research  

SciTech Connect

We employed periodic trains of femtosecond electron bunches for testing several novel concepts of acceleration. A microwave-driven linac sends a 45-MeV electron beam (e-beam) through a magnetic wiggler wherein the e-beam energy is modulated via the inverse free electron laser (IFEL) technique by interacting with a 30-GW CO2 laser beam, so creating 3 fs long microbunches separated by a 30 fs laser period. We show several examples of utilizing such a femtosecond bunch train in advanced accelerator and radiation source research. We demonstrated that microbunching improves the performance of the laser acceleration process compared to the previously investigated single-bunch technique. Specifically, microbunches were phased to the electromagnetic wave of the CO2 laser beam inside a matched tapered wiggler where {approx}80% of electrons gained energy as an ensemble while maintaining a narrow energy spread (i.e., monoenergetic). Another plasma wakefield acceleration (PWFA) experiment explored resonant wakefield excitation in an electric discharge plasma with the plasma frequency matched to that of the CO2 laser. Simulations predict orders-of-magnitude enhancement in the wakefield's amplitude compared with that attained with single bunches. In the Particle Acceleration by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (PASER) experiment, we tested a prediction that an active laser medium can produce particle acceleration by stimulating the emission of radiation. The process benefits from the action of a periodic train of microbunches resonating with the laser transition. Finally, we analyze prospects for using partially coherent x-ray sources based on Thomson backscattering from the electron microbunch train.

Pogorelsky, I. V.; Babzien, M.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Kusche, K. P.; Pavlishin, I. V.; Yakimenko, V.; Dilley, C. E.; Gottschalk, S. C.; Kimura, W. D.; Steinhauer, L. C.; Kallos, E.; Katsouleas, T.; Muggli, P.; Zigler, A.; Banna, S.; Schaechter, L.; Cline, D. B.; Zhou, F.; Kamiya, Y.; Kumita, T. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Accelerator Test Facility, Upton, NY (United States); STI Optronics Inc., Bellevue, WA (United States); University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Hebrew University, Jerusalem (Israel); Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa (Israel); University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo (Japan)

2006-04-07

352

An adapted version of Intervention Mapping (AIM) is a tool for conducting community-based participatory research.  

PubMed

The field of public health is increasingly using community-based participatory research (CBPR) to address complex health problems such as childhood obesity. Despite the growing momentum and funding base for doing CBPR, little is known about how to undertake intervention planning and implementation in a community-academic partnership. An adapted version of Intervention Mapping (AIM) was created as a tool for university and elementary school partners to create school-level environment and policy changes aimed at increasing student physical activity and healthy eating. After AIM was completed, interviews were conducted with school partners. Findings indicate AIM is closely aligned to 7 of 9 CBPR principles. Examples include equitable involvement of all partners, co-learning, and balancing knowledge generation and community improvement. Shortcomings, lessons learned, and suggestions for strengthening the AIM process are described. PMID:19515863

Belansky, Elaine S; Cutforth, Nick; Chavez, Robert A; Waters, Emily; Bartlett-Horch, Kandiss

2009-06-10

353

Radiation and Climate: Clouds, Aerosols, Precipitation and their Role in Climate and Climate Change. Gordon Research Conference on July 10-15 2011 at Colby College, Waterville, Maine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 2011 Gordon Research Conference on Radiation and Climate will present cutting-edge research on outstanding issues in climate change, particularly those in which the interactions between clouds, aerosols, and precipitation play a major role. The Confer...

M. Hoggblom

2012-01-01

354

Event detection using population-based health care databases in randomized clinical trials: a novel research tool in interventional cardiology  

PubMed Central

Aim To describe a new research tool, designed to reflect routine clinical practice and relying on population-based health care databases to detect clinical events in randomized clinical trials. Background Randomized clinical trials often focus on short-term efficacy and safety in a controlled environment. Trial follow-up may be linked with study-related investigations and differ from routine clinical practice. Because treatment and control in randomized trials differ from daily practice, trial results may have reduced general applicability and may be of limited value in clinical decision-making. Further, it is economically very costly to conduct randomized clinical trials. Methods and results Population-based health care databases collect data continuously and prospectively, and make it possible to monitor lifelong outcomes of cardiac interventions in large numbers of patients. This strengthens external validity by eliminating the effects of study-related monitoring or diagnostic tests. Further, follow-up data can be obtained at low expense. Importantly, data sources encompassing a complete population are likely to reflect clinical practice. Because population-based health care databases collect data for quality-control and administrative purposes unrelated to scientific investigations, certain biases, such as nonresponse bias, recall bias, and bias from losses to follow-up, can be avoided. Conclusion Event detection using population-based health care databases is a new research tool in interventional cardiology that may allow large, low-cost, randomized clinical trials to reflect daily clinical practice, covering a broad range of patients and end points with complete lifelong follow-up.

Thuesen, Leif; Jensen, Lisette Okkels; Tilsted, Hans Henrik; Maeng, Michael; Terkelsen, Christian; Thayssen, Per; Ravkilde, Jan; Christiansen, Evald H?j; B?tker, Hans Erik; Madsen, Morten; Lassen, Jens F

2013-01-01

355

Autoethnography, a Chicana's Methodological Research Tool: The Role of Storytelling for Those Who Have No Choice but to Do Critical Race Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article investigates the role of autoethnographic research as the methodological tool of choice for a Chicana who positions herself along the liminal perspective. I posit that "testimonios", autobiographical educational experiences, must be used as valid ethnographic research to contribute to existing knowledge around issues of educational…

Chavez, Minerva S.

2012-01-01

356

Class Evolution Tree: A Graphical Tool to Support Decisions on the Number of Classes in Exploratory Categorical Latent Variable Modeling for Rehabilitation Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The aim of our study was to develop a graphical tool that can be used in addition to standard statistical criteria to support decisions on the number of classes in explorative categorical latent variable modeling for rehabilitation research. Data from two rehabilitation research projects were used. In the first study, a latent profile analysis…

Kriston, Levente; Melchior, Hanne; Hergert, Anika; Bergelt, Corinna; Watzke, Birgit; Schulz, Holger; von Wolff, Alessa

2011-01-01

357

Pain Measurement Tools and Methods in Clinical Research in Palliative Care: Recommendations of an Expert Working Group of the European Association of Palliative Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

An Expert Working Group was convened under the auspices of the Steering Committee of the Research Network of the European Association of Palliative Care to review the status of the use of pain measurement tools (PMTs) in palliative care research conducted in a multilingual- multicenter setting. Based on a literature review and on the experts' opinion, the present work recommends

Augusto Caraceni; Nathan Cherny; Robin Fainsinger

358

Numerical Controlled Tool Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Lists 75 references on numerical controlled tool systems added to the CFSTI collection through March 1965. Includes research on automatically programmed tools (APT); numerically controlled machine tools, milling machines, machining of forging dies, shipya...

1965-01-01

359

Development of new exploration tools for seabed mineral resources - Result of R/V YOKOSUKA research cruise YK09-09 -  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detailed information on subsurface structure under seafloor is necessary for the estimation of seabed resources such as the hydrothermal deposit and methane hydrate. Although advantages of geophysical exploration near seafloor are expected for the seabed resource survey, efficient method has not been well-established. The authors started a project to develop exploration tools for seabed resources under the financial support of MEXT-Japan. We carry out research and development mainly regarding measurement of the magnetic field with high-resolution and high-sampling rate electric exploration devices with accurately controlled active source signals. Developed tools will be mounted underwater platforms such as deep-tow system, ROV (remotely operated vehicle), and AUV (autonomous undersea vehicle). We carried out the research cruise (vessel: JAMSTEC R/V YOKOSUKA YK09-09, cruise period: 19-29 July 2009, area surveyed: Kumano-nada, off Kii Peninsula, Japan) to investigate the performance of developed equipments for magnetic exploration. We mounted an Overhauser and two flux-gate magnetometers on the deep-tow and the AUV URASHIMA. To inspect the efficiency of equipments, it is better to measure the magnetic anomaly which is caused by known magnetic source. Therefore, we made a magnetic target which is consisted of 50 neodymium magnets. Before the navigation, the magnetic target was put under water and its position was measured by the acoustic method. The depth of target is about 2,050 meters, and the measurement was performed in the circle of a radius of about 300 meters. The vehicles were navigated at heights of 25 meters for AUV, and about 15 meters for deep-tow. Each of underwater navigation was practiced for two times. Both performances were carried out successfully, which means that we detected the significant magnetic anomalies caused by the target. We will be able to estimate three-dimensional distribution of anomalous magnetic field, and the source property of magnetic target. However, we have to resolve a lot of problems; (1) elimination of noises caused by the vehicles themselves, and their attitude, and (2) precise estimation of the position of vehicles. We will introduce the results of the research cruise and data processing in the presentation. Acknowledgement: We are grateful to captain Mr. E. Ukekura, chief officer Mr. S. Kusaka, chief AUV/DT operator Mr. T. Sakurai, and operation team, who made our difficult trials in the navigation possible by their professional skill. We also thank to the YOKOSUKA marine crew for overall support, and the engineers who take part in the development of equipments. This study is financially supported by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan.

Harada, M.; Sayanagi, K.; Kasaya, T.; Sawa, T.; Goto, T.; Tada, N.; Ichihara, H.; Asada, M.; Nakajima, T.; Isezaki, N.

2009-12-01

360

Tissue-Level Modeling of Xenobiotic Metabolism in Liver: An Emerging Tool for Enabling Clinical Translational Research  

PubMed Central

This review summarizes some of the recent developments and identifies critical challenges associated with in vitro and in silico representations of the liver and assesses the translational potential of these models in the quest of rationalizing the process of evaluating drug efficacy and toxicity. It discusses a wide range of research efforts that have produced, during recent years, quantitative descriptions and conceptual as well as computational models of hepatic processes such as biotransport and biotransformation, intra- and intercellular signal transduction, detoxification, etc. The abovementioned research efforts cover multiple scales of biological organization, from molecule–molecule interactions to reaction network and cellular and histological dynamics, and have resulted in a rapidly evolving knowledge base for a “systems biology of the liver.” Virtual organ/organism formulations represent integrative implementations of particular elements of this knowledge base, usually oriented toward the study of specific biological endpoints, and provide frameworks for translating the systems biology concepts into computational tools for quantitative prediction of responses to stressors and hypothesis generation for experimental design.

Ierapetritou, Marianthi G.; Georgopoulos, Panos G.; Roth, Charles M.; Androulakis, Ioannis P.

2011-01-01

361

Internet based marketing research: a serious alternative to traditional research methods?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines how online market research is utilised within UK market research agencies and what opportunities or problems this new research tool is giving the market research industry. The research involved sending 120 postal questionnaires to UK based market research agencies that claimed to do Internet based research. The main findings from the study show that the dramatic growth

Alan Wilson; Nial Laskey

2003-01-01

362

The Clinical Research Tool: A High-Performance Microdialysis-Based System for Reliably Measuring Interstitial Fluid Glucose Concentration  

PubMed Central

Background A novel microdialysis-based continuous glucose monitoring system, the so-called Clinical Research Tool (CRT), is presented. The CRT was designed exclusively for investigational use to offer high analytical accuracy and reliability. The CRT was built to avoid signal artifacts due to catheter clogging, flow obstruction by air bubbles, and flow variation caused by inconstant pumping. For differentiation between physiological events and system artifacts, the sensor current, counter electrode and polarization voltage, battery voltage, sensor temperature, and flow rate are recorded at a rate of 1 Hz. Method In vitro characterization with buffered glucose solutions (cglucose = 0 - 26 × 10-3 mol liter-1) over 120 h yielded a mean absolute relative error (MARE) of 2.9 ± 0.9% and a recorded mean flow rate of 330 ± 48 nl/min with periodic flow rate variation amounting to 24 ± 7%. The first 120 h in vivo testing was conducted with five type 1 diabetes subjects wearing two systems each. A mean flow rate of 350 ± 59 nl/min and a periodic variation of 22 ± 6% were recorded. Results Utilizing 3 blood glucose measurements per day and a physical lag time of 1980 s, retrospective calibration of the 10 in vivo experiments yielded a MARE value of 12.4 ± 5.7. Clarke error grid analysis resulted in 81.0%, 16.6%, 0.8%, 1.6%, and 0% in regions A, B, C, D, and E, respectively. Conclusion The CRT demonstrates exceptional reliability of system operation and very good measurement performance. The ability to differentiate between artifacts and physiological effects suggests the use of the CRT as a reference tool in clinical investigations.

Ocvirk, Gregor; Hajnsek, Martin; Gillen, Ralph; Guenther, Arnfried; Hochmuth, Gernot; Kamecke, Ulrike; Koelker, Karl-Heinz; Kraemer, Peter; Obermaier, Karin; Reinheimer, Cornelia; Jendrike, Nina; Freckmann, Guido

2009-01-01

363

The Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison (PCMDI) Software Suite: Next Generation Tools for Current and Next Generation Researchers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate research scientists need a suite of interrelated diagnostic software tools that are flexible, portable, efficient, easy-to-use, free, and capable of operating in a distributed environment. The Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison (PCMDI) is involved in two such important software projects (i.e., the Earth System Grid (ESG) and the Climate Data Analysis Tools (CDAT)) that are well on their way to fulfilling these requirements. Our plans over the next one to three years is to expand our already-considerable set of capabilities to serve a much broader set of data that will include biogeochemistry, in-situ, satellite, intercomparison runs, and many more, on increasingly popular Mosaic grids at much higher resolutions (e.g., 1 square kilometer). The open nature of the software system permits any member of the climate community to remotely contribute to the software as well as contribute to the flexible data archive. The ESG currently manages over 300 TB (terabytes) of data including the most notable Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) archive (known as the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 3 (CMIP3) multi-model database). Utilizing current and future technologies and computational resources, ESG is developing a sophisticated data distribution system that will allow users to remotely access, visualize and diagnose data. As a component of ESG, CDAT users can accurately subset and manipulate all aspects of data. In this complete workflow environment, users can gain access and direct the flow of data through a script file, standalone client, or web-based interface.

Doutriaux, C.; Williams, D. N.; Drach, R. S.; McCoy, R. B.; Mlaker, V.

2008-12-01

364

Theoretical and experimental research on machine tool servo system for ultra-precision position compensation on CNC lathe  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theories and techniques for improving machining accuracy via position control of diamond tool's tip and raising resolution of cutting depth on precise CNC lathes have been extremely focused on. A new piezo-driven ultra-precision machine tool servo system is designed and tested to improve manufacturing accuracy of workpiece. The mathematical model of machine tool servo system is established and the

Zhichao Ma; Leilei Hu; Hongwei Zhao; Boda Wu; Zhenxing Peng; Xiaoqin Zhou; Hongguo Zhang; Shuai Zhu; Lifeng Xing; Huang Hu

2010-01-01

365

The Representation of Christianity and the West in School Textbooks in the Middle East. Main conclusions and findings of a German research Projekt  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim is to find out about the quantitative and qualitative representation of Christianity in different countries of the Middle East. On the basis of this investigation we try to encourage an open discussion on education for religious tolerance and peace as we believe that there will be no peace if there is no peace between religions. The main findings

Wolfram Reiss

2006-01-01

366

Research tools to investigate movements, migrations, and life history of sturgeons (acipenseridae), with an emphasis on marine-oriented populations.  

PubMed

Worldwide, sturgeons (Acipenseridae) are among the most endangered fishes due to habitat degradation, overfishing, and inherent life history characteristics (long life span, late maturation, and infrequent spawning). As most sturgeons are anadromous, a considerable portion of their life history occurs in estuarine and marine environments where they may encounter unique threats (e.g., interception in non-target fisheries). Of the 16 marine-oriented species, 12 are designated as Critically Endangered by the IUCN, and these include species commercially harvested. We review important research tools and techniques (tagging, electronic tagging, genetics, microchemistry, observatory) and discuss the comparative utility of these techniques to investigate movements, migrations, and life-history characteristics of sturgeons. Examples are provided regarding what the applications have revealed regarding movement and migration and how this information can be used for conservation and management. Through studies that include Gulf (Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi) and Green Sturgeon (A. medirostris), we illustrate what is known about well-studied species and then explore lesser-studied species. A more complete picture of migration is available for North American sturgeon species, while European and Asian species, which are among the most endangered sturgeons, are less understood. We put forth recommendations that encourage the support of stewardship initiatives to build awareness and provide key information for population assessment and monitoring. PMID:23990959

Nelson, Troy C; Doukakis, Phaedra; Lindley, Steven T; Schreier, Andrea D; Hightower, Joseph E; Hildebrand, Larry R; Whitlock, Rebecca E; Webb, Molly A H

2013-08-22

367

Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis Program, a Web-Based Research Tool for Microbial Community Analysis  

PubMed Central

Rapid analysis of microbial communities has proven to be a difficult task. This is due, in part, to both the tremendous diversity of the microbial world and the high complexity of many microbial communities. Several techniques for community analysis have emerged over the past decade, and most take advantage of the molecular phylogeny derived from 16S rRNA comparative sequence analysis. We describe a web-based research tool located at the Ribosomal Database Project web site (http://www.cme.msu.edu/RDP/html/analyses.html) that facilitates microbial community analysis using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism of 16S ribosomal DNA. The analysis function (designated TAP T-RFLP) permits the user to perform in silico restriction digestions of the entire 16S sequence database and derive terminal restriction fragment sizes, measured in base pairs, from the 5? terminus of the user-specified primer to the 3? terminus of the restriction endonuclease target site. The output can be sorted and viewed either phylogenetically or by size. It is anticipated that the site will guide experimental design as well as provide insight into interpreting results of community analysis with terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms.

Marsh, Terence L.; Saxman, Paul; Cole, James; Tiedje, James

2000-01-01

368

Research Tools to Investigate Movements, Migrations, and Life History of Sturgeons (Acipenseridae), with an Emphasis on Marine-Oriented Populations  

PubMed Central

Worldwide, sturgeons (Acipenseridae) are among the most endangered fishes due to habitat degradation, overfishing, and inherent life history characteristics (long life span, late maturation, and infrequent spawning). As most sturgeons are anadromous, a considerable portion of their life history occurs in estuarine and marine environments where they may encounter unique threats (e.g., interception in non-target fisheries). Of the 16 marine-oriented species, 12 are designated as Critically Endangered by the IUCN, and these include species commercially harvested. We review important research tools and techniques (tagging, electronic tagging, genetics, microchemistry, observatory) and discuss the comparative utility of these techniques to investigate movements, migrations, and life-history characteristics of sturgeons. Examples are provided regarding what the applications have revealed regarding movement and migration and how this information can be used for conservation and management. Through studies that include Gulf (Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi) and Green Sturgeon (A. medirostris), we illustrate what is known about well-studied species and then explore lesser-studied species. A more complete picture of migration is available for North American sturgeon species, while European and Asian species, which are among the most endangered sturgeons, are less understood. We put forth recommendations that encourage the support of stewardship initiatives to build awareness and provide key information for population assessment and monitoring.

Nelson, Troy C.; Doukakis, Phaedra; Lindley, Steven T.; Schreier, Andrea D.; Hightower, Joseph E.; Hildebrand, Larry R.; Whitlock, Rebecca E.; Webb, Molly A. H.

2013-01-01

369

Manipulative Virtual Tools for Tool Mark Characterization.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this research is to provide quantitative data analysis tools for characterization of tool marked surfaces to improve the scientific basis of toolmark identifications. The methodology used will be an integrated approach that combines surface...

L. S. Chumbley S. Zhang

2013-01-01

370

Sociological Research on Higher Education in Canada 1970-1980: A Review of Some Main Themes in the English Language Literature.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|English language sociological research on higher education in Canada from 1970-1980 is reviewed. Functionalists have tended to concentrate upon the task of describing the perceived functions of the educational system in the society and have usually considered major educational change as occurring in response to the requirements of the polity and…

Pike, Robert M.

371

Evolutionary development and research on Internet-based collaborative writing tools and processes to enhance eWriting in an eGovernment setting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Center for the Management of Information (CMI) at the University of Arizona has been actively involved in research with various U.S. government organizations for nearly 20 years. This article details the years of evolutionary development and research conducted by CMI in an eGovernment setting that resulted in the creation of an Internet-based collaborative writing ((eWriting) tool, called Collaboratus. By

Paul Benjamin Lowry; Conan C. Albrecht; Jay F. Nunamaker Jr.; James D. Lee

2003-01-01

372

The origin of metazoa and the main evolutionary lineages of the animal Kingdom: The gallertoid hypothesis in the light of modern research  

Microsoft Academic Search

A scenario for the evolutionary history of the Metazoa is presented, including the evolution of the Urmetazoa and the Ctenophora,\\u000a Porifera, Coelenterata, and early Bilateria. The reasoning about evolutionary transformations is based on engineering morphology,\\u000a and includes the results of comparative anatomy and of molecular research. According to this evolutionary model, the specific\\u000a metazoan multicellularity, which is different of that

Manfred Grasshoff; Michael Gudo

2002-01-01

373

The Survey of Research Tool Needs in the Hispanic Languages and Literatures (SRTNHiLL): Encapsulation of the Report to the NEH.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A mail survey was conducted in 1977-78 to determine American Hispanists' perceived needs in research tools for Spanish and Portuguese literatures/linguistics. This article summarizes the study's findings and its recommendations as to which projects should receive the support of the National Endowment for the Humanities. (KM)

Teschner, Richard V.; And Others

1978-01-01

374

Excellence in Physics Education Award Talk: The Role of Physics Education Research in the Design and Assessment of Active Learning Curricula and Tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the Activity Based Physics Group (APB), research in student learning has been a cornerstone, for the past 22 years, of the development of activity-based curricula supported by real-time data collection, analysis, and modeling. This presentation, the first of three related talks, will focus on student learning, Priscilla Laws will describe the curriculum and tools developed, and David Sokoloff will

Ronald Thornton

2010-01-01

375

Integrating Human Health and Environmental Health into the DPSIR Framework: A Tool to Identify Research Opportunities for Sustainable and Healthy Communities  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has recently realigned its research enterprise around the concept of sustainability. Scientists from across multiple disciplines have a role to play in contributing the information, methods, and tools to more fully understand the long-term...

376

Where to Grasp a Tool?: Task-Dependent Adjustments of Tool Transformations by Tool Users  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomechanical and environmental constraints limit body movements and tool use actions. However, in the case of tool use, such constraints can often be overcome by adjusting a tool’s tool transformation to the requirements of the intended tool use action. The research presented here examined whether participants grasped a lever at different positions, thus modifying the lever’s tool transformation, to accommodate

Oliver Herbort

2012-01-01

377

Internet-to-orbit gateway and virtual ground station: A tool for space research and scientific outreach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Students in higher education, and scientific and technological researchers want to communicate with the International Space Station (ISS), download live satellite images, and receive telemetry, housekeeping and science/engineering data from nano-satellites and larger spacecrafts. To meet this need the Ecuadorian Civilian Space Agency (EXA) has recently provided the civilian world with an internet-to-orbit gateway (Hermes-A/Minotaur) Space Flight Control Center (SFCC) available for public use. The gateway has a maximum range of tracking and detection of 22,000 km and sensitivity such that it can receive and discriminate the signals from a satellite transmitter with power?0.1 W. The capability is enough to receive the faintest low-earth-orbit (LEO) satellites. This gateway virtually connects participating internet clients around the world to a remote satellite ground station (GS), providing a broad community for multinational cooperation. The goal of the GS is to lower financial and engineering barriers that hinder access to science and engineering data from orbit.The basic design of the virtual GS on a user side is based on free software suites. Using these and other software tools the GS is able to provide access to orbit for a multitude of users without each having to go through the costly setups. We present the design and implementation of the virtual GS in a higher education and scientific outreach settings. We also discuss the basic architecture of the single existing system and the benefits of a proposed distributed system. Details of the software tools and their applicability to synchronous round-the-world tracking, monitoring and processing performed by students and teams at Graz University of Technology, Austria, EXA-Ecuador, University of Michigan, USA and JAXA who have participated in various mission operations and have investigated real-time satellite data download and image acquisition and processing. Students and other remote users at these institutions undergo training with in orbit satellites in preparation for their own use with future university-class nano-satellites' post launch space operations.The exclusive ability of Hermes-A/Minotaur to act as a gateway between remote users (internet) and satellites (in orbit) makes the virtual GS at user-end more feasible for the long-term real-time nano/cubesats space operations. The only requirement is to have a mutual agreement between EXA and participating university/research organization and broadband internet connection at user-end. With successful and remote satellite tracking and downloading of real-time data from many operational satellites, the Hermes has been found a reliable potential GS for current and future university missions and a training platform for individuals pursuing space operations.

Jaffer, Ghulam; Nader, Ronnie; Koudelka, Otto

2011-09-01

378

Theoretical and experimental research on machine tool servo system for ultra-precision position compensation on CNC lathe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The theories and techniques for improving machining accuracy via position control of diamond tool's tip and raising resolution of cutting depth on precise CNC lathes have been extremely focused on. A new piezo-driven ultra-precision machine tool servo system is designed and tested to improve manufacturing accuracy of workpiece. The mathematical model of machine tool servo system is established and the finite element analysis is carried out on parallel plate flexure hinges. The output position of diamond tool's tip driven by the machine tool servo system is tested via a contact capacitive displacement sensor. Proportional, integral, derivative (PID) feedback is also implemented to accommodate and compensate dynamical change owing cutting forces as well as the inherent non-linearity factors of the piezoelectric stack during cutting process. By closed loop feedback controlling strategy, the tracking error is limited to 0.8 ?m. Experimental results have shown the proposed machine tool servo system could provide a tool positioning resolution of 12 nm, which is much accurate than the inherent CNC resolution magnitude. The stepped shaft of aluminum specimen with a step increment of cutting depth of 1 ?m is tested, and the obtained contour illustrates the displacement command output from controller is accurately and real-time reflected on the machined part.

Ma, Zhichao; Hu, Leilei; Zhao, Hongwei; Wu, Boda; Peng, Zhenxing; Zhou, Xiaoqin; Zhang, Hongguo; Zhu, Shuai; Xing, Lifeng; Hu, Huang

2010-08-01

379

A Set of Web-based Tools for Integrating Scientific Research and Decision-Making through Systems Thinking  

EPA Science Inventory

Currently, many policy and management decisions are made without considering the goods and services humans derive from ecosystems and the costs associated with protecting them. This approach is unlikely to be sustainable. Conceptual frameworks provide a tool for capturing, visual...

380

Research on the Servo Control Strategy of Miniaturized NC Micro-milling Machine Tool Based on Cross-Coupling Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contour precision of the micro-milling machine tool directly influences machining precision of workpieces. This article introduced the cross-coupling control approach applied in micro-milling servo control. Based on a novel miniaturized three-axis NC micro-milling machine tool, the cross-coupling controller was designed and used successfully. The simulation and micro-milling experiment results indicated that the cross-coupling control approach can improve the system

Peng Liu; Dong-biao Zhao; Lin Zhang

2008-01-01

381

Talk it up! Integrating traditional telephone research methodologies with e-Social Science tools, methods and practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opportunities for expanding the use of the telephone in social science research are now available through the integration of telephone research methods with new and emerging digital technology. This paper discusses some aspects of the use of the telephone in social science research and reports on the use of the telephone in research on the use of mobile communications technology

Collette Snowden

382

SPARSKIT: a basic tool kit for sparse matrix computations - Version 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

. This paper presents the main features of a tool package for manipulating and workingwith sparse matrices. One of the goals of the package is to provide basic tools to facilitate exchangeof software and data between researchers in sparse matrix computations. Our starting point is theHarwell\\/Boeing collection of matrices for which we provide a number of tools. Among other thingsthe

Youcef Saad

1994-01-01

383

Bibliometrics as a Performance Measurement Tool for Research Evaluation: The Case of Research Funded by the National Cancer Institute of Canada  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As bibliometric indicators are objective, reliable, and cost-effective measures of peer-reviewed research outputs, they are expected to play an increasingly important role in research assessment/management. Recently, a bibliometric approach was developed and integrated within the evaluation framework of research funded by the National Cancer…

Campbell, David; Picard-Aitken, Michelle; Cote, Gregoire; Caruso, Julie; Valentim, Rodolfo; Edmonds, Stuart; Williams, Gregory Thomas; Macaluso, Benoit; Robitaille, Jean-Pierre; Bastien, Nicolas; Laframboise, Marie-Claude; Lebeau, Louis-Michel; Mirabel, Philippe; Lariviere, Vincent; Archambault, Eric

2010-01-01

384

New M&S Challenges Derived from the NATO Research & Technology Organization (RTO) Systems Analysis Studies (SAS071) Task Group on Analytical Tools for Irregular Warfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research conducted recently by NATO's RTO Systems Analysis Studies (SAS-071) Task Group on Analytical Tools for Irregular Warfare (IW) is of direct interest to the M&S community, as it formulates several new challenges that have to be met by the M&S community. IW comprises among others the following categories: insurgency\\/counter-insurgency, combat- ing terrorism, unconventional warfare, strategic communications, transnational criminal

Andreas Tolk

2009-01-01

385

RSP Tooling Technology  

SciTech Connect

RSP Tooling{trademark} is a spray forming technology tailored for producing molds and dies. The approach combines rapid solidification processing and net-shape materials processing in a single step. The general concept involves converting a mold design described by a CAD file to a tooling master using a suitable rapid prototyping (RP) technology such as stereolithography. A pattern transfer is made to a castable ceramic, typically alumina or fused silica (Figure 1). This is followed by spray forming a thick deposit of a tooling alloy on the pattern to capture the desired shape, surface texture, and detail. The resultant metal block is cooled to room temperature and separated from the pattern. The deposit's exterior walls are machined square, allowing it to be used as an insert in a standard mold base. The overall turnaround time for tooling is about 3 to 5 days, starting with a master. Molds and dies produced in this way have been used in high volume production runs in plastic injection molding and die casting. A Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and Grupo Vitro has been established to evaluate the feasibility of using RSP Tooling technology for producing molds and dies of interest to Vitro. This report summarizes results from Phase I of this agreement, and describes work scope and budget for Phase I1 activities. The main objective in Phase I was to demonstrate the feasibility of applying the Rapid Solidification Process (RSP) Tooling method to produce molds for the manufacture of glass and other components of interest to Vitro. This objective was successfully achieved.

None

2001-11-20

386

Integrating human health and environmental health into the DPSIR framework: a tool to identify research opportunities for sustainable and healthy communities.  

PubMed

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has recently realigned its research enterprise around the concept of sustainability. Scientists from across multiple disciplines have a role to play in contributing the information, methods, and tools needed to more fully understand the long-term impacts of decisions on the social and economic sustainability of communities. Success will depend on a shift in thinking to integrate, organize, and prioritize research within a systems context. We used the Driving forces-Pressures-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) framework as a basis for integrating social, cultural, and economic aspects of environmental and human health into a single framework. To make the framework broadly applicable to sustainability research planning, we provide a hierarchical system of DPSIR keywords and guidelines for use as a communication tool. The applicability of the integrated framework was first tested on a public health issue (asthma disparities) for purposes of discussion. We then applied the framework at a science planning meeting to identify opportunities for sustainable and healthy communities research. We conclude that an integrated systems framework has many potential roles in science planning, including identifying key issues, visualizing interactions within the system, identifying research gaps, organizing information, developing computational models, and identifying indicators. PMID:23238563

Yee, Susan H; Bradley, Patricia; Fisher, William S; Perreault, Sally D; Quackenboss, James; Johnson, Eric D; Bousquin, Justin; Murphy, Patricia A

2012-12-13

387

Research on Error Modelling and Identification of 3 Axis NC Machine Tools Based on Cross Grid Encoder Measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new error modelling and identification method based on the cross grid encoder is proposed in this paper. Generally, there are 21 error components in the geometric error of the 3 axis NC machine tools. However according our theoretical analysis, the squareness error among different guide ways affects not only the translation error component, but also the rotational ones. Therefore,

Z. C. Du; C. F. Lv; M. S. Hong

2006-01-01

388

76 FR 47216 - Expediting Research Tools to NIH Licensees Through the Use of Pay.gov for Rapid Processing of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Licensees Through the Use of Pay.gov for Rapid Processing of Royalty Payments AGENCY...tools through the use of Pay.gov for rapid processing of their royalty payments...literally only took me about 5 minutes after reading the email/letter to process...

2011-08-04

389

A plant resource and experiment management system based on the Golm Plant Database as a basic tool for omics research  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: For omics experiments, detailed characterisation of experimental material with respect to its genetic features, its cultivation history and its treatment history is a requirement for analyses by bioinformatics tools and for publication needs. Furthermore, meta-analysis of several experiments in systems biology based approaches make it necessary to store this information in a standardised manner, preferentially in relational databases. In

Karin I Köhl; Georg Basler; Alexander Lüdemann; Joachim Selbig; Dirk Walther

2008-01-01

390

TOMORROW'S CITY AND ITS WASTE EUROPEAN RESEARCH PROVIDES TOOLS FOR A BETTER GLOBAL MANAGEMENT OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of municipal solid waste (MSW) in Europe is increasing despite the preventive efforts undertaken at various levels in each country. European legislation is continually evolving in an attempt to force communities to (a) reduce waste at its source, (b) promote recycling, and (c) minimise landfilling. However, the decision-aid tools available to municipalities are generally too approximate to enable

J. VILLENEUVE; P. MICHEL

391

Solution--What Does It Mean? Helping Linear Algebra Students Develop the Concept While Improving Research Tools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Twelve linear algebra students were interviewed about the concept of a Solution of a System of Equations. The interviews were analyzed using APOS tools, in particular the ideas of Action, Process, Object and Schema, and Genetic Decomposition. The analysis of the interviews revealed several misconceptions of Solution. The analysis also revealed…

DeVries, David; Arnon, Ilana

2004-01-01

392

Generic Tools for Transportation Planning and Scheduling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes our research on transportation planning and scheduling supported by the ARPA/Rome Lab Planning Initiative (ARPI). The main goal of this project was to develop generic tools to support the construction of flexible, high-performance pl...

D. R. Smith E. A. Parra S. J. Westfold

1995-01-01

393

Macroalgae Industry in Maine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Physical description and climate of the Maine coast; Seaweed biology; Some uses of macroalgae; Determination of candidates for aquaculture; Economically important macroalgae in Maine--Porphyra; Chondrus crispus; Mastocarpus stellata; Palmaria pa...

S. Crawford

1991-01-01

394

e-PKGene: A knowledge-based research tool for analysing the impact of genetics on drug exposure  

PubMed Central

e-PKGene (http://www.pharmacogeneticsinfo.org) is a manually curated knowledge product developed in the Department of Pharmaceutics at the University of Washington, USA. The tool integrates information from the literature, public repositories, reference textbooks, product prescribing labels and clinical review sections of new drug approval packages. The database's easy-to-use web portal offers tools for visualisation, reporting and filtering of information. The database helps scientists to mine pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic information for drug-metabolising enzymes and transporters, and provides access to available quantitative information on drug exposure contained in the literature. It allows in-depth analysis of the impact of genetic variants of enzymes and transporters on pharmacokinetic responses to drugs and metabolites. This review gives a brief description of the database organisation, its search functionalities and examples of use.

2011-01-01

395

Process optimization study of non-sparking titanium diboride tool materials. Research report, 1 July28 October 1973  

Microsoft Academic Search

A range of processing conditions and compositions were evaluated in order to optimize the properties of TiBâ-(Ni, Cu) composites for application as a non-sparking tool material for use in coal mining operations. Fifty billets containing from 70 to 95 weight percent titanium diboride were hot pressed at 3000 psi between 2400F and 2650F. Samples which were cut from these billets

L. Kaufman; R. L. Pober

1973-01-01

396

PROCEEDINGS OF ANNUAL SOUTHERN REGIONAL RESEARCH CONFERENCE, AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION, "TOOLING UP FOR RESEARCH," (13TH, TEXAS TECHNOLOGICAL COLLEGE, JULY 29-31, 1964).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE PURPOSES OF THE CONFERENCE WERE TO CONSIDER PROBLEMS IN IMPLEMENTING AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION RESEARCH AND TO STUDY RECENT RESEARCH FINDINGS. TEACHER EDUCATORS, SUPERVISORS, COLLEGE PROFESSORS, CHAIRMEN, DIRECTORS AND DEANS, REPRESENTATIVES FROM INDUSTRY AND GOVERNMENT, TEACHERS, AND A SCHOOL ADMINISTRATOR WERE AMONG THE 42 PARTICIPANTS.…

LEACH, T.L.; WEBB, EARL

397

The Fabled Maine Winter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

No study of Maine weather would be complete without analysis of the year of 1816 - the year with no summer in an area from western Pennsylvania and New York, up through Quebec and across to Maine and the Canadian maritimes. In this five-unit lesson, students will investigate the causes and effects of the Fabled Maine Winter by exploring a variety of data sources. They will locate, graph, and analyze meteorological and climatological data for Portland, Maine, for more recent years to try to find one that most closely resembles the fabled Maine winter of 1816.

398

Action Research, Pedagogy, and Activity Theory: Tools Facilitating Two Instructors' Interpretations of the Professional Development of Four Preservice Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper explores the value of action research in the understanding of the professional development of 4 preservice secondary school mathematics (PSSM) teachers and their instructors in a teacher education program. It draws upon data collected from multiple cycles in a research project (2007-2010). The goal of the long term project was to…

Clarke, Pier A. Junor; Fournillier, Janice B.

2012-01-01

399

The rural social sciences: An overview of research institutions, tools, and knowledge for addressing problems and issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper seeks to provide a broad overview of the historical, contemporary, and future roles of the rural social sciences. This overview is preceded by a brief elaboration of a model of the social, political, and economic structure of experiment station research organizations which is helpful in identifying the particular types of agricultural and social sciences research that have tended

Frederick H. Buttel

1987-01-01

400

Is the Internet a Good Research Tool for Teaching about Law and Government? A Case Study from the Field.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses challenges to using the Internet in teaching and tests various approaches to integrating student Internet research into a civics class. Discusses criteria for using the Internet, training students to use it, and Web-site selection. Invites readers to draw their own conclusions about the utility of Internet research. (DSK)|

Johnson, Jackie; Miller, Barbara

1998-01-01

401

Using Census Data to Classify Community College Students by Socioeconomic Status and Community Characteristics. CCRC Research Tools. Number 1  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Colleges and state higher education agencies too often lack accurate information about the socioeconomic status (SES) of their students. This paper describes the methodology that Community College Research Center (CCRC) researchers used to estimate the SES of individual students in the Washington State community and technical college system using…

Crosta, Peter M.; Leinbach, Timothy; Jenkins, Davis

2006-01-01

402

Web-Enabled and Improved Software Tools and Data Are Needed to Measure Nutrient Intakes and Physical Activity for Personalized Health Research123  

PubMed Central

Food intake, physical activity (PA), and genetic makeup each affect health and each factor influences the impact of the other 2 factors. Nutrigenomics describes interactions between genes and environment. Knowledge about the interplay between environment and genetics would be improved if experimental designs included measures of nutrient intake and PA. Lack of familiarity about how to analyze environmental variables and ease of access to tools and measurement instruments are 2 deterrents to these combined studies. This article describes the state of the art for measuring food intake and PA to encourage researchers to make their tools better known and more available to workers in other fields. Information presented was discussed during a workshop on this topic sponsored by the USDA, NIH, and FDA in the spring of 2009.

Stumbo, Phyllis J.; Weiss, Rick; Newman, John W.; Pennington, Jean A.; Tucker, Katherine L.; Wiesenfeld, Paddy L.; Illner, Anne-Kathrin; Klurfeld, David M.; Kaput, Jim

2010-01-01

403

Web-enabled and improved software tools and data are needed to measure nutrient intakes and physical activity for personalized health research.  

PubMed

Food intake, physical activity (PA), and genetic makeup each affect health and each factor influences the impact of the other 2 factors. Nutrigenomics describes interactions between genes and environment. Knowledge about the interplay between environment and genetics would be improved if experimental designs included measures of nutrient intake and PA. Lack of familiarity about how to analyze environmental variables and ease of access to tools and measurement instruments are 2 deterrents to these combined studies. This article describes the state of the art for measuring food intake and PA to encourage researchers to make their tools better known and more available to workers in other fields. Information presented was discussed during a workshop on this topic sponsored by the USDA, NIH, and FDA in the spring of 2009. PMID:20980656

Stumbo, Phyllis J; Weiss, Rick; Newman, John W; Pennington, Jean A; Tucker, Katherine L; Wiesenfeld, Paddy L; Illner, Anne-Kathrin; Klurfeld, David M; Kaput, Jim

2010-10-27

404

Global stem cell research trend: Bibliometric analysis as a tool for mapping of trends from 1991 to 2006  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we aim to evaluate the global scientific production of stem cell research for the past 16 years and provide\\u000a insights into the characteristics of the stem cell research activities and identify patterns, tendencies, or regularities\\u000a that may exist in the papers. Data are based on the online version of SCI, Web of Science from 1991 to 2006.

Ling-Li Li; Guohua Ding; Nan Feng; Ming-Huang Wang; Yuh-Shan Ho

2009-01-01

405

ORWARE—a simulation tool for waste management  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simulation model, ORWARE (ORganic WAste REsearch) is described. The model is mainly used as a tool for researchers in environmental systems analysis of waste management. It is a computer-based model for calculation of substance flows, environmental impacts, and costs of waste management. The model covers, despite the name, both organic and inorganic fractions in municipal waste. The model consists

O Eriksson; B Frostell; A Björklund; G Assefa; J.-O Sundqvist; J Granath; M Carlsson; A Baky; L Thyselius

2002-01-01

406

Assessing clinical researchers' information needs to create responsive portals and tools: My Research Assistant (MyRA) at the University of Utah: a case study*  

PubMed Central

Question: How can health sciences librarians and biomedical informaticians offer relevant support to Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) personnel? Setting: The Spencer S. Eccles Health Sciences Library and the associate vice president for information technology for the health sciences office at the University of Utah conducted a needs assessment. Methods: Faculty and staff from these two units, with the services of a consultant and other CTSA partners, employed a survey, focus groups, interviews, and committee discussions. An information portal was created to meet identified needs. Results: A directive white paper was created. The process employed to plan a virtual and physical collaborative, collegial space for clinical researchers at the university and its three inter-institutional CTSA partners is described. Conclusion: The university's model can assist other librarians and informaticians with how to become part of a CTSA-focused infrastructure for clinical and translational research and serve researchers in general.

Reich, Margaret; Shipman, Jean P.; Narus, Scott P.; Weir, Charlene; Madsen, Randy; Schultz, N. Dustin; Cameron, Justin M.; Adamczyk, Abby L.; Mitchell, Joyce A.

2013-01-01

407

Exploring Main Belt Asteroids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Terrestrial planet formation in the main asteroid belt was interrupted when growing protoplanets became sufficiently massive to gravitationally perturb the local population, causing bodies to collide with increased energy, thus ending accretion and commencing fragmentation and disruption. Few of these protoplanets are thought to have survived unshattered (e.g., Ceres, Vesta, Pallas), leaving a main belt population dominated by fragments of

M. V. Sykes; S. M. Larson; R. Whiteley; U. Fink; R. Jedicke; J. Emery; R. Fevig; M. Kelley; A. W. Harris; S. Ostro; K. Reed; R. P. Binzel; A. Rivkin; C. Magri; W. Bottke; D. Durda; R. Walker; D. Davis; W. K. Hartmann; D. Sears; H. Yano; J. Granahan; A. Storrs; S. J. Bus; J. F. Bell; D. Tholen; A. Cellino

2001-01-01

408

MAINE MARINE WORM HABITAT  

EPA Science Inventory

WORM provides a generalized representation at 1:24,000 scale of commercially harvested marine worm habitat in Maine, based on Maine Department of Marine Resources data from 1970's. Original maps were created by MDMR and published by USF&WS as part of the ""&quo...

409

Main Belt Comets  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have identified objects which are physically comets but which occupy orbits within the main belt of asteroids No dynamical routes from the Kuiper belt or Oort Cloud cometary reservoirs have been identified Therefore we conclude that these are true comets formed in-place and constituting a new type of comet from a previously unobserved reservoir The main belt comets MBCs

D. Jewitt; H. Hsieh

2006-01-01

410

SBDART: A Research and Teaching Software Tool for Plane-Parallel Radiative Transfer in the Earth's Atmosphere.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SBDART is a software tool that computes plane-parallel radiative transfer in clear and cloudy conditions within the earth's atmosphere and at the surface. All important processes that affect the ultraviolet, visible, and infrared radiation fields are included. The code is a marriage of a sophisticated discrete ordinate radiative transfer module, low-resolution atmospheric transmission models, and Mie scattering results for light scattering by water droplets and ice crystals. The code is well suited for a wide variety of atmospheric radiative energy balance and remote sensing studies. It is designed so that it can be used for case studies as well as sensitivity analysis. For small sets of computations or teaching applications it is available on the World Wide Web with a user-friendly interface. For sensitivity studies requiring many computations it is available by anonymous FTP as a well organized and documented FORTRAN 77 source code.

Ricchiazzi, Paul; Yang, Shiren; Gautier, Catherine; Sowle, David

1998-10-01

411

Environmental Inquiry by College Students: Original Research and Peer Review Using Web-Based Collaborative Tools. Preliminary Quantitative Data Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Environmental Inquiry (EI) program (Cornell University and Pennsylvania State University) supports inquiry based, student-centered science teaching on selected topics in the environmental sciences. Texts to support high school student research are published by the National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) in the domains of environmental…

Cakir, Mustafa; Carlsen, William S.

412

Interpretive Single-Subject Design: A Research Tool for Practitioner-Guided Applied Inquiry in Rural Settings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper discusses the integration of positivist single-subject design with interpretive, or naturalist, qualitative methods in the development of effective interventions for rural special education students. The resulting research/intervention design includes: (1) extending the normal baseline period from 3 to 10 days thus allowing the…

Hepburn, Eric; And Others

413

Using the Conceptual Change Model of Learning as An Analytic Tool in Researching Teacher Preparation for Student Diversity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background/Context: In regard to preparing prospective teachers for diverse classrooms, the agenda for teacher education research has been primarily concerned with identifying desired outcomes and promising strategies. Scholarship in multicultural education has been crucial for identifying the knowledge, skills, and attitudes needed by teachers to…

Larkin, Douglas

2012-01-01

414

Adapting modern strategic decision support tools in the participatory strategy process—a case study of a forest research station  

Microsoft Academic Search

The strategic planning of a forest research organization is based on anticipating the changes in the operational environment of the entire forest cluster and in the organization itself. Scanning operational environment to attain a systematic approach and support for a decision situation can be carried out by applying a Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) analysis, for example. In this

Leena A. Leskinen; Pekka Leskinen; Mikko Kurttila; Jyrki Kangas; Miika Kajanus

2006-01-01

415

Interpretive Single-Subject Design: A Research Tool for Practitioner-Guided Applied Inquiry in Rural Settings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses the integration of positivist single-subject design with interpretive, or naturalist, qualitative methods in the development of effective interventions for rural special education students. The resulting research/intervention design includes: (1) extending the normal baseline period from 3 to 10 days thus allowing the…

Hepburn, Eric; And Others

416

Environmental Inquiry by College Students: Original Research and Peer Review Using Web-Based Collaborative Tools. Preliminary Quantitative Data Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Environmental Inquiry (EI) program (Cornell University and Pennsylvania State University) supports inquiry based, student-centered science teaching on selected topics in the environmental sciences. Texts to support high school student research are published by the National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) in the domains of environmental…

Cakir, Mustafa; Carlsen, William S.

417

Using the Conceptual Change Model of Learning as An Analytic Tool in Researching Teacher Preparation for Student Diversity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background/Context: In regard to preparing prospective teachers for diverse classrooms, the agenda for teacher education research has been primarily concerned with identifying desired outcomes and promising strategies. Scholarship in multicultural education has been crucial for identifying the knowledge, skills, and attitudes needed by teachers…

Larkin, Douglas

2012-01-01

418

The School-Wide Evaluation Tool (SET): A Research Instrument for Assessing School-Wide Positive Behavior Support  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Schools throughout the country are now encouraged to implement school-wide positive behavior support (PBS) procedures as a way to improve their behavioral climate, safety, and social culture. Research is needed to determine (a) the extent to which schools already use school-wide PBS, (b) if training and technical assistance efforts result in…

Horner, Robert H.; Todd, Anne W.; Lewis-Palmer, Teri; Irvin, Larry K.; Sugai, George; Boland, Joseph B.

2004-01-01

419

Using Social Networking Tools to Promote Genealogy and Local History Collections and to Instruct Researchers in Their Use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Libraries with genealogy and local history collections spend a great deal of time and effort in collecting, preserving, cataloging, indexing, digitizing, and providing access to their materials. However, these activities may be wasted if potential researchers are unaware of the existence of these materials, or are lacking the knowledge and skills to navigate the materials. Many libraries have long used

Andrew M Smith

2010-01-01

420

Moving from Paper-based to Digital Documents: Case Study of Public Defenders Using Case Management and Legal Research Tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents a study of the influence of computers on job productivity, job satisfaction and quality of work. Results of a combined qualitative and quantitative study of the use of personal computers (PC)s in a public defender (PD)'s office in Los Angeles County (USA) for legal research and case management me discussed. A survey was administrated to 56 PDs

Margaret S. Elliott

1997-01-01

421

Culture's Consequences Today: The Evaluation and Use of Geert Hofstede's Culture in the Workplace Training Questionnaire as a Research Tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis examines the Culture in the Workplace [TM] Questionnaire and associated data to determine the suitability and potential implications of this information for further cross-cultural research. The Culture in the Workplace [TM] (CW) questionnaire was designed by Geert Hofstede and was based on his groundbreaking IBM study. This study, as detailed in his book, Culture's Consequences, was based on

Kathryn Dovgala

1997-01-01

422

MAINE WEIRS 1990  

EPA Science Inventory

WEIR90 shows point locations of herring weirs in Maine based on 1990 overflight by MDMR Marine Patrol, mapped at an approximate scale of 1:100,000. Data were screen digitized from paper maps used during the overflight....

423

How can calibrated research-based models be improved for use as a tool in identifying genes controlling crop tolerance to environmental stresses in the era of genomics—from an experimentalist's perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Almost four decades have passed since the new field of ecosystem simulation sprang into full force as an added tool for a sound research in an ever-advancing scientific front. The enormous advances and new discoveries that recently took place in the field of molecular biology and basic genetics added more effective tools, have strengthened and increased the efficiency of science

M. A. El-Sharkawy

2005-01-01

424

Building a Bridge into the Future: Dynamic Connectionist Modeling as an Integrative Tool for Research on Intertemporal Choice  

PubMed Central

Temporal discounting denotes the fact that individuals prefer smaller rewards delivered sooner over larger rewards delivered later, often to a higher extent than suggested by normative economical theories. In this article, we identify three lines of research studying this phenomenon which aim (i) to describe temporal discounting mathematically, (ii) to explain observed choice behavior psychologically, and (iii) to predict the influence of specific factors on intertemporal decisions. We then opt for an approach integrating postulated mechanisms and empirical findings from these three lines of research. Our approach focuses on the dynamical properties of decision processes and is based on computational modeling. We present a dynamic connectionist model of intertemporal choice focusing on the role of self-control and time framing as two central factors determining choice behavior. Results of our simulations indicate that the two influences interact with each other, and we present experimental data supporting this prediction. We conclude that computational modeling of the decision process dynamics can advance the integration of different strands of research in intertemporal choice.

Scherbaum, Stefan; Dshemuchadse, Maja; Goschke, Thomas

2012-01-01

425

Utilizing the database is a powerful tool to support the research! : - from searching to making and utilizing - : An interview from Mr. Akifumi Oikawa Ph.D. Director of University Library, Professor SOKENDAI The Graduate University for Advanced Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Utilizing the database is a powerful tool to support the research! : - from searching to making and utilizing - : An interview from Mr. Akifumi Oikawa Ph.D. Director of University Library, Professor SOKENDAI The Graduate University for Advanced Studies

Utako Morita

2008-01-01

426

Utilizing the database is a powerful tool to support the research! : - from searching to making and utilizing - : An interview from Mr. Akifumi Oikawa Ph.D. Director of University Library, Professor SOKENDAI The Graduate University for Advanced Studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Utilizing the database is a powerful tool to support the research! : - from searching to making and utilizing - : An interview from Mr. Akifumi Oikawa Ph.D. Director of University Library, Professor SOKENDAI The Graduate University for Advanced Studies

Morita, Utako

427

Surface and Downhole Prospecting Tools for Planetary Exploration: Tests of Neutron and Gamma Ray Probes - Research Paper  

SciTech Connect

The ability to locate and characterize icy deposits and other hydrogenous materials on the Moon and Mars will help us understand the distribution of water and, therefore, possible habitats at Mars, and may help us locate primitive prebiotic compounds at the Moon’s poles. We have developed a rover-borne neutron probe that localizes a near-surface icy deposit and provides information about its burial depth and abundance. We have also developed a borehole neutron probe to determine the stratigraphy of hydrogenous subsurface layers while operating within a drill string segment. In our field tests, we have used a neutron source to “illuminate” surrounding materials and gauge the instruments’ efficacy, and we can simulate accurately the observed instrument responses using a Monte Carlo nuclear transport code (MCNPX). An active neutron source would not be needed for lunar or martian near-surface exploration: cosmic-ray interactions provide sufficient neutron flux to depths of several meters and yield better depth and abundance sensitivity than an active source. However, for deep drilling (>10 m depth), a source is required. We also present initial tests of a borehole gamma ray lithodensity tool and demonstrate its utility in determining soil or rock densities and composition.

R. C. Elphic; P. Chu; S. Hahn; M. R. James; D. J. Lawrence; T. H. Prettyman; J. B. Johnson; R. K. Podgorney

2008-06-01

428

K6 Mathematics Tools List  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page from Education Development Center in Maine provides an alphabetical list by tool name with links to the 27 learning tools (Java applets). An image, title and description with content tags are provided for each tool. The tools were constructed using the cross-platform open educational resource GeoGebra.

2012-01-01

429

Platform Li-Ion Battery Risk Assessment Tool: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-10-407  

SciTech Connect

Creare was awarded a Phase 1 STTR contract from the US Office of Naval Research, with a seven month period of performance from 6/28/2010 to 1/28/2011. The objectives of the STTR were to determine the feasibility of developing a software package for estimating reliability of battery packs, and develop a user interface to allow the designer to assess the overall impact on battery packs and host platforms for cell-level faults. NREL served as sub-tier partner to Creare, providing battery modeling and battery thermal safety expertise.

Smith, K.

2012-01-01

430

The production of intrinsically labeled milk and meat protein is feasible and provides functional tools for human nutrition research.  

PubMed

Administration of labeled, free amino acids does not allow direct assessment of in vivo dietary protein digestion and absorption kinetics. Consequently, dietary protein sources with labeled amino acids incorporated within their protein matrix are required. The aim of the present study was to produce intrinsically L-[1-(13)C]phenylalanine-labeled milk and meat protein that would permit in vivo assessment of postprandial protein digestion and absorption kinetics in humans. One lactating dairy cow was continuously infused with 420 ?mol of L-[1-(13)C]phenylalanine/min for 96 h, with plasma and milk being collected before, during, and after isotope infusion. Twenty-four hours after infusion, the cow was slaughtered to produce intrinsically labeled meat. Levels of L-[1-(13)C]phenylalanine enrichment as high as 40 mole percent excess (MPE) in milk and 1.5 MPE in meat protein were achieved. In a subsequent human proof-of-principle experiment, 2 healthy young males (25±1 yr; 66.2±5.2 kg) each ingested 135 g of L-[1-(13)C]phenylalanine intrinsically labeled minced beef, after which plasma samples were collected at regular time intervals. Plasma L-[1-(13)C]phenylalanine enrichments increased during the first 90 min following beef ingestion, reaching peak plasma enrichment levels of 0.61±0.04 MPE. Whole-body net protein balance, assessed by continuous infusion of L-[ring-(2)H(5)]phenylalanine and L-[ring-(2)H(2)]tyrosine, was higher in the postprandial period compared with basal values (6.4±0.1 vs. -4.5±0.1 ?mol/kg per h). In conclusion, the production of intrinsically L-[1-(13)C]phenylalanine-labeled milk and meat protein is feasible and provides functional tools to investigate in vivo protein digestion and absorption kinetics in humans. PMID:21854909

Pennings, B; Pellikaan, W F; Senden, J M G; van Vuuren, A M; Sikkema, J; van Loon, L J C

2011-09-01

431

Biological markers of sexual activity: tools for improving measurement in HIV/sexually transmitted infection prevention research.  

PubMed

Research on interventions to prevent HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is heavily influenced by participant reporting of sexual behavior, despite uncertainty about its validity. Exclusive reliance on participant self-report often is based, overtly or by implication, on 4 assumptions: (1) no feasible alternatives exist; (2) misreporting can be minimized to levels that can be disregarded; (3) misreporting tends to underreport sensitive behaviors; and (4) misreporting tends to be nondifferential with respect to the groups being compared. The objective of this review are to evaluate these assumptions, including a review of studies using semen biomarkers to evaluate the validity of self-reported data, and to make recommendations for applying biological markers of semen exposure detectable in women to further strengthen research on HIV/STI prevention. Increasing evidence shows that semen biomarkers provide an important means of assessing and augmenting the validity of studies on HIV/STI prevention. Additional biomarkers are needed to assess male exposure to vaginal sex and both male and female exposure to anal sex. Methods and study designs that incorporate biomarkers into studies collecting self-reported behavioral data should be considered where possible. PMID:23677018

Gallo, Maria F; Steiner, Markus J; Hobbs, Marcia M; Warner, Lee; Jamieson, Denise J; Macaluso, Maurizio

2013-06-01

432

The Maine Memory Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Once you have visited Maine, it is most certainly not a place that you will soon forget. This website is designed to make sure longtime residents and visitors alike will not forget this tranquil state, as it brings together a very wide range of historical documents and memories from around the state. The site itself was created by the Maine Historical Society, and is supported by monies from the Institute of Museum and Library Services and several other partners. Within the site, visitors can search for historical items and documents, view thematic online exhibits, and learn about how the site may be used effectively in classroom settings. One particularly fine exhibit is the one that offers some visual documentation of rural Aroostook County around the year 1900. In this exhibit, visitors can experience the dense forests and rugged terrain that dominate the landscape of this part of Maine.

433

Main sequence mass loss  

SciTech Connect

It has been hypothesized that variable stars may experience mass loss, driven, at least in part, by oscillations. The class of stars we are discussing here are the delta Scuti variables. These are variable stars with masses between about 1.2 and 2.25 M/sub theta/, lying on or very near the main sequence. According to this theory, high rotation rates enhance the rate of mass loss, so main sequence stars born in this mass range would have a range of mass loss rates, depending on their initial rotation velocity and the amplitude of the oscillations. The stars would evolve rapidly down the main sequence until (at about 1.25 M/sub theta/) a surface convection zone began to form. The presence of this convective region would slow the rotation, perhaps allowing magnetic braking to occur, and thus sharply reduce the mass loss rate. 7 refs.

Brunish, W.M.; Guzik, J.A.; Willson, L.A.; Bowen, G.

1987-01-01

434

Indispensable tool  

SciTech Connect

Synchrotron radiation has become an indispensable research tool for a growing number of scientists in a seemingly ever expanding number of disciplines. We can thank the European Synchrotron Research Facility (ESRF) in Grenoble for taking an innovative step toward achieving the educational goal of explaining the nature and benefits of synchrotron radiation to audiences ranging from the general public (including students) to government officials to scientists who may be unfamiliar with x-ray techniques and synchrotron radiation. ESRF is the driving force behind a new CD-ROM playable on both PCs and Macs titled Synchrotron light to explore matter. Published by Springer-Verlag, the CD contains both English and French versions of a comprehensive overview of the subject.

Robinson, Arthur

2001-08-10

435

From models to advanced 4D visualization tools: Developing a comprehensive framework for collaborative research in physical modelling and hazard assessment of volcanic phenomena  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of numerical models in volcanological research and volcanic hazard assessment is indispensable to cope with the variety of processes and interactions characterizing magma evolution and eruption dynamics, which are dominated by non-linear phenomena and cannot be modelled at full scale in the laboratory. However, new multidisciplinary problems arise when dealing with complex mathematical formulations, numerical algorithms and their implementations on modern computer architectures, so that new tools are needed for sharing knowledge, software and datasets among scientists. Additionally, the need of communicating the results from complex, physical-based models to the public and authorities requires a further effort to present them in an effective and easy way, while highlighting the strengths and limitations of the approach. Finally, availability of Geographic Information System (GIS) data represents an issue when numerical models have to be applied to real volcanoes for impact studies. We are carrying on several initiatives, started during former and ongoing national and European projects, to develop an electronic infrastructure for promoting information transfer in this field of research. In particular, a web portal, based on a dynamic Content Manager System (CMS), is under construction to host and present physical models and their applications in an extensive way (what is usually not possible in research papers), share numerical codes and simulation datasets and discuss model validation and calibration tests. Moreover, advanced 4D visualization tools have been developed to present model results in a synthetic and effective form. Finally, a web interface to GIS databases has been implemented to share and navigate geographic data. Within this framework, it will be possible to integrate physical model outcomes into a geographic context and access them via an interactive web engine such as Google-Earth.

Esposti Ongaro, T.; Barsotti, S.; de Michieli Vitturi, M.; Favalli, M.; Longo, A.; Nannipieri, L.; Neri, A.; Papale, P.; Saccorotti, G.; Tarquini, S.

2009-04-01

436

Tools for Network Dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Networks have been studied mainly by statistical methods which em- phasize their topological structure. Here one collects some mathematical tools and results which might be useful to study both the dynamics of

R. VILELA MENDES

2005-01-01

437

The Protein Information Management System (PiMS): a generic tool for any structural biology research laboratory  

PubMed Central

The techniques used in protein production and structural biology have been developing rapidly, but techniques for recording the laboratory information produced have not kept pace. One approach is the development of laboratory information-management systems (LIMS), which typically use a relational database schema to model and store results from a laboratory workflow. The underlying philosophy and implementation of the Protein Information Management System (PiMS), a LIMS development specifically targeted at the flexible and unpredictable workflows of protein-production research laboratories of all scales, is described. PiMS is a web-based Java application that uses either Postgres or Oracle as the underlying relational database-management system. PiMS is available under a free licence to all academic laboratories either for local installation or for use as a managed service.

Morris, Chris; Pajon, Anne; Griffiths, Susanne L.; Daniel, Ed; Savitsky, Marc; Lin, Bill; Diprose, Jonathan M.; Wilter da Silva, Alan; Pilicheva, Katya; Troshin, Peter; van Niekerk, Johannes; Isaacs, Neil; Naismith, James; Nave, Colin; Blake, Richard; Wilson, Keith S.; Stuart, David I.; Henrick, Kim; Esnouf, Robert M.

2011-01-01

438

Giving High School Students a Research Grade Radio Telescope to Control; Motivational Results from Access to Real Scientific Tools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Have you ever wondered what it might be like to place control of a six-story building in the hands of eager high school students? This past summer, the USNO 20m telescope at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Green Bank, WV was brought back online for just such a purpose. This telescope is equipped with an X-band receiver, capable of observing center frequencies from 8-10 GHz and is the first radio telescope accessible by students and observers through the SKYNET telescope network. Operated remotely with a queue-based system, students can now collect real radio data for any range of projects. This past summer, five lessons were written that were tailor-made for student exploration of radio astronomy. Each lesson explores various radio objects in the context of an action-packed sci-fi adventure. Some of the work required to bring the 20m online for student use will be discussed here, but the main focus of this presentation will be how this work has been received by the author’s own students in its first classroom application. Topics that are normally difficult to discuss with students in an inquiry-based classroom setting, such as HII regions, synchrotron radiation, lunar temperature profiles, and galactic supermassive black holes were addressed in the classroom using the lessons developed by the author for the 20m as well as data collected by students using the telescope via SKYNET.

Kohrs, Russell; Langston, G.; Heatherly, S.

2013-01-01

439

Developing the Tools of Implementation Science in Substance Use Disorders Treatment: Applications of the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research  

PubMed Central

The implementation of evidence-based treatments (EBTs) and practices (EBPs) depends on both top-down and bottom-up responsibilities. Many of the articles in this special section on Implementation Science in Substance Use Disorders address the interaction between these two approaches when implementing new substance use disorder (SUD) treatments. Generally the articles place this interaction within the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR), a relatively new and comprehensive synthesis of theories and conceptualizations of the components needed for any successful implementation strategy. The range of SUD treatments covered includes well-established behavioral interventions, such as screening and brief interventions for alcohol, as well as new pharmacotherapies, such as buprenorphine for opiates. One contribution uses the CFIR to review continuing care interventions and self-help groups that can follow-up after more intensive, acute clinical care. External and internal pressures for change drive implementation. The successful EBT/EBP implementations reviewed in these articles recognized all these potential change drivers in designing their strategy for introducing the EBT/EBP, and they modified aspects of the EBT/EBP to satisfy as many of these drivers as possible. The CFIR model has limitations, as do the contributions to this special section. The implementation science field is new and developing rapidly, and many of the EBTs and EBPs were developed and tested through controlled studies evaluating the efficacy of the interventions under controlled conditions, rather than examining their performance in the broader landscape of addiction treatment programs. These limitations may also be considered as boundary conditions that need to be explored in further research, implementation, and development of the next edition of the CFIR.

Sorensen, James L.; Kosten, Thomas

2011-01-01

440

MAINE SCHOOLS AND LIBRARIES  

EPA Science Inventory

SCHLIB shows point locations of libraries and educational institutions in Maine at 1:24,000 scale. Colleges, universities, technical colleges, high schools, middle schools, elementary schools, kindergarten/sub-primary and other special schools are included. The data was developed...

441

Newbury Neck Quadrangle, Maine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ellsworth Schist has been deformed at least three times, steeply inclined faults approximately parallel to the length of Patten Bay producing a highly contorted rock structure. In the main stage of (Photo 9). The orientation of these minor faults suggests that an old fault deformation, wet sediments together with the interlayered volcanic trace may lie beneath Patten Bay. Another

Douglas N. Reusch; John P. Hogan; Robert G. Marvinney; Susan S. Tolman; Robert D. Tucker; Henry N. Berry

2002-01-01

442

Areas of Research - Applied Research  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Content Cancer Control and Population Sciences Home Applied Research Home Areas of Research Tools Surveys & Studies Research Networks Funding Publications About ARP Search:? Areas of Research Monitoring Risk & Health Behaviors Exposure Assessment

443

Integrated piezoelectric actuators in deep drawing tools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The production of car body panels are defective in succession of process fluctuations. Thus the produced car body panel can be precise or damaged. To reduce the error rate, an intelligent deep drawing tool was developed at the Fraunhofer Institute for Machine Tools and Forming Technology IWU in cooperation with Audi and Volkswagen. Mechatronic components in a closed-loop control is the main differentiating factor between an intelligent and a conventional deep drawing tool. In correlation with sensors for process monitoring, the intelligent tool consists of piezoelectric actuators to actuate the deep drawing process. By enabling the usage of sensors and actuators at the die, the forming tool transform to a smart structure. The interface between sensors and actuators will be realized with a closed-loop control. The content of this research will present the experimental results with the piezoelectric actuator. For the analysis a production-oriented forming tool with all automotive requirements were used. The disposed actuators are monolithic multilayer actuators of the piezo injector system. In order to achieve required force, the actuators are combined in a cluster. The cluster is redundant and economical. In addition to the detailed assembly structures, this research will highlight intensive analysis with the intelligent deep drawing tool.

Neugebauer, R.; Mainda, P.; Drossel, W.-G.; Kerschner, M.; Wolf, K.

2011-03-01

444

ciliaFA: a research tool for automated, high-throughput measurement of ciliary beat frequency using freely available software.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Analysis of ciliary function for assessment of patients suspected of primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) and for research studies of respiratory and ependymal cilia requires assessment of both ciliary beat pattern and beat frequency. While direct measurement of beat frequency from high speed video recordings is the most accurate and reproducible technique it is extremely time consuming. The aim of this study was to develop a freely available automated method of ciliary beat frequency analysis from digital video (.AVI) files that runs on open-source software (ImageJ) coupled to Microsoft Excel and to validate this by comparison to the direct measuring high speed video recordings of respiratory and ependymal cilia. These models allowed comparison to cilia beating between 3 and 52Hz. METHODS: Digital video files of motile ciliated ependymal (frequency range 34 - 52 Hz) and respiratory epithelial cells (frequency 3 - 18 Hz) were captured using a high-speed digital video recorder. To cover the range above between 18 and 37Hz the frequency of ependymal cilia were slowed by the addition of the pneumococcal toxin pneumolysin. Measurements made directly by timing a given number of individual ciliary beat cycles were compared with those obtained using the automated ciliaFA system. RESULTS: The overall mean difference (+/- s.d.) between the ciliaFA and direct measurement high-speed digital imaging methods was -0.05 +/- 1.25 Hz, the correlation coefficient was shown to be 0.991 and the Bland-Altman limits of agreement were from -1.99 to 1.49 Hz for respiratory and from -2.55 to 3.25 Hz for ependymal cilia. CONCLUSIONS: A plugin for ImageJ was developed that extracts pixel intensities and performs fast Fourier transformation (FFT) using Microsoft Excel. The ciliaFA software allowed automated, high throughput measurement of respiratory and ependymal ciliary beat frequency (range 3 - 52 Hz) and avoids operator error due to selection bias. We have included free access to the ciliaFA plugin and installation instructions in the Additional Files accompanying this manuscript that other researchers may use. PMID:23351276

Smith, Claire M; Djakow, Jana; Free, Robert C; Djakow, Petr; Lonnen, Rana; Williams, Gywneth; Pohunek, Petr; Hirst, Robert A; Easton, Andrew J; Andrew, Peter W; O'Callaghan, Chris

2012-08-01

445

Precocious flowering in trees: the FLOWERING LOCUS T gene as a research and breeding tool in Populus.  

PubMed

Expression of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) and its homologues has been shown to accelerate the onset of flowering in a number of plant species, including poplar (Populus spp.). The application of FT should be of particular use in forest trees, as it could greatly accelerate and enable new kinds of breeding and research. Recent evidence showing the extent to which FT is effective in promoting flowering in trees is discussed, and its effectiveness in poplar is reported. Results using one FT gene from Arabidopsis and two from poplar, all driven by a heat-inducible promoter, transformed into two poplar genotypes are also described. Substantial variation in flowering response was observed depending on the FT gene and genetic background. Heat-induced plants shorter than 30 cm failed to flower as well as taller plants. Plants exposed to daily heat treatments lasting 3 weeks tended to produce fewer abnormal flowers than those in heat treatments of shorter durations; increasing the inductive temperature from 37 degrees C to 40 degrees C produced similar benefits. Using optimal induction conditions, approximately 90% of transgenic plants could be induced to flower. When induced FT rootstocks were grafted with scions that lacked FT, flowering was only observed in rootstocks. The results suggest that a considerable amount of species- or genotype-specific adaptation will be required to develop FT into a reliable means for shortening the generation cycle for breeding in poplar. PMID:20406786

Zhang, Huanling; Harry, David E; Ma, Cathleen; Yuceer, Cetin; Hsu, Chuan-Yu; Vikram, Vikas; Shevchenko, Olga; Etherington, Elizabeth; Strauss, Steven H

2010-04-20

446

Multifaceted Roles of Alkyltransferase and Related Proteins In DNA Repair, DNA Damage, Resistance to Chemotherapy and Research Tools  

PubMed Central

O6-Alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (AGT) is a widely distributed, unique DNA repair protein that acts as a single agent to directly remove alkyl groups located on the O6-position of guanine from DNA restoring the DNA in one step. The protein acts only once and its alkylated form is degraded rapidly. It is a major factor in counteracting the mutagenic, carcinogenic and cytotoxic effects of agents that form such adducts including N-nitroso-compounds and a number of cancer chemotherapeutics. This review describes the structure, function and mechanism of action of AGTs and of a family of related alkyltransferase-like proteins, which do not alone act to repair O6-alkylguanines in DNA but link repair to other pathways. The paradoxical ability of AGTs to stimulate the DNA-damaging ability of dihaloalkanes and other bis-electrophiles via the formation of AGT-DNA crosslinks is also described. Other important properties of AGTs include the ability to provide resistance to cancer therapeutic alkylating agents and the availability of AGT inhibitors such as O6-benzylguanine that might overcome this resistance is discussed. Finally, the properties of fusion proteins in which AGT sequences are linked to other proteins are outlined. Such proteins occur naturally and synthetic variants engineered to react specifically with derivatives of O6-benzylguanine are the basis of a valuable research technique for tagging proteins with specific reagents.

Pegg, Anthony E.

2011-01-01

447

C.E.B.A.S.-AQUARACK project: the Mini-Module as tool in artificial ecosystem research.  

PubMed

The evolution of the C.E.B.A.S-AQUARACK project including results of the scientific frame program was frequently presented at the IAA Man in Space Symposia 1989 and 1991 and the IAF/IAA congresses since 1990. C.E.B.A.S. (Closed Equilibrated Biological Aquatic System) is a combined animal/plant system for long-term multi-generation experiments with aquatic organisms in ground laboratories and in a space station. For short-term missions a miniaturized version was developed which fits into a spacelab middeck locker together with all surrounding equipment. The latest development is an optimized prototype with a total volume of about 11 liters which consists of a main animal tank (Zoological Component) with integrated bacteria filter, a semibiological coarse filter, an illuminated higher plant container (Botanical Component) and combined small animal and electrode compartment. A silastic tubing gas exchanger in a closed side-loop serves as an emergency unit in case of the malfunction of the Botanical Component and the water is driven through the system by rotatory pumps. It is operative for several weeks in closed state. This C.E.B.A.S. Mini-Module also represents an aquatic artificial ecosystem in which basic scientific problems of component interactions and system theory can be solved with the side aspects of combined production of animal and plant food in bioregenerative life support systems. The paper presents details of the current status of the hardware development and data about the function of the fully biological life support of the system, e. g. mid-term registrations of water parameters. Moreover, morphological and physiological data of the experimental animals (-the teleost fish Xiphophorus helleri-) and plants (-a tropical Ceratophyllum species-) demonstrate the biological stability of the system. These are used to elaborate first details of population interactions and inter-dependencies as a basis of a disposed comprehensive system analysis which is the essential precondition for the design of possible aquatic modules for bioregenerative life support systems. PMID:11539518

Blum, V; Stretzke, E; Kreuzberg, K

1994-07-01

448

Windows on Maine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created with funds provided by the Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS), Windows on Maine contains interesting and informative programs and video clips from Maine Public Broadcasting and other partners. On their homepage, visitors can use their interactive map and timeline to locate video clips of interest, and they can also search the entire collection for specific items. Visitors can also use the subject category menu to look over 25 different headings, including "earth sciences", "land disputes", and "Penobscot tribe". The map feature is a real pip, and visitors can customize their search by location and date, and it's a great way to learn about different regions, including Aroostook County (also known as "the County") and Downeast. Also, many of the videos also have additional resources attached to them, such as railroad timetables, historic photographs, and so on.

449

Main roads to melanoma  

PubMed Central

The characterization of the molecular mechanisms involved in development and progression of melanoma could be helpful to identify the molecular profiles underlying aggressiveness, clinical behavior, and response to therapy as well as to better classify the subsets of melanoma patients with different prognosis and/or clinical outcome. Actually, some aspects regarding the main molecular changes responsible for the onset as well as the progression of melanoma toward a more aggressive phenotype have been described. Genes and molecules which control either cell proliferation, apoptosis, or cell senescence have been implicated. Here we provided an overview of the main molecular changes underlying the pathogenesis of melanoma. All evidence clearly indicates the existence of a complex molecular machinery that provides checks and balances in normal melanocytes. Progression from normal melanocytes to malignant metastatic cells in melanoma patients is the result of a combination of down- or up-regulation of various effectors acting on different molecular pathways.

Palmieri, Giuseppe; Capone, Mariaelena; Ascierto, Maria Libera; Gentilcore, Giusy; Stroncek, David F; Casula, Milena; Sini, Maria Cristina; Palla, Marco; Mozzillo, Nicola; Ascierto, Paolo A

2009-01-01

450

Stars main sequence  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What happens during most of a star's life? This activity page, part of an interactive laboratory series for grades 8-12, introduces students to the main sequence phase of a star's existence. This phase is where a star lives out the majority of its life. In an interactive lab activity, students predict the length of the main sequence for four different stars. The predictions can be printed for later evaluation. Students view diagrams that compare the size and color of stars to human lives, and equilibrium within a star is stressed. Finally, students choose between two hypotheses about the length of life of a star. Students write a one- to three-sentence explanation for their hypotheses. The correct answer is provided. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

University of Utah. Astrophysics Science Project Integrating Research and Education (ASPIRE)

2003-01-01

451

Maine coast winds  

SciTech Connect

The Maine Coast Winds Project was proposed for four possible turbine locations. Significant progress has been made at the prime location, with a lease-power purchase contract for ten years for the installation of turbine equipment having been obtained. Most of the site planning and permitting have been completed. It is expect that the turbine will be installed in early May. The other three locations are less suitable for the project, and new locations are being considered.

Avery, Richard

2000-01-28

452

Translating research into practice: the introduction of the INTERGROWTH-21st package of clinical standards, tools and guidelines into policies, programmes and services.  

PubMed

The INTERGROWTH-21(st) Project has generated a package of international clinical standards, tools and guidelines. It is now necessary to plan for the next phase of the project: the translation of the research findings into practice through its global dissemination. The plan is to pre-empt barriers to implementation by drawing from the published literature; gathering views and perspectives from policy makers, programmers and practitioners; incorporating input from local 'champions', and collecting and analysing data generated by a monitoring and evaluation system. Working at the global, regional, national and local levels will enable wide dissemination of the package, as well as increase the scope for adaptation and integration in diverse clinical contexts. We seek maximum uptake of the package in policies, guidelines and clinical practice to improve the quality of care offered to mothers and newborns. The strategy will also enhance our understanding of the effectiveness of different approaches to the translation of evidence into practice. PMID:24028081

Chatfield, A; Caglia, J M; Dhillon, S; Hirst, J; Cheikh Ismail, L; Abawi, K; Kac, G; Al Dhaheri, A S; Villar, J; Kennedy, S; Langer, A

2013-09-01

453

SUPPORT Tools for evidence-informed health Policymaking (STP) 5: Using research evidence to frame options to address a problem  

PubMed Central

This article is part of a series written for people responsible for making decisions about health policies and programmes and for those who support these decision makers. Policymakers and those supporting them may find themselves in one or more of the following three situations that will require them to characterise the costs and consequences of options to address a problem. These are: 1. A decision has already been taken and their role is to maximise the benefits of an option, minimise its harms, optimise the impacts achieved for the money spent, and (if there is substantial uncertainty about the likely costs and consequences of the option) to design a monitoring and evaluation plan, 2. A policymaking process is already underway and their role is to assess the options presented to them, or 3. A policymaking process has not yet begun and their role is therefore to identify options, characterise the costs and consequences of these options, and look for windows of opportunity in which to act. In situations like these, research evidence, particularly about benefits, harms, and costs, can help to inform whether an option can be considered viable. In this article, we suggest six questions that can be used to guide those involved in identifying policy and programme options to address a high-priority problem, and to characterise the costs and consequences of these options. These are: 1. Has an appropriate set of options been identified to address a problem? 2. What benefits are important to those who will be affected and which benefits are likely to be achieved with each option? 3. What harms are important to those who will be affected and which harms are likely to arise with each option? 4. What are the local costs of each option and is there local evidence about their cost-effectiveness? 5. What adaptations might be made to any given option and could they alter its benefits, harms and costs? 6. Which stakeholder views and experiences might influence an option's acceptability and its benefits, harms, and costs?

2009-01-01

454

General Achievement Trends: Maine  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

Center on Education Policy, 2009

2009-01-01

455

Programmer-Friendly Refactoring Tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tools that perform semi-automated refactoring are currently under-utilized by programmers. If more programmers adopted refactoring tools, software projects could make enormous productivity gains. However, as more advanced refactoring tools are designed, a great chasm widens between how the tools must be used and how programmers want to use them. The proposed research will bridge this chasm by exposing usability guidelines

Emerson Murphy-Hill

456

A Tool for Real Time On-Line Collaboration in Web-Based Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper describes the design and implementation of a real time on-line collaboration tool, EDUCO. The main focus is to demonstrate how the tool is applied to a real life on-line distance education course, discuss the preliminary research findings of the qualitative empirical study, propose directions for future work and discuss implications.…

Nokelainen, Petri; Miettinen, Miikka; Tirri, Henry; Kurhila, Jaakko

457

Researching \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article delineates how race has been undertheorized in research on the educational experiences and outcomes of Blacks. The authors identify two dominant traditions by which researchers have invoked race (i.e., as culture and as a variable) and outline their conceptual limitations. They analyze how these traditions mask the heterogene- ity of the Black experience, underanalyze institutionalized produc- tions of

Carla O'Connor; Amanda Lewis; Jennifer Mueller

458

Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In May of 1999, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences hosted a conference on ways to improve the scientific quality of educational research. In medicine, thanks to work 40 years ago by 2 researchers, Howard Hyatt and Frederick Mosteller, the commitment of medical professionals to base their diagnoses and prescriptions on clinical trials in…

Raudenbush, Stephen

459

Machine Tools (Selected Articles).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Partial Contents: The Primary Duties of Our Country's Machinery Industry in the Area of Production Engineering during the Seventh Five Period, The Research Status and Trend in our Country's Machine Tools Technology - An Overview of Papers Presented by the...

1986-01-01

460

The International Atomic Energy Agency software package for the analysis of scintigraphic renal dynamic studies: a tool for the clinician, teacher, and researcher.  

PubMed

Under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency, a new-generation, platform-independent, and x86-compatible software package was developed for the analysis of scintigraphic renal dynamic imaging studies. It provides nuclear medicine professionals cost-free access to the most recent developments in the field. The software package is a step forward towards harmonization and standardization. Embedded functionalities render it a suitable tool for education, research, and for receiving distant expert's opinions. Another objective of this effort is to allow introducing clinically useful parameters of drainage, including normalized residual activity and outflow efficiency. Furthermore, it provides an effective teaching tool for young professionals who are being introduced to dynamic kidney studies by selected teaching case studies. The software facilitates a better understanding through practically approaching different variables and settings and their effect on the numerical results. An effort was made to introduce instruments of quality assurance at the various levels of the program's execution, including visual inspection and automatic detection and correction of patient's motion, automatic placement of regions of interest around the kidneys, cortical regions, and placement of reproducible background region on both primary dynamic and on postmicturition studies. The user can calculate the differential renal function through 2 independent methods, the integral or the Rutland-Patlak approaches. Standardized digital reports, storage and retrieval of regions of interest, and built-in database operations allow the generation and tracing of full image reports and of numerical outputs. The software package is undergoing quality assurance procedures to verify the accuracy and the interuser reproducibility with the final aim of launching the program for use by professionals and teaching institutions worldwide. PMID:21111861

Zaknun, John J; Rajabi, Hossein; Piepsz, Amy; Roca, Isabel; Dondi, Maurizio

2011-01-01